Sample records for renal satellite units

  1. UNESCOsat: The United Nations’ First Satellite


    Platt, Donald


    An international effort is underway to produce the first satellite in the history of the United Nations. The idea of the preparation and launch, with the endorsement of the UNESCO branch of the United Nations, of an international satellite to promote science education, public awareness of science, and international co-operation in the basic sciences, was presented by the National Commission of the Russian Federation for UNESCO to the UNESCO basic sciences committee. The General Conference of ...

  2. Mobile satellite service in the United States (United States)

    Agnew, Carson E.; Bhagat, Jai; Hopper, Edwin A.; Kiesling, John D.; Exner, Michael L.; Melillo, Lawrence; Noreen, Gary K.; Parrott, Billy J.


    Mobile satellite service (MSS) has been under development in the United States for more than two decades. The service will soon be provided on a commercial basis by a consortium of eight U.S. companies called the American Mobile Satellite Consortium (AMSC). AMSC will build a three-satellite MSS system that will offer superior performance, reliability and cost effectiveness for organizations requiring mobile communications across the U.S. The development and operation of MSS in North America is being coordinated with Telesat Canada and Mexico. AMSC expects NASA to provide launch services in exchange for capacity on the first AMSC satellite for MSAT-X activities and for government demonstrations.

  3. Satellite View of the Conterminous United States - Direct Download (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Satellite View of the Conterminous United States map layer is a 200- meter-resolution simulated-natural-color image of the United States. Vegetation is generally...

  4. Acute renal failure in the intensive care unit. (United States)

    Weisbord, Steven D; Palevsky, Paul M


    Acute renal failure (ARF) is a common complication in critically ill patients, with ARF requiring renal replacement therapy (RRT) developing in approximately 5 to 10% of intensive care unit (ICU) patients. Epidemiological studies have demonstrated that ARF is an independent risk factor for mortality. Interventions to prevent the development of ARF are currently limited to a small number of settings, primarily radiocontrast nephropathy and rhabdomyolysis. There are no effective pharmacological agents for the treatment of established ARF. Renal replacement therapy remains the primary treatment for patients with severe ARF; however, the data guiding selection of modality of RRT and the optimal timing of initiation and dose of therapy are inconclusive. This review focuses on the epidemiology and diagnostic approach to ARF in the ICU and summarizes our current understanding of therapeutic approaches including RRT.

  5. Evaluating the quality of patient leaflets about renal replacement therapy across UK renal units. (United States)

    Winterbottom, Anna; Conner, Mark; Mooney, Andrew; Bekker, Hilary L


    Enhancing patient participation is a priority for renal services. Good quality information is fundamental to facilitate patient involvement, but in other health contexts it has been found to be sub-optimal. This research aims to audit the provision of patient information by renal units and charities and to assess the quality of written information about dialysis treatment options. All UK renal units were sent a questionnaire about the patient information they provided. Renal units and charities that provided dialysis leaflets were asked to forward copies. Leaflet quality and content were assessed by a coding frame informed by information and decision aid checklists. Out of 105, 67 completed questionnaires were returned. Services provide patients with large amounts of information in several media (leaflets, meetings with nurses and patients, videos); computers were not used frequently. Out of 47, 32 units forwarded leaflets about dialysis, and 31 different leaflets. Most leaflets were difficult to understand and rarely included risk information or treatment limitations. No leaflets included techniques to assist patient involvement or decision-making; their primary goal was to inform. These data suggest an unsystematic pattern of information provision across the UK. Vast resources have been spent on providing information to patients that is difficult to comprehend and incomplete. Research needs to identify which resources are effective in meeting patient needs and at what point in their illness. A centralized system to guide renal services in the design and development of information resources may help meet the differing goals of education, choice facilitation and preparation for self-management.

  6. The hygieinic importance of water quality in renal dialysis units

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    Costantinidis T. K.


    Full Text Available The microbiological and chemical quality of water used in haemodialysis units must comply with several hygienic conditions that do not compromise the nephropathic patient’s health. Every week patients undergoing renal therapy are exposed to approximately 400 liters of water that are used to manufacture haemodialysis liquids. Efficient monitoring of water quality in Renal Dialysis Units (RDU can address the microbiological and chemical hazards and prevent complications associated with the impurity of hemodialysis liquids (e.g. inflammatory, infectious and toxicological reactions. This review article aims at elucidating the importance of water quality in RDU, describe the methods used for quality assurance and promote the active role of the laboratory in preventing these hazards through efficient monitoring.

  7. Characteristics and survival of patients with end stage renal disease and spina bifida in the United States renal data system. (United States)

    Ouyang, Lijing; Bolen, Julie; Valdez, Rodolfo; Joseph, David; Baum, Michelle A; Thibadeau, Judy


    We describe the characteristics, treatments and survival of patients with spina bifida in whom end stage renal disease developed from 2004 through 2008 in the United States Renal Data System. We used ICD-9-CM code 741.* to identify individuals with spina bifida using hospital inpatient data from 1977 to 2010, and physician and facility claims from 2004 to 2008. We constructed a 5:1 comparison group of patients with end stage renal disease without spina bifida matched by age at first end stage renal disease service, gender and race/ethnicity. We assessed the risk of mortality and of renal transplantation while on dialysis using multivariate cause specific proportional hazards survival analysis. We also compared survival after the first renal transplant from the first end stage renal disease service to August 2011. We identified 439 patients with end stage renal disease and spina bifida in whom end stage renal disease developed at an average younger age than in patients without spina bifida (41 vs 62 years, p spina bifida those who had spina bifida showed a similar mortality hazard on dialysis and after transplantation. However, patients with end stage renal disease without spina bifida were more likely to undergo renal transplantation than patients with spina bifida (HR 1.51, 95% CI 1.13-2.03). Hospitalizations related to urinary tract infections were positively associated with the risk of death on dialysis in patients with end stage renal disease and spina bifida (HR 1.42, 95% CI 1.33-1.53). Spina bifida was not associated with increased mortality in patients with end stage renal disease on dialysis or after renal transplantation. Proper urological and bladder management is imperative in patients with spina bifida, particularly in adults. Copyright © 2015 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. United States Renal Data System public health surveillance of chronic kidney disease and end-stage renal disease


    Collins, Allan J.; Foley, Robert N.; Gilbertson, David T.; Chen, Shu-Cheng


    The United States Renal Data System (USRDS) began in 1989 through US Congressional authorization under National Institutes of Health competitive contracting. Its history includes five contract periods, two of 5 years, two of 7.5 years, and the fifth, awarded in February 2014, of 5 years. Over these 25 years, USRDS reporting transitioned from basic incidence and prevalence of end-stage renal disease (ESRD), modalities, and overall survival, as well as focused special studies on dialysis, in th...

  9. CTS United States experiments - A progress report. [Communications Technology Satellite for high power broadcasting (United States)

    Robbins, W. H.; Donoughe, P. L.


    The Communications Technology Satellite (CTS) is a high-power broadcast satellite launched by NASA on January 17, 1976. CTS is the first satellite to operate at a frequency of 12 gigahertz and incorporates technology making possible new satellite telecommunications services. CTS is a cooperative program of the United States and Canada. This paper presents the results of the United States experimental activity to date. Wide segments of the population are involved in the Experiments Program, including the scientific community, other government agencies, industry, and the education and health entities. The experiments are associated with both technological objectives and the demonstration of new community and social services via satellite.

  10. 100-Meter Resolution Satellite View of the Conterminous United States - Direct Download (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Satellite View of the Conterminous United States map layer is a 100-meter resolution simulated natural-color image of the United States. Vegetation is generally...

  11. 100-Meter Resolution Satellite View with Shaded Relief of the Conterminous United States - Direct Download (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Satellite View with Shaded Relief of the Conterminous United States map layer is a 100-meter resolution simulated natural-color image of the United States, with...

  12. Satellite View of the Conterminous United States, with Shaded Relief - Direct Download (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Satellite View of the Conterminous United States, with Shaded Relief map layer is a 200-meter-resolution simulated-natural-color image of the United States....

  13. USGS Small-scale Dataset - Satellite View of the Conterminous United States 200603 GeoTIFF (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Satellite View of the Conterminous United States map layer is a 200- meter-resolution simulated-natural-color image of the United States. Vegetation is generally...

  14. Renal replacement therapy in the intensive care unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chacko Jose


    Full Text Available Acute renal failure is a frequent complication in critically ill patients that carries with it considerable morbidity and mortality. The management of renal failure in patients with multi-organ failure is different from that of renal failure that presents as a single organ failure. Intermittent haemodialysis, done in the conventional manner may not be tolerated by most critically ill patients. Continuous renal replacement therapy is physiologically superior; however, there is lack of strong evidence to prove a clinical benefit. Hybrid therapies that combine the benefits of intermittent haemodialysis and continuous therapies have emerged in the past few years. These are simpler to carry out, provide more flexibility and may be cost effective and need to be studied in a systematic manner.

  15. 77 FR 42419 - Airworthiness Directives; Honeywell International, Inc. Global Navigation Satellite Sensor Units (United States)


    ... International, Inc. Global Navigation Satellite Sensor Units AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT... augmentation system (WAAS) global navigation satellite sensor units (GNSSU). This AD requires you cease all... positioning system (GPS) sensor and the same software as the Model KGS200 Mercury\\2\\ GNSSU. A software problem...

  16. An Instructional Satellite System for the United States: Preliminary Considerations. (United States)

    DuMolin, James R.; Morgan, Robert P.

    Based on educational, social, political, and other considerations, an instructional satellite system, AVSIN (Ausio-Visual Satellite Instruction), is hypothesized which represents one possible organizational and administrative arrangement for delivering large amounts of quality software to schools and learning centers. The AVSIN system is conceived…

  17. COSPAR report to United Nations 2004: satellite dynamics (United States)

    Willis, Pascal


    The COSPAR Panel on Satellite Dynamics (PSD) is concerned with the determination of the position, velocity and orientation in space of artificial and natural satellites around the Earth or in the outer space. The following report highlighs representative activities of this panel and provides general information on related international aspects.

  18. Power Processing Unit For Micro Satellite Electric Propulsion System

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    Savvas Spiridon


    Full Text Available The Micro Satellite Electric Propulsion System (MEPS program has been originated by the increasing need to provide a low-cost and low-power Electric Propulsion System (EPS for small satellites ( 92%, small size and weight and high reliability. Its functional modules and preliminary results obtained at breadboard level are also presented.

  19. Assessing Satellite Column Observation of Formaldehyde over Continental United States (United States)

    Pour Biazar, A.; White, A.; Khan, M. N.; McNider, R. T.


    The advent of satellite observation of trace gases has provided valuable information for better understanding of chemical atmosphere. One of these products, satellite observation of column formaldehyde, can be especially valuable in air quality studies. Since photochemical production of formaldehyde constitutes a large portion of summertime atmospheric concentration, satellite observations can be used to constraint the uncertainties in primary aldehyde emissions. In particular, isoprene as the major precursor of formaldehyde in most areas during summer, contributes 20-60% of total production. However, the magnitude of this contribution is spatially variable. Therefore, in comparing model column formaldehyde to that of the satellite, environmental factors affecting this variation must agree with observations. In this study, first we correct the radiation field used in the model for estimating emissions of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOC). Then by performing photochemical simulations for the summer of 2013, model formaldehyde field will be compared to that of satellite observed. WRF/SMOKE/CMAQ modeling system is being used for these simulations. The model simulations use satellite-based estimates of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) in BVOC emission estimates produced by the latest version of biogenic emission inventory system (BEIS). The results for the period of August-September 2013 (NASA's Discover-AQ field campaign) will be presented.

  20. Prevention of acute kidney injury and protection of renal function in the intensive care unit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joannidis, Michael; Druml, Wilfred; Forni, Lui G.; Groeneveld, A. B. Johan; Honore, Patrick; Oudemans-van Straaten, Heleen M.; Ronco, Claudio; Schetz, Marie R. C.; Woittiez, Arend Jan


    Acute renal failure on the intensive care unit is associated with significant mortality and morbidity. To determine recommendations for the prevention of acute kidney injury (AKI), focusing on the role of potential preventative maneuvers including volume expansion, diuretics, use of inotropes, vasop

  1. Duration of temporary catheter use for hemodialysis: an observational, prospective evaluation of renal units in Brazil

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    Bonfante Gisele MS


    Full Text Available Abstract Background For chronic hemodialysis, the ideal permanent vascular access is the arteriovenous fistula (AVF. Temporary catheters should be reserved for acute dialysis needs. The AVF is associated with lower infection rates, better clinical results, and a higher quality of life and survival when compared to temporary catheters. In Brazil, the proportion of patients with temporary catheters for more than 3 months from the beginning of therapy is used as an evaluation of the quality of renal units. The aim of this study is to evaluate factors associated with the time between the beginning of hemodialysis with temporary catheters and the placement of the first arteriovenous fistula in Brazil. Methods This is an observational, prospective non-concurrent study using national administrative registries of all patients financed by the public health system who began renal replacement therapy (RRT between 2000 and 2004 in Brazil. Incident patients were eligible who had hemodialysis for the first time. Patients were excluded who: had hemodialysis reportedly started after the date of death (inconsistent database; were younger than 18 years old; had HIV; had no record of the first dialysis unit; and were dialyzed in units with less than twenty patients. To evaluate individual and renal unit factors associated with the event of interest, the frailty model was used (N = 55,589. Results Among the 23,824 patients (42.9% who underwent fistula placement in the period of the study, 18.2% maintained the temporary catheter for more than three months until the fistula creation. The analysis identified five statistically significant factors associated with longer time until first fistula: higher age (Hazard-risk - HR 0.99, 95% CI 0.99-1.00; having hypertension and cardiovascular diseases (HR 0.94, 95% CI 0.9-0.98 as the cause of chronic renal disease; residing in capitals cities (HR 0.92, 95% CI 0.9-0.95 and certain regions in Brazil - South (HR 0.83, 95% CI 0

  2. Duration of temporary catheter use for hemodialysis: an observational, prospective evaluation of renal units in Brazil. (United States)

    Bonfante, Gisele M S; Gomes, Isabel C; Andrade, Eli Iola G; Lima, Eleonora M; Acurcio, Francisco A; Cherchiglia, Mariângela L


    For chronic hemodialysis, the ideal permanent vascular access is the arteriovenous fistula (AVF). Temporary catheters should be reserved for acute dialysis needs. The AVF is associated with lower infection rates, better clinical results, and a higher quality of life and survival when compared to temporary catheters. In Brazil, the proportion of patients with temporary catheters for more than 3 months from the beginning of therapy is used as an evaluation of the quality of renal units. The aim of this study is to evaluate factors associated with the time between the beginning of hemodialysis with temporary catheters and the placement of the first arteriovenous fistula in Brazil. This is an observational, prospective non-concurrent study using national administrative registries of all patients financed by the public health system who began renal replacement therapy (RRT) between 2000 and 2004 in Brazil. Incident patients were eligible who had hemodialysis for the first time. Patients were excluded who: had hemodialysis reportedly started after the date of death (inconsistent database); were younger than 18 years old; had HIV; had no record of the first dialysis unit; and were dialyzed in units with less than twenty patients. To evaluate individual and renal unit factors associated with the event of interest, the frailty model was used (N = 55,589). Among the 23,824 patients (42.9%) who underwent fistula placement in the period of the study, 18.2% maintained the temporary catheter for more than three months until the fistula creation. The analysis identified five statistically significant factors associated with longer time until first fistula: higher age (Hazard-risk - HR 0.99, 95% CI 0.99-1.00); having hypertension and cardiovascular diseases (HR 0.94, 95% CI 0.9-0.98) as the cause of chronic renal disease; residing in capitals cities (HR 0.92, 95% CI 0.9-0.95) and certain regions in Brazil - South (HR 0.83, 95% CI 0.8-0.87), Midwest (HR 0.88, 95% CI 0

  3. [Aluminium in chronic renal replacement therapy patients undergoing haemodialysis in two renal units in Bogotá]. (United States)

    Cárdenas, Omayda; Segura, Omar; Puentes, William; Sanabria, Mauricio; Nava, Gerardo; Torrenegra, Rubén


    Determining aluminium concentrations in the serum of patients undergoing chronic renal replacement therapy with haemodialysis and concentration in distribution network water and dialysis in two renal units in Bogotá. This was a descriptive study of 63 haemodialysed patients and 20 healthy subjects. Aluminium concentration was determined in water and serum using graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry with deuterium lamp background corrector. Average aluminium concentration was 26.5 µg/L in patients (ranging from 11.2 to 49.2 µg/L; 8.03 standard deviation) and 8.05 µg/L in healthy individuals (ranging from undetectable to 17.2 µg/L; 4.31 standard deviation). Aluminium concentration in dialysis water and distribution network water was below 2 µg/L and 200 µg/L, respectively. Aluminium concentration in water and serum in this study was below international standard values, thereby indicating appropriate treatment. Additionally, aluminium concentration in pre-HD and post-HD sera was below that reported previously. Aluminium hydroxide uptake increases aluminium concentration in serum. Personal situation regarding age, gender, civil and work status were not risk factors determining aluminium concentrations in serum.

  4. Proteção renal na unidade de terapia intensiva cirúrgica Renal protection in a surgical intensive care unit

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    Luciana Moraes dos Santos


    increase of life expectancy, older patients with more co-morbidity are being submitted to high risk surgical procedures, what make clinical practice related to organ protection possible modifier of short and long term survival. This review about renal protection in surgical intensive care unit points risk factors and discusses scientific evidence related to reduction of renal dysfunction in perioperative. CONTENTS: Although low extraction and adequate renal reserve of oxygen, the kidney is extremely sensible to hypoperfusion being renal acute insufficiency a frequent complication of hemodynamic instability. This apparent paradox, high oxygen content and reduced extraction with high incidence of renal damage to hypotension reflects the intra-renal gradient of oxygen, what makes renal medulla highly susceptible to ischemia. Factors associated with renal lesion are observed in all fases of perioperative period: fasting, contrast use, hypovolemia, hypotension, catecholamine and cytokine release, extracorporeal circulation, trauma, rabdomiolisys and aortic clamp. CONCLUSIONS: Management of renal damage is based in principals of perioperative renal physiology and glomerular hemodynamic. Clinical practice directed to organic protection should be implemented to minimize the impact this dysfunction.

  5. USGS Small-scale Dataset - 100-Meter Resolution Satellite View of the Conterminous United States 201304 GeoTIFF (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Satellite View of the Conterminous United States map layer is a 100-meter resolution simulated natural-color image of the United States. Vegetation is generally...

  6. USGS Small-scale Dataset - Satellite View of the Conterminous United States, with Shaded Relief 200512 GeoTIFF (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Satellite View of the Conterminous United States, with Shaded Relief map layer is a 200-meter-resolution simulated-natural-color image of the United States....

  7. Racial and ethnic disparities in pediatric renal allograft survival in the United States. (United States)

    Patzer, Rachel E; Mohan, Sumit; Kutner, Nancy; McClellan, William M; Amaral, Sandra


    This study was undertaken to describe the association of patient race/ethnicity and renal allograft survival among the national cohort of pediatric renal allograft recipients. Additionally, we determined whether racial and ethnic differences in graft survival exist among individuals living in low- or high-poverty neighborhoods and those with private or public insurance. Among 6216 incident, pediatric end-stage renal disease patients in the United States Renal Data System (kidney transplant from 2000 through September, 2011), 14.4% experienced graft failure, with a median follow-up time of 4.5 years. After controlling for multiple covariates, black race, but not Hispanic ethnicity, was significantly associated with a higher rate of graft failure for both deceased and living donor transplant recipients. Disparities were particularly stark by 5 years post transplant, when black living donor transplant recipients experienced only 63.0% graft survival compared with 82.8 and 80.8% for Hispanics and whites, respectively. These disparities persisted among high- and low-poverty neighborhoods and among both privately and publicly insured patients. Notably profound declines in both deceased and living donor graft survival rates for black, compared with white and Hispanic, children preceded the 3-year mark when transplant Medicare eligibility ends. Further research is needed to identify the unique barriers to long-term graft success among black pediatric transplant recipients.

  8. Ruling out nosocomial transmission of Cryptosporidium in a renal transplantation unit: case report. (United States)

    Brunet, J; Lemoine, J P; Pesson, B; Valot, S; Sautour, M; Dalle, F; Muller, C; Borni-Duval, C; Caillard, S; Moulin, B; Pfaff, A W; Razakandrainibe, R; Abou-Bacar, A; Favennec, L; Candolfi, E


    Cryptosporidium spp. is a ubiquitous parasite affecting humans as well as domestic and wild vertebrates, causing diarrhea in both immunocompetent and immunocompromised hosts worldwide. Its transmission occurs primarily by the fecal-oral route. In humans, C. parvum and C. hominis are the most prevalent species, whereas immunocompetent and immunocompromised individuals can also be infected by other zoonotic species. Renal transplant patients are prone to develop cryptosporidiosis, which can induce severe and life-threatening diarrhea. We report here a series of nearly concomitant cases of acute symptomatic cryptosporidiosis in three renal transplant patients attending the Strasbourg University Hospital Nephrology Unit. The clinical presentation was persistent diarrhea and acute renal failure. The diagnosis was confirmed by microscopic stool examination using a modified Ziehl-Neelsen staining method and species identification by molecular tools. All patients were treated with nitazoxanide and recovered from diarrhea after 14 days of therapy. Genotypic species identification was not consistent with an epidemic context, thus underlining the need for genotyping to monitor at risk patients.

  9. Defining management units for cetaceans by combining genetics, morphology, acoustics and satellite tracking

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    Signe Sveegaard


    Full Text Available Managing animal units is essential in biological conservation and requires spatial and temporal identification of such units. Since even neighbouring populations often have different conservation status and face different levels of anthropogenic pressure, detailed knowledge of population structure, seasonal range and overlap with animals from neighbouring populations is required to manage each unit separately. Previous studies on genetic structure and morphologic separation suggests three distinct populations of harbour porpoises with limited geographic overlap in the North Sea (NS, the Belt Sea (BS and the Baltic Proper (BP region. In this study, we aim to identify a management unit for the BS population of harbour porpoises. We use Argos satellite data and genetics from biopsies of tagged harbour porpoises as well as acoustic data from 40 passive acoustic data loggers to determine management areas with the least overlap between populations and thus the least error when abundance and population status is estimated. Discriminant analysis of the satellite tracking data from the BS and NS populations showed that the best fit of the management unit border during the summer months was an east–west line from Denmark to Sweden at latitude 56.95°N. For the border between BS and BP, satellite tracking data indicate a sharp decline in population density at 13.5°E, with 90% of the locations being west of this line. This was supported by the acoustic data with the average daily detection rate being 27.5 times higher west of 13.5°E as compared to east of 13.5°E. By using this novel multidisciplinary approach, we defined a management unit for the BS harbour porpoise population. We recommend that these boundaries are used for future monitoring efforts of this population under the EU directives. The boundaries may also be used for conservation efforts during the summer months, while seasonal movements of harbour porpoises should be considered during

  10. Cholera gravis associated with acute renal failure in a traveler from Haiti to the United States. (United States)

    Reyes-Corcho, Andrés; Pinsker, Richard W; Sarkar, Samir; Bagheri, Farshad; Patel, Mahendra C; Lam, Pablo; González, Argentina


    Cholera is a gastroenteric disease caused by epidemic or pandemic Vibrio cholerae which still is responsible for over 100,000 annual deaths worldwide. Since October 2010, Haiti experienced a cholera outbreak affecting more than 300,000 persons. Few imported cases related to the Haitian epidemic have been reported so far in the United States and Canada. We presented a patient who developed cholera gravis soon after arrival at New York City from Haiti. The patient needed admission to an Intensive Care Unit, for vigorous intravenous hydration, antibiotic therapy, and hemodialysis due to refractory oliguric renal failure. The patient was discharged the day 6 after admission and V. cholerae O1 was isolated from the stool culture. Cholera can be a life-threatening disease; early recognition based on travel history and clinical features is the corner stone for successful management. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Modeling Navigation System Performance of a Satellite-Observing Star Tracker Tightly Integrated with an Inertial Measurement Unit (United States)


    Hancock, R.C. Stirbl, and B. Pain. “ Active pixel sensor (APS) based star tracker ”. Aerospace Conference, 1998 IEEE, volume 1, 119–127 vol.1. 1998...Modeling Navigation System Performance of a Satellite-Observing Star Tracker Tightly Integrated with an Inertial Measurement Unit DISSERTATION Scott...Navigation System Performance of a Satellite-Observing Star Tracker Tightly Integrated with an Inertial Measurement Unit DISSERTATION Presented to the

  12. The green nephrology survey of sustainability in renal units in England, Scotland and Wales. (United States)

    Connor, Andrew; Mortimer, Frances


    The impact of unmitigated climate change upon global health is predicted to be disastrous. However, the very provision of healthcare itself has a significant environmental impact, and the contribution of kidney care to the carbon footprint of the NHS is likely to be disproportionately high. Furthermore, the current economic climate will ensure that healthcare systems face unprecedented reductions in resources (or, at the very least, diminished expansion in the face of ongoing increases in demand). Improvements in the way that renal services use resources will address both issues. This survey was designed to identify a baseline for sustainability in kidney care, to support a clinical transformation to lower carbon kidney care by identifying fruitful areas for attention, and to act as an educational tool. The survey identified measures for improvement across the different areas of the provision of kidney care, including building energy use, patient and staff transport, water use and the consumption and procurement of resources. The results of the survey, which was completed by 58 adult and paediatric renal units across England, Scotland, and Wales, are reported here and potential changes are discussed.

  13. [Drugs dosing in intensive care unit during continuous renal replacement therapy]. (United States)

    Bourquin, Vincent; Ponte, Belén; Saudan, Patrick; Martin, Pierre-Yves


    Drug dosing in the intensive care unit can be challenging. Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a common complication of sepsis and a part of multiple organ dysfunction syndrome. Continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) is increasingly used as dialysis therapy in this critically ill population. Available data demonstrate that sepsis, AKI and different modalities of CRRT can profoundly change drugs pharmacokinetic. The severity of these changes depends on molecules characteristics (volume of distribution, plasma protein binding, molecular weight, plasma half-life, plasma clearance), patient itself (volemia, residual renal function, tissue perfusion, hepatic dysfunction) and modality of CRRT (diffusion, convection, adsorption). There are no available recommendations to adapt drug dosing in a given critically ill patient with a given modality of CRRT. It is necessary to fully understand the different methods of CRRT and drug pharmacokinetic to prescribe the appropriate dose and to avoid under or potentially toxic overdosing. Monitoring the plasma level of drug - when available - can establish a relation between the blood concentration and its effect; thus, facilitating drug dosing.

  14. Characteristics and outcomes of end-stage renal disease patients with active tuberculosis followed in intensive care units

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    Ulasli Sevinc


    Full Text Available Tuberculosis (TB remains a common problem in patients with chronic renal failure. In intensive care units, misdiagnosis or delayed diagnosis of TB is common. Therefore, a description of characteristics of active TB in patients with renal failure followed in intensive care units is important to reduce mortality and transmission of the disease. This study was performed to describe the characteristics of patients with renal failure admitted to the intensive care units and having active TB and evaluate predictive factors for in hospital mortality. The hospital records of 24 patients (11 women, 13 men having ESRD and TB between 2001-2006 were reviewed. Clinical, radiological, and laboratory data on admission were recorded. Possible parameters contributing to in-hospital mortality were obtained from the medical records. In-hospital mortality rate was 66.6%. Factors associated with mortality were decreased partial pressure of oxygen and malnutrition. Fever was reported in 8 patients and hemoptysis was reported in 3 patients. Eight patients had consolidation on chest radiograph, while 4 had normal findings Seventeen patients had pulmonary involvement, and 11 had extra pulmonary involvement. The mortality rate in TB patients followed in intensive care units is high, with 3 factors contributing to in-hospital mortality. Clinicians should consider active TB in renal failure patients being followed in the intensive care unit, even when results of a chest radiograph are normal especially in patients with unexplained poor general health or respiratory failure.

  15. Renal unit practitioners’ knowledge, attitudes and practice regarding the safety of unfractionated heparin for chronic haemodialysis

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    Debra Ockhuis


    Full Text Available Background: Chronic haemodialysis for adult patients with end-stage kidney failure requires a patent extracorporeal circuit, maintained by anticoagulants such as unfractionated heparin (UFH. Incorrect administration of UFH has safety implications for patients.Objectives: Firstly, to describe renal practitioners’ self-reported knowledge, attitudes and practice (KAP regarding the safe use of UFH and its effects; secondly, to determine an association between KAP and selected independent variables.Method: A cross-sectional descriptive survey by self-administered questionnaire and non-probability convenience sampling was conducted in two tertiary hospital dialysis units and five private dialysis units in 2013.Results: The mean age of 74/77 respondents (96.1%, was 41.1 years. Most (41/77, 53.2% had 0–5 years of renal experience. The odds of enrolled nurses having poorer knowledge of UFH than registered nurses were 18.7 times higher at a 95% Confidence Interval (CI (1.9–187.4 and statistically significant (P = 0.013. The odds of delivering poor practice having ≤ five years of experience and no in-service education were 4.6 times higher at a 95% CI (1.4–15.6, than for respondents who had ≥ six years of experience (P = 0.014 and 4.3 times higher (95% CI 1.1–16.5 than for respondents who received in-service education (P = 0.032, the difference reaching statistical significance in both cases.Conclusion: Results suggest that the category of the professional influences knowledge and, thus, safe use of UFH, and that there is a direct relationship between years of experience and quality of haemodialysis practice and between having in-service education and quality of practice.

  16. Understanding the continuous renal replacement therapy circuit for acute renal failure support: a quality issue in the intensive care unit. (United States)

    Boyle, Martin; Baldwin, Ian


    Delivery of renal replacement therapy is now a core competency of intensive care nursing. The safe and effective delivery of this form of therapy is a quality issue for intensive care, requiring an understanding of the principles underlying therapy and the functioning of machines used. Continuous hemofiltration, first described in 1977, used a system where blood flowed from arterial to venous cannulas through a small-volume, low-resistance, and high-flux filter. Monitoring of these early systems was limited, and without a machine interface, less nursing expertise was required. Current continuous renal replacement therapy machines offer user-friendly interfaces, cassette-style circuits, and comprehensive circuit diagnostics and monitoring. Although these machines conceal complexity behind a user-friendly interface, it remains important that nurses have sufficient knowledge for their use and the ability to compare and contrast circuit setups and functions for optimal and efficient treatment.

  17. Satellite-based retrieval of particulate matter concentrations over the United Arab Emirates (UAE) (United States)

    Zhao, Jun; Temimi, Marouane; Hareb, Fahad; Eibedingil, Iyasu


    In this study, an empirical algorithm was established to retrieve particulate matter (PM) concentrations (PM2.5 and PM10) using satellite-derived aerosol optical depth (AOD) over the United Arab Emirates (UAE). Validation of the proposed algorithm using ground truth data demonstrates its good accuracy. Time series of in situ measured PM concentrations between 2014 and 2015 showed high values in summer and low values in winter. Estimated and in situ measured PM concentrations were higher in 2015 than 2014. Remote sensing is an essential tool to reveal and back track the seasonality and inter-annual variations of PM concentrations and provide valuable information on the protection of human health and the response of air quality to anthropogenic activities and climate change.

  18. S1 satellite DNA repetitive units display identical structure and overall variability in all Anatolian brown frog taxa. (United States)

    Picariello, Orfeo; Feliciello, Isidoro; Chinali, Gianni


    S1 satellite DNA from Palearctic brown frogs has a species-specific structure in all European species. We characterized S1 satellite DNA from the Anatolian brown frogs Rana macrocnemis, R. camerani, and R. holtzi in order to define their taxonomic rank and the structure of this satellite in this frog lineage. Southern blots of genomic DNA digested with KpnI, EcoRV, NdeI, NheI, or StuI produced the same pattern of satellite DNA bands. Moreover, quantitative dot blots showed that this satellite DNA accounts for 0.1 % of the genome in all taxa. Analysis of the overall genomic variability of the S1a repeat sequence in specimens from various populations demonstrated that this repetitive unit also has the same size (476 bp), the same most common sequence (MCS) and the same overall variability in all three taxa, and also in R. macrocnemis tavasensis. The S1a repetitive unit presents three deletions of 9, 8 and 1 bp compared to the 494-bp S1a repeat from European frogs. The S1a MCS has three variable positions (sequence WWTK in positions 183-186), due to the presence of two repeat subpopulations with motifs AATG and WWTT in all taxa. Unlike previously analyzed mitochondrial and nuclear sequences that show considerable variations among these taxa, no difference could be detected in the structure and variability of the S1 satellite repetitive units. This suggests that these taxa should belong to a single species. Our results indicate that this satellite DNA variety probably formed when the Anatolian lineage radiated from common ancestor about 4 mya, and since then has maintained its structure in all four taxa examined.

  19. Designing a better place for patients: professional struggles surrounding satellite and mobile dialysis units. (United States)

    Lehoux, Pascale; Daudelin, Geneviève; Poland, Blake; Andrews, Gavin J; Holmes, Dave


    The professional claims and struggles involved in the design of non-traditional health care places are rarely problematized in applied health research, perhaps because they tend to fade away once the new design is implemented. This paper offers insights into such professional tensions and their impact on health care delivery by examining the design of two dialysis service delivery models in Quebec, Canada. The satellite units were hosted in two small hospitals and staffed by recently trained nurses. The mobile unit was a bus fitted to accommodate five dialysis stations. It was staffed by experienced nurses and travelled back and forth between a university teaching hospital and two sites. In both projects, nephrologists supervised from a distance via a videoconferencing system. In this paper, we draw mainly from interviews with managers (mostly nurses) and physicians (n=18), and from on-site observations. Nephrologists, medical internists, and managers all supported the goal of providing "closer-to-patient" services. However, they held varying opinions on how to best materialize this goal. By comparing two models involving different clinical and spatial logics, we underscore the ways in which the design of non-traditional health care places opens up space for the re-negotiation of clinical norms. Instead of relatively straightforward conflicts between professions, we observed subtle but inexorable tensions within and beyond professional groups, who sought to measure up to "ideal standards" while acknowledging the contingencies of health care places.

  20. Combining forest inventory, satellite remote sensing, and geospatial data for mapping forest attributes of the conterminous United States (United States)

    Mark Nelson; Greg Liknes; Charles H. Perry


    Analysis and display of forest composition, structure, and pattern provides information for a variety of assessments and management decision support. The objective of this study was to produce geospatial datasets and maps of conterminous United States forest land ownership, forest site productivity, timberland, and reserved forest land. Satellite image-based maps of...

  1. USGS Small-scale Dataset - 100-Meter Resolution Satellite View with Shaded Relief of the Conterminous United States 201304 GeoTIFF (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Satellite View with Shaded Relief of the Conterminous United States map layer is a 100-meter resolution simulated natural-color image of the United States, with...

  2. Pulmonary-renal syndromes: Experience from an Indian Intensive Care Unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srinivas Rajagopala


    Full Text Available Background: The etiology of patients presenting with pulmonary-renal syndrome (PRS to Intensive Care Units (ICUs in India is not previously reported. Aims: The aim was to describe the prevalence, etiology, clinical manifestations, and outcomes of PRS in an Indian ICU and identify variables that differentiate immunologic causes of PRS from tropical syndromes presenting with PRS. Materials and Methods: We conducted a prospective observational study of all patients presenting with PRS over 1-year. Clinical characteristics of patients with "definite PRS" were compared with those with "PRS mimics." Results: We saw 27 patients with "provisional PRS" over the said duration; this included 13 patients with "definite PRS" and 14 with "PRS mimics." The clinical symptoms were similar, but patients with PRS were younger and presented with longer symptom duration. Ninety-two percent of the PRS cohort required mechanical ventilation, 77% required vasopressors and 61.5% required dialysis within 48 h of ICU admission. The etiologic diagnosis of PRS was made after ICU admission in 61.5%. Systemic lupus erythrematosus (54% was the most common diagnosis. A combination of biopsy and serology was needed in the majority (69%, 9/13. Pulse methylprednisolone (92% and cyclophosphamide (61.5% was the most common protocol employed. Patients with PRS had more alveolar hemorrhage, hypoxemia and higher mortality (69% when compared to "PRS mimics." Conclusion: The spectrum of PRS is different in the tropics and tropical syndromes presenting with PRS are not uncommon. Multicentric studies are needed to further characterize the burden, etiology, treatment protocols, and outcomes of PRS in India.

  3. Nonicteric liver damage with a gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase level of 5,609 units/l in a renal-transplant recipient receiving azathioprine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available A 26-year-old male with renal allograft, who received immunosuppressive treatment with azathioprine, presented marked elevations of serum biliary tract enzymes, such as gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (5,609 units/l and alkaline phosphatase (60.5 Bessey-Lowry units, 14 months after transplantation. Two months later the patient became icteric; he died of respiratory failure 19 months after the renal allograft. Postmortem examination revealed intrahepatic cholestasis with minimal inflammatory cell infiltration, indicating drug hepatotoxicity.

  4. Satellite gravity measurement monitoring terrestrial water storage change and drought in the continental United States (United States)

    Yi, Hang; Wen, Lianxing


    We use satellite gravity measurements in the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) to estimate terrestrial water storage (TWS) change in the continental United States (US) from 2003 to 2012, and establish a GRACE-based Hydrological Drought Index (GHDI) for drought monitoring. GRACE-inferred TWS exhibits opposite patterns between north and south of the continental US from 2003 to 2012, with the equivalent water thickness increasing from -4.0 to 9.4 cm in the north and decreasing from 4.1 to -6.7 cm in the south. The equivalent water thickness also decreases by -5.1 cm in the middle south in 2006. GHDI is established to represent the extent of GRACE-inferred TWS anomaly departing from its historical average and is calibrated to resemble traditional Palmer Hydrological Drought Index (PHDI) in the continental US. GHDI exhibits good correlations with PHDI in the continental US, indicating its feasibility for drought monitoring. Since GHDI is GRACE-based and has minimal dependence of hydrological parameters on the ground, it can be extended for global drought monitoring, particularly useful for the countries that lack sufficient hydrological monitoring infrastructures on the ground.

  5. Advances in regional crop yield estimation over the United States using satellite remote sensing data (United States)

    Johnson, D. M.; Dorn, M. F.; Crawford, C.


    Since the dawn of earth observation imagery, particularly from systems like Landsat and the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer, there has been an overarching desire to regionally estimate crop production remotely. Research efforts integrating space-based imagery into yield models to achieve this need have indeed paralleled these systems through the years, yet development of a truly useful crop production monitoring system has been arguably mediocre in coming. As a result, relatively few organizations have yet to operationalize the concept, and this is most acute in regions of the globe where there are not even alternative sources of crop production data being collected. However, the National Agricultural Statistics Service (NASS) has continued to push for this type of data source as a means to complement its long-standing, traditional crop production survey efforts which are financially costly to the government and create undue respondent burden on farmers. Corn and soybeans, the two largest field crops in the United States, have been the focus of satellite-based production monitoring by NASS for the past decade. Data from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) has been seen as the most pragmatic input source for modeling yields primarily based on its daily revisit capabilities and reasonable ground sample resolution. The research methods presented here will be broad but provides a summary of what is useful and adoptable with satellite imagery in terms of crop yield estimation. Corn and soybeans will be of particular focus but other major staple crops like wheat and rice will also be presented. NASS will demonstrate that while MODIS provides a slew of vegetation related products, the traditional normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) is still ideal. Results using land surface temperature products, also generated from MODIS, will also be shown. Beyond the MODIS data itself, NASS research has also focused efforts on understanding a

  6. Predicting mortality in incident dialysis patients: an analysis of the United Kingdom Renal Registry. (United States)

    Wagner, Martin; Ansell, David; Kent, David M; Griffith, John L; Naimark, David; Wanner, Christoph; Tangri, Navdeep


    The risk of death in dialysis patients is high, but varies significantly among patients. No prediction tool is used widely in current clinical practice. We aimed to predict long-term mortality in incident dialysis patients using easily obtainable variables. Prospective nationwide multicenter cohort study in the United Kingdom (UK Renal Registry); models were developed using Cox proportional hazards. Patients initiating hemodialysis or peritoneal dialysis therapy in 2002-2004 who survived at least 3 months on dialysis treatment were followed up for 3 years. Analyses were restricted to participants for whom information for comorbid conditions and laboratory measurements were available (n = 5,447). The data set was divided into data sets for model development (n = 3,631; training) and validation (n = 1,816) using random selection. Basic patient characteristics, comorbid conditions, and laboratory variables. All-cause mortality censored for kidney transplant, recovery of kidney function, and loss to follow-up. In the training data set, 1,078 patients (29.7%) died within the observation period. The final model for the training data set included patient characteristics (age, race, primary kidney disease, and treatment modality), comorbid conditions (diabetes, history of cardiovascular disease, and smoking), and laboratory variables (hemoglobin, serum albumin, creatinine, and calcium levels); reached a C statistic of 0.75 (95% CI, 0.73-0.77); and could discriminate accurately among patients with low (6%), intermediate (19%), high (33%), and very high (59%) mortality risk. The model was applied further to the validation data set and achieved a C statistic of 0.73 (95% CI, 0.71-0.76). Number of missing comorbidity data and lack of an external validation data set. Basic patient characteristics, comorbid conditions, and laboratory variables can predict 3-year mortality in incident dialysis patients with sufficient accuracy. Identification of subgroups of patients according to

  7. "Using Satellite Remote Sensing to Derive Numeric Criteria in Coastal and Inland Waters of the United States" (United States)

    Crawford, T. N.; Schaeffer, B. A.


    Anthropogenic nutrient pollution is a major stressor of aquatic ecosystems around the world. In the United States, states and tribes can adopt numeric water quality values (i.e. criteria) into their water quality management standards to protect aquatic life from eutrophication impacts. However, budget and resource constraints have limited the ability of many states and tribes to collect the water quality monitoring data needed to derive numeric criteria. Over the last few decades, satellite technology has provided water quality measurements on a global scale over long time periods. Water quality managers are finding the data provided by satellite technology useful in managing eutrophication impacts in coastal waters, estuaries, lakes, and reservoirs. In recent years EPA has worked with states and tribes to derive remotely sensed numeric Chl-a criteria for coastal waters with limited field-based data. This approach is now being expanded and used to derive Chl-a criteria in freshwater systems across the United States. This presentation will cover EPA's approach to derive numeric Chl-a criteria using satellite remote sensing, recommendations to improve satellite sensors to expand applications, potential areas of interest, and the challenges of using remote sensing to establish water quality management goals, as well as provide a case in which this approach has been applied.

  8. Bioenergy potential of the United States constrained by satellite observations of existing productivity (United States)

    Smith, W. Kolby; Cleveland, Cory C.; Reed, Sasha C.; Miller, Norman L.; Running, Steven W.


    United States (U.S.) energy policy includes an expectation that bioenergy will be a substantial future energy source. In particular, the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 (EISA) aims to increase annual U.S. biofuel (secondary bioenergy) production by more than 3-fold, from 40 to 136 billion liters ethanol, which implies an even larger increase in biomass demand (primary energy), from roughly 2.9 to 7.4 EJ yr–1. However, our understanding of many of the factors used to establish such energy targets is far from complete, introducing significgant uncertainty into the feasibility of current estimates of bioenergy potential. Here, we utilized satellite-derived net primary productivity (NPP) data—measured for every 1 km2 of the 7.2 million km2 of vegetated land in the conterminous U.S.—to estimate primary bioenergy potential (PBP). Our results indicate that PBP of the conterminous U.S. ranges from roughly 5.9 to 22.2 EJ yr–1, depending on land use. The low end of this range represents the potential when harvesting residues only, while the high end would require an annual biomass harvest over an area more than three times current U.S. agricultural extent. While EISA energy targets are theoretically achievable, we show that meeting these targets utilizing current technology would require either an 80% displacement of current crop harvest or the conversion of 60% of rangeland productivity. Accordingly, realistically constrained estimates of bioenergy potential are critical for effective incorporation of bioenergy into the national energy portfolio.

  9. Management and climate contributions to satellite-derived active fire trends in the contiguous United States (United States)

    Lin, Hsiao-Wen; McCarty, Jessica L.; Wang, Dongdong; Rogers, Brendan M.; Morton, Douglas C.; Collatz, G. James; Jin, Yufang; Randerson, James T.


    Fires in croplands, plantations, and rangelands contribute significantly to fire emissions in the United States, yet are often overshadowed by wildland fires in efforts to develop inventories or estimate responses to climate change. Here we quantified decadal trends, interannual variability, and seasonality of Terra Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) observations of active fires (thermal anomalies) as a function of management type in the contiguous U.S. during 2001-2010. We used the Monitoring Trends in Burn Severity database to identify active fires within the perimeter of large wildland fires and land cover maps to identify active fires in croplands. A third class of fires defined as prescribed/other included all residual satellite active fire detections. Large wildland fires were the most variable of all three fire types and had no significant annual trend in the contiguous U.S. during 2001-2010. Active fires in croplands, in contrast, increased at a rate of 3.4% per year. Cropland and prescribed/other fire types combined were responsible for 77% of the total active fire detections within the U.S and were most abundant in the south and southeast. In the west, cropland active fires decreased at a rate of 5.9% per year, likely in response to intensive air quality policies. Potential evaporation was a dominant regulator of the interannual variability of large wildland fires, but had a weaker influence on the other two fire types. Our analysis suggests it may be possible to modify landscape fire emissions within the U.S. by influencing the way fires are used in managed ecosystems.

  10. Usefulness of measuring renal papillae in Hounsfield units in stone - forming patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Angel Arrabal-Polo

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Introduction: The aim of this work is to study the density of the renal papillae in stone-forming patients and to determine its usefulness. Materials and Methods: This study included a total of 79 patients diagnosed with renal stones and on whom a computed tomography without contrast was performed from June 2014 to May 2015. The patients were divided into two groups: Group 1 (single episode included 43 patients, and Group 2 (recurrent episodes included 36 patients. The density of six renal papillae (3 per kidney was measured, and the means obtained were compared between Groups 1 and 2. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS 20.0. Results: The mean papillary density in Group 1 was 32.26 (SD 4.07 HU compared to 42.36 (SD 8.03 HU in Group 2 (P=00001. A ROC curve was constructed, obtaining an optimal cut-off point of 36.8HU [area under the curve, 0.881 (95% CI; 0.804-0.958; P=0001], with a sensitivity of 80% and a specificity of 90%. The relative risk was estimated at 40.3 (95% CI; 10.8-151.1, meaning that a patient with a mean papillary density greater than 36.8HU would have a 40 times greater risk of having recurrent renal stones. The positive predictive value (PPV was 81% and the negative predictive value (NPV was 90%. Conclusion: The measurement of renal papillary density could be useful in predicting recurrent stone-formers. These results need to be confirmed in future studies with a greater number of patients and a longer follow-up.

  11. Usefulness of measuring renal papillae in Hounsfield units in stone - forming patients (United States)

    Arrabal-Polo, Miguel Angel; Cano-Garcia, Maria del Carmen; Huerta-Brunel, Juan Esteban; Hidalgo-Agullo, Guillermo; Roletto-Salmo, Luis; Arrabal-Martín, Miguel


    ABSTRACT Introduction: The aim of this work is to study the density of the renal papillae in stone-forming patients and to determine its usefulness. Materials and Methods: This study included a total of 79 patients diagnosed with renal stones and on whom a computed tomography without contrast was performed from June 2014 to May 2015. The patients were divided into two groups: Group 1 (single episode) included 43 patients, and Group 2 (recurrent episodes) included 36 patients. The density of six renal papillae (3 per kidney) was measured, and the means obtained were compared between Groups 1 and 2. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS 20.0. Results: The mean papillary density in Group 1 was 32.26 (SD 4.07) HU compared to 42.36 (SD 8.03) HU in Group 2 (P=00001). A ROC curve was constructed, obtaining an optimal cut-off point of 36.8HU [area under the curve, 0.881 (95% CI; 0.804-0.958); P=0001], with a sensitivity of 80% and a specificity of 90%. The relative risk was estimated at 40.3 (95% CI; 10.8-151.1), meaning that a patient with a mean papillary density greater than 36.8HU would have a 40 times greater risk of having recurrent renal stones. The positive predictive value (PPV) was 81% and the negative predictive value (NPV) was 90%. Conclusion: The measurement of renal papillary density could be useful in predicting recurrent stone-formers. These results need to be confirmed in future studies with a greater number of patients and a longer follow-up. PMID:27622277

  12. CTS /Hermes/ - United States experiments and operations summary. [Communications Technology Satellite (United States)

    Donoughe, P. L.; Hunczak, H. R.


    The U.S. experiments conducted with the Communications Technology Satellite, a joint Canadian-U.S. venture launched in 1976, are discussed. The 14/12 GHz frequencies employed by the 200-W transmitter on board the satellite provide two-way television and voice communications. Applications of the satellite in the categories of health care, community services and education are considered; experiments have also made use of the special properties of the super-high frequency band (e.g. link characterization and digital communications). Time-sharing of the 14/12 GHz communication between the U.S. and Canada has functioned well.

  13. Incidence, risk factors and prognostic factors of acute renal failure in patients admitted to an intensive care unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.E. Mataloun


    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to assess the incidence, risk factors and outcome of patients who develop acute renal failure (ARF in intensive care units. In this prospective observational study, 221 patients with a 48-h minimum stay, 18-year-old minimum age and absence of overt acute or chronic renal failure were included. Exclusion criteria were organ donors and renal transplantation patients. ARF was defined as a creatinine level above 1.5 mg/dL. Statistics were performed using Pearsons' chi2 test, Student t-test, and Wilcoxon test. Multivariate analysis was run using all variables with P < 0.1 in the univariate analysis. ARF developed in 19.0% of the patients, with 76.19% resulting in death. Main risk factors (univariate analysis were: higher intra-operative hydration and bleeding, higher death risk by APACHE II score, logist organ dysfunction system on the first day, mechanical ventilation, shock due to systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS/sepsis, noradrenaline use, and plasma creatinine and urea levels on admission. Heart rate on admission (OR = 1.023 (1.002-1.044, male gender (OR = 4.275 (1.340-13642, shock due to SIRS/sepsis (OR = 8.590 (2.710-27.229, higher intra-operative hydration (OR = 1.002 (1.000-1004, and plasma urea on admission (OR = 1.012 (0.980-1044 remained significant (multivariate analysis. The mortality risk factors (univariate analysis were shock due to SIRS/sepsis, mechanical ventilation, blood stream infection, potassium and bicarbonate levels. Only potassium levels remained significant (P = 0.037. In conclusion, ARF has a high incidence, morbidity and mortality when it occurs in intensive care unit. There is a very close association with hemodynamic status and multiple organ dysfunction.

  14. Long term prognosis of acute coronary syndrome with chronic renal dysfunction treated in different therapy units at department of cardiology: a retrospective cohort study. (United States)

    Fu, Cong; Sheng, Zulong; Yao, Yuyu; Wang, Xin; Yu, Chaojun; Ma, Genshan


    Coronary care unit is common in hospitals and clinical centers which offer intensive care and therapy for severe coronary artery disease patients. However, if coronary care unit could improve the long term prognosis of acute coronary syndrome patients with renal dysfunction remain unknown. Accordingly, we designed this study to evaluate the differences of incidence of major adverse cardiovascular events for acute coronary syndromes patients with renal dysfunction who treated in coronary care unit or normal unit. The primary end point was all cause mortality. A total of 414 acute coronary syndromes patients with renal dysfunction involved in the study. The results showed that during 12-48 months follow-up, death of any cause occurred in 1.8% patients (4 of 247) in coronary care unit group, as compared with 1.8% in the normal group (3 of 167) (hazard ratio, 1.098; 95% confidence interval, 0.246 to 4.904; P=0.903). Kaplan-Meier survival analysis showed that there were no significant differences between the two groups with respect to the risk of death (P=0.903), revascularization (P=0.948), stroke (P=0.542), heart failure (P=0.198). This trial firstly revealed that acute coronary syndromes patients with renal dysfunction treated in coronary care unit and normal units. Our study showed that acute coronary syndromes patients with renal dysfunction treated in coronary care unit obtained no significant benefits compared with patients in normal units, although there was a declining tendency of the risk of major adverse cardiovascular effectswith patients in coronary care unit.

  15. Long term prognosis of acute coronary syndrome with chronic renal dysfunction treated in different therapy units at department of cardiology: a retrospective cohort study (United States)

    Fu, Cong; Sheng, Zulong; Yao, Yuyu; Wang, Xin; Yu, Chaojun; Ma, Genshan


    Coronary care unit is common in hospitals and clinical centers which offer intensive care and therapy for severe coronary artery disease patients. However, if coronary care unit could improve the long term prognosis of acute coronary syndrome patients with renal dysfunction remain unknown. Accordingly, we designed this study to evaluate the differences of incidence of major adverse cardiovascular events for acute coronary syndromes patients with renal dysfunction who treated in coronary care unit or normal unit. The primary end point was all cause mortality. A total of 414 acute coronary syndromes patients with renal dysfunction involved in the study. The results showed that during 12-48 months follow-up, death of any cause occurred in 1.8% patients (4 of 247) in coronary care unit group, as compared with 1.8% in the normal group (3 of 167) (hazard ratio, 1.098; 95% confidence interval, 0.246 to 4.904; P=0.903). Kaplan-Meier survival analysis showed that there were no significant differences between the two groups with respect to the risk of death (P=0.903), revascularization (P=0.948), stroke (P=0.542), heart failure (P=0.198). This trial firstly revealed that acute coronary syndromes patients with renal dysfunction treated in coronary care unit and normal units. Our study showed that acute coronary syndromes patients with renal dysfunction treated in coronary care unit obtained no significant benefits compared with patients in normal units, although there was a declining tendency of the risk of major adverse cardiovascular effectswith patients in coronary care unit. PMID:26770436

  16. International Study of Health Care Organization and Financing of renal services in England and Wales. (United States)

    Nicholson, Tricia; Roderick, Paul


    In England and Wales, the quantity and quality of renal services have improved significantly in the last decade. While acceptance rates for renal replacement therapy appear low by international standards, they are now commensurate with many other northern European countries. The major growth in renal services has been in hemodialysis, especially at satellite units. Health care is predominantly publicly funded through a tax-based National Health Service, and such funding has increased in the last 10 years. Improvements in health outcomes in England and Wales are expected to continue due to the recent implementation of standards, initiatives, and monitoring mechanisms for renal transplantation, vascular access, and patient transport.

  17. Life and death in a welfare state: end-stage renal disease in the United Kingdom. (United States)

    Halper, T


    The uniquely parsimonious approach to treatment of end-stage renal disease patients in the U.K. was initially developed under the imprimatur of the nation's medical elite and sanctioned by the central government. Public value for public money and an equitable balance of scarce resources among many social and medical claims still guide the National Health Service. But these clinically dominated allocative decisions are imperfect, often counter-productive, and, ultimately, political. There is a marked dissonance between compassionate and bureaucratic themes.

  18. Defining management units for cetaceans by combining genetics, morphlogy, acoustics and satellite tracking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sveegaard, Signe; Galatius, Anders; Dietz, Rune


    Managing animal units is essential in biological conservation and requires spatial and temporal identification of such units. Since even neighbouring populations often have different conservation status and face different levels of anthropogenic pressure, detailed knowledge of population structur...

