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Sample records for renal organic ion

  1. Renal accumulation of [{sup 111}In]DOTATOC in rats: influence of inhibitors of the organic ion transport and diuretics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stahl, A.R. [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Munich (Germany); Universitaetsklinikum Essen, Department of Radiology, Essen (Germany); Wagner, B.; Heemann, U.; Lutz, J. [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Department of Nephrology, Munich (Germany); Poethko, T.; Perutka, M.; Wester, H.J.; Essler, M.; Schwaiger, M. [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Munich (Germany)

    2007-12-15

    Radiation exposure to the kidney limits therapy with radiometal labelled DOTATOC. This study evaluates the organic anion and cation transport (inhibitors: probenecid and cimetidine/dexamethason) as well as diuresis (furosemide and mannitol) regarding renal uptake of [{sup 111}In]DOTATOC. One hundred eight male Fisher rats were injected with [{sup 111}In]DOTATOC via the tail vein. Prior to activity injection a total of 84 rats underwent injection with probenecid vs. sodium chloride 0.9% (48 rats), cimetidine vs. dexamethasone vs. sodium chloride 0.9% (18 rats), and furosemide vs. mannitol vs. sodium chloride 0.9% (18 rats). Rats were sacrificed at predetermined time points up to 48 h after activity injection. Kidneys, adrenal glands, pancreas, spleen, blood, liver, and muscle were harvested and injected activity per gram tissue was determined. Autoradiographic images of the kidneys were acquired in a total of 24 rats. Probenecid led to a reduction in renal uptake by up to 30% while not significantly changing the activity accumulation in the other organs investigated. This reduction was attributable to the renal cortex (ratio cortex/medulla 1.72 vs. 1.99; p = 0.006). Cimetidine and dexamethasone had no effect in any of the organs. Furosemide led to a 44% increase in renal activity accumulation attributable to enhanced renal medullary uptake (ratio cortex/medulla 1.44 versus 1.69; p = 0.006). Mannitol had no effect on renal activity uptake. Inhibition of the organic anion transport by probenecid may help reduce renal uptake regarding therapy with radiometal labelled DOTATOC. The enhancing effect of furosemide may be unfavourable for therapy. The results must be confirmed by human studies. (orig.)

  2. Glomerular Filtration Rate Estimation in Renal and Non-Renal Solid Organ Transplantation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hornum, Mads; Feldt-Rasmussen, Bo

    2017-01-01

    Following transplantation (TX) of both renal and non-renal organs, a large proportion of patients have renal dysfunction. There are multiple causes for this. Chronic nephrotoxicity and high doses of calcineurin inhibitors are important factors. Preoperative and perioperative factors like...... or estimates of renal function in these patients, in order to accurately and safely dose immunosuppressive medication and perform and adjust the treatment and prophylaxis of renal dysfunction. This is a short overview and discussion of relevant studies and possible caveats of estimated glomerular filtration...... rate methods for use in renal and non-renal TX....

  3. Investigations on renal organic and inorganic solutes, in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolff, S.D.

    1989-01-01

    A basic question in renal physiology is how do the cells of the renal medulla survive the high concentrations of sodium chloride and urea which occur with antidiuresis. The problem is two-fold: (1) urea, being highly permeable to cell membranes, should enter the cell and adversely affect protein function; and (2) inorganic ions, being in much higher concentration extracellularly than intracellularly should dehydrate the cell. If these organic solutes exist in response to high concentrations of sodium chloride and urea, then their content should vary with diuretic state. Two protocols were developed to test the validity of this hypothesis. The first protocol used 31 P-NMR in vivo to monitor GPC content before, during, and after acute diuresis in an exteriorized rabbit kidney model. Changes in sodium distribution and tissue structure were monitored dynamically with 23 Na- and 1 H-NMR imaging, respectively. The second protocol used HPLC to quantitate each of the four organic solutes in renal inner medullary homogenates. Here, the effect of diuretic state and acute diuresis on organic solute content was assessed

  4. Glomerular Filtration Rate Estimation in Renal and Non-Renal Solid Organ Transplantation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hornum, Mads; Feldt-Rasmussen, Bo

    2017-01-01

    Following transplantation (TX) of both renal and non-renal organs, a large proportion of patients have renal dysfunction. There are multiple causes for this. Chronic nephrotoxicity and high doses of calcineurin inhibitors are important factors. Preoperative and perioperative factors like hyperten......Following transplantation (TX) of both renal and non-renal organs, a large proportion of patients have renal dysfunction. There are multiple causes for this. Chronic nephrotoxicity and high doses of calcineurin inhibitors are important factors. Preoperative and perioperative factors like...... hypertension, hypotension, drugs and infections may play a causative role as well. Organ-specific causes include hepatorenal syndrome, cirrhosis, low cardiac function, low respiratory function and diabetes developed both before and after TX. It is important to be able to perform precise and valid measurements...... rate methods for use in renal and non-renal TX....

  5. Organic decontamination by ion exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, T.R.

    1994-01-01

    This study has successfully identified ion exchanger media suitable for decontaminating the 5500-gallon organic layer in Tank 241-C-103. Decontamination of radionuclides is necessary to meet shipping, incinerator site storage, and incineration feed requirements. The exchanger media were identified through a literature search and experiments at the Russian Institute for Physical Chemistry. The principal radionuclides addressed are Cs-137 and Sr-90. Recommendations for an experimental program plan conclude the discussion. The experimental program would provide the data necessary for plant design specifications for a column and for ion exchange media to be used in decontaminating the organic layer

  6. Current structure and organization for renal patient assistance in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alloatti, Sandro; Strippoli, Giovanni Fm; Buccianti, Gherardo; Daidone, Giuseppe; Schena, Francesco P

    2008-04-01

    Given the public health challenge and burden of chronic kidney disease, the Italian Society of Nephrology (SIN) has compiled a national census of Renal Units (RU) existing in the twenty Italian regions related to the year 2004. An on-line questionnaire including 158 items explored structural and human resources, organization aspects, activities and epidemiological data in SIN, 2004. The census identified 363 public RU, 303 satellite Dialysis Centres (DC) and 295 private DC totalling 961 DC [16.4 per million population (pmp)]. The inpatient renal beds were 2742 (47 pmp). Renal and dialysis activity was performed by 3728 physicians (64 pmp), of whom 2964 (80%) were nephrologists. There was no permanent medical assistance in 41% of satellite DC. There were 1802 renal admissions pmp and 99 renal biopsies pmp. The management of acute renal failure (13 456 cases; 230 pmp) represented a relevant proportion of the activities conducted in public RU. In 2004 there were 9858 new cases of end-stage kidney disease requiring renal replacement therapy (RRT) (169 pmp). On 31 December 2004, 60 058 patients were on RRT (1027 pmp), 43 293 of which (740 pmp) were on dialysis and 16 765 (287 pmp) with renal graft. This census of the Italian RU and DC in 2004 provides decision makers and healthcare stakeholders with detailed data for benchmarking and has financial implications for the public health system. Similar analyses may be conducted in other countries permitting standardization of medical and cost-related aspects of renal care.

  7. Toxicity of common ions to marine organisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pillard, D.A.; DuFresne, D.L.; Evans, J.

    1995-01-01

    Produced waters from oil and gas drilling operations are typically very saline, and these may cause acute toxicity to marine organisms due to osmotic imbalances as well as to an excess or deficiency of specific common ions. In order to better understand the relationship between toxicity and ion concentration, laboratory toxicity tests were conducted using mysid shrimp (Mysidopsis bahia), sheepshead minnow (Cyprinodon variegatus), and inland silverside (Menidia beryllina). For each species the ionic concentration of standard laboratory water was proportionally increased or decreased to produce test solutions with a range of salinities. Organisms were exposed for 48 hours. Individual ions (sodium, potassium, calcium, magnetsium, strontium, chloride, bromide, sulfate, bicarbonate, and borate) were also manipulated to examine individual ion toxicity. The three test species differ in their tolerance of salinity. Mysid shrimp show a marked decrease in survival at salinities less than approximately 5 ppt. Both fish species tolerated low salinity water, however, silversides were less tolerant of saline waters (salinity greater than 40 ppt). There were also significant differences in the responses of the organisms to different ions. The results show that the salinity of the test solution may play an important role in the responses of the organisms to the produced water effluent. Predictable toxicity/ion relationships developed in this study can be used to estimate whether toxicity in a produced water is a result of common ions, salinity, or some other unknown toxicant

  8. Novel Ultrathin Membranes Composed of Organic Ions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chaban, Vitaly V.; Verspeek, Bram; Khandelia, Himanshu

    2013-01-01

    of artificial bilayers composed of long-chained organic ions, such as dodecyltrimethylammonium (DMA(+)) and perfluorooctaonate (PFO-). Various ratios of DMA/PFO surfactants result in bilayers of different stability, thickness, area per molecule, and density profiles. In our quest for water filtration, we...

  9. Mathematical model of renal elimination of fluid and small ions during hyper- and hypovolemic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyenge, Christina C; Bowen, Bruce D; Reed, Rolf K; Bert, Joel L

    2003-02-01

    This study is concerned with the formulation of a 'kidney module' linked to the plasma compartment of a larger mathematical model previously developed. Combined, these models can be used to predict, amongst other things, fluid and small ion excretion rates by the kidney; information that should prove useful in evaluating values and trends related to whole-body fluid balance for different clinical conditions to establish fluid administration protocols and for educational purposes. The renal module assumes first-order, negative-feedback responses of the kidney to changes in plasma volume and/or plasma sodium content from their normal physiological set points. Direct hormonal influences are not explicitly formulated in this empiric model. The model also considers that the renal excretion rates of small ions other than sodium are proportional to the excretion rate of sodium. As part of the model development two aspects are emphasized (1): the estimation of parameters related to the renal elimination of fluid and small ions, and (2) model validation via comparisons between the model predictions and selected experimental data. For validation, model predictions of the renal dynamics are compared with new experimental data for two cases: plasma overload resulting from external fluid infusion (e.g. infusions of iso-osmolar solutions and/or hypertonic/hyperoncotic saline solutions), and untreated hypo volemic conditions that result from the external loss of blood. The present study demonstrates that the empiric kidney module presented above can provide good short-term predictions with respect to all renal outputs considered here. Physiological implications of the model are also presented. Copyright Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica 47 (2003)

  10. Mixed organic solvents induce renal injury in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weisong Qin

    Full Text Available To investigate the injury effects of organic solvents on kidney, an animal model of Sprague-Dawley (SD rats treated with mixed organic solvents via inhalation was generated and characterized. The mixed organic solvents consisted of gasoline, dimethylbenzene and formaldehyde (GDF in the ratio of 2:2:1, and were used at 12,000 PPM to treat the rats twice a day, each for 3 hours. Proteinuria appeared in the rats after exposure for 5-6 weeks. The incidences of proteinuria in male and female rats after exposure for 12 weeks were 43.8% (7/16 and 25% (4/16, respectively. Urinary N-Acetyl-β-(D-Glucosaminidase (NAG activity was increased significantly after exposure for 4 weeks. Histological examination revealed remarkable injuries in the proximal renal tubules, including tubular epithelial cell detachment, cloud swelling and vacuole formation in the proximal tubular cells, as well as proliferation of parietal epithelium and tubular reflux in glomeruli. Ultrastructural examination found that brush border and cytoplasm of tubular epithelial cell were dropped, that tubular epithelial cells were partially disintegrated, and that the mitochondria of tubular epithelial cells were degenerated and lost. In addition to tubular lesions, glomerular damages were also observed, including segmental foot process fusion and loss of foot process covering on glomerular basement membrane (GBM. Immunofluorescence staining indicated that the expression of nephrin and podocin were both decreased after exposure of GDF. In contrast, increased expression of desmin, a marker of podocyte injury, was found in some areas of a glomerulus. TUNEL staining showed that GDF induced apoptosis in tubular cells and glomerular cells. These studies demonstrate that GDF can induce both severe proximal tubular damage and podocyte injury in rats, and the tubular lesions appear earlier than that of glomeruli.

  11. Mixed organic solvents induce renal injury in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Weisong; Xu, Zhongxiu; Lu, Yizhou; Zeng, Caihong; Zheng, Chunxia; Wang, Shengyu; Liu, Zhihong

    2012-01-01

    To investigate the injury effects of organic solvents on kidney, an animal model of Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats treated with mixed organic solvents via inhalation was generated and characterized. The mixed organic solvents consisted of gasoline, dimethylbenzene and formaldehyde (GDF) in the ratio of 2:2:1, and were used at 12,000 PPM to treat the rats twice a day, each for 3 hours. Proteinuria appeared in the rats after exposure for 5-6 weeks. The incidences of proteinuria in male and female rats after exposure for 12 weeks were 43.8% (7/16) and 25% (4/16), respectively. Urinary N-Acetyl-β-(D)-Glucosaminidase (NAG) activity was increased significantly after exposure for 4 weeks. Histological examination revealed remarkable injuries in the proximal renal tubules, including tubular epithelial cell detachment, cloud swelling and vacuole formation in the proximal tubular cells, as well as proliferation of parietal epithelium and tubular reflux in glomeruli. Ultrastructural examination found that brush border and cytoplasm of tubular epithelial cell were dropped, that tubular epithelial cells were partially disintegrated, and that the mitochondria of tubular epithelial cells were degenerated and lost. In addition to tubular lesions, glomerular damages were also observed, including segmental foot process fusion and loss of foot process covering on glomerular basement membrane (GBM). Immunofluorescence staining indicated that the expression of nephrin and podocin were both decreased after exposure of GDF. In contrast, increased expression of desmin, a marker of podocyte injury, was found in some areas of a glomerulus. TUNEL staining showed that GDF induced apoptosis in tubular cells and glomerular cells. These studies demonstrate that GDF can induce both severe proximal tubular damage and podocyte injury in rats, and the tubular lesions appear earlier than that of glomeruli.

  12. Renal response to acute acid loading--an organ physiological approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osther, P J; Engel, K; Kildeberg, P

    2004-01-01

    , as the extracellular acid-base status would be expected to be the key physiological trigger for renal NAE. The object of this study was to investigate the renal response to acute non-carbonic acid loading using a quantitative organ physiological approach. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Five-h NH4Cl loading studies were...

  13. Protection of Liver as a Remote Organ after Renal Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury by Renal Ischemic Postconditioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behjat Seifi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to investigate the protective effects of local renal ischemic postconditioning (POC on liver damage after renal ischemia-reperfusion (IR injury. Male rats were divided into three groups  (n=8. They underwent a right nephrectomy before induction of 45 minutes of left kidney ischemia or sham operation. POC was performed by four cycles of 10 seconds of ischemia and 10 seconds of reperfusion just at the beginning of 24 hours of reperfusion. Then blood and liver samples were collected to measure serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST, alanine aminotransferase (ALT, and liver oxidative stress parameters including superoxide dismutase (SOD activity and malondialdehyde (MDA level. Renal IR caused a significant increase in liver functional indices as demonstrated by increased serum AST and ALT compared to sham group. These parameters reduced significantly in POC group compared to IR group. Liver MDA levels increased and SOD activity decreased in IR group compared to sham group. Induction of POC reduced the elevated liver MDA levels and increased the reduced liver SOD activity. These results revealed that renal IR injury causes liver damage as a remote organ and POC protects liver from renal IR injury by a modification in the hepatic oxidative stress status.

  14. Radionuclide Leaching from Organic Ion Exchange Resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delegard, C.H.; Rinehart, D.E.

    1998-01-01

    Laboratory tests were performed to examine the efficacy of leach treatments for decontaminating organic ion exchange resins (OIER), which have been found in a number of samples retrieved from K East Basin sludge. Based on process records, the OIER found in the K Basins is a mixed-bet strong acid/strong base material marketed as Purolitetrademark NRW-037. Radionuclides sorbed or associated with the OIER can restrict its disposal to the Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility (ERDF). The need for testing to support development of a treatment process for K Basin sludge has been described in Section 4.2 of ''Testing Strategy to Support the Development of K Basins Sludge Treatment Process'' (Flament 1998). To help understand the effects of anticipated OIER elutriation and washing, tests were performed with well-rinsed OIER material from K East Basin floor sludge (sample H-08 BEAD G) and with well-rinsed OIER having approximately 5% added K East canister composite sludge (sample KECOMP). The rinsed resin-bearing material also contained the inorganic ion exchanger Zeolon-900trademark, a zeolite primarily composed of the mineral mordenite. The zeolite was estimated to comprise 27 weight percent of the dry H-08 BEAD G material

  15. Ion beam effects in organic molecular solids and polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venkatesan, T.; Calcagno, L.; Elman, B.S.; Foti, G.

    1987-01-01

    In general ion implantation leads to irreversible changes in organic films and hence it is important to understand the damage mechanisms in these solids. Most of the technology based on irradiation effects in organics must somehow make use of the fact that the chemistry of the organic films is easily changed. This chapter is organized to explore the various ion induced chemical changes in the organic films followed by a description of the optical and electrical property changes produced in the films due to the ion irradiation

  16. Characterization of ions in urine of animal model with acute renal insufficiency using NAA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Laura C.; Zamboni, Cibele B. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Pessoa, Edson A.; Borges, Fernanda T. [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (UNIFESP), SP (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    Full text: In last the years, important advances had been obtained in the investigation of the ARI (Acute Renal Insufficiency) what is defined as an abrupt or rapid decline in renal filtration function, what is a situation in which the kidneys fail to function adequately, caused by the Ischemia and Reperfusion (I/R). However, the incidence of the mortality had not diminished in the last few decades. This kidney dysfunction includes a complex interaction between the tubular injury, inflammation and alterations in the renal homo dynamic. In this investigation we intend to quantify ions of clinical relevance in urine of Wistar rats of control group, an experimental model for ARI, and in urine of Wistar with ARI, using NAA technique (Neutron Activation Analysis). The use of this technique is an alternative to perform biochemistry analysis when the biological material is scarce. The quantitative knowledge of these elements allows an evaluation of the functions that regulate the kidneys behavior. The measurements in urine were performed before, during and after the ARI caused by ischemia-induced. The results of NAA indicated that the occurrence of the elements K and Mg evaluated in the ARI group (during and after de I/R) have no similarities when compared with control group. (author)

  17. Organic positive ions in aircraft gas-turbine engine exhaust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorokin, Andrey; Arnold, Frank

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) represent a significant fraction of atmospheric aerosol. However the role of organic species emitted by aircraft (as a consequence of the incomplete combustion of fuel in the engine) in nucleation of new volatile particles still remains rather speculative and requires a much more detailed analysis of the underlying mechanisms. Measurements in aircraft exhaust plumes have shown the presence of both different non-methane VOCs (e.g. PartEmis project) and numerous organic cluster ions (MPIK-Heidelberg). However the link between detected organic gas-phase species and measured mass spectrum of cluster ions is uncertain. Unfortunately, up to now there are no models describing the thermodynamics of the formation of primary organic cluster ions in the exhaust of aircraft engines. The aim of this work is to present first results of such a model development. The model includes the block of thermodynamic data based on proton affinities and gas basicities of organic molecules and the block of non-equilibrium kinetics of the cluster ions evolution in the exhaust. The model predicts important features of the measured spectrum of positive ions in the exhaust behind aircraft. It is shown that positive ions emitted by aircraft engines into the atmosphere mostly consist of protonated and hydrated organic cluster ions. The developed model may be explored also in aerosol investigations of the background atmosphere as well as in the analysis of the emission of fine aerosol particles by automobiles.

  18. Assessing toxicity of varying major ion concentrations to marine organisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mount, D.R.; Quast, W.

    1993-01-01

    Recent regulatory developments have required that produced waters discharged in the Gulf of Mexico be monitored for toxicity to marine organisms. While produced water may contain a variety of indigenous and introduced chemicals, virtually all have moderate to high concentrations of major ions. Although seawater is also rich in these ions, excessive salinity can cause toxicity to marine organisms. Perhaps more importantly, toxicity to marine organisms can be caused by deviations from normal ion ratios even if the total salinity is within organism tolerances. To provide a better understanding of marine organism responses to variations in major ion concentrations, the authors conducted a series of laboratory experiments to quantify the responses of mysid shrimp (Mysidopsis bahia) and sheepshead minnows (Cyprinodon variegatus) to modifications of normal seawater chemistry. Acute testing included both increasing and decreasing the concentrations of individual ions relative to seawater, as well as altering total salinity. Results show these organisms can be adversely affected by this altered chemistry and their sensitivity is dependent upon the individual ions that are manipulated. Results from these studies are being incorporated into an overall strategy for evaluating the influence of major ion chemistry on produced water toxicity tests

  19. Light ions and ozone - generation and interactions with living organisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kriha, V.; Aubrecht, L.

    2005-01-01

    With directly in the living organism born ions exception, LNI coming through three phases: ionisation, attachment by the electronegative molecules and the clusters formation due to local electrostatic interactions. The quantitative analysis of physical parameters leads to conclusion that we cannot find any physical property (till known) explaining the positive affect of LNI on living organisms. Analysis of possible mechanism produces several hypotheses of LNI-organism interaction. A simplified semi-quantitative model of respiratory tract was developed for estimation of ions and ozone interaction with living organisms. A formation of oxygen radicals and products of their chain-reactions in intrinsic conditions is discussed

  20. Identification of novel genes associated with renal tertiary lymphoid organ formation in aging mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huang, Yuan; Caputo, Christina R.; Noordmans, Gerda A.; Yazdani, Saleh; Monteiro, Luiz Henrique; van den Born, Jaap; van Goor, Harry; Heeringa, Peter; Korstanje, Ron; Hillebrands, Jan-Luuk

    2014-01-01

    A hallmark of aging-related organ deterioration is a dysregulated immune response characterized by pathologic leukocyte infiltration of affected tissues. Mechanisms and genes involved are as yet unknown. To identify genes associated with aging-related renal infiltration, we analyzed kidneys from

  1. Effects of renal denervation on end organ damage in hypertensive patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verloop, WL; Vink, Eva E.; Spiering, Wilko; Blankestijn, PJ; Doevendans, Pieter A.; Bots, Michiel L.; Vonken, EPA; Voskuil, Michiel; Leiner, Tim

    Background: Renal denervation (RDN) is believed to reduce sympathetic nerve activity and is a potential treatment for resistant hypertension. The present study investigated the effects of RDN on end organ damage (EOD). Design: The present study was a prospective cohort study (registered as

  2. Bone metabolic activity measured with positron emission tomography and [18F] fluoride ion in renal osteodystrophy: Correlation with bone histomorphometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Messa, C.; Goodman, W.G.; Hoh, C.K.; Choi, Y.; Nissenson, A.R.; Salusky, I.B.; Phelps, M.E.; Hawkins, R.A.

    1993-01-01

    The authors evaluated the bone metabolic activity in patients with renal osteodystrophy using positron emission tomography and [ 18 F] fluoride ion. Eight patients had secondary hyperparathyroidism (HPT), and three had low-turnover bone disease. Eleven normal subjects were also studied, and three of the eight HPT patients were reevaluated after therapy. A rate constant (K) describing the net transport of [ 18 F] fluoride ion into a bound compartment in bone was calculated using both a three-compartment model and Patlak graphical analysis. Values of K were compared with biochemical data and with histomorphometric indices. The results indicate that K is significantly higher (P 18 F] fluoride ion can differentiate low turnover from high turnover lesions of renal osteodystropy and provide quantitative estimates of bone cell activity that correlate with histomorphometric data

  3. A role for the organic anion transporter OAT3 in renal creatinine secretion in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eraly, Satish A.; Rao, Satish Ramachandra; Gerasimova, Maria; Rose, Michael; Nagle, Megha; Anzai, Naohiko; Smith, Travis; Sharma, Kumar; Nigam, Sanjay K.; Rieg, Timo

    2012-01-01

    Tubular secretion of the organic cation, creatinine, limits its value as a marker of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) but the molecular determinants of this pathway are unclear. The organic anion transporters, OAT1 and OAT3, are expressed on the basolateral membrane of the proximal tubule and transport organic anions but also neutral compounds and cations. Here, we demonstrate specific uptake of creatinine into mouse mOat1- and mOat3-microinjected Xenopus laevis oocytes at a concentration of 10 μM (i.e., similar to physiological plasma levels), which was inhibited by both probenecid and cimetidine, prototypical competitive inhibitors of organic anion and cation transporters, respectively. Renal creatinine clearance was consistently greater than inulin clearance (as a measure of GFR) in wild-type (WT) mice but not in mice lacking OAT1 (Oat1−/−) and OAT3 (Oat3−/−). WT mice presented renal creatinine net secretion (0.23 ± 0.03 μg/min) which represented 45 ± 6% of total renal creatinine excretion. Mean values for renal creatinine net secretion and renal creatinine secretion fraction were not different from zero in Oat1−/− (−0.03 ± 0.10 μg/min; −3 ± 18%) and Oat3−/− (0.01 ± 0.06 μg/min; −6 ± 19%), with greater variability in Oat1−/−. Expression of OAT3 protein in the renal membranes of Oat1−/− mice was reduced to ∼6% of WT levels, and that of OAT1 in Oat3−/− mice to ∼60%, possibly as a consequence of the genes for Oat1 and Oat3 having adjacent chromosomal locations. Plasma creatinine concentrations of Oat3−/− were elevated in clearance studies under anesthesia but not following brief isoflurane anesthesia, indicating that the former condition enhanced the quantitative contribution of OAT3 for renal creatinine secretion. The results are consistent with a contribution of OAT3 and possibly OAT1 to renal creatinine secretion in mice. PMID:22338083

  4. Update on Renal Replacement Therapy: Implantable Artificial Devices and Bioengineered Organs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attanasio, Chiara; Latancia, Marcela T; Otterbein, Leo E; Netti, Paolo A

    2016-08-01

    Recent advances in the fields of artificial organs and regenerative medicine are now joining forces in the areas of organ transplantation and bioengineering to solve continued challenges for patients with end-stage renal disease. The waiting lists for those needing a transplant continue to exceed demand. Dialysis, while effective, brings different challenges, including quality of life and susceptibility to infection. Unfortunately, the majority of research outputs are far from delivering satisfactory solutions. Current efforts are focused on providing a self-standing device able to recapitulate kidney function. In this review, we focus on two remarkable innovations that may offer significant clinical impact in the field of renal replacement therapy: the implantable artificial renal assist device (RAD) and the transplantable bioengineered kidney. The artificial RAD strategy utilizes micromachining techniques to fabricate a biohybrid system able to mimic renal morphology and function. The current trend in kidney bioengineering exploits the structure of the native organ to produce a kidney that is ready to be transplanted. Although these two systems stem from different technological approaches, they are both designed to be implantable, long lasting, and free standing to allow patients with kidney failure to be autonomous. However, for both of them, there are relevant issues that must be addressed before translation into clinical use and these are discussed in this review.

  5. [THE ORGANIZATION OF PREVENTION OF RENAL PATHOLOGY IN PREGNANT WOMEN IN BAKU].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadimova, Sh G

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays, increasing of renal pathology, especially of its chronic forms characterized by long clinical duration and frequent exacerbations is observed in pregnant women. The study was carried out to analyze prevalence and structure of renal pathology in pregnant women with further development of social economic basics of its prevention. The epidemiological analysis established that during 2009-2011 in Baku prevalence of renal pathology in pregnant women amounted to 11%. The analysis of structure and dynamics of renal pathology in pregnant women during the same period revealed that leading positions are taken by chronic pyelonephritis (27.2%), hydronephrosis (14.8%) and eclampsia (12%). The percentage of cystitis amounted to 4.8%, urolithiasis - 3.2%, renal colic - 2.4% and renal anomalies - 0.8%. The study established that under application of scientifically valid preventive measures an effective prevention of disease is achieved. In particular risk of morbidity is decreased up to 4.18 times. After 10-12 months after implementation of explanatory work degree of implementation of preventive measures among female patients with close adherence to these measures attained maximal level (88.6±2.8%) and among female patients attaching no importance to them in many ways implementation remained low (41±5.6%). At the same time, organization and implementation of developed complex of preventive measures are available. They have no requirement in an additional manpower and material technical resources and are applied using sanitary agitation among population. The task-oriented and permanent explanatory work increases responsibility of population for one's own health, activates population to implement complex of preventive measure. On the whole, workable premises both to stabilize level of morbidity of renal pathology and its consistent decreasing are established.

  6. C60 ion sputtering of layered organic materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shard, Alexander G.; Green, Felicia M.; Gilmore, Ian S.

    2008-01-01

    Two different organic materials, Irganox1010 and Irganox3114, were vacuum deposited as alternating layers. The layers of Irganox3114 were thin (∼2.5 nm) in comparison to the Irganox1010 (∼55 or ∼90 nm); we call these 'organic delta layers'. Both materials are shown to have identical sputtering yields and the alternating layers may be used to determine some of the important metrological parameters for cluster ion beam depth profiling of organic materials. The sputtering yield for C 60 ions is shown to diminish with ion dose. Comparison with atomic force microscopy data from films of pure Irganox1010, demonstrates that the depth resolution is limited by the development of topography. Secondary ion intensities are a well-behaved function of sputtering yield and may be employed to obtain useful analytical information. Organic delta layers are shown to be valuable reference materials for comparing the capabilities of different cluster ion sources and experimental arrangements for the depth profiling of organic materials.

  7. Ion bonding in organic scaffolding promotes biomineralization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hamers, L.; Sommerdijk, N.A.J.M.

    2015-01-01

    The seashells you pick up at the beach might not seem extraordinary, but they’re a source of inspiration for researchers, whether seeking new routes to making materials or searching for efficient ways to store extra atmospheric carbon. Through a process called biomineralization, organisms like

  8. Renal effects of chronic exposure to organic solvents. A clinical controlled trial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krusell, L.; Nielsen, H.K.; Baelum, J.; Lundqvist, G.; Omland, O.; Vaeth, M.; Husted, S.E.; Mogensen, C.E.; Geday, E.

    1985-01-01

    Chronic effects of organic solvents on renal function were measured by creatinine clearances and urinary excretion rates of beta 2-microglobulin and albumin. Forty-three male printing trade workers occupationally exposed to different organic solvents for 9-25 years were compared with 43 age-matched male controls. No differences were found either in creatinine clearances or average basal levels of beta 2-microglobulin and albumin excretion rates, whereas a positive relation could be demonstrated between alcohol consumption on the day before the trial and urinary excretion rate of albumin. This investigation did not reveal any adverse renal effects of moderate chronic exposure to organic solvents in a group of active trade workers.

  9. Renal effects of chronic exposure to organic solvents. A clinical controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krusell, Lars Romer; Nielsen, H K; Bælum, Jesper

    1985-01-01

    Chronic effects of organic solvents on renal function were measured by creatinine clearances and urinary excretion rates of beta 2-microglobulin and albumin. Forty-three male printing trade workers occupationally exposed to different organic solvents for 9-25 years were compared with 43 age......-matched male controls. No differences were found either in creatinine clearances or average basal levels of beta 2-microglobulin and albumin excretion rates, whereas a positive relation could be demonstrated between alcohol consumption on the day before the trial and urinary excretion rate of albumin....... This investigation did not reveal any adverse renal effects of moderate chronic exposure to organic solvents in a group of active trade workers....

  10. [Census of the renal and dialysis units by Italian Society of Nephrology: structure and organization for renal patient assistance in Italy (2014-2015)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintaliani, Giuseppe; Di Luca, Marina; Di Napoli, Anteo; Viglino, Giusto; Postorino, Maurizio; Amore, Alessandro; Andrulli, Simeone; Bellasi, Antonio; Brunori, Giuliano; Buongiorno, Erasmo; Castellino, Santina; D'Amelio, Alessandro; De Nicola, Luca; Gesualdo, Loreto; Di Landro, Domenico; Feriozzi, Sandro; Strippoli, Giovanni; Teatini, Ugo; Santoro, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Given the public health challenge and burden of chronic kidney disease, the Italian Society of Nephrology (SIN) promoted a census of the renal and dialysis units to analyse structural and human resources, organizational aspects, activities and workload referring to the year 2014. An online questionnaire, including 64 items exploring structural and human resources, organization aspects, activities and epidemiological data referred to 2014, was sent to chiefs of any renal or dialysis unit. 615 renal units were identified. From these 615 units, 332 were public renal centres (of which 318 centres answered to the census) and 283 were private dialysis centres (of which 113 centres answered to the census). The results show 6 public renal units pmp. Renal biopsies were 4624 (81 pmp). The nephrology beds are about 41 pmp. There are 7.304 nurses working in HD wards, 1.692 in the nephrology wards and only 613 for outpatients clinics. The benchmark data derived from this census show interesting comparisons between centres, regions and groups of regions. These data realised the clinical management of renal disease in Italy.

  11. Separation of organic ion exchange resins from sludge - engineering study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duncan, J.B.

    1998-01-01

    This engineering study evaluates the use of physical separation technologies to separate organic ion exchange resin from KE Basin sludge prior to nitric acid dissolution. This separation is necessitate to prevent nitration of the organics in the acid dissolver. The technologies under consideration are: screening, sedimentation, elutriation. The recommended approach is to first screen the Sludge and resin 300 microns then subject the 300 microns plus material to elutriation

  12. Separation of organic ion exchange resins from sludge -- engineering study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duncan, J.B.

    1998-08-25

    This engineering study evaluates the use of physical separation technologies to separate organic ion exchange resin from KE Basin sludge prior to nitric acid dissolution. This separation is necessitate to prevent nitration of the organics in the acid dissolver. The technologies under consideration are: screening, sedimentation, elutriation. The recommended approach is to first screen the Sludge and resin 300 microns then subject the 300 microns plus material to elutriation.

  13. Renal cystic disease proteins play critical roles in the organization of the olfactory epithelium.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer L Pluznick

    Full Text Available It was reported that some proteins known to cause renal cystic disease (NPHP6; BBS1, and BBS4 also localize to the olfactory epithelium (OE, and that mutations in these proteins can cause anosmia in addition to renal cystic disease. We demonstrate here that a number of other proteins associated with renal cystic diseases - polycystin 1 and 2 (PC1, PC2, and Meckel-Gruber syndrome 1 and 3 (MKS1, MKS3 - localize to the murine OE. PC1, PC2, MKS1 and MKS3 are all detected in the OE by RT-PCR. We find that MKS3 localizes specifically to dendritic knobs of olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs, while PC1 localizes to both dendritic knobs and cilia of mature OSNs. In mice carrying mutations in MKS1, the expression of the olfactory adenylate cyclase (AC3 is substantially reduced. Moreover, in rats with renal cystic disease caused by a mutation in MKS3, the laminar organization of the OE is perturbed and there is a reduced expression of components of the odor transduction cascade (G(olf, AC3 and α-acetylated tubulin. Furthermore, we show with electron microscopy that cilia in MKS3 mutant animals do not manifest the proper microtubule architecture. Both MKS1 and MKS3 mutant animals show no obvious alterations in odor receptor expression. These data show that multiple renal cystic proteins localize to the OE, where we speculate that they work together to regulate aspects of the development, maintenance or physiological activities of cilia.

  14. Ion sensors based on novel fiber organic electrochemical transistors for lead ion detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuedan; Zhou, Zhou; Qing, Xing; Zhong, Weibing; Liu, Qiongzhen; Wang, Wenwen; Li, Mufang; Liu, Ke; Wang, Dong

    2016-08-01

    Fiber organic electrochemical transistors (FECTs) based on polypyrrole and nanofibers have been prepared for the first time. FECTs exhibited excellent electrical performances, on/off ratios up to 10(4) and low applied voltages below 2 V. The ion sensitivity behavior of the fiber organic electrochemical transistors was investigated. It exhibited that the transfer curve of FECTs shifted to lower gate voltage with increasing cations concentration, the sensitivity reached to 446 μA/dec in the 10(-5)-10(-2) M Pb(2+) concentration range. The ion selective properties of the FECTs have also been systematically studied for the detection of potassium, calcium, aluminum, and lead ions. The devices with different cations showed great difference in response curves. It was suitable for selectively monitoring Pb(2+) with respect to other cations. The results indicated FECTs were very effective for electrochemical sensing of lead ion, which opened a promising perspective for wearable electronics in healthcare and biological application. Graphical Abstract The schematic diagram of fiber organic electrochemical transistors based on polypyrrole and nanofibers for ion sensing.

  15. Simultaneous determination of inorganic and organic anions by ion chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Yang Soon; Joe, Ki Soo; Han, Sun Ho; Park, Soon Dal; Choi, Kwang Soon

    1999-06-01

    Four methods were investigated for the simultaneous determination of several inorganic and organic anions in aqueous solution by ion chromatography. The first is two columns coupled system. The second is the gradient elution system with an anion exchange column. The third is the system with a mixed-mode stationary phase. The fourth is the system with an anion exchange column and the eluant of low conductivity without ion suppressor. The advantages and disadvantages of individual systems were discussed. The suitable methods were proposed for the application to the samples of the nuclear power industry and the environment. (author)

  16. High mass-resolution electron-ion-ion coincidence measurements on core-excited organic molecules

    CERN Document Server

    Tokushima, T; Senba, Y; Yoshida, H; Hiraya, A

    2001-01-01

    Total electron-ion-ion coincidence measurements on core excited organic molecules have been carried out with high mass resolution by using multimode (reflectron/linear) time-of-flight mass analyzer. From the ion correlation spectra of core excited CH sub 3 OH and CD sub 3 OH, the reaction pathway to form H sub 3 sup + (D sub 3 sup +) is identified as the elimination of three H (D) atoms from the methyl group, not as the inter-group (-CH sub 3 and -OH) interactions. In a PEPIPICO spectrum of acetylacetone (CH sub 3 COCH sub 2 COCH sub 3) measured by using a reflectron TOF, correlations between ions up to mass number 70 with one-mass resolution was recorded.

  17. [Changes of renal blood flow during organ-associated foot reflexology measured by color Doppler sonography].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudmeier, I; Bodner, G; Egger, I; Mur, E; Ulmer, H; Herold, M

    1999-06-01

    Using colour Doppler sonography blood flow changes of the right kidney during foot reflexology were determined in a placebo-controlled, double-blind, randomised study. 32 healthy young adults (17 women, 15 men) were randomly assigned to the verum or placebo group. The verum group received foot reflexology at zones corresponding to the right kidney, the placebo group was treated on other foot zones. Before, during and after foot reflexology the blood flow of three vessels of the right kidney was measured using colour Doppler sonography. Systolic peak velocity and end diastolic peak velocity were measured in cm/s, and the resistive index, a parameter of the vascular resistance, was calculated. The resistive index in the verum group showed a highly significant decrease (p foot reflexology. There was no difference between men and women and no difference between smokers and non-smokers. Verum and placebo group significantly differed concerning alterations of the resistive index both between the measuring points before versus during foot reflexology (p = 0.002) and those during versus after foot reflexology (p = 0.031). The significant decrease of the resistive index during foot reflexology in the verum group indicates a decrease of flow resistance in renal vessels and an increase of renal blood flow. These findings support the hypothesis that organ-associated foot reflexology is effective in changing renal blood flow during therapy.

  18. Organic secondary ion mass spectrometry: sensitivity enhancement by gold deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delcorte, A; Médard, N; Bertrand, P

    2002-10-01

    Hydrocarbon oligomers, high-molecular-weight polymers, and polymer additives have been covered with 2-60 nmol of gold/cm2 in order to enhance the ionization efficiency for static secondary ion mass spectrometry (s-SIMS) measurements. Au-cationized molecules (up to -3,000 Da) and fragments (up to the trimer) are observed in the positive mass spectra of metallized polystyrene (PS) oligomer films. Beyond 3,000 Da, the entanglement of polymer chains prevents the ejection of intact molecules from a "thick" organic film. This mass limit can be overcome by embedding the polymer chains in a low-molecular-weight matix. The diffusion of organic molecules over the metal surfaces is also demonstrated for short PS oligomers. In the case of high-molecular-weight polymers (polyethylene, polypropylene, PS) and polymer additives (Irganox 1010, Irgafos 168), the metallization procedure induces a dramatic increase of the fingerprint fragment ion yields as well as the formation of new Aucationized species that can be used for chemical diagnostics. In comparison with the deposition of submonolayers of organic molecules on metallic surfaces, metal evaporation onto organic samples provides a comparable sensitivity enhancement. The distinct advantage of the metal evaporation procedure is that it can be used for any kind of organic sample, irrespective of thickness, opening new perspectives for "real world" sample analysis and chemical imaging by s-SIMS.

  19. Metal-organic frameworks for lithium ion batteries and supercapacitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ke, Fu-Sheng; Wu, Yu-Shan; Deng, Hexiang

    2015-01-01

    Porous materials have been widely used in batteries and supercapacitors attribute to their large internal surface area (usually 100–1000 m 2 g −1 ) and porosity that can favor the electrochemical reaction, interfacial charge transport, and provide short diffusion paths for ions. As a new type of porous crystalline materials, metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) have received huge attention in the past decade due to their unique properties, i.e. huge surface area (up to 7000 m 2 g −1 ), high porosity, low density, controllable structure and tunable pore size. A wide range of applications including gas separation, storage, catalysis, and drug delivery benefit from the recent fast development of MOFs. However, their potential in electrochemical energy storage has not been fully revealed. Herein, the present mini review appraises recent and significant development of MOFs and MOF-derived materials for rechargeable lithium ion batteries and supercapacitors, to give a glimpse into these potential applications of MOFs. - Graphical abstract: MOFs with large surface area and high porosity can offer more reaction sites and charge carriers diffusion path. Thus MOFs are used as cathode, anode, electrolyte, matrix and precursor materials for lithium ion battery, and also as electrode and precursor materials for supercapacitors. - Highlights: • MOFs have potential in electrochemical area due to their high porosity and diversity. • We summarized and compared works on MOFs for lithium ion battery and supercapacitor. • We pointed out critical challenges and provided possible solutions for future study

  20. Metal-organic frameworks for lithium ion batteries and supercapacitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ke, Fu-Sheng; Wu, Yu-Shan; Deng, Hexiang, E-mail: hdeng@whu.edu.cn

    2015-03-15

    Porous materials have been widely used in batteries and supercapacitors attribute to their large internal surface area (usually 100–1000 m{sup 2} g{sup −1}) and porosity that can favor the electrochemical reaction, interfacial charge transport, and provide short diffusion paths for ions. As a new type of porous crystalline materials, metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) have received huge attention in the past decade due to their unique properties, i.e. huge surface area (up to 7000 m{sup 2} g{sup −1}), high porosity, low density, controllable structure and tunable pore size. A wide range of applications including gas separation, storage, catalysis, and drug delivery benefit from the recent fast development of MOFs. However, their potential in electrochemical energy storage has not been fully revealed. Herein, the present mini review appraises recent and significant development of MOFs and MOF-derived materials for rechargeable lithium ion batteries and supercapacitors, to give a glimpse into these potential applications of MOFs. - Graphical abstract: MOFs with large surface area and high porosity can offer more reaction sites and charge carriers diffusion path. Thus MOFs are used as cathode, anode, electrolyte, matrix and precursor materials for lithium ion battery, and also as electrode and precursor materials for supercapacitors. - Highlights: • MOFs have potential in electrochemical area due to their high porosity and diversity. • We summarized and compared works on MOFs for lithium ion battery and supercapacitor. • We pointed out critical challenges and provided possible solutions for future study.

  1. Radiopharmaceuticals for renal studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verdera, Silvia

    1994-01-01

    Between the diagnostic techniques using radiopharmaceuticals in nuclear medicine it find renal studies.A brief description about renal glomerular filtration(GFR) and reliability renal plasma flux (ERPF),renal blood flux measurement agents (RBF),renal scintillation agents and radiation dose estimates by organ physiology was given in this study.tabs

  2. POSSIBILITIES OF ORGAN-PRESERVING TREATMENT OF PATIENTS WITH MULTIPLE RENAL TUMORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Ya. Alekseev

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Renal cell carcinoma (RCC occupies one of the leading places in the world for morbidity among malignant neoplasms of the genitourinary system. The frequency of occurrence of bilateral RCC according to different authors is 2–6% of the total population of patients with RCC. Currently, the only effective method of treatment of bilateral RCC is surgical treatment. Patients with bilateral RCC are at high risk of dev eloping of local recurrence or progression of the disease after organ-preserving surgeries, which is why the surgeon is faced with a choice between a high risk of developing renal failure or relapse and/or progression of the disease, depending on the extent of the surgical intervention. According to the literature, in patients with bilateral RCC there was an increase in the incidence of papillary variant of RCC up to 19% and the presence of multifocal lesion. Surgical treatment of bilateral RCC is the only effective method to achieve satisfactory oncological results at a low incidence of complications. The m ost justified option for the treatment of bilateral RCC is the implementation of bilateral organ-preserving treatment, which allows achieving the optimal functional results. This article presents a clinical case of successful surgical treatment of a patient with bilateral RCC with multiple tumors.

  3. Organ allocation in pediatric renal transplants: is there an optimal donor?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitt, Susan C; Vachharajani, Neeta; Doyle, Maria B; Lowell, Jeffrey A; Chapman, William C; Anderson, Christopher D; Shenoy, Surendra; Wellen, Jason R

    2013-01-01

    The 2005 revised allocation scheme for pediatric renal transplantation made the decision of whether to transplant an available living-donor (LD) kidney or use a deceased-donor (DD) kidney controversial. The aim of this study was to examine kidney allograft utilization, sensitization, and outcomes of pediatric transplant recipients. Between January 2000 and December 2009, 91 consecutive pediatric kidney recipients (transplanted. The LD (n = 38) and DD (n = 53) groups were similar in age, gender, dialysis status at transplant, warm ischemia time, and overall patient survival. LD recipients were more likely to be Caucasian (92 vs. 69%), receive older allografts (39 ± 10 vs. 23 ± 9 yr), and have fewer human leukocyte antigen (HLA) mismatches (3.3 ± 1.6 vs. 4.4 ± 1.5, p transplant was longer for LD recipients (97%, 91%, 87% vs. DD 89%, 79%, 58%, respectively, p transplant, 17 (33%) DD recipients had an available LD (mean age 40 yr). A greater proportion of all patients were moderately (PRA 21-79%) sensitized post-transplant (p organs was likely due to fewer HLA mismatched in this group. Nonetheless, LD organs appear to provide optimal outcomes in pediatric renal transplants when considering the risk of becoming sensitized post-transplant complicating later use of the LD kidney. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Vitrification of cesium-contaminated organic ion exchange resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sargent, T.N. Jr.

    1994-08-01

    Vitrification has been declared by the Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) as the Best Demonstrated Available Technology (BDAT) for the permanent disposal of high-level radioactive waste. Savannah River Site currently uses a sodium tetraphenylborate (NaTPB) precipitation process to remove Cs-137 from a wastewater solution created from the processing of nuclear fuel. This process has several disadvantages such as the formation of a benzene waste stream. It has been proposed to replace the precipitation process with an ion exchange process using a new resorcinol-formaldehyde resin developed by Savannah River Technical Center (SRTC). Preliminary tests, however, showed that problems such as crust formation and a reduced final glass wasteform exist when the resin is placed in the melter environment. The newly developed stirred melter could be capable of overcoming these problems. This research explored the operational feasibility of using the stirred tank melter to vitrify an organic ion exchange resin. Preliminary tests included crucible studies to determine the reducing potential of the resin and the extent of oxygen consuming reactions and oxygen transfer tests to approximate the extent of oxygen transfer into the molten glass using an impeller and a combination of the impeller and an external oxygen transfer system. These preliminary studies were used as a basis for the final test which was using the stirred tank melter to vitrify nonradioactive cesium loaded organic ion exchange resin. Results from this test included a cesium mass balance, a characterization of the semi-volatile organic compounds present in the off gas as products of incomplete combustion (PIC), a qualitative analysis of other volatile metals, and observations relating to the effect the resin had on the final redox state of the glass

  5. Electrospray droplet exposure to organic vapors: metal ion removal from proteins and protein complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeMuth, J Corinne; McLuckey, Scott A

    2015-01-20

    The exposure of aqueous nanoelectrospray droplets to various organic vapors can dramatically reduce sodium adduction on protein ions in positive ion mass spectra. Volatile alcohols, such as methanol, ethanol, and isopropanol lead to a significant reduction in sodium ion adduction but are not as effective as acetonitrile, acetone, and ethyl acetate. Organic vapor exposure in the negative ion mode, on the other hand, has essentially no effect on alkali ion adduction. Evidence is presented to suggest that the mechanism by which organic vapor exposure reduces alkali ion adduction in the positive mode involves the depletion of alkali metal ions via ion evaporation of metal ions solvated with organic molecules. The early generation of metal/organic cluster ions during the droplet desolvation process results in fewer metal ions available to condense on the protein ions formed via the charged residue mechanism. These effects are demonstrated with holomyoglobin ions to illustrate that the metal ion reduction takes place without detectable protein denaturation, which might be revealed by heme loss or an increase in charge state distribution. No evidence is observed for denaturation with exposure to any of the organic vapors evaluated in this work.

  6. Characterization of Ions in Urine of Animal Model with Acute Renal Failure using NAA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Laura C.; Zamboni, Cibele B.; Pessoal, Edson A.; Borges, Fernanda T.

    2011-08-01

    Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) technique has been used to determine elements concentrations in urine of rats Wistar (control group) and rats Wistar with Acute Renal Failure (ARF). These data contribute for applications in health area related to biochemical analyses using urine to monitor the dialyze treatment.

  7. Characterization of Ions in Urine of Animal Model with Acute Renal Failure using NAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Laura C.; Zamboni, Cibele B.; Pessoal, Edson A.; Borges, Fernanda T.

    2011-01-01

    Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) technique has been used to determine elements concentrations in urine of rats Wistar (control group) and rats Wistar with Acute Renal Failure (ARF). These data contribute for applications in health area related to biochemical analyses using urine to monitor the dialyze treatment.

  8. Types of organic materials present in CEGB waste streams and possible encapsulation processes for organic ion-exchange materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haighton, A.P.

    1988-01-01

    The organic composition of low and intermediate-level radioactive wastes is discussed. Work underway in the development of immobilising binders for organic ion exchange resins found in radioactive wastes and in the encapsulation of these ion exchangers is presented. (U.K.)

  9. Evaluation of the potential interaction between tofacitinib and drugs that undergo renal tubular secretion using metformin, an in vivo marker of renal organic cation transporter 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klamerus, Karen J; Alvey, Christine; Li, Lei; Feng, Bo; Wang, Rong; Kaplan, Irina; Shi, Haihong; Dowty, Martin E; Krishnaswami, Sriram

    2014-11-01

    Tofacitinib is a novel, oral Janus kinase inhibitor. The potential for drug-drug interactions (DDIs) between tofacitinib and drugs that undergo renal tubular secretion was evaluated using metformin as a probe transporter substrate, and genotyping for organic cation transporter (OCT) 1, OCT2 and multidrug and toxin extrusion 1 polymorphisms. Twenty-four healthy male subjects completed this open-label, fixed-sequence study. Subjects were administered a single oral metformin 500 mg dose on Days 1 and 4, and multiple oral tofacitinib 30 mg twice daily doses on Days 2, 3, and 4. Subjects underwent serial blood and urine samplings (Days 1 and 4) to estimate metformin pharmacokinetics. A single blood sample for tofacitinib was collected 2 hours after the morning dose (Day 4). The 90% confidence intervals for the ratios of maximum plasma concentration, area under the curve and renal clearance of metformin, with and without tofacitinib, were contained within the 80-125% acceptance range commonly used to establish a lack of DDI. No deaths, serious adverse events (AEs), severe AEs or discontinuations due to AEs were reported. The study confirms tofacitinib is unlikely to impact the pharmacokinetics of drugs that undergo renal tubular secretion, and concurs with its weak in vitro OCT2 inhibitory profile. © 2014, The American College of Clinical Pharmacology.

  10. Identification of novel genes associated with renal tertiary lymphoid organ formation in aging mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yuan; Caputo, Christina R; Noordmans, Gerda A; Yazdani, Saleh; Monteiro, Luiz Henrique; van den Born, Jaap; van Goor, Harry; Heeringa, Peter; Korstanje, Ron; Hillebrands, Jan-Luuk

    2014-01-01

    A hallmark of aging-related organ deterioration is a dysregulated immune response characterized by pathologic leukocyte infiltration of affected tissues. Mechanisms and genes involved are as yet unknown. To identify genes associated with aging-related renal infiltration, we analyzed kidneys from aged mice (≥20 strains) for infiltrating leukocytes followed by Haplotype Association Mapping (HAM) analysis. Immunohistochemistry revealed CD45+ cell clusters (predominantly T and B cells) in perivascular areas coinciding with PNAd+ high endothelial venules and podoplanin+ lymph vessels indicative of tertiary lymphoid organs. Cumulative cluster size increased with age (analyzed at 6, 12 and 20 months). Based on the presence or absence of clusters in male and female mice at 20 months, HAM analysis revealed significant associations with loci on Chr1, Chr2, Chr8 and Chr14 in male mice, and with loci on Chr4, Chr7, Chr13 and Chr14 in female mice. Wisp2 (Chr2) showed the strongest association (P = 5.00×10(-137)) in male mice; Ctnnbip1 (P = 6.42×10(-267)) and Tnfrsf8 (P = 5.42×10(-245)) (both on Chr4) showed the strongest association in female mice. Both Wisp2 and Ctnnbip1 are part of the Wnt-signaling pathway and the encoded proteins were expressed within the tertiary lymphoid organs. In conclusion, this study revealed differential lymphocytic infiltration and tertiary lymphoid organ formation in aged mouse kidneys across different inbred mouse strains. HAM analysis identified candidate genes involved in the Wnt-signaling pathway that may be causally linked to tertiary lymphoid organ formation.

  11. Gas Chromatographic-Ion Trap Mass Spectrometric Analysis of Volatile Organic Compounds by Ion-Molecule Reactions Using the Electron-Deficient Reagent Ion CCl{3/+}

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Cheng-Zhong; Su, Yue; Wang, Hao-Yang; Guo, Yin-Long

    2011-10-01

    When using tetrachloromethane as the reagent gas in gas chromatography-ion trap mass spectrometry equipped with hybrid ionization source, the cation CCl{3/+} was generated in high abundance and further gas-phase experiments showed that such an electron-deficient reagent ion CCl{3/+} could undergo interesting ion-molecule reactions with various volatile organic compounds, which not only present some informative gas-phase reactions, but also facilitate qualitative analysis of diverse volatile compounds by providing unique mass spectral data that are characteristic of particular chemical structures. The ion-molecule reactions of the reagent ion CCl{3/+} with different types of compounds were studied, and results showed that such reactions could give rise to structurally diagnostic ions, such as [M + CCl3 - HCl]+ for aromatic hydrocarbons, [M - OH]+ for saturated cyclic ether, ketone, and alcoholic compounds, [M - H]+ ion for monoterpenes, M·+ for sesquiterpenes, [M - CH3CO]+ for esters, as well as the further fragment ions. The mechanisms of ion-molecule reactions of aromatic hydrocarbons, aliphatic ketones and alcoholic compounds with the reagent ion CCl{3/+} were investigated and proposed according to the information provided by MS/MS experiments and theoretical calculations. Then, this method was applied to study volatile organic compounds in Dendranthema indicum var. aromaticum and 20 compounds, including monoterpenes and their oxygen-containing derivatives, aromatic hydrocarbon and sesquiterpenes were identified using such ion-molecule reactions. This study offers a perspective and an alternative tool for the analysis and identification of various volatile compounds.

  12. Effects of early changes in organ dysfunctions on the outcomes of critically ill patients in need of renal replacement therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Maccariello

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Acute kidney injury usually develops in critically ill patients in the context of multiple organ dysfunctions. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of changes in associated organ dysfunctions over the first three days of renal replacement therapy on the outcomes of patients with acute kidney injury. METHODS: Over a 19-month period, we evaluated 260 patients admitted to the intensive care units of three tertiary-care hospitals who required renal replacement therapy for > 48 h. Organ dysfunctions were evaluated by SOFA score (excluding renal points on the first (D1 and third (D3 days of renal replacement therapy. Absolute (A-SOFA and relative (D-SOFA changes in SOFA scores were also calculated. RESULTS: Hospital mortality rate was 75%. Organ dysfunctions worsened (A-SOFA>0 in 53%, remained unchanged (A-SOFA=0 in 17% and improved (A-SOFA<0 in 30% of patients; and mortality was lower in the last group (80% vs. 84% vs. 61%, p=0.003. SOFA on D1 (p<0.001, SOFA on D3 (p<0.001, A-SOFA (p=0.019 and D-SOFA (p=0.016 were higher in non-survivors. However, neither A-SOFA nor D-SOFA discriminated survivors from non-survivors on an individual basis. Adjusting for other covariates (including SOFA on D1, A-SOFA and D-SOFA were associated with increased mortality, and patients in whom SOFA scores worsened or remained unchanged had poorer outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: In addition to baseline values, early changes in SOFA score after the start of renal replacement therapy were associated with hospital mortality. However, no prognostic score should be used as the only parameter to predict individual outcomes.

  13. Ion-Exclusion Chromatography for Analyzing Organics in Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauer, Richard; Rutz, Jeffrey A.; Schultz, John R.

    2006-01-01

    A liquid-chromatography technique has been developed for use in the quantitative analysis of urea (and of other nonvolatile organic compounds typically found with urea) dissolved in water. The technique involves the use of a column that contains an ion-exclusion resin; heretofore, this column has been sold for use in analyzing monosaccharides and food softeners, but not for analyzing water supplies. The prior technique commonly used to analyze water for urea content has been one of high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), with reliance on hydrophobic interactions between analytes in a water sample and long-chain alkyl groups bonded to an HPLC column. The prior technique has proven inadequate because of a strong tendency toward co-elution of urea with other compounds. Co-elution often causes the urea and other compounds to be crowded into a narrow region of the chromatogram (see left part of figure), thereby giving rise to low chromatographic resolution and misidentification of compounds. It is possible to quantitate urea or another analyte via ultraviolet- and visible-light absorbance measurements, but in order to perform such measurements, it is necessary to dilute the sample, causing a significant loss of sensitivity. The ion-exclusion resin used in the improved technique is sulfonated polystyrene in the calcium form. Whereas the alkyl-chain column used in the prior technique separates compounds on the basis of polarity only, the ion-exclusion-resin column used in the improved technique separates compounds on the basis of both molecular size and electric charge. As a result, the degree of separation is increased: instead of being crowded together into a single chromatographic peak only about 1 to 2 minutes wide as in the prior technique, the chromatographic peaks of different compounds are now separated from each other and spread out over a range about 33 minutes wide (see right part of figure), and the urea peak can readily be distinguished from the other

  14. Organic and inorganic ion exchangers as catalysts for the heterogeneous alkylation of aromatics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klein, J; Widdecke, H [Technische Univ. Braunschweig (Germany, F.R.). Inst. fuer Chemische Technologie

    1979-06-01

    Ion exchangers have advantages over low molecular for use in industrial alkylation reactions. The reactivity and selectivity behaviour of the polymeric catalysts was found to be markedly influenced by the structure of the polymeric matrix as well as the type and number of the functional groups. In this connection many similarities between inorganic ion exchangers (zeolites) and organic ion exchange resins were detected.

  15. Fragmentation of organic ions bearing fixed multiple charges observed in MALDI MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Xianwen; Li, Bao; de Waal, Bas F M; Schill, Jurgen; Baker, Matthew B; Bovee, Ralf A A; van Dongen, Joost L J; Milroy, Lech-Gustav; Meijer, E W

    2018-01-01

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI TOF MS) was used to analyze a series of synthetic organic ions bearing fixed multiple charges. Despite the multiple intrinsic charges, only singly charged ions were recorded in each case. In addition to the pseudo-molecular ions formed by counterion adduction, deprotonation and electron capture, a number of fragment ions were also observed. Charge splitting by fragmentation was found to be a viable route for charge reduction leading to the formation of the observed singly charged fragment ions. Unlike multivalent metal ions, organic ions can rearrange and/or fragment during charge reduction. This fragmentation process will evidently complicate the interpretation of the MALDI MS spectrum. Because MALDI MS is usually considered as a soft ionization technique, the fragment ion peaks can easily be erroneously interpreted as impurities. Therefore, the awareness and understanding of the underlying MALDI-induced fragmentation pathways is essential for a proper interpretation of the corresponding mass spectra. Due to the fragment ions generated during charge reduction, special care should be taken in the MALDI MS analysis of multiply charged ions. In this work, the possible mechanisms by which the organic ions bearing fixed multiple charges fragment are investigated. With an improved understanding of the fragmentation mechanisms, MALDI TOF MS should still be a useful technique for the characterization of organic ions with fixed multiple charges. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Formation and reactions of free radicals in the radiolysis of organic materials by ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koizumi, H.

    2000-01-01

    High-energy heavy ions deposit energy along ion tracks with high density. Chemical effects of the heavy ions may hence differ from that of γ-rays and fast electrons. We can utilize these effects for material modification and fabrication of microstructure. It is necessary to know the dependence of the effects on ion beams and the variation of the effects on materials for developing new application of ion beams. We then studied radical formation in organic solids of alanine and of adipic acid by ion beams irradiation. (author)

  17. Validation of systems biology derived molecular markers of renal donor organ status associated with long term allograft function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perco, Paul; Heinzel, Andreas; Leierer, Johannes; Schneeberger, Stefan; Bösmüller, Claudia; Oberhuber, Rupert; Wagner, Silvia; Engler, Franziska; Mayer, Gert

    2018-05-03

    Donor organ quality affects long term outcome after renal transplantation. A variety of prognostic molecular markers is available, yet their validity often remains undetermined. A network-based molecular model reflecting donor kidney status based on transcriptomics data and molecular features reported in scientific literature to be associated with chronic allograft nephropathy was created. Significantly enriched biological processes were identified and representative markers were selected. An independent kidney pre-implantation transcriptomics dataset of 76 organs was used to predict estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) values twelve months after transplantation using available clinical data and marker expression values. The best-performing regression model solely based on the clinical parameters donor age, donor gender, and recipient gender explained 17% of variance in post-transplant eGFR values. The five molecular markers EGF, CD2BP2, RALBP1, SF3B1, and DDX19B representing key molecular processes of the constructed renal donor organ status molecular model in addition to the clinical parameters significantly improved model performance (p-value = 0.0007) explaining around 33% of the variability of eGFR values twelve months after transplantation. Collectively, molecular markers reflecting donor organ status significantly add to prediction of post-transplant renal function when added to the clinical parameters donor age and gender.

  18. Urinary volatile organic compounds as potential biomarkers for renal cell carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    WANG, DONGCHUN; WANG, CHANGSONG; PI, XIN; GUO, LEI; WANG, YUE; LI, MINGJUAN; FENG, YUE; LIN, ZIWEI; HOU, WEI; LI, ENYOU

    2016-01-01

    Currently, there is no adequate, sensitive, reproducible, specific and noninvasive biomarker that can reliably be used to detect renal cell carcinoma (RCC). Previous studies have elucidated the urinary non-volatile metabolic profile of RCC. However, whether urinary volatile organic compound (VOC) profiles are able to identify RCC remains to be elucidated. In the present study, urine was collected from 22 patients with RCC and 25 healthy subjects. Principal component analysis and orthogonal partial least square discriminant analysis were used to compare the data of patients and healthy subjects, and preoperative and postoperative patients undergoing radical nephrectomy. In total, 11 VOC biomarkers were elevated in the RCC patients compared to the healthy subjects, which were phenol; decanal; 1,6-dioxacyclododecane-7,12-dione; 1-bromo-1-(3-methyl-1-pentenylidene)-2,2,3,3-tetramethyl-cyclopropane; nonanal; 3-ethyl-3-methylheptane; isolongifolene-5-ol; 2,5-cyclohexadiene-1,4-dione, 2,6-bis(1,1-dimethylethyl); tetradecane; aniline; and 2,6,10,14-tetramethyl-pentadecane. Three biomarkers were decreased in RCC patients: styrene, 4-heptanone and dimethylsilanediol. In preoperative patients, 2-ethyl-1-hexanol and cyclohexanone were elevated, while 6-t-butyl-2,2,9,9-tetramethyl-3,5-decadien-7-yne were decreased when compared to postoperative patients. Compared with the healthy subjects, RCC has a unique VOC profile, suggesting that VOC profiles may be a useful diagnostic assay for RCC. PMID:27347408

  19. Apolipoprotein L1 gene variants in deceased organ donors are associated with renal allograft failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freedman, B I; Julian, B A; Pastan, S O; Israni, A K; Schladt, D; Gautreaux, M D; Hauptfeld, V; Bray, R A; Gebel, H M; Kirk, A D; Gaston, R S; Rogers, J; Farney, A C; Orlando, G; Stratta, R J; Mohan, S; Ma, L; Langefeld, C D; Hicks, P J; Palmer, N D; Adams, P L; Palanisamy, A; Reeves-Daniel, A M; Divers, J

    2015-06-01

    Apolipoprotein L1 gene (APOL1) nephropathy variants in African American deceased kidney donors were associated with shorter renal allograft survival in a prior single-center report. APOL1 G1 and G2 variants were genotyped in newly accrued DNA samples from African American deceased donors of kidneys recovered and/or transplanted in Alabama and North Carolina. APOL1 genotypes and allograft outcomes in subsequent transplants from 55 U.S. centers were linked, adjusting for age, sex and race/ethnicity of recipients, HLA match, cold ischemia time, panel reactive antibody levels, and donor type. For 221 transplantations from kidneys recovered in Alabama, there was a statistical trend toward shorter allograft survival in recipients of two-APOL1-nephropathy-variant kidneys (hazard ratio [HR] 2.71; p = 0.06). For all 675 kidneys transplanted from donors at both centers, APOL1 genotype (HR 2.26; p = 0.001) and African American recipient race/ethnicity (HR 1.60; p = 0.03) were associated with allograft failure. Kidneys from African American deceased donors with two APOL1 nephropathy variants reproducibly associate with higher risk for allograft failure after transplantation. These findings warrant consideration of rapidly genotyping deceased African American kidney donors for APOL1 risk variants at organ recovery and incorporation of results into allocation and informed-consent processes. © Copyright 2015 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.

  20. Application of ion chromatography to the determination of water-soluble inorganic and organic ions in atmospheric aerosols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xue-Chun; He, Ke-Bin; Ma, Yong-Liang; Yang, Fu-Mo; Duan, Feng-Kui; Zheng, Ai-Hua; Zhao, Cheng-Yi

    2004-01-01

    A simple, sensitive and convenient ion chromatography(IC) method was established for the simultaneous determination of twelve water-soluble inorganic anions(F- , Cl- , NO2(-), NO3(-), SO3(2-), SO4(2-) , PO4(3-)), and fifteen water-soluble organic ions(formate, acetate, MSA, oxalate, malonate, succinate, phthalates, etc.) in atmospheric aerosols. The linear concentrations ranged from 0.005 microg/m3 to 500 microg/m3 ( r = 0.999-0.9999). The relative standard deviation (RSD) were 0.43%-2.00% and the detection limits were from 2.7 ng/m3 to 88 ng/m3. The proposed method was successfully applied to the simultaneous determination of those inorganic ions and organic ions in PM2.5 of Beijing.

  1. Clinical outcomes of isolated renal failure compared to other forms of organ failure in patients with severe acute pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gougol, Amir; Dugum, Mohannad; Dudekula, Anwar; Greer, Phil; Slivka, Adam; Whitcomb, David C; Yadav, Dhiraj; Papachristou, Georgios I

    2017-08-07

    To assess differences in clinical outcomes of isolated renal failure (RF) compared to other forms of organ failure (OF) in patients with severe acute pancreatitis (SAP). Using a prospectively maintained database of patients with acute pancreatitis admitted to a tertiary medical center between 2003 and 2016, those with evidence of persistent OF were classified to renal, respiratory, cardiovascular, or multi-organ (2 or more organs). Data regarding demographics, comorbidities, etiology of acute pancreatitis, and clinical outcomes were prospectively recorded. Differences in clinical outcomes after development of isolated RF in comparison to other forms of OF were determined using independent t and Mann-Whitney U tests for continues variables, and χ 2 test for discrete variables. Among 500 patients with acute pancreatitis, 111 patients developed persistent OF: mean age was 54 years, and 75 (67.6%) were male. Forty-three patients had isolated OF: 17 (15.3%) renal, 25 (21.6%) respiratory, and 1 (0.9%) patient with cardiovascular failure. No differences in demographics, etiology of acute pancreatitis, systemic inflammatory response syndrome scores, or development of pancreatic necrosis were seen between patients with isolated RF vs isolated respiratory failure. Patients with isolated RF were less likely to require nutritional support (76.5% vs 96%, P = 0.001), ICU admission (58.8% vs 100%, P = 0.001), and had shorter mean ICU stay (2.4 d vs 15.7 d, P pancreatitis.

  2. Atrial Natriuretic Peptide Stimulates Dopamine Tubular Transport by Organic Cation Transporters: A Novel Mechanism to Enhance Renal Sodium Excretion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouyoumdzian, Nicolás M.; Rukavina Mikusic, Natalia L.; Kravetz, María C.; Lee, Brenda M.; Carranza, Andrea; Del Mauro, Julieta S.; Pandolfo, Marcela; Gironacci, Mariela M.; Gorzalczany, Susana; Toblli, Jorge E.; Fernández, Belisario E.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to demonstrate the effects of atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) on organic cation transporters (OCTs) expression and activity, and its consequences on dopamine urinary levels, Na+, K+-ATPase activity and renal function. Male Sprague Dawley rats were infused with isotonic saline solution during 120 minutes and randomized in nine different groups: control, pargyline plus tolcapone (P+T), ANP, dopamine (DA), D-22, DA+D-22, ANP+D-22, ANP+DA and ANP+DA+D-22. Renal functional parameters were determined and urinary dopamine concentration was quantified by HPLC. Expression of OCTs and D1-receptor in membrane preparations from renal cortex tissues were determined by western blot and Na+, K+-ATPase activity was determined using in vitro enzyme assay. 3H-DA renal uptake was determined in vitro. Compared to P+T group, ANP and dopamine infusion increased diuresis, urinary sodium and dopamine excretion significantly. These effects were more pronounced in ANP+DA group and reversed by OCTs blockade by D-22, demonstrating that OCTs are implied in ANP stimulated-DA uptake and transport in renal tissues. The activity of Na+, K+-ATPase exhibited a similar fashion when it was measured in the same experimental groups. Although OCTs and D1-receptor protein expression were not modified by ANP, OCTs-dependent-dopamine tubular uptake was increased by ANP through activation of NPR-A receptor and protein kinase G as signaling pathway. This effect was reflected by an increase in urinary dopamine excretion, natriuresis, diuresis and decreased Na+, K+-ATPase activity. OCTs represent a novel target that links the activity of ANP and dopamine together in a common mechanism to enhance their natriuretic and diuretic effects. PMID:27392042

  3. Role in diuresis of a calcitonin receptor (GPRCAL1 expressed in a distal-proximal gradient in renal organs of the mosquito Aedes aegypti (L..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyeogsun Kwon

    Full Text Available Evolution of anthropophilic hematophagy in insects resulted in the coordination of various physiological processes for survival. In female mosquitoes, a large blood meal provides proteins for egg production and as a trade-off, rapid elimination of the excess water and solutes (Na(+, Cl(- is critical for maintaining homeostasis and removing excess weight to resume flight and avoid predation. This post-prandial excretion is achieved by the concerted action of multiple hormones. Diuresis and natriuresis elicited by the calcitonin-like diuretic hormone 31 (DH(31 are believed to be mediated by a yet uncharacterized calcitonin receptor (GPRCAL in the mosquito Malpighian tubules (MTs, the renal organs. To contribute knowledge on endocrinology of mosquito diuresis we cloned GPRCAL1 from MT cDNA. This receptor is the ortholog of the DH(31 receptor from Drosophila melanogaster that is expressed in principal cells of the fruit fly MT. Immunofluorescence similarly showed AaegGPRCAL1 is present in MT principal cells in A. aegypti, however, exhibiting an overall gradient-like pattern along the tubule novel for a GPCR in insects. Variegated, cell-specific receptor expression revealed a subpopulation of otherwise phenotypically similar principal cells. To investigate the receptor contribution to fluid elimination, RNAi was followed by urine measurement assays. In vitro, MTs from females that underwent AaegGPRcal1 knock-down exhibited up to 57% decrease in the rate of fluid secretion in response to DH(31. Live females treated with AaegGPRcal1 dsRNA exhibited 30% reduction in fluid excreted after a blood meal. The RNAi-induced phenotype demonstrates the critical contribution of this single secretin-like family B GPCR to fluid excretion in invertebrates and highlights its relevance for the blood feeding adaptation. Our results with the mosquito AaegGPRCAL1 imply that the regulatory function of calcitonin-like receptors for ion and fluid transport in renal organs

  4. Identification and Quantitative Assessment of Uremic Solutes as Inhibitors of Renal Organic Anion Transporters, OAT1 and OAT3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsueh, Chia-Hsiang; Yoshida, Kenta; Zhao, Ping; Meyer, Timothy W; Zhang, Lei; Huang, Shiew-Mei; Giacomini, Kathleen M

    2016-09-06

    One of the characteristics of chronic kidney disease (CKD) is the accumulation of uremic solutes in the plasma. Less is known about the effects of uremic solutes on transporters that may play critical roles in pharmacokinetics. We evaluated the effect of 72 uremic solutes on organic anion transporter 1 and 3 (OAT1 and OAT3) using a fluorescent probe substrate, 6-carboxyfluorescein. A total of 12 and 13 solutes were identified as inhibitors of OAT1 and OAT3, respectively. Several of them inhibited OAT1 or OAT3 at clinically relevant concentrations and reduced the transport of other OAT1/3 substrates in vitro. Review of clinical studies showed that the active secretion of most drugs that are known substrates of OAT1/3 deteriorated faster than the renal filtration in CKD. Collectively, these data suggest that through inhibition of OAT1 and OAT3, uremic solutes contribute to the decline in renal drug clearance in patients with CKD.

