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Sample records for renata adler memorial

  1. Renata de Lorenzo, Murat

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Renata De Lorenzo, professeur à l’université Federico II de Naples et l’une des principales spécialistes de l’Italie méridionale napoléonienne, signe avec cette biographie de Murat un livre abondamment documenté, principalement appuyé sur des mémoires, des témoignages mais aussi des documents diplomatiques napolitains et parisiens. Fondé sur une riche bibliographie, dans laquelle on peut toutefois déplorer la trop grande importance accordée à des textes romancés ou amateurs, l’ouvrage s’attac...

  2. Adler sum rule

    CERN Document Server

    Adler, Stephen L

    2009-01-01

    The Adler sum rule states that the integral over energy of a difference of neutrino-nucleon and antineutrino-nucleon structure functions is a constant, independent of the four-momentum transfer squared. This constancy is a consequence of the local commutation relations of the time components of the hadronic weak current, which follow from the underlying quark structure of the standard model.

  3. "Mne hotshetsja vsjo uspet!" / Renata Piotrovski ; interv. Ella Agranovskaja

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Piotrovski, Renata

    2006-01-01

    Moskva Kunstiteatri koolstuudio Eesti kursuse üks lõpetajatest, Renata Piotrovski oma elust Moskvas, rollist teleseriaalis "Tütarlaps Põhjamaalt". Neil päevi sõlmib Vene Teater koolstuudio lõpetajatega töölepingu

  4. A Conversation with Mortimer Adler.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, O. L., Jr.

    1982-01-01

    Mortimer Adler discusses his "Paideia Proposal" for school reform, which recommends eliminating most elective courses while developing students' intellectual skills, improving their understanding of ideas and values, and introducing them to the world of work in the last two years of high school. (RW)

  5. Felix Adler and Education for Ethical Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stallones, Jared R.

    2015-01-01

    This article delves into the various religious influences on Dr. Felix Adler's spiritual development and the resulting theological and philosophical foundations for the Ethical Culture Society that he created in addition to the Society's schools. The discussion focuses on Dr. Adler's personal struggles with traditional Judaism in the face of…

  6. Freud, Adler, Jung: From Womb to Tomb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedrini, D. T.; Pedrini, Bonnie C.

    This paper briefly introduces outlines of psychoanalysis (Freud), individual psychology (Adler), and analytical psychology (Jung). Freud focused on problems of adults as they related to childhood; Adler on problems of adults as they related to adulthood; and Jung on problems of adults as they related to middle and later years. Jungian analytical…

  7. The Adler-Weisberger Discrepancy

    CERN Document Server

    Beane, Silas R

    2016-01-01

    The Adler-Weisberger sum rule for the nucleon axial-vector charge, $g_A$, offers a unique signature of chiral symmetry and its breaking in QCD. Its derivation relies on both algebraic aspects of chiral symmetry, which guarantee the convergence of the sum rule, and dynamical aspects of chiral symmetry breaking---as exploited using chiral perturbation theory---which allow the rigorous inclusion of explicit chiral symmetry breaking effects due to light-quark masses. The original derivations obtained the sum rule in the chiral limit and, without the benefit of chiral perturbation theory, made various attempts at extrapolating to non-vanishing pion masses. In this paper, the leading, universal, chiral corrections to the chiral-limit sum rule are obtained. Using PDG data, a recent parametrization of the pion-nucleon total cross-sections in the resonance region given by the SAID group, as well as recent Roy-Steiner equation determinations of subthreshold amplitudes, threshold parameters, and correlated low-energy co...

  8. Review, comments and perspectives with regard to Renata Sõukand's doctoral dissertation Herbal landscape / Almo Farina

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Farina, Almo

    2011-01-01

    9. nov. 2010 kaitses Tartu Ülikoolis doktoriväitekirja semiootika ja kulturoloogia doktorant Renata Sõukand, juhendaja Kalevi Kull (Tartu Ülikool), oponendid Almo Farina (Urbino Ülikool, Itaalia) ja Myrdene Anderson (Purdue Ülikool, USA Indiana)

  9. Renata Sõukandi väitekiri Ravimtaimemaastik [Herbal landscape] / Almo Farina

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Farina, Almo

    2011-01-01

    9. nov. 2010 kaitses Tartu Ülikoolis doktoriväitekirja semiootika ja kulturoloogia doktorant Renata Sõukand, juhendaja Kalevi Kull (Tartu Ülikool), oponendid Almo Farina (Urbino Ülikool, Itaalia) ja Myrdene Anderson (Purdue Ülikool, USA Indiana)

  10. Review, comments and perspectives with regard to Renata Sõukand's doctoral dissertation Herbal landscape / Almo Farina

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Farina, Almo

    2011-01-01

    9. nov. 2010 kaitses Tartu Ülikoolis doktoriväitekirja semiootika ja kulturoloogia doktorant Renata Sõukand, juhendaja Kalevi Kull (Tartu Ülikool), oponendid Almo Farina (Urbino Ülikool, Itaalia) ja Myrdene Anderson (Purdue Ülikool, USA Indiana)

  11. Renata Sõukandi väitekiri Ravimtaimemaastik [Herbal landscape] / Almo Farina

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Farina, Almo

    2011-01-01

    9. nov. 2010 kaitses Tartu Ülikoolis doktoriväitekirja semiootika ja kulturoloogia doktorant Renata Sõukand, juhendaja Kalevi Kull (Tartu Ülikool), oponendid Almo Farina (Urbino Ülikool, Itaalia) ja Myrdene Anderson (Purdue Ülikool, USA Indiana)

  12. Alfred-Adler's Basic Concepts and Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundin, Robert W.

    This book presents the basic principles of Adler's psychology. The first chapter looks at Adlerian psychology as it exists today, and examines earlier influences. The second chapter examines feelings of inferiority and compensation for these feelings. The third chapter considers the nature of goals and how they are formulated. The fourth chapter…

  13. Alfred-Adler's Basic Concepts and Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundin, Robert W.

    This book presents the basic principles of Adler's psychology. The first chapter looks at Adlerian psychology as it exists today, and examines earlier influences. The second chapter examines feelings of inferiority and compensation for these feelings. The third chapter considers the nature of goals and how they are formulated. The fourth chapter…

  14. The significance of Alfred Adler for the concept of narcissism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansbacher, H L

    1985-02-01

    Alfred Adler's significance for the concept of narcissism is presented with reference to four aspects: 1) Adler's theory of masculine protest was evidently a factor influencing Freud to turn toward the phenomenon of narcissism. 2) Present-day understanding of narcissism shows remarkable similarity to Adler's views on psychodynamics and neurotic egocentricity. 3) Some contemporary criticisms of Freud's theory of narcissism are very similar to Adler's criticism. 4) Adler's theory of social interest permits subsumption of narcissism under lack of social interest rather than acceptance of it as an expression of innate socially negative tendencies.

  15. [A new Habronematidae parasite of Acryllium vulturinum: Sicarius renatae sp.n].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancrini, G; Balbo, T; Iori, A

    1991-12-01

    A new Nematode Habronematidae, Sicarius renatae sp.n., is described in Acryllium vulturinum from Somalia. This new species can be distinguished from S. dipterum (Popova, 1927), S. hoopoe Sharma, 1971 and S. caudatus Quentin and Wertheim, 1975 by its smaller body dimensions, the size of the spicula, the distribution and number of male caudal papillae, and by the morphology of the female posterior end.

  16. [Sigmund Freud's ambition and Alfred Adler].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebzeltern, G

    1984-11-09

    Freud never admitted to himself that he possessed a greater-than-average sense of ambition, which manifested itself in dreams, malachievement and priority problems. A completely new picture of Freud arises from such a perspective. Freud experienced childhood trauma in the form of his relationship with his nephew, John, in whom both an intimate friend and hated enemy were incorporated. This experience left a life-long impression which predetermined the neurotic element in Freud's relationship with men. Freud's own interpretation being that he had been betrayed by Breuer, Fliess, Adler and Jung. That is why the sentencing of his Uncle Joseph to a term of imprisonment had such far-reaching consequences for Freud. A further noteworthy observation is the close connection between ambition and death wishes and also between ambition and guilt feelings. Who, after all, likes to admit to harbouring such feelings? It appeared necessary to investigate the extent to which Freud's excessive ambition influenced his relationships with Breuer, Fliess and Adler. Freud was never prepared to recognize that Adler's contribution consisted of revealing the importance of the natural laws governing those layers of the psyche nearer to the conscious. The picture of the whole person emerges only by a combination of psychoanalysis and individual psychology.

  17. Incurable Adler relation for soft neutrino interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kopeliovicha B.Z.

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The Adler relation (AR, which bridges soft interactions of neutrinos and pions, might look as a manifestation of pion dominance. However neutrino cannot fluctuate to a pion because of lepton current conservation, instead it interacts via much heavier hadronic components. This fact leads to nontrivial relations between interaction amplitudes of different hadronic species, in particular, it links diagonal and off-diagonal diffractive interactions of pions. Absorptive corrections break these relations making the AR impossible to hold universally, i.e. for any target and at any energy. We predict a dramatic breakdown of the AR for coherent neutrino-production of pions on nuclei at all energies.

  18. Professor Adler-Nissen i Jyllands-Posten

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adler-Nissen, Rebecca

    2017-01-01

    Professor Rebecca Adler-Nissen var den 2. juni interviewet til Jyllands-Posten under overskriften ”Det var ikke tanken, at EUforbehold skulle stå til evig tid”. Artiklen handler om, hvordan de danske retsforbehold fra 1992 får Danmark til at stå i EU-samarbejdet anno 2017. Adler-Nissen nævner i...

  19. Apostle of Freedom: Alfred Adler and His British Disciples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsch, Pam

    2005-01-01

    The psychology of Alfred Adler is traditionally considered to be one of the three so-called in-depth or psychoanalytic therapies, the other two being the theories of Sigmund Freud and Carl Gustav Jung. This article demonstrates that Adler's Individual Psychology was especially influential on teachers in Vienna between the two world wars. There…

  20. Apostle of Freedom: Alfred Adler and His British Disciples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsch, Pam

    2005-01-01

    The psychology of Alfred Adler is traditionally considered to be one of the three so-called in-depth or psychoanalytic therapies, the other two being the theories of Sigmund Freud and Carl Gustav Jung. This article demonstrates that Adler's Individual Psychology was especially influential on teachers in Vienna between the two world wars. There…

  1. Remote access to an interferometric fringes stabilization active system via RENATA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espitia-Gómez, Javier; Ángel-Toro, Luciano

    2013-11-01

    The Advanced Technology National Network (RENATA, for its acronym in Spanish) is a Colombian, collaborative work tool, linked to other networks worldwide, in which take participation researchers, teachers and students, by sharing laboratory resources located in different universities, institutes and research centers throughout the country. In the Universidad EAFIT (Medellín, Colombia) it has been designed an interferometric fringes stabilization active system, which can be accessed remotely via the RENATA network. A Mach-Zehnder interferometer was implemented, with independent piezoelectric actuators in each arm, with which the lengths of optical path of light that goes over in each of them can be modified. Using these actuators, one can simultaneously perturb the system and compensate the phase differences caused by that perturbation. This allows us to experiment with different disturbs, and analyze the system response to each one of them. This can be made from any location worldwide, and especially from those regions in which optical and optoelectronic components required for the implementation of the interferometer or for the stabilization system are not available. The device can also be used as a platform in order to conduct diverse experiments, involving optical and controlling aspects, constituting with this in a pedagogic tool. For the future, it can be predicted that remote access to available applications would be possible, as well as modifications of the implemented code in labVIEW™, so that researchers and teachers can adapt and improve their functionalities or develop new applications, based on the collaborative work.

  2. Professor Adler-Nissen i Radio 27syv

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2017-01-01

    Professor Adler-Nissen var fredag den 9. juni i radio 24syv (program 24syv Morgen) i forlængelse af den britiske valg. Her blev Adler-Nissen blandet andet spurgt ind til, hvilken betydning valget vil have for de kommende Brexit-forhandlinger. Adler-Nissen vurderede, at en udskydelse af forhandlin......Professor Adler-Nissen var fredag den 9. juni i radio 24syv (program 24syv Morgen) i forlængelse af den britiske valg. Her blev Adler-Nissen blandet andet spurgt ind til, hvilken betydning valget vil have for de kommende Brexit-forhandlinger. Adler-Nissen vurderede, at en udskydelse af...... forhandlingerne er et muligt scenario, da Theresa May først skal havde samlet en koalitionsregering. I følge Adler-Nissen, vil en sådan koalitionsregering også kunne have den indvirkning, at forhandlingerne vil lede til et blødere Brexit end først udmeldt af May, da der nu er behov for at tage højde til flere...... partiers holdning til Brexit....

  3. Tõotatud maa - kellele? / Tal Adler ; interv. Reet Varblane

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Adler, Tal

    2006-01-01

    Intervjuu iisraeli kunstniku Tal Adler'iga, kelle näitust "Tunnustamata / Unrecognized" saab Tallinna Linnagaleriis vaadata kuni 3. XII. Näitus on beduiinide tunnustamata küladest Iisraeli lõunaosas Negevi piitkonnas

  4. Tõotatud maa - kellele? / Tal Adler ; interv. Reet Varblane

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Adler, Tal

    2006-01-01

    Intervjuu iisraeli kunstniku Tal Adler'iga, kelle näitust "Tunnustamata / Unrecognized" saab Tallinna Linnagaleriis vaadata kuni 3. XII. Näitus on beduiinide tunnustamata küladest Iisraeli lõunaosas Negevi piitkonnas

  5. Freud, Adler, and Women: Powers of the "Weak" and "Strong."

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeVitis, Joseph L.

    1985-01-01

    This article discusses Freud's original psychoanalytic notions on women and morality and their influence on constructions of personality, power, culture, and socioeducational change. Also discussed is Freudian critic Alfred Adler's use of a larger external lens to focus women's lives in a wider context of "social interest" and social…

  6. Freud, Adler, and Women: Powers of the "Weak" and "Strong."

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeVitis, Joseph L.

    1985-01-01

    This article discusses Freud's original psychoanalytic notions on women and morality and their influence on constructions of personality, power, culture, and socioeducational change. Also discussed is Freudian critic Alfred Adler's use of a larger external lens to focus women's lives in a wider context of "social interest" and social…

  7. Award for Distinguished Scientific Applications of Psychology: Nancy E. Adler

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Psychologist, 2009

    2009-01-01

    Nancy E. Adler, winner of the Award for Distinguished Scientific Applications of Psychology, is cited for her research on reproductive health examining adolescent decision making with regard to contraception, conscious and preconscious motivations for pregnancy, and perception of risk for sexually transmitted diseases, and for her groundbreaking…

  8. Freud, Adler, and Women: Powers of the "Weak" and "Strong."

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeVitis, Joseph L.

    1985-01-01

    This article discusses Freud's original psychoanalytic notions on women and morality and their influence on constructions of personality, power, culture, and socioeducational change. Also discussed is Freudian critic Alfred Adler's use of a larger external lens to focus women's lives in a wider context of "social interest" and social relationship.…

  9. Tema e variações - Mundo invisível de Leon Cakoff e Renata Almeida

    OpenAIRE

    Santana, Rosário; Santana, Helena

    2015-01-01

    Invisible World is a Brazilian film of 2011. Conceived by Leon Cakoff and Renata de Almeida, addresses the issue of social invisibility. Divided into eleven segments, each directed by a different director, except for the short film “Kreuko”, directed by Beto Brant and Cisco Vasques, the film was first shown in full version at the 36th International Film Festival of São Paulo. The film is controversial in the way it reflects and treats a subject as sensitive as it is the social invisibility. I...

  10. Relating Adler's Life Tasks to Schutz's Interpersonal Model and the FIRO-B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prendergast, Kathleen; Stone, Mark

    This paper integrates the interpersonal model of Schutz (1966) and Schutz's (1978) instrument for evaluating interpersonal relationships, FIRO-B (Fundamental Interpersonal Relationship Orientation-Behavior), with Adler's life tasks and typology. The paper begins with a description of Schutz's Interpersonal model in which Schutz, like Adler, views…

  11. Individualism versus Socialism in American Education: Rereading Mortimer Adler and "The Paidea Proposal."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weltman, Burton

    2002-01-01

    Discusses Adler's "The Paideia Proposal," which raised the issue of socialism versus individualism in order to rally educational reformers to move the educational debate out of a cycle of academic bickering. The paper examines the intellectual road that led Adler to socialism and reexamines the book in light of his socialist views,…

  12. Should Mortimer Adler's "Paideia Proposal" Have Been Dedicated to John Dewey?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Clinton

    The purpose of this paper is to explain the relationship of Mortimer Adler's Paideia Proposal to John Dewey's "progressive" educational philosophy; to demonstrate Adler's and Dewey's philosophical similarities; and to discuss the impact and implications of their works on public school curriculum design ideology. Two common denominators…

  13. Alfred Adler y la psicología académica / Alfred Adler and the academic psychology

    OpenAIRE

    Lück, Helmut E.; Universidad de Distancia-Hagen (Alemania)

    2016-01-01

    El presente trabajo tiene como tema las conflictivas relaciones entre Alfred Adler y la psicología académica de su época. La actitud ambivalente del fundador de la psicología individual fue causada, muy probablemente, por su fracaso para conseguir el permiso oficial para dictar clases en la Universidad de Viena, y se fortaleció por las actitudes decididamente antiacadémicas de algunos de sus seguidores. En el marco del presente estudio se contrasta esto con los planteamientos de dos important...

  14. Alfred Adler y la psicología académica / Alfred Adler and the academic psychology

    OpenAIRE

    Lück, Helmut E.; Universidad de Distancia-Hagen (Alemania)

    2016-01-01

    El presente trabajo tiene como tema las conflictivas relaciones entre Alfred Adler y la psicología académica de su época. La actitud ambivalente del fundador de la psicología individual fue causada, muy probablemente, por su fracaso para conseguir el permiso oficial para dictar clases en la Universidad de Viena, y se fortaleció por las actitudes decididamente antiacadémicas de algunos de sus seguidores. En el marco del presente estudio se contrasta esto con los planteamientos de dos important...

  15. Chiral corrections to the Adler-Weisberger sum rule

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beane, Silas R.; Klco, Natalie

    2016-12-01

    The Adler-Weisberger sum rule for the nucleon axial-vector charge, gA , offers a unique signature of chiral symmetry and its breaking in QCD. Its derivation relies on both algebraic aspects of chiral symmetry, which guarantee the convergence of the sum rule, and dynamical aspects of chiral symmetry breaking—as exploited using chiral perturbation theory—which allow the rigorous inclusion of explicit chiral symmetry breaking effects due to light-quark masses. The original derivations obtained the sum rule in the chiral limit and, without the benefit of chiral perturbation theory, made various attempts at extrapolating to nonvanishing pion masses. In this paper, the leading, universal, chiral corrections to the chiral-limit sum rule are obtained. Using PDG data, a recent parametrization of the pion-nucleon total cross sections in the resonance region given by the SAID group, as well as recent Roy-Steiner equation determinations of subthreshold amplitudes, threshold parameters, and correlated low-energy constants, the Adler-Weisberger sum rule is confronted with experimental data. With uncertainty estimates associated with the cross-section parametrization, the Goldberger-Treimann discrepancy, and the truncation of the sum rule at O (Mπ4) in the chiral expansion, this work finds gA=1.248 ±0.010 ±0.007 ±0.013 .

  16. The obscene enjoyment of Jussi Adler-Olsen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kim Toft

    In contemporary Scandinavian crime fiction a post-realistic tendency has been noticed. We see melodramatic turns, neoromantic tendencies, and a rising post-secular awareness. Together, these reactions may be responses to cultural changes in the welfare landscape of Scandinavian countries. Within...... these diverse approaches to genre changes, there has also been a significant attraction towards shrewd and radical culprits. Contrary to the socially sensitive treatment of criminality in much Nordic noir, these tendencies have as well given rise to portrayals of radical and absolute evil as a particularly...... popular approach to the genre. In this paper, I draw attention to Jussi Adler-Olsen’s widely popular Department Q novels with explicit emphasis on violence, obscenity, and evil. Even though these novels draw in the horns of realism in the narrative depiction of criminality, the radical evil still evoke...

  17. Social Interest and the Core Conditions: Could It Be that Adler Influenced Rogers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Richard E.

    1996-01-01

    Presents primary source documentation highlighting the similarities between Alfred Adler's social interest construct and the counselor-oriented core conditions of Carl Rogers. Implications of the similarities are discussed. (Author)

  18. Kuidas Alfred Adler läks tülli Sigmund Freudiga / Aivar Kull

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kull, Aivar, 1955-

    1996-01-01

    Arvustus: Adler, Alfred. Inimesetundmine : Inimeste iseloomude peategurid ja nende areng / Tlk. Debora Hint. 2.tr. Tln. : Kupar, 1995. Vaata ka: Kull, Aivar. Kulli pilk. - Tartu : Ilmamaa, 2005, lk. 97-100

  19. Kuidas Alfred Adler läks tülli Sigmund Freudiga / Aivar Kull

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kull, Aivar, 1955-

    1996-01-01

    Arvustus: Adler, Alfred. Inimesetundmine : Inimeste iseloomude peategurid ja nende areng / Tlk. Debora Hint. 2.tr. Tln. : Kupar, 1995. Vaata ka: Kull, Aivar. Kulli pilk. - Tartu : Ilmamaa, 2005, lk. 97-100

  20. Social Interest and the Core Conditions: Could It Be that Adler Influenced Rogers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Richard E.

    1996-01-01

    Presents primary source documentation highlighting the similarities between Alfred Adler's social interest construct and the counselor-oriented core conditions of Carl Rogers. Implications of the similarities are discussed. (Author)

  1. [Alfred Adler and the psychology of aesthetic surgery in the United States].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilman, S L

    2002-01-01

    The quest for a psychological theory to explain the effects of aesthetic surgery reached its high point in the 1920s with the adoption of Alfred Adler's theory of the inferiority complex. The basis for this theory was Adler's early work in the psychological response of the body to disease and "degeneration". Aesthetic surgeons sought out the Adlerian model rather than a Freudian one as purely psychological while its roots, and their own theories, were clearly somatic in origin.

  2. Alfred Adler, pioneer in prevention of mental disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansbacher, H L

    1990-09-01

    Alfred Adler (1870-1937) one of the four original members of what was to become the Vienna Psychoanalytic Society, was the first to accept a humanistic-educational model of man in contrast to Freud's medical model of man. This was in line with his deep involvement with prevention; in fact his original interest was in medical prevention. The present paper describes how his work touched on all the points of the contemporary field of psychological prevention. He developed a personality theory most suitable for application in prevention, education and brief psychotherapy. He identified various categories of children at risk. He advocated the right to abortion partly to prevent the birth of a child severely at risk by being unwanted. He considered the then existing dominance of the male sex to be damaging to both sexes. He engaged in practical prevention work by addressing general audiences and especially teachers and by the establishment of and participation in Educational Counseling Centers. He felt that the honest psychologist for reasons of prevention is bound to social advocacy, and that a true psychology of mental health merges into a corresponding world philosophy. These points are fully documented with quotations and references.

  3. El desarrollo de aplicaciones colaborativas de alta calidad: una realidad sobre la Red Académica de alto desempeño (RENATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Tiberio Hernández

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo muestra las posibilidades del uso y desarrollo de aplicaciones colaborativas sobre la red académica de alta conectividad (RENATA, que conecta a Colombia con la red latinoamericana CLARA y a través de ésta con Europa (GEANT y con Estados Unidos (Internet2. Los prototipos presentados se desarrollaron sobre la plataforma Access Grid y muestran situaciones en donde esta infraestructura, junto con software de tele-colaboración, puede generar alto valor para los grupos de investigación y el sector empresarial. Los prototipos permiten compartir e interactuar sobre objetos virtuales en una teleconferencia y también integrar facilidades de computación distribuida (GridComputing para cálculos sobre grandes cantidades de datos./ This article shows the potential of collaborative applications over the RENATA network, the academic, high-bandwidth, Colombian communication infrastructure with access to other high-bandwidth initiatives in Latin America (CLARA network, Europe (GEANT, and USA (Internet2. Several prototypes on top of Access Grid show the added value for telecollaboration and teleoperation applications in the academic sector, and in the future for business. We show prototypes that enhance a teleconference with interaction with virtual 3D objects and the use of grid resources.

  4. The integrable case of Adler-van Moerbeke. Discriminant set and bifurcation diagram

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryabov, Pavel E.; Oshemkov, Andrej A.; Sokolov, Sergei V.

    2016-09-01

    The Adler-van Moerbeke integrable case of the Euler equations on the Lie algebra so(4) is investigated. For the L- A pair found by Reyman and Semenov-Tian-Shansky for this system, we explicitly present a spectral curve and construct the corresponding discriminant set. The singularities of the Adler-van Moerbeke integrable case and its bifurcation diagram are discussed. We explicitly describe singular points of rank 0, determine their types, and show that the momentum mapping takes them to self-intersection points of the real part of the discriminant set. In particular, the described structure of singularities of the Adler-van Moerbeke integrable case shows that it is topologically different from the other known integrable cases on so(4).

  5. Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... it has to decide what is worth remembering. Memory is the process of storing and then remembering this information. There are different types of memory. Short-term memory stores information for a few ...

  6. Psychodynamic Interpretations of the Immigrant's Dream: Comments on Adler's (1993) "Refugee Dreams and Attachment Theory."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munteanu, Mircea A.

    1994-01-01

    Immigrants and refugees often experience difficulty adjusting to a strange new environment. This article considers Adler's (1993) article, "Refugee Dreams and Attachment Theory" but recommends a depth psychology approach, including both Freudian and Jungian perspectives, to incorporating dream analysis as a technique in cross-cultural…

  7. Why Community Works: The Use of Alfred Adler's Individual Psychology as a Foundational Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenn, Robert K.; Keith, Edwin M.

    2002-01-01

    Asserts that the Individual Psychology of Alfred Adler should be used as a foundational theory for student affairs work. The success of community building programs is explained and the concepts of Individual Psychology are summarized. Also asserts that the current drive to develop programs to develop community on college campuses is firmly rooted…

  8. The Integration of Christian Spirituality and Learning in Counselor Education: A Lesson from Adler.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCurdy, Kenneth

    The relationship between spirituality, and counseling and psychotherapy has been given increased attention in recent years. The author suggests that the teachings of Alfred Adler may assist counselor educators in integrating faith and learning in an unimposing manner respectful of religious tenets, focusing on spirituality, which can include…

  9. Psychodynamic Interpretations of the Immigrant's Dream: Comments on Adler's (1993) "Refugee Dreams and Attachment Theory."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munteanu, Mircea A.

    1994-01-01

    Immigrants and refugees often experience difficulty adjusting to a strange new environment. This article considers Adler's (1993) article, "Refugee Dreams and Attachment Theory" but recommends a depth psychology approach, including both Freudian and Jungian perspectives, to incorporating dream analysis as a technique in cross-cultural…

  10. Why Community Works: The Use of Alfred Adler's Individual Psychology as a Foundational Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenn, Robert K.; Keith, Edwin M.

    2002-01-01

    Asserts that the Individual Psychology of Alfred Adler should be used as a foundational theory for student affairs work. The success of community building programs is explained and the concepts of Individual Psychology are summarized. Also asserts that the current drive to develop programs to develop community on college campuses is firmly rooted…

  11. Empire, Nationalism and the Jewish Question: Victor Adler and Otto Bauer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfgang Maderthaner

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper uses the life and thought of two important figures in the history of Austrian socialism—Victor Adler and Otto Bauer—as a prism through which to examine the complex relationship between German nationalism, the Jewish Question and pro-Habsburgism among the early leadership of the Austrian Social Democratic Party.

  12. The biochemistry of memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stock, Jeffry B; Zhang, Sherry

    2013-09-09

    Almost fifty years ago, Julius Adler initiated a program of research to gain insights into the basic biochemistry of intelligent behavior by studying the molecular mechanisms that underlie the chemotactic responses of Escherichia coli. All living organisms share elements of a common biochemistry for metabolism, growth and heredity - why not intelligence? Neurobiologists have demonstrated that this is the case for nervous systems in animals ranging from worms to man. Motile unicellular organisms such as E. coli exhibit rudimentary behaviors that can be loosely described in terms of cognitive phenomena such as memory and learning. Adler's initiative at least raised the prospect that, because of the numerous experimental advantages provided by E. coli, it would be the first organism whose behavior could be understood at molecular resolution.

  13. An enzootic outbreak of acute disease associated with pathogenic E. coli in Adler monkey colony.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapin, Boris A; Yakovleva, Lelita A; Dzhikidze, Eteri K; Gvozdik, Tatiana E; Agumava, Aslan A; Stasilevich, Zinaida K; Danilova, Irina G

    2015-12-01

    In spring 2009 in Adler colony of the Institute of Medical Primatology, a large enzootic outbreak of acute intestine infection associated with pathogenic E. coli occurred and caused 5% mortality of population (209 animals). The epidemiological analysis, bacteriological investigation, postmortem examination, histological analysis, and PCR were used to identify the infectious agent. Marked hemorrhagic diathesis, lethargy, dehydration, diarrhea with blood, wasting, and sometimes dystrophic changes in articular cartilages were noted. Morphologically, hemorrhagic enterocolitis and massive hemorrhages were found. PCR investigation of bacteriologically isolated E. coli characterized it as enteropathogenic and enteroinvasive E. coli. The outbreak in Adler colony slightly differed from similar outbreak in Florida in 2014 by more marked hemorrhagic diathesis and articular changes in some monkeys caused by polyavitaminosis developed in the course of infection. Sensitive to infection were M. mulatta, M. fascicularis, Cercopithecus aethiops, P. hamadryas and anubis, and Cebus capucinus. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Preface to The Diary of Vaslav Nijinsky by Alfred Adler, MD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansbacher, H L

    1981-07-01

    This is a previously unpublished work by Alfred Adler that was written in 1936 as a preface to The Diary of Vaslav Nijinsky. A theory of schizophrenia is described in which characteristic prepsychotic features, especially lack of social interest and oversensitivity to real and imagined slights, lead to increasing irrationalism and preoccupation with grandiose ideas. The establishment of a cooperative therapeutic relationship and the instilling of hope are presented as central factors for successful treatment.

  15. Krein-Adler transformations for shape-invariant potentials and pseudo virtual states

    CERN Document Server

    Odake, Satoru

    2013-01-01

    For eleven examples of one-dimensional quantum mechanics with shape-invariant potentials, the Darboux-Crum transformations in terms of multiple pseudo virtual state wavefunctions are shown to be equivalent to Krein-Adler transformations deleting multiple eigenstates with shifted parameters. These are based upon infinitely many polynomial Wronskian identities of classical orthogonal polynomials, i.e. the Hermite, Laguerre and Jacobi polynomials, which constitute the main part of the eigenfunctions of various quantum mechanical systems with shape-invariant potentials.

  16. Etiologic structure of bacterial intestinal infections in monkeys of Adler breeding center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardasheliya, S N; Kalashnikova, V A; Dzhikidze, E K

    2011-10-01

    We studied etiologic structure of bacterial intestinal infections in monkeys of Adler nursery. A total of 533 monkeys with diarrhea syndrome and monkeys dead from intestinal infections, as well as clinically healthy monkeys and animals dead from other pathologies were examined by bacteriological and molecular-genetic methods. Pathogenic enterobacteria Shigella and Salmonella and microaerophile Campylobacter were found in 5 and 19%, respectively. A high percentage (49%) of intestinal diseases of unknown etiology was revealed in monkeys. The fact that the number of detected opportunistic enterobacteria did not differ in healthy and diseased monkeys suggests that they are not involved into the etiology of intestinal disease.

  17. Adler-Bell-Jackiw anomaly, the Nieh-Yan form, and vacuum polarization

    CERN Document Server

    Soo, C P

    1999-01-01

    We show from first principles, using explicitly invariant Pauli-Villars regularization of chiral fermions, that the Nieh-Yan form does contribute to the Adler-Bell-Jackiw (ABJ) anomaly for spacetimes with generic torsion, and comment on some of the implications. There are a number of interesting and important differences with the usual ABJ contributions in the absence of torsion. For dimensional reasons, the Nieh-Yan contribution is proportional to the square of the regulator mass. In spacetimes with flat vierbein but non-trivial torsion, the associated diagrams are actually vacuum polarization rather than triangle diagrams, and the Nieh-Yan contribution to the ABJ anomaly arises from the fact that axial torsion "photon" is not transverse.

  18. Massive torsion modes, chiral gravity, and the Adler-Bell-Jackiw anomaly

    CERN Document Server

    Chang, L N; Chang, Lay Nam; Soo, Chopin

    2003-01-01

    Regularization of quantum field theories introduces a mass scale which breaks axial rotational and scaling invariances. We demonstrate from first principles that axial torsion and torsion trace modes have non-transverse vacuum polarization tensors, and become massive as a result. The underlying reasons are similar to those responsible for the Adler-Bell-Jackiw (ABJ) and scaling anomalies. Since these are the only torsion components that can couple minimally to spin 1/2 particles, the anomalous generation of masses for these modes, naturally of the order of the regulator scale, may help to explain why torsion and its associated effects, including CPT violation in chiral gravity, have so far escaped detection. As a simpler manifestation of the reasons underpinning the ABJ anomaly than triangle diagrams, the vacuum polarization demonstration is also pedagogically useful. In addition it is shown that the teleparallel limit of a Weyl fermion theory coupled only to the left-handed spin connection leads to a counter...

  19. Michele Renee Salzman, Marvina A. Sweeney & William Adler (eds., The Cambridge History of Religions in the Ancient World (2 vols. (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giorgio Baruchello

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Review of: Michele Renee Salzman, Marvina A. Sweeney & William Adler (eds., The Cambridge History of Religions in the Ancient World (2 vols. (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2013

  20. The role played by Gerhard Adler in the development of analytical psychology internationally and in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casement, Ann

    2014-02-01

    The Jungian analyst Gerhard Adler left Berlin and re-settled in London in 1936. He was closely involved with the professionalization of analytical psychology internationally and in the UK, including the formation of the International Association for Analytical Psychology (IAAP) and The Society of Analytical Psychology (SAP).The tensions that arose within the latter organization led to a split that ended in the formation of the Association of Jungian Analysts (AJA). A further split at AJA resulted in the creation of another organization, the Independent Group of Analytical Psychologists (IGAP). Adler's extensive publications include his role as an editor of Jung's Collected Works and as editor of the C.G. Jung Letters.

  1. Massive torsion modes, chiral gravity and the Adler-Bell-Jackiw anomaly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Lay Nam [Department of Physics, Virginia Tech., Blacksburg, VA 24061-0435 (United States); Soo Chopin [Department of Physics, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 70101, Taiwan (China)

    2003-04-07

    Regularization of quantum field theories introduces a mass scale which breaks axial rotational and scaling invariances. We demonstrate from first principles that axial torsion and torsion trace modes have non-transverse vacuum polarization tensors, and become massive as a result. The underlying reasons are similar to those responsible for the Adler-Bell-Jackiw (ABJ) and scaling anomalies. Since these are the only torsion components that can couple minimally to spin-1/2 particles, the anomalous generation of masses for these modes, naturally of the order of the regulator scale, may help to explain why torsion and its associated effects, including CPT violation in chiral gravity, have so far escaped detection. As a simpler manifestation of the reasons underpinning the ABJ anomaly than triangle diagrams, the vacuum polarization demonstration is also pedagogically useful. In addition, it is shown that the teleparallel limit of a Weyl fermion theory coupled only to the left-handed spin connection leads to a counter term which is the Samuel-Jacobson-Smolin action of chiral gravity in four dimensions.

  2. Salud mental y ética: El concepto de sentimiento de comunidad en la psicología de Alfred Adler / Mental health and ethics: The concept of “sense of community” in Alfred Adler ́s psychology

    OpenAIRE

    Oberst, Úrsula; Universidad Ramón Llull (España)

    2002-01-01

    En este estudio se define el concepto adleriano de sentimiento de comunidad y sus implicancias éticas intentando equipararlo con el de salud mental. Se revisan los inicios de la psicología individual y las principales diferencias con el psicoanálisis ortodoxo para conducir a la visión humanista y social que Adler tiene de la persona y su problemática psicológica, así como a la afirmación de que el sentido de la comunidad constituye un marco ético para una adecuada valoración de la actividad h...

  3. Compensação e deficiência no pensamento de Alfred Adler (1870-1937)

    OpenAIRE

    Leal, Daniela; Antunes,Mitsuko Aparecida Makino

    2015-01-01

    Por volta do ano de 1907, Alfred Adler descreveu pela primeira vez o conceito de compensação ao expor sua teoria sobre o sentimento de inferioridade. Para ele, o estudo sobre a compensação psíquica foi o ponto de partida para novas questões sobre as relações entre indivíduo, família, sociedade, corpo e alma no âmbito da psicologia individual. No que se refere especificamente à deficiência, pode-se dizer que sua teoria permitiu criar novos caminhos para que fossem superadas as concepções pauta...

  4. Willkommen in Panorama Theresienstadt. Kinematographie und Zerstörung in der Stadt namens „Als Ob“ (Lesung H. G. Adlers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Sandomirskaja

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In seinem Theresienstadt 1941-1945 beschreibt Hans Günther Adler Episoden aus dem Prozess des Filmens in Theresienstadt. Seine größte Aufmerksamkeit liegt dabei auf der Produktion des Films von 1944, den er zusammenfassend aufgrund seines Zwecks und seiner Durchführung „der grausige Filmkarneval” nennt. Bemerkenswerterweise widmet Adler ein ganzes Buchkapitel der Beschreibung des kulturellen Lebens von Theresienstadt, ohne dabei den Film in zusammen mit anderen Beispielen kultureller Ausdrucksformen zu nennen – die Beschreibung des Films ist in der administrativen Chronik von Theresienstadt eingegliedert. Der Film erhält einen Platz für sich innerhalb des Kontextes der bürokratischen Umgestaltung Theresienstadts von einem geschlossenen Lager zu einem „Ghetto“ und schließlich zu einer rein dekorativen „jüdischen Siedlung“ hin. Diese letztere Umgestaltung beschreibt Adler als Teil einer zynischen Kampagne zur „Verschönerung“ von Theresienstadt, im Zuge derer SS und Verwaltung versuchten, das Lager für internationale Beobachter vorzeigbar zu machen. Adler beschreibt den „grausigen Filmkarneval“ als Aushängeschild der Kampagne und schließt ihn so entschieden aus dem Bereich kultureller Phänomene aus, als würde er jede Möglichkeit zu seiner Entlastung ablehnen. Stattdessen schreibt er das Projekt in die administrative Logik der Vernichtung ein, wodurch das Filmen zu einer zusätzlichen – in ihrer Grausamkeit ideenreichen und effektiven – Technik moralischer Vernichtung in der Welt des „verwalteten Menschen” avanciert. In diesem Artikel werde ich Adlers Sicht auf das Bewegtbild als überwiegend administratives Mittel, nicht als Medium kulturellen Ausdrucks hervorheben. Diese Ansicht wird durchaus herausfordernd und komplex, wenn Adlers Zeugenbericht über das Filmprojekt in Theresienstadt in Zusammenhang mit seinen Überlegungen zu mechanisch reproduzierbaren und vor allem bewegten Bildern in Adlers

  5. At bløde blæk - Om fascinationen og kvaliteten af Jussi Adler-Olsens "Kvinden i buret"

    OpenAIRE

    Nielsen, Mathilde Rosenkrantz Holm

    2013-01-01

    ”To Bleed Ink – about the fascination and the quality of Jussi Adler-Olsen’s book,”The Keeper of Lost Causes” is a thesis in the Master Degree, Danish at Roskilde University. The thesis is written with the intention to give an insight of the fascination of the thriller genre together with the quality of it. With the choice of Jussi Adler-Olsen’s first novel about Division Q, ”The Keeper of Lost Causes”, an image of the reader’s fascination of the thriller novel is given, and furthermore how i...

  6. Los psicólogos hispanoparlantes y la teoría de Alfred Adler en la revista Internationale Zeitschrift fuer Individualpsychologie (1914-1937)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ramón León

    2000-01-01

    ... a América Latina, fue también un prolífico colaborador en la Zeitschrift. Las formas que asumió la difusión de la producción de los autores latinoamericanos y el destino de las ideas de Adler en esta parte del mundo son objeto de un breve comentario.

  7. The Adler-Weisberger and Goldberger-Miyazawa-Oehme sum rules as probes of constraints from analyticity and chiral symmetry in dynamical models for pion-nucleon scattering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kondratyuk, S; Kubodera, K; Myhrer, F; Scholten, O

    2004-01-01

    The Adler-Weisberger and Goldberger-Miyazawa-Oehme sum rules are calculated within a relativistic, unitary and crossing symmetric dynamical model for pion-nucleon scattering using two different methods: (1) by evaluating the scattering amplitude at the corresponding low-energy kinematics and (2) by

  8. Rezension von: Karl Lenz, Marina Adler: Geschlechterverhältnisse. Einführung in die sozialwissenschaftliche Geschlechterforschung Band 1. Weinheim u.a.: Juventa Verlag 2010. — Karl Lenz, Marina Adler: Geschlechterbeziehungen. Weinheim u.a.: Juventa Verlag 2011.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heike Kahlert

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Karl Lenz und Marina Adler orientieren sich in ihrem zweibändigen Lehrbuch zur sozialwissenschaftlichen Geschlechterforschung an der etablierten Unterscheidung zwischen Makro- und Mikrosoziologie. Im ersten Band werden theoretische Perspektiven der Geschlechterforschung und unterschiedliche Zusammenhänge zu Kultur nachgezeichnet sowie zentrale Themenfelder einer Sozialstrukturanalyse der Geschlechterordnung fokussiert, nämlich Recht, Politik, Bildung und Arbeit. Im zweiten Band stehen neben der Sozialisation ausgewählte Erträge der mikrosoziologischen Geschlechterforschung im Zentrum, nämlich Körper, Sexualität, persönliche Beziehungen, Devianz und Gewalt. In dieser überfälligen, informativen, sorgfältig recherchierten, aber auch vergleichsweise traditionellen und empirisch orientierten Einführung wird die Geschlechterforschung zwar in einer breiteren Diversity-Forschung verortet, das Verhältnis von Diversität und Geschlecht leider aber nicht reflektiert.