  19. Severe encephalopathy after ingestion of star fruit juice in a patient with chronic renal failure admitted to the intensive care unit. (United States)

    Auxiliadora-Martins, Maria; Alkmin Teixeira, Gil Cezar; da Silva, Graciana Soares; Viana, Jaciara Machado; Nicolini, Edson Antônio; Martins-Filho, Olindo Assis; Basile-Filho, Anibal


    Star fruit (Averrhoa carambola) is a popular tropical fruit that is usually consumed as fresh fruit or fruit juice. Consumption of star fruit by patients with chronic renal failure can lead to neurologic symptoms. The present report describes the clinical course, management, and outcome of a patient with chronic renal failure admitted to an intensive care unit after ingestion of star fruit juice 2 days before hospital admission. A case of nausea, vomiting, intractable hiccups, and severe encephalopathy along with mental confusion, disorientation, agitation, and seizures in a 53-year-old woman is presented. The patient's ventilatory pattern worsened, with development of dyspnea and tachypnea, which resulted in her transfer to an intensive care unit. Although hemodialysis was performed and the septic shock was adequately treated, the patient died on the fifth day after hospital admission. The susceptibility of patients with chronic renal failure to star fruit and the severity of intoxication are poorly known by intensivists. This case demonstrates that star fruit consumption should be considered as a cause of rapid deterioration in the renal function of patients with underlying chronic renal failure, potentially resulting in a fatal outcome.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Oliveira Freitas Miranda


    Full Text Available Objetivo: Caracterizar o perfil de crianças e adolescentes com insuficiência renal crônica acompanhados em unidades de nefrologia do município de Feira de Santana- Ba. Métodos: Pesquisa quantitativa, retrospectiva, descritiva, que investigou variáveis sócio-demográficas, clínicas e terapêuticas dos prontuários de 35 crianças e adolescentes acompanhados em unidades de nefrologia de Feira de Santana-BA até junho de 2010. Resultados: A principal etiologia foi a glomerulonefrite crônica (34,2%, 88,6% foram diagnosticados e iniciaram o tratamento entre 10 e 20 anos de idade. As comorbidades mais prevalentes foram hipertensão arterial sistêmica (HAS (51,4% e diabetes mellitus (48,6%. As principais manifestações clínicas associadas foram HAS (51,4%, uremia (48,6%, edema (42,9% e anemia (31,4%. 97,1% realizaram hemodiálise. A maioria dos pacientes continuava em hemodiálise (40% com até 2 anos de tratamento (54,3%. Conclusão: O estudo permitiu conhecer este perfil, até então desconhecido, podendo contribuir com o planejamento de ações assistenciais voltadas para esta clientela.

  1. An ancient satellite DNA has maintained repetitive units of the original structure in most species of the living fossil plant genus Zamia. (United States)

    Cafasso, Donata; Chinali, Gianni


    ZpS1 satellite DNA is specific to the genus Zamia and presents repetitive units organized as long arrays and also as very short arrays dispersed in the genome. We have characterized the structure of the ZpS1 repeats in 12 species representative of the whole geographic distribution of the genus. In most species, the clone most common sequences (cMCS) were so similar that a general most common sequence (GMCS) of the ZpS1 repetitive unit in the genus could be obtained. The few partial variations from the GMCS found in cMCS of some species correspond to variable positions present in most other species, as indicated by the clone consensus sequences (cCS). Two species have an additional species-specific variety of ZpS1 satellite. The dispersed repeats were found to contain more mutations than repeats from long arrays. Our results indicate that all or most species of Zamia inherited the ZpS1 satellite from a common ancestor in Miocene and have maintained repetitive units of the original structure till present. The features of ZpS1 satellite in the genus Zamia are poorly compatible with the model of concerted evolution, but they are perfectly consistent with a new model of satellite evolution based on experimental evidences indicating that a specific amplification-substitution repair mechanism maintains the homogeneity and stability of the repeats structure in each satellite DNA originally present in a species as long as the species exists.

  2. Comparison of Weekly Cycle of NO2 Satellite Retrievals and NO(x) Emission Inventories for the Continental United States (United States)

    Kaynak, B.; Hu, Y.; Martin, R. V.; Sioris, C. E.; Russell, A. G.


    Spatially resolved weekly NO2 variations are obtained from 2003 to 2005 Scanning Imaging Absorption Spectrometer for Atmospheric Cartography (SCIAMACHY) tropospheric NO2 columns for three different types of regions: urban, rural, and rural-point (rural with significant electricity generation unit (EGU) emissions). Regions are compared for magnitudes and weekly profiles. Rural regions do not show any weekly pattern, whereas urban areas show a distinct decrease on the weekends. Rural regions with EGUs show a slight decrease on Sundays. When compared with estimated mobile and stationary nitrogen oxides (NO(x)) emissions from the year 2004 for seven cities, the satellite data have greater variation during weekdays (Monday-Friday). Overall comparisons show that SCIAMACHY derived NO2 correlate well with estimated NO(x) emissions for urban and rural but less for rural-point regions.

  3. Cosmo Cassette: A Microfluidic Microgravity Microbial System For Synthetic Biology Unit Tests and Satellite Missions (United States)

    Berliner, Aaron J.


    Although methods in the design-build-test life cycle of the synthetic biology field have grown rapidly, the expansion has been non-uniform. The design and build stages in development have seen innovations in the form of biological CAD and more efficient means for building DNA, RNA, and other biological constructs. The testing phase of the cycle remains in need of innovation. Presented will be both a theoretical abstraction of biological measurement and a practical demonstration of a microfluidics-based platform for characterizing synthetic biological phenomena. Such a platform demonstrates a design of additive manufacturing (3D printing) for construction of a microbial fuel cell (MFC) to be used in experiments carried out in space. First, the biocompatibility of the polypropylene chassis will be demonstrated. The novel MFCs will be cheaper, and faster to make and iterate through designs. The novel design will contain a manifold switchingdistribution system and an integrated in-chip set of reagent reservoirs fabricated via 3D printing. The automated nature of the 3D printing yields itself to higher resolution switching valves and leads to smaller sized payloads, lower cost, reduced power and a standardized platform for synthetic biology unit tests on Earth and in space. It will be demonstrated that the application of unit testing in synthetic biology will lead to the automatic construction and validation of desired constructs. Unit testing methodologies offer benefits of preemptive problem identification, change of facility, simplicity of integration, ease of documentation, and separation of interface from implementation, and automated design.

  4. Dynamics of Industrial Forests in Southeast United States Assessed using Satellite and Field Inventory Data (United States)

    Huang, C.; Tao, X.; Zhao, F. A.; Schleeweis, K.; Ling, P. Y.; Goward, S. N.; Masek, J. G.; Michaelis, A.


    The southeast United States (SE-US) is dominated by tree plantations and other forms of industrial forests that provide vital socio-ecological services to the human society. Most of these forests are managed to maximize economic outcome, and hence are often subject to intensive management practices and have different harvest-regrowth cycles as compared with natural forest ecosystems. Through the North American Forest Dynamics (NAFD) study, we have mapped forest disturbances for the conterminous United States using dense time series Landsat observations. The derived map products revealed that more than 50% of the forests in SE-US were harvested or disturbed by other forms of human or natural disturbance events at least once between 1986 and 2010. These products are being analyzed together with ancillary GIS data sets and field inventory data to identify industrial forests and to quantify their logging intensity, timber output, recovery rate, and the harvest-regrowth cycle. The derived results will be summarized in this presentation, along with discussions of the underlying environmental and management factors that may drive the spatio-temporal dynamics of the industrial forests in SE-US.

  5. Redefining climate regions in the United States of America using satellite remote sensing and machine learning for public health applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Liss


    Full Text Available Existing climate classification has not been designed for an efficient handling of public health scenarios. This work aims to design an objective spatial climate regionalization method for assessing health risks in response to extreme weather. Specific climate regions for the conterminous United States of America (USA were defined using satellite remote sensing (RS data and compared with the conventional Köppen-Geiger (KG divisions. Using the nationwide database of hospitalisations among the elderly (≥65 year olds, we examined the utility of a RS-based climate regionalization to assess public health risk due to extreme weather, by comparing the rate of hospitalisations in response to thermal extremes across climatic regions. Satellite image composites from 2002-2012 were aggregated, masked and compiled into a multi-dimensional dataset. The conterminous USA was classified into 8 distinct regions using a stepwise regionalization approach to limit noise and collinearity (LKN, which exhibited a high degree of consistency with the KG regions and a well-defined regional delineation by annual and seasonal temperature and precipitation values. The most populous was a temperate wet region (10.9 million, while the highest rate of hospitalisations due to exposure to heat and cold (9.6 and 17.7 cases per 100,000 persons at risk, respectively was observed in the relatively warm and humid south-eastern region. RS-based regionalization demonstrates strong potential for assessing the adverse effects of severe weather on human health and for decision support. Its utility in forecasting and mitigating these effects has to be further explored.

  6. GPS Satellite Simulation Facility (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The GPS satellite simulation facility consists of a GPS satellite simulator controlled by either a Silicon Graphics Origin 2000 or PC depending upon unit under test...

  7. [APACHE II and ATN-ISS in acute renal failure (ARF) in intensive care unit (ICU) and non-ICU]. (United States)

    Fernandes, Natáia Maria da Silva; Pinto, Patrícia dos Santos; Lacet, Thiago Bento de Paiva; Rodrigues, Dominique Fonseca; Bastos, Marcus Gomes; Stella, Sérgio Reinaldo; Cendoroglo Neto, Miguel


    Acute renal failure (ARF) remains highly prevalent with a high rate of morbidity and mortality. of this study was to compare use of the APACHE II scoring prognosis with that of the ATN-ISS to determine whether the APACHE II could be used for patients with ARF outside the ICU. For this purpose, 205 patients with ARF were accompanied in a prospective cohort. Demographic data, preexisting conditions, organ failure and characteristics of ARF were analyzed. The prognostic scores were performed with the assessment of a nephrologist. The mean age was 52 +/- 18 years, 50% were male, 69% were white, 45% were treated in ICU and 55% in other units. Mortality in the ICU group was 85% and in the non-ICU group 18%. Factors that correlated with higher mortality were more prevalent in the ICU group: age, male, hospitalization with ARF, organ failure, sepsis, septic IRA, oliguria and need of dialysis. Overall, the prognostic markers were the same for both the ICU and non-ICU groups. The discrimination with the APACHE II was similar in both, ICU and non-ICU groups and calibration was better in the non-ICU group. The ATN-ISS achieved good discrimination in both the ICU and non-ICU groups, but, regarding calibration, there was a discreet over estimating of mortality in the non-ICU group. The ATN-ISS showed a greater capacity for discrimination than the APACHE II in both the ICU and non-ICU groups. It was concluded that the APACHE II and ATN-ISS scores could be used for stratification of risk in patients with ARF treated outside of the ICU in Brazil.

  8. Impact of pharmacist antimicrobial dosing adjustments in septic patients on continuous renal replacement therapy in an intensive care unit. (United States)

    Jiang, Sai-Ping; Zhu, Zheng-Yi; Ma, Kui-Fen; Zheng, Xia; Lu, Xiao-Yang


    Correct dosing of antimicrobial drugs in septic patients receiving continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) is complex. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of dosing adjustments performed by pharmacists on the length of intensive care unit (ICU) stay, ICU cost, and antimicrobial adverse drug events (ADEs). A single-center, 2-phase (pre-/post-intervention) study was performed in an ICU of a university-affiliated hospital. Septic patients receiving CRRT in the post-intervention phase received a specialized antimicrobial dosing service from critical care pharmacists, whereas patients in the pre-intervention phase received routine medical care without involving pharmacists. The 2 phases were compared to evaluate the outcomes of pharmacist interventions. Pharmacists made 183 antimicrobial dosing adjustment recommendations for septic patients receiving CRRT. Changes in CRRT-related variables (116, 63.4%) were the most common risk factors for dosing errors, and β-lactams (101, 55.2%) were the antimicrobials most commonly associated with dosing errors. Dosing adjustments were related to a reduced length of ICU stay from 10.7 ± 11.1 days to 7.7 ± 8.3 days (p = 0.037) in the intervention group, and to cost savings of $3525 (13,463 ± 12,045 vs. 9938 ± 8811, p = 0.038) per septic patient receiving CRRT in the ICU. Suspected antimicrobial adverse drug events in the intervention group were significantly fewer than in the pre-intervention group (19 events vs. 8 events, p = 0.048). The involvement of pharmacists in antimicrobial dosing adjustments in septic patients receiving CRRT is associated with a reduced length of ICU stay, lower ICU costs, and fewer ADEs. Hospitals may consider employing clinical pharmacists in ICUs.

  9. Effects of Dexamethasone on Satellite Cells and Tissue Engineered Skeletal Muscle Units. (United States)

    Syverud, Brian C; VanDusen, Keith W; Larkin, Lisa M


    Tissue engineered skeletal muscle has potential for application as a graft source for repairing soft tissue injuries, a model for testing pharmaceuticals, and a biomechanical actuator system for soft robots. However, engineered muscle to date has not produced forces comparable to native muscle, limiting its potential for repair and for use as an in vitro model for pharmaceutical testing. In this study, we examined the trophic effects of dexamethasone (DEX), a glucocorticoid that stimulates myoblast differentiation and fusion into myotubes, on our tissue engineered three-dimensional skeletal muscle units (SMUs). Using our established SMU fabrication protocol, muscle isolates were cultured with three experimental DEX concentrations (5, 10, and 25 nM) and compared to untreated controls. Following seeding onto a laminin-coated Sylgard substrate, the administration of DEX was initiated on day 0 or day 6 in growth medium or on day 9 after the switch to differentiation medium and was sustained until the completion of SMU fabrication. During this process, total cell proliferation was measured with a BrdU assay, and myogenesis and structural advancement of muscle cells were observed through immunostaining for MyoD, myogenin, desmin, and α-actinin. After SMU formation, isometric tetanic force production was measured to quantify function. The histological and functional assessment of the SMU showed that the administration of 10 nM DEX beginning on either day 0 or day 6 yielded optimal SMUs. These optimized SMUs exhibited formation of advanced sarcomeric structure and significant increases in myotube diameter and myotube fusion index, compared with untreated controls. Additionally, the optimized SMUs matured functionally, as indicated by a fivefold rise in force production. In conclusion, we have demonstrated that the addition of DEX to our process of engineering skeletal muscle tissue improves myogenesis, advances muscle structure, and increases force production in the

  10. First description of autumn migration of Sooty Falcon Falco concolor from the United Arab Emirates to Madagascar using satellite telemetry (United States)

    Javed, Salim; Douglas, David C.; Khan, Shahid Noor; Nazeer Shah, Junid; Ali Al Hammadi, Abdullah


    The movement and migration pattern of the 'Near Threatened' Sooty Falcon Falco concolor is poorly known. Sooty Falcons breed on the islands of the Arabian Gulf after arriving from their non-breeding areas that are mainly in Madagascar. In the first satellite tracking of the species we fitted a 9.5 g Argos solar powered transmitter on an adult breeding Sooty Falcon off the western coast of Abu Dhabi in the United Arab Emirates. The bird successfully undertook autumn migration to Madagascar, a known wintering area for the species. We document the Sooty Falcon's autumn migration route and stop-over sites. The adult Sooty Falcon initiated its migration at night and with tailwinds, and travelled mainly during daytime hours for 13 days over an inland route of more than 5,656 km. The three stop-over sites in East Africa were characterised by moderate to sparse shrub cover associated with potential sources of water. We discuss the migration pattern of the tracked bird in relation to importance of non-breeding areas for Sooty Falcons and recent declines in numbers in their breeding range.

  11. Water balance-based actual evapotranspiration reconstruction from ground and satellite observations over the conterminous United States (United States)

    Wan, Zhanming; Zhang, Ke; Xue, Xianwu; Hong, Zhen; Hong, Yang; Gourley, Jonathan J.


    The objective of this study is to produce an observationally based monthly evapotranspiration (ET) product using the simple water balance equation across the conterminous United States (CONUS). We adopted the best quality ground and satellite-based observations of the water budget components, i.e., precipitation, runoff, and water storage change, while ET is computed as the residual. Precipitation data are provided by the bias-corrected PRISM observation-based precipitation data set, while runoff comes from observed monthly streamflow values at 592 USGS stream gauging stations that have been screened by strict quality controls. We developed a land surface model-based downscaling approach to disaggregate the monthly GRACE equivalent water thickness data to daily, 0.125° values. The derived ET computed as the residual from the water balance equation is evaluated against three sets of existing ET products. The similar spatial patterns and small differences between the reconstructed ET in this study and the other three products show the reliability of the observationally based approach. The new ET product and the disaggregated GRACE data provide a unique, important hydro-meteorological data set that can be used to evaluate the other ET products as a benchmark data set, assess recent hydrological and climatological changes, and terrestrial water and energy cycle dynamics across the CONUS. These products will also be valuable for studies and applications in drought assessment, water resources management, and climate change evaluation.

  12. Imaging chronic renal disease and renal transplant in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carmichael, Jim; Easty, Marina [Great Ormond Street Hospital, Radiology Department, London (United Kingdom)


    At Great Ormond Street Hospital we have the highest number of paediatric renal transplant patients in Europe, taking cases from across the United Kingdom and abroad. Our caseload includes many children with rare complicating medical problems and chronic renal failure related morbidity. This review aims to provide an overview of our experience of imaging children with chronic renal failure and transplants. (orig.)

  13. Hematologic, Hepatic, Renal and Lipid Laboratory Monitoring Following Initiation of Combination Antiretroviral Therapy in the United States, 2000–2010 (United States)

    Yanik, Elizabeth L.; Napravnik, Sonia; Ryscavage, Patrick; Eron, Joseph J.; Koletar, Susan L.; Moore, Richard D.; Zinski, Anne; Cole, Stephen R.; Hunt, Peter; Crane, Heidi M.; Kahn, James; Mathews, W. Christopher; Mayer, Kenneth; Taiwo, Babafemi


    We assessed laboratory monitoring following combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) initiation among 3,678 patients in a large US multi-site clinical cohort, censoring participants at last clinic visit, cART change, or three years. Median days (interquartile range) to first hematologic, hepatic, renal and lipid tests were 30 (18–53), 31 (19–56), 33 (20–59) and 350 (96–1106), respectively. At one year, approximately 80% received more than two hematologic, hepatic, and renal tests consistent with guidelines. However, only 40% received one or more lipid tests. Monitoring was more frequent in specific subgroups, likely reflecting better clinic attendance or clinician perception of higher susceptibility to toxicities. PMID:23446495

  14. Trauma renal Renal trauma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerson Alves Pereira Júnior


    Full Text Available Apresentamos uma revisão sobre trauma renal, com ênfase na avaliação radiológica, particularmente com o uso da tomografia computadorizada, que tem se tornado o exame de eleição, ao invés da urografia excretora e arteriografia. O sucesso no tratamento conservador dos pacientes com trauma renal depende de um acurado estadiamento da extensão da lesão, classificado de acordo com a Organ Injury Scaling do Colégio Americano de Cirurgiões. O tratamento conservador não-operatório é seguro e consiste de observação contínua, repouso no leito, hidratação endovenosa adequada e antibioti- coterapia profilática, evitando-se uma exploração cirúrgica desnecessária e possível perda renal. As indicações para exploração cirúrgica imediata são abdome agudo, rápida queda do hematócrito ou lesões associadas determinadas na avaliação radiológica. Quando indicada, a exploração renal após controle vascular prévio é segura, permitindo cuidadosa inspeção do rim e sua reconstrução com sucesso, reduzindo a probabilidade de nefrectomia.We present a revision of the renal trauma with emphasis in the radiographic evaluation, particularly CT scan that it has largely replaced the excretory urogram and arteriogram in the diagnostic worh-up and management of the patient with renal trauma. The successful management of renal injuries depends upon the accurate assessment of their extent in agreement with Organ Injury Scaling classification. The conservative therapy managed by careful continuous observation, bed rest, appropriate fluid ressuscitation and prophylactic antibiotic coverage after radiographic staging for severely injured kidneys can yield favorable results and save patients from unnecessary exploration and possible renal loss. The indications for immediate exploratory laparotomy were acute abdomen, rapidly dropping hematocrit or associated injuries as determinated from radiologic evaluation. When indicated, renal exploration

  15. Renal arteriography (United States)

    ... Read More Acute arterial occlusion - kidney Acute kidney failure Aneurysm Atheroembolic renal disease Blood clots Renal cell carcinoma Renal venogram X-ray Review Date 1/5/2016 Updated by: Jason Levy, ...

  16. Can we delay the progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD) by improving collaboration between renal units and primary care teams? (United States)

    Thomas, N


    This paper will discuss why nephrology teams should collaborate with primary care teams in delaying the progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD), and explain how they can collaborate to improve the outcomes for patients who eventually need dialysis. The paper will describe the staging of CKD and will discuss evidence-based guidelines for the management of CKD in the community. Practical examples of how a specialist renal nurse can improve communication with primary care and can improve the outcome of patients with early kidney disease will be described.

  17. Intermittent versus continuous renal replacement therapy for acute kidney injury patients admitted to the intensive care unit: results of a randomized clinical trial. (United States)

    Lins, Robert L; Elseviers, Monique M; Van der Niepen, Patricia; Hoste, Eric; Malbrain, Manu L; Damas, Pierre; Devriendt, Jacques


    There is uncertainty on the effect of different dialysis modalities for the treatment of patients with acute kidney injury (AKI), admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU). This controlled clinical trial performed in the framework of the multicentre SHARF 4 study (Stuivenberg Hospital Acute Renal Failure) aimed to investigate the outcome in patients with AKI, stratified according to severity of disease and randomized to different treatment options. This was a multicentre prospective randomized controlled trial with stratification according to severity of disease expressed by the SHARF score. ICU patients were eligible for inclusion when serum creatinine was >2 mg/dL, and RRT was initiated. The selected patients were randomized to intermittent (IRRT) or continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT). A total of 316 AKI patients were randomly assigned to IRRT (n = 144) or CRRT (n = 172). The mean age was 66 (range 18-96); 59% were male. Intention-to-treat analysis revealed a mortality of 62.5% in IRRT compared to 58.1% in CRRT (P = 0.430). No difference between IRRT and CRRT could be observed in the duration of ICU stay or hospital stay. In survivors, renal recovery at hospital discharge was comparable between both groups. Multivariate analysis, including the SHARF score, APACHE II and SOFA scores for correction of disease severity, showed no difference in mortality between both treatment modalities. This result was confirmed in pre-specified subgroup analysis (elderly, patients with sepsis, heart failure, ventilation) and after exclusion of possible confounders (early mortality, delayed ICU admission). Modality of RRT, either CRRT or IRRT, had no impact on the outcome in ICU patients with AKI. Both modalities need to be considered as complementary in the treatment of AKI (Clinical Trial: SHARF 4, NCT00322933,

  18. Meteorological Satellites (METSAT) and Earth Observing System (EOS) Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A (AMSU-A) Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (FMEA) and Critical Items List (CIL) (United States)


    This Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (FMEA) is for the Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A (AMSU-A) instruments that are being designed and manufactured for the Meteorological Satellites Project (METSAT) and the Earth Observing System (EOS) integrated programs. The FMEA analyzes the design of the METSAT and EOS instruments as they currently exist. This FMEA is intended to identify METSAT and EOS failure modes and their effect on spacecraft-instrument and instrument-component interfaces. The prime objective of this FMEA is to identify potential catastrophic and critical failures so that susceptibility to the failures and their effects can be eliminated from the METSAT/EOS instruments.

  19. The Use of Multi-Source Satellite and Geospatial Data to Study the Effect of Urbanization of Primary Productivity in the United States (United States)

    Imhoff, M. L.; Tucker, C. J.; Lawrence, W. T.; Stutzer, D.; Rusin, Robert


    Data from two different satellites, a digital land cover map, and digital census data were analyzed and combined in a geographic information system to study the effect of urbanization on photosynthetic vegetation productivity in the United States. Results show that urbanization can have a measurable but variable impact on the primary productivity of the land surface. Annual productivity can be reduced by as much as 20 days in some areas, but in resource limited regions, photosynthetic production can be enhanced by human activity. Overall, urban development reduces the productivity of the land surface and those areas with the highest productivity are directly in the path of urban sprawl.

  20. Predicting root zone soil moisture with soil properties and satellite near-surface moisture data across the conterminous United States (United States)

    Baldwin, D.; Manfreda, S.; Keller, K.; Smithwick, E. A. H.


    Satellite-based near-surface (0-2 cm) soil moisture estimates have global coverage, but do not capture variations of soil moisture in the root zone (up to 100 cm depth) and may be biased with respect to ground-based soil moisture measurements. Here, we present an ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) hydrologic data assimilation system that predicts bias in satellite soil moisture data to support the physically based Soil Moisture Analytical Relationship (SMAR) infiltration model, which estimates root zone soil moisture with satellite soil moisture data. The SMAR-EnKF model estimates a regional-scale bias parameter using available in situ data. The regional bias parameter is added to satellite soil moisture retrievals before their use in the SMAR model, and the bias parameter is updated continuously over time with the EnKF algorithm. In this study, the SMAR-EnKF assimilates in situ soil moisture at 43 Soil Climate Analysis Network (SCAN) monitoring locations across the conterminous U.S. Multivariate regression models are developed to estimate SMAR parameters using soil physical properties and the moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) evapotranspiration data product as covariates. SMAR-EnKF root zone soil moisture predictions are in relatively close agreement with in situ observations when using optimal model parameters, with root mean square errors averaging 0.051 [cm3 cm-3] (standard error, s.e. = 0.005). The average root mean square error associated with a 20-fold cross-validation analysis with permuted SMAR parameter regression models increases moderately (0.082 [cm3 cm-3], s.e. = 0.004). The expected regional-scale satellite correction bias is negative in four out of six ecoregions studied (mean = -0.12 [-], s.e. = 0.002), excluding the Great Plains and Eastern Temperate Forests (0.053 [-], s.e. = 0.001). With its capability of estimating regional-scale satellite bias, the SMAR-EnKF system can predict root zone soil moisture over broad extents and has

  1. Influence of renal function on the pharmacokinetics of piperacillin/tazobactam in intensive care unit patients during continuous venovenous hemofiltration. (United States)

    Arzuaga, Alazne; Maynar, Javier; Gascón, Alicia R; Isla, Arantxazu; Corral, Esther; Fonseca, Fernando; Sánchez-Izquierdo, José Angel; Rello, Jordi; Canut, Andrés; Pedraz, José Luis


    The pharmacokinetics of piperacillin/tazobactam (4 g/0.5 g every 6 or 8 hours, by 20-minute intravenous infusion) were studied in 14 patients with acute renal failure who underwent continuous venovenous hemofiltration with AN69 membranes. Patients were grouped according to severity (CL(CR) 50 mL/min). A noncompartmental analysis was performed. The sieving coefficient (0.78 +/- 0.28) was similar to the unbound fraction (0.65 +/- 0.24) for tazobactam, but it was significantly different (0.34 +/- 0.25) from the unbound fraction (0.78 +/- 0.14) for piperacillin. Extracorporeal clearance was 37.0% +/- 28.8%, 12.7% +/- 12.6%, and 2.8% +/- 3.2% for piperacillin in each group and 62.5% +/- 44.9%, 35.4% +/- 17.0%, and 13.1% +/- 8.0% for tazobactam. No patients presented tazobactam accumulation. In patients with CL(CR) MIC90 values were 100% for a panel of 19 pathogens, but in those with CL(CR) > 50 mL/min, t(%)ss >MIC90 indexes were 55.5% and 16.6% for pathogens with MIC90 values of 32 and 64. The extracorporeal clearance of piperacillin/tazobactam is clinically significant in patients with CL(CR) > 50 mL/min, in which the risk of underdosing and clinical failure is important and extra doses are required.

  2. Safety Management of a Clinical Process Using Failure Mode and Effect Analysis: Continuous Renal Replacement Therapies in Intensive Care Unit Patients. (United States)

    Sanchez-Izquierdo-Riera, Jose Angel; Molano-Alvarez, Esteban; Saez-de la Fuente, Ignacio; Maynar-Moliner, Javier; Marín-Mateos, Helena; Chacón-Alves, Silvia


    The failure mode and effect analysis (FMEA) may improve the safety of the continuous renal replacement therapies (CRRT) in the intensive care unit. We use this tool in three phases: 1) Retrospective observational study. 2) A process FMEA, with implementation of the improvement measures identified. 3) Cohort study after FMEA. We included 54 patients in the pre-FMEA group and 72 patients in the post-FMEA group. Comparing the risks frequencies per patient in both groups, we got less cases of under 24 hours of filter survival time in the post-FMEA group (31 patients 57.4% vs. 21 patients 29.6%; p < 0.05); less patients suffered circuit coagulation with inability to return the blood to the patient (25 patients [46.3%] vs. 16 patients [22.2%]; p < 0.05); 54 patients (100%) versus 5 (6.94%) did not get phosphorus levels monitoring (p < 0.05); in 14 patients (25.9%) versus 0 (0%), the CRRT prescription did not appear on medical orders. As a measure of improvement, we adopt a dynamic dosage management. After the process FMEA, there were several improvements in the management of intensive care unit patients receiving CRRT, and we consider it a useful tool for improving the safety of critically ill patients.

  3. Renal Osteodystrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aynur Metin Terzibaşoğlu


    Full Text Available Chronic renal insufficiency is a functional definition which is characterized by irreversible and progressive decreasing in renal functions. This impairment is in collaboration with glomeruler filtration rate and serum creatinine levels. Besides this, different grades of bone metabolism disorders develop in chronic renal insufficiency. Pathologic changes in bone tissue due to loss of renal paranchyme is interrelated with calcium, phosphorus vitamine-D and parathyroid hormone. Clinically we can see high turnover bone disease, low turnover bone disease, osteomalacia, osteosclerosis and osteoporosis in renal osteodystropy. In this article we aimed to review pathology of bone metabolism disorders due to chronic renal insufficiency, clinic aspects and treatment approaches briefly.

  4. Satellite sea surface temperatures along the West Coast of the United States during the 2014-2016 northeast Pacific marine heat wave (United States)

    Gentemann, Chelle L.; Fewings, Melanie R.; García-Reyes, Marisol


    From January 2014 to August 2016, sea surface temperatures (SSTs) along the Washington, Oregon, and California coasts were significantly warmer than usual, reaching a maximum SST anomaly of 6.2°C off Southern California. This marine heat wave occurred alongside the Gulf of Alaska marine heat wave and resulted in major disturbances in the California Current ecosystem and massive economic impacts. Here we use satellite and blended reanalysis products to report the magnitude, extent, duration, and evolution of SSTs and wind stress anomalies along the West Coast of the continental United States during this event. Nearshore SST anomalies along the entire coast were persistent during the marine heat wave, and only abated seasonally, during spring upwelling-favorable wind stress. The coastal marine heat wave weakened in July 2016 and disappeared by September 2016.

  5. Satellite Communication. (United States)

    Technology Teacher, 1985


    Presents a discussion of communication satellites: explains the principles of satellite communication, describes examples of how governments and industries are currently applying communication satellites, analyzes issues confronting satellite communication, links mathematics and science to the study of satellite communication, and applies…

  6. Engineering Encounters: The Cat in the Hat Builds Satellites. A Unit Promoting Scientific Literacy and the Engineering Design Process (United States)

    Rehmat, Abeera P.; Owens, Marissa C.


    This column presents ideas and techniques to enhance your science teaching. This month's issue shares information about a unit promoting scientific literacy and the engineering design process. The integration of engineering with scientific practices in K-12 education can promote creativity, hands-on learning, and an improvement in students'…

  7. Renal perfusion scintiscan (United States)

    Renal perfusion scintigraphy; Radionuclide renal perfusion scan; Perfusion scintiscan - renal; Scintiscan - renal perfusion ... supply the kidneys. This is a condition called renal artery stenosis. Significant renal artery stenosis may be ...

  8. Pacientes vítimas de politrauma com insuficiência renal aguda na unidade de terapia intensiva Pacientes víctimas de politrauma con insuficiência renal aguda en la unidad de cuidados intensivos Patient victim of polytrauma with acute renal failure in the intensive care unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita de Cássia Helú Mendonça Ribeiro


    evitar las complicaciones de la IRA y la respectiva mortalidad.OBJECTIVE: To identify the characteristics of patients with acute renal failure (ARF, polytrauma victims hospitalized in an Intensive Care Unit (ICU. METHODS: A retrospective analysis was performed on 357 records of patients with ARF in the period of 2002 to 2003. These patients presented a creatinine index of 1.8 to 4 mg/dl. Of these patients, 10.6% in the ICU were polytrauma victims. RESULTS: Of the 38 (10.6% patients with ARF and polytrauma victims, 78.9% of were males; 47.3% were aged between 16 and 45 years; 84.3% presented oliguria; 92.1% received no treatment for ARF during hospitalization; 50% remained from one to five days in the ICU; 47.3% had not presented any underlying disease and mortality occurred in 50%. CONCLUSION: Daily control of the renal function in polytrauma victims is important to prevent ARF complications and consequent mortality.

  9. MR imaging findings of renal infarction induced by renal artery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jun Woo; Kim, Suck; Kim, Yong Woo; Hu, Jin Sam; Choi, Sang Yoel; Moon, Tae Yong; Lee, Suck Hong; Kim, Byung Su; Lee, Chang Hun [Pusan National Univ., Pusan (Korea, Repulic of). Coll. of Medicine


    To assess the usefulness of diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) in evaluating serial parenchymal changes in renal infarction induced by renal artery ligation, by comparing this with the conventional spin echo technique and correlating the results with the histopathological findings. In 22 rabbits, renal infarction was induced by ligation of the renal artery. Spin-echo T1-weighted imaging (T1WI), turbo spin-echo (TSE) T2-weighted imaging (T2WI), and DWI were performed, using a 1.5-T superconductive unit, at 30 minutes, 1 hour, 2,3,6, 12 and 24 hours, and 2, 3, 7 and 20 days after left renal artery ligation. Changes in signal intensity on T1WI, T2WI, and DWI were correlated with histopathologic findings. Diffusion-weighted imaging is useful for the detection of hyperacute renal infarction, and the apparent diffusion coefficient may provide additional information concerning its evolution. (author). 21 refs., 9 figs.

  10. Incidência de insuficiência renal aguda na Unidade de Terapia Intensiva Neonatal de um hospital paulista Incidencia de insuficiencia renal crónica aguda en la Unidad de Cuidados Intensivos Neonatal de un hospital de Sao Paulo Incidence of acute renal failure in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit of a hospital in São Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Ribeiro Nogueira Ferraz


    .OBJECTIVES: To describe the incidence of acute renal failure (ARF in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU of a hospital in São Paulo and to verify the use of the "risk of renal failure, injury to the kidney, failure of kidney function, loss of kidney function and end-stage renal failure (RIFLE" classification for the allocation of the neonates. METHODS: Review of medical records of neonates from April 4 to April 25, 2008. RESULTS: Of the 19 admissions in the NICU, 10% were diagnosed as ARF according to the RIFLE classification. The neonates diagnosed with ARF were referred to the dialysis service. CONCLUSION: Although this study had a very small sample size, the findings indicate that ARF represents 10% of the primary diagnosis among our sample of neonates admitted to the NICU. Large and longer studies are necessary to evaluate the incidence of ARF in the NICU.

  11. Comparing cropland net primary production estimates from inventory, a satellite-based model, and a process-based model in the Midwest of the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Zhengpeng; Liu, Shuguang; Tan, Zhengxi; Bliss, Norman B.; Young, Claudia J.; West, Tristram O.; Ogle, Stephen M.


    Accurately quantifying the spatial and temporal variability of net primary production (NPP) for croplands is essential to understand regional cropland carbon dynamics. We compared three NPP estimates for croplands in the Midwestern United States: inventory-based estimates using crop yield data from the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) National Agricultural Statistics Service (NASS); estimates from the satellite-based Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) NPP product; and estimates from the General Ensemble biogeochemical Modeling System (GEMS) process-based model. The three methods estimated mean NPP in the range of 469–687 g C m-2 yr-1 and total NPP in the range of 318–490 Tg C yr-1 for croplands in the Midwest in 2007 and 2008. The NPP estimates from crop yield data and the GEMS model showed the mean NPP for croplands was over 650 g C m-2 yr-1 while the MODIS NPP product estimated the mean NPP was less than 500 g C m-2 yr-1. MODIS NPP also showed very different spatial variability of the cropland NPP from the other two methods. We found these differences were mainly caused by the difference in the land cover data and the crop specific information used in the methods. Our study demonstrated that the detailed mapping of the temporal and spatial change of crop species is critical for estimating the spatial and temporal variability of cropland NPP. Finally, we suggest that high resolution land cover data with species–specific crop information should be used in satellite-based and process-based models to improve carbon estimates for croplands.

  12. Comparing cropland net primary production estimates from inventory, a satellite-based model, and a process-based model in the Midwest of the United States (United States)

    Li, Zhengpeng; Liu, Shuguang; Tan, Zhengxi; Bliss, Norman B.; Young, Claudia J.; West, Tristram O.; Ogle, Stephen M.


    Accurately quantifying the spatial and temporal variability of net primary production (NPP) for croplands is essential to understand regional cropland carbon dynamics. We compared three NPP estimates for croplands in the Midwestern United States: inventory-based estimates using crop yield data from the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) National Agricultural Statistics Service (NASS); estimates from the satellite-based Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) NPP product; and estimates from the General Ensemble biogeochemical Modeling System (GEMS) process-based model. The three methods estimated mean NPP in the range of 469–687 g C m−2 yr−1and total NPP in the range of 318–490 Tg C yr−1 for croplands in the Midwest in 2007 and 2008. The NPP estimates from crop yield data and the GEMS model showed the mean NPP for croplands was over 650 g C m−2 yr−1 while the MODIS NPP product estimated the mean NPP was less than 500 g C m−2 yr−1. MODIS NPP also showed very different spatial variability of the cropland NPP from the other two methods. We found these differences were mainly caused by the difference in the land cover data and the crop specific information used in the methods. Our study demonstrated that the detailed mapping of the temporal and spatial change of crop species is critical for estimating the spatial and temporal variability of cropland NPP. We suggest that high resolution land cover data with species–specific crop information should be used in satellite-based and process-based models to improve carbon estimates for croplands.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Govorov


    Full Text Available Renal cryoablation is an alternative minimally-invasive method of treatment for localized renal cell carcinoma. The main advantages of this methodology include visualization of the tumor and the forming of "ice ball" in real time, fewer complications compared with other methods of treatment of renal cell carcinoma, as well as the possibility of conducting cryotherapy in patients with concomitant pathology. Compared with other ablative technologies cryoablation has a low rate of repeat sessions and good intermediate oncological results. The studies of long-term oncological and functional results of renal cryoablation are presently under way.

  14. Renal angiomyolipoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm-Nielsen, P; Sørensen, Flemming Brandt


    lesion. Three cases of renal angiomyolipoma, 2 of which underwent perfusion-fixation, were studied by electron microscopy to clarify the cellular composition of this lesion. In the smooth muscle cells abundant accumulation of glycogen was found, whereas the lipocytes disclosed normal ultrastructural......-specific vesicular structures. These findings suggest a secondary vascular damage, i.e. the thickened vessels may not be a primary, integral part of renal angiomyolipoma. Evidence of a common precursor cell of renal angiomyolipoma was not disclosed. It is concluded that renal angiomyolipoma is a hamartoma composed...

  15. Importance of RIFLE (Risk, Injury, Failure, Loss, and End-Stage Renal Failure) and AKIN (Acute Kidney Injury Network) in Hemodialysis Initiation and Intensive Care Unit Mortality. (United States)

    Kara, Iskender; Yildirim, Fatma; Kayacan, Esra; Bilaloğlu, Burcu; Turkoglu, Melda; Aygencel, Gülbin


    Our study evaluated the differences between early and late hemodialysis (HD) initiation in the intensive care unit (ICU) according to the RIFLE (Risk, Injury, Failure, Loss, and End-stage renal failure) and AKIN (Acute Kidney Injury Network) classifications. On the assumption that early initiation of HD in critical patients according to the RIFLE and AKIN criteria decreases mortality, we retrospectively evaluated the medical records of 68 patients in our medical ICU and divided the patients into 2 groups: Those undergoing HD in no risk, risk, or injury stage according to RIFLE and in stage 0, I, or II according to AKIN were defined as early HD and those in failure stage according to RIFLE and in stage III according to AKIN were defined as late HD. The median age of the patients was 66.5 years, and 56.5% were male. HD was started in 25% and 39.7% of the patients in the early stage in the RIFLE and AKIN classification, respectively. According to RIFLE, HD was started in 61.5% of the surviving patients in the early stage; this rate was 16.4% in the deceased patients (P=0.001). HD was commenced in 69.2% of the surviving patients in AKIN stages 0, I, and II and in 32.7% of the deceased patients (P=0.026). Sepsis (61.5% vs. 94.5%; P=0.001) and mechanical ventilation (30.8% vs. 87.3%; PRIFLE decreased ICU mortality (61.5% vs. 16.4%; P=0.001). In conclusion, in critically ill patients, HD initiation in the early stages according to the RIFLE classification decreased our ICU mortality.

  16. Renal cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Corgna, Enrichetta; Betti, Maura; Gatta, Gemma; Roila, Fausto; De Mulder, Pieter H. M.


    In Europe, renal cancer (that is neoplasia of the kidney, renal pelvis or ureter (ICD-9 189 and ICD-10 C64-C66)) ranks as the seventh most common malignancy in men amongst whom there are 29,600 new cases each year (3.5% of all cancers). Tobacco, obesity and a diet poor in vegetables are all acknowle

  17. Renal fallure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    920705 Endothelin and acute renal failure:study on their relationship and possiblemechanisms. LIN Shanyan(林善锬), et al.Renal Res Lab, Huashan Hosp, Shanghai MedUniv, Shanghai, 200040. Natl Med J China 1992;72(4): 201-205. In order to investigate the role of endothelin

  18. Renal cancer.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Corgna, E.; Betti, M.; Gatta, G.; Roila, F.; Mulder, P.H.M. de


    In Europe, renal cancer (that is neoplasia of the kidney, renal pelvis or ureter (ICD-9 189 and ICD-10 C64-C66)) ranks as the seventh most common malignancy in men amongst whom there are 29,600 new cases each year (3.5% of all cancers). Tobacco, obesity and a diet poor in vegetables are all

  19. Renal cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Corgna, Enrichetta; Betti, Maura; Gatta, Gemma; Roila, Fausto; De Mulder, Pieter H. M.


    In Europe, renal cancer (that is neoplasia of the kidney, renal pelvis or ureter (ICD-9 189 and ICD-10 C64-C66)) ranks as the seventh most common malignancy in men amongst whom there are 29,600 new cases each year (3.5% of all cancers). Tobacco, obesity and a diet poor in vegetables are all

  20. Long-term decrease in satellite vegetation indices in response to environmental variables in an iconic desert riparian ecosystem: the Upper San Pedro, Arizona, United States (United States)

    Nguyen, Uyen; Glenn, Edward P.; Nagler, Pamela L.; Scott, Russell L.


    The Upper San Pedro River is one of the few remaining undammed rivers that maintain a vibrant riparian ecosystem in the southwest United States. However, its riparian forest is threatened by diminishing groundwater and surface water inputs, due to either changes in watershed characteristics such as changes in riparian and upland vegetation, or human activities such as regional groundwater pumping. We used satellite vegetation indices to quantify the green leaf density of the groundwater-dependent riparian forest from 1984 to 2012. The river was divided into a southern, upstream (mainly perennial flow) reach and a northern, downstream (mainly intermittent and ephemeral flow) reach. Pre-monsoon (June) Landsat normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) values showed a 20% drop for the northern reach (P  0·05). NDVI and enhanced vegetation index values were positively correlated (P factor in reducing river flows. Climate change, regional groundwater pumping, changes in the intensity of monsoon rain events and lack of overbank flooding are feasible explanations for deterioration of the riparian forest in the northern reach.

  1. Investigating ambient ozone formation regimes in neighboring cities of shale plays in the Northeast United States using photochemical modeling and satellite retrievals (United States)

    Chang, Chih-Yuan; Faust, Eric; Hou, Xiangting; Lee, Pius; Kim, Hyun Cheol; Hedquist, Brent C.; Liao, Kuo-Jen


    This study investigates long-term (i.e., 2007-2014) fluctuations in ambient ozone formation regimes for cities adjacent to shale plays in the Northeast United States (U.S.). Ozone air quality in many cities of the Northeast U.S. does not meet the U.S. National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS), and understanding ambient ozone formation regimes is essential to develop effective air pollution mitigation strategies for cities violating the air quality standards. Since 2013, the U.S. has become the world's largest producer of tight oil and natural gas from shale rock, and previous studies show that emissions of air pollutant precursors from shale oil and gas-related activities would have the potential to affect ambient ozone air quality in adjacent cities of shale plays. This work leveraged (1) satellite-retrieved column densities of formaldehyde (HCHO) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) from multiple instruments (i.e., Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) and Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment-2 (GOME-2)); (2) photochemical air quality modeling and sensitivity analysis; and (3) ratios of satellite-retrieved air pollutant column densities to investigate ambient ozone formation regimes in neighboring cities of shale plays (i.e., Marcellus Shale) in the Northeast U.S. from 2007 to 2014. Our results show that ambient ozone formation in Boston, Pittsburgh, Philadelphia and Washington, D.C. (which are close to Marcellus Shale) was in the NOx -limited or transition regime during the period of study. Ambient ozone formation in New York City was in the transition regime during 2010-2013 and VOC -limited regime during 2007-2009 and in 2014. Based on the result of this study, we conclude that controls NOx emissions would mitigate ozone air pollution from 2007 to 2014 in most of the cities examined in this study. Controls of local VOC emissions would ease ozone air pollution in New York City during the study period. With projected increases in oil and gas production from shale plays in

  2. Midterm renal functions following acute renal infarction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakir Ongun


    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to explore clinical features of renal infarction (RI that may have a role in diagnosis and treatment in our patient cohort and provide data on midterm renal functions. Medical records of patients with diagnosis of acute RI, established by contrast enhanced computed tomography (CT and at least 1 year follow-up data, who were hospitalized in our clinic between 1998 and 2012 were retrospectively reviewed; including descriptive data, clinical signs and symptoms, etiologic factors, laboratory findings, and prescribed treatments. Patients with solitary infarct were treated with acetylsalicylic acid (ASA only, whereas patients with atrial fibrillation (AF or multiple or global infarct were treated with anticoagulants. Estimated Glomerular Filtration Rate (eGFR referring to renal functions was determined by the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD formula. Twenty-seven renal units of 23 patients with acute RI were identified. The mean age was 59.7 ± 15.7 years. Fourteen patients (60.8% with RI had atrial fibrillation (AF as an etiologic factor of which four had concomitant mesenteric ischemia at diagnosis. At presentation, 20 patients (86.9% had elevated serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, 18 patients (78.2% had leukocytosis, and 16 patients (69.5% had microscopic hematuria. Two patients with concomitant mesenteric ischemia and AF passed away during follow up. Mean eGFR was 70.8 ± 23.2 mL/min/1.73 m2 at admission and increased to 82.3 ± 23.4 mL/min/1.73 m2 at 1 year follow up. RI should be considered in patients with persistent flank or abdominal pain, particularly if they are at high risk of thromboembolism. Antiplatelet and/or anticoagulant drugs are both effective treatment options according to the amplitude of the infarct for preserving kidney functions.

  3. Midterm renal functions following acute renal infarction. (United States)

    Ongun, Sakir; Bozkurt, Ozan; Demir, Omer; Cimen, Sertac; Aslan, Guven


    The aim of this study was to explore clinical features of renal infarction (RI) that may have a role in diagnosis and treatment in our patient cohort and provide data on midterm renal functions. Medical records of patients with diagnosis of acute RI, established by contrast enhanced computed tomography (CT) and at least 1 year follow-up data, who were hospitalized in our clinic between 1998 and 2012 were retrospectively reviewed; including descriptive data, clinical signs and symptoms, etiologic factors, laboratory findings, and prescribed treatments. Patients with solitary infarct were treated with acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) only, whereas patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) or multiple or global infarct were treated with anticoagulants. Estimated Glomerular Filtration Rate (eGFR) referring to renal functions was determined by the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) formula. Twenty-seven renal units of 23 patients with acute RI were identified. The mean age was 59.7 ± 15.7 years. Fourteen patients (60.8%) with RI had atrial fibrillation (AF) as an etiologic factor of which four had concomitant mesenteric ischemia at diagnosis. At presentation, 20 patients (86.9%) had elevated serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), 18 patients (78.2%) had leukocytosis, and 16 patients (69.5%) had microscopic hematuria. Two patients with concomitant mesenteric ischemia and AF passed away during follow up. Mean eGFR was 70.8 ± 23.2 mL/min/1.73 m(2) at admission and increased to 82.3 ± 23.4 mL/min/1.73 m(2) at 1 year follow up. RI should be considered in patients with persistent flank or abdominal pain, particularly if they are at high risk of thromboembolism. Antiplatelet and/or anticoagulant drugs are both effective treatment options according to the amplitude of the infarct for preserving kidney functions.

  4. Ciprofloxacin-Induced Renal Failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Audra Fuller


    Full Text Available Acute renal failure (ARF is a common diagnosis in hospitalized patients, particularly in intensive care units (ICU. Determining the cause and contributing factors associated with ARF is crucial during treatment. The etiology is complex, and several factors often contribute to its development. Medications can cause acute tubular necrosis, acute interstitial nephritis, and crystal-induced or post-obstructive nephropathy. There have been several case reports of ARF secondary to fluoroquinolones. Here we report the development of acute renal failure within a few days of initiating oral ciprofloxacin therapy and briefly describe the different types of renal failure secondary to fluoroquinolone administration. Clinical studies demonstrate that using fluoroquinolones with other potentially nephrotoxic medications requires monitoring of renal function to limit the renal toxicity with these medications. Also, the risk-benefit profile of patients requiring fluoroquinolones should be considered.

  5. Renal teratogens. (United States)

    Morgan, Thomas M; Jones, Deborah P; Cooper, William O


    In utero exposure to certain drugs early in pregnancy may adversely affect nephrogenesis. Exposure to drugs later in pregnancy may affect the renin-angiotensin system, which could have an impact on fetal or neonatal renal function. Reduction in nephron number and renal function could have adverse consequences for the child several years later. Data are limited on the information needed to guide decisions for patients and providers regarding the use of certain drugs in pregnancy. The study of drug nephroteratogenicity has not been systematized, a large, standardized, global approach is needed to evaluate the renal risks of in utero drug exposures.

  6. Characterization and rapid control of a vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium (VREF) outbreak in a renal transplant unit in Spain: The environment matters. (United States)

    Herrera, Sabina; Sorlí, Luisa; Pérez-Sáez, Maria Jose; Ruiz-Garbajosa, Patricia; Barrios, Clara; Plasencia, Virginia; Montero, Milagro; Terradas, Roser; Crespo, Marta; Castells, Xavier; Cantón, Rafael; Pascual, Julio; Horcajada, Juan Pablo


    To describe a clonal outbreak due to vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium (VREF) in the nephrology and renal transplant unit of a tertiary teaching hospital in Barcelona, Spain, and to highlight how active patient and environment surveillance cultures, as well as prompt and directed intervention strategies, mainly environmental, helped to successfully bring it under control. A study was conducted on patients admitted to the nephrology ward with any culture positive for VREF over a 6-month period (August 2012-January 2013). Based on the identification of a clonal link between the isolates, weekly rectal screening using swabs was implemented for all patients, as well as environmental cultures and cleaning of medical equipment and the ward. VREF isolates were identified by MicroScan and confirmed by Etest. Bacterial identification was confirmed by MALDI-TOF MS. The presence of van genes, and esp and hyl virulence genes was determined using PCR. The clonal relationship between the isolates was studied first with DiversiLab (bioMérieux), and then by PFGE-Smal and MLST. A two-tier sequence of infection control measures was implemented. During the study period, VREF was isolated from 13 patients. All cases were colonized with no criteria for infection. VREF isolates were also extensively recovered from the environment and medical equipment. Isolates carried the vanA gene, and were multidrug-resistant, including high-level resistance (MIC >16mg/L) to vancomycin and teicoplanin. Molecular analysis showed that all VREF isolates belonged to sequence type 17 (ST17) carrying hyl virulence genes. After implementing infection control measures in a two-tier sequence, and reinforcing particularly environmental and medical equipment cleaning, no further cases were detected in the follow-up year. A clonal outbreak of VREF-ST17 involving only colonization is reported. The prompt implementation of aggressive infection control measures in patients and the environment was effective

  7. Sarcoidose renal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Em uma mulher de 62 anos, branca, em avaliação pré-operatória de facectomia, foram detectadas alterações urinárias, tendo sido firmados os diagnósticos de calculose renal esquerda e exclusão renal homolateral. No pré-operatório da nefrectomia foram evidenciados processo pulmonar intersticial bilateral e adenopatia torácica, cuja investigação foi adiada para após a cirurgia. No rim retirado foram detectados granulomas epitelióides não necrotizantes, o mesmo ocorrendo posteriormente em biópsia transbrônquica. A paciente foi tratada com metilprednisolona, com discreta melhora pulmonar, o que não ocorreu com a função renal. O diagnóstico final foi de sarcoidose com envolvimento pulmonar, ganglionar torácico e renal.