  5. A method for embedding granulated or spent ion-exchanging organic substances in concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christensen, H.; Jejes, P.

    1976-01-01

    A method of embedding in concrete a spent ion-exchanging organic substance originating from a scrubbing-circuit of a nuclear reactor Prior to solidification of the mixture, a substance is incorporated therewith said substance being capable of preventing water in the grains of the ion-exchanging substance from penetrating into the solidified product

  6. Fragmentation of organic ions bearing fixed multiple charges observed in MALDI MS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lou, X.; Li, B.; de Waal, B.F.M.; Schill, J.; Baker, M.B.; Bovee, R.A.A.; van Dongen, J.L.J.; Milroy, L.G.; Meijer, E.W.

    2018-01-01

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI TOF MS) was used to analyze a series of synthetic organic ions bearing fixed multiple charges. Despite the multiple intrinsic charges, only singly charged ions were recorded in each case. In addition to the

  7. Ion-selective electrodes in organic elemental and functional group analysis: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selig, W.

    1977-01-01

    The literature on the use of ion-selective electrodes in organic elemental and functional group analysis is surveyed in some detail. The survey is complete through Chemical Abstracts, Vol. 83 (1975). 40 figures, 52 tables, 236 references

  8. Ion-selective electrodes in organic elemental and functional group analysis: a review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Selig, W.

    1977-11-08

    The literature on the use of ion-selective electrodes in organic elemental and functional group analysis is surveyed in some detail. The survey is complete through Chemical Abstracts, Vol. 83 (1975). 40 figures, 52 tables, 236 references.

  9. Ion exchange behaviour of citrate and EDTA anions on strong and weak base organic ion exchangers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Askarieh, M.M.; White, D.A.

    1988-01-01

    The exchange of citrate and EDTA ions with two strong base and two weak base exchangers is considered. Citrate and EDTA analysis for this work was performed using a colorimetric method developed here. The ions most selectively exchanged on the resins are H 2 cit - and H 2 EDTA 2- , though EDTA is generally less strongly sorbed on strong base resins. In contact with weak base resins, deprotonation of the resin occurs during ion exchange with a noticeable drop in solution pH. Although EDTA sorption can be reversed by nitric acid, citrate ions are significantly held on the resin at low pH. The exchange of citrate can be made reversible if bicarbonate is added to the initial solutions. Alkaline regeneration of exchangers loaded with EDTA proved to be very effective. (author)

  10. Ion Transport in Organic Electrolyte Solution through the Pore Channels of Anodic Nanoporous Alumina Membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukutsuka, Tomokazu; Koyamada, Kohei; Maruyama, Shohei; Miyazaki, Kohei; Abe, Takeshi

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Ion transport in organic electrolyte solution in macro- and meso-pores was focused. • Anodic nanoporous alumina membrane was used as a porous material. • The specific ion conductivities drastically decreased in macro- and meso-pores. - Abstract: For the development of high energy density lithium-ion batteries with the high rate performance, the enhancement of the ion transport in the electrolyte solutions impregnated in the porous electrodes is a key. To study the ion transport in porous electrodes, anodic nanoporous alumina (APA) self-standing membranes with macro- or meso-pores were used as model porous materials. These membranes had nearly spherical pore channels of discrete 20–68 nm in diameters. By using the geometric shape of the pores, we attempted to evaluate the specific ion conductivities of the organic electrolyte solution dissolving lithium salt simply. AC impedance spectroscopy measurement of a four-electrode cell with membranes showed one depressed semi-circle in the Nyquist plots and this semi-circle can be assigned as the ion transport resistance in the pores. The specific ion conductivities evaluated from the ion transport resistances and the geometric parameters showed very small values, even in the macro-pores, as compared with that of the bulk electrolyte solution.

  11. Ion chromatographic determination of Di-n-butyl phosphate in degraded organic solvent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velavendan, P.; Pandey, N.K.; Kamachi Mudali, U.; Natarajan, R.

    2011-01-01

    In the present work a method for the determination of Di-n-butyl phosphate in organic streams using Ion Chromatography technique is developed and described here. The method involves the separation of Di-n-butyl phosphate (DBP) from 30% TBP-NPH (Tri-n-butylphosphate diluted in Normal Paraffin Hydrocarbon) and uranium/nitric acid matrix by an extraction of DBP in alkaline medium and subsequent ion-exchange separation in ion chromatography column followed by suppressed conductivity detection. Direct determination of DBP in lean/loaded organic solvent will lead to in accurate determination of DBP due to organic interference. DBP is quantified to lower limit of 1 ppm with 3% RSD. The results obtained with ion chromatographic technique are compared with those obtained by standard gas chromatographic technique. The developed method is much faster and total analysis can be completed within two hours. (author)

  12. Development of a living membrane comprising of a functional human renal proximal tubule cell monolayer on polyethersulfone polymeric membrane

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schophuizen, C.M.S.; De Napoli, Ilaria; Jansen, J.; Da Silva Teixeira, Sandra; Wilmer, M.; Hoenderop, J.G.; van den Heuvel, L.P.W.; Masereeuw, R.; Stamatialis, Dimitrios

    2015-01-01

    The need for improved renal replacement therapies has stimulated innovative research for the development of a cell-based renal assist device. A key requirement for such a device is the formation of a “living membrane”, consisting of a tight kidney cell monolayer with preserved functional organic ion

  13. Double-digest RAD sequencing using Ion Proton semiconductor platform (ddRADseq-ion) with nonmodel organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recknagel, Hans; Jacobs, Arne; Herzyk, Pawel; Elmer, Kathryn R

    2015-11-01

    Research in evolutionary biology involving nonmodel organisms is rapidly shifting from using traditional molecular markers such as mtDNA and microsatellites to higher throughput SNP genotyping methodologies to address questions in population genetics, phylogenetics and genetic mapping. Restriction site associated DNA sequencing (RAD sequencing or RADseq) has become an established method for SNP genotyping on Illumina sequencing platforms. Here, we developed a protocol and adapters for double-digest RAD sequencing for Ion Torrent (Life Technologies; Ion Proton, Ion PGM) semiconductor sequencing. We sequenced thirteen genomic libraries of three different nonmodel vertebrate species on Ion Proton with PI chips: Arctic charr Salvelinus alpinus, European whitefish Coregonus lavaretus and common lizard Zootoca vivipara. This resulted in ~962 million single-end reads overall and a mean of ~74 million reads per library. We filtered the genomic data using Stacks, a bioinformatic tool to process RAD sequencing data. On average, we obtained ~11,000 polymorphic loci per library of 6-30 individuals. We validate our new method by technical and biological replication, by reconstructing phylogenetic relationships, and using a hybrid genetic cross to track genomic variants. Finally, we discuss the differences between using the different sequencing platforms in the context of RAD sequencing, assessing possible advantages and disadvantages. We show that our protocol can be used for Ion semiconductor sequencing platforms for the rapid and cost-effective generation of variable and reproducible genetic markers. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Effect of organic solvents on desorption and atomic absorption determination of heavy metal ions after ion exchange concentration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pilipenko, A.T.; Safronova, V.G.; Zakrevskaya, L.V.

    1986-01-01

    The effect of organic solvents (acetone, methylethylketone, dioxane, ethanol) on desorption of Cu, Mn, Co, Cd, Zn, Pb, Ni from cationite KU-23 ion exchange resin and on the detection limits of their atomic absorption determination has been examined. Cobalt and cadmium can be separated quantitatively using desorption by a mixture of HCl and acetone. Addition of an organic solvent results in a higher absorbance, mainly due to a high rate and efficiency of atomization. Acetone has proved to be the best solvent: addition of 60 vol. % of this solvent to the concentrate provides 2 times lower detection limits for the heavy metas in water

  15. The effect of organic ion-exchange resin on properties of heterogeneous ion-exchange membranes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Křivčík, J.; Vladařová, J.; Hadrava, J.; Černín, A.; Brožová, Libuše

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 14, - (2010), s. 179-184 ISSN 1944-3994. [Membrane Science and Technology Conference of Visegrad Countries /4./ PERMEA 2009, 07.07.2009-11.07.2009] R&D Projects: GA MPO FT-TA4/116 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : heterogeneous ion-exchange membrane * membrane modification * particle size of distribution Subject RIV: CG - Electrochemistry Impact factor: 0.752, year: 2010

  16. Thermodynamics of interactions between organic ammonium ions and sulfonatocalixarenes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Lihua [Department of Chemistry, State Key Laboratory of Elemento-Organic Chemistry, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China); Guo Dongsheng [Department of Chemistry, State Key Laboratory of Elemento-Organic Chemistry, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China); Chen Yong [Department of Chemistry, State Key Laboratory of Elemento-Organic Chemistry, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China); Liu Yu [Department of Chemistry, State Key Laboratory of Elemento-Organic Chemistry, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China)]. E-mail: yuliu@nankai.edu.cn

    2006-04-01

    Calorimetric titration and NMR experiments in aqueous phosphate buffer (pH 7.2) at 298.15 K have been done to determine the binding mode, complex stability constants and thermodynamics ({delta}G{sup o}, {delta}H{sup o}, and T{delta}S{sup o}) for 1:1 inclusion complexation of water-soluble calix[n]arenesulfonates (CnAS, n = 4 and 6) and thiacalix[4]arene tetrasulfonate (TCAS) with acethylcholine, carnitine, betaine and benzyltrimethylammonium ion. The results show the inclusion complexations are driven by enthalpy ({delta}H{sup o} < 0), accompanied by negative entropic changes ({delta}S{sup o} < 0). The binding affinities (C4AS > C6AS > TCAS) are discussed from the viewpoint of CH-{pi}/{pi}-{pi} interactions, electrostatic interactions and size/shape-fit relationship between host and guest.

  17. Ion chemistry of some organic molecules studied by field ionization and field desorption mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greef, J. van der.

    1980-01-01

    The chemistry of isolated ions in the gas phase is strongly dependent on the internal energy which they have required upon formation. Since also the average lifetime of an ion depends on its internal energy, ion lifetime studies have been employed for many years to obtain a better insight in the relation between the chemistry and internal energy of gas phase ions. A very powerful tool for such studies is the field ionization kinetic (FIK) method, because it can provide a time-resolved picture of decompositions of ions with lifetimes varying from 10 -11 to 10 -5 s. The FIK method has been used in combination with 2 H, 13 C and 15 N labelling for mechanistic studies on the fragmentation of some selected ionised organic molecules. (Auth.)

  18. Clear cell renal cell carcinoma: validation of World Health Organization/International Society of Urological Pathology grading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagher, Julien; Delahunt, Brett; Rioux-Leclercq, Nathalie; Egevad, Lars; Srigley, John R; Coughlin, Geoffrey; Dunglinson, Nigel; Gianduzzo, Troy; Kua, Boon; Malone, Greg; Martin, Ben; Preston, John; Pokorny, Morgan; Wood, Simon; Yaxley, John; Samaratunga, Hemamali

    2017-12-01

    In 2012, the International Society of Urological Pathology (ISUP) introduced a novel grading system for clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) and papillary renal cell carcinoma. This system is incorporated into the latest World Health Organization renal tumour classification, being designated WHO/ISUP grading. This study was undertaken to compare WHO/ISUP and Fuhrman grading and to validate WHO/ISUP grading as a prognostic parameter in a series of clear cell RCC. Analysis of 681 cases of ccRCC showed that 144 tumours could not be assigned a Fuhrman grade on the basis of ambiguous grading features. The application of WHO/ISUP grading resulted in a general down-grading of cases when compared with Fuhrman grading. In a sub-group of 374 cases, for which outcome data were available, 9.3% were WHO/ISUP grade 1, 50.3% were grade 2, 24.1% grade 3 and 16.3% grade 4, while the distribution of Fuhrman grades was 0.4% grade 1, 48.7% grade 2, 29.4% grade 3 and 21.5% grade 4. There were no recurrence/metastases amongst patients with WHO/ISUP grade 1 tumours and there was a significant difference in outcome for WHO/ISUP grades 2, 3 and 4. For Fuhrman grading the cancer-free survival was not significantly different for grade 2 and grade 3 tumours. On multivariate analysis WHO/ISUP grade and pT staging category were found to retain prognostic significance. The study demonstrates that FG cannot be applied in >20% of cases of ccRCC and the WHO/ISUP provides superior prognostic information. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Differential changes in functional activity of organic cation transporters in rats with uranyl nitrate-induced acute renal failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeng, Han-Joo; Shim, Won-Sik; Ahn, Sun-Joo; Yu, Sang-Soo; Kim, Dae-Duk; Shim, Chang-Koo; Chung, Suk-Jae

    2012-08-01

    We studied the impact of experimental kidney failure on the pharmacokinetics of a model organic cation and investigated the underlying mechanism(s) of the organic cation transporters. The systemic pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution of triethylmethylammonium (TEMA), a model organic cation, were characterized after intravenous doses of 0.3-30 μmol/kg in rats with or without uranyl nitrate-induced acute renal failure (UN-ARF). To study the effect of endogenous substrates in plasma from UN-ARF rats on organic cation transport, rOCT- or rOCT2-dependent uptake of tetraethylammonium (TEA) was studied in rOCT1-transfected or rOCT2-transfected LLC-PK1 cells, respectively. As a result, the AUC for TEMA was increased, probably because of decreased total clearance, and the tissue-to-plasma concentration ratio (T/P ratio) of TEMA was unchanged in the liver but decreased significantly in the kidneys of UN-ARF rats. In vitro, the uptake of TEA was decreased significantly by adding UN-ARF plasma, compared with control plasma, in rOCT2-overexpressing LLC-PK1 cells, but not in rOCT1-overexpressing LLC-PK1 cells. These observations suggest that the induction of UN-ARF leads to an accumulation of endogenous organic cation(s), probably rOCT2 substrate(s), in the plasma, thereby affecting the TEMA pharmacokinetics and distribution to the kidneys in rats.

  20. Characterization of inclusion complexes of organic ions with hydrophilic hosts by ion transfer voltammetry with solvent polymeric membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olmos, José Manuel; Laborda, Eduardo; Ortuño, Joaquín Ángel; Molina, Ángela

    2017-03-01

    The quantitative characterization of inclusion complexes formed in aqueous phase between organic ions and hydrophilic hosts by ion-transfer voltammetry with solvent polymeric membrane ion sensors is studied, both in a theoretical and experimental way. Simple analytical solutions are presented for the determination of the binding constant of the complex from the variation with the host concentration of the electrochemical signal. These solutions are valid for any voltammetric technique and for solvent polymeric membrane ion sensors comprising one polarisable interface (1PI) and also, for the first time, two polarisable interfaces (2PIs). Suitable experimental conditions and data analysis procedures are discussed and applied to the study of the interactions of a common ionic liquid cation (1-octyl-3-metyl-imidazolium) and an ionisable drug (clomipramine) with two hydrophilic cyclodextrins: α-cyclodextrin and 2-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin. The experimental study is performed via square wave voltammetry with 2PIs and 1PI solvent polymeric membranes and in both cases the electrochemical experiments enable the detection of inclusion complexes and the determination of the corresponding binding constant. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Cationic uremic toxins affect human renal proximal tubule cell functioning through interaction with the organic cation transporter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schophuizen, Carolien M S; Wilmer, Martijn J; Jansen, Jitske; Gustavsson, Lena; Hilgendorf, Constanze; Hoenderop, Joost G J; van den Heuvel, Lambert P; Masereeuw, Rosalinde

    2013-12-01

    Several organic cations, such as guanidino compounds and polyamines, have been found to accumulate in plasma of patients with kidney failure due to inadequate renal clearance. Here, we studied the interaction of cationic uremic toxins with renal organic cation transport in a conditionally immortalized human proximal tubule epithelial cell line (ciPTEC). Transporter activity was measured and validated in cell suspensions by studying uptake of the fluorescent substrate 4-(4-(dimethylamino)styryl)-N-methylpyridinium-iodide (ASP(+)). Subsequently, the inhibitory potencies of the cationic uremic toxins, cadaverine, putrescine, spermine and spermidine (polyamines), acrolein (polyamine breakdown product), guanidine, and methylguanidine (guanidino compounds) were determined. Concentration-dependent inhibition of ASP(+) uptake by TPA, cimetidine, quinidine, and metformin confirmed functional endogenous organic cation transporter 2 (OCT2) expression in ciPTEC. All uremic toxins tested inhibited ASP(+) uptake, of which acrolein required the lowest concentration to provoke a half-maximal inhibition (IC50 = 44 ± 2 μM). A Dixon plot was constructed for acrolein using three independent inhibition curves with 10, 20, or 30 μM ASP(+), which demonstrated competitive or mixed type of interaction (K i = 93 ± 16 μM). Exposing the cells to a mixture of cationic uremic toxins resulted in a more potent and biphasic inhibitory response curve, indicating complex interactions between the toxins and ASP(+) uptake. In conclusion, ciPTEC proves a suitable model to study cationic xenobiotic interactions. Inhibition of cellular uptake transport was demonstrated for several uremic toxins, which might indicate a possible role in kidney disease progression during uremia.

  2. Kinetics of renal organic acid transport; studies on the counter-transport of p-aminohippuric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Saeng Park

    1979-04-01

    The experiments have been performed in various conditions using 14 C-PAH as a tracer. The relative ratio of the inhibitor constant (Ki) between Diodrast and probenecid was of the same magnitude as the concentrations of these inhibitors for maximal stimulation of PAH efflux. The author observed that in metabolically inhibited slices there was no PAH uptake against concentration gradient, but the efflux of PAH was greater than that in the normal slice. In these metabolically inhibited slice PAH efflux was also biphasically altered by Diodrast and probenecid added to the medium. When the concentration of sodium was reduced in medium, PAH influx was decreased but PAH efflux facilitated. 0.1mM disulfonic stilbene derivative, SITS (4-acetamido-4'-isothiocyano-2.2' disulfonic stilbene) increased PAH efflux in the normal slice, but decreased the efflux in the metabolically inhibited slice. Analyzing the data presented, the contractor came to the conclusion that the influx and efflux of PAH in the renal slice are mediated by mobile carrier cycling across the peritubular membrane of renal tubular cell. He observed also that the affinity of carrier for organic acids is altered by the energy-linking reaction at the cytoplasmic border of the membrane

  3. Sodium-ion transfer at the interface between ceramic and organic electrolytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sagane, Fumihiro; Abe, Takeshi; Ogumi, Zempachi [Graduate School of Engineering, Kyoto University, Nishikyo-ku, Kyoto 615-8510 (Japan)

    2010-11-01

    Sodium-ion transfer through the interface between ceramic and organic electrolytes was studied by AC impedance spectroscopy. Na{sub 3}Zr{sub 1.88}Y{sub 0.12}Si{sub 2}PO{sub 12} (NASICON) and Na-{beta}''-alumina were used as ceramic electrolytes, and propylene carbonate (PC) and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) containing 0.05 mol dm{sup -3} NaCF{sub 3}SO{sub 3} were used as organic electrolytes. The semi-circle ascribed to interfacial charge transfer resistance (R{sub ct}) was observed. The activation energies for sodium-ion transfer at the interface between ceramic and organic electrolytes were evaluated by the temperature dependency of R{sub ct}. As a result, the activation energies depended on the ceramic electrolytes but not on the solvents. These results suggest that sodium-ion transfer from ceramic to organic electrolytes should be responsible for the activation energies, which is contrary to the case in a lithium-ion transfer system. Based on these results, the mechanism of interfacial sodium-ion transfer was discussed. (author)

  4. Low-level liquid waste decontamination by organic ion exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, D.D.; Campbell, D.O.; Dillow, T.A.

    1990-01-01

    Improved processes are being developed to treat contaminated liquid wastes that have been and continue to be generated at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Promising results have been obtained for cesium removal with a new resorcinol-based organic resin developed at the Savannah River Site. In tests of cesium removal, it was superior to other available resins, such as Duolite CS-100, with the distribution coefficient being limited primarily by competition from potassium and nearly independent of the sodium concentration. The optimum pH was approximately 12.5 in high NaNO 3 concentrations (>2 M). A fairly low flow velocity was required to yield sharp breakthrough of the loaded cesium. The resin was much less effective for strontium removal, which was limited by competition from sodium. If both cesium and strontium must be removed, another resin column or a mixed bed with a chelating resin should be used

  5. Cuff-Based Oscillometric Central and Brachial Blood Pressures Obtained Through ABPM are Similarly Associated with Renal Organ Damage in Arterial Hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Fernández-Llama

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Central blood pressure (BP has been suggested to be a better estimator of hypertension-associated risks. We aimed to evaluate the association of 24-hour central BP, in comparison with 24-hour peripheral BP, with the presence of renal organ damage in hypertensive patients. Methods: Brachial and central (calculated by an oscillometric system through brachial pulse wave analysis office BP and ambulatory BP monitoring (ABPM data and aortic pulse wave velocity (PWV were measured in 208 hypertensive patients. Renal organ damage was evaluated by means of the albumin to creatinine ratio and the estimated glomerular filtration rate. Results: Fifty-four patients (25.9% were affected by renal organ damage, displaying either microalbuminuria (urinary albumin excretion ≥30 mg/g creatinine or an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR <60 ml/min/1.73 m2. Compared to those without renal abnormalities, hypertensive patients with kidney damage had higher values of office brachial systolic BP (SBP and pulse pressure (PP, and 24-h, daytime, and nighttime central and brachial SBP and PP. They also had a blunted nocturnal decrease in both central and brachial BP, and higher values of aortic PWV. After adjustment for age, gender, and antihypertensive treatment, only ABPM-derived BP estimates (both central and brachial showed significant associations with the presence of renal damage. Odds ratios for central BP estimates were not significantly higher than those obtained for brachial BP. Conclusion: Compared with peripheral ABPM, cuff-based oscillometric central ABPM does not show a closer association with presence of renal organ damage in hypertensive patients. More studies, however, need to be done to better identify the role of central BP in clinical practice.

  6. Cuff-Based Oscillometric Central and Brachial Blood Pressures Obtained Through ABPM are Similarly Associated with Renal Organ Damage in Arterial Hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Llama, Patricia; Pareja, Júlia; Yun, Sergi; Vázquez, Susana; Oliveras, Anna; Armario, Pedro; Blanch, Pedro; Calero, Francesca; Sierra, Cristina; de la Sierra, Alejandro

    2017-01-01

    Central blood pressure (BP) has been suggested to be a better estimator of hypertension-associated risks. We aimed to evaluate the association of 24-hour central BP, in comparison with 24-hour peripheral BP, with the presence of renal organ damage in hypertensive patients. Brachial and central (calculated by an oscillometric system through brachial pulse wave analysis) office BP and ambulatory BP monitoring (ABPM) data and aortic pulse wave velocity (PWV) were measured in 208 hypertensive patients. Renal organ damage was evaluated by means of the albumin to creatinine ratio and the estimated glomerular filtration rate. Fifty-four patients (25.9%) were affected by renal organ damage, displaying either microalbuminuria (urinary albumin excretion ≥30 mg/g creatinine) or an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) <60 ml/min/1.73 m2. Compared to those without renal abnormalities, hypertensive patients with kidney damage had higher values of office brachial systolic BP (SBP) and pulse pressure (PP), and 24-h, daytime, and nighttime central and brachial SBP and PP. They also had a blunted nocturnal decrease in both central and brachial BP, and higher values of aortic PWV. After adjustment for age, gender, and antihypertensive treatment, only ABPM-derived BP estimates (both central and brachial) showed significant associations with the presence of renal damage. Odds ratios for central BP estimates were not significantly higher than those obtained for brachial BP. Compared with peripheral ABPM, cuff-based oscillometric central ABPM does not show a closer association with presence of renal organ damage in hypertensive patients. More studies, however, need to be done to better identify the role of central BP in clinical practice. © 2017 The Author(s). Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. Dimer self-organization of impurity ytterbium ions in synthetic forsterite single crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarasov, V. F.; Sukhanov, A. A.; Dudnikova, V. B.; Zharikov, E. V.; Lis, D. A.; Subbotin, K. A.

    2017-07-01

    Paramagnetic centers formed by impurity Yb3+ ions in synthetic forsterite (Mg2SiO4) grown by the Czochralski technique are studied by X-band CW and pulsed EPR spectroscopy. These centers are single ions substituting magnesium in two different crystallographic positions denoted M1 and M2, and dimer associates formed by two Yb3+ ions in nearby positions M1. It is established that there is a pronounced mechanism favoring self-organization of ytterbium ions in dimer associates during the crystal growth, and the mechanism of the spin-spin coupling between ytterbium ions in the associate has predominantly a dipole-dipole character, which makes it possible to control the energy of the spin-spin interaction by changing the orientation of the external magnetic field. The structural computer simulation of cluster ytterbium centers in forsterite crystals is carried out by the method of interatomic potentials using the GULP 4.0.1 code (General Utility Lattice Program). It is established that the formation of dimer associates in the form of a chain parallel to the crystallographic axis consisting of two ytterbium ions with a magnesium vacancy between them is the most energetically favorable for ytterbium ions substituting magnesium in the position M1.

  8. Potential for ion-induced nucleation of volatile organic compounds by radon decay in indoor environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daisey, J.M.

    1991-11-01

    There is considerable interest in the ''unattached'' fraction of radon progeny in indoor air because of its significance to the estimation of the risks of radon exposure. Because of its high mobility in air, the unattached fraction is more efficiently deposited in the respiratory tract. Variation in the diameter of the ''unattached'' fraction and in its diffusion coefficient can be due to clustering of other atmospheric species around the 218 PoO 2 + ion. The purpose of this study was to investigate the potential for the formation of clusters of vapor phase organic compounds, found in indoor air, around the 218 PoO 2 + ion and to determine which were most likely to form clusters. A secondary purpose was to provide a compilation of measurements of indoor organic compounds for future experiments and theoretical calculations by the radon research community. The classical charged liquid droplet theory (Thomson equation) was used to estimate the Gibbs free energy of ion-induced nucleation and to provide an indication of the indoor organic compounds most likely to undergo ion-induced nucleation. Forty-four volatile and semi-volatile organic compounds out of the more than 300 which have been reported in indoor air were investigated. Water vapor was included for comparison. The results indicate that there is a potential for the formation of clusters of organic compounds around the 218 PoO 2 + ion. The compounds with the greatest potential for cluster formation are the volatile oxidized hydrocarbons (e.g., n-butanol, phenol, hexanal, nonanal, benzaldehyde, the ketones and the acetates) and the semi-volatile organic compounds (pentachlorophenol, nicotine, chlordane, chlorpyrifos)

  9. Valency stabilization of Polyvalent Iron Ions in Solution By some Organic additives during Gamma Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barakat, M.F.; Abdel Hamid, M.M.

    2012-01-01

    Valency stabilization of polyvalent ions in gamma irradiated aqueous solutions is sometimes necessary for the success of some chemical operations. In some previous publications valency stabilization of some polyvalent ions in solution upon gamma irradiation was achieved by using additives capable of interacting with the oxidizing or reducing species formed by water radiolysis in the medium. The results showed that the duration of valency stabilization depends on the concentration of the additives used.In the present work, a series of some organic additives has been used to investigate their capability in inducing valency stabilization of polyvalent iron ions when subjected to extended gamma irradiation periods. The results showed that the efficiency of valency stabilization depends on the amount and chemical structure of the organic additive used

  10. Standard Gibbs free energies for transfer of actinyl ions at the aqueous/organic solution interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitatsuji, Yoshihiro; Okugaki, Tomohiko; Kasuno, Megumi; Kubota, Hiroki; Maeda, Kohji; Kimura, Takaumi; Yoshida, Zenko; Kihara, Sorin

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → Standard Gibbs free energies for ion-transfer of tri- to hexavalent actinide ions. → Determination is based on distribution method combined with ion-transfer voltammetry. → Organic solvents examined are nitrobenzene, DCE, benzonitrile, acetophenone and NPOE. → Gibbs free energies of U(VI), Np(VI) and Pu(VI) are similar to each other. → Gibbs free energies of Np(V) is very large, comparing with ordinary monovalent cations. - Abstract: Standard Gibbs free energies for transfer (ΔG tr 0 ) of actinyl ions (AnO 2 z+ ; z = 2 or 1; An: U, Np, or Pu) between an aqueous solution and an organic solution were determined based on distribution method combined with voltammetry for ion transfer at the interface of two immiscible electrolyte solutions. The organic solutions examined were nitrobenzene, 1,2-dichloroethane, benzonitrile, acetophenone, and 2-nitrophenyl octyl ether. Irrespective of the type of organic solutions, ΔG tr 0 of UO 2 2+ ,NpO 2 2+ , and PuO 2 2+ were nearly equal to each other and slightly larger than that of Mg 2+ . The ΔG tr 0 of NpO 2 + was extraordinary large compared with those of ordinary monovalent cations. The dependence of ΔG tr 0 of AnO 2 z+ on the type of organic solutions was similar to that of H + or Mg 2+ . The ΔG tr 0 of An 3+ and An 4+ were also discussed briefly.

  11. Managing oral phosphate binder medication expenditures within the Medicare bundled end-stage renal disease prospective payment system: economic implications for large U.S. dialysis organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Haesuk; Rascati, Karen L; Keith, Michael S

    2015-06-01

    From January 2016, payment for oral-only renal medications (including phosphate binders and cinacalcet) was expected to be included in the new Medicare bundled end-stage renal disease (ESRD) prospective payment system (PPS). The implementation of the ESRD PPS has generated concern within the nephrology community because of the potential for inadequate funding and the impact on patient quality of care. To estimate the potential economic impact of the new Medicare bundled ESRD PPS reimbursement from the perspective of a large dialysis organization in the United States. We developed an interactive budget impact model to evaluate the potential economic implications of Medicare payment changes to large dialysis organizations treating patients with ESRD who are receiving phosphate binders. In this analysis, we focused on the budget impact of the intended 2016 integration of oral renal drugs, specifically oral phosphate binders, into the PPS. We also utilized the model to explore the budgetary impact of a variety of potential shifts in phosphate binder market shares under the bundled PPS from 2013 to 2016. The base model predicts that phosphate binder costs will increase to $34.48 per dialysis session in 2016, with estimated U.S. total costs for phosphate binders of over $682 million. Based on these estimates, a projected Medicare PPS $33.44 reimbursement rate for coverage of all oral-only renal medications (i.e., phosphate binders and cinacalcet) would be insufficient to cover these costs. A potential renal drugs and services budget shortfall for large dialysis organizations of almost $346 million was projected. Our findings suggest that large dialysis organizations will be challenged to manage phosphate binder expenditures within the planned Medicare bundled rate structure. As a result, large dialysis organizations may have to make treatment choices in light of potential inadequate funding, which could have important implications for the quality of care for patients

  12. An Insoluble Benzoquinone-Based Organic Cathode for Use in Rechargeable Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Zhiqiang; Liu, Luojia; Zhao, Qing; Li, Fujun; Chen, Jun

    2017-10-02

    Application of organic electrode materials in rechargeable batteries has attracted great interest because such materials contain abundant carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen elements. However, organic electrodes are highly soluble in organic electrolytes. An organic electrode of 2,3,5,6-tetraphthalimido-1,4-benzoquinone (TPB) is reported in which rigid groups coordinate to a molecular benzoquinone skeleton. The material is insoluble in aprotic electrolyte, and demonstrates a high capacity retention of 91.4 % (204 mA h g -1 ) over 100 cycles at 0.2 C. The extended π-conjugation of the material contributes to enhancement of the electrochemical performance (155 mA h g -1 at 10 C). Moreover, density functional theory calculations suggest that favorable synergistic reactions between multiple carbonyl groups and lithium ions can enhance the initial lithium ion intercalation potential. The described approach may provide a novel entry to next-generation organic electrode materials with relevance to lithium-ion batteries. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Toxicological Significance of Renal Bcrp: Another Potential Transporter in the Elimination of Mercuric Ions from Proximal Tubular Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridges, Christy C.; Zalups, Rudolfs K.; Joshee, Lucy

    2015-01-01

    Secretion of inorganic mercury (Hg2+) from proximal tubular cells into the tubular lumen has been shown to involve the multidrug resistance-associated protein 2 (Mrp2). Considering similarities in localization and substrate specificity between Mrp2 and the breast cancer resistance protein (Bcrp), we hypothesize that Bcrp may also play a role in the proximal tubular secretion of mercuric species. In order to test this hypothesis, the uptake of Hg2+ was examined initially using inside-out membrane vesicles containing Bcrp. The results of these studies suggest that Bcrp may be capable of transporting certain conjugates of Hg2+. To further characterize the role of Bcrp in the handling of mercuric ions and in the induction of Hg2+-induced nephropathy, Sprague-Dawley and Bcrp knockout (bcrp−/−) rats were exposed intravenously to a non-nephrotoxic (0.5 μmol • kg−1), a moderately nephrotoxic (1.5 μmol • kg−1) or a significantly nephrotoxic (2.0 μmol • kg−1) dose of HgCl2. In general, the accumulation of Hg2+ was greater in organs of bcrp−/− rats than in Sprague-Dawley rats, suggesting that Bcrp may play a role in the export of Hg2+ from target cells. Within the kidney, cellular injury and necrosis was more severe in bcrp−/− rats than in controls. The pattern of necrosis, which was localized in the inner cortex and the outer stripe of the outer medulla was significantly different from that observed in Mrp2-deficient animals. These findings suggest that Bcrp may be involved in the cellular export of select mercuric species and that its role in this export may differ from that of Mrp2. PMID:25868844

  14. Metal-ion interactions and the structural organization of Sepia eumelanin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yan; Simon, John D

    2005-02-01

    The structural organization of melanin granules isolated from ink sacs of Sepia officinalis was examined as a function of metal ion content by scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. Exposing Sepia melanin granules to ethelenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) solution or to metal salt solutions changed the metal content in the melanin, but did not alter granular morphology. Thus ionic forces between the organic components and metal ions in melanin are not required to sustain the natural morphology once the granule is assembled. However, when aqueous suspensions of Sepia melanin granules of varying metal content are ultra-sonicated, EDTA-washed and Fe-saturated melanin samples lose material to the solution more readily than the corresponding Ca(II) and Mg(II)-loaded samples. The solubilized components are found to be 5,6-dihydroxyindole-2-carboxylic acid (DHICA)-rich constituents. Associated with different metal ions, Na(I), Ca(II) and Mg(II) or Fe(III), these DHICA-rich entities form distinct two-dimensional aggregation structures when dried on the flat surface of mica. The data suggest multiply-charged ions play an important role in assisting or templating the assembly of the metal-free organic components to form the three-dimensional substructure distributed along the protein scaffold within the granule.

  15. Facilitated ion transfer of protonated primary organic amines studied by square wave voltammetry and chronoamperometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torralba, E. [Departamento de Química Física, Facultad de Química, Universidad de Murcia, Murcia 30100 (Spain); Ortuño, J.A. [Departamento de Química Analítica, Facultad de Química, Universidad de Murcia, Murcia 30100 (Spain); Molina, A., E-mail: amolina@um.es [Departamento de Química Física, Facultad de Química, Universidad de Murcia, Murcia 30100 (Spain); Serna, C. [Departamento de Química Física, Facultad de Química, Universidad de Murcia, Murcia 30100 (Spain); Karimian, F. [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2014-05-01

    Highlights: • Facilitated ion transfer of organic protonated amines is studied. • Cyclic square wave voltammetry is used as main technique. • Complexation constants and standard ion transfer potentials are determined. • Diffusion coefficients in the organic and aqueous phases are determined. • The goodness of square wave voltammetry as analytical tool is shown. - Abstract: The transfer of the protonated forms of heptylamine, octylamine, decylamine, procaine and procainamide facilitated by dibenzo-18-crown-6 from water to a solvent polymeric membrane has been investigated by using cyclic square wave voltammetry. The experimental voltammograms obtained are in good agreement with theoretical predictions. The values of the standard ion transfer potential, complexation constant and diffusion coefficient in water have been obtained from these experiments, and have been used to draw some conclusions about the lipophilicity of these species and the relative stability of the organic ammonium complexes with dibenzo-18-crown-6. The results have been compared with those provided by linear sweep voltammetry. Calibration graphs were obtained with both techniques. An interesting chronoamperometric method for the determination of the diffusion coefficient of the target ion in the membrane has been developed and applied to all these protonated amines.

  16. Azo compounds as a family of organic electrode materials for alkali-ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Chao; Borodin, Oleg; Ji, Xiao; Hou, Singyuk; Gaskell, Karen J; Fan, Xiulin; Chen, Ji; Deng, Tao; Wang, Ruixing; Jiang, Jianjun; Wang, Chunsheng

    2018-02-27

    Organic compounds are desirable for sustainable Li-ion batteries (LIBs), but the poor cycle stability and low power density limit their large-scale application. Here we report a family of organic compounds containing azo group (N=N) for reversible lithiation/delithiation. Azobenzene-4,4'-dicarboxylic acid lithium salt (ADALS) with an azo group in the center of the conjugated structure is used as a model azo compound to investigate the electrochemical behaviors and reaction mechanism of azo compounds. In LIBs, ADALS can provide a capacity of 190 mAh g -1 at 0.5 C (corresponding to current density of 95 mA g -1 ) and still retain 90%, 71%, and 56% of the capacity when the current density is increased to 2 C, 10 C, and 20 C, respectively. Moreover, ADALS retains 89% of initial capacity after 5,000 cycles at 20 C with a slow capacity decay rate of 0.0023% per cycle, representing one of the best performances in all organic compounds. Superior electrochemical behavior of ADALS is also observed in Na-ion batteries, demonstrating that azo compounds are universal electrode materials for alkali-ion batteries. The highly reversible redox chemistry of azo compounds to alkali ions was confirmed by density-functional theory (DFT) calculations. It provides opportunities for developing sustainable batteries.

  17. Application of retention modelling to the simulation of separation of organic anions in suppressed ion chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakaria, Philip; Dicinoski, Greg W; Ng, Boon Khing; Shellie, Robert A; Hanna-Brown, Melissa; Haddad, Paul R

    2009-09-18

    The ion-exchange separation of organic anions of varying molecular mass has been demonstrated using ion chromatography with isocratic, gradient and multi-step eluent profiles on commercially available columns with UV detection. A retention model derived previously for inorganic ions and based solely on electrostatic interactions between the analytes and the stationary phase was applied. This model was found to accurately describe the observed elution of all the anions under isocratic, gradient and multi-step eluent conditions. Hydrophobic interactions, although likely to be present to varying degrees, did not limit the applicability of the ion-exchange retention model. Various instrumental configurations were investigated to overcome problems associated with the use of organic modifiers in the eluent which caused compatibility issues with the electrolytically derived, and subsequently suppressed, eluent. The preferred configuration allowed the organic modifier stream to bypass the eluent generator, followed by subsequent mixing before entering the injection valve and column. Accurate elution prediction was achieved even when using 5-step eluent profiles with errors in retention time generally being less than 1% relative standard deviation (RSD) and all being less than 5% RSD. Peak widths for linear gradient separations were also modelled and showed good agreement with experimentally determined values.

  18. Immobilisation Of Spent Ion Exchange Resins Using Portland Cement Blending With Organic Material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zalina Laili; Mohd Abdul Wahab; Nur Azna Mahmud

    2014-01-01

    Immobilisation of spent ion exchange resins (spent resins) using Portland cement blending with organic material for example bio char was investigated. The performance of cement-bio char matrix for immobilisation of spent ion exchange resins was evaluated based on their compression strength and leachability under different experimental conditions. The results showed that the amount of bio char and spent resins loading effect the compressive strength of the waste form. Several factors affecting the leaching behaviour of immobilised spent resins in cement-bio char matrix. (author)

  19. Linear Ion Traps in Space: The Mars Organic Molecule Analyzer (MOMA) Instrument and Beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arevalo, Ricardo; Brinckerhoff, William; Mahaffy, Paul; van Amerom, Friso; Danell, Ryan; Pinnick, Veronica; Li, Xiang; Hovmand, Lars; Getty, Stephanie; Grubisic, Andrej; Goesmann, Fred; Cottin, Hervé

    2015-11-01

    Historically, quadrupole mass spectrometer (QMS) instruments have been used to explore a wide survey of planetary targets in our solar system, from Venus (Pioneer Venus) to Saturn (Cassini-Huygens). However, linear ion trap (LIT) mass spectrometers have found a niche as smaller, versatile alternatives to traditional quadrupole analyzers.The core astrobiological experiment of ESA’s ExoMars Program is the Mars Organic Molecule Analyzer (MOMA) onboard the ExoMars 2018 rover. The MOMA instrument is centered on a linear (or 2-D) ion trap mass spectrometer. As opposed to 3-D traps, LIT-based instruments accommodate two symmetrical ion injection pathways, enabling two complementary ion sources to be used. In the case of MOMA, these two analytical approaches are laser desorption mass spectrometry (LDMS) at Mars ambient pressures, and traditional gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GCMS). The LIT analyzer employed by MOMA also offers: higher ion capacity compared to a 3-D trap of the same volume; redundant detection subassemblies for extended lifetime; and, a link to heritage QMS designs and assembly logistics. The MOMA engineering test unit (ETU) has demonstrated the detection of organics in the presence of wt.%-levels of perchlorate, effective ion enhancement via stored waveform inverse Fourier transform (SWIFT), and derivation of structural information through tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS).A more progressive linear ion trap mass spectrometer (LITMS), funded by the NASA ROSES MatISSE Program, is being developed at NASA GSFC and promises to augment the capabilities of the MOMA instrument by way of: an expanded mass range (i.e., 20 - 2000 Da); detection of both positive and negative ions; spatially resolved (<1 mm) characterization of individual rock core layers; and, evolved gas analysis and GCMS with pyrolysis up to 1300° C (enabling breakdown of refractory phases). The Advanced Resolution Organic Molecule Analyzer (AROMA) instrument, being developed through NASA

  20. Sink or Swim: Ions and Organics at the Ice-Air Interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudait, Arpa; Allen, Michael T; Molinero, Valeria

    2017-07-26

    The ice-air interface is an important locus of environmental chemical reactions. The structure and dynamics of the ice surface impact the uptake of trace gases and kinetics of reactions in the atmosphere and snowpack. At tropospheric temperatures, the ice surface is partially premelted. Experiments indicate that ions increase the liquidity of the ice surface but hydrophilic organics do not. However, it is not yet known the extent of the perturbation solutes induce at the ice surface and what is the role of the disordered liquid-like layer in modulating the interaction between solutes and their mobility and aggregation at the ice surface. Here we use large-scale molecular simulations to investigate the effect of ions and glyoxal, one of the most abundant oxygenated volatile organic compounds in the atmosphere, on the structure, dynamics, and solvation properties of the ice surface. We find that the premelted surface of ice has unique solvation properties, different from those of liquid water. The increase in surface liquidity resulting from the hydration of ions leads to a water-mediated attraction of ions at the ice surface. Glyoxal molecules, on the other hand, perturb only slightly the surface of ice and do not experience water-driven attraction. They nonetheless accumulate as dry agglomerates at the ice surface, driven by direct interactions between the organic molecules. The enhanced attraction and clustering of ions and organics at the ice surface may play a significant role in modulating the mechanism and rate of heterogeneous chemical reactions occurring at the surface of atmospheric ice particles.

  1. The 2016 WHO Classification of Tumours of the Urinary System and Male Genital Organs-Part A: Renal, Penile, and Testicular Tumours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moch, Holger; Cubilla, Antonio L; Humphrey, Peter A; Reuter, Victor E; Ulbright, Thomas M

    2016-07-01

    The fourth edition of the World Health Organization (WHO) classification of urogenital tumours (WHO "blue book"), published in 2016, contains significant revisions. These revisions were performed after consideration by a large international group of pathologists with special expertise in this area. A subgroup of these persons met at the WHO Consensus Conference in Zurich, Switzerland, in 2015 to finalize the revisions. This review summarizes the most significant differences between the newly published classification and the prior version for renal, penile, and testicular tumours. Newly recognized epithelial renal tumours are hereditary leiomyomatosis and renal cell carcinoma (RCC) syndrome-associated RCC, succinate dehydrogenase-deficient RCC, tubulocystic RCC, acquired cystic disease-associated RCC, and clear cell papillary RCC. The WHO/International Society of Urological Pathology renal tumour grading system was recommended, and the definition of renal papillary adenoma was modified. The new WHO classification of penile squamous cell carcinomas is based on the presence of human papillomavirus and defines histologic subtypes accordingly. Germ cell neoplasia in situ (GCNIS) of the testis is the WHO-recommended term for precursor lesions of invasive germ cell tumours, and testicular germ cell tumours are now separated into two fundamentally different groups: those derived from GCNIS and those unrelated to GCNIS. Spermatocytic seminoma has been designated as a spermatocytic tumour and placed within the group of non-GCNIS-related tumours in the 2016 WHO classification. The 2016 World Health Organization (WHO) classification contains new renal tumour entities. The classification of penile squamous cell carcinomas is based on the presence of human papillomavirus. Germ cell neoplasia in situ of the testis is the WHO-recommended term for precursor lesions of invasive germ cell tumours. Copyright © 2016 European Association of Urology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All

  2. Gas cluster ion beam for the characterization of organic materials in submarine basalts as Mars analogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sano, Naoko; Barlow, Anders J.; Cumpson, Peter J.; Purvis, Graham W. H.; Abbott, Geoffrey D.; Gray, Neil N. D.

    2016-01-01

    The solar system contains large quantities of organic compounds that can form complex molecular structures. The processing of organic compounds by biological systems leads to molecules with distinctive structural characteristics; thus, the detection and characterization of organic materials could lead to a high degree of confidence in the existence of extra-terrestrial life. Given the nature of the surface of most planetary bodies in the solar system, evidence of life is more likely to be found in the subsurface where conditions are more hospitable. Basalt is a common rock throughout the solar system and the primary rock type on Mars and Earth. Basalt is therefore a rock type that subsurface life might exploit and as such a suitable material for the study of methods required to detect and analyze organic material in rock. Telluric basalts from Earth represent an analog for extra-terrestrial rocks where the indigenous organic matter could be analyzed for molecular biosignatures. This study focuses on organic matter in the basalt with the use of surface analysis techniques utilizing Ar gas cluster ion beams (GCIB); time of flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS), and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), to characterize organic molecules. Tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAH) thermochemolysis was also used to support the data obtained using the surface analysis techniques. The authors demonstrate that organic molecules were found to be heterogeneously distributed within rock textures. A positive correlation was observed to exist between the presence of microtubule textures in the basalt and the organic compounds detected. From the results herein, the authors propose that ToF-SIMS with an Ar GCIB is effective at detecting organic materials in such geological samples, and ToF-SIMS combined with XPS and TMAH thermochemolysis may be a useful approach in the study of extra-terrestrial organic material and life.

  3. Gas cluster ion beam for the characterization of organic materials in submarine basalts as Mars analogs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sano, Naoko, E-mail: naoko.sano@ncl.ac.uk; Barlow, Anders J.; Cumpson, Peter J. [National EPSRC XPS Users' Service (NEXUS), School of Mechanical and Systems Engineering, Stephenson Building, Newcastle University, Newcastle-upon-Tyne NE1 7RU (United Kingdom); Purvis, Graham W. H.; Abbott, Geoffrey D.; Gray, Neil N. D. [School of Civil Engineering and Geosciences, Devonshire Building, Newcastle University, Newcastle-upon-Tyne NE1 7RU (United Kingdom)

    2016-07-15

    The solar system contains large quantities of organic compounds that can form complex molecular structures. The processing of organic compounds by biological systems leads to molecules with distinctive structural characteristics; thus, the detection and characterization of organic materials could lead to a high degree of confidence in the existence of extra-terrestrial life. Given the nature of the surface of most planetary bodies in the solar system, evidence of life is more likely to be found in the subsurface where conditions are more hospitable. Basalt is a common rock throughout the solar system and the primary rock type on Mars and Earth. Basalt is therefore a rock type that subsurface life might exploit and as such a suitable material for the study of methods required to detect and analyze organic material in rock. Telluric basalts from Earth represent an analog for extra-terrestrial rocks where the indigenous organic matter could be analyzed for molecular biosignatures. This study focuses on organic matter in the basalt with the use of surface analysis techniques utilizing Ar gas cluster ion beams (GCIB); time of flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS), and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), to characterize organic molecules. Tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAH) thermochemolysis was also used to support the data obtained using the surface analysis techniques. The authors demonstrate that organic molecules were found to be heterogeneously distributed within rock textures. A positive correlation was observed to exist between the presence of microtubule textures in the basalt and the organic compounds detected. From the results herein, the authors propose that ToF-SIMS with an Ar GCIB is effective at detecting organic materials in such geological samples, and ToF-SIMS combined with XPS and TMAH thermochemolysis may be a useful approach in the study of extra-terrestrial organic material and life.

  4. Selective adsorption of thiophene and 1-benzothiophene on metal-ion-exchanged zeolites in organic medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Mei; Chitrakar, Ramesh; Sakane, Kohji; Hirotsu, Takahiro; Ooi, Kenta; Yoshimura, Yuji; Feng, Qi; Sumida, Naoto

    2005-05-15

    Adsorption of the organic sulfur compounds thiophene (TP) and 1-benzothiophene (1-BTP) in an organic model solution of hydrodesulfurizated gasoline (heptane with 1 wt% toluene and 0.156 mM (5 ppmw as sulfur) TP or 1-BTP) was studied by a batch method at 80 degrees C using metal-ion-exchanged Y-zeolites. Although NaY-zeolite or its acid-treated material rarely adsorbed the organic sulfur compounds, NaY-zeolites exchanged with Ag+, Cu2+, and Ce3+ ions and NH(4)Y-zeolites exchanged with Ce3+ ions showed markedly high adsorptive capacities for TP and 1-BTP. The sulfur uptake increased in the order CuY-zeolite(Na)organic sulfur compounds. The adsorption isotherms for TP and 1-BTP followed the Langmuir's relationship and the saturation capacities by CeY-zeolite(Na) were calculated as 0.022 and 0.033 mmol/g, respectively. The mole ratios of TP/Ce and 1-BTP/Ce were 0.031 and 0.047, respectively. CeY-zeolite(NH4) which was prepared from NH4Y-zeolite showed less uptake of TP and 1-BTP than CeY-zeolite(Na), probably due to its lower cerium content.

  5. The impact of blood transfusions in deceased organ donors on the outcomes of 1,884 renal grafts from United Network for Organ Sharing Region 5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Cruz, J Salvador; Sally, Mitchell B; Zatarain, John R; Crutchfield, Megan; Ramsey, Katrina; Nielsen, Jamison; Patel, Madhukar; Lapidus, Jodi; Orloff, Susan; Malinoski, Darren J

    2015-10-01

    Historically, strategies to reduce acute rejection and improve graft survival in kidney transplant recipients included blood transfusions (BTs) before transplantation. While advents in recipient immunosuppression strategies have replaced this practice, the impact of BTs in the organ donor on recipient graft outcomes has not been evaluated. We hypothesize that BTs in organ donors after neurologic determination of death (DNDDs) translate into improved recipient renal graft outcomes, as measured by a decrease in delayed graft function (DGF). Donor demographics, critical care end points, the use of BTs, and graft outcome data were prospectively collected on DNDDs from March 2012 to October 2013 in the United Network for Organ Sharing Region 5 Donor Management Database. Propensity analysis determined each DNDD's probability of receiving packed red blood cells based on demographic and critical care data as well as provider bias. The primary outcome measure was the rate of DGF (dialysis in the first week after transplantation) in different donor BT groups as follows: no BT, any BT, 1 to 5, 6 to 10, or greater than 10 packed red blood cell units. Regression models determined the relationship between donor BTs and recipient DGF after accounting for known predictors of DGF as well as the propensity to receive a BT. Data were complete for 1,884 renal grafts from 1,006 DNDDs; 52% received any BT, 32% received 1 to 5 U, 11% received 6 to 10, and 9% received greater than 10 U of blood. Grafts from transfused donors had a lower rate of DGF compared with those of the nontransfused donors (26% vs. 34%, p donors with any BT had a lower odds of DGF (odds ratio, 0.76; p = 0.030), and this effect was greatest in those with greater than 10 U transfused. Any BT in a DNDD was associated with a 23% decrease in the odds of recipients developing DGF, and this effect was more pronounced as the number of BTs increased. Therapeutic study, level III; epidemiologic/prognostic study, level II.

  6. Initial clinical evaluation of PET-based ion beam therapy monitoring under consideration of organ motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurz, Christopher; Bauer, Julia; Unholtz, Daniel; Richter, Daniel; Herfarth, Klaus; Debus, Jürgen; Parodi, Katia

    2016-02-01

    Intrafractional organ motion imposes considerable challenges to scanned ion beam therapy and demands for a thorough verification of the applied treatment. At the Heidelberg Ion-Beam Therapy Center (HIT), the scanned ion beam delivery is verified by means of postirradiation positron-emission-tomography (PET) imaging. This work presents a first clinical evaluation of PET-based treatment monitoring in ion beam therapy under consideration of target motion. Three patients with mobile liver lesions underwent scanned carbon ion irradiation at HIT and postirradiation PET/CT (x-ray-computed-tomography) imaging with a commercial scanner. Respiratory motion was recorded during irradiation and subsequent image acquisition. This enabled a time-resolved (4D) calculation of the expected irradiation-induced activity pattern and, for one patient where an additional 4D CT was acquired at the PET/CT scanner after treatment, a motion-compensated PET image reconstruction. For the other patients, PET data were reconstructed statically. To verify the treatment, calculated prediction and reconstructed measurement were compared with a focus on the ion beam range. Results in the current three patients suggest that for motion amplitudes in the order of 2 mm there is no benefit from incorporating respiratory motion information into PET-based treatment monitoring. For a target motion in the order of 10 mm, motion-related effects become more severe and a time-resolved modeling of the expected activity distribution can lead to an improved data interpretation if a sufficient number of true coincidences is detected. Benefits from motion-compensated PET image reconstruction could not be shown conclusively at the current stage. The feasibility of clinical PET-based treatment verification under consideration of organ motion has been shown for the first time. Improvements in noise-robust 4D PET image reconstruction are deemed necessary to enhance the clinical potential.

  7. Initial clinical evaluation of PET-based ion beam therapy monitoring under consideration of organ motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurz, Christopher; Bauer, Julia; Unholtz, Daniel; Herfarth, Klaus; Debus, Jürgen; Richter, Daniel; Parodi, Katia

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Intrafractional organ motion imposes considerable challenges to scanned ion beam therapy and demands for a thorough verification of the applied treatment. At the Heidelberg Ion-Beam Therapy Center (HIT), the scanned ion beam delivery is verified by means of postirradiation positron-emission-tomography (PET) imaging. This work presents a first clinical evaluation of PET-based treatment monitoring in ion beam therapy under consideration of target motion. Methods: Three patients with mobile liver lesions underwent scanned carbon ion irradiation at HIT and postirradiation PET/CT (x-ray-computed-tomography) imaging with a commercial scanner. Respiratory motion was recorded during irradiation and subsequent image acquisition. This enabled a time-resolved (4D) calculation of the expected irradiation-induced activity pattern and, for one patient where an additional 4D CT was acquired at the PET/CT scanner after treatment, a motion-compensated PET image reconstruction. For the other patients, PET data were reconstructed statically. To verify the treatment, calculated prediction and reconstructed measurement were compared with a focus on the ion beam range. Results: Results in the current three patients suggest that for motion amplitudes in the order of 2 mm there is no benefit from incorporating respiratory motion information into PET-based treatment monitoring. For a target motion in the order of 10 mm, motion-related effects become more severe and a time-resolved modeling of the expected activity distribution can lead to an improved data interpretation if a sufficient number of true coincidences is detected. Benefits from motion-compensated PET image reconstruction could not be shown conclusively at the current stage. Conclusions: The feasibility of clinical PET-based treatment verification under consideration of organ motion has been shown for the first time. Improvements in noise-robust 4D PET image reconstruction are deemed necessary to enhance the

  8. Analysis of organic compounds by secondary neutral mass spectrometry (SNMS) and secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ewinger, H.P.

    1993-05-01

    This study is about the use of secondary neutral mass spectrometry (SNMS) and secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) as analytical techniques with depth resolution in determining organic components in environmental solid microparticles. The first application of plasma SNMS to organic compounds revealed the spectra to be composed mainly of signals from the atoms of all participating elements, such as C, H, O, N, S, P, and Cl. In addition, signals produced by multi-atomic clusters can be detected, such as CH, C 2 , CH 2 , C 2 H, and C 3 , as well as signals indicating the presence of organic compounds with hetero elements, such as OH, NH, and CN. Their intensity decreases very markedly with increasing numbers of atoms. Among the signals from bi-atomic clusters, those coming from elements with large mass differences are most intense. The use of plasma SNMS with organic compounds has shown that, except for spurious chemical reactions induced by ion bombardment and photodesorption by the photons of the plasma, it is possible to analyze with resolution in depth, elements of organic solids. A more detailed molecular characterization of organic compounds is possible by means of SIMS on the basis of multi-atomic fragments and by comparison with suitable signal patterns. (orig./BBR) [de

  9. Toxicological significance of renal Bcrp: Another potential transporter in the elimination of mercuric ions from proximal tubular cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bridges, Christy C., E-mail: bridges_cc@mercer.edu; Zalups, Rudolfs K.; Joshee, Lucy

    2015-06-01

    Secretion of inorganic mercury (Hg{sup 2+}) from proximal tubular cells into the tubular lumen has been shown to involve the multidrug resistance-associated protein 2 (Mrp2). Considering similarities in localization and substrate specificity between Mrp2 and the breast cancer resistance protein (Bcrp), we hypothesize that Bcrp may also play a role in the proximal tubular secretion of mercuric species. In order to test this hypothesis, the uptake of Hg{sup 2+} was examined initially using inside-out membrane vesicles containing Bcrp. The results of these studies suggest that Bcrp may be capable of transporting certain conjugates of Hg{sup 2+}. To further characterize the role of Bcrp in the handling of mercuric ions and in the induction of Hg{sup 2+}-induced nephropathy, Sprague–Dawley and Bcrp knockout (bcrp{sup −/−}) rats were exposed intravenously to a non-nephrotoxic (0.5 μmol·kg{sup −1}), a moderately nephrotoxic (1.5 μmol·kg{sup −1}) or a significantly nephrotoxic (2.0 μmol·kg{sup −1}) dose of HgCl{sub 2}. In general, the accumulation of Hg{sup 2+} was greater in organs of bcrp{sup −/−} rats than in Sprague–Dawley rats, suggesting that Bcrp may play a role in the export of Hg{sup 2+} from target cells. Within the kidney, cellular injury and necrosis was more severe in bcrp{sup −/−} rats than in controls. The pattern of necrosis, which was localized in the inner cortex and the outer stripe of the outer medulla, was significantly different from that observed in Mrp2-deficient animals. These findings suggest that Bcrp may be involved in the cellular export of select mercuric species and that its role in this export may differ from that of Mrp2. - Highlights: • Bcrp may mediate transport of mercury out of proximal tubular cells. • Hg-induced nephropathy was more severe in Bcrp knockout rats. • Bcrp and Mrp2 may differ in their ability to transport Hg.

  10. The cell adhesion molecule Fasciclin2 regulates brush border length and organization in Drosophila renal tubules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halberg, Kenneth Agerlin; Rainey, Stephanie M.; Veland, Iben Rønn

    2016-01-01

    Multicellular organisms rely on cell adhesion molecules to coordinate cell-cell interactions, and to provide navigational cues during tissue formation. In Drosophila, Fasciclin 2 (Fas2) has been intensively studied due to its role in nervous system development and maintenance; yet, Fas2 is most...... role for this well-known cell adhesion molecule, and propose that Fas2-mediated intermicrovillar homophilic adhesion complexes help stabilize the brush border....

  11. Organic SIMS: the influence of time on the ion yield enhancement by silver and gold deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adriaensen, L.; Vangaever, F.; Gijbels, R.

    2004-06-01

    A series of organic dyes and pharmaceuticals was used to study the secondary ion yield enhancement by metal deposition. The molecules were dissolved in methanol and spincasted on silicon substrates. Subsequently, silver or gold was evaporated on the samples to produce a very thin coating. The coated samples, when measured with TOF-SIMS, showed a considerable increase in characteristic secondary ion intensity. Gold-evaporated samples appear to exhibit the highest signal enhancement. These observations apply to organic samples in general, an advantage that allows to use the technique of metal deposition on real-world samples. However, the observed signal increase does not occur at any given moment. The time between metal deposition on the sample surface and the measuring of the sample with TOF-SIMS appears to have an important influence on the enhancement of the secondary ion intensities. In consideration of these observations several experiments were carried out, in which the spincasted samples were measured at different times after sample preparation, i.e., after gold or silver was deposited on the sample surface. The results show that, depending on the sample and the metal deposited, the secondary ion signals reach their maximum at different times. Further study will be necessary to detect the mechanism responsible for the observed enhancement effect.

  12. Surface engineering with ion beams: from self-organized nanostructures to ultra-smooth surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frost, F.; Ziberi, B.; Schindler, A.; Rauschenbach, B.

    2008-01-01

    Low-energy ion-beam sputtering, i.e. the removal of atoms from a surface due to the impact of energetic ions or atoms, is an inherent part of numerous surface processing techniques. Besides the actual removal of material, this surface erosion process often results in a pronounced alteration of the surface topography. Under certain conditions, sputtering results in the formation of well-ordered patterns. This self-organized pattern formation is related to a surface instability between curvature-dependent sputtering that roughens the surface and smoothing by different surface relaxation mechanisms. If the evolution of surface topography is dominated by relaxation mechanisms, surface smoothing can occur. In this presentation the current status of self-organized pattern formation and surface smoothing by low-energy ion-beam erosion of Si and Ge is summarized. In detail it will be shown that a multitude of patterns as well as ultra-smooth surfaces can develop, particularly on Si surfaces. Additionally, the most important experimental parameters that control these processes are discussed. Finally, examples are given for the application of low-energy ion beams as a novel approach for passive optical device engineering for many advanced optical applications. (orig.)

  13. Solidification of saturated radioactive organic ion exchangers and of ash from incineration plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Timulak, J.; Krejci, F.; Pekar, A.; Gulis, G.; Breza, M.

    1985-01-01

    The study of bituminization of saturated radioactive organic ion exchangers was centred on finding the effect of the water content of ion exchangers on the process of solidification and on the water content of bituminization products, the optimization of temperature conditions in the process of bituminization, on seeking a suitable bitumen, on testing the radiation and thermal stability of the bituminization product, on finding its properties as well as the effects of nuclear radiation on these properties. Ion exchangers of Czechoslovak and Soviet make were used in all experiments. It was found that solidified ion exchangers must have a maximum moisture of 10%, and the temperature during solidification must not exceed 130 degC. The negative effect of boric acid on cement solidification may be removed by neutralization of esterification of this acid following its release from the ion exchangers by hydrochloric acid. Some other results of the experiments are tabulated. The obtained results describe the behaviour of the product only during a brief period of time as compared with the long time of long-term disposal. It will therefore be necessary to devote attention to finding the characteristics of long-term behaviour of products during disposal. (Z.M.)

  14. An evaluation of organic substance fraction removal during ion exchange with Miex-DOC resin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolska, Małgorzata

    2015-07-01

    In this study, the usefulness of Miex-DOC resin in eliminating organic substances and their fractions from water sources for drinking water was evaluated. The objects of study were samples from three surface water sources and one infiltration water source taken at water treatment plants before treatment in technical conditions. In particular, the effectiveness of removing biodegradable and non-biodegradable fractions as a function of resin dosages and water-resin contact times was evaluated. The ion exchange process with the Miex-DOC resin achieved a high effectiveness in removing aromatic non-biodegradable organic substances, and therefore a reduction in UV254 absorbance. The biodegradable fraction is much less susceptible to removal yet its removal effectiveness allows for a significant reduction in hazards connected with secondary microorganism development. The results of this study indicate the possibility of using ion exchange with the Miex-DOC resin for effective removal of disinfection by-product precursors.

  15. Self-organization processes and nanocluster formation in crystal lattices by low-energy ion irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tereshko, I.; Abidzina, V.; Tereshko, A.; Glushchenko, V.; Elkin, I.

    2007-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to study self-organization processes that cause nanostructural evolution in nonlinear crystal media. The subjects of the investigation were nonlinear homogeneous and heterogeneous atom chains. The method of computer simulation was used to investigate the interaction between low-energy ions and crystal lattices. It was based on the conception of three-dimensional lattice as a nonlinear atom chain system. We showed that that in homogeneous atom chains critical energy needed for self-organization processes development is less than for nonlinear atom chain with already embedded clusters. The possibility of nanostructure formation was studied by a molecular dynamics method of nonlinear oscillations in atomic oscillator systems of crystal lattices after their low-energy ion irradiation. (authors)

  16. Water chemistry in Kuji river. Its spatial and seasonal variations in major ions and organic substances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niina, Toshiaki; Matsunaga, Takeshi; Amano, Hikaru [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1996-02-01

    As a basic research with a aim to clarify the migration behavior of radionuclides in rivers, the characteristics of dissolved ions and organic substances in river water, which characteristics may affect the behavior, was investigated. The investigation was carried out for the Kuji river in the northern Kanto district (Japan) comprising four sampling campaigns in 1994 for 10 locations from the upstream to the downstream. Concentrations of major ions, iron and manganese species and organic substances were analyzed in laboratory. Values of temperature of the water, pH, conductivity, dissolved oxygen were measured in the field. This investigation was conducted mainly under low water flow conditions of the river, while a limited number of campaigns were under high flow conditions due to precipitation events. The concentrations of major inorganic ions increased steadily toward the down-stream, resulting in approximately two times increase for the traveling distance of 100 km. They showed a seasonal variation that they were highest in the spring and lowest in the autumn when there were most concentrated precipitation events in a year. The constituents were mainly Na{sup +}, Ca{sup 2+}, SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} and HCO{sub 3}{sup -}, and were similar for every sampling locations and seasons. Concentrations of dissolved organic substances (carbon compounds) were lowest in the upstream and increased about twice in the downstream as well as major inorganic ions. Their level was 1-3 mg/l, which can be ranked as relatively lower in general values for fresh water environments. They were highest in the spring (average over the locations: 2.2 mg/l) and lowest in the autumn (1.3 mg/l) and also in the winter (1.3 mg/l). These results will be useful as a basic understanding of spatial and seasonal variations of river water chemistry, especially related to the organic substances which can bind with radionuclides to make a mobile complex. (author).

  17. [Photoionization ion mobility spectrometry (UV-IMS) for the isomeric volatile organic compounds].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hu; Niu, Wen-qi; Wang, Hong-mei; Huang, Chao-qun; Jiang, Hai-he; Chu, Yan-nan

    2012-01-01

    The construction and performance study is reported for a newly developed ultraviolet photoionization ion mobility spectrometry (UV-IMS). In the present paper, an UV-IMS technique was firstly developed to detect eleven isomeric volatile organic compounds including the differences in the structure of carbon chain, the style of function group and the position of function group. Their reduced mobility values were determined and increased in this order: linears alcohols homemade UV-IMS was around ppb-ppm.

  18. Water chemistry in Kuji river. Its spatial and seasonal variations in major ions and organic substances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niina, Toshiaki; Matsunaga, Takeshi; Amano, Hikaru

    1996-02-01

    As a basic research with a aim to clarify the migration behavior of radionuclides in rivers, the characteristics of dissolved ions and organic substances in river water, which characteristics may affect the behavior, was investigated. The investigation was carried out for the Kuji river in the northern Kanto district (Japan) comprising four sampling campaigns in 1994 for 10 locations from the upstream to the downstream. Concentrations of major ions, iron and manganese species and organic substances were analyzed in laboratory. Values of temperature of the water, pH, conductivity, dissolved oxygen were measured in the field. This investigation was conducted mainly under low water flow conditions of the river, while a limited number of campaigns were under high flow conditions due to precipitation events. The concentrations of major inorganic ions increased steadily toward the down-stream, resulting in approximately two times increase for the traveling distance of 100 km. They showed a seasonal variation that they were highest in the spring and lowest in the autumn when there were most concentrated precipitation events in a year. The constituents were mainly Na + , Ca 2+ , SO 4 2- and HCO 3 - , and were similar for every sampling locations and seasons. Concentrations of dissolved organic substances (carbon compounds) were lowest in the upstream and increased about twice in the downstream as well as major inorganic ions. Their level was 1-3 mg/l, which can be ranked as relatively lower in general values for fresh water environments. They were highest in the spring (average over the locations: 2.2 mg/l) and lowest in the autumn (1.3 mg/l) and also in the winter (1.3 mg/l). These results will be useful as a basic understanding of spatial and seasonal variations of river water chemistry, especially related to the organic substances which can bind with radionuclides to make a mobile complex. (author)

  19. Static secondary ion mass spectrometry for organic and inorganic molecular analysis in solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ham, Rita van; Vaeck, Luc van; Adriaens, Annemie; Adams, Freddy

    2003-01-01

    The use of mass spectra in secondary ion mass spectrometry (S-SIMS) to characterise the molecular composition of inorganic and organic analytes at the surface of solid samples is investigated. Methodological aspects such as mass resolution, mass accuracy, precision and accuracy of isotope abundance measurements, influence of electron flooding and sample morphology are addressed to assess the possibilities and limitations that the methodology can offer to support the structural assignment of the detected ions. The in-sample and between-sample reproducibility of relative peak intensities under optimised conditions is within 10%, but experimental conditions and local hydration, oxidation or contamination can drastically affect the mass spectra. As a result, the use of fingerprinting for identification becomes compromised. Therefore, the preferred way of interpretation becomes the deductive structural approach, based on the use of the empirical desorption-ionisation model. This approach is shown to allow the molecular composition of inorganic and organic components at the surface of solids to be characterised. Examples of inorganic speciation and identification of organic additives with unknown composition in inorganic salt mixtures are given. The methodology is discussed in terms of foreseen developments with respect to the use of polyatomic primary ions

  20. Review of disposal techniques for radioactively contaminated organic ion-exchange resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inman, J.R.; Mack, J.