  9. Kaadrid otsustavad endiselt kõik / Kersti Kivirüüt, Epp Adler, Andi Einaste, Maris Liiders ; intervjueerinud Meeli Parijõgi

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2014-01-01

    Saku gümnaasiumis arutleti õpilaste korraldatud foorumil Eesti hariduse oleviku ja tuleviku üle. Intervjuu külalisesinejatega, kelleks tänavu olid haridus- ja teadusministeeriumi üldharidusosakonna peaekspert Kersti Kivirüüt, Epp Adler MTÜ-st HeadEst, Saku abivallavanem haridus-, kultuuri- ja sotsiaalhoolekande alal Andi Einaste ning Harju maavalitsuse haridus- ja sotsiaalosakonna juhataja Maris Liiders

  10. Kaadrid otsustavad endiselt kõik / Kersti Kivirüüt, Epp Adler, Andi Einaste, Maris Liiders ; intervjueerinud Meeli Parijõgi

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2014-01-01

    Saku gümnaasiumis arutleti õpilaste korraldatud foorumil Eesti hariduse oleviku ja tuleviku üle. Intervjuu külalisesinejatega, kelleks tänavu olid haridus- ja teadusministeeriumi üldharidusosakonna peaekspert Kersti Kivirüüt, Epp Adler MTÜ-st HeadEst, Saku abivallavanem haridus-, kultuuri- ja sotsiaalhoolekande alal Andi Einaste ning Harju maavalitsuse haridus- ja sotsiaalosakonna juhataja Maris Liiders

  11. 阿德勒心理治疗方法与当代心理治疗整合精神的契合%Adler Psychological Therapy's Link with the Spirit of Contemporary Psychotherapy Integration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    励骅; 郭本禹

    2012-01-01

    It is true that no single method of treatment from any schools can satisfy the needs of all ehents and apply to all psychological problems and situations. The rise of the integrative movement, to some extent, broke the individualistic manacles of the fractions, elimi- nated the discrimination among different schools, promoted their communications and dialogues. The study of Adler~ psychotherapy can help us discover those important contributions overlooked in the past that there has been a close relationship between Adler~ psychother- apy and contemporary practice. Adlerb psychotherapy, cognitive therapy and cognitive-behavioral therapy share a great deal of common ground, such as attention to the conceptual framework of the client, with the present - -oriented method. All Adler~ psychotherapy and cognitive therapy lay great emphasis on it. It is important to understand the patients within their own conceptual framework. The view of Adler is that expectations and aspirations of future as a current center to a large extent determine the way people recall the past and act in the present. Cognitive therapy also concerns the feelings of the client. Adlerb psychotherapy, constructivist psychotherapy and social constructivist psychotherapy all have achieved apparent resonance in such aspects as view of reality, principles of treatment, and social cultural origin of psychological development. The Adlerian and the constructivist theories agree that human perception renders external reality or truth subjective and only approximately knowable. The Adler theory and constructivist theory assert that humans are to con- struct their own personality and subsequently the creative motivation for themselves and others and the perception and interpretation of the world. Adler and constructivism emphasize that it is important that a person, as an active and motivated agent, creatively and rou- tinely participates in the construction of her own psychological world. In addition, Adler is

  12. An existential criterion for normal and abnormal personality in the works of Sigmund Freud and Alfred Adler.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kapustin S.A.

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This is the second in a series of four articles scheduled for publication in this journal. In the previous article I proposed a description of a new so-called existential criterion of normal and abnormal personality that is implicitly present in the works of Erich Fromm. According to this criterion, normal and abnormal personalities are determined, first, by special features of the content of their position regarding existential dichotomies that are natural to human beings and, second, by particular aspects of the formation of this position. Such dichotomies, entitatively existent in all human life, are inherent, two-alternative contradictions. The position of a normal personality in its content orients one toward a contradictious predetermination of life in the form of existential dichotomies and the necessity of searching for compromise in resolving these dichotomies. This position is created on a rational basis with the person’s active participation. The position of an abnormal personality in its content subjectively denies a contradictious predetermination of life in the form of existential dichotomies and orients one toward a consistent, noncompetitive, and, as a consequence, one-sided way of life that doesn’t include self-determination. This position is imposed by other people on an irrational basis. Abnormality of personality interpreted like that is one of the most important factors influencing the development of various kinds of psychological problems and mental disorders — primarily, neurosis. In this article I show that this criterion is implicitly present in the personality theories of Sigmund Freud and Alfred Adler, although in more special cases. In the following articles I will show that this criterion is also implicitly present in the personality theories of Carl Jung, Carl Rogers, and Viktor Frankl.

  13. The Adler-Weisberger and Goldberger-Miyazawa-Oehme sum rules as probes of constraints from analyticity and chiral symmetry in dynamical models for pion-nucleon scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Kondratyuk, S; Myhrer, F; Scholten, O

    2004-01-01

    The Adler-Weisberger and Goldberger-Miyazawa-Oehme sum rules are calculated within a relativistic, unitary and crossing symmetric dynamical model for pion-nucleon scattering using two different methods: 1) by evaluating of the scattering amplitude at the corresponding low-energy kinematics and 2) by evaluating the sum-rule integrals with the calculated total cross section. The discrepancy between the results of the two methods provides a measure of the breaking of analyticity and chiral symmetry in the model. The contribution of the $\\Delta$ resonance, including its dressing with meson loops, is discussed in some detail and found to be small.

  14. Mis teeb taimest ravimtaime? / Renata Sõukand

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Sõukand, Renata, 1974-

    2007-01-01

    Sünteesides Ilmari Mannineni eesti rahvameditsiini kolmikjaotust Peirceѫi märgitüüpide kolmikjaotusega, järeldab autor, et 19. sajandi eesti taimravi toetub pigem taimega seotud kultuurilistele arusaamadele

  15. Mis teeb taimest ravimtaime? / Renata Sõukand

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Sõukand, Renata, 1974-

    2007-01-01

    Sünteesides Ilmari Mannineni eesti rahvameditsiini kolmikjaotust Peirceѫi märgitüüpide kolmikjaotusega, järeldab autor, et 19. sajandi eesti taimravi toetub pigem taimega seotud kultuurilistele arusaamadele

  16. Analytical singlet α{/s 4} QCD contributions into the e + e --annihilation Adler function and the generalized Crewther relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kataev, A. L.

    2012-02-01

    The generalized Crewther relations in the channels of the non-singlet and vector quark currents are considered. These relations follow from the double application of the operator product expansion approach to the same axial vector-vector-vector triangle amplitude in two regions, adjoining to the angle sides ( x, y) (or p 2, q 2). We assume that the generalized Crewther relations in these two kinematic regimes result in the existence of the same perturbation expression for two products of the coefficient functions of annihilation and deepinelastic scattering processes in the non-singlet and vector channels. This feature explains the conformal symmetry motivated cancellations between the singlet α{/s 3} corrections to the Gross-Llewellyn Smith sum rule S GLS of ν N deep inelastic scattering and the singlet α{/s 3} correction to the e + e --annihilation Adler function D {/A V } in the product of the corresponding perturbative series. Taking into account the Baikov-Chetyrkin-Kuhn fourth order result for S GLS and the perturbative effects of the violation of the conformal symmetry in the generalized Crewther relation, we obtain the analytical contribution to the singlet α{/s 4} correction to the D {/A V } function. Its a-posteriori comparison with the recent result of direct diagram-by-diagram evaluation of the singlet fourth order corrections to D {/A V } function demonstrates the coincidence of the predicted and obtained ζ{3/2}-contributions to the singlet term. They can be obtained in the conformal invariant limit from the original Crewther relation. Therefore, on the contrary to previous belief, the appearance of ζ3-terms in the perturbative series in quantum field theory gauge models does not contradict to the property of the conformal symmetry and can be considered as regular feature. The Banks-Zaks motivated relation between our predicted and the obtained directly fourth order corrections is mentioned. It confirms the expectation, previously made by Baikov

  17. Adler function and Bjorken polarized sum rule: perturbation expansions in powers of $SU(N_c)$ conformal anomaly and studies of the conformal symmetry limit

    CERN Document Server

    Cvetič, Gorazd

    2016-01-01

    We consider a new form of analytical perturbation theory expansion in the massless $SU(N_c)$ theory, for the $e^+e^-$-annihilation to hadrons Adler function, and the Bjorken sum rule of the polarized lepton-hadron deep-inelastic scattering, and demonstrate its validity at the $O(\\alpha_s^4)$-level at least. It is expressed through a two-fold series in terms of powers of the conformal anomaly and the coupling constant $\\alpha_s$ of the $SU(N_c)$ gauge model. Subsequently, explicit expressions are obtained for the $\\{\\beta\\}$-expanded perturbation coefficients at $O(\\alpha_s^4)$ level in $\\overline{\\rm MS}$ scheme, for the nonsinglet contribution to the Adler function and the Bjorken polarized sum rule. Comparisons of the obtained terms in the $\\{\\beta\\}$-expanded perturbation coefficients are made with the corresponding terms obtained by using extra gluino degrees of freedom, or skeleton-motivated expansion, or $R_{\\delta}$-scheme motivated expansion in the Principle of Maximal Conformality. Relations are pres...

  18. Adler function and Bjorken polarized sum rule: Perturbation expansions in powers of the S U (Nc) conformal anomaly and studies of the conformal symmetry limit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cvetič, Gorazd; Kataev, A. L.

    2016-07-01

    We consider a new form of analytical perturbation theory expansion in the massless S U (Nc) theory, for the nonsinglet part of the e+e--annihilation to hadrons Adler function Dn s and of the Bjorken sum rule of the polarized lepton-hadron deep-inelastic scattering Cns B j p, and demonstrate its validity at the O (αs4)-level at least. It is a two-fold series in powers of the conformal anomaly and of S U (Nc) coupling αs. Explicit expressions are obtained for the {β }-expanded perturbation coefficients at O (αs4) level in MS ¯ scheme, for both considered physical quantities. Comparisons of the terms in the {β }-expanded coefficients are made with the corresponding terms obtained by using extra gluino degrees of freedom, or skeleton-motivated expansion, or Rδ-scheme motivated expansion in the Principle of Maximal Conformality. Relations between terms of the {β }-expansion for the Dn s- and Cns B j p-functions, which follow from the conformal symmetry limit and its violation, are presented. The relevance to the possible new analyses of the experimental data for the Adler function and Bjorken sum rule is discussed.

  19. Los psicólogos hispanoparlantes y la teoría de Alfred Adler en la revista Internationale Zeitschrift fuer Individualpsychologie (1914-1937

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramón León

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available La presente comunicación trata de la recepción de la producción de autores españoles y latinoamericanos (entre 1914 y 1927 en las páginas de la Intemationale Zeitschriftfür Individualpsychologie, la revista oficial del movimiento adleriano. Lydia Sicher fue la más activa recensionadora de la literatura en español. Oliver Brachfeld, que después emigraría a América Latina, fue también un prolífico colaborador en la Zeitschrift. Las formas que asumió la difusión de la producción de los autores latinoamericanos y el destino de las ideas de Adler en esta parte del mundo son objeto de un breve comentario.

  20. Adler, Alfred. – Roi sorcier, mère sorcière. Parenté, sorcellerie et pouvoir en Afrique noire

    OpenAIRE

    Dibakana Mouanda, Jean-Aimé

    2008-01-01

    Directeur de recherche émérite à l’École pratique des hautes études, Alfred Adler s’emploie depuis plusieurs années à mettre en lumière la nature, la fonction et la gestion du pouvoir dans les sociétés traditionnelles d’Afrique noire selon la perspective de l’anthropologie politique et religieuse. Cette dernière livraison, dans laquelle il se propose de démêler les liens combien complexes qu’entretiennent la parenté, la politique et la sorcellerie, s’inscrit donc dans la continuité de ses tra...

  1. Educating students in a university museum environment: the Adler Museum of Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keene, Rochelle

    2009-01-01

    Museums are now very much part of the mainstream of education and are no longer regarded as peripheral to education. They increasingly serve in South Africa as formal partners in education at primary and secondary level. University museums particularly have a formal role to play in tertiary education, with most university collections having been established to further the teaching of a faculty or school. The Adler Museum of Medicine plays an important educational role within the Faculty of Health Sciences at the University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg (Wits) and is also increasingly used by schools. As the curricula for South African schools were changed after the first democratic election in 1994, and outcome-based education implemented in this country, more and more educators established contact with museums in particular learning areas of the curricula. In South Africa, there are three areas of the school syllabi which this particular Museum can directly address: great discoveries, technological advances and traditional healing and indigenous knowledge.

  2. Scientific approach to the problem of early memories and self-criminals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debolsky M.G.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This article deal with a theoretical overview of the problem of early recollections and self-esteem criminals. Discussed issues are considered within the concept of Alfred Adler. A. Adler said that the earliest memories - is the starting point of an autobiography, which traced the first assessment itself, which is the basis of self-esteem and life style. Has been hypothesized about the existence correlation between the content of early recollections and self-esteem, which is a precondition for the formation of a criminal lifestyle. This hypothesis is based on the analysis of large number of theoretical studies foreign scientists (J. Bruner, C. Miner, G. Murray, J. Kramer, S. Tomkins, L. Ross and Newby-Clark, M. Singer and P. Salovey, LA Polkington and D. McAdams and some empirical studies (A. Molostvov. The article describes the main points of view on the question of the correctness of reproducible human memories. The authors share the position of A. Adler that certain childhood experiences form the self-esteem of man. If in childhood has been formed inferiority in a certain area, the man all his life to strive for superiority, and it was on the values in this field will be based his self-esteem. Important to find the fundamental mistakes made in the early period of personality development, then using particular therapy can to correct them into adulthood. Thus, the article focuses on the reader an opportunity to improve the psychotherapeutic work with early recollections of convicts to reduce the risk of re-offending.

  3. Memory Matters

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Emergency Room? What Happens in the Operating Room? Memory Matters KidsHealth > For Kids > Memory Matters A A ... of your complex and multitalented brain. What Is Memory? When an event happens, when you learn something, ...

  4. MEMORY MODULATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roozendaal, Benno; McGaugh, James L.

    2011-01-01

    Our memories are not all created equally strong: Some experiences are well remembered while others are remembered poorly, if at all. Research on memory modulation investigates the neurobiological processes and systems that contribute to such differences in the strength of our memories. Extensive evidence from both animal and human research indicates that emotionally significant experiences activate hormonal and brain systems that regulate the consolidation of newly acquired memories. These effects are integrated through noradrenergic activation of the basolateral amygdala which regulates memory consolidation via interactions with many other brain regions involved in consolidating memories of recent experiences. Modulatory systems not only influence neurobiological processes underlying the consolidation of new information, but also affect other mnemonic processes, including memory extinction, memory recall and working memory. In contrast to their enhancing effects on consolidation, adrenal stress hormones impair memory retrieval and working memory. Such effects, as with memory consolidation, require noradrenergic activation of the basolateral amygdala and interactions with other brain regions. PMID:22122145

  5. Adler hantavirus, a new genetic variant of Tula virus identified in Major's pine voles (Microtus majori) sampled in southern European Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tkachenko, Evgeniy A; Witkowski, Peter T; Radosa, Lukas; Dzagurova, Tamara K; Okulova, Nataliya M; Yunicheva, Yulia V; Vasilenko, Ludmila; Morozov, Vyacheslav G; Malkin, Gennadiy A; Krüger, Detlev H; Klempa, Boris

    2015-01-01

    Although at least 30 novel hantaviruses have been recently discovered in novel hosts such as shrews, moles and even bats, hantaviruses (family Bunyaviridae, genus Hantavirus) are primarily known as rodent-borne human pathogens. Here we report on identification of a novel hantavirus variant associated with a rodent host, Major's pine vole (Microtus majori). Altogether 36 hantavirus PCR-positive Major's pine voles were identified in the Krasnodar region of southern European Russia within the years 2008-2011. Initial partial L-segment sequence analysis revealed novel hantavirus sequences. Moreover, we found a single common vole (Microtusarvalis) infected with Tula virus (TULV). Complete S- and M-segment coding sequences were determined from 11 Major's pine voles originating from 8 trapping sites and subjected to phylogenetic analyses. The data obtained show that Major's pine vole is a newly recognized hantavirus reservoir host. The newfound virus, provisionally called Adler hantavirus (ADLV), is closely related to TULV. Based on amino acid differences to TULV (5.6-8.2% for nucleocapsid protein, 9.4-9.5% for glycoprotein precursor) we propose to consider ADLV as a genotype of TULV. Occurrence of ADLV and TULV in the same region suggests that ADLV is not only a geographical variant of TULV but a host-specific genotype. High intra-cluster nucleotide sequence variability (up to 18%) and geographic clustering indicate long-term presence of the virus in this region.

  6. 弗洛伊德、荣格与阿德勒的释梦观比较%Comparison on Dream Interpretation Theories from Freud, Jung and Adler

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐凯

    2016-01-01

    Dream interpretation is a classic technique of psychoanalysis. As the pioneers of dream interpretation, Freud, Jung and Adler have fundamentally changed perceptions about dream, furnished a whole new dimension for dream interpretation, and guided the direction of dream theories. Although Freud, Jung and Adler’s dream interpretation theories were all built on the theory of unconscious, and regarded dreams as the fast track to unconscious, they had different understandings on the nature, function, mechanism and analytic methods of dream. We should treat their dream theories differently in order to serve the practice of dream interpretation better.%释梦是精神分析的经典技术。其先驱者弗洛伊德、荣格和阿德勒从根本上改变了人们对梦的看法,开创了―个全新的心理学领域,在梦的元理论思想上一直指导着后世释梦的走向。尽管弗洛伊德、荣格与阿德勒的释梦观都建立在对无意识理解的基础上,都认可梦是通往无意识的捷径,但他们在梦的本质、功能、工作机制和解析方法上却有着不同的理解,在实践应用中也应加以区分对待,以便服务于当下的释梦实践。

  7. Memory Modulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roozendaal, Benno; McGaugh, James L.

    2011-01-01

    Our memories are not all created equally strong: Some experiences are well remembered while others are remembered poorly, if at all. Research on memory modulation investigates the neurobiological processes and systems that contribute to such differences in the strength of our memories. Extensive evi

  8. Memory Matters

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the brain that actually make memories harder to recall. previous continue Signs of a Memory Problem A person might — or might not — be ... A doctor will test the person's ability to recall events, names, or places by ... . If the person has memory loss from a head injury, the doctor will ...

  9. Memory protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denning, Peter J.

    1988-01-01

    Accidental overwriting of files or of memory regions belonging to other programs, browsing of personal files by superusers, Trojan horses, and viruses are examples of breakdowns in workstations and personal computers that would be significantly reduced by memory protection. Memory protection is the capability of an operating system and supporting hardware to delimit segments of memory, to control whether segments can be read from or written into, and to confine accesses of a program to its segments alone. The absence of memory protection in many operating systems today is the result of a bias toward a narrow definition of performance as maximum instruction-execution rate. A broader definition, including the time to get the job done, makes clear that cost of recovery from memory interference errors reduces expected performance. The mechanisms of memory protection are well understood, powerful, efficient, and elegant. They add to performance in the broad sense without reducing instruction execution rate.

  10. Memory design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tanderup, Sisse

    Mind and Matter - Nordik 2009 Conference for Art Historians Design Matters Contributed Memory design BACKGROUND My research concerns the use of memory categories in the designs by the companies Alessi and Georg Jensen. When Alessi's designers create their products, they are usually inspired...... by cultural forms, often specifically by the concept of memory in philosophy, sociology and psychology, while Danish design traditionally has been focusing on form and function with frequent references to the forms of nature. Alessi's motivation for investigating the concept of memory is that it adds...... a cultural dimension to the design objects, enabling the objects to make an identity-forming impact. Whether or not the concept of memory plays a significant role in Danish design has not yet been elucidated fully. TERMINOLOGY The concept of "memory design" refers to the idea that design carries...

  11. Disputed Memory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The world wars, genocides and extremist ideologies of the 20th century are remembered very differently across Central, Eastern and Southeastern Europe, resulting sometimes in fierce memory disputes. This book investigates the complexity and contention of the layers of memory of the troubled 20th...... century in the region. Written by an international group of scholars from a diversity of disciplines, the chapters approach memory disputes in methodologically innovative ways, studying representations and negotiations of disputed pasts in different media, including monuments, museum exhibitions......, individual and political discourse and electronic social media. Analyzing memory disputes in various local, national and transnational contexts, the chapters demonstrate the political power and social impact of painful and disputed memories. The book brings new insights into current memory disputes...

  12. Main Memory

    OpenAIRE

    Boncz, Peter; Liu, Lei; Özsu, Tamer, M.

    2008-01-01

    Primary storage, presently known as main memory, is the largest memory directly accessible to the CPU in the prevalent Von Neumann model and stores both data and instructions (program code). The CPU continuously reads instructions stored there and executes them. It is also called Random Access Memory (RAM), to indicate that load/store instructions can access data at any location at the same cost, is usually implemented using DRAM chips, which are connected to the CPU and other peripherals (di...

  13. Flavor Memory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mojet, Jos; Köster, Ep

    2016-01-01

    Odor, taste, texture, temperature, and pain all contribute to the perception and memory of food flavor. Flavor memory is also strongly linked to the situational aspects of previous encounters with the flavor, but does not depend on the precise recollection of its sensory features as in vision and

  14. Memory integration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sweegers, C.C.G.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this thesis was to characterize the neural mechanisms underlying memory integration. In chapter 2, we studied the neural underpinnings of regularity extraction across hippocampus-dependent episodic memories. We found higher connectivity between the hippocampus and the mPFC for the

  15. Shared Memories?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wæhrens, Anne

    2011-01-01

    This paper analyses how the memory of the Holocaust has been addressed in the European Parliament from 1989 to 2009. I identify two major changes that occurred in the 1990s and after the 2004 enlargement of the European Union respectively. In the 1990s the war in Bosnia and the question of restit......This paper analyses how the memory of the Holocaust has been addressed in the European Parliament from 1989 to 2009. I identify two major changes that occurred in the 1990s and after the 2004 enlargement of the European Union respectively. In the 1990s the war in Bosnia and the question...... of restitution universalised the memory of the Holocaust and made it present. The 2004 enlargement brought the memory of Soviet Communism into the Union and made it a central task to construct a community of memory that includes both the memory of the Holocaust and of Soviet Communism. The analysis also...... identifies what seems to be a political memory split between Left and Right; and it shows that the time might not be ripe for a shared European memory....

  16. Collaging Memories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallach, Michele

    2011-01-01

    Even middle school students can have memories of their childhoods, of an earlier time. The art of Romare Bearden and the writings of Paul Auster can be used to introduce ideas about time and memory to students and inspire works of their own. Bearden is an exceptional role model for young artists, not only because of his astounding art, but also…

  17. Main Memory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.A. Boncz (Peter); L. Liu (Lei); M. Tamer Özsu

    2008-01-01

    htmlabstractPrimary storage, presently known as main memory, is the largest memory directly accessible to the CPU in the prevalent Von Neumann model and stores both data and instructions (program code). The CPU continuously reads instructions stored there and executes them. It is also called Random

  18. Supersymmetric Adler Functions and Holography

    CERN Document Server

    Iwanaga, Masaya; Sakai, Tadakatsu

    2016-01-01

    We perform several tests on a recent proposal by Shifman and Stepanyantz for an exact expression for the current correlation functions in supersymmetric gauge theories. We clarify the meaning of the relation in superconformal theories. In particular we show that it automatically follows from known relations between the current correlation functions and anomalies. It therefore also automatically matches between different dual realizations of the same superconformal theory. We use holographic examples as well as calculations in free theories to show that the proposed relation fails in theories with mass terms.

  19. Teejuht nutikale tarbijale / Epp Adler

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Adler, Epp

    2006-01-01

    Käimas on 2006/2007 õa "Euroopa päevik: teejuht nutikale tarbijale" tellimine, mis lõpeb 24. veebruaril. Päevik on 25 Euroopa Liidu liikmesriigis välja antav koolipäevik, millesse on lisatud 88 lehekülge infot tarbimise, Euroopa ja tervise teemadel

  20. Memory conformity affects inaccurate memories more than accurate memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Daniel B; Villalba, Daniella K

    2012-01-01

    After controlling for initial confidence, inaccurate memories were shown to be more easily distorted than accurate memories. In two experiments groups of participants viewed 50 stimuli and were then presented with these stimuli plus 50 fillers. During this test phase participants reported their confidence that each stimulus was originally shown. This was followed by computer-generated responses from a bogus participant. After being exposed to this response participants again rated the confidence of their memory. The computer-generated responses systematically distorted participants' responses. Memory distortion depended on initial memory confidence, with uncertain memories being more malleable than confident memories. This effect was moderated by whether the participant's memory was initially accurate or inaccurate. Inaccurate memories were more malleable than accurate memories. The data were consistent with a model describing two types of memory (i.e., recollective and non-recollective memories), which differ in how susceptible these memories are to memory distortion.

  1. Võtta või jätta? Olla või tegutseda? = Брать или нет? Действовать или выжидать? / Mirja Adler ; intervjueerinud Veronika Nuter

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Adler, Mirja

    2009-01-01

    SA KredEx eluasemedivisjoni juht Mirja Adler vastab küsimustele, mis puudutavad ühistute aktiivsust KredExi renoveerimislaenu võtmiseks ja kortermajade korrastamiseks, renoveerimislaenu keskmist suurust ja selle eest teostatavaid töid, korteriühistute huvi soodusintressiga renoveerimislaenu vastu ning korteriühistute madala laenuaktiivsuse põhjuseid. Diagrammid

  2. Võtta või jätta? Olla või tegutseda? = Брать или нет? Действовать или выжидать? / Mirja Adler ; intervjueerinud Veronika Nuter

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Adler, Mirja

    2009-01-01

    SA KredEx eluasemedivisjoni juht Mirja Adler vastab küsimustele, mis puudutavad ühistute aktiivsust KredExi renoveerimislaenu võtmiseks ja kortermajade korrastamiseks, renoveerimislaenu keskmist suurust ja selle eest teostatavaid töid, korteriühistute huvi soodusintressiga renoveerimislaenu vastu ning korteriühistute madala laenuaktiivsuse põhjuseid. Diagrammid

  3. Memory loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    A person with memory loss needs a lot of support. It helps to show the person familiar objects, music, or and photos or play familiar music. Write down when the person should take any medicine or do other ...

  4. Memory clinics

    OpenAIRE

    Jolley, D; Benbow, S M; Grizzell, M

    2006-01-01

    Memory clinics were first described in the 1980s. They have become accepted worldwide as useful vehicles for improving practice in the identification, investigation, and treatment of memory disorders, including dementia. They are provided in various settings, the setting determining clientele and practice. All aim to facilitate referral from GPs, other specialists, or by self referral, in the early stages of impairment, and to avoid the stigma associated with psychiatric services. They bring ...

  5. Creating Self and Life Style——Discuss Alfred Adler's Viewpoint of Personality Development%创造性自我与生活风格——论阿德勒的人格发展观

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田印红

    2007-01-01

    阿尔弗莱德·阿德勒(Alfred Adler,1870-1937)是奥地利著名的心理学家和精神病医生,其创建的个体心理学把人从古典精神分析的泛性论中解放出来,强调了遗传和环境对人格形成的双重作用,提出了创造性自我和生活风格理论等重要的人格发展观点,对人格心理学的发展有着重要的影响.本文就此进行评述.

  6. Mne nravitsja vljubljatsja v talant / Renata Litvinova ; interv. Nikolai Hrustaljov

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Litvinova, Renata

    2007-01-01

    Viiburis (Võborg) toimunud vene kino festivalil "Aken Euroopasse" peetud pressikonverentsil tutvustas näitleja ja režissöör oma uusimat projekti, muusikalist filmi lauljanna Zemfirast, esialgse pealkirjaga "Zeljonõi teatr v Zemfire"

  7. Mne nravitsja vljubljatsja v talant / Renata Litvinova ; interv. Nikolai Hrustaljov

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Litvinova, Renata

    2007-01-01

    Viiburis (Võborg) toimunud vene kino festivalil "Aken Euroopasse" peetud pressikonverentsil tutvustas näitleja ja režissöör oma uusimat projekti, muusikalist filmi lauljanna Zemfirast, esialgse pealkirjaga "Zeljonõi teatr v Zemfire"

  8. Memory consolidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squire, Larry R; Genzel, Lisa; Wixted, John T; Morris, Richard G

    2015-08-03

    Conscious memory for a new experience is initially dependent on information stored in both the hippocampus and neocortex. Systems consolidation is the process by which the hippocampus guides the reorganization of the information stored in the neocortex such that it eventually becomes independent of the hippocampus. Early evidence for systems consolidation was provided by studies of retrograde amnesia, which found that damage to the hippocampus-impaired memories formed in the recent past, but typically spared memories formed in the more remote past. Systems consolidation has been found to occur for both episodic and semantic memories and for both spatial and nonspatial memories, although empirical inconsistencies and theoretical disagreements remain about these issues. Recent work has begun to characterize the neural mechanisms that underlie the dialogue between the hippocampus and neocortex (e.g., "neural replay," which occurs during sharp wave ripple activity). New work has also identified variables, such as the amount of preexisting knowledge, that affect the rate of consolidation. The increasing use of molecular genetic tools (e.g., optogenetics) can be expected to further improve understanding of the neural mechanisms underlying consolidation. Copyright © 2015 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press; all rights reserved.

  9. Is external memory memory? Biological memory and extended mind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaelian, Kourken

    2012-09-01

    Clark and Chalmers (1998) claim that an external resource satisfying the following criteria counts as a memory: (1) the agent has constant access to the resource; (2) the information in the resource is directly available; (3) retrieved information is automatically endorsed; (4) information is stored as a consequence of past endorsement. Research on forgetting and metamemory shows that most of these criteria are not satisfied by biological memory, so they are inadequate. More psychologically realistic criteria generate a similar classification of standard putative external memories, but the criteria still do not capture the function of memory. An adequate account of memory function, compatible with its evolution and its roles in prospection and imagination, suggests that external memory performs a function not performed by biological memory systems. External memory is thus not memory. This has implications for: extended mind theorizing, ecological validity of memory research, the causal theory of memory.

  10. Memory training in depression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Becker, E.S.; Vanderhasselt, M.A.; Vrijsen, J.N.

    2015-01-01

    Memory biases, that is, general memory impairments as well as specific mood-congruent memory biases, are important vulnerability factors in depression. Recently, computerized memory trainings have been developed to target these biases, reducing rumination and lightening depressive symptoms. This

  11. Retracing Memories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, David L.

    2005-01-01

    There are plenty of paths to poetry but few are as accessible as retracing ones own memories. When students are asked to write about something they remember, they are given them the gift of choosing from events that are important enough to recall. They remember because what happened was funny or scary or embarrassing or heartbreaking or silly.…

  12. Memory consolidation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Takashima, A.; Bakker, I.

    2016-01-01

    In order to make use of novel experiences and knowledge to guide our future behavior, we must keep large amounts of information accessible for retrieval. The memory system that stores this information needs to be flexible in order to rapidly incorporate incoming information, but also requires that

  13. Broadcast Memories

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈淑娴

    1995-01-01

    At the root of all memory is a communication among neurons,millions of neurons, passing signals to one another like the transistors in a computer. Transistors have to be linked by wires in order to communicate—but neurons,it now seems, are different. According to a recent study dnne at Stanford, neu-

  14. Concrete Memories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiegand, Frauke Katharina

    2015-01-01

    This article traces the presence of Atlantikwall bunkers in amateur holiday snapshots and discusses the ambiguous role of the bunker site in visual cultural memory. Departing from my family’s private photo collection from twenty years of vacationing at the Danish West coast, the different mundane...

  15. Holographic Memories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramanujam, P.S.; Holme, NCR; Berg, RH

    1999-01-01

    A Two-dimensional holographic memory for archival storage is described. Assuming a coherent transfer function, an A4 page can be stored at high resolution in an area of 1 mm(2). Recently developed side-chain liquid crystalline azobenzene polyesters are found to be suitable media for holographic...... storage. They exhibit high resolution, high diffraction efficiency, have long storage life, are fully erasable and are mechanically stable....

  16. Transactional Memory

    OpenAIRE

    Grahn, Håkan

    2010-01-01

    Current and future processor generations are based on multicore architectures where the performance increase comes from an increasing number of cores on a chip. In order to utilize the performance potential of multicore architectures the programs also need to be parallel, but writing parallel programs is a non-trivial task. Transactional memory tries to ease parallel program development by providing atomic and isolated execution of code sequences, enabling software composability and protected...

  17. O conceito de compensação no diálogo de Vigotski com Adler:desenvolvimento humano, educação e deficiência

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Débora Dainez

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Atualmente, é ampla a divulgação dos estudos de Lev Semenovitch Vigotski e dos impactos que esses causaram no âmbito da educação, repercutindo no modo de pensar o ensino e o desenvolvimento de crianças. Entretanto, a obra desse autor referente ao tema da deficiência ainda permanece sem tradução para o português. Por essa razão, ainda é pouco conhecida no país. O conceito que Vigotski elabora quando aborda o desenvolvimento nas condições orgânicas adversas é o de compensação. Diante disso, a proposta deste trabalho é apresentar a história de elaboração conceitual da compensação na perspectiva histórico-cultural, compreendendo a emergência e o movimento das ideias e dos argumentos produzidos por Vigotski na interlocução com os seus contemporâneos, sobretudo com o psicanalista austríaco Alfred Adler. Trata-se de um estudo teórico-conceitual em que foram realizadas leituras de livros de Adler e dos principais textos de Vigotski e de autores contemporâneos que versam acerca do tema. As discussões apontam para os pontos de acordos e a explicitação das diferenças das perspectivas desses autores, além de dar a ver o modo como Vigotski redimensiona o conceito de compensação com orientação para a formação social da mente. Como conclusão, mostra-se a concepção da sustentação da vida do indivíduo pelo outro, a crença nas possibilidades de desenvolvimento para além da deficiência e a compreensão dos diferentes modos de humanização. A implicação dessas proposições é a responsabilidade social de organização do meio educacional de modo a projetar a formação do novo no processo de desenvolvimento da criança (com deficiência, investindo na formação, disponibilização e apropriação de recursos materiais e humanos.

  18. [Neural correlates of memory].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, Toshikatsu

    2013-01-01

    Memory can be divided into several types, although all of them involve three successive processes: encoding, storage, and retrieval. In terms of the duration of retention, neurologists classify memory into immediate, recent, and remote memories, whereas psychologists classify memory into short-term and long-term memories. In terms of the content, episodic, semantic, and procedural memories are considered to be different types of memory. Furthermore, researchers on memory have proposed relatively new concepts of memory, i.e., working memory and prospective memory. This article first provides explanations for these several types of memory. Next, neuropsychological characteristics of amnesic syndrome are briefly outlined. Finally, how several different types of memory are affected (or preserved) in patients with amnesic syndrome is described.

  19. Transactional Memory

    CERN Document Server

    Harris, Tim; Rajwar, Ravi

    2010-01-01

    The advent of multicore processors has renewed interest in the idea of incorporating transactions into the programming model used to write parallel programs.This approach, known as transactional memory, offers an alternative, and hopefully better, way to coordinate concurrent threads. The ACI(atomicity, consistency, isolation) properties of transactions provide a foundation to ensure that concurrent reads and writes of shared data do not produce inconsistent or incorrect results. At a higher level, a computation wrapped in a transaction executes atomically - either it completes successfullyand

  20. Memory effects in turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinze, J. O.

    1979-01-01

    Experimental investigations of the wake flow of a hemisphere and cylinder show that such memory effects can be substantial and have a significant influence on momentum transport. Memory effects are described in terms of suitable memory functions.

  1. STRUKTUR DAN PROSES MEMORI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magda Bhinnety

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes structures and processes of human memory system according to the modal model. Sensory memory is described as the first system to store information from outside world. Short‐term memory, or now called working memory, represents a system characterized by limited ability in storing as well as retrieving information. Long‐term memory on the hand stores information larger in amount and longer than short‐term memory

  2. Memory, collective memory, orality and the gospels

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Test

    2011-06-07

    Jun 7, 2011 ... with collective memory theory in the works of Halbwachs, Connerton, Gillis, Fentress and. Wickham, Olick, Schwartz ..... critical importance of cultural memory for (re)constructing history. ...... Frankfurt am Main. Baddeley, A.D. ...

  3. Optical memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Samuel S; Zhang, Yanfeng

    2013-07-02

    Optical memory comprising: a semiconductor wire, a first electrode, a second electrode, a light source, a means for producing a first voltage at the first electrode, a means for producing a second voltage at the second electrode, and a means for determining the presence of an electrical voltage across the first electrode and the second electrode exceeding a predefined voltage. The first voltage, preferably less than 0 volts, different from said second voltage. The semiconductor wire is optically transparent and has a bandgap less than the energy produced by the light source. The light source is optically connected to the semiconductor wire. The first electrode and the second electrode are electrically insulated from each other and said semiconductor wire.

  4. Memory and Study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈园

    1996-01-01

    Of all the myths that surround memory, the most damaging is that it is agift. That is quite untrue. Memory is a skill; and like any skill its performancedepends on application, on practice, and on regular training. Everyone poten-tially has a first-class memory; and everyone can train their memory, and there-

  5. Memory, microprocessor, and ASIC

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Wai-Kai

    2003-01-01

    System Timing. ROM/PROM/EPROM. SRAM. Embedded Memory. Flash Memories. Dynamic Random Access Memory. Low-Power Memory Circuits. Timing and Signal Integrity Analysis. Microprocessor Design Verification. Microprocessor Layout Method. Architecture. ASIC Design. Logic Synthesis for Field Programmable Gate Array (EPGA) Technology. Testability Concepts and DFT. ATPG and BIST. CAD Tools for BIST/DFT and Delay Faults.

  6. Non-volatile memories

    CERN Document Server

    Lacaze, Pierre-Camille

    2014-01-01

    Written for scientists, researchers, and engineers, Non-volatile Memories describes the recent research and implementations in relation to the design of a new generation of non-volatile electronic memories. The objective is to replace existing memories (DRAM, SRAM, EEPROM, Flash, etc.) with a universal memory model likely to reach better performances than the current types of memory: extremely high commutation speeds, high implantation densities and retention time of information of about ten years.

  7. Verbal memory and menopause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maki, Pauline M

    2015-11-01

    Midlife women frequently report memory problems during the menopausal transition. Recent studies validate those complaints by showing significant correlations between memory complaints and performance on validated memory tasks. Longitudinal studies demonstrate modest declines in verbal memory during the menopausal transition and a likely rebound during the postmenopausal stage. Clinical studies that examine changes in memory following hormonal withdrawal and add-back hormone therapy (HT) demonstrate that estradiol plays a critical role in memory. Although memory changes are frequently attributed to menopausal symptoms, studies show that the memory problems occur during the transition even after controlling for menopausal symptoms. It is well established that self-reported vasomotor symptoms (VMS) are unrelated to objective memory performance. However, emerging evidence suggests that objectively measured VMS significantly correlate with memory performance, brain activity during rest, and white matter hyperintensities. This evidence raises important questions about whether VMS and VMS treatments might affect memory during the menopausal transition. Unfortunately, there are no clinical trials to inform our understanding of how HT affects both memory and objectively measured VMS in women in whom HT is indicated for treatment of moderate to severe VMS. In clinical practice, it is helpful to normalize memory complaints, to note that evidence suggests that memory problems are temporary, and to counsel women with significant VMS that memory might improve with treatment.

  8. Salam Memorial

    CERN Document Server

    Rubbia, Carlo

    1997-01-01

    by T.W.B. KIBBLE / Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College, London. Recollections of Abdus Salam at Imperial College I shall give a personal account of Professor Salam's life and work from the perspective of a colleague at Imperial College, concentrating particularly but not exclusively on the period leading up to the discovery of the electro-weak theory. If necessary I could perhaps give more detail, but only once I have given more thought to what ground I shall cover. by Sheldon Lee GLASHOW / Harvard University, Cambridge, MA, USA. Memories of Abdus Salam. My interactions with Abdus Salam, weak as they have been, extended over five decades. I regret that we never once collaborated in print or by correspondence. I visited Abdus only twice in London and twice again in Trieste, and met him at the occasional conference or summer school. Our face-to-face encounters could be counted on one's fingers and toes, but we became the best of friends. Others will discuss Abdus as an inspiring teacher, as a great scientist,...

  9. Organizational memory: from expectations memory to procedural memory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ebbers, J.J.; Wijnberg, N.M.

    2009-01-01

    Organizational memory is not just the stock of knowledge about how to do things, but also of expectations of organizational members vis-à-vis each other and the organization as a whole. The central argument of this paper is that this second type of organizational memory -organizational expectations

  10. Organizational memory: from expectations memory to procedural memory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ebbers, J.J.; Wijnberg, N.M.

    2009-01-01

    Organizational memory is not just the stock of knowledge about how to do things, but also of expectations of organizational members vis-à-vis each other and the organization as a whole. The central argument of this paper is that this second type of organizational memory -organizational expectations

  11. Exploring history and memory through autobiographical memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivor Goodson

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The article reviews the role of autobiographical memory as a site of narrative construction. Far from being a place of liberal retrospective recall it is a site of active recapitulation and reconstruction. The article provides examples of how history and memory are intermingled. It also draws in the author’s autobiographical vignettes to explore the underpinning desires for historical reconstruction in autobiographical memory work

  12. Memory Without Parties or Parties Without Memory?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Mario Solís Delgadillo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the role of political parties in Argentina, Chile and Guatemala in relation to the implementation of public policies of memory after the return to democracy in each of these countries. To do this, we discuss the concept of memory and the problems of memorial obsession. We consider the uses and abuses of memory that human rights organizations manifest on the subject, and examine the work of the parties about the level of adaptation that allows claims of human rights movement to become matters of public policy.

  13. Medications for Memory Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... by state Home > Alzheimer's Disease > Treatments > Medications for Memory Overview What Is Dementia? What Is Alzheimer's? Younger/ ... Interactive Tour Risk Factors Diagnosis Treatments Medications for Memory Treatments for Behavior For Sleep Changes Alternative Treatments ...

  14. Tracing Cultural Memory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiegand, Frauke Katharina

    We encounter, relate to and make use of our past and that of others in multifarious and increasingly mobile ways. Tourism is one of the main paths for encountering sites of memory. This thesis examines tourists’ creative appropriations of sites of memory – the objects and future memories inspired...... by their encounters – to address a question that thirty years of ground - breaking research into memory has not yet sufficiently answered: What can we learn about the dynamics of cultural memory by examining mundane accounts of touristic encounters with sites of memory? From Blaavand Beach in Western Denmark...... to Soweto’s Regina Mundi Church, this thesis analyses tourists’ snapshots at sites of memory and outlines their tracing activity in cultural memory. It draws on central concepts of actor - network theory and visual culture studies for a cross - disciplinary methodology to comprehend the collective...

  15. Coping with Memory Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Consumers Home For Consumers Consumer Updates Coping With Memory Loss Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing ... a health professional. back to top What Causes Memory Loss? Anything that affects cognition—the process of ...

  16. Music, memory and emotion

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jäncke, Lutz

    2008-01-01

    Because emotions enhance memory processes and music evokes strong emotions, music could be involved in forming memories, either about pieces of music or about episodes and information associated with particular music...

