WorldWideScience

Sample records for remote cloud sensing

  1. Remote sensing image segmentation based on Hadoop cloud platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jie; Zhu, Lingling; Cao, Fubin

    2018-01-01

    To solve the problem that the remote sensing image segmentation speed is slow and the real-time performance is poor, this paper studies the method of remote sensing image segmentation based on Hadoop platform. On the basis of analyzing the structural characteristics of Hadoop cloud platform and its component MapReduce programming, this paper proposes a method of image segmentation based on the combination of OpenCV and Hadoop cloud platform. Firstly, the MapReduce image processing model of Hadoop cloud platform is designed, the input and output of image are customized and the segmentation method of the data file is rewritten. Then the Mean Shift image segmentation algorithm is implemented. Finally, this paper makes a segmentation experiment on remote sensing image, and uses MATLAB to realize the Mean Shift image segmentation algorithm to compare the same image segmentation experiment. The experimental results show that under the premise of ensuring good effect, the segmentation rate of remote sensing image segmentation based on Hadoop cloud Platform has been greatly improved compared with the single MATLAB image segmentation, and there is a great improvement in the effectiveness of image segmentation.

  2. Remote Sensing of Crystal Shapes in Ice Clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Diedenhoven, Bastiaan

    2017-01-01

    Ice crystals in clouds exist in a virtually limitless variation of geometries. The most basic shapes of ice crystals are columnar or plate-like hexagonal prisms with aspect ratios determined by relative humidity and temperature. However, crystals in ice clouds generally display more complex structures owing to aggregation, riming and growth histories through varying temperature and humidity regimes. Crystal shape is relevant for cloud evolution as it affects microphysical properties such as fall speeds and aggregation efficiency. Furthermore, the scattering properties of ice crystals are affected by their general shape, as well as by microscopic features such as surface roughness, impurities and internal structure. To improve the representation of ice clouds in climate models, increased understanding of the global variation of crystal shape and how it relates to, e.g., location, cloud temperature and atmospheric state is crucial. Here, the remote sensing of ice crystal macroscale and microscale structure from airborne and space-based lidar depolarization observations and multi-directional measurements of total and polarized reflectances is reviewed. In addition, a brief overview is given of in situ and laboratory observations of ice crystal shape as well as the optical properties of ice crystals that serve as foundations for the remote sensing approaches. Lidar depolarization is generally found to increase with increasing cloud height and to vary with latitude. Although this variation is generally linked to the variation of ice crystal shape, the interpretation of the depolarization remains largely qualitative and more research is needed before quantitative conclusions about ice shape can be deduced. The angular variation of total and polarized reflectances of ice clouds has been analyzed by numerous studies in order to infer information about ice crystal shapes from them. From these studies it is apparent that pristine crystals with smooth surfaces are generally

  3. Satellite remote sensing of aerosol and cloud properties over Eurasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sogacheva, Larisa; Kolmonen, Pekka; Saponaro, Giulia; Virtanen, Timo; Rodriguez, Edith; Sundström, Anu-Maija; Atlaskina, Ksenia; de Leeuw, Gerrit

    2015-04-01

    Satellite remote sensing provides the spatial distribution of aerosol and cloud properties over a wide area. In our studies large data sets are used for statistical studies on aerosol and cloud interaction in an area over Fennoscandia, the Baltic Sea and adjacent regions over the European mainland. This area spans several regimes with different influences on aerosol cloud interaction such as a the transition from relative clean air over Fennoscandia to more anthropogenically polluted air further south, and the influence maritime air over the Baltic and oceanic air advected from the North Atlantic. Anthropogenic pollution occurs in several parts of the study area, and in particular near densely populated areas and megacities, but also in industrialized areas and areas with dense traffic. The aerosol in such areas is quite different from that produced over the boreal forest and has different effects on air quality and climate. Studies have been made on the effects of aerosols on air quality and on the radiation balance in China. The aim of the study is to study the effect of these different regimes on aerosol-cloud interaction using a large aerosol and cloud data set retrieved with the (Advanced) Along Track Scanning Radiometer (A)ATSR Dual View algorithm (ADV) further developed at Finnish Meteorological Institute and aerosol and cloud data provided by MODIS. Retrieval algorithms for aerosol and clouds have been developed for the (A)ATSR, consisting of a series of instruments of which we use the second and third one: ATSR-2 which flew on the ERS-2 satellite (1995-2003) and AATSR which flew on the ENVISAT satellite (2002-2012) (both from the European Space Agency, ESA). The ADV algorithm provides aerosol data on a global scale with a default resolution of 10x10km2 (L2) and an aggregate product on 1x1 degree (L3). Optional, a 1x1 km2 retrieval products is available over smaller areas for specific studies. Since for the retrieval of AOD no prior knowledge is needed on

  4. Retrieval of liquid water cloud properties from ground-based remote sensing observations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knist, C.L.

    2014-01-01

    Accurate ground-based remotely sensed microphysical and optical properties of liquid water clouds are essential references to validate satellite-observed cloud properties and to improve cloud parameterizations in weather and climate models. This requires the evaluation of algorithms for retrieval of

  5. An Interactive Web-Based Analysis Framework for Remote Sensing Cloud Computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, X. Z.; Zhang, H. M.; Zhao, J. H.; Lin, Q. H.; Zhou, Y. C.; Li, J. H.

    2015-07-01

    Spatiotemporal data, especially remote sensing data, are widely used in ecological, geographical, agriculture, and military research and applications. With the development of remote sensing technology, more and more remote sensing data are accumulated and stored in the cloud. An effective way for cloud users to access and analyse these massive spatiotemporal data in the web clients becomes an urgent issue. In this paper, we proposed a new scalable, interactive and web-based cloud computing solution for massive remote sensing data analysis. We build a spatiotemporal analysis platform to provide the end-user with a safe and convenient way to access massive remote sensing data stored in the cloud. The lightweight cloud storage system used to store public data and users' private data is constructed based on open source distributed file system. In it, massive remote sensing data are stored as public data, while the intermediate and input data are stored as private data. The elastic, scalable, and flexible cloud computing environment is built using Docker, which is a technology of open-source lightweight cloud computing container in the Linux operating system. In the Docker container, open-source software such as IPython, NumPy, GDAL, and Grass GIS etc., are deployed. Users can write scripts in the IPython Notebook web page through the web browser to process data, and the scripts will be submitted to IPython kernel to be executed. By comparing the performance of remote sensing data analysis tasks executed in Docker container, KVM virtual machines and physical machines respectively, we can conclude that the cloud computing environment built by Docker makes the greatest use of the host system resources, and can handle more concurrent spatial-temporal computing tasks. Docker technology provides resource isolation mechanism in aspects of IO, CPU, and memory etc., which offers security guarantee when processing remote sensing data in the IPython Notebook. Users can write

  6. Optimizing cloud removal from satellite remotely sensed data for monitoring vegetation dynamics in humid tropical climate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashim, M; Pour, A B; Onn, C H

    2014-01-01

    Remote sensing technology is an important tool to analyze vegetation dynamics, quantifying vegetation fraction of Earth's agricultural and natural vegetation. In optical remote sensing analysis removing atmospheric interferences, particularly distribution of cloud contaminations, are always a critical task in the tropical climate. This paper suggests a fast and alternative approach to remove cloud and shadow contaminations for Landsat Enhanced Thematic Mapper + (ETM + ) multi temporal datasets. Band 3 and Band 4 from all the Landsat ETM + dataset are two main spectral bands that are very crucial in this study for cloud removal technique. The Normalise difference vegetation index (NDVI) and the normalised difference soil index (NDSI) are two main derivatives derived from the datasets. Change vector analysis is used in this study to seek the vegetation dynamics. The approach developed in this study for cloud optimizing can be broadly applicable for optical remote sensing satellite data, which are seriously obscured with heavy cloud contamination in the tropical climate

  7. An efficient cloud detection method for high resolution remote sensing panchromatic imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chaowei; Lin, Zaiping; Deng, Xinpu