    1993-03-01

    Organic ion-exchange resins are used in the UK nuclear industry to remove radioactive nuclides from dilute aqueous solution. Resins represent a significant proportion of the organic content of ILW and LLW, particularly ILW. Spent resins are destined to be disposed of in the UK deep repository. There are concerns regarding the potential effects of organic materials on long-term repository performance, and these effects have been the subject of much recent research work. The object of this study has been to conduct a worldwide review of treatment and conditioning techniques available for spent organic ion-exchange resins with the intention of recommending the best option for dealing with the waste in the UK. Data on available techniques have been gathered together, and are presented in tabular form at the back of the report. The techniques have been reviewed and compared considering safety, practicality and cost, and a best option selected on the basis of current knowledge. On balance it would appear that wet oxidation using hydrogen peroxide with residue encapsulation in BFS/OPC is the most appropriate technique, probably implemented using a mobile plant. This conclusion and recommendation is not however clear cut and further advice regarding the acceptability of organic material in the repository is necessary before a definite recommendation can be made. (Author)

  1. The hemodynamic effect of calcium ion concentration in the infusate during predilution hemofiltration in chronic renal failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karamperis, N.; Sloth, E.; Jensen, Jens Dam

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It is the prevailing view that convective dialysis techniques stabilize blood pressure. Calcium concentration in the substitution fluid may be important in this respect. The aim of this study is to investigate the influence of calcium ion concentration in the substitution fluid on hem...

  2. Structure-Property of Metal Organic Frameworks Calcium Terephthalates Anodes for Lithium-ion Batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Liping; Mou, Chengxu; Sun, Yang; Liu, Wei; Deng, Qijiu; Li, Jingze

    2015-01-01

    Graphical Abstract: Effects of hydration water in calcium terephthalates anodes on the structure, operational voltage and electrochemical performance are systematically studied. Display Omitted -- Highlights: •Metal organic frameworks CaC 8 H 4 O 4 ·3H 2 O and CaC 8 H 4 O 4 are applied as anodes for lithium ion batteries. •Appearance of hydration water leads different crystallography structures and electrochemical performance. •Anhydrous CaC 8 H 4 O 4 has a spacious ordered layer structure, a higher Ca-O chemical bonding interaction and a higher transparent lithium ion diffusion coefficient, delivering a higher capacity, better cycling performance and rate performance than CaC 8 H 4 O 4 ·3H 2 O. -- Abstract: Metal organic frameworks have attracted considerable interest as electrode materials for lithium ion batteries. In this paper, the metal organic frameworks hydrated calcium terephthalate (CaC 8 H 4 O 4 ·3H 2 O) and anhydrous calcium terephthalate (CaC 8 H 4 O 4 ) as anodes for lithium ion batteries are comparatively studied. Crystallography and local chemical bond analysis are combined to interpret the structure-property of calcium terephthalates. Results show that the anhydrous CaC 8 H 4 O 4 has a spacious ordered layer structure and a higher Ca-O chemical bonding interaction, delivering a higher capacity, better cycling performance and rate performance than CaC 8 H 4 O 4 ·3H 2 O

  3. Organ-Preserving Surgical Treatment of a Horseshoe Kidney Occupied by a Large Renal Cell Carcinoma with Extensive Venous Invasion: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linxweiler, Johannes; Shayesteh-Kheslat, Roushanak; Fries, Peter; Schneider, Günther; Janssen, Martin; Ohlmann, Carsten H; Stöckle, Michael; Siemer, Stefan; Saar, Matthias

    2018-01-01

    The horseshoe kidney is one of the most common congenital disorders affecting the urogenital system. Following a fusion of the lower kidney poles, which in turn lead to the formation of an isthmus, this anatomical variation is accompanied by other characteristic properties like an incomplete ascension, ventral rotation of the pelvices as well as atypical vascular supply. Even though renal carcinoids and Wilms tumors are more common in horseshoe kidneys, the incidence of renal cell carcinomas seems to be unaffected. Here we report the case of a locally advanced renal cell carcinoma with extensive venous invasion occurring in a horseshoe kidney and its complex surgical management. The whole primary tumor as well as a majority of venous tumor thrombi could be removed by a combination of 2/3 nephrectomy and cavotomy with thrombectomy. During 1 year of follow-up, the patient neither suffered from a tumor relapse, nor did he require renal replacement therapy. Thus, we conclude that even in cases of RCC where advanced disease is associated with complex anatomical situations, organ-preserving surgical treatment should be pursued to achieve excellent functional and oncological results. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. Kinetic studies of electrochemical generation of Ag(II) ion and catalytic oxidation of selected organics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zawodzinski, C.; Smith, W.H.; Martinez, K.R.

    1993-01-01

    The goal of this research is to develop a method to treat mixed hazardous wastes containing selected organic compounds and heavy metals, including actinide elements. One approach is to destroy the organic via electrochemical oxidation to carbon dioxide, then recover the metal contaminants through normally accepted procedures such as ion exchange, precipitation, etc. The authors have chosen to study the electrochemical oxidation of a simple alcohol, iso-propanol. Much of the recent work reported involved the use of an electron transfer mediator, usually the silver(I)/(II) redox couple. This involved direct electrochemical generation of the mediator at the anode of a divided cell followed by homogeneous reaction of the mediator with the organic compound. In this study the authors have sought to compare the mediated reaction with direct electrochemical oxidation of the organic. In addition to silver(I)/(II) they also looked at the cobalt(II)/(III) redox coupled. In the higher oxidation state both of these metal ions readily hydrolyze in aqueous solution to ultimately form insoluble oxide. The study concluded that in a 6M nitric acid solution at room temperature iso-propanol can be oxidized to carbon dioxide and acetic acid. Acetic acid is a stable intermediate and resists further oxidation. The presence of Co(III) enhances the rate or efficiency of the reaction

  5. Repair and regeneration of heavy ion beam locally irradiated embryonic hemopoietic organs of silkworm, Bombyx mori

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Shiqing; Tu Zhenli

    2003-01-01

    Eggs of silkworm, Bombyx mori were irradiated by 12 C 5+ ions, at the embryonic wings, where the hemopoietic organs attached. Changes in the development of the silkworm larvae and pupae, especially in the repair and regeneration of the hemopoietic organs represented by their morphological and functional characteristics, were observed. The results showed that the silkworm larvae and pupae developed from the irradiated eggs grew with the physiological obstruction due to exsanguinations, such as difficulty in their metamorphosis and their marked lower survival rates. After 100 Gy irradiation, some of the larvae and pupae died during the periods of larval molting stages, pupation stage and eclosion stage. With increased doses, the deficiencies in the silkworm development became more significant. After 200 Gy irradiation, the average hemocyte density for the 5 th larvae decreased markedly, but the hemocyte density for some individuals were comparable to the control, and regenerated hemopoietic organs was found in these larvae. The results suggested that the silkworm larvae might be capable of self-repair and self-regeneration of the hemopoietic organs after the heave ion irradiation

  6. Polycarbonyl(quinonyl) organic compounds as cathode materials for sustainable lithium ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeng, Ronghua; Xing, Lidan; Qiu, Yongcai; Wang, Yating; Huang, Wenna; Li, Weishan; Yang, Shihe

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Quinonyl compounds containing –OH groups are reported as cathode of sustainable Li-ion battery. • Lithiation potential of these compounds is positively correlated to -OH group number on them. • These compounds exhibit a discharge plateau of 3 V and deliver a capacity of over 180 mAh g -1 at 20 mA g -1 . - Abstract: Suitably designed organic compounds are promising renewable electrode materials for lithium ion batteries (LIBs) with minimal environmental impacts and no CO 2 release. Herein we report a series of polycarbonyl organic compounds with different number of hydroxyl groups, which can be obtained from renewable plants, as cathode materials for LIBs. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations based on the natural bond orbital (NBO) reveal a positive correlation between the reduction potentials and the number of hydroxyl groups, which is borne out experimentally. Anthraquinone (AQ) with three or four -OH groups has the structural advantages for improving the discharge plateaus. Mechanistic studies show that AQ containing neighbouring carbonyl groups and hydroxyl groups facilitates the formation of six or five-membered rings with lithium ion. Charge/discharge tests show that AQ, 1,5-DHAQ, 1,2,7-THAQ, and 1,2,5,8-THAQ can achieve initial discharge capacities of 215, 190, 186 and 180 mAh g -1 at a current density of 20 mA g -1 , corresponding to 84%, 85%, 89% and 91% of their theoretical capacities, respectively

  7. Impact parameter determination for the passage of cosmic heavy ions through mesoscopic biological test organisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Facius, R.; Reitz, G.; Buecker, H.; Nevzgodina, L.V.; Maximova, E.N.

    1992-01-01

    Seeds of the plant Lactuca sativa as a prototype of a mesoscopic, i.e. neither micro- nor truly macroscopic, biological test organism, were exposed during the Biocosmos 9 mission to cosmic heavy ions within stacks of visual track detectors in order to explore the not yet properly understood radiobiological effects of single heavy ions. In such an investigation, the establishment of the geometrical correlation between the ion trajectories and the location of radiation-sensitive biological substructures is an essential task. We describe how this was achieved for biological test organisms, whose location and orientation had to be derived from contact photographs displaying their outlines and those of the holder plates only. The overall qualitative and quantitative precision achieved, as well as the contributing sources of uncertainties are discussed in detail. A precision of ≅ 10μm was accomplished for the coordinates of particle trajectories, which is near the limit set by the mechanical precision and stability of the detector material. The precision of the impact parameter is limited by the uncertainty in the location of the internal structures, which at best is around 50 and at worst around 150 μm, but is still acceptable when compared with the extension of the sensitive structures. (author)

  8. Impact parameter determination for the passage of cosmic heavy ions through mesoscopic biological test organisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Facius, R.; Reitz, G.; Buecker, H. (Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V. (DLR), Koeln (Germany)); Nevzgodina, L.V.; Maximova, E.N. (Institute of Biomedical Problems, Moscow (USSR))

    1992-01-01

    Seeds of the plant Lactuca sativa as a prototype of a mesoscopic, i.e. neither micro- nor truly macroscopic, biological test organism, were exposed during the Biocosmos 9 mission to cosmic heavy ions within stacks of visual track detectors in order to explore the not yet properly understood radiobiological effects of single heavy ions. In such an investigation, the establishment of the geometrical correlation between the ion trajectories and the location of radiation-sensitive biological substructures is an essential task. We describe how this was achieved for biological test organisms, whose location and orientation had to be derived from contact photographs displaying their outlines and those of the holder plates only. The overall qualitative and quantitative precision achieved, as well as the contributing sources of uncertainties are discussed in detail. A precision of {approx equal} 10{mu}m was accomplished for the coordinates of particle trajectories, which is near the limit set by the mechanical precision and stability of the detector material. The precision of the impact parameter is limited by the uncertainty in the location of the internal structures, which at best is around 50 and at worst around 150 {mu}m, but is still acceptable when compared with the extension of the sensitive structures. (author).

  9. A SIFT study of the reactions of H2ONO+ ions with several types of organic molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, David; Wang, Tianshu; Spanel, Patrik

    2003-11-01

    A selected ion flow tube (SIFT) study has been carried out of the reactions of hydrated nitrosonium ions, NO+H2O, which theory has equated to protonated nitrous acid ions, H2ONO+. One objective of this study was to investigate if this ion exhibits the properties of both a cluster ion and a protonated acid in their reactions with a variety of organic molecules. The chosen reactant molecules comprise two each of the following types--amines, terpenes, aromatic hydrocarbons, esters, carboxylic acids, ketones, aldehydes and alcohols. The reactant H2ONO+ (NO+H2O) ions are formed in a discharge ion source and injected into helium carrier gas where they are partially vibrationally excited and partially dissociated to NO+ ions. Hence, the reactions of the H2ONO+ ions had to be studies simultaneously with NO+ ions, the reactions of the latter ions readily being studied by selectively injecting NO+ ions into the carrier gas. The results of this study indicate that the H2ONO+ ions undergo a wide variety of reaction processes that depend on the properties of the reactant molecules such as their ionisation energies and proton affinities. These processes include charge transfer with compounds, M, that have low ionisation energies (producing M+), proton transfer with compounds possessing large proton affinities (MH+), hydride ion transfer (M---H+), alkyl radical (M---R+), alkoxide radical transfer (M---OR+), ion-molecule association (NO+H2OM) and ligand switching (NO+M), producing the ions given in parentheses.

  10. Organic solvents, electrolytes, and lithium ion cells with good low temperature performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smart, Marshall C. (Inventor); Bugga, Ratnakumar V. (Inventor); Surampudi, Subbarao (Inventor); Huang, Chen-Kuo (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    Multi-component organic solvent systems, electrolytes and electrochemical cells characterized by good low temperature performance are provided. In one embodiment, an improved organic solvent system contains a ternary mixture of ethylene carbonate, dimethyl carbonate and diethyl carbonate. In other embodiments, quaternary systems include a fourth component, i.e, an aliphatic ester, an asymmetric alkyl carbonate or a compound of the formula LiOX, where X is R, COOR, or COR, where R is alkyl or fluoroalkyl. Electrolytes based on such organic solvent systems are also provided and contain therein a lithium salt of high ionic mobility, such as LiPF.sub.6. Reversible electrochemical cells, particularly lithium ion cells, are constructed with the improved electrolytes, and preferably include a carbonaceous anode, an insertion type cathode, and an electrolyte interspersed therebetween.

  11. Presolar SiC Abundances in Primitive Meteorites by NanoSIMS Raster Ion Imaging of Insoluble Organic Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, J.; Busemann, H.; Alexander, C. M. O'd.; Nittler, L. R.; Schrader, D. L.; Orthous-Daunay, F. R.; Quirico, E.; Franchi, I. A.; Grady, M. M.

    2009-03-01

    We present results obtained with NanoSIMS raster ion imaging to determine the abundance of presolar SiC in the insoluble organic matter (IOM) extracted from a number of different classes of chondrites (both carbonaceous and ordinary).

  12. Attractive non-DLVO forces induced by adsorption of monovalent organic ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Alexander M; Maroni, Plinio; Borkovec, Michal

    2017-12-20

    Direct force measurements between negatively charged colloidal particles were carried out using an atomic force microscope (AFM) in aqueous solutions containing monovalent organic cations, namely tetraphenylarsonium (Ph 4 As + ), 1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium (HMIM + ), and 1-octyl-3-methylimidazolium (OMIM + ). These ions adsorb to the particle surface, and induce a charge reversal. The forces become attractive at the charge neutralization point, but they are stronger than van der Waals forces. This additional and unexpected attraction decays exponentially with a decay length of a few nanometers, and is strikingly similar to the one previously observed in the presence of multivalent ions. This attractive force probably originates from coupled spontaneous charge fluctuations on the respective surfaces as initially suggested by Kirkwood and Shumaker.

  13. Effects of Organic Corrosion Inhibitor and Chloride Ion Concentration on Steel Depassivation and Repassivation in Solution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Zixiao; YU Lei; LIU Zhiyong; SONG Ning

    2015-01-01

    Effect of an organic corrosion inhibitor (OCI) named PCI-2014 added in chloride solution on the critical chlo-ride concentration of mild steel depassivation and the critical OCI concentrations for repairing the steel in different chlo-ride solution were investigated. The results show that the critical chloride concentration increases exponentially with raises of PCI-2014 concentration in the solution. Within a certain chloride ion concentration range, the critical PCI-2014 concentration for repairing the corroded steel is also increases exponentially with enhancement of chloride content in the solution. Atomic force microscopy images display the molecular particles of inhibitor are adsorbed on the steel surface and formed a protective layer. Analysis of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy shows the chloride ions at the surface of steel are displaced by atoms or molecules of the inhibitor in chloride condition.

  14. Citropin 1.1 Trifluoroacetate to Chloride Counter-Ion Exchange in HCl-Saturated Organic Solutions: An Alternative Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikora, Karol; Neubauer, Damian; Jaśkiewicz, Maciej; Kamysz, Wojciech

    2018-01-01

    In view of the increasing interest in peptides in various market sectors, a stronger emphasis on topics related to their production has been seen. Fmoc-based solid phase peptide synthesis, although being fast and efficient, provides final products with significant amounts of trifluoroacetate ions in the form of either a counter-ion or an unbound impurity. Because of the proven toxicity towards cells and peptide activity inhibition, ion exchange to more biocompatible one is purposeful. Additionally, as most of the currently used counter-ion exchange techniques are time-consuming and burdened by peptide yield reduction risk, development of a new approach is still a sensible solution. In this study, we examined the potential of peptide counter-ion exchange using non-aqueous organic solvents saturated with HCl. Counter-ion exchange of a model peptide, citropin 1.1 (GLFDVIKKVASVIGGL-NH 2 ), for each solvent was conducted through incubation with subsequent evaporation under reduced pressure, dissolution in water and lyophilization. Each exchange was performed four times and compared to a reference method-lyophilization of the peptide from an 0.1 M HCl solution. The results showed superior counter-ion exchange efficiency for most of the organic solutions in relation to the reference method. Moreover, HCl-saturated acetonitrile and tert -butanol provided a satisfying exchange level after just one repetition. Thus, those two organic solvents can be potentially introduced into routine peptide counter-ion exchange.

  15. Self-organized profile relaxation by ion temperature gradient instability in toroidal plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kishimoto, Y.; Tajima, T.; LeBrun, M.J.; Gray, M.G.; Kim, J.Y.; Horton, W.

    1993-02-01

    Toroidal effects on the ion-temperature gradient mode are found to dictate the temperature evolution and the subsequent relaxed profile realization according to our toroidal particle simulation. Both in the strongly unstable fluid regime as well as in the near-marginal kinetic regime we observe that the plasma maintains an exponential temperature profile and forces the heat flux to be radially independent. The self-organized critical relaxed state is sustained slightly above the marginal stability, where the weak wave growth balances the wave decorrelation

  16. A self-organized criticality model for ion temperature gradient mode driven turbulence in confined plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isliker, H.; Pisokas, Th.; Strintzi, D.; Vlahos, L.

    2010-08-01

    A new self-organized criticality (SOC) model is introduced in the form of a cellular automaton (CA) for ion temperature gradient (ITG) mode driven turbulence in fusion plasmas. Main characteristics of the model are that it is constructed in terms of the actual physical variable, the ion temperature, and that the temporal evolution of the CA, which necessarily is in the form of rules, mimics actual physical processes as they are considered to be active in the system, i.e., a heating process and a local diffusive process that sets on if a threshold in the normalized ITG R /LT is exceeded. The model reaches the SOC state and yields ion temperature profiles of exponential shape, which exhibit very high stiffness, in that they basically are independent of the loading pattern applied. This implies that there is anomalous heat transport present in the system, despite the fact that diffusion at the local level is imposed to be of a normal kind. The distributions of the heat fluxes in the system and of the heat out-fluxes are of power-law shape. The basic properties of the model are in good qualitative agreement with experimental results.

  17. A self-organized criticality model for ion temperature gradient mode driven turbulence in confined plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isliker, H.; Pisokas, Th.; Vlahos, L.; Strintzi, D.

    2010-01-01

    A new self-organized criticality (SOC) model is introduced in the form of a cellular automaton (CA) for ion temperature gradient (ITG) mode driven turbulence in fusion plasmas. Main characteristics of the model are that it is constructed in terms of the actual physical variable, the ion temperature, and that the temporal evolution of the CA, which necessarily is in the form of rules, mimics actual physical processes as they are considered to be active in the system, i.e., a heating process and a local diffusive process that sets on if a threshold in the normalized ITG R/L T is exceeded. The model reaches the SOC state and yields ion temperature profiles of exponential shape, which exhibit very high stiffness, in that they basically are independent of the loading pattern applied. This implies that there is anomalous heat transport present in the system, despite the fact that diffusion at the local level is imposed to be of a normal kind. The distributions of the heat fluxes in the system and of the heat out-fluxes are of power-law shape. The basic properties of the model are in good qualitative agreement with experimental results.

  18. Stable anodes for lithium ion batteries made of self-organized mesoporous silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolter, Sascha J; Köntges, Marc; Brendel, Rolf; Bahnemann, Detlef

    2016-01-01

    Alloy-forming compounds, such as electrodes for lithium ion batteries, stand out in terms of their theoretical specific charge capacity while still lacking in mechanical stability due to significant volume changes during operation. Herein, we examine the approach of combining low structural dimensions of the active material with built-in expansion volumes and assess their benefit for silicon anodes in lithium ion batteries. Consequently, self-organized mesoporous silicon is prepared as a suitable anode material for lithium ion batteries without any pre-structuring methods. The anodes are made by employing electrochemical etching methods in a scalable process and are characterized by ellipsometry. Thermally evaporated copper is utilized as the current collector. A sheet of freestanding silicon in contact with copper is used as an anode material with a thickness of 3 μm. After an initialization phase, electrochemical characterization reveals an anode stability of more than 160 cycles with a specific charge capacity of 730 mAh/g. The mechanical stability of the anode is examined by taking SEM measurements of the used electrode material. (paper)

  19. Biological response to radiation. Studies of model organism, C. elegans, with micro-ion beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higashitani, Atsushi

    2006-01-01

    Described are mainly author's studies on radiation response and its biological significance in a nematode, C. elegans, particularly focusing its germ cells. The model organism is bisexual and the mature one is suitable to observe the development, differentiation and concomitant chromosome dynamics of male and female germ cells, and accordingly, the responses occurring in those cells at different stages post irradiation of the whole worm. Authors have shown in the organism irradiated by 100 Gy X-ray that pachytene cells in meiosis have high radio-resistance due to their increased expression of enzymes related with homologous recombination. They have also presented the apoptotic cascade in germ cells triggered by radiation by comparison of wild type and ab1-1-gene-deleted worms. Micro-beam of 12 C 5+ ion in Takasaki Ion Accelerators for Advanced Radiation Application (TIARA) has been used to irradiate the body parts of the worm to study the bystander effects, which has revealed that germ cells are shielded from the effect in the worm. It is thought important to use the micro-beam, with which the irradiation area can be precisely controllable, for studying the bystander effect in a body of higher animals like a mouse as well as in worm somatic cells. (T.I.)

  20. Determination of lithium in organic matrix by potentiometric titration using fluoride ion selective electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Govindan, R.; Alamelu, D.; Shah, Raju; Aggarwal, S.K.

    2008-01-01

    A method has been developed for the determination of lithium (Li) present in organic matrix containing hexa methylene tetramine (HMTA) and urea used in the sol-gel process for preparing lithium titanate microspheres, using fluoride ion selective electrode and potentiometric end point. Lithium is present in the wash solutions of the Sol-Gel process employed for the preparation of lithium titanate microspheres, proposed to be used in TBM (Test Blanket Module) of International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) project. Methods such as ICP-AES, AAS etc. used in aqueous solutions cannot be employed directly for lithium determination in organic matrix containing hexa methylene tetramine (HMTA), urea, NH 4 NO 3 , NH 4 Cl etc. A potentiometric method using a combination fluoride ion selective electrode for end point detection was developed and has been employed for lithium determination in the process streams from sol-gel process. The method is simple and rapid and an accuracy of about 0.5 % was achieved for the determination of Li in the range of 1 to 20 mg. The method is based on the complexation of Li by adding a known excess of NH 4 F solution, followed by potentiometric end point detection using fluoride ISE

  1. Role of RENAL nephrometry scoring system in planning surgical intervention in patients with localized renal mas

    OpenAIRE

    Mohamed Samir Shaaban; Tamer Mohammed Abou Youssif; Ahmed Mostafa; Hossam Eldin Hegazy; Mohammed Adel Atta

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The study was designed to validate the value of preoperative planning using RENAL nephrometry scoring system in patients having organ confined renal tumors and undergoing surgical intervention and to assess its correlation with the surgical technique. Patient and methods: Forty patients with organ-confined renal masses underwent RENAL nephrometry scoring which was correlated with the surgical technique either radical or nephron-sparing surgery. Result: RENAL nephrometry scoring...

  2. Renal tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Džamić Zoran

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis is still a significant health problem in the world, mostly in developing countries. The special significance lies in immunocompromised patients, particularly those suffering from the HIV. Urogenital tuberculosis is one of the most common forms of extrapulmonary tuberculosis, while the most commonly involved organ is the kidney. Renal tuberculosis occurs by hematogenous dissemination of mycobacterium tuberculosis from a primary tuberculosis foci in the body. Tuberculosis is characterized by the formation of pathognomonic lesions in the tissues - granulomata. These granulomata may heal spontaneously or remain stable for years. In certain circumstances in the body associated with immunosuppression, the disease may be activated. Central caseous necrosis occurs within tuberculoma, leading to formation of cavities that destroy renal parenchyma. The process may gain access to the collecting system, forming the caverns. In this way, infection can be spread distally to renal pelvis, ureter and bladder. Scaring of tissue by tuberculosis process may lead to development of strictures of the urinary tract. The clinical manifestations are presented by nonspecific symptoms and signs, so tuberculosis can often be overlooked. Sterile pyuria is characteristic for urinary tuberculosis. Dysuric complaints, flank pain or hematuria may be presented in patients. Constitutional symptoms of fever, weight loss and night sweats are presented in some severe cases. Diagnosis is made by isolation of mycobacterium tuberculosis in urine samples, by cultures carried out on standard solid media optimized for mycobacterial growth. Different imaging studies are used in diagnostics - IVU, CT and NMR are the most important. Medical therapy is the main modality of tuberculosis treatment. The first line anti-tuberculosis drugs include isoniazid, rifampicin, pyrazinamide and ethambutol. Surgical treatment is required in some cases, to remove severely damaged kidney, if

  3. Renal Osteodystrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aynur Metin Terzibaşoğlu

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Chronic renal insufficiency is a functional definition which is characterized by irreversible and progressive decreasing in renal functions. This impairment is in collaboration with glomeruler filtration rate and serum creatinine levels. Besides this, different grades of bone metabolism disorders develop in chronic renal insufficiency. Pathologic changes in bone tissue due to loss of renal paranchyme is interrelated with calcium, phosphorus vitamine-D and parathyroid hormone. Clinically we can see high turnover bone disease, low turnover bone disease, osteomalacia, osteosclerosis and osteoporosis in renal osteodystropy. In this article we aimed to review pathology of bone metabolism disorders due to chronic renal insufficiency, clinic aspects and treatment approaches briefly.

  4. Renal Function in Hypothyroidism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalid, S.; Khalid, M; Elfaki, M.; Hassan, N.; Suliman, S.M.

    2007-01-01

    Background Hypothyroidism induces significant changes in the function of organ systems such as the heart, muscles and brain. Renal function is also influenced by thyroid status. Physiological effects include changes in water and electrolyte metabolism, notably hyponatremia, and reliable alterations of renal hemodynamics, including decrements in renal blood flow, renal plasma flow, glomerular filtration rate (GFR). Objective Renal function is profoundly influenced by thyroid status; the purpose of the present study was to determine the relationship between renal function and thyroid status of patients with hypothyroidism. Design and Patients In 5 patients with primary hypothyroidism and control group renal functions are measured by serum creatinine and glomerular filtration rate (GFR) using modified in diet renal disease (MDRD) formula. Result In hypothyroidism, mean serum creatinine increased and mean estimated GFR decreased, compared to the control group mean serum creatinine decreased and mean estimated GFR Increased. The hypothyroid patients showed elevated serum creatinine levels (> 1.1mg/dl) compared to control group (p value .000). In patients mean estimated GFR decreased, compared to mean estimated GFR increased in the control group (p value= .002).

  5. Renal Function in Hypothyroidism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalid, A. S; Ahmed, M.I; Elfaki, H.M; Hassan, N.; Suliman, S. M.

    2006-12-01

    Background hypothyroidism induces significant changes in the function of organ systems such as the heart, muscles and brain. Renal function is also influenced by thyroid status. Physiological effects include changes in water and electrolyte metabolism, notably hyponatraemia, and reliable alterations of renal hemodynamics, including decrements in renal blood flow, renal plasma flow, glomerular filtration rate (GFR). Objective renal function is profoundly influenced by thyroid status, the purpose of the present study was to determine the relationship between renal function and thyroid status of patients with hypothyroidism. Design and patients in 5 patients with primary hypothyroidism and control group renal functions are measured by serum creatinine and glomerular filtration rate(GFR) using modified in diet renal disease (MDRD) formula. Result in hypothyroidism, mean serum creatinine increased and mean estimated GFR decreased, compared to the control group mean serum creatinine decreased and mean estimated GFR increased. The hypothyroid patients showed elevated serum creatinine levels(>1.1 mg/d1) compared to control group (p value= 000). In patients mean estimated GFR increased in the control group (p value=.002).Conclusion thus the kidney, in addition to the brain, heart and muscle, is an important target of the action of thyroid hormones.(Author)

  6. Examination of Organic Vapor Adsorption onto Alkali Metal and Halide Atomic Ions by using Ion Mobility Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maiβer, Anne; Hogan, Christopher J

    2017-11-03

    We utilize ion mobility mass spectrometry with an atmospheric pressure differential mobility analyzer coupled to a time-of-flight mass spectrometer (DMA-MS) to examine the formation of ion-vapor molecule complexes with seed ions of K + , Rb + , Cs + , Br - , and I - exposed to n-butanol and n-nonane vapor under subsaturated conditions. Ion-vapor molecule complex formation is indicated by a shift in the apparent mobility of each ion. Measurement results are compared to predicted mobility shifts based upon the Kelvin-Thomson equation, which is commonly used in predicting rates of ion-induced nucleation. We find that n-butanol at saturation ratios as low as 0.03 readily binds to all seed ions, leading to mobility shifts in excess of 35 %. Conversely, the binding of n-nonane is not detectable for any ion for saturation ratios in the 0-0.27 range. An inverse correlation between the ionic radius of the initial seed and the extent of n-butanol uptake is observed, such that at elevated n-butanol concentrations, the smallest ion (K + ) has the smallest apparent mobility and the largest (I - ) has the largest apparent mobility. Though the differences in behavior of the two vapor molecules types examined and the observed effect of ionic seed radius are not accounted for by the Kelvin-Thomson equation, its predictions are in good agreement with measured mobility shifts for Rb + , Cs + , and Br - in the presence of n-butanol (typically within 10 % of measurements). © 2017 The Authors. Published by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.

  7. Experimental study of the organic ion intensity distribution in the ion imaging of coated polymer fibres with S-SIMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vercammen, Yannick; Moons, Nicola; Van Nuffel, Sebastiaan; Beenaerts, Linda; Van Vaeck, Luc

    2013-01-01

    Time-of-Flight Static Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry excels in probing the molecular composition of the outer monolayer of flat samples with a lateral resolution in the sub-μm range. However, the method faces significant methodological problems in the case of non-conducting samples with high topography or surface curvature, such as fibres, yarns or fabrics. Specifically, the useful secondary ion yield in a given spot on the fibre depends on the local incidence angle, the height above the earthed sample holder, the position relative to the axis of the mass analyser and the extent of the local surface charging. This study has focused on the empiric reduction of the useful ion yield variations observed in the ion images of fibres with diameter of 25 and 100 μm. Up to now, most literature data consider the analysis of fibres positioned along or perpendicular to the projection of the projectile beam in the plane of the sample surface because these specific geometries facilitate the interpretation of the ion images. However, it has been discovered that the diagonal orientation of the fibre in the field-of-view largely reduces the ion yield variations for fibres with a small diameter (25 μm). The situation is different for fibres with a diameter of 100 μm. In that case, the ion images contain no secondary ion counts for the pixels referring to a significant part of the fibre. In particular, the resulting lack of delineation between the shadow zone in the front of the fibre and the boundary of the fibre hampers the practical use of the ion images A fourfold decrease of the extraction voltage or a 20% increase of the distance between sample holder and extraction electrode is found to improve the detection of secondary ions from the part of the fibre facing towards the impinging primary ion beam. These observations have been tentatively related to the mass analyser acceptance and its dependence on the delicate balance between conflicting effects such as field strength

  8. Regulation of Expression of Renal Organic Anion Transporters OAT1 and OAT3 in a Model of Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Preising

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Recently, we gained evidence that impairment of rOat1 and rOat3 expression induced by ischemic acute kidney injury (AKI is mediated by COX metabolites and this suppression might be critically involved in renal damage. Methods: (i Basolateral organic anion uptake into proximal tubular cells after model ischemia and reperfusion (I/R was investigated by fluorescein uptake. The putative promoter sequences from hOAT1 (SLC22A6 and hOAT3 (SCL22A8 were cloned into a reporter plasmid, transfected into HEK cells and (ii transcriptional activity was determined after model ischemia and reperfusion as a SEAP reporter gen assay. Inhibitors or antagonists were applied with the beginning of reperfusion. Results: By using inhibitors of PKA (H89 and PLC (U73122, antagonists of E prostanoid receptor type 2 (AH6809 and type 4 (L161,982, we gained evidence that I/R induced down regulation of organic anion transport is mediated by COX1 metabolites via E prostanoid receptor type 4. The latter signaling was confirmed by application of butaprost (EP2 agonist or TCS2510 (EP4 agonist to control cells. In brief, the latter signaling was verified for the transcriptional activity in the reporter gen assay established. Therein, selective inhibitors for COX1 (SC58125 and COX2 (SC560 were also applied. Conclusion: Our data show (a that COX1 metabolites are involved in the regulation of renal organic anion transport(ers after I/R via the EP4 receptor and (b that this is due to transcriptional regulation of the respective transporters. As the promoter sequences cloned were of human origin and expressed in a human renal epithelial cell line we (c hypothesize that the regulatory mechanisms described after I/R is meaningful for humans as well.

  9. Organ damage changes in patients with resistant hypertension randomized to renal denervation or spironolactone: The DENERVHTA (Denervación en Hipertensión Arterial) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveras, Anna; Armario, Pedro; Sans, Laia; Clarà, Albert; Vázquez, Susana; Molina, Luis; Pareja, Júlia; de la Sierra, Alejandro; Pascual, Julio

    2018-01-01

    Renal denervation and spironolactone have both been proposed for the treatment of resistant hypertension, but their effects on preclinical target organ damage have not been compared. Twenty-four patients with 24-hour systolic blood pressure ≥140 mm Hg despite receiving three or more full-dose antihypertensive drugs, one a diuretic, were randomized to receive spironolactone or renal denervation. Changes in 24-hour blood pressure, urine albumin excretion, arterial stiffness, carotid intima-media thickness, and left ventricular mass index were evaluated at 6 months. Mean baseline-adjusted difference between the two groups (spironolactone vs renal denervation) at 6 months in 24-hour systolic blood pressure was -17.9 mm Hg (95% confidence interval [CI], -30.9 to -4.9; P = .01). Mean baseline-adjusted change in urine albumin excretion was -87.2 (95% CI, -164.5 to -9.9) and -23.8 (95% CI, -104.5 to 56.9), respectively (P = .028). Mean baseline-adjusted variation of 24-hour pulse pressure was -13.5 (95% CI, -18.8 to -8.2) and -2.1 (95% CI, -7.9 to 3.7), respectively (P = .006). The correlation of change in 24-hour systolic blood pressure with change in log-transformed urine albumin excretion was r = .713 (P < .001). At 6 months there was a reduction in albuminuria in patients with resistant hypertension treated with spironolactone as compared with renal denervation. ©2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Characterization of Organic Anion Transporter 2 (SLC22A7): A Highly Efficient Transporter for Creatinine and Species-Dependent Renal Tubular Expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Hong; Liu, Tongtong; Morse, Bridget L; Zhao, Yue; Zhang, Yueping; Qiu, Xi; Chen, Cliff; Lewin, Anne C; Wang, Xi-Tao; Liu, Guowen; Christopher, Lisa J; Marathe, Punit; Lai, Yurong

    2015-07-01

    The contribution of organic anion transporter OAT2 (SLC22A7) to the renal tubular secretion of creatinine and its exact localization in the kidney are reportedly controversial. In the present investigation, the transport of creatinine was assessed in human embryonic kidney (HEK) cells that stably expressed human OAT2 (OAT2-HEK) and isolated human renal proximal tubule cells (HRPTCs). The tubular localization of OAT2 in human, monkey, and rat kidney was characterized. The overexpression of OAT2 significantly enhanced the uptake of creatinine in OAT2-HEK cells. Under physiologic conditions (creatinine concentrations of 41.2 and 123.5 µM), the initial rate of OAT2-mediated creatinine transport was approximately 11-, 80-, and 80-fold higher than OCT2, multidrug and toxin extrusion protein (MATE)1, and MATE2K, respectively, resulting in approximately 37-, 1850-, and 80-fold increase of the intrinsic transport clearance when normalized to the transporter protein concentrations. Creatinine intracellular uptake and transcellular transport in HRPTCs were decreased in the presence of 50 µM bromosulfophthalein and 100 µM indomethacin, which inhibited OAT2 more potently than other known creatinine transporters, OCT2 and multidrug and toxin extrusion proteins MATE1 and MATE2K (IC50: 1.3 µM vs. > 100 µM and 2.1 µM vs. > 200 µM for bromosulfophthalein and indomethacin, respectively) Immunohistochemistry analysis showed that OAT2 protein was localized to both basolateral and apical membranes of human and cynomolgus monkey renal proximal tubules, but appeared only on the apical membrane of rat proximal tubules. Collectively, the findings revealed the important role of OAT2 in renal secretion and possible reabsorption of creatinine and suggested a molecular basis for potential species difference in the transporter handling of creatinine. Copyright © 2015 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

  11. Renal venogram

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... be black. Other structures will be shades of gray. Veins are not normally seen in an x- ... Venogram - kidney; Renal vein thrombosis - venogram Images Kidney anatomy Kidney - blood and urine flow Renal veins References ...

  12. Interaction of environmental calcium and low pH on the physiology of the rainbow trout, Salmo gairdneri. I. Branchial and renal net ion and H/sup +/ fluxes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDonald, D.G.

    1983-01-01

    Exposure of adult rainbow trout to low pH (pH 4.3) in soft water (Ca/sup 2 +/ = 223 ..mu..equiv/1) caused a substantial ionic disturbance which arose primarily because of large net losses at the gills. In contrast, renal ion losses were low initially and declined even further because of a pronounced reduction in urine flow. A net influx of H/sup +/ occurred across the gills but this was not sufficient to cause a blood acid-base disturbance or a renal response. Although branchial ion and H/sup +/ fluxes declined with time, blood ion levels did not return to normal and many of the fish died. Further reduction in water calcium (Ca/sup 2 +/ = 69 ..mu..equiv/1) provoked a higher mortality and a more substantial ionic imbalance. These results contrast sharply with the effects on trout of acid exposure in hard water (Ca/sup 2 +/ greater than or equal to 1600 ..mu..equiv/1), where net ion losses and mortality are reduced and H/sup +/ uptake increased. A preliminary model for the interaction of low pH and calcium is proposed and evidence for adaptation to acid stress and for the origin of acid lethality is discussed. 46 references, 5 figures, 3 tables.

  13. Self-organized formation of metal-carbon nanostructures by hyperthermal ion deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hannstein, I.K.

    2006-04-26

    The quasi-simultaneous deposition of mass-selected hyperthermal carbon and metal ions results in a variety of interesting film morphologies, depending on the metal used and the deposition conditions. The observed features are of the order of a few nanometres and are therefore interesting for future potential applications in the various fields of nanotechnology. The present study focuses on the structural analysis of amorphous carbon films containing either copper, silver, gold, or iron using amongst others Rutherford Backscattering Spectroscopy, High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy, and Energy Dispersive X-Ray Spectroscopy. The film morphologies found are as follows: copper-containing films consist of copper nanoclusters with sizes ranging from about 3 to 9 nm uniformly distributed throughout the amorphous carbon matrix. The cluster size hereby rises with the copper content of the films. The silver containing films decompose into a pure amorphous carbon film with silver agglomerates at the surface. Both, the gold- and the iron-containing films show a multilayer structure of metal-rich layers with higher cluster density separated by metal-depleted amorphous carbon layers. The layer distances are of the order of up to 15 nm in the case of gold-carbon films and 7 nm in the case of iron-carbon films. The formation of theses different structures cannot be treated in the context of conventional self-organization mechanisms basing upon thermal diffusion and equilibrium thermodynamics. Instead, an ion-induced atomic transport, sputtering effects, and the stability of small metal clusters were taken into account in order to model the structure formation processes. A similar multilayer morphology was recently also reported in the literature for metal-carbon films grown by magnetron sputtering techniques. In order to investigate, whether the mechanisms are the same as in the case of the ion beam deposited films described above, first experiments were conducted

  14. MRP2 and the Handling of Mercuric Ions in Rats Exposed Acutely to Inorganic and Organic Species of Mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridges, Christy C.; Joshee, Lucy; Zalups, Rudolfs K.

    2011-01-01

    Mercuric ions accumulate preferentially in renal tubular epithelial cells and bond with intracellular thiols. Certain metal-complexing agents have been shown to promote extraction of mercuric ions via the multidrug resistance-associated protein 2 (MRP2). Following exposure to a non-toxic dose of inorganic mercury (Hg2+), in the absence of complexing agents, tubular cells are capable of exporting a small fraction of intracellular Hg2+ through one or more undetermined mechanisms. We hypothesize that MRP2 plays a role in this export. To test this hypothesis, Wistar (control) and TR− rats were injected intravenously with a non-nephrotoxic dose of HgCl2 (0.5 μmol/kg) or CH3HgCl (5 mg/kg), containing [203Hg], in the presence or absence of cysteine (Cys; 1.25 μmol/kg or 12.5 mg/kg, respectively). Animals were sacrificed 24 h after exposure to mercury and the content of [203Hg] in blood, kidneys, liver, urine and feces was determined. In addition, uptake of Cys-S-conjugates of Hg2+ and methylmercury (CH3Hg+) was measured in inside-out membrane vesicles prepared from either control Sf9 cells or Sf9 cells transfected with human MRP2. The amount of mercury in the total renal mass and liver was significantly greater in TR− rats than in controls. In contrast, the amount of mercury in urine and feces was significantly lower in TR− rats than in controls. Data from membrane vesicles indicate that Cys-S-conjugates of Hg2+ and CH3Hg+ are transportable substrates of MRP2. Collectively, these data indicate that MRP2 plays a role in the physiological handling and elimination of mercuric ions from the kidney. PMID:21134393

  15. Simultaneous removal of organic matter and salt ions from saline wastewater in bioelectrochemical systems

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, Younggy

    2013-01-01

    A new bioelectrochemical system is proposed for simultaneous removal of salinity and organic matter. In this process, exoelectrogenic microorganisms oxidize organic matter and transfer electrons to the anode, hydrogen is evolved at the cathode by supplying additional voltage, and salt is removed from the wastewater due to the electric potential generated and the use of two ion-exchange membranes. Salinity removal (initial conductivity ~40mS/cm) increased from 21 to 84% by increasing the substrate (sodium acetate) from 2 to 8g/L. A total of 72-94% of the chemical oxygen demand was degraded in the anode and cathode chambers, with 1-4% left in the anode chamber and the balance lost through the anion-exchange membrane into the concentrate waste chamber. The maximum hydrogen production rate was 3.6m3-H2/m3-electrolyte per day at an applied potential of 1.2V. The Coulombic efficiency was ~100%, while the cathode recovery varied from 57 to 100%, depending on the extent of methanogenesis. Exoelectrogenic microbes generated high current densities (7.8mA/cm2) at ≤36g/L of total dissolved solids, but >41g/L eliminated current. These results provide a new method for achieving simultaneous removal of salinity and organic matter from a saline wastewater with H2 production. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

  16. Ion Implantation Hampers Pollen Tube Growth and Disrupts Actin Cytoskeleton Organization in Pollen Tubes of Pinus thunbergii

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Guoping; Yang Lusheng; Huang Qunce; Qin Guangyong

    2008-01-01

    Pollen grains of Pinus thunbergii Parl. (Japanese black pine) were implanted with 30 keV nitrogen ion beams and the effects of nitrogen ion implantation on pollen tube growth in vitro and the organization of actin cytoskeleton in the pollen tube cell were investigated using a confocal laser scanning microscope after fluorescence labeling. Treatment with ion implantation significantly blocked pollen tube growth. Confocal microscopy showed that ion implantation disrupted actin filament cytoskeleton organization in the pollen tube. It was found that there was a distinct correlation between the inhibition of pollen tube growth and the disruption of actin cytoskeleton organization, indicating that an intact actin cytoskeleton is essential for continuous pollen tube elongation in Pinus thunbergii. Although the detailed mechanism for the ion-implantation-induced bioeffect still remains to be elucidated, the present study assumes that the cytoskeleton system in pollen grains may provide a key target in response to ion beam implantation and is involved in mediating certain subsequent cytological changes.

  17. Safe and recyclable lithium-ion capacitors using sacrificial organic lithium salt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeżowski, P.; Crosnier, O.; Deunf, E.; Poizot, P.; Béguin, F.; Brousse, T.

    2018-02-01

    Lithium-ion capacitors (LICs) shrewdly combine a lithium-ion battery negative electrode capable of reversibly intercalating lithium cations, namely graphite, together with an electrical double-layer positive electrode, namely activated carbon. However, the beauty of this concept is marred by the lack of a lithium-cation source in the device, thus requiring a specific preliminary charging step. The strategies devised thus far in an attempt to rectify this issue all present drawbacks. Our research uncovers a unique approach based on the use of a lithiated organic material, namely 3,4-dihydroxybenzonitrile dilithium salt. This compound can irreversibly provide lithium cations to the graphite electrode during an initial operando charging step without any negative effects with respect to further operation of the LIC. This method not only restores the low CO2 footprint of LICs, but also possesses far-reaching potential with respect to designing a wide range of greener hybrid devices based on other chemistries, comprising entirely recyclable components.

  18. A flexible ligand-based wavy layered metal-organic framework for lithium-ion storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Tiance; Wang, Yuhang; Tang, Jing; Wang, Yang; Zhang, Lijuan; Zheng, Gengfeng

    2015-05-01

    A substantial challenge for direct utilization of metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) as lithium-ion battery anodes is to maintain the rigid MOF structure during lithiation/delithiation cycles. In this work, we developed a flexible, wavy layered nickel-based MOF (C20H24Cl2N8Ni, designated as Ni-Me4bpz) by a solvothermal approach of 3,3',5,5'-tetramethyl-4,4'-bipyrazole (H2Me4bpz) with nickel(II) chloride hexahydrate. The obtained MOF materials (Ni-Me4bpz) with metal azolate coordination mode provide 2-dimensional layered structure for Li(+) intercalation/extraction, and the H2Me4bpz ligands allow for flexible rotation feature and structural stability. Lithium-ion battery anodes made of the Ni-Me4bpz material demonstrate excellent specific capacity and cycling performance, and the crystal structure is well preserved after the electrochemical tests, suggesting the potential of developing flexible layered MOFs for efficient and stable electrochemical storage. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Quantitative analysis of volatile organic compounds using ion mobility spectra and cascade correlation neural networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, Peter DEB.; Zheng, Peng

    1995-01-01

    Ion Mobility Spectrometry (IMS) is a powerful technique for trace organic analysis in the gas phase. Quantitative measurements are difficult, because IMS has a limited linear range. Factors that may affect the instrument response are pressure, temperature, and humidity. Nonlinear calibration methods, such as neural networks, may be ideally suited for IMS. Neural networks have the capability of modeling complex systems. Many neural networks suffer from long training times and overfitting. Cascade correlation neural networks train at very fast rates. They also build their own topology, that is a number of layers and number of units in each layer. By controlling the decay parameter in training neural networks, reproducible and general models may be obtained.

  20. Improved stability of organic light-emitting diode with aluminum cathodes prepared by ion beam assisted deposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soon Moon Jeong, Deuk Yeon Lee, Won Hoe Koo, Sang Hun Choi, Hong Koo Baik, Se-Jong Lee and Kie Moon Song

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available We have fabricated highly stable organic electroluminescent devices based on spin-coated poly-p-phenylene-vynylene (PPV thin films. The electrical properties of aluminum cathode, prepared by ion beam assisted deposition, on PPV have been investigated and compared to those by thermal evaporation. Although energetic particles of Al assisted by Ar+ ion may damage the organic material, I–V–L characteristics are improved by applying thin Al buffer layer. In addition, a dense Al cathode inhibits the permeation of H2O and O2 into PPV film through pinhole defects, and thus retards dark spot growth. It may be deduced from highly packed structure of Al cathode with an increase in the contact area between Al and PPV that reduce the contact resistance. In conclusion, the lifetime of organic light-emitting device (OLED has been extended effectively by dense Al film through ion beam assisted deposition process.

  1. Pulse pressure and nocturnal fall in blood pressure are predictors of vascular, cardiac and renal target organ damage in hypertensive patients (LOD-RISK study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Ortiz, Luis; Gómez-Marcos, Manuel A; Martín-Moreiras, Javier; González-Elena, Luis J; Recio-Rodriguez, Jose I; Castaño-Sánchez, Yolanda; Grandes, Gonzalo; Martínez-Salgado, Carlos

    2009-08-01

    To analyse the relationship between various parameters derived from ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) and vascular, cardiac and renal target organ damage. A cross-sectional, descriptive study. It included 353 patients with short-term or recently diagnosed hypertension. ABPM, carotid intima-media thickness (IMT), Cornell voltage-duration product (Cornell VDP), glomerular filtration rate and albumin/creatinine ratio to assess vascular, cardiac and renal damage. Two hundred and twenty-three patients (63.2%) were males, aged 56.12+/-11.21 years. The nocturnal fall in blood pressure was 11.33+/-8.41, with a dipper pattern in 49.0% (173), nondipper in 30.3% (107), extreme dipper in 12.7% (45) and riser in 7.9% (28). The IMT was lower in the extreme dipper (0.716+/-0.096 mm) and better in the riser pattern (0.794+/-0.122 mm) (P<0.05). The Cornell VDP and albumin/creatinine ratio were higher in the riser pattern (1818.94+/-1798.63 mm/ms and 140.78+/-366.38 mg/g, respectively) than in the other patterns. In the multivariate analysis after adjusting for age, sex and antihypertensive treatment, with IMT as dependent variable the 24-h pulse pressure (beta = 0.003), with Cornell VDP the rest pulse pressure (beta = 12.04), and with the albumin/creatinine ratio the percentage of nocturnal fall in systolic blood pressure (beta = -3.59), the rest heart rate (beta = 1.83) and the standard deviation of 24-h systolic blood pressure (beta = 5.30) remain within the equation. The estimated pulse pressure with ABPM is a predictor of vascular and cardiac organ damage. The nocturnal fall and the standard deviation in 24-h systolic blood pressure measured with the ABPM is a predictor of renal damage.

  2. Characterization of the surface organization of nanostructured hybrid organic-inorganic materials by time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerveau; Corriu; Dabosi; Fischmeister-Lepeytre; Combarieu

    1999-01-01

    Time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS) has been used to analyse the surface composition of organic-inorganic hybrid solids obtained by a sol-gel process. Gels of type O(1.5)Si-R-SiO(1. 5), obtained from bis-silylated precursors (R'O)(3)-R-Si(OR')(3) (R' = Me, Et and R = (-CH(2))(n)-, n = 1, 2, 6, 10, 12;--CH=CH-; (-CH(2))(3)NH(CH(2))(3)-; 1, 1'-ferrocenyl; (CH(2))(n)-Ph-(CH(2))(n)- with Ph = 1,4-phenylene and n = 0, 1, 2; Ph = 1,3,5-phenyl and n = 0) were analysed. The results were highly dependent on the nature of the organic group. When the organic group was small or 'rigid', the main peaks detected corresponded to SiOH and SiOR' residual groups. Fragment ions from the organic group were poorly detected in this case. When the organic group was larger and more 'flexible', characteristic mass fragment ions were detected at higher relative intensities, indicative of a different organization of the organic units in the solid. TOF-SIMS clearly showed the differences between the xerogels derived from mono- and bis-silylated organic precursors : the organic group is present at the surface of mono-silylated xerogels, whereas for bis-silylated ones, the organization is dependent on the length and the flexibility of the organic units. These TOF-SIMS results are in agreement with other features already reported. Copyright 1999 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Renal perfusion scintiscan

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Radionuclide renal perfusion scan; Perfusion scintiscan - renal; Scintiscan - renal perfusion Images Kidney anatomy Kidney - blood and urine flow Intravenous pyelogram References Rottenberg G, Andi AC. Renal ...

  4. Study on charge transfer reaction of several organic molecules with accelerated rare gas ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahasi, Makoto; Okuda, Sachiko; Arai, Eiichi; Ichinose, Akira; Takakubo, Masaaki.

    1984-01-01

    Observing the charge transfer mass spectra of ethylbenzene, cyclobutane and methanol in Ar and Xe ion impacts, we investigated the dependence of the secondary ion peak intensities (normalized to primary ion current and target pressure) on the translational energy of primary ions (0-3500 eV).In the case of ethylbenzene, several maxima of the secondary i on peak intensities were observed in Ar and Xe ion impacts. The correlation between the maxima and the primary ion energy was examined in terms of near adiabatic theory of Massey. Supplementary studies on the energy distribution of primary ion, charge transfer cross section between methanol and Xe ion, and final product analysis in rare gas ion irradiation on cyclobutane were described. (author)

  5. Desorption of organic molecules with fast incident atomic and polyatomic ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunt, J.E.; Salehpour, M.; Fishel, D.L.

    1989-01-01

    In 1974, Macfarlane and coworkers introduced a new mass spectrometric technique based on desorption-ionization of sample molecules from solid targets by the impact of fast heavy ions (fission fragments) from 252 Cf. The process of ion-induced desorption of molecular ions from surfaces is not yet fully understood, although a large amount of experimental data related to the mechanism has been published. This paper concerns the use of fast incident polyatomic ions to induce desorption of secondary molecular ions of valine and chlorophyll from surfaces. Polyatomic ions are unique in that they are a collection of temporally and spatially correlated atoms. The main finding in this study is that incident polyatomic ions produce drastic enhancements in the secondary ion yields over atomic ions. Also, two types of nonlinear effects in desorption have been observed and will be discussed

  6. Influence of Inorganic Ions and Organic Substances on the Degradation of Pharmaceutical Compound in Water Matrix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edyta Kudlek

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper determined the influence of inorganic substances and high-molecular organic compounds on the decomposition of diclofenac, ibuprofen, and carbamazepine in the process of photocatalysis conducted with the presence of Titanium dioxide (TiO2. It was determined that the presence of such ions as CO 3 2 − , HCO 3 − , HPO 4 2 − as well as SO 4 2 − inhibited the decomposition of carbamazepine, whereas the efficiency of diclofenac degradation was decreased only by the presence of CO 3 2 − and HCO 3 − anions. In case of ibuprofen sodium salt (IBU, all investigated anions influenced the increase in its decomposition rate. The process of pharmaceutical photooxidation conducted in suspensions with Al3+ and Fe3+ cations was characterized by a significantly decreased efficiency when compared to the solution deprived of inorganic compounds. The addition of Ca2+, Mg2+ and NH4+ affected the increase of reaction rate constant value of diclofenac and ibuprofen decomposition. On the other hand, high molecular organic compounds present in the model effluent additionally catalysed the degradation process of pharmaceutical compounds and constituted an additional sorbent that enabled to decrease their concentration. Toxicological analysis conducted in deionized water with pharmaceutical compounds’ patterns proved the production of by-products from oxidation and/or reduction of micropollutants, which was not observed for model effluent irradiation.

  7. Electron beam induced strong organic/inorganic grafting for thermally stable lithium-ion battery separators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Yunah; Kim, Jin Il; Moon, Jungjin; Jeong, Jongyeob; Park, Jong Hyeok

    2018-06-01

    A tailored interface between organic and inorganic materials is of great importance to maximize the synergistic effects from hybridization. Polyethylene separators over-coated with inorganic thin films are the state-of-the art technology for preparing various secondary batteries with high safety. Unfortunately, the organic/inorganic hybrid separators have the drawback of a non-ideal interface, thus causing poor thermal/dimensional stability. Here, we report a straightforward method to resolve the drawback of the non-ideal interface between vapor deposited SiO2 and polyethylene separators, to produce a highly stable lithium-ion battery separator through strong chemical linking generated by direct electron beam irradiation. The simple treatment with an electron beam with an optimized dose generates thermally stable polymer separators, which may enhance battery safety under high-temperature conditions. Additionally, the newly formed Si-O-C or Si-CH3 chemical bonding enhances electrolyte-separator compatibility and thus may provide a better environment for ionic transport between the cathode and anode, thereby leading to better charge/discharge behaviors.

  8. INFLUENCE OF THE SKELETON HIERARCHICAL ORGANIZATION ON ELECTRONIC STATE OF IONS IN BONE MATRIX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Avrunin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The authors suggested the 3D-superlattice (3DSL model to describe the effect of coplanar assembly of the hydroxyapatite (HA nanocrystallites on local electronic state of ions in mineralized bone. This model is based on the main structural and functional relationships between adjacent levels of the hierarchical organization of bone tissue. In the framework of the 3DSL model the authors predicted the distinct assembly-to-crystal red shift of the unoccupied electronic states located near the bottom of the conduction band in HA and dependence of this shift on the ratio of the thickness of the hydrated layer to the crystallite size. To check these predictions the experimental X-ray absorption studies of native bone are performed near the Ca2р1/2,3/2-, P2р1/2,3/2- и O1s edges. Comparison of the measured spectra with the known spectra of the reference compounds has confirmed appearance of the distinct assembly-to-crystal red shift. The observed effect is the ground for development of new diagnostic methods for bone status and imaging changes in the local electronic structure of bone tissue by using ultrasoft X-ray absorption spectroscopy and measuring the assembly-tocrystal shifts. The experimental data analysis proved the applicability of the 3DSL model for better understanding of the hierarchical organization of bone at nanolevel.

  9. Renal vein oxygen saturation in renal artery stenosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, K; Rehling, M; Henriksen, Jens Henrik Sahl

    1992-01-01

    Renal vein oxygen-saturation was measured in 56 patients with arterial hypertension and unilateral stenosis or occlusion of the renal artery. Oxygen-saturation in blood from the ischaemic kidney (84.4%, range 73-93%) was significantly higher than that from the 'normal' contralateral kidney (81...... than its blood flow. This is probably due to decreased filtration fraction and filtered sodium with subsequent reduction in absolute tubular re-absorption of sodium ions....

  10. Expression and mechanism of mammalian target of rapamycin in age-related renal cell senescence and organ aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuo, Li; Cai, Guangyan; Liu, Fuyou; Fu, Bo; Liu, Weiping; Hong, Quan; Ma, Qiang; Peng, Youming; Wang, Jianzhong; Chen, Xiangmei

    2009-10-01

    The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is relevant to cell senescence and organismal aging. This study firstly showed that the level of mTOR expression increased with aging in rat kidneys, rat mesangial cells and WI-38 cells (P aging-related phenotypes were all reduced in cells treated with rapamycin (an inhibitor of mTOR) than in control cells (P aging, and that mTOR may promote cellular senescence by regulating the cell cycle through p21(WAF1/CIP1/SDI1), which might provide a new target for preventing renal aging.

  11. The application of ion-exchanged clay as corrosion inhibiting pigments in organic coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrisanti, Santi

    High strength aluminum alloys are used in aerospace industry and are normally coated to prevent corrosion. The corrosion protection of the coatings is mainly provided by pigmented-primer layer. Strontium chromate pigments are widely used, but they are toxic and carcinogenic. The objective of the current study is to develop and characterize the ion exchange compounds bentonite and hydrotalcite as corrosion inhibiting pigments. These compounds were synthesized with different cations and anions, and were used either alone or in mixtures as particulate additive in organic coatings. In coating applications as well as bulk solution, the inhibitor release mechanism is based on ion exchange. To evaluate corrosion inhibition, pigments extract solutions were used in potentiodynamic polarization as well as electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) experiments on bare aluminum alloy 2024-T3. Cathodic polarization showed that zinc- and cerium-containing filtrate solutions modestly inhibited cathodic current density. These solutions also decreased the extent of pitting damage formed on the surface, as compared to uninhibited 0.5 M NaCl solution. Pigments were also added as primer additives, and painted on AA2024-T3. The coated panels were then subjected to salt spray exposure testing. The possibility of sensing inhibitor exhaustion by means of X-ray diffraction interrogation of the pigment in a coating is demonstrated and discussed on cerium bentonite-pigmented coatings. Although cerium bentonite-pigmented coatings did not show behavior indicative of self-healing, the combination of bentonite and hydrotalcite that released Ce3+, Zn 2+, and PO43- showed potent scribe protection even after 3000 h exposure in salt spray. Promising self-healing was also demonstrated by pigments that consisted of decavanadate-hydrotalcite and zinc pyrovanadate, as indicated by a shiny scribed area after 1000h exposure in salt spray. When these pigments are used, blistering is minimized.

  12. Influence of competing inorganic cations on the ion exchange equilibrium of the monovalent organic cation metoprolol on natural sediment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niedbala, Anne; Schaffer, Mario; Licha, Tobias; Nödler, Karsten; Börnick, Hilmar; Ruppert, Hans; Worch, Eckhard

    2013-02-01

    The aim of this study was to systematically investigate the influence of the mono- and divalent inorganic ions Na(+) and Ca(2+) on the sorption behavior of the monovalent organic cation metoprolol on a natural sandy sediment at pH=7. Isotherms for the beta-blocker metoprolol were obtained by sediment-water batch tests over a wide concentration range (1-100000 μg L(-1)). Concentrations of the competing inorganic ions were varied within freshwater relevant ranges. Data fitted well with the Freundlich sorption model and resulted in very similar Freundlich exponents (n=0.9), indicating slightly non-linear behavior. Results show that the influence of Ca(2+) compared to Na(+) is more pronounced. A logarithmic correlation between the Freundlich coefficient K(Fr) and the concentration or activity of the competing inorganic ions was found allowing the prediction of metoprolol sorption on the investigated sediment at different electrolyte concentrations. Additionally, the organic carbon of the sediment was completely removed for investigating the influence of organic matter on the sorption of metoprolol. The comparison between the experiments with and without organic carbon removal revealed no significant contribution of the organic carbon fraction (0.1%) to the sorption of metoprolol on the in this study investigated sediment. Results of this study will contribute to the development of predictive models for the transport of organic cations in the subsurface. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. RENAL CRYOABLATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Govorov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Renal cryoablation is an alternative minimally-invasive method of treatment for localized renal cell carcinoma. The main advantages of this methodology include visualization of the tumor and the forming of "ice ball" in real time, fewer complications compared with other methods of treatment of renal cell carcinoma, as well as the possibility of conducting cryotherapy in patients with concomitant pathology. Compared with other ablative technologies cryoablation has a low rate of repeat sessions and good intermediate oncological results. The studies of long-term oncological and functional results of renal cryoablation are presently under way.

  14. A polymeric membrane ion selective electrode based on organic-inorganic composite ion exchanger for the determination of thorium(IV)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandra, Sulekh; Agarwal, Himanshu; Chandan Kumar, Singh; Sindhu, Susheel Kumar; Pankaj Kumar

    2005-01-01

    A poly(vinyl chloride) membrane electrode based on organic- inorganic composite ion exchanger, tin(IV) tungstoselenate-pyridine, has been prepared and tested for the selective determination of thorium(IV) ions. The PVC membrane electrode comprising 16% composite ion exchanger as the electroactive phase, 50% o-dioctyl phthalate as plasticizer, 4% tetraphenyl borate as anionic excluder and 30% poly(vinylchloride) displays a linear response to thorium(IV) ions over a wide concentration range of 1.0 x 10 -1 -8.0 x 10 -6 M with a Nernstain slope of 14.2 mV/ decade. The electrode shows a very short response time (∼15 s) and may be used in the pH range 2.5-9.0. The selectivity coefficient for alkali, alkaline earth and transition is smaller than 4.0 x 10 -4 . The sensor has been successfully used as an indicator electrode in the potentiometric titration of Th 4+ with EDTA as well as also for the determination of Th 4+ in the binary mixtures. (author)

  15. Symposium on fast atom and ion induced mass spectrometry of nonvolatile organic solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McNeal, C.J.

    1982-01-01

    The mechanisms of molecular and fragment ion production and the various parameters affecting ion yields were discussed by 6 invited speakers from Europe, Canada, and the US at this symposium. The work reported was almost equally divided between that using low-energy (keV) primary ion (or atom) beams, e.g. fast atom bombardment mass spectrometry (FABMS) and secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) and that using high energy (MeV) particles, e.g. heavy ion induced mass spectrometry (HIIDMS) and 252 Cf-plasma desorption mass spectrometry ( 252 Cf-PDMS). Both theoretical foundations and observed experimental results for both techniques are included

  16. Present status and perspectives of heavy ion studies on cells and organisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, T.C.; Craise, L.M.; Mei Mantong.

    1992-01-01

    Biomedical research of heavy ion radiation has been an unique and highly active field in past two decades. Through these intensive research efforts, significant amount of quantitative and qualitative data, which provide insights into biological effects, have been obtained. RBE and LET relationship has been well established for cell inactivation, somatic mutation, and cancer induction. In addition, the effects of oxygen and cell cycle on radiosensitivity of mammalian cells, exposed to heavy ions, have been examined. In spite of such large quantitative information, there is only very limited understanding of the mechanisms of these effects of heavy ions. It remains to be discovered how heavy ions cause various biological effects and why heavy ions can be so effective in producing these effects. As the understanding of molecular effects of heavy ion increases, the potential use of heavy ions in probing molecular mechanism(s) of mutation and neoplastic cell transformation becomes more evident. The exciting progress of heavy ion research in past decades only leads to more challenging questions. Answers for these interesting questions can be obtained by developing new heavy ion facilities for single particle irradiation, by further studies with modern molecular biology techniques, and by innovative approaches. Knowledge from biomedical heavy ion research will not only enhance our basic understanding of fundamental biological processes, such as repair, cell growth control, differentiation, etc., but also help in assessing health risk of space radiation and in improving animal and plant breeding. Research in heavy ion radiobiology is gradually growing from infant to mature stage. (author)

  17. Some aspects of surfactant action mechanism in the organic reagents - metal ions systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chernova, R K; Shtykov, S N; Beloliptseva, G M; Sukhova, L K; Amelin, V G; Kulapina, E G [Saratovskij Gosudarstvennyj Univ. (USSR)

    1984-06-01

    Results are reviewed of investigations into the interaction of ions of Mo(6), W, Zr, Be, Sc, Nb, Ta, J, rare earths, a. o. with organic reagents of triphenylmethane class in the 8M H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/-pH14 acidity range and the 1x10/sup -3/-5x10/sup -6/ M concentration range both in the presence and absence of different surfactant type (cetylpyridine, methyltrimethylammonium, synthanols, etc). Three types of effects, determining enhancement of the sensitivity and selectivity of reactions jn the Me-R-surfactant systems, were determined: an increase in the number of coordinated ligands, the activating effect of cation surfactants resulting in a potential complexing in acid media, multicenter interaction of polydentate ligands both via chelating groups and auxochrome groups in the presence of cation surfactants. Protolytic and flotation properties of ionic associates are considered. The observed effects are explained from the viewpoint of electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions in the R-surfactant systems, observed by the methods of NMR, polarography amperometry, conductometry. A possible use of the investigated M-R-surfactant systems as complexonometric indicators was evaluated. A possibility was shown of using them for direct titrimetric determination of hundredth milligram portions of Cu, Ga, In and Sc at a titrant concentratjon of less than 0.01 M. It follows from the estimation of basic optical parameters of the Me-R-surfactant systems that detection.

  18. Some aspects of surfactant action mechanism in the organic reagents - metal ions systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chernova, R.K.; Shtykov, S.N.; Beloliptseva, G.M.; Sukhova, L.K.; Amelin, V.G.; Kulapina, E.G.

    1984-01-01

    Results are reviewed of investigations into the interaction of ions of Mo(6), W, Zr, Be, Sc, Nb, Ta, J, rare earths, a. o. with organic reagents of triphenylmethane class in the 8M H 2 SO 4 -pH14 acidity range and the 1x10 -3 -5x10 -6 M concentration range both in the presence and absence of different surfactant type (cetylpyridine, methyltrimethylammonium, synthanols, etc). Three types of effects, determining enhancement of the sensitivity and selectivity of reactions jn the Me-R-surfactant systems, were determined: an increase in the number of coordinated ligands, the activating effect of cation surfactants resulting in a potential complexing in acid media, multicenter interaction of polydentate ligands both via chelating groups and auxochrome groups in the presence of cation surfactants. Protolytic and flotation properties of ionic associates are considered. The observed effects are explained from the viewpoint of electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions in the R-surfactant systems, observed by the methods of NMR, polarography amperometry, conductometry. A possible use of the investigated M-R-surfactant systems as complexonometric indicators was evaluated. A possibility was shown of using them for direct titrimetric determination of hundredth milligram portions of Cu, Ga, In and Sc at a titrant concentratjon of less than 0.01 M. It follows from the estimation of basic optical parameters of the Me-R-surfactant systems that detection

  19. Nanoscale zinc-based metal-organic framework with high capacity for lithium-ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, Changdong [Changzhou University, School of Petrochemical Engineering, Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Advanced Catalytic Materials and Technology, and Advanced Catalysis and Green Manufacturing Collaborative Innovation Center (China); Gao, Yuanrui; Liu, Lili [Shanghai University, Department of Chemistry, College of Science (China); Song, Yidan; Wang, Xianmei [Changzhou University, School of Petrochemical Engineering, Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Advanced Catalytic Materials and Technology, and Advanced Catalysis and Green Manufacturing Collaborative Innovation Center (China); Liu, Hong-Jiang, E-mail: liuhj@shu.edu.cn [Shanghai University, Department of Chemistry, College of Science (China); Liu, Qi, E-mail: liuqi62@163.com [Changzhou University, School of Petrochemical Engineering, Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Advanced Catalytic Materials and Technology, and Advanced Catalysis and Green Manufacturing Collaborative Innovation Center (China)

    2016-12-15

    Layered zinc-based metal-organic framework ([Zn(4,4′-bpy)(tfbdc)(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}], Zn-LMOF) nanosheets were synthesized by a facile hydrothermal method (4,4′-bpy = 4,4′-bipyridine, H{sub 2}tfbdc = tetrafluoroterephthalic acid). The materials were characterized by IR spectrum, elemental analysis, thermogravimetric analysis, powder X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscope (TEM), scanning electron microscope (SEM), and the Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) surface. When the Zn-LMOF nanosheets with the thickness of about 24 ± 8 nm were used as an anode material of lithium-ion batteries, not only the Zn-LMOF electrode shows a high reversible capacity, retaining 623 mAh g{sup −1} after 100 cycles at a current density of 50 mA g{sup −1} but also exhibits an excellent cyclic stability and a higher rate performance.

  20. Effect of rare earth ion Ce3+ on the lactate dehydrogenase isozyme patterns of six mouse organs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiangyan, L.; Guojun, S.; Hengyi, L.; Yinhua, L.; Ting, W.; Yansheng, Y.

    1998-01-01

    Full text: Effect of rare earth ion Ce 3+ on the lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) isozyme patterns of six organs of mouse (heart, liver, kidney, muscle, stomach) were investigated by utilizing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) methods. The results indicated: Ce 3+ not only can make some LDH bands disappear but also can induce some new bands. Under the action of Ce 3+ , the shades of some LDH bands were changed and the shade variations were different from organ to organ. In the muscle, it appeared the shade of LDH bands was related to the rare earth concentration in the feed. Rare earth can affect the muscle LDH patterns widely and apparently

  1. Renal cancer.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Corgna, E.; Betti, M.; Gatta, G.; Roila, F.; Mulder, P.H.M. de

    2007-01-01

    In Europe, renal cancer (that is neoplasia of the kidney, renal pelvis or ureter (ICD-9 189 and ICD-10 C64-C66)) ranks as the seventh most common malignancy in men amongst whom there are 29,600 new cases each year (3.5% of all cancers). Tobacco, obesity and a diet poor in vegetables are all

  2. Renal cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Corgna, Enrichetta; Betti, Maura; Gatta, Gemma; Roila, Fausto; De Mulder, Pieter H. M.

    2007-01-01

    In Europe, renal cancer (that is neoplasia of the kidney, renal pelvis or ureter (ICD-9 189 and ICD-10 C64-C66)) ranks as the seventh most common malignancy in men amongst whom there are 29,600 new cases each year (3.5% of all cancers). Tobacco, obesity and a diet poor in vegetables are all

  3. Effects of nitrogen supply on inter-organ fluxes of urea-N and renal urea-N kinetics in lactating Holstein cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Røjen, Betina Amdisen; Theil, Peter Kappel; Kristensen, Niels Bastian

    2011-01-01

    The effects of decreasing ruminal urea infusion in lactating dairy cows fed a basal diet deficient in rumen degradable protein on inter-organ urea-N fluxes, epithelial urea-N extraction, and renal urea-N kinetics were investigated. Eight Danish Holstein cows fitted with a ruminal cannula...... and permanent indwelling catheters in the major splanchnic blood vessels and the gastrosplenic vein were used. The cows were randomly allocated to a triplicate incomplete 3 × 3 Latin square design with 14-d periods. Treatments were continuous ventral ruminal infusion of water, 4.1 g of feed urea/kg of dry...... matter intake, and 8.5 g of feed urea/kg of dry matter intake. Dry matter intake and milk yield decreased linearly with decreasing urea infusion. Arterial blood urea-N and ruminal ammonia concentrations decreased linearly with decreasing urea infusion. In absolute amounts, the urea-N recycling did...