  17. Memory and Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Memory and Aging Losing keys, misplacing a wallet, or forgetting someone’s name are common experiences. But for people nearing or over age 65, such memory lapses can be frightening. They wonder if they ...

  18. Saving Malta's music memory

    OpenAIRE

    Sant, Toni

    2013-01-01

    Maltese music is being lost. Along with it Malta loses its culture, way of life, and memories. Dr Toni Sant is trying to change this trend through the Malta Music Memory Project (M3P) http://www.um.edu.mt/think/saving-maltas-music-memory-2/

  19. Music, memory and emotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jäncke, Lutz

    2008-08-08

    Because emotions enhance memory processes and music evokes strong emotions, music could be involved in forming memories, either about pieces of music or about episodes and information associated with particular music. A recent study in BMC Neuroscience has given new insights into the role of emotion in musical memory.

  20. Memory: Organization and Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichenbaum, Howard

    2017-01-01

    A major goal of memory research is to understand how cognitive processes in memory are supported at the level of brain systems and network representations. Especially promising in this direction are new findings in humans and animals that converge in indicating a key role for the hippocampus in the systematic organization of memories. New findings also indicate that the prefrontal cortex may play an equally important role in the active control of memory organization during both encoding and retrieval. Observations about the dialog between the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex provide new insights into the operation of the larger brain system that serves memory. PMID:27687117

  1. Memory dynamics under stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quaedflieg, Conny W E M; Schwabe, Lars

    2017-06-19

    Stressful events have a major impact on memory. They modulate memory formation in a time-dependent manner, closely linked to the temporal profile of action of major stress mediators, in particular catecholamines and glucocorticoids. Shortly after stressor onset, rapidly acting catecholamines and fast, non-genomic glucocorticoid actions direct cognitive resources to the processing and consolidation of the ongoing threat. In parallel, control of memory is biased towards rather rigid systems, promoting habitual forms of memory allowing efficient processing under stress, at the expense of "cognitive" systems supporting memory flexibility and specificity. In this review, we discuss the implications of this shift in the balance of multiple memory systems for the dynamics of the memory trace. Specifically, stress appears to hinder the incorporation of contextual details into the memory trace, to impede the integration of new information into existing knowledge structures, to impair the flexible generalisation across past experiences, and to hamper the modification of memories in light of new information. Delayed, genomic glucocorticoid actions might reverse the control of memory, thus restoring homeostasis and "cognitive" control of memory again.

  2. Immunological memory is associative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, D.J.; Forrest, S. [New Mexico Univ., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Dept. of Computer Science; Perelson, A.S. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1996-12-31

    The purpose of this paper is to show that immunological memory is an associative and robust memory that belongs to the class of sparse distributed memories. This class of memories derives its associative and robust nature by sparsely sampling the input space and distributing the data among many independent agents. Other members of this class include a model of the cerebellar cortex and Sparse Distributed Memory (SDM). First we present a simplified account of the immune response and immunological memory. Next we present SDM, and then we show the correlations between immunological memory and SDM. Finally, we show how associative recall in the immune response can be both beneficial and detrimental to the fitness of an individual.

  3. Flexible kernel memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowicki, Dimitri; Siegelmann, Hava

    2010-06-11

    This paper introduces a new model of associative memory, capable of both binary and continuous-valued inputs. Based on kernel theory, the memory model is on one hand a generalization of Radial Basis Function networks and, on the other, is in feature space, analogous to a Hopfield network. Attractors can be added, deleted, and updated on-line simply, without harming existing memories, and the number of attractors is independent of input dimension. Input vectors do not have to adhere to a fixed or bounded dimensionality; they can increase and decrease it without relearning previous memories. A memory consolidation process enables the network to generalize concepts and form clusters of input data, which outperforms many unsupervised clustering techniques; this process is demonstrated on handwritten digits from MNIST. Another process, reminiscent of memory reconsolidation is introduced, in which existing memories are refreshed and tuned with new inputs; this process is demonstrated on series of morphed faces.

  4. Flexible kernel memory.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitri Nowicki

    Full Text Available This paper introduces a new model of associative memory, capable of both binary and continuous-valued inputs. Based on kernel theory, the memory model is on one hand a generalization of Radial Basis Function networks and, on the other, is in feature space, analogous to a Hopfield network. Attractors can be added, deleted, and updated on-line simply, without harming existing memories, and the number of attractors is independent of input dimension. Input vectors do not have to adhere to a fixed or bounded dimensionality; they can increase and decrease it without relearning previous memories. A memory consolidation process enables the network to generalize concepts and form clusters of input data, which outperforms many unsupervised clustering techniques; this process is demonstrated on handwritten digits from MNIST. Another process, reminiscent of memory reconsolidation is introduced, in which existing memories are refreshed and tuned with new inputs; this process is demonstrated on series of morphed faces.

  5. NAND flash memory technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Aritome, Seiichi

    2016-01-01

    This book discusses basic and advanced NAND flash memory technologies, including the principle of NAND flash, memory cell technologies, multi-bits cell technologies, scaling challenges of memory cell, reliability, and 3-dimensional cell as the future technology. Chapter 1 describes the background and early history of NAND flash. The basic device structures and operations are described in Chapter 2. Next, the author discusses the memory cell technologies focused on scaling in Chapter 3, and introduces the advanced operations for multi-level cells in Chapter 4. The physical limitations for scaling are examined in Chapter 5, and Chapter 6 describes the reliability of NAND flash memory. Chapter 7 examines 3-dimensional (3D) NAND flash memory cells and discusses the pros and cons in structure, process, operations, scalability, and performance. In Chapter 8, challenges of 3D NAND flash memory are dis ussed. Finally, in Chapter 9, the author summarizes and describes the prospect of technologies and market for the fu...

  6. Generating memory with vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellino, Flora; Galli, Grazia; Del Giudice, Giuseppe; Rappuoli, Rino

    2009-08-01

    The goal of vaccination is to induce long-lasting protective immune memory. Although most vaccines induce good memory responses, the type of memory induced by different vaccines may be considerably different. In addition, memory responses to the same vaccine may be influenced by age, environmental and genetic factors. Results emerging from detailed and integrated profiling of immune-responses to natural infection or vaccination suggest that the type and duration of immune memory are largely determined by the magnitude and complexity of innate immune signals that imprint the acquired immune primary responses. Here we summarize results obtained from analyzing human immune memory responses to different types of vaccines. We will also discuss how extending clinical investigation to events occurring early after vaccination can help identify early predictive markers of protective memory and thus contribute to faster development of better and safer vaccines.

  7. Sol Adler,a Rare Spirit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1994-01-01

    SolAdler,aRareSpirit¥//SpeechbyJAMESPECK,directorofU.S.-ChinaBookPublicationsProject,YaleUniversityPress.Mr.Peckdeliveredhiss...

  8. Kuidas suunata noori loodusest hoolima? / Jane Adler

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Adler, Jane

    2008-01-01

    Kuusalu keskkoolis toimunud ökotantsufestivalist. Kolm peapreemiat anti välja parimatele looduse jäljendajatele: Keila lasteaiale "Vikerkaar" kava "Linnud ja meri" eest, Petsi spordiklubile (1.-3. klass) kava "Kärbeste ralli" eest ning Kunda ühisgümnaasiumile (10.-12. klass) kava "Elu" eest

  9. Kuidas suunata noori loodusest hoolima? / Jane Adler

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Adler, Jane

    2008-01-01

    Kuusalu keskkoolis toimunud ökotantsufestivalist. Kolm peapreemiat anti välja parimatele looduse jäljendajatele: Keila lasteaiale "Vikerkaar" kava "Linnud ja meri" eest, Petsi spordiklubile (1.-3. klass) kava "Kärbeste ralli" eest ning Kunda ühisgümnaasiumile (10.-12. klass) kava "Elu" eest

  10. Kortermajast saab kena kodu / Mirja Adler

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Adler, Mirja

    2005-01-01

    KredExi eluasemevaldkonna juht soovitab kortermaja renoveerimiseks julgelt laenu võtta, kuna see on ehitushindade pideva tõusu tõttu laenuvõtjale lõppkokkuvõttes odavam kui iseseisvalt remondiraha koguda. Tabelid: Kogumise ja laenu hinnatõusu võrdlus; KredExi käenduse maksumus

  11. Psychophysiology of prospective memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothen, Nicolas; Meier, Beat

    2014-01-01

    Prospective memory involves the self-initiated retrieval of an intention upon an appropriate retrieval cue. Cue identification can be considered as an orienting reaction and may thus trigger a psychophysiological response. Here we present two experiments in which skin conductance responses (SCRs) elicited by prospective memory cues were compared to SCRs elicited by aversive stimuli to test whether a single prospective memory cue triggers a similar SCR as an aversive stimulus. In Experiment 2 we also assessed whether cue specificity had a differential influence on prospective memory performance and on SCRs. We found that detecting a single prospective memory cue is as likely to elicit a SCR as an aversive stimulus. Missed prospective memory cues also elicited SCRs. On a behavioural level, specific intentions led to better prospective memory performance. However, on a psychophysiological level specificity had no influence. More generally, the results indicate reliable SCRs for prospective memory cues and point to psychophysiological measures as valuable approach, which offers a new way to study one-off prospective memory tasks. Moreover, the findings are consistent with a theory that posits multiple prospective memory retrieval stages.

  12. Human learning and memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, M K; Hasher, L

    1987-01-01

    There have been several notable recent trends in the area of learning and memory. Problems with the episodic/semantic distinction have become more apparent, and new efforts have been made (exemplar models, distributed-memory models) to represent general knowledge without assuming a separate semantic system. Less emphasis is being placed on stable, prestored prototypes and more emphasis on a flexible memory system that provides the basis for a multitude of categories or frames of reference, derived on the spot as tasks demand. There is increasing acceptance of the idea that mental models are constructed and stored in memory in addition to, rather than instead of, memorial representations that are more closely tied to perceptions. This gives rise to questions concerning the conditions that permit inferences to be drawn and mental models to be constructed, and to questions concerning the similarities and differences in the nature of the representations in memory of perceived and generated information and in their functions. There has also been a swing from interest in deliberate strategies to interest in automatic, unconscious (even mechanistic!) processes, reflecting an appreciation that certain situations (e.g. recognition, frequency judgements, savings in indirect tasks, aspects of skill acquisition, etc) seem not to depend much on the products of strategic, effortful or reflective processes. There is a lively interest in relations among memory measures and attempts to characterize memory representations and/or processes that could give rise to dissociations among measures. Whether the pattern of results reflects the operation of functional subsystems of memory and, if so, what the "modules" are is far from clear. This issue has been fueled by work with amnesics and has contributed to a revival of interaction between researchers studying learning and memory in humans and those studying learning and memory in animals. Thus, neuroscience rivals computer science as a

  13. Quantum Associative Memory

    CERN Document Server

    Ventura, D; Ventura, Dan; Martinez, Tony

    1998-01-01

    This paper combines quantum computation with classical neural network theory to produce a quantum computational learning algorithm. Quantum computation uses microscopic quantum level effects to perform computational tasks and has produced results that in some cases are exponentially faster than their classical counterparts. The unique characteristics of quantum theory may also be used to create a quantum associative memory with a capacity exponential in the number of neurons. This paper combines two quantum computational algorithms to produce such a quantum associative memory. The result is an exponential increase in the capacity of the memory when compared to traditional associative memories such as the Hopfield network. The paper covers necessary high-level quantum mechanical and quantum computational ideas and introduces a quantum associative memory. Theoretical analysis proves the utility of the memory, and it is noted that a small version should be physically realizable in the near future.

  14. Time for memory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Murakami, Kyoko

    2012-01-01

    This article is a continuous dialogue on memory triggered by Brockmeier’s (2010) article. I drift away from the conventionalization of the archive as a spatial metaphor for memory in order to consider the greater possibility of “time” for conceptualizing memory. The concept of time is central...... in terms of autobiographical memory. The second category of time is discussed, drawing on Augustine and Bergson amongst others. Bergson’s notion of duration has been considered as a promising concept for a better understanding of autobiographical memory. Psychological phenomena such as autobiographical...... memory should embrace not only spatial dimension, but also a temporal dimension, in which a constant flow of irreversible time, where multiplicity, momentarily, dynamic stability and becoming and emergence of novelty can be observed....

  15. Regulatory T cell memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenblum, Michael D.; Way, Sing Sing; Abbas, Abul K.

    2016-01-01

    Memory for antigen is a defining feature of adaptive immunity. Antigen-specific lymphocyte populations show an increase in number and function after antigen encounter and more rapidly re-expand upon subsequent antigen exposure. Studies of immune memory have primarily focused on effector B cells and T cells with microbial specificity, using prime challenge models of infection. However, recent work has also identified persistently expanded populations of antigen-specific regulatory T cells that protect against aberrant immune responses. In this Review, we consider the parallels between memory effector T cells and memory regulatory T cells, along with the functional implications of regulatory memory in autoimmunity, antimicrobial host defence and maternal fetal tolerance. In addition, we discuss emerging evidence for regulatory T cell memory in humans and key unanswered questions in this rapidly evolving field. PMID:26688349

  16. Shape memory polymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, Thomas S.; Bearinger, Jane P.

    2017-08-29

    New shape memory polymer compositions, methods for synthesizing new shape memory polymers, and apparatus comprising an actuator and a shape memory polymer wherein the shape memory polymer comprises at least a portion of the actuator. A shape memory polymer comprising a polymer composition which physically forms a network structure wherein the polymer composition has shape-memory behavior and can be formed into a permanent primary shape, re-formed into a stable secondary shape, and controllably actuated to recover the permanent primary shape. Polymers have optimal aliphatic network structures due to minimization of dangling chains by using monomers that are symmetrical and that have matching amine and hydroxl groups providing polymers and polymer foams with clarity, tight (narrow temperature range) single transitions, and high shape recovery and recovery force that are especially useful for implanting in the human body.

  17. Shape memory polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Thomas S.; Bearinger, Jane P.

    2015-06-09

    New shape memory polymer compositions, methods for synthesizing new shape memory polymers, and apparatus comprising an actuator and a shape memory polymer wherein the shape memory polymer comprises at least a portion of the actuator. A shape memory polymer comprising a polymer composition which physically forms a network structure wherein the polymer composition has shape-memory behavior and can be formed into a permanent primary shape, re-formed into a stable secondary shape, and controllably actuated to recover the permanent primary shape. Polymers have optimal aliphatic network structures due to minimization of dangling chains by using monomers that are symmetrical and that have matching amine and hydroxyl groups providing polymers and polymer foams with clarity, tight (narrow temperature range) single transitions, and high shape recovery and recovery force that are especially useful for implanting in the human body.

  18. Random Access Memory Technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-02-01

    extreme temperatures. True nonvolatility is offered by the NVRAM or shadow RAM. In the NVRAM , a volatile NMOS static RAM memory cell is merged with the...or reapplied, and no longer require special power sources. The size of the nine-device memory cell required for the NVRAM has limited its capacity to...4K. While 8K NVRAMs are expected in 1985, the 30 . . .’o .-. . high cost of these devices will hamper further development for larger capacity memories

  19. Ginseng and Memory

    OpenAIRE

    Shergill, Amandeep

    1998-01-01

    For thousands of years, Chinese medicine has used the herb ginseng as a memory tonic with the belief that ginseng can improve learning and memory, especially in aging humans. Recent studies have sought to validate this claim. Experiments done on rats have shown that ginsenosides, the saponins of ginseng, can partially prevent scopolamine-induced memory deficits in rats. Ginsenosides are thought to increase choline uptake in the central cholinergic nervous system, which plays important roles i...

  20. Music, memory and emotion

    OpenAIRE

    Jäncke, Lutz

    2008-01-01

    Because emotions enhance memory processes and music evokes strong emotions, music could be involved in forming memories, either about pieces of music or about episodes and information associated with particular music. A recent study in BMC Neuroscience has given new insights into the role of emotion in musical memory. Music has a prominent role in the everyday life of many people. Whether it is for recreation, distraction or mood enhancement, a lot of people listen to music from early in t...

  1. The Cosmological Memory Effect

    OpenAIRE

    Tolish, Alexander; Wald, Robert M.

    2016-01-01

    The "memory effect" is the permanent change in the relative separation of test particles resulting from the passage of gravitational radiation. We investigate the memory effect for a general, spatially flat FLRW cosmology by considering the radiation associated with emission events involving particle-like sources. We find that if the resulting perturbation is decomposed into scalar, vector, and tensor parts, only the tensor part contributes to memory. Furthermore, the tensor contribution to m...

  2. Emotion and Autobiographical Memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuray Sarp

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Self and mind are constituted with the cumulative effects of significant life events. This description is regarded as a given explicitly or implicitly in vari-ous theories of personality. Such an acknowledgment inevitably brings together these theories on two basic concepts. The first one is the emotions that give meaning to experiences and the second one is the memory which is related to the storage of these experiences. The part of the memory which is responsible for the storage and retrieval of life events is the autobiographical memory. Besides the development of personality, emotions and autobiographical memory are important in the development of and maintenance of psychopathology. Therefore, these two concepts have both longitudinal and cross-sectional functions in understanding human beings. In case of psychopathology, understanding emotions and autobiographical memory developmentally, aids in understanding the internal susceptibility factors. In addition, understanding how these two structures work and influence each other in an acute event would help to understand the etiological mechanisms of mental disorders. In the literature, theories that include both of these structures and that have clinical implications, are inconclusive. Theories on memory generally focus on cognitive and semantic structures while neglecting emotions, whereas theories on emotions generally neglect memory and its organization. There are only a few theories that cover both of these two concepts. In the present article, these theories that include both emotions and autobiographical memory in the same framework (i.e. Self Memory System, Associative Network Theory, Structural and Contextual theories and Affect Regulation Theory were discussed to see the full picture. Taken together, these theories seem to have the potential to suggest data-driven models in understanding and explaining symptoms such as flashbacks, dissociation, amnesia, over general memory seen in

  3. Memories of art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirstein, William

    2013-04-01

    Although the art-historical context of a work of art is important to our appreciation of it, it is our knowledge of that history that plays causal roles in producing the experience itself. This knowledge is in the form of memories, both semantic memories about the historical circumstances, but also episodic memories concerning our personal connections with an artwork. We also create representations of minds in order to understand the emotions that artworks express.

  4. Phase change memory

    CERN Document Server

    Qureshi, Moinuddin K

    2011-01-01

    As conventional memory technologies such as DRAM and Flash run into scaling challenges, architects and system designers are forced to look at alternative technologies for building future computer systems. This synthesis lecture begins by listing the requirements for a next generation memory technology and briefly surveys the landscape of novel non-volatile memories. Among these, Phase Change Memory (PCM) is emerging as a leading contender, and the authors discuss the material, device, and circuit advances underlying this exciting technology. The lecture then describes architectural solutions t

  5. Memories Persist in Silence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Patricia Arenas Grisales

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This article exposes the hypothesis that memory artifacts, created to commemorate the victims of armed conflict in Colombia, are an expression of the underground memories and a way of political action in the midst of war. We analyze three cases of creations of memory artifacts in Medellín, Colombia, as forms of suffering, perceiving and resisting the power of armed groups in Medellín. The silence, inherent in these objects, should not be treated as an absence of language, but as another form of expression of memory. Silence is a tactic used to overcome losses and reset everyday life in contexts of protracted violence.

  6. The future of memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinella, M.

    In the not too distant future, the traditional memory and storage hierarchy of may be replaced by a single Storage Class Memory (SCM) device integrated on or near the logic processor. Traditional magnetic hard drives, NAND flash, DRAM, and higher level caches (L2 and up) will be replaced with a single high performance memory device. The Storage Class Memory paradigm will require high speed ( 1012), nonvolatility (retention > 10 years), and low switching energies (Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors (ITRS) has recently evaluated several potential candidates SCM technologies, including Resistive (or Redox) RAM, Spin Torque Transfer RAM (STT-MRAM), and phase change memory (PCM). All of these devices show potential well beyond that of current flash technologies and research efforts are underway to improve the endurance, write speeds, and scalabilities to be on-par with DRAM. This progress has interesting implications for space electronics: each of these emerging device technologies show excellent resistance to the types of radiation typically found in space applications. Commercially developed, high density storage class memory-based systems may include a memory that is physically radiation hard, and suitable for space applications without major shielding efforts. This paper reviews the Storage Class Memory concept, emerging memory devices, and possible applicability to radiation hardened electronics for space.

  7. A Study on Associative Neural Memories

    OpenAIRE

    B.D.C.N.Prasad; P. E. S. N. Krishna Prasad; Sagar Yeruva; P Sita Rama Murty

    2011-01-01

    Memory plays a major role in Artificial Neural Networks. Without memory, Neural Network can not be learned itself. One of the primary concepts of memory in neural networks is Associative neural memories. A survey has been made on associative neural memories such as Simple associative memories (SAM), Dynamic associative memories (DAM), Bidirectional Associative memories (BAM), Hopfield memories, Context Sensitive Auto-associative memories (CSAM) and so on. These memories can be applied in vari...

  8. [Memory disorders in schizophrenia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danion, J M; Peretti, S; Gras-Vincendon, A; Singer, L

    1992-01-01

    The current interest in memory disorders in schizophrenia results from the way perceptions of schizophrenia--whose organic origin is becoming increasingly evident--and memory--according to which there exist not one, but several memories--have developed. Memory disorders in the schizophrenic cannot be considered in isolation from knowledge accumulated in other areas of the cognitive and neuro-sciences; a more detailed understanding of these disorders requires a comparison of the different cognitive approaches, both with each other and with the neurobiological and clinical approaches, so that they can be integrated. Despite numerous methodological and conceptual difficulties, it now appears to have been established that the schizophrenic's memory deficit should be seen in the context of a wider cognitive deficit, that the memory tasks are not all disturbed and that the memory deficit cannot be identified with one specific form of memory. Thus, iconic formation, short-term memory in the traditionally accepted sense and implicit memory are hardly, if at all, affected; in contrast, the early processing of information, working memory and explicit memory are disturbed, probably to the extent that they require the implementation of strategies to organise the information to be memorized. Finally, in certain tasks, such as those evaluating latent inhibition or negative priming, schizophrenics perform better than normal subjects, suggesting that schizophrenics' cognitive deficit is localised. This profile of memory disorders is compatible with a dysfunction predominating in the frontal and temporo-hippocampal regions. Neuroleptics and anticholinergics have opposite effects on cognitive and mnesic performance, which is improved by the former and aggravated by the latter. The influence of clinical symptoms, positive or negative, institutionalisation of patients and chronic tardive dyskinesia is unclear. Among the theoretical proposals put forward to account for the observed

  9. [Repeated measurement of memory with valenced test items: verbal memory, working memory and autobiographic memory].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuffel, A; Terfehr, K; Uhlmann, C; Schreiner, J; Löwe, B; Spitzer, C; Wingenfeld, K

    2013-07-01

    A large number of questions in clinical and/or experimental neuropsychology require the multiple repetition of memory tests at relatively short intervals. Studies on the impact of the associated exercise and interference effects on the validity of the test results are rare. Moreover, hardly any neuropsychological instruments exist to date to record the memory performance with several parallel versions in which the emotional valence of the test material is also taken into consideration. The aim of the present study was to test whether a working memory test (WST, a digit-span task with neutral or negative distraction stimuli) devised by our workgroup can be used with repeated measurements. This question was also examined in parallel versions of a wordlist learning paradigm and an autobiographical memory test (AMT). Both tests contained stimuli with neutral, positive and negative valence. Twenty-four participants completed the memory testing including the working memory test and three versions of a wordlist and the AMT at intervals of a week apiece (measuring points 1. - 3.). The results reveal consistent performances across the three measuring points in the working and autobiographical memory test. The valence of the stimulus material did not influence the memory performance. In the delayed recall of the wordlist an improvement in memory performance over time was seen. The tests on working memory presented and the parallel versions for the declarative and autobiographical memory constitute informal economic instruments within the scope of the measurement repeatability designs. While the WST and AMT are appropriate for study designs with repeated measurements at relatively short intervals, longer intervals might seem more favourable for the use of wordlist learning paradigms. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  10. Working memory and fluid intelligence

    OpenAIRE

    Engel de Abreu, Pascale; Gathercole; Conway, A.

    2009-01-01

    The present study investigates how working memory and fluid intelligence are related in young children and which aspect of working memory span tasks– short-term storage or controlled attention - might drive the relationship. A sample of 119 children were followed from kindergarten to 2nd grade and completed assessments of working memory, short-term memory, and fluid intelligence. The data showed that working memory, verbal short-term memory, and fluid intelligence were highly related but sepa...

  11. Human memory search

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Davelaar, E.J.; Raaijmakers, J.G.W.; Hills, T.T.; Robbins, T.W.; Todd, P.M.

    2012-01-01

    The importance of understanding human memory search is hard to exaggerate: we build and live our lives based on what whe remember. This chapter explores the characteristics of memory search, with special emphasis on the use of retrieval cues. We introduce the dependent measures that are obtained

  12. Human Memory: The Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Michael E.

    2010-01-01

    The human mind has two types of memory: short-term and long-term. In all types of learning, it is best to use that structure rather than to fight against it. One way to do that is to ensure that learners can fit new information into patterns that can be stored in and more easily retrieved from long-term memory.

  13. Bipolar spectral associative memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, R G

    2001-01-01

    Nonlinear spectral associative memories are proposed as quantized frequency domain formulations of nonlinear, recurrent associative memories in which volatile network attractors are instantiated by attractor waves. In contrast to conventional associative memories, attractors encoded in the frequency domain by convolution may be viewed as volatile online inputs, rather than nonvolatile, off-line parameters. Spectral memories hold several advantages over conventional associative memories, including decoder/attractor separability and linear scalability, which make them especially well suited for digital communications. Bit patterns may be transmitted over a noisy channel in a spectral attractor and recovered at the receiver by recurrent, spectral decoding. Massive nonlocal connectivity is realized virtually, maintaining high symbol-to-bit ratios while scaling linearly with pattern dimension. For n-bit patterns, autoassociative memories achieve the highest noise immunity, whereas heteroassociative memories offer the added flexibility of achieving various code rates, or degrees of extrinsic redundancy. Due to linear scalability, high noise immunity and use of conventional building blocks, spectral associative memories hold much promise for achieving robust communication systems. Simulations are provided showing bit error rates for various degrees of decoding time, computational oversampling, and signal-to-noise ratio.

  14. Tracing Cultural Memory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiegand, Frauke Katharina

    to Soweto’s Regina Mundi Church, this thesis analyses tourists’ snapshots at sites of memory and outlines their tracing activity in cultural memory. It draws on central concepts of actor - network theory and visual culture studies for a cross - disciplinary methodology to comprehend the collective...

  15. [Learning and memory].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombroso, Paul

    2004-09-01

    Memory is broadly divided into declarative and nondeclarative forms of memory. The hippocampus is required for the formation of declarative memories, while a number of other brain regions including the striatum, amygdala and nucleus accumbens are involved in the formation of nondeclarative memories. The formation of all memories require morphological changes of synapses: new ones must be formed or old ones strengthened. These changes are thought to reflect the underlying cellular basis for persistent memories. Considerable advances have occurred over the last decade in our understanding of the molecular bases of how these memories are formed. A key regulator of synaptic plasticity is a signaling pathway that includes the mitogen activated protein (MAP) kinase. As this pathway is required for normal memory and learning, it is not surprising that mutations in members of this pathway lead to disruptions in learning. Neurofibromatosis, Coffin-Lowry syndrome and Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome are three examples of developmental disorders that have mutations in key components of the MAP kinase signaling pathway.

  16. Memories of Physical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidwell, Amy M.; Walls, Richard T.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to explore college students' autobiographical memories of physical education (PE). Questionnaires were distributed to students enrolled in undergraduate Introduction to PE and Introduction to Communications courses. The 261 participants wrote about memories of PE. These students recalled events from Grades…

  17. A Space for Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charman, Karen

    2015-01-01

    In this article I examine the possibilities of reparation in an era of privatisation and de-industrialisation. I examine the effect of a recent project Sunshine Memory Space, a space, designed to evoke memories of a de-industrialised urban Melbourne suburb Sunshine. This project offered the opportunity for the effects of industrial change to be…

  18. Human Memory: The Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Michael E.

    2010-01-01

    The human mind has two types of memory: short-term and long-term. In all types of learning, it is best to use that structure rather than to fight against it. One way to do that is to ensure that learners can fit new information into patterns that can be stored in and more easily retrieved from long-term memory.

  19. LSTM with Working Memory

    OpenAIRE

    Pulver, Andrew; Lyu, Siwei

    2016-01-01

    LSTM is arguably the most successful RNN architecture for many tasks that involve sequential information. In the past few years there have been several proposed improvements to LSTM. We propose an improvement to LSTM which allows communication between memory cells in different blocks and allows an LSTM layer to carry out internal computation within its memory.

  20. Predicting Reasoning from Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heit, Evan; Hayes, Brett K.

    2011-01-01

    In an effort to assess the relations between reasoning and memory, in 8 experiments, the authors examined how well responses on an inductive reasoning task are predicted from responses on a recognition memory task for the same picture stimuli. Across several experimental manipulations, such as varying study time, presentation frequency, and the…

  1. An Exceptional Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Ian M. L.

    1977-01-01

    An account is given of the exceptional memory of the late Professor A. C. Aitken who was also a distinguished mathematician and mental calculator. Compared with Shereshevskii, another man with exceptional memory, he shows the scholar's reliance on conceptual mapping rather than the mnemonist's reliance on perceptual chaining. (Editor)

  2. Visual Memory at Birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slater, Alan; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Explored new-born babys' capacity for forming visual memories. Used an habituation procedure that accommodated individual differences by allowing each infant to control the time course of habituation trials. Found significant novelty preference, providing strong evidence that recognition memory can be reliably demonstrated from birth. (Author/JAC)

  3. Human Learning and Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieberman, David A.

    2012-01-01

    This innovative textbook is the first to integrate learning and memory, behaviour, and cognition. It focuses on fascinating human research in both memory and learning (while also bringing in important animal studies) and brings the reader up to date with the latest developments in the subject. Students are encouraged to think critically: key…

  4. Animal models of source memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crystal, Jonathon D

    2016-01-01

    Source memory is the aspect of episodic memory that encodes the origin (i.e., source) of information acquired in the past. Episodic memory (i.e., our memories for unique personal past events) typically involves source memory because those memories focus on the origin of previous events. Source memory is at work when, for example, someone tells a favorite joke to a person while avoiding retelling the joke to the friend who originally shared the joke. Importantly, source memory permits differentiation of one episodic memory from another because source memory includes features that were present when the different memories were formed. This article reviews recent efforts to develop an animal model of source memory using rats. Experiments are reviewed which suggest that source memory is dissociated from other forms of memory. The review highlights strengths and weaknesses of a number of animal models of episodic memory. Animal models of source memory may be used to probe the biological bases of memory. Moreover, these models can be combined with genetic models of Alzheimer's disease to evaluate pharmacotherapies that ultimately have the potential to improve memory.

  5. Memory: Pandora's hippocampus?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabrieli, John D E

    2004-01-01

    Greater knowledge of the human brain has enabled us to begin devising therapies to rescue or modify memory for the afflicted, such as Alzheimer's patients or post-traumatic stress disorder victims. This same knowledge could also allow us to alter how normal, healthy memory operates; we may become able to enhance memory and learning through biological intervention. But the brain consists of complex, interactive networks, and unintended consequences could easily occur. Moreover, memory is woven into our individuality. Altering our memory processes therefore risks altering us fundamentally. We may not be able to resist opening this neuroscientific Pandora's Box, John Gabrieli writes, but we must proceed with all the wisdom we can muster.

  6. Schemas and memory consolidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tse, Dorothy; Langston, Rosamund F; Kakeyama, Masaki; Bethus, Ingrid; Spooner, Patrick A; Wood, Emma R; Witter, Menno P; Morris, Richard G M

    2007-04-01

    Memory encoding occurs rapidly, but the consolidation of memory in the neocortex has long been held to be a more gradual process. We now report, however, that systems consolidation can occur extremely quickly if an associative "schema" into which new information is incorporated has previously been created. In experiments using a hippocampal-dependent paired-associate task for rats, the memory of flavor-place associations became persistent over time as a putative neocortical schema gradually developed. New traces, trained for only one trial, then became assimilated and rapidly hippocampal-independent. Schemas also played a causal role in the creation of lasting associative memory representations during one-trial learning. The concept of neocortical schemas may unite psychological accounts of knowledge structures with neurobiological theories of systems memory consolidation.

  7. Making memories matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul E. Gold

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews some of the neuroendocrine bases by which emotional events regulate brain mechanisms of learning and memory. In laboratory rodents, there is extensive evidence that epinephrine influences memory processing through an inverted-U relationship, at which moderate levels enhance and high levels impair memory. These effects are, in large part, mediated by increases in blood glucose levels subsequent to epinephrine release, which then provide support for the brain processes engaged by learning and memory. These brain processes include augmentation of neurotransmitter release and of energy metabolism, the latter apparently including a key role for astrocytic glycogen. In addition to up- and down-regulation of learning and memory in general, physiological concomitants of emotion and arousal can also switch the neural system that controls learning at a particular time, at once improving some attributes of learning and impairing others in a manner that results in a change in the strategy used to solve a problem.

  8. Cosmological memory effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolish, Alexander; Wald, Robert M.

    2016-08-01

    The "memory effect" is the permanent change in the relative separation of test particles resulting from the passage of gravitational radiation. We investigate the memory effect for a general, spatially flat Friedmann-Lemaître-Robertson-Walker (FLRW) cosmology by considering the radiation associated with emission events involving particle-like sources. We find that if the resulting perturbation is decomposed into scalar, vector, and tensor parts, only the tensor part contributes to memory. Furthermore, the tensor contribution to memory depends only on the cosmological scale factor at the source and observation events, not on the detailed expansion history of the universe. In particular, for sources at the same luminosity distance, the memory effect in a spatially flat FLRW spacetime is enhanced over the Minkowski case by a factor of (1 +z ).

  9. The Cosmological Memory Effect

    CERN Document Server

    Tolish, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    The "memory effect" is the permanent change in the relative separation of test particles resulting from the passage of gravitational radiation. We investigate the memory effect for a general, spatially flat FLRW cosmology by considering the radiation associated with emission events involving particle-like sources. We find that if the resulting perturbation is decomposed into scalar, vector, and tensor parts, only the tensor part contributes to memory. Furthermore, the tensor contribution to memory depends only on the cosmological scale factor at the source and observation events, not on the detailed expansion history of the universe. In particular, for sources at the same luminosity distance, the memory effect in a spatially flat FLRW spacetime is enhanced over the Minkowski case by a factor of $(1 + z)$.

  10. Innate Memory T cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jameson, Stephen C.; Lee, You Jeong; Hogquist, Kristin A.

    2015-01-01

    Memory T cells are usually considered to be a feature of a successful immune response against a foreign antigen, and such cells can mediate potent immunity. However, in mice, alternative pathways have been described, through which naïve T cells can acquire the characteristics and functions of memory T cells without encountering specific foreign antigen or the typical signals required for conventional T cell differentiation. Such cells reflect a response to the internal rather the external environment, and hence such cells are called innate memory T cells. In this review, we describe how innate memory subsets were identified, the signals that induce their generation and their functional properties and potential role in the normal immune response. The existence of innate memory T cells in mice raises questions about whether parallel populations exist in humans, and we discuss the evidence for such populations during human T cell development and differentiation. PMID:25727290

  11. Russell on Memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Baldwin

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Russell famously propounded scepticism about memory in The Analysis of Mind (1921. As he there acknowledged, one way to counter this sceptical position is to hold that memory involves direct acquaintance with past, and this is in fact a thesis Russell had advanced in The Problems of Philosophy (1911. Indeed he had there used the case of memory to develop a sophisticated falibilist, non-sceptical, epistemology. By 1921, however, Russell had rejected the early conception of memory as incompatible with the neutral monism he now affirmed. In its place he argued that memory involves a distinctive type of belief whose content is given by imagery. Russell's language here is off-putting but without much distortion his later position can be interpreted as an early formulation of a functionalist theory of mind based on a causal theory of mental representation. Thus interpreted it provides the basis for a different response to Russell's sceptical thesis.

  12. Serotonin transporter and memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meneses, Alfredo; Perez-Garcia, Georgina; Ponce-Lopez, Teresa; Tellez, Ruth; Castillo, Carlos

    2011-09-01

    The serotonin transporter (SERT) has been associated to diverse functions and diseases, though seldom to memory. Therefore, we made an attempt to summarize and discuss the available publications implicating the involvement of the SERT in memory, amnesia and anti-amnesic effects. Evidence indicates that Alzheimer's disease and drugs of abuse like d-methamphetamine (METH) and (+/-)3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, "ecstasy") have been associated to decrements in the SERT expression and memory deficits. Several reports have indicated that memory formation and amnesia affected the SERT expression. The SERT expression seems to be a reliable neural marker related to memory mechanisms, its alterations and potential treatment. The pharmacological, neural and molecular mechanisms associated to these changes are of great importance for investigation.

  13. Emergence of collective memories

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Sungmin; Holme, Petter

    2010-01-01

    We understand the dynamics of the world around us as by associating pairs of events, where one event has some influence on the other. These pairs of events can be aggregated into a web of memories representing our understanding of an episode of history. The events and the associations between them need not be directly experienced-they can also be acquired by communication. In this paper we take a network approach to study the dynamics of memories of history. First we investigate the network structure of a data set consisting of reported events by several individuals and how associations connect them. We focus our measurement on degree distributions, degree correlations, cycles (which represent inconsistencies as they would break the time ordering) and community structure. We proceed to model effects of communication using an agent-based model. We investigate the conditions for the memory webs of different individuals to converge to collective memories, how groups where the individuals have similar memories (b...

  14. Conflict and memory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagoner, Brady; Brescó, Ignacio

    2016-01-01

    This introduction to the special issue on conflict and memory aims to underscore the importance of memory (whether individual and collective) in relation to intergroup conflicts. We argue that the way in which societies reconstruct and bring the past into the present—especially, the historical past......—is crucial when it comes to the study of intergroup conflict dynamics. In this regard, we also highlight the growing importance of memory studies within the area of social sciences as well as the multiple ways of approaching memory. Drawing from this wide theoretical framework, we introduce the articles...... of this issue, eight articles that tackle the role of memory in different conflicts, whether currently under way, in progress of being resolved, in postwar settings, or in contexts conflicts expected to happen do not arise....

  15. Emerging non-volatile memories

    CERN Document Server

    Hong, Seungbum; Wouters, Dirk

    2014-01-01

    This book is an introduction to the fundamentals of emerging non-volatile memories and provides an overview of future trends in the field. Readers will find coverage of seven important memory technologies, including Ferroelectric Random Access Memory (FeRAM), Ferromagnetic RAM (FMRAM), Multiferroic RAM (MFRAM), Phase-Change Memories (PCM), Oxide-based Resistive RAM (RRAM), Probe Storage, and Polymer Memories. Chapters are structured to reflect diffusions and clashes between different topics. Emerging Non-Volatile Memories is an ideal book for graduate students, faculty, and professionals working in the area of non-volatile memory. This book also: Covers key memory technologies, including Ferroelectric Random Access Memory (FeRAM), Ferromagnetic RAM (FMRAM), and Multiferroic RAM (MFRAM), among others. Provides an overview of non-volatile memory fundamentals. Broadens readers' understanding of future trends in non-volatile memories.

  16. Acceleration-induced nonlocality: kinetic memory versus dynamic memory

    OpenAIRE

    Chicone, C.; Mashhoon, B.

    2001-01-01

    The characteristics of the memory of accelerated motion in Minkowski spacetime are discussed within the framework of the nonlocal theory of accelerated observers. Two types of memory are distinguished: kinetic and dynamic. We show that only kinetic memory is acceptable, since dynamic memory leads to divergences for nonuniform accelerated motion.

  17. Aging Memories: Differential Decay of Episodic Memory Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talamini, Lucia M.; Gorree, Eva

    2012-01-01

    Some memories about events can persist for decades, even a lifetime. However, recent memories incorporate rich sensory information, including knowledge on the spatial and temporal ordering of event features, while old memories typically lack this "filmic" quality. We suggest that this apparent change in the nature of memories may reflect a…

  18. Associative working memory and subsequent episodic memory in Alzheimer's disease.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geldorp, B. van; Konings, E.P.; Tilborg, I.A. Van; Kessels, R.P.C.

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies indicate deficits in associative working memory in patients with medial-temporal lobe amnesia. However, it is unclear whether these deficits reflect working memory processing or are due to hippocampally mediated long-term memory impairment. We investigated associative working memory

  19. Associative working memory and subsequent episodic memory in Alzheimer's disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geldorp, B. van; Konings, E.P.C.; Tilborg, I.A.D.A. van; Kessels, R.P.C.

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies indicate deficits in associative working memory in patients with medial-temporal lobe amnesia. However, it is unclear whether these deficits reflect working memory processing or are due to hippocampally mediated long-term memory impairment. We investigated associative working memory

  20. Recurrent correlation associative memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiueh, T D; Goodman, R M

    1991-01-01

    A model for a class of high-capacity associative memories is presented. Since they are based on two-layer recurrent neural networks and their operations depend on the correlation measure, these associative memories are called recurrent correlation associative memories (RCAMs). The RCAMs are shown to be asymptotically stable in both synchronous and asynchronous (sequential) update modes as long as their weighting functions are continuous and monotone nondecreasing. In particular, a high-capacity RCAM named the exponential correlation associative memory (ECAM) is proposed. The asymptotic storage capacity of the ECAM scales exponentially with the length of memory patterns, and it meets the ultimate upper bound for the capacity of associative memories. The asymptotic storage capacity of the ECAM with limited dynamic range in its exponentiation nodes is found to be proportional to that dynamic range. Design and fabrication of a 3-mm CMOS ECAM chip is reported. The prototype chip can store 32 24-bit memory patterns, and its speed is higher than one associative recall operation every 3 mus. An application of the ECAM chip to vector quantization is also described.

  1. European Union of Memories?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wæhrens, Anne

    After a very brief introduction to history and memory in Europe after 1989, as seen by Aleida Assmann, I will give a short introduction to the EP and to their adoption of resolutions and declarations. Then I will define some concepts central to my study before I proceed to the analysis. Finally I...... these changes have come about. Moreover, I show that there seems to be a political memory split between Left and Right and I suggest that the time might not be ripe for a shared European memory....

  2. Extended associative memories

    OpenAIRE

    J.H Sossa Azuela; R. Barrón Fernández

    2007-01-01

    The #945; #946; associative memories recently developed in Ref 10 have proven to be powerful tools for memorizing and recalling patterns when they appear distorted by noise. However they are only useful in the binary case. In this paper we show that it is possible to extend these memories now to the gray-level case. To get the desired extension, we take the original operators #945; and #946;, foundation of the #945; #946; memories, and propose a more general family of operators. We find t...