  8. Renal failure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    930150 Epidermal growth factor and its recep-tor in the renal tissue of patients with acute re-nal failure and normal persons.LIU Zhihong(刘志红),et al.Jinling Hosp,Nanjing,210002.Natl Med J China 1992;72(10):593-595.Epidermal growth factor(EGF)and its receptor(EGF-R)were identified by immunohis-tochemical method(4 layer PAP)in the renaltissue specimens obtained from 11 normal kid-neys and 17 cases of acute renal failure(ARF).The quantitative EGF and EGF-R in the tissuewere expressed as positive tubules per mm~2.The amount of EGF and EGF-R in renal tissue

  9. Injúria renal aguda em unidade de terapia intensiva: estudo prospectivo sobre a incidência, fatores de risco e mortalidade Acute kidney injury in intensive care unit patients: a prospective study on incidence, risk factors and

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Ponce


    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Comparar características clínicas e evolução de pacientes com e sem injúria renal aguda adquirida em unidade de terapia intensiva geral de um hospital universitário terciário e identificar fatores de risco associados ao desenvolvimento de injúria renal aguda e à mortalidade. MÉTODOS: Estudo prospectivo observacional com 564 pacientes acompanhados diariamente durante a internação em unidade de terapia intensiva geral do Hospital das Clínicas da Faculdade de Medicina de Botucatu por 2 anos consecutivos (de maio de 2008 a maio de 2010, divididos em 2 grupos: com injúria renal aguda adquirida (G1 e sem injúria renal aguda adquirida (G2. RESULTADOS: A incidência de injúria renal aguda foi 25,5%. Os grupos diferiram quanto à etiologia da admissão em unidade de terapia intensiva (sepse: G1:41,6% x G2:24,1%, p55 anos, APACHE II>16, creatinina (cr basal>1,2 e uso de anti-inflamatórios não hormonais (OR=1,36 IC:1,22-1,85, OR=1,2 IC:1,11-1,33, OR=5,2 IC:2,3-11,6 e OR=2,15 IC:1,1-4,2, respectivamente e a injúria renal aguda esteve independentemente associada ao maior tempo de internação e à mortalidade (OR=1,18 IC:1,05-1,26 e OR=1,24 IC:1,09-1,99 respectivamente. À análise da curva de sobrevida, após 30 dias de internação, a mortalidade foi de 83,3% no G1 e 45,2% no G2 (p55 anos, APACHE II>16, Cr basal >1,2 e uso de anti-inflamatórios não hormonais e a injúria renal aguda é fator de risco independente para o maior tempo de permanência em unidade de terapia intensiva e mortalidade.OBJECTIVE:To compare the clinical features and outcomes of patients with and without acute kidney injury in an intensive care unit of a tertiary university hospital and to identify acute kidney injury and mortality risk factors. METHODS: This was a prospective observational study of a cohort including 564 patients followed during their stay in the intensive care unit of Hospital das Clinicas da Faculdade de Medicina de Botucatu (Botucatu

  10. Renal failure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    2005234 Association between serum fetuin-A and clinical outcome in end-stage renal disease patients. WANG Kai(王开), Dept Renal Dis, Renji Hosp Shanghai, 2nd Med Univ, Shanghai 200001. Chin J Nephrol, 2005;21(2):72-75. Objective: To investigate the change of serum fetuin-A level before and after dialysis, and the association of serum fetuin-A level with clinical parameters

  11. Renal failure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    950351 Serum erythropoietin levels in chronic renalinsufficiency.ZHAI Depei(翟德佩),et al.DeptNephrol.General Hosp,Tianjin Med Univ,Tianjin,300000.Tianjin Med J 1995;23(1):19-21.Patients with chronic renal insufficiency(CRI) areoften associated with anemia.The deficiency of EPOproduction in the kidney is thought to be a key factorin the pathogenesis of renal anemia.Serum erythropoi-

  12. Renal failure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    2008463 Protective effect of recombination rat augmenter of liver regeneration on kidney in acute renal failure rats. TANG Xiaopeng(唐晓鹏), et al. Dept Nephrol, 2nd Affili Hosp Chongqing Med Univ, Chongqing 400010.Chin J Nephrol 2008;24(6):417-421. Objective To investigate the protective effects of recombination rat augmenter of liver regeneration (rrALR) on tubular cell injury and renal dysfunction

  13. Renal Hemangiopericytoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İbrahim Halil Bozkurt


    Full Text Available Hemangiopericytoma is an uncommon perivascular tumor originating from pericytes in the pelvis, head and tneck, and the meninges; extremely rarely in the urinary system. We report a case of incidentally detected renal mass in which radiologic evaluation was suggestive of renal cell carcinoma. First, we performed partial nephrectomy, and then, radical nephrectomy because of positive surgical margins and the pathological examination of the surgical specimen that revealed a hemangiopericytoma. No additional treatment was administered.

  14. Monitoring Groundwater Variations from Satellite Gravimetry and Hydrological Models: A Comparison with in-situ Measurements in the Mid-Atlantic Region of the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruya Xiao


    Full Text Available Aimed at mapping time variations in the Earth’s gravity field, the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE satellite mission is applicable to access terrestrial water storage (TWS, which mainly includes groundwater, soil moisture (SM, and snow. In this study, SM and accumulated snow water equivalent (SWE are simulated by the Global Land Data Assimilation System (GLDAS land surface models (LSMs and then used to isolate groundwater anomalies from GRACE-derived TWS in Pennsylvania and New York States of the Mid-Atlantic region of the United States. The monitoring well water-level records from the U.S. Geological Survey Ground-Water Climate Response Network from January 2005 to December 2011 are used for validation. The groundwater results from different combinations of GRACE products (from three institutions, CSR, GFZ and JPL and GLDAS LSMs (CLM, NOAH and VIC are compared and evaluated with in-situ measurements. The intercomparison analysis shows that the solution obtained through removing averaged simulated SM and SWE of the three LSMs from the averaged GRACE-derived TWS of the three centers would be the most robust to reduce the noises, and increase the confidence consequently. Although discrepancy exists, the GRACE-GLDAS estimated groundwater variations generally agree with in-situ observations. For monthly scales, their correlation coefficient reaches 0.70 at 95% confidence level with the RMSE of the differences of 2.6 cm. Two-tailed Mann-Kendall trend test results show that there is no significant groundwater gain or loss in this region over the study period. The GRACE time-variable field solutions and GLDAS simulations provide precise and reliable data sets in illustrating the regional groundwater storage variations, and the application will be meaningful and invaluable when applied to the data-poor regions.

  15. The users, uses, and value of Landsat and other moderate-resolution satellite imagery in the United States-Executive report (United States)

    Miller, Holly M.; Sexton, Natalie R.; Koontz, Lynne; Loomis, John; Koontz, Stephen R.; Hermans, Caroline


    Moderate-resolution imagery (MRI), such as that provided by the Landsat satellites, provides unique spatial information for use by many people both within and outside of the United States (U.S.). However, exactly who these users are, how they use the imagery, and the value and benefits derived from the information are, to a large extent, unknown. To explore these issues, social scientists at the USGS Fort Collins Science Center conducted a study of U.S.-based MRI users from 2008 through 2010 in two parts: 1) a user identification and 2) a user survey. The objectives for this study were to: 1) identify and classify U.S.-based users of this imagery; 2) better understand how and why MRI, and specifically Landsat, is being used; and 3) qualitatively and quantitatively measure the value and societal benefits of MRI (focusing on Landsat specifically). The results of the survey revealed that respondents from multiple sectors use Landsat imagery in many different ways, as demonstrated by the breadth of project locations and scales, as well as application areas. The value of Landsat imagery to these users was demonstrated by the high importance placed on the imagery, the numerous benefits received from projects using Landsat imagery, the negative impacts if Landsat imagery was no longer available, and the substantial willingness to pay for replacement imagery in the event of a data gap. The survey collected information from users who are both part of and apart from the known user community. The diversity of the sample delivered results that provide a baseline of knowledge about the users, uses, and value of Landsat imagery. While the results supply a wealth of information on their own, they can also be built upon through further research to generate a more complete picture of the population of Landsat users as a whole.

  16. Satellite RNAs and Satellite Viruses. (United States)

    Palukaitis, Peter


    Satellite RNAs and satellite viruses are extraviral components that can affect either the pathogenicity, the accumulation, or both of their associated viruses while themselves being dependent on the associated viruses as helper viruses for their infection. Most of these satellite RNAs are noncoding RNAs, and in many cases, have been shown to alter the interaction of their helper viruses with their hosts. In only a few cases have the functions of these satellite RNAs in such interactions been studied in detail. In particular, work on the satellite RNAs of Cucumber mosaic virus and Turnip crinkle virus have provided novel insights into RNAs functioning as noncoding RNAs. These effects are described and potential roles for satellite RNAs in the processes involved in symptom intensification or attenuation are discussed. In most cases, models describing these roles involve some aspect of RNA silencing or its suppression, either directly or indirectly involving the particular satellite RNA.

  17. Coastal Geostationary Sea Surface Temperature (SST) Products from NOAA GOES and Japanese MTSAT-1R satellites, coastal United States, 2000 - present (NCEI Accession 0108128) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA's Office of Satellite and Data Distribution (OSDPD) generates geostationary sea surface temperature (SST) products. These products are derived from NOAA's...

  18. Centriolar satellites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tollenaere, Maxim A X; Mailand, Niels; Bekker-Jensen, Simon


    Centriolar satellites are small, microscopically visible granules that cluster around centrosomes. These structures, which contain numerous proteins directly involved in centrosome maintenance, ciliogenesis, and neurogenesis, have traditionally been viewed as vehicles for protein trafficking...... highlight newly discovered regulatory mechanisms targeting centriolar satellites and their functional status, and we discuss how defects in centriolar satellite components are intimately linked to a wide spectrum of human diseases....

  19. Satellite theory (United States)

    Kozai, Y.


    The dynamical characteristics of the natural satellite of Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune are analyzed on the basis of the solar tidal perturbation factor and the oblateness factor of the primary planet for each satellite. For the inner satellites, for which the value of the solar tidal factor is much smaller than the planetary oblateness factor, it is shown that the eccentricity and inclination of satellite orbits are generally very small and almost constant; several pairs of inner satellites are also found to exhibit commensurable mean motions, or secular accelerations in mean longitude. In the case of the outer satellites, for which solar perturbations are dominant, secular perturbations and long-period perturbations may be derived by the solution of equations of motion reduced to one degree of freedom. The existence of a few satellites, termed intermediary satellites, for which the solar tidal perturbation is on the order of the planetary oblateness factor, is also observed, and the pole of the orbital plane of the satellite is noted to execute a complex motion around the pole of the planet or the orbital plane of the planet.

  20. Renal Cysts (United States)

    ... as “simple” cysts, meaning they have a thin wall and contain water-like fluid. Renal cysts are fairly common in ... simple kidney cysts, meaning they have a thin wall and only water-like fluid inside. They are fairly common in ...

  1. Renal failure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    970363 Effect on serum PTH and 1, 25(OH)2 D3levels of rapid correction of metabolic acidosis in CRFpatients with secondary hyperparathyroidism. YUANQunsheng(袁群生), et al. Renal Div, PUMC Hosp,Beijing, 100730. Chin J Nephrol 1996; 12(6): 328-331.

  2. Drug-induced renal injury

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Drugs can cause acute renal failure by causing pre-renal, intrinsic or post-renal toxicity. Pre-renal ... incidence of drug dose adjustment in renal impairment in the SAMJ. ... Fever, haemolytic anaemia, thrombocytopenia, renal impairment and.

  3. Retrograde Renal Cooling to Minimize Ischemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janet L. Colli


    Full Text Available Objective: During partial nephrectomy, renal hypothermia has been shown to decrease ischemia induced renal damage which occurs from renal hilar clamping. In this study we investigate the infusion rate required to safely cool the entire renal unit in a porcine model using retrograde irrigation of iced saline via dual-lumen ureteral catheter. Materials and Methods: Renal cortical, renal medullary, bowel and rectal temperatures during retrograde cooling in a laparoscopic porcine model were monitored in six renal units. Iced normal saline was infused at 300 cc/hour, 600 cc/hour, 1000 cc/hour and gravity (800 cc/hour for 600 seconds with and without hilar clamping. Results: Retrograde cooling with hilar clamping provided rapid medullary renal cooling and significant hypothermia of the medulla and cortex at infusion rates ≥ 600 cc/hour. With hilar clamping, cortical temperatures decreased at -0.9° C/min. reaching a threshold temperature of 26.9° C, and medullary temperatures decreased at -0.90 C/min. reaching a temperature of 26.1° C over 600 seconds on average for combined data at infusion rates ≥ 600 cc/hour. The lowest renal temperatures were achieved with gravity infusion. Without renal hilum clamping, retrograde cooling was minimal at all infusion rates. Conclusions: Significant renal cooling by gravity infusion of iced cold saline via a duel lumen catheter with a clamped renal hilum was achieved in a porcine model. Continuous retrograde irrigation with iced saline via a two way ureteral catheter may be an effective method to induce renal hypothermia in patients undergoing robotic assisted and/or laparoscopic partial nephrectomy.

  4. Oceanography from satellites (United States)

    Wilson, W. S.


    It is pointed out that oceanographers have benefited from the space program mainly through the increased efficiency it has brought to ship operations. For example, the Transit navigation system has enabled oceanographers to compile detailed maps of sea-floor properties and to more accurately locate moored subsurface instrumentation. General descriptions are given of instruments used in satellite observations (altimeter, color scanner, infrared radiometer, microwave radiometer, scatterometer, synthetic aperture radar). It is pointed out that because of the large volume of data that satellite instruments generate, the development of algorithms for converting the data into a form expressed in geophysical units has become especially important.

  5. Posterior urethral valves: relationship between vesicoureteral reflux and renal function. (United States)

    Cozzi, Denis A; Morgante, Debora; Frediani, Simone; Iaconelli, Romina; Ceccanti, Silvia; Mele, Ermelinda; Cozzi, Francesco


    To investigate the relationship between renal function and vesicoureteral reflux before and after valve ablation in patients with posterior urethral valves. In these patients, back pressure may not be the only cause of renal damage. We conducted a retrospective review of 37 patients with valves consecutively treated between 1970 and 2002. Data were available for 31 patients, 19 of whom presented reflux at presentation. Grade of reflux was ascertained by voiding cystourethrography. Overall renal function was measured by serum creatinine, and split renal function was estimated by dimercaptosuccinic acid scan available for all patients but two. Before relief of obstruction, there was no correlation between split renal function and grade of reflux into 25 kidneys of the 17 patients (r = -.13; 95% CI, -.50 to .27; P = .51). High-grade reflux (grade IV-V) affected 6 of the 11 renal units, with split renal function >40% vs 11 of the 14 units with split renal function 40% vs 4 of the 14 units with split renal function <40% (P = .0005). The good renal function of more than half of the renal units with high-grade reflux at presentation, and the persistence of reflux mainly in nonfunctioning or poorly functioning kidneys after valve ablation, support the concept that in some patients with valves, reflux and renal damage are associated anomalies. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Integrative genome-wide gene expression profiling of clear cell renal cell carcinoma in Czech Republic and in the United States.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena B Wozniak

    Full Text Available Gene expression microarray and next generation sequencing efforts on conventional, clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC have been mostly performed in North American and Western European populations, while the highest incidence rates are found in Central/Eastern Europe. We conducted whole-genome expression profiling on 101 pairs of ccRCC tumours and adjacent non-tumour renal tissue from Czech patients recruited within the "K2 Study", using the Illumina HumanHT-12 v4 Expression BeadChips to explore the molecular variations underlying the biological and clinical heterogeneity of this cancer. Differential expression analysis identified 1650 significant probes (fold change ≥2 and false discovery rate <0.05 mapping to 630 up- and 720 down-regulated unique genes. We performed similar statistical analysis on the RNA sequencing data of 65 ccRCC cases from the Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA project and identified 60% (402 of the downregulated and 74% (469 of the upregulated genes found in the K2 series. The biological characterization of the significantly deregulated genes demonstrated involvement of downregulated genes in metabolic and catabolic processes, excretion, oxidation reduction, ion transport and response to chemical stimulus, while simultaneously upregulated genes were associated with immune and inflammatory responses, response to hypoxia, stress, wounding, vasculature development and cell activation. Furthermore, genome-wide DNA methylation analysis of 317 TCGA ccRCC/adjacent non-tumour renal tissue pairs indicated that deregulation of approximately 7% of genes could be explained by epigenetic changes. Finally, survival analysis conducted on 89 K2 and 464 TCGA cases identified 8 genes associated with differential prognostic outcomes. In conclusion, a large proportion of ccRCC molecular characteristics were common to the two populations and several may have clinical implications when validated further through large clinical cohorts.

  7. Renal failure (chronic)


    Clase, Catherine


    Chronic renal failure is characterised by a gradual and sustained decline in renal clearance or glomerular filtration rate (GFR). Continued progression of renal failure will lead to renal function too low to sustain healthy life. In developed countries, such people will be offered renal replacement therapy in the form of dialysis or renal transplantation. Requirement for dialysis or transplantation is termed end-stage renal disease (ESRD).Diabetes, glomerulonephritis, hypertension, pyelone...

  8. Is There Hope for Renal Growth on Imaging Studies Following Ureteral Reimplant for Boys With Fetal Hydronephrosis and Urinary Reflux?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Hsien Wang


    Full Text Available Reflux nephropathy is thought to be the etiology for renal maldevelopment. We present two boys with fetal hydronephrosis and sterile vesicoureteral reflux (VUR. There was lack of renal growth of the refluxing renal units on surveillance renal ultrasound. Parents elected to undergo open ureteral reimplants. Post-surgical ultrasounds demonstrated improved renal growth.

  9. Satellite Communications

    CERN Document Server

    Pelton, Joseph N


    The field of satellite communications represents the world's largest space industry. Those who are interested in space need to understand the fundamentals of satellite communications, its technology, operation, business, economic, and regulatory aspects. This book explains all this along with key insights into the field's future growth trends and current strategic challenges. Fundamentals of Satellite Communications is a concise book that gives all of the key facts and figures as well as a strategic view of where this dynamic industry is going. Author Joseph N. Pelton, PhD, former Dean of the International Space University and former Director of Strategic Policy at Intelstat, presents a r

  10. Can we routinely measure patient involvement in treatment decision-making in chronic kidney care? A service evaluation in 27 renal units in the UK. (United States)

    Durand, Marie-Anne; Bekker, Hilary L; Casula, Anna; Elias, Robert; Ferraro, Alastair; Lloyd, Amy; van der Veer, Sabine N; Metcalfe, Wendy; Mooney, Andrew; Thomson, Richard G; Tomson, Charles R V


    Shared decision making is considered an important aspect of chronic disease management. We explored the feasibility of routinely measuring kidney patients' involvement in making decisions about renal replacement therapy (RRT) in National Health Service settings. We disseminated a 17-item paper questionnaire on involvement in decision-making among adult patients with established kidney failure who made a decision about RRT in the previous 90 days (Phase 1) and patients who had been receiving RRT for 90-180 days (Phase 2). Recruitment rates were calculated as the ratio between the number of included and expected eligible patients (I : E ratio). We assessed our sample's representativeness by comparing demographics between participants and incident patients in the UK Renal Registry. Three hundred and five (Phase 1) and 187 (Phase 2) patients were included. For Phase 1, the I : E ratio was 0.44 (range, 0.08-2.80) compared with 0.27 (range, 0.04-1.05) in Phase 2. Study participants were more likely to be white compared with incident RRT patients (88 versus 77%; P measurement of patient involvement in established kidney disease treatment decisions is feasible, but there are challenges in selecting the measure needed to capture experience of involvement, reducing variation in response rate by service and identifying when to capture experience in a service managing people's chronic disease over time.

  11. Renale Osteopathie


    Horn S


    Die renale Osteopathie umfaßt Erkrankungen des Knochens, die bei Patienten mit chronischen Nierenerkrankungen auftreten, wie den sekundären bzw. tertiären Hyperparathyreoidismus, die adynamische Knochenerkrankung und die Osteopathie nach Nierentransplantation. Durch die Identifikation des Kalzium-Sensing-Rezeptors bzw. des Vitamin D-Rezeptors hat sich unser Verständnis der Zusammenhänge in den letzten Jahren erheblich verbessert. Neue Medikamente versprechen effizientere Prophylaxe- und Thera...

  12. Renale Knochenerkrankungen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayer G


    Full Text Available Störungen des Mineral- und Knochenstoffwechsels sind bei fast allen Patienten mit chronischen Nierenerkrankungen anzutreffen. Pathogenetisch spielt eine Neigung zur Phosphatretention bei einer Reduktion der glomerulären Filtrationsrate die zentrale Rolle. Neben typischen, aber sehr variablen Veränderungen der Knochenstruktur (renale Osteopathie besteht auch eine sehr enge Assoziation zwischen diesen Störungen und dem massiv erhöhten kardiovaskulären Risiko der Patienten.

  13. Satellite Geomagnetism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Nils; Stolle, Claudia


    Observations of Earth’s magnetic field from space began more than 50 years ago. A continuous monitoring of the field using low Earth orbit (LEO) satellites, however, started only in 1999, and three satellites have taken highprecision measurements of the geomagnetic field during the past decade...... ability to characterize and understand the many sources that contribute to Earth’s magnetic field. In this review, we summarize investigations of Earth’s interior and environment that have been possible through the analysis of high-precision magnetic field observations taken by LEO satellites........ The unprecedented time-space coverage of their data opened revolutionary new possibilities for monitoring, understanding, and exploring Earth’s magnetic field. In the near future, the three-satellite constellation Swarm will ensure continuity of such measurement and provide enhanced possibilities to improve our...

  14. Satellite (Natural) (United States)

    Murdin, P.


    In its most general sense, any celestial object in orbit around a similar larger object. Thus, for example, the Magellanic Clouds are satellite galaxies of our own Milky Way galaxy. Without qualification, the term is used to mean a body in orbit around a planet; an alternative term is moon. The term natural satellite distinguishes these bodies from artificial satellites—spacecraft placed in orbi...

  15. Obesity and renal hemodynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosma, R. J.; Krikken, J. A.; van der Heide, J. J. Homan; de Jong, P. E.; Navis, G. J.


    Obesity is a risk factor for renal damage in native kidney disease and in renal transplant recipients. Obesity is associated with several renal risk factors such as hypertension and diabetes that may convey renal risk, but obesity is also associated with an unfavorable renal hemodynamic profile

  16. Obesity and renal hemodynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosma, R. J.; Krikken, J. A.; van der Heide, J. J. Homan; de Jong, P. E.; Navis, G. J.


    Obesity is a risk factor for renal damage in native kidney disease and in renal transplant recipients. Obesity is associated with several renal risk factors such as hypertension and diabetes that may convey renal risk, but obesity is also associated with an unfavorable renal hemodynamic profile inde

  17. Geostatistics and remote sensing as predictive tools of tick distribution: a cokriging system to estimate Ixodes scapularis (Acari: Ixodidae) habitat suitability in the United States and Canada from advanced very high resolution radiometer satellite imagery. (United States)

    Estrada-Peña, A


    Geostatistics (cokriging) was used to model the cross-correlated information between satellite-derived vegetation and climate variables and the distribution of the tick Ixodes scapularis (Say) in the Nearctic. Output was used to map the habitat suitability for I. scapularis on a continental scale. A data base of the localities where I. scapularis was collected in the United States and Canada was developed from a total of 346 published and geocoded records. This data base was cross-correlated with satellite pictures from the advanced very high resolution radiometer sensor obtained from 1984 to 1994 on the Nearctic at 10-d intervals, with a resolution of 8 km per pixel. Eight climate and vegetation variables were tabulated from this imagery. A cokriging system was generated to exploit satellite-derived data and to estimate the distribution of I. scapularis. Results obtained using 2 vegetation (standard NDVI) and 4 temperature variables closely agreed with actual records of the tick, with a sensitivity of 0.97 and a specificity of 0.89, with 6 and 4% of false-positive and false-negative sites, respectively. Such statistical analysis can be used to guide field work toward the correct interpretation of the distribution limits of I. scapularis and can also be used to make predictions about the impact of global change on tick range.

  18. [Cyclosporin A: experience of the Renal Transplant Unit of the Clinical Hospital of the Medical College of the University of Sao Paulo]. (United States)

    Ianhez, L E; Chocair, P R; Fonseca, J A; Azevedo, L S; de Paula, F J; David Neto, E; Romão Júnior, J E; Galvão, M M; de Castro, M C; Arap, S


    The authors report their experience using cyclosporine-A (CsA) in renal transplant patients. When compared with azathioprine/prednisone, CsA contributed significantly to a better graft and patient survival, either if used associated with prednisone of with azathioprine plus prednisone. CsA was also used in substitution to azathioprine in patients with hepatopathy attributed to azathioprine toxicity. The initial results are promising. The association of CsA and azathioprine with corticosteroids withdrawal was used as an attempt to allow normal growth in children. This seems to be the best choice of treatment for children. Careful monitoring of CsA blood levels avoids, or at least, minimizes nephrotoxicity. To achieve therapeutic CsA levels, patients with liver damage need lower, while children need higher oral CsA doses. To summarise: when CsA in carefully used, it is an excellent immunosuppressive drug.

  19. Bilateral Renal Mass-Renal Disorder: Tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozlem Tiryaki


    Full Text Available A 30-year-old woman has presented complaining of weakness and fatigue to her primary care physician. The renal sonography is a routine step in the evaluation of new onset renal failure. When the renal masses have been discovered by sonography in this setting, the functional imaging may be critical. We reported a case about bilateral renal masses in a young female patient with tuberculosis and renal insufficiency. Magnetic resonance (MR has revealed the bilateral renal masses in patient, and this patient has been referred to our hospital for further management. The patient’s past medical and surgical history was unremarkable.

  20. Distal renal tubular acidosis (United States)

    Renal tubular acidosis - distal; Renal tubular acidosis type I; Type I RTA; RTA - distal; Classical RTA ... excreting it into the urine. Distal renal tubular acidosis (Type I RTA) is caused by a defect ...

  1. Proximal renal tubular acidosis (United States)

    Renal tubular acidosis - proximal; Type II RTA; RTA - proximal; Renal tubular acidosis type II ... by alkaline substances, mainly bicarbonate. Proximal renal tubular acidosis (Type II RTA) occurs when bicarbonate is not ...

  2. Direct Broadcast Satellite: Radio Program (United States)

    Hollansworth, James E.


    NASA is committed to providing technology development that leads to the introduction of new commercial applications for communications satellites. The Direct Broadcast Satellite-Radio (DBS-R) Program is a joint effort between The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and The United States Information Agency/Voice of America (USIA/VOA) directed at this objective. The purpose of this program is to define the service and develop the technology for a direct-to-listener satellite sound broadcasting system. The DBS-R Program, as structured by NASA and VOA, is now a three-phase program designed to help the U.S. commercial communications satellite and receiver industry bring about this new communications service. Major efforts are being directed towards frequency planning hardware and service development, service demonstration, and experimentation with new satellite and receiver technology.

  3. Renal tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Džamić Zoran


    Full Text Available Tuberculosis is still a significant health problem in the world, mostly in developing countries. The special significance lies in immunocompromised patients, particularly those suffering from the HIV. Urogenital tuberculosis is one of the most common forms of extrapulmonary tuberculosis, while the most commonly involved organ is the kidney. Renal tuberculosis occurs by hematogenous dissemination of mycobacterium tuberculosis from a primary tuberculosis foci in the body. Tuberculosis is characterized by the formation of pathognomonic lesions in the tissues - granulomata. These granulomata may heal spontaneously or remain stable for years. In certain circumstances in the body associated with immunosuppression, the disease may be activated. Central caseous necrosis occurs within tuberculoma, leading to formation of cavities that destroy renal parenchyma. The process may gain access to the collecting system, forming the caverns. In this way, infection can be spread distally to renal pelvis, ureter and bladder. Scaring of tissue by tuberculosis process may lead to development of strictures of the urinary tract. The clinical manifestations are presented by nonspecific symptoms and signs, so tuberculosis can often be overlooked. Sterile pyuria is characteristic for urinary tuberculosis. Dysuric complaints, flank pain or hematuria may be presented in patients. Constitutional symptoms of fever, weight loss and night sweats are presented in some severe cases. Diagnosis is made by isolation of mycobacterium tuberculosis in urine samples, by cultures carried out on standard solid media optimized for mycobacterial growth. Different imaging studies are used in diagnostics - IVU, CT and NMR are the most important. Medical therapy is the main modality of tuberculosis treatment. The first line anti-tuberculosis drugs include isoniazid, rifampicin, pyrazinamide and ethambutol. Surgical treatment is required in some cases, to remove severely damaged kidney, if

  4. Renale Osteopathie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horn S


    Full Text Available Die renale Osteopathie umfaßt Erkrankungen des Knochens, die bei Patienten mit chronischen Nierenerkrankungen auftreten, wie den sekundären bzw. tertiären Hyperparathyreoidismus, die adynamische Knochenerkrankung und die Osteopathie nach Nierentransplantation. Durch die Identifikation des Kalzium-Sensing-Rezeptors bzw. des Vitamin D-Rezeptors hat sich unser Verständnis der Zusammenhänge in den letzten Jahren erheblich verbessert. Neue Medikamente versprechen effizientere Prophylaxe- und Therapiemöglichkeiten. Wir beeinflussen dadurch nicht nur die Morbidität und Lebensqualität, sondern auch die Mortalität unserer Patienten.

  5. Renal disease in pregnancy. (United States)

    Thorsen, Martha S; Poole, Judith H


    Anatomic and physiologic adaptations within the renal system during pregnancy are significant. Alterations are seen in renal blood flow and glomerular filtration, resulting in changes in normal renal laboratory values. When these normal renal adaptations are coupled with pregnancy-induced complications or preexisting renal dysfunction, the woman may demonstrate a reduction of renal function leading to an increased risk of perinatal morbidity and mortality. This article will review normal pregnancy adaptations of the renal system and discuss common pregnancy-related renal complications.

  6. women Contrlbute to Satellite Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    IN the early morning of August 14, 1992, at the Xichang satellite launching center, China Central Television Station was about to do a live, worldwide broadcast on the launching of an Australian communications satellite made by the United States. With the order of the commander, "Ignition," people could watch the white rocket rise, pierce the blue sky and race toward the space with a long flaming tail trailing behind it.

  7. Scientific Satellites (United States)


    followed Hale’s into orbit. In 1879, Jules Verne wrote about launching small satellites with a gun possessing a muzzle velocity of 10 000 m/sec (ref. 3...was activated in 1950.11 It was located only a few tens of miles from the spot where Jules Verne had his Baltimore Gun Club fire a manned projectile to...principle, satellites can be launched by a single impulse applied at the Earth’s surface-say, with a large cannon, & la Jules Verne (sec. 8-3). In

  8. Renal artery injury during robot-assisted renal surgery. (United States)

    Lee, Jae Won; Yoon, Young Eun; Kim, Dae Keun; Park, Sung Yul; Moon, Hong Sang; Lee, Tchun Yong


    Laparoscopic partial nephrectomy (LPN) is becoming the standard of care for incidentally diagnosed, small renal tumors. With its seven degrees of freedom and three-dimensional vision, the DaVinci robotic surgical system has been used to assist in LPNs. The main disadvantage of robot-assisted surgery, however, is the lack of tactile feedback. We present a case of renal artery injury during robot-assisted renal surgery. Robot-assisted partial nephrectomy (RPN) was planned for 47-year-old man with a 3.5-cm right renal mass. After standard bowel mobilization, renal hilar dissection was performed. In the attempt to complete the dissection posteriorly, however, there was sudden profuse bleeding. The intraperitoneal pressure immediately increased to 20 mm Hg, and an additional suction device was inserted through the 5-mm liver retractor port. On inspection, there was an injury at the takeoff of the posterior segmental artery. A decision was made to convert to robot-assisted laparoscopic radical nephrectomy. The main renal artery and renal vein were controlled with Hem-o-Lok clips. The estimated blood loss was 2,000 mL. Four units of packed red blood cells were transfused intraoperatively. The post-transfusion hemoglobin level was 12.6 g/dL. There were no other perioperative complications. The surgeon should keep in mind that the robotic arms are very powerful and can easily injure major vessels because of lack of tactile feedback. A competent and experienced tableside surgeon is very important in robot-assisted surgery because the unsterile console surgeon cannot immediately react to intraoperative complications.

  9. Renal calculus

    CERN Document Server

    Pyrah, Leslie N


    Stone in the urinary tract has fascinated the medical profession from the earliest times and has played an important part in the development of surgery. The earliest major planned operations were for the removal of vesical calculus; renal and ureteric calculi provided the first stimulus for the radiological investigation of the viscera, and the biochemical investigation of the causes of calculus formation has been the training ground for surgeons interested in metabolic disorders. It is therefore no surprise that stone has been the subject of a number of monographs by eminent urologists, but the rapid development of knowledge has made it possible for each one of these authors to produce something new. There is still a technical challenge to the surgeon in the removal of renal calculi, and on this topic we are always glad to have the advice of a master craftsman; but inevitably much of the interest centres on the elucidation of the causes of stone formation and its prevention. Professor Pyrah has had a long an...

  10. Instrument-independent flux units for laser Doppler perfusion monitoring assessed in a multi-device study on the renal cortex

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Petoukhova, AL; Steenbergen, W; Morales, F; Graaff, R; de Jong, ED; Elstrodt, JM; de Mul, FFM; Rakhorst, G


    To investigate the feasibility of instrument-independent perfusion units for laser Doppler flowmetry, a comparison was performed of two commercial fiberoptic laser Doppler perfusion monitors measuring the same flux situation for two different types of probes. In vivo measurements were performed on t

  11. Post-renal acute renal failure due to a huge bladder stone. (United States)

    Celik, Orcun; Suelozgen, Tufan; Budak, Salih; Ilbey, Yusuf Ozlem


    A 63-year old male was referred to our emergency unit due to acute renal failure. The level of serum renal function tests levels, blood urea nitrogen (BUN)/creatinine, were 63 mmol/L/848 μmol/L. CT (Computarised Tomography) scan showed a huge bladder stone (5 cm x 6 cm x 5 cm) with increased bladder wall thickness. Post-renal acute renal failure due to bilateral ureterohydronephrosis was diagnosed. The huge bladder stone was considered to be the cause of ureterohydronephrosis and renal failure. The patient was catheterised and received haemodialysis immediately. He received haemodialysis four times during ten days of hospitalization and the level of serum renal function tests levels (BUN/ creatinine) decreased 18 mmol/L/123 μmol/L. After improvement of renal function, we performed cystoscopy that demonstrated normal prostatic urethra and bladder neck and bilaterally normal ureteral orifices. Bladder wall was roughly trabeculated and Bladder outlet was completely obstructed by a huge bladder stone. After cystoscopy open, cystolithotomy was performed to remove calcium phosphate and magnesium ammonium phosphate stone weighing 200 g removed. Four days after operation the patient was discharged uneventfully and urethral catheter was removed on the seventh day. Post-renal acute renal failure due to large bladder stones is rare in literature. According to the our knowledge; early diagnosis of the stone avoid growth to large size and prevent renal failure.

  12. Renal actinomycosis with concomitant renal vein thrombosis. (United States)

    Chang, Dong-Suk; Jang, Won Ik; Jung, Ji Yoon; Chung, Sarah; Choi, Dae Eun; Na, Ki-Ryang; Lee, Kang Wook; Shin, Yong-Tai


    Renal actinomycosis is a rare infection caused by fungi of the genus Actinomyces. A 74-year-old male was admitted to our hospital because of gross hematuria with urinary symptoms and intermittent chills. Computed tomography of the abdomen showed thrombosis in the left renal vein and diffuse, heterogeneous enlargement of the left kidney. After nephrectomy, sulfur granules with chronic suppurative inflammation were seen microscopically, and the histopathological diagnosis was renal actinomycosis. Our case is the first report of renal actinomycosis with renal vein thrombosis.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soraia Geraldo Rozza Lopes


    Full Text Available El objetivo del estudio fue comprender el significado de espera del trasplante renal para las mujeres en hemodiálisis. Se trata de un estudio cualitativo-interpretativo, realizado con 12 mujeres en hemodiálisis en Florianópolis. Los datos fueron recolectados a través de entrevistas en profundidad en el domicilio. Fue utilizado el software Etnografh 6.0 para la pre-codificación y posterior al análisis interpretativo emergieron dos categorías: “las sombras del momento actual”, que mostró que las dificultades iniciales de la enfermedad están presentes, pero las mujeres pueden hacer frente mejor a la enfermedad y el tratamiento. La segunda categoría, “la luz del trasplante renal”, muestra la esperanza impulsada por la entrada en la lista de espera para un trasplante.

  14. Renal failure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    930564 Dwell times affect the local host de-fence mechanism of peritoneal dialysis patients.WANG Tao(汪涛),et al.Renal Instit,SunYatsen Med Univ,Guangzhou,510080.Chin JNephrol 1993;9(2):75—77.The effect of different intraperitoneal awelltimes on the local host defence in 6 peritonealdialysis patients was studied.A significant de-crease in the number of peritoneal cells,IgG con-centration and the phagoeytosis and bactericidalactivity of macrophages was determined when thedwell time decreased from 12 to 4 hs or form 4 to0.5hs,but the peroxidase activity in macrophagesincreased significantly.All variables,except theperoxidase activity in macrophages,showed nosignificant difference between patients of high or

  15. Traumatismo renal


    Rocha, Sofia Rosa Moura Gomes da


    Introdução: A realização deste trabalho visa a elaboração de uma revisão sistematizada subordinada à temática da traumatologia renal. Objectivos: Os principais objectivos deste trabalho são: apurar a etiologia, definir a classificação, analisar o diagnóstico e expôr o tratamento e as complicações. Desenvolvimento: Os traumatismos são a principal causa de morte antes dos 40 anos. O rim é o órgão do aparelho génito-urinário mais frequentemente atingido. Os traumatismos renais são mais fre...

  16. Sociodemographic and Geographic Predictors of Quality of Care in United States Patients With End-Stage Renal Disease Due to Lupus Nephritis (United States)

    Plantinga, Laura C.; Drenkard, Cristina; Patzer, Rachel E.; Klein, Mitchel; Kramer, Michael R.; Pastan, Stephen; Lim, S. Sam; McClellan, William M.


    Objective To describe end-stage renal disease (ESRD) quality of care (receipt of pre-ESRD nephrology care, access to kidney transplantation, and placement of permanent vascular access for dialysis) in US patients with ESRD due to lupus nephritis (LN-ESRD) and to examine whether quality measures differ by patient sociodemographic characteristics or US region. Methods National surveillance data on patients in the US in whom treatment for LN-ESRD was initiated between July 2005 and September 2011 (n = 6,594) were analyzed. Odds ratios (ORs) and hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were determined for each quality measure, according to sociodemographic factors and US region. Results Overall, 71% of the patients received nephrology care prior to ESRD. Black and Hispanic patients were less likely than white patients to receive pre-ESRD care (OR 0.73 [95% CI 0.63–0.85] and OR 0.73 [95% CI 0.60–0.88], respectively) and to be placed on the kidney transplant waitlist within the first year after the start of ESRD (HR 0.78 [95% CI 0.68–0.91] and HR 0.82 [95% CI 0.68–0.98], respectively). Those with Medicaid (HR 0.51 [95% CI 0.44–0.58]) or no insurance (HR 0.36 [95% CI 0.29–0.44]) were less likely than those with private insurance to be placed on the waitlist. Only 24% had a permanent vascular access, and placement was even less likely among the uninsured (OR 0.62 [95% CI 0.49–0.79]). ESRD quality-of-care measures varied 2–3-fold across regions of the US, with patients in the Northeast and Northwest generally having higher probabilities of adequate care. Conclusion LN-ESRD patients have suboptimal ESRD care, particularly with regard to placement of dialysis vascular access. Minority race/ethnicity and lack of private insurance are associated with inadequate ESRD care. Further studies are warranted to examine multilevel barriers to, and develop targeted interventions to improve delivery of, care among patients with LN-ESRD. PMID:25692867

  17. Levamisole-Induced Vasculitis with Renal Involvement. (United States)

    Chawdhary, Karan; Parke, Ann


    A significant amount of cocaine used in the United States today is adulterated with levamisole. In some instances, prolonged use of contaminated cocaine is associated with the development of levamisole-induced vasculitis (LIV) with features of cutaneous vasculitis and agranulocytosis along with other constitutional symptoms and arthritis. We describe a case of a crack cocaine user with LIV, who developed significant renal disease secondary to crescentic glomerulonephritis, confirmed on renal biopsy. Renal vasculitis is an uncommon feature of LIV and significantly affects clinical course and management.

  18. Scope of practice in renal nutrition. (United States)

    Byham-Gray, Laura D; Wiesen, Karen; Goode, Jill


    Clinical standards for practice in renal nutrition can vary dramatically from region to region, state to state, and clinic to clinic, and are greatly affected by the policies of several governing bodies. This review explores the factors that influence practice patterns among renal dietitians and examines the current American Dietetic Association's Scope of Dietetics Practice Framework for its applicability to kidney disease. Lastly, this article discusses current strategies for establishing a scope of practice in renal nutrition and evaluates licensure and credentialing issues that impact standards for practice across the various regions of the United States.

  19. C2 of Next-Generation Satellites (United States)


    consortia that own and operate satellites – not to mention the plethora of commercial and academic satellite operators. 2 As a result of their...60 nations mentioned earlier that currently operate satellites rely on their own national aerospace industries to do so. Although the United States...among industry has also increased, as space-enabled services have become commercially available. However, an encouraging step on this issue was taken

  20. Methods of practice and guidelines for using survey-grade global navigation satellite systems (GNSS) to establish vertical datum in the United States Geological Survey (United States)

    Rydlund, Paul H.; Densmore, Brenda K.


    Geodetic surveys have evolved through the years to the use of survey-grade (centimeter level) global positioning to perpetuate and post-process vertical datum. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) uses Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) technology to monitor natural hazards, ensure geospatial control for climate and land use change, and gather data necessary for investigative studies related to water, the environment, energy, and ecosystems. Vertical datum is fundamental to a variety of these integrated earth sciences. Essentially GNSS surveys provide a three-dimensional position x, y, and z as a function of the North American Datum of 1983 ellipsoid and the most current hybrid geoid model. A GNSS survey may be approached with post-processed positioning for static observations related to a single point or network, or involve real-time corrections to provide positioning "on-the-fly." Field equipment required to facilitate GNSS surveys range from a single receiver, with a power source for static positioning, to an additional receiver or network communicated by radio or cellular for real-time positioning. A real-time approach in its most common form may be described as a roving receiver augmented by a single-base station receiver, known as a single-base real-time (RT) survey. More efficient real-time methods involving a Real-Time Network (RTN) permit the use of only one roving receiver that is augmented to a network of fixed receivers commonly known as Continually Operating Reference Stations (CORS). A post-processed approach in its most common form involves static data collection at a single point. Data are most commonly post-processed through a universally accepted utility maintained by the National Geodetic Survey (NGS), known as the Online Position User Service (OPUS). More complex post-processed methods involve static observations among a network of additional receivers collecting static data at known benchmarks. Both classifications provide users

  1. Renal Dialysis and its Financing. (United States)

    Borelli, Marisa; Paul, David P; Skiba, Michaeline


    The incidence of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and its associated comorbidities such as diabetes and hypertension continue to increase as the population ages. As most ESRD patients qualify for Medicare coverage, the U.S. government initiated reforms of the payment system for dialysis facilities in an effort to decrease expenditures associated with ESRD reimbursement. The effects of reduced reimbursement rates, bundled payment options, and quality incentives on the current dialysis system, including kidney dialysis units, physicians, and patients, are examined.

  2. Evolução clínica de pacientes com insuficiência renal aguda em unidade de terapia intensiva Evolución clínica de pacientes con insuficiencia renal aguda en la unidad de cuidados intensivos The clinical outcome of patients with acute renal failure in intensive care unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucienne Dalla Bernardina


    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a evolução clínica de pacientes com insuficiência renal aguda (IRA submetidos a tratamento dialítico e não-dialítico na UTI. MÉTODOS: Estudo prospectivo onde foram incluídos pacientes com idade maior que 18 anos e com creatinina sérica > 1,5 mg/dl. Os pacientes foram divididos em grupo dialítico e não-dialítico. RESULTADOS: Dos 70 pacientes incluídos 19 (27,1% foram do grupo dialítico e 51 (72,9% do grupo não-dialítico. A taxa de mortalidade foi de 42,1% no grupo dialítico e de 33,3% no grupo não-dialítico (pOBJETIVO: Evaluar la evolución clínica de pacientes con insuficiencia renal aguda (IRA sometidos a tratamiento dialítico y no-dialítico en la UCI. MÉTODOS: Se trata de un estudio prospectivo donde fueron incluídos pacientes mayores de 18 años y con creatinina sérica > 1,5 mg/dl. Los pacientes fueron divididos en grupo dialítico y no-dialítico. RESULTADOS: De los 70 pacientes incluídos 19 (27,1% fueron del grupo dialítico y 51 (72,9% del grupo no-dialítico. La tasa de mortalidad fue del 42,1% en el grupo dialítico y del 33,3% en el grupo no-dialítico (pOBJECTIVE:To evaluate the clinical outcome of acute renal failure (ARF patients when submitted to dialysis and non-dialysis treatments in ICU. METHODS: this prospective study included patients over 18 years of age and serum creatinine of >1.5 mg/dl. The patients were included in dialysis and non-dialysis groups. RESULTS: The study included 70 patients, 19 (27.1% comprised the dialysis group and 51 (72.9% the non-dialysis group. In the dialysis group, mortality rate was 42.1% and in the non-dialysis group was 33.3% (p<0.58. CONCLUSION: There were multifactors of ARF in ICU, but ARF is not the single cause for the high mortality rate in ICU patients.

  3. Ultrasound scan in the diagnosis of neonatal renal candidiasis; Ecografia en el diagnostico de la candidiasis renal neonatal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muro, D.; Sanguesa, C.; Torres, D.; Berbel, O.; Andres, V. [Hospital Infantil La Fe. Valencia (Spain)


    To describe the most pertinent echographic findings regarding systemic and renal candidiasis in high-risk neonates. Echographic findings and clinical histories of 40 neonates in the neonatal intensive care unit were retrospectively analyzed. Thirty-eight presented systemic candidiasis with renal participation, while two showed only renal candidiasis. Ultrasound scans were performed using 7.5 MHz probes. Alterations in renal echo structure, presence of echogenic material without acoustic shadowing in the excretory system (mycetoma), presence of lithiasis, pyonephrosis and associated renal malformations were all evaluated. Ten patients presented renal alterations in ultrasound scan. Six children had originally shown increased eye-catching in the renal parenchyma which was resolved after medical treatment. Four children presented renal mycetoma, and in two there were renal malformations. Both of these exhibited a profile for pyonephrosis. One patient with renal mycetoma without urological abnormalities developed a lithiasis. Surgical intervention was unnecessary in all cases. The most common echographic findings in immature high-risk low-weight patients with systemic and renal candidiasis were alterations in the eye-catching of renal parenchyma and the presence of mycetoma. (Author) 22 refs.

  4. Water Quality Monitoring by Satellite (United States)

    Journal of Chemical Education, 2004


    The availability of abundant water resources in the Upper Midwest of the United States is nullified by their contamination through heavy commercial and industrial activities. Scientists have taken the responsibility of detecting the water quality of these resources through remote-sensing satellites to develop a wide-ranging water purification plan…

  5. Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) Film (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The United States Air Force Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) Operational Linescan System (OLS) is a polar orbiting meteorological sensor with two...

  6. Tactical Satellite 3 (United States)

    Davis, T. M.; Straight, S. D.; Lockwook, R. B.


    Tactical Satellite 3 is an Air Force Research Laboratory Science and Technology (S&T) initiative that explores the capability and technological maturity of small, low-cost satellites. It features a low cost "plug and play" modular bus and low cost militarily significant payloads - a Raytheon developed Hyperspectral imager and secondary payload data exfiltration provided by the Office of Naval Research. In addition to providing for ongoing innovation and demonstration in this important technology area, these S&T efforts also help mitigate technology risk and establish a potential concept of operations for future acquisitions. The key objectives are rapid launch and on-orbit checkout, theater commanding, and near-real time theater data integration. It will also feature a rapid development of the space vehicle and integrated payload and spacecraft bus by using components and processes developed by the satellite modular bus initiative. Planned for a late summer 2008 launch, the TacSat-3 spacecraft will collect and process images and then downlink processed data using a Common Data Link. An in-theater tactical ground station will have the capability to uplink tasking to spacecraft and will receive full data image. An international program, the United Kingdom Defence Science and Technology Laboratory (DSTL) and Australian Defence Science and Technology Organisation (DSTO) plan to participate in TacSat-3 experiments.

  7. Kidney (Renal) Failure (United States)

    ... How is kidney failure treated? What is kidney (renal) failure? The kidneys are designed to maintain proper fluid ... marrow and strengthen the bones. The term kidney (renal) failure describes a situation in which the kidneys have ...

  8. Renal arteries (image) (United States)

    A renal angiogram is a test used to examine the blood vessels of the kidneys. The test is performed ... main vessel of the pelvis, up to the renal artery that leads into the kidney. Contrast medium ...

  9. Integration of mobile satellite and cellular systems (United States)

    Drucker, Elliott H.; Estabrook, Polly; Pinck, Deborah; Ekroot, Laura


    By integrating the ground based infrastructure component of a mobile satellite system with the infrastructure systems of terrestrial 800 MHz cellular service providers, a seamless network of universal coverage can be established. Users equipped for both cellular and satellite service can take advantage of a number of features made possible by such integration, including seamless handoff and universal roaming. To provide maximum benefit at lowest posible cost, the means by which these systems are integrated must be carefully considered. Mobile satellite hub stations must be configured to efficiently interface with cellular Mobile Telephone Switching Offices (MTSO's), and cost effective mobile units that provide both cellular and satellite capability must be developed.

  10. Successful renal transplantation after recovery from acute disseminated encephalomyelitis in a child with end-stage renal disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhosale Guruprasad


    Full Text Available Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM, seen mostly in children, is an acute demyelinating disease, affecting mainly the white matter of brain and spinal cord. We report an unusual case of ADEM in an 11-year old boy with end-stage renal disease, who underwent hemopoietic stem cell transplantation prior to renal transplantation. He needed admission to the intensive care unit and required mechanical ventilation. He responded to intravenous injection of steroids and upon recovery, underwent renal transplantation successfully.

  11. Renal parenchyma thickness: a rapid estimation of renal function on computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaplon, Daniel M.; Lasser, Michael S.; Sigman, Mark; Haleblian, George E.; Pareek, Gyan [The Warren Alpert School of Medicine of Brown University, Providence, RI (United States). Dept. pf Surgery. Section of Minimally Invasive Urologic Surgery], e-mail:


    Purpose: To define the relationship between renal parenchyma thickness (RPT) on computed tomography and renal function on nuclear renography in chronically obstructed renal units (ORUs) and to define a minimal thickness ratio associated with adequate function. Materials and Methods: Twenty-eight consecutive patients undergoing both nuclear renography and CT during a six-month period between 2004 and 2006 were included. All patients that had a diagnosis of unilateral obstruction were included for analysis. RPT was measured in the following manner: The parenchyma thickness at three discrete levels of each kidney was measured using calipers on a CT workstation. The mean of these three measurements was defined as RPT. The renal parenchyma thickness ratio of the ORUs and non-obstructed renal unit (NORUs) was calculated and this was compared to the observed function on Mag-3 lasix Renogram. Results: A total of 28 patients were evaluated. Mean parenchyma thickness was 1.82 cm and 2.25 cm in the ORUs and NORUs, respectively. The mean relative renal function of ORUs was 39%. Linear regression analysis comparing renogram function to RPT ratio revealed a correlation coefficient of 0.48 (p < 0.001). The linear regression equation was computed as Renal Function = 0.48 + 0.80{sup *} RPT ratio. A thickness ratio of 0.68 correlated with 20% renal function. Conclusion: RPT on computed tomography appears to be a powerful predictor of relative renal function in ORUs. Assessment of RPT is a useful and readily available clinical tool for surgical decision making (renal salvage therapy versus nephrectomy) in patients with ORUs. (author)

  12. Renal parenchyma thickness: a rapid estimation of renal function on computed tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel M. Kaplon


    Full Text Available Purpose: To define the relationship between renal parenchyma thickness (RPT on computed tomography and renal function on nuclear renography in chronically obstructed renal units (ORUs and to define a minimal thickness ratio associated with adequate function. Materials and Methods: Twenty-eight consecutive patients undergoing both nuclear renography and CT during a six-month period between 2004 and 2006 were included. All patients that had a diagnosis of unilateral obstruction were included for analysis. RPT was measured in the following manner: The parenchyma thickness at three discrete levels of each kidney was measured using calipers on a CT workstation. The mean of these three measurements was defined as RPT. The renal parenchyma thickness ratio of the ORUs and non-obstructed renal unit (NORUs was calculated and this was compared to the observed function on Mag-3 lasix Renogram. Results: A total of 28 patients were evaluated. Mean parenchyma thickness was 1.82 cm and 2.25 cm in the ORUs and NORUs, respectively. The mean relative renal function of ORUs was 39%. Linear regression analysis comparing renogram function to RPT ratio revealed a correlation coefficient of 0.48 (p < 0.001. The linear regression equation was computed as Renal Function = 0.48 + 0.80 * RPT ratio. A thickness ratio of 0.68 correlated with 20% renal function. Conclusion: RPT on computed tomography appears to be a powerful predictor of relative renal function in ORUs. Assessment of RPT is a useful and readily available clinical tool for surgical decision making (renal salvage therapy versus nephrectomy in patients with ORUs.

  13. [Renal leiomyoma. Case report]. (United States)

    Joual, A; Guessous, H; Rabii, R; Benjelloun, M; Benlemlih, A; Skali, K; el Mrini, M; Benjelloun, S


    The authors report a case of renal leiomyoma observed in a 56-year-old man. This cyst presented in the from of loin pain. Computed tomography revealed a homogeneous renal tumor. Treatment consisted of radical nephrectomy. Histological examination of the specimen showed benign renal leiomyoma.

  14. Renal inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heerwagen, S T; Jensen, C; Bagi, P


    Renal inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor (IMT) is a rare soft-tissue tumor of controversial etiology with a potential for local recurrence after incomplete surgical resection. The radiological findings in renal IMT are not well described. We report two cases in adults with a renal mass treated...

  15. 7 CFR 611.22 - Availability of satellite imagery. (United States)


    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Availability of satellite imagery. 611.22 Section 611... § 611.22 Availability of satellite imagery. Cloud-free maps of the United States based on imagery received from a satellite are prepared and released to the pubic by NRCS. The maps offer the first image...

  16. Legionnaires' disease in the renal transplant unit of "Hospital das Clinicas, FMUSP": during a five year period (1988-1993 Doença dos legionários na Unidade de Transplante Renal (UTR do Hospital das Clínicas FMUSP, no período de 1988 a 1993

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neusa Augusta de Oliveira Mazieri


    Full Text Available Several reports have related Legionella pneumophila with pneumonia in renal transplant patients, however this association has not been systematically documented in Brazil. Therefore this paper reports the incidence, by serologycal assays, of Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 in these patients during a five year period. For this purpose sera from blood samples of 70 hospitalized patients with pneumonia from the Renal Transplant Unit of Hospital das Clinicas, FMUSP collected at the acute and convalescent phase of infection were submitted to indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA to demonstrate anti-Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 antibodies. Of these 70 patients studied during the period of 1988 to 1993,18 (25.71 % had significant rises in specific antibody titers for Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1. Incidence was interrupted following Hospital water decontamination procedures, with recurrence of infections after treatment interruption. In this study, the high susceptibility (25.71% of immunodepressed renal transplant patients to Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 nosocomial infections is documented. The importance of the implementation and maintenance of water decontamination measures for prophylaxis of the infection is also clearly evident.Embora vários trabalhos tem mostrado a presença de Legionella pneumophila associado a pneumopatias infecciosas em transplantados renais, tal associação não fora antes realizado de maneira sistemática no Brasil. Os autores julgaram oportuno a determinação da incidência por comprovação sorológica da Legionella pneumophila sorogrupo 1 em transplantados renais num período de 5 anos. Para tanto amostras de soros de 70 pacientes com pneumopatia infecciosa internados na UTR do HC-FMUSP, colhidos na fase aguda e convalescente da infecção, foram submetidas à reação de imunofluo-rescência indireta para pesquisa de anticorpos anti-Legionella pneumophila sorogrupo 1. Dos 70 pacientes

  17. Evaluation of Renal Histopathological Changes, as a Predictor of Recoverability of Renal Function Following Pyeloplasty for Ureteropelvic Junction Obstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Background Pyeloplasty is a widely accepted treatment for ureteropelvic junction obstruction (UPJO. However, the renal function recoverability after pyeloplasty is still a matter of debate. Different parameters have been used to predict renal functional recoverability after corrective surgery, with conflicting results. Objectives In this study, renal biopsy was carried on a series of cases of UPJO, during pyeloplasty, to study the extent of histological alterations in renal parenchyma, as a result of obstruction, and its predictive value in renal function recoverability after pyeloplasty. Patients and Methods We retrospectively analyzed the renal biopsy obtained during pyeloplasty in 53 adult patients. Histopathological changes were graded on a scale of 1 to 3, according to their severity, and compared with the differential renal function (DRF revealed on the preoperative and postoperative follow up diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA renal scan. A Fischer’s t test was used to evaluate statistical differences between values. Results This study showed a linear relationship between the severity of histological changes and renal function recovery, after pyeloplasty. Out of 24 obstructed renal units (ORU, with minimal histopathological changes (grade I, 21 ORU (87.5%, with > 35% DRF preoperatively, showed significant improvement in renal function after 12 months of pyeloplasty (P 0.05. Renal function deterioration after pyeloplasty was not observed in any of the cases. Conclusions The severity of pathological changes in renal parenchyma, due to UPJO, is a good predictor of renal function recoverability, after pyeloplasty. The ORUs, with DRF > 35%, usually have normal (grade I renal biopsy and might be expected to present better functional recoverability after pyeloplasty.