  4. Effect of organic acids produced by penicillium notatum on the extraction of metals ions from brown shale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhatti, H.N.; Sarwar, S.; Ilyas, S.

    2012-01-01

    Preset study was undertaken to check the bio leaching feasibility of brown shale with Penicillium notatum by using different carbon sources. Large quantities of the metal ions are embodied in shales that can be recovered. Presently available techniques (pyrometallurgical and hydrometallurgical) are expensive or may have a negative impact on the environment. Penicillium notatum exhibited a good potential in generating varieties of organic acids effective for metal ions solubilization. Maximum leaching of Cu (91.55 %) and Mg (79.83 %) was obtained with glucose as substrate while maximum recovery of Mn (71.46 %) was obtained in medium having molasses as substrate. (author)

  5. Oxidative degradation of low and intermediate level Radioactive organic wastes 2. Acid decomposition on spent Ion-Exchange resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghattas, N.K.; Eskander, S.B.

    1995-01-01

    The present work provides a simplified, effective and economic method for the chemical decomposition of radioactively contaminated solid organic waste, especially spent ion - exchange resins. The goal is to achieve volume reduction and to avoid technical problems encountered in processes used for similar purposes (incineration, pyrolysis). Factors efficiency and kinetics of the oxidation of the ion exchange resins in acid medium using hydrogen peroxide as oxidant, namely, duration of treatment and the acid to resin ratio were studied systematically on a laboratory scale. Moreover the percent composition of the off-gas evolved during the decomposition process was analysed. 3 figs., 5 tabs

  6. Oxidative degradation of low and intermediate level Radioactive organic wastes 2. Acid decomposition on spent Ion-Exchange resins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghattas, N K; Eskander, S B [Radioisotope dept., atomic energy authority, (Egypt)

    1995-10-01

    The present work provides a simplified, effective and economic method for the chemical decomposition of radioactively contaminated solid organic waste, especially spent ion - exchange resins. The goal is to achieve volume reduction and to avoid technical problems encountered in processes used for similar purposes (incineration, pyrolysis). Factors efficiency and kinetics of the oxidation of the ion exchange resins in acid medium using hydrogen peroxide as oxidant, namely, duration of treatment and the acid to resin ratio were studied systematically on a laboratory scale. Moreover the percent composition of the off-gas evolved during the decomposition process was analysed. 3 figs., 5 tabs.

  7. Controlling the nanoscale morphology of organic films deposited by polyatomic ions

    CERN Document Server

    Hanley, L; Fuoco, E R; Ahu-Akin, F; Wijesundara, M B J; Li, Maozhen; Tikhonov, A; Schlossman, M

    2003-01-01

    Hyperthermal polyatomic ion beams can be used to fabricate thin film nanostructures with controlled morphology. Several experiments are described in which mass-selected and non-mass-selected polyatomic ion beams are used to create nanometer thick films with controlled surface and buried interface morphologies. Fluorocarbon and thiophenic films are grown on silicon wafers and/or polystyrene from 5 to 200 eV C sub 3 F sub 5 sup + or C sub 4 H sub 4 S sup + ions, respectively. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, X-ray reflectivity, and scanning electron microscopy are utilized to analyze the morphology and chemistry of these films. Polyatomic ions are found to control film morphology on the nanoscale through variation of the incident ion energy, ion structure and/or substrate.

  8. OBSTETRIC RENAL FAILURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajeshwari

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Renal failure in obstetrics is rare but important complication, associated with significant mortality and long term morbidity.1,2 It includes acute renal failure due to obstetrical complications or due to deterioration of existing renal disease. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the etiology and outcome of renal failure in obstetric patients. METHODS: We prospectively analyzed 30 pregnant and puerperal women with acute renal failure or pre-existing renal disease developing renal failure during pregnancy between November 2007 to sep-2009. Patients who presented/developed ARF during the hospital stay were included in this study. RESULTS: Among 30 patients, mean age was 23 years and 33 years age group. 12 cases (40% patients were primigravidae and 9(30% patients were multigravidae and 9 cases (30% presented in post-partum period. Eighteen cases (60% with ARF were seen in third trimester, followed by in postpartum period 9 cases (30%. Most common contributing factors to ARF were Pre-eclampsia, eclampsia and HELLP syndrome 60%, sepsis 56.6%, post abortal ARF 10%. DIC 40%. Haemorrhage as the aetiology for ARF was present 46%, APH in 20% and PPH in 26.6%. The type of ARF was renal in (63% and prerenal (36%; Oliguric seen in 10 patients (33% and high mortality (30%. Among the 20 pregnant patients with ARF, The average period of gestation was 33±2 weeks (30 -36 weeks, 5 cases (25% presented with intrauterine fetal demise and 18 cases (66% had preterm vaginal delivery and 2 cases (10% had induced abortion. And the average birth weight was 2±0.5 kg (1.5 kg. Eight cases (26% required dialysis. 80% of patients recovered completely of renal functions. 63% patients recovered without renal replacement therapy whereas 17% required dialysis. the maternal mortality was 20%, the main reason for mortality was septic shock and multi organ dysfunction (66%. CONCLUSION: ARF related pregnancy was seen commonly in the primigravidae and in the third trimester, the most

  9. Organic solvent and temperature-enhanced ion chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry for the determination of low molecular weight organic and inorganic anions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilchrist, Elizabeth S.; Nesterenko, Pavel N.; Smith, Norman W.; Barron, Leon P.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • IC selectivity at high contents of organic solvent in eluent and elevated temperature is studied. • Solvent-enhanced IC coupled to high resolution MS is beneficial for sensitive detection of ions. • The first application of IC-HRMS to the detection of low explosives in fingermarks is shown. - Abstract: There has recently been increased interest in coupling ion chromatography (IC) to high resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) to enable highly sensitive and selective analysis. Herein, the first comprehensive study focusing on the direct coupling of suppressed IC to HRMS without the need for post-suppressor organic solvent modification is presented. Chromatographic selectivity and added HRMS sensitivity offered by organic solvent-modified IC eluents on a modern hyper-crosslinked polymeric anion-exchange resin (IonPac AS18) are shown using isocratic eluents containing 5–50 mM hydroxide with 0–80% methanol or acetonitrile for a range of low molecular weight anions (<165 Da). Comprehensive experiments on IC thermodynamics over a temperature range between 20–45 °C with the eluent containing up to 60% of acetonitrile or methanol revealed markedly different retention behaviour and selectivity for the selected analytes on the same polymer based ion-exchange resin. Optimised sensitivity with HRMS was achieved with as low as 30–40% organic eluent content. Analytical performance characteristics are presented and compared with other IC-MS based works. This study also presents the first application of IC-HRMS to forensic detection of trace low-order anionic explosive residues in latent human fingermarks

  10. Organic solvent and temperature-enhanced ion chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry for the determination of low molecular weight organic and inorganic anions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilchrist, Elizabeth S. [Analytical & Environmental Science Division, Department of Forensic & Analytical Science, King’s College London, 150 Stamford Street, London, SE1 9NH (United Kingdom); Nesterenko, Pavel N. [Australian Centre for Research on Separation Science, School of Physical Sciences, University of Tasmania, Private Bag 75, Hobart 7001 (Australia); Smith, Norman W. [Analytical & Environmental Science Division, Department of Forensic & Analytical Science, King’s College London, 150 Stamford Street, London, SE1 9NH (United Kingdom); Barron, Leon P., E-mail: leon.barron@kcl.ac.uk [Analytical & Environmental Science Division, Department of Forensic & Analytical Science, King’s College London, 150 Stamford Street, London, SE1 9NH (United Kingdom)

    2015-03-20

    Highlights: • IC selectivity at high contents of organic solvent in eluent and elevated temperature is studied. • Solvent-enhanced IC coupled to high resolution MS is beneficial for sensitive detection of ions. • The first application of IC-HRMS to the detection of low explosives in fingermarks is shown. - Abstract: There has recently been increased interest in coupling ion chromatography (IC) to high resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) to enable highly sensitive and selective analysis. Herein, the first comprehensive study focusing on the direct coupling of suppressed IC to HRMS without the need for post-suppressor organic solvent modification is presented. Chromatographic selectivity and added HRMS sensitivity offered by organic solvent-modified IC eluents on a modern hyper-crosslinked polymeric anion-exchange resin (IonPac AS18) are shown using isocratic eluents containing 5–50 mM hydroxide with 0–80% methanol or acetonitrile for a range of low molecular weight anions (<165 Da). Comprehensive experiments on IC thermodynamics over a temperature range between 20–45 °C with the eluent containing up to 60% of acetonitrile or methanol revealed markedly different retention behaviour and selectivity for the selected analytes on the same polymer based ion-exchange resin. Optimised sensitivity with HRMS was achieved with as low as 30–40% organic eluent content. Analytical performance characteristics are presented and compared with other IC-MS based works. This study also presents the first application of IC-HRMS to forensic detection of trace low-order anionic explosive residues in latent human fingermarks.

  11. The mass effect model of the survival rate's dose effect of organism irradiated with low energy ion beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shao Chunlin; Gui Qifu; Yu Zengliang

    1995-01-01

    The main characteristic of the low energy ions mutation is its mass deposition effect. Basing on the theory of 'double strand breaking' and the 'mass deposition effect', the authors suggests that the mass deposition products can repair or further damage the double strand breaking of DNA. According to this consideration the dose effect model of the survival rate of organism irradiated by low energy of N + ion beam is deduced as: S exp{-p[αφ + βφ 2 -Rφ 2 exp(-kφ)-Lφ 3 exp(-kφ)]}, which can be called 'mass effect model'. In the low energy ion beam mutation, the dose effects of many survival rates that can not be imitated by previous models are successfully imitated by this model. The suitable application fields of the model are also discussed

  12. Organic impurities harmful to arc discharge in multi-ampere duo-pigatron ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng Zhudong; Wang Shouhu; Chen Miaosun; Huang Chongan; Ge Yishan; Fu Peng; E Maohuai

    1989-01-01

    Besides mechanism producing plasmain Duo-Pigatron Ion Source, the main purpose of this paper is to introduce the problem on arc discharge exhaustion caused by oil pollution. The problem was discovered during developing a 15 cm Duo-Pigatron Ion Source. The paper also describes its physical process

  13. Cobalt- and Cadmium-Based Metal-Organic Frameworks as High-Performance Anodes for Sodium Ion Batteries and Lithium Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Caifu; Xu, Liqiang

    2017-03-01

    Two multifunctional metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) with the same coordination mode, [Co(L)(H 2 O)] n ·2nH 2 O [defined as "Co(L) MOF"] and [Cd(L)(H 2 O)] n ·2nH 2 O [defined as "Cd(L) MOF"] (L = 5-aminoisophthalic acid) have been fabricated via a simple and versatile scalable solvothermal approach at 85 °C for 24 h. The relationship between the structure of the electrode materials (especially the coordination water and different metal ions) and the electrochemical properties of MOFs have been investigated for the first time. And then the possible electrochemical mechanisms of the electrodes have been studied and proposed. In addition, MOFs/RGO hybrid materials were prepared via ball milling, which demonstrated better electrochemical performances than those of individual Co(L) MOF and Cd(L) MOF. For example, when Co(L) MOF/RGO was applied as anode for sodium ion batteries (SIBs), it retained 206 mA h g -1 after 330 cycles at 500 mA g -1 and 1185 mA h g -1 could be obtained after 50 cycles at 100 mA g -1 for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). The high-discharge capacity, excellent cyclic stability combined with the facile synthesis procedure enable Co(L) MOF- and Cd(L) MOF-based materials to be prospective anode materials for SIBs and LIBs.

  14. Characterization of interfaces between metals and organic thin films by electron and ion spectroscopies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmid, Martin

    2012-01-18

    In this thesis, interfaces between metals and organic thin films have been characterized with photoelectron and ion-scattering spectroscopies. Two different classes of metal/organic interfaces were examined in detail. First, interfaces which can be mainly characterized by relatively weak coordinative interactions between substrate and adsorbate. Second, interfaces which are mostly determined, or even created, by chemical reactions between different adsorbates or between adsorbates and substrate. Typical examples from the first class are metalated tetrapyrrole monolayers on Ag(111) and Au(111) single-crystal substrates. In this study, a focus was set to the interaction between iron and cobalt tetrapyrroles with Ag(111) or Au(111) substrates. A detailed examination of the corresponding photoelectron spectra revealed that the adsorbatesubstrate interaction is associated with a charge transfer from the metallic substrate to the Fe(II) or Co(II) ions within the tetrapyrrole units. The examination of cobalt(II) phthalocyanine monolayers further led to the conclusion that the magnetic moment, as present in unperturbed CoPc molecules, is efficiently quenched by the contact to the Ag(111) surface and the associated charge transfer. Similar investigations on Au(111) substrates gave evidence for possible adsorption site effects, further complicating the adsorbate/substrate interaction. Furthermore the formation of two-dimensional structures of poly(p-phenylene-terephthalamide) (PPTA, trademark Kevlar) on Ag(111) was closely examined. The Ag(111) surface does not only provide the geometrical boundary for the formation of the 2D covalent structures, but, moreover, actively participates in the reaction; after the adsorption of TPC molecules, a scission of the C-Cl bond, in particular at temperatures above 120 K, was evident. The resulting radical fragments appear stable and can act as reaction partners for the co-adsorbed PPD units. The chlorine atoms reside on the surface even

  15. A Hierarchically Porous Hypercrosslinked and Novel Quinone based Stable Organic Polymer Electrode for Lithium-Ion Batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, Aziz; Meng, Qinghai; Melhi, Saad; Mao, Lijuan; Zhang, Miao; Han, Bao-Hang; Lu, Kun; Wei, Zhixiang

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: •A novel hypercrosslinked Poly-Pillar[5]quinone (Poly-P5Q) polymer has been prepared and applied as electrode material in Li-ion batteries. •The novel synthetic route of Poly-P5Q was introduced by the oxidation of Poly-Dimethoxypillar[5]arene. •A Friedel-Crafts reaction was employed to prepare a novel Poly-P5Q as organic cathode material for lithium-ion batteries. -- Abstract: In the recent years, organic electrode materials have attracted tremendous attention and becoming promising electrode candidates for the green and sustainable lithium-ion batteries. A novel hypercrosslinked Poly-Pillar[5]quinone (Poly-P5Q) polymer was prepared and applied as electrode material in Li-ion batteries. Poly-P5Q is the oxidized form of Poly-Dimethoxypillar[5]arene (Poly-DMP5A) which was obtained from the condensation of dimethoxypillar[5]arene and formaldehyde dimethyl acetal using Friedel-Crafts reaction. The prepared materials were characterized by 13 C solid state NMR, FTIR, SEM, EDX and TGA analysis. The Poly-P5Q cathode showed an initial discharge capacity up to 105 mAh g −1 whereas it retained 82.3% of its initial discharge capacity after 100 charge-discharge cycles at a current speed of 100 mA g −1 in the potential window between 1.75 to 3.25 V. In future, research in this direction will provide great insight for the development of novel polymers from various small organic molecules as a stable and high performance electrode materials for green lithium-ion batteries.

  16. Selected ion flow tube studies of S2+ reactions with a series of organic molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decker, Brian K.; Adams, Nigel G.

    1997-11-01

    A selected ion flow tube (SIFT) has been used to study the reactions of S2+ with a series of organic molecules (as well as H2, CO, NH3, NO and NO2). These include the hydrocarbons, C2H4, C2H6, CH2CCH2, CH3CHCH2 and C3H8; alcohols and thiols, CH3OH, C2H5OH, CH3SH and C2H5SH; ethers (CH3)2O and (C2H5)2O; aldehydes and ketones, CH3CHO, C2H5CHO and (CH3)2CO; and carboxylic acids and esters, HCO2H, HCO2CH3, HCO2C2H5, CH3CO2H, CH3CO2CH3, CH3CO2C2H5, C2H5CO2H, C2H5CO2CH3 and C2H5CO2C2H5. The rate coefficients are generally close to the collisional values, with exceptions among the reactions involving the smaller molecules. Most prevalent are abstraction reactions leading to formation of the thiosulfeno radical, HS2, or its protonated form; three-body associations; and channels leading to formation of the acetyl and propionyl cations, CH3CO+ and C2H5CO+, respectively. Only in reactions involving the alkenes is cleavage of the S---S bond of S2+ observed. The isomeric molecules in the data set generally react very differently, as would be expected from reactivity controlled by the position and complexity of the functional groups. The data are discussed in terms of reaction mechanisms, thermodynamics, and implications for interstellar chemistry.

  17. Application of self-organizing feature maps to analyze the relationships between ignitable liquids and selected mass spectral ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frisch-Daiello, Jessica L; Williams, Mary R; Waddell, Erin E; Sigman, Michael E

    2014-03-01

    The unsupervised artificial neural networks method of self-organizing feature maps (SOFMs) is applied to spectral data of ignitable liquids to visualize the grouping of similar ignitable liquids with respect to their American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) class designations and to determine the ions associated with each group. The spectral data consists of extracted ion spectra (EIS), defined as the time-averaged mass spectrum across the chromatographic profile for select ions, where the selected ions are a subset of ions from Table 2 of the ASTM standard E1618-11. Utilization of the EIS allows for inter-laboratory comparisons without the concern of retention time shifts. The trained SOFM demonstrates clustering of the ignitable liquid samples according to designated ASTM classes. The EIS of select samples designated as miscellaneous or oxygenated as well as ignitable liquid residues from fire debris samples are projected onto the SOFM. The results indicate the similarities and differences between the variables of the newly projected data compared to those of the data used to train the SOFM. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Radioactive Barium Ion Trap Based on Metal-Organic Framework for Efficient and Irreversible Removal of Barium from Nuclear Wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Yaguang; Huang, Hongliang; Liu, Dahuan; Zhong, Chongli

    2016-04-06

    Highly efficient and irreversible capture of radioactive barium from aqueous media remains a serious task for nuclear waste disposal and environmental protection. To address this task, here we propose a concept of barium ion trap based on metal-organic framework (MOF) with a strong barium-chelating group (sulfate and sulfonic acid group) in the pore structures of MOFs. The functionalized MOF-based ion traps can remove >90% of the barium within the first 5 min, and the removal efficiency reaches 99% after equilibrium. Remarkably, the sulfate-group-functionalized ion trap demonstrates a high barium uptake capacity of 131.1 mg g(-1), which surpasses most of the reported sorbents and can selectively capture barium from nuclear wastewater, whereas the sulfonic-acid-group-functionalized ion trap exhibits ultrafast kinetics with a kinetic rate constant k2 of 27.77 g mg(-1) min(-1), which is 1-3 orders of magnitude higher than existing sorbents. Both of the two MOF-based ion traps can capture barium irreversibly. Our work proposes a new strategy to design barium adsorbent materials and provides a new perspective for removing radioactive barium and other radionuclides from nuclear wastewater for environment remediation. Besides, the concrete mechanisms of barium-sorbent interactions are also demonstrated in this contribution.

  19. Enhanced light trapping by focused ion beam (FIB) induced self-organized nanoripples on germanium (100) surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamaliya, Bhaveshkumar; Mote, Rakesh G.; Aslam, Mohammed; Fu, Jing

    2018-03-01

    In this paper, we demonstrate enhanced light trapping by self-organized nanoripples on the germanium surface. The enhanced light trapping leading to high absorption of light is confirmed by the experimental studies as well as the numerical simulations using the finite-difference time-domain method. We used gallium ion (Ga+) focused ion beam to enable the formation of the self-organized nanoripples on the germanium (100) surface. During the fabrication, the overlap of the scanning beam is varied from zero to negative value and found to influence the orientation of the nanoripples. Evolution of nanostructures with the variation of beam overlap is investigated. Parallel, perpendicular, and randomly aligned nanoripples with respect to the scanning direction are obtained via manipulation of the scanning beam overlap. 95% broadband absorptance is measured in the visible electromagnetic region for the nanorippled germanium surface. The reported light absorption enhancement can significantly improve the efficiency of germanium-silicon based photovoltaic systems.

  20. Secondary ion mass spectrometry and environment. SIMS as applied to the detection of stable and radioactive isotopes in marine organisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chassard-Bouchaud, C.; Escaig, F.; Hallegot, P.

    1984-01-01

    Several marine species of economical interest, Crustacea (crabs and prawns) and Molluscs (common mussels and oysters) were collected from coastal waters of France: English Channel, Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean Sea and of Japan. Microanalyses which were performed at the tissue and cell levels, using Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry, revealed many contaminants; stable isotopes as well as radioactive actinids such as uranium were detected. Uptake, storage and excretion target organs were identified [fr

  1. Highly Sensitive and Patchable Pressure Sensors Mimicking Ion-Channel-Engaged Sensory Organs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chun, Kyoung-Yong; Son, Young Jun; Han, Chang-Soo

    2016-04-26

    Biological ion channels have led to much inspiration because of their unique and exquisite operational functions in living cells. Specifically, their extreme and dynamic sensing abilities can be realized by the combination of receptors and nanopores coupled together to construct an ion channel system. In the current study, we demonstrated that artificial ion channel pressure sensors inspired by nature for detecting pressure are highly sensitive and patchable. Our ion channel pressure sensors basically consisted of receptors and nanopore membranes, enabling dynamic current responses to external forces for multiple applications. The ion channel pressure sensors had a sensitivity of ∼5.6 kPa(-1) and a response time of ∼12 ms at a frequency of 1 Hz. The power consumption was recorded as less than a few μW. Moreover, a reliability test showed stability over 10 000 loading-unloading cycles. Additionally, linear regression was performed in terms of temperature, which showed no significant variations, and there were no significant current variations with humidity. The patchable ion channel pressure sensors were then used to detect blood pressure/pulse in humans, and different signals were clearly observed for each person. Additionally, modified ion channel pressure sensors detected complex motions including pressing and folding in a high-pressure range (10-20 kPa).

  2. Renal scan

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003790.htm Renal scan To use the sharing features on this ... anaphylaxis . Alternative Names Renogram; Kidney scan Images Kidney anatomy Kidney - blood and urine flow References Chernecky CC, ...

  3. A Dual Source Ion Trap Mass Spectrometer for the Mars Organic Molecule Analyzer of ExoMars 2018

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brickerhoff, William B.; vanAmerom, F. H. W.; Danell, R. M.; Arevalo, R.; Atanassova, M.; Hovmand, L.; Mahaffy, P. R.; Cotter, R. J.

    2011-01-01

    We present details on the objectives, requirements, design and operational approach of the core mass spectrometer of the Mars Organic Molecule Analyzer (MOMA) investigation on the 2018 ExoMars mission. The MOMA mass spectrometer enables the investigation to fulfill its objective of analyzing the chemical composition of organic compounds in solid samples obtained from the near surface of Mars. Two methods of ionization are realized, associated with different modes of MOMA operation, in a single compact ion trap mass spectrometer. The stringent mass and power constraints of the mission have led to features such as low voltage and low frequency RF operation [1] and pulse counting detection.

  4. Threshold photoelectron spectroscopy and photoionization total ion yield spectroscopy of simple organic acids, aldehydes, ketones and amines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yencha, Andrew J; Malins, Andrew E R; Siggel-King, Michele R F; Eypper, Marie; King, George C

    2009-01-01

    We have initiated a research program to investigate the ionization behavior of some simple organic molecules containing the carboxyl group (R 2 C=O), where R could be H, OH, NH 2 , or CH 3 or other aliphatic or aromatic carbon groups, using threshold photoelectron spectroscopy and photoionization total ion yield spectroscopy. We report here on the simplest organic acid, formic acid, and two simple aldehydes: acetaldehyde and the simplest unsaturated aldehyde, 2-propenal (acrolein). The objective of this study was to characterize the valence cationic states of these molecules with vibrational structural resolution.

  5. Photoassisted reduction of metal ions and organic dye by titanium dioxide nanoparticles in aqueous solution under anoxic conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doong, Ruey-An, E-mail: radoong@mx.nthu.edu.tw [Department of Biomedical Engineering and Environmental Sciences, National Tsing Hua University, 101, Sec. 2, Kuang Fu Road, Hsinchu, 30013, Taiwan (China); Hsieh, Tien-Chin [Department of Biomedical Engineering and Environmental Sciences, National Tsing Hua University, 101, Sec. 2, Kuang Fu Road, Hsinchu, 30013, Taiwan (China); Huang, Chin-Pao [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Delaware, Newark, 19716, Delaware (United States)

    2010-07-15

    The photoassisted reduction of metal ions and organic dye by metal-deposited Degussa P25 TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles was investigated. Copper and silver ions were selected as the target metal ions to modify the surface properties of TiO{sub 2} and to enhance the photocatalytic activity of TiO{sub 2} towards methylene blue (MB) degradation. X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were used to characterize the crystallinity, chemical species and morphology of metal-deposited TiO{sub 2}, respectively. Results showed that the particle size of metal-deposited TiO{sub 2} was larger than that of Degussa P25 TiO{sub 2}. Based on XRPD patterns and XPS spectra, it was observed that the addition of formate promoted the photoreduction of metal ion by lowering its oxidation number, and subsequently enhancing the photodegradation efficiency and rate of MB. The pseudo-first-order rate constant (k{sub obs}) for MB photodegradation by Degussa P25 TiO{sub 2} was 3.94 x 10{sup -2} min{sup -1} and increased by 1.4-1.7 times in k{sub obs} with metal-deposited TiO{sub 2} for MB photodegradation compared to simple Degussa P25 TiO{sub 2}. The increase in mass loading of metal ions significantly enhanced the photodegradation efficiency of MB; the k{sub obs} for MB degradation increased from 3.94 x 10{sup -2} min{sup -1} in the absence of metal ion to 4.64-7.28 x 10{sup -2} min{sup -1} for Ag/TiO{sub 2} and to 5.14-7.61 x 10{sup -2} min{sup -1} for Cu/TiO{sub 2}. In addition, the electrons generated from TiO{sub 2} can effectively reduce metal ions and MB simultaneously under anoxic conditions. However, metal ions and organic dye would compete for electrons from the illuminated TiO{sub 2}.

  6. Renal Hemangiopericytoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İbrahim Halil Bozkurt

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Hemangiopericytoma is an uncommon perivascular tumor originating from pericytes in the pelvis, head and tneck, and the meninges; extremely rarely in the urinary system. We report a case of incidentally detected renal mass in which radiologic evaluation was suggestive of renal cell carcinoma. First, we performed partial nephrectomy, and then, radical nephrectomy because of positive surgical margins and the pathological examination of the surgical specimen that revealed a hemangiopericytoma. No additional treatment was administered.

  7. Method for characterization of low molecular weight organic acids in atmospheric aerosols using ion chromatography mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brent, Lacey C; Reiner, Jessica L; Dickerson, Russell R; Sander, Lane C

    2014-08-05

    The structural composition of PM2.5 monitored in the atmosphere is usually divided by the analysis of organic carbon, black (also called elemental) carbon, and inorganic salts. The characterization of the chemical composition of aerosols represents a significant challenge to analysts, and studies are frequently limited to determination of aerosol bulk properties. To better understand the potential health effects and combined interactions of components in aerosols, a variety of measurement techniques for individual analytes in PM2.5 need to be implemented. The method developed here for the measurement of organic acids achieves class separation of aliphatic monoacids, aliphatic diacids, aromatic acids, and polyacids. The selective ion monitoring capability of a triple quadropole mass analyzer was frequently capable of overcoming instances of incomplete separations. Standard Reference Material (SRM) 1649b Urban Dust was characterized; 34 organic acids were qualitatively identified, and 6 organic acids were quantified.

  8. Contribution of the organic anion transporter OAT2 to the renal active tubular secretion of creatinine and mechanism for serum creatinine elevations caused by cobicistat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepist, Eve-Irene; Zhang, Xuexiang; Hao, Jia; Huang, Jane; Kosaka, Alan; Birkus, Gabriel; Murray, Bernard P; Bannister, Roy; Cihlar, Tomas; Huang, Yong; Ray, Adrian S

    2014-08-01

    Many xenobiotics including the pharmacoenhancer cobicistat increase serum creatinine by inhibiting its renal active tubular secretion without affecting the glomerular filtration rate. This study aimed to define the transporters involved in creatinine secretion, applying that knowledge to establish the mechanism for xenobiotic-induced effects. The basolateral uptake transporters organic anion transporter OAT2 and organic cation transporters OCT2 and OCT3 were found to transport creatinine. At physiologic creatinine concentrations, the specific activity of OAT2 transport was over twofold higher than OCT2 or OCT3, establishing OAT2 as a likely relevant creatinine transporter and further challenging the traditional view that creatinine is solely transported by a cationic pathway. The apical multidrug and toxin extrusion transporters MATE1 and MATE2-K demonstrated low-affinity and high-capacity transport. All drugs known to affect creatinine inhibited OCT2 and MATE1. Similar to cimetidine and ritonavir, cobicistat had the greatest effect on MATE1 with a 50% inhibition constant of 0.99 μM for creatinine transport. Trimethoprim potently inhibited MATE2-K, whereas dolutegravir preferentially inhibited OCT2. Cimetidine was unique, inhibiting all transporters that interact with creatinine. Thus, the clinical observation of elevated serum creatinine in patients taking cobicistat is likely a result of OCT2 transport, facilitating intracellular accumulation, and MATE1 inhibition.

  9. Contribution of the organic anion transporter OAT2 to the renal active tubular secretion of creatinine and mechanism for serum creatinine elevations caused by cobicistat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepist, Eve-Irene; Zhang, Xuexiang; Hao, Jia; Huang, Jane; Kosaka, Alan; Birkus, Gabriel; Murray, Bernard P; Bannister, Roy; Cihlar, Tomas; Huang, Yong; Ray, Adrian S

    2014-01-01

    Many xenobiotics including the pharmacoenhancer cobicistat increase serum creatinine by inhibiting its renal active tubular secretion without affecting the glomerular filtration rate. This study aimed to define the transporters involved in creatinine secretion, applying that knowledge to establish the mechanism for xenobiotic-induced effects. The basolateral uptake transporters organic anion transporter OAT2 and organic cation transporters OCT2 and OCT3 were found to transport creatinine. At physiologic creatinine concentrations, the specific activity of OAT2 transport was over twofold higher than OCT2 or OCT3, establishing OAT2 as a likely relevant creatinine transporter and further challenging the traditional view that creatinine is solely transported by a cationic pathway. The apical multidrug and toxin extrusion transporters MATE1 and MATE2-K demonstrated low-affinity and high-capacity transport. All drugs known to affect creatinine inhibited OCT2 and MATE1. Similar to cimetidine and ritonavir, cobicistat had the greatest effect on MATE1 with a 50% inhibition constant of 0.99 μM for creatinine transport. Trimethoprim potently inhibited MATE2-K, whereas dolutegravir preferentially inhibited OCT2. Cimetidine was unique, inhibiting all transporters that interact with creatinine. Thus, the clinical observation of elevated serum creatinine in patients taking cobicistat is likely a result of OCT2 transport, facilitating intracellular accumulation, and MATE1 inhibition. PMID:24646860

  10. Trace analysis of organic ions in ice samples by capillary electrophoresis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huber, T. [Bern Univ. (Switzerland); Schwikowski, M.; Gaeggeler, H.W. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1997-09-01

    Capillary electrophoresis was tested as a new analytical method for ice samples. Comparisons to ion chromatography were made concerning accuracy, detection limits, reproducibility, necessary sample volume and time consumption. (author) 1 fig., 3 refs.

  11. Trace analysis of organic ions in ice samples by capillary electrophoresis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huber, T.; Schwikowski, M.; Gaeggeler, H.W.

    1997-01-01

    Capillary electrophoresis was tested as a new analytical method for ice samples. Comparisons to ion chromatography were made concerning accuracy, detection limits, reproducibility, necessary sample volume and time consumption. (author) 1 fig., 3 refs

  12. Polyanthraquinone-Based Organic Cathode for High-Performance Rechargeable Magnesium-Ion Batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pan, Baofei [Joint Center for Energy Storage Research, Chemical Science and Engineering Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Lemont IL 60439 USA; Huang, Jinhua [Joint Center for Energy Storage Research, Chemical Science and Engineering Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Lemont IL 60439 USA; Feng, Zhenxing [Joint Center for Energy Storage Research, Chemical Science and Engineering Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Lemont IL 60439 USA; Zeng, Li [Applied Physics Program, Department of Materials Science and Engineering and Department of Physics and Astronomy, Northwestern University, Evanston IL 60208 USA; He, Meinan [Joint Center for Energy Storage Research, Chemical Science and Engineering Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Lemont IL 60439 USA; Zhang, Lu [Joint Center for Energy Storage Research, Chemical Science and Engineering Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Lemont IL 60439 USA; Vaughey, John T. [Joint Center for Energy Storage Research, Chemical Science and Engineering Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Lemont IL 60439 USA; Bedzyk, Michael J. [Applied Physics Program, Department of Materials Science and Engineering and Department of Physics and Astronomy, Northwestern University, Evanston IL 60208 USA; Fenter, Paul [Joint Center for Energy Storage Research, Chemical Science and Engineering Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Lemont IL 60439 USA; Zhang, Zhengcheng [Joint Center for Energy Storage Research, Chemical Science and Engineering Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Lemont IL 60439 USA; Burrell, Anthony K. [Joint Center for Energy Storage Research, Chemical Science and Engineering Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Lemont IL 60439 USA; Liao, Chen [Joint Center for Energy Storage Research, Chemical Science and Engineering Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Lemont IL 60439 USA

    2016-05-09

    Two anthraquinone-based polymers aiming at improving the capacity and voltage of magnesium ion batteries, were synthesized and characterized. The excellent battery cycling performance was demonstrated with the electrolyte consisting of magnesium bis(hexamethyldisilazide) and magnesium chloride.

  13. Selectivity of externally facing ion-binding sites in the Na/K pump to alkali metals and organic cations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratheal, Ian M; Virgin, Gail K; Yu, Haibo; Roux, Benoît; Gatto, Craig; Artigas, Pablo

    2010-10-26

    The Na/K pump is a P-type ATPase that exchanges three intracellular Na(+) ions for two extracellular K(+) ions through the plasmalemma of nearly all animal cells. The mechanisms involved in cation selection by the pump's ion-binding sites (site I and site II bind either Na(+) or K(+); site III binds only Na(+)) are poorly understood. We studied cation selectivity by outward-facing sites (high K(+) affinity) of Na/K pumps expressed in Xenopus oocytes, under voltage clamp. Guanidinium(+), methylguanidinium(+), and aminoguanidinium(+) produced two phenomena possibly reflecting actions at site III: (i) voltage-dependent inhibition (VDI) of outwardly directed pump current at saturating K(+), and (ii) induction of pump-mediated, guanidinium-derivative-carried inward current at negative potentials without Na(+) and K(+). In contrast, formamidinium(+) and acetamidinium(+) induced K(+)-like outward currents. Measurement of ouabain-sensitive ATPase activity and radiolabeled cation uptake confirmed that these cations are external K(+) congeners. Molecular dynamics simulations indicate that bound organic cations induce minor distortion of the binding sites. Among tested metals, only Li(+) induced Na(+)-like VDI, whereas all metals tested except Na(+) induced K(+)-like outward currents. Pump-mediated K(+)-like organic cation transport challenges the concept of rigid structural models in which ion specificity at site I and site II arises from a precise and unique arrangement of coordinating ligands. Furthermore, actions by guanidinium(+) derivatives suggest that Na(+) binds to site III in a hydrated form and that the inward current observed without external Na(+) and K(+) represents cation transport when normal occlusion at sites I and II is impaired. These results provide insights on external ion selectivity at the three binding sites.

  14. Effects of the Charge Ions Strength on the Swelling of Organic-Inorganic Nanogels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Qin; Lu, Xiangguo; Wang, Jing; Guo, Qi; Niu, Liwei [Northeast Petroleum University, Daqing (China)

    2016-07-15

    The swelling behavior and swelling mechanism of hydrogels can be greatly affected by the charge strength of ions in them. To investigate such effects, we prepared two gels: a carboxylic acid gel (CAG) and a poly (2-acrylamide–methyl propane sulfonic acid) gel (SAG) based on starchy polyacrylamide (PAM) nanocomposite gels, both with montmorillonite, which underwent in situ intercalation, and used them as probes in swelling experiments. The equilibrium swelling rates (ESRs) of the hydrogels in both salt water and acidic water strongly depended on the charge strength of the ions in the chains. SAG had a higher ESR than CAG at the same mole ratio of polymer/water, which is attributed to the greater electrostatic repulsion between the strong electrolyte ions of SAG. Both water salinity and hydrogen ion contact of the hydrogels weakened ESR with the enhancement of charge ionic strength. The downward trend of ESR with increasing concentration of salt or hydrogen ions became weaker in SAG compared to CAG, which is attributed to the shielding and deprotonation effects of the strong electrolyte ions. Regarding the swelling mechanism, the chain relaxation occurred in neutral and acidic solutions for SAG and in neutral and weak acidic solutions for CAG, but water diffusion dominated in strong acidic solutions for CAG, leading to different swelling behaviors.

  15. Evaluation of leachable behavior from ion exchange resins effects of organic impurities on BWR water chemistry. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Igarashi, Hiroo; Nishimura, Yusaku; Ohsumi, Katsumi; Uchida, Shunsuke; Matsui, Tsuneo

    1999-01-01

    The elution rate of leachables from ion exchange resin, which is used in condensate demineralizers and is one of several major sources of organic compounds in BWR cooling water, was measured. Properties of the leachables and elution rate depended on the kind of ion exchange resin and the years of use. The organic compounds elution rate of cation exchange resin was constant for 5 years and the molecular weight of these leachables was low. After 5 years, the elution rate increased and leachables consisted of organic compounds of high molecular weights of several thousand. The elution rate of anion exchange resin decreased yearly. The difference in the elution behavior was attributed to a dependence on oxidation degradation promoted by transition metal catalysis. The cation exchange resin included absorbed transition metal, while the anion exchange resin did not. An empirical formula showing the time dependence of the elution rate of organic compounds was derived. The formula was judged to be appropriate based on simulations of an actual BWR plant and comparisons of impurity concentrations with actual reactor water data. (author)

  16. Assessment of improved organ at risk sparing for meningioma: Light ion beam therapy as boost versus sole treatment option

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mock, Ulrike; Georg, Dietmar; Sölkner, Lukas; Suppan, Christian; Vatnitsky, Stanislav M.; Flechl, Birgit; Mayer, Ramona; Dieckmann, Karin; Knäusl, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To compare photons, protons and carbon ions and their combinations for treatment of atypical and anaplastical skull base meningioma. Material and methods: Two planning target volumes (PTV initial /PTV boost ) were delineated for 10 patients (prescribed doses 50 Gy(RBE) and 10 Gy(RBE)). Plans for intensity modulated photon (IMXT), proton (IMPT) and carbon ion therapy ( 12 C) were generated assuming a non-gantry scenario for particles. The following combinations were compared: IMXT + IMXT/IMPT/ 12 C; IMPT + IMPT/ 12 C; and 12 C + 12 C. Plan quality was evaluated by target conformity and homogeneity (CI, HI), V 95% , D 2% and D 50% and dose-volume-histogram (DVH) parameters for organs-at-risk (OAR). If dose escalation was possible, it was performed until OAR tolerance levels were reached. Results: CI was worst for IMXT. HI < 0.05 ± 0.01 for 12 C was significantly better than for IMXT. For all treatment options dose escalation above 60 Gy(RBE) was possible for four patients, but impossible for six patients. Compared to IMXT + IMXT, ion beam therapy showed an improved sparing for most OARs, e.g. using protons and carbon ions D 50% was reduced by more than 50% for the ipsilateral eye and the brainstem. Conclusion: Highly conformal IMPT and 12 C plans could be generated with a non-gantry scenario. Improved OAR sparing favors both sole 12 C and/or IMPT plans

  17. Selective fluorescence sensors for detection of nitroaniline and metal Ions based on ligand-based luminescent metal-organic frameworks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Zongchao; Wang, Fengqin; Lin, Xiangyi; Wang, Chengmiao; Fu, Yiyuan; Wang, Xiaojun; Zhao, Yongnan; Li, Guodong

    2015-01-01

    Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) are porous crystalline materials with high potential for applications in fluorescence sensors. In this work, two solvent-induced Zn(II)–based metal-organic frameworks, Zn_3L_3(DMF)_2 (1) and Zn_3L_3(DMA)_2(H_2O)_3 (2) (L=4,4′-stilbenedicarboxylic acid), were investigated as selective sensing materials for detection of nitroaromatic compounds and metal ions. The sensing experiments show that 1 and 2 both exhibit selective fluorescence quenching toward nitroaniline with a low detection limit. In addition, 1 exhibits high selectivity for detection of Fe"3"+ and Al"3"+ by significant fluorescence quenching or enhancement effect. While for 2, it only exhibits significant fluorescence quenching effect for Fe"3"+. The results indicate that 1 and 2 are both promising fluorescence sensors for detecting and recognizing nitroaniline and metal ions with high sensitivity and selectivity. - Graphical abstract: Two MOFs have been selected as the fluorescence sensing materials for selectively sensing mitroaromatic compounds and metal ions. The high selectivity makes them promising fluorescence sensors for detecting and recognizing nitroaniline and Fe"3"+ or Al"3"+.

  18. The efficiency of macroporous polystyrene ion-exchange resins in natural organic matter removal from surface water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urbanowska Agnieszka

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Natural water sources used for water treatment contains various organic and inorganic compounds. Surface waters are commonly contaminated with natural organic matter (NOM. NOM removal from water is important e.g. due to lowering the risk of disinfection by-product formation during chlorination. Ion exchange with the use of synthetic ion-exchange resins is an alternative process to typical NOM removal approach (e.g. coagulation, adsorption or oxidation as most NOM compounds have anionic character. Moreover, neutral fraction could be removed from water due to its adsorption on resin surface. In this study, applicability of two macroporous, polystyrene ion exchange resins (BD400FD and A100 in NOM removal from water was assessed including comparison of treatment efficiency in various process set-ups and conditions. Moreover, resin regeneration effectivity was determined. Obtained results shown that examined resins could be applied in NOM removal and it should be noticed that column set-up yielded better results (contrary to batch set-up. Among the examined resins A100 one possessed better properties. It was determined that increase of solution pH resulted in a slight decrease in treatment efficiency while higher temperature improved it. It was also observed that regeneration efficiency was comparable in both tested methods but batch set-up required less reagents.

  19. Ion-beam-directed self-organization of conducting nanowire arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batzill, M.; Bardou, F.; Snowdon, K. J.

    2001-01-01

    Glancing-incidence ion-beam irradiation has been used both to ease kinetic constraints which otherwise restrict the establishment of long-range order and to impose external control on the orientation of nanowire arrays formed during stress-field-induced self-ordering of calcium atoms on a CaF 2 (111) surface. The arrays exhibit exceptional long-range order, with the long axis of the wires oriented along the azimuthal direction of ion-beam incidence. Transport measurements reveal a highly anisotropic electrical conductivity, whose maximum lies in the direction of the long axis of the 10.1-nm-period calcium wires

  20. Self-assembly of metal–organic frameworks and graphene oxide as precursors for lithium-ion battery applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Xia [Southwest University, Key Laboratory of Luminescent and Real-Time Analytical Chemistry, Ministry of Education, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering (China); Liu, Linlin [City University of Hong Kong, Department of Physics and Materials Science, Center of Super-Diamond and Advanced Films (COSDAF) (Hong Kong); Yuan, Ruo, E-mail: yuanruo@swu.edu.cn [Southwest University, Key Laboratory of Luminescent and Real-Time Analytical Chemistry, Ministry of Education, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering (China); Lee, Chun-Sing, E-mail: apcslee@cityu.edu.hk [City University of Hong Kong, Department of Physics and Materials Science, Center of Super-Diamond and Advanced Films (COSDAF) (Hong Kong)

    2016-10-15

    We fabricated composites of Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}/reduced graphene oxide as lithium-ion batteries anode material with controlled structures by employing self-assembly of metal–organic frameworks (MOFs) and polymer-functionalized graphene oxide as precursors. By electrostatic interaction, the negatively charged MOFs, Prussian Blue (PB), are assembled on poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) (PDDA)-functionalized graphene oxide (positive charge). Then the PB cubes become FeOOH nanosheets when treated with sodium hydroxide. Upon further annealing, the FeOOH nanosheets transform to Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoparticles while the graphene oxide become reduced graphene oxide simultaneously. It was found that the composites have good performance as anode of lithium-ion battery. This work shows a new way for self-assembling MOFs and 2D materials.

  1. Comparison of metal toxic impacts between aquatic and terrestrial organisms: is the free ion concentration a sufficient descriptor?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Owsianiak, Mikolaj; Rosenbaum, Ralph K.; Larsen, Henrik Fred

    2011-01-01

    Characterization of metal toxic impacts in comparative risk assessment and life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) should take into account metal speciation and interactions with soil/water organic constituents, because these mechanisms control metal bioavailability and may influence their toxic...... that the free metal ion is an appropriate “general”descriptor of metal toxicity. Results for 128 laboratory tests on Daphnia magna exposed to copper ions (Cu2+) in water show that variation of several orders of magnitude are observed between the toxicity tests. These variations may be a result of the inability...... of magnitude difference occur for the extreme case of barley (Hordeum vulgare). Given the scarcity of terrestrial effect data compared to aquatic data, reliable and transparent, mechanistic-based predictions of terrestrial toxic impacts from aquatic effect data would be an important step ahead in the context...

  2. Construction of three lanthanide metal-organic frameworks: Synthesis, structure, magnetic properties and highly selective sensing of metal ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Xiu-Mei, E-mail: zhangxiumeilb@126.com; Li, Peng; Gao, Wei; Liu, Feng; Liu, Jie-Ping

    2016-12-15

    Three lanthanide metal-organic frameworks (Ln-MOFs), [Ln(TZI)(H{sub 2}O){sub 4}]·3H{sub 2}O (Ln=Gd (1) and Tb (2) and Dy (3), H{sub 3}TZI=5-(1H-tetrazol-5-yl)isophthalic acid), have been synthesized under hydrothermal conditions. Single crystal X-ray diffraction reveals that 1–3 are isostructural and display a 1D double chain based on dinuclear motifs with (μ-COO){sub 2} double bridges. Magnetic studies indicate antiferromagnetic interactions in 1, ferromagnetic interactions in 2 and 3. Furthermore, compound 3 displays a slow relaxation behavior. Compound 2 exhibits intense characteristic green emission of Tb(III) ions in the solid state, which can be observed by the naked eye under UV light. Interestingly, 2 can selectively sense Pb{sup 2+} and Fe{sup 3+} ions through luminescence enhancement and quenching, respectively. The luminescence quenching mechanisms have been investigated in detail. The study on luminescence Ln-MOFs as a probe for sensing Pb{sup 2+} and Fe{sup 3+} ions is exceedingly rare example. - Graphical abstract: Three Ln-MOFs were successfully synthesized using a 5-(1H-tetrazol-5-yl)isophthalic acid ligand. They displays different magnetic behavior. Especially, the Dy(III) compound slow relaxation behavior. Interestingly, the Tb(III) compound can selectively sense Pb{sup 2+} and Fe{sup 3+} ions through luminescence enhancement and quenching, respectively. - Highlights: • Three Ln-MOFs with tetrazolate dicarboxylate ligand. • Dy(III) compound displays slow relaxation behavior. • The Tb(III) compound shows highly selective luminescence sensing of the Fe{sup 3+} and Pb{sup 2+} ions.

  3. Evaluation of structural and optical properties of Ce3+ ions doped (PVA/PVP) composite films for new organic semiconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, F. M.; Kershi, R. M.; Sayed, M. A.; AbouDeif, Y. M.

    2018-06-01

    Polymer blend films based on Polyvinyl alcohol (PVA)/Poly(vinylpyrrolidone) (PVP) doped with different concentration of cerium ions [(PVA/PVP)-x wt.% Ce3+] (x = 3%, 5%, 10% and 15%) were prepared by the conventional solution casting technique. The characteristics of the prepared polymer composite films were studied using X-ray diffraction (XRD), FT-IR and UV-Vis. spectroscopy. The XRD patterns of the investigated samples revealed a clear reduction on the structural parameters such as crystallinity degree and cluster size D of the doped PVA/PVP blend films compared with the virgin one whereas there is no big difference in the d spacing of the product composite films. Significant changes in FT-IR spectra are observed which reveal an interactions between the cerium ions and PVA/PVP blends. The absorption spectra in the ultraviolet-visible region showed a wide red shift in the fundamental absorption edge of (PVA/PVP)-x wt. % Ce3+ composites. The optical gap Eg gradually decreased from 4.54 eV for the undoped PVA/PVP film to 3.10 eV by increasing Ce3+ ions content. The optical dispersion parameters have been analyzed according to Wemple-Didomenico single oscillator model. The dispersion energy Ed, the single oscillator energy Eo, the average inter-band oscillator wavelength λo and the static refractive index no are strongly affected by cerium ions doping. Cerium ions incorporation in PVA/PVP blend films leads to a significant increase in the refractive index and decrease in the optical gap. These results are likely of great important in varieties of applications including polymer waveguides, organic semiconductors, polymer solar cells and optoelectronics devices.

  4. Optimization and critical evaluation of decellularization strategies to develop renal extracellular matrix scaffolds as biological templates for organ engineering and transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caralt, M; Uzarski, J S; Iacob, S; Obergfell, K P; Berg, N; Bijonowski, B M; Kiefer, K M; Ward, H H; Wandinger-Ness, A; Miller, W M; Zhang, Z J; Abecassis, M M; Wertheim, J A

    2015-01-01

    The ability to generate patient-specific cells through induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) technology has encouraged development of three-dimensional extracellular matrix (ECM) scaffolds as bioactive substrates for cell differentiation with the long-range goal of bioengineering organs for transplantation. Perfusion decellularization uses the vasculature to remove resident cells, leaving an intact ECM template wherein new cells grow; however, a rigorous evaluative framework assessing ECM structural and biochemical quality is lacking. To address this, we developed histologic scoring systems to quantify fundamental characteristics of decellularized rodent kidneys: ECM structure (tubules, vessels, glomeruli) and cell removal. We also assessed growth factor retention--indicating matrix biofunctionality. These scoring systems evaluated three strategies developed to decellularize kidneys (1% Triton X-100, 1% Triton X-100/0.1% sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and 0.02% Trypsin-0.05% EGTA/1% Triton X-100). Triton and Triton/SDS preserved renal microarchitecture and retained matrix-bound basic fibroblast growth factor and vascular endothelial growth factor. Trypsin caused structural deterioration and growth factor loss. Triton/SDS-decellularized scaffolds maintained 3 h of leak-free blood flow in a rodent transplantation model and supported repopulation with human iPSC-derived endothelial cells and tubular epithelial cells ex vivo. Taken together, we identify an optimal Triton/SDS-based decellularization strategy that produces a biomatrix that may ultimately serve as a rodent model for kidney bioengineering. © Copyright 2014 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.

  5. Redox Active Transition Metal ions Make Melanin Susceptible to Chemical Degradation Induced by Organic Peroxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zadlo, Andrzej; Pilat, Anna; Sarna, Michal; Pawlak, Anna; Sarna, Tadeusz

    2017-12-01

    With aging, retinal pigment epithelium melanosomes, by fusion with the age pigment lipofuscin, form complex granules called melanolipofuscin. Lipofuscin granules may contain oxidized proteins and lipid hydroperoxides, which in melanolipofuscin could chemically modify melanin polymer, while transition metal ions present in melanin can accelerate such oxidative modifications. The aim of this research was to examine the effect of selected transition metal ions on melanin susceptibility to chemical modification induced by the water-soluble tert-butyl hydroperoxide used as an oxidizing agent. Synthetic melanin obtained by DOPA autooxidation and melanosomes isolated from bovine retinal pigment epithelium were analyzed. To monitor tert-butyl hydroperoxide-induced oxidative changes of DMa and BMs, electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy, UV-vis absorption spectroscopy, dynamic light scattering, atomic force microscopy and electron paramagnetic resonance oximetry were employed. These measurements revealed that both copper and iron ions accelerated chemical degradation induced by tert-butyl hydroperoxide, while zinc ions had no effect. Strong prooxidant action was detected only in the case of melanosomes and melanin degraded in the presence of iron. It can be postulated that similar chemical processes, if they occur in situ in melanolipofuscin granules of the human retinal pigment epithelium, would modify antioxidant properties of melanin and its reactivity.

  6. Electrochemical studies of ferrocene in a lithium ion conducting organic carbonate electrolyte

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laoire, Cormac O.; Plichta, Edward; Hendrickson, Mary; Mukerjee, Sanjeev; Abraham, K.M.

    2009-01-01

    We carried out a detailed study of the kinetics of oxidation of ferrocene (Fc) to ferrocenium ion (Fc + ) in the non-aqueous lithium ion conducting electrolyte composed of a solution of 1 M LiPF 6 in 1:1 EC:EMC solvent mixture. This study using cyclic (CV) and rotating disk electrode (RDE) voltammetry showed that the Fc 0 /Fc + redox couple is reversible in this highly concentrated electrolyte. The ferrocene and ferrocenium ion diffusion coefficients (D) were calculated from these results. In addition, the electron transfer rate constant (k 0 ) and the exchange current density for the oxidation of ferrocene were determined. A comparison of the kinetic data obtained from the two electrochemical techniques appears to show that the data from the RDE experiments are more reliable because they are collected under strict mass transport control. A Tafel slope of c.a. 79 mV/decade and a transfer coefficient α of 0.3 obtained from analysis of the RDE data for ferrocene oxidation suggest that the structure of the activated complex is closer to that of the oxidized specie due to strong interactions with the carbonate solvents. The experiments reported here are relevant to the study of redox reagents for the chemical overcharge protection of Li-ion batteries.

  7. Determination of ion mobilities of radionuclides in a free electrolyte. Methods and experimental organization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milanov, M.; Doberenz, W.; Marinov, A.; Khalkin, V.A.

    1983-01-01

    A new variant of technique for determining ion mobilities by means of horizontal zone electrophoresis in free solutions is developed. Setup circuit is presented. Some details of experiment and results of measuring limiting mobilities of 131 I - and 160 Tb 3+ are given. On these examples the method reproducibility was checked

  8. Parasites and chronic renal failure

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammadi Manesh, Reza; Hosseini Safa, Ahmad; Sharafi, Seyedeh Maryam; Jafari, Rasool; Bahadoran, Mehran; Yousefi, Morteza; Nasri, Hamid; Yousofi Darani, Hossein

    2014-01-01

    Suppression of the human immune system results in an increase in susceptibility to infection by various infectious agents. Conditions such as AIDS, organ transplantation and chronic renal insufficiency (CRI) are the most important cause of insufficient immune response against infections. Long term renal disorders result in uremia, which can suppress human immune system. Parasitic infections are one of the most important factors indicating the public health problems of the societies. These inf...

  9. Renal phosphate handling: Physiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narayan Prasad

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Phosphorus is a common anion. It plays an important role in energy generation. Renal phosphate handling is regulated by three organs parathyroid, kidney and bone through feedback loops. These counter regulatory loops also regulate intestinal absorption and thus maintain serum phosphorus concentration in physiologic range. The parathyroid hormone, vitamin D, Fibrogenic growth factor 23 (FGF23 and klotho coreceptor are the key regulators of phosphorus balance in body.

  10. Nitrogen-modified carbon nanostructures derived from metal-organic frameworks as high performance anodes for Li-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen, Cai; Zhao, Chongchong; Xin, Fengxia; Cao, Can; Han, Wei-Qiang

    2015-01-01

    Here, we report preparation of nitrogen-modified nanostructure carbons through carbonization of Cu-based metal organic nanofibers at 700 °C under argon gas atmosphere. After removal of copper through chemical treatment with acids, pure N-modified nanostructure carbon with a nitrogen content of 8.62 wt% is obtained. When use as anodes for lithium-ion battery, the nanostructure carbon electrode has a discharge capacity of 853.1 mAh g −1 measured at a current of 500 mA g −1 after 800 cycles.

  11. "Trampoline" ejection of organic molecules from graphene and graphite via keV cluster ions impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verkhoturov, Stanislav V.; Gołuński, Mikołaj; Verkhoturov, Dmitriy S.; Geng, Sheng; Postawa, Zbigniew; Schweikert, Emile A.

    2018-04-01

    We present the data on ejection of molecules and emission of molecular ions caused by single impacts of 50 keV C602+ on a molecular layer of deuterated phenylalanine (D8Phe) deposited on free standing, 2-layer graphene. The projectile impacts on the graphene side stimulate the abundant ejection of intact molecules and the emission of molecular ions in the transmission direction. To gain insight into the mechanism of ejection, Molecular Dynamic simulations were performed. It was found that the projectile penetrates the thin layer of graphene, partially depositing the projectile's kinetic energy, and molecules are ejected from the hot area around the hole that is made by the projectile. The yield, Y, of negative ions of deprotonated phenylalanine, (D8Phe-H)-, emitted in the transmission direction is 0.1 ions per projectile impact. To characterize the ejection and ionization of molecules, we have performed the experiments on emission of (D8Phe-H)- from the surface of bulk D8Phe (Y = 0.13) and from the single molecular layer of D8Phe deposited on bulk pyrolytic graphite (Y = 0.15). We show that, despite the similar yields of molecular ions, the scenario of the energy deposition and ejection of molecules is different for the case of graphene due to the confined volume of projectile-analyte interaction. The projectile impact on the graphene-D8Phe sample stimulates the collective radial movement of analyte atoms, which compresses the D8Phe layer radially from the hole. At the same time, this compression bends and stretches the graphene membrane around the hole thus accumulating potential energy. The accumulated potential energy is transformed into the kinetic energy of correlated movement upward for membrane atoms, thus the membrane acts as a trampoline for the molecules. The ejected molecules are effectively ionized; the ionization probability is ˜30× higher compared to that obtained for the bulk D8Phe target. The proposed mechanism of ionization involves tunneling of

  12. "Trampoline" ejection of organic molecules from graphene and graphite via keV cluster ions impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verkhoturov, Stanislav V; Gołuński, Mikołaj; Verkhoturov, Dmitriy S; Geng, Sheng; Postawa, Zbigniew; Schweikert, Emile A

    2018-04-14

    We present the data on ejection of molecules and emission of molecular ions caused by single impacts of 50 keV C 60 2+ on a molecular layer of deuterated phenylalanine (D8Phe) deposited on free standing, 2-layer graphene. The projectile impacts on the graphene side stimulate the abundant ejection of intact molecules and the emission of molecular ions in the transmission direction. To gain insight into the mechanism of ejection, Molecular Dynamic simulations were performed. It was found that the projectile penetrates the thin layer of graphene, partially depositing the projectile's kinetic energy, and molecules are ejected from the hot area around the hole that is made by the projectile. The yield, Y, of negative ions of deprotonated phenylalanine, (D8Phe-H) - , emitted in the transmission direction is 0.1 ions per projectile impact. To characterize the ejection and ionization of molecules, we have performed the experiments on emission of (D8Phe-H) - from the surface of bulk D8Phe (Y = 0.13) and from the single molecular layer of D8Phe deposited on bulk pyrolytic graphite (Y = 0.15). We show that, despite the similar yields of molecular ions, the scenario of the energy deposition and ejection of molecules is different for the case of graphene due to the confined volume of projectile-analyte interaction. The projectile impact on the graphene-D8Phe sample stimulates the collective radial movement of analyte atoms, which compresses the D8Phe layer radially from the hole. At the same time, this compression bends and stretches the graphene membrane around the hole thus accumulating potential energy. The accumulated potential energy is transformed into the kinetic energy of correlated movement upward for membrane atoms, thus the membrane acts as a trampoline for the molecules. The ejected molecules are effectively ionized; the ionization probability is ∼30× higher compared to that obtained for the bulk D8Phe target. The proposed mechanism of ionization involves

  13. Sorption of plutonium and curium on ion exchange resins in mixed aqueous organic solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haidvogel, N.; Reitsamer, G.; Grass, F.

    1974-12-01

    The sorption of the sulfate and nitrate-complexes of the actinides Pu(III), Pu(IV), Pu(VI), Am(III) and Om(III) on the ion-exchange-resins Dowex 1X8 and Dowex 50 WX8 is investigated. The strong sorbability of these actinide ions in solvents with high content of alcohol is explained by the existence of anionic complexes like Pu(III) (SO 4 ) 2 - , Pu(IV) (SO 4 ) 3 2 - , Pu(VI)O 2 (SO 4 ) 2 2 - , Am(SO 4 ) 2 - respectively Am(NO 3 ) 4 - and Om(NO 3 ) 4 - . The taking of autoradiographs from the thin-layer chromatograms by the aid of a special device and the evaluation of the autoradiographs by a particular photodensitometer are described. The measurement of the radioactivity of the α-emitting nuclides Pu 239, Am 241 and Om 242 are done by liquid-scintillation spectrometry. (author)

  14. Synthesis of novel inorganic-organic hybrid materials for simultaneous adsorption of metal ions and organic molecules in aqueous solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, Xinliang [State Key Laboratory of Applied Organic Chemistry, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Institute of Biochemical Engineering and Environmental Technology, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Li, Yanfeng, E-mail: liyf@lzu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Applied Organic Chemistry, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Institute of Biochemical Engineering and Environmental Technology, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Yu, Cui; Ma, Yingxia; Yang, Liuqing; Hu, Huaiyuan [State Key Laboratory of Applied Organic Chemistry, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Institute of Biochemical Engineering and Environmental Technology, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China)

    2011-12-30

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Novel hybrid materials were synthesized and employed in the absorption of heavy metal and organic pollutants. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A novel method for amphiphilic adsorbent material synthesis was first reported in this paper. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The adsorbent material showed excellent adsorption capacity to Pb(II) and phenol. - Abstract: In this paper, atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) and radical grafting polymerization were combined to synthesize a novel amphiphilic hybrid material, meanwhile, the amphiphilic hybrid material was employed in the absorption of heavy metal and organic pollutants. After the formation of attapulgite (ATP) ATRP initiator, ATRP block copolymers of styrene (St) and divinylbenzene (DVB) were grafted from it as ATP-P(S-b-DVB). Then radical polymerization of acrylonitrile (AN) was carried out with pendent double bonds in the DVD units successfully, finally we got the inorganic-organic hybrid materials ATP-P(S-b-DVB-g-AN). A novel amphiphilic hybrid material ATP-P(S-b-DVB-g-AO) (ASDO) was obtained after transforming acrylonitrile (AN) units into acrylamide oxime (AO) as hydrophilic segment. The adsorption capacity of ASDO for Pb(II) could achieve 131.6 mg/g, and the maximum removal capacity of ASDO towards phenol was found to be 18.18 mg/g in the case of monolayer adsorption at 30 Degree-Sign C. The optimum pH was 5 for both lead and phenol adsorption. The adsorption kinetic suited pseudo-second-order equation and the equilibrium fitted the Freundlich model very well under optimal conditions. At the same time FT-IR, TEM and TGA were also used to study its structure and property.

  15. Morphological change of self-organized protrusions of fluoropolymer surface by ion beam irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitamura, Akane; Kobayashi, Tomohiro; Satoh, Takahiro; Koka, Masashi; Kamiya, Tomihiro; Suzuki, Akihiro; Terai, Takayuki

    2013-01-01

    Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) and fluorinated ethylene propylene (FEP) are typical fluoropolymers displaying several desirable technological properties such as electrical insulation and high chemical resistance. When their surfaces are irradiated with ion beams, dense micro-protrusions formed after the emergence and spread of micropores across the entire irradiated area, allowing culture cells to spread on the top of the protrusions. In this study, we investigate the morphological changes introduced in the fluoropolymer surfaces by ion beams as the energy of the beams is increased. When an FEP sample was irradiated with a nitrogen ion beam with an energy of less than 350 keV at 1.0 μA/cm 2 , protrusions were formed with a density between 2 × 10 7 /cm 2 and 2 × 10 8 /cm 2 . However, at energies higher than 350 keV, the protrusions became sparse, and the density dropped to 5 × 10 2 /cm 2 . Protrusions appeared sporadically during irradiation at high energies, and the top of the protrusions appeared as spots inside the sample, which were difficult to etch and became elongated as the erosion of the surface progressed. Erosion was caused by sputtering of FEP molecules and evaporation at notably elevated temperatures on the surface. Analysis based on attenuated total reflectance/Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy showed the presence of C=C bonds as well as –COOH, –C=O, and –OH bonds on all irradiated samples. Their concentration on the surface densely covered with micro-protrusions was higher than that on the surface with sparse protrusions after irradiation at energies exceeding 350 keV. Thus, we determined a suitable range for the ion energy for creating FEP surfaces densely covered with protrusions

  16. Proton and metal ion binding to natural organic polyelectrolytes-I. Studies with synthetic model compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinsky, J.A.; Reddy, M.M.

    1984-01-01

    A unified physico-chemical model, based on a modified Henderson-Hasselbalch equation, for the analysis of ion complexation reactions involving charged polymeric systems is presented and verified. In this model pH = pKa+p(??Ka) + log(??/1 - ??) where Ka is the intrinsic acid dissociation constant of the ionizable functional groups on the polymer, ??Ka is the deviation of the intrinsic constant due to electrostatic interaction between the hydrogen ion and the polyanion, and alpha (??) is the polyacid degree of ionization. Using this approach pKa values for repeating acidic units of polyacrylic (PAA) and polymethacrylic (PMA) acids were found to be 4.25 ?? 0.03 and 4.8 ?? 0.1, respectively. The polyion electrostatic deviation term derived from the potentiometric titration data (i.e. p(??Ka)) is used to calculate metal ion concentration at the complexation site on the surface of the polyanion. Intrinsic cobalt-polycarboxylate binding constants (7.5 for PAA and 5.6 for PMA), obtained using this procedure, are consistent with the range of published binding constants for cobalt-monomer carboxylate complexes. In two phase systems incorporation of a Donnan membrane potential term allows determination of the intrinsic pKa of a cross-linked PMA gel, pKa = 4.83, in excellent agreement with the value obtained for the linear polyelectrolyte and the monomer. Similarly, the intrinsic stability constant for cobalt ion binding to a PMA-gel (??CoPMA+ = 11) was found to be in agreement with the linear polyelectrolyte analogue and the published data for cobalt-carboxylate monodentate complexes. ?? 1984.

  17. New experiments in organic, fast-atom-bomdardment, and secondary-ion mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DiDonato, G.C.

    1987-01-01

    The goal of research presented in this dissertation is the creative use of new ionization and instrumental techniques in mass spectrometry. This goal manifests itself in three areas of mass spectrometry. In the first portion, modern, state-of-the-art instrumentation and new experiments were used to re-examine the mass spectra of transition-metal acetates and acetylacetonates. High resolution, chemical ionization, negative chemical ionization, and extended-mass-range mass spectrometry uncovered a wealth of new gas-phase ionic species. Energy-resolved mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry was applied to the characterization of molecular and fragment ion first-row transition-metal acetylacetonates, and comprises the second portion of the thesis. Studies in fast-atom-bombardment mass spectrometry are the subject of the third portion of the dissertation. Since fast-atom bombardment samples a liquid matrix, absolute and relative abundances of sputtered secondary ions are influenced by solution chemistry. The design and construction of an imaging secondary-ion mass spectrometer is the subject of the final portion of the thesis. This instrument provides for direct mass-spectrometric analysis of thin-layer and paper chromatograms and electrophoretograms

  18. Self-organization of nanocluster δ-layers at ion-beam-mixed Si-SiO2 interfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roentzsch, L.

    2003-11-01

    This diploma thesis presents experimental evidence of a theoretical concept which predicts the self-organization of δ-layers of silicon nanoclusters in the buried oxide of a MOS-like structure. This approach of ''bottom-up'' structuring might be of eminent importance in view of future semiconductor memory devices. Unconventionally, a 15 nm thin SiO 2 layer, which is enclosed by a 50 nm poly-Si capping layer and the Si substrate, is irradiated with Si + ions. Ion impact drives the system to a state far from thermodynamic equilibrium, i.e. the local composition of the target is modified to a degree unattainable in common processes. A region of SiO x (x 2 matrix at a distance of ∼3 nm from the Si substrate. The physical mechanisms of ion mixing of the two Si-SiO 2 interfaces and subsequent phase separation, which result in the desired sample structure, are elucidated from the viewpoint of computer simulations. In addition, experimental evidence is presented based on various methods, including TEM, RBS, and SIMS. A novel method of Si nanocluster decoration is of particular importance which applies Ge as contrast enhancing element in TEM studies of tiny Si nanoclusters. (orig.)

  19. Polystyrene Sulfonate Threaded through a Metal-Organic Framework Membrane for Fast and Selective Lithium-Ion Separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yi; Ying, Yulong; Mao, Yiyin; Peng, Xinsheng; Chen, Banglin

    2016-11-21

    Extraction of lithium ions from salt-lake brines is very important to produce lithium compounds. Herein, we report a new approach to construct polystyrene sulfonate (PSS) threaded HKUST-1 metal-organic framework (MOF) membranes through an in situ confinement conversion process. The resulting membrane PSS@HKUST-1-6.7, with unique anchored three-dimensional sulfonate networks, shows a very high Li + conductivity of 5.53×10 -4  S cm -1 at 25 °C, 1.89×10 -3  S cm -1 at 70 °C, and Li + flux of 6.75 mol m -2  h -1 , which are five orders higher than that of the pristine HKUST-1 membrane. Attributed to the different size sieving effects and the affinity differences of the Li + , Na + , K + , and Mg 2+ ions to the sulfonate groups, the PSS@HKUST-1-6.7 membrane exhibits ideal selectivities of 78, 99, and 10296 for Li + /Na + , Li + /K + , Li + /Mg 2+ and real binary ion selectivities of 35, 67, and 1815, respectively, the highest ever reported among ionic conductors and Li + extraction membranes. © 2016 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Spontaneous arylation of activated carbon from aminobenzene organic acids as source of diazonium ions in mild conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lebègue, Estelle; Brousse, Thierry; Gaubicher, Joël; Cougnon, Charles

    2013-01-01

    Activated carbon products modified with benzoic, benzenesulfonic and benzylphosphonic acid groups were prepared by spontaneous reduction of aryldiazonium ions in situ generated in water from the corresponding aminobenzene organic acids without addition of an external acid. Electrochemistry and NMR studies show that the advancement of the diazotization reaction depends both on the acidity and the electronic effect of the organic acid substituent, giving a mixture of diazonium, amine and triazene functionalities. Carbon products prepared by reaction of activated carbon Norit with 4-aminobenzenecarboxylic acid, 4-aminobenzenesulfonic acid and (4-aminobenzyl)phosphonic acid were analyzed by chemical elemental analysis and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy experiments. Results show that this strategy is well suited for the chemical functionalization, giving a maximized grafting yield due to a chemical cooperation of amine and diazonium functionalities

  1. Lansoprazole Exacerbates Pemetrexed-Mediated Hematologic Toxicity by Competitive Inhibition of Renal Basolateral Human Organic Anion Transporter 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikemura, Kenji; Hamada, Yugo; Kaya, Chinatsu; Enokiya, Tomoyuki; Muraki, Yuichi; Nakahara, Hiroki; Fujimoto, Hajime; Kobayashi, Tetsu; Iwamoto, Takuya; Okuda, Masahiro

    2016-10-01

    Pemetrexed, a multitargeted antifolate, is eliminated by tubular secretion via human organic anion transporter 3 (hOAT3). Although proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are frequently used in cancer patients, the drug interaction between PPIs and pemetrexed remains to be clarified. In this study, we examined the drug interaction between pemetrexed and PPIs in hOAT3-expressing cultured cells, and retrospectively analyzed the impact of PPIs on the development of hematologic toxicity in 108 patients who received pemetrexed and carboplatin treatment of nonsquamous non-small cell lung cancer for the first time between January 2011 and June 2015. We established that pemetrexed was transported via hOAT3 (Km = 68.3 ± 11.1 µM). Lansoprazole, rabeprazole, pantoprazole, esomeprazole, omeprazole, and vonoprazan inhibited hOAT3-mediated uptake of pemetrexed in a concentration-dependent manner. The inhibitory effect of lansoprazole was much greater than those of other PPIs and the apparent IC50 value of lansoprazole against pemetrexed transport via hOAT3 was 0.57 ± 0.17 µM. The inhibitory type of lansoprazole was competitive. In a retrospective study, multivariate analysis revealed that coadministration of lansoprazole, but not other PPIs, with pemetrexed and carboplatin was an independent risk factor significantly contributing to the development of hematologic toxicity (odds ratio: 10.004, P = 0.005). These findings demonstrated that coadministration of lansoprazole could exacerbate the hematologic toxicity associated with pemetrexed, at least in part, by competitive inhibition of hOAT3. Our results would aid clinicians to make decisions of coadministration drugs to avoid drug interaction-induced side effects for achievement of safe and appropriate chemotherapy with pemetrexed. Copyright © 2016 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

  2. Comparison or organic and inorganic ion exchange materials for removal of cesium and strontium from Hanford waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, G.N.; Carson, K.J.; DesChane, J.R.; Elovich, R.J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1997-10-01

    This work is part of an ESP-CP task to develop and evaluate high-capacity, selective, solid extractants for the uptake of cesium, strontium, and technetium (Cs, Sr, and Tc) from nuclear wastes. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) staff, in collaboration with researchers from industry, academia, and national laboratories are investigating these and other novel and commercial ion exchangers for use in nuclear waste remediation of groundwater, HLW, and LLW. Since FY 1995, experimental work at PNNL has focused on small-scale batch distribution (K{sub d}) testing of numerous solid sorbents with actual and simulated Hanford wastes, chemical and radiolytic stability of various organic ion exchanger resins, bench-scale column ion exchange testing in actual and simulated Complexant Concentrate (CC) and Neutralized Current Acid Waste (NCAW), and Tc and Sr removal from groundwater and LLW. In addition, PNNL has continued to support various site demonstrations at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Savannah River Site, West Valley Nuclear Services, Hanford N-Springs, and Hanford N-Basin using technologies developed by their industrial partners. This summary will focus on batch distribution results from the actual waste tests. The data collected in these development and testing tasks provide a rational basis for the selection and direct comparison of various ion exchange materials in simulated and actual HLW, LLW, and groundwater. In addition, prediction of large-scale column loading performance for the materials tested is possible using smaller volumes of actual waste solution. The method maximizes information while minimizing experimental expense, time, and laboratory and process wastes.