  3. Maximum Likelihood Associative Memories

    OpenAIRE

    Gripon, Vincent; Rabbat, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Associative memories are structures that store data in such a way that it can later be retrieved given only a part of its content -- a sort-of error/erasure-resilience property. They are used in applications ranging from caches and memory management in CPUs to database engines. In this work we study associative memories built on the maximum likelihood principle. We derive minimum residual error rates when the data stored comes from a uniform binary source. Second, we determine the minimum amo...

  4. History, Memory and Film

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bondebjerg, Ib

    In this paper I discuss history and memory from a theoretical and philosophical point of view and the non-fiction and fiction aspects of historical representation. I use Edgar Reitz’ monumental work Heimat 1-3 (and his recent film Die Andere Heimat) as examples of very different transformative...... historical narratives. In terms of narrative construction and aesthetic form the Heimat-project challenges the dominant forms of historical fiction. By combining personal memory, everyday life and collective memory and a more indirect way of representing factual history Reitz wants to transform our look...

  5. New gravitational memories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pasterski, Sabrina; Strominger, Andrew; Zhiboedov, Alexander [Center for the Fundamental Laws of Nature, Harvard University,Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2016-12-14

    The conventional gravitational memory effect is a relative displacement in the position of two detectors induced by radiative energy flux. We find a new type of gravitational ‘spin memory’ in which beams on clockwise and counterclockwise orbits acquire a relative delay induced by radiative angular momentum flux. It has recently been shown that the displacement memory formula is a Fourier transform in time of Weinberg’s soft graviton theorem. Here we see that the spin memory formula is a Fourier transform in time of the recently-discovered subleading soft graviton theorem.

  6. Memory-based logic synthesis

    CERN Document Server

    Sasao, Tsutomu

    2011-01-01

    This book describes the synthesis of logic functions using memories. It is useful to design field programmable gate arrays (FPGAs) that contain both small-scale memories, called look-up tables (LUTs), and medium-scale memories, called embedded memories. This is a valuable reference for both FPGA system designers and CAD tool developers, concerned with logic synthesis for FPGAs.

  7. Context memory in Alzheimer's disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    El Haj, M.; Kessels, R.P.C.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disease characterized by a gradual loss of memory. Specifically, context aspects of memory are impaired in AD. Our review sheds light on the neurocognitive mechanisms of this memory component that forms the core of episodic memory function.

  8. Reduced False Memory after Sleep

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenn, Kimberly M.; Gallo, David A.; Margoliash, Daniel; Roediger, Henry L., III; Nusbaum, Howard C.

    2009-01-01

    Several studies have shown that sleep contributes to the successful maintenance of previously encoded information. This research has focused exclusively on memory for studied events, as opposed to false memories. Here we report three experiments showing that sleep reduces false memories in the Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) memory illusion. False…

  9. Context memory in Alzheimer's disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    El Haj, M.; Kessels, R.P.C.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disease characterized by a gradual loss of memory. Specifically, context aspects of memory are impaired in AD. Our review sheds light on the neurocognitive mechanisms of this memory component that forms the core of episodic memory function.

  10. Evolution of working memory

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Peter Carruthers

    2013-01-01

    Working memory (WM) is fundamental to many aspects of human life, including learning, speech and text comprehension, prospection and future planning, and explicit "system 2" forms of reasoning, as well as overlapping...

  11. Conglomerate memory and cosmopolitanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susannah Ryan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Under what conditions do countries and cultures considered radically different find a basis for allegiance and kinship? What part does memory play in this process? This article responds to these questions in two ways: 1 Through Emmanuel Levinas and Hannah Arendt, I propose that when an other appears in empathetic discourses that both honor difference and cite shared human experiences, seemingly irreconcilable people can develop a sense of mutual responsibility and 2 Conglomerate memory, memories that fuse together others through common pains, contributes to such an appearance. To illustrate this point, I turn to Congolese voices as they are articulated in online American discourses; although currently, authors of online texts typically rely on traditional narrative forms that position Central Africa as incommensurate to Western civilizations, the Internet's worldwide accessibility and intertextual capacities render it a place primed for developing international collectives by connecting memories while maintaining difference.

  12. The Rational Memory

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1903-01-01

    FEW could read this useful little book of 115 pages without benefit. The author does not claim originality, but has selected the principles and facts of recognised importance from other works on memory...

  13. Modelling Immunological Memory

    CERN Document Server

    Garret, Simon; Walker, Joanne; Wilson, William; Aickelin, Uwe

    2010-01-01

    Accurate immunological models offer the possibility of performing highthroughput experiments in silico that can predict, or at least suggest, in vivo phenomena. In this chapter, we compare various models of immunological memory. We first validate an experimental immunological simulator, developed by the authors, by simulating several theories of immunological memory with known results. We then use the same system to evaluate the predicted effects of a theory of immunological memory. The resulting model has not been explored before in artificial immune systems research, and we compare the simulated in silico output with in vivo measurements. Although the theory appears valid, we suggest that there are a common set of reasons why immunological memory models are a useful support tool; not conclusive in themselves.

  14. Islamic Myths and Memories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    and globalization and to the study of the place of the mass media in the contemporary Islamic resurgence. It explores the annulment of spatial and temporal distance by globalization and by the communications revolution underlying it, and how this has affected the cherished myths and memories of the Muslim community......Islamic myths and collective memory are very much alive in today’s localized struggles for identity, and are deployed in the ongoing construction of worldwide cultural networks. This book brings the theoretical perspectives of myth-making and collective memory to the study of Islam....... It shows how contemporary Islamic thinkers and movements respond to the challenges of globalization by preserving, reviving, reshaping, or transforming myths and memories....

  15. Serriform Strip Crosstie Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    edge effect of the margin serrations upon magnetization, a form of shape anisotropy, inherently defines memory cell boundaries in the domain walls, thereby giving the crossties and Bloch lines preferred locations and allowing the use of a simplified propagation

  16. Memory mass storage

    CERN Document Server

    Campardo, Giovanni; Iaculo, Massimo

    2011-01-01

    Covering all the fundamental storage technologies such as semiconductor, magnetic, optical and uncommon, this volume details their core characteristics. In addition, it includes an overview of the 'biological memory' of the human brain and its organization.

  17. Just a Memory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    While Beijing accelerates its modernization drive,it needs to retain its city culture before the ancient parts of the capital are only seen in photographs and live on only in the memories of residents

  18. Magnetic vortex racetrack memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Liwei D.; Jin, Yongmei M.

    2017-02-01

    We report a new type of racetrack memory based on current-controlled movement of magnetic vortices in magnetic nanowires with rectangular cross-section and weak perpendicular anisotropy. Data are stored through the core polarity of vortices and each vortex carries a data bit. Besides high density, non-volatility, fast data access, and low power as offered by domain wall racetrack memory, magnetic vortex racetrack memory has additional advantages of no need for constrictions to define data bits, changeable information density, adjustable current magnitude for data propagation, and versatile means of ultrafast vortex core switching. By using micromagnetic simulations, current-controlled motion of magnetic vortices in cobalt nanowire is demonstrated for racetrack memory applications.

  19. Multiresonator quantum memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moiseev, S. A.; Gubaidullin, F. F.; Kirillov, R. S.; Latypov, R. R.; Perminov, N. S.; Petrovnin, K. V.; Sherstyukov, O. N.

    2017-01-01

    In this paper we present universal broadband multiresonator quantum memory based on the spatial-frequency combs of the microresonators coupled with a common waveguide. We find a Bragg-type impedance matching condition for the coupling of the microresonators with a waveguide field that provides an efficient broadband quantum storage. The analytical solution obtained for the microresonator fields enables sustainable parametric control of all the memory characteristics. We also construct an experimental prototype of the studied quantum memory in the microwave spectral range that demonstrates basic properties of the microwave microresonators, their coupling with a common waveguide, and independent control of the microresonator frequencies. Experimentally observed narrow lines of the microresonators confirm the possibility of multiresonator quantum memory implementation.

  20. Memory Circuit Fault Simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheldon, Douglas J.; McClure, Tucker

    2013-01-01

    Spacecraft are known to experience significant memory part-related failures and problems, both pre- and postlaunch. These memory parts include both static and dynamic memories (SRAM and DRAM). These failures manifest themselves in a variety of ways, such as pattern-sensitive failures, timingsensitive failures, etc. Because of the mission critical nature memory devices play in spacecraft architecture and operation, understanding their failure modes is vital to successful mission operation. To support this need, a generic simulation tool that can model different data patterns in conjunction with variable write and read conditions was developed. This tool is a mathematical and graphical way to embed pattern, electrical, and physical information to perform what-if analysis as part of a root cause failure analysis effort.

  1. Memory training with senior citizens

    OpenAIRE

    CHOVANCOVÁ, Lenka

    2014-01-01

    This is a theoretical work. It deals with the topics of senior citizens and the aging process in an abbreviated conception, periodization of old age, and active life of seniors. It describes forms of social work with seniors in medical facilities, home environments and communities, and in old people's homes. Further, it describes memory: its definition, types of memory, memory loss, reasons why people forget, work with memory and advice on memory improvement from the medical point of view. Th...

  2. Memory, Conviviality and Coexistence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duru, Deniz Neriman

    2016-01-01

    The article explores the narratives and memories of past diversity and current practices of conviviality to investigate how class, lifestyle and tastes affect the daily interactions between people belonging to different ethno-religious backgrounds. This chapter critiques ‘coexistence’ as a concep......’ emphasize the fragmentation of people into ethnic and religious groups as a consequence of the homogenization process in the post-Ottoman Turkish context, bitter sweet memories of conviviality create a sense of belonging to Burgaz....

  3. Computational principles of memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhuri, Rishidev; Fiete, Ila

    2016-03-01

    The ability to store and later use information is essential for a variety of adaptive behaviors, including integration, learning, generalization, prediction and inference. In this Review, we survey theoretical principles that can allow the brain to construct persistent states for memory. We identify requirements that a memory system must satisfy and analyze existing models and hypothesized biological substrates in light of these requirements. We also highlight open questions, theoretical puzzles and problems shared with computer science and information theory.

  4. Photonic crystal optical memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, A. Wirth; Sombra, A. S. B.

    2011-06-01

    After several decades pushing the technology and the development of the world, the electronics is giving space for technologies that use light. We propose and analyze an optical memory embedded in a nonlinear photonic crystal (PhC), whose system of writing and reading data is controlled by an external command signal. This optical memory is based on optical directional couplers connected to a shared optical ring. Such a device can work over the C-Band of ITU (International Telecommunication Union).

  5. Epigenetic memory in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwasaki, Mayumi; Paszkowski, Jerzy

    2014-09-17

    Epigenetics refers to heritable changes in patterns of gene expression that occur without alterations in DNA sequence. The epigenetic mechanisms involve covalent modifications of DNA and histones, which affect transcriptional activity of chromatin. Since chromatin states can be propagated through mitotic and meiotic divisions, epigenetic mechanisms are thought to provide heritable 'cellular memory'. Here, we review selected examples of epigenetic memory in plants and briefly discuss underlying mechanisms.

  6. Tunable and Memory Metamaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-02

    AFRL-AFOSR-VA-TR-2015-0402 TUNABLE AND MEMORY METAMATERIALS Dimitri Basov UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA SAN DIEGO Final Report 12/02/2015 DISTRIBUTION A...DATES COVERED (From - To) 15-08-2010 to 14-08-2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE TUNABLE AND MEMORY METAMATERIALS 5a.  CONTRACT NUMBER 5b.  GRANT NUMBER FA9550...common limitations of infrared metamaterials in order to achieve low electromagnetic losses and broad tunability of the electromagnetic response. One

  7. Regulatory T cell memory

    OpenAIRE

    Rosenblum, Md; Way, SS; Abbas, AK

    2015-01-01

    © 2015 Nature Publishing Group, a division of Macmillan Publishers Limited. All Rights Reserved. Memory for antigen is a defining feature of adaptive immunity. Antigen-specific lymphocyte populations show an increase in number and function after antigen encounter and more rapidly re-expand upon subsequent antigen exposure. Studies of immune memory have primarily focused on effector B cells and T cells with microbial specificity, using prime–challenge models of infection. However, recent work ...

  8. Music and memory

    OpenAIRE

    Haefliger, Anna Berenika

    2013-01-01

    Abstract: Music and its different forms of use seem to benefit people in a number of ways. Research has suggested that extensive musical practice and musical listening enhances mental functioning in healthy adults and patients with neurodegenerative disease. Yet, the findings presented have not yet examined the effects both musical training and stimuli enhancement have on episodic memory recognition. 20 musicians and 20 non-musicians took part in an episodic memory task which evaluated m...

  9. Cognitive Memory Network

    CERN Document Server

    James, Alex Pappachen; 10.1049/el.2010.0279

    2012-01-01

    A resistive memory network that has no crossover wiring is proposed to overcome the hardware limitations to size and functional complexity that is associated with conventional analogue neural networks. The proposed memory network is based on simple network cells that are arranged in a hierarchical modular architecture. Cognitive functionality of this network is demonstrated by an example of character recognition. The network is trained by an evolutionary process to completely recognise characters deformed by random noise, rotation, scaling and shifting

  10. Kirchnerist construction of memory

    OpenAIRE

    Bermúdez, Nicolás

    2015-01-01

    The effects on the construction of collective memory caused by the arrival of the kirchnerism to the political field have been extensively studied. That construction suffered transformations with the change of president, which have been less studied. Therefore, the objective of this paper is to present an analysis about the discursive construction of memory during Cristina Fernández de Kirchner first government. This research is part of the discourse studies, and more precisely it is part of ...

  11. Collective Memories in Wikipedia

    OpenAIRE

    Ferron, Michela

    2012-01-01

    Collective memories are precious resources for the society, because they contribute to strengthening the emotional bonding between community members, maintaining groups cohesion, and directing future behavior. Understanding the formation of the collective memories of emotional upheavals is important to a better comprehension of people's reactions and of the consequences on their psychological health. Previous studies investigated the effects of single traumatizing events, but few of them app...

  12. Memory, collective memory, orality and the gospels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis C. Duling

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This article first explores individual memory as understood from the time of the ancient Greeks and Romans to modern-day neurology and psychology. The perspective is correlated with collective memory theory in the works of Halbwachs, Connerton, Gillis, Fentress and Wickham, Olick, Schwartz, Jan and Alida Assmann and Kirk and Thatcher. The relevance of ‘orality’ is highlighted in Kelber’s works, as well as in oral poetry performance by illiterate Yugoslavian bards, as discussed in studies by Parry, Lord and Havelock. Kelber’s challenge of Bultmann’s theory of oral tradition in the gospels is also covered. The article concludes with observations and reflections, opting for a position of moderate−to−strong constructionism.

  13. Learning and memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. A. J. Ryke

    1989-03-01

    Full Text Available Under various circumstances and in different species the outward expression of learning varies considerably, and this has led to the classification of different categories of learning. Just as there is no generally agreed on definition of learning, there is no one system of classification. Types of learning commonly recognized are: Habituation, sensitization, classical conditioning, operant conditioning, trial and error, taste aversion, latent learning, cultural learning, imprinting, insight learning, learning-set learning and instinct. The term memory must include at least two separate processes. It must involve, on the one hand, that of learning something and on the other, at some later date, recalling that thing. What lies between the learning and (he remembering must be some permanent record — a memory trace — within the brain. Memory exists in at least two forms: memory for very recent events (short-term which is relatively labile and easily disruptable; and long-term memory, which is much more stable. Not everything that gets into short-term memory becomes fixed in the long-term store; a filtering mechanism selects things that might be important and discards the rest.

  14. Shape memory materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Compared with piezoelectric ceramics and magnetostrictive materials, the shape memory materials possess larger recoverable strain and recovery stress but slower response to external field. It is expected that the magneto-shape memory materials may develop considerable strain as well as rapid and precise shape control. Pseudoelasticity and shape memory effect (SME) resulted from martensitic transformation and its reverse transformation in shape memory materials were generally described. The requirements of appearing the shape memory effect in materials and the criteria for thermoelastic martensitic transformation were given. Some aspects concerning characteristics of martensitic transformation, and factors affecting SME in Ni-Ti, Cu-Zn-Al and Fe-Mn-Si based alloys as well as ZrO2 containing ceramics were briefly reviewed. Thermodynamic calculation of Ms temperature as function of grain size and parent ordering in Cu-Zn-Al was presented. The works on prediction of Ms in Fe-Mn-Si based alloys and in ZrO2-CeO2 were mentioned. Magnetic shape memory materials were briefly introduced.

  15. Immune memory in invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milutinović, Barbara; Kurtz, Joachim

    2016-08-01

    Evidence for innate immune memory (or 'priming') in invertebrates has been accumulating over the last years. We here provide an in-depth review of the current state of evidence for immune memory in invertebrates, and in particular take a phylogenetic viewpoint. Invertebrates are a very heterogeneous group of animals and accordingly, evidence for the phenomenon of immune memory as well as the hypothesized molecular underpinnings differ largely for the diverse invertebrate taxa. The majority of research currently focuses on Arthropods, while evidence from many other groups of invertebrates is fragmentary or even lacking. We here concentrate on immune memory that is induced by pathogenic challenges, but also extent our view to a non-pathogenic context, i.e. allograft rejection, which can also show forms of memory and can inform us about general principles of specific self-nonself recognition. We discuss definitions of immune memory and a number of relevant aspects such as the type of antigens used, the route of exposure, and the kinetics of reactions following priming. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. [Memory and epilepsy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupont, Sophie

    2010-01-01

    Medial temporal lobe epilepsy is a chronic neurological disease that begins in the early age and that is associated with frequent and disturbing memory deficits. Repeated seizures will lead to the formation of an epileptogenic network that may interfere with physiological neuronal networks and thus with normal brain function: by direct activation or indirectly by deactivation during a seizure, see for example the dreamy state or the ''déja vécu'' phenomenon during temporal seizures; by ictal or post-ictal inhibition, see for example ictal or post-ictal amnesia; by a repetitive and chronic modulation leading to a reorganization of the physiological neuronal networks. The study of these interactions between epileptic and physiological neural networks must lead to better explore the patient's memory and predict memory worsening before temporal lobe surgery and to better understand the reorganization of memory networks in chronic epilepsy. The goal is double: (1) improve the prediction of post-operative memory worsening and guide rehabilitation in epileptic clinical practice; (2) improve the pathophysiological knowledge about memory processes. © Société de Biologie, 2010.

  17. Music evokes vivid autobiographical memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belfi, Amy M; Karlan, Brett; Tranel, Daniel

    2016-08-01

    Music is strongly intertwined with memories-for example, hearing a song from the past can transport you back in time, triggering the sights, sounds, and feelings of a specific event. This association between music and vivid autobiographical memory is intuitively apparent, but the idea that music is intimately tied with memories, seemingly more so than other potent memory cues (e.g., familiar faces), has not been empirically tested. Here, we compared memories evoked by music to those evoked by famous faces, predicting that music-evoked autobiographical memories (MEAMs) would be more vivid. Participants listened to 30 songs, viewed 30 faces, and reported on memories that were evoked. Memories were transcribed and coded for vividness as in Levine, B., Svoboda, E., Hay, J. F., Winocur, G., & Moscovitch, M. [2002. Aging and autobiographical memory: Dissociating episodic from semantic retrieval. Psychology and Aging, 17, 677-689]. In support of our hypothesis, MEAMs were more vivid than autobiographical memories evoked by faces. MEAMs contained a greater proportion of internal details and a greater number of perceptual details, while face-evoked memories contained a greater number of external details. Additionally, we identified sex differences in memory vividness: for both stimulus categories, women retrieved more vivid memories than men. The results show that music not only effectively evokes autobiographical memories, but that these memories are more vivid than those evoked by famous faces.

  18. Verification of Embedded Memory Systems using Efficient Memory Modeling

    CERN Document Server

    Ganai, Malay K; Ashar, Pranav

    2011-01-01

    We describe verification techniques for embedded memory systems using efficient memory modeling (EMM), without explicitly modeling each memory bit. We extend our previously proposed approach of EMM in Bounded Model Checking (BMC) for a single read/write port single memory system, to more commonly occurring systems with multiple memories, having multiple read and write ports. More importantly, we augment such EMM to providing correctness proofs, in addition to finding real bugs as before. The novelties of our verification approach are in a) combining EMM with proof-based abstraction that preserves the correctness of a property up to a certain analysis depth of SAT-based BMC, and b) modeling arbitrary initial memory state precisely and thereby, providing inductive proofs using SAT-based BMC for embedded memory systems. Similar to the previous approach, we construct a verification model by eliminating memory arrays, but retaining the memory interface signals with their control logic and adding constraints on tho...

  19. Memory engram storage and retrieval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonegawa, Susumu; Pignatelli, Michele; Roy, Dheeraj S; Ryan, Tomás J

    2015-12-01

    A great deal of experimental investment is directed towards questions regarding the mechanisms of memory storage. Such studies have traditionally been restricted to investigation of the anatomical structures, physiological processes, and molecular pathways necessary for the capacity of memory storage, and have avoided the question of how individual memories are stored in the brain. Memory engram technology allows the labeling and subsequent manipulation of components of specific memory engrams in particular brain regions, and it has been established that cell ensembles labeled by this method are both sufficient and necessary for memory recall. Recent research has employed this technology to probe fundamental questions of memory consolidation, differentiating between mechanisms of memory retrieval from the true neurobiology of memory storage.

  20. Cholinesterase inhibitors and memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepeu, Giancarlo; Giovannini, Maria Grazia

    2010-09-06

    A consensus exists that cholinesterase inhibitors (ChEIs) are efficacious for mild to moderate Alzheimer's Disease (AD). Unfortunately, the number of non-responders is large and the therapeutic effect is usually short-lasting. In experimental animals, ChEIs exert three main actions: inhibit cholinesterase (ChE), increase extracellular levels of brain acetylcholine (ACh), improve cognitive processes, particularly when disrupted in models of AD. In this overview we shall deal with the cognitive processes that are improved by ChEI treatment because they depend on the integrity of brain cholinergic pathways and their activation. The role of cholinergic system in cognition can be investigated using different approaches. Microdialysis experiments demonstrate the involvement of the cholinergic system in attention, working, spatial and explicit memory, information encoding, sensory-motor gating, skill learning. No involvement in long-term memory has yet been demonstrated. Conversely, memory consolidation is facilitated by low cholinergic activity. Experiments on healthy human subjects, notwithstanding caveats concerning age, dose, and different memory tests, confirm the findings of animal experiments and demonstrate that stimulation of the cholinergic system facilitates attention, stimulus detection, perceptual processing and information encoding. It is not clear whether information retrieval may be improved but memory consolidation is reduced by cholinergic activation. ChEI effects in AD patients have been extensively investigated using rating scales that assess cognitive and behavioural responses. Few attempts have been made to identify which scale items respond better to ChEIs and therefore, presumably, depend on the activity of the cholinergic system. Improvement in attention and executive functions, communication, expressive language and mood stability have been reported. Memory consolidation and retrieval may be impaired by high ACh levels. Therefore, considering

  1. Embodied Memory: Unconscious Smiling Modulates Emotional Evaluation of Episodic Memories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathieu eArminjon

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Since Damasio introduced the somatic markers hypothesis in 1991, it has spread through the psychological community, where it is now commonly acknowledged that somatic states are a factor in producing the qualitative dimension of our experiences. Present actions are emotionally guided by those somatic states that were previously activated in similar experiences. In this model, somatic markers serve as a kind of embodied memory.Here we test whether the manipulation of somatic markers can modulate the emotional evaluation of negative memories. Because facial feedback has been shown to be a powerful means of modifying emotional judgements, we used it to manipulate somatic markers. Participants first read a sad story in order to induce a negative emotional memory and then were asked to rate their emotions and memory about the text. Twenty-four hours later, the same participants were asked to assume a predetermined facial feedback (smiling while reactivating their memory of the sad story. The participants were once again asked to fill in emotional and memory questionnaires about the text. Our results showed that participants who had smiled during memory reactivation later rated the text less negatively than control participants. However, the contraction of the zygomaticus muscles during memory reactivation did not have any impact on episodic memory scores. This suggests that manipulating somatic states modified emotional memory without affecting episodic memory. Thus, modulating memories through bodily states might pave the way to studying memory as an embodied function and help shape new kinds of psychotherapeutic interventions.

  2. Embodied memory: unconscious smiling modulates emotional evaluation of episodic memories

    KAUST Repository

    Arminjon, Mathieu

    2015-05-26

    Since Damasio introduced the somatic markers hypothesis in Damasio (1994), it has spread through the psychological community, where it is now commonly acknowledged that somatic states are a factor in producing the qualitative dimension of our experiences. Present actions are emotionally guided by those somatic states that were previously activated in similar experiences. In this model, somatic markers serve as a kind of embodied memory. Here, we test whether the manipulation of somatic markers can modulate the emotional evaluation of negative memories. Because facial feedback has been shown to be a powerful means of modifying emotional judgements, we used it to manipulate somatic markers. Participants first read a sad story in order to induce a negative emotional memory and then were asked to rate their emotions and memory about the text. Twenty-four hours later, the same participants were asked to assume a predetermined facial feedback (smiling) while reactivating their memory of the sad story. The participants were once again asked to fill in emotional and memory questionnaires about the text. Our results showed that participants who had smiled during memory reactivation later rated the text less negatively than control participants. However, the contraction of the zygomaticus muscles during memory reactivation did not have any impact on episodic memory scores. This suggests that manipulating somatic states modified emotional memory without affecting episodic memory. Thus, modulating memories through bodily states might pave the way to studying memory as an embodied function and help shape new kinds of psychotherapeutic interventions.

  3. MEMORY IMPROVING FOODS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akula Annapurna

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Learning is a lifelong process of transforming information and experience into knowledge, skills, behaviorand attitudes. Memory is the ability of the brain to store, retain and subsequently to recall information received fromthe world. Cognition can be defined as organization of information. It includes acquiring information (perception,selecting (attention, representing (understanding and retaining (memory information and using it to guidebehavior (reasoning and coordination of motor outputs.There are so many conditions associated with memory and cognitive impairment which include Aging,Alzheimer’s disease, Stroke, Stress, Head injuries, Seizures, Benzodiazepines, Brain tumors, Depression, Temporallobe defects and Schizophrenia etc.Choline rich foods can enhance memory and learning and may be useful in improving cognitive abilities. Theseinclude sea foods, liver, egg yolk, soysbeans, broccoli, ash gourd. Coloured fruits and vegetables are good source ofantioxidants which improve concentration. It is advised to decrease the consumption of foods rich in transfats likehydrogenated oils, fried foods, beef, pork, mutton and ice creams and pastries. Such foods increase the deposition offats in the neurons and impair cognition. Tea, cocoa and turmeric are reported to have good nootropic activity i.e.improving memory and learning. Apart from the foods, one should keep the brain active to maintain its cognitivefunction well.

  4. Oligocrystalline shape memory alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ueland, Stian M.; Chen, Ying; Schuh, Christopher A. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States)

    2012-05-23

    Copper-based shape memory alloys (SMAs) exhibit excellent shape memory properties in single crystalline form. However, when they are polycrystalline, their shape memory properties are severely compromised by brittle fracture arising from transformation strain incompatibility at grain boundaries and triple junctions. Oligocrystalline shape memory alloys (oSMAs) are microstructurally designed SMA structures in which the total surface area exceeds the total grain boundary area, and triple junctions can even be completely absent. Here it is shown how an oligocrystalline structure provides a means of achieving single crystal-like SMA properties without being limited by constraints of single crystal processing. Additionally, the formation of oSMAs typically involves the reduction of the size scale of specimens, and sample size effects begin to emerge. Recent findings on a size effect on the martensitic transformation in oSMAs are compared and a new regime of heat transfer associated with the transformation heat evolution in these alloys is discussed. New results on unassisted two-way shape memory and the effect of loading rate in oSMAs are also reported. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  5. A balanced memory network.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasser Roudi

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available A fundamental problem in neuroscience is understanding how working memory--the ability to store information at intermediate timescales, like tens of seconds--is implemented in realistic neuronal networks. The most likely candidate mechanism is the attractor network, and a great deal of effort has gone toward investigating it theoretically. Yet, despite almost a quarter century of intense work, attractor networks are not fully understood. In particular, there are still two unanswered questions. First, how is it that attractor networks exhibit irregular firing, as is observed experimentally during working memory tasks? And second, how many memories can be stored under biologically realistic conditions? Here we answer both questions by studying an attractor neural network in which inhibition and excitation balance each other. Using mean-field analysis, we derive a three-variable description of attractor networks. From this description it follows that irregular firing can exist only if the number of neurons involved in a memory is large. The same mean-field analysis also shows that the number of memories that can be stored in a network scales with the number of excitatory connections, a result that has been suggested for simple models but never shown for realistic ones. Both of these predictions are verified using simulations with large networks of spiking neurons.

  6. Nanoporous silicon oxide memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Gunuk; Yang, Yang; Lee, Jae-Hwang; Abramova, Vera; Fei, Huilong; Ruan, Gedeng; Thomas, Edwin L; Tour, James M

    2014-08-13

    Oxide-based two-terminal resistive random access memory (RRAM) is considered one of the most promising candidates for next-generation nonvolatile memory. We introduce here a new RRAM memory structure employing a nanoporous (NP) silicon oxide (SiOx) material which enables unipolar switching through its internal vertical nanogap. Through the control of the stochastic filament formation at low voltage, the NP SiOx memory exhibited an extremely low electroforming voltage (∼ 1.6 V) and outstanding performance metrics. These include multibit storage ability (up to 9-bits), a high ON-OFF ratio (up to 10(7) A), a long high-temperature lifetime (≥ 10(4) s at 100 °C), excellent cycling endurance (≥ 10(5)), sub-50 ns switching speeds, and low power consumption (∼ 6 × 10(-5) W/bit). Also provided is the room temperature processability for versatile fabrication without any compliance current being needed during electroforming or switching operations. Taken together, these metrics in NP SiOx RRAM provide a route toward easily accessed nonvolatile memory applications.

  7. Memory Loss: 7 Tips to Improve Your Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... re not alone. Everyone forgets things occasionally. Still, memory loss is nothing to take lightly. Although there are no guarantees when it comes to preventing memory loss or dementia, certain activities might help. Consider ...

  8. Negative affect impairs associative memory but not item memory.

    OpenAIRE

    Bisby, J. A.; Burgess, N.

    2014-01-01

    The formation of associations between items and their context has been proposed to rely on mechanisms distinct from those supporting memory for a single item. Although emotional experiences can profoundly affect memory, our understanding of how it interacts with different aspects of memory remains unclear. We performed three experiments to examine the effects of emotion on memory for items and their associations. By presenting neutral and negative items with background contexts, Experiment 1 ...

  9. Special Operations Commemoration: Monuments, Memory & Memorialization Practices of Elite Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    Although controversial at the time the precedent set for repatriation remains U.S. policy today.27 For example, Private Thomas Enright , Private Merle...organization. The first ceremony was held in 1987 and was presided over by the Deputy Director Robert M. Gates. The Memorial Ceremony has evolved over...memorial ceremonies timelessly capture the essence of any memorialization or commemorative practice. At the inaugural Memorial Ceremony in 1987 Robert

  10. Matter and memory

    CERN Document Server

    Bergson, Henri

    1991-01-01

    Since the end of the last century," Walter Benjamin wrote, "philosophy has made a series of attempts to lay hold of the 'true' experience as opposed to the kind that manifests itself in the standardized, denatured life of the civilized masses. It is customary to classify these efforts under the heading of a philosophy of life. Towering above this literature is Henri Bergson's early monumental work, Matter and Memory."Along with Husserl's Ideas and Heidegger's Being and Time, Bergson's work represents one of the great twentieth-century investigations into perception and memory, movement and time, matter and mind. Arguably Bergson's most significant book, Matter and Memory is essential to an understanding of his philosophy and its legacy.This new edition includes an annotated bibliography prepared by Bruno Paradis.Henri Bergson (1859-1941) was awarded the Nobel Prize in 1927. His works include Time and Free Will, An Introduction to Metaphysics, Creative Evolution, and The Creative Mind.

  11. Emotion and autobiographical memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, Alisha C.; Kensinger, Elizabeth A.

    2010-03-01

    Autobiographical memory encompasses our recollections of specific, personal events. In this article, we review the interactions between emotion and autobiographical memory, focusing on two broad ways in which these interactions occur. First, the emotional content of an experience can influence the way in which the event is remembered. Second, emotions and emotional goals experienced at the time of autobiographical retrieval can influence the information recalled. We discuss the behavioral manifestations of each of these types of interactions and describe the neural mechanisms that may support those interactions. We discuss how findings from the clinical literature (e.g., regarding depression) and the social psychology literature (e.g., on emotion regulation) might inform future investigations of the interplay between the emotions experienced at the time of retrieval and the memories recalled, and we present ideas for future research in this domain.

  12. Mediated Cultural Memories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frølunde, Lisbeth; Bjerregaard, Mette

    2013-01-01

    (A revised, full paper will be published in the journal Mediekultur, spring 2014) This paper explores two examples of narratives representing memories of acts of mass violence: Gzim Rewind (Sweden, 2011, director Knutte Wester) about 1990’s Kosovo, and The Act of Killing (Denmark, 2012, director...... perspectives of semiosis (meaning-making) in relation to the films as redefining genres and what sorts of meanings different audiences create about the films. Acts of mass violence, including murder on civilians, genocide, and wars, can be seen as seeds for memories of the involved persons and following...... generations. Acts of mass violence also construct a sort of looking glass of culturally dominant memories that are mediated through stories: retold as oral stories through generations, as myths or sagas, or remediated in contemporary documentary or fiction films. In these processes of retelling acts...

  13. Albert Einstein memorial lectures

    CERN Document Server

    Mechoulam, Raphael; The Israel Academy for Sciences and Humanities

    2012-01-01

    This volume consists of a selection of the Albert Einstein Memorial Lectures presented annually at the Israel Academy of Sciences and Humanities. Delivered by eminent scientists and scholars, including Nobel laureates, they cover a broad spectrum of subjects in physics, chemistry, life science, mathematics, historiography and social issues. This distinguished memorial lecture series was inaugurated by the Israel Academy of Sciences and Humanities following an international symposium held in Jerusalem in March 1979 to commemorate the centenary of Albert Einstein's birth. Considering that Einstein's interests, activities and influence were not restricted to theoretical physics but spanned broad fields affecting society and the welfare of humankind, it was felt that these memorial lectures should be addressed to scientists, scholars and erudite laypersons rather than to physicists alone.

  14. External-Memory Multimaps

    CERN Document Server

    Angelino, Elaine; Mitzenmacher, Michael; Thaler, Justin

    2011-01-01

    Many data structures support dictionaries, also known as maps or associative arrays, which store and manage a set of key-value pairs. A \\emph{multimap} is generalization that allows multiple values to be associated with the same key. For example, the inverted file data structure that is used prevalently in the infrastructure supporting search engines is a type of multimap, where words are used as keys and document pointers are used as values. We study the multimap abstract data type and how it can be implemented efficiently online in external memory frameworks, with constant expected I/O performance. The key technique used to achieve our results is a combination of cuckoo hashing using buckets that hold multiple items with a multiqueue implementation to cope with varying numbers of values per key. Our external-memory results are for the standard two-level memory model.

  15. When Memories are Mediated

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frølunde, Lisbeth; Bjerregaard, Mette

    2013-01-01

    that are mediated through stories: told and retold as oral stories through generations, as myths or sagas, or remediated as contemporary documentary film accounts or more fictional film accounts. In these processes of retelling acts of violence, transformations of meanings across time, cultural, social......Acts of mass violence, including murder on civilians, genocide, oppression and wars, can mobilize memories of the involved persons and following generations in a certain historical situation. Acts of mass violence can also create a sort of looking glass of culturally dominant memories...... makes meaning about past events. In the discussion, we consider how mediated memories affect audiences, and the potential of achieving development of present political and cultural understandings of past acts of violence....

  16. When Memories are Mediated

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frølunde, Lisbeth; Bjerregaard, Mette

    2013-01-01

    and political contexts and media platforms take place and become contexts for audience reception. This paper explores two examples of narratives that construct memories of acts of mass violence: “Gzim Rewind” (Sweden, 2011, director Knutte Wester) about 1990’s Kosovo, and “The Act of Killing” (Denmark, 2012......Acts of mass violence, including murder on civilians, genocide, oppression and wars, can mobilize memories of the involved persons and following generations in a certain historical situation. Acts of mass violence can also create a sort of looking glass of culturally dominant memories...... that are mediated through stories: told and retold as oral stories through generations, as myths or sagas, or remediated as contemporary documentary film accounts or more fictional film accounts. In these processes of retelling acts of violence, transformations of meanings across time, cultural, social...

  17. Networks with Memory

    CERN Document Server

    Rosvall, Martin; Lancichinetti, Andrea; West, Jevin D; Lambiotte, Renaud

    2013-01-01

    It is a paradigm to capture the spread of information and disease with random flow on networks. However, this conventional approach ignores an important feature of the dynamics: where flow moves to depends on where it comes from. That is, memory matters. We analyze multi-step pathways from different systems and show that ignoring memory has profound consequences for community detection and ranking as well as for epidemic spreading. Specifically, memoryless dynamics on networks understate the effect of communities and exaggerate the effect of highly connected nodes. Including memory reveals actual travel patterns in air traffic, ranking that favors specialized journals in scientific communication, and diseases that spread more slowly and persist longer in hospitals.

  18. Shape-memory polymers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Behl

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Shape-memory polymers are an emerging class of active polymers that have dual-shape capability. They can change their shape in a predefined way from shape A to shape B when exposed to an appropriate stimulus. While shape B is given by the initial processing step, shape A is determined by applying a process called programming. We review fundamental aspects of the molecular design of suitable polymer architectures, tailored programming and recovery processes, and the quantification of the shape-memory effect. Shape-memory research was initially founded on the thermally induced dual-shape effect. This concept has been extended to other stimuli by either indirect thermal actuation or direct actuation by addressing stimuli-sensitive groups on the molecular level. Finally, polymers are introduced that can be multifunctional. Besides their dual-shape capability, these active materials are biofunctional or biodegradable. Potential applications for such materials as active medical devices are highlighted.

  19. Psychobiology of Active and Inactive Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Donald J.

    1979-01-01

    Argues that the distinction between short-term memory and long-term memory is no longer adequate for either human or animal memory data. Recommends additional research on the physiological brain processes underlying memory interference and retrieval. (MP)

  20. Memory before Modernity : Practices of Memory in Early Modern Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuijpers, H.M.E.P.; Pollmann, J.S.; Müller, J.M.; Steen, van der J.A.

    2013-01-01

    Many students of memory assume that the practice of memory changed dramatically around 1800; this volume shows that there was much continuity as well as change. Premodern ways of negotiating memories of pain and loss, for instance, were indeed quite different to those in the modern West. Yet by exam

  1. Negative Affect Impairs Associative Memory but Not Item Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisby, James A.; Burgess, Neil

    2014-01-01

    The formation of associations between items and their context has been proposed to rely on mechanisms distinct from those supporting memory for a single item. Although emotional experiences can profoundly affect memory, our understanding of how it interacts with different aspects of memory remains unclear. We performed three experiments to examine…

  2. Aging memories: differential decay of episodic memory components

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Talamini, L.M.; Gorree, E.

    2012-01-01

    Some memories about events can persist for decades, even a lifetime. However, recent memories incorporate rich sensory information, including knowledge on the spatial and temporal ordering of event features, while old memories typically lack this "filmic" quality. We suggest that this apparent

  3. Shape memory polymer foams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santo, Loredana

    2016-02-01

    Recent advances in shape memory polymer (SMP) foam research are reviewed. The SMPs belong to a new class of smart polymers which can have interesting applications in microelectromechanical systems, actuators and biomedical devices. They can respond to specific external stimulus changing their configuration and then remember the original shape. In the form of foams, the shape memory behaviour can be enhanced because they generally have higher compressibility. Considering also the low weight, and recovery force, the SMP foams are expected to have great potential applications primarily in aerospace. This review highlights the recent progress in characterization, evaluation, and proposed applications of SMP foams mainly for aerospace applications.

  4. Natural Killer Cell Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Sullivan, Timothy E; Sun, Joseph C; Lanier, Lewis L

    2015-10-20

    Natural killer (NK) cells have historically been considered short-lived cytolytic cells that can rapidly respond against pathogens and tumors in an antigen-independent manner and then undergo cell death. Recently, however, NK cells have been shown to possess traits of adaptive immunity and can acquire immunological memory in a manner similar to that of T and B cells. In this review, we discuss evidence of NK cell memory and the mechanisms involved in the generation and survival of these innate lymphocytes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. 009 Rehabilitation of memory disorders

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wilson, B

    2010-01-01

      Abstract: In the past memory rehabilitation focused on teaching lists of words, giving people memory exercises or teaching mnemonics that brain injured people were expected to take on board and use spontaneously...

  6. Clinical Perspectives on Autobiographical Memory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Autobiographical memory plays a key role in psychological well-being, and the field has been investigated from multiple perspectives for more than thirty years. One large body of research has examined the basic mechanisms and characteristics of autobiographical memory during general cognition......, and another body has studied what happens to it during psychological disorders, and how psychological therapies targeting memory disturbances can improve psychological well-being. This edited collection reviews and integrates current theories on autobiographical memory when viewed in a clinical perspective....... It presents an overview of basic applied and clinical approaches to autobiographical memory, covering memory specificity, traumatic memories, involuntary and intrusive memories, and the role of self-identity. The book discusses a wide range of psychological disorders, including depression, posttraumatic...

  7. Neuroepigenetic regulation of pathogenic memories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie E. Sillivan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Our unique collection of memories determines our individuality and shapes our future interactions with the world. Remarkable advances into the neurobiological basis of memory have identified key epigenetic mechanisms that support the stability of memory. Various forms of epigenetic regulation at the levels of DNA methylation, histone modification, and noncoding RNAs can modulate transcriptional and translational events required for memory processes. By changing the cellular profile in the brain’s emotional, reward, and memory circuits, these epigenetic modifications have also been linked to perseverant, pathogenic memories. In this review, we will delve into the relevance of epigenetic dysregulation to pathogenic memory mechanisms by focusing on 2 neuropsychiatric disorders perpetuated by aberrant memory associations: substance use disorder and post-traumatic stress disorder. As our understanding improves, neuroepigenetic mechanisms may someday be harnessed to develop novel therapeutic targets for the treatment of these chronic, relapsing disorders.