  18. Geostationary Satellite (GOES) Images (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Visible and Infrared satellite imagery taken from radiometer instruments on SMS (ATS) and GOES satellites in geostationary orbit. These satellites produced...

  19. Recupero della funzione renale in pazienti con acute kidney injury (AKI) sottoposti a terapia sostitutiva renale


    Cibelli, Loredana


    L’insufficienza renale acuta(AKI) grave che richiede terapia sostitutiva, è una complicanza frequente nelle unità di terapia intensiva(UTI) e rappresenta un fattore di rischio indipendente di mortalità. Scopo dello studio é stato valutare prospetticamente, in pazienti “critici” sottoposti a terapie sostitutive renali continue(CRRT) per IRA post cardiochirurgia, la prevalenza ed il significato prognostico del recupero della funzione renale(RFR). Pazienti e Metodi:Pazienti(pz) con AKI dopo ...

  20. Postpartum renal vein thrombosis. (United States)

    Rubens, D; Sterns, R H; Segal, A J


    Renal vein thrombosis in adults is usually a complication of the nephrotic syndrome. Rarely, it has been reported in nonnephrotic women postpartum. The thrombosis may be a complication of the hypercoagulable state associated with both the nephrotic syndrome and pregnancy. Two postpartum patients with renal vein thrombosis and no prior history of renal disease are reported here. Neither patient had heavy proteinuria. In both cases, pyelonephritis was suspected clinically and the diagnosis of renal vein thrombosis was first suggested and confirmed by radiologic examination. Renal vein thrombosis should be considered in women presenting postpartum with flank pain.

  1. Renal infarction resulting from traumatic renal artery dissection. (United States)

    Kang, Kyung Pyo; Lee, Sik; Kim, Won; Jin, Gong Yong; Na, Ki Ryang; Yun, Il Yong; Park, Sung Kwang


    Renal artery dissection may be caused by iatrogenic injury, trauma, underlying arterial diseases such as fibromuscular disease, atherosclerotic disease, or connective tissue disease. Radiological imaging may be helpful in detecting renal artery pathology, such as renal artery dissection. For patients with acute, isolated renal artery dissection, surgical treatment, endovascular management, or medical treatment have been considered effective measures to preserve renal function. We report a case of renal infarction that came about as a consequence of renal artery dissection.

  2. Neptune's small satellites (United States)

    Thomas, P.


    The small satellites of Neptune and other planets discovered during the Voyager 2 mission are discussed in terms of their composition and relationship to the planetary systems. The satellite Proteus is described in terms of its orbit, five other satellites are described, and they are compared to ther small satellites and systems. Neptune's satellites are hypothesized to be related to the ring system, and the satellite Galatea is related to the confinement of the rings.

  3. Enhancing the Applicability of Satellite Remote Sensing for PM2.5 Estimation Using MODIS Deep Blue AOD and Land Use Regression in California, United States. (United States)

    Lee, Hyung Joo; Chatfield, Robert B; Strawa, Anthony W


    We estimated daily ground-level PM2.5 concentrations combining Collection 6 deep blue (DB) Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) aerosol optical depth (AOD) data (10 km resolution) with land use regression in California, United States, for the period 2006-2012. The Collection 6 DB method for AOD provided more reliable data retrievals over California's bright surface areas than previous data sets. Our DB AOD and PM2.5 data suggested that the PM2.5 predictability could be enhanced by temporally varying PM2.5 and AOD relations at least at a seasonal scale. In this study, we used a mixed effects model that allowed daily variations in DB AOD-PM2.5 relations. Because DB AOD might less effectively represent local source emissions compared to regional ones, we added geographic information system (GIS) predictors into the mixed effects model to further explain PM2.5 concentrations influenced by local sources. A cross validation (CV) mixed effects model revealed reasonably high predictive power for PM2.5 concentrations with R(2) = 0.66. The relations between DB AOD and PM2.5 considerably varied by day, and seasonally varying effects of GIS predictors on PM2.5 suggest season-specific source emissions and atmospheric conditions. This study indicates that DB AOD in combination with land use regression can be particularly useful to generate spatially resolved PM2.5 estimates. This may reduce exposure errors for health effect studies in California. We expect that more detailed PM2.5 concentration patterns can help air quality management plan to meet air quality standards more effectively.

  4. Principais causas de insuficiência renal aguda em unidades de terapia intensiva: intervenção de enfermagem

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Eliandro deSouza Santos; Carina Martins daSilva Marinho


    ...: To identify the main causes of Acute Renal Insufficiency in patients admitted to an intensive care unit and to describe the nursing interventions to address the causes of Acute Renal Insufficiency in...

  5. Small satellites and their regulation

    CERN Document Server

    Jakhu, Ram S


    Since the launch of UoSat-1 of the University of Surrey (United Kingdom) in 1981, small satellites proved regularly to be useful, beneficial, and cost-effective tools. Typical tasks cover education and workforce development, technology demonstration, verification and validation, scientific and engineering research as well as commercial applications. Today the launch masses range over almost three orders of magnitude starting at less than a kilogram up to a few hundred kilograms, with budgets of less than US$ 100.00 and up to millions within very short timeframes of sometimes less than two years. Therefore each category of small satellites provides specific challenges in design, development and operations. Small satellites offer great potentials to gain responsive, low-cost access to space within a short timeframe for institutions, companies, regions and countries beyond the traditional big players in the space arena. For these reasons (particularly the low cost of construction, launch and operation), small (m...

  6. Refractory anemia leading to renal hemosiderosis and renal failure


    Sujatha Siddappa; K M Mythri; Kowsalya, R.; Ashish Parekh


    Renal hemosiderosis is a rare cause of renal failure and, as a result, may not be diagnosed unless a detailed history, careful interpretation of blood parameters and renal biopsy with special staining is done. Here, we present a rare case of renal hemosiderosis presenting with renal failure.

  7. Refractory anemia leading to renal hemosiderosis and renal failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujatha Siddappa


    Full Text Available Renal hemosiderosis is a rare cause of renal failure and, as a result, may not be diagnosed unless a detailed history, careful interpretation of blood parameters and renal biopsy with special staining is done. Here, we present a rare case of renal hemosiderosis presenting with renal failure.

  8. Renal replacement therapy for acute renal failure. (United States)

    Macedo, E; Bouchard, J; Mehta, R L


    Renal replacement therapy became a common clinical tool to treat patients with severe acute kidney injury (AKI) since the 1960s. During this time dialytic options have expanded considerably; biocompatible membranes, bicarbonate dialysate and dialysis machines with volumetric ultrafiltration control have improved the treatment for acute kidney injury. Along with advances in methods of intermittent hemodialysis, continuous renal replacement therapies have gained widespread acceptance in the treatment of dialysis-requiring AKI. However, many of the fundamental aspects of the renal replacement treatment such as indication, timing of dialytic intervention, and choice of dialysis modality are still controversial and may influence AKI patient's outcomes. This review outlines current concepts in the use of dialysis techniques for AKI and suggests an approach for selecting the optimal method of renal replacement therapy.

  9. Clinical evaluation of CT and radionuclide examination in renal diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kutani, W.; Ishida, H.; Shirakawa, S.; Shintaku, T.; Funaki, R. (Osaka Medical Coll., Takatsuki (Japan))


    One hundred and twelve cases of renal diseases were studied by computed tomography (CT) using EMI 5005/12. Of them, 60 were examined by both CT and renal scintigraphy, and comparatively evaluated. The CT units were checked before and after the contrast enhancement. Renal scintigrams were obtained by gamma cameras (PHO/GAMMA HP 6406, PHO/GAMMA LFOV) using 99 M Tc-DMSA. CT was especially useful in diagnosing the renal cysts and the hydronephrosis. Cysts in other organs (liver, spleen and pancreas) were simultaneously ascertained in polycystic diseases. CT was not helpful in diagnosing nephritis and diabetic nephropathy. Floating kidney and horse-shoe kidney were difficult to diagnose with CT. The renal scintigram was the reflection of the renal function, and was relatively more useful than CT in diagnosing horse-shoe kidney, floating kidney and nephritis, while it was not useful for non-functioning kidneys.

  10. Glomerulonephritis and managing the risks of chronic renal disease. (United States)

    Singh, Gurmeet R


    The rising global burden of chronic renal disease, the high cost of providing renal replacement therapies, and renal disease also being a risk factor for cardiovascular disease is increasing focus on renal disease prevention. This article focuses on the aspects of renal disease (specifically poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis [PSGN] and chronic kidney disease [CKD]) in Indigenous populations in Australia, New Zealand, Canada, and the United States that diverge from those typically seen in the general population of those countries. The spectrum of renal and many other diseases seen in Indigenous people in developed countries is similar to that seen in developing countries. Diseases like PSGN that have largely disappeared in developed countries still occur frequently in Indigenous people. CKD during the childhood years is due to congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract in up to 70% of cases and occurs later in polycystic kidney disease and childhood-onset diabetes. Several risk factors for CKD in adulthood are already present in childhood.

  11. Caracterização e etiologia da insuficiência renal crônica em unidade de nefrologia do interior do Estado de São Paulo Caracterización y etiología de la insuficiencia renal crónica en unidad de nefrología del interior del Estado de São Paulo Characterization and etiology of the chronic renal failure in a countryside nephrology unit of São Paulo State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita de Cássia Helú Mendonça Ribeiro


    ,4% de los pacientes poseen Hipertensión Arterial Sistémica (HAS, el 24,9% no poseen comorbidades, el 19,8% HAS y DM. En relación al tipo de acceso vascular el 70,5% poseen fístula arteriovenosa, siendo la utilización del cateter de Tenckhoff exclusivo de la diálisis peritoneal en el 13,3%. CONCLUSIÓN: los resultados permiten una mejor planificación frente a las necesidades reales de los pacientes.OBJECTIVES: Characterize the pacients with chronic renal failure (CRF in dialythical program; verify the causes of the CRF; identify the associated diseases to CRF; measure the type of treatment and the actual access of the pacients to them. METHODS: This is a epidemiological descriptive research performed in a nephrology unit, and all pacients registered in the Nefro Data program were included. RESULTS: Of the group of 217 patients registered in the studied unit, 68,2% have age of 40 or greater and 59,4% are male. Regarding the base disease, 31,3% of the pacients have Hipertensive Nephrosclerosis, 25,3% have Diabetes Mellitus (DM and 24,5% have Glomerulonephritis. Regarding the associated diseases, 42,4% of the pacients have Systemic Arterial Hipertension (SAH 24,9% don't have comorbities, 19,8% have both SAH and DM. Regarding the type of vascular acess, 70,5% have arteriovenous fistula, being the utilization of the Tenckhoff catheter exclusive of peritoneal dialysis in 13,3% of the studied cases. CONCLUSION: The results allow a better planning with regard to the patients real needs.

  12. Renal function after renal artery stenting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    George S. Hanzel; Mark Downes; Peter A. McCullough


    @@ Atherosclerotic renal artery stenosis (ARAS), a common clinical finding, is increasing in prevalence as the population ages. ARAS is seen in ~ 7% of persons over 65 years of age1 and in ~ 20% of patients at the time of coronary angiography.2 It is an important cause of chronic kidney disease and may result in 11-14% of cases of end stage renal disease.3

  13. Imaging of renal osteodystrophy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jevtic, V. E-mail:


    Chronic renal insufficiency, hemodialysis, peritoneal dialysis, renal transplantation and administration of different medications provoke complex biochemical disturbances of the calcium-phosphate metabolism with wide spectrum of bone and soft tissue abnormalities termed renal osteodystrophy. Clinically most important manifestation of renal bone disease includes secondary hyperparathyroidism, osteomalacia/rickets, osteoporosis, adynamic bone disease and soft tissue calcification. As a complication of long-term hemodialysis and renal transplantation amyloid deposition, destructive spondyloarthropathy, osteonecrosis, and musculoskeletal infections may occur. Due to more sophisticated diagnostic methods and more efficient treatment classical radiographic features of secondary hyperparathyroidism and osteomalacia/rickets are now less frequently seen. Radiological investigations play an important role in early diagnosis and follow-up of the renal bone disease. Although numerous new imaging modalities have been introduced in clinical practice (scintigraphy, CT, MRI, quantitative imaging), plain film radiography, especially fine quality hand radiograph, still represents most widely used examination.

  14. Estudo prospectivo observacional sobre a incidência de injúria renal aguda em unidade de terapia intensiva de um hospital universitário Observational prospective study on the incidence of acute renal failure in the intensive care unit of a university-affiliated hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nara Yamane dos Santos


    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Analisar comparativamente características clínicas e evolução de pacientes com e sem IRA adquirida em UTI geral de um hospital universitário terciário. MÉTODO: Estudo prospectivo observacional com 263 pacientes acompanhados diariamente durante a internação em UTI Geral do Hospital das Clínicas da Faculdade de Medicina de Botucatu no período de julho de 2007 a abril de 2008. RESULTADOS: A incidência de IRA foi de 31,2%. Os grupos foram semelhantes quanto ao sexo e diferiram quanto à etiologia da admissão em UTI (sepse: 31,7% x 13,1%, p OBJECTIVE: To compare the clinical characteristics and outcomes of patients with and without acute renal failure (ARF admitted to the general intensive care unit (ICU of a university-affiliated hospital. METHOD: Prospective observational study comprising 263 patients followed up daily during their stay at the general ICU of the Hospital das Clínicas of the Medical School of Botucatu, from July 2007 to April 2008. RESULTS: The incidence of ARF was 31.2%. The groups were similar regarding gender and differed regarding the following: cause of ICU admission (sepsis: 31.7% x 13.1%, p < 0.0001, post-operative period: 11% x 43%; p < 0.0001; age (59.6 ± 18.1 x 50.2 ± 18.6 years; p < 0.0001; APACHE II: (21 ± 11.1 x 11 ± 4.8; p = 0.002; oliguria (67.7% x 4.5%; p < 0.0001; presence of mechanical ventilation (81.7% x 57.7%; p = 0.0014; use of vasoactive drugs (62.2% x 32.6%; p < 0.0001; and site of origin inside hospital (emergency room: 22% x 14.5%; p = 0.02; operating room: 42.7% x 62.6%; p = 0.03. As for comorbidities, hypertension and chronic renal disease were more frequent among patients with ARF than among those without ARF (42.6% x 35.9%; p = 0.005 and 15.8% x 2.1%; p = 0.04, respectively, but the groups did not differ regarding diabetes and congestive heart failure (19.5% x 11%, and 6% x 1.1%, respectively. Mortality was higher in ARF patients (62.1% x 16.5%; p < 0.0001. CONCLUSION: The

  15. [Extracorporeal renal replacement therapies in acute renal failure]. (United States)

    Schaefer, R M; Barenbrock, M; Teschner, M; Bahner, U


    The most serious forms of acute renal failure (ARF) are nowadays encountered in the intensive care unit (ICU), where up to 25% of new patients are reported to develop ARF. Lethality rates may reach 50 to 90% when the ARF is part of a multiple organ dysfunction syndrome. A multitude of extracorporeal procedures have been introduced into intensive care medicine. Applied with adequate skills and experience, most of these techniques will suffice to replace excretory renal function. However, because of low efficacy arterio-venous procedures (CAVH and CAVHD) have been abandoned for the veno-venous, pump-driven techniques (CVVH and CVVHD). Up to now, there is no consensus whether continuous or intermittent renal replacement therapy is more advantageous. In many cases, oliguric patients with circulatory instability will be treated by CVVH, even though there is no prospective study to show that in terms of outcome continuous treatment is superior to intermittent hemodialysis. It is equally conceivable to treat such patients with daily, prolonged (intermittent) hemodialysis. Apparently, the dose of replacement therapy, be it continuous filtration (36 to 48 l/24 h) or intermittent hemodialysis (daily 3 to 4 h) with a target BUN of less than 50 mg/dl, is more important than the modality of treatment. Moreover, there is good evidence that the use of biocompatible membranes (no complement- or leukocyte activation) is preferable and that with high-volume hemofiltration bicarbonate-containing replacement fluids should be used. However, despite all the technical advances, we firmly believe that the skills and the experience of those physicians and nurses who actually perform renal replacement therapy in the ICU are more important than the modality of treatment applied.

  16. Satellite data compression

    CERN Document Server

    Huang, Bormin


    Satellite Data Compression covers recent progress in compression techniques for multispectral, hyperspectral and ultra spectral data. A survey of recent advances in the fields of satellite communications, remote sensing and geographical information systems is included. Satellite Data Compression, contributed by leaders in this field, is the first book available on satellite data compression. It covers onboard compression methodology and hardware developments in several space agencies. Case studies are presented on recent advances in satellite data compression techniques via various prediction-

  17. Trends in communications satellites

    CERN Document Server

    Curtin, Denis J


    Trends in Communications Satellites offers a comprehensive look at trends and advances in satellite communications, including experimental ones such as NASA satellites and those jointly developed by France and Germany. The economic aspects of communications satellites are also examined. This book consists of 16 chapters and begins with a discussion on the fundamentals of electrical communications and their application to space communications, including spacecraft, earth stations, and orbit and wavelength utilization. The next section demonstrates how successful commercial satellite communicati


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Ataei


    Full Text Available "nUrinary tract infection (UTI may lead to irreversible changes in renal parenchyma. Early diagnosis using scintigraphy with technetium-99m-labeled dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA scan and early treatment may decrease or prevent development of renal parenchymal lesions. The aim of this study was to assess the occurrence of renal parenchymal lesion in children admitted with a first-time symptomatic UTI and to evaluate the relation between renal parenchymal damage and severity of vesicoureteral reflux (VUR. A total of 102 children with first time acute pyelonephritis (APN were enrolled in the study. All children studied with DMSA scan and ultrasonography (US. Voiding cystourethrography (VCUG was performed in 98 children when urine culture became negative. Changes on the DMSA scan and US were found in 178 (88% and 5 (2.4% out of 203 renal units during the acute phase, respectively. All abnormal renal units on US showed severe parenchymal involvement on DMSA. We also found significant correlation between severity of VUR and abnormal US results on kidneys. Of 40 kidneys with reflux, 38 (95% were found to have abnormal renal scan. Among 155 kidneys with non-refluxing ureters 132 (85.2% revealed parenchymal changes on renal cortical scintigraphy. Kidneys with moderate to severe reflux were more likely to have severe renal involvement. We found a high incidence of renal parenchymal changes in children with APN. Additionally, renal involvement was significantly higher in children with moderate to severe reflux. When there are high-grade VUR and female gender, the risk of renal parenchymal involvement is higher.

  19. Incidental renal neoplasms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rabjerg, Maj; Mikkelsen, Minne Nedergaard; Walter, Steen;


    On the basis of associations between tumor size, pathological stage, histological subtype and tumor grade in incidentally detected renal cell carcinoma vs symptomatic renal cell carcinoma, we discussed the need for a screening program of renal cell carcinoma in Denmark. We analyzed a consecutive...... series of 204 patients with renal tumors in 2011 and 2012. The tumors were classified according to detection mode: symptomatic and incidental and compared to pathological parameters. Eighty-nine patients (44%) were symptomatic, 113 (55%) were incidental. Information was not available in two patients...

  20. Insuficiencia renal aguda.


    Carlos Hernán Mejía


    Acute renal failure (ARF) is a clinic syndrome characterized by decline in renal function occurring over a short time period. Is a relatively common complication in hospitalized critically ill patients and is associated with high morbidity and mortality. ARF has often a multi-factorial etiology syndrome usually approached diagnostically as pre-renal, post-renal, or intrinsic ARF. Most intrinsic ARF is caused by ischemia or nephrotoxins and is classically associated with acute tubular necrosis...

  1. Isolated Renal Hydatidosis Presenting as Renal Mass: A Diagnostic Dilemma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Datteswar Hota


    Full Text Available Hydatid disease is a parasitic infestation by larval form of Echinococcus granulosus. Isolated renal involvement is extremely rare. There are no specific signs and symptoms of renal hydatidosis. However it may present as palpable mass, flank pain, hematuria, malaise, fever, and hydatiduria or as a complication of it such as infection, abscess, hemorrhage, necrosis and pelviureteric junction obstruction, renal failure etc. Except hydatiduria, none are pathognomonic for renal hydatidosis. There is no literature on renal hydatidosis presenting as renal mass we report 2 cases of isolated renal hydatidosis, which mimicked a renal mass on imaging study.

  2. Distal renal tubular acidosis in recurrent renal stone formers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osther, P J; Hansen, A B; Røhl, H F


    (1.1%) had complete distal renal tubular acidosis and 14 (15.5%) incomplete distal renal tubular acidosis. Our results confirm that distal renal tubular acidification defects are associated with a more severe form of stone disease and make distal renal tubular acidosis one of the most frequent...... metabolic disturbances in renal stone formers. Distal renal tubular acidosis (dRTA) was relatively more common in female stone formers and most often found in patients with bilateral stone disease (36%). Since prophylactic treatment in renal stone formers with renal acidification defects is available...

  3. Renal pelvis or ureter cancer (United States)

    Transitional cell cancer of the renal pelvis or ureter; Kidney cancer - renal pelvis; Ureter cancer ... Cancer can grow in the urine collection system, but it is uncommon. Renal pelvis and ureter cancers ...

  4. Secure voice for mobile satellite applications (United States)

    Vaisnys, Arvydas; Berner, Jeff

    The initial system studies are described which were performed at JPL on secure voice for mobile satellite applications. Some options are examined for adapting existing Secure Telephone Unit III (STU-III) secure telephone equipment for use over a digital mobile satellite link, as well as for the evolution of a dedicated secure voice mobile earth terminal (MET). The work has included some lab and field testing of prototype equipment. The work is part of an ongoing study at JPL for the National Communications System (NCS) on the use of mobile satellites for emergency communications. The purpose of the overall task is to identify and enable the technologies which will allow the NCS to use mobile satellite services for its National Security Emergency Preparedness (NSEP) communications needs. Various other government agencies will also contribute to a mobile satellite user base, and for some of these, secure communications will be an essential feature.

  5. Secure voice for mobile satellite applications (United States)

    Vaisnys, Arvydas; Berner, Jeff


    The initial system studies are described which were performed at JPL on secure voice for mobile satellite applications. Some options are examined for adapting existing Secure Telephone Unit III (STU-III) secure telephone equipment for use over a digital mobile satellite link, as well as for the evolution of a dedicated secure voice mobile earth terminal (MET). The work has included some lab and field testing of prototype equipment. The work is part of an ongoing study at JPL for the National Communications System (NCS) on the use of mobile satellites for emergency communications. The purpose of the overall task is to identify and enable the technologies which will allow the NCS to use mobile satellite services for its National Security Emergency Preparedness (NSEP) communications needs. Various other government agencies will also contribute to a mobile satellite user base, and for some of these, secure communications will be an essential feature.

  6. The essential of 2012 results from the French Renal Epidemiology and Information Network (REIN) ESRD registry. (United States)

    Lassalle, Mathilde; Ayav, Carole; Frimat, Luc; Jacquelinet, Christian; Couchoud, Cécile


    The French Renal Epidemiology and Information Network (REIN) registry began in 2002 to provide a tool for public health decision support, evaluation and research related to renal replacement therapies (RRT) for end-stage renal disease (ESRD). It is relying on a network of nephrologists, epidemiologists, patients and public health representatives. Continuous registration covers all dialysis and transplanted patients. In 2012, in France, 10,048 patients started a RRT (154 per million inhabitants). Elders provided majority of new patients (median age at RRT start: 70 years old). New patients had a high and age increasing rate of comorbidities, especially diabetes (42% of the new patients) and cardiovascular comorbidities (>50% of the new patients). Like previous years, incidence is stabilized. On December 31, 2012, 73,491 patients were receiving a RRT in France (1127 per million inhabitants, 56% on dialysis and 44% living with a functional renal transplant). More than 50% of patients were undergoing in-center hemodialysis with significant variations among regions. An increase in medical satellite unit hemodialysis but a decrease in self-care unit hemodialysis rates were noticed across the time, whereas peritoneal dialysis remained stable at 7%. Five years after starting RRT, the overall survival rate was 51% but only 16% among patients over 85 years. Mortality rate was highly dependent on treatment and age; transplanted patients aged 60-69 had a 27/1000 patients-year mortality rate versus 133 for a dialysis patient. Patients who started dialysis had a probability of first wait-listing of 4.8% at the start of dialysis (pre-emptive registrations) and 27% at 72 months. Whatever their diabetes status was, patients older than 60 had poor access to the waiting list. Seventeen percent of the patients received a first renal transplant within 15.4 month median time; 3% had received a pre-emptive graft. Ten years after the start of the French ESRD registry, this report provides

  7. SODART optical block of the SRG satellite

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Finn Erland; Frederiksen, P.; Polny, Josef


    This paper describes the design and the successful integration of the optical block of the SODART telescopes to be flown on the Spectrum Roentgen Gamma satellite. The integration involves both the integration of the two high throughput x-ray telescopes as well as the objective crystal spectrometer....... The integrated unit meets all mechanical, thermal and optical specifications and it is now in safe storage in Moscow and awaits further integration procedures with the remaining satellite structure....

  8. Land vehicle antennas for satellite mobile communications (United States)

    Haddad, H. A.; Pieper, B. V.; Mckenna, D. B.


    The RF performance, size, pointing system, and cost were investigated concepts are: for a mechanically steered 1 x 4 tilted microstrip array, a mechanically steered fixed-beam conformal array, and an electronically steered conformal phased array. Emphasis is on the RF performance of the tilted 1 x 4 antenna array and methods for pointing the various antennas studied to a geosynchronous satellite. An updated version of satellite isolations in a two-satellite system is presented. Cost estimates for the antennas in quantities of 10,000 and 100,000 unites are summarized.

  9. [Hemorrhagic bilateral renal angiomyolipoma]. (United States)

    Benjelloun, Mohamed; Rabii, Redouane; Mezzour, Mohamed Hicham; Joual, Abdenbi; Bennani, Saâd; el Mrini, Mohamed


    Renal angiomyolipoma is a rare benign tumour, often associated with congenital diseases especially de Bourneville's tuberous sclerosis. Bilateral angiomyolipoma is exceptional. The authors report a case of bilateral renal angiomyolipoma in a 33-year-old patient presenting with haemorrhagic shock. In the light of this case and a review of the literature, the authors discuss the diagnostic and therapeutic aspects of this disease.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Musso CG


    Full Text Available Renal physiology plays a key role in the pharmacokinetics of many drugs. Knowledge of the particularities of each nephron function (filtration, secretion, reabsorption and excretion and each of renal tubular transport mechanisms (simple diffusion, facilitated diffusion, facilitated transport, active transport, endocytosis and pinocytosis is fundamental to achieve better management of drug prescriptions.

  11. Xichang Satellite Launch Center

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Xichang Satellite Launch Center(XSLC) is mainly for geosynchronous orbit launches. The main purpose of XSLC is to launch spacecraft, such as broadcasting,communications and meteorological satellites, into geo-stationary orbit.Most of the commercial satellite launches of Long March vehicles have been from Xichang Satellite Launch Center. With 20 years' development,XSLC can launch 5 kinds of launch vehicles and send satellites into geostationary orbit and polar orbit. In the future, moon exploration satellites will also be launched from XSLC.

  12. Handbook of satellite applications

    CERN Document Server

    Madry, Scott; Camacho-Lara, Sergio


    The first edition of this ground breaking reference work was the most comprehensive reference source available about the key aspects of the satellite applications field. This updated second edition covers the technology, the markets, applications and regulations related to satellite telecommunications, broadcasting and networking—including civilian and military systems; precise satellite navigation and timing networks (i.e. GPS and others); remote sensing and meteorological satellite systems. Created under the auspices of the International Space University based in France, this brand new edition is now expanded to cover new innovative small satellite constellations, new commercial launching systems, innovation in military application satellites and their acquisition, updated appendices, a useful glossary and more.

  13. Traffic planning for the Anik-E satellites (United States)

    Gray, Douglas A.

    Traffic planning is required to insure effective use of the dual band Anik E series of communications satellites. A trilateral orbital agreement reached with the United States and Mexico allows Canada four dual band satellite positions. This paper outlines the traffic planning process, describes satellite coordination, and provides highlights of the implementation of the Trilateral Orbital Plan. Constraints affecting traffic assignments include satellite health, the need for satellite diversity, and existing earth network facilities. Anik E will provide voice, television, and data communications over 24 C-band channels.

  14. Primary renal hydatidosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnsy Merla Joel


    Full Text Available Echinococcosis or hydatidosis caused by the tapeworm, Echinococcus granulosus, has the highest prevalence in endemic regions and sheep farming areas. The most common organ involved is the liver (50–75% followed by the lungs (15–20% and other organs (10–20%. Primary involvement of the kidney without the involvement of the liver and lungs, i.e., isolated renal hydatid disease is extremely rare even in endemic areas. The incidence of renal echinococcosis is 2–4%. Renal hydatid cysts usually remain asymptomatic for many years and are multiloculated. A 63-year-old male presented with left loin pain. Computed tomography scan abdomen revealed a presumptive diagnosis of renal hydatid disease. The nephrectomy specimen received in histopathology confirmed the diagnosis. We describe a rare case of primary renal hydatidosis.

  15. Galileo satellite antenna modeling (United States)

    Steigenberger, Peter; Dach, Rolf; Prange, Lars; Montenbruck, Oliver


    The space segment of the European satellite navigation system Galileo currently consists of six satellites. Four of them belong to the first generation of In-Orbit Validation (IOV) satellites whereas the other two are Full Operational Capability (FOC) satellites. High-precision geodetic applications require detailed knowledge about the actual phase center of the satellite and receiver antenna. The deviation of this actual phase center from a well-defined reference point is described by phase center offsets (PCOs) and phase center variations (PCVs). Unfortunately, no public information is available about the Galileo satellite antenna PCOs and PCVs, neither for the IOV, nor the FOC satellites. Therefore, conventional values for the IOV satellite antenna PCOs have been adopted for the Multi-GNSS experiment (MGEX) of the International GNSS Service (IGS). The effect of the PCVs is currently neglected and no PCOs for the FOC satellites are available yet. To overcome this deficiency in GNSS observation modeling, satellite antenna PCOs and PCVs are estimated for the Galileo IOV satellites based on global GNSS tracking data of the MGEX network and additional stations of the legacy IGS network. Two completely independent solutions are computed with the Bernese and Napeos software packages. The PCO and PCV values of the individual satellites are analyzed and the availability of two different solutions allows for an accuracy assessment. The FOC satellites are built by a different manufacturer and are also equipped with another type of antenna panel compared to the IOV satellites. Signal transmission of the first FOC satellite has started in December 2014 and activation of the second satellite is expected for early 2015. Based on the available observations PCO estimates and, optionally PCVs of the FOC satellites will be presented as well. Finally, the impact of the new antenna model on the precision and accuracy of the Galileo orbit determination is analyzed.

  16. Renal replacement therapy after cardiac surgery; renal function recovers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steinthorsdottir, Kristin Julia; Kandler, Kristian; Agerlin Windeløv, Nis


    To assess renal outcome in patients discharged from hospital following cardiac surgery-associated acute kidney injury (CSA-AKI) with need for renal replacement therapy.......To assess renal outcome in patients discharged from hospital following cardiac surgery-associated acute kidney injury (CSA-AKI) with need for renal replacement therapy....

  17. Satellite-Delivered Learning. (United States)

    Arnall, Gail C.


    Discusses the application of satellite information delivery to training. Describes a new trend, horizontal programming. Also discusses vertical programming and in-house production of training materials. Lists vendors of satellite-based training. (CH)

  18. China's Recoverable Satellites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tang Boehang


    @@ By the end of 2006, China had launched 24 recoverable satellites (FSW) in total. Among them, 23 were launched successfully, of which all but one were successfully recovered. Recoverable satellites launched by China are listed in Table 1.

  19. Satellite Tags- Hawaii EEZ (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Satellite tagging was implemented in 2013. Satellite tagging is conducted using a Dan Inject air rifle and deployment arrows designed by Wildlife Computers. Two...

  20. Structural renal changes in obesity and diabetes. (United States)

    Amann, Kerstin; Benz, Kerstin


    Overweight, obesity, and associated diseases represent an emerging problem, not only in Western countries but also in the developing world. They are now characterized as epidemic diseases. Obesity is particularly serious because its incidence in children and adolescents increased dramatically: it is estimated that in the United States every eighth adolescent suffers from obesity, which in the long run may reduce life expectancy in the population. Apart from cardiovascular disease (ie, blood pressure, stroke, and coronary heart disease), kidney diseases also have been shown to be associated with obesity. Epidemiologic studies have indicated that obesity can be a risk factor of chronic kidney disease irrespective of the presence or absence of diabetes, arterial hypertension, and other comorbidities. More evidence is accumulated on the link between chronic kidney disease in obesity and abnormalities in adipokine secretion (hyperleptinemia, lack of adiponectin), activation of the renin-angiotensin system, chronic inflammation, endothelial dysfunction, lipid accumulation, impaired renal hemodynamics, and diminished nephron number related to body mass. In general, obesity is known to aggravate the course of many primary renal diseases such as glomerulonephritides, but also impairs renal function after kidney transplantation. Microalbuminuria, proteinuria, hyperfiltration, and impaired renal function are associated with obesity. Histologically, secondary focal segmental sclerosis has been shown to be caused particularly by obesity. Of practical purpose for clinical nephrology, loss of body weight either by lifestyle modification or bariatric surgery improves albuminuria and hyperfiltration in obese patients, making renal disease in obesity accessible for prevention programs. This review specifically addresses the pathogenesis and morphology of renal functional and particularly structural changes in obesity and associated renal disease such as diabetic nephropathy.

  1. Urolithiasis in renal transplantation: Diagnosis and management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Cicerello


    Full Text Available Obiectives: To report our experience of diagnosis and multimodal management of urolithiasis in renal transplantation. Patients and Methods: From January 1995 to December 2012, 953 patients underwent renal transplantation in the Kidney Transplant Unit of Treviso General Hospital. Ten (10% of them developed urinary calculi and were referred at our institution. Their mode of presentation, investigation and treatment were recorded. Results: Seven had renal and 3 ureteral calculi. Urolithiasis was incidentally discovered on routine ultrasound in 6 patients, 1 presented with oliguria, 1 with anuria and acute renal failure and in 2 urolithiasis was found at removal of the ureteral stent. Nephrostomy tube was placed in 5 patients. Hypercalcemia with hyperparathyroidism (HPT was present in 5 patients and hyperuricemia in 3. Two patients were primary treated by shock wave lithotripsy (SWL and one of them was stone-free after two sessions. Two patients, one with multiple pielocaliceal calculi and the other with staghorn calculus in the lower calyx, were treated with percutaneous nephrolitothotomy (PCNL. Three patients were treated by ureteroscopy (URS and in one of them two treatments were carried out. One patient had calculus impacted in the uretero-vesical anastomosis and surgical ureterolithotomy with re-do ureterocystoneostomy was performed after failure of URS. Two patients with calculi discovered at removal of the ureteral stent were treated by URS. Conclusions: The incidence of urolithiasis in renal transplantation is uncommon. In the most of patients the condition occurs without pain. Metabolic anomalies and medical treatment after renal transplantation may cause stone formation. Advancements in endourology and interventional radiology have influenced the management of urolithiasis that can be actually treated with a minimal incidence of risk for the renal allograft.

  2. Normal renal development investigated with fetal MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Witzani, Linde [Department of Radiology, Medical University of Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna (Austria)]. E-mail:; Brugger, Peter Christian [Center of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Integrative Morphology Group, Medical University of Vienna, Waehringerstrasse 13, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Hoermann, Marcus [Department of Radiology, Medical University of Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Kasprian, Gregor [Department of Radiology, Medical University of Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Csapone-Balassy, Csilla [Department of Radiology, Medical University of Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Prayer, Daniela [Department of Radiology, Medical University of Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna (Austria)


    Objective: To evaluate age-dependent changes in fetal kidney measurements with MRI. Patients and methods: Fetal MRI examinations were used to study the kidney length (218 fetuses), signal intensities of renal tissue, renal pelvis, and liver tissue on T2-weighted images (223 fetuses), and the whole-kidney apparent diffusion coefficient (107 fetuses). A 1.5 T superconducting unit with a phased array coil was used in patients from 16 to 39 weeks' gestation. The imaging protocol included T2-weighted single-shot fast spin-echo, T2-weighted balanced angiography and diffusion-weighted sequences. Slice thickness ranged from 3 to 5 mm. Results: Fetal kidney length as a function of gestational age was expressed by the linear regression: kidney length (mm) = 0.190 x gestational age (d) - 8.034 (R {sup 2} 0.883, p < 0.001). Paired t-test analysis showed a highly statistically significant difference between the ratio of renal tissue signal intensity to renal pelvis signal intensity and the ratio of liver signal intensity to renal pelvis signal intensity on T2-weighted images (t = -50.963, d.f. = 162, p < 0.001), with renal tissue hyperintense to liver tissue. The apparent diffusion coefficient in relation to gestational age was described by the equation: ADC ({mu}m{sup 2}/s) = 0.0302 x square (gestational age (d)) - 14.202 x gestational age (d) + 2728.6 (R {sup 2} = 0.225, p < 0.001). Conclusion: The length, signal intensity on T2-weighted images, and apparent diffusion coefficient of the fetal kidney change significantly with gestational age. The presented data may help in the prenatal diagnosis of renal anomalies.

  3. Normal renal development investigated with fetal MRI. (United States)

    Witzani, Linde; Brugger, Peter Christian; Hörmann, Marcus; Kasprian, Gregor; Csapone-Balassy, Csilla; Prayer, Daniela


    To evaluate age-dependent changes in fetal kidney measurements with MRI. Fetal MRI examinations were used to study the kidney length (218 fetuses), signal intensities of renal tissue, renal pelvis, and liver tissue on T2-weighted images (223 fetuses), and the whole-kidney apparent diffusion coefficient (107 fetuses). A 1.5 T superconducting unit with a phased array coil was used in patients from 16 to 39 weeks' gestation. The imaging protocol included T2-weighted single-shot fast spin-echo, T2-weighted balanced angiography and diffusion-weighted sequences. Slice thickness ranged from 3 to 5mm. Fetal kidney length as a function of gestational age was expressed by the linear regression: kidney length (mm)=0.190 x gestational age (d) -8.034 (R(2) = 0.883, p < 0.001). Paired t-test analysis showed a highly statistically significant difference between the ratio of renal tissue signal intensity to renal pelvis signal intensity and the ratio of liver signal intensity to renal pelvis signal intensity on T2-weighted images (t = -50.963, d.f. = 162, p < 0.001), with renal tissue hyperintense to liver tissue. The apparent diffusion coefficient in relation to gestational age was described by the equation: ADC (microm(2)/s) = 0.0302 x square (gestational age (d)) -14.202 x gestational age (d) +2,728.6 (R(2) = 0.225, p < 0.001). The length, signal intensity on T2-weighted images, and apparent diffusion coefficient of the fetal kidney change significantly with gestational age. The presented data may help in the prenatal diagnosis of renal anomalies.

  4. Satellite communication engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Kolawole, Michael Olorunfunmi


    An undeniably rich and thorough guide to satellite communication engineering, Satellite Communication Engineering, Second Edition presents the fundamentals of information communications systems in a simple and succinct way. This book considers both the engineering aspects of satellite systems as well as the practical issues in the broad field of information transmission. Implementing concepts developed on an intuitive, physical basis and utilizing a combination of applications and performance curves, this book starts off with a progressive foundation in satellite technology, and then moves on

  5. Renal neuroendocrine tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian R Lane


    Full Text Available Objectives: Neuroendocrine tumors (NETs are uncommon tumors that exhibit a wide range of neuroendocrine differentiation and biological behavior. Primary NETs of the kidney, including carcinoid tumor, small cell carcinoma (SCC, and large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (LCNEC are exceedingly rare. Materials and Methods: The clinicopathologic features of renal NETs diagnosed at a single institution were reviewed along with all reported cases in the worldwide literature. Results: Eighty renal NETs have been described, including nine from our institution. Differentiation between renal NETs and the more common renal neoplasms (renal cell carcinoma, transitional cell carcinoma can be difficult since clinical, radiographic, and histopathologic features overlap. Immunohistochemical staining for neuroendocrine markers, such as synaptophysin and chromogranin, can be particularly helpful in this regard. Renal carcinoids are typically slow-growing, may secrete hormones, and pursue a variable clinical course. In contrast, SCC and LCNEC often present with locally advanced or metastatic disease and carry a poor prognosis. Nephrectomy can be curative for clinically localized NETs, but multimodality treatment is indicated for advanced disease. Conclusions: A spectrum of NETs can rarely occur in the kidney. Renal carcinoids have a variable clinical course; SCC and LCNEC are associated with poor clinical outcomes. Diagnosis of NETs, especially LCNEC, requires awareness of their rare occurrence and prudent use of immunohistochemical neuroendocrine markers.

  6. Pregnancy and renal transplantation. (United States)

    Başaran, O; Emiroğlu, R; Seçme, S; Moray, G; Haberal, M


    Ovarian dysfunction, anovulatory vaginal bleeding, amenorrhea, high prolactin levels, and loss of libido are the causes of infertility in women with chronic renal failure. After renal transplantation, endocrine function generally improves after recovery of renal function. In this study we retrospectively evaluated the prepregnancy and postdelivery renal function, outcome of gestation, as well as maternal and fetal complications for eight pregnancies in eight renal transplant recipients between November 1975 and March 2003 of 1095 among 1425. Eight planned pregnancies occurred at a mean of 3.6 years posttransplant. Spontaneous abortion occured in the first trimester in one case. One intrauterine growth retardation was observed with a full-term pregnancy; one intrauterine growth retardation and preterm delivery; one preeclampsia with preterm delivery and urinary tract infection; and one preeclampsia with preterm delivery and oligohydramnios. The mean gestation period was 35.5 +/- 3.0 weeks (31.2 to 38.0). Pregnancy had no negative impact on renal function during a 2-year follow-up. No significant proteinuria or acute rejection episodes were observed. Among the seven deliveries, no congenital anomaly was documented and no postpartum problems for the child and the mother were observed. Our study suggests that successful pregnancy is possible in renal transplant recipients. In cases with good graft function and absence of severe proteinuria or hypertension, pregnancy does not affect graft function or patient survival; however, fetal problems are encountered such as intrauterine growth retardation, low birth weight, and preeclampsia.

  7. Renal autotransplantation: current perspectives. (United States)

    Stewart, B H; Banowsky, L H; Hewitt, C B; Straffon, R A


    Autotransplantation, with or without an extracorporeal renal operation, has been done 39 times in 37 patients. Indications for the procedure included severe ureteral injury in 4 patients, failed supravesical diversion in 2, renal carcinoma in a solitary kidney in 1, renovascular hypertension in 1 and donor arterial reconstruction before renal transplantation in 29. Success was obtained in all but 2 procedures, both of which involved previously operated kidneys with severe inflammation and adhesions involving the renal pelvis and pedicle. Based on our experience and a review of currently available literature we believe that renal autotransplantation and extracorporeal reconstruction can provide the best solution for patients with severe renovascular and ureteral disease not correctable by conventional operative techniques. The technique can be of particular value in removing centrally located tumors in solitary kidneys and in preparing donor kidneys with abnormal arteries for renal transplantation. The role of autotransplantation in the management of advanced renal trauma and calculus disease is less clear. A long-term comparison of patients treated by extracorporeal nephrolithotomy versus conventional lithotomy techniques will be necessary before a conclusion is reached in these disease categories.

  8. Perioperative acute renal failure.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Mahon, Padraig


    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Recent biochemical evidence increasingly implicates inflammatory mechanisms as precipitants of acute renal failure. In this review, we detail some of these pathways together with potential new therapeutic targets. RECENT FINDINGS: Neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin appears to be a sensitive, specific and reliable biomarker of renal injury, which may be predictive of renal outcome in the perioperative setting. For estimation of glomerular filtration rate, cystatin C is superior to creatinine. No drug is definitively effective at preventing postoperative renal failure. Clinical trials of fenoldopam and atrial natriuretic peptide are, at best, equivocal. As with pharmacological preconditioning of the heart, volatile anaesthetic agents appear to offer a protective effect to the subsequently ischaemic kidney. SUMMARY: Although a greatly improved understanding of the pathophysiology of acute renal failure has offered even more therapeutic targets, the maintenance of intravascular euvolaemia and perfusion pressure is most effective at preventing new postoperative acute renal failure. In the future, strategies targeting renal regeneration after injury will use bone marrow-derived stem cells and growth factors such as insulin-like growth factor-1.

  9. Taiyuan Satellite Launch Center

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    There are three major space launch bases in China, the Jiuquan Satellite Launch Center,the Taiyuan Satellite Launch Center and the Xichang Satellite Launch Center. All the three launch centers are located in sparsely populated areas where the terrain is even and the field of vision is broad. Security, transport conditions and the influence of the axial rotation

  10. Geodetic Secor Satellite (United States)


    simple, and had low-power lem. 17 14. Satellite Orientation . The satellite was designed to maintain a constant relationship between the antenna...the same satellite orientation . Further considerations were Th oscillations, however, when higher orbital ranges (500-2500 nautical miles) -, 3 a

  11. TC-2 Satellite Delivered

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    On April 18, 2005, TC-2, the second satellite of Double Star Program (DSP), which was jointly developed by CNSA and ESA, was approved to be delivered to the user after the on-board test and trial operation. The satellite is working well and the performance can meet the user's need. The satellite has collected large amount of valuable scientific data

  12. Sarcomatoid carcinoma of the renal pelvis in duplex kidney

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Ge-ming; CHEN Shan-wen; XIA Dan; LI Jun; YAN Sheng; JIN Bai-ye


    Sarcomatoid transitional cell carcinoma of the renal pelvis is a rare neoplasm with only 14 well-illustrated examples reported previously. Duplex kidney is the most common congenital abnormality of the urinary tract, with an incidence of around 2%. Neoplasia of the renal pelvis in duplex kidney is rare. We reported a case whose sarcomatoid carcinoma originated from the upper portion of the duplicated renal pelvis with hydronephrosis, and total nephroureterectomy with bladder cuff excision surgery of both renal units was carried out. Because of the rare nature of renal pelvic sarcomatoid carcinoma and its apparent lack of response to adjuvant therapy, it is essential to do early diagnosis and early radical surgery to improve survival. It is important to stress the need for frequent and diligent monitoring or treating complex duplex kidney with hydronephrosis of either moiety in case of a risk of having neoplasias.

  13. Advanced satellite communication system (United States)

    Staples, Edward J.; Lie, Sen


    The objective of this research program was to develop an innovative advanced satellite receiver/demodulator utilizing surface acoustic wave (SAW) chirp transform processor and coherent BPSK demodulation. The algorithm of this SAW chirp Fourier transformer is of the Convolve - Multiply - Convolve (CMC) type, utilizing off-the-shelf reflective array compressor (RAC) chirp filters. This satellite receiver, if fully developed, was intended to be used as an on-board multichannel communications repeater. The Advanced Communications Receiver consists of four units: (1) CMC processor, (2) single sideband modulator, (3) demodulator, and (4) chirp waveform generator and individual channel processors. The input signal is composed of multiple user transmission frequencies operating independently from remotely located ground terminals. This signal is Fourier transformed by the CMC Processor into a unique time slot for each user frequency. The CMC processor is driven by a waveform generator through a single sideband (SSB) modulator. The output of the coherent demodulator is composed of positive and negative pulses, which are the envelopes of the chirp transform processor output. These pulses correspond to the data symbols. Following the demodulator, a logic circuit reconstructs the pulses into data, which are subsequently differentially decoded to form the transmitted data. The coherent demodulation and detection of BPSK signals derived from a CMC chirp transform processor were experimentally demonstrated and bit error rate (BER) testing was performed. To assess the feasibility of such advanced receiver, the results were compared with the theoretical analysis and plotted for an average BER as a function of signal-to-noise ratio. Another goal of this SBIR program was the development of a commercial product. The commercial product developed was an arbitrary waveform generator. The successful sales have begun with the delivery of the first arbitrary waveform generator.

  14. Renal cell therapy is associated with dynamic and individualized responses in patients with acute renal failure. (United States)

    Humes, H David; Weitzel, William F; Bartlett, Robert H; Swaniker, Fresca C; Paganini, Emil P


    Renal cell therapy in conjunction with continuous hemofiltration techniques may provide important cellular metabolic activities to patients with acute renal failure (ARF) and may thereby change the natural history of this disorder. The development of a tissue-engineered bioartificial kidney consisting of a conventional hemofiltration cartridge in series with a renal tubule assist device (RAD) containing 10(9) human renal proximal tubule cells provides an opportunity to evaluate this form of therapy in patients with ARF in the intensive care unit. Nine patients with ARF and multi-organ systems failure (MOSF) have been treated so far with a tissue-engineered kidney in an FDA-approved Phase I/II clinical study currently underway. Acute physiologic parameters and serum cytokine levels were assessed before, during and after treatment with a bioartificial kidney. Use of the RAD in this clinical setting demonstrates maintenance of cell viability and functionality. Cardiovascular stability appears to be maintained during RAD treatment. Human tubule cells in the RAD demonstrated differentiated metabolic and endocrinologic activity. Acute physiologic and plasma cytokine data demonstrate that renal cell therapy is associated with rapid and variable responses in patients with ARF and MOSF. The initial clinical experience with the bioartificial kidney and the RAD suggests that renal tubule cell therapy may provide a dynamic and individualized treatment program as assessed by acute physiologic and biochemical indices. Copyright 2003 S. Karger AG, Basel

  15. Lactulose and renal failure. (United States)

    Vogt, B; Frey, F J


    The introduction of lactulose as a new therapeutic agent for treatment of hepatic encephalopathy was a major breakthrough in this field. It was hypothesized that lactulose might prevent postoperative renal impairment after biliary surgery in patients with obstructive jaundice. The presumable mechanism purported was the diminished endotoxinemia by lactulose. Unfortunately, such a reno-protective effect has not been shown conclusively until now in clinical studies. In chronic renal failure lactulose is known to promote fecal excretion of water, sodium, potassium, amonium, urea, creatinine and protons. Thus, lactulose could be useful for the treatment of chronic renal failure. However, compliance to the therapy represents a major problem.

  16. Renal tubule cell repair following acute renal injury. (United States)

    Humes, H D; Lake, E W; Liu, S


    Experimental data suggests the recovery of renal function after ischemic or nephrotoxic acute renal failure is due to a replicative repair process dependent upon predominantly paracrine release of growth factors. These growth factors promote renal proximal tubule cell proliferation and a differentiation phase dependent on the interaction between tubule cells and basement membrane. These insights identify the molecular basis of renal repair and ischemic and nephrotoxic acute renal failure, and may lead to potential therapeutic modalities that accelerate renal repair and lessen the morbidity and mortality associated with these renal disease processes. In this regard, there is a prominent vasoconstrictor response of the renal vasculature during the postischemic period of developing acute renal failure. The intravenous administration of pharmacologic doses of atrial natriuretic factor (ANF) in the postischemic period have proven efficacious by altering renal vascular resistance, so that renal blood flow and glomerular filtration rate improve. ANF also appears to protect renal tubular epithelial integrity and holds significant promise as a therapeutic agent in acute renal failure. Of equal or greater promise are the therapeutic interventions targeting the proliferative reparative zone during the postischemic period. The exogenous administration of epidermal growth factor or insulin-like growth factor-1 in the postischemic period have effectively decreased the degree of renal insufficiency as measured by the peak serum creatinine and has hastened renal recovery as measured by the duration of time required to return the baseline serum creatinine values. A similarly efficacious role for hepatocyte growth factor has also been recently demonstrated.

  17. GHRSST Level 2P Eastern Pacific Regional Skin Sea Surface Temperature from the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites (GOES) Imager on the GOES-11 satellite (GDS version 1) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites (GOES) operated by the United States National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) support weather...

  18. GHRSST Level 2P West Atlantic Regional Skin Sea Surface Temperature from the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites (GOES) Imager on the GOES-12 satellite (GDS version 1) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites (GOES) operated by the United States National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) support weather...

  19. [Acute renal replacement therapy in pediatrics]. (United States)

    Gaillot, T; Ozanne, B; Bétrémieux, P; Tirel, O; Ecoffey, C


    In pediatric intensive care unit, the available modalities of acute renal replacement therapy include intermittent hemodialysis, peritoneal dialysis and continuous renal replacement therapies. No prospective studies have evaluated to date the effect of dialysis modality on the outcomes of children. The decision about dialysis modality should therefore be based on local expertise, resources available, and the patient's clinical status. Poor hemodynamic tolerance of intermittent hemodialysis is a common problem in critically ill patients. Moreover, many pediatric intensive care units are not equipped with dedicated water circuit. Peritoneal dialysis, a simple and inexpensive alternative, is the most widely available form of acute renal replacement therapy. However, its efficacy may be limited in critically ill patients. The use of continuous renal replacement therapy permits usually to reach a greater estimated dialysis dose, a better control of fluid balance, and additionally, to provide adequate nutrition. Copyright © 2013 Société française d’anesthésie et de réanimation (Sfar). Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. Renal scintigraphy in veterinary medicine. (United States)

    Tyson, Reid; Daniel, Gregory B


    Renal scintigraphy is performed commonly in dogs and cats and has been used in a variety of other species. In a 2012 survey of the members of the Society of Veterinary Nuclear Medicine, 95% of the respondents indicated they perform renal scintigraphy in their practice. Renal scintigraphy is primarily used to assess renal function and to evaluate postrenal obstruction. This article reviews how renal scintigraphy is used in veterinary medicine and describes the methods of analysis. Species variation is also discussed.

  1. Meteorological satellite systems

    CERN Document Server

    Tan, Su-Yin


    “Meteorological Satellite Systems” is a primer on weather satellites and their Earth applications. This book reviews historic developments and recent technological advancements in GEO and polar orbiting meteorological satellites. It explores the evolution of these remote sensing technologies and their capabilities to monitor short- and long-term changes in weather patterns in response to climate change. Satellites developed by various countries, such as U.S. meteorological satellites, EUMETSAT, and Russian, Chinese, Japanese and Indian satellite platforms are reviewed. This book also discusses international efforts to coordinate meteorological remote sensing data collection and sharing. This title provides a ready and quick reference for information about meteorological satellites. It serves as a useful tool for a broad audience that includes students, academics, private consultants, engineers, scientists, and teachers.

  2. Theory of geostationary satellites

    CERN Document Server

    Zee, Chong-Hung


    Geostationary or equatorial synchronous satellites are a daily reminder of our space efforts during the past two decades. The nightly television satellite weather picture, the intercontinental telecommunications of television transmissions and telephone conversations, and the establishrnent of educational programs in remote regions on Earth are constant reminders of the presence of these satellites. As used here, the term 'geo­ stationary' must be taken loosely because, in the long run, the satellites will not remain 'stationary' with respect to an Earth-fixed reference frame. This results from the fact that these satellites, as is true for all satellites, are incessantly subject to perturbations other than the central-body attraction of the Earth. Among the more predominant pertur­ bations are: the ellipticity of the Earth's equator, the Sun and Moon, and solar radiation pressure. Higher harmonics of the Earth's potential and tidal effects also influence satellite motion, but they are of second­ order whe...