    2018-04-01

    In order to increase the accuracy of cloud detection for remote sensing satellite imagery, we propose an efficient cloud detection method for remote sensing satellite panchromatic images. This method includes three main steps. First, an adaptive intensity threshold value combined with a median filter is adopted to extract the coarse cloud regions. Second, a guided filtering process is conducted to strengthen the textural features difference and then we conduct the detection process of texture via gray-level co-occurrence matrix based on the acquired texture detail image. Finally, the candidate cloud regions are extracted by the intersection of two coarse cloud regions above and we further adopt an adaptive morphological dilation to refine them for thin clouds in boundaries. The experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  8. An Uneven Illumination Correction Algorithm for Optical Remote Sensing Images Covered with Thin Clouds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaole Shen

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The uneven illumination phenomenon caused by thin clouds will reduce the quality of remote sensing images, and bring adverse effects to the image interpretation. To remove the effect of thin clouds on images, an uneven illumination correction can be applied. In this paper, an effective uneven illumination correction algorithm is proposed to remove the effect of thin clouds and to restore the ground information of the optical remote sensing image. The imaging model of remote sensing images covered by thin clouds is analyzed. Due to the transmission attenuation, reflection, and scattering, the thin cloud cover usually increases region brightness and reduces saturation and contrast of the image. As a result, a wavelet domain enhancement is performed for the image in Hue-Saturation-Value (HSV color space. We use images with thin clouds in Wuhan area captured by QuickBird and ZiYuan-3 (ZY-3 satellites for experiments. Three traditional uneven illumination correction algorithms, i.e., multi-scale Retinex (MSR algorithm, homomorphic filtering (HF-based algorithm, and wavelet transform-based MASK (WT-MASK algorithm are performed for comparison. Five indicators, i.e., mean value, standard deviation, information entropy, average gradient, and hue deviation index (HDI are used to analyze the effect of the algorithms. The experimental results show that the proposed algorithm can effectively eliminate the influences of thin clouds and restore the real color of ground objects under thin clouds.

  9. AN INTERACTIVE WEB-BASED ANALYSIS FRAMEWORK FOR REMOTE SENSING CLOUD COMPUTING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Z. Wang

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Spatiotemporal data, especially remote sensing data, are widely used in ecological, geographical, agriculture, and military research and applications. With the development of remote sensing technology, more and more remote sensing data are accumulated and stored in the cloud. An effective way for cloud users to access and analyse these massive spatiotemporal data in the web clients becomes an urgent issue. In this paper, we proposed a new scalable, interactive and web-based cloud computing solution for massive remote sensing data analysis. We build a spatiotemporal analysis platform to provide the end-user with a safe and convenient way to access massive remote sensing data stored in the cloud. The lightweight cloud storage system used to store public data and users’ private data is constructed based on open source distributed file system. In it, massive remote sensing data are stored as public data, while the intermediate and input data are stored as private data. The elastic, scalable, and flexible cloud computing environment is built using Docker, which is a technology of open-source lightweight cloud computing container in the Linux operating system. In the Docker container, open-source software such as IPython, NumPy, GDAL, and Grass GIS etc., are deployed. Users can write scripts in the IPython Notebook web page through the web browser to process data, and the scripts will be submitted to IPython kernel to be executed. By comparing the performance of remote sensing data analysis tasks executed in Docker container, KVM virtual machines and physical machines respectively, we can conclude that the cloud computing environment built by Docker makes the greatest use of the host system resources, and can handle more concurrent spatial-temporal computing tasks. Docker technology provides resource isolation mechanism in aspects of IO, CPU, and memory etc., which offers security guarantee when processing remote sensing data in the IPython Notebook

  10. Toward the Characterization of Mixed-Phase Clouds Using Remote Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andronache, C.

    2015-12-01

    Mixed-phase clouds consist of a mixture of ice particles and liquid droplets at temperatures below 0 deg C. They are present in all seasons in many regions of the world, account for about 30% of the global cloud coverage, and are linked to cloud electrification and aircraft icing. The mix of ice particles, liquid droplets, and water vapor is unstable, and such clouds are thought to have a short lifetime. A characteristic parameter is the phase composition of mixed-phase clouds. It affects the cloud life cycle and the rate of precipitation. This parameter is important for cloud parameters retrievals by radar, lidar, and satellite and is relevant for climate modeling. The phase transformation includes the remarkable Wegener-Bergeron-Findeisen (WBF) process. The direction and the rate of the phase transformations depend on the local thermodynamic and microphysical properties. Cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) and ice nuclei (IN) particles determine to a large extent cloud microstructure and the dynamic response of clouds to aerosols. The complexity of dynamics and microphysics involved in mixed-phase clouds requires a set of observational and modeling tools that continue to be refined. Among these techniques, the remote sensing methods provide an increasing number of parameters, covering large regions of the world. Thus, a series of studies were dedicated to stratiform mixed-phase clouds revealing longer lifetime than previously thought. Satellite data and aircraft in situ measurements in deep convective clouds suggest that highly supercooled water often occurs in vigorous continental convective storms. In this study, we use cases of convective clouds to discuss the feasibility of mixed-phase clouds characterization and potential advantages of remote sensing.

  11. Clouds, Wind and the Biogeography of Central American Cloud Forests: Remote Sensing, Atmospheric Modeling, and Walking in the Jungle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawton, R.; Nair, U. S.

    2011-12-01

    Cloud forests stand at the core of the complex of montane ecosystems that provide the backbone to the multinational Mesoamerican Biological Corridor, which seeks to protect a biodiversity conservation "hotspot" of global significance in an area of rapidly changing land use. Although cloud forests are generally defined by frequent and prolonged immersion in cloud, workers differ in their feelings about "frequent" and "prolonged", and quantitative assessments are rare. Here we focus on the dry season, in which the cloud and mist from orographic cloud plays a critical role in forest water relations, and discuss remote sensing of orographic clouds, and regional and atmospheric modeling at several scales to quantitatively examine the distribution of the atmospheric conditions that characterize cloud forests. Remote sensing using data from GOES reveals diurnal and longer scale patterns in the distribution of dry season orographic clouds in Central America at both regional and local scales. Data from MODIS, used to calculate the base height of orographic cloud banks, reveals not only the geographic distributon of cloud forest sites, but also striking regional variation in the frequency of montane immersion in orographic cloud. At a more local scale, wind is known to have striking effects on forest structure and species distribution in tropical montane ecosystems, both as a general mechanical stress and as the major agent of ecological disturbance. High resolution regional atmospheric modeling using CSU RAMS in the Monteverde cloud forests of Costa Rica provides quantitative information on the spatial distribution of canopy level winds, insight into the spatial structure and local dynamics of cloud forest communities. This information will be useful in not only in local conservation planning and the design of the Mesoamerican Biological Corridor, but also in assessments of the sensitivity of cloud forests to global and regional climate changes.

  12. Remote sensing the susceptibility of cloud albedo to changes in drop concentration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Platnick, S.E.

    1991-01-01

    The role of clouds in reflecting solar radiation to space and thereby reducing surface heating is of critical importance to climate. Combustion processes that produce greenhouse gases also increase cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) concentrations which in turn increase cloud drop concentrations and thereby cloud albedo. A calculation of cloud susceptibility, defined in this work as the increase in albedo resulting from the addition of one cloud drop per cubic centimeter (as cloud liquid water content remains constant), is made through satellite remote sensing of cloud drop radius and optical thickness. The remote technique uses spectral channels of the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) instrument on board the NOAA polar orbiting satellites. Radiative transfer calculations of reflectance and effective surface and cloud emissivities are made for applicable sun and satellite viewing angles, including azimuth, at various radii and optical thicknesses for each AVHRR channel. Emission in channel 3 (at 3.75 microns) is removed to give the reflected solar component. These calculations are used to infer the radius and optical thickness giving the best match to the satellite measurements. The effect of the atmosphere on the signal received by the satellite is included in the analysis

  13. Macrophysical properties of continental cumulus clouds from active and passive remote sensing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kassianov, Evgueni I.; Riley, Erin A.; Kleiss, Jessica; Long, Charles N.; Riihimaki, Laura D.; Flynn, Donna M.; Flynn, Connor J M.; Berg, Larry K.