  3. Synthesis of organic motif tailored hybrid nanoframes: Exploiting in vitro bioactivity and heavy metal ion extraction applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tayade, Kundan C. [School of Environmental and Earth Sciences, North Maharashtra University, Jalgaon, MS (India); Kuwar, Anil S. [School of Chemical Sciences, North Maharashtra University, Jalgaon, MS (India); Ingle, Sopan T. [School of Environmental and Earth Sciences, North Maharashtra University, Jalgaon, MS (India); Attarde, Sanjay B., E-mail: sb.attarde@yahoo.co.in [School of Environmental and Earth Sciences, North Maharashtra University, Jalgaon, MS (India)

    2017-02-15

    Hybrid nanoparticles (NPs) were designed by adsorbing a (13E,19E)-N{sub 1}′,N{sub 3}′-bis[4-(diethylamino)-2-hydroxybenzylidene]malonohydrazide (L) motif, on Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}@SiO{sub 2} distorted hexagonal and cubic NPs. Electronic images of the synthesized hybrid NPs revealed distorted topographies with size of ∼50–70 nm. We exploited key in vitro features, topographies, thermal behaviours, spectroscopic data, magnetic properties and heavy metal ion extraction efficiencies of the prepared hybrids. Additionally, the discrete discussion on the surface areas of the synthesized NPs tackled with BET, are introduced. Characterization with FT-IR, SEM, TEM, XRD, BET, VSM, TGA, particle size analysis and Raman spectroscopic techniques revealed that the organic scaffold L is attached to the prepared Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}@SiO{sub 2} NPs surface via adsorption or covalent interactions or some sort of charge/proton transfer. Antibacterial tests depicted that, L and Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}@SiO{sub 2} NPs exhibited moderate to good antifungal activity against C. albicans, while synthesized key hybrids has shown good to high antibacterial activity against Gram-positive bacterium, S. aureus, two Gram-negative bacteria's, E. coli and P. aeruginosa, and antifungal activity against C. albicans. Also, the Zn{sup 2+} ion extraction efficiency of the key hybrids was tackled and validated with commercial pharmaceutical tablet analysis. - Highlights: • New hybrid nanoparticles (NPs) shown good to high antibacterial activity. • NPs showed barely compromised magnetism and thermal stability. • Macroporous NPs depicted harmonious Zn(II) ion extraction efficiency. • Extraction of Zn(II) ions by NPs exhibited no matrix interference.

  4. A Cd(II)-based metal-organic framework as a luminance sensor to nitrobenzene and Tb(III) ion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Xiang-Long; Gui, Di; Zheng, Xiao-Li; Li, Rui; Han, Hong-Liang; Li, Xia; Li, Pei-Zhou

    2016-04-28

    A Cd(II)-based metal-organic framework, [Cd2(DPDC)2(BTB)]∞ (Cd-MOF, DPDC = 2,2'-diphenyldicarboxylate and BTB = 1,4-bis(1,2,4-triazol-1-yl)butane) was successfully constructed via a hydrothermal reaction. Structural analysis shows that the synthesized Cd-MOF is a three-dimensional (3D) architecture crystallized in the hexagonal system with a chiral space group P61. Powder X-ray diffraction experiments and thermogravimetric analysis reveal that the constructed Cd-MOF has a high chemical and thermal stability. A study of additional mechanical properties indicates that it exhibits a moderate stiffness with the average values of Young's modulus (E) and H as 11.3(2) and 0.9(7) GPa, respectively. The luminescence properties of the Cd-MOF were further studied. The result shows that it could be an effective sensor to the organic nitrobenzene molecule via a strong quenching effect, and also to the inorganic Tb(III) ion by a strong green emission effect. Moreover, when loading bimetal ions (Eu(III) and Tb(III) into the Cd-MOF/methanol suspension, tunable visible luminescence can also be achieved by carefully adjusting the excitation wavelengths.

  5. Synthesis of environmentally responsive organic materials by application of ion track holes in polymer films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Omichi, Hideki; Yoshida, Masaru; Asano, Masaharu [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment; Katakai, Ryoichi; Spohr, R; Vetter, J

    1997-03-01

    Polymer films were irradiated by heavy ion beams and etched by a concentrated alkali solution to produce particle track membranes (PTMs). Then the PTMs were chemically modified by grafting such monomers as amino acid group containing methacryloyl and N-isopropylacrylamide the polymers of which are known as environmentally responsive hydrogels. The size of pores of the modified PTMs under different temperatures in water was followed by electron microscopy. The pore was controlled from an open state to a completely closed state by changing temperature. The conductivity through the membrane was measured by changing the temperature of the cell. (author)

  6. Ion - beam assisted process in the physical deposition of organic thin layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dimov, D; Spassova, E; Assa, J; Danev, G [Acad. J .Malinowski Central Laboratory of Photoprocesses, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Acad. G. Bonchev Str., Bl.109, 1113 Sofia (Bulgaria); Georgiev, A, E-mail: dean@clf.bas.b [University of Chemical Technology and Metallurgy, 8 Kl. Ohridski Blvd., 1756 Sofia (Bulgaria)

    2010-04-01

    A novel method was developed for physical deposition of thin polyimide layers by applying an argon plasma assisted process. The influence was investigated of the plasma on the combined molecular flux of the two thermally evaporated precursors - oxydianiline and pyromellitic dianhydride. The effects observed on the properties of the deposited films are explained with the increased energy of the precursor molecules resulting from the ion-molecular collisions. As could be expected, molecules with higher energy possess higher mobility and thus determine the modification of the films structure and their electrical properties.

  7. studies on the use of organic and inorganic ion exchangers for separation of indium(III) from cadmium(II) using analytical methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamed, A.A.E.

    2011-01-01

    Organic and inorganic ion exchangers have many applications not only in the industrial, environmental and the nuclear fields but also in the separation of metal ions. This may be returned to its high measured capacity, high selectivity for some metal ions, low solubility, high chemical radiation stability and easy to use.Indium and cadmium are produced from cyclotron target where the solvent extraction represents an ordinary method for separation of indium and cadmium from its target. In the present work, More than chromatographic columns were successfully used for the separation and recovery of indium(III) and cadmium(II) ions from di-component system in aqueous solution using organic and inorganic ion exchangers. The work was carried out in three main parts;1- In the first part, the commercial resin (Dowex50w-x8) was used for the separation of indium from cadmium. The effect of pH, the weight of resin, and equilibrium time on the sorption process of both metal ions were determined. It was found that the adsorption percentage was more than 99% at pH 4 (as optimum pH value) using batch experiment. The results show that indium was first extracted while cadmium is slightly extracted at this pH value. The recovery of indium and cadmium is about 98% using hydrochloric acid as best eluent. The ion exchange/complexing properties of Dowex50w-x8 resin containing various substituted groups towards indium and cadmium cations were investigated.2- In the second part, Zn(II)polymethacrylates, and poly (acrylamide-acrylic acid), as synthetic organic ion exchangers were prepared by gamma irradiation polymerization technique of the corresponding monomer at 30 kGy. The obtained organic resins were mixed with indium ions to determine its capacity in aqueous solutions using batch experiment.

  8. Inflammation in renal atherosclerotic disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udani, Suneel M; Dieter, Robert S

    2008-07-01

    The study of renal atherosclerotic disease has conventionally focused on the diagnosis and management of renal artery stenosis. With the increased understanding of atherosclerosis as a systemic inflammatory process, there has been increased interest in vascular biology at the microvasculature level. While different organ beds share some features, the inflammation and injury in the microvasculature of the kidney has unique elements as well. Understanding of the pathogenesis yields a better understanding of the clinical manifestations of renal atherosclerotic disease, which can be very subtle. Furthermore, identifying the molecular mechanisms responsible for the progression of kidney damage can also direct clinicians and scientists toward targeted therapies. Existing therapies used to treat atherosclerotic disease in other vascular beds may also play a role in the treatment of renal atherosclerotic disease.

  9. The use of Syrian bentonite to remove organics and other ions from commercial Syrian phosphoric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khorfan, S.; Abdulbaki, M.; Zein, A.

    2006-01-01

    Using of activated carbon to remove organic matter from phosphoric acid in uranium and P 2 O 5 extraction units has high cost. A new study was conducted to establish a new material instead of activated carbon. Experiments were carried out on removing organic matter by adsorption on Syrian bentonite. The experiments of the removal of humic acid by Syrian bentonite gave good results and showed that the chemical and thermal activation of bentonite increased the adsorption efficiency. (Authors)

  10. The use of Syrian bentonite to remove organics and other ions from commercial Syrian phosphoric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khorfan, S.; Abdulbaki, M.; Zein, A.

    2005-03-01

    Using of activated carbon to remove organic matter from phosphoric acid in uranium and P 2 O 5 extraction units has high cost. A new study was conducted to establish a new material instead of activated carbon. Experiments were carried out on removing organic matter by adsorption on Syrian bentonite. The experiments of the removal of humic acid by Syrian bentonite gave good results and showed that the chemical and thermal activation of bentonite increased the adsorption efficiency. (Authors)

  11. Methods development for separation of inorganic anions, organic acids and bases, and neutral organic compounds by ion chromatography and capillary electrophoresis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Jie [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    1999-04-01

    A novel anion-exchange resin containing three amine groups was prepared by reaction of a chloromethylated polystyrene-divinylbenzene (PS-DVB) resin with diethylenetriamine. After being protonated by contact with an aqueous acid, this resin can be used for ion chromatographic separation of anions. The charge on the resins can be varied from +1 to +3 by changing the mobile phase pH. The selectivity of the new ion exchangers for various inorganic anions was quite different from that of conventional anion exchangers. The performance of this new anion exchanger was studied by changing the pH and the concentration of the eluent, and several different eluents were used with some common anions as testing analytes. Conductivity detection and UV-visible detection were applied to detect the anions after separation. The new resin can also be used for HPLC separation of neutral organic compounds. Alkylphenols and alkylbenzenes were separated with this new polymeric resin, and excellent separations were obtained under simple conditions. This report contains Chapter 1: General introduction and Chapter 6: General conclusions.

  12. Renal candidiasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khanna, S.; Malik, N.; Khandelwal, N.

    1990-01-01

    Most fungal infections of the urinary tract are caused by Candida albicans, a yeast-like saprophytic fungus which may become apathogen under various conditions which lower the host resistance. The use of computed tomography in the diagnosis of renal fungus balls is the subject of this communication with emphasis on the radiologists role in the recognition of this entity. (H.W.). 6 refs.; 2 figs

  13. Renal hemangioma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theodorico F. da Costa Neto

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Renal hemangioma is a relatively rare benign tumor, seldom diagnosed as a cause of hematuria. CASE REPORT: A female 40-year old patient presented with continuous gross hematuria, anemia and episodic right lumbar pain, with onset about 3 months previously. The patient underwent multiple blood transfusions during her hospital stay and extensive imaging propedeutics was performed. Semi-rigid ureterorenoscopy evidenced a bleeding focus in the upper calix of the right kidney, with endoscopic treatment being unfeasible. The patient underwent right upper pole nephrectomy and presented a favorable outcome. Histopathological analysis of the surgical specimen showed that it was a renal hemangioma. COMMENTS: Imaging methods usually employed for diagnostic investigation of hematuria do not have good sensitivity for renal hemangioma. However, they are important to exclude the most frequent differential diagnoses. The ureterorenoscopy is the diagnostic method of choice and endoscopic treatment can be feasible when the lesion is accessible and electrocautery or laser are available. We emphasize the open surgical treatment as a therapeutic option upon failure of less invasive methods.

  14. Obesity and renal hemodynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosma, R. J.; Krikken, J. A.; van der Heide, J. J. Homan; de Jong, P. E.; Navis, G. J.

    2006-01-01

    Obesity is a risk factor for renal damage in native kidney disease and in renal transplant recipients. Obesity is associated with several renal risk factors such as hypertension and diabetes that may convey renal risk, but obesity is also associated with an unfavorable renal hemodynamic profile

  15. Ion induced scintillation in organic solids: development of an average track model,degradation of the scintillation intensity and dosimetric applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broggio, D.

    2004-12-01

    This work deals with a specific aspect of the ion-matter interaction: the scintillation induced by ions in organic materials. In the first chapter we tackle the issue in a theoretical way by proposing a method to compute the radial doses within the framework of the mean track model. We have developed a model based on the Lewis transport equation and on the Spencer distribution of the loss energy in order to take into account the transport of secondary electrons in a more realistic way. In the second chapter we study the physical mechanisms that trigger ion-induced scintillation. Ion-induced scintillation is featured by the dependence in charge number of the intensity of scintillation for ions with same energy loss and by the saturation of the scintillation efficiency for ions with high stopping-power. We have applied our model of radial doses to ion-induced scintillation. In the third chapter we study the gradual degradation of the scintillation intensity and ion-induced chemical damages. In the last chapter we propose a prototype of dosimeters based on the combination of scintillators and optical fibers that allows the real-time measurement of the dose delivered by a carbon ion beam in therapeutical use conditions. This dosimeter gives the relationship between the dose and the scintillation intensity but its accuracy is not yet sufficient for uses in radiotherapy. (A.C.)

  16. Removal of Radioactive Nuclides by Multi-Functional Microcapsules Enclosing Inorganic Ion-Exchangers and Organic Extractants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mimura, H.; Akiba, K.; Onodera, Y.

    2002-02-26

    The microcapsules enclosing two kinds of functional materials, inorganic ion-exchangers and organic extractants, were prepared by taking advantage of the high immobilization ability of alginate gel polymer. The fine powders of inorganic ion-exchanger and oil drops of extractant were kneaded with sodium alginate (NaALG) solution and the kneaded sol readily gelled in a salt solution of CaCl2, BaCl2 or HCl to form spherical gel particles. The uptake properties of various nuclides, 137Cs, 85Sr, 60Co, 88Y, 152Eu and 241Am, for thirty-four specimens of microcapsules in the presence of 10-1-10-4 M HNO3 were evaluated by the batch method. The distribution coefficient (Kd) of Cs+ above 103 cm3/g was obtained for the microcapsules enclosing CuFC or AMP. The Kd of Sr2+ around 102 cm3/g was obtained for the microcapsules containing clinoptilolite, antimonic acid, zeolite A, zeolite X or titanic acid. The microcapsules enclosing DEHPA exhibited relatively large Kd values of trivalent metal ions above 103 cm3/g; for example, the Kd values of Cs+, Sr2+, Co2+, Y3+, Eu3+ and Am3+ for a favorable microcapsule (CuFC/clinoptilolite/DEHPA/CaALG) were 1.1x104, 7.5x10, 1.1x10, 1.0x104, 1.4x104, 3.4x103 cm3/g, respectively. The uptake rates of Cs+, Y3+, Eu3+ and Am3+ for this microcapsule were rather fast; the uptake percentage above 90% was obtained after 19 h-shaking and the uptake equilibrium was attained within 1 d. The AMP/CaALG exhibited high uptake ability for Cs+ even after irradiation of 188 kGy, and DEHPA/CaALG microcapsule had similar Kd values of Cs+, Sr2+, Co2+, Y3+, Eu3+ and Am3+ ions before and after irradiation. The microcapsules with various shapes such as spherical, columnar, fibrous and filmy forms were easily prepared by changing the way of dipping kneaded sol into gelling salt solution. The microcapsules enclosing inorganic ion-exchangers and extractants have a potential possibility for the simultaneous removal of various radioactive nuclides from waste solutions.

  17. Placental and Fetal Disposition of Mercuric Ions in Rats Exposed to Methylmercury: Role of Mrp2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridges, Christy C.; Joshee, Lucy; Zalups, Rudolfs K.

    2012-01-01

    Methylmercury is a prevalent environmental toxicant that can have deleterious effects on a developing fetus. Previous studies indicate that the multidrug resistance-associated protein 2 (Mrp2) is involved in renal and hepatic export of mercuric ions. Therefore, we hypothesize that Mrp2 is also involved in export of mercuric ions from placental trophoblasts and fetal tissues. To test this hypothesis, we assessed the disposition of mercuric ions in pregnant Wistar and TR– (Mrp2-deficient) rats exposed to a single dose of methylmercury. The amount of mercury in renal tissues (cortex and outer stripe of outer medulla), liver, blood, amniotic fluid, uterus, placentas and fetuses was significantly greater in TR– rats than in Wistar rats. Urinary and fecal elimination of mercury was greater in Wistar dams than in TR– dams. Thus, our findings suggest that Mrp2 may be involved in the export of mercuric ions from maternal and fetal organs following exposure to methylmercury. PMID:23059061

  18. Systematic investigations on acyclic organic carbonate solvents for lithium-ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vetter, J.; Peter, S.; Novak, P.

    2003-03-01

    Electrochemical cycling tests on cells with graphite electrodes and several alkyl methyl carbonates were performed. Experiments with mixed binary solvent electrolytes with ethylene carbonate (EC) showed that the alkyl methyl carbonates H{sub 3}CO(CO)O(CH{sub 2}){sub n}H (n = 3-5) are suitable as co-solvents in lithium-ion batteries. Ternary mixtures of EC, BMC, and propylene carbonate (PC) showed better overall performances than EC/PC electrolytes. The branched isobutyl methyl carbonate (i-BMC) outperforms its linear isomer (BMC) in terms of electrochemical performance. LiPF{sub 6} is superior to LiClO{sub 4} as conducting salt in both EC/BMC and EC/i-BMC mixtures in terms of electrolyte conductivity, rate capability, and cycling stability. (author)

  19. Dual-beam focused ion beam/electron microscopy processing and metrology of redeposition during ion-surface 3D interactions, from micromachining to self-organized picostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moberlychan, Warren J

    2009-06-03

    Focused ion beam (FIB) tools have become a mainstay for processing and metrology of small structures. In order to expand the understanding of an ion impinging a surface (Sigmund sputtering theory) to our processing of small structures, the significance of 3D boundary conditions must be realized. We consider ion erosion for patterning/lithography, and optimize yields using the angle of incidence and chemical enhancement, but we find that the critical 3D parameters are aspect ratio and redeposition. We consider focused ion beam sputtering for micromachining small holes through membranes, but we find that the critical 3D considerations are implantation and redeposition. We consider ion beam self-assembly of nanostructures, but we find that control of the redeposition by ion and/or electron beams enables the growth of nanostructures and picostructures.

  20. Long-range transported dissolved organic matter, ions and black carbon deposited on Central Asian snow covered glaciers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmale, Julia; Kang, Shichang; Peltier, Richard

    2014-05-01

    Ninety percent of the Central Asian population depend on water precipitated in the mountains stored in glaciers and snow cover. Accelerated melting of the snow and ice can be induced by the deposition of airborne impurities such as mineral dust, black carbon and co-emitted species leading to significant reductions of the surface albedo. However, Central Asia is a relatively understudied region and data on the source regions, chemical and microphysical characteristics as well as modelling studies of long-range transported air pollution and dust to the Tien Shan mountains is very scarce. We studied the atmospheric aerosol deposited most likely between summer 2012 and summer 2013on three different glaciers in the Kyrgyz Republic. Samples were taken from four snow pits on the glaciers Abramov (2 pits, 39.59 °N, 71.56 °E, 4390 m elevation, 240 cm deep, and 39.62°N, 71.52 °E, 4275 m elevation, 125 cm deep), Ak-Shiirak (41.80 °N, 78.18 °E, 4325 m elevation, 75 cm deep) and Suek (41.78 °N, 77.75 °E, 4341 m elevation, 200 cm deep). The latter two glaciers are located roughly within 6 and 38 km of an operating gold mine. The snow was analyzed for black carbon, ions, metals and organic carbon. We here focus on the results of inorganic ion measurements and organic carbon speciation based on analysis with an Aerodyne high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS) and potential pollution sources that can be deduced from the chemical information as well as back trajectories. Average contributions of snow impurities measured by the HR-ToF-AMS were dominated by organic carbon. Relative concentrations of organic carbon, sulfate, nitrate and ammonium in snow were 86 %, 3 %, 9 % and 2 % respectively for Abramov, 92 %, 1 %, 5 % and 1 % for Suek, and 95 %, 1 %, 3 % and 1 % for Ak-Shiirak. Generally, impurities on Suek and Ak-Shiirak were three and five times higher than on Abramov. Mass concentrations of organic carbon were on average 6 times higher in samples

  1. Ion exchanged Fe-FER through H2O2-assisted decomplexation of organic salts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Melián-Cabrera, I.; Espinosa, S.; Garcia-Montelogo, F.J.; Kapteijn, F.; Moulijn, J.A.; Garciá-Montelongo, F. J.

    2005-01-01

    Decomplexation of organic ligands through redox titration has been applied to catalyst synthesis, developing an improved preparation method for Fe-ferrierite (Fe-FER), the catalyst showing excellent performance and durability for N2O decomposition under realistic conditions for nitric acid plants.

  2. Synthesis and Exploration of Ladder-Structured Large Aromatic Dianhydrides as Organic Cathodes for Rechargeable Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Jian; Chen, Wangqiao; Wang, Zilong; Jie, Kenneth Choo Wei; Liu, Ming; Zhang, Qichun

    2017-04-18

    Compared to anode materials in Li-ion batteries, the research on cathode materials is far behind, and their capacities are much smaller. Thus, in order to address these issues, we believe that organic conjugated materials could be a solution. In this study, we synthesized two non-polymeric dianhydrides with large aromatic structures: NDA-4N (naphthalenetetracarboxylic dianhydride with four nitrogen atoms) and PDA-4N (perylenetetracarboxylic dianhydride with four nitrogen atoms). Their electrochemical properties have been investigated between 2.0 and 3.9 V (vs. Li + /Li). Benefiting from multi-electron reactions, NDA-4N and PDA-4N could reversibly achieve 79.7 % and 92.3 %, respectively, of their theoretical capacity. Further cycling reveals that the organic compound with a relatively larger aromatic building block could achieve a better stability, as an obvious 36.5 % improvement of the capacity retention was obtained when the backbone was switched from naphthalene to perylene. This study proposes an opportunity to attain promising small-molecule-based cathode materials through tailoring organic structures. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Analysis of a variety of inorganic and organic additives in food products by ion-pairing liquid chromatography coupled to high-resolution mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufmann, Anton; Widmer, Mirjam; Maden, Kathryn; Butcher, Patrick; Walker, Stephan

    2018-03-05

    A reversed-phase ion-pairing chromatographic method was developed for the detection and quantification of inorganic and organic anionic food additives. A single-stage high-resolution mass spectrometer (orbitrap ion trap, Orbitrap) was used to detect the accurate masses of the unfragmented analyte ions. The developed ion-pairing chromatography method was based on a dibutylamine/hexafluoro-2-propanol buffer. Dibutylamine can be charged to serve as a chromatographic ion-pairing agent. This ensures sufficient retention of inorganic and organic anions. Yet, unlike quaternary amines, it can be de-charged in the electrospray to prevent the formation of neutral analyte ion-pairing agent adducts. This process is significantly facilitated by the added hexafluoro-2-propanol. This approach permits the sensitive detection and quantification of additives like nitrate and mono-, di-, and triphosphate as well as citric acid, a number of artificial sweeteners like cyclamate and aspartame, flavor enhancers like glutamate, and preservatives like sorbic acid. This is a major advantage, since the currently used analytical methods as utilized in food safety laboratories are only capable in monitoring a few compounds or a particular category of food additives. Graphical abstract Deptotonation of ion pair agent in the electrospray interface.

  4. Prediction of the overall renal tubular secretion and hepatic clearance of anionic drugs and a renal drug-drug interaction involving organic anion transporter 3 in humans by in vitro uptake experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Takao; Kusuhara, Hiroyuki; Watanabe, Tomoko; Debori, Yasuyuki; Maeda, Kazuya; Kondo, Tsunenori; Nakayama, Hideki; Horita, Shigeru; Ogilvie, Brian W; Parkinson, Andrew; Hu, Zhuohan; Sugiyama, Yuichi

    2011-06-01

    The present study investigated prediction of the overall renal tubular secretion and hepatic clearances of anionic drugs based on in vitro transport studies. The saturable uptake of eight drugs, most of which were OAT3 substrates (rosuvastatin, pravastatin, pitavastatin, valsartan, olmesartan, trichlormethiazide, p-aminohippurate, and benzylpenicillin) by freshly prepared human kidney slices underestimated the overall intrinsic clearance of the tubular secretion; therefore, a scaling factor of 10 was required for in vitro-in vivo extrapolation. We examined the effect of gemfibrozil and its metabolites, gemfibrozil glucuronide and the carboxylic metabolite, gemfibrozil M3, on pravastatin uptake by human kidney slices. The inhibition study using human kidney slices suggests that OAT3 plays a predominant role in the renal uptake of pravastatin. Comparison of unbound concentrations and K(i) values (1.5, 9.1, and 4.0 μM, for gemfibrozil, gemfibrozil glucuronide, and gemfibrozil M3, respectively) suggests that the mechanism of the interaction is due mainly to inhibition by gemfibrozil and gemfibrozil glucuronide. Furthermore, extrapolation of saturable uptake by cryopreserved human hepatocytes predicts clearance comparable with the observed hepatic clearance although fluvastatin and rosuvastatin required a scaling factor of 11 and 6.9, respectively. This study suggests that in vitro uptake assays using human kidney slices and hepatocytes provide a good prediction of the overall tubular secretion and hepatic clearances of anionic drugs and renal drug-drug interactions. It is also recommended that in vitro-in vivo extrapolation be performed in animals to obtain more reliable prediction.

  5. Metal-Organic Frameworks Triggered High-Efficiency Li storage in Fe-Based Polyhedral Nanorods for Lithium-ion Batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen, Lisha; Song, Huawei; Wang, Chengxin

    2017-01-01

    Recently, metal organic framework (MOF) nanostructures have been frequently reported in the field of energy storage, specifically for Li-ion or Na-ion storage. By inter-separating the active sites of metal cluster and organic ligands, MOF nanostructures are exceptionally promising for realizing fast ion exchange and high-efficiency transportation and addressing the intricate issues that the energy-intensive Li-ion batteries have faced over many years. The related ion-storage mechanism remains to be explored. Is the traditional redox reaction mechanism operative for these nanostructure, as it is for transitional metal oxide? Herein, taking [Fe_3O(BDC)_3(H_2O)_2(NO_3)]n (Fe-MIL-88B) as an example, an Fe-based metal organic polyhedral nanorods of MIL–88 B structure was designed as an anode for Li-ion storage. When tested at 60 mA g"−"1, the nanoporous Fe-MIL–88 B polyhedral nanorods retained a reversible capacity of 744.5 mAh g"−"1 for more than 400 cycles. Ex situ characterizations of the post-cycled electrodes revealed that both the transition metal ions and the organic ligands contributed to the high reversible specific capacity. The polyhedral nanorods electrodes held the metal-organic skeleton together throughout the battery operation, although in a somewhat different manner than the pristine ones. This further substantiated that some MOF nanostructures are more appropriate than others for stable lithiation/delithiation processes. State-of-the-art CR2032 full cells showed that a high capacity of 86.8 mAh g"−"1 that was retained after 100 cycles (herein, the capacity for the full cell was calculated based on both the weight of the anode and the cathode, and the charge-discharge rate was 0.25C), when commercial LiFePO_4 powders were used as the cathode.

  6. Studies on Electronic Structure and Magnetic Properties of an Organic Magnet with Metallic Mn2+ and Cu2+ Ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Jian-Guo; Peng, Guang-Xiong

    2004-11-01

    The electronic structure and the magnetic properties of the non-pure organic ferromagnetic compound MnCu(pbaOH)(H2O)3 with pbaOH = 2-hydroxy-1, 3-propylenebis (oxamato) are studied by using the density-functional theory with local-spin-density approximation. The density of states, total energy, and the spin magnetic moment are calculated. The calculations reveal that the compound MnCu(pbaOH)(H20)3 has a stable metal-ferromagnetic ground state, and the spin magnetic moment per molecule is 2.208 μB, and the spin magnetic moment is mainly from Mn ion and Cu ion. An antiferromagnetic order is expected and the antiferromagnetic exchange interaction of d-electrons of Cu and Mn passes through the antiferromagnetic interaction between the adjacent C, O, and N atoms along the path linking the atoms Cu and Mn. The project supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant No. 10375074 and Hubei Automotive Industries Institute Foundation under Grant No. QY2002-16

  7. Empirical evaluation of metal deposition for the analysis of organic compounds with static secondary ion mass spectrometry (S-SIMS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mondt, R. de; Adriaensen, L.; Vangaever, F.; Lenaerts, J.; Vaeck, L. van; Gijbels, R.

    2006-01-01

    Metal-assisted (MetA) SIMS using the deposition of a thin Au or Ag layer on non-conducting samples prior to analysis has been advocated as a means to improve the secondary ion (S.I.) yields of organic analytes. This study focuses on the influence of time and temperature on the yield enhancement in MetA-SIMS using thick layers of poly(vinylbutyral-co-vinylalcohol-co-vinylacetate) (PVB) containing dihydroxybenzophenone (DHBPh) or a cationic carbocyanine dye (CBC) and spin-coated layers of the cationic dye on Si. Pristine samples as well as Au- and Ag-coated ones were kept between -8 deg. C and 80 deg. C and analysed with S-SIMS at intervals of a few days over a period of 1 month. The yield enhancement was found to depend strongly on the kind of evaporated metal, the storage temperature and time between coating and analysis

  8. A luminescent Cd(II)-based metal-organic framework for detection of Fe(III) ions in aqueous solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fen-Fang; Zhu, Miao-Li; Lu, Li-Ping

    2018-05-01

    A novel Cd((II)-organic framework [Cd(Hcbic)]n (H3cbic = 1-(4-carboxybenz-yl)-1H-benzoim-idazole-5, 6-dicarboxylic acid) was assembled and characterized by X-ray single crystal analysis. The Cd-MOF features one-dimensional left and right-handed double helical chains with screw-pitch of about 4.727 Å and the 4-methyl benzoic acid groups of Hcbic2- ligands in MOF-1 play many ribbons distributing in the two sides of the 2D networks. It is found that MOF-1 shows high selectivity (KSV = 1.8 × 105 L / mol) for Fe3+ ions in water solution with luminescent quenching because of the existence of uncoordinated carboxyl groups within open frameworks, which indicates that MOF-1 is a simple and reliable detection sensing reagent for Fe3+ in practical applications.

  9. Localization of transient receptor potential ion channels in primary and motile cilia of the female murine reproductive organs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teilmann, Stefan C.; Byskov, Anne Grete; Pedersen, Per Amstrup

    2005-01-01

    We have examined the subcellular localization of transient receptor potential (TRP) ion channels and the potential sensory role of cilia in murine female reproductive organs using confocal laser scanning microscopy analysis on ovary and oviduct tissue sections as well as on primary cultures...... of follicular granulosa cells. We show that the Ca2+ permeable cation channel, polycystin-2, as well as polycystin-1, a receptor that forms a functional protein complex with polycystin 2, distinctively localize to primary cilia emerging from granulosa cells of antral follicles in vivo and in vitro. Both...... polycystins are localized to motile oviduct cilia and this localization is greatly increased upon ovulatory gonadotropic stimulation. Further, the Ca2+ permeable cation channel, TRP vaniloid 4 (TRPV4), localizes to a sub-population of motile cilia on the epithelial cells of the ampulla and isthmus with high...

  10. Bilateral renal artery variation

    OpenAIRE

    Üçerler, Hülya; Üzüm, Yusuf; İkiz, Z. Aslı Aktan

    2014-01-01

    Each kidney is supplied by a single renal artery, although renal artery variations are common. Variations of the renal arteryhave become important with the increasing number of renal transplantations. Numerous studies describe variations in renalartery anatomy. Especially the left renal artery is among the most critical arterial variations, because it is the referred side forresecting the donor kidney. During routine dissection in a formalin fixed male cadaver, we have found a bilateral renal...

  11. Cyclosporine A induces senescence in renal tubular epithelial cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jennings, Paul; Koppelstaetter, Christian; Aydin, Sonia; Abberger, Thomas; Wolf, Anna Maria; Mayer, Gert; Pfaller, Walter

    The nephrotoxic potential of the widely used immunosuppressive agent cyclosporine A (CsA) is well recognized. However, the mechanism of renal tubular toxicity is not yet fully elucidated. Chronic CsA nephropathy and renal organ aging share some clinical features, such as renal fibrosis and tubular

  12. Environmentally-friendly lithium recycling from a spent organic li-ion battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renault, Stéven; Brandell, Daniel; Edström, Kristina

    2014-10-01

    A simple and straightforward method using non-polluting solvents and a single thermal treatment step at moderate temperature was investigated as an environmentally-friendly process to recycle lithium from organic electrode materials for secondary lithium batteries. This method, highly dependent on the choice of electrolyte, gives up to 99% of sustained capacity for the recycled materials used in a second life-cycle battery when compared with the original. The best results were obtained using a dimethyl carbonate/lithium bis(trifluoromethane sulfonyl) imide electrolyte that does not decompose in presence of water. The process implies a thermal decomposition step at a moderate temperature of the extracted organic material into lithium carbonate, which is then used as a lithiation agent for the preparation of fresh electrode material without loss of lithium. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. A universal carbonate ion effect on stable oxygen isotope ratios in unicellular planktonic calcifying organisms

    OpenAIRE

    Ziveri, P.; Thoms, S.; Probert, I.; Geisen, M.; Langer, H.

    2012-01-01

    The oxygen isotopic composition (δ18O) of calcium carbonate of planktonic calcifying organisms is a key tool for reconstructing both past seawater temperature and salinity. The calibration of paloeceanographic proxies relies in general on empirical relationships derived from field experiments on extant species. Laboratory experiments have more often than not revealed that variables other than the target parameter influence the proxy signal, which makes proxy c...

  14. Natural organic matter removal by ion exchange at different positions in the drinking water treatment lane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Grefte

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available To guarantee a good water quality at the customers tap, natural organic matter (NOM should be (partly removed during drinking water treatment. The objective of this research was to improve the biological stability of the produced water by incorporating anion exchange (IEX for NOM removal. Different placement positions of IEX in the treatment lane (IEX positioned before coagulation, before ozonation or after slow sand filtration and two IEX configurations (MIEX® and fluidized IEX (FIX were compared on water quality as well as costs. For this purpose the pre-treatment plant at Loenderveen and production plant Weesperkarspel of Waternet were used as a case study. Both, MIEX® and FIX were able to remove NOM (mainly the HS fraction to a high extent. NOM removal can be done efficiently before ozonation and after slow sand filtration. The biological stability, in terms of assimilable organic carbon, biofilm formation rate and dissolved organic carbon, was improved by incorporating IEX for NOM removal. The operational costs were assumed to be directly dependent of the NOM removal rate and determined the difference between the IEX positions. The total costs for IEX for the three positions were approximately equal (0.0631 € m−3, however the savings on following treatment processes caused a cost reduction for the IEX positions before coagulation and before ozonation compared to IEX positioned after slow sand filtration. IEX positioned before ozonation was most cost effective and improved the biological stability of the treated water.

  15. Dual beam organic depth profiling using large argon cluster ion beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzweber, M; Shard, AG; Jungnickel, H; Luch, A; Unger, WES

    2014-01-01

    Argon cluster sputtering of an organic multilayer reference material consisting of two organic components, 4,4′-bis[N-(1-naphthyl-1-)-N-phenyl- amino]-biphenyl (NPB) and aluminium tris-(8-hydroxyquinolate) (Alq3), materials commonly used in organic light-emitting diodes industry, was carried out using time-of-flight SIMS in dual beam mode. The sample used in this study consists of a ∽400-nm-thick NPB matrix with 3-nm marker layers of Alq3 at depth of ∽50, 100, 200 and 300 nm. Argon cluster sputtering provides a constant sputter yield throughout the depth profiles, and the sputter yield volumes and depth resolution are presented for Ar-cluster sizes of 630, 820, 1000, 1250 and 1660 atoms at a kinetic energy of 2.5 keV. The effect of cluster size in this material and over this range is shown to be negligible. © 2014 The Authors. Surface and Interface Analysis published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. PMID:25892830

  16. Catalytic oxidative pyrolysis of spent organic ion exchange resins from nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sathi Sasidharan, N.; Deshingkar, D.S.; Wattal, P.K.; Shirsat, A.N.; Bharadwaj, S.R.

    2005-08-01

    The spent IX resins from nuclear power reactors are highly active solid wastes generated during operations of nuclear reactors. Catalytic oxidative pyrolysis of these resins can lead to high volume reduction of these wastes. Low temperature pyrolysis of transition metal ion loaded IX resins in presence of nitrogen was carried out in order to optimize catalyst composition to achieve maximum weight reduction. Thermo gravimetric analysis of the pyrolysis residues was carried out in presence of air in order to compare the oxidative characteristics of transition metal oxide catalysts. Copper along with iron, chromium and nickel present in the spent IX resins gave the most efficient catalyst combination for catalytic and oxidative pyrolysis of the residues. During low temperature catalytic pyrolysis, 137 Cesium volatility was estimated to be around 0.01% from cationic resins and around 0.1% from anionic resins. During oxidative pyrolysis at 700 degC, nearly 10 to 40% of 137 Cesium was found to be released to off gases depending upon type of resin and catalyst loaded on to it. The oxidation of pyrolytic residues at 700 degC gave weight reduction of 15% for cationic resins and 93% for anionic resins. Catalytic oxidative pyrolysis is attractive for reducing weight and volume of spent cationic resins from PHWRs and VVERs. (author)

  17. Renal denervation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Lene Kjær; Kamper, Anne-Lise; Svendsen, Jesper Hastrup

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Renal denervation (RDN) has, within recent years, been suggested as a novel treatment option for patients with resistant hypertension. This review summarizes the current knowledge on this procedure as well as limitations and questions that remain to be answered. RECENT FINDINGS...... selection, anatomical and physiological effects of RDN as well as possible beneficial effects on other diseases with increased sympathetic activity. The long awaited Symplicity HTN-3 (2014) results illustrated that the RDN group and the sham-group had similar reductions in BP. SUMMARY: Initial studies...

  18. Renal papillary necrosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... asking your provider. Alternative Names Necrosis - renal papillae; Renal medullary necrosis Images Kidney anatomy Kidney - blood and urine flow References Bushinsky DA, Monk RD. Nephrolithiasis and nephrocalcinosis. ...

  19. Evaluation of diffuse diseases of the upper abdominal organs by MRI. Determination of a normal range in signal intensity ratio of each organ to the renal medulla in T1- and T2-weighted images and evaluation of diffuse diseases of an organ by using it

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitsuhashi, Hiroshi

    1995-01-01

    Diffuse diseases of the upper abdominal organs, including the liver, spleen, pancreas, and vertebral marrow, were evaluated by using signal intensity ratio of each organ to the renal medulla in T1- and T2-weighted images. Conventional T1- and T2-weighted images were obtained in 1.5 T MR system in 203 persons, including 122 controls and 81 patients with a diffuse disease in the upper abdominal organ. In controls, though there was neither sexual nor age difference in signal intensity ratios of the liver and pancreas, those of the spleen and vertebral marrow showed sexual and age difference, respectively. A normal range of signal intensity ratio of each organ in each image was determined in each decade of each sex by using controls. The signal intensity ratio of the liver was significantly low in T1- and T2-weighted images in patients with abundant iron deposit and within normal limits in patients with liver cirrhosis or scant iron deposit. The signal intensity ratio of the liver was significantly high only in a T2-weighted image in patients with fatty deposit in the liver, which was suspected to be due to inflammatory change in the liver with fatty deposit. The signal intensity ratios of the spleen, pancreas, and vertebral marrow were significantly low only in a T2-weighted image in patients with iron metabolic disturbance. The signal intensity ratio of the pancreas was significantly high in 40% of patients with acute and/or chronic pancreatitis, which was more sensitive in detection of pancreatitis than data in other studies. it can be concluded that the signal intensity ratio of each organ to the renal medulla in T1- and T2-weighted images is useful for detection of diffuse diseases of the upper abdominal organs by using the normal range in each decade of each sex. (S.Y.)

  20. Comprehensive characterization of natural organic matter by MALDI- and ESI-Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao, Dong; Huang, Huogao; Hu, Ming; Cui, Lin; Geng, Fanglan; Rao, Ziyu; Niu, Hongyun; Cai, Yaqi; Kang, Yuehui

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • MALDI-FT-ICR-MS was firstly employed for molecular characterization of NOM. • 1,8-Bis(dimethyl-amino)-naphthalene (DMAN) was used as matrix. • Mass spectra of NOM generated by MALDI and ESI methods were compared. • Complementary molecular information of NOM was provided by MALDI. - Abstract: Natural organic matter (NOM) is a complex and non-uniform mixture of organic compounds which plays an important role in environmental processes. Due to the complexity, it is challenging to obtain fully detailed structural information about NOM. Although Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR-MS) has been demonstrated to be a powerful tool for providing molecular information about NOM, multiple ionization methods are needed for comprehensive characterization of NOM at the molecular level considering the ionizing selectivity of different ionization methods. This paper reports the first use of matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) method coupled with FT-ICR-MS for molecular characterization of NOM within a mass range of 200–800 Da. The mass spectral data obtained by MALDI were systematically compared with data generated by electrospray ionization (ESI). It showed that complementary molecular information about NOM which could not be detected by ESI, were provided by MALDI. More unsaturated and aromatic constituents of NOM with lower O/C ratio (O/C ratio < 0.5) were preferentially ionized in MALDI negative mode, whereas more polar constituents of NOM with higher O/C ratio were preferentially ionized in ESI negative mode. Molecular anions of NOM appearing at even m/z in MALDI negative ion mode were detected. The results show that NOM molecules with aromatic structures, moderate O/C ratio (0.7 > O/C ratio > 0.25) and lower H/C ratio were liable to form molecular anions at even m/z, whereas those with higher H/C ratio are more likely to form deprotonated ions at odd m/z. It is speculated that almost half of the NOM

  1. Renal calculus

    CERN Document Server

    Pyrah, Leslie N

    1979-01-01

    Stone in the urinary tract has fascinated the medical profession from the earliest times and has played an important part in the development of surgery. The earliest major planned operations were for the removal of vesical calculus; renal and ureteric calculi provided the first stimulus for the radiological investigation of the viscera, and the biochemical investigation of the causes of calculus formation has been the training ground for surgeons interested in metabolic disorders. It is therefore no surprise that stone has been the subject of a number of monographs by eminent urologists, but the rapid development of knowledge has made it possible for each one of these authors to produce something new. There is still a technical challenge to the surgeon in the removal of renal calculi, and on this topic we are always glad to have the advice of a master craftsman; but inevitably much of the interest centres on the elucidation of the causes of stone formation and its prevention. Professor Pyrah has had a long an...

  2. Renal artery anatomy affects the blood pressure response to renal denervation in patients with resistant hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hering, Dagmara; Marusic, Petra; Walton, Antony S; Duval, Jacqueline; Lee, Rebecca; Sata, Yusuke; Krum, Henry; Lambert, Elisabeth; Peter, Karlheinz; Head, Geoff; Lambert, Gavin; Esler, Murray D; Schlaich, Markus P

    2016-01-01

    Renal denervation (RDN) has been shown to reduce blood pressure (BP), muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) and target organ damage in patients with resistant hypertension (RH) and bilateral single renal arteries. The safety and efficacy of RDN in patients with multiple renal arteries remains unclear. We measured office and 24-hour BP at baseline, 3 and 6 months following RDN in 91 patients with RH, including 65 patients with single renal arteries bilaterally (group 1), 16 patients with dual renal arteries on either one or both sides (group 2) and 10 patients with other anatomical constellations or structural abnormalities (group 3). Thirty nine out of 91 patients completed MSNA at baseline and follow-up. RDN significantly reduced office and daytime SBP in group 1 at both 3 and 6 months follow-up (Pkidney function in any group. While RDN can be performed safely irrespective of the underlying renal anatomy, the presence of single renal arteries with or without structural abnormalities is associated with a more pronounced BP and MSNA lowering effect than the presence of dual renal arteries in patients with RH. However, when patients with dual renal arteries received renal nerve ablation in all arteries there was trend towards a greater BP reduction. Insufficient renal sympathetic nerve ablation may account for these differences. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Predictors of renal recovery in patients with pre-orthotopic liver transplant (OLT) renal dysfunction

    OpenAIRE

    Iglesias, Jose; Frank, Elliot; Mehandru, Sushil; Davis, John M; Levine, Jerrold S

    2013-01-01

    Background Renal dysfunction occurs commonly in patients awaiting orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) for end-stage liver disease. The use of simultaneous liver-kidney transplantation has increased in the MELD scoring era. As patients may recover renal function after OLT, identifying factors predictive of renal recovery is a critical issue, especially given the scarcity of available organs. Methods Employing the UNOS database, we sought to identify donor- and patient-related predictors of ...

  4. Renal epithelioid angiomyolipoma: 2 Cases report

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    O. Boudaouara

    2017-06-29

    Jun 29, 2017 ... Abstract. Introduction: The 2004 World Health Organization Classification of Renal Neoplasms defined epithelioid angiomyolipoma as a potentially malignant mesenchymal neoplasm, characterized by a proliferation of predominantly epithelioid cells with approximately one third of patients experiencing ...

  5. Determination of adsorbable organic halogens in surface water samples by combustion-microcoulometry versus combustion-ion chromatography titration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinani, Aziz; Sa Lhi, Hacène; Bouchonnet, Stéphane; Kinani, Said

    2018-03-02

    Adsorbable Organic Halogen (AOX) is an analytical parameter of considerable interest since it allows to evaluate the amount of organohalogen disinfection by-products (OXBPs) present in a water sample. Halogen speciation of AOX into adsorbable organic chlorine, bromine and iodine, respectively AOCl, AOBr and AOI, is extremely important since it has been shown that iodinated and brominated organic by-products tend to be more toxic than their chlorinated analogues. Chemical speciation of AOX can be performed by combustion-ion chromatography (C-IC). In the present work, the effectiveness of the nitrate wash according to ISO 9562 standard method protocol to eliminate halide ions interferences was firstly examined. False positive AOX values were observed when chloride concentration exceeded 100 ppm. The improvements made to the washing protocol have eliminated chloride interference for concentrations up to 1000 ppm. A C-IC method for chemical speciation of AOX into AOCl, AOBr, and AOI has been developed and validated. The most important analytical parameters were investigated. The following optimal conditions were established: an aqueous solution containing 2.4 mM sodium bicarbonate/2.0 mM sodium carbonate, and 2% acetone (v/v) as mobile phase, 2 mL of aqueous sodium thiosulfate (500 ppm) as absorption solution, 0.2 mL min -1 as water inlet flow rate for hydropyrolysis, and 10 min as post-combustion time. The method was validated according to NF T90-210 standard method. Calibration curves fitted through a quadratic equation show coefficients of determination (r 2 ) greater than 0.9998, and RSD less than 5%. The LOQs were 0.9, 4.3, and 5.7 μg L -1 Cl for AOCl, AOBr, and AOI, respectively. The accuracy, in terms of relative error, was within a ± 10% interval. The applicability of the validated method was demonstrated by the analysis of twenty four water samples from three rivers in France. The measurements reveals AOX amounts above 10

  6. Crystalline self-assembly of organic molecules with metal ions at the air-aqueous solution interface. A grazing incidence X-ray scattering study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weissbuch, I.; Buller, R.; Kjær, K.

    2002-01-01

    The advent of intense X-rays from synchrotron sources made possible to probe, at the molecular level, the structural aspects of self-assemblies generated at interfaces. Here we present the two-dimensional (2-D) packing arrangements of two-, three- and multi-component organo-metallic self......-assemblies formed via interfacial reaction at the air-aqueous solution interface, as determined by grazing incidence X-ray diffraction (GIRD) and X-ray specular reflectivity techniques. GIXD yields structural information on the crystalline part of the Langmuir film, including the ions and counterions lateral order...... of metal ions bound to the polar head groups of amphipilic molecules; use of bolaamphiphiles to generate oriented thin films with metal ions arranged in periodic layers; delineation of differences in the lateral organization of metal ions at interfaces as induced by racemates and enantiomerically pure...

  7. Inorganic-organic Ag-rhodamine 6G hybrid nanorods: "turn on" fluorescent sensors for highly selective detection of Pb2+ ions in aqueous solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyagi, A K; Ramkumar, Jayshree; Jayakumar, O D

    2012-02-07

    Lead metal ions are of great concern and the monitoring of their concentration in the environment has become extremely important. In the present study, a new inorganic-organic hybrid assay of Ag nanorods (AgNR)-Rhodamine 6G (R6G) was developed for the sensitive and selective determination of Pb(2+) ions in aqueous solutions. To the best of our knowledge there is almost no literature on the use of silver nanorod sensors for determination of lead ions in aqueous solutions. The sensor is developed by the coating of R6G on the surface of AgNRs. The sensing is based on the photoluminescence of R6G. The sensor was rapid as the measurements were carried out within 3 min of addition of the test solution to the AgNR-R6G hybrid. Moreover, the system showed excellent stability at tested concentration levels of Pb(2+) ions. The naked eye detection of the colour was possible with 1 mg L(-1) of Pb(2+) ions. The present method has a detection limit of 50 μg L(-1) of Pb(2+) (for a signal/noise (S/N) ratio > 3). The selectivity toward Pb(2+) ions against other metal ions was improved using chelating agents. The proposed method was validated by analysis using different techniques.

  8. The radiolytic and chemical degradation of organic ion exchange resins under alkaline conditions: effect on radionuclide speciation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loon, L. van; Hummel, W.

    1995-10-01

    The formation of water soluble organic ligands by the radiolytic and chemical degradation of several ion exchange resins was investigated under conditions close to those of the near field of a cementitious repository. The most important degradation products were characterised and their role on radionuclide speciation evaluated thoroughly. Irradiation of strong acidic cation exchange resins (Powdex PCH and Lewatite S-100) resulted in the formation of mainly sulphate and dissolved organic carbon. A small part of the carbon (10-20%) could be identified as oxalate. The identity of the remainder is unknown. Complexation studies with Cu 2+ and Ni 2+ showed the presence of two ligands: oxalate and ligand X. Although ligand X could not be identified, it could be characterised by its concentration, a deprotonation constant and a complexation constant for the NiX complex. The influence of oxalate and ligand X on the speciation of radionuclides is examined in detail. For oxalate no significant influence on the speciation of radionuclides is expected. The stronger complexing ligand X may exert some influence depending on its concentration and the values of other parameters. These critical parameters are discussed and limiting values are evaluated. In absence of irradiation, no evidence for the formation of ligands was found. Irradiation of strong basic anion exchange resins (Powdex PAO and Lewatite M-500) resulted in the formation of mainly ammonia, amines and dissolved organic carbon. Up to 50% of the carbon could be identified as methyl-, dimethyl- and trimethylamine. Complexation studies with Eu 3+ showed that the complexing capacity under near field conditions was negligible. The speciation of cations such as Ag, Ni, Cu and Pd can be influenced by the presence of amins. The strongest amine-complexes are formed with Pd and therefore, as an example, the aqueous Pd-ammonia system is examined in great detail. (author) 30 figs., 10 tabs., refs

  9. Organic reductants based leaching: A sustainable process for the recovery of valuable metals from spent lithium ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiangping; Guo, Chunxiu; Ma, Hongrui; Li, Jiazhu; Zhou, Tao; Cao, Ling; Kang, Duozhi

    2018-05-01

    It is significant to recover metal values from spent lithium ion batteries (LIBs) for the alleviation or prevention of potential risks towards environmental pollution and public health, as well as for the conservation of valuable metals. Herein a hydrometallurgical process was proposed to explore the possibility for the leaching of different metals from waste cathodic materials (LiCoO 2 ) of spent LIBs using organics as reductant in sulfuric acid medium. According to the leaching results, about 98% Co and 96% Li can be leached under the optimal experimental conditions of reaction temperature - 95 °C, reaction time - 120 min, reductive agent dosage - 0.4 g/g, slurry density - 25 g/L, concentration of sulfuric acid-3 mol/L in H 2 SO 4  + glucose leaching system. Similar results (96% Co and 100% Li) can be obtained in H 2 SO 4  + sucrose leaching system under optimized leaching conditions. Despite a complete leaching of Li (∼100%), only 54% Co can be dissolved in the H 2 SO 4  + cellulose leaching system under optimized leaching conditions. Finally, different characterization methods, including UV-Vis, FT-IR, SEM and XRD, were employed for the tentative exploration of reductive leaching reactions using organic as reductant in sulfuric acid medium. All the leaching and characterization results confirm that both glucose and sucrose are effective reductants during leaching, while cellulose should be further degraded to organics with low molecular weights to achieve a satisfactory leaching performance. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The radiolytic and chemical degradation of organic ion exchange resins under alkaline conditions: effect on radionuclide speciation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loon, L. van; Hummel, W. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1995-10-01

    The formation of water soluble organic ligands by the radiolytic and chemical degradation of several ion exchange resins was investigated under conditions close to those of the near field of a cementitious repository. The most important degradation products were characterised and their role on radionuclide speciation evaluated thoroughly. Irradiation of strong acidic cation exchange resins (Powdex PCH and Lewatite S-100) resulted in the formation of mainly sulphate and dissolved organic carbon. A small part of the carbon (10-20%) could be identified as oxalate. The identity of the remainder is unknown. Complexation studies with Cu{sup 2+} and Ni{sup 2+} showed the presence of two ligands: oxalate and ligand X. Although ligand X could not be identified, it could be characterised by its concentration, a deprotonation constant and a complexation constant for the NiX complex. The influence of oxalate and ligand X on the speciation of radionuclides is examined in detail. For oxalate no significant influence on the speciation of radionuclides is expected. The stronger complexing ligand X may exert some influence depending on its concentration and the values of other parameters. These critical parameters are discussed and limiting values are evaluated. In absence of irradiation, no evidence for the formation of ligands was found. Irradiation of strong basic anion exchange resins (Powdex PAO and Lewatite M-500) resulted in the formation of mainly ammonia, amines and dissolved organic carbon. Up to 50% of the carbon could be identified as methyl-, dimethyl- and trimethylamine. Complexation studies with Eu{sup 3+} showed that the complexing capacity under near field conditions was negligible. The speciation of cations such as Ag, Ni, Cu and Pd can be influenced by the presence of amins. The strongest amine-complexes are formed with Pd and therefore, as an example, the aqueous Pd-ammonia system is examined in great detail. (author) 30 figs., 10 tabs., refs.

  11. TRANSPLANTE RENAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soraia Geraldo Rozza Lopes

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del estudio fue comprender el significado de espera del trasplante renal para las mujeres en hemodiálisis. Se trata de un estudio cualitativo-interpretativo, realizado con 12 mujeres en hemodiálisis en Florianópolis. Los datos fueron recolectados a través de entrevistas en profundidad en el domicilio. Fue utilizado el software Etnografh 6.0 para la pre-codificación y posterior al análisis interpretativo emergieron dos categorías: “las sombras del momento actual”, que mostró que las dificultades iniciales de la enfermedad están presentes, pero las mujeres pueden hacer frente mejor a la enfermedad y el tratamiento. La segunda categoría, “la luz del trasplante renal”, muestra la esperanza impulsada por la entrada en la lista de espera para un trasplante.

  12. A study of self organized criticality in ion temperature gradient mode driven gyrokinetic turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavridis, M.; Isliker, H.; Vlahos, L.; Görler, T.; Jenko, F.; Told, D.

    2014-10-01

    An investigation on the characteristics of self organized criticality (Soc) in ITG mode driven turbulence is made, with the use of various statistical tools (histograms, power spectra, Hurst exponents estimated with the rescaled range analysis, and the structure function method). For this purpose, local non-linear gyrokinetic simulations of the cyclone base case scenario are performed with the GENE software package. Although most authors concentrate on global simulations, which seem to be a better choice for such an investigation, we use local simulations in an attempt to study the locally underlying mechanisms of Soc. We also study the structural properties of radially extended structures, with several tools (fractal dimension estimate, cluster analysis, and two dimensional autocorrelation function), in order to explore whether they can be characterized as avalanches. We find that, for large enough driving temperature gradients, the local simulations exhibit most of the features of Soc, with the exception of the probability distribution of observables, which show a tail, yet they are not of power-law form. The radial structures have the same radial extent at all temperature gradients examined; radial motion (transport) though appears only at large temperature gradients, in which case the radial structures can be interpreted as avalanches.

  13. A study of self organized criticality in ion temperature gradient mode driven gyrokinetic turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mavridis, M.; Isliker, H.; Vlahos, L.; Görler, T.; Jenko, F.; Told, D.

    2014-01-01

    An investigation on the characteristics of self organized criticality (Soc) in ITG mode driven turbulence is made, with the use of various statistical tools (histograms, power spectra, Hurst exponents estimated with the rescaled range analysis, and the structure function method). For this purpose, local non-linear gyrokinetic simulations of the cyclone base case scenario are performed with the GENE software package. Although most authors concentrate on global simulations, which seem to be a better choice for such an investigation, we use local simulations in an attempt to study the locally underlying mechanisms of Soc. We also study the structural properties of radially extended structures, with several tools (fractal dimension estimate, cluster analysis, and two dimensional autocorrelation function), in order to explore whether they can be characterized as avalanches. We find that, for large enough driving temperature gradients, the local simulations exhibit most of the features of Soc, with the exception of the probability distribution of observables, which show a tail, yet they are not of power-law form. The radial structures have the same radial extent at all temperature gradients examined; radial motion (transport) though appears only at large temperature gradients, in which case the radial structures can be interpreted as avalanches

  14. A study of self organized criticality in ion temperature gradient mode driven gyrokinetic turbulence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mavridis, M.; Isliker, H.; Vlahos, L. [Section of Astrophysics, Astronomy and Mechanics, Department of Physics, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, GR-54124 Thessaloniki (Greece); Görler, T.; Jenko, F.; Told, D. [Max Planck Institute for Plasma Physics, Boltzmannstr. 2, 85748 Garching (Germany)

    2014-10-15

    An investigation on the characteristics of self organized criticality (Soc) in ITG mode driven turbulence is made, with the use of various statistical tools (histograms, power spectra, Hurst exponents estimated with the rescaled range analysis, and the structure function method). For this purpose, local non-linear gyrokinetic simulations of the cyclone base case scenario are performed with the GENE software package. Although most authors concentrate on global simulations, which seem to be a better choice for such an investigation, we use local simulations in an attempt to study the locally underlying mechanisms of Soc. We also study the structural properties of radially extended structures, with several tools (fractal dimension estimate, cluster analysis, and two dimensional autocorrelation function), in order to explore whether they can be characterized as avalanches. We find that, for large enough driving temperature gradients, the local simulations exhibit most of the features of Soc, with the exception of the probability distribution of observables, which show a tail, yet they are not of power-law form. The radial structures have the same radial extent at all temperature gradients examined; radial motion (transport) though appears only at large temperature gradients, in which case the radial structures can be interpreted as avalanches.

  15. Different Reactive Oxygen Species Lead to Distinct Changes of Cellular Metal Ions in the Eukaryotic Model Organism Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter J. Rogers

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Elemental uptake and export of the cell are tightly regulated thereby maintaining the ionomic homeostasis. This equilibrium can be disrupted upon exposure to exogenous reactive oxygen species (ROS, leading to reduction or elevation of the intracellular metal ions. In this study, the ionomic composition in the eukaryotic model organism Saccharomyces cerevisiae was profiled using the inductively-coupled plasma optical emission spectrometer (ICP-OES following the treatment with individual ROS, including hydrogen peroxide, cumen hydroperoxide, linoleic acid hydroperoxide (LAH, the superoxide-generating agent menadione, the thiol-oxidising agent diamide [diazine-dicarboxylic acid-bis(dimethylamide], dimedone and peroxynitrite. The findings demonstrated that different ROS resulted in distinct changes in cellular metal ions. Aluminium (Al3+ level rose up to 50-fold after the diamide treatment. Cellular potassium (K+ in LAH-treated cells was 26-fold less compared to the non-treated controls. The diamide-induced Al3+ accumulation was further validated by the enhanced Al3+ uptake along the time course and diamide doses. Pre-incubation of yeast with individual elements including iron, copper, manganese and magnesium failed to block diamide-induced Al3+ uptake, suggesting Al3+-specific transporters could be involved in Al3+ uptake. Furthermore, LAH-induced potassium depletion was validated by a rescue experiment in which addition of potassium increased yeast growth in LAH-containing media by 26% compared to LAH alone. Taken together, the data, for the first time, demonstrated the linkage between ionomic profiles and individual oxidative conditions.

  16. Renal angiographic and computed tomographic evaluation of local extension of renal cell carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masuda, Fujio; Onishi, Tetsuro; Sasaki, Tadamasa; Arai, Yoshikazu; Shoji, Ryo

    1981-01-01

    In 23 cases of renal cell carcinoma, the degree of local invasion of carcinoma was diagnosed using renal angiography and CT, and compared with the findings obtained by operation or autopsy. Among 5 cases in which the tumor was confined to the renal capsule, accurate diagnosis could be established with renal angiography in 4 cases and with CT in all of 5 cases. Both renal angiography and CT provided correct diagnosis in 7 of 8 cases in which the tumor showed infiltration extending to the perinephric fat. Out of 5 cases with tumor invasion of renal vein or inferior vena cava, diagnosis could be established correctly by renal angiography and CT in 3 cases. Among the remaining 2 cases the diagnosis could be established by renal angiography and CT in one each case. Among 5 cases with metastases to the regional lymph nodes, diagnosis could be established by renal angiography in only 2 cases, while all of 5 cases could be diagnosed by CT. In 3 cases where the tumor invaded an ajacent organ beyond Gerota's fastia, renal angiography could diagnose in none of the 3 cases while with CT all of 3 cases could successfully be diagnosed. The consistency of degree of local invasion as revealed by renal angiography and CT was seen in 15 of 23 cases (65%) for renal agniography and 20 of 23 cases (87%) for CT, indicating superiority of CT in this respect. In particular, CT appears to be more superior to renal angiography for determining whether the tumor confined to Gerota's fastia or it infiltrated over it. Both combined use of renal angiography and CT, the degree of infiltration of tumor could be diagnosed correctly in 22 of 23 cases (96%). (author)

  17. An ion-neutral model to investigate chemical ionization mass spectrometry analysis of atmospheric molecules - application to a mixed reagent ion system for hydroperoxides and organic acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heikes, Brian G.; Treadaway, Victoria; McNeill, Ashley S.; Silwal, Indira K. C.; O'Sullivan, Daniel W.

    2018-04-01

    An ion-neutral chemical kinetic model is described and used to simulate the negative ion chemistry occurring within a mixed-reagent ion chemical ionization mass spectrometer (CIMS). The model objective was the establishment of a theoretical basis to understand ambient pressure (variable sample flow and reagent ion carrier gas flow rates), water vapor, ozone and oxides of nitrogen effects on ion cluster sensitivities for hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), methyl peroxide (CH3OOH), formic acid (HFo) and acetic acid (HAc). The model development started with established atmospheric ion chemistry mechanisms, thermodynamic data and reaction rate coefficients. The chemical mechanism was augmented with additional reactions and their reaction rate coefficients specific to the analytes. Some existing reaction rate coefficients were modified to enable the model to match laboratory and field campaign determinations of ion cluster sensitivities as functions of CIMS sample flow rate and ambient humidity. Relative trends in predicted and observed sensitivities are compared as instrument specific factors preclude a direct calculation of instrument sensitivity as a function of sample pressure and humidity. Predicted sensitivity trends and experimental sensitivity trends suggested the model captured the reagent ion and cluster chemistry and reproduced trends in ion cluster sensitivity with sample flow and humidity observed with a CIMS instrument developed for atmospheric peroxide measurements (PCIMSs). The model was further used to investigate the potential for isobaric compounds as interferences in the measurement of the above species. For ambient O3 mixing ratios more than 50 times those of H2O2, O3-(H2O) was predicted to be a significant isobaric interference to the measurement of H2O2 using O2-(H2O2) at m/z 66. O3 and NO give rise to species and cluster ions, CO3-(H2O) and NO3-(H2O), respectively, which interfere in the measurement of CH3OOH using O2-(CH3OOH) at m/z 80. The CO3-(H2O

  18. POLAR ORGANIC CHEMICAL INTEGRATIVE SAMPLING AND LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY-ELECTROSPRAY/ION-TRAP MASS SPECTROMETRY FOR ASSESSING SELECTED PRESCRIPTION AND ILLICIT DRUGS IN TREATED SEWAGE EFFLUENTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purpose of the research presented in this paper is two-fold: (1) to demonstrate the 4 coupling of two state-of-the-art techniques: a time-weighted polar organic integrative sampler (POCIS) and micro-liquid chromatography-electrospray/ion trap mass spectrometry (u-LC-6 ES/ITMS...

  19. Submicron aerosol organic functional groups, ions, and water content at the Centreville SEARCH site (Alabama), during SOAS campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruggeri, G.; Ergin, G.; Modini, R. L.; Takahama, S.

    2013-12-01

    The SOAS campaign was conducted from June 1 to July 15 of 2013 in order to understand the relationship between biogenic and anthropogenic emissions in the South East US1,2. In this study, the organic and inorganic composition of submicron aerosol in the Centreville SEARCH site was measured by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) and the Ambient Ion Monitor (AIM; URG Corporation), whereas the aerosol water content was measured with a Dry Ambient Aerosol Size Spectrometer (DAASS)3. Organic functional group analysis was performed on PM1 aerosol selected by cyclone and collected on teflon filters with a time resolution of 4-12 hours, using one inlet heated to 50 °C and the other operated either at ambient temperature or 70 °C 4. The AIM measured both condensed and gas phase composition with a time resolution of 1 hour, providing partitioning behavior of inorganic species such as NH3/NH4+, HNO3/NO3-. These measurements collectively permit calculation of pure-component vapor pressures of candidate organic compounds and activity coefficients of interacting components in the condensed phase, using models such as SIMPOL.15, E-AIM6, and AIOMFAC7. From these results, the water content of the aerosol is predicted, and a comparison between modeled and measured partitioning of inorganic compounds and water vapor are discussed, in addition to organic aerosol volatility prediction based on functional group analysis. [1]- Goldstein, A.H., et al., Biogenic carbon and anthropogenic pollutants combine to form a cooling haze over the southeastern United States. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 2009. 106(22), 8835-8840. [2]- Carlton, A.G., Turpin, B.J., 2013. Particle partitioning potential of organic compounds is highest in the Eastern US and driven by anthropogenic water. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussions 13, 12743-12770. [3]- Khlystov, A., Stanier, C.O., Takahama, S., Pandis, S.N., 2005. Water content of ambient

  20. BILATERAL DUPLICATION OF RENAL ARTERIES

    OpenAIRE

    Prajkta A Thete; Mehera Bhoir; M.V.Ambiye

    2014-01-01

    Routine dissection of a male cadaver revealed the presence of bilateral double renal arteries. On the right side the accessory renal artery originated from the abdominal aorta just above the main renal artery. On the left side the accessory renal artery originated from the abdominal aorta about 1 cm above the main renal artery. Knowledge of the variations of renal vascular anatomy has importance in exploration and treatment of renal trauma, renal transplantation, renal artery embolization, su...

  1. Molecular formulae of marine and terrigenous dissolved organic matter detected by electrospray ionization Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Boris P.; Witt, Matthias; Engbrodt, Ralph; Dittmar, Thorsten; Kattner, Gerhard

    2005-07-01

    The chemical structure of refractory marine dissolved organic matter (DOM) is still largely unknown. Electrospray ionization Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (ESI FT-ICR-MS) was used to resolve the complex mixtures of DOM and provide valuable information on elemental compositions on a molecular scale. We characterized and compared DOM from two sharply contrasting aquatic environments, algal-derived DOM from the Weddell Sea (Antarctica) and terrigenous DOM from pore water of a tropical mangrove area in northern Brazil. Several thousand molecular formulas in the mass range of 300-600 Da were identified and reproduced in element ratio plots. On the basis of molecular elemental composition and double-bond equivalents (DBE) we calculated an average composition for marine DOM. O/C ratios in the marine samples were lower (0.36 ± 0.01) than in the mangrove pore-water sample (0.42). A small proportion of chemical formulas with higher molecular mass in the marine samples were characterized by very low O/C and H/C ratios probably reflecting amphiphilic properties. The average number of unsaturations in the marine samples was surprisingly high (DBE = 9.9; mangrove pore water: DBE = 9.4) most likely due to a significant contribution of carbonyl carbon. There was no significant difference in elemental composition between surface and deep-water DOM in the Weddell Sea. Although there were some molecules with unique marine elemental composition, there was a conspicuous degree of similarity between the terrigenous and algal-derived end members. Approximately one third of the molecular formulas were present in all marine as well as in the mangrove samples. We infer that different forms of microbial degradation ultimately lead to similar structural features that are intrinsically refractory, independent of the source of the organic matter and the environmental conditions where degradation took place.

  2. Identification and analysis of low molecular weight dissolved organic carbon in subglacial basal ice ecosystems by ion chromatography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, E. C.; Wadham, J. L.; Lis, G. P.; Tranter, M.; Pickard, A. E.; Stibal, M.; Dewsbury, P.; Fitzsimons, S.