  8. Emotional organization of autobiographical memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulkind, Matthew D; Woldorf, Gillian M

    2005-09-01

    The emotional organization of autobiographical memory was examined by determining whether emotional cues would influence autobiographical retrieval in younger and older adults. Unfamiliar musical cues that represented orthogonal combinations of positive and negative valence and high and low arousal were used. Whereas cue valence influenced the valence of the retrieved memories, cue arousal did not affect arousal ratings. However, high-arousal cues were associated with reduced response latencies. A significant bias to report positive memories was observed, especially for the older adults, but neither the distribution of memories across the life span nor response latencies varied across memories differing in valence or arousal. These data indicate that emotional information can serve as effective cues for autobiographical memories and that autobiographical memories are organized in terms of emotional valence but not emotional arousal. Thus, current theories of autobiographical memory must be expanded to include emotional valence as a primary dimension of organization.

  9. Memory Can Fade After Menopause

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_161930.html Memory Can Fade After Menopause But women still outperform ... their own age, but new research suggests that memory may fade as estrogen levels drop during menopause. ...

  10. Time-Predictable Virtual Memory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Puffitsch, Wolfgang; Schoeberl, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Virtual memory is an important feature of modern computer architectures. For hard real-time systems, memory protection is a particularly interesting feature of virtual memory. However, current memory management units are not designed for time-predictability and therefore cannot be used...... in such systems. This paper investigates the requirements on virtual memory from the perspective of hard real-time systems and presents the design of a time-predictable memory management unit. Our evaluation shows that the proposed design can be implemented efficiently. The design allows address translation...... and address range checking in constant time of two clock cycles on a cache miss. This constant time is in strong contrast to the possible cost of a miss in a translation look-aside buffer in traditional virtual memory organizations. Compared to a platform without a memory management unit, these two additional...

  11. Memory and Forgetfulness: NIH Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Memory & Forgetfulness NIH Research Past Issues / Summer 2013 Table ... agency for research on Alzheimer's disease and related memory research. An analysis funded by the NIA finds ...

  12. About sleep's role in memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasch, Björn; Born, Jan

    2013-04-01

    Over more than a century of research has established the fact that sleep benefits the retention of memory. In this review we aim to comprehensively cover the field of "sleep and memory" research by providing a historical perspective on concepts and a discussion of more recent key findings. Whereas initial theories posed a passive role for sleep enhancing memories by protecting them from interfering stimuli, current theories highlight an active role for sleep in which memories undergo a process of system consolidation during sleep. Whereas older research concentrated on the role of rapid-eye-movement (REM) sleep, recent work has revealed the importance of slow-wave sleep (SWS) for memory consolidation and also enlightened some of the underlying electrophysiological, neurochemical, and genetic mechanisms, as well as developmental aspects in these processes. Specifically, newer findings characterize sleep as a brain state optimizing memory consolidation, in opposition to the waking brain being optimized for encoding of memories. Consolidation originates from reactivation of recently encoded neuronal memory representations, which occur during SWS and transform respective representations for integration into long-term memory. Ensuing REM sleep may stabilize transformed memories. While elaborated with respect to hippocampus-dependent memories, the concept of an active redistribution of memory representations from networks serving as temporary store into long-term stores might hold also for non-hippocampus-dependent memory, and even for nonneuronal, i.e., immunological memories, giving rise to the idea that the offline consolidation of memory during sleep represents a principle of long-term memory formation established in quite different physiological systems.

  13. Self, Nation, and Generational Memory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Böss/Bøss, Michael

    2014-01-01

    A study of the former Irish president Eamon de Valera's self-narrative in his official autobiography as an illustration Alistair Thomson's theory of memory as 'composure' and as reflecting generational memory........A study of the former Irish president Eamon de Valera's self-narrative in his official autobiography as an illustration Alistair Thomson's theory of memory as 'composure' and as reflecting generational memory.....

  14. Shape memory polymer medical device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maitland, Duncan; Benett, William J.; Bearinger, Jane P.; Wilson, Thomas S.; Small, IV, Ward; Schumann, Daniel L.; Jensen, Wayne A.; Ortega, Jason M.; Marion, III, John E.; Loge, Jeffrey M.

    2010-06-29

    A system for removing matter from a conduit. The system includes the steps of passing a transport vehicle and a shape memory polymer material through the conduit, transmitting energy to the shape memory polymer material for moving the shape memory polymer material from a first shape to a second and different shape, and withdrawing the transport vehicle and the shape memory polymer material through the conduit carrying the matter.

  15. Serotonin, neural markers, and memory

    OpenAIRE

    Alfredo eMeneses

    2015-01-01

    Diverse neuropsychiatric disorders present dysfunctional memory and no effective treatment exits for them; likely as result of the absence of neural markers associated to memory. Neurotransmitter systems and signaling pathways have been implicated in memory and dysfunctional memory; however, their role is poorly understood. Hence, neural markers and cerebral functions and dysfunctions are revised. To our knowledge no previous systematic works have been published addressing these issues. The i...

  16. Novel Nanocrystal Floating Gate Memory

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Huimei

    2012-01-01

    This work is devoted to investigating the feasibility of engineering nanocrystals and tunnel oxide layer with a novel structure. Several novel devices are demonstrated to improve the performance of the novel nanocrystal memories.A novel TiSi2 nanocrystal memory was demonstrated. TiSi2 nanocrystals were synthesized on SiO2 by annealing Ti covered Si nanocrystals. Compared to the reference Si nanocrystal memory, both experiment and simulation results show that TiSi2 nanocrystal memory exhibits ...

  17. Heritage and Memory Studies (HMS)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laarse, van der R.; Saloul, I.A.M.

    Heritage and Memory StudiesSeries in development with the Amsterdam School for Heritage and Memory StudiesThis ground-breaking series examines the dynamics of heritage and memory from a transnational, interdisciplinary and integrated approaches. Monographs or edited volumes critically interrogate th

  18. NUMA obliviousness through memory mapping

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gawade, M.; Kersten, M.; Pandis, I.; Kersten, M.

    2015-01-01

    With the rise of multi-socket multi-core CPUs a lot of effort is being put into how to best exploit their abundant CPU power. In a shared memory setting the multi-socket CPUs are equipped with their own memory module, and access memory modules across sockets in a non-uniform access pattern (NUMA).

  19. Stroke and Episodic Memory Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Chun; Alexander, Michael P.

    2009-01-01

    Memory impairments are common after stroke, and the anatomical basis for impairments may be quite variable. To determine the range of stroke-related memory impairment, we identified all case reports and group studies through the Medline database and the Science Citation Index. There is no hypothesis about memory that is unique to stroke, but there…

  20. Body memories in dance improvisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Susanne

    In the analysis of body-memory and improvisation presented in this paper I contend that dancers’ specialised body-memory are not to be understood as more or less automatized. Rather, in each repetition, body-memories – or habits – are to be understood as unfolding in response to the actual contex...

  1. Stress disrupts response memory retrieval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guenzel, Friederike M; Wolf, Oliver T; Schwabe, Lars

    2013-08-01

    Stress effects on memory are well-known. Most studies, however, focused on the impact of stress on hippocampus-dependent 'declarative' memory processes. Less is known about whether stress influences also striatum-based memory processes, such as stimulus-response (S-R) memory. First evidence from rodent experiments shows that glucocorticoid stress hormones may enhance the consolidation of S-R memories. Whether stress affects also S-R memory retrieval remains largely elusive. Therefore, we tested in the present experiment in humans the effect of stress on the retrieval of S-R memories. Healthy men and women were trained to locate three objects in an S-R version of a virtual eight-arm radial maze. One week later, participants underwent a stressor or a control condition before their memory of the S-R task was tested. Our results showed that participants (n=43) who were exposed to the stressor before retention testing made significantly more errors in this test trial, suggesting that stress impaired S-R memory retrieval. Moreover, high cortisol concentrations were associated with reduced S-R memory. These findings indicate that stress may affect memory retrieval processes in humans beyond hippocampal 'declarative' memory.

  2. Heritage and Memory Studies (HMS)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laarse, van der R.; Saloul, I.A.M.

    Heritage and Memory StudiesSeries in development with the Amsterdam School for Heritage and Memory StudiesThis ground-breaking series examines the dynamics of heritage and memory from a transnational, interdisciplinary and integrated approaches. Monographs or edited volumes critically interrogate

  3. Heritage and Memory Studies (HMS)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laarse, van der R.; Saloul, I.A.M.

    Heritage and Memory Studies Series in development with the Amsterdam School for Heritage and Memory Studies This ground-breaking series examines the dynamics of heritage and memory from a transnational, interdisciplinary and integrated approaches. Monographs or edited volumes critically interrogate

  4. Memory Storage and Neural Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkon, Daniel L.

    1989-01-01

    Investigates memory storage and molecular nature of associative-memory formation by analyzing Pavlovian conditioning in marine snails and rabbits. Presented is the design of a computer-based memory system (neural networks) using the rules acquired in the investigation. Reports that the artificial network recognized patterns well. (YP)

  5. Transacted Memory for Smart Cards

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartel, Pieter H.; Butler, Michael J.; de Jong, Eduard; Longley, Mark; Olivieira, J.N.; Zave, P.

    A transacted memory that is implemented using EEPROM technology offers persistence, undoability and auditing. The transacted memory system is formally specified in Z, and refined in two steps to a prototype C implementation / SPIN model. Conclusions are offered both on the transacted memory system

  6. "Memorial de agravios"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boletín Cultural y Bibliográfico Banco de la República

    1959-12-01

    Full Text Available El texto de este célebre documento, conocido con el nombre de Memorial de Agravios, fue redactado por Don Camilo Torres, en su calidad de Asesor del Cabildo de Santafé y se publicó por primera vez en folleto en 1832.

  7. Memorial Alexander Center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AECK Associates, Arquitectos

    1958-05-01

    Full Text Available En Atlanta, el Instituto Tecnológico de Georgia acaba de ampliar sus instalaciones deportivas, construyendo el Alexander Memorial Center. Consta este nuevo Centro de dos edificios: una pista de baloncesto cubierta y un edificio anejo con vestuarios, duchas, una pista de entrenamiento, equipos técnicos y la emisora de radio Georgia Tech W. G. S. T.

  8. Memory Mechanisms in Grasping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesse, Constanze; Franz, Volker H.

    2009-01-01

    The availability of visual information influences the execution of goal-directed movements. This is very prominent in memory conditions, where a delay is introduced between stimulus presentation and execution of the movement. The corresponding effects could be due to a decay of the visual information or to different processing mechanisms used for…

  9. Connecting Competing Memories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laarse, van der R.; Saloul, I.A.M.

    Research Expert Meeting: Connecting Competing Memories of War in Contemporary Europe5 March 2014NIAS hosts, 6 - 7 March, the expert meeting of the Consortium for 'The Cultural Heritage of War in Contemporary Europe'. The aim is to draft main themes and discuss financial and research structures regar

  10. YANGTZE DISCHARGE MEMORY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Klaus Fraedrich; Xiuhua Zhu

    2009-01-01

    We present a review on studies focusing on memories in hydrological time series in the Yangtze Basin based on observational and reconstructed historical data.Memory appears as scaling of power spectra,S(f)~f-β,with 0 <β≤ 1.The presence of scaling is noteworthy in daily river discharge time series:1)from weeks to a couple of years,power spectra follow flicker noise,that is β≈ 1;2)beyond years,spectral scaling appraaclTes β≈0.3.In historical time series of floods and draughts,power spectra also shows scaling with β≈ 0.38 ~0.52.Furthermore,a 70-year peak is detected in historical maritime events series,which also appears in other past climate indicators.Presence of memory in these hydrological time series implies clustering of extremes and scaling of their recurrence times,therefore,probabilistic forecast potential for extremes can be derived.On the other hand,although several physical processes,for example,soil moisture storage and high intermittency of precipitation,have been suggested to be the possible candidates contributing to the presence of long term memory,they remain open for future research.

  11. Visualizing Dynamic Memory Allocations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moreta, Sergio; Telea, Alexandru

    2007-01-01

    We present a visualization tool for dynamic memory allocation information obtained from instrumenting the runtime allocator used by C programs. The goal of the presented visualization techniques is to convey insight in the dynamic behavior of the allocator. The purpose is to help the allocator desig

  12. Dreams Memories & Photography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Bernard

    2012-01-01

    Photography students spend a considerable amount of time working on technical issues in shooting, composing, editing, and processing prints. Another aspect of their learning should include the conception and communication of their ideas. A student's memories and dreams can serve as motivation to create images in visual art. Some artists claim that…

  13. Advanced image memory architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vercillo, Richard; McNeill, Kevin M.

    1994-05-01

    A workstation for radiographic images, known as the Arizona Viewing Console (AVC), was developed at the University of Arizona Health Sciences Center in the Department of Radiology. This workstation has been in use as a research tool to aid us in investigating how a radiologist interacts with a workstation, to determine which image processing features are required to aid the radiologist, to develop user interfaces and to support psychophysical and clinical studies. Results from these studies have show a need to increase the current image memory's available storage in order to accommodate high resolution images. The current triple-ported image memory can be allocated to store any number of images up to a combined total of 4 million pixels. Over the past couple of years, higher resolution images have become easier to generate with the advent of laser digitizers and computed radiology systems. As part of our research, a larger 32 million pixel image memory for AVC has been designed to replace the existing image memory.

  14. Shape Memory Alloy Actuator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumbick, Robert J. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    The present invention discloses and teaches a unique, remote optically controlled micro actuator particularly suitable for aerospace vehicle applications wherein hot gas, or in the alternative optical energy, is employed as the medium by which shape memory alloy elements are activated. In gas turbine powered aircraft the source of the hot gas may be the turbine engine compressor or turbine sections.

  15. Wolfgang Gentner Memorial

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1981-01-01

    The Memorial was held in the Main Auditorium on 30 April 1981. The photo shows (centre, first row) Volker Soergel (DESY Director), Mrs. Gentner, Jean Teillac (President of the Council), Hélène Langevin-Joliot, Herwig Schopper (CERN Director-General).

  16. Dreams Memories & Photography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Bernard

    2012-01-01

    Photography students spend a considerable amount of time working on technical issues in shooting, composing, editing, and processing prints. Another aspect of their learning should include the conception and communication of their ideas. A student's memories and dreams can serve as motivation to create images in visual art. Some artists claim that…

  17. Echoic memory in pigeons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Kretzschmar; T. Kalenscher; O. Güntürkün; C. Kaernbach

    2008-01-01

    It is unknown whether birds are able to retain the memory of purely sensory auditory information such as white noise over an extended period of time. In a Pavlovian heart rate conditioning paradigm, four pigeons were trained to associate a mild electric shock with periodic random waveforms, and no s

  18. Memory Loss and Retrieval

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Ian

    2016-01-01

    Underlying the generally oblivious attitude of teachers and learners towards the past is insufficient respect for the role of memory in giving meaning to experience and access to knowledge. We shape our identity by making sense of our past and its relationship to present and future selves, a process that should be intensively cultivated when we…

  19. Islamic Myths and Memories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    and globalization and to the study of the place of the mass media in the contemporary Islamic resurgence. It explores the annulment of spatial and temporal distance by globalization and by the communications revolution underlying it, and how this has affected the cherished myths and memories of the Muslim community...

  20. The Memory Library

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen-Bagneux, Ole

    2014-01-01

    of classification and retrieval processes is presented. The key element is to understand the library both as a physical structure and as a structure in the memory of the Alexandrian scholars. In this article, these structures are put together so to propose a new interpretation of the library....

  1. The Memory of God

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Ulrik Houlind

    The thematic aim of the present dissertation is twofold: To contribute to the contemporary discussion within philosophy of religion, which revolves around ‘the death and (alleged) return of God’; more specifically, I want to rethink God through the concept memory, drawing on selected writings from...

  2. Memory for Routines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galambos, James A.; Rips, Lance J.

    1982-01-01

    Presents experiments which compare two theories of memory for routine events, one emphasizing temporal sequence of events, the other focusing on events' hierarchical structure or centrality. Findings suggest that sequence and centrality information may be computed as needed, rather than precompiled. (Author/BK)

  3. The role of stress during memory reactivation on intrusive memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Jessica; Garber, Benjamin; Bryant, Richard A

    2015-09-01

    Intrusive memories are unwanted recollections that maintain distress in psychological disorders. Increasing evidence suggests that memories that are reactivated through retrieval become temporarily vulnerable to environmental or pharmacological manipulation, including changes in levels of circulating stress hormones. This study investigated the influence of stress during memory reactivation of an emotionally arousing trauma film on subsequent intrusive memories. Three groups of participants (N=63) viewed a trauma film depicting a serious car accident at baseline. Two days later (Time 2), one group received a reactivation induction following a socially evaluated cold pressor test (SECPT; Stress/Reactivation condition), whilst the second group reactivated the memory after a control procedure (Reactivation condition). A third group underwent the SECPT but was not asked to reactivate memory of the trauma film (Stress condition). Two days later (Time 3), all participants received a surprise cued memory recall test and intrusions questionnaire which they completed online. Results showed that those in the Stress/Reactivation group had higher intrusions scores than the other two groups, suggesting that acute stress promotes intrusive memories only when the memory trace is reactivated shortly afterwards. Increased cortisol predicted enhanced intrusive experiences in the Stress/Reactivation condition but not in the other conditions. This pattern of results suggests that acute stress during the reactivation of emotional material impacts on involuntary emotional memories. These findings suggest a possible explanation for the mechanism underlying the maintenance of intrusive memories in clinical disorders. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Exploring memory hierarchy design with emerging memory technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Sun, Guangyu

    2014-01-01

    This book equips readers with tools for computer architecture of high performance, low power, and high reliability memory hierarchy in computer systems based on emerging memory technologies, such as STTRAM, PCM, FBDRAM, etc.  The techniques described offer advantages of high density, near-zero static power, and immunity to soft errors, which have the potential of overcoming the “memory wall.”  The authors discuss memory design from various perspectives: emerging memory technologies are employed in the memory hierarchy with novel architecture modification;  hybrid memory structure is introduced to leverage advantages from multiple memory technologies; an analytical model named “Moguls” is introduced to explore quantitatively the optimization design of a memory hierarchy; finally, the vulnerability of the CMPs to radiation-based soft errors is improved by replacing different levels of on-chip memory with STT-RAMs.   ·         Provides a holistic study of using emerging memory technologies i...

  5. False memories and memory confidence in borderline patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilling, Lisa; Wingenfeld, Katja; Spitzer, Carsten; Nagel, Matthias; Moritz, Steffen

    2013-12-01

    Mixed results have been obtained regarding memory in patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD). Prior reports and anecdotal evidence suggests that patients with BPD are prone to false memories but this assumption has to been put to firm empirical test, yet. Memory accuracy and confidence was assessed in 20 BPD patients and 22 healthy controls using a visual variant of the false memory (Deese-Roediger-McDermott) paradigm which involved a negative and a positive-valenced picture. Groups did not differ regarding veridical item recognition. Importantly, patients did not display more false memories than controls. At trend level, borderline patients rated more items as new with high confidence compared to healthy controls. The results tentatively suggest that borderline patients show uncompromised visual memory functions and display no increased susceptibility for distorted memories. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. False memories in highly superior autobiographical memory individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patihis, Lawrence; Frenda, Steven J; LePort, Aurora K R; Petersen, Nicole; Nichols, Rebecca M; Stark, Craig E L; McGaugh, James L; Loftus, Elizabeth F

    2013-12-24

    The recent identification of highly superior autobiographical memory (HSAM) raised the possibility that there may be individuals who are immune to memory distortions. We measured HSAM participants' and age- and sex-matched controls' susceptibility to false memories using several research paradigms. HSAM participants and controls were both susceptible to false recognition of nonpresented critical lure words in an associative word-list task. In a misinformation task, HSAM participants showed higher overall false memory compared with that of controls for details in a photographic slideshow. HSAM participants were equally as likely as controls to mistakenly report they had seen nonexistent footage of a plane crash. Finding false memories in a superior-memory group suggests that malleable reconstructive mechanisms may be fundamental to episodic remembering. Paradoxically, HSAM individuals may retrieve abundant and accurate autobiographical memories using fallible reconstructive processes.

  7. About Sleep's Role in Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Over more than a century of research has established the fact that sleep benefits the retention of memory. In this review we aim to comprehensively cover the field of “sleep and memory” research by providing a historical perspective on concepts and a discussion of more recent key findings. Whereas initial theories posed a passive role for sleep enhancing memories by protecting them from interfering stimuli, current theories highlight an active role for sleep in which memories undergo a process of system consolidation during sleep. Whereas older research concentrated on the role of rapid-eye-movement (REM) sleep, recent work has revealed the importance of slow-wave sleep (SWS) for memory consolidation and also enlightened some of the underlying electrophysiological, neurochemical, and genetic mechanisms, as well as developmental aspects in these processes. Specifically, newer findings characterize sleep as a brain state optimizing memory consolidation, in opposition to the waking brain being optimized for encoding of memories. Consolidation originates from reactivation of recently encoded neuronal memory representations, which occur during SWS and transform respective representations for integration into long-term memory. Ensuing REM sleep may stabilize transformed memories. While elaborated with respect to hippocampus-dependent memories, the concept of an active redistribution of memory representations from networks serving as temporary store into long-term stores might hold also for non-hippocampus-dependent memory, and even for nonneuronal, i.e., immunological memories, giving rise to the idea that the offline consolidation of memory during sleep represents a principle of long-term memory formation established in quite different physiological systems. PMID:23589831

  8. Dissociation and memory fragmentation: Experimental effects on meta-memory but not on actual memory performance.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Hout, M.; Kindt, M.

    2003-01-01

    The relation between state dissociation and fragmentary memory was investigated by assessing both actual memory performance and meta-memory. From a sample of 330 normal subjects, 2 subsamples were selected on basis of trait dissociation, as measured by the Dissociative Experience Scale. 20 subjects

  9. Dissociation and memory fragmentation: Experimental effects on meta-memory but not on actual memory performance.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Hout, M.; Kindt, M.

    2003-01-01

    The relation between state dissociation and fragmentary memory was investigated by assessing both actual memory performance and meta-memory. From a sample of 330 normal subjects, 2 subsamples were selected on basis of trait dissociation, as measured by the Dissociative Experience Scale. 20 subjects

  10. Omanimetus või õige nimetus? Eestlaste ravimtaimetundmise alustest / Raivo Kalle, Renata Sõukand

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kalle, Raivo, 1976-

    2011-01-01

    Käsitletakse Eestis kasvavate taimede nimetamise praktika laiemat ajaloolist tausta ja analüüsitakse ravimtaimede omanimetuste asendumist õigete nimetustega ning selle mõju taimepärimuse lähtaluse muutumisele

  11. Valgevene kultuuriuurijad soovivad Eesti Kirjandusmuuseumi abil jõuda euroopalikku teadusruumi / Renata Sõukand

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Sõukand, Renata, 1974-

    2015-01-01

    Valgevene Teaduste Akadeemia Kultuuri, Keele ja Kirjanduse Instituudi kultuuriuurijad Eesti Kirjandusmuuseumis 16.-20. nov. 2015; 19. nov. toimus ühine teadusaseminar "Folkloori uurimise perspektiivid"

  12. Sõja kunst ja kunsti sõda / Renata Salecl ; tõlk. Jan Kaus

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Salecl, Renata

    2000-01-01

    Autor võtab tänapäeva sõdu ja kunste kui sfääre, mille puhul saab esile tõsta ühist probleemi, mis puudutab kaasaegse ühiskonna subjektiivsuse loomust ning keskendub rahutuse küsimusele. Näited kunstist. Sõda Bosnias on inspireerinud J. Holzerit, M. Abramovici jt.

  13. Sõja kunst ja kunsti sõda / Renata Salecl ; tõlk. Jan Kaus

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Salecl, Renata

    2000-01-01

    Autor võtab tänapäeva sõdu ja kunste kui sfääre, mille puhul saab esile tõsta ühist probleemi, mis puudutab kaasaegse ühiskonna subjektiivsuse loomust ning keskendub rahutuse küsimusele. Näited kunstist. Sõda Bosnias on inspireerinud J. Holzerit, M. Abramovici jt.

  14. Omanimetus või õige nimetus? Eestlaste ravimtaimetundmise alustest / Raivo Kalle, Renata Sõukand

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kalle, Raivo, 1976-

    2011-01-01

    Käsitletakse Eestis kasvavate taimede nimetamise praktika laiemat ajaloolist tausta ja analüüsitakse ravimtaimede omanimetuste asendumist õigete nimetustega ning selle mõju taimepärimuse lähtaluse muutumisele

  15. Atomic memory access hardware implementations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Jung Ho; Erez, Mattan; Dally, William J

    2015-02-17

    Atomic memory access requests are handled using a variety of systems and methods. According to one example method, a data-processing circuit having an address-request generator that issues requests to a common memory implements a method of processing the requests using a memory-access intervention circuit coupled between the generator and the common memory. The method identifies a current atomic-memory access request from a plurality of memory access requests. A data set is stored that corresponds to the current atomic-memory access request in a data storage circuit within the intervention circuit. It is determined whether the current atomic-memory access request corresponds to at least one previously-stored atomic-memory access request. In response to determining correspondence, the current request is implemented by retrieving data from the common memory. The data is modified in response to the current request and at least one other access request in the memory-access intervention circuit.

  16. Implicit Memory in Multiple Sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Latchford

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available A number of neuropsychological studies have revealed that memory problems are relatively common in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS. It may be useful to compare MS with conditions such as Huntington's disease (HD, which have been referred to as subcortical dementia. A characteristic of these conditions may be an impairment in implicit (unconscious memory, but not in explicit (conscious memory. The present study examined the functioning of explicit and implicit memory in MS. Results showed that implicit memory was not significantly impaired in the MS subjects, and that they were impaired on recall but not recognition. A correlation was found between implicit memory performance and disability status in MS patients. Findings also suggest the possibility of long-term priming of implicit memory in the control subjects. The implications of these results are discussed.

  17. Flashbulb memories in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, G; Conway, M A; Maylor, E A

    1994-09-01

    In this study of age differences in flashbulb memory, groups of young and older adults gave detailed accounts of how they heard the news of the resignation of the British Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher. They were tested within 14 days after the event and again 11 months later. They also gave ratings for the encoding variables (surprise, emotion, importance, knowledge, and interest) and for frequency of rehearsal. Memories that met a strict criterion of consistency between the original and delayed responses were classified as flashbulb memories. Although 90% of young Ss had flashbulb memories, only 42% of the elderly met the criterion. The age groups also differed in the type of details remembered and in the relationship between the encoding and rehearsal variables and the occurrence of flashbulb memory. The age-related deficit in flashbulb memory is related to source amnesia and to a deficit in memory for context.

  18. Longevity pathways and memory ageing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilias eGkikas

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The ageing process has been associated with numerous pathologies at the cellular, tissue, and organ level. Decline or loss of brain functions, including learning and memory, is one of the most devastating and feared aspects of ageing. Learning and memory are fundamental processes by which animals adjust to environmental changes, evaluate various sensory signals based on context and experience, and make decisions to generate adaptive behaviours. Age-related memory impairment is an important phenotype of brain ageing. Understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying age-related memory impairment is crucial for the development of therapeutic strategies that may eventually lead to the development of drugs to combat memory loss. Studies in invertebrate animal models have taught us much about the physiology of ageing and its effects on learning and memory. In this review we survey recent progress relevant to conserved molecular pathways implicated in both ageing and memory formation and consolidation.

  19. Memory loss in Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahn, Holger

    2013-12-01

    Loss of memory is among the first symptoms reported by patients suffering from Alzheimer's disease (AD) and by their caretakers. Working memory and long-term declarative memory are affected early during the course of the disease. The individual pattern of impaired memory functions correlates with parameters of structural or functional brain integrity. AD pathology interferes with the formation of memories from the molecular level to the framework of neural networks. The investigation of AD memory loss helps to identify the involved neural structures, such as the default mode network, the influence of epigenetic and genetic factors, such as ApoE4 status, and evolutionary aspects of human cognition. Clinically, the analysis of memory assists the definition of AD subtypes, disease grading, and prognostic predictions. Despite new AD criteria that allow the earlier diagnosis of the disease by inclusion of biomarkers derived from cerebrospinal fluid or hippocampal volume analysis, neuropsychological testing remains at the core of AD diagnosis.

  20. Sleep deprivation and false memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frenda, Steven J; Patihis, Lawrence; Loftus, Elizabeth F; Lewis, Holly C; Fenn, Kimberly M

    2014-09-01

    Many studies have investigated factors that affect susceptibility to false memories. However, few have investigated the role of sleep deprivation in the formation of false memories, despite overwhelming evidence that sleep deprivation impairs cognitive function. We examined the relationship between self-reported sleep duration and false memories and the effect of 24 hr of total sleep deprivation on susceptibility to false memories. We found that under certain conditions, sleep deprivation can increase the risk of developing false memories. Specifically, sleep deprivation increased false memories in a misinformation task when participants were sleep deprived during event encoding, but did not have a significant effect when the deprivation occurred after event encoding. These experiments are the first to investigate the effect of sleep deprivation on susceptibility to false memories, which can have dire consequences.

  1. Hierarchical organization of cognitive memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishkin, M; Suzuki, W A; Gadian, D G; Vargha-Khadem, F

    1997-10-29

    This paper addresses the question of the organization of memory processes within the medial temporal lobe. Evidence obtained in patients with late-onset amnesia resulting from medial temporal pathology has given rise to two opposing interpretations of the effects of such damage on long-term cognitive memory. One view is that cognitive memory, including memory for both facts and events, is served in a unitary manner by the hippocampus and its surrounding cortices; the other is that the basic function affected in amnesia is event memory, the memory for factual material often showing substantial preservation. Recent findings in patients with amnesia resulting from relatively selective hippocampal damage sustained early in life suggest a possible reconciliation of the two views. The new findings suggest that the hippocampus may be especially important for event as opposed to fact memory, with the surrounding cortical areas contributing to both. Evidence from neuroanatomical and neurobehavioural studies in monkeys is presented in support of this proposal.

  2. Stress effects on working memory, explicit memory, and implicit memory for neutral and emotional stimuli in healthy men

    OpenAIRE

    Mathias Luethi; Beat Meier; Carmen Sandi

    2009-01-01

    Stress is a strong modulator of memory function. However, memory is not a unitary process and stress seems to exert different effects depending on the memory type under study. Here, we explored the impact of social stress on different aspects of human memory, including tests for explicit memory and working memory (for neutral materials), as well as implicit memory (perceptual priming, contextual priming and classical conditioning for emotional stimuli). A total of 35 young adult...

  3. Working memory and the memory distortion component of hindsight bias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvillo, Dustin P

    2012-01-01

    One component of hindsight bias is memory distortion: Individuals' recollections of their predictions are biased towards known outcomes. The present study examined the role of working memory in the memory distortion component of hindsight bias. Participants answered almanac-like questions, completed a measure of working memory capacity, were provided with the correct answers, and attempted to recollect their original judgements in two conditions: with and without a concurrent working memory load. Participants' recalled judgements were more biased by feedback when they recalled these judgements with a concurrent memory load and working memory capacity was negatively correlated with memory distortion. These findings are consistent with reconstruction accounts of the memory distortion component of hindsight bias and, more generally, with dual process theories of cognition. These results also relate the memory distortion component of hindsight bias with other cognitive errors, such as source monitoring errors, the belief bias in syllogistic reasoning and anchoring effects. Implications for the separate components view of hindsight bias are discussed.

  4. Method and apparatus for faulty memory utilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cher, Chen-Yong; Andrade Costa, Carlos H.; Park, Yoonho; Rosenburg, Bryan S.; Ryu, Kyung D.

    2016-04-19

    A method for faulty memory utilization in a memory system includes: obtaining information regarding memory health status of at least one memory page in the memory system; determining an error tolerance of the memory page when the information regarding memory health status indicates that a failure is predicted to occur in an area of the memory system affecting the memory page; initiating a migration of data stored in the memory page when it is determined that the data stored in the memory page is non-error-tolerant; notifying at least one application regarding a predicted operating system failure and/or a predicted application failure when it is determined that data stored in the memory page is non-error-tolerant and cannot be migrated; and notifying at least one application regarding the memory failure predicted to occur when it is determined that data stored in the memory page is error-tolerant.

  5. Plant electrical memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volkov, Alexander G; Carrell, Holly; Adesina, Tejumade; Markin, Vladislav S; Jovanov, Emil

    2008-07-01

    Electrical signaling, short-term memory and rapid closure of the carnivorous plant Dionaea muscipula Ellis (Venus flytrap) have been attracting the attention of researchers since the XIX century. We found that the electrical stimulus between a midrib and a lobe closes the Venus flytrap upper leaf without mechanical stimulation of trigger hairs. The closing time of Venus flytrap by electrical stimulation is the same as mechanically induced closing. Transmission of a single electrical charge between a lobe and the midrib causes closure of the trap and induces an electrical signal propagating between both lobes and midrib. The Venus flytrap can accumulate small subthreshold charges, and when the threshold value is reached, the trap closes. Repeated application of smaller charges demonstrates the summation of stimuli. The cumulative character of electrical stimuli points to the existence of short-term electrical memory in the Venus flytrap.

  6. Shape Memory Alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deexith Reddy

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Shape memory alloys (SMAs are metals that "remember" their original shapes. SMAs are useful for such things as actuators which are materials that "change shape, stiffness, position, natural frequency, and other mechanical characteristics in response to temperature or electromagnetic fields" The potential uses for SMAs especially as actuators have broadened the spectrum of many scientific fields. The study of the history and development of SMAs can provide an insight into a material involved in cutting-edge technology. The diverse applications for these metals have made them increasingly important and visible to the world. This paper presents the working of shape memory alloys , the phenomenon of super-elasticity and applications of these alloys.

  7. TED KYCIA MEMORIAL SYMPOSIUM.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LITTENBERG, L.; RUBINSTEIN, R.; SAMIOS, N.; LI, K.; GIACOMELLI, G.; MOCKETT, P.; CARROLL, A.; JOHNSON, R.; BRYMAN, D.; TIPPENS, B.

    2000-05-19

    On the afternoon of May 19 2000, a Memorial Seminar was held in the BNL physics Large Seminar Room to honor the memory of Ted Kyeia, a prominent particle physicist who had been a member of the BNL staff for 40 years. Although it was understandably a somewhat sad occasion because Ted was no longer with us, nevertheless there was much for his colleagues and friends to celebrate in recalling the outstanding contributions that he had made in those four decades. The Seminar speakers were all people who had worked with Ted during that period; each discussed one aspect of his career, but also included anecdotes and personal reminiscences. This booklet contains the Seminar program, listing the speakers, and also copies of transparencies of the talks (and one paper which was a later expansion of a talk); sadly, not all of the personal remarks appeared on the transparencies.

  8. Learning, memory, and synesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witthoft, Nathan; Winawer, Jonathan

    2013-03-01

    People with color-grapheme synesthesia experience color when viewing written letters or numerals, usually with a particular color evoked by each grapheme. Here, we report on data from 11 color-grapheme synesthetes who had startlingly similar color-grapheme pairings traceable to childhood toys containing colored letters. These are the first and only data to show learned synesthesia of this kind in more than a single individual. Whereas some researchers have focused on genetic and perceptual aspects of synesthesia, our results indicate that a complete explanation of synesthesia must also incorporate a central role for learning and memory. We argue that these two positions can be reconciled by thinking of synesthesia as the automatic retrieval of highly specific mnemonic associations, in which perceptual contents are brought to mind in a manner akin to mental imagery or the perceptual-reinstatement effects found in memory studies.

  9. Mediated Cultural Memories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frølunde, Lisbeth; Bjerregaard, Mette

    2013-01-01

    (A revised, full paper will be published in the journal Mediekultur, spring 2014) This paper explores two examples of narratives representing memories of acts of mass violence: Gzim Rewind (Sweden, 2011, director Knutte Wester) about 1990’s Kosovo, and The Act of Killing (Denmark, 2012, director...... Joshua Oppenheimer) about 1960’s Indonesia. The two films, in very different ways, focus on persons who tell about their involvement in acts of mass violence. Both films are told as "a film within a film" and experiment with “documentary” as genre. The two film projects and audiences are analyzed from...... perspectives of semiosis (meaning-making) in relation to the films as redefining genres and what sorts of meanings different audiences create about the films. Acts of mass violence, including murder on civilians, genocide, and wars, can be seen as seeds for memories of the involved persons and following...

  10. Skill and Working Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-04-30

    Bower (Ed.), The Psychology of Learning and-Motivation, Vol. 16, Academic Press, in press. 19. KEY WORDS (Continue on revees side It necoessar md...Spence & J.T. Spence (Eds.), The Psychology of Learning and Motivation: Advances in Research and Theory. New York: Academic Press, Inc., 1968...Cognition, 1981, 10, 17-23. Baddeley, A.D. & Hitch, G. Working Memory. In G.. Bower (Ed.), The Psychology of Learning and Motivation. : ,1974. Biederman

  11. Fuzzy associative memories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosko, Bart

    1991-01-01

    Mappings between fuzzy cubes are discussed. This level of abstraction provides a surprising and fruitful alternative to the propositional and predicate-calculas reasoning techniques used in expert systems. It allows one to reason with sets instead of propositions. Discussed here are fuzzy and neural function estimators, neural vs. fuzzy representation of structured knowledge, fuzzy vector-matrix multiplication, and fuzzy associative memory (FAM) system architecture.

  12. Coupled Neural Associative Memories

    OpenAIRE

    Karbasi, Amin; Salavati, Amir Hesam; Shokrollahi, Amin

    2013-01-01

    We propose a novel architecture to design a neural associative memory that is capable of learning a large number of patterns and recalling them later in presence of noise. It is based on dividing the neurons into local clusters and parallel plains, very similar to the architecture of the visual cortex of macaque brain. The common features of our proposed architecture with those of spatially-coupled codes enable us to show that the performance of such networks in eliminating noise is drastical...

  13. Representation in Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-06-07

    notion of the schema finds its way into modern cognitive psychology from the writings of Bartlett (1932) and from Piaget (1952). Throughout most of its...Anderson. Cognitive algebra: Information integration applied to social attribution. December, 1972. 32. Jean H. Handler and Nancy L. Stein. Recall...knowledge in memory. January, 1976. 56. David E. Rumelhart. Toward an interactive model of reading. March, 1976. 57. Jean M. Handler, Nancy S

  14. A Memorial Gathering

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    Bob Dobinson (1943-2004) Bob's friends and colleagues are warmly invited to join in a memorial gathering on Thursday 15th April 2004 at 11:00 hours in the CERN Council Chamber/ Salle de Conseil (Bldg 503 1st floor) Some colleagues will pay tribute to Bob's lifetime achievements and his contributions to past and present experiments. The gathering will conclude with refreshments in the Salle des Pas Perdus.

  15. Shape memory alloy actuator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varma, Venugopal K.

    2001-01-01

    An actuator for cycling between first and second positions includes a first shaped memory alloy (SMA) leg, a second SMA leg. At least one heating/cooling device is thermally connected to at least one of the legs, each heating/cooling device capable of simultaneously heating one leg while cooling the other leg. The heating/cooling devices can include thermoelectric and/or thermoionic elements.

  16. Hypnosis, memory and amnesia.

    OpenAIRE

    Kihlstrom, J F

    1997-01-01

    Hypnotized subjects respond to suggestions from the hypnotist for imaginative experiences involving alterations in perception and memory. Individual differences in hypnotizability are only weakly related to other forms of suggestibility. Neuropsychological speculations about hypnosis focus on the right hemisphere and/or the frontal lobes. Posthypnotic amnesia refers to subjects' difficulty in remembering, after hypnosis, the events and experiences that transpired while they were hypnotized. P...

  17. [From memories about war].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spivak, B A

    2010-04-01

    The article presents publication of memories of a military physician Spivak B.A., finished the First Kiev medical institute in 1941. The author held rank: from August 1941--chief of sanitary service of a separated battalion, April 1942-June 1945--chief of operation-bandaging unit of 246 SMSB SD. After war served in military treatment institutes on ranks of surgical profile, finished the military service in the rank of chief of surgical unit of Kovel garrison hospital in 1964.

  18. Solvent-driven temperature memory and multiple shape memory effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Rui; Guo, Jingkai; Safranski, David L; Nguyen, Thao D

    2015-05-28

    Thermally-activated temperature memory and multiple shape memory effects have been observed in amorphous polymers with a broad glass transition. In this work, we demonstrate that the same shape recovery behaviors can also be achieved through solvent absorption. We investigate the recovery behaviors of programmed Nafion membranes in various solvents and compare the solvent-driven and temperature-driven shape recovery response. The results show that the programming temperature and solvent type have a corresponding strong influence on the shape recovery behavior. Specifically, lower programming temperatures induce faster initial recovery rates and larger recovery, which is known as the temperature memory effect. The temperature memory effect can be used to achieve multi-staged and multiple shape recovery of specimens programmed at different temperatures. Different solvents can also induce different shape recovery, analogous to the temperature memory effect, and can also provide a mechanism for multi-staged and multiple shape memory recovery.

  19. Antiferroelectric Shape Memory Ceramics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenji Uchino

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Antiferroelectrics (AFE can exhibit a “shape memory function controllable by electric field”, with huge isotropic volumetric expansion (0.26% associated with the AFE to Ferroelectric (FE phase transformation. Small inverse electric field application can realize the original AFE phase. The response speed is quick (2.5 ms. In the Pb0.99Nb0.02[(Zr0.6Sn0.41-yTiy]0.98O3 (PNZST system, the shape memory function is observed in the intermediate range between high temperature AFE and low temperature FE, or low Ti-concentration AFE and high Ti-concentration FE in the composition. In the AFE multilayer actuators (MLAs, the crack is initiated in the center of a pair of internal electrodes under cyclic electric field, rather than the edge area of the internal electrodes in normal piezoelectric MLAs. The two-sublattice polarization coupling model is proposed to explain: (1 isotropic volume expansion during the AFE-FE transformation; and (2 piezoelectric anisotropy. We introduce latching relays and mechanical clampers as possible unique applications of shape memory ceramics.

  20. Dielectric elastomer memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Benjamin M.; McKay, Thomas G.; Xie, Sheng Q.; Calius, Emilio P.; Anderson, Iain A.

    2011-04-01

    Life shows us that the distribution of intelligence throughout flexible muscular networks is a highly successful solution to a wide range of challenges, for example: human hearts, octopi, or even starfish. Recreating this success in engineered systems requires soft actuator technologies with embedded sensing and intelligence. Dielectric Elastomer Actuator(s) (DEA) are promising due to their large stresses and strains, as well as quiet flexible multimodal operation. Recently dielectric elastomer devices were presented with built in sensor, driver, and logic capability enabled by a new concept called the Dielectric Elastomer Switch(es) (DES). DES use electrode piezoresistivity to control the charge on DEA and enable the distribution of intelligence throughout a DEA device. In this paper we advance the capabilities of DES further to form volatile memory elements. A set reset flip-flop with inverted reset line was developed based on DES and DEA. With a 3200V supply the flip-flop behaved appropriately and demonstrated the creation of dielectric elastomer memory capable of changing state in response to 1 second long set and reset pulses. This memory opens up applications such as oscillator, de-bounce, timing, and sequential logic circuits; all of which could be distributed throughout biomimetic actuator arrays. Future work will include miniaturisation to improve response speed, implementation into more complex circuits, and investigation of longer lasting and more sensitive switching materials.