    2017-10-06

    Cloud amount is an essential and extensively used macrophysical parameter of cumulus clouds. It is commonly defined as a cloud fraction (CF) from zenith-pointing ground-based active and passive remote sensing. However, conventional retrievals of CF from the remote sensing data with very narrow field-of-view (FOV) may not be representative of the surrounding area. Here we assess its representativeness using an integrated dataset collected at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program's Southern Great Plains (SGP) site in Oklahoma, USA. For our assessment with focus on selected days with single-layer cumulus clouds (2005-2016), we include the narrow-FOV ARM Active Remotely Sensed Clouds Locations (ARSCL) and large-FOV Total Sky Imager (TSI) cloud products, the 915-MHz Radar Wind Profiler (RWP) measurements of wind speed and direction, and also high-resolution satellite images from Landsat and the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). We demonstrate that a root-mean-square difference (RMSD) between the 15-min averaged ARSCL cloud fraction (CF) and the 15-min averaged TSI fractional sky cover (FSC) is large (up to 0.3). We also discuss how the horizontal distribution of clouds can modify the obtained large RMSD using a new uniformity metric. The latter utilizes the spatial distribution of the FSC over the 100° FOV TSI images obtained with high temporal resolution (30 sec sampling). We demonstrate that cases with more uniform spatial distribution of FSC show better agreement between the narrow-FOV CF and large-FOV FSC, reducing the RMSD by up to a factor of 2.

  14. Remote sensing of contrails and aircraft altered cirrus clouds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palikonda, R.; Nguyen, L.; Garber, D.P.; Smith, W.L. Jr [Analytical Services and Materials, Inc., Hampton, VA (United States); Minnis, P.; Young, D.F. [National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Hampton, VA (United States). Langley Research Center

    1997-12-31

    Analyses of satellite imagery are used to show that contrails can develop into fully extended cirrus cloud systems. Contrails can be advective on great distances, but would appear to observers as natural cirrus clouds. The conversion of simple contrails into cirrus may help explain the apparent increase of cloudiness over populated areas since the beginning of commercial jet air travel. Statistics describing the typical growth, advection, and lifetime of contrail cirrus is needed to evaluate their effects on climate. (author) 4 refs.

  15. Remote sensing of contrails and aircraft altered cirrus clouds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palikonda, R; Nguyen, L; Garber, D P; Smith, Jr, W L [Analytical Services and Materials, Inc., Hampton, VA (United States); Minnis, P; Young, D F [National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Hampton, VA (United States). Langley Research Center

    1998-12-31

    Analyses of satellite imagery are used to show that contrails can develop into fully extended cirrus cloud systems. Contrails can be advective on great distances, but would appear to observers as natural cirrus clouds. The conversion of simple contrails into cirrus may help explain the apparent increase of cloudiness over populated areas since the beginning of commercial jet air travel. Statistics describing the typical growth, advection, and lifetime of contrail cirrus is needed to evaluate their effects on climate. (author) 4 refs.

  16. Remote Sensing

    CERN Document Server

    Khorram, Siamak; Koch, Frank H; van der Wiele, Cynthia F

    2012-01-01

    Remote Sensing provides information on how remote sensing relates to the natural resources inventory, management, and monitoring, as well as environmental concerns. It explains the role of this new technology in current global challenges. "Remote Sensing" will discuss remotely sensed data application payloads and platforms, along with the methodologies involving image processing techniques as applied to remotely sensed data. This title provides information on image classification techniques and image registration, data integration, and data fusion techniques. How this technology applies to natural resources and environmental concerns will also be discussed.

  17. Cloud remote sensing from space in the era of the A-Train

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Graeme L.; Vane, Deborah G.

    2006-09-01

    The clouds of Earth are fundamental to most aspects of human life. Through production of precipitation, they are essential for delivering and sustaining the supplies of fresh water upon which human life depends. Clouds further exert a principal influence on the planet's energy balance. It is in clouds that latent heat is released through the process of condensation and the formation of precipitation affecting the development and evolution of the planet's storm systems. Clouds further exert a profound influence on the solar and infrared radiation that enters and leaves the atmosphere, further exerting profound effects on climate and on forces that affect climate change (Stephens, 2005). It is for these reasons, among others, that the need to observe the distribution and variability of the properties of clouds and precipitation has emerged as a priority in Earth observations. Most past and current observational programs are contructed in such a way that clouds and precipitation are treated as separate entities. Nature does not work this way and there is much to be gained scientifically in moving away from these artificial practices toward observing clouds and precipitation properties jointly. We are now embarking on a new age of remote sensing of clouds and precipitation using active sensors, starting with the tropical rainfall measurement mission (TRMM) and continuing on with the A-Train (described below). This new age provides us with the opportunity to move away from past and present artificial observing practices offering a more unified approach to observing clouds and precipitation properties jointly.

  18. Remote Sensing of Clouds for Solar Forecasting Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mejia, Felipe

    A method for retrieving cloud optical depth (tauc) using a UCSD developed ground- based Sky Imager (USI) is presented. The Radiance Red-Blue Ratio (RRBR) method is motivated from the analysis of simulated images of various tauc produced by a Radiative Transfer Model (RTM). From these images the basic parameters affecting the radiance and RBR of a pixel are identified as the solar zenith angle (SZA), tau c , solar pixel an- gle/scattering angle (SPA), and pixel zenith angle/view angle (PZA). The effects of these parameters are described and the functions for radiance, Ilambda (tau c ,SZA,SPA,PZA) , and the red-blue ratio, RBR(tauc ,SZA,SPA,PZA) , are retrieved from the RTM results. RBR, which is commonly used for cloud detection in sky images, provides non-unique solutions for tau c , where RBR increases with tauc up to about tauc = 1 (depending on other parameters) and then decreases. Therefore, the RRBR algorithm uses the measured Imeaslambda (SPA,PZA) , in addition to RBRmeas (SPA,PZA ) to obtain a unique solution for tauc . The RRBR method is applied to images of liquid water clouds taken by a USI at the Oklahoma Atmospheric Radiation Measurement program (ARM) site over the course of 220 days and compared against measurements from a microwave radiometer (MWR) and output from the Min [ MH96a ] method for overcast skies. tau c values ranged from 0-80 with values over 80 being capped and registered as 80. A tauc RMSE of 2.5 between the Min method [ MH96b ] and the USI are observed. The MWR and USI have an RMSE of 2.2 which is well within the uncertainty of the MWR. The procedure developed here provides a foundation to test and develop other cloud detection algorithms. Using the RRBR tauc estimate as an input we then explore the potential of using tomographic techniques for 3-D cloud reconstruction. The Algebraic Reconstruction Technique (ART) is applied to optical depth maps from sky images to reconstruct 3-D cloud extinction coefficients. Reconstruction accuracy

  19. Added Value of Far-Infrared Radiometry for Ice Cloud Remote Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libois, Q.; Blanchet, J. P.; Ivanescu, L.; S Pelletier, L.; Laurence, C.

    2017-12-01

    Several cloud retrieval algorithms based on satellite observations in the infrared have been developed in the last decades. However, most of these observations only cover the midinfrared (MIR, λ technology, though, now make it possible to consider spaceborne remote sensing in the FIR. Here we show that adding a few FIR channels with realistic radiometric performances to existing spaceborne narrowband radiometers would significantly improve their ability to retrieve ice cloud radiative properties. For clouds encountered in the polar regions and the upper troposphere, where the atmosphere above clouds is sufficiently transparent in the FIR, using FIR channels would reduce by more than 50% the uncertainties on retrieved values of optical thickness, effective particle diameter, and cloud top altitude. This would somehow extend the range of applicability of current infrared retrieval methods to the polar regions and to clouds with large optical thickness, where MIR algorithms perform poorly. The high performance of solar reflection-based algorithms would thus be reached in nighttime conditions. Using FIR observations is a promising venue for studying ice cloud microphysics and precipitation processes, which is highly relevant for cirrus clouds and convective towers, and for investigating the water cycle in the driest regions of the atmosphere.