  3. Primary renal synovial sarcoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Girish D. Bakhshi


    Full Text Available Primary Renal Sarcoma is rare tumor comprising only 1% of all renal tumours. Synovial sarcomas are generally deep-seated tumors arising in the proximity of large joints of adolescents and young adults and account for 5-10% of all soft tissue tumours. Primary synovial sarcoma of kidney is rare and has poor prognosis. It can only be diagnosed by immunohistochemistry. It should be considered as a differential in sarcomatoid and spindle cell tumours. We present a case of 33-year-old female, who underwent left sided radical nephrectomy for renal tumour. Histopathology and genetic analysis diagnosed it to be primary renal synovial sarcoma. Patient underwent radiation therapy and 2 years follow up is uneventful. A brief case report with review of literature is presented.

  4. Renal protection in diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parving, H H; Tarnow, L; Rossing, P


    BACKGROUND: The combination of diabetes and hypertension increases the chances of progressive renal disorder and, ultimately, renal failure. Roughly 40% of all diabetics, whether insulin-dependent or not, develop diabetic nephropathy. Diabetic nephropathy is the single most important cause of end......-stage renal disease in the Western world and accounts for more than a quarter of all end-stage renal diseases. Diabetic nephropathy is a major cause of increased morbidity and mortality in diabetic patients. Increased arterial blood pressure is an early and common phenomenon in incipient and overt diabetic...... nephropathy. The relationship between arterial blood pressure and diabetic nephropathy is a complex one, with diabetic nephropathy increasing blood pressure and blood pressure accelerating the course of nephropathy. OVERVIEW: Calcium antagonists antagonize preglomerular vasoconstriction. Additional putative...

  5. Renal primitive neuroectodermal tumors. (United States)

    Bartholow, Tanner; Parwani, Anil


    Primitive neuroectodermal tumors exist as a part of the Ewing sarcoma/primitive neuroectodermal tumor family. These tumors most commonly arise in the chest wall and paraspinal regions; cases with a renal origin are rare entities, but have become increasingly reported in recent years. Although such cases occur across a wide age distribution, the average age for a patient with a renal primitive neuroectodermal tumor is the mid- to late 20s, with both males and females susceptible. Histologically, these tumors are characterized by pseudorosettes. Immunohistochemically, CD99 is an important diagnostic marker. Clinically, these are aggressive tumors, with an average 5-year disease-free survival rate of only 45% to 55%. Given that renal primitive neuroectodermal tumor bears many similarities to other renal tumors, it is important to review the histologic features, immunostaining profile, and genetic abnormalities that can be used for its correct diagnosis.

  6. Renal vein thrombosis (United States)

    ... Saunders; 2012:chap 34. Read More Acute kidney failure Arteriogram Blood clots Dehydration Nephrotic syndrome Pulmonary embolus Renal Tumor Review Date 5/19/2015 Updated by: Charles Silberberg, ...

  7. Eligibility for renal denervation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Persu, Alexandre; Jin, Yu; Baelen, Marie;


    -resistant hypertension (ENCOReD). The analysis included 731 patients. Age averaged 61.6 years, office blood pressure at screening was 177/96 mm Hg, and the number of blood pressure-lowering drugs taken was 4.1. Specialists referred 75.6% of patients. The proportion of patients eligible for renal denervation according......Based on the SYMPLICITY studies and CE (Conformité Européenne) certification, renal denervation is currently applied as a novel treatment of resistant hypertension in Europe. However, information on the proportion of patients with resistant hypertension qualifying for renal denervation after...... undetected secondary causes of hypertension (11.1%). In conclusion, after careful screening and treatment adjustment at hypertension expert centers, only ≈40% of patients referred for renal denervation, mostly by specialists, were eligible for the procedure. The most frequent cause of ineligibility...

  8. Complete renal recovery from severe acute renal failure after thrombolysis of bilateral renal vein thrombosis. (United States)

    Ramadoss, Suresh; Jones, Robert G; Foggensteiner, Lukas; Willis, Andrew P; Duddy, Martin J


    A previously healthy young man presented with acute renal failure due to extensive spontaneous deep vein thrombosis, including the inferior vena cava (IVC) and both renal veins. The patient was treated with selectively delivered thrombolytic therapy over a 7-day-period, which resulted in renal vein patency and complete recovery of renal function. A stent was placed over a segment stenosis of the IVC. No thrombophilic factors were identified. Bilateral renal vein thrombosis in young fit individuals is an unusual cause of acute renal failure. Thrombolytic therapy, even with delay, can completely restore renal function.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Renal failure in obstetrics is rare but important complication, associated with significant mortality and long term morbidity.1,2 It includes acute renal failure due to obstetrical complications or due to deterioration of existing renal disease. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the etiology and outcome of renal failure in obstetric patients. METHODS: We prospectively analyzed 30 pregnant and puerperal women with acute renal failure or pre-existing renal disease developing renal failure during pregnancy between November 2007 to sep-2009. Patients who presented/developed ARF during the hospital stay were included in this study. RESULTS: Among 30 patients, mean age was 23 years and 33 years age group. 12 cases (40% patients were primigravidae and 9(30% patients were multigravidae and 9 cases (30% presented in post-partum period. Eighteen cases (60% with ARF were seen in third trimester, followed by in postpartum period 9 cases (30%. Most common contributing factors to ARF were Pre-eclampsia, eclampsia and HELLP syndrome 60%, sepsis 56.6%, post abortal ARF 10%. DIC 40%. Haemorrhage as the aetiology for ARF was present 46%, APH in 20% and PPH in 26.6%. The type of ARF was renal in (63% and prerenal (36%; Oliguric seen in 10 patients (33% and high mortality (30%. Among the 20 pregnant patients with ARF, The average period of gestation was 33±2 weeks (30 -36 weeks, 5 cases (25% presented with intrauterine fetal demise and 18 cases (66% had preterm vaginal delivery and 2 cases (10% had induced abortion. And the average birth weight was 2±0.5 kg (1.5 kg. Eight cases (26% required dialysis. 80% of patients recovered completely of renal functions. 63% patients recovered without renal replacement therapy whereas 17% required dialysis. the maternal mortality was 20%, the main reason for mortality was septic shock and multi organ dysfunction (66%. CONCLUSION: ARF related pregnancy was seen commonly in the primigravidae and in the third trimester, the most

  10. Estimation of surface insolation using sun-synchronous satellite data (United States)

    Darnell, Wayne L.; Staylor, W. Frank; Gupta, Shashi K.; Denn, Fred M.


    A technique is presented for estimating insolation at the earth's surface using only sun-synchronous satellite data. The technique was tested by comparing the insolation results from year-long satellite data sets with simultaneous ground-measured insolation taken at five continental United States sites. Monthly average insolation values derived from the satellite data showed a standard error of 4.2 W/sq m, or 2.7 percent of the average ground insolation value.

  11. Renal papillary necrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen A. Geller


    Full Text Available In 1877, Dr. Nikolaus Friedreich (1825-1882; student of Virchow who became Professor of Pathology at Heidelberg and who also described Friedreich’s ataxia first described renal papillary necrosis (RPN in patients with prostatic hypertrophy and secondary hydronephrosis. Thereafter in 1937, Froboese and Günther emphasized the association of this entity with diabetes mellitus. These authors also observed renal papillary necrosis in cases of urinary tract obstruction even in the absence of diabetes mellitus.

  12. [Hyperuricemia and renal risk]. (United States)

    Viazzi, Francesca; Bonino, Barbara; Ratto, Elena; Desideri, Giovambattista; Pontremoli, Roberto


    Recent studies have revealed an association between elevated levels of uric acid and conditions correlated to chronic kidney diseases such as hypertension, cardiovascular and cerebral disease, insulin resistance. Several pathogenetic mechanisms at cellular and tissue levels could justify a direct correlation between serum uric acid levels and renal damage. Growing evidence indicating a correlation between urate lowering therapy and renal morbidity could encourage the use of urate lowering therapy in primary or secondary prevention in chronic kidney disease.

  13. AMOS Galaxy 15 Satellite Observations and Analysis (United States)

    Hall, D.


    In early April 2010, the Galaxy 15 geosynchronous satellite experienced an on-orbit anomaly. Even though the satellite's transmitters and articulating solar panel were still functioning, ground controllers lost the ability to command and maneuver the satellite. With its orbital position no longer maintained, Galaxy 15 began to drift eastward. This forced several other satellites to make collision avoidance maneuvers during the following months. Soon after the initial anomaly, Galaxy 15's operators predicted that the satellite’s reaction wheels would eventually become saturated, causing a loss of both spacecraft attitude and proper sunward orientation of the solar panels. This "off-pointing" event finally occurred in late December, ultimately leading to a depletion of Galaxy 15's batteries. This near-death experience had a fortunate side effect, however, in that it forced the satellite’s command unit to reboot and once again be able to both receive and execute ground commands. The satellite operators have since recovered control of the satellite. AMOS conducted non-resolved photometric observations of Galaxy 15 before, during and after these events. Similar observations were conducted of Galaxy 12, the nearly-identical replacement satellite. This presentation presents and discusses these temporal brightness signatures in detail, comparing the changing patterns in the observations to the known sequence of events.

  14. Laparoscopic Renal Cryoablation (United States)

    Schiffman, Marc; Moshfegh, Amiel; Talenfeld, Adam; Del Pizzo, Joseph J.


    In light of evidence linking radical nephrectomy and consequent suboptimal renal function to adverse cardiovascular events and increased mortality, research into nephron-sparing techniques for renal masses widely expanded in the past two decades. The American Urological Association (AUA) guidelines now explicitly list partial nephrectomy as the standard of care for the management of T1a renal tumors. Because of the increasing utilization of cross-sectional imaging, up to 70% of newly detected renal masses are stage T1a, making them more amenable to minimally invasive nephron-sparing therapies including laparoscopic and robotic partial nephrectomy and ablative therapies. Cryosurgery has emerged as a leading option for renal ablation, and compared with surgical techniques it offers benefits in preserving renal function with fewer complications, shorter hospitalization times, and allows for quicker convalescence. A mature dataset exists at this time, with intermediate and long-term follow-up data available. Cryosurgical recommendations as a first-line therapy are made at this time in limited populations, including elderly patients, patients with multiple comorbidities, and those with a solitary kidney. As more data emerge on oncologic efficacy, and technical experience and the technology continue to improve, the application of this modality will likely be extended in future treatment guidelines. PMID:24596441

  15. Neonatal renal vein thrombosis. (United States)

    Brandão, Leonardo R; Simpson, Ewurabena A; Lau, Keith K


    Neonatal renal vein thrombosis (RVT) continues to pose significant challenges for pediatric hematologists and nephrologists. The precise mechanism for the onset and propagation of renal thrombosis within the neonatal population is unclear, but there is suggestion that acquired and/or inherited thrombophilia traits may increase the risk for renal thromboembolic disease during the newborn period. This review summarizes the most recent studies of neonatal RVT, examining its most common features, the prevalence of acquired and inherited prothrombotic risk factors among these patients, and evaluates their short and long term renal and thrombotic outcomes as they may relate to these risk factors. Although there is some consensus regarding the management of neonatal RVT, the most recent antithrombotic therapy guidelines for the management of childhood thrombosis do not provide a risk-based algorithm for the acute management of RVT among newborns with hereditary prothrombotic disorders. Whereas neonatal RVT is not a condition associated with a high mortality rate, it is associated with significant morbidity due to renal impairment. Recent evidence to evaluate the effects of heparin-based anticoagulation and thrombolytic therapy on the long term renal function of these patients has yielded conflicting results. Long term cohort studies and randomized trials may be helpful to clarify the impact of acute versus prolonged antithrombotic therapy for reducing the morbidity that is associated with neonatal RVT.

  16. A new digital land mobile satellite system (United States)

    Schneider, Philip

    A description is given of the different digital services planned to be carried over existing and planned mobile satellite systems. These systems are then compared with analog services in terms of bandwidth and power efficiency. This comparison provides the rationale for the establishment of a digital land mobile satellite service (DLMSS) to use frequencies that are currently available but not yet assigned to a domestic mobile satellite system in the United States. The focus here is on the expected advantages of digital transmission techniques in accommodating additional mobile satellite systems in this portion of the spectrum, and how such techniques can fully satisfy voice, data and facsimile mobile communications requirements in a cost effective manner. A description is given of the system architecture of the DMLSS service proposed by the Geostar Messaging Corporation (GMC) and the market potential of DLMSS.

  17. Presentation, pathology, and outcome of HIV associated renal disease in a specialist centre for HIV/AIDS



    OBJECTIVES: To describe the presentation, pathology, and outcome of biopsy proved renal disease in HIV infected patients at a central London HIV unit from 1992 to 1996. METHODS: Retrospective review of a computerised database and case notes to identify patients with renal disease confirmed by antemortem percutaneous renal biopsy or necropsy. RESULTS: 17 patients were identified, 13 had biopsy and four necropsy confirmed renal disease. Abnormalities included HIV associated nephropathy (H...

  18. Targeting Strategies for Renal Cell Carcinoma: From Renal Cancer Cells to Renal Cancer Stem Cells


    Zhi-xiang Yuan; Jingxin Mo; Guixian Zhao; Gang Shu; Hua-lin Fu; Wei Zhao


    Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is a common form of urologic tumor that originates from the highly heterogeneous epithelium of renal tubules. Over the last decade, targeting therapies to renal cancer cells have transformed clinical care for RCC. Recently, it was proposed that renal cancer stem cells (CSCs) isolated from renal carcinomas were responsible for driving tumor growth and resistance to conventional chemotherapy and radiotherapy, according to the theory of CSCs; this has provided the rati...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisangela Giachini


    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to evaluate the incidence and prevalence of malignant kidney tumors, to contribute to identifying factors which the diagnosis of renal cell carcinomas. Through this study, we understand that kidney disease over the years had higher incidence rates, especially in adults in the sixth decade of life. The renal cell carcinoma (RCC is the third most common malignancy of the genitourinary tract, affecting 2% to 3% of the population. There are numerous ways of diagnosis; however, the most important are ultrasonography, magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography. In general most of the patients affected by the CCR, have a good prognosis when diagnosed early and subjected to an effective treatment. This study conducted a literature review about the CCR, through this it was possible to understand the development needs of the imaging methods used for precise diagnosis and classification of RCC through the TNM system.

  20. Collision Avoidance: Coordination of Predicted Conjunctions between NASA Satellites and Satellites of other Countries (United States)

    Kelly, A.; Watson, W.


    This paper describes one of the challenges facing the flight operations teams of the International Earth Observing constellation satellites at the 705 km orbit, including NASAs satellites. The NASA Earth Science Mission Operations (ESMO) Project has been dealing with predicted conjunctions (close approach) between operational/non-operational space objects and the satellites in the International Earth observing constellations for several years. Constellation satellites include: NASAs Earth Observing System (EOS) Terra, Aqua, and Aura, CloudSat, the joint NASA/CNES CALIPSO mission, Earth Observing 1 (EO-1), the Japan Aerospace and Exploration Agency (JAXA) Global Change Observation Mission-Water 1 (GCOM-W1) mission, the United States Geological Survey (USGS) Landsat 7 and Landsat 8, and until 2013, Argentinas SAC-C mission and the CNES PARASOL mission. The NASA Conjunction Analysis and Risk Assessment (CARA) team provides daily reports to the ESMO Project regarding any high interest close approach events (HIEs) involving the constellation satellites. The daily CARA reports provide risk assessment results that help the operations teams to determine if there is a need to perform a risk mitigation action. If the conjuncting space object is an operational satellite that is capable of maneuvering, the affected satellite team needs to coordinate their action plan with the owner operator of the conjuncting satellite. It is absolutely critical for the two teams to communicate as soon as possible. The goal is to minimize the collision risk; this can happen if both satellite operators do not coordinate their maneuver plans. The constellation teams have established guidelines for coordinating HIEs. This coordination process has worked successfully for several years for satellites that are operated by other organizations in the United States and by NASAs international partners, all with whom NASA has a cooperative agreement. However, the situation is different for HIEs with

  1. Função renal de pacientes de unidade de terapia intensiva: creatinina plasmática e proteína carreadora do retinol urinário Renal function of intensive care unit patients: plasma creatinine and urinary retinol-binding protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Satoko Mizoi


    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: A avaliação precoce da disfunção renal usando marcadores usuais não supre uma indicação quer da sensitividade e da especificidade da disfunção renal de pacientes críticos. Seriam desejáveis marcadores mais específicos e sensíveis para a detecção precoce de um processo fisiopatológico renal em fase inicial. A proteína carreadora do retinol urinário poderia ser um método alternativo para avaliação precoce da função renal destes pacientes. MÉTODOS: O estudo acompanhou 100 pacientes em terapia intensiva e avaliou suas variáveis clinicas e laboratoriais, incluindo a dosagem de creatinina plasmática e proteina carreadora do retinol urinário e as variáveis demográficas. RESULTADOS: A amostra foi caracterizada por pacientes geriátricos (63,4±15,6 anos, homens (68%, sendo 53% cirúrgicos. Análise estatística mostrou associação entre creatinina plasmática e as seguintes variáveis: gênero (p=0,026, idade (p=0,038, uso de medicação vasoativa (p=0,003, proteinúria (p=0,025, escore Acute Physiological Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE II (p=0,000, uréia (p=0,000, potássio (p=0,003 clearance de creatinina estimado (p=0,000. A proteína carreadora do retinol urinário correlacionava-se com outras variáveis: peso usa de ventilação invasiva (p=0,000, uso de medicamentos antinfamatórios não-esteróides (p=0,018, uso de medicação vasoativa (p=0,021, temperatura alta (>37,5ºC (p=0,005, proteinúria (p=0,000, bilirubinúria (p=0,004, fluxo urinário (p=0,019, pressão diastólica mínima (p=0,032, pressão sistólica mínima (p=0,029, APACHE II (p=0.000, creatinina (p=0,001, uréia (p=0,001 e clearance de creatinina estimado (p=0,000. A proteína carreadora do retinol urinário também tende a ser associada com doença renal anterior, vasculopatias e neoplasias. Na análise univariada, a fração de excreção de sódio se correlacionou com creatinina plasmática e proteina carreadora do retinol urin

  2. Malignant renal tumors in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin Scott Lee


    Full Text Available Renal malignancies are common in children. While the majority of malignant renal masses are secondary to Wilms tumor, it can be challenging to distinguish from more aggressive renal masses. For suspicious renal lesions, it is crucial to ensure prompt diagnosis in order to select the appropriate surgical procedure and treatment. This review article will discuss the common differential diagnosis that can be encountered when evaluating a suspicious renal mass in the pediatric population. This includes clear cell sarcoma of the kidney, malignant rhabdoid tumor, renal medullary carcinoma and lymphoma. 

  3. Insulin-like growth factor I preserves renal function postoperatively. (United States)

    Franklin, S C; Moulton, M; Sicard, G A; Hammerman, M R; Miller, S B


    Deterioration of renal function, which can lead to postoperative renal failure, is a complication of surgery involving the suprarenal aorta and surgery involving the renal arteries. Fifty-four patients who were at risk for developing this complication were enrolled in a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial of insulin-like growth factor (IGF-I) as a therapeutic agent to prevent the decline in renal function. The primary end point was the incidence of renal dysfunction, defined as a reduction of the glomerular filtration rate (creatinine clearance) at each of three measurements over 72 h. IGF-I (100 microg/kg subcutaneously every 12 h for 6 doses) or placebo was administered on admission to the intensive care unit immediately postoperatively. IGF-I- and placebo-treated groups were well matched for sex, age, type of surgery, renal ischemic time during surgery (ischemic index), baseline creatinine clearance, and baseline serum creatinine. No patient in the study developed acute renal failure postoperatively. IGF-I was well tolerated. A smaller proportion of patients in the IGF-I group had a postoperative decline in renal function (22%) than in the placebo-treated group (33%). There were no significant differences in levels of serum creatinine at time of discharge, length of hospital stay, length of intensive care unit stay, length of intubation, or incidence of dialysis or death. Our findings establish the feasibility and potential utility for the use of IGF-I to reduce the incidence of postoperative renal dysfunction in high-risk patients.

  4. Preliminary report on digitalization of renal microangiograms used in analysing renal parenchymal diseases. (United States)

    Takahashi, M; Kaneko, M


    Glomerulography is a useful method for the angiographic diagnosis of various renal parenchymal diseases. A new system for digitalization of the glomerulogram has been developed using a high resolution television camera and a CT computer. We describe the fundamental procedures involved in the clinical application of digital glomerulography by applying this method to a renal microangiogram of a cow. This new method aids a clearer understanding of the detailed microvasculatures by providing better magnification and storage and allowing for further processing of the original analogue images. With a computer printout of any part of the glomerulogram also possible, an estimation of the glomerular counts and their distribution can now be given for any unit of cross-sectional area of the renal cortex.

  5. Assessing the safety and quality of ward-based renal transplant biopsies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth Wu


    Full Text Available Kenneth Wu1, Bindhu Musunuru1, Chera Arunachalam1, Aung Sett1, Paul Musker21Renal Unit, St James’ University Hospital, Leeds, West Yorkshire, UK; 2Renal Unit, St Luke’s Hospital, Bradford, West Yorkshire, UKAbstract: The aim of this pilot study was to compare renal transplant biopsies carried out by ward-based nephrology trainees and departmental based radiologists, primarily reviewing major complications and glomerular yield. There was only one patient who developed a single episode of major complication out of the 145 procedures recorded. We concluded there is no significant difference in complication rate and glomerular yield for renal allograft biopsies between nephrology trainees and radiologists, regardless of location.Keywords: renal transplant, kidney biopsy complications, renal hemorrhage, glomerular yield

  6. Mobile satellite communications handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Cochetti, Roger


    With a Preface by noted satellite scientist Dr. Ahmad Ghais, the Second Edition reflects the expanded user base for this technology by updating information on historic, current, and planned commercial and military satellite systems and by expanding sections that explain the technology for non-technical professionals.   The book begins with an introduction to satellite communications and goes on to provide an overview of the technologies involved in mobile satellite communications, providing basic introductions to RF Issues, power Issues, link issues and system issues. It describes

  7. Satellite communication antenna technology (United States)

    Mittra, R. (Editor); Imbriale, W. A. (Editor); Maanders, E. J. (Editor)


    A general overview of current technology in the field of communication satellite antennas is presented. Among the topics discussed are: the design of multiple beam systems; frequency reuse; and polarization control of antenna measurements. Consideration is also given to: contour beam synthesis; dual shaped reflector synthesis; beam shaping; and offset reflector design. The applications of the above technologies to present and future generations of communications satellites is considered, with emphasis given to such systems as: the Intelsats; the Defense Satellite Communications System, (DSCS-III); Satellite Business System (SBS), and Comstar.

  8. Methods of satellite oceanography (United States)

    Stewart, R. H.


    The theoretical basis for remote sensing measurements of climate and ocean dynamics is examined. Consideration is given to: the absorption of electromagnetic radiation in the atmosphere; scattering in the atmosphere; and satellite observations using visible light. Consideration is also given to: the theory of radio scatter from the sea; scatter of centimeter waves from the sea; and the theory of operation of synthetic aperture radars. Additional topics include: the coordinate systems of satellite orbits for oceanographic remote sensing applications; the operating features of the major U.S. satellite systems for viewing the ocean; and satellite altimetry.

  9. Percutaneous renal tumour biopsy. (United States)

    Delahunt, Brett; Samaratunga, Hemamali; Martignoni, Guido; Srigley, John R; Evans, Andrew J; Brunelli, Matteo


    The use of percutaneous renal tumour biopsy (RTB) as a diagnostic tool for the histological characterization of renal masses has increased dramatically within the last 30 years. This increased utilization has paralleled advances in imaging techniques and an evolving knowledge of the clinical value of nephron sparing surgery. Improved biopsy techniques using image guidance, coupled with the use of smaller gauge needles has led to a decrease in complication rates. Reports from series containing a large number of cases have shown the non-diagnostic rate of RTB to range from 4% to 21%. Re-biopsy has been shown to reduce this rate, while the use of molecular markers further improves diagnostic sensitivity. In parallel with refinements of the biopsy procedure, there has been a rapid expansion in our understanding of the complexity of renal cell neoplasia. The 2013 Vancouver Classification is the current classification for renal tumours, and contains five additional entities recognized as novel forms of renal malignancy. The diagnosis of tumour morphotype on RTB is usually achievable on routine histology; however, immunohistochemical studies may be of assistance in difficult cases. The morphology of the main tumour subtypes, based upon the Vancouver Classification, is described and differentiating features are discussed.

  10. Can renal infarction occur after renal cyst aspiration? Case report. (United States)

    Emre, Habib; Soyoral, Yasemin Usul; Tanik, Serhat; Gecit, Ilhan; Begenik, Huseyin; Pirincci, Necip; Erkoc, Reha


    Renal infarction (RI) is a rarely seen disorder, and the diagnosis is often missed. The two major causes of RI are thromboemboli originhating from a thrombus in the heart or aorta, and in-situ thrombosis of a renal artery. We report a case of RI that developed due to renal artery and vein thrombosis, as confirmed by pathological evaluation of the nephrectomy material, three weeks after renal cyst aspiration.

  11. Planning, progress and problems in European satellite broadcasting (United States)

    Chaplin, J.

    An overview is presented of recent developments in the production and deployment of communications satellites for TV program distribution and direct-to-home broadcasting in Europe. Consideration is given to expanding communications satellite programs in France (Telecom 1), the United Kingdom (UNISAT); and West Germany (DFS/POSTSAT). It is pointed out that the development of satellite TV distribution in the USA has contributed to the success of the European programs. Also, the growth of the cable industry is unlikely to affect the momentum already built up in direct broadcasting from high power satellites.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Girish Pamappa


    Full Text Available Renal failure is a serious complication of malaria, with a mortality of 14 to 33%. In view of the significant morbidity and mortality due to acute renal failure in malaria, there is need to identify patients at an early stage and to intensify care given to reduce morbidity and mortality. AIMS  To evaluate the clinical profile of Acute Renal Failure (ARF in malaria.  To evaluate the factors associated with adverse outcome, relation of severity of renal impairment on final outcome in patients with ARF due to malaria. MATERIAL AND METHODS This study was conducted at a tertiary care hospital over a period of 12 months. STUDY DESIGN  Type of study: Prospective Analytical, Observational Study.  Sample Size: 50 patients admitted to ICU, Kidney Unit, and the Medicine Wards with Malaria and ARF. Inclusion Criteria Clinically screened patients with evidence of malarial parasites in the blood smears or by antigen detection with clinical features or biochemical evidence of acute renal failure. Exclusion Criteria  Presence of any disease or condition leading to ARF or affecting the outcome of malarial ARF.  Other causes of Fever, Jaundice and Oliguria, like Leptospirosis, Dengue. METHODOLOGY Fifty patients who fulfilled the inclusion criteria were interrogated with regards to the complaints, clinical signs. Blood tests were sent on admission. Details were recorded as per the clinical proforma. The patients were followed until their discharge/death. RESULTS Oliguria was present in only 30% of patients. 30% of patients received haemodialysis. The mortality was 12% for severe renal failure. On Univariate analysis, Acidosis and Cerebral malaria were highly significant predictors of mortality. Other significant predictors were Renal failure, Oliguria, Shock, DIC, Hyperparasitemia, Leukocytosis (TLC. On Multivariate analysis, Oliguria, Cerebral malaria, Acidosis, Shock and two or more complications were the independent predictors of mortality

  13. Renal sympathetic denervation: MDCT evaluation of the renal arteries.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hutchinson, Barry D


    Percutaneous transluminal renal sympathetic denervation is a new treatment of refractory systemic hypertension. The purpose of this study was to assess the clinical utility of MDCT to evaluate the anatomic configuration of the renal arteries in the context of renal sympathetic denervation.

  14. Screening renal stone formers for distal renal tubular acidosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osther, P J; Hansen, A B; Røhl, H F


    A group of 110 consecutive renal stone formers were screened for distal renal tubular acidosis (RTA) using morning fasting urinary pH (mfUpH) levels followed by a short ammonium chloride loading test in patients with levels above 6.0. In 14 patients (12.7%) a renal acidification defect was noted...

  15. Fibromuscular dysplasia of renal arteries presenting with bilateral renal infarction in a young man. (United States)

    Basile, Carlo; Lisi, Piero; Chimienti, Domenico; Antonelli, Maurizio; Bruno, Andrea; Giambersio, Silvia; Zurlo, Maria Teresa; Petronelli, Sergio


    Fibromuscular dysplasia (FMD) describes a group of conditions which cause nonatheromatous arterial stenoses, most commonly of the renal and carotid arteries, typically in young women. We report the case of a previously healthy 43-year-old white man presenting with acute bilateral flank pain. The pain was more severe on the left side. Initially treated for ureteral colic, he was transferred to the nephrology unit upon recognition of a rising serum creatinine. He was found to have FMD of bilateral renal arteries with resultant infarctions in both kidneys. He was treated with intravenous heparin and, then, warfarin at discharge. At a 16-month review, the patient remained pain-free with normal renal function and with antiplatelet and dual antihypertensive therapy. In conclusion, renal infarction complicating FMD is rare, with most cases involving causative cardiovascular risk factors, including coagulopathy, ischemic heart disease, atrial fibrillation or structural cardiac abnormalities, none of which was present in this case. What makes this case interesting are the clinically significant bilateral renal infarctions due to atypical asymmetric FMD in both kidneys in a young man.

  16. [Pediatric renal transplantation in France. Introduction]. (United States)

    Deschênes, Georges; Fila, Marc


    Pediatric nephrology is a relatively recent medical speciality. The first French center opened in January 1969 at the Hospital des Enfants-Malades. In 2008, according to the Réseau Épidémiologie et Information en Néphrologie (REIN), the annual incidence of end stage renal disease (ESRD) was of 7,8 children/million children below the age of 20, which equals a prevalence of 49 pediatric ESRD patients/million inhabitants. The frequency of causative factors of ESRD varies according to the geographic and ethnic origin of the patients. Many challenges still lay ahead of ESRD management. The children's physical, psychological and social development has to be well taken care of until adulthood and the transition from pediatric to adult unit has to be handled with special care. The set up of pediatric nephrology departments helped to the access of patients to renal replacement therapy, in particular the pediatric priority for kidney donors below 30 years of age. In the 2000s period, the annual rate of pediatric renal transplantation was 70 to 75 grafts per year in France, half of which performed in the Paris area. This article presents the historical background of pediatric nephrology and pediatric renal transplantation in France.

  17. [Renal replacement therapy for refractory heart failure]. (United States)

    Schwenger, V; Remppis, A B


    After broad cardiological and nephrological evaluation and consideration of optimal conservative options according to national and international guidelines, renal replacement therapy might be helpful in patients with refractory heart failure even if they are not dialysis-dependent. This is even more important as renal failure is a strong predictor for mortality in patients with severe congestive heart failure (CHF) and CHF is one of the fastest growing morbidities in western countries. Although peritoneal dialysis (PD) is frequently used in patients with CHF its role remains unclear. Acute chronic volume overload in refractory CHF is still an unresolved clinical problem. In patients with acute heart and renal failure with need of management in an intensive care unit, extracorporeal ultrafiltration or a dialysis modality should be preferred. In patients with chronic refractory CHF, volume overload and renal failure, peritoneal dialysis should be the therapy of choice. Due to the limited data available, treatment and outcome parameters should be recorded in the registry of the German Society of Nephrology (

  18. Renal Tumor Biopsy Technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lei Zhang; Xue-Song Li; Li-Qun Zhou


    Objective:To review hot issues and future direction of renal tumor biopsy (RTB) technique.Data Sources:The literature concerning or including RTB technique in English was collected from PubMed published from 1990 to 2015.Study Selection:We included all the relevant articles on RTB technique in English,with no limitation of study design.Results:Computed tomography and ultrasound were usually used for guiding RTB with respective advantages.Core biopsy is more preferred over fine needle aspiration because of superior accuracy.A minimum of two good-quality cores for a single renal tumor is generally accepted.The use of coaxial guide is recommended.For biopsy location,sampling different regions including central and peripheral biopsies are recommended.Conclusion:In spite of some limitations,RTB technique is relatively mature to help optimize the treatment of renal tumors.

  19. Dyslipoproteinemia in renal transplantation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunjotikar R


    Full Text Available Twenty-seven live related donor renal allograft recipients were evaluated for dyslipoproteinemia. Twenty-two patients received dual immunosuppression with prednisolone and azathioprine. Five patients received cyclosporin as well. Total cholesterol (Tch, triglycerides (TG, HDL cholesterol (HDLch, LDL cholesterol (LDLch and VLDL cholesterol (VLDLch levels were estimated. Fifteen (56% patients showed significant lipoprotein abnormalities. Renal allograft recipients showed significantly lower levels of Tch (p < 0.05 and LDLch (p < 0.05 and higher levels of TG (p < 0.005 and HDLch (p < 0.05. Diet and beta blockers did not influence lipoprotein levels. A significant negative correlation was noted between post-transplant duration and Tch, TG and VLDLch levels. Increased TG levels were associated with increase in weight and higher daily prednisolone dosage at the time of evaluation. The study confirms the existence of dyslipoproteinemia in renal allograft recipients.

  20. Renal (Kidney) Manifestations in TSC (United States)

    ... International TSC Research Conference Text Size Get Involved RENAL (KIDNEY) MANIFESTATIONS IN TSC Download a PDF of ... sclerosis complex (TSC) will develop some form of renal (kidney) disease during their lifetime. There are three ...

  1. Renal involvement in antiphospholipid syndrome. (United States)

    Pons-Estel, Guillermo J; Cervera, Ricard


    Renal involvement can be a serious problem for patients with antiphospholipid syndrome (APS). However, this complication has been poorly recognized and studied. It can be present in patients who have either primary or systemic lupus erythematosus-associated APS. Clinical and laboratory features of renal involvement in APS include hypertension, hematuria, acute renal failure, and progressive chronic renal insufficiency with mild levels of proteinuria that can progress to nephrotic-range proteinuria. The main lesions are renal artery stenosis, venous renal thrombosis, and glomerular lesions (APS nephropathy) that may be acute (thrombotic microangiopathy) and/or chronic (arteriosclerosis, arterial fibrous intimal hyperplasia, tubular thyroidization, arteriolar occlusions, and focal cortical atrophy). APS can also cause end-stage renal disease and allograft vascular thrombosis. This article reviews the range of renal abnormalities associated with APS, and their diagnosis and treatment options.

  2. [Renal transplantation and urinary lithiasis]. (United States)

    Lechevallier, E; Saussine, C; Traxer, O


    Renal lithiasis in renal donors is rare. A renal stone in a donor, or in a renal transplant, is not a contraindication for harvesting nor transplantation. If possible, the stone must be removed at the time of the transplantation. The risk of lithiasis is increased in the renal transplant recipient, with a frequency of 2-6%. Metabolic abnormalities for lithiasis are frequent and can be induced by the immunosuppressive treatment, anticalcineurins. Lithiasis can have a poor prognosis in the renal recipient with a risk for infection or renal dysfunction. Small (renal transplant can be followed-up. Stones of 0.5-1.5cm need an extracorporeal lithotripsy with a previous safety JJ stent. Stones greater than 1.5cm can be treated by ureteroscopy or percutaneous surgery.

  3. Renal denervation and hypertension. (United States)

    Schlaich, Markus P; Krum, Henry; Sobotka, Paul A; Esler, Murray D


    Essential hypertension remains one of the biggest challenges in medicine with an enormous impact on both individual and society levels. With the exception of relatively rare monogenetic forms of hypertension, there is now general agreement that the condition is multifactorial in nature and hence requires therapeutic approaches targeting several aspects of the underlying pathophysiology. Accordingly, all major guidelines promote a combination of lifestyle interventions and combination pharmacotherapy to reach target blood pressure (BP) levels in order to reduce overall cardiovascular risk in affected patients. Although this approach works for many, it fails in a considerable number of patients for various reasons including drug-intolerance, noncompliance, physician inertia, and others, leaving them at unacceptably high cardiovascular risk. The quest for additional therapeutic approaches to safely and effectively manage hypertension continues and expands to the reappraisal of older concepts such as renal denervation. Based on the robust preclinical and clinical data surrounding the role of renal sympathetic nerves in various aspects of BP control very recent efforts have led to the development of a novel catheter-based approach using radiofrequency (RF) energy to selectively target and disrupt the renal nerves. The available evidence from the limited number of uncontrolled hypertensive patients in whom renal denervation has been performed are auspicious and indicate that the procedure has a favorable safety profile and is associated with a substantial and presumably sustained BP reduction. Although promising, a myriad of questions are far from being conclusively answered and require our concerted research efforts to explore the full potential and possible risks of this approach. Here we briefly review the science surrounding renal denervation, summarize the current data on safety and efficacy of renal nerve ablation, and discuss some of the open questions that need

  4. Renal Artery Stent Outcomes (United States)

    Murphy, Timothy P.; Cooper, Christopher J.; Matsumoto, Alan H.; Cutlip, Donald E.; Pencina, Karol M.; Jamerson, Kenneth; Tuttle, Katherine R.; Shapiro, Joseph I.; D’Agostino, Ralph; Massaro, Joseph; Henrich, William; Dworkin, Lance D.


    BACKGROUND Multiple randomized clinical trials comparing renal artery stent placement plus medical therapy with medical therapy alone have not shown any benefit of stent placement. However, debate continues whether patients with extreme pressure gradients, stenosis severity, or baseline blood pressure benefit from stent revascularization. OBJECTIVES The study sought to test the hypothesis that pressure gradients, stenosis severity, and/or baseline blood pressure affects outcomes after renal artery stent placement. METHODS Using data from 947 patients with a history of hypertension or chronic kidney disease from the largest randomized trial of renal artery stent placement, the CORAL (Cardiovascular Outcomes in Renal Atherosclerotic Lesions) study, we performed exploratory analyses to determine if subsets of patients experienced better outcomes after stent placement than the overall cohort. We examined baseline stenosis severity, systolic blood pressure, and translesion pressure gradient (peak systolic and mean) and performed interaction tests and Cox proportional hazards analyses for the occurrence of the primary endpoint through all follow-up, to examine the effect of these variables on outcomes by treatment group. RESULTS There were no statistically significant differences in outcomes based on the examined variables nor were there any consistent nonsignificant trends. CONCLUSIONS Based on data from the CORAL randomized trial, there is no evidence of a significant treatment effect of the renal artery stent procedure compared with medical therapy alone based on stenosis severity, level of systolic blood pressure elevation, or according to the magnitude of the transstenotic pressure gradient. (Benefits of Medical Therapy Plus Stenting for Renal Atherosclerotic Lesions [CORAL]; NCT00081731) PMID:26653621

  5. Implementing an operating room pharmacy satellite. (United States)

    Powell, P J; Maland, L; Bair, J N; McCall, J D; Wong, K C


    Implementation of an operating room (OR) pharmacy satellite is described, and its impact on cost-effectiveness and efficiency of drug distribution is analyzed. The OR satellite provided pharmacy coverage for 30-35 patients per day in 10 centralized surgical suites, 2 obstetric suites, and 1 burn-unit suite in a 401-bed teaching hospital. Objectives of the satellite were to consolidate accountability for drug distribution and control, reduce controlled substance loss and waste, reduce inventory costs, and improve recording of patient charges. Stock on the OR supply cart was reduced, controlled substances were dispensed to anesthesiologists from the satellite, and a system of standardized anesthesiology exchange trays was developed. A new billing form served as both the charging document and replacement list. Reduction in the medication cart stock resulted in smaller discrepancies in patient charges. For the five most commonly used controlled substances, accounting discrepancies were reduced. Inventory turnover increased and inventory dollar value and cost per patient were reduced. The percent of nurses who believed that a pharmacist should work in the area increased from 31% before implementation of the satellite to 95% after. The pilot OR pharmacy satellite was a financial success. Efficiency and effectiveness in drug distribution and control were improved, and communication between pharmacists and other medical personnel working in the OR areas was enhanced.

  6. Renal Failure in Pregnancy. (United States)

    Balofsky, Ari; Fedarau, Maksim


    Renal failure during pregnancy affects both mother and fetus, and may be related to preexisting disease or develop secondary to diseases of pregnancy. Causes include hypovolemia, sepsis, shock, preeclampsia, thrombotic microangiopathies, and renal obstruction. Treatment focuses on supportive measures, while pharmacologic treatment is viewed as second-line therapy, and is more useful in mitigating harmful effects than treating the underlying cause. When supportive measures and pharmacotherapy prove inadequate, dialysis may be required, with the goal being to prolong pregnancy until delivery is feasible. Outcomes and recommendations depend primarily on the underlying cause.

  7. Renal lithiasis and nutrition. (United States)

    Grases, Felix; Costa-Bauza, Antonia; Prieto, Rafel M


    Renal lithiasis is a multifactorial disease. An important number of etiologic factors can be adequately modified through diet, since it must be considered that the urine composition is directly related to diet. In fact, the change of inappropriate habitual diet patterns should be the main measure to prevent kidney stones. In this paper, the relation between different dietary factors (liquid intake, pH, calcium, phosphate, oxalate, citrate, phytate, urate and vitamins) and each type of renal stone (calcium oxalate monohydrate papillary, calcium oxalate monohydrate unattached, calcium oxalate dihydrate, calcium oxalate dihydrate/hydroxyapatite, hydroxyapatite, struvite infectious, brushite, uric acid, calcium oxalate/uric acid and cystine) is discussed.

  8. Pediatric Renal Neoplasms. (United States)

    Ranganathan, Sarangarajan


    Renal tumors in childhood consist of a diverse group of tumors ranging from the most common Wilms' tumor, to the uncommon and often fatal rhabdoid tumor. Diagnosis is based on morphologic features and aided by ancillary techniques such as immunohistochemistry and cytogenetics. Molecular techniques have helped identify a group of pediatric renal cell carcinomas that have specific translocations, called translocation-associated carcinomas. Differential diagnosis of the various tumors is discussed. Pathogenesis and nephroblastomatosis, the precursor lesions of Wilms tumor, also are discussed briefly, as are the handling of these tumor specimens and prognostic factors. Copyright © 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Gravidez e transplante renal


    Andrade, Joana Rita Ferreira


    Enquadramento: A gravidez é rara em mulheres com Doença Renal Crónica, sobretudo em estadio avançado, em virtude de várias condicionantes como a disfunção ovárica, hemorragias vaginais anovulatórias e amenorreia. Contudo, após transplante renal é possível alimentar o sonho de constituir família, mas é preciso considerar os riscos aumentados para o enxerto e a maior susceptibilidade para complicações da gravidez. Objectivo: Avaliar os riscos e identificar as variáveis que influenciam o suce...

  10. Renal lithiasis and nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prieto Rafel M


    Full Text Available Abstract Renal lithiasis is a multifactorial disease. An important number of etiologic factors can be adequately modified trough diet, since it must be considered that the urine composition is directly related to diet. In fact, the change of inappropriate habitual diet patterns should be the main measure to prevent kidney stones. In this paper, the relation between different dietary factors (liquid intake, pH, calcium, phosphate, oxalate, citrate, phytate, urate and vitamins and each type of renal stone (calcium oxalate monohydrate papillary, calcium oxalate monohydrate unattached, calcium oxalate dihydrate, calcium oxalate dihydrate/hydroxyapatite, hydroxyapatite, struvite infectious, brushite, uric acid, calcium oxalate/uric acid and cystine is discussed.

  11. 78 FR 31576 - Enforcement Proceeding; Certain Two-Way Global Satellite Communication Devices, System and... (United States)


    ... Proceeding; Certain Two-Way Global Satellite Communication Devices, System and Components Thereof; Notice of... United States after importation of certain two-way global satellite communication devices, system and... States after importation any two-way global satellite communication devices, system, and components...

  12. Satellites of spiral galaxies (United States)

    Zaritsky, Dennis; Smith, Rodney; Frenk, Carlos; White, Simon D. M.


    We present a survey of satellites around a homogeneous set of late-type spirals with luminosity similar to that of the Milky Way. On average, we find fewer than 1.5 satellites per primary, but we argue that we can treat the survey as an ensemble and so derive the properties of the halo of a 'typical' isolated spiral. The projected density profile of the ensemble falls off approximately as 1/r. Within 50 kpc the azimuthal distribution of satellites shows some evidence for the 'Holmberg effect', an excess near the minor axis of the primary; however, at larger projected distances, the distribution appears isotropic. There is a weak but significant correlation between the size of a satellite and its distance from its primary, as expected if satellites are tidally truncated. Neither Hubble type nor spectral characteristics correlate with apparent separation. The ensemble of satellites appears to be rotating at about 30 km/s in the same direction as the galactic disk. Satellites on prograde orbits tend to be brighter than those on retrograde orbits. The typical velocity difference between a satellite and its primary shows no clear dependence either on apparent separation, or on the rotation speed of the primary. Thus our survey demonstrates that isolated spiral galaxies have massive halos that extend to many optical radii.

  13. Communication satellite technology trends (United States)

    Cuccia, Louis


    A chronology of space-Earth interconnectivity is presented. The Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS) system, Land Mobile Satellite, space-Earth antennas, impact of antenna size on coverage, intersatellite links are outlined. This presentation is represented by graphs and charts only.

  14. [Renal protection in intensive care : Myths and facts]. (United States)

    John, S


    Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a common and severe complication in patients on the intensive care unit with a significant impact on patient mortality, morbidity and costs of care; therefore, renal protective therapy is most important in these severely ill patients. Many renal protective strategies have been postulated during the last decades, which are sometimes still in place as a kind of "myth" but which are not always proven by evidence-based "facts". The aim of this review is therefore to question and compare some of these "myths" with the available "facts". Most important for renal protection is the early identification of patients at risk for AKI or with acute kidney damage before renal function deteriorates further. A stage-based management of AKI comprises more general measures, such as discontinuation of nephrotoxic agents and adjustment of diuretic doses but most importantly early hemodynamic stabilization with crystalloid volume replacement solutions and vasopressors, such as noradrenaline. The aim is to ensure optimal renal perfusion and perfusion pressure. Patients with known arterial hypertension potentially need higher perfusion pressures. Large amounts of hyperchloremic solutions should be avoided. Volume overload and renal vasodilatory substances can also lead to further deterioration of kidney function. There is still no specific pharmacological therapy for renal protection.

  15. Branchio-oto-renal syndrome. (United States)

    Jalil, Jawad; Basheer, Faisal; Shafique, Mobeen


    The association of branchial arch anomalies (branchial cysts, branchial fistulas), hearing loss and renal anomalies constitutes the branchio-oto-renal (BOR) syndrome also known as Melnick Fraser syndrome. We present a case of this rare disorder in a girl child who presented with profound deafness, preauricular pits, branchial sinuses and renal hypoplasia.

  16. Drug-induced renal disease. (United States)

    Curtis, J R


    The clinical manifestations of drug-induced renal disease may include all the manifestations attributed to natural or spontaneous renal diseases such as acute renal failure, chronic renal failure, acute nephritic syndrome, renal colic, haematuria, selective tubular defects, obstructive nephropathy, etc. It is therefore vital in any patient with renal disease whatever the clinical manifestations might be, to obtain a meticulous drug and toxin inventory. Withdrawal of the offending drug may result in amelioration or cure of the renal disorder although in the case of severe renal failure it may be necessary to utilise haemodialysis or peritoneal dialysis to tide the patient over the period of acute renal failure. Analgesic nephropathy is an important cause of terminal chronic renal failure and it is therefore vital to make the diagnosis as early as possible. The pathogenesis of some drug-induced renal disorders appears to be immunologically mediated. There are many other pathogenetic mechanisms involved in drug-induced renal disorders and some drugs may under appropriate circumstances be responsible for a variety of different nephrotoxic effects. For example, the sulphonamides have been incriminated in examples of crystalluria, acute interstitial nephritis, acute tubular necrosis, generalised hypersensitivity reactions, polyarteritis nodosa and drug-induced lupus erythematosus.

  17. Management of chronic renal failure.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Zeeuw, D.; Apperloo, AJ; de Jong, P.


    There is growing evidence that treatment of patients with renal function impairment will undergo a major shift within the next few years. Along with more or less successful attempts to alleviate the signs and symptoms of reduced renal function, new insights into renal pathophysiology as well as new

  18. Randomized multicentre pilot study of sacubitril/valsartan versus irbesartan in patients with chronic kidney disease: United Kingdom Heart and Renal Protection (HARP)- III-rationale, trial design and baseline data. (United States)


    Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) are at risk of progression to end-stage renal disease and cardiovascular disease. Data from other populations and animal experiments suggest that neprilysin inhibition (which augments the natriuretic peptide system) may reduce these risks, but clinical trials among patients with CKD are required to test this hypothesis. UK Heart and Renal Protection III (HARP-III) is a multicentre, double-blind, randomized controlled trial comparing sacubitril/valsartan 97/103 mg two times daily (an angiotensin receptor-neprilysin inhibitor) with irbesartan 300 mg one time daily among 414 patients with CKD. Patients ≥18 years of age with an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) of ≥45 but 20 mg/mmol or eGFR ≥20 but <45 mL/min/1.73 m(2) (regardless of uACR) were invited to be screened. Following a 4- to 7-week pre-randomization single-blind placebo run-in phase (during which any current renin-angiotensin system inhibitors were stopped), willing and eligible participants were randomly assigned either sacubitril/valsartan or irbesartan and followed-up for 12 months. The primary aim was to compare the effects of sacubitril/valsartan and irbesartan on measured GFR after 12 months of therapy. Important secondary outcomes include effects on albuminuria, change in eGFR over time and the safety and tolerability of sacubitril/valsartan in CKD. Between November 2014 and January 2016, 620 patients attended a screening visit and 566 (91%) entered the pre-randomization run-in phase. Of these, 414 (73%) participants were randomized (mean age 63 years; 72% male). The mean eGFR was 34.0 mL/min/1.73 m(2) and the median uACR was 58.5 mg/mmol. UK HARP-III will provide important information on the short-term effects of sacubitril/valsartan on renal function, tolerability and safety among patients with CKD. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of ERA-EDTA.

  19. Vehicle antenna development for mobile satellite applications (United States)

    Woo, K.


    The paper summarizes results of a vehicle antenna program at JPL in support of a developing U.S. mobile satellite services (MSS) designed to provide telephone and data services for the continental United States. Two classes of circularly polarized vehicle antennas have been considered for the MSS: medium-gain, satellite-tracking antennas with 10-12-dBic gain; and low-gain, azimuthally omnidirectional antennas with 3-5-dBic gain. The design and performance of these antennas are described, and the two antennas are shown to have peculiar advantages and disadvantages.

  20. [Hypertension and renal disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamper, A.L.; Pedersen, E.B.; Strandgaard, S.


    hypertension. Mild degrees of chronic kidney disease (CKD) can be detected in around 10% of the population, and detection is important as CKD is an important risk factor for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. Conversely, heart failure may cause an impairment of renal function. In chronic progressive...

  1. Insuficiencia renal aguda.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Hernán Mejía


    Full Text Available La insuficiencia renal aguda se diagnostica aproximadamente en 5% de los pacientes hospitalizados. Sus principales causas se relacionan con la alteración del flujo sanguíneo renal, sea por depleción de volumen, baja perfusión renal o por distribución intrarrenal inadecuada y obstrucción del árbol urinario. El diagnóstico parte de la historia clínica y un buen examen físico que corrobore el estado de volemia del paciente y se complementa con el uso adecuado de los índices urinarios (excreción de sodio y osmolaridad, el uroanálisis y la ecografía renal. Su tratamiento consiste en una adecuada recuperación del volumen, manejo de los diuréticos, soporte nutricional, conservación del equilibrio hidroelectrolítico y brindar terapia de diálisis si hay toxicidad urémica, hipercaliemia severa (>6.5 mEq/l, acidosis metabólica o sobrecarga severa de volumen.

  2. Management of Renal Cysts (United States)

    Nalbant, Ismail; Can Sener, Nevzat; Firat, Hacer; Yeşil, Süleyman; Zengin, Kürşad; Yalcınkaya, Fatih; Imamoglu, Abdurrahim


    Background and Objectives: Renal cysts have a high prevalence in the general population, and their estimated incidence increases with age. Renal cyst aspiration (usually with sclerotherapy) or open/laparoscopic decortication is a generally effective and safe method in the treatment of symptomatic simple renal cysts. The success rates of laparoscopic decortication and percutaneous aspiration-sclerotherapy were compared to assist in the decision making for the procedure. Methods: A total of 184 patients with symptomatic simple renal cysts were treated with either laparoscopic decortication in 149 cases or percutaneous aspiration-sclerotherapy in 35 cases. The follow-up period was approximately 35 months, and the symptomatic and radiologic success rates of the 2 techniques were compared retrospectively. Results: Laparoscopic decortication was found to have high success rates, a low recurrence rate, and minimal morbidity. Percutaneous aspiration-sclerotherapy is an outpatient procedure with a minimally higher recurrence rate. Conclusion: When a symptomatic cyst is encountered and treatment of the cyst is indicated, laparoscopic decortication is a more efficient method that offers better results than percutaneous aspiration-sclerotherapy. PMID:25848184

  3. Rupture of Renal Transplant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shona Baker


    Full Text Available Background. Rupture of renal allograft is a rare and serious complication of transplantation that is usually attributed to acute rejection, acute tubular necrosis, or renal vein thrombosis. Case Presentation. LD, a 26-year-old male with established renal failure, underwent deceased donor transplantation using kidney from a 50-year-old donor with acute kidney injury (Cr 430 mmol/L. LD had a stormy posttransplant recovery and required exploration immediately for significant bleeding. On day three after transplant, he developed pain/graft swelling and another significant haemorrhage with cardiovascular compromise which did not respond to aggressive resuscitation. At reexploration, the renal allograft was found to have a longitudinal rupture and was removed. Histology showed features of type IIa Banff 97 acute vascular rejection, moderate arteriosclerosis, and acute tubular necrosis. Conclusion. Possible ways of avoiding allograft rupture include use of well-matched, good quality kidneys; reducing or managing risk factors that would predispose to delayed graft function; ensuring a technically satisfactory transplant procedure with short cold and warm ischemia times; and avoiding large donor-recipient age gradients.

  4. Primary renal graft thrombosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakir, N; Sluiter, WJ; Ploeg, RJ; van Son, WJ; Tegzess, Adam


    Background. Renal allograft thrombosis is a serious complication of kidney transplantation that ultimately leads to graft loss. Its association with acute and hyperacute rejection is well documented; however, in a large proportion of patients the precise cause remains obscure. The exact incidence an

  5. ``Aggressive`` renal angiomyolipoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cittadini, G. Jr. [Univ. of Genoa (Italy). Dept. of Radiology; Pozzi Mucelli, F. [Univ. of Trieste (Italy). Dept. of Radiology; Danza, F.M. [Catholic Sacro Cuore Univ., Rome (Italy). Dept. of Radiology; Derchi, L.E. [Univ. of Genoa (Italy). Dept. of Radiology; Pozzi Mucelli, R.S. [Univ. of Trieste (Italy). Dept. of Radiology


    We describe the US and CT examinations of 4 patients with renal angiomyolipoma with an `aggressive` appearance, and review the literature. The imaging findings in 4 patients with benign renal angiomyolipomas associated with thrombosis of the renal vein and/or inferior vena cava are presented. CT demonstrated fat densities within both tumor and thrombus. In one patient, small lymph nodes with low density internal areas were detected in the para-aortic region. When considering our patients together with those reported in the literature, we found that most angiomyolipomas with venous invasion were large and centrally located within the kidney. Venous thrombosis was observed in 9 lesions of the right kidney, and in only 4 of the left one. One patient only had symptoms due to the thrombus; 10 had problems due to the tumor; and 3 were asymptomatic. Only 4 patients with pararenal enlarged lymph nodes have been reported on in the imaging literature. Fat-containing nodes were detected by CT in one case only; the others had enlarged nodes of soft-tissue density. In one patient the diagnosis of hamartomatous lymph node invasion was established by angiography. In patients with renal angiomyolipoma, demonstration of both fatty thrombus and the fatty infiltration of lymph nodes of the renal hilum cannot be regarded as an indication of malignancy, but only of local aggessive behavior. Conservative treatment seems possible. Detection of enlarged lymph nodes of soft tissue density may cause difficult diagnostic problems, with the diagnosis addressed only by the presence of associated lesions. (orig./MG).