  1. Sleep loss produces false memories.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne Diekelmann

    Full Text Available People sometimes claim with high confidence to remember events that in fact never happened, typically due to strong semantic associations with actually encoded events. Sleep is known to provide optimal neurobiological conditions for consolidation of memories for long-term storage, whereas sleep deprivation acutely impairs retrieval of stored memories. Here, focusing on the role of sleep-related memory processes, we tested whether false memories can be created (a as enduring memory representations due to a consolidation-associated reorganization of new memory representations during post-learning sleep and/or (b as an acute retrieval-related phenomenon induced by sleep deprivation at memory testing. According to the Deese, Roediger, McDermott (DRM false memory paradigm, subjects learned lists of semantically associated words (e.g., "night", "dark", "coal",..., lacking the strongest common associate or theme word (here: "black". Subjects either slept or stayed awake immediately after learning, and they were either sleep deprived or not at recognition testing 9, 33, or 44 hours after learning. Sleep deprivation at retrieval, but not sleep following learning, critically enhanced false memories of theme words. This effect was abolished by caffeine administration prior to retrieval, indicating that adenosinergic mechanisms can contribute to the generation of false memories associated with sleep loss.

  2. Cancer immunotherapy and immunological memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murata, Kenji; Tsukahara, Tomohide; Torigoe, Toshihiko

    2016-01-01

      Human immunological memory is the key distinguishing hallmark of the adaptive immune system and plays an important role in the prevention of morbidity and the severity of infection. The differentiation system of T cell memory has been clarified using mouse models. However, the human T cell memory system has great diversity induced by natural antigens derived from many pathogens and tumor cells throughout life, and profoundly differs from the mouse memory system constructed using artificial antigens and transgenic T cells. We believe that only human studies can elucidate the human immune system. The importance of immunological memory in cancer immunotherapy has been pointed out, and the trafficking properties and long-lasting anti-tumor capacity of memory T cells play a crucial role in the control of malignant tumors. Adoptive cell transfer of less differentiated T cells has consistently demonstrated superior anti-tumor capacity relative to more differentiated T cells. Therefore, a human T cell population with the characteristics of stem cell memory is thought to be attractive for peptide vaccination and adoptive cell transfer. A novel human memory T cell population that we have identified is closer to the naive state than previous memory T cells in the T cell differentiation lineage, and has the characteristics of stem-like chemoresistance. Here we introduce this novel population and describe the fundamentals of immunological memory in cancer immunotherapy.

  3. Unifying Memory and Database Transactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Ricardo J.; Lourenço, João M.

    Software Transactional Memory is a concurrency control technique gaining increasing popularity, as it provides high-level concurrency control constructs and eases the development of highly multi-threaded applications. But this easiness comes at the expense of restricting the operations that can be executed within a memory transaction, and operations such as terminal and file I/O are either not allowed or incur in serious performance penalties. Database I/O is another example of operations that usually are not allowed within a memory transaction. This paper proposes to combine memory and database transactions in a single unified model, benefiting from the ACID properties of the database transactions and from the speed of main memory data processing. The new unified model covers, without differentiating, both memory and database operations. Thus, the users are allowed to freely intertwine memory and database accesses within the same transaction, knowing that the memory and database contents will always remain consistent and that the transaction will atomically abort or commit the operations in both memory and database. This approach allows to increase the granularity of the in-memory atomic actions and hence, simplifies the reasoning about them.

  4. The evolution of episodic memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Timothy A.; Fortin, Norbert J.

    2013-01-01

    One prominent view holds that episodic memory emerged recently in humans and lacks a “(neo)Darwinian evolution” [Tulving E (2002) Annu Rev Psychol 53:1–25]. Here, we review evidence supporting the alternative perspective that episodic memory has a long evolutionary history. We show that fundamental features of episodic memory capacity are present in mammals and birds and that the major brain regions responsible for episodic memory in humans have anatomical and functional homologs in other species. We propose that episodic memory capacity depends on a fundamental neural circuit that is similar across mammalian and avian species, suggesting that protoepisodic memory systems exist across amniotes and, possibly, all vertebrates. The implication is that episodic memory in diverse species may primarily be due to a shared underlying neural ancestry, rather than the result of evolutionary convergence. We also discuss potential advantages that episodic memory may offer, as well as species-specific divergences that have developed on top of the fundamental episodic memory architecture. We conclude by identifying possible time points for the emergence of episodic memory in evolution, to help guide further research in this area. PMID:23754432

  5. Investigating Memory Development in Children and Infantile Amnesia in Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazemi Tari, Somayeh

    2008-01-01

    Although many researchers have worked on memory development, still little is known about what develops in memory development. When one reviews the literature about memory, she encounters many types of memories such as short term vs. long term memory, working memory, explicit vs. implicit memory, trans-saccadic memory, autobiographical memory,…

  6. Dreams are made of memories, but maybe not for memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blagrove, Mark; Ruby, Perrine; Eichenlaub, Jean-Baptiste

    2013-12-01

    Llewellyn's claim that rapid eye movement (REM) dream imagery may be related to the processes involved in memory consolidation during sleep is plausible. However, whereas there is voluntary and deliberate intention behind the construction of images in the ancient art of memory (AAOM) method, there is a lack of intentionality in producing dream images. The memory for dreams is also fragile, and dependent on encoding once awake.

  7. Electrophysiological measures of episodic memory control and memory retrieval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilding, E L; Herron, J E

    2006-10-01

    Event-related potentials (ERPs) index processes that occur before, during and after retrieval of information from episodic memory. In this selective review we provide a loose theoretical framework within which retrieval processes operating at these different stages can be considered. We go on to describe how ERPs have been employed in order to index processes operating at each of these stages. These data have contributed to current understanding of the processes that are engaged around the time of episodic memory retrieval, and also illustrate the potential that ERPs have for understanding in detail how memory retrieval processes changes in populations with memory impairments.

  8. Immune memory, immune oblivion: a lesson from Funes the memorious.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuman, Yair

    2007-01-01

    We commonly think of the immune system as having a memory. However, memory is always accompanied by a complementary process of oblivion. Is there immune oblivion? In this theoretical paper, I address this question and suggest that oblivion is an integral aspect of memorization. In this context, I suggest that immune memory is an orchestration of reversible and irreversible processes of biological computation through feedback loops. Drawing on the linguistic metaphor, I inquire into the implications of this idea for a better understanding of immune memory and immune deficiency among the elderly.

  9. Sleep enhances false memories depending on general memory performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diekelmann, Susanne; Born, Jan; Wagner, Ullrich

    2010-04-02

    Memory is subject to dynamic changes, sometimes giving rise to the formation of false memories due to biased processes of consolidation or retrieval. Sleep is known to benefit memory consolidation through an active reorganization of representations whereas acute sleep deprivation impairs retrieval functions. Here, we investigated whether sleep after learning and sleep deprivation at retrieval enhance the generation of false memories in a free recall test. According to the Deese, Roediger, McDermott (DRM) false memory paradigm, subjects learned lists of semantically associated words (e.g., "night", "dark", "coal", etc.), lacking the strongest common associate or theme word (here: "black"). Free recall was tested after 9h following a night of sleep, a night of wakefulness (sleep deprivation) or daytime wakefulness. Compared with memory performance after a retention period of daytime wakefulness, both post-learning nocturnal sleep as well as acute sleep deprivation at retrieval significantly enhanced false recall of theme words. However, these effects were only observed in subjects with low general memory performance. These data point to two different ways in which sleep affects false memory generation through semantic generalization: one acts during consolidation on the memory trace per se, presumably by active reorganization of the trace in the post-learning sleep period. The other is related to the recovery function of sleep and affects cognitive control processes of retrieval. Both effects are unmasked when the material is relatively weakly encoded.

  10. Effects of suppressing negative memories on intrusions and autobiographical memory specificity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geraerts, Elke; Hauer, Beatrijs J. A.; Wessel, Ineke

    2010-01-01

    This study examines whether avoidance of negative memories results in intrusions as well as reduced memory specificity. Healthy participants suppressed memories of either a negative or a neutral autobiographical event. Individuals who suppressed negative memories tended to demonstrate smaller increa

  11. Effects of suppressing negative memories on intrusions and autobiographical memory specificity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geraerts, Elke; Hauer, Beatrijs J. A.; Wessel, Ineke

    2010-01-01

    This study examines whether avoidance of negative memories results in intrusions as well as reduced memory specificity. Healthy participants suppressed memories of either a negative or a neutral autobiographical event. Individuals who suppressed negative memories tended to demonstrate smaller increa

  12. The Agency of Memory Objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiegand, Frauke Katharina

    2016-01-01

    and international tourists’ photographs and notes, especially their visual encounters with the exhibition, are understood as participatory interactions in the course of memory work. The article’s aim is twofold: introducing an ANT-inspired methodology to the field of memory studies, and mapping a Sowetan memory......This article analyses the multifarious acts of cultural memory taking place in the small, almost hidden, exhibition space of the famous Regina Mundi Church in Soweto, South Africa, home to the photographic exhibition “The Story of Soweto.” Next to the photographs (1950-2010) by well-known apartheid...... of action, examining the idea that objects, such as images, that leave a trace can act as mediators of memory. Starting from visitors’ appropriations of the exhibition space, the essay sheds light on the different life cycles of memory objects, in particular images, and their diverse mediations. Domestic...

  13. Electrophysiological measures of familiarity memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mecklinger, Axel

    2006-10-01

    Event-related potentials are a valuable tool for the study of human memory function. This selective review provides a brief introduction in models of recognition memory and then describes how ERPs can be used to investigate familiarity memory, an acontextual form of remembering that can be distinguished from the recollection of detailed information of prior events. ERP studies on the mid-frontal old/new effect, the putative electrophysiological correlate of familiarity memory are reviewed. It will be illustrated how familiarity memory is reflected in this effect, how it can electrophysiologically be dissociated from other forms of memory and which brain systems mediate this form of remembering. Recent studies will be reviewed that illustrate that familiarity is not only restricted to single items but can also support the retrieval of associative information.

  14. Is memory for music special?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulkind, Matthew D

    2009-07-01

    Although psychologists since Hermann Ebbinghaus have studied memory, research in this area has focused on visual and verbal stimuli with little attention paid to music. This bias is surprising because of the ubiquity of music in human cultures across history as well as current cultural beliefs that memory for music is "special." This paper examines the question of whether memory for music is special by addressing two related questions: First, do cultural beliefs about the mnemonic power of music stand up to empirical test? Second, can theories designed to explain memory for non-musical stimuli be applied to musical stimuli? A review of the literature suggests that music is special in some circumstances but not others and that some theories designed to explain cognitive processing of linguistic stimuli apply reasonably well to musical stimuli. Thus, although the question of whether memory for music is special remains open, the unique structure of musical stimuli strongly suggests that memory for music is indeed special.

  15. Fault Tolerant External Memory Algorithms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Allan Grønlund; Brodal, Gerth Stølting; Mølhave, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    Algorithms dealing with massive data sets are usually designed for I/O-efficiency, often captured by the I/O model by Aggarwal and Vitter. Another aspect of dealing with massive data is how to deal with memory faults, e.g. captured by the adversary based faulty memory RAM by Finocchi and Italiano....... However, current fault tolerant algorithms do not scale beyond the internal memory. In this paper we investigate for the first time the connection between I/O-efficiency in the I/O model and fault tolerance in the faulty memory RAM, and we assume that both memory and disk are unreliable. We show a lower...... bound on the number of I/Os required for any deterministic dictionary that is resilient to memory faults. We design a static and a dynamic deterministic dictionary with optimal query performance as well as an optimal sorting algorithm and an optimal priority queue. Finally, we consider scenarios where...

  16. Dynamic neural systems enable adaptive, flexible memories.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kroes, M.C.W.; Fernandez, G.S.E.

    2012-01-01

    Almost all studies on memory formation have implicitly put forward a rather static view on memory. However, memories are not stable but sensitive to changes over time. Here we argue that memory alterations arise from the inherent predictive function of memory. Within this framework, we draw an

  17. Long memory and changing persistence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kruse, Robinson; Sibbertsen, Philipp

    We study the empirical behaviour of semi-parametric log-periodogram estimation for long memory models when the true process exhibits a change in persistence. Simulation results confirm theoretical arguments which suggest that evidence for long memory is likely to be found. A recently proposed test...... by Sibbertsen and Kruse (2009) is shown to exhibit noticeable power to discriminate between long memory and a structural change in autoregressive parameters....

  18. Memory transition between communicating agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena FELL

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available What happens to a memory when it has been externalised and embodied but has not reached its addressee yet? A letter that has been written but has not been read, a monument before it is unveiled or a Neolithic tool buried in the ground – all these objects harbour human memories engrained in their physicality; messages intended for those who will read the letter, admire the monument and hold the tool. According to Ilyenkov’s theory of objective idealism, the conscious and wilful input encoded in all manmade objects as the ‘ideal’ has an objective existence, independent from the author, but this existence lasts only while memories are shared between communicating parties. If all human minds were absent from the world for a period of time, the ‘ideal’, or memories, would cease to exist. They would spring back to existence, however, once humans re-entered the world. Ilyenkov’s analysis of memories existing outside an individual human consciousness is informative and thorough but, following his line of thought, we would have to accept an ontological gap in the process of memory acquisition, storage and transmission. If there is a period, following memory acquisition and preceding its transmission, when memories plainly do not exist, then each time a new reader, spectator or user perceives them, he or she must create the author’s memories ex nihilo. Bergson’s theory of duration and intuition can help us to resolve this paradox.This paper will explore the ontological characteristics of memory passage in communication taken at different stages of the process. There will be an indication of how the findings of this investigation could be applicable to concrete cases of memory transmission. In particular, this concerns intergenerational communication, technological memory, the use of digital devices and the Internet.

  19. Perception and Memory of Pictures

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-08-20

    altogether. His explanation for the efftct is similar to that proposed by Raijmakers and Shiffrin (1981) in the SAM model of memory : Items from... Atkinson , R. C., & Juola, J. E (1974). Search and decision processes in recognition memory . In D. H. Krantz et al. (Eds.), Contemporary Developments in...Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory , and Cognition, 12, 426-431. Raaijmakers, J. G. W, & Shiffrin , R. M. (1981). Search of

  20. Completely positive maps with memory

    CERN Document Server

    Daffer, S; Cresser, J D; McIver, J K; Daffer, Sonja; Wodkiewicz, Krzysztof; Cresser, James D.; Iver, John K. Mc

    2003-01-01

    The prevailing description for dissipative quantum dynamics is given by the Lindblad form of a Markovian master equation, used under the assumption that memory effects are negligible. However, in certain physical situations, the master equation is essentially of a non-Markovian nature. This paper examines master equations that possess a memory kernel, leading to a replacement of white noise by colored noise. The conditions under which this leads to a completely positive, trace-preserving map are discussed for an exponential memory kernel. A physical model that possesses such an exponential memory kernel is presented. This model contains a classical, fluctuating environment based on random telegraph signal stochastic variables.

  1. Fidelity of a Quantum Memory

    CERN Document Server

    Surmacz, K; Nunn, J; Waldermann, F C; Walmsley, I; Wang, Z

    2006-01-01

    We introduce a figure of merit for a quantum memory which measures the preservation of entanglement between a qubit stored in and retrieved from the memory and an auxiliary qubit. We consider a general quantum memory system consisting of a medium of two level absorbers, with the qubit to be stored encoded in a single photon. We derive an analytic expression for our figure of merit taking into account Gaussian fluctuations in the Hamiltonian parameters, which for example model inhomogeneous broadening and storage time dephasing. Finally we specialize to the case of an atomic quantum memory where fluctuations arise predominantly from Doppler broadening and motional dephasing.

  2. Distributed-memory matrix computations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balle, Susanne Mølleskov

    1995-01-01

    in these algorithms is that many scientific applications rely heavily on the performance of the involved dense linear algebra building blocks. Even though we consider the distributed-memory as well as the shared-memory programming paradigm, the major part of the thesis is dedicated to distributed-memory architectures....... We emphasize distributed-memory massively parallel computers - such as the Connection Machines model CM-200 and model CM-5/CM-5E - available to us at UNI-C and at Thinking Machines Corporation. The CM-200 was at the time this project started one of the few existing massively parallel computers...

  3. Memory mechanisms supporting syntactic comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waters, Gloria

    2013-01-01

    Efforts to characterize the memory system that supports sentence comprehension have historically drawn extensively on short-term memory as a source of mechanisms that might apply to sentences. The focus of these efforts has changed significantly in the past decade. As a result of changes in models of short-term working memory (ST-WM) and developments in models of sentence comprehension, the effort to relate entire components of an ST-WM system, such as those in the model developed by Baddeley (Nature Reviews Neuroscience 4: 829–839, 2003) to sentence comprehension has largely been replaced by an effort to relate more specific mechanisms found in modern models of ST-WM to memory processes that support one aspect of sentence comprehension—the assignment of syntactic structure (parsing) and its use in determining sentence meaning (interpretation) during sentence comprehension. In this article, we present the historical background to recent studies of the memory mechanisms that support parsing and interpretation and review recent research into this relation. We argue that the results of this research do not converge on a set of mechanisms derived from ST-WM that apply to parsing and interpretation. We argue that the memory mechanisms supporting parsing and interpretation have features that characterize another memory system that has been postulated to account for skilled performance—long-term working memory. We propose a model of the relation of different aspects of parsing and interpretation to ST-WM and long-term working memory. PMID:23319178

  4. Gender differences in episodic memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herlitz, A; Nilsson, L G; Bäckman, L

    1997-11-01

    The relationship between gender and memory has been largely neglected by research, despite occasional studies reporting gender differences in episodic memory performance. The present study examined potential gender differences in episodic memory, semantic memory, primary memory, and priming. Five hundred thirty women and 470 men, randomly sampled from the city of Umeå, Sweden, 35-80 years of age, participated in the study. There were no differences between men and women with regard to age or education, or on a measure of global intellectual functioning. As has been demonstrated previously, men out performed women on a visuospatial task and women outperformed men on tests of verbal fluency. In addition, the results demonstrated that women consistently performed at a higher level than did men on the episodic memory tasks, although there were no differences between men and women on the tasks assessing semantic memory, primary memory, or priming. The women's higher level of performance on the episodic memory tasks could not be fully explained by their higher verbal ability.

  5. Acute exercise improves motor memory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skriver, Kasper Christen; Roig, Marc; Lundbye-Jensen, Jesper

    2014-01-01

    We have recently shown that a single bout of acute cardiovascular exercise improves motor skill learning through an optimization of long-term motor memory. Here we expand this previous finding, to explore potential exercise-related biomarkers and their association with measures of motor memory...... practice whereas lactate correlated with better retention 1 hour as well as 24 hours and 7 days after practice. Thus, improvements in motor skill acquisition and retention induced by acute cardiovascular exercise are associated with increased concentrations of biomarkers involved in memory and learning...... processes. More mechanistic studies are required to elucidate the specific role of each biomarker in the formation of motor memory....

  6. Molecular control of memory in nematode Caenorhabditis elegans

    OpenAIRE

    Ye, Hua-Yue; Ye, Bo-Ping; Wang, Da-Yong

    2008-01-01

    Model invertebrate organism Caenorhabditis elegans has become an ideal model to unravel the complex processes of memory. C. elegans has three simple forms of memory: memory for thermosensation, memory for chemosensation, and memory for mechanosensation. In the form of memory for mechanosensation, short-term memory, intermediate-term memory, and long-term memory have been extensively studied. The short-term memory and intermediate-term memory may occur in the presynaptic sensory neurons, where...

  7. Memory, Mind and Language

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Memory, Mind and Language celebrates the 30th anniversary of the The Nordic Association of Linguists (NAL) and the main contribution is the history of those first 30 years. The book is also an overview of trends and basic problems in linguistics in the first decennium of the 21st century. It takes...... up a number of topics in the field, among them the question of synchrony vs. diachrony in the language sciences, and issues of how to investigate the relationship between language, brain and mind. The book proposes some preliminary solutions to that problem, and, most significantly, it touches...

  8. Nanoparticle shuttle memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zettl, Alex Karlwalter [Kensington, CA

    2012-03-06

    A device for storing data using nanoparticle shuttle memory having a nanotube. The nanotube has a first end and a second end. A first electrode is electrically connected to the first end of the nanotube. A second electrode is electrically connected to the second end of the nanotube. The nanotube has an enclosed nanoparticle shuttle. A switched voltage source is electrically connected to the first electrode and the second electrode, whereby a voltage may be controllably applied across the nanotube. A resistance meter is also connected to the first electrode and the second electrode, whereby the electrical resistance across the nanotube can be determined.

  9. Models of wave memory

    CERN Document Server

    Kashchenko, Serguey

    2015-01-01

    This monograph examines in detail models of neural systems described by delay-differential equations. Each element of the medium (neuron) is an oscillator that generates, in standalone mode, short impulses also known as spikes. The book discusses models of synaptic interaction between neurons, which lead to complex oscillatory modes in the system. In addition, it presents a solution to the problem of choosing the parameters of interaction in order to obtain attractors with predetermined structure. These attractors are represented as images encoded in the form of autowaves (wave memory). The target audience primarily comprises researchers and experts in the field, but it will also be beneficial for graduate students.

  10. Memorial Center - Milwaukee

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saarinen, Eero

    1959-12-01

    Full Text Available El Memorial Center de Milwaukee ha sido erigido en la parte más alta de la ciudad, coronando una enorme colina que domina ampliamente el conjunto urbano y un hermoso lago. Su emplazamiento, al final de un puente de grandes dimensiones, exigía que fuese tratado en armonía con éste, habiéndose adoptado por ello el sistema de colocar la edificación reposando sobre una planta totalmente diáfana que deja vista la estructura, cuyos esbeltos soportes dan sensación de monumentalidad.

  11. Memory Code©

    OpenAIRE

    Gómez-Londoño, Ana María

    2013-01-01

    El proyecto Memory Code© pertenece al ámbito de las cosmopolíticas del arte contemporáneo porque se ocupa de una relación singular de lo humano (mujer) con lo no-humano (caballo y técnicas)5. Específicamente enmarca el estudio del Binomio Ecuestre: caballo-jinete en el marco de una relación afectiva y de adiestramiento (doma clásica). Dicha relación estuvo compuesta por los siguientes operadores : a) Elementos de con-tacto entre jinete-caballo: espuelas, estribus, fustas b) Sistemas rítmicos ...

  12. A memory to remember

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡石柱

    2016-01-01

    "When the dawn comes,tonight will be a memory,too.And a new day will begin."安德鲁·韦伯的经典歌剧《猫》,用艾略特的诗歌改编成这首《Memory》,曾经风华绝代的Grizabella,如今落魄潦倒,她在歌中唱出记忆中往昔的美好,以及对自己坎坷际遇的理解,最终获得登上天堂重生的机会。

  13. Relations between subjective evaluations of memory and objective memory performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmidt, IW; Berg, IJ; Deelman, BG

    2001-01-01

    Several explanations for the weak relations between subjective memory judgments and objective memory performance were investigated in two groups of normal older adults. Group 1 sampled a general population (mean age 61.6 yr., range 46-891, while Group 2 sampled subjects who were on a waiting Est for

  14. Remaking Memories: Reconsolidation Updates Positively Motivated Spatial Memory in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Bethany; Bukoski, Elizabeth; Nadel, Lynn; Fellous, Jean-Marc

    2012-01-01

    There is strong evidence that reactivation of a memory returns it to a labile state, initiating a restabilization process termed reconsolidation, which allows for updating of the memory. In this study we investigated reactivation-dependent updating using a new positively motivated spatial task in rodents that was designed specifically to model a…

  15. On the Susceptibility of Adaptive Memory to False Memory Illusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, Mark L.; Derbish, Mary H.

    2010-01-01

    Previous research has shown that survival-related processing of word lists enhances retention for that material. However, the claim that survival-related memories are more accurate has only been examined when true recall and recognition of neutral material has been measured. In the current experiments, we examined the adaptive memory superiority…

  16. Memory in Architecture: Contemporary memorial projects and their predecessors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tanovic, S.

    2015-01-01

    This research is focused on several case studies, all contemporary architectural projects, dedicated to commemoration of different atrocities. The process of creating a memorial is bound up with a wide range of influences and affects, like any architectural project. However, building a memorial is f

  17. Memory in autistic spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boucher, Jill; Mayes, Andrew; Bigham, Sally

    2012-05-01

    Behavioral evidence concerning memory in forms of high-functioning autism (HFA) and in moderately low-functioning autism (M-LFA) is reviewed and compared. Findings on M-LFA are sparse. However, it is provisionally concluded that memory profiles in HFA and M-LFA (relative to ability-matched controls) are similar but that declarative memory impairments are more extensive in M-LFA than in HFA. Specifically, both groups have diminished memory for emotion- or person-related stimuli. Regarding memory for nonsocial stimuli, both groups probably have mental-age-appropriate nondeclarative memory, and within declarative memory, both groups have mental-age-appropriate immediate free recall of within-span or supraspan lists of unrelated items, as well as cued recall and paired associate learning. By contrast, recognition is largely unimpaired in HFA but moderately impaired in M-LFA, and free recall of meaningful or structured stimuli is moderately impaired in HFA but more severely impaired in M-LFA. Theoretical explanations of data on declarative memory in HFA identify problems in the integrative processing, or the consolidation and storage, of complex stimuli or a specific problem of recollection. Proposed neural substrates include the following: disconnectivity of primary sensory and association areas; dysfunctions of medial prefrontal cortex, hippocampus, or posterior parietal lobe; or combinations of these associated with neural disconnectivity. Hypothetically, perirhinal dysfunction might explain the more extensive declarative memory impairments in M-LFA. Foreseeable consequences of uneven memory abilities in HFA and M-LFA are outlined, including possible effects on language and learning in M-LFA. Finally, priorities for future research are identified, highlighting the urgent need for research on memory in lower functioning individuals.

  18. Working and strategic memory deficits in schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, M.; Gabrieli, J. D.; Stebbins, G. T.; Sullivan, E. V.

    1998-01-01

    Working memory and its contribution to performance on strategic memory tests in schizophrenia were studied. Patients (n = 18) and control participants (n = 15), all men, received tests of immediate memory (forward digit span), working memory (listening, computation, and backward digit span), and long-term strategic (free recall, temporal order, and self-ordered pointing) and nonstrategic (recognition) memory. Schizophrenia patients performed worse on all tests. Education, verbal intelligence, and immediate memory capacity did not account for deficits in working memory in schizophrenia patients. Reduced working memory capacity accounted for group differences in strategic memory but not in recognition memory. Working memory impairment may be central to the profile of impaired cognitive performance in schizophrenia and is consistent with hypothesized frontal lobe dysfunction associated with this disease. Additional medial-temporal dysfunction may account for the recognition memory deficit.

  19. Development scenarios for organizational memory information systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijnhoven, Alphonsus B.J.M.

    1999-01-01

    Well-managed organizational memories have been emphasized in the recent management literature as important sources for business success. Organizational memory infonnation systems (OMIS) have been conceptualized as a framework for information technologies to support these organizational memories.

  20. Development scenarios for organizational memory information systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijnhoven, Alphonsus B.J.M.

    1999-01-01

    Well-managed organizational memories have been emphasized in the recent management literature as important sources for business success. Organizational memory infonnation systems (OMIS) have been conceptualized as a framework for information technologies to support these organizational memories. OMI

  1. Multistate Resistive Switching Memory for Synaptic Memory Applications

    KAUST Repository

    Hota, Mrinal Kanti

    2016-07-12

    Reproducible low bias bipolar resistive switching memory in HfZnOx based memristors is reported. The modification of the concentration of oxygen vacancies in the ternary oxide film, which is facilitated by adding ZnO into HfO2, results in improved memory operation by the ternary oxide compared to the single binary oxides. A controlled multistate memory operation is achieved by controlling current compliance and RESET stop voltages. A high DC cyclic stability up to 400 cycles in the multistate memory performance is observed. Conventional synaptic operation in terms of potentiation, depression plasticity, and Ebbinghaus forgetting process are also studied. The memory mechanism is shown to originate from the migration of the oxygen vacancies and modulation of the interfacial layers. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim

  2. An Experimental Analysis of Memory Processing

    OpenAIRE

    Wright, Anthony A.

    2007-01-01

    Rhesus monkeys were trained and tested in visual and auditory list-memory tasks with sequences of four travel pictures or four natural/environmental sounds followed by single test items. Acquisitions of the visual list-memory task are presented. Visual recency (last item) memory diminished with retention delay, and primacy (first item) memory strengthened. Capuchin monkeys, pigeons, and humans showed similar visual-memory changes. Rhesus learned an auditory memory task and showed octave gener...

  3. Magnonic Holographic Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khitun, Alexander; Kozhevnikov, Alexander; Gertz, Frederick; Filimonov, Yuri

    2015-03-01

    Collective oscillation of spins in magnetic lattice known as spin waves (magnons) possess relatively long coherence length at room temperature, which makes it possible to build sub-micrometer scale holographic devices similar to the devices developed in optics. In this work, we present a prototype 2-bit magnonic holographic memory. The memory consists of the double-cross waveguide structure made of Y3Fe2(FeO4)3 with magnets placed on the top of waveguide junctions. Information is encoded in the orientation of the magnets, while the read-out is accomplished by the spin waves generated by the micro-antennas placed on the edges of the waveguides. The interference pattern produced by multiple spin waves makes it possible to build a unique holographic image of the magnetic structure and recognize the state of the each magnet. The development of magnonic holographic devices opens a new horizon for building scalable holographic devices compatible with conventional electronic devices. This work was supported in part by the FAME Center, one of six centers of STARnet, a Semiconductor Research Corporation program sponsored by MARCO and DARPA and by the National Science Foundation under the NEB2020 Grant ECCS-1124714.

  4. Morphological associative memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritter, G X; Sussner, P; Diza-de-Leon, J L

    1998-01-01

    The theory of artificial neural networks has been successfully applied to a wide variety of pattern recognition problems. In this theory, the first step in computing the next state of a neuron or in performing the next layer neural network computation involves the linear operation of multiplying neural values by their synaptic strengths and adding the results. A nonlinear activation function usually follows the linear operation in order to provide for nonlinearity of the network and set the next state of the neuron. In this paper we introduce a novel class of artificial neural networks, called morphological neural networks, in which the operations of multiplication and addition are replaced by addition and maximum (or minimum), respectively. By taking the maximum (or minimum) of sums instead of the sum of products, morphological network computation is nonlinear before possible application of a nonlinear activation function. As a consequence, the properties of morphological neural networks are drastically different than those of traditional neural network models. The main emphasis of the research presented here is on morphological associative memories. We examine the computing and storage capabilities of morphological associative memories and discuss differences between morphological models and traditional semilinear models such as the Hopfield net.

  5. The memory loophole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanahan, Daniel

    2008-05-01

    The memory loophole supposes that the measurement of an entangled pair is influenced by the measurements of earlier pairs in the same run of measurements. To assert the memory loophole is thus to deny that measurement is intrinsically random. It is argued that measurement might instead involve a process of recovery and equilibrium in the measuring apparatus akin to that described in thermodynamics by Le Chatelier's principle. The predictions of quantum mechanics would then arise from conservation of the measured property in the combined system of apparatus and measured ensemble. Measurement would be consistent with classical laws of conservation, not simply in the classical limit of large numbers, but whatever the size of the ensemble. However variances from quantum mechanical predictions would be self-correcting and centripetal, rather than Markovian and increasing as under the standard theory. Entanglement correlations would persist, not because the entangled particles act in concert (which would entail nonlocality), but because the measurements of the particles were influenced by the one fluctuating state of imbalance in the process of measurement.

  6. Optical Bidirectional Associative Memories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosko, Bart; Guest, Clark

    1987-06-01

    Four optical implementations of bidirectional associative memories (BAMs) are presented. BAMs are heteroassociative content addressable memories (CAMs). A BAM stores the m binary associations (A1, B1), ..., (Am, Bm) , where A is a point in the Boolean n-cube and B is a point in the Boolean p-cube. A is a neural network of n bivalent or continuous neurons ai; B is a network of p bivalent or continuous neurons bi. The fixed synaptic connections between the A and B networks are represented by some n-by-p real matrix M. Bidirectionality, forward and backward information flow, in neural nets produces two-way associative search for the nearest stored pair (Ai, Bi) to an input key. Every matrix is a bidirectionally stable hetero-associative CAM for boh bivalent and continuous networks. This generalizes the well-known unidirectional stability for autoassociative networks with square symmetric M. When the BAM neurons are activated, the network quickly evolves to a stable state of two-pattern reverberation, or pseudo-adaptive resonance. The stable reverberation corresponds to a system energy local minimum. Heteroassociative pairs (Ai, Bi) are encoded in a BAM M by summing bipolar correlation matrices, M = X1T Y1 + ... + XmT Ym , where Xi (Yi) is the bipolar version of Ai (Bi), with -1s replacing Os. the BAM storage capacity for reliable recall is roughly m reflection hologram, and a transmission hologram.

  7. Magnetic shape memory fatigue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heczko, Oleg; Straka, Ladislav; Soderberg, Outi; Hannula, Simo-Pekka

    2005-05-01

    Single crystal specimens of having compositions close to Ni2MnGa and exhibiting magnetic shape memory effect (MSME) were tested in a rotating magnetic field at a frequency of 5.7 Hz. The applied magnetic field, about 0.7 T was strong enough to induce the MSME. Test of one specimen was discontinued because of the structural failure of the specimens after 0.5 million cycles. Second specimen was tested up to 37 millions cycles. The evolution of the martensitic morphology and crack propagation were observed by optical microscopy. To characterize the magnetic shape memory behavior the simultaneous measurements of the field-induced strain and magnetization as a function of the magnetic field and external load was used. The full MSM effect, about 6% obtained prior the test, decreased to about 3% during the first million cycles. This value stayed then approximately constant up to 37 millions cycles of rotating magnetic field. The magnetic field needed to initiate the MSME increased. The observed behavior is discussed within the framework of observed martensitic band structure in the specimens and the existence of initial cracks and other obstacles for martensitic twin boundary motion.

  8. Memory of Power Transformed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalina Maleska

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This essay is focused on the phenomenon of power. Special attention is paid to the past understanding, research and explanation of what power is, and how it has been understood throughout history. Traditionally, power has referred to authority, influence, control. The research of literary works, however, has led me to the realization that the notion of power is understood in different terms in literature in comparison to how it is explained in philosophy and the social sciences. In order to contribute to the broader understanding of power from a literary point of view, this essay examines many questions concerning this phenomenon, such as: how does the past understanding of power determine how it is accepted and interpreted in the present? How are the success of the present efforts and initiatives affected by the memory of power? The essay attempts to show that the memory of the notion of power is not and cannot be fixed and given once and for all. Therefore, the literary examples provided demonstrate how the definitions of power given in the past are transformed and transfigured by present literary works, which show how we may “forget” what we know about this phenomenon, and define it from a new perspective.

  9. Memory Strategies in Writing Melodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louhivuori, Jukka

    1999-01-01

    Examines knowledge about the structure of memory in order to understand the process of writing melodies. Focuses on a study of 25 students who were asked to write two melodies using a computer. Presents the results and offers an example of the function of memory in writing melodies. (CMK)

  10. Shape memory alloy thaw sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahinpoor, Mohsen; Martinez, David R.

    1998-01-01

    A sensor permanently indicates that it has been exposed to temperatures exceeding a critical temperature for a predetermined time period. An element of the sensor made from shape memory alloy changes shape when exposed, even temporarily, to temperatures above the Austenitic temperature of the shape memory alloy. The shape change of the SMA element causes the sensor to change between two readily distinguishable states.

  11. Making Connections with Memory Boxes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whatley, April

    2000-01-01

    Addresses the use of children's literature within the social studies classroom on the topic of memory boxes. Includes discussions of four books: (1) "The Littlest Angel" (Charles Tazewell); (2) "The Hundred Penny Box" (Sharon Bell Mathis); (3) "Wilfrid Gordon McDonald Partridge" (Mem Fox); and (4) "The Memory Box" (Mary Bahr). (CMK)

  12. The formation of flashbulb memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conway, M A; Anderson, S J; Larsen, S F; Donnelly, C M; McDaniel, M A; McClelland, A G; Rawles, R E; Logie, R H

    1994-05-01

    A large group of subjects took part in a multinational test-retest study to investigate the formation of flashbulb (FB) memories for learning the news of the resignation of the British prime minister, Margaret Thatcher. Over 86% of the U.K. subjects were found to have FB memories nearly 1 year after the resignation; their memory reports were characterized by spontaneous, accurate, and full recall of event details, including minutiae. In contrast, less than 29% of the non-U.K. subjects had FB memories 1 year later; memory reports in this group were characterized by forgetting, reconstructive errors, and confabulatory responses. A causal analysis of secondary variables showed that the formation of FB memories was primarily associated with the level of importance attached to the event and level of affective response to the news. These findings lend some support to the study by R. Brown and Kulik (1977), who suggest that FB memories may constitute a class of autobiographical memories distinguished by some form of preferential encoding.

  13. Entorhinal cortex and consolidated memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takehara-Nishiuchi, Kaori

    2014-07-01

    The entorhinal cortex is thought to support rapid encoding of new associations by serving as an interface between the hippocampus and neocortical regions. Although the entorhinal-hippocampal interaction is undoubtedly essential for initial memory acquisition, the entorhinal cortex contributes to memory retrieval even after the hippocampus is no longer necessary. This suggests that during memory consolidation additional synaptic reinforcement may take place within the cortical network, which may change the connectivity of entorhinal cortex with cortical regions other than the hippocampus. Here, I outline behavioral and physiological findings which collectively suggest that memory consolidation involves the gradual strengthening of connection between the entorhinal cortex and the medial prefrontal/anterior cingulate cortex (mPFC/ACC), a region that may permanently store the learned association. This newly formed connection allows for close interaction between the entorhinal cortex and the mPFC/ACC, through which the mPFC/ACC gains access to neocortical regions that store the content of memory. Thus, the entorhinal cortex may serve as a gatekeeper of cortical memory network by selectively interacting either with the hippocampus or mPFC/ACC depending on the age of memory. This model provides a new framework for a modification of cortical memory network during systems consolidation, thereby adding a fresh dimension to future studies on its biological mechanism.

  14. Professional Memory and English Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarpey, Paul

    2009-01-01

    This article concerns the way that research into Professional Memory (PM) in English teaching might re-connect the school subject with constituencies--the individuals, communities and social values--it once served. By PM I mean the collective memories of a generation of English teachers which, when brought into conjunction with existing histories,…

  15. Learning and Memory in Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipsitt, Lewis P.

    1990-01-01

    Discusses important recent strides in the documentation and understanding of the infant's learning and memory capacity. Focuses on the psychobiology of learning, hedonic mediation of approach-avoidance and learned behavior, infant memory, and critical conditions of infancy and behavioral misadventures. (RJC)

  16. Optimal Foraging in Semantic Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hills, Thomas T.; Jones, Michael N.; Todd, Peter M.

    2012-01-01

    Do humans search in memory using dynamic local-to-global search strategies similar to those that animals use to forage between patches in space? If so, do their dynamic memory search policies correspond to optimal foraging strategies seen for spatial foraging? Results from a number of fields suggest these possibilities, including the shared…

  17. Narratives and Memory in Organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rowlinson, Michael; Casey, Andrea; Hansen, Per H.

    2014-01-01

    Organizations remember through narratives and storytelling. The articles in this Special Issue explore the interface between organization studies, memory studies, and historiography. They focus on the practices for organizational remembering. Taken together, the articles explore the similarities...... and differences between ethnographic and historical methods for studying memory in organizations, which represents a contribution to the historic turn in organization studies....

  18. In Memory of Mlassacre Victims

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    China's first National Memorial Day for Nanjing Massacre Victims was held on December 13, 2o14. Chinese President Xi Jinping and other Communist Party of China and state leaders were present at the ceremony held at the memorial hall for the massacre victims in Nanjing, diangsu Provinee.

  19. Output Interference in Recognition Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Criss, Amy H.; Malmberg, Kenneth J.; Shiffrin, Richard M.

    2011-01-01

    Dennis and Humphreys (2001) proposed that interference in recognition memory arises solely from the prior contexts of the test word: Interference does not arise from memory traces of other words (from events prior to the study list or on the study list, and regardless of similarity to the test item). We evaluate this model using output…

  20. Infant Memory for Musical Experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saffran, Jenny R.; Loman, Michelle M.; Robertson, Rachel R. W.

    2000-01-01

    Two experiments examined memory of 7-month-olds after 2-week retention interval for passages of two Mozart movements heard daily for 2 weeks. Results suggested that the infants retained familiarized music in long-term memory and that their listening preferences were affected by the extent to which familiar passages were removed from the musical…

  1. Interference and memory capacity limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endress, Ansgar D; Szabó, Szilárd

    2017-10-01

    Working memory (WM) is thought to have a fixed and limited capacity. However, the origins of these capacity limitations are debated, and generally attributed to active, attentional processes. Here, we show that the existence of interference among items in memory mathematically guarantees fixed and limited capacity limits under very general conditions, irrespective of any processing assumptions. Assuming that interference (a) increases with the number of interfering items and (b) brings memory performance to chance levels for large numbers of interfering items, capacity limits are a simple function of the relative influence of memorization and interference. In contrast, we show that time-based memory limitations do not lead to fixed memory capacity limitations that are independent of the timing properties of an experiment. We show that interference can mimic both slot-like and continuous resource-like memory limitations, suggesting that these types of memory performance might not be as different as commonly believed. We speculate that slot-like WM limitations might arise from crowding-like phenomena in memory when participants have to retrieve items. Further, based on earlier research on parallel attention and enumeration, we suggest that crowding-like phenomena might be a common reason for the 3 major cognitive capacity limitations. As suggested by Miller (1956) and Cowan (2001), these capacity limitations might arise because of a common reason, even though they likely rely on distinct processes. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  2. Characterization of Spatial Memory Reconsolidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Jaeger, Xavier; Courtey, Julie; Brus, Maïna; Artinian, Julien; Villain, Hélène; Bacquié, Elodie; Roullet, Pascal

    2014-01-01

    Reconsolidation is necessary for the restabilization of reactivated memory traces. However, experimental parameters have been suggested as boundary conditions for this process. Here we investigated the role of a spatial memory trace's age, strength, and update on the reconsolidation process in mice. We first found that protein synthesis is…

  3. Collaborative inhibition in spatial memory retrieval

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sjolund, Lori A; Erdman, Matthew; Kelly, Jonathan W

    2014-01-01

    .... Two experiments were designed to explore whether collaborative inhibition, which has heretofore been studied using traditional memory stimuli such as word lists, also characterizes spatial memory retrieval...