  20. Remote RemoteRemoteRemote sensing potential for sensing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Remote RemoteRemoteRemote sensing potential for sensing potential for sensing potential for sensing potential for sensing potential for sensing potential for sensing potential for sensing potential for sensing potential for sensing potential for sensing p. A Ngie, F Ahmed, K Abutaleb ...

  1. Fuzzy AutoEncode Based Cloud Detection for Remote Sensing Imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenfeng Shao

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Cloud detection of remote sensing imagery is quite challenging due to the influence of complicated underlying surfaces and the variety of cloud types. Currently, most of the methods mainly rely on prior knowledge to extract features artificially for cloud detection. However, these features may not be able to accurately represent the cloud characteristics under complex environment. In this paper, we adopt an innovative model named Fuzzy Autoencode Model (FAEM to integrate the feature learning ability of stacked autoencode networks and the detection ability of fuzzy function for highly accurate cloud detection on remote sensing imagery. Our proposed method begins by selecting and fusing spectral, texture, and structure information. Thereafter, the proposed technique established a FAEM to learn the deep discriminative features from a great deal of selected information. Finally, the learned features are mapped to the corresponding cloud density map with a fuzzy function. To demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method, 172 Landsat ETM+ images and 25 GF-1 images with different spatial resolutions are used in this paper. For the convenience of accuracy assessment, ground truth data are manually outlined. Results show that the average RER (ratio of right rate and error rate on Landsat images is greater than 29, while the average RER of Support Vector Machine (SVM is 21.8 and Random Forest (RF is 23. The results on GF-1 images exhibit similar performance as Landsat images with the average RER of 25.9, which is much higher than the results of SVM and RF. Compared to traditional methods, our technique has attained higher average cloud detection accuracy for either different spatial resolutions or various land surfaces.

  2. Introducing two Random Forest based methods for cloud detection in remote sensing images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghasemian, Nafiseh; Akhoondzadeh, Mehdi

    2018-07-01

    Cloud detection is a necessary phase in satellite images processing to retrieve the atmospheric and lithospheric parameters. Currently, some cloud detection methods based on Random Forest (RF) model have been proposed but they do not consider both spectral and textural characteristics of the image. Furthermore, they have not been tested in the presence of snow/ice. In this paper, we introduce two RF based algorithms, Feature Level Fusion Random Forest (FLFRF) and Decision Level Fusion Random Forest (DLFRF) to incorporate visible, infrared (IR) and thermal spectral and textural features (FLFRF) including Gray Level Co-occurrence Matrix (GLCM) and Robust Extended Local Binary Pattern (RELBP_CI) or visible, IR and thermal classifiers (DLFRF) for highly accurate cloud detection on remote sensing images. FLFRF first fuses visible, IR and thermal features. Thereafter, it uses the RF model to classify pixels to cloud, snow/ice and background or thick cloud, thin cloud and background. DLFRF considers visible, IR and thermal features (both spectral and textural) separately and inserts each set of features to RF model. Then, it holds vote matrix of each run of the model. Finally, it fuses the classifiers using the majority vote method. To demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithms, 10 Terra MODIS and 15 Landsat 8 OLI/TIRS images with different spatial resolutions are used in this paper. Quantitative analyses are based on manually selected ground truth data. Results show that after adding RELBP_CI to input feature set cloud detection accuracy improves. Also, the average cloud kappa values of FLFRF and DLFRF on MODIS images (1 and 0.99) are higher than other machine learning methods, Linear Discriminate Analysis (LDA), Classification And Regression Tree (CART), K Nearest Neighbor (KNN) and Support Vector Machine (SVM) (0.96). The average snow/ice kappa values of FLFRF and DLFRF on MODIS images (1 and 0.85) are higher than other traditional methods. The

  3. Remotely Sensed High-Resolution Global Cloud Dynamics for Predicting Ecosystem and Biodiversity Distributions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam M Wilson

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Cloud cover can influence numerous important ecological processes, including reproduction, growth, survival, and behavior, yet our assessment of its importance at the appropriate spatial scales has remained remarkably limited. If captured over a large extent yet at sufficiently fine spatial grain, cloud cover dynamics may provide key information for delineating a variety of habitat types and predicting species distributions. Here, we develop new near-global, fine-grain (≈1 km monthly cloud frequencies from 15 y of twice-daily Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS satellite images that expose spatiotemporal cloud cover dynamics of previously undocumented global complexity. We demonstrate that cloud cover varies strongly in its geographic heterogeneity and that the direct, observation-based nature of cloud-derived metrics can improve predictions of habitats, ecosystem, and species distributions with reduced spatial autocorrelation compared to commonly used interpolated climate data. These findings support the fundamental role of remote sensing as an effective lens through which to understand and globally monitor the fine-grain spatial variability of key biodiversity and ecosystem properties.

  4. Satellite remote sensing and cloud modeling of St. Anthony, Minnesota storm clouds and dew point depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, R. J.; Tsao, Y. D.

    1988-01-01

    Rawinsonde data and geosynchronous satellite imagery were used to investigate the life cycles of St. Anthony, Minnesota's severe convective storms. It is found that the fully developed storm clouds, with overshooting cloud tops penetrating above the tropopause, collapsed about three minutes before the touchdown of the tornadoes. Results indicate that the probability of producing an outbreak of tornadoes causing greater damage increases when there are higher values of potential energy storage per unit area for overshooting cloud tops penetrating the tropopause. It is also found that there is less chance for clouds with a lower moisture content to be outgrown as a storm cloud than clouds with a higher moisture content.

  5. Remote Sensing of Smoke, Land and Clouds from the NASA ER-2 during SAFARI 2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Michael D.; Platnick, Steven; Moeller, Christopher C.; Revercomb, Henry E.; Chu, D. Allen

    2002-01-01

    The NASA ER-2 aircraft was deployed to southern Africa between August 17 and September 25, 2000 as part of the Southern Africa Regional Science Initiative (SAFARI) 2000. This aircraft carried a sophisticated array of multispectral scanners, multiangle spectroradiometers, a monostatic lidar, a gas correlation radiometer, upward and downward spectral flux radiometers, and two metric mapping cameras. These observations were obtained over a 3200 x 2800 km region of savanna, woody savanna, open shrubland, and grassland ecosystems throughout southern Africa, and were quite often coordinated with overflights by NASA's Terra and Landsat 7 satellites. The primary purpose of this sophisticated high altitude observing platform was to obtain independent observations of smoke, clouds, and land surfaces that could be used to check the validity of various remote sensing measurements derived by Earth-orbiting satellites. These include such things as the accuracy of the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectro-radiometer (MODIS) cloud mask for distinguishing clouds and heavy aerosol from land and ocean surfaces, and Terra analyses of cloud optical and micro-physical properties, aerosol properties, leaf area index, vegetation index, fire occurrence, carbon monoxide, and surface radiation budget. In addition to coordination with Terra and Landsat 7 satellites, numerous flights were conducted over surface AERONET sites, flux towers in South Africa, Botswana, and Zambia, and in situ aircraft from the University of Washington, South Africa, and the United Kingdom.