    2015-08-01

    Glacial runoff is an important source of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) for downstream heterotrophic activity, despite the low overall DOC concentrations. This is because of the abundance of bioavailable, low molecular weight (LMW) DOC species. However, the provenance and character of LMW-DOC is not fully understood. We investigated the abundance and composition of DOC in subglacial environments via a molecular level DOC analysis of basal ice, which forms by water/sediment freeze-on to the glacier sole. Spectrofluorometry and a novel ion chromatographic method, which has been little utilised in glacial science for LMW-DOC determinations, were employed to identify and quantify the major LMW fractions (free amino acids, carbohydrates and carboxylic acids) in basal ice from four glaciers, each with a different basal debris type. Basal ice from Joyce Glacier (Antarctica) was unique in that 98 % of the LMW-DOC was derived from the extremely diverse FAA pool, comprising 14 FAAs. LMW-DOC concentrations in basal ice were dependent on the bioavailability of the overridden organic carbon (OC), which in turn, was influenced by the type of overridden material. Mean LMW-DOC concentrations in basal ice from Russell Glacier (Greenland), Finsterwalderbreen (Svalbard) and Engabreen (Norway) were low (0-417 nM C), attributed to the relatively refractory nature of the OC in the overridden paleosols and bedrock. In contrast, mean LMW-DOC concentrations were an order of magnitude higher (4430 nM C) in basal ice from Joyce Glacier, a reflection of the high bioavailability of the overridden lacustrine material (>17 % of the sediment OC comprised extractable carbohydrates, a proxy for bioavailable OC). We find that the overridden material may act as a direct (via abiotic leaching) and indirect (via microbial cycling) source of DOC to the subglacial environment and provides a range of LMW-DOC compounds that may stimulate microbial activity in wet sediments in current subglacial

  3. Very large polycystic kidneys presenting with end stage renal failure ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease (ADPKD) is the most common inherited cause of renal impairment and End Stage Renal Disease (ESRD). Apart from cysts in the kidneys and other organs such as the liver, pancreas and other organs, patients also develop abdominal hernia thought to be as a result of ...

  4. Nectar sugars and amino acids in day- and night-flowering Nicotiana species are more strongly shaped by pollinators' preferences than organic acids and inorganic ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiedge, Kira; Lohaus, Gertrud

    2017-01-01

    Floral nectar contains mainly sugars but also amino acids, organic acids, inorganic ions and secondary compounds to attract pollinators. The genus Nicotiana exhibits great diversity among species in floral morphology, flowering time, nectar compositions, and predominant pollinators. We studied nectar samples of 20 Nicotiana species, composed equally of day- and night-flowering plants and attracting different groups of pollinators (e.g. hummingbirds, moths or bats) to investigate whether sugars, amino acids, organic acids and inorganic ions are influenced by pollinator preferences. Glucose, fructose and sucrose were the only sugars found in the nectar of all examined species. Sugar concentration of the nectar of day-flowering species was 20% higher and amino acid concentration was 2-3-fold higher compared to the nectar of night-flowering species. The sucrose-to-hexose ratio was significantly higher in night-flowering species and the relative share of sucrose based on the total sugar correlated with the flower tube length in the nocturnal species. Flowers of different tobacco species contained varying volumes of nectar which led to about 150-fold higher amounts of total sugar per flower in bat- or sunbird-pollinated species than in bee-pollinated or autogamous species. This difference was even higher for total amino acids per flower (up to 1000-fold). As a consequence, some Nicotiana species invest large amounts of organic nitrogen for certain pollinators. Higher concentrations of inorganic ions, predominantly anions, were found in nectar of night-flowering species. Therefore, higher anion concentrations were also associated with pollinator types active at night. Malate, the main organic acid, was present in all nectar samples but the concentration was not correlated with pollinator type. In conclusion, statistical analyses revealed that pollinator types have a stronger effect on nectar composition than phylogenetic relations. In this context, nectar sugars and amino

  5. Nectar sugars and amino acids in day- and night-flowering Nicotiana species are more strongly shaped by pollinators’ preferences than organic acids and inorganic ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiedge, Kira; Lohaus, Gertrud

    2017-01-01

    Floral nectar contains mainly sugars but also amino acids, organic acids, inorganic ions and secondary compounds to attract pollinators. The genus Nicotiana exhibits great diversity among species in floral morphology, flowering time, nectar compositions, and predominant pollinators. We studied nectar samples of 20 Nicotiana species, composed equally of day- and night-flowering plants and attracting different groups of pollinators (e.g. hummingbirds, moths or bats) to investigate whether sugars, amino acids, organic acids and inorganic ions are influenced by pollinator preferences. Glucose, fructose and sucrose were the only sugars found in the nectar of all examined species. Sugar concentration of the nectar of day-flowering species was 20% higher and amino acid concentration was 2-3-fold higher compared to the nectar of night-flowering species. The sucrose-to-hexose ratio was significantly higher in night-flowering species and the relative share of sucrose based on the total sugar correlated with the flower tube length in the nocturnal species. Flowers of different tobacco species contained varying volumes of nectar which led to about 150-fold higher amounts of total sugar per flower in bat- or sunbird-pollinated species than in bee-pollinated or autogamous species. This difference was even higher for total amino acids per flower (up to 1000-fold). As a consequence, some Nicotiana species invest large amounts of organic nitrogen for certain pollinators. Higher concentrations of inorganic ions, predominantly anions, were found in nectar of night-flowering species. Therefore, higher anion concentrations were also associated with pollinator types active at night. Malate, the main organic acid, was present in all nectar samples but the concentration was not correlated with pollinator type. In conclusion, statistical analyses revealed that pollinator types have a stronger effect on nectar composition than phylogenetic relations. In this context, nectar sugars and amino

  6. Nectar sugars and amino acids in day- and night-flowering Nicotiana species are more strongly shaped by pollinators' preferences than organic acids and inorganic ions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kira Tiedge

    Full Text Available Floral nectar contains mainly sugars but also amino acids, organic acids, inorganic ions and secondary compounds to attract pollinators. The genus Nicotiana exhibits great diversity among species in floral morphology, flowering time, nectar compositions, and predominant pollinators. We studied nectar samples of 20 Nicotiana species, composed equally of day- and night-flowering plants and attracting different groups of pollinators (e.g. hummingbirds, moths or bats to investigate whether sugars, amino acids, organic acids and inorganic ions are influenced by pollinator preferences. Glucose, fructose and sucrose were the only sugars found in the nectar of all examined species. Sugar concentration of the nectar of day-flowering species was 20% higher and amino acid concentration was 2-3-fold higher compared to the nectar of night-flowering species. The sucrose-to-hexose ratio was significantly higher in night-flowering species and the relative share of sucrose based on the total sugar correlated with the flower tube length in the nocturnal species. Flowers of different tobacco species contained varying volumes of nectar which led to about 150-fold higher amounts of total sugar per flower in bat- or sunbird-pollinated species than in bee-pollinated or autogamous species. This difference was even higher for total amino acids per flower (up to 1000-fold. As a consequence, some Nicotiana species invest large amounts of organic nitrogen for certain pollinators. Higher concentrations of inorganic ions, predominantly anions, were found in nectar of night-flowering species. Therefore, higher anion concentrations were also associated with pollinator types active at night. Malate, the main organic acid, was present in all nectar samples but the concentration was not correlated with pollinator type. In conclusion, statistical analyses revealed that pollinator types have a stronger effect on nectar composition than phylogenetic relations. In this context

  7. Direct Analysis of Organic Compounds in Liquid Using a Miniature Photoionization Ion Trap Mass Spectrometer with Pulsed Carrier-Gas Capillary Inlet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xinqiong; Yu, Quan; Zhang, Qian; Ni, Kai; Qian, Xiang; Tang, Fei; Wang, Xiaohao

    2017-08-01

    A miniature ion trap mass spectrometer with capillary direct sampling and vacuum ultraviolet photoionization source was developed to conduct trace analysis of organic compounds in liquids. Self-aspiration sampling is available where the samples are drawn into the vacuum chamber through a capillary with an extremely low flow rate (less than 1 μL/min), which minimizes sample consumption in each analysis to tens of micrograms. A pulsed gas-assisted inlet was designed and optimized to promote sample transmission in the tube and facilitate the cooling of ions, thereby improving instrument sensitivity. A limit of detection of 2 ppb could be achieved for 2,4-dimethylaniline in a methanol solution. The sampling system described in the present study is specifically suitable for a miniature photoionization ion trap mass spectrometer that can perform rapid and online analysis for liquid samples. Graphical Abstract ᅟ.

  8. Magneto-ionic phase control in a quasi-layered donor/acceptor metal-organic framework by means of a Li-ion battery system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taniguchi, Kouji; Narushima, Keisuke; Yamagishi, Kayo; Shito, Nanami; Kosaka, Wataru; Miyasaka, Hitoshi

    2017-06-01

    Electrical magnetism control is realized in a Li-ion battery system through a redox reaction involving ion migrations; “magneto-ionic control”. A quasi-layered metal-organic framework compound with a cross-linked π-conjugated/unconjugated one-dimensional chain motifs composed of electron-donor/acceptor units is developed as the cathode material. A change in magnetic phase from paramagnetic to ferrimagnetic is demonstrated by means of electron-filling control for the acceptor units via insertion of Li+-ions into pores in the material. The transition temperature is as high as that expected for highly π-conjugated layered systems, indicating an extension of π-conjugated exchange paths by rearranging coordination bonds in the first discharge process.

  9. Radionuclide evaluation of renal transplants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Hong; Zhao Deshan

    2000-01-01

    Radionuclide renal imaging and plasma clearance methods can quickly quantitate renal blood flow and function in renal transplants. They can diagnose acute tubular necrosis and rejection, renal scar, surgical complications such as urine leaks, obstruction and renal artery stenosis after renal transplants. At the same time they can assess the therapy effect of renal transplant complications and can also predict renal transplant survival from early post-operative function studies

  10. Antineoplastic treatment of patients with renal insufficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajec, J.; Mego, M.; Rajec, J.

    2011-01-01

    Kidneys are the main route of elimination for many antineoplastic drugs and their metabolites. The kidney dysfunction may lead to the drug cumulation in organism with the resulting increased systemic toxicity. A lot of used cytostatics requires a dose modification at different levels of renal insufficiency. Due to the lack of data from clinical trials, the limiting of systemic toxicity is difficult especially in patients with severe renal impairment or patients undergoing chronic hemodialysis. The following article is focused on the preventive strategies dealing with recommended dosing modification of various antineoplastic agents in patients with renal insufficiency. (author)

  11. Three dimensional analysis of self-structuring organic thin films using time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayerhofer, Karl E.; Heier, Jakob; Maniglio, Ylenia; Keller, Beat Andreas, E-mail: beat.keller@empa.ch

    2011-07-01

    Selective sub-micrometer structuring of phase-separating organic semiconductor materials has recently got into focus for providing the opportunity of further improvements in optoelectronic device applications. Here we present a 3D-time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (3D-TOF-SIMS) depth profiling investigation on spin-coated blends consisting of [6,6]-phenyl-C{sub 61}-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) and a cationic cyanine dye (1,1'-diethyl-3,3,3',3'-tetramethylcarbocyanine iodide). TOF-SIMS provides the required lateral and depth resolution to resolve material and molecular inhomogeneities and phase separation in the blend. The data are illustrating the three-dimensional arrangement of the substances involved and confirm results of earlier studies using atomic force microscopy, UV-vis spectroscopy and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and which have shown well distinguishable morphological features. The formation of this domain structure has been found to be dependent on the absolute as well as the individual film thickness, in accordance with models based on thin liquid two-layer films. Honey-comb like primary structures with micrometer dimension were found in samples containing small amounts of dye molecules in the deposition solution. In this case a thin dye deposit on PCBM was detected, which is well separated from the dye layer at the substrate. For this type of sample, we discuss an extended model of film formation based on partial depletion of dye molecules during film solidification, resulting in two individual dye layers.

  12. Novel molecular-level evidence of iodine binding to natural organic matter from Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Chen; Chen, Hongmei; Sugiyama, Yuko; Zhang, Saijin; Li, Hsiu-Ping; Ho, Yi-Fang; Chuang, Chia-ying; Schwehr, Kathleen A.; Kaplan, Daniel I.; Yeager, Chris; Roberts, Kimberly A.; Hatcher, Patrick G.; Santschi, Peter H.

    2013-01-01

    Major fractions of radioiodine ( 129 I) are associated with natural organic matter (NOM) in the groundwater and surface soils of the Savannah River Site (SRS). Electrospray ionization coupled to Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (ESI-FTICR-MS) was applied to elucidate the interactions between inorganic iodine species (iodide and iodate) and a fulvic acid (FA) extracted from a SRS surface soil. Iodate is likely reduced to reactive iodine species by the lignin- and tannin-like compounds or the carboxylic-rich alicyclic molecules (CRAM), during which condensed aromatics and lignin-like compounds were generated. Iodide is catalytically oxidized into reactive iodine species by peroxides, while FA is oxidized by peroxides into more aliphatic and less aromatic compounds. Only 9% of the total identified organo-iodine compounds derived from molecules originally present in the FA, whereas most were iodine binding to newly-produced compounds. The resulting iodinated molecules were distributed in three regions in the van Krevelen diagrams, denoting unsaturated hydrocarbons, lignin and protein. Moreover, characteristics of these organo-iodine compounds, such as their relatively low O/C ratios ( 2 or -HNCOR groups and a ring-activating functionality to favor the electrophilic substitution. The ESI-FTICR-MS technique provides novel evidence to better understand the reactivity and scavenging properties of NOM towards radioiodine and possible influence of NOM on 129 I migration. Highlights: ► IO 3 − reduced by lignin-, tannin-like compounds/carboxylic-rich alicyclic molecules ► Condensed aromatic and lignin-like compounds generated after iodate-iodination ► Aliphatic and less aromatic compounds formed after iodide-iodination ► Organo-iodine identified as unsaturated hydrocarbons, lignin and protein ► Organo-iodine with low O/C ratios imply less environmental mobility

  13. Biodegradable Magnesium (Mg) Implantation Does Not Impose Related Metabolic Disorders in Rats with Chronic Renal Failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jiali; Xu, Jiankun; Liu, Waiching; Li, Yangde; Qin, Ling

    2016-05-01

    Mg and its alloys have been considered as one of the most promising biodegradable medical devices, but it was still unclear whether hypermagnesemia involved health risks would occur in persons with kidney disease due to their deteriorated kidney function for Mg ions excretion from their body. In this study, we established a chronic renal failure (CRF) model in rats induced by adenine administration prior to Mg implantation, aiming to predict if CRF patients are suitable for the use of Mg implants. The results showed that Mg levels in serum, urine, feces and internal organs had no significant changes after Mg implantation for both normal and CRF rats. Biochemical indices detection and histopathological analysis in kidney, liver and heart tissue confirmed that Mg implants did not induce any extra damage in animals even with renal failure. Our study indicates that Mg based orthopaedic medical device may be considered for use in CRF patients without biosafety concerns.

  14. Distal renal tubular acidosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this disorder. Alternative Names Renal tubular acidosis - distal; Renal tubular acidosis type I; Type I RTA; RTA - distal; Classical RTA Images Kidney anatomy Kidney - blood and urine flow References Bose A, Monk RD, Bushinsky DA. Kidney ...

  15. IgG4 related renal disease: A wolf in sheep′s clothing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Rohan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available IgG4 related disease is a fibro-inflammatory condition with involvement of renal and extra renal organs, characterized by lymphoplasmacytic infiltration with organ dysfunction. We describe three cases of IgG4 related renal disease from a tertiary care hospital in south India.

  16. Towards Molecular Characterization of Mineral-Organic Matter Interface Using In Situ Liquid Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Z.; Yu, X. Y.

    2017-12-01

    Organo-Mineral-Microbe interactions in terrestrial ecosystems are of great interest. Quite a few models have been developed through extensive efforts in this field. However, predictions from current models are far from being accurate, and many debates still exist. One of the major reasons is that most experimental data generated from bulk analysis, and the information of molecular dynamics occurring at mineral-organic matter interface is rare. Such information has been difficult to obtain, due to lack of suitable in situ analysis tools. Recently, we have developed in situ liquid secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory1, and it has shown promise to provide both elemental and molecular information at vacuum-liquid and solid-liquid interfaces.2 In this presentation, we demonstrate that in situ liquid SIMS can provide critical molecular information at solid substrate-live biofilm interface.3 Shewanella oneidensis is used as a model micro-organism and silicon nitride as a model mineral surface. Of particular interest, biologically relevant water clusters have been first observed in the living biofilms. Characteristic fragments of biofilm matrix components such as proteins, polysaccharides, and lipids can be molecularly examined. Furthermore, characteristic fatty acids (e.g., palmitic acid), quinolone signal, and riboflavin fragments were found to respond after the biofilm is treated with Cr(VI), leading to biofilm dispersal. Significant changes in water clusters and quorum sensing signals indicative of intercellular communication in the aqueous environment were observed, suggesting that they might result in fatty acid synthesis and inhibition of riboflavin production. The Cr(VI) reduction seems to follow the Mtr pathway leading to Cr(III) formation. Our approach potentially opens a new avenue for in-situ understanding of mineral-organo or mineral-microbe interfaces using in situ liquid SIMS and super resolution fluorescence

  17. Carbon-Coated Fe3O4/VOx Hollow Microboxes Derived from Metal-Organic Frameworks as a High-Performance Anode Material for Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhi-Wei; Wen, Tao; Liang, Kuang; Jiang, Yi-Fan; Zhou, Xiao; Shen, Cong-Cong; Xu, An-Wu

    2017-02-01

    As the ever-growing demand for high-performance power sources, lithium-ion batteries with high storage capacities and outstanding rate performance have been widely considered as a promising storage device. In this work, starting with metal-organic frameworks, we have developed a facile approach to the synthesis of hybrid Fe 3 O 4 /VO x hollow microboxes via the process of hydrolysis and ion exchange and subsequent calcination. In the constructed architecture, the hollow structure provides an efficient lithium ion diffusion pathway and extra space to accommodate the volume expansion during the insertion and extraction of Li + . With the assistance of carbon coating, the obtained Fe 3 O 4 /VO x @C microboxes exhibit excellent cyclability and enhanced rate performance when employed as an anode material for lithium-ion batteries. As a result, the obtained Fe 3 O 4 /VO x @C delivers a high Coulombic efficiency (near 100%) and outstanding reversible specific capacity of 742 mAh g -1 after 400 cycles at a current density of 0.5 A g -1 . Moreover, a remarkable reversible capacity of 556 mAh g -1 could be retained even at a current density of 2 A g -1 . This study provides a fundamental understanding for the rational design of other composite oxides as high-performance electrode materials for lithium-ion batteries.

  18. Sympatho-renal axis in chronic disease

    OpenAIRE

    Sobotka, Paul A.; Mahfoud, Felix; Schlaich, Markus P.; Hoppe, Uta C.; B?hm, Michael; Krum, Henry

    2011-01-01

    Essential hypertension, insulin resistance, heart failure, congestion, diuretic resistance, and functional renal disease are all characterized by excessive central sympathetic drive. The contribution of the kidney?s somatic afferent nerves, as an underlying cause of elevated central sympathetic drive, and the consequences of excessive efferent sympathetic signals to the kidney itself, as well as other organs, identify the renal sympathetic nerves as a uniquely logical therapeutic target for d...

  19. Predictors of renal recovery in patients with pre-orthotopic liver transplant (OLT) renal dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iglesias, Jose; Frank, Elliot; Mehandru, Sushil; Davis, John M; Levine, Jerrold S

    2013-07-13

    Renal dysfunction occurs commonly in patients awaiting orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) for end-stage liver disease. The use of simultaneous liver-kidney transplantation has increased in the MELD scoring era. As patients may recover renal function after OLT, identifying factors predictive of renal recovery is a critical issue, especially given the scarcity of available organs. Employing the UNOS database, we sought to identify donor- and patient-related predictors of renal recovery among 1720 patients with pre-OLT renal dysfunction and transplanted from 1989 to 2005. Recovery of renal function post-OLT was defined as a composite endpoint of serum creatinine (SCr) ≤1.5 mg/dL at discharge and survival ≥29 days. Pre-OLT renal dysfunction was defined as any of the following: SCr ≥2 mg/dL at any time while awaiting OLT or need for renal replacement therapy (RRT) at the time of registration and/or OLT. Independent predictors of recovery of renal function post-OLT were absence of hepatic allograft dysfunction, transplantation during MELD era, recipient female sex, decreased donor age, decreased recipient ALT at time of OLT, decreased recipient body mass index at registration, use of anti-thymocyte globulin as induction therapy, and longer wait time from registration. Contrary to popular belief, a requirement for RRT, even for prolonged periods in excess of 8 weeks, was not an independent predictor of failure to recover renal function post-OLT. These data indicate that the duration of renal dysfunction, even among those requiring RRT, is a poor way to discriminate reversible from irreversible renal dysfunction.

  20. Bioengineering in renal transplantation: technological advances and novel options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeo, Wee-Song; Zhang, Yao-Chun

    2017-06-06

    End-stage kidney disease (ESKD) is one of the most prevalent diseases in the world with significant morbidity and mortality. Current modes of renal replacement therapy include dialysis and renal transplantation. Although dialysis is an acceptable mode of renal replacement therapy, it does have its shortcomings, which include poorer life expectancy compared with renal transplantation, risk of infections and vascular thrombosis, lack of vascular access and absence of biosynthetic functions of the kidney. Renal transplantation, in contrast, is the preferred option of renal replacement therapy, with improved morbidity and mortality rates and quality of life, compared with dialysis. Renal transplantation, however, may not be available to all patients with ESKD. Some of the key factors limiting the availability and efficiency of renal transplantation include shortage of donor organs and the constant risk of rejection with complications associated with over-immunosuppression respectively. This review focuses chiefly on the potential roles of bioengineering in overcoming limitations in renal transplantation via the development of cell-based bioartificial dialysis devices as bridging options before renal transplantation, and the development of new sources of organs utilizing cell and organ engineering.

  1. Cardio-renal syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Gnanaraj, Joseph; Radhakrishnan, Jai

    2016-01-01

    Cardio-renal syndrome is a commonly encountered problem in clinical practice. Its pathogenesis is not fully understood. The purpose of this article is to highlight the interaction between the cardiovascular system and the renal system and how their interaction results in the complex syndrome of cardio-renal dysfunction. Additionally, we outline the available therapeutic strategies to manage this complex syndrome.

  2. Renal inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heerwagen, S T; Jensen, C; Bagi, P

    2007-01-01

    Renal inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor (IMT) is a rare soft-tissue tumor of controversial etiology with a potential for local recurrence after incomplete surgical resection. The radiological findings in renal IMT are not well described. We report two cases in adults with a renal mass treated...

  3. SIMS of Organic Materials—Interface Location in Argon Gas Cluster Depth Profiles Using Negative Secondary Ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havelund, R.; Seah, M. P.; Tiddia, M.; Gilmore, I. S.

    2018-02-01

    A procedure has been established to define the interface position in depth profiles accurately when using secondary ion mass spectrometry and the negative secondary ions. The interface position varies strongly with the extent of the matrix effect and so depends on the secondary ion measured. Intensity profiles have been measured at both fluorenylmethyloxycarbonyl-uc(l)-pentafluorophenylalanine (FMOC) to Irganox 1010 and Irganox 1010 to FMOC interfaces for many secondary ions. These profiles show separations of the two interfaces that vary over some 10 nm depending on the secondary ion selected. The shapes of these profiles are strongly governed by matrix effects, slightly weakened by a long wavelength roughening. The matrix effects are separately measured using homogeneous, known mixtures of these two materials. Removal of the matrix and roughening effects give consistent compositional profiles for all ions that are described by an integrated exponentially modified Gaussian (EMG) profile. Use of a simple integrated Gaussian may lead to significant errors. The average interface positions in the compositional profiles are determined to standard uncertainties of 0.19 and 0.14 nm, respectively, using the integrated EMG function. Alternatively, and more simply, it is shown that interface positions and profiles may be deduced from data for several secondary ions with measured matrix factors by simply extrapolating the result to Ξ = 0. Care must be taken in quoting interface resolutions since those measured for predominantly Gaussian interfaces with Ξ above or below zero, without correction, appear significantly better than the true resolution.

  4. Metal-Organic Frameworks Derived Okra-like SnO2 Encapsulated in Nitrogen-Doped Graphene for Lithium Ion Battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiangyang; Chen, Sanmei; Yang, Juan; Bai, Tao; Ren, Yongpeng; Tian, Hangyu

    2017-04-26

    A facile process is developed to prepare SnO 2 -based composites through using metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) as precursors. The nitrogen-doped graphene wrapped okra-like SnO 2 composites (SnO 2 @N-RGO) are successfully synthesized for the first time by using Sn-based metal-organic frameworks (Sn-MOF) as precursors. When utilized as an anode material for lithium-ion batteries, the SnO 2 @N-RGO composites possess a remarkably superior reversible capacity of 1041 mA h g -1 at a constant current of 200 mA g -1 after 180 charge-discharge processes and excellent rate capability. The excellent performance can be primarily ascribed to the unique structure of 1D okra-like SnO 2 in SnO 2 @N-RGO which are actually composed of a great number of SnO 2 primary crystallites and numerous well-defined internal voids, can effectively alleviate the huge volume change of SnO 2 , and facilitate the transport and storage of lithium ions. Besides, the structural stability acquires further improvement when the okra-like SnO 2 are wrapped by N-doped graphene. Similarly, this synthetic strategy can be employed to synthesize other high-capacity metal-oxide-based composites starting from various metal-organic frameworks, exhibiting promising application in novel electrode material field of lithium-ion batteries.

  5. Performance of the Linear Ion Trap Mass Spectrometer for the Mars Organic Molecule Analyzer (MOMA) Investigation on the 2018 Exomars Rover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arevalo, Ricardo, Jr.; Brinckerhoff, William B.; Pinnick, Veronica T.; van Amerom, Friso H. W.; Danell, Ryan M.; Li, Xiang; Getty, Stephanie; Hovmand, Lars; Atanassova, Martina; Mahaffy, Paul R.; hide

    2014-01-01

    The 2018 ExoMars rover mission includes the Mars Organic Molecule Analyzer (MOMA) investigation. MOMA will examine the chemical composition of samples acquired from depths of up to two meters below the martian surface, where organics may be protected from degradation derived from cosmic radiation and/or oxidative chemical reactions. When combined with the complement of instruments in the rover's Pasteur Payload, MOMA has the potential to reveal the presence of a wide range of organics preserved in a variety of mineralogical environments, and to begin to understand the structural character and potential origin of those compounds. The MOMA investigation is led by the Max Planck Institute for Solar System Research (MPS) with the mass spectrometer subsystem provided by NASA GSFC. MOMA's linear ion trap mass spectrometer (ITMS) is designed to analyze molecular composition of: (i) gas evolved from pyrolyzed powder samples and separated in a gas chromatograph; and, (ii) ions directly desorbed from crushed solid samples at Mars ambient pressure, as enabled by a pulsed UV laser system, fast-actuating aperture valve and capillary ion inlet. Breadboard ITMS and associated electronics have been advanced to high end-to-end fidelity in preparation for flight hardware delivery to Germany in 2015.

  6. Eu(III)-functionalized MIL-124 as fluorescent probe for highly selectively sensing ions and organic small molecules especially for Fe(III) and Fe(II).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiao-Yu; Yan, Bing

    2015-01-14

    A layerlike MOF (MIL-124, orGa2(OH)4(C9O6H4)) has been prepared and chosen as a parent compound to encapsulate Eu(3+) cations by one uncoordinated carbonyl group in its pores. The Eu(3+)-incorporated sample (Eu(3+)@MIL-124) is fully characterized, which shows excellent luminescence and good fluorescence stability in water or other organic solvents. Subsequently, we choose Eu(3+)@MIL-124 as sensitive probe for sensing metal ions, anions, and organic small molecules because of its robust framework. Studying of the luminescence properties reveals that the complex Eu(3+)@MIL-124 was developed as a highly selective and sensitive probe for detection of Fe(3+) (detection limit, 0.28 μM) and Fe(2+) ions through fluorescence quenching of Eu(3+) and MOF over other metal ions. In connection to this, a probable sensing mechanism was also discussed in this paper. In addition, when Eu(3+)@MIL-124 was immersed in the different anions solutions and organic solvents, it also shows highly selective for Cr2O7(2-)(detection limit, 0.15 μM)and acetone. Remarkably, it is the first Eu-doped MOF to exhibit an excellent ability for the detection of Fe(3+) and Fe(2+) in an aqueous environment without any structural disintegration of the framework.

  7. Removal of Cs+, Sr2+, and Co2+ ions from the mixture of organics and suspended solids aqueous solutions by zeolites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang, Xiang Hong; Fang, Fang; Lu, Chun Hai; Zheng, Lei

    2017-01-01

    Serving as an excellent adsorbent and inorganic ion exchanger in the water purification field, zeolite 4A has in this work presented a strong capability for purifying radioactive waste, such as Sr 2+ , Cs + , and Co 2+ in water. During the processes of decontamination and decommissioning of suspended solids and organics in low-level radioactive wastewater, the purification performance of zeolite 4A has been studied. Under ambient temperature and neutral condition, zeolite 4A absorbed simulated radionuclides such as Sr 2+ , Cs + , and Co 2+ with an absorption rate of almost 90%. Additionally, in alkaline condition, the adsorption percentage even approached 98.7%. After conducting research on suspended solids and organics of zeolite 4A for the treatment of radionuclides, it was found that the suspended clay was conducive to absorption, whereas the absorption of organics in solution was determined by the species of radionuclides and organics. Therefore, zeolite 4A has considerable potential in the treatment of radioactive wastewater

  8. Traumatic renal infarction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yashiro, Naobumi; Ohtomo, Kuni; Kokubo, Takashi; Itai, Yuji; Iio, Masahiro

    1986-01-01

    Four cases of traumatic renal artery occlusion were described and illustrated. In two cases, direct blows to the abdomen compressed the renal artery against the vertebral column. Clinically, they were severely injured with macroscopic hematuria. Aortograms showed abrupt truncation of renal arteries. In the other two, rapid deceleration caused sudden displacement of the kidney producing an intimal tear with resultant thrombosis. Although they showed little injury without macrohematuria, aortograms revealed tapered occlusion of renal arteries. One of them developed hypertension. ''Rim sign'' of post-contrast CT and hypertension resulted from traumatic renal artery occlusion were reviewed. (author)

  9. Renal Control of Calcium, Phosphate, and Magnesium Homeostasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chonchol, Michel; Levi, Moshe

    2015-01-01

    Calcium, phosphate, and magnesium are multivalent cations that are important for many biologic and cellular functions. The kidneys play a central role in the homeostasis of these ions. Gastrointestinal absorption is balanced by renal excretion. When body stores of these ions decline significantly, gastrointestinal absorption, bone resorption, and renal tubular reabsorption increase to normalize their levels. Renal regulation of these ions occurs through glomerular filtration and tubular reabsorption and/or secretion and is therefore an important determinant of plasma ion concentration. Under physiologic conditions, the whole body balance of calcium, phosphate, and magnesium is maintained by fine adjustments of urinary excretion to equal the net intake. This review discusses how calcium, phosphate, and magnesium are handled by the kidneys. PMID:25287933

  10. Revealing dynamically-organized receptor ion channel clusters in live cells by a correlated electric recording and super-resolution single-molecule imaging approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Rajeev; Lu, H Peter

    2018-03-28

    The N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor ion-channel is activated by the binding of ligands, along with the application of action potential, important for synaptic transmission and memory functions. Despite substantial knowledge of the structure and function, the gating mechanism of the NMDA receptor ion channel for electric on-off signals is still a topic of debate. We investigate the NMDA receptor partition distribution and the associated channel's open-close electric signal trajectories using a combined approach of correlating single-molecule fluorescence photo-bleaching, single-molecule super-resolution imaging, and single-channel electric patch-clamp recording. Identifying the compositions of NMDA receptors, their spatial organization and distributions over live cell membranes, we observe that NMDA receptors are organized inhomogeneously: nearly half of the receptor proteins are individually dispersed; whereas others exist in heterogeneous clusters of around 50 nm in size as well as co-localized within the diffraction limited imaging area. We demonstrate that inhomogeneous interactions and partitions of the NMDA receptors can be a cause of the heterogeneous gating mechanism of NMDA receptors in living cells. Furthermore, comparing the imaging results with the ion-channel electric current recording, we propose that the clustered NMDA receptors may be responsible for the variation in the current amplitude observed in the on-off two-state ion-channel electric signal trajectories. Our findings shed new light on the fundamental structure-function mechanism of NMDA receptors and present a conceptual advancement of the ion-channel mechanism in living cells.

  11. Angiotensin II and Renal Tubular Ion Transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Valles

    2005-01-01

    Evidence for the regulation of H+-ATPase activity in vivo and in vitro by trafficking/exocytosis has been provided. An additional level of H+-ATPase regulation via protein synthesis may be important as well. Recently, we have shown that both aldosterone and angiotensin II provide such a mechanism of regulation in vivo at the level of the medullary collecting tubule. Interestingly, in this part of the nephron, the effects of aldosterone and angiotensin II are not sodium dependent, whereas in the cortical collecting duct, both aldosterone and angiotensin II, by contrast, affect H+ secretion by sodium-dependent mechanisms.

  12. Effect of Organic Solvents and Biologically Relevant Ions on the Light-Induced DNA Cleavage by Pyrene and Its Amino and Hydroxy Derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongtao Yu

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs are a class of carcinogenic compounds that are both naturally and artificially produced. Many PAHs are pro-carcinogens that require metabolic activation. Recently, it has been shown that PAH can induce DNA single strand cleavage and formation of PAH-DNA covalent adduct upon irradiation with UVA light. The light-induced DNA cleavage parallels phototoxicity in one instance. The DNA photocleavage efficiency depends on the structure of the PAHs. This article reports the effect of both organic solvents and the presence of biologically relevant ions, Na+, Mg2+, Ca2+, K+, Fe3+, Cu2+, Zn+2, Mn2+, and I-, on the light-induced DNA cleavage by pyrene, 1-hydroxypyrene and 1-aminopyrene. Since both 1-hydroxypyrene (0.6 μM and 1-aminopyrene (6 μM dissolve well in the minimum organic solvents used (2% methanol, dimethylsulfoxide, and dimethylformamide, increasing the amount of the organic solvent resulted in the decrease of the amount of DNA single strand cleavage caused by the combination effect of 1-hydroxy or 1-aminopyrene and UVA light. The result with the less watersoluble pyrene shows that increase of the amount of the organic solvent can increase the amount of DNA single strand DNA photocleavage cause by the combination of pyrene and UVA light. Therefore, there are two effects by the organic solvents: (i to dissolve PAH and (ii to quench DNA photocleavage. The presence of Fe3+ and Zn2+ enhances, while the presence of Ca2+ and Mn2+ inhibits the DNA photocleavage caused by 1-aminopyrene and UVA light. Other metal ions have minimal effect. This means that the effect of ions on DNA photocleavage by PAHs is complex. The presence of KI enhances DNA photocleavage. This indicates that the triplet-excited state of 1-aminopyrene is involved in causing DNA cleavage

  13. Molecular Studies of Complex Soil Organic Matter Interactions with Metal Ions and Mineral Surfaces using Classical Molecular Dynamics and Quantum Chemistry Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, A.; Govind, N.; Laskin, A.

    2017-12-01

    Mineral surfaces have been implicated as potential protectors of soil organic matter (SOM) against decomposition and ultimate mineralization to small molecules which can provide nutrients for plants and soil microbes and can also contribute to the Earth's elemental cycles. SOM is a complex mixture of organic molecules of biological origin at varying degrees of decomposition and can, itself, self-assemble in such a way as to expose some biomolecule types to biotic and abiotic attack while protecting other biomolecule types. The organization of SOM and SOM with mineral surfaces and solvated metal ions is driven by an interplay of van der Waals and electrostatic interactions leading to partitioning of hydrophilic (e.g. sugars) and hydrophobic (e.g., lipids) SOM components that can be bridged with amphiphilic molecules (e.g., proteins). Classical molecular dynamics simulations can shed light on assemblies of organic molecules alone or complexation with mineral surfaces. The role of chemical reactions is also an important consideration in potential chemical changes of the organic species such as oxidation/reduction, degradation, chemisorption to mineral surfaces, and complexation with solvated metal ions to form organometallic systems. For the study of chemical reactivity, quantum chemistry methods can be employed and combined with structural insight provided by classical MD simulations. Moreover, quantum chemistry can also simulate spectroscopic signatures based on chemical structure and is a valuable tool in interpreting spectra from, notably, x-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS). In this presentation, we will discuss our classical MD and quantum chemistry findings on a model SOM system interacting with mineral surfaces and solvated metal ions.

  14. Novel molecular-level evidence of iodine binding to natural organic matter from Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Chen, E-mail: xuchen66@tamu.edu [Laboratory for Environmental and Oceanographic Research, Department of Marine Sciences, Texas A and M University, Building 3029, Galveston, TX 77551 (United States); Chen, Hongmei [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Old Dominion University, Norfolk, VA 23529 (United States); Sugiyama, Yuko [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Old Dominion University, Norfolk, VA 23529 (United States); University of Hyogo, 1-1-12, Shinzaike-honcho, Himeji, Hyogo 670-0092 (Japan); Zhang, Saijin; Li, Hsiu-Ping; Ho, Yi-Fang; Chuang, Chia-ying; Schwehr, Kathleen A. [Laboratory for Environmental and Oceanographic Research, Department of Marine Sciences, Texas A and M University, Building 3029, Galveston, TX 77551 (United States); Kaplan, Daniel I. [Savannah River National Laboratory, Aiken, SC 29808 (United States); Yeager, Chris [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Roberts, Kimberly A. [Savannah River National Laboratory, Aiken, SC 29808 (United States); Hatcher, Patrick G. [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Old Dominion University, Norfolk, VA 23529 (United States); Santschi, Peter H. [Laboratory for Environmental and Oceanographic Research, Department of Marine Sciences, Texas A and M University, Building 3029, Galveston, TX 77551 (United States)

    2013-04-01

    Major fractions of radioiodine ({sup 129}I) are associated with natural organic matter (NOM) in the groundwater and surface soils of the Savannah River Site (SRS). Electrospray ionization coupled to Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (ESI-FTICR-MS) was applied to elucidate the interactions between inorganic iodine species (iodide and iodate) and a fulvic acid (FA) extracted from a SRS surface soil. Iodate is likely reduced to reactive iodine species by the lignin- and tannin-like compounds or the carboxylic-rich alicyclic molecules (CRAM), during which condensed aromatics and lignin-like compounds were generated. Iodide is catalytically oxidized into reactive iodine species by peroxides, while FA is oxidized by peroxides into more aliphatic and less aromatic compounds. Only 9% of the total identified organo-iodine compounds derived from molecules originally present in the FA, whereas most were iodine binding to newly-produced compounds. The resulting iodinated molecules were distributed in three regions in the van Krevelen diagrams, denoting unsaturated hydrocarbons, lignin and protein. Moreover, characteristics of these organo-iodine compounds, such as their relatively low O/C ratios (< 0.2 or < 0.4) and yet some degree of un-saturation close to that of lignin, have multiple important environmental implications concerning possibly less sterically-hindered aromatic ring system for iodine to get access to and a lower hydrophilicity of the molecules thus to retard their migration in the natural aquatic systems. Lastly, ∼ 69% of the identified organo-iodine species contains nitrogen, which is presumably present as -NH{sub 2} or -HNCOR groups and a ring-activating functionality to favor the electrophilic substitution. The ESI-FTICR-MS technique provides novel evidence to better understand the reactivity and scavenging properties of NOM towards radioiodine and possible influence of NOM on {sup 129}I migration. Highlights: ► IO{sub 3}{sup

  15. chemical studies and sorption behavior of some hazardous metal ions on polyacrylamide stannic (IV) molybdophosphate as 'organic - inorganic' composite cation - exchanger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-Galil, E.A.M.

    2010-01-01

    compsite materials formed by the combination of multivalent metal acid salts and organic polymers provide a new class of (organic-inorganic) hypride ion exchangers with better mechanical and granulometric properties, good ion-exchange capacity, higher chemical and radiation stabilites, reproducibility and selectivity for heavy metals. this material was characterized using X-ray (XRD and XRF), IR, TGA-DTA and total elemental analysis studies. on the basis of distribution studies, the material has been found to be highly selective for pb(II). thermodynamic parameters (i.e δG 0 , δ S 0 and δH 0 ) have also been calculated for the adsorption of Pb 2+ , Cs + , Fe 3+ , Cd 2+ , Cu +2 , Zn 2+ , Co 2+ and Eu 3+ ions on polyacrylamide Sn(IV) molybdophosphate showing that the overall adsorption process is spontaneous endothermic. the mechanism of diffusion of Fe 3+ , Co 2+ , Cu +2 , Zn 2+ , Cd 2+ , Cs + , Pb 2+ and Eu 3+ in the H-form of polyacrylamide Sn(IV) molybdophosphate composite as cation exchanger was studied as a function of particle size, concentration of the exchanging ions, reaction temperature, dring temperature and pH. the exchange rate was controlled by particle diffusion mechanism as a limited batch techneque and is confirmed from straight lines of B versus 1/r 2 polts. the values of diffusion coefficients, activation energy and entropy of activation were calculated and their significance was discussed. the data obtained have been comared with that reported for other organic and inorganic exchangers.

  16. Infantile cystinosis: From dialysis to renal transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manel Jellouli

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Cystinosis is an autosomal recessive, lysosomal storage disease characterised by the accumulation of the amino acid cystine in different organs and tissues. It is a multisystemic disease that can present with renal and extra-renal manifestations. In this report, we present the first case of transplanted nephropathic cystinosis in a Tunisian child. A 4-year-old Tunisian boy born to nonconsanguineous parents, was treated in our medical services in 1990 for cystinosis. Since the age of five months, he developed symptoms of severe weight loss, vomiting, dehydration, and polyuria. He manifested the Toni Debré Fanconi syndrome. Slit lamp examination of the anterior segment of both eyes revealed fine, shiny crystal-like deposits diffusely distributed in the corneal epithelium and the stroma. Our patient had renal failure. At the age of seven, he reached terminal chronic renal failure and was treated with peritoneal dialysis. Hemodialysis was started at the age of nine years. At the age of 13 years, he received a renal transplantation and was started on cysteamine 1999, five months after the renal transplantation. Currently, the patient is 28-year-old. The graft has survived 15 years after the transplantation. Renal functions were stable with a serum creatinine of 123 μmol/L at last follow-up.

  17. Synthesis and Characterization of Electroresponsive Materials with Applications In: Part I. Second Harmonic Generation. Part II. Organic-Lanthanide Ion Complexes for Electroluminescence and Optical Amplifiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claude, Charles

    1995-01-01

    Materials for optical waveguides were developed from two different approaches, inorganic-organic composites and soft gel polymers. Inorganic-organic composites were developed from alkoxysilane and organically modified silanes based on nonlinear optical chromophores. Organically modified silanes based on N-((3^' -trialkoxysilyl)propyl)-4-nitroaniline were synthesized and sol-gelled with trimethoxysilane. After a densification process at 190^circC with a corona discharge, the second harmonic of the film was measured with a Nd:YAG laser with a fundamental wavelength of 1064nm, d_{33} = 13pm/V. The decay of the second harmonic was expressed by a stretched bi-exponential equation. The decay time (tau _2) was equal to 3374 hours, and was comparable to nonlinear optical systems based on epoxy/Disperse Orange 1. The processing temperature of the organically modified silane was limited to 200^circC due to the decomposition of the organic chromophore. Soft gel polymers were synthesized and characterized for the development of optical waveguides with dc-electrical field assisted phase-matching. Polymers based on 4-nitroaniline terminated poly(ethylene oxide-co-propylene oxide) were shown to exhibit second harmonic generation that were optically phase-matched in an electrical field. The optical signals were stable and reproducible. Siloxane polymers modified with 1-mercapto-4-nitrobenzene and 1-mercapto-4-methylsulfonylstilbene nonlinear optical chromophores were synthesized. The physical and the linear and nonlinear optical properties of the polymers were characterized. Waveguides were developed from the polymers which were optically phase -matched and had an efficiency of 8.1%. The siloxane polymers exhibited optical phase-matching in an applied electrical field and can be used with a semiconductor laser. Organic lanthanide ion complexes for electroluminescence and optical amplifiers were synthesized and characterized. The complexes were characterized for their thermal and

  18. Nanostructured organic electrode materials grown on graphene with covalent-bond interaction for high-rate and ultra-long-life lithium-ion batteries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qing Zhao; Jianbin Wang; Chengcheng Chen; Ting Ma; Jun Chen

    2017-01-01

    Nanostructured organic tetralithium salts of 2,5-dihydroxyterephthalic acid (Li4C8H2O6) supported on graphene were prepared via a facile recrystallization method.The optimized composite with 75 wt.% Li4C8H2O6 was evaluated as an anode with redox couples of Li4C8H2OdLi6C8H2O6 and as a cathode with redox couples of Li4C8H2O6/Li2C8H2O6 for Li-ion batteries,exhibiting a high-rate capability (10 C) and long cycling life (1,000 cycles).Moreover,in an all-organic symmetric Li-ion battery,this dual-function electrode retained capacities of 191 and 121 mA.h·g-1 after 100 and 500 cycles,respectively.Density functional theory calculations indicated the presence of covalent bonds between Li4C8H2O6 and graphene,which affected both the morphology and electronic structure of the composite.The special nanostructures,high electronic conductivity of graphene,and covalent-bond interaction between Li4C8H2O6 and graphene contributed to the superior electrochemical properties.Our results indicate that the combination of organic salt molecules with graphene is useful for obtaining high-performance organic batteries.

  19. A self-supported metal-organic framework derived Co3O4 film prepared by an in-situ electrochemically assistant process as Li ion battery anodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Guangyu; Sun, Xin; Zhang, Li; Chen, Xuan; Mao, Yachun; Sun, Kening

    2018-06-01

    Derivates of metal-organic frameworks are promising materials of self-supported Li ion battery anodes due to the good dispersion of active materials, conductive scaffold, and mass transport channels in them. However, the discontinuous growth and poor adherence of metal-organic framework films on substrates hamper their development in self-supported electrodes. In the present study, cobalt-based metal-organic frameworks are anchored on Ti nanowire arrays through an electrochemically assistant method, and then the metal-organic framework films are pyrolyzed to carbon-containing, porous, self-supported anodes of Li ion battery anodes. Scanning electron microscope images indicate that, a layer cobaltosic oxide polyhedrons inserted by the nanowires are obtained with the controllable in-situ synthesis. Thanks to the good dispersion and adherence of cobaltosic oxide polyhedrons on Ti substrates, the self-supported anodes exhibit remarkable rate capability and durability. They possess a capacity of 300 mAh g-1 at a rate current of 20 A g-1, and maintain 2000 charge/discharge cycles without obvious decay.

  20. 5f state interaction with inner coordination sphere ligands: einsteinium 3+ ion fluorescence in aqueous and organic phases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beitz, J.V.; Wester, D.W.; Williams, C.W.

    1983-01-01

    The interaction between 5f electron states of einsteinium 3+ ion and coordinated ligands in solution has been probed using laser-induced fluorescence. Aquo einsteinium 3+ ion was observed to fluoresce from its first excited J = 5 state in a broad-band peaking at 9260 wavenumbers. The observed fluorescence lifetimes were 1.05 microseconds and 2.78 microseconds in H 2 O and D 2 O (99+ % D atom), respectively. The non-radiative decay rates derived from the lifetime data are compared with previously reported data for Cm, Sm, Eu, Tb, and Dy aquo 3+ ions. The 5f actinide states exhibit substantially greater non-radiative decay rates than do lanthanide 4f states of similar energy gap. This provides evidence that actinide 5f electrons interact more strongly with their inner coordination sphere than do lanthanide ion 4f electrons. The fluorescence lifetime of einsteinium 3+ ion complexed with 1 formal di(2-ethylhexyl)orthophosphoric acid in h-heptane was 2.34 microseconds. 3 figures, 1 table

  1. The effects of LiBOB additive for stable SEI formation of PP13TFSI-organic mixed electrolyte in lithium ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An Yongxin; Zuo Pengjian; Cheng Xinqun; Liao Lixia; Yin Geping

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → LiBOB as the additive of SEI formation. → LiBOB containing mixed electrolyte shows well thermal stability and safety. → LiBOB improves the electrochemical performance of PP13TFSI-organic mixture. - Abstract: A safe electrolyte system is prepared from N-methyl-N-propylpiperidinium bis (trifluoromethanesulfonyl) imide (PP13TFSI), organic electrolyte (1 mol L -1 LiPF 6 /EC-DEC) and lithium bis (oxalato) borate (LiBOB). The additive of LiBOB enhances the stability of interface between electrolyte and anode. The LiBOB-containing mixed electrolytes show non-flammability and good compatibility with active materials. The performance of anode for lithium ion battery is successfully improved by LiBOB-containing mixed electrolytes, which shows 200 mA h g -1 reversible capacities at 0.3 C rate. The ionic conductivity and the lithium ion transference number in LiBOB-containing mixed electrolytes system also suits to application for lithium ion battery.

  2. sup(99m)Tc-DMSA renal scintigraphy in renal failure due to various renal diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hosokawa, S; Daijo, K; Okabe, T; Kawamura, J; Hara, A [Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Hospital

    1979-08-01

    Renal contours in renal failure were studied by means of sup(99m)Tc-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) renoscintigraphy. Renal cortical images were obtained even in renal failure cases. Causes of renal failure were chronic glomerulonephritis in 7, bilateral renal tuberculosis in 2, chronic pyelonephritis in 3, bilateral renal calculi in 3, diabetic nephropathy in 2, polycystic kidney disease in 2 and stomach cancer in 1.

  3. sup(99m)Tc-DMSA renal scintigraphy in renal failure due to various renal diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosokawa, Shin-ichi; Daijo, Kazuyuki; Okabe, Tatsushiro; Kawamura, Juichi; Hara, Akira

    1979-01-01

    Renal contours in renal failure were studied by means of sup(99m)Tc-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) renoscintigraphy. Renal cortical images were obtained even in renal failure cases. Causes of renal failure were chronic glomerulonephritis in 7, bilateral renal tuberculosis in 2, chronic pyelonephritis in 3, bilateral renal calculi in 3, diabetic nephropathy in 2, polycystic kidney disease in 2 and stomach cancer in 1. (author)

  4. Geometric and energetic considerations of surface fluctuations during ion transfer across the water-immiscible organic liquid interface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karnes, John J.; Benjamin, Ilan, E-mail: benjamin@chemistry.ucsc.edu [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of California, Santa Cruz, California 95064 (United States)

    2016-07-07

    Molecular dynamics simulations and umbrella sampling free energy calculations are used to examine the thermodynamics, energetics, and structural fluctuations that accompany the transfer of a small hydrophilic ion (Cl{sup −}) across the water/nitrobenzene interface. By examining several constrained interface structures, we isolate the energetic costs of interfacial deformation and co-transfer of hydration waters during the ion transfer. The process is monitored using both energy-based solvation coordinates and a geometric coordinate recently introduced by Morita and co-workers to describe surface fluctuations. Our simulations show that these coordinates provide a complimentary description of the water surface fluctuations during the transfer and are necessary for elucidating the mechanism of the ion transfer.

  5. Simultaneous determination of wine sugars, glycerol and organic acids 13C/12C isotopic ratio by ion chromatography-co-IRMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guyon Francois

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Ion chromatography (IC isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS coupling is possible using a liquid interface allowing chemical oxidation (co of organic compounds. Synthetic solutions containing a mixture of glycerol, sugars (sucrose, glucose and fructose and organic acids (gluconic, lactic, malic, tartaric, oxalic, fumaric, citric and isocitric were elaborated to estimate analytical applications of two different IC systems. It appears that the use of carbonated solution in the eluting phase is a perturbation for 13C isotope measurements as it creates a δ13C deviation from the expected values. A sample of authentic sweet wine was analyzed by IC-co-IRMS using KOH gradient. Ratios of isotopic, ratios of organic acids and glycerol was found to be, in average, equal 1.01 ± 0.04 that is in accordance with our previous results.

  6. Photochemical methodologies for organic waste treatment: advanced oxidation process using uranyl ion with H2O2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naik, D.B.; Sarkar, S.K.; Mukherjee, T.

    2009-01-01

    Excited uranyl ion is able to degrade dyes such as thionine and methylene blue on irradiation with 254 nm/300 nm light. By adding H 2 O 2 along with uranyl ion, photodegradation takes place with visible light and also with enhanced rate. The hydroxyl radicals generated in the reoxidation of U(IV)/UO 2 + to UO 2 2+ are responsible for this enhanced degradation. The above advanced oxidation process (AOP) was applied to study the oxidation of 2-propanol to acetone. (author)

  7. Effect of Ge nanocluster assembly self-organization at pulsed irradiation by low-energy ions during heteroepitaxy on Si

    CERN Document Server

    Dvurechenskij, A V; Smagina, Z V

    2001-01-01

    Using the method of scanning microscopy one studied experimentally size distribution of Ge clusters formed in course of experiments of two types at Ge heteroepitaxy on Si(111): regular process of molecular-beam epitaxy (MBE); pulse irradiation by approx = 200 eV energy Ge ions. The experiments were conducted at 350 deg C temperature. Pulse irradiation by an ion beam during heteroepitaxy was detected to result in reduction of the average size of Ge clusters, in compacting of their density and in reduction of mean square deviation from the average value in contrast to similar values in experiments devoted to regular MBE

  8. Improvement in gradient ion chromatographic method for trace anions and organic acids in the PWR nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Junlowjiraya, V.

    1989-01-01

    In a nuclear power plant the use of high quality water is very important to minimize corrosion and downtime of a plant system. To evaluate the quality of water the most widely used instrument is a conductivity analyzer. However, conductivity monitor is nonspecific, the conductivity signal cannot give information about what species or impurities are presented in the water, steam, and condensate. To determine these impurities qualitatively and quantitatively, the ion chromatography is an effective technique. This presentation demonstrates an improvement of gradient ion chromatographic technique to solve lithium interference in the borated samples. The data acquisition system and computer automation setup for the analysis are also discussed

  9. Organics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chian, Edward S. K.; DeWalle, Foppe B.

    1978-01-01

    Presents water analysis literature for 1978. This review is concerned with organics, and it covers: (1) detergents and surfactants; (2) aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons; (3) pesticides and chlorinated hydrocarbons; and (4) naturally occurring organics. A list of 208 references is also presented. (HM)

  10. Organizers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callison, Daniel

    2000-01-01

    Focuses on "organizers," tools or techniques that provide identification and classification along with possible relationships or connections among ideas, concepts, and issues. Discusses David Ausubel's research and ideas concerning advance organizers; the implications of Ausubel's theory to curriculum and teaching; "webbing," a…

  11. Novel Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Electrolyte to Enable LiFePO4 Quasi-Solid-State Li-Ion Batteries Performed Highly around Room Temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Rui; Gao, Rongtan; Zhao, Yan; Zhang, Mingjian; Xu, Junyi; Yang, Jinlong; Pan, Feng

    2016-11-16

    A novel type of organic-inorganic hybrid polymer electrolytes with high electrochemical performances around room temperature is formed by hybrid of nanofillers, Y-type oligomer, polyoxyethylene and Li-salt (PBA-Li), of which the T g and T m are significantly lowered by blended heterogeneous polyethers and embedded nanofillers with benefit of the dipole modification to achieve the high Li-ion migration due to more free-volume space. The quasi-solid-state Li-ion batteries based on the LiFePO 4 /15PBA-Li/Li-metal cells present remarkable reversible capacities (133 and 165 mAh g -1 @0.2 C at 30 and 45 °C, respectively), good rate ability and stable cycle performance (141.9 mAh g -1 @0.2 C at 30 °C after 150 cycles).

  12. Retention modeling under organic modifier gradient conditions in ion-pair reversed-phase chromatography. Application to the separation of a set of underivatized amino acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappa-Louisi, A; Agrafiotou, P; Papachristos, K

    2010-07-01

    The combined effect of the ion-pairing reagent concentration, C(ipr), and organic modifier content, phi, on the retention under phi-gradient conditions at different constant C(ipr) was treated in this study by using two approaches. In the first approach, the prediction of the retention time of a sample solute is based on a direct fitting procedure of a proper retention model to 3-D phi-gradient retention data obtained under the same phi-linear variation but with different slope and time duration of the initial isocratic part and in the presence of various constant C(ipr) values in the eluent. The second approach is based on a retention model describing the combined effect of C(ipr) and phi on the retention of solutes in isocratic mode and consequently analyzes isocratic data obtained in mobile phases containing different C(ipr) values. The effectiveness of the above approaches was tested in the retention prediction of a mixture of 16 underivatized amino acids using mobile phases containing acetonitrile as organic modifier and sodium dodecyl sulfate as ion-pairing reagent. From these approaches, only the first one gives satisfactory predictions and can be successfully used in optimization of ion-pair chromatographic separations under gradient conditions. The failure of the second approach to predict the retention of solutes in the gradient elution mode in the presence of different C(ipr) values was attributed to slow changes in the distribution equilibrium of ion-pairing reagents caused by phi-variation.

  13. A novel magnetic metal organic framework nanocomposite for extraction and preconcentration of heavy metal ions, and its optimization via experimental design methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taghizadeh, Mohsen; Asgharinezhad, Ali Akbar; Pooladi, Mohsen; Barzin, Mahnaz; Abbaszadeh, Abolfazl; Tadjarodi, Azadeh

    2013-01-01

    We describe a novel magnetic metal-organic framework (MOF) prepared from dithizone-modified Fe 3 O 4 nanoparticles and a copper-(benzene-1,3,5-tricarboxylate) MOF and its use in the preconcentration of Cd(II), Pb(II), Ni(II), and Zn(II) ions. The parameters affecting preconcentration were optimized by a Box-Behnken design through response surface methodology. Three variables (extraction time, amount of the magnetic sorbent, and pH value) were selected as the main factors affecting adsorption, while four variables (type, volume and concentration of the eluent; desorption time) were selected for desorption in the optimization study. Following preconcentration and elution, the ions were quantified by FAAS. The limits of detection are 0.12, 0.39, 0.98, and 1.2 ng mL −1 for Cd(II), Zn(II), Ni(II), and Pb(II) ions, respectively. The relative standard deviations were −1 of Cd(II), Zn(II), Ni(II), and Pb(II) ions. The adsorption capacities (in mg g −1 ) of this new MOF are 188 for Cd(II), 104 for Pb(II), 98 Ni(II), and 206 for Zn(II). The magnetic MOF nanocomposite has a higher capacity than the Fe 3 O 4 /dithizone conjugate. This magnetic MOF nanocomposite was successfully applied to the rapid extraction of trace quantities of heavy metal ions in fish, sediment, soil, and water samples. (author)

  14. Imaging of renal osteodystrophy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jevtic, V. E-mail: vladimir.jevtic@mf.uni-lj.si

    2003-05-01

    Chronic renal insufficiency, hemodialysis, peritoneal dialysis, renal transplantation and administration of different medications provoke complex biochemical disturbances of the calcium-phosphate metabolism with wide spectrum of bone and soft tissue abnormalities termed renal osteodystrophy. Clinically most important manifestation of renal bone disease includes secondary hyperparathyroidism, osteomalacia/rickets, osteoporosis, adynamic bone disease and soft tissue calcification. As a complication of long-term hemodialysis and renal transplantation amyloid deposition, destructive spondyloarthropathy, osteonecrosis, and musculoskeletal infections may occur. Due to more sophisticated diagnostic methods and more efficient treatment classical radiographic features of secondary hyperparathyroidism and osteomalacia/rickets are now less frequently seen. Radiological investigations play an important role in early diagnosis and follow-up of the renal bone disease. Although numerous new imaging modalities have been introduced in clinical practice (scintigraphy, CT, MRI, quantitative imaging), plain film radiography, especially fine quality hand radiograph, still represents most widely used examination.

  15. Imaging of renal osteodystrophy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jevtic, V.

    2003-01-01

    Chronic renal insufficiency, hemodialysis, peritoneal dialysis, renal transplantation and administration of different medications provoke complex biochemical disturbances of the calcium-phosphate metabolism with wide spectrum of bone and soft tissue abnormalities termed renal osteodystrophy. Clinically most important manifestation of renal bone disease includes secondary hyperparathyroidism, osteomalacia/rickets, osteoporosis, adynamic bone disease and soft tissue calcification. As a complication of long-term hemodialysis and renal transplantation amyloid deposition, destructive spondyloarthropathy, osteonecrosis, and musculoskeletal infections may occur. Due to more sophisticated diagnostic methods and more efficient treatment classical radiographic features of secondary hyperparathyroidism and osteomalacia/rickets are now less frequently seen. Radiological investigations play an important role in early diagnosis and follow-up of the renal bone disease. Although numerous new imaging modalities have been introduced in clinical practice (scintigraphy, CT, MRI, quantitative imaging), plain film radiography, especially fine quality hand radiograph, still represents most widely used examination

  16. A SIFT Study of the Reactions of H2ONO+ Ions with Several Types of Organic Molecules

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Smith, D.; Wang, T.; Španěl, Patrik

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 230, č. 1 (2003), s. 1-9 ISSN 1387-3806 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/03/0827 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4040901 Keywords : SIFT * nitrosohydronium ions * protonated nitrous acid Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 2.361, year: 2003

  17. [Cold ischaemia time and outcome of renal transplantation].

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Warle, M.C.; Cheung, C.L.; Teerenstra, S.; Hoitsma, A.J.; Vliet, J.A. van der

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the effect of cold ischaemia time (CIT) on the outcome of cadaveric renal transplantation in the Netherlands. DESIGN: Retrospective, comparative. METHODS: We studied data from the Netherlands organ transplant registry of cadaveric renal transplants from 1990-2007. Results :

  18. Renal artery stenosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desberg, A.; Paushter, D.M.; Lammert, G.K.; Hale, J.; Troy, R.; Novic, A.; Nally, J. Jr.

    1989-01-01

    Renal artery disease is a potentially correctable cause of hypertension. Previous studies have suggested the utility of duplex sonography in accurately detecting and grading the severity of renal artery stenosis. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate color flow Doppler for this use. Forty-three kidneys were examined by color-flow Doppler and conventional duplex sampling in patients with suspected renovascular hypertension or those undergoing aortography for unrelated reasons. Doppler tracings were obtained from the renal arteries and aorta with calculation of the renal aortic ratio (RAR) and resistive index (RI). Results of Doppler sampling with color flow guidance were compared with aortograms in a blinded fashion

  19. Incidental renal neoplasms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rabjerg, Maj; Mikkelsen, Minne Nedergaard; Walter, Steen

    2014-01-01

    On the basis of associations between tumor size, pathological stage, histological subtype and tumor grade in incidentally detected renal cell carcinoma vs symptomatic renal cell carcinoma, we discussed the need for a screening program of renal cell carcinoma in Denmark. We analyzed a consecutive...... series of 204 patients with renal tumors in 2011 and 2012. The tumors were classified according to detection mode: symptomatic and incidental and compared to pathological parameters. Eighty-nine patients (44%) were symptomatic, 113 (55%) were incidental. Information was not available in two patients...

  20. Organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hatch, Mary Jo

    and considers many more. Mary Jo Hatch introduces the concept of organizations by presenting definitions and ideas drawn from the a variety of subject areas including the physical sciences, economics, sociology, psychology, anthropology, literature, and the visual and performing arts. Drawing on examples from......Most of us recognize that organizations are everywhere. You meet them on every street corner in the form of families and shops, study in them, work for them, buy from them, pay taxes to them. But have you given much thought to where they came from, what they are today, and what they might become...... prehistory and everyday life, from the animal kingdom as well as from business, government, and other formal organizations, Hatch provides a lively and thought provoking introduction to the process of organization....

  1. Renal cell carcinoma in patient with crossed fused renal ectopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozgur Cakmak

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary renal cell carcinomas have rarely been reported in patients with crossed fused renal ectopia. We presented a patient with right to left crossed fused kidney harbouring renal tumor. The most frequent tumor encountered in crossed fused renal ectopia is renal cell carcinoma. In this case, partial nephrectomy was performed which pave way to preservation of the uninvolved both renal units. Due to unpredictable anatomy, careful preoperative planning and meticulous delineation of renal vasculature is essential for preservation of the uninvolved renal units.

  2. Effects of constituent ions of a phosphonium-based ionic liquid on molecular organization of H2O as probed by 1-propanol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morita, Takeshi; Miki, Kumiko; Ayako, Nitta

    2015-01-01

    on the basis of 1-propanol probing methodology devised by Koga et al. The resulting characterization of the hydrophobicity/hydrophilicity is displayed on a two-dimensional map together with previous results, for a total of four cations and nine anions of typical ionic liquid (IL) constituents. The results......Aqueous solutions of tetrabutylphosphonium trifluoroacetate, [P4444]CF3COO, exhibit a liquid-liquid phase transition with a lower critical solution temperature. Herein, we characterized the constituent ions, [P4444](+) and CF3COO(-), in terms of their effects on the molecular organization of H2O...

  3. Oxidation of dibenzothiophene as a model substrate for the removal of organic sulphur from fossil fuels by iron(III ions generated from pyrite by Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VLADIMIR P. BESKOSKI

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Within this paper a new idea for the removal of organically bonded sulphur from fossil fuels is discussed. Dibenzothiophene (DBT was used as a model compound of organicmolecules containing sulphur. This form of (biodesulphurization was performed by an indirect mechanism in which iron(III ions generated from pyrite by Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans performed the abiotic oxidation. The obtained reaction products, dibenzothiopene sulfoxide and dibenzothiophene sulfone, are more soluble in water than the basic substrate and the obtained results confirmed the basic hypothesis and give the posibility of continuing the experiments related to application of this (biodesulphurization process.

  4. Stages of Renal Cell Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Tumors Treatment Genetics of Kidney Cancer Research Renal Cell Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Renal Cell Cancer Go to Health Professional Version Key Points Renal ...

  5. Bilateral papillary renal cell carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gossios, K.; Vazakas, P.; Argyropoulou, M.; Stefanaki, S.; Stavropoulos, N.E.

    2001-01-01

    Papillary renal cell carcinoma is a subgroup of malignant renal epithelial neoplasms. We report the clinical and imaging findings of a case with multifocal and bilateral renal cell carcinoma which are nonspecific. (orig.)

  6. Magnetic resonance imaging in the staging of renal cell carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kishi, Hiroichi; Umeda, Takashi; Niijima, Tadao; Yashiro, Naobumi; Kawabe, Kazuki

    1987-07-01

    Eighteen patients with renal neoplasm underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) using a 1.5 Tesla superconducting magnetic system and spin echo images were obtained by quick scan technique under holding breath. MR images were interpreted independently of the computerized tomography (CT) findings. The preoperative stagings of the 18 renal carcinomas, as judged by MRI, were compared with those obtained at laparotomy. The anatomic staging was correctly performed by MRI in 13 patients (72 %). In the patients who had intrarenal small tumor with normal renal contour, MRI demonstrated a solid mass clearly distinguishable from surrounding renal parenchyma using the paramagnetic contrast agent (gadolinium-DTPA). When compared with results of evaluation by CT in staging, MRI appeared to have several advantages in determination of whole mass; the detection of tumor thrombus into renal vein and inferior vena cava; and the evaluation of direct tumor invasion of adjacent organs. MRI should play an important role in the staging of renal cell carcinoma.

  7. Magnetic resonance imaging in the staging of renal cell carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kishi, Hiroichi; Umeda, Takashi; Niijima, Tadao; Yashiro, Naobumi; Kawabe, Kazuki

    1987-01-01

    Eighteen patients with renal neoplasm underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) using a 1.5 Tesla superconducting magnetic system and spin echo images were obtained by quick scan technique under holding breath. MR images were interpreted independently of the computerized tomography (CT) findings. The preoperative stagings of the 18 renal carcinomas, as judged by MRI, were compared with those obtained at laparotomy. The anatomic staging was correctly performed by MRI in 13 patients (72 %). In the patients who had intrarenal small tumor with normal renal contour, MRI demonstrated a solid mass clearly distinguishable from surrounding renal parenchyma using the paramagnetic contrast agent (gadolinium-DTPA). When compared with results of evaluation by CT in staging, MRI appeared to have several advantages in determination of whole mass; the detection of tumor thrombus into renal vein and inferior vena cava; and the evaluation of direct tumor invasion of adjacent organs. MRI should play an important role in the staging of renal cell carcinoma. (author)

  8. Treatment of advanced rectal cancer after renal transplantation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hai-Yi Liu; Xiao-Bo Liang; Yao-Ping Li; Yi Feng; Dong-Bo Liu; Wen-Da Wang

    2011-01-01

    Renal transplantation is a standard procedure for end-stage renal disease today. Due to immunosuppressive drugs and increasing survival time after renal trans-plantation, patients with transplanted kidneys carry an increased risk of developing malignant tumors. In this case report, 3 patients with advanced rectal can-cer after renal transplantation for renal failure were treated with anterior resection or abdominoperineal resection plus total mesorectal excision, followed by adjuvant chemotherapy. One patient eventually died of metastasized cancer 31 mo after therapy, although his organ grafts functioned well until his death. The other 2 patients were well during the 8 and 21 mo follow-up periods after rectal resection. We therefore strongly argue that patients with advanced rectal cancer should receive standard oncology treatment, including opera-tion and adjuvant treatment after renal transplantation. Colorectal cancer screening in such patients appears justified.

  9. Renal Sympathetic Denervation: Hibernation or Resurrection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papademetriou, Vasilios; Doumas, Michael; Tsioufis, Costas

    The most current versions of renal sympathetic denervation have been invented as minimally invasive approaches for the management of drug-resistant hypertension. The anatomy, physiology and pathophysiology of renal sympathetic innervation provide a strong background supporting an important role of the renal nerves in the regulation of blood pressure (BP) and volume. In addition, historical data with surgical sympathectomy and experimental data with surgical renal denervation indicate a beneficial effect on BP levels. Early clinical studies with transcatheter radiofrequency ablation demonstrated impressive BP reduction, accompanied by beneficial effects in target organ damage and other disease conditions characterized by sympathetic overactivity. However, the failure of the SYMPLICITY 3 trial to meet its primary efficacy end point raised a lot of concerns and put the field of renal denervation into hibernation. This review aims to translate basic research into clinical practice by presenting the anatomical and physiological basis for renal sympathetic denervation, critically discussing the past and present knowledge in this field, where we stand now, and also speculating about the future of the intervention and potential directions for research. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  10. Identification and treatment of APS renal involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tektonidou, M G

    2014-10-01

    Renal involvement in antiphospholipid syndrome (APS), either primary or systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)-related APS, includes renal artery stenosis or thrombosis, renal infarction, renal vein thrombosis and a small-vessel vaso-occlusive nephropathy defined as "antiphospholipid antibody (aPL)-associated nephropathy." aPL-associated nephropathy is characterized by acute lesions, thrombotic microangiopathy, and chronic lesions such as fibrous intimal hyperplasia, organizing thrombi with or without recanalization, fibrous occlusions of arteries or arterioles and focal cortical atrophy. Systemic hypertension, hematuria, proteinuria (ranging from mild to nephrotic level) and renal insufficiency represent the major clinical manifestations associated with aPL-associated nephropathy. Similar renal histologic and clinical characteristics have been described among all different groups of patients with positive aPL (primary APS, SLE-related APS, catastrophic APS and SLE/non-APS with positive aPL). In patients with aPL-associated nephropathy lesions in the absence of other causes associated with similar histological characteristics, aPL testing needs to be considered. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  11. Dilemma of Renal Disease in Elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El Essawy Abdel

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The aging process results in profound anatomic and functional changes in a number of human body systems. Changes in kidney function with normal aging are the most dramatic of any human organ or organ system. These include anatomical, physiological, hemodynamic and immunological changes. Increased propensities of systemic diseases and exposure to poly-pharmacy of the aged group have an additive deleterious effect. The aforementioned changes have its implications on clinical presentations, management and prognosis of all renal diseases in elderly. Atypical presentation, more frequent and longer course are the characteristics of acute renal failure in this age group. Also, presentation of glomerular diseases, clinical course, prognosis, decision of performing a renal biopsy and use of immunosuppressive drugs in elderly specially those subgroup above 80 years of age are still a big challenges that needs a consensus and standardization.