  4. All-printed paper memory

    KAUST Repository

    He, Jr-Hau

    2016-08-11

    All-printed paper-based substrate memory devices are described. In an embodiment, a paper-based memory device is prepared by coating one or more areas of a paper substrate with a conductor material such as a carbon paste, to form a first electrode of a memory, depositing a layer of insulator material, such as titanium dioxide, over one or more areas of the conductor material, and depositing a layer of metal over one or more areas of the insulator material to form a second electrode of the memory. In an embodiment, the device can further include diodes printed between the insulator material and the second electrode, and the first electrode and the second electrodes can be formed as a crossbar structure to provide a WORM memory. The various layers and the diodes can be printed onto the paper substrate by, for example, an ink jet printer.

  5. Aging and memory for dreams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waterman, D

    1991-10-01

    This study investigated the influence of aging on memory for home drams and the extent to which cognitive variables such as visual memory, visuospatial IQ, and verbal IQ could account for possible differences herein. Subjects were 80 men and women of ages 45 to 75 years. Memory for dreams was measured by narrative length and frequency of recall. With respect to both measures no significant age differences were noted. Over-all differences in dream recall seemed best explained by visual memory scores. Partial correlational analyses, however, indicated that the small age differences memory or on any of the other cognitive variables. Dream contents were scored for aggression, friendliness, emotion, activities, and the number of characters and objects. The incidence of emotions among women appeared to be lower beyond the age of 60. Comparisons with previous data for young adults indicated that large reductions in aggression, friendliness, and emotion occur before the age of 45.

  6. Neural substrates of semantic memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, John; Anand, Raksha; Zoccoli, Sandra; Maguire, Mandy; Gamino, Jacque; Tillman, Gail; King, Richard; Kraut, Michael A

    2007-09-01

    Semantic memory is described as the storage of knowledge, concepts, and information that is common and relatively consistent across individuals (e.g., memory of what is a cup). These memories are stored in multiple sensorimotor modalities and cognitive systems throughout the brain (e.g., how a cup is held and manipulated, the texture of a cup's surface, its shape, its function, that is related to beverages such as coffee, and so on). Our ability to engage in purposeful interactions with our environment is dependent on the ability to understand the meaning and significance of the objects and actions around us that are stored in semantic memory. Theories of the neural basis of the semantic memory of objects have produced sophisticated models that have incorporated to varying degrees the results of cognitive and neural investigations. The models are grouped into those that are (1) cognitive models, where the neural data are used to reveal dissociations in semantic memory after a brain lesion occurs; (2) models that incorporate both cognitive and neuroanatomical information; and (3) models that use cognitive, neuroanatomic, and neurophysiological data. This review highlights the advances and issues that have emerged from these models and points to future directions that provide opportunities to extend these models. The models of object memory generally describe how category and/or feature representations encode for object memory, and the semantic operations engaged in object processing. The incorporation of data derived from multiple modalities of investigation can lead to detailed neural specifications of semantic memory organization. The addition of neurophysiological data can potentially provide further elaboration of models to include semantic neural mechanisms. Future directions should incorporate available and newly developed techniques to better inform the neural underpinning of semantic memory models.

  7. Working memory predicts the rejection of false memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leding, Juliana K

    2012-01-01

    The relationship between working memory capacity (WMC) and false memories in the memory conjunction paradigm was explored. Previous research using other paradigms has shown that individuals high in WMC are not as likely to experience false memories as low-WMC individuals, the explanation being that high-WMC individuals are better able to engage in source monitoring. In the memory conjunction paradigm participants are presented at study with parent words (e.g., eyeglasses, whiplash). At test, in addition to being presented with targets and foils, participants are presented with lures that are composed of previously studied features (e.g., eyelash). It was found that high-WMC individuals had lower levels of false recognition than low-WMC individuals. Furthermore, recall-to-reject responses were analysed (e.g., "I know I didn't see eyelash because I remember seeing eyeglasses") and it was found that high-WMC individuals were more likely to utilise this memory editing strategy, providing direct evidence that one reason that high-WMC individuals are not as prone to false memories is because they are better able to engage in source monitoring.

  8. Working memory training improves visual short-term memory capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarb, Hillary; Nail, Jayde; Schumacher, Eric H

    2016-01-01

    Since antiquity, philosophers, theologians, and scientists have been interested in human memory. However, researchers today are still working to understand the capabilities, boundaries, and architecture. While the storage capabilities of long-term memory are seemingly unlimited (Bahrick, J Exp Psychol 113:1-2, 1984), working memory, or the ability to maintain and manipulate information held in memory, seems to have stringent capacity limits (e.g., Cowan, Behav Brain Sci 24:87-185, 2001). Individual differences, however, do exist and these differences can often predict performance on a wide variety of tasks (cf. Engle What is working-memory capacity? 297-314, 2001). Recently, researchers have promoted the enticing possibility that simple behavioral training can expand the limits of working memory which indeed may also lead to improvements on other cognitive processes as well (cf. Morrison and Chein, Psychol Bull Rev 18:46-60 2011). However, initial investigations across a wide variety of cognitive functions have produced mixed results regarding the transferability of training-related improvements. Across two experiments, the present research focuses on the benefit of working memory training on visual short-term memory capacity-a cognitive process that has received little attention in the training literature. Data reveal training-related improvement of global measures of visual short-term memory as well as of measures of the independent sub-processes that contribute to capacity (Awh et al., Psychol Sci 18(7):622-628, 2007). These results suggest that the ability to inhibit irrelevant information within and between trials is enhanced via n-back training allowing for selective improvement on untrained tasks. Additionally, we highlight a potential limitation of the standard adaptive training procedure and propose a modified design to ensure variability in the training environment.

  9. Magnetic Shape Memory Microactuators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manfred Kohl

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available By introducing smart materials in micro systems technologies, novel smart microactuators and sensors are currently being developed, e.g., for mobile, wearable, and implantable MEMS (Micro-electro-mechanical-system devices. Magnetic shape memory alloys (MSMAs are a promising material system as they show multiple coupling effects as well as large, abrupt changes in their physical properties, e.g., of strain and magnetization, due to a first order phase transformation. For the development of MSMA microactuators, considerable efforts are undertaken to fabricate MSMA foils and films showing similar and just as strong effects compared to their bulk counterparts. Novel MEMS-compatible technologies are being developed to enable their micromachining and integration. This review gives an overview of material properties, engineering issues and fabrication technologies. Selected demonstrators are presented illustrating the wide application potential.

  10. Forensic Memories: After Testimony

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøndergaard, Johanne Helbo

    2014-01-01

    of writing that might in fact come “after” testimony. In this paper I attempt to describe a mode of writing in contemporary literature on memory and history, which allows later generations to address historical events to which they did not bear witness, challenging the testimonial mode while bearing its...... strategies and strengths in mind - “after” in both senses of the word. The central argument is that just as the legal concept of testimony was introduced into the cultural sphere to describe a particular genre or mode of writing, the legal concept of forensics will serve as a useful term for describing...... a number of contemporary literary works that take up the responsibility of addressing past events after testimony....

  11. Anxious mood and memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foa, E B; McNally, R; Murdock, T B

    1989-01-01

    Influenced by Bower (Am. Psychol. 36, 129-148, 1981) and Lang (Anxiety and the Anxiety Disorders, Erlbaum, Hillsdale, N.J., 1985), we tested three hypotheses concerning anxious mood and memory: (1) the mood state dependent hypothesis which states that memory retrieval will be greater when mood at encoding and at recall are the same than when they are different: (2) the encoding mood congruent hypothesis which states that information semantically related to mood at encoding is retrieved more readily than information unrelated to mood at encoding; and (3) the recall mood congruent hypothesis which states that information semantically related to mood at recall is retrieved more readily than information unrelated to mood at recall. We induced anxiety in speech anxious students by informing them that they would be delivering a speech during the experiment. Mood could be either anxious or nonanxious at encoding, recall, both, or neither. Hence, there were four groups: Anxiety-Anxiety, Anxiety-Nonanxiety, Nonanxiety-Anxiety, and Nonanxiety-Nonanxiety. Subjects were asked to rate the self-descriptiveness of anxiety (e.g. NERVOUS) and nonanxiety adjective (e.g. POLITE) during the encoding phase, and to recall them later. Anxious mood was measured by self-report scales and by heart rate. No support was obtained for any of the three hypotheses. However, post-hoc analyses indicated that anxiety words were recalled least often in subjects whose heart rate increased from encoding to recall. This suggests that attention to threat information may diminish in aroused nonclinical subjects.

  12. Stress, memory, and the hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wingenfeld, Katja; Wolf, Oliver T

    2014-01-01

    Stress hormones, i.e. cortisol in human and cortisone in rodents, influence a wide range of cognitive functions, including hippocampus-based declarative memory performance. Cortisol enhances memory consolidation, but impairs memory retrieval. In this context glucocorticoid receptor sensitivity and hippocampal integrity play an important role. This review integrates findings on the relationships between the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, one of the main coordinators of the stress response, hippocampus, and memory. Findings obtained in healthy participants will be compared with selected mental disorders, including major depressive disorder (MDD), posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and borderline personality disorder (BPD). These disorders are characterized by alterations of the HPA axis and hippocampal dysfunctions. Interestingly, the acute effects of stress hormones on memory in psychiatric patients are different from those found in healthy humans. While cortisol administration has failed to affect memory retrieval in patients with MDD, patients with PTSD and BPD have been found to show enhanced rather than impaired memory retrieval after hydrocortisone. This indicates an altered sensitivity to stress hormones in these mental disorders.

  13. A multilevel nonvolatile magnetoelectric memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Jianxin; Cong, Junzhuang; Shang, Dashan; Chai, Yisheng; Shen, Shipeng; Zhai, Kun; Sun, Young

    2016-09-01

    The coexistence and coupling between magnetization and electric polarization in multiferroic materials provide extra degrees of freedom for creating next-generation memory devices. A variety of concepts of multiferroic or magnetoelectric memories have been proposed and explored in the past decade. Here we propose a new principle to realize a multilevel nonvolatile memory based on the multiple states of the magnetoelectric coefficient (α) of multiferroics. Because the states of α depends on the relative orientation between magnetization and polarization, one can reach different levels of α by controlling the ratio of up and down ferroelectric domains with external electric fields. Our experiments in a device made of the PMN-PT/Terfenol-D multiferroic heterostructure confirm that the states of α can be well controlled between positive and negative by applying selective electric fields. Consequently, two-level, four-level, and eight-level nonvolatile memory devices are demonstrated at room temperature. This kind of multilevel magnetoelectric memory retains all the advantages of ferroelectric random access memory but overcomes the drawback of destructive reading of polarization. In contrast, the reading of α is nondestructive and highly efficient in a parallel way, with an independent reading coil shared by all the memory cells.

  14. Event boundaries and memory improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettijohn, Kyle A; Thompson, Alexis N; Tamplin, Andrea K; Krawietz, Sabine A; Radvansky, Gabriel A

    2016-03-01

    The structure of events can influence later memory for information that is embedded in them, with evidence indicating that event boundaries can both impair and enhance memory. The current study explored whether the presence of event boundaries during encoding can structure information to improve memory. In Experiment 1, memory for a list of words was tested in which event structure was manipulated by having participants walk through a doorway, or not, halfway through the word list. In Experiment 2, memory for lists of words was tested in which event structure was manipulated using computer windows. Finally, in Experiments 3 and 4, event structure was manipulated by having event shifts described in narrative texts. The consistent finding across all of these methods and materials was that memory was better when the information was distributed across two events rather than combined into a single event. Moreover, Experiment 4 demonstrated that increasing the number of event boundaries from one to two increased the memory benefit. These results are interpreted in the context of the Event Horizon Model of event cognition.

  15. Plant memory: a tentative model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thellier, M; Lüttge, U

    2013-01-01

    All memory functions have molecular bases, namely in signal reception and transduction, and in storage and recall of information. Thus, at all levels of organisation living organisms have some kind of memory. In plants one may distinguish two types. There are linear pathways from reception of signals and propagation of effectors to a type of memory that may be described by terms such as learning, habituation or priming. There is a storage and recall memory based on a complex network of elements with a high degree of integration and feedback. The most important elements envisaged are calcium waves, epigenetic modifications of DNA and histones, and regulation of timing via a biological clock. Experiments are described that document the occurrence of the two sorts of memory and which show how they can be distinguished. A schematic model of plant memory is derived as emergent from integration of the various modules. Possessing the two forms of memory supports the fitness of plants in response to environmental stimuli and stress.

  16. Three dimensional magnetic abacus memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shilei; Zhang, Jingyan; Baker, Alexander; Wang, Shouguo; Yu, Guanghua; Hesjedal, Thorsten

    2015-03-01

    Stacking nonvolatile memory cells into a three-dimensional matrix represents a powerful solution for the future of magnetic memory. However, it is technologically challenging to access the individual data in the storage medium if large numbers of bits are stacked on top of each other. Here we introduce a new type of multilevel, nonvolatile magnetic memory concept, the magnetic abacus. Instead of storing information in individual magnetic layers, thereby having to read out each magnetic layer separately, the magnetic abacus adopts a new encoding scheme which envisages a classical abacus with the beads operated by electron spins. It is inspired by the idea of second quantization, dealing with the memory state of the entire stack simultaneously. Direct read operations are implemented by measuring the artificially engineered `quantized' Hall voltage, representing a count of the spin-up and spin-down layers in the stack. This concept of `second quantization of memory' realizes the 3D memory architecture with superior reading and operation efficiency, thus is a promising approach for future nonvolatile magnetic random access memory.

  17. Spatial memory in foraging games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerster, Bryan E; Rhodes, Theo; Kello, Christopher T

    2016-03-01

    Foraging and foraging-like processes are found in spatial navigation, memory, visual search, and many other search functions in human cognition and behavior. Foraging is commonly theorized using either random or correlated movements based on Lévy walks, or a series of decisions to remain or leave proximal areas known as "patches". Neither class of model makes use of spatial memory, but search performance may be enhanced when information about searched and unsearched locations is encoded. A video game was developed to test the role of human spatial memory in a canonical foraging task. Analyses of search trajectories from over 2000 human players yielded evidence that foraging movements were inherently clustered, and that clustering was facilitated by spatial memory cues and influenced by memory for spatial locations of targets found. A simple foraging model is presented in which spatial memory is used to integrate aspects of Lévy-based and patch-based foraging theories to perform a kind of area-restricted search, and thereby enhance performance as search unfolds. Using only two free parameters, the model accounts for a variety of findings that individually support competing theories, but together they argue for the integration of spatial memory into theories of foraging.

  18. [Alzheimer's disease and human memory].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eustache, F; Giffard, B; Rauchs, G; Chételat, G; Piolino, P; Desgranges, B

    2006-10-01

    Memory disorders observed in Alzheimer's disease gave rise, from the eighties, to a detailed analysis into the framework of cognitive neuropsychology which aimed at describing the deficits of very specific processes. Beyond their clinical interest, these studies contributed to the modelisation of human memory thanks to the characterization of different memory systems and their relationships. The first part of this paper gives an overview of the memory deficits in Alzheimer's disease and insists on particular cognitive phenomena. Hence, several examples are developed in the domains of semantic memory (such as hyperpriming and hypopriming effects) and autobiographical memory. Recent results highlight the existence of severe autobiographical amnesia observed in all neurodegenerative diseases, though with contrasting profiles: Ribot's gradient in Alzheimer's disease (showing that remote memories are better preserved than recent ones), reverse gradient in semantic dementia and no clear gradient in the frontal variant of frontotemporal dementia. The second part of this article presents advances in cognitive neuroscience searching to disclose the cerebral substrates of these cognitive deficits in Alzheimer's disease. The studies using functional imaging techniques are the most informative regarding this problematic. While showing the dysfunctions of an extended network, they emphasize the selectivity of cerebral damages that are at the root of very specific cognitive dysfunctions, coming close in that way to the conceptions of cognitive neuropsychology. These neuroimaging studies unravel the existence of compensatory mechanisms, which until recently were clearly missing in the literature on neurodegenerative diseases. These different researches lead to a wide conception of human memory, not just limited to simple instrumental processes (encoding, storage, retrieval), but necessarily covering models of identity and continuity of the subject, which interact in a dynamic way

  19. Palimpsest, Memory and Agency in Faroese/Danish Memory Politics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Kim

    In this paper I will analyse the creation and the dynamics of memory seen through the canonization of a 19th Century writer in Nólsoyar Páll as a national hero in the Faroe Islands. Combining approaches from cultural nationalism studies (working with literature), memory studies and imagology. We...... will investigate the use of cultural saints and national hero’s. I will argue, that narratives of hero’s recycle earlier forms of remembrance and images as in the metaphorical palimpsest figure seen through monuments and places of memory. Here is the question, how did we proceed from the mangrove swamp...... of different ethnic self-images to a instrumentalization of an image of the Faroe Islands? How did the use of the literary archive and the memory of the Faroe Islanders relate to a canonization of literature and national hero’s in a time of historical and political change?...

  20. Memory reconsolidation and psychotherapeutic process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liberzon, Israel; Javanbakht, Arash

    2015-01-01

    Lane et al. propose a heuristic model in which distinct, and seemingly irreconcilable, therapies can coexist. Authors postulate that memory reconsolidation is a key common neurobiological process mediating the therapeutic effects. This conceptualization raises a set of important questions regarding neuroscience and translational aspects of fear memory reconsolidation. We discuss the implications of the target article's memory reconsolidation model in the development of more effective interventions, and in the identification of less effective, or potentially harmful approaches, as well as concepts of contextualization, optimal arousal, and combined therapy.

  1. Nanoscale content-addressable memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Bryan (Inventor); Principe, Jose C. (Inventor); Fortes, Jose (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    A combined content addressable memory device and memory interface is provided. The combined device and interface includes one or more one molecular wire crossbar memories having spaced-apart key nanowires, spaced-apart value nanowires adjacent to the key nanowires, and configurable switches between the key nanowires and the value nanowires. The combination further includes a key microwire-nanowire grid (key MNG) electrically connected to the spaced-apart key nanowires, and a value microwire-nanowire grid (value MNG) electrically connected to the spaced-apart value nanowires. A key or value MNGs selects multiple nanowires for a given key or value.

  2. Innate immune memory in mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamon, Melanie A; Quintin, Jessica

    2016-08-01

    Innate and adaptive immunity have evolved as sophisticated mechanisms of host defence against invading pathogens. Classically the properties attributed to innate immunity are its rapid pleiotropic response, and to adaptive immunity its specificity and ability to retain a long-term memory of past infections. It is now clear that innate immunity also contributes to raising a memory response upon pathogenic assault. In this review we will discuss the interaction between bacterial, viral, fungal and parasitic molecular patterns and innate immune cells in which a memory response is imposed, or has the potential to be imposed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Eye movement monitoring of memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Jennifer D; Riggs, Lily; McQuiggan, Douglas A; McQuiggan, Doug

    2010-08-15

    Explicit (often verbal) reports are typically used to investigate memory (e.g. "Tell me what you remember about the person you saw at the bank yesterday."), however such reports can often be unreliable or sensitive to response bias, and may be unobtainable in some participant populations. Furthermore, explicit reports only reveal when information has reached consciousness and cannot comment on when memories were accessed during processing, regardless of whether the information is subsequently accessed in a conscious manner. Eye movement monitoring (eye tracking) provides a tool by which memory can be probed without asking participants to comment on the contents of their memories, and access of such memories can be revealed on-line. Video-based eye trackers (either head-mounted or remote) use a system of cameras and infrared markers to examine the pupil and corneal reflection in each eye as the participant views a display monitor. For head-mounted eye trackers, infrared markers are also used to determine head position to allow for head movement and more precise localization of eye position. Here, we demonstrate the use of a head-mounted eye tracking system to investigate memory performance in neurologically-intact and neurologically-impaired adults. Eye movement monitoring procedures begin with the placement of the eye tracker on the participant, and setup of the head and eye cameras. Calibration and validation procedures are conducted to ensure accuracy of eye position recording. Real-time recordings of X,Y-coordinate positions on the display monitor are then converted and used to describe periods of time in which the eye is static (i.e. fixations) versus in motion (i.e., saccades). Fixations and saccades are time-locked with respect to the onset/offset of a visual display or another external event (e.g. button press). Experimental manipulations are constructed to examine how and when patterns of fixations and saccades are altered through different types of prior

  4. Memory materials: a unifying description

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimiliano Di Ventra

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available There are so many materials properties leading to memory that a unifying description seems impossible. However, it is easy to show that the majority of two-terminal electronic devices based on memory materials and systems, when subject to time-dependent perturbations, behave simply as, or as a combination of, memristors, memcapacitors, and meminductors; namely non-linear circuit elements with memory. This unifying description opens up new venues for digital and analog applications ranging from information storage to biologically-inspired circuits. In this review, interesting research opportunities that emerge from this new perspective will be outlined.

  5. Re-memory before Recovery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘畅

    2010-01-01

    Beloved is a Pulitzer Prize-winning novel by Toni Morrison.It tells the story of Sethe and her daughter Denver as they try to rebuild their lives after having escaped from slavery.Because of the painful nature of the experience of slavery,most characters repress their memory and experience the loss of selves.The novel opens them up to their repressed memories.Only through re-memory can they have the possibility to heal their trauma and regain their identities.

  6. Temporomandibular disorders and declarative memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Dongmei; Ye, Ling

    2011-05-01

    Temporomandibular disorder (TMD) is a somatic manifestation of stress. Previous researches suggested hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis hyperactivity in TMD, through which TMD patients exhibited abnormalities of the stress response hormone - causing additional cortisol release. Increased cortisol, the principal circulating glucocorticoid in humans, would impair memory retrieval of declarative material. This effect on memory retrieval may in particular be due to glucocorticoid receptors (GR) in the hippocampus. The hypothesis we proposed is that TMD might result in declarative memory impairment by increasing the cortisol.

  7. Memory Management for Safety-Critical Java

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schoeberl, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Safety-Critical Java (SCJ) is based on the Real-Time Specification for Java. To simplify the certification of Java programs, SCJ supports only a restricted scoped memory model. Individual threads share only immortal memory and the newly introduced mission memory. All other scoped memories...

  8. Explaining the Development of False Memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyna, Valerie F.; Holliday, Robyn; Marche, Tammy

    2002-01-01

    Reviews explanatory dimensions of children's false memory relevant to forensic practice: measurement, development, social factors, individual differences, varieties of memories and memory judgments, and varieties of procedures inducing false memories. Asserts that recent studies fail to use techniques that separate acquiescence from memory…

  9. Comparing Music Literacy Performance with Memory Functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danley, William E., Jr.; Tanner, Don R.

    1982-01-01

    Describes the development of a memory assessment instrument, the Perceptual Memory Test (PMT), which allows the nonverbal evaluation of various memory modalities. Compares the PMT with the Iowa Test of Musical Literacy and concludes that memory in a general sense might be important in performance on a musical assessment device. (FL)

  10. Recall from Semantic and Episodic Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillund, Gary; Perlmutter, Marion

    Although research in episodic recall memory, comparing younger and older adults, favors the younger adults, findings in semantic memory research are less consistent. To examine age differences in semantic and episodic memory recall, 72 young adults (mean age, 20.8) and 72 older adults (mean age 71) completed three memory tests under varied…

  11. Memory hierarchy using row-based compression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loh, Gabriel H.; O'Connor, James M.

    2016-10-25

    A system includes a first memory and a device coupleable to the first memory. The device includes a second memory to cache data from the first memory. The second memory includes a plurality of rows, each row including a corresponding set of compressed data blocks of non-uniform sizes and a corresponding set of tag blocks. Each tag block represents a corresponding compressed data block of the row. The device further includes decompression logic to decompress data blocks accessed from the second memory. The device further includes compression logic to compress data blocks to be stored in the second memory.

  12. Dysfunctional overnight memory consolidation in ecstasy users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smithies, Vanessa; Broadbear, Jillian; Verdejo-Garcia, Antonio; Conduit, Russell

    2014-08-01

    Sleep plays an important role in the consolidation and integration of memory in a process called overnight memory consolidation. Previous studies indicate that ecstasy users have marked and persistent neurocognitive and sleep-related impairments. We extend past research by examining overnight memory consolidation among regular ecstasy users (n=12) and drug naïve healthy controls (n=26). Memory recall of word pairs was evaluated before and after a period of sleep, with and without interference prior to testing. In addition, we assessed neurocognitive performances across tasks of learning, memory and executive functioning. Ecstasy users demonstrated impaired overnight memory consolidation, a finding that was more pronounced following associative interference. Additionally, ecstasy users demonstrated impairments on tasks recruiting frontostriatal and hippocampal neural circuitry, in the domains of proactive interference memory, long-term memory, encoding, working memory and complex planning. We suggest that ecstasy-associated dysfunction in fronto-temporal circuitry may underlie overnight consolidation memory impairments in regular ecstasy users.

  13. [Memory processes in endogenous depression].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radziwiłłowicz, W; Radziwiłłowicz, P

    1998-01-01

    The thesis aims to answer the questions about the profile of mental ability in endogenous depression and to decide whether self-estimation of depressive symptoms influences the results achieved by patients in memory tests. Fifty six patients suffering from endogenous depression have been examined. The following methods have been applied: Mini Mental State Examination, Benton Visual Retention Test, Beck Depression Inventory, hold tests: Vocabulary, Information, Comprehension and Digit Span of Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS), Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure, Auditory Verbal Learning Test, DCS Weidlich. General status of cognitive functions correlates with the profile of specific kinds of memory results, particularly with delayed memory. Self-estimation of depressive symptoms intensity is mostly influenced by memory capacity, visuomotorial factor, functions of perception and lingual factor. High correlation between verbal and non verbal learning shows uniform influence of depression on the process of learning.

  14. Thermodynamic Model of Spatial Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, Miron; Allen, P.

    1998-03-01

    We develop and test a thermodynamic model of spatial memory. Our model is an application of statistical thermodynamics to cognitive science. It is related to applications of the statistical mechanics framework in parallel distributed processes research. Our macroscopic model allows us to evaluate an entropy associated with spatial memory tasks. We find that older adults exhibit higher levels of entropy than younger adults. Thurstone's Law of Categorical Judgment, according to which the discriminal processes along the psychological continuum produced by presentations of a single stimulus are normally distributed, is explained by using a Hooke spring model of spatial memory. We have also analyzed a nonlinear modification of the ideal spring model of spatial memory. This work is supported by NIH/NIA grant AG09282-06.

  15. Nanoscale phase change memory materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldwell, Marissa A; Jeyasingh, Rakesh Gnana David; Wong, H-S Philip; Milliron, Delia J

    2012-08-01

    Phase change memory materials store information through their reversible transitions between crystalline and amorphous states. For typical metal chalcogenide compounds, their phase transition properties directly impact critical memory characteristics and the manipulation of these is a major focus in the field. Here, we discuss recent work that explores the tuning of such properties by scaling the materials to nanoscale dimensions, including fabrication and synthetic strategies used to produce nanoscale phase change memory materials. The trends that emerge are relevant to understanding how such memory technologies will function as they scale to ever smaller dimensions and also suggest new approaches to designing materials for phase change applications. Finally, the challenges and opportunities raised by integrating nanoscale phase change materials into switching devices are discussed.

  16. Distributed-memory matrix computations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balle, Susanne Mølleskov

    1995-01-01

    in these algorithms is that many scientific applications rely heavily on the performance of the involved dense linear algebra building blocks. Even though we consider the distributed-memory as well as the shared-memory programming paradigm, the major part of the thesis is dedicated to distributed-memory architectures....... We emphasize distributed-memory massively parallel computers - such as the Connection Machines model CM-200 and model CM-5/CM-5E - available to us at UNI-C and at Thinking Machines Corporation. The CM-200 was at the time this project started one of the few existing massively parallel computers...... performance can we expect to achieve? Why? 2.Solving systems of linear equations using a Strassen-type matrix-inversion algorithm. A good way to solve systems of linear equations on massively parallel computers? 3.Aspects of computing the singular value decomposition on the Connec-tion Machine CM-5/CM-5E...

  17. A Memory Advantage for Property

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter DeScioli

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available People's access to resources depends on their status as the owner of particular items. To respect property, people need to remember who owns which objects. We test the hypothesis that people possess enhanced memory for ownership relations compared to unrelated objects. Participants viewed a sequence of 10 person-object pairs before completing a surprise associative memory test in which they matched each person with the previously paired object. We varied the description of the person-object pairs in the instructions. Across three experiments, participants showed better recall when the person was described as the owner of the object compared to being unrelated. Furthermore, memory for property was better than a physical relation (bumping, whereas it did not differ from mental relations (wanting and thinking. These patterns were observed both for memory of items (Experiments 1 and 2 and perceptual details (Experiment 3. We discuss implications for how people remember other people's property.

  18. NK cells and immune "memory"

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sun, Joseph C; Lopez-Verges, Sandra; Kim, Charles C; DeRisi, Joseph L; Lanier, Lewis L

    2011-01-01

    Immunological memory is a hallmark of the adaptive immune system. However, the ability to remember and respond more robustly against a second encounter with the same pathogen has been described in organisms lacking T and B cells...

  19. Daugherty Memorial Assessment Center (DMAC)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Daugherty Memorial Assessment Center (DMAC) is a 39,000-square-foot facility that doubles the warfare center's high-secured performance assessment capabilities. DMAC...

  20. Nicotine inhibits memory CTL programming.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhifeng Sun

    Full Text Available Nicotine is the main tobacco component responsible for tobacco addiction and is used extensively in smoking and smoking cessation therapies. However, little is known about its effects on the immune system. We confirmed that multiple nicotinic receptors are expressed on mouse and human cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs and demonstrated that nicotinic receptors on mouse CTLs are regulated during activation. Acute nicotine presence during activation increases primary CTL expansion in vitro, but impairs in vivo expansion after transfer and subsequent memory CTL differentiation, which reduces protection against subsequent pathogen challenges. Furthermore, nicotine abolishes the regulatory effect of rapamycin on memory CTL programming, which can be attributed to the fact that rapamycin enhances expression of nicotinic receptors. Interestingly, naïve CTLs from chronic nicotine-treated mice have normal memory programming, which is impaired by nicotine during activation in vitro. In conclusion, simultaneous exposure to nicotine and antigen during CTL activation negatively affects memory development.

  1. Nicotine inhibits memory CTL programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Zhifeng; Smyth, Kendra; Garcia, Karla; Mattson, Elliot; Li, Lei; Xiao, Zhengguo

    2013-01-01

    Nicotine is the main tobacco component responsible for tobacco addiction and is used extensively in smoking and smoking cessation therapies. However, little is known about its effects on the immune system. We confirmed that multiple nicotinic receptors are expressed on mouse and human cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) and demonstrated that nicotinic receptors on mouse CTLs are regulated during activation. Acute nicotine presence during activation increases primary CTL expansion in vitro, but impairs in vivo expansion after transfer and subsequent memory CTL differentiation, which reduces protection against subsequent pathogen challenges. Furthermore, nicotine abolishes the regulatory effect of rapamycin on memory CTL programming, which can be attributed to the fact that rapamycin enhances expression of nicotinic receptors. Interestingly, naïve CTLs from chronic nicotine-treated mice have normal memory programming, which is impaired by nicotine during activation in vitro. In conclusion, simultaneous exposure to nicotine and antigen during CTL activation negatively affects memory development.

  2. Robert Hooke's model of memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hintzman, Douglas L

    2003-03-01

    In 1682 the scientist and inventor Robert Hooke read a lecture to the Royal Society of London, in which he described a mechanistic model of human memory. Yet few psychologists today seem to have heard of Hooke's memory model. The lecture addressed questions of encoding, memory capacity, repetition, retrieval, and forgetting--some of these in a surprisingly modern way. Hooke's model shares several characteristics with the theory of Richard Semon, which came more than 200 years later, but it is more complete. Among the model's interesting properties are that (1) it allows for attention and other top-down influences on encoding; (2) it uses resonance to implement parallel, cue-dependent retrieval; (3) it explains memory for recency; (4) it offers a single-system account of repetition priming; and (5) the power law of forgetting can be derived from the model's assumptions in a straightforward way.

  3. Sleep stages, memory and learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dotto, L

    1996-04-15

    Learning and memory can be impaired by sleep loss during specific vulnerable "windows" for several days after new tasks have been learned. Different types of tasks are differentially vulnerable to the loss of different stages of sleep. Memory required to perform cognitive procedural tasks is affected by the loss of rapid-eye-movement (REM) sleep on the first night after learning occurs and again on the third night after learning. REM-sleep deprivation on the second night after learning does not produce memory deficits. Declarative memory, which is used for the recall of specific facts, is not similarly affected by REM-sleep loss. The learning of procedural motor tasks, including those required in many sports, is impaired by the loss of stage 2 sleep, which occurs primarily in the early hours of the morning. These findings have implications for the academic and athletic performance of students and for anyone whose work involves ongoing learning and demands high standards of performance.

  4. Caffeine, extraversion and working memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Andrew P

    2013-01-01

    Research has shown that extraverts performing a working memory task benefit more from caffeine than do introverts. The present study aimed to replicate this and extend our knowledge by using a lower dose of caffeine (65 mg) and a range of tasks related to different components of working memory. In addition, tasks assessing psychomotor speed and the encoding of new information were included to determine whether caffeine-extraversion interactions were restricted to working memory tasks. A double-blind design was used, with 128 participants being randomly assigned to caffeinated or de-caffeinated coffee conditions. The results showed that caffeine interacted with extraversion in the predicted direction for serial recall and running memory tasks. Caffeine improved simple reaction time and the speed of encoding of new information, effects which were not modified by extraversion. These results suggest possible biological mechanisms underlying effects of caffeine on cognitive performance.

  5. MEMORY AS A MUSEUM PRACTICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tone Kregar

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In the current public discourse memory is among the most common words, concepts, and contents of a multiplicity of meanings, connotations and contexts. Besides personal memory, the interpretations of our past and consequently our present often include refer-ences of collective and historical memory. This termi-nology is particularly popular with politicians and pub-licists striving for a more colourful vocabulary, who often use the fore mentioned terms as synonyms. Scien-tific and professional circles are more conscientious at differentiating these terms, as their research focuses on studying the past and, consequently, on the role of memory or on the very process of remembering. Howev-er, within this corpus certain differences in the termi-nology and different views on the types and forms of memory do exist. In this paper, rather than psychologi-cal and sociological theories (by Maurice Halbwachs and others we focus on how we, historians, look on the vari-ous forms of memory, especially those historians who study (still "alive" 20th century. And who in their work, let it be research, teaching, or, like in my case - work in a museum, rely on both, individual memories and collec-tive memory to shape the historical memory of a com-munity or society. Although greater terminological clari-ty in this regard would be more than welcome, it is most important that we correctly identify the different forms and types of memory and its components and that we use them appropriately in our work - that is in research, understanding and interpreting our past or our history. Even more so because they often intertwine with each other, overlap, complement, and transform from one to another, or, sometimes even exclude each other. There-fore it is often difficult to clearly distinguish one from another and to deal with them separately. Historians working in the Museum of Recent History Celje are faced with these issues and problems on a daily basis; many specific

  6. Visual Working Memory Capacity and Proactive Interference

    OpenAIRE

    Hartshorne, Joshua K.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Visual working memory capacity is extremely limited and appears to be relatively immune to practice effects or the use of explicit strategies. The recent discovery that visual working memory tasks, like verbal working memory tasks, are subject to proactive interference, coupled with the fact that typical visual working memory tasks are particularly conducive to proactive interference, suggests that visual working memory capacity may be systematically under-estimated. METHODOLOGY/P...

  7. MEMORY DISTORTIONS IN THE RESEARCH OF EMOTIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Genc

    2015-01-01

    The memories of one’s life, or autobiographical memories, are transitory dynamic mental constructions. The human memory is both solid and fragile. We own durable and lasting traces of many events, but also we can forget other events just moments after they occured. Our memories of past experiences are never exact reproductions of the original, initial events. Besides the memory biases that are related to details about past happenings, distortions are also present in the remembering of emotion...

  8. Photography as object and resource of memory

    OpenAIRE

    Felizardo, Adair; Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina; Samain, Etienne; Universidade de Campinas

    2007-01-01

    With the rise of digital photography, its ease, potentials and weaknesses, we have become more and more liable to the iconographic forgetting of our own memory, our photographic memory. This essay intends to discuss the value and the use of photography as one of the great memory-bearing instruments, own memory, memory to be clarified, interpreted, remembered. Com o advento da fotografia digital, suas facilidades, potencialidades e fragilidades, ficamos suscetíveis ao esquecimento iconográf...

  9. Noise-enhanced associative memories

    OpenAIRE

    Karbasi, Amin; Salavati, Amir Hesam; Shokrollahi, Amin; Varshney, Lav R.

    2013-01-01

    Recent advances in associative memory design through structured pattern sets and graph-based inference algorithms have allowed reliable learning and recall of an exponential number of patterns. Although these designs correct external errors in recall, they assume neurons that compute noiselessly, in contrast to the highly variable neurons in hippocampus and olfactory cortex. Here we consider associative memories with noisy internal computations and analytically characterize performance. As lo...

  10. Object recognition memory in zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Zacnicte; Morrill, Adam; Holcombe, Adam; Johnston, Travis; Gallup, Joshua; Fouad, Karim; Schalomon, Melike; Hamilton, Trevor James

    2016-01-01

    The novel object recognition, or novel-object preference (NOP) test is employed to assess recognition memory in a variety of organisms. The subject is exposed to two identical objects, then after a delay, it is placed back in the original environment containing one of the original objects and a novel object. If the subject spends more time exploring one object, this can be interpreted as memory retention. To date, this test has not been fully explored in zebrafish (Danio rerio). Zebrafish possess recognition memory for simple 2- and 3-dimensional geometrical shapes, yet it is unknown if this translates to complex 3-dimensional objects. In this study we evaluated recognition memory in zebrafish using complex objects of different sizes. Contrary to rodents, zebrafish preferentially explored familiar over novel objects. Familiarity preference disappeared after delays of 5 mins. Leopard danios, another strain of D. rerio, also preferred the familiar object after a 1 min delay. Object preference could be re-established in zebra danios by administration of nicotine tartrate salt (50mg/L) prior to stimuli presentation, suggesting a memory-enhancing effect of nicotine. Additionally, exploration biases were present only when the objects were of intermediate size (2 × 5 cm). Our results demonstrate zebra and leopard danios have recognition memory, and that low nicotine doses can improve this memory type in zebra danios. However, exploration biases, from which memory is inferred, depend on object size. These findings suggest zebrafish ecology might influence object preference, as zebrafish neophobia could reflect natural anti-predatory behaviour.

  11. Sleep stages, memory and learning.

    OpenAIRE

    Dotto, L

    1996-01-01

    Learning and memory can be impaired by sleep loss during specific vulnerable "windows" for several days after new tasks have been learned. Different types of tasks are differentially vulnerable to the loss of different stages of sleep. Memory required to perform cognitive procedural tasks is affected by the loss of rapid-eye-movement (REM) sleep on the first night after learning occurs and again on the third night after learning. REM-sleep deprivation on the second night after learning does n...

  12. Memory cost of quantum contextuality

    CERN Document Server

    Kleinmann, Matthias; Portillo, José R; Larsson, Jan-Åke; Cabello, Adán

    2010-01-01

    The simulation of quantum effects requires certain classical resources, and quantifying them is an important step in order to understand the difference between quantum and classical physics. We investigate the minimum classical memory needed to simulate the phenomenon of state-independent quantum contextuality in sequential measurements. We derive optimal simulation strategies for several important cases and prove that two bits of classical memory do not suffice to reproduce the results of sequential measurements on a two-qubit system.

  13. Memory-Based Shallow Parsing

    OpenAIRE

    Sang, Erik F. Tjong Kim

    2002-01-01

    We present memory-based learning approaches to shallow parsing and apply these to five tasks: base noun phrase identification, arbitrary base phrase recognition, clause detection, noun phrase parsing and full parsing. We use feature selection techniques and system combination methods for improving the performance of the memory-based learner. Our approach is evaluated on standard data sets and the results are compared with that of other systems. This reveals that our approach works well for ba...

  14. Does sleep improve memory organization?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masashi eTakeuchi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Sleep can integrate information into existing memory networks, look for common patterns and distill overarching rules, or simply stabilize and strengthen the memory exactly as it was learned. Recent research has shown that sleep facilitates abstraction of gist information as well as integration across multiple memories, insight into hidden solutions, and even the ability to make creative connections between distantly related ideas and concepts. To investigate the effect of sleep on memory organization, thirty-five normal volunteers were randomly assigned either to the sleep (n=17 or wake group (n=18. The sleep subjects performed the Japanese Verbal Learning Test (JVLT, a measure of learning and memory, three times in the evening, and slept. On the following morning (9 hours later, they were asked to recall the words on the list. The wake subjects took the same test in the morning, and were asked to recall the words in the same time interval as in the sleep group. The Semantic Clustering Ratio (SCR, divided by the total number of words recalled, was used as an index of memory organization. Our main interest was whether the sleep subjects elicit a greater increase in this measure from the third to the fourth assessments. Time-by-group interaction effect on SCR was not significant between the sleep group and wake group as a whole. Meanwhile, the change in the SCR between the third and fourth trials was negatively correlated with duration of nocturnal waking in the sleep group, but not other sleep indices. Based on this observation, further analysis was conducted for subjects in the sleep group who awoke nocturnally for less than 60 minutes for comparison with the wake group. A significant time-by-group interaction was noted; these good-sleepers showed a significantly greater improvement in the memory index compared with the wake subjects. These results provide the first suggestion that sleep may enhance memory organization, which requires further

  15. Parallel External Memory Graph Algorithms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arge, Lars Allan; Goodrich, Michael T.; Sitchinava, Nodari

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we study parallel I/O efficient graph algorithms in the Parallel External Memory (PEM) model, one o f the private-cache chip multiprocessor (CMP) models. We study the fundamental problem of list ranking which leads to efficient solutions to problems on trees, such as computing lowest...... an optimal speedup of ¿(P) in parallel I/O complexity and parallel computation time, compared to the single-processor external memory counterparts....