  6. A cloud mask methodology for high resolution remote sensing data combining information from high and medium resolution optical sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedano, Fernando; Kempeneers, Pieter; Strobl, Peter; Kucera, Jan; Vogt, Peter; Seebach, Lucia; San-Miguel-Ayanz, Jesús

    2011-09-01

    This study presents a novel cloud masking approach for high resolution remote sensing images in the context of land cover mapping. As an advantage to traditional methods, the approach does not rely on thermal bands and it is applicable to images from most high resolution earth observation remote sensing sensors. The methodology couples pixel-based seed identification and object-based region growing. The seed identification stage relies on pixel value comparison between high resolution images and cloud free composites at lower spatial resolution from almost simultaneously acquired dates. The methodology was tested taking SPOT4-HRVIR, SPOT5-HRG and IRS-LISS III as high resolution images and cloud free MODIS composites as reference images. The selected scenes included a wide range of cloud types and surface features. The resulting cloud masks were evaluated through visual comparison. They were also compared with ad-hoc independently generated cloud masks and with the automatic cloud cover assessment algorithm (ACCA). In general the results showed an agreement in detected clouds higher than 95% for clouds larger than 50 ha. The approach produced consistent results identifying and mapping clouds of different type and size over various land surfaces including natural vegetation, agriculture land, built-up areas, water bodies and snow.

  7. Ice formation in altocumulus clouds over Leipzig: Remote sensing measurements and detailed model simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmel, Martin; Bühl, Johannes; Ansmann, Albert; Tegen, Ina

    2014-05-01

    Over Leipzig, altocumulus clouds are frequently observed using a suite of remote sensing instruments. These observations cover a wide range of heights, temperatures, and microphysical properties of the clouds ranging from purely liquid to heavily frozen. For the current study, two cases were chosen to test the sensitivity of these clouds with respect to several microphysical and dynamical parameters such as aerosol properties (CCN, IN), ice particle shape as well as turbulence. The mixed-phase spectral microphysical model SPECS was coupled to a dynamical model of the Asai-Kasahara type resulting in the model system AK-SPECS. The relatively simple dynamics allows for a fine vertical resolution needed for the rather shallow cloud layers observed. Additionally, the proper description of hydrometeor sedimentation is important especially for the fast growing ice crystals to realistically capture their interaction with the vapour and liquid phase (Bergeron-Findeisen process). Since the focus is on the cloud microphysics, the dynamics in terms of vertical velocity profile is prescribed for the model runs and the feedback of the microphysics on dynamics by release or consumption of latent heat due to phase transfer is not taken into account. The microphysics focuses on (1) ice particle shape allowing hexagonal plates and columns with size-dependant axis ratios and (2) the ice nuclei (IN) budget realized with a prognostic temperature resolved field of potential IN allowing immersion freezing only when active IN and supercooled drops above a certain size threshold are present within a grid cell. Sensitivity studies show for both cases that ice particle shape seems to have the major influence on ice mass formation under otherwise identical conditions. This is due to the effect (1) on terminal fall velocity of the individual ice particle allowing for longer presence times in conditions supersaturated with respect to ice and (2) on water vapour deposition which is enhanced due

  8. Remote Sensing of Tropical Ecosystems: Atmospheric Correction and Cloud Masking Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilker, Thomas; Lyapustin, Alexei I.; Tucker, Compton J.; Sellers, Piers J.; Hall, Forrest G.; Wang, Yujie

    2012-01-01

    Tropical rainforests are significant contributors to the global cycles of energy, water and carbon. As a result, monitoring of the vegetation status over regions such as Amazonia has been a long standing interest of Earth scientists trying to determine the effect of climate change and anthropogenic disturbance on the tropical ecosystems and its feedback on the Earth's climate. Satellite-based remote sensing is the only practical approach for observing the vegetation dynamics of regions like the Amazon over useful spatial and temporal scales, but recent years have seen much controversy over satellite-derived vegetation states in Amazônia, with studies predicting opposite feedbacks depending on data processing technique and interpretation. Recent results suggest that some of this uncertainty could stem from a lack of quality in atmospheric correction and cloud screening. In this paper, we assess these uncertainties by comparing the current standard surface reflectance products (MYD09, MYD09GA) and derived composites (MYD09A1, MCD43A4 and MYD13A2 - Vegetation Index) from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) onboard the Aqua satellite to results obtained from the Multi-Angle Implementation of Atmospheric Correction (MAIAC) algorithm. MAIAC uses a new cloud screening technique, and novel aerosol retrieval and atmospheric correction procedures which are based on time-series and spatial analyses. Our results show considerable improvements of MAIAC processed surface reflectance compared to MYD09/MYD13 with noise levels reduced by a factor of up to 10. Uncertainties in the current MODIS surface reflectance product were mainly due to residual cloud and aerosol contamination which affected the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI): During the wet season, with cloud cover ranging between 90 percent and 99 percent, conventionally processed NDVI was significantly depressed due to undetected clouds. A smaller reduction in NDVI due to increased

  9. Evaluating statistical cloud schemes: What can we gain from ground-based remote sensing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grützun, V.; Quaas, J.; Morcrette, C. J.; Ament, F.

    2013-09-01

    Statistical cloud schemes with prognostic probability distribution functions have become more important in atmospheric modeling, especially since they are in principle scale adaptive and capture cloud physics in more detail. While in theory the schemes have a great potential, their accuracy is still questionable. High-resolution three-dimensional observational data of water vapor and cloud water, which could be used for testing them, are missing. We explore the potential of ground-based remote sensing such as lidar, microwave, and radar to evaluate prognostic distribution moments using the "perfect model approach." This means that we employ a high-resolution weather model as virtual reality and retrieve full three-dimensional atmospheric quantities and virtual ground-based observations. We then use statistics from the virtual observation to validate the modeled 3-D statistics. Since the data are entirely consistent, any discrepancy occurring is due to the method. Focusing on total water mixing ratio, we find that the mean ratio can be evaluated decently but that it strongly depends on the meteorological conditions as to whether the variance and skewness are reliable. Using some simple schematic description of different synoptic conditions, we show how statistics obtained from point or line measurements can be poor at representing the full three-dimensional distribution of water in the atmosphere. We argue that a careful analysis of measurement data and detailed knowledge of the meteorological situation is necessary to judge whether we can use the data for an evaluation of higher moments of the humidity distribution used by a statistical cloud scheme.

  10. Validation of Cloud Optical Parameters from Passive Remote Sensing in the Arctic by using the Aircraft Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, H.; Schmidt, S.; Coddington, O.; Wind, G.; Bucholtz, A.; Segal-Rosenhaimer, M.; LeBlanc, S. E.

    2017-12-01

    Cloud Optical Parameters (COPs: e.g., cloud optical thickness and cloud effective radius) and surface albedo are the most important inputs for determining the Cloud Radiative Effect (CRE) at the surface. In the Arctic, the COPs derived from passive remote sensing such as from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) are difficult to obtain with adequate accuracy owing mainly to insufficient knowledge about the snow/ice surface, but also because of the low solar zenith angle. This study aims to validate COPs derived from passive remote sensing in the Arctic by using aircraft measurements collected during two field campaigns based in Fairbanks, Alaska. During both experiments, ARCTAS (Arctic Research of the Composition of the Troposphere from Aircraft and Satellites) and ARISE (Arctic Radiation-IceBridge Sea and Ice Experiment), the Solar Spectral Flux Radiometer (SSFR) measured upwelling and downwelling shortwave spectral irradiances, which can be used to derive surface and cloud albedo, as well as the irradiance transmitted by clouds. We assess the variability of the Arctic sea ice/snow surfaces albedo through these aircraft measurements and incorporate this variability into cloud retrievals for SSFR. We then compare COPs as derived from SSFR and MODIS for all suitable aircraft underpasses of the satellites. Finally, the sensitivities of the COPs to surface albedo and solar zenith angle are investigated.

  11. Icecube: Spaceflight Validation of an 874-GHz Submillimeter Wave Radiometer for Ice Cloud Remote Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, D. L.; Esper, J.; Ehsan, N.; Piepmeier, J. R.; Racette, P.