  6. Pseudomelanosis duodeni associated with chronic renal failure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Marcia Henriques de Magalh(a)es Costa; Maria da Gloria Fernandes Pegado; Cleber Vargas; Maria Elizabeth C Castro; Kalil Madi; Tiago Nunes; Cyrla Zaltman


    Pseudomelanosis duodeni (PD) is a rare dark speckled appearance of the duodenum associated with gastrointestinal bleeding,hypertension,chronic heart failure,chronic renal failure and consumption of different drugs.We report four cases of PD associated with chronic renal failure admitted to the gastroenterology outpatient unit due to epigastric pain,nausea,melena and progressive reduction of hemoglobin index.Gastroduodenal endoscopy revealed erosions in the esophagus and stomach,with no active bleeding at the moment.In addition,the duodenal mucosa presented marked signs of melanosis; later confirmed by histopathological study.Even though PD is usually regarded as a benign condition,its pathogenesis and clinical significance is yet to be defined.

  7. Beginnings of Satellite Navigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miljenko Solarić


    Full Text Available The first satellite navigation system called the Navy Navigation Satellite System (NNSS or TRANSIT was planned in the USA in 1958. It consisted of 5-6 artificial Earth satellites, was set in motion for the USA military in 1964, and in 1967 for civilian purposes. The frequency shift of received radio waves emitted from the satellite and caused by the Doppler effect was measured. The TRANSIT satellite speed of approaching or moving away was derived from that; the TRANSIT satellites emmited also their own coordinates. Then the ship's position was determined by an intersection of three hyperboloids, which were determined from differences of distances in three time intervals. Maintenance of this navigation system was stopped in 1996, but it is still being used in the USA Navy for exploring the ionosphere. Furthermore, results of Doppler measurements in international projects at the Hvar Observatory from 1982 and 1983. This was the first time in Croatia and the former country that the coordinates of the Hvar Observatory were determined in the unique world coordinate system WGS'72. The paper ends with a brief representation of the Tsiklon Doppler navigation system produced in the former Soviet Union, and there is a list of some of numerous produced and designed satellite navigation systems.Ključne riječi

  8. Concept design of HAYATE : Small satellite for supporting Antarctic geophysical observation


    Yoshihara, Keisuke; Sugiura, Yoshiki; Sekiguchi,Masato; Ui, Kyoichi; Tsurumi,Singo; Nakaya, Koji; Mori, Makoto; Matsunaga, Saburo; Ohkami, Yoshiaki


    This paper presents the results of conceptual design of a small communication satellite (HAYATE) for supporting research in Antarctica and remote islands. The HAY ATE satellite collects environmental data from unmanned probes located on the Antarctic ice plate and also transmits data from Syowa Station in Antarctica to Japan and the United States. Through the satellite mission analyses, we confirmed that the HAYATE satellite would be able to gather data for GPS baseline analysis and to observ...

  9. Chronic renal disease in pregnancy. (United States)

    Ramin, Susan M; Vidaeff, Alex C; Yeomans, Edward R; Gilstrap, Larry C


    The purpose of this review was to examine the impact of varying degrees of renal insufficiency on pregnancy outcome in women with chronic renal disease. Our search of the literature did not reveal any randomized clinical trials or meta-analyses. The available information is derived from opinion, reviews, retrospective series, and limited observational series. It appears that chronic renal disease in pregnancy is uncommon, occurring in 0.03-0.12% of all pregnancies from two U.S. population-based and registry studies. Maternal complications associated with chronic renal disease include preeclampsia, worsening renal function, preterm delivery, anemia, chronic hypertension, and cesarean delivery. The live birth rate in women with chronic renal disease ranges between 64% and 98% depending on the severity of renal insufficiency and presence of hypertension. Significant proteinuria may be an indicator of underlying renal insufficiency. Management of pregnant women with underlying renal disease should ideally entail a multidisciplinary approach at a tertiary center and include a maternal-fetal medicine specialist and a nephrologist. Such women should receive counseling regarding the pregnancy outcomes in association with maternal chronic renal disease and the effect of pregnancy on renal function, especially within the ensuing 5 years postpartum. These women will require frequent visits and monitoring of renal function during pregnancy. Women whose renal disease is further complicated by hypertension should be counseled regarding the increased risk of adverse outcome and need for blood pressure control. Some antihypertensives, especially angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin-receptor blockers, should be avoided during pregnancy, if possible, because of the potential for both teratogenic (hypocalvaria) and fetal effects (renal failure, oliguria, and demise).


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Suganya Gnanadeepam


    Full Text Available BACKGROUND The kidney and the skin are the two large networks of the body with abundant blood supply associated with various cutaneous manifestations. This study aims to detect the various cutaneous manifestations and its incidence in patients with chronic renal failure and renal transplantation. MATERIALS AND METHODS This study was done for a period of 1 year from January 2016 to December 2016 at Nephrology OPD ward and Medicine wards, Government KAPV Medical College Hospital, Trichy. During this period, 100 patients who had the presence of skin manifestations were selected and studied (80 renal failure patients and 20 renal transplantation patients. RESULTS Most of the specific cutaneous manifestations of chronic renal failure and renal transplantation were noted in this study. Pruritus and xerosis were the most common manifestations noted in chronic renal failure while infections was commonly noted in renal transplantation patients. CONCLUSION Pruritus and xerosis were the most common among the specific cutaneous manifestations in chronic renal failure followed by nail abnormalities and pigmentary changes. Cutaneous manifestations of renal transplantation were mostly due to infections of which fungal infection is the most common followed by viral infection.

  11. Transarterial embolization for serious renal hemorrhage following renal biopsy. (United States)

    Zeng, Dan; Liu, Guihua; Sun, Xiangzhou; Zhuang, Wenquan; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Guo, Wenbo; Yang, Jianyong; Chen, Wei


    The goal of this study is to evaluate the feasibility and efficacy of percutaneous transarterial embolization for the treatment of serious renal hemorrhage after renal biopsy. Nine patients with renal hemorrhage had frank pain and gross hematuria as main symptoms after renal biopsy. Intrarenal arterial injuries and perinephric hematoma were confirmed by angiography in all cases. The arterial injuries led to two types of renal hemorrhage, Type I: severe renal injure or intrarenal renal artery rupture (n=5), with contrast medium spilling out of the artery and spreading into renal pelvis or kidney capsule in angiography; Type II, pseudo aneurysm or potential risk of intrarenal artery injure (n=4), where contrast medium that spilled out of intraartery was retained in the parenchyma as little spots less than 5 mm in diameter in angiography. Transcatheter superselective intrarenal artery embolization was performed with coils or microcoils (Type I intrarenal artery injure) and polyvinyl alcohol particles (Type II injure). The intrarenal arterial injuries were occluded successfully in all patients. Light or mild back or abdominal pain in the side of the embolized kidney was found in three patients following embolization procedures and disappeared 3 days later. Serum creatinine and perinephric hematoma were stable, and gross hematuresis stopped immediately (n=4) or 3-5 days (n=3) after embolization. In conclusions, transcatheter superselective intrarenal artery embolization as a minimally invasive therapy is safe and effective for treatment of serious renal hemorrhage following percutaneous renal biopsy.

  12. Imaging artificial satellites: An observational challenge (United States)

    Smith, D. A.; Hill, D. C.


    According to the Union of Concerned Scientists, as of the beginning of 2016 there are 1381 active satellites orbiting the Earth, and the United States' Space Surveillance Network tracks about 8000 manmade orbiting objects of baseball-size and larger. NASA estimates debris larger than 1 cm to number more than half a million. The largest ones can be seen by eye—unresolved dots of light that move across the sky in minutes. For most astrophotographers, satellites are annoying streaks that can ruin hours of work. However, capturing a resolved image of an artificial satellite can pose an interesting challenge for a student, and such a project can provide connections between objects in the sky and commercial and political activities here on Earth.

  13. Trends In Satellite Communication (United States)

    Poley, William A.; Stevens, Grady H.; Stevenson, Steven M.; Lekan, Jack; Arth, Clifford H.; Hollansworth, James E.; Miller, Edward F.


    Report assesses trends in satellite communication from present to year 2010. Examines restrictions imposed by limited spectrum resource and technology needs created by trends. Personal communications, orbiting switchboards, and videophones foreseen.

  14. Domestic Communication Satellites (United States)

    Horowitz, Andrew


    A discussion of the Federal Communications Commission's new policy on domestic satellites in light of our 1) military and economic history; 2) corporate interests; 3) citizen surveillance; and 4) media control. (HB)

  15. Handbook of satellite applications

    CERN Document Server

    Madry, Scott; Camacho-Lara, Sergio


    Top space experts from around the world have collaborated to produce this comprehensive, authoritative, and clearly illustrated reference guide to the fast growing, multi-billion dollar field of satellite applications and space communications. This handbook, done under the auspices of the International Space University based in France, addresses not only system technologies but also examines market dynamics, technical standards and regulatory constraints. The handbook is a completely multi-disciplinary reference book that covers, in an in-depth fashion, the fields of satellite telecommunications, Earth observation, remote sensing, satellite navigation, geographical information systems, and geosynchronous meteorological systems. It covers current practices and designs as well as advanced concepts and future systems. It provides a comparative analysis of the common technologies and design elements for satellite application bus structures, thermal controls, power systems, stabilization techniques, telemetry, com...

  16. Biological satellite Kosmos-936 (United States)

    Vedeshin, L. A.


    A description is given of physiological experiments performed on the biological satellite Kosmos-936. Other experiments to determine the electrostatic and dielectric responses to the effects of cosmic radiation are discussed.

  17. Small Satellite Transporter Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The primary objective is to determine whether this small satellite transporter is capable of transporting at least four 6U CubeSats is possible for a given set of...

  18. DFH-3 Satellite Platform

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    The DFH-3 satellite platform is designed and developed by China Academy of Space Technology (CAST). It is a medium capability communications satellite platform. The platform adopts threeaxis attitude stabilization control system, having solar array output power of 1.7kW by the end of its design lifetime of 8 years. Its mass is 2100kg with payload capacity of 220kg.

  19. The Archimedes satellite system (United States)

    Taylor, Stuart C.; Shurvinton, William D.


    Archimedes is a satellite system conceived by the European Space Agency (ESA) to effectively serve the European market for Mobile Radio Services (MRS). This paper describes the requirements and technical design of the Archimedes satellite system. The underlying assumptions and trade-offs behind the design are detailed and the design is compared and contrasted against alternative design solutions, both technically and economically. A path forward for the development of the system is indicated.

  20. ASTRID II satellit projekt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, John Leif; Primdahl, Fritz


    The report describes the instruments developed for the Swedish micro satellite "ASTRID II". Specifications of the two instruments realized under this contract, a Stellar Compass and a CSC magnetometer are given follwed by a description of the project status and plan.......The report describes the instruments developed for the Swedish micro satellite "ASTRID II". Specifications of the two instruments realized under this contract, a Stellar Compass and a CSC magnetometer are given follwed by a description of the project status and plan....

  1. Drug dosing during intermittent hemodialysis and continuous renal replacement therapy : special considerations in pediatric patients. (United States)

    Veltri, Michael A; Neu, Alicia M; Fivush, Barbara A; Parekh, Rulan S; Furth, Susan L


    Chronic renal failure is, fortunately, an unusual occurrence in children; however, many children with various underlying illnesses develop acute renal failure, and transiently require renal replacement therapy - peritoneal dialysis, intermittent hemodialysis (IHD), or continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT). As children with acute and chronic renal failure often have multiple comorbid conditions requiring drug therapy, generalists, intensivists, nephrologists, and pharmacists need to be aware of the issues surrounding the management of drug therapy in pediatric patients undergoing renal replacement therapy. This article summarizes the pharmacokinetics and dosing of many drugs commonly prescribed for pediatric patients, and focuses on the management of drug therapy in pediatric patients undergoing IHD and CRRT in the intensive care unit setting. Peritoneal dialysis is not considered in this review. Finally, a summary table with recommended initial dosages for drugs commonly encountered in pediatric patients requiring IHD or CRRT is presented.

  2. Problemas renales de la cirrosis Renal problems of cirrhosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvaro García


    Full Text Available Presentamos una revisión actualizada y condensada acerca de los problemas renales más relevantes que ocurren en la cirrosis tales como las alteraciones en el manejo del sodio y del agua, el tratamiento de la ascitis y el edema y el enfoque de la falla renal que ocurre en esta enfermedad, es decir síndrome hepato-renal y necrosis tubular aguda.

    We present a condensed and updated review on the most common renal problems occurring in cirrhosis such as the handling of sodium and water, the treatment of ascites and edema and the approach to the renal failure that frequently takes place in this disease, namely hepato-renal syndrome and acute tubular necrosis.

  3. Satellite formation. II (United States)

    Harris, A. W.


    A satellite formation model is extended to include evolution of planetary ring material and elliptic orbital motion. In this model the formation of the moon begins at a later time in the growth of the earth, and a significant fraction of the lunar material is processed through a circumterrestrial debris cloud where volatiles might have been lost. Thus, the chemical differences between the earth and moon are more plausibly accounted for. Satellites of the outer planets probably formed in large numbers throughout the growth of those planets. Because of rapid inward evolution of the orbits of small satellites, the present satellite systems represent only satellites formed in the last few percent of the growths of their primaries. The rings of Saturn and Uranus are most plausibly explained as the debris of satellites disrupted within the Roche limit. Because such a ring would collapse onto the planet in the course of any significant further accretion by the planet, the rings must have formed very near or even after the conclusion of accretion.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    China on Sept. 27, 2004 launched a scientific satellite atop a Long March 2D carrier rocket from Jiuquan Satellite Launch Center in Gansu province. 10 minutes after the launch, the satellite entered a preset orbit and is running sound at the orbit. It is the 20th recoverable satellite for scientific and technological

  5. Assessment of Renal Perfusion in a Canine Model Using FS069, A New Transpulmonary Echocontrast Agent. (United States)

    Mobarek, Sameh K.; Kates, Marc A.; Murgo, Joseph P.; Moreno, Carlos A.; Revall, Susan; Cheirif, Jorge


    We have previously demonstrated the safety and efficacy of FS069, a new transpulmonary echocontrast agent, for myocardial opacification. To our knowledge, no information exists regarding the use of this agent for transcutaneous assessment of renal perfusion. We studied 14 mongrel dogs using intravenously administered FS069. Renal ultrasound imaging was performed with a Hewlett-Packard Sonos 1500 using a 3.5-MHz transducer. Renal blood flow (ReBF) was altered using renal artery occlusion in four dogs and dipyridamole (0.56 mg/kg IV) in ten dogs. Renal perfusion was quantitatively assessed before and after each intervention using background subtracted peak intensity. ReBF was assessed with radiolabeled microspheres in ten dogs. Renal opacification was observed in all 14 dogs at baseline. The intravenous contrast dose required to produce optimal renal opacification ranged from 0.3-0.7 cc. After renal artery occlusion, peak intensity was reduced from 5.4 +/- 5.8 to 0.93 +/- 1.1 units (r = 0.99, P change from baseline). The inverse relation between ReBF and peak intensity observed suggests vasoconstriction of the afferent arterioles in response to dipyridamole and a reduced clearance of the contrast. These findings are in agreement with previous data demonstrating decreased renal thallium clearance postdipyridamole administration. Our data document the feasibility to assess renal perfusion under various flow states after intravenous injection of FS069.

  6. Renal subcapsular haematoma: an unusual complication of renal artery stenting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIA Dan; CHEN Shan-wen; ZHANG Hong-kun; WANG Shuo


    After successful renal artery angioplasty and stent placement, a patient in a fully anticoagulated state developed hypotension and flank pain. Computed tomography (CT) of the abdomen revealed a large renal subcapsular haematoma which was successfully managed conservatively without embolotherapy and surgical intervention. To prevent hemorrhage after renal artery stenting, it is necessary to underscore the importance of reducing the contrast volume and pressure of angiography, controlling systemic blood pressure, and monitoring guide wire position at all times.

  7. Dopamins renale virkninger

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Niels Vidiendal


    Dopamine is an endogenic catecholamine which, in addition to being the direct precursor of noradrenaline, has also an effect on peripheral dopaminergic receptors. These are localized mainly in the heart, splanchnic nerves and the kidneys. Dopamine is produced in the kidneys and the renal metaboli...... dialysis unnecessary in a number of patients on account of increased diuresis and natriuresis. The effect of GFR and the significance for the prognosis are not known....

  8. Renal lithiasis and nutrition


    Prieto Rafel M; Costa-Bauza Antonia; Grases Felix


    Abstract Renal lithiasis is a multifactorial disease. An important number of etiologic factors can be adequately modified trough diet, since it must be considered that the urine composition is directly related to diet. In fact, the change of inappropriate habitual diet patterns should be the main measure to prevent kidney stones. In this paper, the relation between different dietary factors (liquid intake, pH, calcium, phosphate, oxalate, citrate, phytate, urate and vitamins) and each type of...

  9. Nutrition and renal disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iris de Castaño


    Full Text Available Kidney plays an important roll in body homeostasis through excretory, metabolic and endocrine functions. Kidneys filter fluids and solutes and reabsorbed water , electrolytes an minerals. Urine volume and solute excretion are adjusted to keep composition of the extracellular space, serum osmolarity and intravascular volume in constant balance. Kidneys also regulate acid base equilibrium, hormone metabolism and excretion and amino acid concentration. Vitamin D hydroxylation takes place in the kidney, this is the active form of this vitamin, which inhibits PTH. In addition they produce erythropoietin which control hemoglobin concentration in erythrocytes. When renal insufficiency develops, and glormerular filtration rate is between 50 to 75% of normal, this functions are decreased .When renal function is less than 10%, this functions ceased. In children small changes in water, solute, acid base, calcium and phosphorus can alter normal growth and development. If kidneys can not maintain internal equilibrium, specific nutrients should be used. Compensation should be done according to age, type or renal disease and level of glomerular filtration rate.

  10. Renal artery aneurysm mimicking renal calculus with hydronephrosis. (United States)

    Chen, Shanwen; Meng, Hongzhou; Cao, Min; Shen, Baihua


    A 51-year-old woman was found to have a left renal calculus with hydronephrosis. She underwent unsuccessful extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy, leading to the recommendation that percutaneous lithotomy was necessary to remove the renal calculus. In view of the unusual shape of the calculus and absence of abnormalities in urine sediment, preoperative computed tomography and renal angiography were performed, which instead showed a calcified left renal artery aneurysm. Subsequent efforts to perform an aneurysmectomy also failed, eventually necessitating left nephrectomy. This case illustrates the pitfalls in the diagnosis of a renal artery aneurysm, which is a relatively common condition that may have unusual presentations. Hence, it is suggested that the possibility of a renal artery aneurysm be considered in the differential diagnosis when one detects a renal calculus with an unusual appearance. In addition, we propose that 3-dimensional reconstruction computed tomography be performed before considering surgical options for such renal calculi to rule out the possibility of a renal artery aneurysm.

  11. Renal scintigraphy in infants with antenatally diagnosed renal pelvis dilatation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajdinović Boris


    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Ureteropelvic junction obstruction and vesicoureteral reflux are the most frequent entities identified on the basis of antenatal hydronephrosis. The aim of this study was to determine the incidence and pattern of abnormal renal scintigraphy findings in postnatal investigation of children with antenatal hydronephrosis. Methods. Twenty four infants (19 boys and five girls presented with antenatal hydronephrosis and mild to moderate hydronephrosis on ultrasound in newborn period were referred for renal scintigraphy. Ten patients with vesicoureteral reflux documented on micturating cystoureterography underwent 99mTc-DMSA renal scintigraphy and 14 patients were subjected to 99mTc-DTPA scintigraphy. Results. Anteroposterior pelvic diameter on ultrasound ranged from 11 to 24 mm. Renal DMSA scans identified congenital scars in two boys with bilateral reflux of grade V and unilateral reflux of grade III. Relative kidney uptake (RKU less than 40% was found in three, and poor kidney function (RKU less than 10% in two patients. Significant obstruction was shown on DTPA diuretic renal scintigraphy in 6/14 patients. Some slowing in dranaige (T1/2 greater than 10 minutes with no reduction in differential renal function was identified in three patients. Differential renal function less than 10% was obtained in one case. Conclusion. A high percent of abnormal renal scintigraphy findings was obtained. Renal scintigraphy was useful in determination of underlying cause of antenatally detected hydronephrosis.

  12. Satellite Communications for ATM (United States)

    Shamma, Mohammed A.


    This presentation is an overview on Satellite Communication for the Aeronautical Telecommunication Management (ATM) research. Satellite Communications are being considered by the FAA and NASA as a possible alternative to the present and future ground systems supporting Air Traffic Communications. The international Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) have in place Standards and Recommended Practices (SARPS) for the Aeronautical Mobile Satellite Services (AMSS) which is mainly derived from the pre-existing Inmarsat service that has been in service since the 1980s. The Working Group A of the Aeronautical Mobile Communication Panel of ICAO has also been investigating SARPS for what is called the Next Generation Satellite Service (NGSS) which conforms less to the Inmarsat based architecture and explores wider options in terms of satellite architectures. Several designs are being proposed by Firms such as Boeing, ESA, NASA that are geared toward full or secondary usage of satellite communications for ATM. Satellite communications for ATM can serve several purposes ranging from primary usage where ground services would play a minimal backup role, to an integrated solution where it will be used to cover services, or areas that are less likely to be supported by the proposed and existing ground infrastructure. Such Integrated roles can include usage of satellite communications for oceanic and remote land areas for example. It also can include relieving the capacity of the ground network by providing broadcast based services of Traffic Information Services messages (TIS-B), or Flight Information Services (FIS-B) which can take a significant portion of the ground system capacity. Additionally, satellite communication can play a backup role to support any needs for ground replacement, or additional needed capacity even after the new digital systems are in place. The additional bandwidth that can be provided via satellite communications can also open the door for many new

  13. Forecasting Hurricane by Satellite Image (United States)

    Liu, M. Y.

    Earth is an endanger planet. Severe weather, especially hurricanes, results in great disaster all the world. World Meteorology Organization and United Nations Environment Program established intergovernment Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) to offer warnings about the present and future disasters of the Earth. It is the mission for scientists to design warning system to predict the severe weather system and to reduce the damage of the Earth. Hurricanes invade all the world every year and made millions damage to all the people. Scientists in weather service applied satellite images and synoptic data to forecast the information for the next hours for warning purposes. Regularly, hurricane hits on Taiwan island directly will pass through her domain and neighbor within 10 hours. In this study, we are going to demonstrate a tricky hurricane NARI invaded Taiwan on September 16, 2000. She wandered in the neighborhood of the island more than 72 hours and brought heavy rainfall over the island. Her track is so tricky that scientists can not forecast her path using the regular method. Fortunately, all scientists in the Central Weather Bureau paid their best effort to fight against the tricky hurricane. Applying the new developed technique to analysis the satellite images with synoptic data and radar echo, scientists forecasted the track, intensity and rainfall excellently. Thus the damage of the severe weather reduced significantly.

  14. Experimental Satellite 2 Successfully Launched

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Small satellite Experimental Satellite 2 (SY-2) was launched by LM-2C launch vehicle from Xichang Satellite Launch Center on Nov. 18, 2004. Later the satellite entered the preset sun-synchronous orbit, which is 700 kilometers above the earth. The launch was the eighthmission this year by China Aerospace Science and Technology Corporation(CASC), which aims to test the technology of the satellite, conduct survey and monitoring of the land and resources and geographical environment on a trial basis.

  15. China's Meteorological Satellite Application System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Jiashen


    @@ China's meteorological satellite program consists of five systems,namely the satellite system,the launch vehicle system,the launch center system,TT&C and the ground application system.The satellite system consists of FengYun (FY) polar orbiting series and FY geostationary series,which are launched by LM launch vehicles from Taiyan Satellite Launch Center (TSLC) and Xichang Satellite Launch Center (XSLC) respectively.

  16. Space Solar Power Satellite Systems, Modern Small Satellites, and Space Rectenna (United States)

    Bergsrud, Corey Alexis Marvin

    Space solar power satellite (SSPS) systems is the concept of placing large satellite into geostationary Earth orbit (GEO) to harvest and convert massive amounts of solar energy into microwave energy, and to transmit the microwaves to a rectifying antenna (rectenna) array on Earth. The rectenna array captures and converts the microwave power into usable power that is injected into the terrestrial electric grid for use. This work approached the microwave power beam as an additional source of power (with solar) for lower orbiting satellites. Assuming the concept of retrodirectivity, a GEO-SSPS antenna array system tracks and delivers microwave power to lower orbiting satellites. The lower orbiting satellites are equipped with a stacked photovoltaic (PV)/rectenna array hybrid power generation unit (HPGU) in order to harvest solar and/or microwave energy for on-board use during orbit. The area, and mass of the PV array part of the HPGU was reduced at about 32% beginning-of-life power in order to achieve the spacecraft power requirements. The HPGU proved to offer a mass decrease in the PGU, and an increase in mission life due to longer living component life of the rectenna array. Moreover, greater mission flexibility is achieved through a track and power delivery concept. To validate the potential advantages offered by a HPGU, a mission concept was presented that utilizes modern small satellites as technology demonstrators. During launch, a smaller power receiving "daughter" satellite sits inside a larger power transmitting "mother" satellite. Once separated from the launch vehicle the daughter satellite is ejected away from the mother satellite, and each satellite deploys its respective power transmitting or power receiving hardware's for experimentation. The concept of close proximity mission operations between the satellites is considered. To validate the technology of the space rectenna array part of the HPGU, six milestones were completed in the design. The first

  17. Efficacy of ultrasonography-guided renal biopsy for the evaluation of renal dysfunction following renal transplantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Young Jae; Choi, Chul Soon; Min, Seon Jeong; Lee, Gyung Kyu; Lee, Eil Seong; Kang, Ik Won; Bae, Sang Hoon [Hallym University College of Medicine, Chuncheon (Korea, Republic of)


    To evaluate the usefulness and complications of renal biopsy under ultrasonography-guidance in renal dysfunction after renal transplantation. Ultrasonography-guided renal biopsy was done in 47 patients with the transplanted kidney. The subjects consisted of 30 males and 17 females, age ranged from 16 to 66 years (average age=38 years). Biopsies were done once in 27 patients, twice in 17 patients, three times in 3 patients, a total of 70 biopsies. The success rate of renal biopsy for the accurate pathologic diagnosis and the incidence and types of complications following biopsy were evaluated. The success rate of renal biopsy for the accurate pathologic diagnosis was 96%(67/70). Pathologic diagnosis included 27 cases of acute rejection (39%), 8 cases of acute tubular necrosis (11%), 4 cases of acute rejection and acute tubular necrosis (6%), 4 cases of cyclosporin toxicity (6%), 4 cases of primary disease recurrence (6%), 4 cases of infection (6%) and others. Complications after renal biopsy included 15 cases of microscopic hematuria (21%), 1 case of gross hematuria with spontaneous cessation and 1 case of life threatening hemorrhage. Ultrasonography-guided renal biopsy is a safe and effective diagnostic method for the evaluation of renal dysfunction following renal transplantation.

  18. Trasplante renal Kidney transplant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Martín


    Full Text Available El trasplante renal es la terapia de elección para la mayoría de las causas de insuficiencia renal crónica terminal porque mejora la calidad de vida y la supervivencia frente a la diálisis. El trasplante renal de donante vivo es una excelente alternativa para el paciente joven en situación de prediálisis porque ofrece mejores resultados. El tratamiento inmunosupresor debe ser individualizado buscando la sinergia inmunosupresora y el mejor perfil de seguridad, y debe adaptarse a las diferentes etapas del trasplante renal. En el seguimiento del trasplante renal hay que tener muy en cuenta los factores de riesgo cardiovascular y los tumores puesto que la muerte del paciente con injerto funcionante es la segunda causa de pérdida del injerto tras el primer año del trasplante. La función alterada del injerto es un factor de mortalidad cardiovascular independiente que requerirá seguimiento y control de todas sus complicaciones para retrasar la entrada en diálisis.The kidney transplant is the therapy of choice for the majority of the causes of chronic terminal kidney insufficiency, because it improves the quality of life and survival in comparison with dialysis. A kidney transplant from a live donor is an excellent alternative for the young patient in a state of pre-dialysis because it offers the best results. Immunosuppressive treatment must be individualised, seeking immunosuppressive synergy and the best safety profile, and must be adapted to the different stages of the kidney transplant. In the follow-up to the kidney transplant, cardiovascular risk factors and tumours must be especially taken into account, given that the death of the patient with a working graft is the second cause of loss of the graft following the first year of the transplant. The altered function of the graft is a factor of independent cardiovascular mortality that will require follow-up and the control of all its complications to postpone the entrance in dialysis.

  19. Satellites monitor Los Alamos fires (United States)

    Kalluri, Satya; White, Benjamin

    A man-made fire that was intended to be a “controlled burn” for clearing brush and wilderness at the Bandelier National Monument, New Mexico, became an inferno that devastated significant portions of Los Alamos during the first week of May 2000. Now known as the Cerro Grande fire, it was not confined to Los Alamos alone. The fire spread to 15% of the Santa Clara Indian Reservation and a substantial area of the surrounding national parks and U.S. forests.The National Weather Service estimates that more than 100,000 fires occur in the natural environment each year within the United States alone, of which about 90% are manmade. Remote sensing images from satellites could be used to detect and monitor these active fires and biomass burning. Forest fires have a significant environmental and economic impact, and timely information about their location and magnitude is essential to contain them.

  20. Ocular findings in the chronic renal failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Dahal


    Full Text Available BACKGROUND The aim of the study was to evaluate the ocular signs in chronic renal failure (CRF in diabetes and hypertensive patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS Two hundred and thirty eight cases were enrolled in the study from the nephrology unit of College Of Medical Science, Bharatpur, Nepal and examined in the department of Ophthalmology. The study duration was carried out over 2 years from January 2011 to December 2012. RESULT The number of cases in each grade of CRF were mild 80 (26.67%, moderate 84 (28%, severe 75 (25%, end stage renal disease 61 (20.33%. In all the groups the commonest cause of CRF were Hypertension (HTN 123 out of 300(41% and diabetes 98(32.67%. The commonest ocular symptoms in CRF was blurring of vision 68%. CONCLUSION Many important ocular findings like vitreous haemorrage, retinal detachment, neovascular glaucoma and cataract are the presentation in chronic renal failure, which can cause marked vision loss. Hence proper awareness should be provided to the people in time to prevent these ocular complications.DOI: Journal of College of Medical Sciences-Nepal, 2014, Vol.10(2; 18-26

  1. GHRSST Level 2P Western Atlantic Regional Skin Sea Surface Temperature from the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites (GOES) Imager on the GOES-13 satellite (GDS versions 1 and 2) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites (GOES) operated by the United States National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) support weather...

  2. GHRSST Level 2P Central Pacific Regional Skin Sea Surface Temperature from the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites (GOES) Imager on the GOES-15 satellite (GDS versions 1 and 2) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites (GOES) operated by the United States National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) support weather...

  3. Haemostatic aspects of renal transplantation. (United States)

    Sørensen, P J; Schmidt, E B; Knudsen, F; Nielsen, A H; Kristensen, S D; Dyerberg, J; Kornerup, H J


    Platelet function and protein C activity and antigen level was studied in 31 renal transplant recipients and 10 healthy controls. The patients were divided into three groups: (I) cyclosporin treated, (II) azathioprine treated, and (III) azathioprine treated patients with chronic rejection. The platelet function in the renal transplant patients was normal and there was no difference between groups I and II. The specific activity of protein C was decreased in patients after renal transplantation and decreasing protein C activity and progressive renal failure was found to be positively correlated in the azathioprine treated groups.

  4. Renal replacement therapy in ICU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Deepa


    Full Text Available Diagnosing and managing critically ill patients with renal dysfunction is a part of the daily routine of an intensivist. Acute kidney insufficiency substantially contributes to the morbidity and mortality of critically ill patients. Renal replacement therapy (RRT not only does play a significant role in the treatment of patients with renal failure, acute as well as chronic, but also has spread its domains to the treatment of many other disease conditions such as myaesthenia gravis, septic shock and acute on chronic liver failure. This article briefly outlines the role of renal replacement therapy in ICU.

  5. Renal myxoma: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Henrique C Souza


    Full Text Available Myxomas are rare tumors that can appear in many anatomical locations. There are only 14 cases of renal involvement documented in the literature. This article reports a case of renal myxoma in an elderly woman with recurrent cystitis. After five years of follow-up, the computed tomography (CT revealed a large solid tumor mass in the left kidney. Tumor resection was performed preserving the affected kidney with histopathological diagnosis of renal myxoma. The objective of this study is to report a rare case of renal myxoma, emphasizing the importance of the differential diagnosis from other benign and malignant mesenchymal tumors.

  6. Sporotrichosis in Renal Transplant Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Gewehr


    Full Text Available The current report describes two renal transplant recipients who presented with sporotrichosis. In addition, the authors review the general aspects of sporotrichosis in renal transplant recipients reported in the literature. Sporotrichosis is a rare fungal infection in transplant patients and has been reported primarily in renal transplant recipients not treated with antifungal prophylaxis. Extracutaneous forms of sporotrichosis without skin manifestations and no previous history of traumatic injuries have been described in such patients and are difficult to diagnose. Renal transplant recipients with sporotrichosis described in the present report were successfully treated with antifungal therapy including amphotericin B deoxycholate, lipid amphotericin B formulations, fluconazole and itraconazole.

  7. CT features of renal infarction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzer, Okan; Shirkhoda, Ali; Jafri, S. Zafar; Madrazo, Beatrice L.; Bis, Kostaki G.; Mastromatteo, James F


    Purpose: To demonstrate the different patterns of renal infarction to avoid pitfalls. To present 'flip-flop enhancement' pattern in renal infarction. Materials and methods: Retrospective review of a total of 41 renal infarction in 37 patients were done. These patients underwent initial CT and the diagnosis of renal infarction was confirmed with either follow up CT or at surgery. Results: Twenty-three patients had wedge-shaped focal infarcts, nine patients had global and five patients had multifocal infarcts of the kidneys. Cortical rim sign was seen predominantly with global infarcts. In five patients, a 'flip-flop enhancement' pattern was observed. In two patients, planned renal biopsies due to tumefactive renal lesions were cancelled because of 'flip-flop enhancement' pattern on follow up CTs. Conclusion: Although most of our cases were straightforward for the diagnosis of renal infarction, cases with tumefactive lesions and global infarctions without the well-known cortical rim sign were particularly challenging. We describe a new sign, flip-flop enhancement pattern, which we believe solidified the diagnosis of renal infarction in five of our cases. The authors recommend further investigations for association of flip-flop enhancement and renal infarction.

  8. Beyond the Ionosphere: Fifty Years of Satellite Communication (United States)

    Butrica, Andrew J. (Editor)


    The three overlapping stages of satellite communications development outlined provide the three-part framework for the organization of the papers contained in this book. Part 1, 'Passive Origins,' treats the first stage of satellite communications development, extending from the 1940s into the early 1960s, when passive artificial and natural satellites funded by the military and private enterprise established the field. Part 2, 'Creating the Global, Regional, and National Systems,' addresses events that constituted the second stage of development. Early in this stage, which stretched from the 1960s into the 1970s, satellite systems began to make their appearance in the United States, while domestic and international efforts sought to bring order to this new but chaotic, field in the form of Comsat and Intelsat. Part 3, 'The Unfolding of the World System,' explores the development of satellite communications in the remainder of the world, with a strong emphasis on Asia.

  9. Hemorrhagic Fever with Renal Syndrome (HFRS) (United States)

    ... this page: About . Share Compartir Hemorrhagic Fever with Renal Syndrome (HFRS) On this Page What ... is HFRS prevented? Suggested Reading What is hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome? Hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome ( ...

  10. Renal cirsoid arteriovenous malformation masquerading as neoplasia. (United States)

    Silverthorn, K; George, D


    A woman with renal colic and microscopic hematuria had filling defects in the left renal collecting system detected on excretory urography. A nephrectomy, performed because of suspected malignancy, might have been averted by renal angiography.

  11. [Management of patients with end-stage renal disease prior to initiation of renal replacement therapy in 2013 in France]. (United States)

    Tuppin, Philippe; Cuerq, Anne; Torre, Sylvie; Couchoud, Cécile; Fagot-Campagna, Anne


    This study evaluated the management of patients with end-stage renal disease prior to initiation of renal replacement therapy. Among the 51 million national health insurance general scheme beneficiaries (77% of the population), persons 18 years and older, starting dialysis or undergoing preemptive renal transplantation in 2013, were included in this study. Data were derived from the French national health insurance system (SNIIRAM). In this population of 6674 patients (median age: 68 years), 88% initiated renal replacement therapy by haemodialysis, 8% by peritoneal dialysis, and 4% by renal transplantation. During the year preceding initiation of dialysis, 76% of patients had been hospitalised with at least one diagnostic code for renal disease in 83% of cases, 16% had not received any reimbursements for serum creatinine assay and 32% had not seen a nephrologist; 87% were taking at least one antihypertensive drug (60% were taking at least a renin-angiotensin system inhibitor) and 30% were taking a combination of 4 or more classes of antihypertensive drugs. For patients initiating haemodialysis in a haemodialysis centre, 39% had undergone a procedure related to arteriovenous fistula and 10% had been admitted to an intensive care unit. This study, based on the available reimbursement data, shows that, despite frequent use of the health care system by this population, there is still room for improvement of screening and management of patients with end-stage renal disease and preparation for renal replacement therapy. Copyright © 2016 Association Société de néphrologie. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. Novel Ku Band Reflectarray Antenna for Satellite Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sridhar Bilvam


    Full Text Available This study focuses on the design and analysis of Ku band reflectarray antenna using a novel crossed dumbbell (clover patch unit cell. The reflectarray is proposed for application in satellite communication more specifically for Satellite newsgathering (12.5-13.75 GHz. The clover shaped unit cell is designed for 13.07 GHz and the suitability of the unit cell is validated using the phase characteristics analysis. The effect of the elements on the performance represented by the range of the reflection phase is of prime importance. From the observation, Clover unit cell has large phase variation compared to minkowski and koch unit cells. Therefore, the main purpose of this study is to investigate and validate the novel unit cell with a wide phase characteristics and the reflectarray constructed.

  13. Tumor Seeding With Renal Cell Carcinoma After Renal Biopsy


    M.F.B. Andersen; Norus, T.P.


    Tumor seeding following biopsy of renal cell carcinoma is extremely rare with an incidence of 1:10.000. In this paper two cases with multiple recurrent RRC metastasis in the biopsy tract following biopsy of renal tumor is presented and the current literature is shortly discussed.

  14. Renal blood flow in experimental septic acute renal failure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Langenberg, C.; Wan, L.; Egi, M.; May, C. N.; Bellomo, R.


    Reduced renal blood flow (RBF) is considered central to the pathogenesis of septic acute renal failure (ARF). However, no controlled experimental studies have continuously assessed RBF during the development of severe septic ARF. We conducted a sequential animal study in seven female Merino sheep. F

  15. Renal vein oxygen saturation in renal artery stenosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, K; Rehling, M; Henriksen, Jens Henrik Sahl


    Renal vein oxygen-saturation was measured in 56 patients with arterial hypertension and unilateral stenosis or occlusion of the renal artery. Oxygen-saturation in blood from the ischaemic kidney (84.4%, range 73-93%) was significantly higher than that from the 'normal' contralateral kidney (81...

  16. The renal scan in pregnant renal transplant patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldstein, H.A.; Ziessman, H.A.; Fahey, F.H.; Collea, J.V.; Alijani, M.R.; Helfrich, G.B.


    With the greater frequency of renal transplant surgery, more female pts are becoming pregnant and carrying to term. In the renal allograft blood vessels and ureter may be compressed resulting in impaired renal function and/or, hypertension. Toxemia of pregnancy is seen more frequently than normal. Radionuclide renal scan monitoring may be of significant value in this high risk obstetrical pt. After being maintained during the pregnancy, renal function may also deteriorate in the post partum period. 5 pregnant renal transplant pts who delivered live babies had renal studies with Tc-99m DTPA to assess allograft perfusion and function. No transplanted kidney was lost during or after pregnancy as a result of pregnancy. No congenital anomalies were associated with transplant management. 7 studies were performed on these 5 pts. The 7 scans all showed the uterus/placenta. The bladder was always distorted. The transplanted kidney was rotated to a more vertical position in 3 pts. The radiation dose to the fetus is calculated at 0.024 rad/mCi administered. This study demonstrates the anatomic and physiologic alterations expected in the transplanted kidney during pregnancy when evaluated by renal scan and that the radiation burden may be acceptable in management of these pts.

  17. Solar Power Satellites

    CERN Document Server

    Flournoy, Don M


    Communication satellites are a $144 billion industry. Is there any space-based industry that could possibly beat that market? 'Solar Power Satellites' shows why and how the space satellite industry will soon begin expanding its market from relaying signals to Earth to generating energy in space and delivering it to the ground as electricity. In all industrialized nations, energy demand is growing exponentially. In the developing world, the need for energy is as basic as food and water. The Sun's energy is available everywhere, and it is non-polluting. As business plans demonstrate its technical feasibility, commercial potential, and environmental acceptability, every country on Earth will look to space for the power it needs.

  18. Geostationary satellites collocation

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Hengnian


    Geostationary Satellites Collocation aims to find solutions for deploying a safe and reliable collocation control. Focusing on the orbital perturbation analysis, the mathematical foundations for orbit and control of the geostationary satellite are summarized. The mathematical and physical principle of orbital maneuver and collocation strategies for multi geostationary satellites sharing with the same dead band is also stressed. Moreover, the book presents some applications using the above algorithms and mathematical models to help readers master the corrective method for planning station keeping maneuvers. Engineers and scientists in the fields of aerospace technology and space science can benefit from this book. Hengnian Li is the Deputy Director of State Key Laboratory of Astronautic Dynamics, China.

  19. ESA's satellite communications programme (United States)

    Bartholome, P.


    The developmental history, current status, and future plans of the ESA satellite-communications programs are discussed in a general survey and illustrated with network diagrams and maps. Consideration is given to the parallel development of national and European direct-broadcast systems and telecommunications networks, the position of the European space and electronics industries in the growing world market, the impact of technological improvements (both in satellite systems and in ground-based networks), and the technological and commercial advantages of integrated space-terrestrial networks. The needs for a European definition of the precise national and international roles of satellite communications, for maximum speed in implementing such decisions (before the technology becomes obsolete), and for increased cooperation and standardization to assure European equipment manufacturers a reasonable share of the market are stressed.

  20. AVS on satellite (United States)

    Zhao, Haiwu; Wang, Guozhong; Hou, Gang


    AVS is a new digital audio-video coding standard established by China. AVS will be used in digital TV broadcasting and next general optical disk. AVS adopted many digital audio-video coding techniques developed by Chinese company and universities in recent years, it has very low complexity compared to H.264, and AVS will charge very low royalty fee through one-step license including all AVS tools. So AVS is a good and competitive candidate for Chinese DTV and next generation optical disk. In addition, Chinese government has published a plan for satellite TV signal directly to home(DTH) and a telecommunication satellite named as SINO 2 will be launched in 2006. AVS will be also one of the best hopeful candidates of audio-video coding standard on satellite signal transmission.

  1. Satellite Control Laboratory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wisniewski, Rafal; Bak, Thomas


    The Satellite Laboratory at the Department of Control Engineering of Aalborg University (SatLab) is a dynamic motion facility designed for analysis and test of micro spacecraft. A unique feature of the laboratory is that it provides a completely gravity-free environment. A test spacecraft...... is suspended on an air bearing, and rotates freely in 3 degrees of freedom. In order to avoid any influence of the gravitational force the centre of mass of the satellite is placed in the geometric centre of the air bearing by an automatic balancing system. The test spacecraft is equipped with a three......-axis magnetometer, three piezoelectric gyros, and four reaction wheels in a tetrahedron configuration. The operation of the spacecraft is fully autonomous. The data flow between the transducers and the onboard computer placed physically outside the satellite is provided by a radio link. The purpose...

  2. Preface: BeiDou Navigation Satellite System (BDS)/GNSS+: Recent progress and new applications (United States)

    Jin, Shuanggen


    Nowadays, the new China's BeiDou Navigation Satellite System (BDS) has been developed well. At the end of 2016, over 23 BDS satellites were launched, including five geostationary Earth orbit (GEO) satellites, five inclined geosynchronous orbit (IGSO) satellites and nine medium Earth orbit (MEO) satellites. The current BDS service covers China and most Asia-Pacific regions with accuracy of better than 10 m in positioning, 0.2 m/s in velocity and 50 ns in timing. The BDS with global coverage will be completely established by 2020 with five GEO satellites and 30 MEO satellites. The main function of BDS is the positioning, navigation and timing (PNT) as well as short message communications. Together with the United States' GPS, Russia's GLONASS and the European Union's Galileo system as well as other regional augmentation systems, more new applications of multi-Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) will be exploited and realized in the next decades.

  3. Renal posttransplant's vascular complications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bašić Dragoslav


    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Despite high graft and recipient survival figures worldwide today, a variety of technical complications can threaten the transplant in the postoperative period. Vascular complications are commonly related to technical problems in establishing vascular continuity or to damage that occurs during donor nephrectomy or preservation [13]. AIM The aim of the presenting study is to evaluate counts and rates of vascular complications after renal transplantation and to compare the outcome by donor type. MATERIAL AND METHODS A total of 463 kidneys (319 from living related donor LD and 144 from cadaveric donor - CD were transplanted during the period between June 1975 and December 1998 at the Urology & Nephrology Institute of Clinical Centre of Serbia in Belgrade. Average recipients' age was 33.7 years (15-54 in LD group and 39.8 (19-62 in CD group. Retrospectively, we analyzed medical records of all recipients. Statistical analysis is estimated using Hi-squared test and Fischer's test of exact probability. RESULTS Major vascular complications including vascular anastomosis thrombosis, internal iliac artery stenosis, internal iliac artery rupture obliterant vasculitis and external iliac vein rupture were analyzed. In 25 recipients (5.4% some of major vascular complications were detected. Among these cases, 22 of them were from CD group vs. three from LD group. Relative rate of these complications was higher in CD group vs. LD group (p<0.0001. Among these complications dominant one was vascular anastomosis thrombosis which occurred in 18 recipients (17 from CD vs. one from LD. Of these recipients 16 from CD lost the graft, while the rest of two (one from each group had lethal outcome. DISCUSSION Thrombosis of renal allograft vascular anastomosis site is the most severe complication following renal transplantation. In the literature, renal allograft thrombosis is reported with different incidence rates, from 0.5-4% [14, 15, 16]. Data from the

  4. [Renal abnormalities in ankylosing spondylitis]. (United States)

    Samia, Barbouch; Hazgui, Faiçal; Abdelghani, Khaoula Ben; Hamida, Fethi Ben; Goucha, Rym; Hedri, Hafedh; Taarit, Chokri Ben; Maiz, Hedi Ben; Kheder, Adel


    We will study the epidemiologic, clinical, biological, therapeutic, prognostic characteristics and predictive factors of development of nephropathy in ankylosing spondylitis patients. We retrospectively reviewed the medical record of 32 cases with renal involvement among 212 cases of ankylosing spondylitis followed in our service during the period spread out between 1978 and 2006. The renal involvement occurred in all patients a mean of 12 years after the clinical onset of the rheumatic disease. Thirty-two patients presented one or more signs of renal involvement: microscopic hematuria in 22 patients, proteinuria in 23 patients, nephrotic syndrome in 11 patients and decreased renal function in 24 patients (75%). Secondary renal amyloidosis (13 patients), which corresponds to a prevalence of 6,1% and tubulointerstitial nephropathy (7 patients) were the most common cause of renal involvement in ankylosing spondylitis followed by IgA nephropathy (4 patients). Seventeen patients evolved to the end stage renal disease after an average time of 29.8 ± 46 months. The average follow-up of the patients was 4,4 years. By comparing the 32 patients presenting a SPA and renal disease to 88 with SPA and without nephropathy, we detected the predictive factors of occurred of nephropathy: tobacco, intense inflammatory syndrome, sacroileite stage 3 or 4 and presence of column bamboo. The finding of 75% of the patients presented a renal failure at the time of the diagnosis of renal involvement suggests that evidence of renal abnormality involvement should be actively sought in this disease. Copyright © 2011 Association Société de néphrologie. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. Renal metabolism of calcitonin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simmons, R.E.; Hjelle, J.T.; Mahoney, C.; Deftos, L.J.; Lisker, W.; Kato, P.; Rabkin, R.


    The kidneys account for approximately two-thirds of the metabolism of calcitonin, but relatively little is known regarding the details thereof. To further characterize this process, we examined the renal handling and metabolism of human calcitonin (hCT) by the isolated perfused rat kidney. We also studied the degradation of radiolabeled salmon calcitonin (sCT) by subcellular fractions prepared from isolated rabbit proximal tubules. The total renal (organ) clearance of immunoreactive hCT by the isolated kidney was 1.96 +/- 0.18 ml/min. This was independent of the perfusate total calcium concentration from 5.5 to 10.2 mg/dl. Total renal clearance exceeded the glomerular filtration rate (GFR, 0.68 +/- 0.05 ml/min), indicating filtration-independent removal. Urinary calcitonin clearance as a fraction of GFR averaged 2.6%. Gel filtration chromatography of medium from isolated kidneys perfused with /sup 125/I-labeled sCT showed the principal degradation products to be low molecular weight forms eluting with monoiodotyrosine. Intermediate size products were not detected. In the subcellular fractionation experiments, when carried out at pH 5.0, calcitonin hydrolysis exclusively followed the activities of the lysosomal enzyme N-acetyl-beta-glucosaminidase. Typically, at pH 7.5, 42% of total degradation occurred in the region of the brush-border enzyme alanyl aminopeptidase and 29% occurred in the region of the cytosolic enzyme phosphoglucomutase. Although 9% of the calcitonin-degrading activity was associated with basolateral membrane fractions, most of this activity could be accounted for by the presence of brush-border membranes.

  6. Citrato y litiasis renal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa E. Del Valle


    Full Text Available El citrato es un potente inhibidor de la cristalización de sales de calcio. La hipocitraturia es una alteración bioquímica frecuente en la formación de cálculos de calcio en adultos y especialmente en niños. El pH ácido (sistémico, tubular e intracelular es el principal determinante de la excreción de citrato en la orina. Si bien la mayoría de los pacientes con litiasis renal presentan hipocitraturia idiopática, hay un número de causas para esta anormalidad que incluyen acidosis tubular renal distal, hipokalemia, dietas ricas en proteínas de origen animal y/o dietas bajas en álcalis y ciertas drogas, como la acetazolamida, topiramato, IECA y tiazidas. Las modificaciones dietéticas que benefician a estos pacientes incluyen: alta ingesta de líquidos y frutas, especialmente cítricos, restricción de sodio y proteínas, con consumo normal de calcio. El tratamiento con citrato de potasio es efectivo en pacientes con hipocitraturia primaria o secundaria y en aquellos desordenes en la acidificación, que provocan un pH urinario persistentemente ácido. Los efectos adversos son bajos y están referidos al tracto gastrointestinal. Si bien hay diferentes preparaciones de citrato (citrato de potasio, citrato de sodio, citrato de potasio-magnesio en nuestro país solo está disponible el citrato de potasio en polvo que es muy útil para corregir la hipocitraturia y el pH urinario bajo, y reducir marcadamente la recurrencia de la litiasis renal.

  7. Acute Renal Failure and Jaundice without Methemoglobinemia in a Patient with Phenazopyridine Overdose: Case Report and Review of the Literature


    Ian Holmes; Nathaniel Berman; Vinicius Domingues


    Phenazopyridine is a commonly used urinary analgesic available throughout the United States. Ingestion of large quantities can lead to methemoglobinemia, hemolytic anemia, jaundice, and acute renal failure. We report a case of a 78-year-old male with previously normal renal function who developed acute renal failure and jaundice without methemoglobinemia or hyperbilirubinemia after taking nearly 8 g of phenazopyridine over the course of 4 days. Initially presenting with oliguria, the urine o...

  8. GPS satellite surveying

    CERN Document Server

    Leick, Alfred; Tatarnikov, Dmitry


    THE MOST COMPREHENSIVE, UP-TO-DATE GUIDE ON GPS TECHNOLOGY FOR SURVEYING Three previous editions have established GPS Satellite Surveying as the definitive industry reference. Now fully updated and expanded to reflect the newest developments in the field, this Fourth Edition features cutting-edge information on GNSS antennas, precise point positioning, real-time relative positioning, lattice reduction, and much more. Expert authors examine additional tools and applications, offering complete coverage of geodetic surveying using satellite technologies. The past decade has seen a major evolut

  9. Declassified intelligence satellite photographs (United States)



    Recently declassified photographs from spy satellites are an important addition to the record of the Earth?s land surface held by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). More than 800,000 high-resolution photos taken between 1959 through 1972 were made available by Executive Order of the President. The collection is held at the USGS EROS Data Center, near Sioux Falls, S. Dak., and are offered for public sale. For some purposes in earth science studies, these photos extend the record of changes in the land surface another decade back in time from the advent of the Landsat earth-observing satellite program.

  10. Satellite oceanography - The instruments (United States)

    Stewart, R. H.


    It is pointed out that no instrument is sensitive to only one oceanographic variable; rather, each responds to a combination of atmospheric and oceanic phenomena. This complicates data interpretation and usually requires that a number of observations, each sensitive to somewhat different phenomena, be combined to provide unambiguous information. The distinction between active and passive instruments is described. A block diagram illustrating the steps necessary to convert data from satellite instruments into oceanographic information is included, as is a diagram illustrating the operation of a radio-frequency radiometer. Attention is also given to the satellites that carry the various oceanographic instruments.

  11. Renal calculus disease. (United States)

    Schulsinger, D A; Sosa, R E


    We have seen an explosion in technical innovations for the management of urolithiasis. Today, the endourologist possesses an assortment of minimally invasive tools to treat renal stones. Most patients receive fast, safe and effective treatment in the outpatient setting. Despite the many technical advances, however, anatomical malformations and complex stones still provide significant challenges in diagnosis, access to a targeted stone, fragmentation, and clearance of the resulting fragments. This review examines a variety of urinary stone presentations and treatment strategies for cost-effective management.

  12. [Pulmonary-renal syndrome]. (United States)

    Risso, Jorge A; Mazzocchi, Octavio; De All, Jorge; Gnocchi, César A


    The pulmonary-renal syndrome is defined as a combination of diffuse alveolar hemorrhage and glomerulonephritis. The coexistence of these two clinical conditions is due to diseases with different pathogenic mechanisms. Primary systemic vasculitis and Goodpasture syndrome are the most frequent etiologies. Systemic lupus erythematosus, connective tissue diseases, negative anti neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody vasculitis and those secondary to drugs are far less common causes. An early diagnosis based on clinical, radiologic, laboratory and histologic criteria enables early treatment, thus diminishing its high morbidity-mortality rate. Therapy is based on high doses of corticosteroids, immunosuppressants, tumor necrosis factor inhibitors and plasmapheresis.