  12. Organic oxalate as leachant and precipitant for the recovery of valuable metals from spent lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Liang; Qiu Keqiang

    2012-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Highlights: ► Vacuum pyrolysis as a pretreatment was used to separate cathode material from aluminum foils. ► Cobalt and lithium can be leached using oxalate while cobalt can be directly precipitated as cobalt oxalate. ► Cobalt and lithium can be separated efficiently from each other only in the oxalate leaching process. ► High reaction efficiency of LiCoO 2 was obtained with oxalate. - Abstract: Spent lithium-ion batteries containing lots of strategic resources such as cobalt and lithium are considered as an attractive secondary resource. In this work, an environmentally compatible process based on vacuum pyrolysis, oxalate leaching and precipitation is applied to recover cobalt and lithium from spent lithium-ion batteries. Oxalate is introduced as leaching reagent meanwhile as precipitant which leaches and precipitates cobalt from LiCoO 2 and CoO directly as CoC 2 O 4 ·2H 2 O with 1.0 M oxalate solution at 80 °C and solid/liquid ratio of 50 g L −1 for 120 min. The reaction efficiency of more than 98% of LiCoO 2 can be achieved and cobalt and lithium can also be separated efficiently during the hydrometallurgical process. The combined process is simple and adequate for the recovery of valuable metals from spent lithium-ion batteries.

  13. Renal disease and mitochondrial genetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rötig, Agnès

    2003-01-01

    Respiratory chain (RC) deficiencies have long been regarded as neuromuscular diseases mainly originating from mutations in the mitochondrial DNA. Oxidative phosphorylation, i.e. adenosine triphosphate (ATP) synthesis-coupled electron transfer from substrate to oxygen through the RC, does not occur only in the neuromuscular system. Therefore, a RC deficiency can theoretically give rise to any symptom, in any organ or tissue, at any age and with any mode of inheritance, owing to the dual genetic origin of RC enzymes (nuclear DNA and mitochondrial DNA). Mitochondrial diseases can give rise to various syndromes or association, namely, neurologic and neuromuscular diseases, cardiac, renal, hepatic, hematological and endocrin or dermatological presentations. The most frequent renal symptom is proximal tubular dysfunction with a more or less complete de Toni-Debre-Fanconi Syndrome. A few patients have been reported with tubular acidosis, Bartter Syndrome, chronic tubulointerstitial nephritis or nephrotic syndrome. The diagnosis of a RC deficiency is difficult when only renal symptoms are present, but should be easier when another, seemingly unrelated symptom is observed. Metabolic screening for abnormal oxidoreduction status in plasma, including lactate/pyruvate and ketone body molar ratios, can help to identify patients for further investigations. These include the measurement of oxygen consumption by mitochondria and the assessment of mitochondrial respiratory enzyme activities by spectrophotometric studies. Any mode of inheritance can be observed: sporadic, autosomal dominant or recessive, or maternal inheritance.

  14. Disappearing renal calculus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Helen; Thomas, Johanna; Kumar, Sunil

    2013-04-10

    We present a case of a renal calculus treated solely with antibiotics which has not been previously reported in the literature. A man with a 17 mm lower pole renal calculus and concurrent Escherichia coli urine infection was being worked up to undergo percutaneous nephrolithotomy. However, after a course of preoperative antibiotics the stone was no longer seen on retrograde pyelography or CT imaging.

  15. Lung and renal transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Caetano Mota

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Renal transplantation is the most common type of solid organ transplantation and kidney transplant recipients are susceptible to pulmonary complications of immunosuppressive therapy, which are a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge. Aim: To evaluate patients admitted to the Renal Transplant Unit (RTU of Hospital de S. João with respiratory disease. Subject and methods: We performed a retrospective study of all patients admitted to RTU with respiratory disease during a period of 12 months. Results: Thirty-six patients were included. Mean age 55.2 ( ± 13.4 years; 61.1% male. Immunosuppressive agents most frequently used were prednisolone and mycophenolate mofetil associated with ciclosporin (38.9% or tacrolimus (22.2% or rapamycin (13.9%. Thirty-one patients (86.1% presented infectious respiratory disease. In this group the main diagnoses were 23 (74.2% pneumonias, 5 (16.1% opportunistic infections, 2 (6.5% tracheobronchitis, and 1 case (3.2% of lung abscesses. Microbiological agent was identified in 7 cases (22.6%. Five patients (13.9% presented rapamycin-induced lung disease. Fibreoptic bronchoscopy was performed in 15 patients (41.7%, diagnostic in 10 cases (66.7%. Mean hospital stay was 17.1 ( ± 18.5 days and no related death was observed. Conclusion: Respiratory infections were the main complications in these patients. Drug-induced lung disease implies recognition of its features and a rigorous monitoring of drug serum levels. A more invasive diagnostic approach was determinant in the choice of an early and more specific therapy. Resumo: O transplante renal é o transplante de órgãos sólidos mais frequente, sendo os transplantados renais alvo de complicações pulmonares inerentes à própria terapêutica imunossupressora, as quais constituem, por vezes, um desafio diagnóstico e terapêutico. Objectivo: Avaliar os doentes admitidos na Unidade de Transplante Renal (UTR do Hospital de S. João com o diagnóstico de patologia respirat

  16. Several issues regarding evaluation of renal injury and renal insufficiency in patients with liver disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HAO Kunyan

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In patients with liver disease such as viral hepatitis and liver cirrhosis, renal injury and renal insufficiency can be generally classified as acute kidney injury (AKI, chronic kidney disease, and acute-on-chronic nephropathy. AKI can be classified as stage 1 (risk stage, stage 2 (injury stage, and stage 3 (failure stage. Traditionally hepatorenal syndrome is classified as types Ⅰ and Ⅱ, and in recent years, type Ⅲ hepatorenal syndrome with organic renal injury has been proposed. Hepatorenal disorder(HRD is used to describe any renal disease which occurs in patients with liver cirrhosis. At present, sensitive and accurate biochemical parameters used to evaluate renal function in patients with liver disease in clinical practice include estimated glomerular filtration rate, increase in serum creatinine within unit time, and serum cystatin C level, and urinary microalbumin level also plays an important role in the early diagnosis of nephropathy. Causes of liver disease, severity, complications including infection, nutritional status, therapeutic drugs, and underlying nephropathy may be associated with renal injury and renal insufficiency in patients with liver disease and should be differentiated.

  17. Influence des ions étrangers et de la matière organique sur la cristallisation des carbonates de calcium Influence of Foreign Ions and of Organic Matter on the Crystallization of Calcium Carbonates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cailleau P.

    2006-11-01

    examines the influence of foreign ions and organic matter on the ger-mination and growth of calcium carbonates.The main results obtained can be summed up as follows:a Concerning Foreign Ions.Their action generally results in:- an increase in germination time and a reduction in the growth rate of CaC03 crystals:- the appearance of special facies for some of the minerals formed: - the inhibition of transformation from one variety ta another.A classification by order of increasing efficiency is obtained: - approximately zero action: K+, CI-;- moderate action: Bot+, Na+, A13+, Cul+, Sr 2+, S04-, P04- . - dominant action of Mg'+.b For Organic Matter.Citric acid and, ta a lesser extent, tartaric acid are the only ones ta have an appre ciable influence, moreover an influence which is similar to thot of foreign ions with regard ta kinetics of CaCO3 germination and growth.The adsorption of some of these products also results in special facies of the minerals formed and eventually in the inhibition of transformations from one variety ta another

  18. Ions and light

    CERN Document Server

    Bowers, Michael T

    2013-01-01

    Gas Phase Ion Chemistry, Volume 3: Ions and Light discusses how ions are formed by electron impact, ion-molecule reactions, or electrical discharge. This book discusses the use of light emitted by excited molecules to characterize either the chemistry that formed the excited ion, the structure of the excited ion, or both.Organized into 10 chapters, this volume begins with an overview of the extension of the classical flowing afterglow technique to include infrared and chemiluminescence and laser-induced fluorescence detection. This text then examines the experiments involving molecules that ar

  19. Bilateral triple renal arteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pestemalci, Turan; Yildiz, Yusuf Zeki; Yildirim, Mehmet; Mavi, Ayfer; Gumusburun, Erdem

    2009-01-01

    Knowledge of the variations of the renal artery has grown in importance with increasing numbers of renal transplants, vascular reconstructions and various surgical and radio logic techniques being performed in recent years. We report the presence of bilateral triple renal arteries, discovered on routine dissection of a male cadaver. On the right side, one additional renal artery originated from the abdominal aorta (distributed to superior pole of the kidney) and one other originated from the right common iliac artery (distributed to lower pole of the kidney). On the left side, both additional renal arteries originated from the abdominal aorta. Our observation has been compared with variations described in the literature and their clinical importance has been emphasized. (author)

  20. Radiology of renal failure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffiths, H.J.

    1990-01-01

    This book covers most aspects of imaging studies in patients with renal failure. The initial chapter provides basic information on contrast agents, intravenous urography, and imaging findings in the urinary tract disorders responsible for renal failure and in patients who have undergone transplantation. It illustrates common gastro-intestinal abnormalities seen on barium studies in patients with renal failure. It illustrates the cardiopulmonary complications of renal failure and offers advice for radiologic differentiation. It details different aspects of skeletal changes in renal failure, including a basic description of the pathophysiology of the changes; many excellent illustrations of classic bone changes, arthritis, avascular necrosis, and soft-tissue calcifications; and details of bone mineral analysis

  1. [Hypertension and renal disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamper, A.L.; Pedersen, E.B.; Strandgaard, S.

    2009-01-01

    Renal mechanisms, in particular the renin-angiotensin system and renal salt handling, are of major importance in blood pressure regulation. Co-existence of hypertension and decreased renal function may be due to nephrosclerosis secondary to hypertension, or primary renal disease with secondary...... hypertension. Mild degrees of chronic kidney disease (CKD) can be detected in around 10% of the population, and detection is important as CKD is an important risk factor for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. Conversely, heart failure may cause an impairment of renal function. In chronic progressive...... nephropathy, effective blood pressure lowering is of paramount importance, and angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin receptor blockers are agents of choice Udgivelsesdato: 2009/6/15...

  2. Monitoring of selected skin- and breath-borne volatile organic compounds emitted from the human body using gas chromatography ion mobility spectrometry (GC-IMS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mochalski, Paweł; Wiesenhofer, Helmut; Allers, Maria; Zimmermann, Stefan; Güntner, Andreas T; Pineau, Nicolay J; Lederer, Wolfgang; Agapiou, Agapios; Mayhew, Christopher A; Ruzsanyi, Veronika

    2018-02-15

    Human smuggling and associated cross-border crimes have evolved as a major challenge for the European Union in recent years. Of particular concern is the increasing trend of smuggling migrants hidden inside shipping containers or trucks. Therefore, there is a growing demand for portable security devices for the non-intrusive and rapid monitoring of containers to detect people hiding inside. In this context, chemical analysis of volatiles organic compounds (VOCs) emitted from the human body is proposed as a locating tool. In the present study, an in-house made ion mobility spectrometer coupled with gas chromatography (GC-IMS) was used to monitor the volatile moieties released from the human body under conditions that mimic entrapment. A total of 17 omnipresent volatile compounds were identified and quantified from 35 ion mobility peaks corresponding to human presence. These are 7 aldehydes (acrolein, 2-methylpropanal, 3-methylbutanal, 2-ethacrolein, n-hexanal, n-heptanal, benzaldehyde), 3 ketones (acetone, 2-pentanone, 4-methyl-2-pentanone), 5 esters (ethyl formate, ethyl propionate, vinyl butyrate, butyl acetate, ethyl isovalerate), one alcohol (2-methyl-1-propanol) and one organic acid (acetic acid). The limits of detection (0.05-7.2 ppb) and relative standard deviations (0.6-11%) should be sufficient for detecting these markers of human presence in field conditions. This study shows that GC-IMS can be used as a portable field detector of hidden or entrapped people. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Ultrasmall Tin Nanodots Embedded in Nitrogen-Doped Mesoporous Carbon: Metal-Organic-Framework Derivation and Electrochemical Application as Highly Stable Anode for Lithium Ion Batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dai, Ruoling; Sun, Weiwei; Wang, Yong

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Sn-based metal-organic-framework (MOF) is prepared. • Ultrasmall tin nanodots (2–3 nm) are embedded in nitrogen-doped mesoporous carbon. • The Sn/C composite anode shows high capacity and ultralong cycle life. - Abstract: This work reports a facile metal-organic-framework based approach to synthesize Sn/C composite, in which ultrasmall Sn nanodots with typical size of 2–3 nm are uniformly embedded in the nitrogen-doped porous carbon matrix (denoted as Sn@NPC). The effect of thermal treatment and nitrogen doping are also explored. Owing to the delicate size control and confined volume change within carbon matrix, the Sn@NPC composite can exhibit reversible capacities of 575 mAh g −1 (Sn contribution: 1091 mAh g −1 ) after 500 cycles at 0.2 A g −1 and 507 mAh g −1 (Sn contribution: 1077 mAh g −1 ) after 1500 cycles at 1 A g −1 . The excellent long-life electrochemical stability of the Sn@NPC anode has been mainly attributed to the uniform distribution of ultrasmall Sn nanodots and the highly-conductive and flexible N-doped carbon matrix, which can effectively facilitate lithium ion/electron diffusion, buffer the large volume change and improve the structure stability of the electrode during repetitive cycling with lithium ions.

  4. Batch and column adsorption behaviors of Se(IV) and Te(IV) on organic and inorganic ion exchangers from HCl solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Sweify, Fatma H.; Abdel-Fattah, Alaa El-Din A.; Aly, Shorouk M.; Ghamry, Mohamed A. [Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo (Egypt). Hot Laboratories Center; El-Sheikh, Ragaa [Zagazig Univ. (Egypt). Chemistry Dept.

    2017-07-01

    Adsorption behaviors of Se(IV) and Te(IV) on the inorganic ion exchanger ceric tungstate (CeW) was studied under static and dynamic conditions and compared with the adsorption on the organic cation and anion exchangers Dowex-50X8 and AG-2X8, respectively. The radioactive isotopes {sup 75}Se and {sup 123m}Te were used to trace the respective elements. Some parameters affecting the adsorption were investigated under static conditions. In the case of batch technique the adsorption was studied from slightly acidic HCl as well as slightly alkaline media, i.e. at two pH-ranges. Se(IV) and Te(IV) were adsorbed on both the inorganic ion exchanger (CeW) and on AG-2X8, from slightly alkaline solutions. From the similarity of adsorption on both ion exchangers it was clear that (CeW) acts as an anion exchanger. Moreover, the obtained K{sub d}-values for the adsorption on (CeW) were much higher than those for the adsorption on the organic anion exchanger AG-2X8. Se(IV) was not adsorbed on Dowex-50X8 all over the studied pH-range whereas Te(IV) was slightly adsorbed. Loading and elution behaviors of Se(IV) and Te(IV) on columns of AG-2X8 and (CeW) were studied using solutions of HCl of different concentrations. Some good separation alternatives of Se(IV) and Te(IV) under certain conditions were achieved.

  5. Effect of a lanthanide ion on the micellation and self-organization of lyotropic liquid crystal systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selivanova, N.M.; Osipova, V.V.; Galyametdinov, Yu.G.

    2006-01-01

    Lanthanide-containing lyotropic liquid-crystalline systems were synthesized and their phase behavior, as well as the micellar behavior of aqueous solutions of decaethylene glycol monodecyl ether in the absence and presence of a lanthanide ion, were studied. Tensimetry and conductometry were used to determine the critical micellation concentration, and the values obtained by these methods were found to be in close agreement with each other. Polarization microscopy observations showed that, in concentrated aqueous solutions, ordered lyotropic mesophases arise. The parameters of the phase transitions in the systems under study were determined. The mesophase obtained was demonstrated to have a 2D hexagonal supramolecular structure [ru

  6. Removal of Cs{sup +}, Sr{sup 2+}, and Co{sup 2+} ions from the mixture of organics and suspended solids aqueous solutions by zeolites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang, Xiang Hong; Fang, Fang; Lu, Chun Hai [College of Nuclear Technology and Automation Engineering, Chengdu University of Technology, Chengdu (China); Zheng, Lei [Southwest University of Science and Technology, Key Laboratory of Solid Waste Treatment and Resource Recycle, Ministry of Education, Mianyang (China)

    2017-04-15

    Serving as an excellent adsorbent and inorganic ion exchanger in the water purification field, zeolite 4A has in this work presented a strong capability for purifying radioactive waste, such as Sr{sup 2+}, Cs{sup +}, and Co{sup 2+} in water. During the processes of decontamination and decommissioning of suspended solids and organics in low-level radioactive wastewater, the purification performance of zeolite 4A has been studied. Under ambient temperature and neutral condition, zeolite 4A absorbed simulated radionuclides such as Sr{sup 2+}, Cs{sup +}, and Co{sup 2+} with an absorption rate of almost 90%. Additionally, in alkaline condition, the adsorption percentage even approached 98.7%. After conducting research on suspended solids and organics of zeolite 4A for the treatment of radionuclides, it was found that the suspended clay was conducive to absorption, whereas the absorption of organics in solution was determined by the species of radionuclides and organics. Therefore, zeolite 4A has considerable potential in the treatment of radioactive wastewater.

  7. Different expression patterns of renal Na+/K+-ATPase α-isoform-like proteins between tilapia and milkfish following salinity challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wen-Kai; Chung, Chang-Hung; Cheng, Hui Chen; Tang, Cheng-Hao; Lee, Tsung-Han

    2016-12-01

    Euryhaline teleosts can survive in a broad range of salinity via alteration of the molecular mechanisms in certain osmoregulatory organs, including in the gill and kidney. Among these mechanisms, Na + /K + -ATPase (NKA) plays a crucial role in triggering ion-transporting systems. The switch of NKA isoforms in euryhaline fish gills substantially contributes to salinity adaptation. However, there is little information about switches in the kidneys of euryhaline teleosts. Therefore, the responses of the renal NKA α-isoform protein switch to salinity challenge in euryhaline tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus) and milkfish (Chanos chanos) with different salinity preferences were examined and compared in this study. Immunohistochemical staining in tilapia kidneys revealed the localization of NKA in renal tubules rather than in the glomeruli, similar to our previous findings in milkfish kidneys. Protein abundance in the renal NKA pan α-subunit-like, α1-, and α3-isoform-like proteins in seawater-acclimated tilapia was significantly higher than in the freshwater group, whereas the α2-isoform-like protein exhibited the opposite pattern of expression. In the milkfish, higher protein abundance in the renal NKA pan α-subunit-like and α1-isoform-like proteins was found in freshwater-acclimated fish, whereas no difference was found in the protein abundance of α2- and α3-isoform-like proteins between groups. These findings suggested that switches for renal NKA α-isoforms, especially the α1-isoform, were involved in renal osmoregulatory mechanisms of euryhaline teleosts. Moreover, differences in regulatory responses of the renal NKA α-subunit to salinity acclimation between tilapia and milkfish revealed that divergent mechanisms for maintaining osmotic balance might be employed by euryhaline teleosts with different salinity preferences. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. [Successful continuous renal replacement therapy in a neonate with early-onset group B streptococcal sepsis and multi-organ dysfunction syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Schnakenburg, C; Hufnagel, M; Superti-Furga, A; Rieger-Fackeldey, E; Berner, R

    2009-01-01

    Group B streptococcal early-onset sepsis (GBS EOS) in neonates has a mortality rate of approximately 5%, particularly in the presence of multi-organ dysfunction. Fluid management is crucial in these patients, and continuous venovenous haemofiltration (CVVH) should be considered a therapeutic option even in newborn babies. After an uneventful pregnancy within hours after birth, a female term infant presented with dyspnoea, irritability and cyanosis. The systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) progressed to multi-organ dysfunction with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), impaired myocardial contractility, pulmonary hypertension and fluid overload. The maximum PRISM score was 51. The child required maximal respiratory and inotropic support with high volume intravenous fluid administration. However, only by using of CVVH from day 5 to 14, we successfully resolved progressive pulmonary and cardiovascular dysfunction. The child improved directly after initiation of fluid removal, was extubated on day 17 and discharged without obvious sequelae on day 57. All microbiology studies revealed GBS. Perinatal GBS-infections remain a major life-threatening event for newborn babies. CVVH should be considered an option for reversing fluid overload even in neonates with overwhelming SIRS. Alternatively, extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is discussed.

  9. 公民逝世后器官捐献肾移植早期多重耐药菌感染的临床研究%Clinical study of early infection of multi-drug resistant organisms after renal transplantation from organ donation after citizen's death

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李智斌; 袁建林; 张更; 刘克普; 阮东丽; 高龙; 王会龙; 郑文峰; 马帅军; 秦卫军

    2017-01-01

    Objective To investigate the clinical characteristics, prevention and treatment of multi-drug resistant organisms (MDROs) infection early after renal transplantation from donation after citizen's death. Methods Clinical data of 166 patients undergoing allogeneic renal transplantation and regular follow-up in Xijing Hospital from November 2011 to September 2016 were retrospectively analyzed. General conditions were statistically compared between the recipients undergoing renal transplantation from donation after cardiac death (DCD) and their counterparts receiving living related donor renal transplantation. The incidence of MDROs infection, onset time, course of diseases, complications, infection site and etiological type were observed. The therapeutic methods and clinical prognosis were summarized. Results The incidence of MDROs infection early after renal transplantation in the recipients undergoing DCD renal transplantation was 14%, significantly higher than 2% in those receiving living related donor renal transplantation, and 13% and 2% for the incidence of delayed graft function with statistical significance (both P0.05). MDROs infection occurred in 11 patients after DCD renal transplantation. The most common infection site was urinary system(n=6) and the most prevalent pathogenic bacterium was Escherichia coli (n=4). All patients infected with MDROs were treated with a sufficient dosage of effective antibiotics according to the outcomes of bacterial culture and drug sensitivity test. Eight patients obtained favorable clinical prognosis, one underwent nephrectomy and two died. Conclusions The incidence of MDROs infection early after DCD renal transplantation is higher than that after living related-donor renal transplantation. Strict donor screening, early detection, intimate monitoring and timely treatment can effectively reduce the risk of MDROs and enhance clinical prognosis.%目的 探讨公民逝世后器官捐献肾移植术后早期多重耐药菌(MDROs

  10. Renal imaging in paediatrics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porn, U.; Hahn, K.; Fischer, S.

    2003-01-01

    The most frequent renal diseases in paediatrics include urinary tract infections, hydronephrosis, kidney anomalies and reflux. The main reason for performing DMSA scintigraphy in paediatrics is the detection of cortical abnormalities related to urinary tract infection. Because the amount of tracer retained in the tubular cells is associated with the distribution of functioning renal parenchyma in the kidney, it is possible, to evaluate the split renal function. In comparison to ultrasound and intravenous urography the sensitivity in the detection of acute as well as chronic inflammatory changes is very high, however less specific. An indication for a renography in neonates and children is beside an estimation of the total renal function and the calculation of the split renal function, the assessment of renal drainage in patients with unclear dilatation of the collecting system in ultrasound. The analysis of the time activity curve provides, especially for follow-up studies, a reproducible method to assess the urinary outflow. The diuretic scintigraphy allows the detection of urinary obstruction. Subsequently it is possible to image the micturition phase to detect vesico-ureteric reflux (indirect MCU) after drainage of tracer from the renal pelvis. An reflux in the ureters or the pelvicalyceal system is visible on the scintigraphic images and can be confirmed by time activity curves. A more invasive technique is the direct isotope cystography with bladder catheterization. The present paper should give an overview about the role of nuclear medicine in paediatric urology. (orig.) [de

  11. Perioperative acute renal failure.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Mahon, Padraig

    2012-02-03

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Recent biochemical evidence increasingly implicates inflammatory mechanisms as precipitants of acute renal failure. In this review, we detail some of these pathways together with potential new therapeutic targets. RECENT FINDINGS: Neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin appears to be a sensitive, specific and reliable biomarker of renal injury, which may be predictive of renal outcome in the perioperative setting. For estimation of glomerular filtration rate, cystatin C is superior to creatinine. No drug is definitively effective at preventing postoperative renal failure. Clinical trials of fenoldopam and atrial natriuretic peptide are, at best, equivocal. As with pharmacological preconditioning of the heart, volatile anaesthetic agents appear to offer a protective effect to the subsequently ischaemic kidney. SUMMARY: Although a greatly improved understanding of the pathophysiology of acute renal failure has offered even more therapeutic targets, the maintenance of intravascular euvolaemia and perfusion pressure is most effective at preventing new postoperative acute renal failure. In the future, strategies targeting renal regeneration after injury will use bone marrow-derived stem cells and growth factors such as insulin-like growth factor-1.

  12. Cadmium and renal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Il'yasova, Dora; Schwartz, Gary G.

    2005-01-01

    Background: Rates of renal cancer have increased steadily during the past two decades, and these increases are not explicable solely by advances in imaging modalities. Cadmium, a widespread environmental pollutant, is a carcinogen that accumulates in the kidney cortex and is a cause of end-stage renal disease. Several observations suggest that cadmium may be a cause of renal cancer. Methods: We performed a systematic review of the literature on cadmium and renal cancer using MEDLINE for the years 1966-2003. We reviewed seven epidemiological and eleven clinical studies. Results: Despite different methodologies, three large epidemiologic studies indicate that occupational exposure to cadmium is associated with increased risk renal cancer, with odds ratios varying from 1.2 to 5.0. Six of seven studies that compared the cadmium content of kidneys from patients with kidney cancer to that of patients without kidney cancer found lower concentrations of cadmium in renal cancer tissues. Conclusions: Exposure to cadmium appears to be associated with renal cancer, although this conclusion is tempered by the inability of studies to assess cumulative cadmium exposure from all sources including smoking and diet. The paradoxical findings of lower cadmium content in kidney tissues from patients with renal cancer may be caused by dilution of cadmium in rapidly dividing cells. This and other methodological problems limit the interpretation of studies of cadmium in clinical samples. Whether cadmium is a cause of renal cancer may be answered more definitively by future studies that employ biomarkers of cadmium exposure, such as cadmium levels in blood and urine

  13. Renal Branch Artery Stenosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Zarah; Thisted, Ebbe; Andersen, Ulrik Bjørn

    2017-01-01

    Renovascular hypertension is a common cause of pediatric hypertension. In the fraction of cases that are unrelated to syndromes such as neurofibromatosis, patients with a solitary stenosis on a branch of the renal artery are common and can be diagnostically challenging. Imaging techniques...... that perform well in the diagnosis of main renal artery stenosis may fall short when it comes to branch artery stenosis. We report 2 cases that illustrate these difficulties and show that a branch artery stenosis may be overlooked even by the gold standard method, renal angiography....

  14. Renal artery stenosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tafur-Soto, Jose David; White, Christopher J

    2015-02-01

    Atherosclerotic renal artery stenosis (RAS) is the single largest cause of secondary hypertension; it is associated with progressive renal insufficiency and causes cardiovascular complications such as refractory heart failure and flash pulmonary edema. Medical therapy, including risk factor modification, renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system antagonists, lipid-lowering agents, and antiplatelet therapy, is advised in all patients. Patients with uncontrolled renovascular hypertension despite optimal medical therapy, ischemic nephropathy, and cardiac destabilization syndromes who have severe RAS are likely to benefit from renal artery revascularization. Screening for RAS can be done with Doppler ultrasonography, CT angiography, and magnetic resonance angiography. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Cryoablation of Renal Angiomyolipoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Makki, Ahmad; Graumann, Ole; Hoyer, Soren

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Small series have reported that cryoablation (CA) is a safe and feasible minimally invasive nephron-sparing alternative for the treatment of renal angiomyolipomas (renal AMLs). The aim of the present study was to investigate the safety and efficacy of CA in patients with renal AML......-guided CA. The mean patient age was 46 years [interquartile range (IQR) 30] and the mean tumor volume was 50.1 cm(3) (IQR 53.3). In all cases, the procedure was effectively conducted with no conversion to open surgery, and no major complications were experienced. The mean follow-up time was 25 months (IQR...

  16. Selective Metal-Ion-Mediated Vesicle Adhesion Based on Dynamic Self-Organization of a Pyrene-Appended Glutamic Acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Pengyao; Wang, Yajie; Yang, Minmin; Zhang, Yimeng; Wang, Bo; Hao, Aiyou

    2016-07-13

    Vesicles with dynamic membranes provide an ideal model system for investigating biological membrane activities, whereby vesicle aggregation behaviors including adhesion, fusion, fission, and membrane contraction/extension have attracted much attention. In this work we utilize an aromatic amino acid (pyrene-appended glutamic acid, PGlu) to prepare nanovesicles that aggregate to form vesicle clusters selectively induced by Fe(3+) or Cu(2+), and the vesicles transform into irregular nano-objects when interacting with Al(3+). Vesicle clusters have better stability than pristine vesicles, which hinders the spontaneous morphological transformation from vesicles into lamellar nanosheets with long incubation period. The difference between complexation of Fe(3+) and Al(3+) with vesicles was studied by various techniques. On the basis of metal ion-vesicle interactions, this self-assembled nanovesicle system also behaves as an effective fluorescent sensor for Fe(3+) and Al(3+), which cause fluorescence quenching and enhanced excimer emission, respectively.

  17. Acute renal failure in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vergesslich, K.A.; Balzar, E.; Weninger, M.; Ponhold, W.; Sommer, G.; Wittich, G.R.; Vienna Univ.

    1987-01-01

    Acute renal failure (ARF) may be due to obstructive uropathy or renal parenchymal disease. Twenty-five children with acute renal failure secondary to renal parenchymal disease underwent ultrasonographic examination of the kidneys. Changes of renal size and cortical echogenicity were correlated with renal function. All patients presented with bilaterally enlarged kidneys with the exception in renal function resulted in normalization of renal size. With regard to cortical echogenicity two groups were formed. Group A comprised 11 patients whose kidneys had the same echogenicity as the liver, while in group B the kidneys were more echogenic (14 patients). Cortical echogenicity was always increased. Determination of creatinine levels showed a statistically significant difference between group A (3.32 mg% ± 1.40 S.D.) and group B (5.95 mg% ± 1.96 S.D.), p < 0.001. Changes in renal function were paralleled by rapid changes in renal size and cortical echogenicity. (orig.)

  18. Pregnancy Increases the Renal Secretion of N1-methylnicotinamide, an Endogenous Probe for Renal Cation Transporters, in Patients Prescribed Metformin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergagnini-Kolev, Mackenzie C; Hebert, Mary F; Easterling, Thomas R; Lin, Yvonne S

    2017-03-01

    N 1 -methylnicotinamide (1-NMN) has been investigated as an endogenous probe for the renal transporter activity of organic cation transporter 2 (OCT2) and multidrug and toxin extrusion proteins 1 and 2-K (MATE1 and MATE2-K). As pregnancy increased the renal secretion of metformin, a substrate for OCT2, MATE1, and MATE2-K, we hypothesized that the renal secretion of 1-NMN would be similarly affected. Blood and urine samples collected from women prescribed metformin for type 2 diabetes, gestational diabetes, and polycystic ovarian syndrome during early, mid, and late pregnancy ( n = 34 visits) and postpartum ( n = 14 visits) were analyzed for 1-NMN using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. The renal clearance and secretion clearance, using creatinine clearance to correct for glomerular filtration, were estimated for 1-NMN and correlated with metformin renal clearance. 1-NMN renal clearance was higher in both mid (504 ± 293 ml/min, P pregnancy (557 ± 305 ml/min, P pregnancy (269± 267, P pregnancy compared with postpartum (342 ± 283 versus 76 ± 92 ml/min, P Metformin renal clearance and 1-NMN renal clearance were positively correlated (r s = 0.68, P pregnancy due to increased glomerular filtration and net secretion by renal transporters. Copyright © 2017 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

  19. Influence of Low Molecular Weight Organic Acids on Transport of Cadmium and Copper Ions across Model Phospholipid Membranes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Parisová, Martina; Navrátil, Tomáš; Šestáková, Ivana; Jaklová Dytrtová, Jana; Mareček, Vladimír

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 1 (2013), s. 27-44 ISSN 1452-3981 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA400400806 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 ; RVO:61388955 Keywords : cadmium * copper * low molecular weight organic acid Subject RIV: CG - Electrochemistry Impact factor: 1.956, year: 2013

  20. Study of the trace metal ion influence on the turnover of soil organic matter in cultivated contaminated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dumat, C.; Quenea, K.; Bermond, A.; Toinen, S.; Benedetti, M.F.

    2006-01-01

    The role of metals in the behaviour of soil organic matter (SOM) is not well documented. Therefore, we investigated the influence of metals (Pb, Zn, Cu and Cd) on the dynamic of SOM in contaminated soils where maize (C 4 plant) replaced C 3 cultures. Three pseudogley brown leached soil profiles under maize with a decreasing gradient in metals concentrations were sampled. On size fractions, stable carbon isotopic ratio (δ 13 C), metals, organic carbon and nitrogen concentrations were measured in function of depth. The determined sequence for the amount of C 4 organic matter in the bulk fractions: M 3 (0.9) > M 2 (0.4) > M 1 (0.3) is in agreement with a significant influence of metals on the SOM turnover. New C 4 SOM, mainly present in the labile coarser fractions and less contaminated by metals than the stabilised C 3 SOM of the clay fraction, is more easily degraded by microorganisms. - Measure of δ 13 C and total metal concentrations in size fractions of contaminated soils suggests an influence of metals on the soil organic matter dynamic

  1. Enhanced performance of P(VDF-HFP)-based composite polymer electrolytes doped with organic-inorganic hybrid particles PMMA-ZrO2 for lithium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Wei; Wang, Zhiyan; Zhang, Yan; Fang, Rui; Yuan, Zun; Miao, Chang; Yan, Xuemin; Jiang, Yu

    2018-04-01

    To improve the ionic conductivity as well as enhance the mechanical strength of the gel polymer electrolyte, poly(vinylidene fluoride-hexafluoroprolene) (P(VDF-HFP))-based composite polymer electrolyte (CPE) membranes doped with the organic-inorganic hybrid particles poly(methyl methacrylate) -ZrO2 (PMMA-ZrO2) are prepared by phase inversion method, in which PMMA is successfully grafted onto the surface of the homemade nano-ZrO2 particles via in situ polymerization confirmed by FT-IR. XRD and DSC patterns show adding PMMA-ZrO2 particles into P(VDF-HFP) can significantly decrease the crystallinity of the CPE membrane. The CPE membrane doped with 5 wt % PMMA-ZrO2 particles can not only present a homogeneous surface with abundant interconnected micro-pores, but maintain its initial shape after thermal exposure at 160 °C for 1 h, in which the ionic conductivity and lithium ion transference number at room temperature can reach to 3.59 × 10-3 S cm-1 and 0.41, respectively. The fitting results of the EIS plots indicate the doped PMMA-ZrO2 particles can significantly lower the interface resistance and promote lithium ions diffusion rate. The Li/CPE-sPZ/LiCoO2 and Li/CPE-sPZ/Graphite coin cells can deliver excellent rate and cycling performance. Those results suggest the P(VDF-HFP)-based CPE doped with 5 wt % PMMA-ZrO2 particles can become an exciting potential candidate as polymer electrolyte for the lithium ion battery.

  2. Organic salt NEDC (N-naphthylethylenediamine dihydrochloride) assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry for identification of metal ions in real samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Jian; Chen, Suming; Zhang, Ning; Liu, Huihui; Wang, Jianing; He, Qing; Wang, Jiyun; Xiong, Shaoxiang; Nie, Zongxiu

    2014-07-07

    The significance of metals in life and their epidemiological effects necessitate the development of a direct, efficient, and rapid method of analysis. The matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization technique is on the horns of a dilemma of metal analysis as the conventional matrixes have high background in the low mass range. An organic salt, NEDC (N-naphthylethylenediamine dihydrochloride), is applied as a matrix for identification of metal ions in the negative ion mode in the present work. Sixteen metal ions, Ba(2+), Ca(2+), Cd(2+), Ce(3+), Co(2+), Cu(2+), Fe(3+), Hg(2+), K(+), Mg(2+), Mn(2+), Na(+), Ni(2+), Pb(2+), Sn(2+) and Zn(2+), in the form of their chloride-adducted clusters were systematically tested. Mass spectra can provide unambiguous identification through accurate mass-to-charge ratios and characteristic isotope patterns. Compared to ruthenium ICP standard solution, tris(2,2'-bipyridyl)dichlororuthenium(ii) (C30H24N6Cl2Ru) can form organometallic chloride adducts to discriminate from the inorganic ruthenium by this method. After evaluating the sensitivity for Ca, Cu, Mg, Mn, Pb and Zn and plotting their quantitation curves of signal intensity versus concentration, we determined magnesium concentration in lake water quantitatively to be 5.42 mg L(-1) using the standard addition method. There is no significant difference from the result obtained with ICP-OES, 5.8 mg L(-1). Human urine and blood were also detected to ascertain the multi-metal analysis ability of this strategy in complex samples. At last, we explored its applicability to tissue slice and visualized sodium and potassium distribution by mass spectrometry imaging in the normal Kunming mouse brain.

  3. Evaluation of adsorbent and ion exchange resins for removal of organic matter from petroleum refinery wastewaters aiming to increase water reuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Abreu Domingos, Rodrigo; da Fonseca, Fabiana Valéria

    2018-05-15

    The oil refinery industry seeks solutions to reduce its water uptake and consumption by encouraging the reuse of internal streams and wastewater from treatment systems. After conventional treatment the petroleum refinery wastewater still contains a considerable quantity of recalcitrant organics and the adsorption on activated carbon is currently used in Brazilian refineries, although it is still expensive due to the difficulty of its regeneration. This study evaluated the use of adsorbent and ion exchange resins for the removal of organic matter from refinery wastewater after conventional treatment in order to verify its feasibility, applying successive resin regenerations and comparing the results with those obtained for activated carbon process. Adsorption isotherms experiments were used to evaluate commercial resins, and the most efficient was subjected to column experiments, where absorbance (ABS) and total organic carbon (TOC) removal were measured. The adsorption isotherm of the best resin showed an adsorptive capacity that was 55% lower than that of activated carbon. On the other hand, the column experiments indicated good removal efficiency, and the amount of TOC in the treated wastewater was as good as has been reported in the literature for activated carbon. The regeneration efficiency of the retained organics ranged from 57 to 94%, while regenerant consumption ranged from 12 to 79% above the amount recommended by the resin supplier for the removal of organic material from natural sources, showing the great resistance of these recalcitrant compounds to desorption. Finally, an estimate of the service life of the resin using intermediate regeneration conditions found it to be seven times higher than that of activated carbon when the latter is not regenerated. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Renal stem cells: fact or science fiction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCampbell, Kristen K; Wingert, Rebecca A

    2012-06-01

    The kidney is widely regarded as an organ without regenerative abilities. However, in recent years this dogma has been challenged on the basis of observations of kidney recovery following acute injury, and the identification of renal populations that demonstrate stem cell characteristics in various species. It is currently speculated that the human kidney can regenerate in some contexts, but the mechanisms of renal regeneration remain poorly understood. Numerous controversies surround the potency, behaviour and origins of the cell types that are proposed to perform kidney regeneration. The present review explores the current understanding of renal stem cells and kidney regeneration events, and examines the future challenges in using these insights to create new clinical treatments for kidney disease.

  5. Improving the mining soil quality for a vegetation cover after addition of sewage sludges: inorganic ions and low-molecular-weight organic acids in the soil solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peña, Aránzazu; Mingorance, Mª Dolores; Guzmán-Carrizosa, Ignacio; Fernández-Espinosa, Antonio J

    2015-03-01

    We assessed the effects of applying stabilized sewage sludge (SSL) and composted sewage sludge (CLV), at 5 and 10% to an acid mining soil. Limed soil (NCL) amended or not with SSL and CLV was incubated for 47 days. We studied the cations and organic and inorganic anions in the soil solution by means of ion chromatography. Liming led to big increases in Ca(2+) and SO4(2-) and to significant decreases in K(+), Mg(2+), NH4(+) and NO3(-). Addition of both organic amendments increased some cations (NH4(+), K(+), Mg(2+), Na(+)) and anions (Cl(-), NO3(-) only with CLV and PO4(3-) only with SSL) and provided a greater amount of low-molecular-weight organic acids (LMWOAs) (SSL more than CLV). Incubation led to decreases in all cations, particularly remarkable for Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) in SSL-10. A decrease in NH4(+) was associated with variations in NO2(-) and NO3(-) resulting from nitrification reactions. During incubation the LMWOAs content tended to decrease similarly to the cations, especially in SSL-10. Chemometric tools revealed a clear discrimination between SSL, CLV and NCL. Furthermore, treatment effects depended upon dose, mainly in SSL. Amendment nature and dose affect the quality of a mining soil and improve conditions for plant establishment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Effect of Cuscuta chinensis on renal function in ischemia/reperfusion-induced acute renal failure rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Sun; Lee, Yun Jung; Kim, Eun Ju; Lee, An Sook; Kang, Dae Gill; Lee, Ho Sub

    2011-01-01

    The kidneys play a central role in regulating water, ion composition and excretion of metabolic waste products in the urine. Cuscuta chinensis has been known as an important traditional Oriental medicine for the treatment of liver and kidney disorders. Thus, we studied whether an aqueous extract of Cuscuta chinensis (ACC) seeds has an effect on renal function parameters in ischemia/reperfusion-induced acute renal failure (ARF) rats. Administration of 250 mg/kg/day ACC showed that renal functional parameters including urinary excretion rate, osmolality, Na(+), K(+), Cl(-), creatinine clearance, solute-free water reabsorption were significantly recovered in ischemia/reperfusion-induced ARF. Periodic acid Schiff staining showed that administration of ACC improved tubular damage in ischemia/reperfusion-induced ARF. In immunoblot and immunohistological examinations, ischemia/reperfusion-induced ARF decreased the expressions of water channel AQP 2, 3 and sodium potassium pump Na,K-ATPase in the renal medulla. However, administration of ACC markedly incremented AQP 2, 3 and Na,K-ATPase expressions. Therefore, these data indicate that administration of ACC ameliorates regulation of the urine concentration and renal functions in rats with ischemia/reperfusion-induced ARF.

  7. Renal tumors in infancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucaya, J.; Garcia, P.

    1997-01-01

    The classification of childhood renal masses in updated, including the clinical signs and imaging techniques currently employed to confirm their presence and type them. Several bening and malignant childhood tumors are described in substantial detail. (Author) 24 refs

  8. Renal cell carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... kidney Patient Instructions Kidney removal - discharge Images Kidney anatomy Kidney tumor - CT scan Kidney metastases, CT scan Kidney - blood and urine flow References Campbell SC, Lane BR. Malignant renal tumors. In: Wein AJ, Kavoussi LR, Partin AW, ...

  9. Primary renal synovial sarcoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Girish D. Bakhshi

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Primary Renal Sarcoma is rare tumor comprising only 1% of all renal tumours. Synovial sarcomas are generally deep-seated tumors arising in the proximity of large joints of adolescents and young adults and account for 5-10% of all soft tissue tumours. Primary synovial sarcoma of kidney is rare and has poor prognosis. It can only be diagnosed by immunohistochemistry. It should be considered as a differential in sarcomatoid and spindle cell tumours. We present a case of 33-year-old female, who underwent left sided radical nephrectomy for renal tumour. Histopathology and genetic analysis diagnosed it to be primary renal synovial sarcoma. Patient underwent radiation therapy and 2 years follow up is uneventful. A brief case report with review of literature is presented.

  10. [Small renal mass].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prokofiev, D; Kreutzer, N; Kress, A; Wissing, F; Pfeifer, H; Stolzenburg, J-U; Dietel, A; Schwalenberg, T; Do, M; Truß, M C

    2012-10-01

    The frequent application of ultrasound and radiological imaging for non-urological indications in recent years has resulted in an increase in the diagnosis of small renal masses. The treatment options for patients with a small renal mass include active surveillance, surgery (both open and minimally invasive) as well as ablative techniques. As there is a risk for metastatic spread even in small renal masses surgical extirpation remains the treatment of choice in most patients. Ablative procedures, such as cryoablation and radiofrequency ablation are appropriate for old and multi-morbid patients who require active treatment of a small renal mass. Active surveillance is an alternative for high-risk patients. Meticulous patient selection by the urologist and patient preference will determine the choice of treatment option in the future.

  11. Common paediatric renal conditions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Few children in South Africa have access to dialysis or renal transplantation, so it is important to .... the chronic administration of antibiotics increases the risk of a UTI with a resistant .... factors for recurrent urinary tract infection in young women.

  12. Renal and perirenal abscesses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patterson, J.E.; Andriole, V.T.

    1987-01-01

    Our knowledge of the spectrum of renal abscesses has increased as a result of more sensitive radiologic techniques. The classification of intrarenal abscess now includes acute focal bacterial nephritis and acute multifocal bacterial nephritis, as well as the previously recognized renal cortical abscess, renal corticomedullary abscess, and xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis. In general, the clinical presentation of these entities does not differentiate them; various radiographic studies can distinguish them, however. The intrarenal abscess is usually treated successfully with antibiotic therapy alone. Antistaphylococcal therapy is indicated for the renal cortical abscess, whereas therapy directed against the common gram-negative uropathogens is indicated for most of the other entities. The perinephric abscess is often an elusive diagnosis, has a more serious prognosis, and is more difficult to treat. Drainage of the abscess and sometimes partial or complete nephrectomy are required for resolution. 73 references

  13. Lithium and Renal Impairment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, René Ernst; Kessing, Lars Vedel; Nolen, Willem A

    2018-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Lithium is established as an effective treatment of mania, of depression in bipolar and unipolar disorder, and in maintenance treatment of these disorders. However, due to the necessity of monitoring and concerns about irreversible adverse effects, in particular renal impairment......, after long-term use, lithium might be underutilized. METHODS: This study reviewed 6 large observational studies addressing the risk of impaired renal function associated with lithium treatment and methodological issues impacting interpretation of results. RESULTS: An increased risk of renal impairment...... associated with lithium treatment is suggested. This increased risk may, at least partly, be a result of surveillance bias. Additionally, the earliest studies pointed toward an increased risk of end-stage renal disease associated with lithium treatment, whereas the later and methodologically most sound...

  14. Renal dynamic scintigraphy in renal graft evaluation; Cintilografia renal dinamica na avaliacao do transplante renal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cervo, Marco Antonio Cadorna; Amarante Junior, Jose Luiz de Medeiros; Souza, Ricardo Alberto Manhaes de; Evangelista, Maria Gardenia; Cavalcante, Carlos Alberto Provasi; Neder, Jacqueline de Roure e; Espinola, Ircania Jorge [Hospital Naval Marcilio Dias, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Servico de Medicina Nuclear

    1996-12-31

    The goal of this was to describe the use of the dynamic renal scintigraphy in patients grafted. The authors described the scintigraphy method utilised and results were discussed 8 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  15. Sorption of Eu(III) at feldspar/water interface. Effects of pH, organic matter, counter ions, and temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Ping; Liang, Jianjun; Fan, Qiaohui [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou (China). Key Lab. of Petroleum Resources Research; Wu, Hanyu [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou (China). Key Lab. of Petroleum Resources Research; Lanzhou Univ. (China). Radiochemistry Lab.; Yin, Zhuoxin; Pan, Duoqiang; Wu, Wangsuo [Lanzhou Univ. (China). Radiochemistry Lab.; Xu, Di [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing (China). State Key Lab. of Lake Science and Environment

    2017-07-01

    The sorption of Eu(III) on potassium feldspar (K-feldspar) was studied under various physicochemical conditions such as pH, temperature, counter ions and organic matter. The results showed that the sorption of Eu(III) on K-feldspar significantly increased with the increase of pH, and high Eu(III) concentration can inhibit such immobility to some extent. The presence of humic acid (HA) can increase the sorption of Eu(III) on K-feldspar in low pH range; while inhibit to a large extent under alkaline conditions. It is very interesting that at pH ∝6.5, high ionic strength can promote the sorption of Eu(III) on K-feldspar in the presence of HA. In contrast, Eu(III) sorption was restricted obviously by NaCl in the absence of HA. The sorption procedure was involved with ion exchange and/or outer-sphere complexation as well as inner-sphere complexation. The presence of F{sup -} and PO{sub 4}{sup 3-} dramatically enhanced Eu(III) sorption on K-feldspar, whereas both SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} and CO{sub 3}{sup 2-} had negative effects on Eu(III) sorption. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis indicated that Eu(III) tended to form hydrolysates at high initial concentration (3 x 10{sup -4} mol/L) and high temperature (338 K).

  16. Pyrrolidinium-based ionic liquid electrolyte with organic additive and LiTFSI for high-safety lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Binbin; Li, Cuihua; Zhou, Junhui; Liu, Jianhong; Zhang, Qianling

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • New ionic liquid electrolytes composed by PYR 13 TFSI and EC/DMC-5%VC. • Mixed electrolyte for use in high-safety lithium-ion batteries. • LiTFSI concentration in IL electrolyte greatly affects the rate capability of the cell. • The optimal mixed electrolyte is ideal for applications at high temperature. - Abstract: In this paper, we report on the physicochemical properties of mixed electrolytes based on an ionic liquid N-propyl-N-methylpyrrolidiniumbis (trifluoromethanesulfonyl) imide (PYR 13 TFSI), organic additives, and lithium bis (trifluoromethanesulfonyl) imide (LiTFSI) for high safety lithium-ion batteries. The proposed optimal content of ionic liquid in the mixed electrolyte is 65 vol%, which results in non- flammability, high thermal stability, a wide electrochemical window of 4.8 V, low viscosity, low bulk resistance and the lowest interface resistance to lithium anode. The effects of the concentration of LiTFSI in the above electrolyte are critical to the rate performance of the LiFePO 4 -based battery. We have found the suitable LiTFSI concentration (0.3 M) for good capacity retention and rate capability

  17. Comparison of dialysis and solid-phase extraction for isolation and concentration of dissolved organic matter prior to Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tfaily, Malak M.; Cooper, William T. [Florida State University, Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Tallahassee, FL (United States); Hodgkins, Suzanne; Chanton, Jeffrey P. [Florida State University, Department of Earth, Ocean and Atmospheric Science, Tallahassee, FL (United States); Podgorski, David C. [Florida State University, Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Tallahassee, FL (United States); Florida State University, National High Magnetic Field Laboratory, Tallahassee, FL (United States)

    2012-08-15

    We compare two methods, solid-phase extraction (SPE) and dialysis, commonly used for extraction and concentration of dissolved organic matter (DOM) prior to molecular characterization by electrospray ionization (ESI) and ultrahigh-resolution Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry. Spectra of DOM samples from Minnesota and Sweden peatlands that were extracted with styrene divinyl benzene polymer SPE sorbents included ions with formulas that had higher oxygen to carbon (O/C) ratios than spectra of DOM from the same samples after de-salting by dialysis. The SPE method was not very effective in extracting several major classes of DOM compounds that had high ESI efficiencies, including carboxylic acids and organo-sulfur compounds, and that out-competed other less-functionalized compounds (e.g., carbohydrates) for charge in the ESI source. The large abundance of carboxylic acids in the dialysisextracted DOM, likely the result of in situ microbial production, makes it difficult to see other (mainly hydrophilic) compounds with high O/C ratios. Our results indicate that, while dialysis is generally preferable for the isolation of DOM, for samples with high microbial inputs, the use of both isolation methods is recommended for a more accurate molecular representation. (orig.)

  18. Fabrication of γ-Fe2O3 Nanoparticles by Solid-State Thermolysis of a Metal-Organic Framework, MIL-100(Fe, for Heavy Metal Ions Removal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shengtao Hei

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Porous γ-Fe2O3 nanoparticles were prepared via a solid-state conversion process of a mesoporous iron(III carboxylate crystal, MIL-100(Fe. First, the MIL-100(Fe crystal that served as the template of the metal oxide was synthesized by a low-temperature (<100°C synthesis route. Subsequently, the porous γ-Fe2O3 nanoparticles were fabricated by facile thermolysis of the MIL-100(Fe powders via a two-step calcination treatment. The obtained γ-Fe2O3 was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD, N2 adsorption, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM techniques, and then used as an adsorbent for heavy metal ions removal in water treatment. This study illustrates that the metal-organic frameworks may be suitable precursors for the fabrication of metal oxides nanomaterials with large specific surface area, and the prepared porous γ-Fe2O3 exhibits a superior adsorption performance for As(V and As(III ions removal in water treatment.

  19. Sympatho-renal axis in chronic disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobotka, Paul A; Mahfoud, Felix; Schlaich, Markus P; Hoppe, Uta C; Böhm, Michael; Krum, Henry

    2011-12-01

    Essential hypertension, insulin resistance, heart failure, congestion, diuretic resistance, and functional renal disease are all characterized by excessive central sympathetic drive. The contribution of the kidney's somatic afferent nerves, as an underlying cause of elevated central sympathetic drive, and the consequences of excessive efferent sympathetic signals to the kidney itself, as well as other organs, identify the renal sympathetic nerves as a uniquely logical therapeutic target for diseases linked by excessive central sympathetic drive. Clinical studies of renal denervation in patients with resistant hypertension using an endovascular radiofrequency ablation methodology have exposed the sympathetic link between these conditions. Renal denervation could be expected to simultaneously affect blood pressure, insulin resistance, sleep disorders, congestion in heart failure, cardiorenal syndrome and diuretic resistance. The striking epidemiologic evidence for coexistence of these disorders suggests common causal pathways. Chronic activation of the sympathetic nervous system has been associated with components of the metabolic syndrome, such as blood pressure elevation, obesity, dyslipidemia, and impaired fasting glucose with hyperinsulinemia. Over 50% of patients with essential hypertension are hyperinsulinemic, regardless of whether they are untreated or in a stable program of treatment. Insulin resistance is related to sympathetic drive via a bidirectional mechanism. In this manuscript, we review the data that suggests that selective impairment of renal somatic afferent and sympathetic efferent nerves in patients with resistant hypertension both reduces markers of central sympathetic drive and favorably impacts diseases linked through central sympathetics-insulin resistance, heart failure, congestion, diuretic resistance, and cardiorenal disorders.

  20. Qualitative and Quantitative Characterization of Porosity in a Low Porous and Low Permeable Organic Rich Shale by Combining Broad Ion Beam and Scanning Electron Microscopy (BIB-SEM)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klaver, Jop; Desbois, Guillaume; Urai, Janos L.

    2013-01-01

    This contribution focuses on the characterization of porosity in low porous shale using a broad ion beam (BIB) polishing technique combined with a conventional scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Porosity was traced in certain representative elementary areas (REA) and pores detected are segmented from mosaics of secondary electron (SE) images. Traced pores could be classified into two major pore-size classes. Relative large pores (> 0.5 μm 2 ) were found in the organic matter and matrix. They contribute strongly to the overall porosity con-tent of the shale. Nevertheless the far majority of the pores traced have equivalent radius less than 400 nm. Including the latter pore class, the imaged porosity from both samples gives similar results in the order of < 1 %. (authors)

  1. Organic chemistry in Titan's upper atmosphere and its astrobiological consequences: I. Views towards Cassini plasma spectrometer (CAPS) and ion neutral mass spectrometer (INMS) experiments in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, A.; Sittler, E. C.; Chornay, D.; Rowe, B. R.; Puzzarini, C.

    2015-05-01

    The discovery of carbocations and carbanions by Ion Neutral Mass Spectrometer (INMS) and the Cassini Plasma Spectrometer (CAPS) instruments onboard the Cassini spacecraft in Titan's upper atmosphere is truly amazing for astrochemists and astrobiologists. In this paper we identify the reaction mechanisms for the growth of the complex macromolecules observed by the CAPS Ion Beam Spectrometer (IBS) and Electron Spectrometer (ELS). This identification is based on a recently published paper (Ali et al., 2013. Planet. Space Sci. 87, 96) which emphasizes the role of Olah's nonclassical carbonium ion chemistry in the synthesis of the organic molecules observed in Titan's thermosphere and ionosphere by INMS. The main conclusion of that work was the demonstration of the presence of the cyclopropenyl cation - the simplest Huckel's aromatic molecule - and its cyclic methyl derivatives in Titan's atmosphere at high altitudes. In this study, we present the transition from simple aromatic molecules to the complex ortho-bridged bi- and tri-cyclic hydrocarbons, e.g., CH2+ mono-substituted naphthalene and phenanthrene, as well as the ortho- and peri-bridged tri-cyclic aromatic ring, e.g., perinaphthenyl cation. These rings could further grow into tetra-cyclic and the higher order ring polymers in Titan's upper atmosphere. Contrary to the pre-Cassini observations, the nitrogen chemistry of Titan's upper atmosphere is found to be extremely rich. A variety of N-containing hydrocarbons including the N-heterocycles where a CH group in the polycyclic rings mentioned above is replaced by an N atom, e.g., CH2+ substituted derivative of quinoline (benzopyridine), are found to be dominant in Titan's upper atmosphere. The mechanisms for the formation of complex molecular anions are discussed as well. It is proposed that many closed-shell complex carbocations after their formation first, in Titan's upper atmosphere, undergo the kinetics of electron recombination to form open-shell neutral

  2. Direct chemical-analysis of uv laser-ablation products of organic polymers by using selective ion monitoring mode in gas-chromatography mass-spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Yirang; Lee, H.W.; Fountain, S.T.; Lubman, D.M.

    1994-01-01

    Trace quantities of laser ablated organic polymers were analyzed by using commercial capillary column gas chromatography/mass spectrometry; the instrument was modified so that the laser ablation products could be introduced into the capillary column directly and the constituents of each peak in the chromatogram were identified by using a mass spectrometer. The present study takes advantage of the selective ion monitoring mode for significantly improving the sensitivity of the mass spectrometer as a detector, which is critical in analyzing the trace quantities and confirming the presence or absence of the species of interest in laser ablated polymers. The initial composition of the laser ablated polymers was obtained by using an electron impact reflectron time-of-flight mass spectrometer and the possible structure of the fragments observed in the spectra was proposed based on the structure of the polymers.

  3. Cementation of secondary wastes generated from carbonisation of spent organic ion exchange resins from nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sathi Sasidharan, N.; Deshingkar, D.S.; Wattal, P.K.

    2004-07-01

    The spent IX resins containing radioactive fission and activation products from power reactors are highly active solid wastes generated during operations of nuclear reactors. Process for carbonization of IX resins to achieve weight and volume reduction has been optimized on 50 dm 3 /batch pilot test rig. The process generates carbonaceous residue, organic liquid condensates (predominantly styrene) and aqueous alkaline scrubber solutions as secondary wastes. The report discusses laboratory tests on leaching of 137 Cs from cement matrix incorporating carbonaceous residues and extrapolation of results to 200 liter matrix block. The cumulative fraction of 137 Cs leached from 200 liter cement matrix was estimated to be 0.0021 in 200 days and 0.0418 over a period of 30 years. Incorporation of organic liquid condensates into cement matrix has been tried out successfully. Thus two types of secondary wastes generated during carbonization of spent IX resins can be immobilized in cement matrix. (author)

  4. Renal artery pseudoaneurysm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Inácio Roman

    Full Text Available Abstract The renal artery pseudoaneurysm embody a rare vascular complication coming of percutaneous procedures, renal biopsy, nephrectomy, penetrating traumas and more rarely blunt traumas. The clinical can be vary according the patient, the haematuria is the symptom more commom. Is necessary a high level of clinical suspicion for your diagnosis, this can be elucidated by through complementary exams as the eco-color Doppler and the computed tomography scan (CT. This report is a case of a patient submitted a right percutaneous renal biopsy and that, after the procedure started with macroscopic haematuria, urinary tenesmus and hypogastric pain. The diagnosis of pseudoaneurysm was given after one week of evolution when the patient was hospitalized because gross haematuria, tachycardia, hypotension and hypochondrium pain. In the angiotomography revealed a focal dilation of the accessory right renal inferior polar artery, dilation of renal pelvis and all the ureteral course with presence hyperdenso material (clots inside the middle third of the ureter. The treatment for the majority of this cases are conservative, through arterial embolization, indicated for thouse of smaller dimensions in patients who are hemodynamically stable. However, it was decided by clinical treatment with aminocaproic acid 1 g, according to previous studies for therapy of haematuria. The patient received discharge without evidence of macroscopic haematuria and with normal renal ultrasound, following ambulatory care.

  5. RENAL MALIGNANT NEOPLASMS: RENAL CELL CARCINOMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisangela Giachini

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to evaluate the incidence and prevalence of malignant kidney tumors, to contribute to identifying factors which the diagnosis of renal cell carcinomas. Through this study, we understand that kidney disease over the years had higher incidence rates, especially in adults in the sixth decade of life. The renal cell carcinoma (RCC is the third most common malignancy of the genitourinary tract, affecting 2% to 3% of the population. There are numerous ways of diagnosis; however, the most important are ultrasonography, magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography. In general most of the patients affected by the CCR, have a good prognosis when diagnosed early and subjected to an effective treatment. This study conducted a literature review about the CCR, through this it was possible to understand the development needs of the imaging methods used for precise diagnosis and classification of RCC through the TNM system.

  6. Renal Artery Embolization of Perirenal Hematoma in Hemorrhagic Fever with Renal Syndrome: A Case Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Hee Seok; Lee, Yong Seok; Lim, Ji Hyon; Kim, Kyung Soo; Yoon, Yup [Dongguk University College of Medicine, Goyang (Korea, Republic of); Hwang, Jae Cheol [Ulsan University Hospital, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-08-15

    Hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) is an acute viral disease characterized by fever, hemorrhage and renal failure. Among the various hemorrhagic complications of HFRS, spontaneous rupture of the kidney and perirenal hematoma are very rare findings. We report here on a case of HFRS complicated by massive perirenal hematoma, and this was treated with transcatheter arterial embolization. Hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) is an acute infectious disease caused by hantavirus. HFRS is clinically characterized by fever, renal failure and hemorrhage in organs such as lung, kidney, spleen and the pituitary gland. Renal medullary hemorrhage is a well-known complication in the kidney, but spontaneous rupture of the kidney and perirenal hematoma in HFRS is rare, and patients showing continuous bleeding and massive perirenal hematoma have often been surgically treated. We report here on a case of HFRS complicated by massive perirenal hematoma, and the patient was treated with transcatheter arterial embolization. In summary, spontaneous rupture of the kidney and perirenal hematoma is a rare complication of HFRS. We report here on a case of HFRS that caused massive perirenal hematoma, and this was treated with superselective renal artery embolization.

  7. Renal Artery Embolization of Perirenal Hematoma in Hemorrhagic Fever with Renal Syndrome: A Case Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Hee Seok; Lee, Yong Seok; Lim, Ji Hyon; Kim, Kyung Soo; Yoon, Yup; Hwang, Jae Cheol

    2007-01-01

    Hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) is an acute viral disease characterized by fever, hemorrhage and renal failure. Among the various hemorrhagic complications of HFRS, spontaneous rupture of the kidney and perirenal hematoma are very rare findings. We report here on a case of HFRS complicated by massive perirenal hematoma, and this was treated with transcatheter arterial embolization. Hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) is an acute infectious disease caused by hantavirus. HFRS is clinically characterized by fever, renal failure and hemorrhage in organs such as lung, kidney, spleen and the pituitary gland. Renal medullary hemorrhage is a well-known complication in the kidney, but spontaneous rupture of the kidney and perirenal hematoma in HFRS is rare, and patients showing continuous bleeding and massive perirenal hematoma have often been surgically treated. We report here on a case of HFRS complicated by massive perirenal hematoma, and the patient was treated with transcatheter arterial embolization. In summary, spontaneous rupture of the kidney and perirenal hematoma is a rare complication of HFRS. We report here on a case of HFRS that caused massive perirenal hematoma, and this was treated with superselective renal artery embolization

  8. Synthesis and Luminescence Properties of New Metal-Organic Frameworks Based on Zinc(II Ions and 2,5-Thiophendicarboxylate Ligands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Lysova

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Six new metal-organic frameworks based on 2,5-thiophendicarboxylate (tdc2– and zinc(II ions were prepared in different reaction conditions, and their crystal structures were determined by XRD analysis. The compound [Zn(tdc(dabco(H2O]∙DMF (1 is based on mononuclear Zn(II ions connected by tdc2– and dabco linkers into square-grid layered nets. The compound [Zn3(tdc3(dabco2] (2 is a rare example of monocoordinated dabco ligands in the metal-organic framework chemistry. Its crystal structure contains trinuclear linear carboxylate building units, connected into a distorted primitive cubic net. Similar trinuclear units were also found in [Zn5(tdc4(Htdc2(dabco2]∙4DMF∙14H2O (3, although as a part of more complicated pentanuclear motives. The compound [Na2Zn(tdc2(DMF2] (4, quantitatively isolated by the addition of NaOH to the mixture of Zn(NO32 and H2tdc, is based on 1D chain motives, interconnected by tdc2– linkers into a three-dimensional framework. The compounds [Zn3(tdc3(DMF2]∙0.8DMF∙1.1H2O (5 and [Zn3(tdc3(DMF3]∙0.8DMF∙1.3H2O (6 were prepared in very similar reaction conditions, but with different times of heating, indirectly indicating higher thermodynamic stability of the three-dimensional metal-organic framework 6, compared to the two-dimensional metal-organic framework 5. The crystal structures of both 5 and 6 are based on the same trinuclear linear units as in 2. Luminescence properties of the compounds 4–6 were studied and compared with those for Na2tdc salt. In particular, the luminescence spectra of 4 practically coincide with those for the reference Na2tdc, while 5 and 6 exhibit coherent shifts of peaks to higher energies. Such hypsochromic shifts are likely associated with a different effective charge on the tdc2– anions in Na2tdc and sodium-containing 4, compared to zinc-based 5 and 6.

  9. Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Polymers as Adsorbents for Removal of Heavy Metal Ions from Solutions: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samiey, Babak; Cheng, Chil-Hung; Wu, Jiangning

    2014-01-01

    Over the past decades, organic-inorganic hybrid polymers have been applied in different fields, including the adsorption of pollutants from wastewater and solid-state separations. In this review, firstly, these compounds are classified. These compounds are prepared by sol-gel method, self-assembly process (mesopores), assembling of nanobuilding blocks (e.g., layered or core-shell compounds) and as interpenetrating networks and hierarchically structures. Lastly, the adsorption characteristics of heavy metals of these materials, including different kinds of functional groups, selectivity of them for heavy metals, effect of pH and synthesis conditions on adsorption capacity, are studied. PMID:28788483

  10. Simultaneous removal of organic matter and salt ions from coal gasification wastewater RO concentrate and microorganisms succession in a MBR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Shengyong; Han, Yuxing; Zhuang, Haifeng; Han, Hongjun; Li, Kun

    2017-10-01

    A lab-scale membrane bioreactor (MBR) with intermittent aeration was operated to treat the reverse osmosis concentrate derived from coal gasification wastewater. Results showed intermittent aeration represented slight effect on organic matter reduction but significant effect on nitrite and nitrate reduction, with 6h aeration and 6h non-aeration, removal efficiencies of organic matter, chloride, sulfate, nitrite and nitrate reached 48.35%, 40.91%, 34.28%, -36.05% and 64.34%, respectively. High-throughput sequencing showed a microorganisms succession from inoculated activated sludge (S1) to activated sludge in MBR (S2) with high salinity. Richness and diversity of microorganisms in S2 was lower than S1 and the community structure of S1 exhibited more even than S2. The most relative abundance of genus in S1 and S2 were unclassified_Desulfarculaceae (9.39%) and Roseibaca (62.1%), respectively. High salinity and intermittent aeration represented different influence on the denitrifying genus, and non-aeration phase provided feasible dissolved oxygen condition for denitrifying genera realizing denitrification. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Renal PTA stenting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsetis, D.

    2012-01-01

    Full text: Renal artery stenosis (RAS) is a common condition that may lead to hypertension, progressive renal dysfunction and cardiovascular morbidity. Catheter-based therapy for symptomatic, haemodynamically significant, RAS has become the preferred method of revascularization. Balloon angioplasty has been the traditional treatment of choice for fibromuscular dysplasia, however stents are increasingly used for the treatment of atheromatous lesions; in many cases-such as in ostial lesions-, direct stenting is strongly indicated. Despite the increased use of endovascular therapy for renal artery stenosis, there is still controversy regarding the optimal management and the net benefit of this treatment. Several randomized trials of balloon angioplasty or stenting for renal artery stenosis compared with medical therapy alone have been conducted, however these could not show definite advantage of endovascular therapy. Problems encountered with those trials include enrollment of small number of patients, frequent crossover from medical to interventional therapy compromising the intention-to-treat results, or selection of patients that are not expected to show clear benefit. The Angioplasty and Stenting for Renal Artery Lesions (ASTRAL) is the most important of these trials; however, it,s study design was faulty and therefore did not provide conclusive evidence to answer the question of whether angioplasty and stenting or medical therapy is the best treatment for haemodynamically significant RAS. All expectations are now focused on the Cardiovascular Outcomes in Renal Atherosclerotic Lesions (CORAL) trial which was designed to answer the same question, and its methodologies took into consideration the weaknesses of the ASTRAL trial. Regarding stent device itself, it seems that the optimal design is probably a stainless steel, laser cut, open-cells stent mounted on a rapid exchange delivery balloon catheter compatible with 0.014-in and 0.018-in guidewire. As a future

  12. Captopril renal scan - a noninvasive screening test for renovascular hypertension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akhter, M.S.

    2001-01-01

    Captopril renal scan is simple, noninvasive and cost-effective test for the initial diagnosis with the sensitivity of 98%. Renal scan with Tc-99m DTPA was performed on the suspected patient one hour after oral intake of 25 mg of captopril. Relative renal function, renogram curves and GFR for both the kidneys were calculated by computer software. Right kidney was small in size, showed relative renal function of 12% and the GFR was 9.64 ml/min. The left organ revealed relative function of 88% and the GFR was 72.12 ml/min. There was marked difference in renogram peaks. On baseline study, the right kidney showed marked improvement of renogram curve peak and the renal function improved to 23% while the GFR showed rise to 19 ml/min. In comparison with baseline findings, the right kidney, in response to ACE inhibitor showed deterioration of renogram peak, 47.8% deterioration of relative renal function and 49.2% fall in GFR. Major criteria for renovascular cause was fulfilled and the patient was labeled for having high probability for renal artery stenosis. Renal angiography, later on confirmed the diagnosis. (author)

  13. Association of splenic and renal infarctions in acute abdominal emergencies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romano, Stefania E-mail: stefromano@libero.it; Scaglione, Mariano; Gatta, Gianluca; Lombardo, Patrizia; Stavolo, Ciro; Romano, Luigia; Grassi, Roberto

    2004-04-01

    Introduction: Splenic and renal infarctions are usually related to vascular disease or haematologic abnormalities. Their association is infrequent and rarely observed in trauma. In this study, we analyze our data to look at the occurrence of renal and splenic infarctions based on CT findings in a period of 4 years. Materials and Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the imaging findings of 84 patients admitted to our Department of Diagnostic Imaging from June 1998 to December 2002, who underwent emergency abdominal spiral CT examination and in whom there was evidence of splenic and/or renal infarction. Results: We found 40 cases of splenic infarction and 54 cases of renal infarction, associated in 10 patients. In 26 patients, there was also evidence of intestinal infarction. A traumatic origin was found in 19 cases; non-traumatic causes were found in 65 patients. Association between renal and splenic infarction in the same patient was related to trauma in two cases. Conclusions: Although renal and splenic infarctions are a common manifestation of cardiac thromboembolism, other systemic pathologies, infections or trauma may lead to this occurrence. Renal infarction may be clinically and/or surgically managed with success in most cases. There are potential complications in splenic infarction, such as development of pseudocysts, abscesses, hemorrhage, subcapsular haematoma or splenic rupture; splenectomy in these cases may be necessary. Some patients with splenic and/or renal infarction may be clinically asymptomatic. The high accuracy of CT examination is needed to allow a correct evaluation of infarcted organs.