    2014-12-01

    Ice clouds play a key role in the Earth's radiation budget, mostly through their strong regulation of infrared radiation exchange. Submillimeter wave remote sensing offers a unique capability to improve cloud ice measurements from space. At 874 GHz cloud scattering produces a larger brightness temperature depression from cirrus than lower frequencies, which can be used to retrieve vertically-integrated cloud ice water path (IWP) and ice particle size. The objective of the IceCube project is to retire risks of 874-GHz receiver technology by raising its TRL from 5 to 7. The project will demonstrate, on a 3-U CubeSat in a low Earth orbit (LEO) environment, the 874-GHz receiver system with noise equivalent differential temperature (NEDT) of ~0.2 K for 1-second integration and calibration error of 2.0 K or less as measured from deep-space observations. The Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) is partnering with Virginia Diodes, Inc (VDI) to qualify commercially available 874-GHz receiver technology for spaceflight, and demonstrate the radiometer performance. The instrument (submm-wave cloud radiometer, or SCR), along with the CubeSat system developed and integrated by GSFC, will be ready for launch in two years. The instrument subsystem includes a reflector antenna, sub-millimeter wave mixer, frequency multipliers and stable local oscillator, an intermediate frequency (IF) circuit with noise injection, and data-power boards. The mixer and frequency multipliers are procured from VDI with GSFC insight into fabrication and testing processes to ensure scalability to spaceflight beyond TRL 7. The remaining components are a combination of GSFC-designed and commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) at TRLs of 5 or higher. The spacecraft system is specified by GSFC and comprises COTS components including three-axis stabilizer and sun sensor, GPS receiver, deployable solar arrays, UHF radio, and 2 GB of on-board storage. The spacecraft and instrument are integrated and flight qualified

  12. Examining the Impact of Overlying Aerosols on the Retrieval of Cloud Optical Properties from Passive Remote Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coddington, O. M.; Pilewskie, P.; Redemann, J.; Platnick, S.; Russell, P. B.; Schmidt, K. S.; Gore, W. J.; Livingston, J.; Wind, G.; Vukicevic, T.

    2010-01-01

    Haywood et al. (2004) show that an aerosol layer above a cloud can cause a bias in the retrieved cloud optical thickness and effective radius. Monitoring for this potential bias is difficult because space ]based passive remote sensing cannot unambiguously detect or characterize aerosol above cloud. We show that cloud retrievals from aircraft measurements above cloud and below an overlying aerosol layer are a means to test this bias. The data were collected during the Intercontinental Chemical Transport Experiment (INTEX-A) study based out of Portsmouth, New Hampshire, United States, above extensive, marine stratus cloud banks affected by industrial outflow. Solar Spectral Flux Radiometer (SSFR) irradiance measurements taken along a lower level flight leg above cloud and below aerosol were unaffected by the overlying aerosol. Along upper level flight legs, the irradiance reflected from cloud top was transmitted through an aerosol layer. We compare SSFR cloud retrievals from below ]aerosol legs to satellite retrievals from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) in order to detect an aerosol ]induced bias. In regions of small variation in cloud properties, we find that SSFR and MODIS-retrieved cloud optical thickness compares within the uncertainty range for each instrument while SSFR effective radius tend to be smaller than MODIS values (by 1-2 microns) and at the low end of MODIS uncertainty estimates. In regions of large variation in cloud properties, differences in SSFR and MODIS ]retrieved cloud optical thickness and effective radius can reach values of 10 and 10 microns, respectively. We include aerosols in forward modeling to test the sensitivity of SSFR cloud retrievals to overlying aerosol layers. We find an overlying absorbing aerosol layer biases SSFR cloud retrievals to smaller effective radii and optical thickness while nonabsorbing aerosols had no impact.

  13. Examining the impact of overlying aerosols on the retrieval of cloud optical properties from passive remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coddington, O. M.; Pilewskie, P.; Redemann, J.; Platnick, S.; Russell, P. B.; Schmidt, K. S.; Gore, W. J.; Livingston, J.; Wind, G.; Vukicevic, T.

    2010-05-01

    Haywood et al. (2004) show that an aerosol layer above a cloud can cause a bias in the retrieved cloud optical thickness and effective radius. Monitoring for this potential bias is difficult because space-based passive remote sensing cannot unambiguously detect or characterize aerosol above cloud. We show that cloud retrievals from aircraft measurements above cloud and below an overlying aerosol layer are a means to test this bias. The data were collected during the Intercontinental Chemical Transport Experiment (INTEX-A) study based out of Portsmouth, New Hampshire, United States, above extensive, marine stratus cloud banks affected by industrial outflow. Solar Spectral Flux Radiometer (SSFR) irradiance measurements taken along a lower level flight leg above cloud and below aerosol were unaffected by the overlying aerosol. Along upper level flight legs, the irradiance reflected from cloud top was transmitted through an aerosol layer. We compare SSFR cloud retrievals from below-aerosol legs to satellite retrievals from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) in order to detect an aerosol-induced bias. In regions of small variation in cloud properties, we find that SSFR and MODIS-retrieved cloud optical thickness compares within the uncertainty range for each instrument while SSFR effective radius tend to be smaller than MODIS values (by 1-2 μm) and at the low end of MODIS uncertainty estimates. In regions of large variation in cloud properties, differences in SSFR and MODIS-retrieved cloud optical thickness and effective radius can reach values of 10 and 10 μm, respectively. We include aerosols in forward modeling to test the sensitivity of SSFR cloud retrievals to overlying aerosol layers. We find an overlying absorbing aerosol layer biases SSFR cloud retrievals to smaller effective radii and optical thickness while nonabsorbing aerosols had no impact.

  14. FAST OCCLUSION AND SHADOW DETECTION FOR HIGH RESOLUTION REMOTE SENSING IMAGE COMBINED WITH LIDAR POINT CLOUD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Hu

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The orthophoto is an important component of GIS database and has been applied in many fields. But occlusion and shadow causes the loss of feature information which has a great effect on the quality of images. One of the critical steps in true orthophoto generation is the detection of occlusion and shadow. Nowadays LiDAR can obtain the digital surface model (DSM directly. Combined with this technology, image occlusion and shadow can be detected automatically. In this paper, the Z-Buffer is applied for occlusion detection. The shadow detection can be regarded as a same problem with occlusion detection considering the angle between the sun and the camera. However, the Z-Buffer algorithm is computationally expensive. And the volume of scanned data and remote sensing images is very large. Efficient algorithm is another challenge. Modern graphics processing unit (GPU is much more powerful than central processing unit (CPU. We introduce this technology to speed up the Z-Buffer algorithm and get 7 times increase in speed compared with CPU. The results of experiments demonstrate that Z-Buffer algorithm plays well in occlusion and shadow detection combined with high density of point cloud and GPU can speed up the computation significantly.

  15. Fast Occlusion and Shadow Detection for High Resolution Remote Sensing Image Combined with LIDAR Point Cloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, X.; Li, X.

    2012-08-01

    The orthophoto is an important component of GIS database and has been applied in many fields. But occlusion and shadow causes the loss of feature information which has a great effect on the quality of images. One of the critical steps in true orthophoto generation is the detection of occlusion and shadow. Nowadays LiDAR can obtain the digital surface model (DSM) directly. Combined with this technology, image occlusion and shadow can be detected automatically. In this paper, the Z-Buffer is applied for occlusion detection. The shadow detection can be regarded as a same problem with occlusion detection considering the angle between the sun and the camera. However, the Z-Buffer algorithm is computationally expensive. And the volume of scanned data and remote sensing images is very large. Efficient algorithm is another challenge. Modern graphics processing unit (GPU) is much more powerful than central processing unit (CPU). We introduce this technology to speed up the Z-Buffer algorithm and get 7 times increase in speed compared with CPU. The results of experiments demonstrate that Z-Buffer algorithm plays well in occlusion and shadow detection combined with high density of point cloud and GPU can speed up the computation significantly.

  16. The accuracy of remotely-sensed IWC: An assessment from MLS, TRMM and CloudSat statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, D. L.; Heymsfield, A. J.