  13. Role of Erythropoietin in Renal Anemia Therapy

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Keywords: Chronic renal failure, Renal anemia, Erythropoietin resistance. Tropical Journal of ... gastrointestinal reaction, which can increase the iron utilization and improve iron reserves, overcoming the reticuloendothelial system iron.

  14. Acute Renal Failure in the Neonate. (United States)

    Khan, Owais A; Hageman, Joseph R; Clardy, Christopher


    Acute renal failure (ARF) in a neonate is a serious condition that impacts 8% to 24% of hospitalized neonates. There is a need for prompt evaluation and treatment to avoid additional complications. In this review, a neonate was found to have renal failure associated with renal vein thrombosis. There are varying etiologies of ARF. Causes of ARF are typically divided into three subsets: pre-renal, renal or intrinsic, and post-renal. Treatment of ARF varies based on the cause. Renal vein thrombosis is an interesting cause of renal or intrinsic ARF and can be serious, often leading to a need for dialysis.

  15. Soviet satellite communications science and technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birch, J.N.; Campanella, S.J.; Gordon, G.D.; McElroy, D.R.; Pritchard, W.L.; Stamminger, R.


    This is a report by six US scientists and engineers concerning the current state of the art and projections of future Soviet satellite communications technologies. The panel members are experts in satellite stabilization, spacecraft environments, space power generation, launch systems, spacecraft communications sciences and technologies, onboard processing, ground stations, and other technologies that impact communications. The panel assessed the Soviet ability to support high-data-rate space missions at 128 Mbps by evaluating current and projected Soviet satellite communications technologies. A variety of space missions were considered, including Earth-to-Earth communications via satellites in geostationary or highly elliptical orbits, those missions that require space-to-Earth communications via a direct path and those missions that require space-to-Earth communications via a relay satellite. Soviet satellite communications capability, in most cases, is 10 years behind that of the United States and other industrialized nations. However, based upon an analysis of communications links needed to support these missions using current Soviet capabilities, it is well within the current Soviet technology to support certain space missions outlined above at rates of 128 Mbps or higher, although published literature clearly shows that the Soviet Union has not exceeded 60 Mbps in its current space system. These analyses are necessary but not sufficient to determine mission data rates, and other technologies such as onboard processing and storage could limit the mission data rate well below that which could actually be supported via the communications links. Presently, the Soviet Union appears to be content with data rates in the low-Earth-orbit relay via geostationary mode of 12 Mbps. This limit is a direct result of power amplifier limits, spacecraft antenna size, and the utilization of K{sub u}-band frequencies. 91 refs., 16 figs., 15 tabs.

  16. Integrated Satellite-HAP Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cianca, Ernestina; De Sanctis, Mauro; De Luise, Aldo


    for an efficient hybrid terrestrial-satellite communication system. Two integrated HAP-satellite scenarios are presented, in which the HAP is used to overcome some of the shortcomings of satellite- based communications. Moreover, it is shown that the integration of HAPs with satellite systems can be used......Thus far, high-altitude platform (HAP)-based systems have been mainly conceived as an alternative to satellites for complementing the terrestrial network. This article aims to show that HAP should no longer be seen as a competitor technology by investors of satellites, but as a key element...

  17. Satellite orbit determination and gravity field recovery from satellite-to-satellite tracking (United States)

    Wakker, K. F.; Ambrosius, B. A. C.; Leenman, H.


    Studies on satellite-to-satellite tracking (SST) with POPSAT (a geodetic satellite concept) and a ERS-class (Earth observation) satellite, a Satellite-to-Satellite Tracking (SST) gravity mission, and precise gravity field determination methods and mission requirements are reported. The first two studies primarily address the application of SST between the high altitude POPSAT and an ERS-class or GRM (Geopotential Research Mission) satellite to the orbit determination of the latter two satellites. Activities focussed on the determination of the tracking coverage of the lower altitude satellite by ground based tracking systems and by POPSAT, orbit determination error analysis and the determination of the surface forces acting on GRM. The third study surveys principles of SST, uncertainties of existing drag models, effects of direct luni-solar attraction and tides on orbit and the gravity gradient observable. Detailed ARISTOTELES (which replaced POPSAT) orbit determination error analyses were performed for various ground based tracking networks.

  18. Leiomyosarcoma of the renal vein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lemos Gustavo C.


    Full Text Available Leiomyosarcoma of the renal vein is a rare tumor of complex diagnosis. We presented a case of renal vein leiomyosarcoma detected in a routine study. The primary treatment was complete surgical removal of the mass. In cases where surgical removal is not possible the prognosis is poor, with high rates of local recurrence and distant spread.

  19. Ultrasonography in chronic renal failure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buturovic-Ponikvar, Jadranka E-mail:; Visnar-Perovic, Alenka


    Many chronic renal diseases lead to the final common state of decrease in renal size, parenchymal atrophy, sclerosis and fibrosis. The ultrasound image show a smaller kidney, thinning of the parenchyma and its hyperechogenicity (reflecting sclerosis and fibrosis). The frequency of renal cysts increases with the progression of the disease. Ultrasound generally does not allow for the exact diagnosis of an underlying chronic disease (renal biopsy is usually required), but it can help to determine an irreversible disease, assess prognosis and avoid unnecessary diagnostic or therapeutic procedures. The main exception in which the ultrasound image does not show a smaller kidney with parenchymal atrophy is diabetic nephropathy, the leading cause of chronic and end-stage renal failure in developed countries in recent years. In this case, both renal size and parenchymal thickness are preserved until end-stage renal failure. Doppler study of intrarenal vessels can provide additional information about microvascular and parenchymal lesions, which is helpful in deciding for or against therapeutic intervention and timely planning for optimal renal replacement therapy option.

  20. Renal replacement therapy in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pippias, Maria; Stel, Vianda S; Abad Diez, José Maria


    BACKGROUND: This article summarizes the 2012 European Renal Association-European Dialysis and Transplant Association Registry Annual Report (available at with a specific focus on older patients (defined as ≥65 years). METHODS: Data provided by 45 national or regional renal r...

  1. Acute Renal Failure Associated with Lenalidomide Treatment in Multiple Myeloma: A Rare Occurrence? (United States)

    Kreiniz, Natalia; Khateeb, Ali; Gino-Moor, Sharon; Polliack, Aaron; Tadmor, Tamar


    Renal failure is a frequent complication of multiple myeloma (MM). Recently, the combination of lenalidomide-dexamethasone has become one of the cornerstone regimens for the treatment of MM. Impairment of renal function exacerbation is a rare, but potential, complication of lenalidomide therapy in plasma cell dyscrasias. We present two patients who developed exacerbation of renal function during their first cycle of therapy with lenalidomide. In the first case, we present a 76-year-old-male with MM and impaired renal function, who declined two weeks after initiation of second-line therapy with lenalidomide. His renal functions improved after discontinuation of lenalidomide and with supportive care. In the second case, we describe a 61-year-old woman who was started on lenalidomide for relapsed MM and admitted to intensive care unit three weeks later due to severe renal failure. Despite intensive supportive care, her renal function deteriorated even more and she died. We conclude that renal failure is an uncommon, but serious, potential complication of lenalidomide therapy in plasma cell dyscrasias, particularly MM. Close monitoring of renal function is clearly recommended during this treatment.

  2. A 12 GHz satellite video receiver: Low noise, low cost prototype model for TV reception from broadcast satellites (United States)

    Hreha, M. A.; Baprawski, J. G.; Chamaneria, C. N.; Ferry, S. J.; Keithly, G.; Kuklin, H. S.; Lockyear, W. H.; Schifter, L. H.; Swanberg, N. E.; Swift, G. W.


    A 12-channel synchronous phase lock video receiver consisting of an outdoor downconverter unit and an indoor demodulator unit was developed to provide both low noise performance and low cost in production quantities of 1000 units. The prototype receiver can be mass produced at a cost under $1540 without sacrificing system performance. The receiver also has the capability of selecting any of the twelve assigned satellite broadcast channels in the frequency range 11.7 to 12.2 GHz.

  3. Successful renal transplantation during pregnancy. (United States)

    Hold, Phoebe M; Wong, Christopher F; Dhanda, Raman K; Walkinshaw, Steve A; Bakran, Ali


    Little is known about the implications of performing a renal transplant on a patient who is already pregnant. This case study reports a successful outcome of pregnancy, diagnosed coincidentally following renal transplantation at 13 weeks gestation. The recipient was a 23-year-old woman with chronic kidney disease who received a live-related renal transplant from her father. Pregnancy was discovered at routine ultrasound scanning of the renal allograft at 5 days posttransplant and estimated at 13 weeks gestation. She received ciclosporin monotherapy as immunosuppression throughout the pregnancy, and was given valacyclovir as prophylaxis against cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection. Renal function remained stable throughout the pregnancy, which progressed normally, resulting in the vaginal delivery of a healthy, liveborn male infant at 37 weeks gestation. This case study demonstrates that transplantation during pregnancy can have a successful outcome.

  4. Characterization of complex renal cysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graumann, Ole; Osther, Susanne Sloth; Osther, Palle Jörn Sloth


    Abstract Objective. Complex renal cysts represent a major clinical problem, since it is often difficult to exclude malignancy. The Bosniak classification system, based on computed tomography (CT), is widely used to categorize cystic renal lesions. The aim of this study was to evaluate critically ...... of this "new" classification strategy is, however, still missing. Data on other imaging modalities are too limited for conclusions to be drawn.......Abstract Objective. Complex renal cysts represent a major clinical problem, since it is often difficult to exclude malignancy. The Bosniak classification system, based on computed tomography (CT), is widely used to categorize cystic renal lesions. The aim of this study was to evaluate critically...... available data on the Bosniak classification. Material and methods. All publications from an Entrez Pubmed search were reviewed, focusing on clinical applicability and the use of imaging modalities other than CT to categorize complex renal cysts. Results. Fifteen retrospective studies were found. Most...

  5. Development of the renal arterioles. (United States)

    Sequeira Lopez, Maria Luisa S; Gomez, R Ariel


    The kidney is a highly vascularized organ that normally receives a fifth of the cardiac output. The unique spatial arrangement of the kidney vasculature with each nephron is crucial for the regulation of renal blood flow, GFR, urine concentration, and other specialized kidney functions. Thus, the proper and timely assembly of kidney vessels with their respective nephrons is a crucial morphogenetic event leading to the formation of a functioning kidney necessary for independent extrauterine life. Mechanisms that govern the development of the kidney vasculature are poorly understood. In this review, we discuss the anatomical development, embryological origin, lineage relationships, and key regulators of the kidney arterioles and postglomerular circulation. Because renal disease is associated with deterioration of the kidney microvasculature and/or the reenactment of embryonic pathways, understanding the morphogenetic events and processes that maintain the renal vasculature may open new avenues for the preservation of renal structure and function and prevent the progression of renal disease.

  6. Hypertension in Renal Allograft Recipients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waiser Johannes


    Full Text Available Hypertension is a frequent complication after renal transplantation. It contributes to the considerable cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in renal allograft recipients. Additionally, it has a major impact on long-term allograft survival. The pathogenesis of post transplant hypertension is multifactorial. Besides common risk factors, renal allograft recipients accumulate specific risk factors related to the original renal disease, renal transplantation per se and the immunosuppressive regimen. Chronic allograft dysfunction is the main cause of post transplant hypertension. The introduction of calcineurin inhibitors, such as cyclosporine, has increased the prevalence of hypertension. At present, the growing manual of diagnostic and therapeutic tools enables us to adapt better antihypertensive therapy. Tight monitoring, individualization of the immunosuppressive protocol, inclusion of non-pharmacological measures and aggressive antihypertensive treatment should help to minimize the negative implications of post transplant hypertension. Probably, this goal can only be reached by "normalization" of systolic and diastolic blood pressure to below 135/85 mmHg.

  7. Measurement of global and separate renal blood flow with cinetomodensitometry; Mesure du debit sanguin renal global et separe par la cine-tomodensitometrie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Froissart, M.; Archambaud, F.; Hernigou, A.; Prigent, A.; Paillard, M. [Hopital Broussais, 75 - Paris (France)


    EBCT flow study offers a promising new approach to measure the renal blood flow. In vitro and in vivo studies were performed to resolve methodological problems such as checking the linear relation between contrast concentration and Hounsfield units or determination of the Threshold used for the mapping. First measurements of renal volumes and flow performed in patients showed expected values. (authors). 55 refs., 1 tab.

  8. Man-made Satellites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    If you watch the sky about an hour after the sun goes down, you may see some “moving stars”. But they're not real stars. They're manmade satellites (卫星). And the biggest of all is the International Space Station (ISS国际空间站).

  9. Observations of artificial satellites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The following publication gives the results of photographic
    observations of artificial satellites made at Asiago during the second
    and third year of this programme. The fixed camera technique and that
    with moving film (the latter still in its experimental stage have been used.

  10. Experimental Satellite Quantum Communications. (United States)

    Vallone, Giuseppe; Bacco, Davide; Dequal, Daniele; Gaiarin, Simone; Luceri, Vincenza; Bianco, Giuseppe; Villoresi, Paolo


    Quantum communication (QC), namely, the faithful transmission of generic quantum states, is a key ingredient of quantum information science. Here we demonstrate QC with polarization encoding from space to ground by exploiting satellite corner cube retroreflectors as quantum transmitters in orbit and the Matera Laser Ranging Observatory of the Italian Space Agency in Matera, Italy, as a quantum receiver. The quantum bit error ratio (QBER) has been kept steadily low to a level suitable for several quantum information protocols, as the violation of Bell inequalities or quantum key distribution (QKD). Indeed, by taking data from different satellites, we demonstrate an average value of QBER=4.6% for a total link duration of 85 s. The mean photon number per pulse μ_{sat} leaving the satellites was estimated to be of the order of one. In addition, we propose a fully operational satellite QKD system by exploiting our communication scheme with orbiting retroreflectors equipped with a modulator, a very compact payload. Our scheme paves the way toward the implementation of a QC worldwide network leveraging existing receivers.

  11. Perception via satellite (United States)

    Robinove, Charles J.


    The earth resources observation satellite (EROS) program in the Department of the Interior is intended to gather and use data from satellites and aircraft on natural and man-made features of the earth's surface. Earth resources technology satellite will provide the EROS program with data for use in dealing with natural resource problems and understanding the interaction between man and the environment. Applications will include studies of tectonic features, hydrologic problems, location of fish schools, determination of the conditions of range land, mapping land use for urban planning, studies of erosion and change along coastlines and major streams, and inventories of land use and land forms. In addition, the ERTS data may be used for detecting forest and crop diseases and inventorying crops. The ERTS satellite will be in a polar, sun-synchronous orbit so that each point on the earth's surface will be sensed every 17 to 20 days, at the same time of day. Multispectral photography is being investigated for its usefulness in hydrology. Side-looking airborne radar has not yet been widely used in hydrologic studies, although it is an excellent tool for all-weather, day or night, coverage of large areas. Other techniques being investigated include passive microwave radiometry, ultraviolet and visible stimulated luminescence, and absorption spectroscopy.

  12. Satellite Photometric Error Determination (United States)


    of nearly specular reflections from most solar panels. Our primary purpose in presenting these two plots is to demonstrate the usefulness of...than a transformation for stars because the spectral energy distribution of satellites can change with phase angle and is subject to specular

  13. Creating Better Satellite Conferences. (United States)

    Horner, Tommy


    Presents four ways to improve broadcasts of company satellite conferences, including creative site selection (using facilities at educational institutions rather than hotel rooms); creative programming (using graphics and other interruptions to break up lectures or speeches); creative crew selection; and creative downlink site activities (to…

  14. Ocean surveillance satellites (United States)

    Laurent, D.

    Soviet and U.S. programs involving satellites for surveillance of ships and submarines are discussed, considering differences in approaches. The Soviet program began with the Cosmos 198 in 1967 and the latest, the Cosmos 1400 series, 15 m long and weighing 5 tons, carry radar for monitoring ships and a nuclear reactor for a power supply. Other Soviet spacecraft carrying passive microwave sensors and ion drives powered by solar panels have recently been detonated in orbit for unknown reasons. It has also been observed that the Soviet satellites are controlled in pairs, with sequential orbital changes for one following the other, and both satellites then overflying the same points. In contrast, U.S. surveillance satellites have been placed in higher orbits, thus placing greater demands on the capabilities of the on-board radar and camera systems. Project White Cloud and the Clipper Bow program are described, noting the continued operation of the White Cloud spacecraft, which are equipped to intercept radio signals from surface ships. Currently, the integrated tactical surveillance system program has completed its study and a decision is expected soon.

  15. OMV With Satellite (United States)


    This 1986 artist's concept shows the Orbital Maneuvering Vehicle (OMV) towing a satellite. As envisioned by Marshall Space Flight Center plarners, the OMV would be a remotely-controlled free-flying space tug which would place, rendezvous, dock, and retrieve orbital payloads.

  16. Advances in satellite oceanography (United States)

    Brown, O. B.; Cheney, R. E.


    Technical advances and recent applications of active and passive satellite remote sensing techniques to the study of oceanic processes are summarized. The general themes include infrared and visible radiometry, active and passive microwave sensors, and buoy location systems. The surface parameters of sea surface temperature, windstream, sea state, altimetry, color, and ice are treated as applicable under each of the general methods.

  17. INMARSAT - The International Maritime Satellite Organization: Origins and structure (United States)

    Doyle, S. E.


    The third session of the International Conference on the Establishment of an International Maritime Satellite System established the International Maritime Satellite Organization (INMARSAT) in 1976. Its main functions are to improve maritime communications via satellite, thereby facilitating more efficient emergency communications, ship management, and maritime public correspondence services. INMARSAT's aims are similar to those of the Intergovernmental Maritime Consultative Organization (IMCO), the main United Nations organization dealing with maritime affairs. The specific functions of INMARSAT have been established by an Intersessional Working Group (IWG) which met three times between general conference meetings. Initial investment shares for the creation of INMARSAT were shared by the United States (17%), the United Kingdom (12%), the U.S.S.R. (11%), Norway (9.50%), Japan (8.45%), Italy (4.37%), and France (3.50%).

  18. Cibola flight experiment satellite (United States)

    Davies, P.; Liddle, Doug; Paffett, John; Sweeting, Martin; Curiel, A.; Sun, Wei; Eves, Stuart


    In order to achieve an "economy of scale" with respect to payload capacity the major trend in telecommunications satellites is for larger and larger platforms. With these large platforms the level of integration between platform and payload is increasing leading to longer delivery schedules. The typical lifecycle for procurement of these large telecommunications satellites is now 3-6 years depending on the level of non-recurring engineering needed. Surrey Satellite Technology Ltd (SSTL) has designed a low-cost platform aimed at telecommunications and navigation applications. SSTL's Geostationary Minisatellite Platform (GMP) is a new entrant addressing the lower end of the market with payloads up to 250kg requiring less than 1.5 kW power. The British National Space Centre through the MOSAIC Small Satellite Initiative supported the development of GMP. The main design goals for GMP are low-cost for the complete mission including launch and operations and a platform allowing flexible payload accommodation. GMP is specifically designed to allow rapid development and deployment with schedules typically between 1 and 2 years from contract signature to flight readiness. GMP achieves these aims by a modular design where the level of integration between the platform and payload is low. The modular design decomposes the satellite into three major components - the propulsion bay, the avionics bay and the payload module. Both the propulsion and avionics bays are reusable, largely unchanged, and independent of the payload configuration. Such a design means that SSTL or a 3rd party manufacturer can manufacture the payload in parallel to the platform with integration taking place quite late in the schedule. In July 2003 SSTL signed a contract for ESA's first Galileo navigation satellite known as GSTBV2/A. The satellite is based on GMP and ESA plan to launch it into a MEO orbit late in 2005. The second flight of GMP is likely to be in 2006 carrying a geostationary payload

  19. Associations of proanthocyanidin intake with renal function and clinical outcomes in elderly women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerry L Ivey

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Progression to chronic renal failure involves accelerated atherosclerosis and vascular calcification. Oxidative stress and endothelial dysfunction play a role in renal failure pathophysiology. In addition to improving vascular health and function, proanthocyanidins have been shown to exert renoprotective effects in animal models. Thus we hypothesize that proanthocyanidins may contribute to the maintenance of healthy renal function. OBJECTIVE: Determine the association of habitual proanthocyanidin intake with renal function and the risk of clinical renal outcomes in a population of elderly women. DESIGN: 948 women aged over 75 y, free of prevalent renal disease at baseline, were randomly selected from ambulant Caucasian women. Proanthocyanidin consumption was determined using a validated food frequency questionnaire and the United States Department of Agriculture proanthocyanidin food content database. Fasting serum cystatin C and creatinine were assessed at baseline. Renal failure hospitalisations and deaths were assessed over 5 years of follow-up through the Western Australia Data Linkage System. RESULTS: Compared to participants with low consumption, participants in the highest tertile of proanthocyanidin intake had a 9% lower cystatin C concentration (P<0.001. High proanthocyanidin consumers were at 50% lower risk of moderate chronic kidney insufficiency, and 65% lower risk of experiencing a 5-year renal disease event (P<0.05. These relationships remained significant following adjustment for renal disease risk factors and diet-related potential confounders. CONCLUSION: Increased consumption of proanthocyanidins was associated with better renal function and substantially reduced renal associated events, which has been supported by mechanistic and animal model data. Proanthocyanidin intake should be further examined as a dietary contributor to better renal health.

  20. Thrombolytic therapy in bilateral embolism of renal arteries branches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cassini Marcelo F.


    Full Text Available Bilateral renal artery embolism is rare, but it is a significant cause of arterial hypertension and renal failure, and most often is associated with cardiac arrhythmias. We report a case of bilateral renal artery embolism with a satisfactory outcome following use of thrombolytic therapy. A 42 year-old Caucasian man presented a sudden complaint of intense abdominal pain, in mesogastrium and left flank with dorsal irradiation, 3 days after electrical cardioversion due to cardiac arrhythmia. Laboratory tests revealed slight leukocytosis, hematuria, and creatinine of 1.8 mg/dL. Chest radiography was normal and computerized tomography showed an area of massive ischemia in left kidney, and focal ischemia in right kidney and spleen. The patient was then submitted to systemic venous therapy with 1.5 million units of streptokinase, with an excellent outcome.

  1. Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) satellites collect visible and infrared cloud imagery as well as monitoring the atmospheric, oceanographic,...

  2. Current status of renal biopsy for small renal masses. (United States)

    Ha, Seung Beom; Kwak, Cheol


    Small renal masses (SRMs) are defined as radiologically enhancing renal masses of less than 4 cm in maximal diameter. The incidence of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) has increased in recent years, which is mainly due to the rise in incidental detection of localized SRMs. However, the cancer-specific mortality rate is not increasing. This discrepancy may be dependent on the indolent nature of SRMs. About 20% of SRMs are benign, and smaller masses are likely to have pathologic characteristics of low Fuhrman grade and clear cell type. In addition, SRMs are increasingly detected in elderly patients who are likely to have comorbidities and are a high-risk group for active treatment like surgery. As the information about the nature of SRMs is improved and management options for SRMs are expanded, the current role of renal mass biopsy for SRMs is also expanding. Traditionally, renal mass biopsy has not been accepted as a standard diagnostic tool in the clinical scenario because of several issues about safety and accuracy. However, current series on SRM biopsy have reported high diagnostic accuracy with rare complications. Studies of modern SRM biopsy have reported diagnostic accuracy greater than 90% with very high specificity. Also, current series have shown very rare morbid cases caused by renal mass biopsy. Currently, renal biopsy of SRMs can be recommended in most cases except when patients have imaging or clinical characteristics indicative of pathology and in cases in which conservative management is not considered.

  3. Current Status of Renal Biopsy for Small Renal Masses (United States)

    Ha, Seung Beom


    Small renal masses (SRMs) are defined as radiologically enhancing renal masses of less than 4 cm in maximal diameter. The incidence of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) has increased in recent years, which is mainly due to the rise in incidental detection of localized SRMs. However, the cancer-specific mortality rate is not increasing. This discrepancy may be dependent on the indolent nature of SRMs. About 20% of SRMs are benign, and smaller masses are likely to have pathologic characteristics of low Fuhrman grade and clear cell type. In addition, SRMs are increasingly detected in elderly patients who are likely to have comorbidities and are a high-risk group for active treatment like surgery. As the information about the nature of SRMs is improved and management options for SRMs are expanded, the current role of renal mass biopsy for SRMs is also expanding. Traditionally, renal mass biopsy has not been accepted as a standard diagnostic tool in the clinical scenario because of several issues about safety and accuracy. However, current series on SRM biopsy have reported high diagnostic accuracy with rare complications. Studies of modern SRM biopsy have reported diagnostic accuracy greater than 90% with very high specificity. Also, current series have shown very rare morbid cases caused by renal mass biopsy. Currently, renal biopsy of SRMs can be recommended in most cases except when patients have imaging or clinical characteristics indicative of pathology and in cases in which conservative management is not considered. PMID:25237457

  4. Modular approach for satellite communication ground terminals (United States)

    Gould, G. R.


    The trend in satellite communications is toward completely digital, time division multiple access (TDMA) systems with uplink and downlink data rates dictated by the type of service offered. Trunking terminals will operate in the 550 MBPS (megabit per second) region uplink and downlink, whereas customer premise service (CPS) terminals will operate in the 25 to 10 MBPS region uplink and in the 200 MBPS region downlink. Additional criteria for the ground terminals will be to maintain clock sychronization with the system and burst time integrity to within a matter of nanoseconds, to process required order-fire information, to provide adaptive data scrambing, and to compensate for variations in the user input output data rates, and for changes in range in the satellite communications links resulting from satellite perturbations in orbit. To achieve the required adaptability of a ground terminal to the above mentioned variables, programmable building blocks can be developed that will meet all of these requirements. To maintain system synchronization, i.e., all bursted data arriving at the satellite within assigned TDMA windows, ground terminal transmit data rates and burst timing must be maintained within tight tolerances. With a programmable synchronizer as the heart of the terminal timing generation, variable data rates and burst timing tolerances are achievable. In essence, the unit inputs microprocessor generated timing words and outputs discrete timing pulses.

  5. Commercial satellite imagery comes of age

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jasani, Bhupendra [King' s College, London (United Kingdom). Dept. of War Studies


    In the absence of on-site inspections until recently, in the Seventh Quarterly Report to the United Nations Security Council, the Executive Director of the UN Monitoring, Verification and Inspection Commission (UNMOVIC) stated that the imagery acquired over Iraq, which UNMOVIC is receiving through a commercial satellite supplier is continuously, being analysed. Not only this but the report hopes that 'Member States will continue to provide it with imagery from their own assets as such assistance provided to date has proven very valuable' Even after the on-site inspections have begun, satellite imagery over Iraq continues, for example, to be used for inspection planning purposes. This indicates that commercial satellite imagery might finally be used on a routine basis. As the findings by the UNMOVIC are not made public, this paper examines a number of images acquired over Baghdad from different commercial satellite sources and at different times to determine what could be concluded about Iraq's nuclear and chemical weapon activities in the region.

  6. Global Warming: Evidence from Satellite Observations (United States)

    Prabhakara, C.; Iacovazzi, R., Jr.; Yoo, J.-M.


    Observations made in Channel 2 (53.74 GHz) of the Microwave Sounding Unit (MSU) radiometer, flown on-board sequential, sun-synchronous, polar orbiting NOAA operational satellites, indicate that the mean temperature of the atmosphere over the globe increased during the period 1980 to 1999. In this study we have minimized systematic errors in the time series introduced by the satellite orbital drift in an objective manner. This is done with the help the onboard warm black body temperature, which is used in the calibration of the MSU radiometer. The corrected MSU Channel 2 observations of the NOAA satellite series reveal that the vertically weighted global mean temperature of the atmosphere, with a peak weight near the mid-troposphere, warmed at the rate of 0.13 K per decade (with an uncertainty of 0.05 K per decade) during 1980 to 1999. The global warming deduced from conventional meteorological data that have been corrected for urbanization effects agrees reasonably with this satellite deuced result.

  7. Targeting Strategies for Renal Cell Carcinoma: From Renal Cancer Cells to Renal Cancer Stem Cells. (United States)

    Yuan, Zhi-Xiang; Mo, Jingxin; Zhao, Guixian; Shu, Gang; Fu, Hua-Lin; Zhao, Wei


    Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is a common form of urologic tumor that originates from the highly heterogeneous epithelium of renal tubules. Over the last decade, targeting therapies to renal cancer cells have transformed clinical care for RCC. Recently, it was proposed that renal cancer stem cells (CSCs) isolated from renal carcinomas were responsible for driving tumor growth and resistance to conventional chemotherapy and radiotherapy, according to the theory of CSCs; this has provided the rationale for therapies targeting this aggressive cell population. Precise identification of renal CSC populations and the complete cell hierarchy will accurately inform characterization of disease subtypes. This will ultimately contribute to more personalized and targeted therapies. Here, we summarize potential targeting strategies for renal cancer cells and renal CSCs, including tyrosine kinase inhibitors, mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitors (mTOR), interleukins, CSC marker inhibitors, bone morphogenetic protein-2, antibody drug conjugates, and nanomedicine. In conclusion, targeting therapies for RCC represent new directions for exploration and clinical investigation and they plant a seed of hope for advanced clinical care.

  8. DFH Satellite Co.,Ltd.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    DFH Satellite Co.,Ltd. is a hi-tech enterprise founded and sponsored by China Aerospace Science and Technology Corporation(CASC) and one of CASC subsidiaries,China Academy of Space Technology (CAST). The company is mainly engaged in the research and development of small satellites and micro-satellites, Osystem designs and product development for satellite application projects as well as the international exchanges and cooperation.

  9. Traumatismo renal: Diagnóstico y tratamiento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Itsel Vela Caravia


    Full Text Available Se investigaron aleatoriamente 57 pacientes con el diagnóstico de traumatismo renal y egresados vivos entre 1993 y 1999. Se valoró como la causa predominante del traumatismo renal a los accidentes del tránsito y la incidencia mayor apareció en los hombres blancos entre 25 y 34 años. Los traumatismos renales cerrados ocurrieron en el 91,2 % y los penetrantes el 8,7 %. Los de grado I representaron el 77,1 %, los del grado II el 12,2 % y los de grado III el 10,5 % del total. En el traumatismo grado I predominó el tratamiento médico conservador; en el grado II un tratamiento conservador quirúrgico y en el grado III predominó el tratamiento no conservador. Se consideró que con un diagnóstico y tratamiento adecuados, mediante una clasificación correcta del traumatismo renal, se puede producir una salvación de la unidad renal afectada57 patients with the diagnosis of kidney traumatism who were discharged alive were investigated at random. Car accidents were asessed as the predominating cause of kidney traumatism. The highest incidence was observed among white men aged 25-34. The closed kidney traumatisms occurred in 91.2 % and the penetrating in 8.7 %. The degree 1 traumatisms accounted for 77.1 %, the degree II for 12.2 % and the degree III for 10.5 % of the total. In degree I traumatism, it was observed a predominance of the conservative medical treatment; in the degree II, a surgical conservative treamtent; and in the degree III, the non-conservative treatment. It was considered that with an adequate diagnosis and treatment and by a correct classification of the renal traumatism, the affected renal unit may be saved

  10. Spontaneous renal artery dissection complicating with renal infarction. (United States)

    Tsai, Tsung-Han; Su, Jung-Tsung; Hu, Sung-Yuan; Chao, Chih-Chung; Tsan, Yu-Tse; Lin, Tzu-Chieh


    Spontaneous renal artery dissection (SRAD) is a rare entity. We reported a 30-year-old healthy man presenting with sudden onset of left flank pain. Abdominal plain film and sonography were unremarkable. The contrast-enhanced abdominal computed tomographic (CT) scan demonstrated a dissecting intimal flap of the left distal renal artery (RA) complicating infarction. Selective angiography of the renal artery disclosed a long dissection of left distal RA with a patent true lumen and occlusion of left accessory RA. Conservative treatment with control of blood pressure and antiplatelet agent was prescribed. The patient was discharged with an uneventful condition on day 5.

  11. Renal histology and immunopathology in distal renal tubular acidosis. (United States)

    Feest, T G; Lockwood, C M; Morley, A R; Uff, J S


    Renal biospy studies are reported from 10 patients with distal renal tubular acidosis (DRTA). On the biopsies from 6 patients who had associated immunological abnormalities immunofluorescent studies for immunoglobulins, complement, and fibrin were performed. Interstitial cellular infiltration and fibrosis were common findings in patients with and without immunological abnormalities, and were usually associated with nephrocalcinosis and/or recurrent urinary infection. No immune deposits were demonstrated in association with the renal tubules. This study shows that DRTA in immunologically abnormal patients is not caused by tubular deposition of antibody or immune complexes. The possibility of cell mediated immune damage is discussed.

  12. Epidemiologic characteristics and risk factors for renal cell cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loren Lipworth


    Full Text Available Loren Lipworth1,2, Robert E Tarone1,2, Lars Lund2,3, Joseph K McLaughlin1,21International Epidemiology Institute, Rockville, MD, USA; 2Department of Medicine (JKM, RET and Preventive Medicine (LL, Vanderbilt University Medical Center and Vanderbilt-Ingram Cancer Center, Nashville, TN, USA; 3Department of Urology, Viborg Hospital, Viborg, DenmarkAbstract: Incidence rates of renal cell cancer, which accounts for 85% of kidney cancers, have been rising in the United States and in most European countries for several decades. Family history is associated with a two- to four-fold increase in risk, but the major forms of inherited predisposition together account for less than 4% of renal cell cancers. Cigarette smoking, obesity, and hypertension are the most consistently established risk factors. Analgesics have not been convincingly linked with renal cell cancer risk. A reduced risk of renal cell cancer among statin users has been hypothesized but has not been adequately studied. A possible protective effect of fruit and vegetable consumption is the only moderately consistently reported dietary finding, and, with the exception of a positive association with parity, evidence for a role of hormonal or reproductive factors in the etiology of renal cell cancer in humans is limited. A recent hypothesis that moderate levels of alcohol consumption may be protective for renal cell cancer is not strongly supported by epidemiologic results, which are inconsistent with respect to the categories of alcohol consumption and the amount of alcohol intake reportedly associated with decreased risk. For occupational factors, the weight of the evidence does not provide consistent support for the hypotheses that renal cell cancer may be caused by asbestos, gasoline, or trichloroethylene exposure. The established determinants of renal cell cancer, cigarette smoking, obesity, and hypertension, account for less than half of these cancers. Novel epidemiologic approaches

  13. Developing a provisional and national renal disease registry for Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sima Ajami


    Full Text Available Background: Disease registry is a database that includes information about people suffering a special kind of disease. The aim of this study was to first identify and compare the National Renal Disease Registry (NRDR characteristics in some countries with Iran; and second, develop a provisional and NRDR for Iran. Materials and Methods: Retrieval of data of the NRDR was performed by scholars responsible in related agencies, including the Ministry of Health and Medical Education, Renal Disease charity, and data registries in the United States, United Kingdom, Malaysia, and Iran. This research was applied, and the study was descriptive-comparative. The study population consisted of the NRDR in selected countries in which data were collected by forms that were designed according to the study objectives. Sources of data were researchers, articles, books, journals, databases, websites, related documents, and people who are active in this regard, and related agencies, including the Ministry of Health and Medical Education, and patient support charity. The researchers collected data for each country based on the study objectives and then put them in comparative tables. Data were analyzed by descriptive, comparative, and theoretical methods. Results: Most of the renal transplant teams report their own results as a single center experiences. America and Britain have a preeminent national registry of renal disease compared to other countries. Conclusion: Given that control, prevention, and treatment of chronic renal diseases incur high expenses and the disease is one of leading mortality factors in Iran and across the world and since national registry system for chronic renal diseases can provide better tools and strategies to manage and evaluate patients′ characteristics as well as risk factors which eventually leads to making better decisions.

  14. Telelibrary: Library Services via Satellite. (United States)

    Liu, Rosa


    Investigates the provision of library services via satellite, explains briefly the operation and advantages of communication satellites, and discusses the various telecommunications equipment and services which, when coupled with satellite transmission, will enhance library activities. Demand trend projections for telecommunications services…

  15. Mobile satellite service for Canada (United States)

    Sward, David


    The Mobile Satellite (MSAT) system and a special program designed to provide interim mobile satellite services (IMSS) during the construction phase of MSAT are described. A mobile satellite system is a key element in extending voice and and data telecommunications to all Canadians.

  16. Race/ethnicity, poverty status, and renal transplant outcomes. (United States)

    Press, Rebecca; Carrasquillo, Olveen; Nickolas, Thomas; Radhakrishnan, Jai; Shea, Steven; Barr, R Graham


    There are known racial disparities in renal graft survival. Data are lacking comparing associations of race/ethnicity and socioeconomic status with graft failure and functional status after transplantation. Our goal was to test if African-American and Hispanic race/ethnicity and poverty are associated with worse outcomes following renal transplantation. We performed a retrospective cohort study using a nationwide registry (United Network for Organ Sharing). We studied 4,471 adults who received renal transplants in 1990. Outcomes were graft failure and functional status over 10 years. Cumulative incidence of graft failure was higher among African-Americans and Hispanics than whites (77% vs. 64% vs. 60 %; Ppoverty status was not (RR 1.0, 95% CI 0.9-1.1). Days with impaired functional status were higher for African-Americans compared to whites (RR 1.6, 95% CI 1.3-1.9) but not independent of poverty. Poverty was independently associated with impaired functional status (RR 1.3, 95% CI 1.0-1.6). African-Americans and Hispanics had higher rates of graft failure compared to whites after adjustment for poverty and other covariates whereas poverty, but not race/ethnicity, was related to functional status following renal transplantation. National datasets should include individual-level measures of socioeconomic status in order to improve evaluation of social and environmental causes of disparities in renal transplant outcomes.

  17. Spectral properties of icy satellites (United States)

    Stephan, Katrin; Jaumann, Ralf; Wagner, Roland; Clark, Roger; Cruikshank, Dale; Brown, Robert; Roatsch, Thomas; Buratti, Bonnie; Matson, Dennis; Dalle Ore, Cristina; Filacchione, Gianrico; Capaccioni, Fabrizio; Nicholson, Phil; Baines, Kevin; Sotin, Christoph


    Since 2004 Cassini is orbiting the Saturnian system with its instruments investigating the chemical and physical properties of Saturn ‘s atmosphere, its magnetosphere, its numerous satellites and rings. The VIMS instrument onboard Cassini enables not only to identify the Saturn satellites’ compositional units but also to map their distribution across the surfaces, to relate their location and extension to specific geological and/or geomorphological surface features and to characterize surface alterations induced by the space environment. Although, the VIMS spectra of the Saturnian satellites’ surfaces are dominated by H2O-ice, its distribution and physical characteristics differ distinctly from one satellite to the other. Global hemispherical differences are mostly related to the satellite’s orbital position within the Saturnian system, i.e. the distance to Saturn and its E ring, with particles originating from Saturn’s magnetosphere and/or the ice grains coming from the E ring impacting their surfaces. Often, these hemispherical differences are characterized by a dark non-icy contaminant more concentrated on their trailing hemispheres, while the more water ice-rich leading hemispheres appear covered by fresh material ejected by an impact event and/or by impacting E-ring particles. Tethys, however, situated closer to Enceladus and the E ring and deeper within Saturn’s magnetosphere, shows a more complex pattern. Compositional changes on a regional and local scale could be identified and related to the geological processes, i.e. impact cratering, tectonics, and erosion. Particularly, young impact craters and tectonic features reveal clean H2O ice of relatively large grain size while the “fresh” (unaltered) surface material offers a unique view into the crustal properties and evolution of its satellite. Whereas, prominent graben systems on Dione and Rhea are characterized by a pronounced ice signature - Ithaca Chasma on Tethys is barely recognizable

  18. Renal involvement in antiphospholipid syndrome. (United States)

    Sciascia, Savino; Cuadrado, Maria José; Khamashta, Munther; Roccatello, Dario


    Antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) is an autoimmune disease defined by the presence of arterial or venous thrombotic events and/or pregnancy morbidity in patients who test positive for antiphospholipid antibodies (aPLs). APS can be isolated (known as primary APS) or associated with other autoimmune diseases, such as systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE; known as secondary APS). The kidney is a major target organ in APS and renal thrombosis can occur at any level within the vasculature of the kidney (renal arteries, intrarenal arteries, glomerular capillaries and renal veins); events reflect the site and size of the involved vessels. Histological findings vary widely, including ischaemic glomeruli and thrombotic lesions without glomerular or arterial immune deposits on immunofluorescence. Renal prognosis is affected by the presence of aPLs in patients with lupus nephritis and can be poor. In patients with SLE and aPLs, biopsy should be performed because inflammatory and thrombotic lesions require different therapeutic approaches. Renal involvement in patients with definite APS is treated by anticoagulation with long-term warfarin. The range of renal manifestations associated with APS is broadening and, therefore, aPLs have increasing relevance in end-stage renal disease, transplantation and pregnancy.

  19. Renal Toxicities of Targeted Therapies. (United States)

    Abbas, Anum; Mirza, Mohsin M; Ganti, Apar Kishor; Tendulkar, Ketki


    With the incorporation of targeted therapies in routine cancer therapy, it is imperative that the array of toxicities associated with these agents be well-recognized and managed, especially since these toxicities are distinct from those seen with conventional cytotoxic agents. This review will focus on these renal toxicities from commonly used targeted agents. This review discusses the mechanisms of these side effects and management strategies. Anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) agents including the monoclonal antibody bevacizumab, aflibercept (VEGF trap), and anti-VEGF receptor (VEGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) all cause hypertension, whereas some of them result in proteinuria. Monoclonal antibodies against the human epidermal growth factor receptor (HER) family of receptors, such as cetuximab and panitumumab, cause electrolyte imbalances including hypomagnesemia and hypokalemia due to the direct nephrotoxic effect of the drug on renal tubules. Cetuximab may also result in renal tubular acidosis. The TKIs, imatinib and dasatinib, can result in acute or chronic renal failure. Rituximab, an anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody, can cause acute renal failure following initiation of therapy because of the onset of acute tumor lysis syndrome. Everolimus, a mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitor, can result in proteinuria. Discerning the renal adverse effects resulting from these agents is essential for safe treatment strategies, particularly in those with pre-existing renal disease.

  20. Malignancy and chronic renal failure. (United States)

    Peces, Ramon


    Increased incidence of cancer at various sites is observed in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Certain malignant diseases, such as lymphomas and carcinomas of the kidney, prostate, liver and uterus, show an enhanced prevalence compared with the general population. In particular, renal cell carcinoma (RCC) shows an excess incidence in ESRD patients. A multitude of factors, directly or indirectly associated with the renal disease and the treatment regimens, may contribute to the increased tumor formation in these patients. Patients undergoing renal replacement therapy (RRT) are prone to develop acquired cystic kidney disease (ACKD), which may subsequently lead to the development of RCC. In pre-dialysis patients with coexistent renal disease, as in dialysis and transplant patients, the presence of ACKD may predispose to RCC. Previous use of cytotoxic drugs (eg, cyclophosphamide) or a history of analgesic abuse, are additional risk factors for malignancy. Malignancy following renal transplantation is an important medical problem during the follow-up. The most common malignancies are lymphoproliferative disorders (early after transplantation) and skin carcinomas (late after transplantation). Another important confounder for risk of malignancy after renal transplantation is the type of immunosuppression. The type of malignancy is different in various countries and dependent on genetic and environmental factors. Finally, previous cancer treatment in a uremic patient on the transplant waiting list is of great importance in relation to waiting time and post-malignancy screening.

  1. Wegener's granulomatosis with renal involvement: patient survival and correlations between initial renal function, renal histology, therapy and renal outcome. (United States)

    Andrassy, K; Erb, A; Koderisch, J; Waldherr, R; Ritz, E


    Patient survival and renal outcome were followed in 25 patients with biopsy confirmed Wegener's granulomatosis and renal involvement. Fourteen out of 25 patients required dialysis on admission, 11/25 patients did not. All patients were treated with a novel protocol comprising methylprednisolone and cyclophosphamide. The median follow-up observation was 36 months (12-113 months). With the exception of 1 patient (who died from causes not related to Wegener's granulomatosis) all patients are alive. Among the patients initially requiring dialysis (n = 14) 4 are in terminal renal failure after 0, 7, 21 and 38 months respectively. In the nondialysis group (n = 11) only 1 patient subsequently required chronic dialysis 30 months after clinical admission. Renal failure was due to non-compliance with immunosuppressive therapy in at least 2 patients. Percentage of obsolescent glomeruli and the degree of tubulointerstitial lesions, but not active glomerular lesions (crescents, necroses) predicted renal outcome. The major cause of renal functional impairment was relapse of Wegener's granulomatosis usually within 2 years after clinical remission. Therefore prolonged treatment with cyclophosphamide for at least 2 years after clinical remission is recommended. Two patients with initially negative immunohistology had a second renal biopsy which revealed de novo appearance of mesangial IgA deposits.

  2. Satellite Aerodynamics and Density Determination from Satellite Dynamic Response (United States)

    Karr, G. R.


    The aerodynamic drag and lift properties of a satellite are first expressed as a function of two parameters associated with gas-surface interaction at the satellite surface. The dynamic response of the satellite as it passes through the atmosphere is then expressed as a function of the two gas-surface interaction parameters, the atmospheric density, the satellite velocity, and the satellite orientation to the high speed flow. By proper correlation of the observed dynamic response with the changing angle of attack of the satellite, it is found that the two unknown gas-surface interaction parameters can be determined. Once the gas-surface interaction parameters are known, the aerodynamic properties of the satellite at all angles of attack are also determined.

  3. Hyperparathyroidism of Renal Disease (United States)

    Yuen, Noah K; Ananthakrishnan, Shubha; Campbell, Michael J


    Renal hyperparathyroidism (rHPT) is a common complication of chronic kidney disease characterized by elevated parathyroid hormone levels secondary to derangements in the homeostasis of calcium, phosphate, and vitamin D. Patients with rHPT experience increased rates of cardiovascular problems and bone disease. The Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes guidelines recommend that screening and management of rHPT be initiated for all patients with chronic kidney disease stage 3 (estimated glomerular filtration rate, < 60 mL/min/1.73 m2). Since the 1990s, improving medical management with vitamin D analogs, phosphate binders, and calcimimetic drugs has expanded the treatment options for patients with rHPT, but some patients still require a parathyroidectomy to mitigate the sequelae of this challenging disease. PMID:27479950

  4. Citrato y litiasis renal



    El citrato es un potente inhibidor de la cristalización de sales de calcio. La hipocitraturia es una alteración bioquímica frecuente en la formación de cálculos de calcio en adultos y especialmente en niños. El pH ácido (sistémico, tubular e intracelular) es el principal determinante de la excreción de citrato en la orina. Si bien la mayoría de los pacientes con litiasis renal presentan hipocitraturia idiopática, hay un número de causas para esta anormalidad que incluyen acidosis tubular rena...

  5. Angio-embolization of a renal pseudoaneurysm complicating a percutaneous renal biopsy: a case report. (United States)

    Rafik, Hicham; Azizi, Mounia; El Kabbaj, Driss; Benyahia, Mohammed


    We report the treatment of a bleeding renal pseudoaneurysm by angio-embolization. A 21 years old woman developed macroscopic haematuria following renal biopsy. Renal angio-scan showed a 1.4 cm renal pseudoaneurysm in the left kidney. The presence of pseudoaneurysm was confirmed by selective renal angiography. Successful embolization was performed using gelatine sponge particles.

  6. Successful management of neonatal renal venous thrombosis. (United States)

    Piscitelli, Antonio; Galiano, Rossella; Piccolo, Vincenzo; Concolino, Daniela; Strisciuglio, Pietro


    Renal vein thrombosis is the most common vascular condition involving the newborn kidney and it can result in severe renal damage. We report a newborn with renal vein thrombosis treated with continuous infusion of unfractionated heparin who had normal total renal function after 3 years of follow up, despite reduction of the functional contribution of the affected kidney.

  7. Diagnosis and treatment of renal artery stenosis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plouin, P.F.; Bax, L.


    A reduction in the diameter of the renal arteries can lead to hypertension, renal dysfunction and/or pulmonary edema. About 90% of patients with renal artery stenosis have atherosclerosis, and 10% have fibromuscular dysplasia. Atherosclerotic renal artery stenosis is a common condition that typicall

  8. Renal acidification defects in medullary sponge kidney

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osther, P J; Hansen, A B; Røhl, H F


    Thirteen patients with medullary sponge kidney underwent a short ammonium chloride loading test to investigate their renal acidification capacity. All but 1 presented with a history of recurrent renal calculi and showed bilateral widespread renal medullary calcification on X-ray examination. Nine...... of renal calculi in medullary sponge kidney, have considerable therapeutic implications....

  9. Renal acidification defects in medullary sponge kidney

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osther, P J; Hansen, A B; Røhl, H F


    patients had some form of renal acidification defect; 8 had the distal type of renal tubular acidosis, 2 the complete and 6 the incomplete form. One patient had proximal renal tubular acidosis. These findings, which suggest that renal acidification defects play an important role in the pathogenesis...

  10. Renal allograft rejection. Unusual scintigraphic findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Desai, A.G.; Park, C.H.


    During sequential renal imagining for evaluation of clinically suspected rejection, focal areas of functioning renal tissue were seen in two cases of renal transplant in the midst of severe and irreversible renal allograft rejection. A probable explanation for this histopathologically confirmed and previously unreported finding is discussed.

  11. Renal Cancer in the Elderly. (United States)

    González León, Tania; Morera Pérez, Maricela


    The increase of the aging population corresponds with the rise of renal cancer in elderly patients. The distinction between functional and chronological age, quality of life, and survival estimate are important issues, among others, that should be considered in the management of renal cancer in elderly patients. We made this review with the purpose of synthesizing the most updated criteria regarding indications and outcomes of the different therapeutic options in the management of elderly patients with renal cancer, beginning from the physiologic considerations that characterize them, their capacity to tolerate different therapeutic possibilities, and the prognosis of the patients' risks and comorbidity assessment.

  12. Renal rickets-practical approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manisha Sahay


    Full Text Available Rickets/osteomalacia is an important problem in a tropical country. Many cases are due to poor vitamin D intake or calcium deficient diets and can be corrected by administration of calcium and vitamin D. However, some cases are refractory to vitamin D therapy and are related to renal defects. These include rickets of renal tubular acidosis (RTA, hypophosphatemic rickets, and vitamin D dependent rickets (VDDR. The latter is due to impaired action of 1α-hydroxylase in renal tubule. These varieties need proper diagnosis and specific treatment.

  13. Blunt Renal Trauma in a Pre-Existing Renal Lesion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.V. Soundra Pandyan


    Full Text Available A 70-year-old male presented with direct trauma to his loin with gross hematuria, as an isolated case of blunt renal trauma (BRT due to a traffic accident. A pre-existing renal lesion (PERL was strongly suspected by his past history of gross macroscopic hematuria and monotrauma to the kidney without other associated injuries. Spiral CT scan with contrast and a retrograde pyelogram (RGP confirmed an occult complex renal cyst. The gold standard of CT diagnosis in this situation is stressed. Computed tomography is particularly useful in evaluating traumatic injuries to kidneys with pre-existing abnormalities. The decision on the initial course of conservative management, ureteral retrograde stenting to drain extravasation, and its final outcome are discussed. Radical nephroureterectomy was carried out by a transperitoneal approach with an early vascular control of the renal pedicle. A brief review of recent literature has been undertaken.

  14. Management of renal disease in pregnancy. (United States)

    Podymow, Tiina; August, Phyllis; Akbari, Ayub


    Although renal disease in pregnancy is uncommon, it poses considerable risk to maternal and fetal health. This article discusses renal physiology and assessment of renal function in pregnancy and the effect of pregnancy on renal disease in patients with diabetes, lupus, chronic glomerulonephritis, polycystic kidney disease, and chronic pyelonephritis. Renal diseases occasionally present for the first time in pregnancy, and diagnoses of glomerulonephritis, acute tubular necrosis, hemolytic uremic syndrome, and acute fatty liver of pregnancy are described. Finally, therapy of end-stage renal disease in pregnancy, dialysis, and renal transplantation are reviewed.

  15. Thematic mapping from satellite imagery

    CERN Document Server

    Denègre, J


    Thematic Mapping from Satellite Imagery: A Guidebook discusses methods in producing maps using satellite images. The book is comprised of five chapters; each chapter covers one stage of the process. Chapter 1 tackles the satellite remote sensing imaging and its cartographic significance. Chapter 2 discusses the production processes for extracting information from satellite data. The next chapter covers the methods for combining satellite-derived information with that obtained from conventional sources. Chapter 4 deals with design and semiology for cartographic representation, and Chapter 5 pre

  16. Cooperative and cognitive satellite systems

    CERN Document Server

    Chatzinotas, Symeon; De Gaudenzi, Riccardo


    Cooperative and Cognitive Satellite Systems provides a solid overview of the current research in the field of cooperative and cognitive satellite systems, helping users understand how to incorporate state-of-the-art communication techniques in innovative satellite network architectures to enable the next generation of satellite systems. The book is edited and written by top researchers and practitioners in the field, providing a comprehensive explanation of current research that allows users to discover future technologies and their applications, integrate satellite and terrestrial systems

  17. Colonisation with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus prior to renal transplantation is associated with long-term renal allograft failure. (United States)

    Moore, Carmel; Davis, Niall F; Burke, John P; Power, Richard; Mohan, Ponnusamy; Hickey, David; Smyth, Gordon; Eng, Molly; Little, Dilly M


    Renal transplant recipients are at an increased risk of developing Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus due to their immunosuppressed status. Herein, we investigate the incidence of MRSA infection in patients undergoing renal transplantation and determine the effect of MRSA colonisation on renal allograft function and overall mortality. Between January 1st 2007 and December 31st 2012, 1499 consecutive kidney transplants performed in our transplant unit and a retrospective 1:2 matched case-control study was performed on this patient cohort. The 1-, 3- and 5-year overall graft survival rates were 100%, 86% and 78%, respectively, in MRSA positive recipients compared with 100%, 100% and 93%, respectively, in the control group (P renal allograft failure at 5 years (hazard ratio: 4.6, 95% confidence interval: 1-30.7, P = 0.048). These findings demonstrate that the incidence of long-term renal allograft failure is significantly greater in this patient cohort compared with a matched control population.

  18. Satellite Control Laboratory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wisniewski, Rafal; Bak, Thomas


    The Satellite Laboratory at the Department of Control Engineering of Aalborg University (SatLab) is a dynamic motion facility designed for analysis and test of micro spacecraft. A unique feature of the laboratory is that it provides a completely gravity-free environment. A test spacecraft...... is suspended on an air bearing, and rotates freely in 3 degrees of freedom. In order to avoid any influence of the gravitational force the centre of mass of the satellite is placed in the geometric centre of the air bearing by an automatic balancing system. The test spacecraft is equipped with a three...... of the laboratory is to conduct dynamic tests of the control and attitude determination algorithms during nominal operation and in abnormal conditions. Further it is intended to use SatLab for validation of various algorithms for fault detection, accommodation and supervisory control. Different mission objectives...