  14. Association of splenic and renal infarctions in acute abdominal emergencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romano, Stefania; Scaglione, Mariano; Gatta, Gianluca; Lombardo, Patrizia; Stavolo, Ciro; Romano, Luigia; Grassi, Roberto

    2004-01-01

    Introduction: Splenic and renal infarctions are usually related to vascular disease or haematologic abnormalities. Their association is infrequent and rarely observed in trauma. In this study, we analyze our data to look at the occurrence of renal and splenic infarctions based on CT findings in a period of 4 years. Materials and Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the imaging findings of 84 patients admitted to our Department of Diagnostic Imaging from June 1998 to December 2002, who underwent emergency abdominal spiral CT examination and in whom there was evidence of splenic and/or renal infarction. Results: We found 40 cases of splenic infarction and 54 cases of renal infarction, associated in 10 patients. In 26 patients, there was also evidence of intestinal infarction. A traumatic origin was found in 19 cases; non-traumatic causes were found in 65 patients. Association between renal and splenic infarction in the same patient was related to trauma in two cases. Conclusions: Although renal and splenic infarctions are a common manifestation of cardiac thromboembolism, other systemic pathologies, infections or trauma may lead to this occurrence. Renal infarction may be clinically and/or surgically managed with success in most cases. There are potential complications in splenic infarction, such as development of pseudocysts, abscesses, hemorrhage, subcapsular haematoma or splenic rupture; splenectomy in these cases may be necessary. Some patients with splenic and/or renal infarction may be clinically asymptomatic. The high accuracy of CT examination is needed to allow a correct evaluation of infarcted organs

  15. Alterations of the blood pool in the femoral head before and after renal transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamaguchi, Hiroyuki; Fujioka, Mikihiro; Inoue, Shigehiro; Shibatani, Masahiko; Kubo, Toshikazu; Kubota, Takao; Ushijima, Yo; Nishimura, Tsunehiko

    2003-01-01

    The pathogenesis of idiopathic osteonecrosis of the femoral head (ION) is thought to be an ischemic event. The purpose of this study is to investigate alterations of the blood pool in the femoral head before and after renal transplantation. After renal transplantation, all patients received the same immunosuppressive therapy: corticosteroids, cyclosporin-A, and azathioprine. We performed 3-phase bone scintigraphy on 16 renal allograft recipients within 1 week before renal transplantation, and between week 4 and 9 after renal transplantation. Regions of interest (ROI) were assigned bilaterally in the femoral head, diaphysis, and soft tissue. The head-to-diaphysis ratios (HD ratios) were then calculated. Idiopathic osteonecrosis of the femoral head occurred in 2 femoral heads of 1 patient. The HD ratio before renal transplantation (mean HD±SD, 1.52±0.30) and the HD ratio after renal transplantation (1.28±0.30) were significantly different (P=0.000024). The HD ratios before and after renal transplantation were significantly different, indicating that the administration of steroids diminished the blood pool in the femoral head. A low HD ratio before renal transplantation revealed a poor blood pool in the femoral head, which may be a risk factor for ION. (author)

  16. Thickness-dependent blue shift in the excitonic peak of conformally grown ZnO:Al on ion-beam fabricated self-organized Si ripples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basu, T.; Kumar, M.; Som, T., E-mail: tsom@iopb.res.in [Institute of Physics, Sachivalaya Marg, Bhubaneswar 751 005 (India); Nandy, S. [CENIMAT, Faculdade de Ciencias e Tecnologia, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Caparica 2829 516 (Portugal); Satpati, B. [Surface Physics and Material Science Division, Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, Kolkata 700 064 (India); Saini, C. P.; Kanjilal, A. [Department of Physics, School of Natural Sciences, Shiv Nadar University, Gautam Budh Nagar, Uttar Pradesh 201 314 (India)

    2015-09-14

    Al-doped ZnO (AZO) thin films of thicknesses 5,10, 15, 20, and 30 nm were deposited on 500 eV argon ion-beam fabricated nanoscale self-organized rippled-Si substrates at room temperature and are compared with similar films deposited on pristine-Si substrates (without ripples). It is observed that morphology of self-organized AZO films is driven by the underlying substrate morphology. For instance, for pristine-Si substrates, a granular morphology evolves for all AZO films. On the other hand, for rippled-Si substrates, morphologies having chain-like arrangement (anisotropic in nature) are observed up to a thickness of 20 nm, while a granular morphology evolves (isotropic in nature) for 30 nm-thick film. Photoluminescence studies reveal that excitonic peaks corresponding to 5–15 nm-thick AZO films, grown on rippled-Si templates, show a blue shift of 8 nm and 3 nm, respectively, whereas the peak shift is negligible for 20-nm thick film (with respect to their pristine counter parts). The observed blue shifts are substantiated by diffuse reflectance study and attributed to quantum confinement effect, associated with the size of the AZO grains and their spatial arrangements driven by the anisotropic morphology of underlying rippled-Si templates. The present findings will be useful for making tunable AZO-based light-emitting devices.

  17. ITO films realized at room-temperature by ion beam sputtering for high-performance flexible organic light-emitting diodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lucas, B.; Rammal, W.; Moliton, A. [Limoges Univ., Faculte des Sciences et Techniques, CNRS, UMR 6172, Institut de Recherche XLIM, Dept. MINACOM, 87 - Limoges (France)

    2006-06-15

    Indium-tin oxide (ITO) thin layers are obtained by an IBS (Ion Beam Sputtering) deposition process. We elaborated ITO films on flexible substrates of polyethylene terephthalate (PET), under soft conditions of low temperatures and fulfilling the requirements of fabrication processes of the organic optoelectronic components. With a non thermally activated (20 Celsius degrees) ITO deposition assisted by an oxygen flow (1 cm{sup 3}/min), we got an optical transmittance of 90% in the visible range, a resistivity around 10{sup -3} {omega}.cm and a surface roughness lower than 1.5 mm. Thus we realized flexible organic light-emitting diodes (FOLEDs) with good performances: a maximum luminance of 12000 cd/m{sup 2} at a voltage of 19 V and a maximum luminous power efficiency around 1 lm/W at a voltage of 10 V (or a maximum current efficiency of 4 cd/A at 14 V) for the (PET(50 {mu}m) / ITO(200 nm) / TPD(40 nm) / Alq3(60 nm) / Ca / Al) structure. (authors)

  18. Morphology and adsorption of chromium ion on uranium 1,2,4,5-benzenetetracarboxylic acid metal organic framework (MOF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vala Remy M.K.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we report the synthesis of metal organic framework of uranium 1,2,4,5-benzene tetracarboxylic acid (U-H4btec MOF by solvothermal method. The obtained MOF was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, Scanning electron microscopy (SEM, Transmission electron microscopy (TEM, X-ray diffraction spectroscopy (XRD, Energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS, thermogravimetric and differential thermogravimetric analysis (TGA/DTA. The morphology of the uranium 1,2,4,5-benzene tetracarboxylic acid MOF observed by SEM, revealed the presence of flaky porous structure. Adsorption of Cr3+ from aqueous solution onto the uranium 1,2,4,5-benzene tetracarboxylic acid MOF was systematically studied. Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption isotherms were applied to determine the adsorption capacity of the MOF to form a monolayer. Kinetic determination of the adsorption of Cr3+ suggested both chemisorption and physisorption probably due to the presence of carbonyl groups within the MOF and its porous structure.

  19. Distal renal tubular acidosis in recurrent renal stone formers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osther, P J; Hansen, A B; Røhl, H F

    1989-01-01

    Renal acidification ability was examined in 90 recurrent renal stone formers, using fasting morning urinary pH levels followed by a short ammonium chloride loading test in subjects with pH levels above 6.0. Fifteen patients (16.6%) revealed a distal renal tubular acidification defect: one patient......, this has important therapeutic implications. The pathological sequence in renal stone formers with dRTA is discussed....

  20. Nursing procedures during continuous renal replacement therapies: a national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricci, Zaccaria; Benelli, Sonia; Barbarigo, Fabio; Cocozza, Giulia; Pettinelli, Noemi; Di Luca, Emanuela; Mettifogo, Mariangela; Toniolo, Andrea; Ronco, Claudio

    2015-01-01

    The current role of nurses in the management of critically ill patients needing continuous renal replacement therapies is clearly fundamental. The care of these complex patients is typically shared by critical care and dialysis nurses: their precise duties may vary from country to country. To clarify this issue we conducted a national-level survey at a recent Italian course on nursing practices during continuous renal replacement therapies. A total of 119 questionnaires were analysed. The participants, who were equally divided between critical care and dialysis nurses, came from 44 different hospitals and 35 Italian cities. Overall, 23% of participants answered that "the dialysis staff" were responsible for continuous renal replacement therapies in the Intensive Care Unit, while 39% answered "the critical care nurse", and 38% "a shared organization". Interestingly, less than the half of participants claimed specific continuous renal replacement therapies training was provided to employees before handling an acute dialysis machine. Finally, about 60% of participants had experience of extra-corporeal membrane oxygenation machines used in conjunction with continuous renal replacement therapies. Workload coordination and management of critically ill patients undergoing continuous renal replacement therapies in Italy is not standardized. At present, the duties of critical care and dialysis nurses vary significantly across the country. They frequently overlap or leave gaps in the assistance received by patients. The role of nurses involved in the care of continuous renal replacement therapies patients in Italy currently requires better organization, possibly starting with intensive standardized training and educational programs.

  1. Renal involvement in the antiphospholipid syndrome (APS)-APS nephropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tektonidou, Maria G

    2009-06-01

    Although the kidney represents a major target organ in antiphospholipid syndrome (APS), renal involvement in APS was poorly recognized until recently. The most well-recognized renal manifestations of APS are the renal artery thrombosis/stenosis, renal infarction, hypertension, renal vein thrombosis, end-stage renal disease, increased allograft vascular thrombosis, some types of glomerular disease, and a small-vessel vaso-occlusive nephropathy, recently defined as APS nephropathy. APS nephropathy was first described in primary APS patients, characterized by acute thrombotic lesions in glomeruli and/or arterioles (thrombotic microangiopathy) and chronic vascular lesions such as fibrous intimal hyperplasia of arterioles and interlobular arteries, organized thrombi with or without recanalization, and fibrous arterial and arteriolar occlusions or focal cortical atrophy. APS nephropathy was also detected in further studies including patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)-related APS and SLE/non-APS patients with positive antiphospholipid antibodies, independently of lupus nephritis. The same histologic lesions, especially thrombotic mictroangiopathy, were also observed in patients with catastrophic APS. The most frequent clinical and laboratory characteristics of APS nephropathy in all the above groups of patients are hypertension (often severe), proteinuria (ranging from mild to nephrotic range), hematuria, and acute or chronic renal insufficiency.

  2. Ion-ion collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salzborn, Erhard; Melchert, Frank

    2000-01-01

    Collisions between ions belong to the elementary processes occurring in all types of plasmas. In this article we give a short overview about collisions involving one-electron systems. For collisions involving multiply-charged ions we limit the discussion to one specific quasi-one-electron system. (author)

  3. Renal morphology of Bradypus torquatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Kastein Faria da Cunha Bianchi

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Among the Xenarthras, sloths present a hydric ingestion restricted to water from leaves, fruits, and vegetables. As a first approach to verify whether these animals have some morphophysiological difference which could justify or compensate this low hydric ingestion, the renal anatomy of these animals was investigated, particularly that of maned sloth (Bradypus torquatus. Kidneys from these animals were macroscopically analyzed, through light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The Bradypus torquatus kidneys are bean-shaped paired organs, located dorso-cranially to the pelvic girdle, between the peritoneum and the posterior abdominal wall. The use of histological techniques allowed us to identify, in the cortical region, the renal corpuscles and tubules, and, in the medullary region, a significant amount of interstitial tissue with a collecting duct. The results of this study showed that, although Bradypus torquatus doesn’t drink water directly, its kidneys doesn’t differ from that of most mammals, presenting the same anatomical structure, suggesting that these animals fully reach their hydric needs, basically by consuming leaves, fruits, and sprouts. Nevertheless, in order to confirm this hypothesis, studies on the effectiveness of water reabsorption, such as the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, must be carried out.

  4. Radical Ions of 3-Styryl-quinoxalin-2-one Derivatives Studied by Pulse Radiolysis in Organic Solvents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skotnicki, Konrad; De la Fuente, Julio R; Cañete, Álvaro; Berrios, Eduardo; Bobrowski, Krzysztof

    2018-04-12

    The absorption-spectral and kinetic behaviors of radical ions and neutral hydrogenated radicals of seven 3-styryl-quinoxalin-2(1 H)-one (3-SQ) derivatives, one without substituents in the styryl moiety, four others with electron-donating (R = -CH 3 , -OCH 3 , and -N(CH 3 ) 2 ) or electron-withdrawing (R = -OCF 3 ) substituents in the para position in their benzene ring, and remaining two with double methoxy substituents (-OCH 3 ), however, at different positions (meta/para and ortho/meta) have been studied by UV-vis spectrophotometric pulse radiolysis in neat acetonitrile saturated with argon (Ar) and oxygen (O 2 ) and in 2-propanol saturated with Ar, at room temperature. In acetonitrile solutions, the radical anions (4R-SQ •- ) are characterized by two absorption maxima located at λ max = 470-490 nm and λ max = 510-540 nm, with the respective molar absorption coefficients ε 470-490 = 8500-13 100 M -1 cm -1 and ε 510-540 = 6100-10 300 M -1 cm -1 , depending on the substituent (R). All 4R-SQ •- decay in acetonitrile via first-order kinetics, with the rate constants in the range (1.2-1.5) × 10 6 s -1 . In 2-propanol solutions, they decay predominantly through protonation by the solvent, forming neutral hydrogenated radicals (4R-SQH • ), which are characterized by weak absorption bands with λ max = 480-490 nm. Being oxygen-insensitive, the radical cations (4R-SQ •+ ) are characterized by a strong absorption with λ max = 450-630 nm, depending on the substituent (R). They are formed in a charge-transfer reaction between a radical cation derived from acetonitrile (ACN •+ ) and substituted 3-styryl-quinoxalin-2-one derivatives (4R-SQ) with a pseudo-first-order rate constant k = (2.7-4.7) × 10 5 s -1 measured in solutions containing 0.1 mM 4R-3-SQ. The Hammett equation plot gave a very small negative slope (ρ = -0.08), indicating a very weak influence of the substituents in the benzene ring on the rate of charge-transfer reaction. The decay of 4R

  5. Renal sympathetic denervation: MDCT evaluation of the renal arteries.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hutchinson, Barry D

    2013-08-01

    Percutaneous transluminal renal sympathetic denervation is a new treatment of refractory systemic hypertension. The purpose of this study was to assess the clinical utility of MDCT to evaluate the anatomic configuration of the renal arteries in the context of renal sympathetic denervation.

  6. Imaging chronic renal disease and renal transplant in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carmichael, Jim; Easty, Marina

    2010-01-01

    At Great Ormond Street Hospital we have the highest number of paediatric renal transplant patients in Europe, taking cases from across the United Kingdom and abroad. Our caseload includes many children with rare complicating medical problems and chronic renal failure related morbidity. This review aims to provide an overview of our experience of imaging children with chronic renal failure and transplants. (orig.)

  7. New insights on molecular mechanisms of renal aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, R; Melk, A

    2012-11-01

    Long-term transplant outcome is importantly influenced by the age of the organ donor. The mechanisms how age carries out its pathophysiological impact on graft survival are still not understood. One major contributing factor for the observed poor performance of old donor kidneys seems in particular the age-related loss in renal regenerative capacity. In this review, we will summarize recent findings about the molecular basis of renal aging with specific focus on the potential role of somatic cellular senescence and mitochondrial aging in renal transplant outcome. © Copyright 2012 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.

  8. Nanostructures by ion beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, B.

    Ion beam techniques, including conventional broad beam ion implantation, ion beam synthesis and ion irradiation of thin layers, as well as local ion implantation with fine-focused ion beams have been applied in different fields of micro- and nanotechnology. The ion beam synthesis of nanoparticles in high-dose ion-implanted solids is explained as phase separation of nanostructures from a super-saturated solid state through precipitation and Ostwald ripening during subsequent thermal treatment of the ion-implanted samples. A special topic will be addressed to self-organization processes of nanoparticles during ion irradiation of flat and curved solid-state interfaces. As an example of silicon nanocrystal application, the fabrication of silicon nanocrystal non-volatile memories will be described. Finally, the fabrication possibilities of nanostructures, such as nanowires and chains of nanoparticles (e.g. CoSi2), by ion beam synthesis using a focused Co+ ion beam will be demonstrated and possible applications will be mentioned.

  9. A novel solidified floating organic drop microextraction method for preconcentration and determination of copper ions by flow injection flame atomic absorption spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahin, Cigdem Arpa; Tokgoez, Ilknur

    2010-01-01

    A rapid, simple and cost effective solidified floating organic drop microextraction (SFODME) and flow injection flame atomic absorption spectrometric determination (FI-FAAS) method for copper was developed. In this method, a free microdrop of 1-undecanol containing 1,5-diphenyl carbazide (DPC) as the complexing agent was transferred to the surface of an aqueous sample including Cu(II) ions, while being agitated by a stirring bar in the bulk of the solution. Under the proper stirring conditions, the suspended microdrop can remain at the top-center position of the aqueous sample. After the completion of the extraction, the sample vial was cooled by placing it in a refrigerator for 10 min. The solidified microdrop was then transferred into a conical vial, where it melted immediately and diluted to 300 μL with ethanol. Finally, copper ions in 200 μL of diluted solution were determined by FI-FAAS. Several factors affecting the microextraction efficiency, such as type of extraction solvent, pH, complexing agent concentration, extraction time, stirring rate, sample volume and temperature were investigated and optimized. Under optimized conditions for 100 mL of solution, the preconcentration factor was 333 and the enrichment factor was 324. The limit of detection (3 s) was 0.4 ng mL -1 , the limit of quantification (10 s) was 1.1 ng mL -1 and the relative standard deviation (RSD) for 10 replicate measurements of 10 ng mL -1 copper was 0.9%. The proposed method was successfully applied to the determination of copper in different water samples.

  10. Eligibility for renal denervation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Persu, Alexandre; Jin, Yu; Baelen, Marie

    2014-01-01

    -resistant hypertension (ENCOReD). The analysis included 731 patients. Age averaged 61.6 years, office blood pressure at screening was 177/96 mm Hg, and the number of blood pressure-lowering drugs taken was 4.1. Specialists referred 75.6% of patients. The proportion of patients eligible for renal denervation according...... undetected secondary causes of hypertension (11.1%). In conclusion, after careful screening and treatment adjustment at hypertension expert centers, only ≈40% of patients referred for renal denervation, mostly by specialists, were eligible for the procedure. The most frequent cause of ineligibility...... (approximately half of cases) was blood pressure normalization after treatment adjustment by a hypertension specialist. Our findings highlight that hypertension centers with a record in clinical experience and research should remain the gatekeepers before renal denervation is considered....

  11. [Renal colic in pregnancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negru, Irina; Pricop, C; Costăchescu, Gh

    2010-01-01

    Renal colic in pregnant women is a serious condition, mainly when is associated with fever. Our retro-prospective study analyzes 111 cases managed conservatively or with endourological procedures for renal colic--insertion of JJ stents and percutaneous nephrostomy. Clinical evolution determined the insertion of JJ stents in 60 cases and the failure of this procedure imposed percutaneous nephrostomy in 5 cases. In 56 cases urinary tract infection was associated and in 2 cases, despite all efforts, the patients deceased due to sever sepsis. The immediate drainage of the upper urinary tract for renal colic in pregnancy is the recommended treatment, especially when the pain is associated with fever. JJ stens were well tolerated, even when they were replaced after 3 months. Pregnant women with a history of UTI or stone disease should be carefully followed-up.

  12. Renal cell karcinoma trial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Werf-Messing, B. van der; Heul, R.O. van der; Ledeboer, R.C.

    1981-01-01

    A total of 174 patients underwent simple nephrectomy in case of clinically operable kidney cancer without demonstrable metastases. Of these 85 received preoperative irradiation to the kidney and the regional lymph nodes (3000-4000 rad in 3-4 weeks). Prognosis was not influenced by preoperative irradiation. The preoperatively assessable prognostic criteria were sex and sedimentation rate: ESR >= 30 and being male worsened prognosis. The clinical T-categories of the UICC were not related to prognosis. Of the microscopic examination of the nephrectomy specimen, renal vein invasion and to a lesser extent a low degree of differentiation appeared to worsen prognosis. The prognostic influence of the P-categories was caused by a higher incidence of renal vein involvement in case of higher P-category. The most important prognostic factors - ESR, renal vein involvement, and sex - were not interrelated. Elective chemotherapy, radiation therapy, and hormone therapy could be considered in certain high-risk groups. (orig.)

  13. Scintigraphy of renal transplant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramackers, J.M.; Marrast, A.C.; Touraine, J.L.; Peyrin, J.O.

    1995-01-01

    Scintigraphy is useful for monitoring perfusion and function of renal transplant, as well as for diagnosing miscellaneous surgical. This non-invasive imaging technique, which uses no deleterious products, is an attractive alternative for patients. This is especially true for those patients in early post-transplant course, with immunity depression and often impairment of renal function. Otherwise, multiple indices with a large range of inter-patient values has not favoured a methodological and interpretative consensus. Furthermore, the poor specificity of renogram patterns does not allow for discrimination of all etiologies with only one scintigraphy. Nevertheless, follow-up with iterative scintigraphy may be helpful due to the high intra-patient reproducibility and to the early appreciate change of parameters, according to clinical and histological renal post-transplant outcome. (authors). 43 refs., 8 figs

  14. Ion-selective electrode reviews

    CERN Document Server

    Thomas, J D R

    1983-01-01

    Ion-Selective Electrode Reviews, Volume 5 is a collection of articles that covers ion-speciation. The book aims to present the advancements of the range and capabilities of selective ion-sensors. The topics covered in the selection are neutral carrier based ion-selective electrodes; reference electrodes and liquid junction effects in ion-selective electrode potentiometry; ion transfer across water/organic phase boundaries and analytical; and carbon substrate ion-selective electrodes. The text will be of great use to chemists and chemical engineers.

  15. Drug-induced renal injury

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The kidney receives a rich blood flow of 25% of resting cardiac output ... Drugs can cause acute renal failure by causing pre-renal, intrinsic or .... tubular epithelial cells causing cell swelling ... the dose as required or prescribe alternative drugs.

  16. Leiomyosarcoma of the renal pelvis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhamne Sagar

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Leiomyosarcomas are rare malignant tumors of the kidney. They may arise from the renal capsule, renal vein, renal pelvic musculature or renal parenchyma. Renal pelvis is an uncommon site of occurrence, with around 10 cases reported in the literature so far. Here we present a 60-year-old male who presented with increased urinary frequency, lower limb weakness, anorexia and weight loss. Imaging showed a right renal mass. A renal cell carcinoma was suspected clinically. A right nephrectomy was performed, which showed a large circumscribed mass in the hilar region. Histology revealed a tumor mass arising from the renal pelvis. The tumor was composed of spindle cells arranged in fascicles. Immunohistochemistry showed tumor cells to be positive for smooth muscle actin (SMA and desmin (Des and negative for cytokeratin (CK, HMB 45, CD117 (C-kit, and CD34. That confirmed the diagnosis of leiomyosarcoma.

  17. Renal denervation and hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlaich, Markus P; Krum, Henry; Sobotka, Paul A; Esler, Murray D

    2011-06-01

    Essential hypertension remains one of the biggest challenges in medicine with an enormous impact on both individual and society levels. With the exception of relatively rare monogenetic forms of hypertension, there is now general agreement that the condition is multifactorial in nature and hence requires therapeutic approaches targeting several aspects of the underlying pathophysiology. Accordingly, all major guidelines promote a combination of lifestyle interventions and combination pharmacotherapy to reach target blood pressure (BP) levels in order to reduce overall cardiovascular risk in affected patients. Although this approach works for many, it fails in a considerable number of patients for various reasons including drug-intolerance, noncompliance, physician inertia, and others, leaving them at unacceptably high cardiovascular risk. The quest for additional therapeutic approaches to safely and effectively manage hypertension continues and expands to the reappraisal of older concepts such as renal denervation. Based on the robust preclinical and clinical data surrounding the role of renal sympathetic nerves in various aspects of BP control very recent efforts have led to the development of a novel catheter-based approach using radiofrequency (RF) energy to selectively target and disrupt the renal nerves. The available evidence from the limited number of uncontrolled hypertensive patients in whom renal denervation has been performed are auspicious and indicate that the procedure has a favorable safety profile and is associated with a substantial and presumably sustained BP reduction. Although promising, a myriad of questions are far from being conclusively answered and require our concerted research efforts to explore the full potential and possible risks of this approach. Here we briefly review the science surrounding renal denervation, summarize the current data on safety and efficacy of renal nerve ablation, and discuss some of the open questions that need

  18. Imaging of Renal Leiomyomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Derchi, L. E.; Grenier, N.; Heinz-Peer, G.; Dogra, V.; Franco, F.; Rollandi, G. A.; Deminiere, C. (Radiologia - DICMI, Univ. di Genova, Genova (Italy))

    2008-09-15

    Background: Renal leiomyomas are rare benign tumors of the kidney which can be found at autopsy as small capsular nodules in about 5% of cases. The clinical incidence of such lesions is much smaller, and only case reports or small series have been reported in the imaging literature. Purpose: To describe the imaging characteristics observed in a series of eight patients with pathology-proven asymptomatic leiomyomas of the kidney. Material and Methods: We reviewed the imaging findings observed in eight patients with pathologically proven asymptomatic renal leiomyomas discovered during studies performed for reasons unrelated to the kidney. All patients had undergone computed tomography (CT), two ultrasonography, and one magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Results: Lesions ranged in size from 1.2 to 13 cm. Six were at the periphery of the kidney, compressed its outer surface, but did not cause disruption of the cortex; two involved the renal cortex. All had regular outer margins. A cleavage plane between the tumor and the kidney was revealed at CT and/or ultrasonography in three of the cases located at the periphery. At ultrasonography, leiomyomas appeared hypoechogenic. At CT, they were slightly hyperdense before contrast medium injection; all were hypodense to the renal cortex after contrast medium. Four were homogeneous, two were slightly heterogeneous, and the remaining two were frankly heterogeneous. The lesion studied by MRI, which was homogeneous at the postcontrast CT study, had a heterogeneous structure on both T1- and T2-weighted images, with internal areas of hypointensity on T1. Conclusion: There are some imaging findings that can help to suggest the diagnosis of renal leiomyomas. First, their density: all tumors examined before contrast were hyperdense to the kidney, with density similar to that of muscles, and all had lower enhancement than the adjacent renal parenchyma. Second, the location and margins of the tumors: most were peripheral, without

  19. Renal lithiasis and nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prieto Rafel M

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Renal lithiasis is a multifactorial disease. An important number of etiologic factors can be adequately modified trough diet, since it must be considered that the urine composition is directly related to diet. In fact, the change of inappropriate habitual diet patterns should be the main measure to prevent kidney stones. In this paper, the relation between different dietary factors (liquid intake, pH, calcium, phosphate, oxalate, citrate, phytate, urate and vitamins and each type of renal stone (calcium oxalate monohydrate papillary, calcium oxalate monohydrate unattached, calcium oxalate dihydrate, calcium oxalate dihydrate/hydroxyapatite, hydroxyapatite, struvite infectious, brushite, uric acid, calcium oxalate/uric acid and cystine is discussed.

  20. Management of chronic renal failure.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Zeeuw, D.; Apperloo, AJ; de Jong, P.

    1992-01-01

    There is growing evidence that treatment of patients with renal function impairment will undergo a major shift within the next few years. Along with more or less successful attempts to alleviate the signs and symptoms of reduced renal function, new insights into renal pathophysiology as well as new

  1. Protein intake in renal and hepatic disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambühl, Patrice M

    2011-03-01

    The kidney and the liver play a central role in protein metabolism. Synthesis of albumin and other proteins occurs mainly in the liver, whereas protein breakdown and excretion are handled through an intricate interaction between these two organ systems. Thus, disease states of either the liver and/or the kidney invariably result in clinically relevant disturbances of protein metabolism. Conversely, metabolic processes regulated by these two organs are directly affected by dietary protein intake. Of particular importance in this respect is the maintenance of acid/base homeostasis. Finally, both the amount and composition of ingested proteins have a direct impact on renal function, especially in a state of diseased kidneys. Consequently, dietary protein intake is of paramount importance in patients with chronic nephropathy and renal insufficiency. Limitation of ingested protein, particularly from animal sources, is crucial in order to slow the progression of chronic kidney disease and impaired renal function. In contrast, patients with chronic renal failure undergoing renal replacement therapy by hemodialysis or peritoneal dialysis, have an increased protein demand. The syndrome of "protein-energy malnutrition" is a relevant factor for morbidity and mortality in this population and requires early detection and vigorous treatment. Protein intake in patients with cirrhosis of the liver should not be diminished as has been earlier suggested but rather increased to 1.0 - 1.2 g/kg body weight/day, in order to prevent protein malnutrition. Moderate restriction depending on protein tolerance (0.5 - 1.2 g/kg body weight/day), with the possible addition of branched chain amino acids (BCAA), has been recommended only in patients with advanced hepatic encephalopathy. Proteins of plant origin are theoretically superior to animal proteins.

  2. Screening renal stone formers for distal renal tubular acidosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osther, P J; Hansen, A B; Røhl, H F

    1989-01-01

    A group of 110 consecutive renal stone formers were screened for distal renal tubular acidosis (RTA) using morning fasting urinary pH (mfUpH) levels followed by a short ammonium chloride loading test in patients with levels above 6.0. In 14 patients (12.7%) a renal acidification defect was noted...... RTA in renal stone formers. Regardless of whether the acidification defect is primary or secondary to stone formation, however, all renal stone formers with distal RTA can expect to benefit from prophylactic alkaline therapy and it is recommended that the screening procedure, which is easy to use...

  3. The rebirth of interest in renal tubular function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowenstein, Jerome; Grantham, Jared J

    2016-06-01

    The measurement of glomerular filtration rate by the clearance of inulin or creatinine has evolved over the past 50 years into an estimated value based solely on plasma creatinine concentration. We have examined some of the misconceptions and misunderstandings of the classification of renal disease and its course, which have followed this evolution. Furthermore, renal plasma flow and tubular function, which in the past were estimated by the clearance of the exogenous aryl amine, para-aminohippurate, are no longer measured. Over the past decade, studies in experimental animals with reduced nephron mass and in patients with reduced renal function have identified small gut-derived, protein-bound uremic retention solutes ("uremic toxins") that are poorly filtered but are secreted into the lumen by organic anion transporters (OATs) in the proximal renal tubule. These are not effectively removed by conventional hemodialysis or peritoneal dialysis. Residual renal function, urine produced in patients with advanced renal failure or undergoing dialysis treatment, may represent, at least in part, secretion of fluid and uremic toxins, such as indoxyl sulfate, mediated by proximal tubule OATs and might serve as a useful survival function. In light of this new evidence of the physiological role of proximal tubule OATs, we suggest that measurement of renal tubular function and renal plasma flow may be of considerable value in understanding and managing chronic kidney disease. Data obtained in normal subjects indicate that renal plasma flow and renal tubular function might be measured by the clearance of the endogenous aryl amine, hippurate. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  4. Emergent endovascular embolization of iatrogenic renal vascular injuries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Fengyong; Wang Maoqiang; Duan Feng; Wang Zhijun; Wang Zhongpu

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of the interventional techniques for emergent treatment of iatrogenic renal injuries. Methods: Nine patients with iatrogenic renal vascular injuries were treated with superselective renal arterial embolization. The causes of renal injury included post-renal biopsy in 5 patients, endovascular interventional procedure-related in 2, post-renal surgery in 1, and post-percutaneous nephrostomy in 1 patient. The patients presented clinically with hemodynamical unstability with blood loss shock in 7 patients, severe flank pain in 7, and hematuria in 8 patients. Perirenal hematoma was confirmed in 8 patients by CT and ultrasonography. The embolization materials used were microcoils in 7 and standard stainless steel coils in 2 patients, associated with polyvinyl alcohol particles (PVA) in 5, and gelfoam particles in 2 cases. Results: Renal angiogram revealed intra-renal arteriovenous fistula in 6 cases, intrarenal pseudoaneurysm in 2 cases, and the contrast media extravasation in 1 patient. The technical success of the arterial embolization was achieved in all 9 cases within a single session. All angiographies documented complete obliteration of the abnormal vessels together with all major intrarenal arterial branches maintaining patent. Seven patients with hemodynamically compromise experienced immediate relief of their blood loss related symptoms, and another 7 with severe flank pain got relief progressively.. Hematuria ceased in 8 patients within 2-14 days after the embolization and impairment of renal function occurred after the procedure in 5 cases, including transient aggravation (n=3 )and developed new renal dysfunction (n=2). Two of these patients required hemodialysis. Perirenal hematoma were gradually absorbed on ultrasonography during 2-4 months after the procedures. Follow-up time ranged from 6-78 months (mean, 38 months), 4 patients died of other primary diseases of renal and multi-organ failures. Five patients are

  5. [Low grade renal trauma (Part II): diagnostic validity of ultrasonography].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grill, R; Báca, V; Otcenásek, M; Zátura, F

    2010-04-01

    The aim of the study was to verify whether ultrasonography can be considered a reliable method for the diagnosis of low-grade renal trauma. The group investigated included patients with grade I or grade II blunt renal trauma, as classified by the AAST grading system, in whom ultrasonography alone or in conjunction with computed tomography was used as a primary diagnostic method. B-mode ultrasound with a transabdominal probe working at frequencies of 2.5 to 5.0 MHz was used. Every finding of post-traumatic changes in the renal tissues, i.e., post-contusion hypotonic infiltration of the renal parenchyma or subcapsular haematoma, was included. The results were statistically evaluated by the Chi-square test with the level of significance set at 5%, using Epi Info Version 6 CZ software. The group comprised 112 patients (43 women, 69 men) aged between 17 and 82 years (average, 38 years). It was possible to diagnose grade I or grade II renal injury by ultrasonography in only 60 (54%) of them. The statistical significance of ultrasonography as the only imaging method for the diagnosis of low-grade renal injury was not confirmed (p=0.543) Low-grade renal trauma is a problem from the diagnostic point of view. It usually does not require revision surgery and, if found during repeat surgery for more serious injury of another organ, it usually does not receive attention. Therefore, the macroscopic presentation of grade I and grade II renal injury is poorly understood, nor are their microscopic findings known, because during revision surgery these the traumatised kidneys are not usually removed and their injuries at autopsy on the patients who died of multiple trauma are not recorded either. The results of this study demonstrated that the validity of ultrasonography for the diagnosis of low-grade renal injury is not significant, because this examination can reveal only some of the renal injuries such as perirenal haematoma. An injury to the renal parenchyma is also indicated by

  6. Renal transplantation in Mapuche people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardiles, R; Beltrán, R; Jerez, V; Droguett, M A; Mezzano, S; Ardiles, L

    2008-04-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated higher concentrations of some histocompatibility antigens in Mapuche people compared with non-Mapuche Chileans in the renal transplantation program. With the aim of evaluating whether those antigenic differences might induce differences in the outcomes of renal transplantation among patients belonging to that ethnic group, we reviewed HLA studies and at least 6 months follow-up of all patients with a first kidney transplant between 1980 and 2006. The 248 patients had a mean age of 37.6 years, 40% were females, and 48% had living related donors. The mean kidney follow-up was 90 months and patient follow-up was 106 months. Thirty-nine patients (16%) were classified as Mapuche, according to their surnames, including 16 women with overall mean age of 34.5 years, and 14 had been transplanted from a living related donor. Mapuche patients received organs with better HLA matching expressed as number of identities (3.4 +/- 0.1 versus 2.8 +/- 0.1 among non-Mapuche; P or = 3 compatibilities was significantly higher (Mapuche 38% versus non-Mapuche 22%; P Mapuche; and 83% and 65%, respectively, for non-Mapuche. Patient survival rates were 97% at 5 years and 86% at 10 years in the Mapuche group versus 91% and 79%, respectively, in the non-Mapuche group; both results were not significantly different. Our results showed similar outcomes of kidney and patient survivals among Mapuche people even when they received organs with better HLA matches.

  7. Ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dearnaley, Geoffrey

    1975-01-01

    First, ion implantation in semiconductors is discussed: ion penetration, annealing of damage, gettering, ion implanted semiconductor devices, equipement requirements for ion implantation. The importance of channeling for ion implantation is studied. Then, some applications of ion implantation in metals are presented: study of the corrosion of metals and alloys; influence or ion implantation on the surface-friction and wear properties of metals; hyperfine interactions in implanted metals

  8. Angiography for renal hypertension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chuang, V.P.; Ernst, C.B.

    1985-01-01

    As angioplasty and operative techniques have become more precise and successful, so have evaluation techniques. Preoperative arteriography is indispensible for deciding on the appropriate treatment modality and the specifics of the procedure. Arteriography, therefore, remains the cornerstone in managing renovascular hypertension and renal arterial disease

  9. Dopamins renale virkninger

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Niels Vidiendal

    1990-01-01

    is frequently employed in cases of acute oliguric renal failure but the results available concerning the therapeutic effect are frequently retrospective and uncontrolled. The results suggest that early treatment with 1-3 micrograms/kg/min dopamine combined with furosemide can postpone or possibly render...

  10. Primary renal graft thrombosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakir, N; Sluiter, WJ; Ploeg, RJ; van Son, WJ; Tegzess, Adam

    Background. Renal allograft thrombosis is a serious complication of kidney transplantation that ultimately leads to graft loss. Its association with acute and hyperacute rejection is well documented; however, in a large proportion of patients the precise cause remains obscure. The exact incidence

  11. Heavy-ion radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabrikant, J.I.; Tobias, C.A.; Holley, W.R.; Benton, E.V.; Woodruff, K.H.; MacFarland, E.W.

    1983-01-01

    High energy, heavy-ion beams offer superior discrimination of tissue electron densities at very low radiation doses. This characteristic has potential for diagnostic medical imaging of neoplasms arising in the soft tissues and organs because it can detect smaller inhomogeneities than x rays. Heavy-ion imaging may also increase the accuracy of cancer radiotherapy planning involving use of accelerated charged particles. In the current physics research program of passive heavy-ion imaging, critical modulation transfer function tests are being carried out in heavy-ion projection radiography and heavy-ion computerized tomography. The research goal is to improve the heavy-ion imaging method until it reaches the limits of its theoretical resolution defined by range straggling, multiple scattering, and other factors involved in the beam quality characteristics. Clinical uses of the imaging method include the application of heavy-ion computerized tomography to heavy-ion radiotherapy planning, to the study of brain tumors and other structures of the head, and to low-dose heavy-ion projection mammography, particularly for women with dense breasts where other methods of diagnosis fail. The ions used are primarily 300 to 570 MeV/amu carbon and neon ions accelerated at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory Bevalac

  12. Comparison of organic and inorganic ion exchangers for removal of cesium and strontium from simulated and actual Hanford 241-AW-101 DSSF tank waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, G.N.; Bray, L.A.; Carlson, C.D.

    1996-04-01

    A number of organic and inorganic exchangers are being developed and evaluated for cesium removal from Hanford tank wastes. The exchangers of interest that are investigated in this work include powdered (IONSIV reg-sign IE-910; referred to as IE-910) and engineered (IONSIV reg-sign IE-911; referred to as IE-911) forms of the crystalline silico-titanate (CST) inorganic sorbent developed by Sandia National Laboratories (SNL)/Texas A and M and prepared by UOP; a phenol-formaldehyde (CS-100) resin developed by Rohm and Haas; a resorcinol-formaldehyde (R-F) polymer developed at the Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC) and produced by Boulder Scientific; an inorganic zeolite exchanger produced by UOP (IONSIV reg-sign TIE-96; referred to as TIE-96); an inorganic sodium titanate produced by Allied Signal/Texas A and M (NaTi); and a macrocyclic organic resin developed and produced by IBC Advanced Technologies (SuperLig reg-sign 644; referred to as SL-644). Several of these materials are still under development and may not be in the optimal form. The work described in this report involves the direct comparison of the ion exchange materials for the pretreatment of actual and simulated Hanford tank waste. Data on the performance of all of the exchangers with simulated and actual double shell slurry feed (DSSF) is included. The DSSF waste is a mixture of the supernate from tanks 101-AW (70%), 106-AP (20%) and 102-AP (10%). The comparative parameters include radionuclide removal efficiency under a variety of conditions and material properties (e.g., bed density and percent removable water). Cesium and strontium distribution (K d ), lambda (λ = K d x ρ b ), and decontamination factors (DF) are compared as a function of exchanger contact duration, solution composition (Na and Cs concentration), exchanger/waste phase ratio, and multiple sequential contacts

  13. Progress and prospect of adsorptive removal of heavy metal ions from aqueous solution using metal-organic frameworks: A review of studies from the last decade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Jia; Fang, Ying; Zeng, Guangming

    2018-06-01

    The efficient removal of heavy metals (HMs) from the environment has become an important issue from both biological and environmental perspectives. Recently, porous metal-organic frameworks (MOFs), combining central metals and organic ligands, have been proposed as promising materials in the capture of various toxic substances, including HMs, due to their unique characteristics. Here we review recent progress in the field of water remediation from the perspective of primary HMs (including divalent metals and variable-valent metals) in water pollution and the corresponding MOFs (including virgin and modified MOFs, magnetic MOFs composites and so on) that can remove these metals from water. The reported values of various MOFs for adsorption of heavy metal ions were 8.40-313 mg Pb(II) g -1 , 0.65-2173 mg Hg(II) g -1 , 3.63-145 mg Cd(II) g -1 , 14.0-127 mg Cr(III) g -1 , 15.4-145 mg Cr(VI) g -1 , 49.5-123 mg As(III) g -1 , and 12.3-303 mg As(V) g -1 . The main adsorption mechanisms associated with these processes are chemical (including coordination interaction, chemical bonding and acid-base interactions) and physical (including electrostatic interaction, diffusion and van der Waals force) adsorption, which were discussed in detailed. Further efforts should be made towards expanding the repertoire of MOFs that effectively remove multiple targeted HMs, as well as exploring possible applications of MOFs in the removal of HMs from non-aqueous environments. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Technical Note: Molecular characterization of aerosol-derived water soluble organic carbon using ultrahigh resolution electrospray ionization Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. M. Dickhut

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Despite the acknowledged relevance of aerosol-derived water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC to climate and biogeochemical cycling, characterization of aerosol WSOC has been limited. Electrospray ionization Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (ESI FT-ICR MS was utilized in this study to provide detailed molecular level characterization of the high molecular weight (HMW; m/z>223 component of aerosol-derived WSOC collected from rural sites in Virginia and New York, USA. More than 3000 peaks were detected by ESI FT-ICR MS within a m/z range of 223–600 for each sample. Approximately 86% (Virginia and 78% (New York of these peaks were assigned molecular formulas using only carbon (C, hydrogen (H, oxygen (O, nitrogen (N, and sulfur (S as elemental constituents. H/C and O/C molar ratios were plotted on van Krevelen diagrams and indicated a strong contribution of lignin-like and lipid-like compounds to the aerosol-derived WSOC samples. Approximately 1–4% of the peaks in the aerosol-derived WSOC mass spectra were classified as black carbon (BC on the basis of double bond equivalents calculated from the assigned molecular formulas. In addition, several high-magnitude peaks in the mass spectra of samples from both sites corresponded to molecular formulas proposed in previous secondary organic aerosol (SOA laboratory investigations indicating that SOAs are important constituents of the WSOC. Overall, ESI FT-ICR MS provides a level of resolution adequate for detailed compositional and source information of the HMW constituents of aerosol-derived WSOC.

  15. Carbonaceous components, levoglucosan and inorganic ions in tropical aerosols from Tanzania, East Africa: implication for biomass burning contribution to organic aerosols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mkoma, S. L.; Kawamura, K.; Fu, P.

    2012-11-01

    Atmospheric aerosol samples of PM2.5 and PM10 were collected at a rural site in Tanzania in 2011 during wet and dry seasons and they were analysed for carbonaceous components, levoglucosan and water-soluble inorganic ions. The mean mass concentrations of PM2.5 and PM10 were 28.2±6.4 μg m-3 and 47±8.2 μg m-3 in wet season, and 39.1±9.8 μg m-3 and 61.4±19.2 μg m-3 in dry season, respectively. Total carbon (TC) accounted for 16-19% of the PM2.5 mass and 13-15% of the PM10 mass. On average, 85.9 to 88.7% of TC in PM2.5 and 87.2 to 90.1% in PM10 was organic carbon (OC), of which 67-72% and 63% was found to be water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC) in PM2.5 and PM10, respectively. Water-soluble potassium (K+) and sulphate (SO42-) in PM2.5 and, sodium (Na+) and SO42- in PM10 were the dominant ionic species. We found, that concentrations of biomass burning tracers (levoglucosan and mannosan) well correlated with non-sea-salt-K+, WSOC and OC in the aerosols from Tanzania, East Africa. Mean contributions of levoglucosan to OC ranged between 3.9-4.2% for PM2.5 and 3.5-3.8% for PM10. This study demonstrates that emissions from biomass- and biofuel-burning activities followed by atmospheric photochemical processes mainly control the air quality in Tanzania.

  16. Inherited renal tubular defects with hypokalemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muthukrishnan J

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Bartter′s and Gitelman′s syndrome are two ends of a spectrum of inherited renal tubular disorders that present with hypokalemic metabolic alkalosis of varying severity. Clinical features and associated calcium and magnesium ion abnormalities are used to diagnose these cases after excluding other commoner causes. We report on two cases, the first being a young boy, born of pregnancy complicated by polyhydramnios, who had classical dysmorphic features, polyuria, hypokalemia and hypercalciuria and was diagnosed as having Bartter′s syndrome. The second patient is a lady who had recurrent tetany as the only manifestation of Gitelman′s syndrome, which is an unusual presentation. Potassium replacement with supplementation of other deficient ions led to satisfactory clinical and biochemical response.

  17. Selective sensing of two novel coordination polymers based on tris(4-carboxylphenyl)phosphine oxide for organic molecules and Fe3+ and Hg2+ ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huo, Liangqin; Zhang, Jie; Gao, Lingling; Wang, Xiaoqing; Fan, Liming; Fang, Kegong; Hu, Tuoping

    2017-12-01

    Two novel coordination polymers, formulated as {[Zn(HTPO)(bib)]·4H2O}n (1), {[Cu3(TPO)2 (bib)3]·2DMF·0.5EtOH·0.5H2O}n (2) (H3TPO = tris(4-carboxylphenyl)phosphine oxide; bib = 1,4-bis(1H-imidazol-4-yl) benzene), have been synthesized under solvothermal method and characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction, elemental analysis (EA), IR spectra, thermogravimetric (TG) analysis, powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD). Structural analysis reveals that complex 1 is a 2D 4-connected sheet with an intriguing 2D + 2D→2D network. Complex 2 displays a 3D 3,4-connected net with the point symbol of {103}2{106}3. Furthermore, the photoluminescence properties of 1 and 2 were investigated in the solid state and various solvent emulsions, the results show that 1 and 2 have better fluorescent recognition for organic molecules, Fe3+ and Hg2+ ions.

  18. Comparison of ultramicrotomy and focused-ion-beam for the preparation of TEM and STEM cross section of organic solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corazza, Michael, E-mail: michael.corazza@gmail.com [Department of Energy Conversion and Storage, Technical University of Denmark, Frederiksborgvej 399, 4000 Roskilde (Denmark); Simonsen, Søren B. [Department of Energy Conversion and Storage, Technical University of Denmark, Frederiksborgvej 399, 4000 Roskilde (Denmark); Gnaegi, Helmut [Diatome Ltd., Biel-Bienne (Switzerland); Thydén, Karl T.S.; Krebs, Frederik C.; Gevorgyan, Suren A. [Department of Energy Conversion and Storage, Technical University of Denmark, Frederiksborgvej 399, 4000 Roskilde (Denmark)

    2016-12-15

    Highlights: • Comparison of flexible solar cell sections prepared by ultramicrotomy and by FIB. • Energy filtered TEM analysis of phase separation in the P3HT:PCBM active layer. • Imaging of aging effects on solar cell cross section prepared by ultramicrotomy. • Ultramicrotomy provides great details while FIB better preserves the structure. - Abstract: The challenge of preparing cross sections of organic photovoltaics (OPV) suitable for transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning TEM (STEM) is addressed. The samples were polymer solar cells fabricated using roll-to-roll (R2R) processing methods on a flexible polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrate. Focused ion beam (FIB) and ultramicrotomy were used to prepare the cross sections. The differences between the samples prepared by ultramicrotomy and FIB are addressed, focusing on the advantages and disadvantages of each technique. The sample prepared by ultramicrotomy yielded good resolution, enabling further studies of phase separation of P3HT:PCBM by means of energy filtered TEM (EFTEM). The sample prepared by FIB shows good structure preservation, but reduced resolution due to non-optimal thicknesses achieved after treatment. Degradation studies of samples prepared by ultramicrotomy are further discussed, which reveal particular effects of the ISOS-L-3 aging test (85 °C, 50% R.H., 0.7 Sun) onto the sample, especially pronounced in the silver layer.

  19. Electrochemiluminescent determination of methamphetamine based on tris(2,2'-bipyridine)ruthenium(II) ion-association in organically modified silicate films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yi Changqing; Tao Yin; Wang Bo; Chen Xi

    2005-01-01

    Tetramethoxysilane (TMOS) and dimethyldimethoxysilane (DiMe-DiMOS) were used as co-precursor to immobilize poly(p-styrenesulfonate) (PSS), then tris(2,2'-bipyridine)ruthenium(II) (Ru(bpy) 3 2+ ) was successfully immobilized on a glass carbon electrode via ion-association. The immobilized Ru(bpy) 3 2+ shows good electrochemical and photochemical activities. Electrochemical and electrochemiluminescence (ECL) characterizations of the organically modified silicates (ORMOSILs) modified film electrodes were made by means of cyclic voltammetry and chronocoulometry. The ORMOSIL films were investigated by atomic force microscopy, scanning electrochemical microscope, tunnelling electrochemical microscope, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), UV-vis spectroscopy and fluorescence spectroscopy. XPS in-depth profiles revealed a homogeneous distribution of Ru(bpy) 3 2+ inside the silica thin layers. The modified electrode was used for the ECL determination of methamphetamine (METH) and showed high sensitivity. Detection limit was 2.0 x 10 -7 mol l -1 for METH (S/N = 3) with a linear range from 5.0 x 10 -7 to 1.0 x 10 -3 mol l -1 (R = 0.986). The relative standard deviation (n = 6) was 1.1% for the determination of 1.0 x 10 -5 mol l -1 METH. Furthermore, the Ru(bpy) 3 2+ immobilized modified electrode was applied in the ECL determination of methamphetamine (METH) in scout cases

  20. Electrochemiluminescent determination of methamphetamine based on tris(2,2'-bipyridine)ruthenium(II) ion-association in organically modified silicate films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yi Changqing [Key Laboratory of Analytical Sciences of Ministry of Education, Department of Chemistry, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005 (China); Tao Yin [Key Laboratory of Analytical Sciences of Ministry of Education, Department of Chemistry, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005 (China); Wang Bo [Institute of Criminal Science and Technology of Xiamen, Xiamen 361005 (China); Chen Xi [Key Laboratory of Analytical Sciences of Ministry of Education, Department of Chemistry, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005 (China)]. E-mail: xichen@xmu.edu.cn

    2005-06-13

    Tetramethoxysilane (TMOS) and dimethyldimethoxysilane (DiMe-DiMOS) were used as co-precursor to immobilize poly(p-styrenesulfonate) (PSS), then tris(2,2'-bipyridine)ruthenium(II) (Ru(bpy){sub 3} {sup 2+}) was successfully immobilized on a glass carbon electrode via ion-association. The immobilized Ru(bpy){sub 3} {sup 2+} shows good electrochemical and photochemical activities. Electrochemical and electrochemiluminescence (ECL) characterizations of the organically modified silicates (ORMOSILs) modified film electrodes were made by means of cyclic voltammetry and chronocoulometry. The ORMOSIL films were investigated by atomic force microscopy, scanning electrochemical microscope, tunnelling electrochemical microscope, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), UV-vis spectroscopy and fluorescence spectroscopy. XPS in-depth profiles revealed a homogeneous distribution of Ru(bpy){sub 3} {sup 2+} inside the silica thin layers. The modified electrode was used for the ECL determination of methamphetamine (METH) and showed high sensitivity. Detection limit was 2.0 x 10{sup -7} mol l{sup -1} for METH (S/N = 3) with a linear range from 5.0 x 10{sup -7} to 1.0 x 10{sup -3} mol l{sup -1} (R = 0.986). The relative standard deviation (n = 6) was 1.1% for the determination of 1.0 x 10{sup -5} mol l{sup -1} METH. Furthermore, the Ru(bpy){sub 3} {sup 2+} immobilized modified electrode was applied in the ECL determination of methamphetamine (METH) in scout cases.

  1. Carbon dioxide adsorption over zeolite-like metal organic frameworks (ZMOFs) having a sod topology: Structure and ion-exchange effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, C.; Kim, J.; Yang, D.A.; Ahn, W.S. [Inha University, Inchon (Republic of Korea). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    2011-04-15

    Zeolite-like metal organic framework (ZMOF) materials having rho and sod topologies were experimentally investigated as CO{sub 2} adsorbents for the first time. As-prepared ZMOF materials showed reasonably high CO{sub 2} adsorption capacities (ca. 51 and 53 mg/g(adsorbent) for rho- and sod-ZMOF, respectively) and high CO{sub 2}/N{sub 2} selectivity (> 20) at 298 K and 1 bar. The latter showed a higher heat of adsorption (27-45 kJ/mol). These ZMOFs exhibited better CO{sub 2} adsorption than ZIF-8, a commonly investigated zeolitic imidazolate framework (ZIF) material having the same sod topology but in a neutral framework. Partially ion-exchanged sod-ZMOFs by alkali-metals resulted in improved CO{sub 2} adsorption performance compared with the as-prepared ZMOF. The highest CO{sub 2} adsorption was obtained with K{sup +}-exchanged sod-ZMOF (61 mg/g(adsorbent)), representing a ca. 15% increase in adsorption capacity. Complete desorption of CO{sub 2} in the K{sup +}-sod-ZMOF was attained at mild conditions (40{sup o}C, He purging), and reversible and sustainable CO{sub 2} adsorption performance was demonstrated in 5 sets of recycling runs.

  2. CoFe2O4 derived-from bi-metal organic frameworks wrapped with graphene nanosheets as advanced anode for high-performance lithium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hongxun; Zhang, Kaixuan; Wang, Yang; Yan, Chao; Lin, Shengling

    2018-04-01

    CoFe2O4/graphene nanosheets (GNS) nanocomposites derived from bi-metal organic frameworks and graphene oxides were firstly synthesized via a facile one-pot chemical precipitation with subsequent thermal decomposition method. The as-prepared CoFe2O4/GNS were characterized by XRD, Raman, SEM, TEM and BET adsorption-desorption. As an anode for lithium ion batteries, the CoFe2O4/GNS nanocomposites exhibited an obvious enhancement electrochemical property in terms of a higher discharge capacity of 1061.7 mAh g-1 after 100 cycles at 100 mA g-1 with 75.1% capacity retention and the excellent reversible capacity of 956.2 mAh g-1 when the charge-discharge rate returned from 2 A g-1 to 0.1 A g-1 after 60 cycles. This enhancement could be attributed to the synergistic effects between Co and Fe oxides, and the graphene nanosheets which could not only accommodate the volume variations of CoFe2O4 nanoparticles during cycling, but also improve the contact area between electrolyte and electrodes.

  3. In-situ methylation of strongly polar organic acids in natural waters supported by ion-pairing agents for headspace GC-MSD analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neitzel, P.L.; Walther, W. [Dresden University of Technology, Institute for Groundwater Managemant, Dresden (Germany); Nestler, W. [Institute for Technology and Economics, Department of Civil Engineering and Architecture, Dresden (Germany)

    1998-06-01

    Strongly polar organic substances like halogenated acetic acids have been analyzed in surface water and groundwater in the catchment area of the upper Elbe river in Saxony since 1992. Coming directly from anthropogenic sources like industry, agriculture and indirectly by rainfall, their concentrations can increase up to 100 {mu}g/L in the aquatic environment of this catchment area. A new static headspace GC-MSD method without a manual pre-concentration step is presented to analyze the chlorinated acetic acids relevant to the Elbe river as their volatile methyl esters. Using an ion-pairing agent as modifier for the in-situ methylation of the analytes by dimethylsulfate, a minimal detection limit of 1 {mu}g/L can be achieved. Problems like the thermal degradation of chlorinated acetic acids to halogenated hydrocarbons and changing reaction yields during the headspace methylation, could be effectively reduced. The method has been successfully applied to monitoring bank infiltrate, surface water, groundwater and water works pumped raw water according to health provision principles. (orig.) With 3 figs., 2 tabs., 29 refs.

  4. Photochemical reactions of actinide ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomiyasu, Hiroshi

    1995-01-01

    This paper reviews the results of photochemical studies of actinide ions, which have been performed in our research group for past several years as follows: I) behavior of the excited uranyl(VI) ion; II) photo-reductions of the uranyl ion with organic and inorganic compounds; III) photo-oxidations of uranium(IV) and plutonium(III) in nitric acid solutions. (author)

  5. Topography evolution of 500 keV Ar(4+) ion beam irradiated InP(100) surfaces - formation of self-organized In-rich nano-dots and scaling laws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulania, Indra; Agarwal, Dinesh C; Kumar, Manish; Kumar, Sunil; Kumar, Pravin

    2016-07-27

    We report the formation of self-organized nano-dots on the surface of InP(100) upon irradiating it with a 500 keV Ar(4+) ion beam. The irradiation was carried out at an angle of 25° with respect to the normal at the surface with 5 different fluences ranging from 1.0 × 10(15) to 1.0 × 10(17) ions per cm(2). The morphology of the ion-irradiated surfaces was examined by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and the formation of the nano-dots on the irradiated surfaces was confirmed. The average size of the nano-dots varied from 44 ± 14 nm to 94 ± 26 nm with increasing ion fluence. As a function of the ion fluence, the variation in the average size of the nano-dots has a great correlation with the surface roughness, which changes drastically up to the ion fluence of 1.0 × 10(16) ions per cm(2) and attains almost a saturation level for further irradiation. The roughness and the growth exponent values deduced from the scaling laws suggest that the kinetic sputtering and the large surface diffusion steps of the atoms are the primary reasons for the formation of the self-organized nanodots on the surface. X-ray photo-electron spectroscopy (XPS) studies show that the surface stoichiometry changes with the ion fluence. With irradiation, the surface becomes more indium (In)-rich owing to the preferential sputtering of the phosphorus atoms (P) and the pure metallic In nano-dots evolve at the highest ion fluence. The cross-sectional scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis of the sample irradiated with the highest fluence showed the absence of the nanostructuring beneath the surface. The surface morphological changes at this medium energy ion irradiation are discussed in correlation with the low and high energy experiments to shed more light on the mechanism of the well separated nano-dot formation.

  6. The impact of auxins used in assisted phytoextraction of metals from the contaminated environment on the alterations caused by lead(II) ions in the organization of model lipid membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hąc-Wydro, Katarzyna; Sroka, Aleksandra; Jabłońska, Klaudia

    2016-07-01

    Auxins are successfully used to improve phytoextraction efficiency of metal ions from the contaminated environment, however, the mechanism of their activity in this field is not explained. Auxins are known to exert various biochemical alterations in the plant membranes and cells, but their activity involves also direct interactions with lipids leading to changes in membrane organization. Following the suggestion that the auxins-induced modifications in membrane properties alleviate toxic effect of metal ions in this paper we have undertaken the comparative studies on the effect of metal ions and metal ions/auxins mixtures on model membrane systems. The experiments were done on lipid monolayers differing in their composition spread on water subphase and on Pb(2+), Indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), 1-Naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) and Pb(2+)/IAA and Pb(2+)/NAA water solutions. The analysis of the collected data suggests that metal ions and auxins can change fluidity of the lipid systems and weaken the interactions between monolayer components. This manifested in the increase of the mean area per molecule and the excess area per molecule values for the films on Pb(2+), auxins as well as Pb(2+)/auxin solutions as compared to the values on pure water subphase. However, the presence of auxin in the mixture with lead(II) ions makes the alterations induced by sole metal ions weaker. This effect was more pronounced for the membranes of a higher packing. Thus it was proposed that auxins may enhance phytoextraction of metal ions by weakening their destabilizing effect on membrane. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Acute renal dysfunction in liver diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Betrosian, Alex P; Agarwal, Banwari; Douzinas, Emmanuel E

    2007-01-01

    Renal dysfunction is common in liver diseases, either as part of multiorgan involvement in acute illness or secondary to advanced liver disease. The presence of renal impairment in both groups is a poor prognostic indicator. Renal failure is often multifactorial and can present as pre-renal or intrinsic renal dysfunction. Obstructive or post renal dysfunction only rarely complicates liver disease. Hepatorenal syndrome (HRS) is a unique form of renal failure associated with advanced liver dise...

  8. Chronic renal failure due to unilateral renal agenesis and total renal dysplasia (=aplasia)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kroepelin, T.; Ziupa, J.; Wimmer, B.

    1983-01-01

    Three adult patients with unilateral renal agenesis/total dysplasia (= aplasia) and with an early chronic renal failure are presented. One patient had renal agenesis without ureter bud and ureteric ostium on one side, and reflux pyelonephritis on the other; one had small compact total renal dysplasia (= aplasia) on one side, while chronic uric acid nephropathy (chronic renal disease as a cause of gout) was diagnosed on the other; the third patient had a total large multicystic dysplasia on one side, and on the other a segmental large multicystic dysplasia. Radiological steps and radiodiagnostic criteria are discussed and the combination of urogenital and extraurogenital anomalies is referred to. (orig.)

  9. Molecular Characterization and Reactivity of Dissolved Organic Matter by High Resolution Nanospray Ionization Fourier Transform-Ion Cyclotron Resonance Mass Spectrometry (FTICR-MS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleighter, R. L.; Hatcher, S. A.; Hatcher, P. G.

    2006-12-01

    The ultrahigh resolving power of FTICR-MS allows for the intense characterization of dissolved organic matter (DOM). DOM is the largest reactive component of the global carbon cycle, and an improved understanding of its composition is necessary to determine the transport and eventual fate of pollutants. The seasonal and spatial variations in DOM composition are investigated by taking surface water samples from five different sampling sites, four times a year. Water sampling begins at the Dismal Swamp in North Carolina, continues north up the Elizabeth River to the Chesapeake Bay, and concludes approximately ten miles off the coast in the Atlantic Ocean. DOM was extracted from the water samples using C18 extraction disks and were prepared in 50:50 methanol:water. Ammonium hydroxide was added prior to nanospray in order to solubilize the DOM as well as to increase the ionization efficiency. The samples were continuously infused into the Apollo II ion source with an Advion TriVersa NanoMate system of a Bruker 12 Tesla Apex QE FTICR-MS with resolving powers exceeding 400,000. All samples were analyzed in negative ion mode and were externally and internally calibrated prior to data analysis. Our DOM mass spectra consist of a multitude of peaks spanning the range of 200-850 m/z. Complexity is apparent from the detection of up to 20 peaks per nominal mass at nearly every mass throughout that range. A molecular formula calculator generated molecular formula matches from which van Krevelen plots were constructed for characterization purposes. A wide range of molecules were observed each containing oxygen, sulfur and nitrogen functional groups. We utilize the van Krevelen diagram to assist in clustering the molecules according to their functional group compositions. To test the hypothesis that formation of adducts to DOM serve to protect peptides from bacterial degradation, microcosm experiments were performed with a small isotopically enriched peptide, GGGR. This peptide

  10. [Case report of rare co-occurrence of renal cell carcinoma and crossed renal dystopia (L-shaped kidney)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakov, V N; Los, M S

    2017-10-01

    L-shaped kidney refers to a rare anomaly of the relative kidney positioning. Due to low prevalence, the literature on the co-occurrence of this anomaly with malignancy is lacking. And, if the diagnosis of a renal anomaly does not present difficulties, if a tumor is detected in such a kidney, even MSCT does not always help differentiate a pelvic tumor from a tumor of the renal parenchyma spreading to the pelvicalyceal system. This has important implications for choosing an appropriate surgical strategy. A feature of the presented clinical observation is the co-occurrence of the rare anomaly of kidney position and locally advanced renal cell carcinoma spreading to the renal pelvis. Due to the massive spread of the tumor, an organ-sparing surgery was not feasible. Due to the suspicion of tumor spread to the renal pelvis, the patient underwent nephrureterectomy of the L-shaped kidney. Introduction to renoprival state with transfer to chronic hemodialysis became the only option to maintain homeostasis and extend the patients life. Histological examination revealed clear cell renal cell carcinoma with invasion of the pelvis and renal capsule, with no clear demarcation between the fused kidneys.

  11. A patient with hemoptysis and renal failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalal, Pranavkumar; Phadke, Gautam; Gill, Amandeep; Tarwater, Kurtis; Misra, Madhukar; Pele, Nicole; Odum, Brian

    2011-01-01

    Pulmonary-renal syndrome is a medical emergency; etiology of which has broad differential diagnosis. Delay in both diagnosis and initiation of management may result in end-organ damage. Management decisions may have to be empiric till a rapid, definitive tissue diagnosis is established. We present such a case where prompt recognition and immediate treatment was initiated, although the patient sustained irreversible end-organ damage. The case also highlights the need to interpret the kidney biopsy data (namely, immunofluroscence findings) in the context of clinical presentation.

  12. Renal mucormycosis in a patient with AIDS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macias, M.; Leiva, M.C.; Acebal, M.; Algarra, J.; Luis, M.C. de.

    1996-01-01

    We report a case of renal mucormycosis in al HIV-positive patient presenting evidence of AIDS, with involvement of no other organs. Intravenous showed left kidney to be enlarged and nonfunctioning: US disclosed and enlarged organ, with no hydronephrosis and showing loss of corticomedullary differentiation: CT revealed the presence of a large mass of the density of water surrounded by peripheral enhancement. After surgical treatment, the necrotic tissue was found to contain hyphae corresponding to a mucor fungus. The patient improved significantly with amphotericin B. the radiological findings are discussed. (Author) 10 refs

  13. Nanomedicines for renal disease: current status and future applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamaly, Nazila; He, John C.; Ausiello, Dennis A.

    2016-01-01

    , alongside research efforts in tissue regeneration and organ-on-a-chip investigations, are likely to provide novel solutions to treat kidney diseases. Our understanding of renal anatomy and of how the biological and physico-chemical properties of nanomedicines (the combination of a nanocarrier and a drug......Treatment and management of kidney disease currently presents an enormous global burden, and the application of nanotechnology principles to renal disease therapy, although still at an early stage, has profound transformative potential. The increasing translation of nanomedicines to the clinic......) influence their interactions with renal tissues has improved dramatically. Tailoring of nanomedicines in terms of kidney retention and binding to key membranes and cell populations associated with renal diseases is now possible and greatly enhances their localization, tolerability, and efficacy. This Review...

  14. [Clinical case of acute renal failure revealing an autoimmune hypothyroidism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montasser, Dina Ibrahim; Hassani, Mohamed; Zajjari, Yassir; Bahadi, Abdelali; Alayoud, Ahmed; Hamzi, Amine; Hassani, Kawtar; Moujoud, Omar; Asseraji, Mohamed; Kadiri, Moncif; Aatif, Taoufik; El Kabbaj, Driss; Benyahia, Mohamed; Allam, Mustapha; Akhmouch, Ismail; Oualim, Zouhir

    2010-04-01

    Although the clinic picture is often indicative of muscle manifestations in patients with hypothyroidism, signs and symptoms of this condition are variable from simple elevation of serum muscle enzymes with myalgia, muscle weakness, cramps to rhabdomyolysis with acute renal failure which remains a rare event. Thyroid hormones affect the function of almost every body organ, and thyroid dysfunction produces a wide range of metabolic disturbances. Hypothyroidism is associated with significant effects on the kidney which the pathophysiology seems to be multifactorial, but the exact mechanisms remain poorly understood. Hypothyroidism as a cause of renal impairment is usually overlooked, leading to unnecessary diagnostic procedures. The main objective of our observation is to report a case of acute renal failure revealing an autoimmune hypothyroidism in which thyroid hormone substitution led to a significant improvement in muscular, thyroid and renal disorders. Copyright 2010 Association Société de néphrologie. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Analytical applications of ion exchangers

    CERN Document Server

    Inczédy, J

    1966-01-01

    Analytical Applications of Ion Exchangers presents the laboratory use of ion-exchange resins. This book discusses the development in the analytical application of ion exchangers. Organized into 10 chapters, this book begins with an overview of the history and significance of ion exchangers for technical purposes. This text then describes the properties of ion exchangers, which are large molecular water-insoluble polyelectrolytes having a cross-linked structure that contains ionic groups. Other chapters consider the theories concerning the operation of ion-exchange resins and investigate th

  16. CT findings of renal abscess

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Myung Jun; Kim, Mi Young; Woo, Jung Ju; Kim, Ho Kyun; Kim, Won Hong; Jeon, Jeong Dong; Jeon, Woo Ki; Han, Chang Yul

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine characteristic CT findings in renal abscess. Twenty cases of renal abscess were retrospectively analyzed for CT findings relating to the shape and extent of the abscess, change of nephrogram, peripheral rim enhancement, wedge-shaped enhancement on delayed scans, enlargement of the kidney involved and associated findings. Seven patients had a renal abscess at the right kidney, nine at the lift kidney and two bilaterally. The abscesses were round in 18 cases and finger-like in two. Rim enhancement around renal abscess was seen in four cases (20%). Changes in the nephrogram around the abscess were seen in 12 cases (60%). In all six patients who had undergone delayed postcontrast scans, wedge-shaped enhancement was shown around the abscess (100%). In the observation of the extent of renal abscesses, 14 cases were within the kidney, six cases extended the beyond renal capsule, and two were loculated in the renal fascia itself. Renal enlargement was seen in nine cases (45%). These results suggest that CT findings such as delayed wedge-shaped enhancement, change of nephrogram, peripheral rim enhancement, renal enlargement, and associated findings are valuable for diagnosis, and that CT also gives information concerning the extent, evolution and complication of a renal abscess

  17. Implications of Von Hippel-Lindau Syndrome and Renal Cell Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenan Ashouri

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Von Hippel-Lindau syndrome (VHLS is a rare hereditary neoplastic disorder caused by mutations in the vhl gene leading to the development of tumors in several organs including the central nervous system, pancreas, kidneys, and reproductive organs. Manifestations of VHLS can present at different ages based on the affected organ and subclass of disease. In the subclasses of VHLS that cause renal disease, renal involvement typically begins closer to the end of the second decade of life and can present in different ways ranging from simple cystic lesions to solid tumors. Mutations in vhl are most often associated with clear cell renal carcinoma, the most common type of renal cancer, and also play a major role in sporadic cases of clear cell renal carcinoma. The recurrent, multifocal nature of this disease presents difficult challenges in the long-term management of patients with VHLS. Optimization of renal function warrants the use of several different approaches common to the management of renal carcinoma such as nephron sparing surgery, enucleation, ablation, and targeted therapies. In VHLS, renal lesions of 3 cm or bigger are considered to have metastatic potential and even small lesions often harbor malignancy. Many of the aspects of management revolve around optimizing both oncologic outcome and long-term renal function. As new surgical strategies and targeted therapies develop, the management of this complex disease evolves.  This review will discuss the key aspects of the current management of VHLS.

  18. The Role of Hydrogen Sulfide in Renal System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Xu; Bian, Jin-Song

    2016-01-01

    Hydrogen sulfide has gained recognition as the third gaseous signaling molecule after nitric oxide and carbon monoxide. This review surveys the emerging role of H 2 S in mammalian renal system, with emphasis on both renal physiology and diseases. H 2 S is produced redundantly by four pathways in kidney, indicating the abundance of this gaseous molecule in the organ. In physiological conditions, H 2 S was found to regulate the excretory function of the kidney possibly by the inhibitory effect on sodium transporters on renal tubular cells. Likewise, it also influences the release of renin from juxtaglomerular cells and thereby modulates blood pressure. A possible role of H 2 S as an oxygen sensor has also been discussed, especially at renal medulla. Alternation of H 2 S level has been implicated in various pathological conditions such as renal ischemia/reperfusion, obstructive nephropathy, diabetic nephropathy, and hypertensive nephropathy. Moreover, H 2 S donors exhibit broad beneficial effects in renal diseases although a few conflicts need to be resolved. Further research reveals that multiple mechanisms are underlying the protective effects of