    2006-12-01

    Understanding climate change requires accurate global cloud ice water content (IWC) measurements. Satellite remote sensing has been the major tool to provide such global observations, but the accuracy of deduced IWC depends on knowledge of cloud microphysics learned from in-situ samples. Because only limited number and type of ice clouds have been measured by in-situ sensors, the knowledge about cloud microphysics is incomplete, and the IWC accuracy from remote sensing can vary from 30% to 200% from case to case. Recent observations from MLS, TRMM and CloudSat allow us to evaluate consistency and accuracy of IWCs deduced from passive and active satellite techniques. In this study we conduct statistical analyses on the tropical and subtropical IWCs observed by MLS, TRMM and CloudSat. The probability density functions (PDFs) of IWC are found to depend on the volume size of averaging, and therefore data need to be averaged into the same volume in order for fair comparisons. Showing measurement noise, bias and sensitivity, the PDF is a better characterization than an average for evaluating IWC accuracy because an averaged IWC depends on cloud-detection threshold that can vary from sensor to sensor. Different thresholds will not only change the average value but also change cloud fraction and occurrence frequency. Our study shows that MLS and TRMM IWCs, despite large differences in sensitivity with little overlap, can still be compared under PDF. The two statistics are generally consistent within 50% at ~13 km, obeying an approximate lognormal distribution as suggested by some ground-based radar observations. MLS has sensitivity to IWC of 1-100 mg/m3 whereas TRMM can improve its sensitivity to IWC as low as 70 mg/m3 if the radar data are averaged properly for the equivalent volume of MLS samples. The proper statistical averaging requires full characteristics of IWC noise, which are not available for products normally derived from radar reflectivity, and therefore we

  17. Green Functions For Multiple Scattering As Mathematical Tools For Dense Cloud Remote Sensing: Theory, With Passive And Active Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, A.B.; Marshak, A.; Cahalan, R.F.

    2001-01-01

    We survey radiative Green function theory (1) in linear transport theory where numerical procedures are required to obtain specific results and (2) in the photon diffusion limit (large optical depths) where it is analytically tractable, at least for homogeneous plane-parallel media. We then describe two recent applications of Green function theory to passive cloud remote sensing in the presence of strong three-dimensional transport effects. Finally, we describe recent instrumental breakthroughs in 'off-beam' cloud lidar which is based on direct measurements of radiative Green functions with special attention to the data collected during the Shuttle-based Lidar In-space Technology Experiment (LITE) mission.

  18. A Cloud Computing Workflow for Scalable Integration of Remote Sensing and Social Media Data in Urban Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soliman, A.; Soltani, K.; Yin, J.; Subramaniam, B.; Liu, Y.; Padmanabhan, A.; Riteau, P.; Keahey, K.; Wang, S. W.

    2015-12-01

    Urban ecosystems are unique earth environments because both their physical and social components contribute to the overall dynamics of the system. Up-to-date, remote sensing data (e.g. optical and LiDAR) allowed researchers to monitor the development of impervious surfaces however, it was not adequate to detect associated social dynamics. Geo-located social media (e.g. Twitter) provides a data source to detect population dynamics and understand the interaction of people with their physical environment. Although, integrating social media with remote sensing data has been hindered by large volumes of data and the lack of models for integrating remote sensing products with unstructured social media data. In this research work, we leveraged the NSF chameleon cloud computing platform to provide virtual clusters and elastic auto-scaling of resources that are needed for the synthesis of landuse and geo-located Twitter data. In this context, data synthesis was used to address research questions related to population dynamics in major metropolitan areas. We provide an overview of a cloud computing workflow comprised of a set of coupled scalable synthesis modules for: a) preprocessing data, which includes storage and query of heterogeneous data streams, b) spatial data integration, which matches geo-located Twitter data with user defined landuse maps based on a conceptual model of human mobility and c) visualization of urban mobility patterns. Our results demonstrate the flexibility to connect data, synthesis methods and computing resources using cloud computing, which would be otherwise very difficult for untrained scientists to setup and control. Furthermore, we demonstrate the capabilities of CyberGIS-based workflow using the case study of comparing commuting distances across major US cities from 2013 through the present. We demonstrate how our workflow will support discoveries in urban ecological studies as well as linking human and physical dimensions in environmental

  19. Raman lidar measurements of water vapor and aerosols during the atmospheric radiation measurement (ARM) remote clouds sensing (RCS) intensive observation period (IOP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melfi, S.H.; Starr, D.O`C.; Whiteman, D. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD (United States)] [and others

    1996-04-01

    The first Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) remote Cloud Study (RCS) Intensive Operations Period (IOP) was held during April 1994 at the Southern Great Plains (SGP) site. This experiment was conducted to evaluate and calibrate state-of-the-art, ground based remote sensing instruments and to use the data acquired by these instruments to validate retrieval algorithms developed under the ARM program.

  20. Effects of ice crystal surface roughness and air bubble inclusions on cirrus cloud radiative properties from remote sensing perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, Guanglin; Panetta, R. Lee; Yang, Ping; Kattawar, George W.; Zhai, Peng-Wang

    2017-01-01

    We study the combined effects of surface roughness and inhomogeneity on the optical scattering properties of ice crystals and explore the consequent implications to remote sensing of cirrus cloud properties. Specifically, surface roughness and inhomogeneity are added to the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) collection 6 (MC6) cirrus cloud particle habit model. Light scattering properties of the new habit model are simulated using a modified version of the Improved Geometric Optics Method (IGOM). Both inhomogeneity and surface roughness affect the single scattering properties significantly. In visible bands, inhomogeneity and surface roughness both tend to smooth the phase function and eliminate halos and the backscattering peak. The asymmetry parameter varies with the degree of surface roughness following a U shape - decreases and then increases - with a minimum at around 0.15, whereas it decreases monotonically with the air bubble volume fraction. Air bubble inclusions significantly increase phase matrix element -P_1_2 for scattering angles between 20°–120°, whereas surface roughness has a much weaker effect, increasing -P_1_2 slightly from 60°–120°. Radiative transfer simulations and cirrus cloud property retrievals are conducted by including both the factors. In terms of surface roughness and air bubble volume fraction, retrievals of cirrus cloud optical thickness or the asymmetry parameter using solar bands show similar patterns of variation. Polarimetric simulations using the MC6 cirrus cloud particle habit model are shown to be more consistent with observations when both surface roughness and inhomogeneity are simultaneously considered. - Highlights: • Surface roughness and air bubble inclusions affect optical properties of ice crystals significantly. • Including both factors improves simulations of ice cloud.• Cirrus cloud particle habit model of the MODIS collection 6 achieves better self-consistency and consistency with

  1. Combined retrieval of Arctic liquid water cloud and surface snow properties using airborne spectral solar remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrlich, André; Bierwirth, Eike; Istomina, Larysa; Wendisch, Manfred

    2017-09-01

    The passive solar remote sensing of cloud properties over highly reflecting ground is challenging, mostly due to the low contrast between the cloud reflectivity and that of the underlying surfaces (sea ice and snow). Uncertainties in the retrieved cloud optical thickness τ and cloud droplet effective radius reff, C may arise from uncertainties in the assumed spectral surface albedo, which is mainly determined by the generally unknown effective snow grain size reff, S. Therefore, in a first step the effects of the assumed snow grain size are systematically quantified for the conventional bispectral retrieval technique of τ and reff, C for liquid water clouds. In general, the impact of uncertainties of reff, S is largest for small snow grain sizes. While the uncertainties of retrieved τ are independent of the cloud optical thickness and solar zenith angle, the bias of retrieved reff, C increases for optically thin clouds and high Sun. The largest deviations between the retrieved and true original values are found with 83 % for τ and 62 % for reff, C. In the second part of the paper a retrieval method is presented that simultaneously derives all three parameters (τ, reff, C, reff, S) and therefore accounts for changes in the snow grain size. Ratios of spectral cloud reflectivity measurements at the three wavelengths λ1 = 1040 nm (sensitive to reff, S), λ2 = 1650 nm (sensitive to τ), and λ3 = 2100 nm (sensitive to reff, C) are combined in a trispectral retrieval algorithm. In a feasibility study, spectral cloud reflectivity measurements collected by the Spectral Modular Airborne Radiation measurement sysTem (SMART) during the research campaign Vertical Distribution of Ice in Arctic Mixed-Phase Clouds (VERDI, April/May 2012) were used to test the retrieval procedure. Two cases of observations above the Canadian Beaufort Sea, one with dense snow-covered sea ice and another with a distinct snow-covered sea ice edge are analysed. The retrieved values of τ, reff