  19. Declassified Intelligence Satellite Photographs (United States)



    Declassified photographs from U.S. intelligence satellites provide an important worldwide addition to the public record of the Earth's land surface. This imagery was released to the National Archives and Records Administration (NARA) and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in accordance with Executive Order 12951 on February 23, 1995. The NARA has the original declassified film and a viewing copy. The USGS has another copy of the film to complement the Landsat archive. The declassified collection involves more than 990,000 photographs taken from 1959 through 1980 and was released on two separate occasions: February 1995 (Declass 1) and September 2002 (Declass 2). The USGS copy is maintained by the Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS) Center, near Sioux Falls, South Dakota. Both the NARA and EROS provide public access to this unique collection that extends the record of land-surface change back another decade from the advent of the Landsat program that began satellite operations in 1972.

  20. Buffer management optimization strategy for satellite ATM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lu Rong; Cao Zhigang


    ECTD (erroneous cell tail drop), a buffer management optimization strategy is suggested which can improve the utilization of buffer resources in satellite ATM (asynchronous transfer mode) networks. The strategy, in which erroneous cells caused by satellite channel and the following cells that belong to the same PDU (protocol data Unit) are discarded, concerns non-real-time data services that use higher layer protocol for retransmission. Based on EPD (early packet drop) policy, mathematical models are established with and without ECTD. The numerical results show that ECTD would optimize buffer management and improve effective throughput (goodput), and the increment of goodput is relative to the CER (cell error ratio) and the PDU length. The higher their values are, the greater the increment. For example,when the average PDU length values are 30 and 90, the improvement of goodput are respectively about 4% and 10%.

  1. Land mobile satellite services in Europe (United States)

    Bartholome, P.; Rogard, R.; Berretta, G.


    The potential role of satellite communication as a complement to the pan-European cellular telephone network being developed to replace the current national or regional networks in the mid 1990s is discussed. The design concept and capabilities of the all-digital cellular network are reviewed; the requirements not covered by the network are listed; market-survey results indicating business interest in these additional services are summarized; and particular attention is given to the ESA demonstration system PRODAT. PRODAT uses the Marecs satellite to provide low-rate two-way data transmission for mobile terminals; the CDMA technique is used for the return links from mobile unit to hub station.

  2. Satellites in Canadian broadcasting (United States)

    Siocos, C. A.

    The involvement of Canadian broadcasting and related enterprises in satellite telecommunications is surveyed. This includes point-to-point transmissions and direct ones to the general public. The mode of such utilizations is indicated in both these cases. For the forthcoming DBS systems the many types of service offerings and utilization concepts under discussion elasewhere are presented as well as the business prospects and regulatory climate offering them.

  3. Neptune: Minor Satellites (United States)

    Murdin, P.


    All but one of Neptune's minor satellites orbit within or just outside its ringsystem; the exception is the distant object Nereid. Some of them are betterdescribed as `mid-sized' rather than `minor', but are included under thisheading as little is known of them. The inner four, with approximatediameters, are Naiad (60 km), Thalassa (80 km), Despina (150 km) and Galatea(160 km). The first three lie...

  4. Satellite Surveillance: Domestic Issues (United States)


    earthquake and tsunami in the Indian Ocean and Hurricane Katrina in 2005, when the NGA provided graphics for “relief efforts that depicted the locations of...that show the damage resulting from an earthquake , fire, flood, hurricane, oil spill, or volcanic eruption.8 Bush Administration Policies...Satellite information has continued to have important civil applications in such disparate areas as the movement of glaciers in Yakutat Bay in Alaska

  5. [Peritoneal dialysis for acute renal failure: Rediscovery of an old modality of renal replacement therapy]. (United States)

    Issad, Belkacem; Rostoker, Guy; Bagnis, Corinne; Deray, Gilbert


    Acute renal failure (ARF) in adults in the intensive care unit (ICU) often evolves in a context of multiple organ failure, which explains the high mortality rate and increase treatment needs. Among, two modalities of renal replacement therapy, peritoneal dialysis (PD) was the first modality used for the treatment of ARF in the 1950s. Today, while PD is generalized for chronic renal failure treatment, its use in the ICU is limited, particularly, due to the advent of new hemodialysis techniques and the development of continuous replacement therapy. Recently, a renewed interest in the use of PD in patients with ARF has manifested in several emerging countries (Brazil, Vietnam). A systematic review in 2013 showed a similar mortality in ARF patients having PD (58%) and those treated by hemodialysis or hemodiafiltration/hemofiltration (56.1%). In the International society of peritoneal dialysis (ISPD)'s guideline (2013), PD may be used in adult ARF as the other blood extracorporeal epuration technics (recommendation with grade 1B). PD is the preferred method in cardiorenal syndromes, in frailty patients with hemodynamic instability and those lacking vascular access; finally PD is also an option in elderly and patients with bleeding tendency. In industrial countries, high volume automated PD with a flexible catheter (usually Tenckhoff) is advocated. Copyright © 2016 Association Société de néphrologie. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. Communications satellites - The experimental years (United States)

    Edelson, B. I.


    Only eight years after the launc of Sputnik-1 by the Soviet Union, the first commercial satellite, 'Early Bird', entered service. In just twelve years commercial satellite service extended around the earth and became profitable. The reasons for the successful development of the communications satellite services in a comparatively short time are considered. These reasons are related to the presence of three ingredients, taking into account technology to create the system, communications requirements to form a market, and a management structure to implement the system. The formation of the concept of using earth orbiting satellites for telecommunications is discussed. It is pointed out that the years from 1958 to 1964 were the true 'experimental years' for satellite communications. The rapid development of technology during this crucial period is described, giving attention to passive satellites, active systems, and development satellites.

  7. [Spontaneous renal artery dissection with renal infarction: a case report]. (United States)

    Oki, Takashi; Adachi, Hiroyuki; Tahara, Hideo; Kino, Sigeo


    A 58-year-old woman visited our hospital with nausea and right flank pain. At first abdominal ultrasonography was performed, suggesting a right renal infarction. Computed tomography (CT) study of the abdomen with intravenous contrast was performed to determine the cause of the symptoms. The scan revealed poor enhancement in the lower half of the right kidney. She was diagnosed with a right renal infarction. She was initially treated with anticoagulant therapy, but 5 days later, she complained of nausea. This time, CT demonstrated exacerbation of a right renal infarction with renal artery dissection. Based on this finding, we performed a right nephrectomy. The result of pathology was segmental arterial mediolysis. She was discharged 12 days after the surgery and is doing well at 6 months after discharge. Spontaneous renal artery dissection is a rare disease. It constitutes approximately 0.05% of arteriographic dissections. In addition, spontaneous renal artery dissection shows nonspecific symptoms. Together, these two factors may cause a delay in diagnosis.

  8. An unusual cause of acute renal failure: renal lymphoma. (United States)

    Ozaltin, Fatih; Yalçin, Bilgehan; Orhan, Diclehan; Sari, Neriman; Caglar, Melda; Besbas, Nesrin; Bakkaloglu, Aysin


    Renal involvement is a common finding in non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL). Acute renal failure at initial presentation due to lymphomatous infiltration of the kidneys has been described infrequently. We report a 17-year-old male who presented with acute renal failure due to massive lymphomatous infiltration of the kidneys, which necessitated hemodialysis. The diagnosis of B-cell NHL was established by tru-cut biopsy of the kidneys and the patient had an excellent response to high-dose chemotherapy with no major complication. The presence of extrarenal involvement in the testes and the retroperitoneal lymph nodes made the diagnosis of primary renal lymphoma debatable. However, considering the delay in diagnosis and the high proliferative rate of B-cell NHL, we might postulate that the disease had originated primarily in the kidneys. We recommend that in NHL cases with severe renal involvement, full-dose chemotherapy should be instituted with meticulous clinical and laboratory follow-up in order to improve clinical and renal failure status rapidly and to avoid further dissemination of NHL.

  9. Hydrocarbons on Saturn's satellites Iapetus and Phoebe (United States)

    Cruikshank, D.P.; Wegryn, E.; Dalle, Ore C.M.; Brown, R.H.; Bibring, J.-P.; Buratti, B.J.; Clark, R.N.; McCord, T.B.; Nicholson, P.D.; Pendleton, Y.J.; Owen, T.C.; Filacchione, G.; Coradini, A.; Cerroni, P.; Capaccioni, F.; Jaumann, R.; Nelson, R.M.; Baines, K.H.; Sotin, C.; Bellucci, G.; Combes, M.; Langevin, Y.; Sicardy, B.; Matson, D.L.; Formisano, V.; Drossart, P.; Mennella, V.


    Material of low geometric albedo (pV ??? 0.1) is found on many objects in the outer Solar System, but its distribution in the saturnian satellite system is of special interest because of its juxtaposition with high-albedo ice. In the absence of clear, diagnostic spectral features, the composition of this low-albedo (or "dark") material is generally inferred to be carbon-rich, but the form(s) of the carbon is unknown. Near-infrared spectra of the low-albedo hemisphere of Saturn's satellite Iapetus were obtained with the Visible-Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (VIMS) on the Cassini spacecraft at the fly-by of that satellite of 31 December 2004, yielding a maximum spatial resolution on the satellite's surface of ???65 km. The spectral region 3-3.6 ??m reveals a broad absorption band, centered at 3.29 ??m, and concentrated in a region comprising about 15% of the low-albedo surface area. This is identified as the C{single bond}H stretching mode vibration in polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) molecules. Two weaker bands attributed to {single bond}CH2{single bond} stretching modes in aliphatic hydrocarbons are found in association with the aromatic band. The bands most likely arise from aromatic and aliphatic units in complex macromolecular carbonaceous material with a kerogen- or coal-like structure, similar to that in carbonaceous meteorites. VIMS spectra of Phoebe, encountered by Cassini on 11 June 2004, also show the aromatic hydrocarbon band, although somewhat weaker than on Iapetus. The origin of the PAH molecular material on these two satellites is unknown, but PAHs are found in carbonaceous meteorites, cometary dust particles, circumstellar dust, and interstellar dust. ?? 2007 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Overview of intercalibration of satellite instruments (United States)

    Chander, G.; Hewison, T.J.; Fox, N.; Wu, X.; Xiong, X.; Blackwell, W.J.


    Inter-calibration of satellite instruments is critical for detection and quantification of changes in the Earth’s environment, weather forecasting, understanding climate processes, and monitoring climate and land cover change. These applications use data from many satellites; for the data to be inter-operable, the instruments must be cross-calibrated. To meet the stringent needs of such applications requires that instruments provide reliable, accurate, and consistent measurements over time. Robust techniques are required to ensure that observations from different instruments can be normalized to a common scale that the community agrees on. The long-term reliability of this process needs to be sustained in accordance with established reference standards and best practices. Furthermore, establishing physical meaning to the information through robust Système International d'unités (SI) traceable Calibration and Validation (Cal/Val) is essential to fully understand the parameters under observation. The processes of calibration, correction, stability monitoring, and quality assurance need to be underpinned and evidenced by comparison with “peer instruments” and, ideally, highly calibrated in-orbit reference instruments. Inter-calibration between instruments is a central pillar of the Cal/Val strategies of many national and international satellite remote sensing organizations. Inter-calibration techniques as outlined in this paper not only provide a practical means of identifying and correcting relative biases in radiometric calibration between instruments but also enable potential data gaps between measurement records in a critical time series to be bridged. Use of a robust set of internationally agreed upon and coordinated inter-calibration techniques will lead to significant improvement in the consistency between satellite instruments and facilitate accurate monitoring of the Earth’s climate at uncertainty levels needed to detect and attribute the mechanisms

  11. Tethered satellite design (United States)

    Manarini, G.


    The capability of the satellite to perform a variety of space operations to be accomplished from the shuttle is reviewed considering use of the satellite with man-in-loop and closed loop modes and deployment (toward or away from Earth, up to 100 km), stationkeeping, retrieval and control of the satellite. Scientific payloads are to be used to perform experiments and scientific investigation for applications such as magnetometry, electrodynamics, atmospheric science, chemical release, communications, plasmaphysics, dynamic environment, and power and thrust generation. The TSS-S will be reused for at least 3 missions after reconfiguration and refurbishment by changing the peculiar mission items such as thermal control, fixed boom for experiments, aerodynamic tail for yaw attitude control, external skin, experiments, and any other feature. The TSS-S is to be composed of three modules in order to allow independent integration of a single module and to facilitate the refurbishment and reconfiguration between flights. The three modules are service, auxiliary propulsion, and payload modules.

  12. Heart Monitoring By Satellite (United States)


    The ambulance antenna shown is a specially designed system that allows satellite-relayed two-way communications between a moving emergency vehicle and a hospital emergency room. It is a key component of a demonstration program aimed at showing how emergency medical service can be provided to people in remote rural areas. Satellite communication permits immediate, hospital- guided treatment of heart attacks or other emergencies by ambulance personnel, saving vital time when the scene of the emergency is remote from the hospital. If widely adopted, the system could save tens of thousands of lives annually in the U.S. alone, medical experts say. The problem in conventional communication with rural areas is the fact that radio signals travel in line of sight. They may be blocked by tall buildings, hills and mountains, or even by the curvature of the Earth, so signal range is sharply limited. Microwave relay towers could solve the problem, but a complete network of repeater towers would be extremely expensive. The satellite provides an obstruction-free relay station in space.

  13. A satellite anemometer (United States)

    Hanson, W. B.; Heelis, R. A.


    This report describes the design, development, and testing of components of a satellite anemometer, an instrument for measuring neutral winds in the upper atmosphere from a satellite platform. The device, which uses four nearly identical pressure sensors, measures the angle of arrival of the bulk neutral flow in the satellite frame of reference. It could also be used in a feedback loop to control spacecraft attitude with respect to the ram velocity direction. We have now developed miniaturized ionization pressure gauges that will work well from the slip flow region near 115 km up to the base of the exosphere, which covers the entire altitude range currently being considered for Tether. Laboratory tests have demonstrated a very linear response to changes in ram angle out to +/- 20 deg. (transverse wind component of 2.7 km s(exp -1)) from the ram, and a monotonic response to out beyond 45 deg. Pitch (vertical wind) and yaw (horizontal wind) can be sampled simultaneously and meaningfully up to 10 Hz. Angular sensitivity of 30 arc seconds (approximately 1 ms(exp -1) is readily attainable, but absolute accuracy for winds will be approximately 1 deg (130 m/s) unless independent attitude knowledge is available. The critical elements of the design have all been tested in the laboratory.

  14. Binary Satellite Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Evslin, Jarah


    Suggestions have appeared in the literature that the following five pairs of Milky Way and Andromeda satellite galaxies are gravitationally bound: Draco and Ursa Minor, Leo IV and V, Andromeda I and III, NGC 147 and 185, and the Magellanic clouds. Under the assumption that a given pair is gravitationally bound, the Virial theorem provides an estimate of its total mass and so its instantaneous tidal radius. For all of these pairs except for the Magellanic clouds the resulting total mass is 2 to 4 orders of magnitude higher than that within the half light radius. Furthermore in the case of each pair except for Leo IV and Leo V, the estimated tidal radius is inferior to the separation between the two satellites. Therefore all or almost all of these systems are not gravitationally bound. We note several possible explanations for the proximities and similar radial velocities of the satellites in each pair, for example they may have condensed from the same infalling structure or they may be bound by a nongravitatio...

  15. Building technological capability within satellite programs in developing countries (United States)

    Wood, Danielle; Weigel, Annalisa


    This paper explores the process of building technological capability in government-led satellite programs within developing countries. The key message is that these satellite programs can learn useful lessons from literature in the international development community. These lessons are relevant to emerging satellite programs that leverage international partnerships in order to establish local capability to design, build and operate satellites. Countries with such programs include Algeria, Nigeria, Turkey, Malaysia and the United Arab Emirates. The paper first provides background knowledge about space activity in developing countries, and then explores the nuances of the lessons coming from the international development literature. Developing countries are concerned with satellite technology because satellites provide useful services in the areas of earth observation, communication, navigation and science. Most developing countries access satellite services through indirect means such as sharing data with foreign organizations. More countries, however, are seeking opportunities to develop satellite technology locally. There are objective, technically driven motivations for developing countries to invest in satellite technology, despite rich debate on this topic. The paper provides a framework to understand technical motivations for investment in satellite services, hardware, expertise and infrastructure in both short and long term. If a country decides to pursue such investments they face a common set of strategic decisions at the levels of their satellite program, their national context and their international relationships. Analysis of past projects shows that countries have chosen diverse strategies to address these strategic decisions and grow in technological capability. What is similar about the historical examples is that many countries choose to leverage international partnerships as part of their growth process. There are also historical examples from

  16. Astronauts Gardner and Allen bringing Westar VI satellite into payload bay (United States)


    Astronaut Dale A. Gardner, left, and Joseph P. Allen IV work together with Dr. Anna L. Fisher (in the Discovery controlling the remote manipulator system (RMS) arm) to bring the Westar VI satellite into the Discovery's payload bay. Allen is on a mobile foot restraint, which is attached to the RMS end effector. Gardner uses the manned maneuvering unit (MMU) on the other side of the satellite. He is attempting to remove the stinger device from the now stabilized satellite.

  17. Guidance and adaptive-robust attitude & orbit control of a small information satellite (United States)

    Somov, Ye.; Butyrin, S.; Somov, S.; Somova, T.; Testoyedov, N.; Rayevsky, V.; Titov, G.; Yakimov, Ye.; Ovchinnikov, A.; Mathylenko, M.


    We consider a small information satellite which may be placed on an orbit with altitude from 600 up to 1000 km. The satellite attitude and orbit control system contains a strap-down inertial navigation system, cluster of four reaction wheels, magnetic driver and a correcting engine unit with eight electro-reaction engines. We study problems on design of algorithms for spatial guidance, in-flight identification and adaptive-robust control of the satellite motion on sun-synchronous orbit.

  18. Taurine and the renal system (United States)


    Taurine participates in a number of different physiologic and biologic processes in the kidney, often reflected by urinary excretion patterns. The kidney is key to aspects of taurine body pool size and homeostasis. This review will examine the renal-taurine interactions relative to ion reabsorption; renal blood flow and renal vascular endothelial function; antioxidant properties, especially in the glomerulus; and the role of taurine in ischemia and reperfusion injury. In addition, taurine plays a role in the renal cell cycle and apoptosis, and functions as an osmolyte during the stress response. The role of the kidney in adaptation to variations in dietary taurine intake and the regulation of taurine body pool size are described. Finally, the protective function of taurine against several kidney diseases is reviewed. PMID:20804616

  19. Stages of Renal Cell Cancer (United States)

    ... cell cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in tubules of the kidney. Renal cell ... diagnosed, tests are done to find out if cancer cells have spread within the kidney or to other ...

  20. Renal Disease and Adult Vaccination (United States)

    ... Resources for Healthcare Professionals Renal Disease and Adult Vaccination Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Vaccines are ... have immunity to this disease Learn about adult vaccination and other health conditions Asplenia Diabetes Type 1 ...

  1. Renal infarction complicating fibromuscular dysplasia. (United States)

    Gavalas, M; Meisner, R; Labropoulos, N; Gasparis, A; Tassiopoulos, A


    Fibromuscular dysplasia (FMD) is a nonatherosclerotic, noninflammatory vascular disease that most commonly affects the renal and extracranial carotid arteries. We present 3 cases of renal infarction complicating renal artery FMD in 42-, 43-, and 46-year-old females and provide a comprehensive review of the literature on this topic. In our patients, oral anticoagulation therapy was used to treat all cases of infarction, and percutaneous angioplasty was used nonemergently in one case to treat refractory hypertension. All patients remained stable at 1-year follow-up. This is consistent with outcomes in previously published reports where conservative medical management was comparable to surgical and interventional therapies. Demographic differences may also exist in patients with renal infarction and FMD. A higher prevalence of males and a younger age at presentation have been found in these patients when compared to the general population with FMD.

  2. Drugs in pregnancy. Renal disease. (United States)

    Marsh, J E; Maclean, D; Pattison, J M


    The management of pregnant women with renal impairment presents a major challenge to obstetricians, nephrologists, and ultimately paediatricians. As renal failure progresses there is an increase in both maternal and fetal complications. Often these women have intercurrent medical conditions and, prior to conception, are receiving a broad range of prescribed medications. A successful obstetric outcome relies upon careful pre-pregnancy counselling and planning, obsessive monitoring during pregnancy, and close liaison between different specialist teams. Experience is mounting in the management of pregnant transplant recipients, but the introduction of newer immunosuppressive agents which have great promise in prolonging graft survival present new problems for those recipients of a kidney transplant who are planning to conceive. We review drug prescription for pregnant patients with renal impairment, end-stage renal failure, or a kidney transplant.

  3. Transcatheter embolisation of renal angiomyolipoma.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Leong, S


    Angiomyolipomas (AML) are rare benign renal tumours which are associated with aneurysms that can cause haemorrhage. Embolisation of AML greater than 4 cm with a variety of embolic agents is now the first-line treatment in these cases.

  4. Cryoablation for Small Renal Masses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. L. Dominguez-Escrig


    Full Text Available Advances in imaging techniques (CT and MRI and widespread use of imaging especially ultrasound scanning have resulted in a dramatic increase in the detection of small renal masses. While open partial nephrectomy is still the reference standard for the management of these small renal masses, its associated morbidity has encouraged clinicians to exploit the advancements in minimally invasive ablative techniques. The last decade has seen the rapid development of laparoscopic partial nephrectomy and novel ablative techniques such as, radiofrequency ablation (RFA, high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU, and cryoablation (CA. In particular, CA for small renal masses has gained popularity as it combines nephron-sparing surgery with a minimally invasive approach. Studies with up to 5-year followup have shown an overall and cancer-specific 5-year survival of 82% and 100%, respectively. This manuscript will focus on the principles and clinical applications of cryoablation of small renal masses, with detailed review of relevant literature.

  5. Renal replacement therapy in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Noordzij, Marlies; Kramer, Anneke; Abad Diez, José M


    BACKGROUND: This article provides a summary of the 2011 ERA-EDTA Registry Annual Report (available at METHODS: Data on renal replacement therapy (RRT) for end-stage renal disease (ESRD) from national and regional renal registries in 30 countries in Europe and bordering the .......6-47.0], and on dialysis 39.3% (95% CI 39.2-39.4). The unadjusted 5-year patient survival after the first renal transplantation performed between 2002 and 2006 was 86.7% (95% CI 86.2-87.2) for kidneys from deceased donors and 94.3% (95% CI 93.6-95.0) for kidneys from living donors....

  6. Pregnancy in renal transplant recipients. (United States)

    Fuchs, Karin M; Wu, Danny; Ebcioglu, Zeynep


    Women with renal disease face increasing infertility and high-risk pregnancy as they approach end-stage renal disease due to uremia. Renal transplantation has provided these patients the ability to return to a better quality of life, and for a number of women who are of child bearing age with renal disease, it has restored their fertility and provided the opportunity to have children. But, although fertility is restored, pregnancy in these women still harbors risk to the mother, graft, and fetus. Selected patients who have stable graft function can have successful pregnancies under the supervision of a multidisciplinary team involving maternal fetal medicine specialists and transplant nephrologists. Careful observation and management are required to optimize outcome for mother and fetus.

  7. Antibiotic managment in renal failure. (United States)

    Winter, R E


    This is a brief compilation of the work of many investigators. It includes facts about toxicity and recommendations about antibiotic management in patients with renal failure. As new data are accrued, changes in these recommendations will be necessary.

  8. Markers of renal function tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shivaraj Gowda


    Full Text Available Background: The markers of renal function test assess the normal functioning of kidneys. These markers may be radioactive and non radioactive. They indicate the glomerular filtration rate, concentrating and diluting capacity of kidneys (tubular function. If there is an increase or decrease in the valves of these markers it indicates dysfunction of kidney. Aim: The aim of this review is to compare and analyze the present and newer markers of renal function tests which help in diagnosis of clinical disorders. Material & Methods: An extensive literature survey was done aiming to compare and compile renal function tests makers required in diagnosis of diseases. Results: Creatinine, urea, uric acid and electrolytes are makers for routine analysis whereas several studies have confirmed and consolidated the usefulness of markers such as cystatin C and β-Trace Protein. Conclusion: We conclude that further investigation is necessary to define these biomarkers in terms of usefulness in assessing renal function.

  9. Mucormycosis (zygomycosis) of renal allograft. (United States)

    Gupta, Krishan L; Joshi, Kusum; Kohli, Harbir S; Jha, Vivekanand; Sakhuja, Vinay


    Fungal infection is relatively common among renal transplant recipients from developing countries. Mucormycosis, also known as zygomycosis, is one of the most serious fungal infections in these patients. The most common of presentation is rhino-cerebral. Isolated involvement of a renal allograft is very rare. A thorough search of literature and our medical records yielded a total of 24 cases with mucormycosis of the transplanted kidney. There was an association with cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection and anti-rejection treatment in these patients and most of these transplants were performed in the developing countries from unrelated donors. The outcome was very poor with an early mortality in 13 (54.5%) patients. Renal allograft mucormycosis is a relatively rare and potentially fatal complication following renal transplantation. Early diagnosis, graft nephrectomy and appropriate antifungal therapy may result in an improved prognosis for these patients.

  10. Acute renal dysfunction in liver diseases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Renal dysfunction is common in liver diseases, either as part of multiorgan involvement in acute illness or secondary to advanced liver disease. The presence of renal impairment in both groups is a poor prognostic indicator. Renal failure is often multifactorial and can present as pre-renal or intrinsic renal dysfunction. Obstructive or post renal dysfunction only rarely complicates liver disease. Hepatorenal syndrome (MRS) is a unique form of renal failure associated with advanced liver disease or cirrhosis, and is characterized by functional renal impairment without significant changes in renal histology. Irrespective of the type of renal failure, renal hypoperfusion is the central pathogenetic mechanism, due either to reduced perfusion pressure or increased renal vascular resistance. Volume expansion, avoidance of precipitating factors and treatment of underlying liver disease constitute the mainstay of therapy to prevent and reverse renal impairment. Splanchnic vasoconstrictor agents, such as terlipressin, along with volume expansion, and early placement of transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) may be effective in improving renal function in HRS. Continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) and molecular absorbent recirculating system (MARS) in selected patients may be life saving while awaiting liver transplantation.

  11. On renal pathophysiology in preeclampsia



    Preeclampsia is a complication of pregnancy which can suddenly change from a relatively mild phenotype into a life-threatening situation. One of the organs that is always involved during preeclampsia is the kidney. The placenta plays an important role in the renal pathophysiology of preeclampsia. The placenta produces excessive amounts of anti-angiogenic factors which are associated with systemic endothelial dysfunction. Although the underlying mechanisms of renal injury during preeclampsia r...

  12. [Heterolateral renal dystopia (2 cases)]. (United States)

    Anastasov, G; Peneva, S; Mushmov, D; Salambashev, L


    The authors observed two cases with crossed renal dystopia, to which venous urography, renal scintigraphy, echographic and gamma-chamber investigations were performed. The venous urography, in case of the appropriate symptomatics, is stressed to be able to establish the presence of heterolateral dystopia by as far as the distributional function of the anomaly is concerned--the gamma-chamber investigation is with the highest information value.

  13. [Unusual elements in renal calculi]. (United States)

    Rodríguez-Miñón Cifuentes, J L; Salvador, E; Traba Villameytide, M L


    A group of 54 renal calculi were spontaneously passed renal stone after a nephritic colic. Two groups of calculi were found: papillary and non-papillary calculi. All calculi were analyzed by infrared spectroscopy and electronic microscopy scan (EMS) and EDAX. When the stones were analyzed with EDAX, elements such as C, N, O, Na, S, Mg, Al, Si, Cl, K, Ca, Mn, Fe, Ni, Zn were detected. The possible origin of these elements is discussed in this work.

  14. Renal safety in patients treated with bisphosphonates for osteoporosis: a review. (United States)

    Miller, Paul D; Jamal, Sophie A; Evenepoel, Pieter; Eastell, Richard; Boonen, Steven


    Bisphosphonates are widely used for the treatment of osteoporosis and are generally well tolerated. However, the United States Food and Drug Administration safety reports have highlighted the issue of renal safety in bisphosphonate-treated patients. All bisphosphonates carry labeled "warnings" or a contraindication for use in patients with severe renal impairment (creatinine clearance osteoporosis were obtained via PubMed, and were reviewed with support from published articles available on PubMed. Renal safety analyses of pivotal trials of oral alendronate, risedronate, and ibandronate for postmenopausal osteoporosis showed no short-term or long-term effects on renal function. Transient postinfusion increases in serum creatinine have been reported in patients receiving intravenous ibandronate and zoledronic acid; however, studies showed that treatment with these agents did not result in long-term renal function deterioration in clinical trial patients with osteoporosis. All bisphosphonate therapies have "warnings" for use in patients with severe renal impairment. Clinical trial results have shown that even in elderly, frail, osteoporotic patients with renal impairment, intravenous bisphosphonate therapy administration in accordance with the prescribing information did not result in long-term renal function decline. Physicians should follow guidelines for bisphosphonate therapies administration at all times. © 2013 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.

  15. Impaired excitability of renal afferent innervation after exposure to the inflammatory chemokine CXCL1. (United States)

    Ditting, Tilmann; Freisinger, Wolfgang; Rodionova, Kristina; Schatz, Johannes; Lale, Nena; Heinlein, Sonja; Linz, Peter; Ott, Christian; Schmieder, Roland E; Scrogin, Karie E; Veelken, Roland


    Recently, we showed that renal afferent neurons exhibit a unique firing pattern, i.e., predominantly sustained firing, upon stimulation. Pathological conditions such as renal inflammation likely alter excitability of renal afferent neurons. Here, we tested whether the proinflammatory chemokine CXCL1 alters the firing pattern of renal afferent neurons. Rat dorsal root ganglion neurons (Th11-L2), retrogradely labeled with dicarbocyanine dye, were incubated with CXCL1 (20 h) or vehicle before patch-clamp recording. The firing pattern of neurons was characterized as tonic, i.e., sustained action potential (AP) firing, or phasic, i.e., renal afferents treated with vehicle, 58.9% exhibited a tonic firing pattern vs. 7.8%, in unlabeled, nonrenal neurons (P renal neurons; hence the occurrence of tonic neurons with sustained firing upon electrical stimulation decreased (35.6 vs. 58.9%, P renal afferents from a predominantly tonic to a more phasic firing pattern, suggesting that CXCL1 reduced the sensitivity of renal afferent units upon stimulation.

  16. How renal cells handle urea. (United States)

    Bagnasco, S M


    The urine concentration process requires an osmolality gradient along the renal cortico-medullary axis, with highest values in the renal papilla. NaCl and urea are the major solutes in the renal inner medulla, concentrations of urea up to 500-600 mM are found in the rat renal papilla. Urea can diffuse across cell membranes and contributes to balance intracellular and extracellular osmotic equilibrium. However, urea has perturbing effects on enzyme activity, and in concentrations above 300 mM is toxic for renal cultured cells. There is increasing evidence that urea can induce cellular responses distinct from those due to NaCl and other non-permeable solutes, including upregulation of immediate-early genes (IEGs). Urea transport by epithelial and endothelial cells is important for intra-medullary urea recycling and preservation of high urea concentration in the inner medulla. Trans-cellular movement of urea in cells expressing urea transporters may influence intracellular levels of this solute and modulate urea-induced signaling pathways. Regulation of urea transporters expression and activity can therefore be viewed as one aspect of cellular adaptation to urea. We have identified tonicity-responsive transcription as one mechanism regulating expression of the urea transporter UT-A. The short-term and long-term effects of variable extracellular urea concentration on the function of renal cells remain still unclear.

  17. Renal transepithelial transport of nucleosides. (United States)

    Nelson, J A; Vidale, E; Enigbokan, M


    Previous work from this and other laboratories has suggested that the mammalian kidney has unique mechanisms for handling purine nucleosides. For example, in humans and in mice, adenosine undergoes net renal reabsorption whereas deoxyadenosine is secreted [Kuttesch and Nelson: Cancer Chemother. Pharmacol. 8, 221 (1982)]. The relationships between these renal transport systems and classical renal organic cation and anion, carbohydrate, and cell membrane nucleoside transport carriers are not established. To investigate possible relationships between such carriers, we have tested effects of selected classical transport inhibitors on the renal clearances of adenosine, deoxyadenosine, 5'-deoxy-5-fluorouridine (5'-dFUR), and 5-fluorouracil in mice. The secretion of deoxyadenosine and 5'-dFUR, but not the reabsorption of adenosine or 5-fluorouracil, was prevented by the classical nucleoside transport inhibitors, dipyridamole and nitrobenzylthioinosine. Cimetidine, an inhibitor of the organic cation secretory system, also inhibited the secretion of 5'-dFUR, although it did not inhibit deoxyadenosine secretion in earlier studies [Nelson et al.: Biochem. Pharmacol. 32, 2323 (1983)]. The specific inhibitor of glucose renal reabsorption, phloridzin, failed to inhibit the reabsorption of adenosine or the secretion of deoxyadenosine. Failure of the nucleoside transport inhibitors and phloridzin to prevent adenosine reabsorption suggests that adenosine reabsorption may occur via a unique process. On the other hand, inhibition of the net secretion of deoxyadenosine and 5'-dFUR by dipyridamole and nitrobenzylthioinosine implies a role for the carrier that is sensitive to these compounds in the renal secretion (active transport) of these nucleosides.

  18. Gadobutrol in Renally Impaired Patients (United States)

    Michaely, Henrik J.; Aschauer, Manuela; Deutschmann, Hannes; Bongartz, Georg; Gutberlet, Matthias; Woitek, Ramona; Ertl-Wagner, Birgit; Kucharczyk, Walter; Hammerstingl, Renate; De Cobelli, Francesco; Rosenberg, Martin; Balzer, Thomas; Endrikat, Jan


    Objective The aim of this study was to assess the potential risk of gadobutrol-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in patients with moderate to severe renal impairment for the development of nephrogenic systemic fibrosis (NSF). Materials and Methods We performed a prospective, international, multicenter, open-label study in 55 centers. Patients with moderate to severe renal impairment scheduled for any gadobutrol-enhanced MRI were included. All patients received a single intravenous bolus injection of gadobutrol at a dose of 0.1 mmol/kg body weight. The primary target variable was the number of patients who develop NSF within a 2-year follow-up period. Results A total of 908 patients were enrolled, including 586 with moderate and 284 with severe renal impairment who are at highest risk for developing NSF. The mean time since renal disease diagnosis was 1.83 and 5.49 years in the moderate and severe renal impairment cohort, respectively. Overall, 184 patients (20.3%) underwent further contrast-enhanced MRI with other gadolinium-based contrast agents within the 2-year follow-up. No patient developed symptoms conclusive of NSF. Conclusions No safety concerns with gadobutrol in patients with moderate to severe renal impairment were identified. There were no NSF cases. PMID:27529464

  19. Physical Activity and Renal Transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzo Bellizzi


    Full Text Available Renal transplantation is burdened by high cardiovascular risk because of increased prevalence of traditional and disease-specific cardiovascular risk factors and, consequently, patients are affected by greater morbidity and mortality. In renal transplanted patients, healthy lifestyle and physical activity are recommended to improve overall morbidity and cardiovascular outcomes. According to METs (Metabolic Equivalent Task; i.e. the amount of energy consumed while sitting at rest, physical activities are classified as sedentary (<3.0 METs, of moderate-(3.0 to 5.9 METs or vigorous-intensity (≥6.0 METs. Guidelines suggest for patients with chronic kidney disease an amount of physical activity of at least 30 minutes of moderate-intensity activity five times per week (min 450 MET-minutes/week. Data on physical activity in renal transplanted patients, however, are limited and have been mainly obtained by mean of non-objective methods. Available data suggest that physical activity is low either at the start or during renal transplantation and this may be associated with poor patient and graft outcomes. Therefore, in renal transplanted patients more data on physical activity obtained with objective, accelerometer-based methods are needed. In the meanwhile, physical activity have to be considered as an essential part of the medical care for renal transplanted recipients.

  20. Renal tubular acidosis. (United States)

    Rothstein, M; Obialo, C; Hruska, K A


    Renal tubular acidosis refers to a group of disorders that result from pure tubular damage without concomitant glomerular damage. They could be hereditary (primary) or acquired (secondary to various disease states like sickle cell disease, obstructive uropathy, postrenal transplant, autoimmune disease, or drugs). The hallmark of the disorder is the presence of hyperchloremic metabolic acidosis with, or without, associated defects in potassium homeostasis, a UpH greater than 5.5 in the presence of systemic acidemia, and absence of an easily identifiable cause of the acidemia. There are three physiologic types whose basic defects are impairment of or a decrease in acid excretion, i.e., type 1 (dRTA); a failure in bicarbonate reabsorption, i.e., type 2 (pRTA); and deficiency of buffer or impaired generation of NH4+, i.e., type 4 RTA. Several pathophysiologic mechanisms have been postulated for these various types. pRTA is the least common of all in the adult population. It rarely occurs as an isolated defect. It is frequently accompanied by diffuse proximal tubule transport defects with aminoaciduria, glycosuria, hyperphosphaturia, and so forth (Fanconi syndrome). dRTA is associated with a high incidence of nephrolithiasis, nephrocalcinosis, osteodystrophy, and growth retardation (in children). Osteodystrophy also occurs in pRTA to a lesser degree and is believed to be secondary to hypophosphatemia. Patients with type 4 RTA usually have mild renal insufficiency from either diabetes mellitus or interstitial nephritis. Acute bicarbonate loading will result in a high fractional excretion of bicarbonate greater than 15% (FEHCO3- greater than 15%) in patients with pRTA, but FEHCO3- less than 3% in patients with dRTA. Type I patients will also have a low (U - B) PCO2 with bicarbonate loading. They are also unable to lower their urine pH to less than 5.5 with NH4Cl loading. The treatment of these patients involves avoidance of precipitating factors when possible, treatment

  1. Satellite Upper Air Network (SUAN) (United States)

    Reale, Tony L.; Thorne, Peter


    During the past 20 years of NOAA operational polar satellites, it has become evident that a growing problem concerning their utilization in Climate and also Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP) applications are the systematic errors and uncertainties inherent in the satellite measurements. Similar arguments can be made for global radiosonde observations. These uncertainties are often larger than the sensitive signals and processes, that satellite and radiosonde measurements are designed to reveal, particularly in the realm of climate. Possible strategies to quantify and compensate for these problems include the analysis of satellite overlap data and/or available collocations of satellite and ground truth (radiosonde) observations. However, overlap observations are typically not available except in extreme polar regions and current sampling strategies for compiling collocated radiosonde and satellite observations are insufficient, further compounding the inherent uncertainties in the ground-truth radiosonde data. A Satellite Upper Air Network is proposed to provide reference radiosonde launches coincident with operational polar satellite(s) overpass. The SUAN consist of 36 global radiosonde stations sub-sampled from the Global Upper Air Network (GUAN), and is designed to provide a robust, global sample of collocated radiosonde and satellite observations conducive to the monitoring and validation of satellite and radiosonde observations. The routine operation of such a network in conjunction with operational polar satellites would provide a long-term of performance for critical observations of particular importance for climate. The following report presents a candidate network of 36 upper-air sites that could comprise a SUAN. Their selection along with the mutual benefit across the satellite, radiosonde, climate, numerical weather prediction (NWP) and radiative transfer (RT) model areas are discussed.

  2. 77 FR 23668 - GPS Satellite Simulator Working Group Notice of Meeting (United States)


    ... Department of the Air Force GPS Satellite Simulator Working Group Notice of Meeting AGENCY: The United States... Global Positioning Systems (GPS) Directorate will be hosting an open GPS Satellite Simulator Working Group (SSWG) meeting for manufacturers of GPS constellation simulators utilized by the federal...

  3. Astronat Dale Gardner using MMU to travel to Westar VI satellite (United States)


    Astronat Dale A. Gardner appears to be under the remote manipulator system (RMS) end effector as he makes a turn in space and preapares to use the manned maneuvering unit (MMU) to travel to Westar VI satellite. The 'stinger' he carries will enter the communications satellite through the nozzle of the spent motor.

  4. A Guide to the Literature on Application of Communications Satellites to Educational Development. (United States)

    Morgan, Robert P.; Singh, Jai P.

    Because of the ability of communications satellites to distribute electronic information (radio, television, digital computer data) over wide areas with potentially attractive costs, considerable interest has been shown in using satellite technology to enhance educational programs, both in the United States and in other countries. In view of these…

  5. Ultrasound-guided percutaneous renal biopsy-induced accessory renal artery bleeding in an amyloidosis patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Qing


    Full Text Available Abstract Ultrasound-guided percutaneous renal biopsy is an important technique for diagnosis of glomerular diseases, and the biopsy-induced life-threatening bleeding rarely happens. Primary systemic amyloidosis is a rare disease which may lead to organ dysfunction including arterial stiffness. The accessory renal artery is a kind of renal vascular variation which goes into the renal parenchyma directly or via the renal hilum. Here we reported a rare case of percutaneous renal biopsy-induced accessory renal artery life-threatening bleeding in a renal amyloidosis patient, and our experience of successful rescue in this patient. Virtual Slides

  6. Renal Heme Oxygenase-1 Induction with Hemin Augments Renal Hemodynamics, Renal Autoregulation, and Excretory Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fady T. Botros


    Full Text Available Heme oxygenases (HO-1; HO-2 catalyze conversion of heme to free iron, carbon monoxide, and biliverdin/bilirubin. To determine the effects of renal HO-1 induction on blood pressure and renal function, normal control rats (n=7 and hemin-treated rats (n=6 were studied. Renal clearance studies were performed on anesthetized rats to assess renal function; renal blood flow (RBF was measured using a transonic flow probe placed around the left renal artery. Hemin treatment significantly induced renal HO-1. Mean arterial pressure and heart rate were not different (115±5 mmHg versus 112±4 mmHg and 331±16 versus 346±10 bpm. However, RBF was significantly higher (9.1±0.8 versus 7.0±0.5 mL/min/g, P<0.05, and renal vascular resistance was significantly lower (13.0±0.9 versus 16.6±1.4 [mmHg/(mL/min/g], P<0.05. Likewise, glomerular filtration rate was significantly elevated (1.4±0.2 versus 1.0±0.1 mL/min/g, P<0.05, and urine flow and sodium excretion were also higher (18.9±3.9 versus 8.2±1.0 μL/min/g, P<0.05 and 1.9±0.6 versus 0.2±0.1 μmol/min/g, P<0.05, resp.. The plateau of the autoregulation relationship was elevated, and renal vascular responses to acute angiotensin II infusion were attenuated in hemin-treated rats reflecting the vasodilatory effect of HO-1 induction. We conclude that renal HO-1 induction augments renal function which may contribute to the antihypertensive effects of HO-1 induction observed in hypertension models.

  7. Nutritional Status in Children with Chronic Renal Failure on Hemodialysis


    Zaki, Moushira Erfan; Hassan, Mona Mamdouh; Bazaraa, Hafez Mahmoud; Ahmed, Hany Fathy; Mahmoud Badr, Ahmed Mohamed


    Background and Aim: Growth retardation is still an important manifestation of children with chronic renal failure (CRF). The aim of this study is to evaluate the growth in relation to nutritional status in Egyptian children with CRF on hemodialysis.Subjects and Methods: The study included 30 Egyptian children above the age of six years on regular haemodialysis at the Haemodialysis Unit of the Centre of Pediatric Nephrology and Transplantation of Cairo University. Anthropometry, biochemical pa...

  8. Scintigraphic assessment of renal function in a case of renal dystopia; Szintigraphische Funktionsberechnung bei renaler Lageanomalie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pilgrim, S. [Gemeinschaftspraxis fuer Nuklearmedizin, Luebeck (Germany)


    In patients with renal dystopia radionuclide urography in commonly used technique may yield inaccurate results concerning split renal function. In a case of unilateral pelvic kidney a simple strategy to avoid this methodical error is demonstrated. (orig.) [Deutsch] Am Fallbeispiel eines Patienten mit einseitiger Beckenniere wird dargestellt, dass bei einer Lageanomalie und Anwendung der renalen Funktionsszintigraphie in ueblicher Technik eine deutliche Fehleinschaetzung der seitengetrennten Funktionsanteile resultieren kann. Ein einfaches Verfahren zur Vermeidung dieses Bestimmungsfehlers wird aufgezeigt. (orig.)

  9. Impaired Renal Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kentaro Ide


    Full Text Available Patients requiring liver transplantation (LT frequently experience renal insufficiency (RI, which affects their survival. Although calcineurin inhibitor-sparing immunosuppressive regimens (CSRs are well known to prevent RI, the immune state in recipients receiving CSR remains to be intensively investigated. Among 60 cases of living-donor LT at our institute, 68% of the patients had none to mild RI (non-RI group and 32% of the patients had moderate to severe RI (RI group. The RI group received a CSR comprising reduced dose of tacrolimus, methylprednisolone, and mycophenolate mofetil, while the non-RI group received a regimen comprising conventional dose of tacrolimus and methylprednisolone. One year after LT, the mean estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR in the RI group had significantly improved, although it was still lower than that of the non-RI group. Serial mixed lymphocyte reaction assays revealed that antidonor T-cell responses were adequately suppressed in both groups. Thus, we provide evidence that CSR leads to improvement of eGFR after LT in patients with RI, while maintaining an appropriate immunosuppressive state.

  10. Renale Osteogystrophie - radiologische Diagnostik

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kainberger F


    Full Text Available Die renale Osteodystrophie (ROD kann definiert werden als die Summe morphologischer Knochenveränderungen infolge des gestörten Kalzium-Phosphat-Stoffwechsels bei chronischer Niereninsuffizienz. Speziell in Österreich mit einer im internationalen Vergleich hohen Rate an Nierentransplantationen ist das radiologische Vollbild dieser Erkrankung heute nur mehr in seltenen Fällen zu sehen. Grundsätzliches Ziel der bildgebenden Diagnostik ist nicht so sehr die Primärdiagnose, sondern die gezielte Planung von Prophylaxe oder Therapie klinisch relevanter Komponenten. Als bildgebende Verfahren stehen neben konventionell-radiologischen Aufnahmetechniken die Osteodensitometrie und, zum Nachweis von Veränderungen der Nebenschilddrüsen, die Sonographie sowie die Szintigraphie zur Verfügung. Es werden vier empirisch abgeleitete radiologische Bildmuster, basierend auf den wichtigsten zugrundeliegenden Stoffwechselkomponenten, beschrieben: die malazische, die hyperparathyreote, die porotische und die hyperphosphatämische Form. Die Ziele der bildgebenden Untersuchung sind heute sowohl auf eine qualitative, als vor allem auch auf eine quantitative Diagnostik ausgerichtet.

  11. Renal failure in patients with multiple myeloma. (United States)

    Almueilo, Samir H


    Renal dysfunction is encountered in 20-25% of patients with multiple myeloma (MM) at the time of diagnosis. There is often a precipitating event. Several biochemical and clinical correlations with renal failure in MM have been reported. Renal failure in MM is associated with worse outcome of the disease. We retrospectively analyzed the medical records of 64 patients with MM admitted to our institution during the period January 1992 to December 2012. Abnormal renal function was observed in 24 (37.5%) patients and 17 (26.6%) of them had renal failure; 14 of the 17 (82.4%) of patients with renal failure had Stage III MM. Urine Bence- Jones protein was positive in ten (58.8%) patients with renal failure versus ten (21.3%) patients without renal failure (P = 0.004). Potential precipitating factors of renal failure were determined in nine patients. Renal function normalized in 11 patients with simple measures, while six patients required hemodialysis; one remained dialysis dependent till time of death. Early mortality occurred in five (29.4%) patients with renal failure as compared with two (4.3%) patients in the group without renal failure (P = 0.005). In conclusion, renal failure is associated with a higher tumor burden and Bence-Jones proteinuria in patients with MM. It is reversible in the majority of patients; however, early mortality tends to be higher in patients with persistent renal failure.

  12. Multicystic dysplastic kidney and contralateral vesicoureteral reflux. Renal growth. (United States)

    Fanos, V; Sinaguglia, G; Vino, L; Pizzini, C; Portuese, A


    To evaluate if vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) contralateral to the multicystic dysplastic kidney can interfere with the compensatory renal hypertrophy. Twenty-seven patients (17 males, 10 females) with multicystic dysplastic kidney (MDK) (14 on the right, 13 on the left) have been treated at the Nephrology Unit of the Pediatric Department of the University of Verona from birth up to the second year of life. All these patients were diagnosed as having MDK by prenatal ultrasonography. Seven children (4 males and 3 females) had VUR (5 monolateral, 2 bilateral), diagnosed at the end of the first month of life. After diagnosis children underwent antibiotic prophylaxis with beta-lactam compounds at low doses. Four patients underwent a surgical correction of VUR associated with nephrectomy within the second year of life. The remaining 3 patients were treated with antibiotic prophylaxis; a progressive resolution or downgrading of reflux grade took place respectively in 1 and in 2 of them. Only 6 children with MDK underwent nephrectomy. Renal growth was studied by serial echographic measurements of the longitudinal renal lenght (performed at birth, at 6 months, and at 2 years of life). Renal length was 5.68+/-1.24 cm, 6.72+/-0.88 cm, 8.56+/-1.27 cm in children without VUR, respectively at birth, 6 months and 2 years of life. Renal length was 4.65+/-0.63 cm, 6.70+/-0.64 cm, 7.07+/-1.14 cm in children with VUR, respectively at birth, 6 months and 2 years of life. A statistically significant difference was observed between the two groups at birth (p<0.05) and at 2 years of life (p<0.01). The conclusion is that VUR contralateral to the MDK is associated with small kidneys and reduced renal growth both at birth and at 2 years of life.

  13. Radio broadcasting via satellite (United States)

    Helm, Neil R.; Pritchard, Wilbur L.


    Market areas offering potential for future narrowband broadcast satellites are examined, including international public diplomacy, government- and advertising-supported, and business-application usages. Technical issues such as frequency allocation, spacecraft types, transmission parameters, and radio receiver characteristics are outlined. Service and system requirements, advertising revenue, and business communications services are among the economic issues discussed. The institutional framework required to provide an operational radio broadcast service is studied, and new initiatives in direct broadcast audio radio systems, encompassing studies, tests, in-orbit demonstrations of, and proposals for national and international commercial broadcast services are considered.

  14. Understanding satellite navigation

    CERN Document Server

    Acharya, Rajat


    This book explains the basic principles of satellite navigation technology with the bare minimum of mathematics and without complex equations. It helps you to conceptualize the underlying theory from first principles, building up your knowledge gradually using practical demonstrations and worked examples. A full range of MATLAB simulations is used to visualize concepts and solve problems, allowing you to see what happens to signals and systems with different configurations. Implementation and applications are discussed, along with some special topics such as Kalman Filter and Ionosphere. W

  15. China Satellite Navigation Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Jingnan; Fan, Shiwei; Wang, Feixue


    These Proceedings present selected research papers from CSNC2016, held during 18th-20th May in Changsha, China. The theme of CSNC2016 is Smart Sensing, Smart Perception. These papers discuss the technologies and applications of the Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS), and the latest progress made in the China BeiDou System (BDS) especially. They are divided into 12 topics to match the corresponding sessions in CSNC2016, which broadly covered key topics in GNSS. Readers can learn about the BDS and keep abreast of the latest advances in GNSS techniques and applications.

  16. China Satellite Navigation Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Jingnan; Yang, Yuanxi; Fan, Shiwei; Yu, Wenxian


    These proceedings present selected research papers from CSNC2017, held during 23th-25th May in Shanghai, China. The theme of CSNC2017 is Positioning, Connecting All. These papers discuss the technologies and applications of the Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS), and the latest progress made in the China BeiDou System (BDS) especially. They are divided into 12 topics to match the corresponding sessions in CSNC2017, which broadly covered key topics in GNSS. Readers can learn about the BDS and keep abreast of the latest advances in GNSS techniques and applications.

  17. The Galilean Satellites (United States)


    This composite includes the four largest moons of Jupiter which are known as the Galilean satellites. The Galilean satellites were first seen by the Italian astronomer Galileo Galilei in 1610. Shown from left to right in order of increasing distance from Jupiter, Io is closest, followed by Europa, Ganymede, and Callisto.The order of these satellites from the planet Jupiter helps to explain some of the visible differences among the moons. Io is subject to the strongest tidal stresses from the massive planet. These stresses generate internal heating which is released at the surface and makes Io the most volcanically active body in our solar system. Europa appears to be strongly differentiated with a rock/iron core, an ice layer at its surface, and the potential for local or global zones of water between these layers. Tectonic resurfacing brightens terrain on the less active and partially differentiated moon Ganymede. Callisto, furthest from Jupiter, appears heavily cratered at low resolutions and shows no evidence of internal activity.North is to the top of this composite picture in which these satellites have all been scaled to a common factor of 10 kilometers (6 miles) per picture element.The Solid State Imaging (CCD) system aboard NASA's Galileo spacecraft acquired the Io and Ganymede images in June 1996, the Europa images in September 1996, and the Callisto images in November 1997.Launched in October 1989, the spacecraft's mission is to conduct detailed studies of the giant planet, its largest moons and the Jovian magnetic environment. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, manages the mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC.The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA manages the Galileo mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC. JPL is an operating division of California Institute of Technology (Caltech).This image and other images and data received from Galileo are posted on the World Wide Web, on the Galileo mission

  18. Future communications satellite applications (United States)

    Bagwell, James W.


    The point of view of the research is made through the use of viewgraphs. It is suggested that future communications satellite applications will be made through switched point to point narrowband communications. Some characteristics of which are as follows: small/low cost terminals; single hop communications; voice compatible; full mesh networking; ISDN compatible; and possible limited use of full motion video. Some target applications are as follows: voice/data networks between plants and offices in a corporation; data base networking for commercial and science users; and cellular radio internodal voice/data networking.

  19. HETE Satellite Power Subsystem



    The HETE (High-Energy Transient Experiment) satellite a joint project between MIT's Center for Space Research and AeroAstro. is a high-energy gamma-ray burst/X-Ray/UV observatory platform. HETE will be launched into a 550 km circular orbit with an inclination of 37.7°, and has a design lifetime of 18 months. This paper presents a description of the spacecraft's power subsystem, which collects, regulates, and distributes power to the experiment payload modules and to the various spacecraft sub...

  20. Renal dysfunctions in glomerulonephropathy with rapidly declined renal failure. (United States)

    Futrakul, N; Pochanugool, C; Sitprija, V; Singkhwa, V; Futrakul, P; Yenrudi, S; Sensirivatana, R; Watana, D; Poshyachinda, M


    Eight patients aged between 5 and 26 years developed rapid deterioration of renal function and became oliguric/anuric with duration ranging from 1 to 21 days. The initial functional assessment revealed severe degree of glomerular, tubular, and vascular dysfunctions. The magnitude of renal dysfunction was quantified and expressed in terms of a clinical score. The degree of glomerular and tubular dysfunctions were inversely proportional to the renal plasma flow and peritubular capillary blood flow (PTCB), respectively. Similar findings have been observed in a variety of severe glomerulonephropathies. In this aspect, it is likely that the reduction of peritubular capillary blood flow and tubulointerstitial disease are interrelated. Further evidence to support the primary role of reduction of PTCB in inducing tubulointerstitial disease is provided by the following: (a) Reduction of PTCB is documented in mesangial proliferative nephrosis with steroid resistance prior to the detection of tubulointerstitial disease. (b) Ischemic insult can induce tubulointerstitial disease in experimental setting of renal artery occlusion in animal, (c) Improved tubular function can be achieved following the increase in PTCB with the enhanced renal perfusion therapy.