  16. Sensory Dissonance Using Memory Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Karl Kristoffer

    2015-01-01

    Music may occur concurrently or in temporal sequences. Current machine-based methods for the estimation of qualities of the music are unable to take into account the influence of temporal context. A method for calculating dissonance from audio, called sensory dissonance is improved by the use...... of a memory model. This approach is validated here by the comparison of the sensory dissonance using memory model to data obtained using human subjects....

  17. Memory consolidation in sleep disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cellini, Nicola

    2016-09-25

    In recent years sleep-related memory consolidation has become a central topic in the sleep research field. Several studies have shown that in healthy individuals sleep promotes memory consolidation. Notwithstanding this, the consequences of sleep disorders on offline memory consolidation remain poorly investigated. Research studies indicate that patients with insomnia, obstructive sleep apnea, and narcolepsy often exhibit sleep-related impairment in the consolidation of declarative and procedural information. On the other hand, patients with parasomnias, such as sleep-walking, night terrors and rapid eye movement (REM) behavior disorder, do not present any memory impairment. These studies suggest that only sleep disorders characterized by increased post-learning arousal and disrupted sleep architecture seem to be associated with offline memory consolidation issues. Such impairments, arising already in childhood, may potentially affect the development and maintenance of an individual's cognitive abilities, reducing their quality of life and increasing the risk of accidents. However, promising findings suggest that successfully treating sleep symptoms can result in the restoration of memory functions and marked reduction of direct and indirect societal costs of sleep disorders.

  18. Serotonin, neural markers and memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo eMeneses

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Diverse neuropsychiatric disorders present dysfunctional memory and no effective treatment exits for them; likely as result of the absence of neural markers associated to memory. Neurotransmitter systems and signaling pathways have been implicated in memory and dysfunctional memory; however, their role is poorly understood. Hence, neural markers and cerebral functions and dysfunctions are revised. To our knowledge no previous systematic works have been published addressing these issues. The interactions among behavioral tasks, control groups and molecular changes and/or pharmacological effects are mentioned. Neurotransmitter receptors and signaling pathways, during normal and abnormally functioning memory with an emphasis on the behavioral aspects of memory are revised. With focus on serotonin, since as it is a well characterized neurotransmitter, with multiple pharmacological tools, and well characterized downstream signaling in mammals’ species. 5-HT1A, 5-HT4, 5-HT5, 5-HT6 and 5-HT7 receptors as well as SERT (serotonin transporter seem to be useful neural markers and/or therapeutic targets. Certainly, if the mentioned evidence is replicated, then the translatability from preclinical and clinical studies to neural changes might be confirmed. Hypothesis and theories might provide appropriate limits and perspectives of evidence

  19. Serotonin, neural markers, and memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meneses, Alfredo

    2015-01-01

    Diverse neuropsychiatric disorders present dysfunctional memory and no effective treatment exits for them; likely as result of the absence of neural markers associated to memory. Neurotransmitter systems and signaling pathways have been implicated in memory and dysfunctional memory; however, their role is poorly understood. Hence, neural markers and cerebral functions and dysfunctions are revised. To our knowledge no previous systematic works have been published addressing these issues. The interactions among behavioral tasks, control groups and molecular changes and/or pharmacological effects are mentioned. Neurotransmitter receptors and signaling pathways, during normal and abnormally functioning memory with an emphasis on the behavioral aspects of memory are revised. With focus on serotonin, since as it is a well characterized neurotransmitter, with multiple pharmacological tools, and well characterized downstream signaling in mammals' species. 5-HT1A, 5-HT4, 5-HT5, 5-HT6, and 5-HT7 receptors as well as SERT (serotonin transporter) seem to be useful neural markers and/or therapeutic targets. Certainly, if the mentioned evidence is replicated, then the translatability from preclinical and clinical studies to neural changes might be confirmed. Hypothesis and theories might provide appropriate limits and perspectives of evidence.

  20. Dynamic Organization of Hierarchical Memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurikawa, Tomoki; Kaneko, Kunihiko

    2016-01-01

    In the brain, external objects are categorized in a hierarchical way. Although it is widely accepted that objects are represented as static attractors in neural state space, this view does not take account interaction between intrinsic neural dynamics and external input, which is essential to understand how neural system responds to inputs. Indeed, structured spontaneous neural activity without external inputs is known to exist, and its relationship with evoked activities is discussed. Then, how categorical representation is embedded into the spontaneous and evoked activities has to be uncovered. To address this question, we studied bifurcation process with increasing input after hierarchically clustered associative memories are learned. We found a "dynamic categorization"; neural activity without input wanders globally over the state space including all memories. Then with the increase of input strength, diffuse representation of higher category exhibits transitions to focused ones specific to each object. The hierarchy of memories is embedded in the transition probability from one memory to another during the spontaneous dynamics. With increased input strength, neural activity wanders over a narrower state space including a smaller set of memories, showing more specific category or memory corresponding to the applied input. Moreover, such coarse-to-fine transitions are also observed temporally during transient process under constant input, which agrees with experimental findings in the temporal cortex. These results suggest the hierarchy emerging through interaction with an external input underlies hierarchy during transient process, as well as in the spontaneous activity.

  1. Research on memory management in embedded systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xian-ying; Yang, Wu

    2005-12-01

    Memory is a scarce resource in embedded system due to cost and size. Thus, applications in embedded systems cannot use memory randomly, such as in desktop applications. However, data and code must be stored into memory for running. The purpose of this paper is to save memory in developing embedded applications and guarantee running under limited memory conditions. Embedded systems often have small memory and are required to run a long time. Thus, a purpose of this study is to construct an allocator that can allocate memory effectively and bear a long-time running situation, reduce memory fragmentation and memory exhaustion. Memory fragmentation and exhaustion are related to the algorithm memory allocated. Static memory allocation cannot produce fragmentation. In this paper it is attempted to find an effective allocation algorithm dynamically, which can reduce memory fragmentation. Data is the critical part that ensures an application can run regularly, which takes up a large amount of memory. The amount of data that can be stored in the same size of memory is relevant with the selected data structure. Skills for designing application data in mobile phone are explained and discussed also.

  2. Remote direct memory access

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archer, Charles J.; Blocksome, Michael A.

    2012-12-11

    Methods, parallel computers, and computer program products are disclosed for remote direct memory access. Embodiments include transmitting, from an origin DMA engine on an origin compute node to a plurality target DMA engines on target compute nodes, a request to send message, the request to send message specifying a data to be transferred from the origin DMA engine to data storage on each target compute node; receiving, by each target DMA engine on each target compute node, the request to send message; preparing, by each target DMA engine, to store data according to the data storage reference and the data length, including assigning a base storage address for the data storage reference; sending, by one or more of the target DMA engines, an acknowledgment message acknowledging that all the target DMA engines are prepared to receive a data transmission from the origin DMA engine; receiving, by the origin DMA engine, the acknowledgement message from the one or more of the target DMA engines; and transferring, by the origin DMA engine, data to data storage on each of the target compute nodes according to the data storage reference using a single direct put operation.

  3. Morphological bidirectional associative memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritter, G X.; Diaz-de-Leon, J L.; Sussner, P

    1999-07-01

    The theory of artificial neural networks has been successfully applied to a wide variety of pattern recognition problems. In this theory, the first step in computing the next state of a neuron or in performing the next layer neural network computation involves the linear operation of multiplying neural values by their synaptic strengths and adding the results. Thresholding usually follows the linear operation in order to provide for nonlinearity of the network. In this paper we discuss a novel class of artificial neural networks, called morphological neural networks, in which the operations of multiplication and addition are replaced by addition and maximum (or minimum), respectively. By taking the maximum (or minimum) of sums instead of the sum of products, morphological network computation is nonlinear before thresholding. As a consequence, the properties of morphological neural networks are drastically different from those of traditional neural network models. The main emphasis of the research presented here is on morphological bidirectional associative memories (MBAMs). In particular, we establish a mathematical theory for MBAMs and provide conditions that guarantee perfect bidirectional recall for corrupted patterns. Some examples that illustrate performance differences between the morphological model and the traditional semilinear model are also given.

  4. Memory in dreams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giustino, Gabriella

    2009-10-01

    In this paper the author discusses a specific type of dreams encountered in her clinical experience, which in her view provide an opportunity of reconstructing the traumatic emotional events of the patient's past. In 1900, Freud described a category of dreams--which he called 'biographical dreams'--that reflect historical infantile experience without the typical defensive function. Many authors agree that some traumatic dreams perform a function of recovery and working through. Bion contributed to the amplification of dream theory by linking it to the theory of thought and emphasizing the element of communication in dreams as well as their defensive aspect. The central hypothesis of this paper is that the predominant aspect of such dreams is the communication of an experience which the dreamer has in the dream but does not understand. It is often possible to reconstruct, and to help the patient to comprehend and make sense of, the emotional truth of the patient's internal world, which stems from past emotional experience with primary objects. The author includes some clinical examples and references to various psychoanalytic and neuroscientific conceptions of trauma and memory. She discusses a particular clinical approach to such dreams and how the analyst should listen to them.

  5. Shape memory alloy flexures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bellouard, Yves; Clavel, Reymond

    2003-07-25

    Flexures are used in precision engineering where highly accurate, wear-free, smooth and repeatable motion is desired. Flexures are based on deformation of material to achieve a motion between elastically joined parts. They are used in a variety of precision mechanisms such as high-resolution balances or high accuracy optical positioning stages. Shape memory alloys (SMA) are an attractive option in designing flexures. Superelastic flexures can withstand larger deformations for the same weight as a conventional flexure. In addition, the damping properties of SMA, controllable through the phase transformation, offer new design opportunities for adaptive compliant mechanisms. The martensitic phase transformation can also be used to shift the natural frequency of flexures adding useful functionalities such as vibration rejection. This paper presents design principles of SMA flexures based on non-linear beam theory. Results show a good agreement between measured and predicted data. In addition, experimental results on phase transformation effects on damping behavior are also presented. Both, natural-frequency shift and increased damping were observed in bulk-micro machined flexures using the R-phase transformation. These results demonstrate the feasibility of natural-frequency-tunable flexures.

  6. Epigenetic memory in mammals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoe eMigicovsky

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Epigenetic information can be passed on from one generation to another via DNA methylation, histone modifications and changes in small RNAs, a process called epigenetic memory. During a mammal’s lifecycle epigenetic reprogramming, or the resetting of most epigenetic marks, occurs twice. The first instance of reprogramming occurs in primordial germ cells and the second occurs following fertilization. These processes may be both passive and active. In order for epigenetic inheritance to occur the epigenetic modifications must be able to escape reprogramming. There are several examples supporting this non-Mendelian mechanism of inheritance including the prepacking of early developmental genes in histones instead of protamines in sperm, genomic imprinting via methylation marks, the retention of CenH3 in mammalian sperm and the inheritance of piwi-associated interfering RNAs. The ability of mammals to pass on epigenetic information to their progeny provides clear evidence that inheritance is not restricted to DNA sequence and epigenetics plays a key role in producing viable offspring.

  7. Armstrong remembered at memorial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showstack, Randy

    2012-09-01

    Neil Armstrong, who died on 25 August, was recognized during a 13 September memorial service as a courageous, humble, and reluctant hero who in 1969 became the first person to step onto the Moon. The service, held at the National Cathedral in Washington, D. C., included remembrances from astronauts and friends, an excerpt from President John Kennedy's 1962 “We choose to go to the Moon” speech, and a somber rendition of the jazz standard “Fly Me to the Moon.” NASA administrator Charles Bolden said that Armstrong, commander of NASA's Apollo 11 mission, “left a foundation for the future and paved the way for future American explorers to be first to step foot on Mars or another planet. Today, let us recommit ourselves to this grand challenge in honor of the man who first demonstrated it was possible to reach new worlds—and whose life demonstrated the quiet resolve and determination that makes every new, more difficult step into space possible.”

  8. Sequential memory: Binding dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afraimovich, Valentin; Gong, Xue; Rabinovich, Mikhail

    2015-10-01

    Temporal order memories are critical for everyday animal and human functioning. Experiments and our own experience show that the binding or association of various features of an event together and the maintaining of multimodality events in sequential order are the key components of any sequential memories—episodic, semantic, working, etc. We study a robustness of binding sequential dynamics based on our previously introduced model in the form of generalized Lotka-Volterra equations. In the phase space of the model, there exists a multi-dimensional binding heteroclinic network consisting of saddle equilibrium points and heteroclinic trajectories joining them. We prove here the robustness of the binding sequential dynamics, i.e., the feasibility phenomenon for coupled heteroclinic networks: for each collection of successive heteroclinic trajectories inside the unified networks, there is an open set of initial points such that the trajectory going through each of them follows the prescribed collection staying in a small neighborhood of it. We show also that the symbolic complexity function of the system restricted to this neighborhood is a polynomial of degree L - 1, where L is the number of modalities.

  9. Memory, Mind and Language

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Memory, Mind and Language celebrates the 30th anniversary of the The Nordic Association of Linguists (NAL) and the main contribution is the history of those first 30 years. The book is also an overview of trends and basic problems in linguistics in the first decennium of the 21st century. It takes...... up a number of topics in the field, among them the question of synchrony vs. diachrony in the language sciences, and issues of how to investigate the relationship between language, brain and mind. The book proposes some preliminary solutions to that problem, and, most significantly, it touches...... on both general and specific issues in theory and analysis, e.g. ‘adverbs in English and Norwegian,’ ‘verb semantics,’ ‘pronouns in Estonian,’ ‘morphology and neurolinguistics,’ ‘word order and morphology,’ ‘the nature and use of prepotions’ and ‘speech acts.’ The contributing scholars come from a variety...

  10. Stress effects on working memory, explicit memory, and implicit memory for neutral and emotional stimuli in healthy men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathias Luethi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Stress is a strong modulator of memory function. However, memory is not a unitary process and stress seems to exert different effects depending on the memory type under study. Here, we explored the impact of social stress on different aspects of human memory, including tests for explicit memory and working memory (for neutral materials, as well as implicit memory (perceptual priming, contextual priming and classical conditioning for emotional stimuli. A total of 35 young adult male students were randomly assigned to either the stress or the control group, with stress being induced by the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST. Salivary cortisol levels were assessed repeatedly throughout the experiment to validate stress effects. The results support previous evidence indicating complex effects of stress on different types of memory: A pronounced working memory deficit was associated with exposure to stress. No performance differences between groups of stressed and unstressed subjects were observed in verbal explicit memory (but note that learning and recall took place within 1 hour and immediately following stress or in implicit memory for neutral stimuli. Stress enhanced classical conditioning for negative but not positive stimuli. In addition, stress improved spatial explicit memory. These results reinforce the view that acute stress can be highly disruptive for working memory processing. They provide new evidence for the facilitating effects of stress on implicit memory for negative emotional materials. Our findings are discussed with respect to their potential relevance for psychiatric disorders, such as post traumatic stress disorder.

  11. Memory's penumbra: episodic memory decisions induce lingering mnemonic biases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Katherine; Sadanand, Arhanti; Davachi, Lila

    2012-07-27

    How do we decide if the people we meet and the things we see are familiar or new? If something is new, we need to encode it as a memory distinct from already stored episodes, using a process known as pattern separation. If familiar, it can be used to reactivate a previously stored memory, by a process known as pattern completion. To orchestrate these conflicting processes, current models propose that the episodic memory system uses environmental cues to establish processing biases that favor either pattern separation during encoding or pattern completion during retrieval. To assess this theory, we measured how people's memory formation and decisions are influenced by their recent engagement in episodic encoding and retrieval. We found that the recent encoding of novel objects improved subsequent identification of subtle changes, a task thought to rely on pattern separation. Conversely, recent retrieval of old objects increased the subsequent integration of stored information into new memories, a process thought to rely on pattern completion. These experiments provide behavioral evidence that episodic encoding and retrieval evoke lingering biases that influence subsequent mnemonic processing.

  12. System and method for memory allocation in a multiclass memory system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loh, Gabriel; Meswani, Mitesh; Ignatowski, Michael; Nutter, Mark

    2016-06-28

    A system for memory allocation in a multiclass memory system includes a processor coupleable to a plurality of memories sharing a unified memory address space, and a library store to store a library of software functions. The processor identifies a type of a data structure in response to a memory allocation function call to the library for allocating memory to the data structure. Using the library, the processor allocates portions of the data structure among multiple memories of the multiclass memory system based on the type of the data structure.

  13. How Human Memory and Working Memory Work in Second Language Acquisition

    OpenAIRE

    小那覇, 洋子; Onaha, Hiroko

    2014-01-01

    We often draw an analogy between human memory and computers. Information around us is taken into our memory storage first, and then we use the information in storage whatever we need it in our daily life. Linguistic information is also in storage and we process our thoughts based on the memory that is stored. Memory storage consists of multiple memory systems; one of which is called working memory that includes short-term memory. Working memory is the central system that underpins the process...

  14. Overview of emerging nonvolatile memory technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meena, Jagan Singh; Sze, Simon Min; Chand, Umesh; Tseng, Tseung-Yuen

    2014-01-01

    Nonvolatile memory technologies in Si-based electronics date back to the 1990s. Ferroelectric field-effect transistor (FeFET) was one of the most promising devices replacing the conventional Flash memory facing physical scaling limitations at those times. A variant of charge storage memory referred to as Flash memory is widely used in consumer electronic products such as cell phones and music players while NAND Flash-based solid-state disks (SSDs) are increasingly displacing hard disk drives as the primary storage device in laptops, desktops, and even data centers. The integration limit of Flash memories is approaching, and many new types of memory to replace conventional Flash memories have been proposed. Emerging memory technologies promise new memories to store more data at less cost than the expensive-to-build silicon chips used by popular consumer gadgets including digital cameras, cell phones and portable music players. They are being investigated and lead to the future as potential alternatives to existing memories in future computing systems. Emerging nonvolatile memory technologies such as magnetic random-access memory (MRAM), spin-transfer torque random-access memory (STT-RAM), ferroelectric random-access memory (FeRAM), phase-change memory (PCM), and resistive random-access memory (RRAM) combine the speed of static random-access memory (SRAM), the density of dynamic random-access memory (DRAM), and the nonvolatility of Flash memory and so become very attractive as another possibility for future memory hierarchies. Many other new classes of emerging memory technologies such as transparent and plastic, three-dimensional (3-D), and quantum dot memory technologies have also gained tremendous popularity in recent years. Subsequently, not an exaggeration to say that computer memory could soon earn the ultimate commercial validation for commercial scale-up and production the cheap plastic knockoff. Therefore, this review is devoted to the rapidly developing new

  15. Visuospatial and verbal memory in mental arithmetic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clearman, Jack; Klinger, Vojtěch; Szűcs, Dénes

    2016-08-01

    Working memory allows complex information to be remembered and manipulated over short periods of time. Correlations between working memory and mathematics achievement have been shown across the lifespan. However, only a few studies have examined the potentially distinct contributions of domain-specific visuospatial and verbal working memory resources in mental arithmetic computation. Here we aimed to fill this gap in a series of six experiments pairing addition and subtraction tasks with verbal and visuospatial working memory and interference tasks. In general, we found higher levels of interference between mental arithmetic and visuospatial working memory tasks than between mental arithmetic and verbal working memory tasks. Additionally, we found that interference that matched the working memory domain of the task (e.g., verbal task with verbal interference) lowered working memory performance more than mismatched interference (verbal task with visuospatial interference). Findings suggest that mental arithmetic relies on domain-specific working memory resources.

  16. Autobiographical Memory in Normal Ageing and Dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harvey J. Sagar

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available Autobiographical memories in young and elderly normal subjects are drawn mostly from the recent past but elderly subjects relate a second peak of memories from early adulthood. Memory for remote past public events is relatively preserved in dementia, possibly reflecting integrity of semantic relative to episodic memory. We examined recall of specific, consistent autobiographical episodes in Alzheimer's disease (AD in response to cue words. Patients and control subjects drew most memories from the recent 20 years: episode age related to anterograde memory function but not subject age or dementia. Subjects also related a secondary peak of memories from early adulthood; episode age related to subject age and severity of dementia. The results suggest that preferential recall of memories from early adulthood is based on the salience of retrieval cues, altered by age and dementia, superimposed on a temporal gradient of semantic memory. Further, AD shows behavioural similarity to normal ageing.

  17. The neural basis of involuntary episodic memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Shana A; Rubin, David C; Miles, Amanda; Davis, Simon W; Wing, Erik A; Cabeza, Roberto; Berntsen, Dorthe

    2014-10-01

    Voluntary episodic memories require an intentional memory search, whereas involuntary episodic memories come to mind spontaneously without conscious effort. Cognitive neuroscience has largely focused on voluntary memory, leaving the neural mechanisms of involuntary memory largely unknown. We hypothesized that, because the main difference between voluntary and involuntary memory is the controlled retrieval processes required by the former, there would be greater frontal activity for voluntary than involuntary memories. Conversely, we predicted that other components of the episodic retrieval network would be similarly engaged in the two types of memory. During encoding, all participants heard sounds, half paired with pictures of complex scenes and half presented alone. During retrieval, paired and unpaired sounds were presented, panned to the left or to the right. Participants in the involuntary group were instructed to indicate the spatial location of the sound, whereas participants in the voluntary group were asked to additionally recall the pictures that had been paired with the sounds. All participants reported the incidence of their memories in a postscan session. Consistent with our predictions, voluntary memories elicited greater activity in dorsal frontal regions than involuntary memories, whereas other components of the retrieval network, including medial-temporal, ventral occipitotemporal, and ventral parietal regions were similarly engaged by both types of memories. These results clarify the distinct role of dorsal frontal and ventral occipitotemporal regions in predicting strategic retrieval and recalled information, respectively, and suggest that, although there are neural differences in retrieval, involuntary memories share neural components with established voluntary memory systems.

  18. Resistive content addressable memory based in-memory computation architecture

    KAUST Repository

    Salama, Khaled N.

    2016-12-08

    Various examples are provided examples related to resistive content addressable memory (RCAM) based in-memory computation architectures. In one example, a system includes a content addressable memory (CAM) including an array of cells having a memristor based crossbar and an interconnection switch matrix having a gateless memristor array, which is coupled to an output of the CAM. In another example, a method, includes comparing activated bit values stored a key register with corresponding bit values in a row of a CAM, setting a tag bit value to indicate that the activated bit values match the corresponding bit values, and writing masked key bit values to corresponding bit locations in the row of the CAM based on the tag bit value.

  19. Shape memory alloys. Ultralow-fatigue shape memory alloy films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chluba, Christoph; Ge, Wenwei; Lima de Miranda, Rodrigo; Strobel, Julian; Kienle, Lorenz; Quandt, Eckhard; Wuttig, Manfred

    2015-05-29

    Functional shape memory alloys need to operate reversibly and repeatedly. Quantitative measures of reversibility include the relative volume change of the participating phases and compatibility matrices for twinning. But no similar argument is known for repeatability. This is especially crucial for many future applications, such as artificial heart valves or elastocaloric cooling, in which more than 10 million transformation cycles will be required. We report on the discovery of an ultralow-fatigue shape memory alloy film system based on TiNiCu that allows at least 10 million transformation cycles. We found that these films contain Ti2Cu precipitates embedded in the base alloy that serve as sentinels to ensure complete and reproducible transformation in the course of each memory cycle. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  20. Semantic graphs and associative memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomi, Andrés; Mizraji, Eduardo

    2004-12-01

    Graphs have been increasingly utilized in the characterization of complex networks from diverse origins, including different kinds of semantic networks. Human memories are associative and are known to support complex semantic nets; these nets are represented by graphs. However, it is not known how the brain can sustain these semantic graphs. The vision of cognitive brain activities, shown by modern functional imaging techniques, assigns renewed value to classical distributed associative memory models. Here we show that these neural network models, also known as correlation matrix memories, naturally support a graph representation of the stored semantic structure. We demonstrate that the adjacency matrix of this graph of associations is just the memory coded with the standard basis of the concept vector space, and that the spectrum of the graph is a code invariant of the memory. As long as the assumptions of the model remain valid this result provides a practical method to predict and modify the evolution of the cognitive dynamics. Also, it could provide us with a way to comprehend how individual brains that map the external reality, almost surely with different particular vector representations, are nevertheless able to communicate and share a common knowledge of the world. We finish presenting adaptive association graphs, an extension of the model that makes use of the tensor product, which provides a solution to the known problem of branching in semantic nets.

  1. Multiplicative contexts in associative memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizraji, E; Pomi, A; Alvarez, F

    1994-01-01

    A system of networks, consisting of a first net that constructs the Kronecker product between two vectors and then sends it to a second net that sustains a correlation memory, defines a context-dependent associative memory. In the real nervous system of higher mammals, the anatomy of the neural connections surely exhibits a considerable amount of local imprecision superimposed on a regular global layout. In order to evaluate the potentialities of the multiplicative devices to constitute plausible biological models, we analyse the performances of a context-dependent memory when the multiplicative net, responsible of the construction of the Kronecker product, presents an incomplete connectivity. Our study shows that a large dimensional system is able to support a considerable amount of incompleteness in the connectivity without a great deterioration of the memory. We establish a scaling relationship between the degree of incompleteness, the capacity of the memory, and the tolerance threshold to imperfections in the output. We then analyse some performances that show the versatility of this kind of network to represent a variety of functions. These functions include a context-modulated novelty filter, a network that computes logical modalities and an adaptive searching device.

  2. Memory abilities during normal aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrosky-Solis, F; Jaime, R M; Ardila, A

    1998-02-01

    One hundred and five normal subjects from 20 to 89 years old, and with a minimum of six years of formal education were selected. Subjects were divided into seven age ranges, with 15 subjects in each group. The following tests were individually administered: (1) Wechsler Memory Scale (WMS) (Wechsler, 1945); (2) Serial Verbal Learning (Ardila, Rosselli & Puente, 1994; Ardila & Ostrosky, 1991); (3) The Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure (ROCF) (Osterrieth, 1944) (copy, immediate, and delayed reproduction); (4) Corsi's blocks (Milner, 1971) (forwards and backwards); and (5) Rivermead Behavioural Memory Test (Wilson, Cockburn, & Baddeley, 1985). This last test may be considered as a functional or ecological memory test. All test scores declined across ages between 4.1% and 76.6%. In all the tests, excepting Digits, standard deviations increased with age. It was observed that the youngest subjects could retain about three-fourths of the information presented, whereas the oldest retained around one-third of this information. About half of the test significantly correlated with the Rivermead Behavioral Memory Test. A factor analysis revealed four different factors accounting for 63.3% of the variance. A single nonverbal memory factor accounted for over 40% of the variance.

  3. The history of memory arts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patten, B M

    1990-02-01

    Ancient humans, lacking devices to store large amounts of information, invented and developed a system of mnemonics which evolved and passed to modern times. The mnemonics, collectively known as the Ancient Art of Memory, were discovered in 447 BC by a Greek poet, Simonides, and were adequately described by Cicero, Quintilian, and Pliny. These arts fell into neglect after Alaric sacked Rome in 410 AD, but were subsequently revived in 1323 by Saint Thomas Aquinas, who transferred them from a division of rhetoric to ethics and used them to recall Catholic doctrine and versions of biblical history. In 1540 Saint Ignatius Loyola used mnemonic images to affirm the faith with his newly formed Society of Jesus and tried to convert the Ming dynasty in China by teaching these memory skills to Chinese nobles. Today, the ancient memory arts have applications in pilot training, gambling, mentalism and telepathy demonstrations, and may have a role in the rehabilitation of brain-damaged patients. Objective testing confirms that with the use of these memory skills, recall is increased, at least 10-fold, and the memory deficits of proactive and retroactive inhibition do not exist.

  4. Memory Hierarchy Sensitive Graph Layout

    CERN Document Server

    Roy, Amitabha

    2012-01-01

    Mining large graphs for information is becoming an increasingly important workload due to the plethora of graph structured data becoming available. An aspect of graph algorithms that has hitherto not received much interest is the effect of memory hierarchy on accesses. A typical system today has multiple levels in the memory hierarchy with differing units of locality; ranging across cache lines, TLB entries and DRAM pages. We postulate that it is possible to allocate graph structured data in main memory in a way as to improve the spatial locality of the data. Previous approaches to improving cache locality have focused only on a single unit of locality, either the cache line or virtual memory page. On the other hand cache oblivious algorithms can optimise layout for all levels of the memory hierarchy but unfortunately need to be specially designed for individual data structures. In this paper we explore hierarchical blocking as a technique for closing this gap. We require as input a specification of the units...

  5. All-printed paper memory

    KAUST Repository

    Lien, Derhsien

    2014-08-26

    We report the memory device on paper by means of an all-printing approach. Using a sequence of inkjet and screen-printing techniques, a simple metal-insulator-metal device structure is fabricated on paper as a resistive random access memory with a potential to reach gigabyte capacities on an A4 paper. The printed-paper-based memory devices (PPMDs) exhibit reproducible switching endurance, reliable retention, tunable memory window, and the capability to operate under extreme bending conditions. In addition, the PBMD can be labeled on electronics or living objects for multifunctional, wearable, on-skin, and biocompatible applications. The disposability and the high-security data storage of the paper-based memory are also demonstrated to show the ease of data handling, which are not achievable for regular silicon-based electronic devices. We envision that the PPMDs manufactured by this cost-effective and time-efficient all-printing approach would be a key electronic component to fully activate a paper-based circuit and can be directly implemented in medical biosensors, multifunctional devices, and self-powered systems. © 2014 American Chemical Society.

  6. Dynamics of auditory working memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jochen eKaiser

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Working memory denotes the ability to retain stimuli in mind that are no longer physically present and to perform mental operations on them. Electro- and magnetoencephalography allow investigating the short-term maintenance of acoustic stimuli at a high temporal resolution. Studies investigating working memory for non-spatial and spatial auditory information have suggested differential roles of regions along the putative auditory ventral and dorsal streams, respectively, in the processing of the different sound properties. Analyses of event-related potentials have shown sustained, memory load-dependent deflections over the retention periods. The topography of these waves suggested an involvement of modality-specific sensory storage regions. Spectral analysis has yielded information about the temporal dynamics of auditory working memory processing of individual stimuli, showing activation peaks during the delay phase whose timing was related to task performance. Coherence at different frequencies was enhanced between frontal and sensory cortex. In summary, auditory working memory seems to rely on the dynamic interplay between frontal executive systems and sensory representation regions.

  7. The molecular basis of memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marx, Gerard; Gilon, Chaim

    2012-08-15

    We propose a tripartite biochemical mechanism for memory. Three physiologic components are involved, namely, the neuron (individual and circuit), the surrounding neural extracellular matrix, and the various trace metals distributed within the matrix. The binding of a metal cation affects a corresponding nanostructure (shrinking, twisting, expansion) and dielectric sensibility of the chelating node (address) within the matrix lattice, sensed by the neuron. The neural extracellular matrix serves as an electro-elastic lattice, wherein neurons manipulate multiple trace metals (n > 10) to encode, store, and decode coginive information. The proposed mechanism explains brains low energy requirements and high rates of storage capacity described in multiples of Avogadro number (N(A) = 6 × 10(23)). Supportive evidence correlates memory loss to trace metal toxicity or deficiency, or breakdown in the delivery/transport of metals to the matrix, or its degradation. Inherited diseases revolving around dysfunctional trace metal metabolism and memory dysfunction, include Alzheimer's disease (Al, Zn, Fe), Wilson's disease (Cu), thalassemia (Fe), and autism (metallothionein). The tripartite mechanism points to the electro-elastic interactions of neurons with trace metals distributed within the neural extracellular matrix, as the molecular underpinning of "synaptic plasticity" affecting short-term memory, long-term memory, and forgetting.

  8. Developmental trends in adaptive memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otgaar, Henry; Howe, Mark L; Smeets, Tom; Garner, Sarah R

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies have revealed that memory is enhanced when information is processed for fitness-related purposes. The main objective of the current experiments was to test developmental trends in the evolutionary foundation of memory using different types of stimuli and paradigms. In Experiment 1, 11-year-olds and adults were presented with neutral, negative, and survival-related DRM word lists. We found a memory benefit for the survival-related words and showed that false memories were more likely to be elicited for the survival-related word lists than for the other lists. Experiment 2 examined developmental trends in the survival processing paradigm using neutral, negative, and survival-related pictures. A survival processing advantage was found for survival-related pictures in adults, for negative pictures in 11/12-year-olds, and for neutral pictures in 7/8-year-olds. In Experiment 3, 11/12-year-olds and adults had to imagine the standard survival scenario or an adapted survival condition (or pleasantness condition) that was designed to reduce the possibilities for elaborative processing. We found superior memory retention for both survival scenarios in children and adults. Collectively, our results evidently show that the survival processing advantage is developmentally invariant and that certain proximate mechanisms (elaboration and distinctiveness) underlie these developmental trends.

  9. School Counseling for African American Adolescents: The Alfred Adler Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapp, Marty

    2010-01-01

    This article discusses how Adlerian counseling can be used as a form of school counseling for African American adolescents. Moreover, school counseling for African American adolescents is discussed within the context of African American culture. Due to the strength-based nature of Adlerian approach, it can capitalize on African American…

  10. The Michael-Adler report (1933): criminology under the microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goff, Colin; Geis, Gilbert

    2008-01-01

    This paper details the responses made by social scientists as well as criminal justice practitioners during 1932 to a study focusing on the status of criminology by the Bureau of Social Hygiene. These responses ultimately led to the publication of the controversial Crime, Law and Social Science (1933), which gave much-needed direction to the development of criminology. Despite the importance of these responses to the creation of criminological thought, only one (by Edwin H. Sutherland) has previously been published. Examining the responses of all of the individual participants in the project gives a clearer picture of controversies and changes which ultimately occurred as the field of criminology gradually became institutionalized as an academic discipline.

  11. School Counseling for African American Adolescents: The Alfred Adler Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapp, Marty

    2010-01-01

    This article discusses how Adlerian counseling can be used as a form of school counseling for African American adolescents. Moreover, school counseling for African American adolescents is discussed within the context of African American culture. Due to the strength-based nature of Adlerian approach, it can capitalize on African American…

  12. Developmental dissociation between the maturation of procedural memory and declarative memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finn, Amy S; Kalra, Priya B; Goetz, Calvin; Leonard, Julia A; Sheridan, Margaret A; Gabrieli, John D E

    2016-02-01

    Declarative memory and procedural memory are known to be two fundamentally different kinds of memory that are dissociable in their psychological characteristics and measurement (explicit vs. implicit) and in the neural systems that subserve each kind of memory. Declarative memory abilities are known to improve from childhood through young adulthood, but the developmental maturation of procedural memory is largely unknown. We compared 10-year-old children and young adults on measures of declarative memory and working memory capacity and on four measures of procedural memory that have been strongly dissociated from declarative memory (mirror tracing, rotary pursuit, probabilistic classification, and artificial grammar). Children had lesser declarative memory ability and lesser working memory capacity than adults, but children exhibited learning equivalent to adults on all four measures of procedural memory. Therefore, declarative memory and procedural memory are developmentally dissociable, with procedural memory being adult-like by age 10years and declarative memory continuing to mature into young adulthood. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. The cortical basis of true memory and false memory for motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karanian, Jessica M; Slotnick, Scott D

    2014-02-01

    Behavioral evidence indicates that false memory, like true memory, can be rich in sensory detail. By contrast, there is fMRI evidence that true memory for visual information produces greater activity in earlier visual regions than false memory, which suggests true memory is associated with greater sensory detail. However, false memory in previous fMRI paradigms may have lacked sufficient sensory detail to recruit earlier visual processing regions. To investigate this possibility in the present fMRI study, we employed a paradigm that produced feature-specific false memory with a high degree of visual detail. During the encoding phase, moving or stationary abstract shapes were presented to the left or right of fixation. During the retrieval phase, shapes from encoding were presented at fixation and participants classified each item as previously "moving" or "stationary" within each visual field. Consistent with previous fMRI findings, true memory but not false memory for motion activated motion processing region MT+, while both true memory and false memory activated later cortical processing regions. In addition, false memory but not true memory for motion activated language processing regions. The present findings indicate that true memory activates earlier visual regions to a greater degree than false memory, even under conditions of detailed retrieval. Thus, the dissociation between previous behavioral findings and fMRI findings do not appear to be task dependent. Future work will be needed to assess whether the same pattern of true memory and false memory activity is observed for different sensory modalities.

  14. System consolidation of memory during sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Born, Jan; Wilhelm, Ines

    2012-03-01

    Over the past two decades, research has accumulated compelling evidence that sleep supports the formation of long-term memory. The standard two-stage memory model that has been originally elaborated for declarative memory assumes that new memories are transiently encoded into a temporary store (represented by the hippocampus in the declarative memory system) before they are gradually transferred into a long-term store (mainly represented by the neocortex), or are forgotten. Based on this model, we propose that sleep, as an offline mode of brain processing, serves the 'active system consolidation' of memory, i.e. the process in which newly encoded memory representations become redistributed to other neuron networks serving as long-term store. System consolidation takes place during slow-wave sleep (SWS) rather than rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. The concept of active system consolidation during sleep implicates that (a) memories are reactivated during sleep to be consolidated, (b) the consolidation process during sleep is selective inasmuch as it does not enhance every memory, and (c) memories, when transferred to the long-term store undergo qualitative changes. Experimental evidence for these three central implications is provided: It has been shown that reactivation of memories during SWS plays a causal role for consolidation, that sleep and specifically SWS consolidates preferentially memories with relevance for future plans, and that sleep produces qualitative changes in memory representations such that the extraction of explicit and conscious knowledge from implicitly learned materials is facilitated.

  15. Operant conditioning of autobiographical memory retrieval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debeer, Elise; Raes, Filip; Williams, J Mark G; Craeynest, Miet; Hermans, Dirk

    2014-01-01

    Functional avoidance is considered as one of the key mechanisms underlying overgeneral autobiographical memory (OGM). According to this view OGM is regarded as a learned cognitive avoidance strategy, based on principles of operant conditioning; i.e., individuals learn to avoid the emotionally painful consequences associated with the retrieval of specific negative memories. The aim of the present study was to test one of the basic assumptions of the functional avoidance account, namely that autobiographical memory retrieval can be brought under operant control. Here 41 students were instructed to retrieve personal memories in response to 60 emotional cue words. Depending on the condition, they were punished with an aversive sound for the retrieval of specific or nonspecific memories in an operant conditioning procedure. Analyzes showed that the course of memory specificity significantly differed between conditions. After the procedure participants punished for nonspecific memories retrieved significantly more specific memories compared to participants punished for specific memories. However, whereas memory specificity significantly increased in participants punished for specific memories, it did not significantly decrease in participants punished for nonspecific memories. Thus, while our findings indicate that autobiographical memory retrieval can be brought under operant control, they do not support a functional avoidance view on OGM.

  16. ROBUST MEMORY MANAGEMENT USING REAL TIME CONCEPTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Karthikeyan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Memory fragmentation is the development of a large number of separate free areas. Memory management in embedded systems demand effective implementation schemes to avoid fragmentation problem. Existing dynamic memory allocation methods fail to suit real time system requirements. Execution times need to be deterministic and this motivates the need for allocation and deallocation to be done in constant time with the help of API’s. In µC/OS-II, memory allocation is semi-dynamic and a buddy allocator dynamic memory allocation algorithm is commonly used. Programmer must statically allocate a memory and partition the region using µC/OS-II Kernel API. Tasks can only request pre-partitioned fixed-size memory space from µC/OS-II. Memory allocation times are influenced by the ratio of memory allocation to the stack size of the task. In this research work memory management in LPC 1768 environment using RTOS µC/OS-II is proposed. Effective sharing of memory blocks among tasks co exists with partition. The captured results shows that the memory allocation and deallocation suits real time. The implication of the work is that, the necessity to reserve a static set of locations ahead of time is eliminated so that memory can be allocated at compile or design time.

  17. Cell memory-based therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anjamrooz, Seyed Hadi

    2015-11-01

    Current cell therapies, despite all of the progress in this field, still faces major ethical, technical and regulatory hurdles. Because these issues possibly stem from the current, restricted, stereotypical view of cell ultrastructure and function, we must think radically about the nature of the cell. In this regard, the author's theory of the cell memory disc offers 'memory-based therapy', which, with the help of immune system rejuvenation, nervous system control and microparticle-based biodrugs, may have substantial therapeutic potential. In addition to its potential value in the study and prevention of premature cell aging, age-related diseases and cell death, memory therapy may improve the treatment of diseases that are currently limited by genetic disorders, risk of tumour formation and the availability and immunocompatibility of tissue transplants. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Foundation for Cellular and Molecular Medicine.

  18. Innate immune memory in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reimer-Michalski, Eva-Maria; Conrath, Uwe

    2016-08-01

    The plant innate immune system comprises local and systemic immune responses. Systemic plant immunity develops after foliar infection by microbial pathogens, upon root colonization by certain microbes, or in response to physical injury. The systemic plant immune response to localized foliar infection is associated with elevated levels of pattern-recognition receptors, accumulation of dormant signaling enzymes, and alterations in chromatin state. Together, these systemic responses provide a memory to the initial infection by priming the remote leaves for enhanced defense and immunity to reinfection. The plant innate immune system thus builds immunological memory by utilizing mechanisms and components that are similar to those employed in the trained innate immune response of jawed vertebrates. Therefore, there seems to be conservation, or convergence, in the evolution of innate immune memory in plants and vertebrates.

  19. Folklore, creativity, and cultural memory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glaveanu, Vlad Petre

    This paper addresses the question of how folk art can be, simultaneously, a vehicle for cultural memory and cultural creativity. It takes the case of Romanian Easter egg decoration as a practice situated at the intersection between art, folklore, religion and a growing market, it order to unpack...... from an early age. At the core of this practice stands the depiction of patterned ornaments known as motifs. These ornaments are constitutive of identity and memory and their decorative features facilitate and encourage the creative expression of folk artists. Tradition in this sense is not by any...... means the opposite of creativity but the actual vehicle of creative activity and its understanding as a stable cultural system ‘engraved’ in collective memory needs to be challenged. The tradition of egg decoration in Romania is a living and evolving social practice that engages the self and community...

  20. Physical attractiveness stereotype and memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohner, Jean-Christophe; Rasmussen, Anders

    2011-08-01

    Three experiments examined explicit and implicit memory for information that is congruent with the physical attractiveness stereotype (i.e. attractive-positive and unattractive-negative) and information that is incongruent with the physical attractiveness stereotype (i.e. attractive-negative and unattractive-positive). Measures of explicit recognition sensitivity and implicit discriminability revealed a memorial advantage for congruent compared to incongruent information, as evident from hit and false alarm rates and reaction times, respectively. Measures of explicit memory showed a recognition bias toward congruent compared to incongruent information, where participants tended to call congruent information old, independently of whether the information had been shown previously or not. This recognition bias was unrelated to reports of subjective confidence in retrieval. The present findings shed light on the cognitive mechanisms that might mediate discriminatory behavior towards physically attractive and physically unattractive individuals.