  2. Combined retrieval of Arctic liquid water cloud and surface snow properties using airborne spectral solar remote sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ehrlich

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The passive solar remote sensing of cloud properties over highly reflecting ground is challenging, mostly due to the low contrast between the cloud reflectivity and that of the underlying surfaces (sea ice and snow. Uncertainties in the retrieved cloud optical thickness τ and cloud droplet effective radius reff, C may arise from uncertainties in the assumed spectral surface albedo, which is mainly determined by the generally unknown effective snow grain size reff, S. Therefore, in a first step the effects of the assumed snow grain size are systematically quantified for the conventional bispectral retrieval technique of τ and reff, C for liquid water clouds. In general, the impact of uncertainties of reff, S is largest for small snow grain sizes. While the uncertainties of retrieved τ are independent of the cloud optical thickness and solar zenith angle, the bias of retrieved reff, C increases for optically thin clouds and high Sun. The largest deviations between the retrieved and true original values are found with 83 % for τ and 62 % for reff, C.In the second part of the paper a retrieval method is presented that simultaneously derives all three parameters (τ, reff, C, reff, S and therefore accounts for changes in the snow grain size. Ratios of spectral cloud reflectivity measurements at the three wavelengths λ1 = 1040 nm (sensitive to reff, S, λ2 = 1650 nm (sensitive to τ, and λ3 = 2100 nm (sensitive to reff, C are combined in a trispectral retrieval algorithm. In a feasibility study, spectral cloud reflectivity measurements collected by the Spectral Modular Airborne Radiation measurement sysTem (SMART during the research campaign Vertical Distribution of Ice in Arctic Mixed-Phase Clouds (VERDI, April/May 2012 were used to test the retrieval procedure. Two cases of observations above the Canadian Beaufort Sea, one with dense snow-covered sea ice and another with a distinct snow-covered sea ice

  3. Characterisation of the artificial neural network CiPS for cirrus cloud remote sensing with MSG/SEVIRI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Strandgren

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Cirrus clouds remain one of the key uncertainties in atmospheric research. To better understand the properties and physical processes of cirrus clouds, accurate large-scale observations from satellites are required. Artificial neural networks (ANNs have proved to be a useful tool for cirrus cloud remote sensing. Since physics is not modelled explicitly in ANNs, a thorough characterisation of the networks is necessary. In this paper the CiPS (Cirrus Properties from SEVIRI algorithm is characterised using the space-borne lidar CALIOP. CiPS is composed of a set of ANNs for the cirrus cloud detection, opacity identification and the corresponding cloud top height, ice optical thickness and ice water path retrieval from the imager SEVIRI aboard the geostationary Meteosat Second Generation satellites. First, the retrieval accuracy is characterised with respect to different land surface types. The retrieval works best over water and vegetated surfaces, whereas a surface covered by permanent snow and ice or barren reduces the cirrus detection ability and increases the retrieval errors for the ice optical thickness and ice water path if the cirrus cloud is thin (optical thickness less than approx. 0.3. Second, the retrieval accuracy is characterised with respect to the vertical arrangement of liquid, ice clouds and aerosol layers as derived from CALIOP lidar data. The CiPS retrievals show little interference from liquid water clouds and aerosol layers below an observed cirrus cloud. A liquid water cloud vertically close or adjacent to the cirrus clearly increases the average retrieval errors for the optical thickness and ice water path, respectively, only for thin cirrus clouds with an optical thickness below 0.3 or ice water path below 5.0 g m−2. For the cloud top height retrieval, only aerosol layers affect the retrieval error, with an increased positive bias when the cirrus is at low altitudes. Third, the CiPS retrieval error is

  4. Multi-sensor Cloud Retrieval Simulator and Remote Sensing from Model Parameters . Pt. 1; Synthetic Sensor Radiance Formulation; [Synthetic Sensor Radiance Formulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wind, G.; DaSilva, A. M.; Norris, P. M.; Platnick, S.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we describe a general procedure for calculating synthetic sensor radiances from variable output from a global atmospheric forecast model. In order to take proper account of the discrepancies between model resolution and sensor footprint, the algorithm takes explicit account of the model subgrid variability, in particular its description of the probability density function of total water (vapor and cloud condensate.) The simulated sensor radiances are then substituted into an operational remote sensing algorithm processing chain to produce a variety of remote sensing products that would normally be produced from actual sensor output. This output can then be used for a wide variety of purposes such as model parameter verification, remote sensing algorithm validation, testing of new retrieval methods and future sensor studies.We show a specific implementation using the GEOS-5 model, the MODIS instrument and the MODIS Adaptive Processing System (MODAPS) Data Collection 5.1 operational remote sensing cloud algorithm processing chain (including the cloud mask, cloud top properties and cloud optical and microphysical properties products). We focus on clouds because they are very important to model development and improvement.

  5. Remote Cloud Sensing Intensive Observation Period (RCS-IOP) millimeter-wave radar calibration and data intercomparison

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sekelsky, S.M.; Firda, J.M.; McIntosh, R.E. [Univ. of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA (United States)] [and others

    1996-04-01

    During April 1994, the University of Massachusetts (UMass) and the Pennsylvania State University (Penn State) fielded two millimeter-wave atmospheric radars in the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Remote Cloud Sensing Intensive Operation Period (RCS-IOP) experiment. The UMass Cloud Profiling Radar System (CPRS) operates simultaneously at 33.12 GHz and 94.92 GHz through a single antenna. The Penn State radar operates at 93.95 GHz and has separate transmitting and receiving antennas. The two systems were separated by approximately 75 meters and simultaneously observed a variety of cloud types at verticle incidence over the course of the experiment. This abstract presents some initial results from our calibration efforts. An absolute calibration of the UMass radar was made from radar measurements of a trihedral corner reflector, which has a known radar cross-section. A relative calibration of between the Penn State and UMass radars is made from the statistical comparison of zenith pointing measurements of low altitude liquid clouds. Attenuation is removed with the aid of radiosonde data, and the difference in the calibration between the UMass and Penn State radars is determined by comparing the ratio of 94-GHz and 95-GHz reflectivity values to a model that accounts for parallax effects of the two antennas used in the Penn State system.

  6. Testing remote sensing on artificial observations: impact of drizzle and 3-D cloud structure on effective radius retrievals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Zinner

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Remote sensing of cloud effective particle size with passive sensors like the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS is an important tool for cloud microphysical studies. As a measure of the radiatively relevant droplet size, effective radius can be retrieved with different combinations of visible through shortwave and midwave infrared channels. In practice, retrieved effective radii from these combinations can be quite different. This difference is perhaps indicative of different penetration depths and path lengths for the spectral reflectances used. In addition, operational liquid water cloud retrievals are based on the assumption of a relatively narrow distribution of droplet sizes; the role of larger precipitation particles in these distributions is neglected. Therefore, possible explanations for the discrepancy in some MODIS spectral size retrievals could include 3-D radiative transport effects, including sub-pixel cloud inhomogeneity, and/or the impact of drizzle formation.

    For three cloud cases the possible factors of influence are isolated and investigated in detail by the use of simulated cloud scenes and synthetic satellite data: marine boundary layer cloud scenes from large eddy simulations (LES with detailed microphysics are combined with Monte Carlo radiative transfer calculations that explicitly account for the detailed droplet size distributions as well as 3-D radiative transfer to simulate MODIS observations. The operational MODIS optical thickness and effective radius retrieval algorithm is applied to these and the results are compared to the given LES microphysics.

    We investigate two types of marine cloud situations each with and without drizzle from LES simulations: (1 a typical daytime stratocumulus deck at two times in the diurnal cycle and (2 one scene with scattered cumulus. Only small impact of drizzle formation on the retrieved domain average and on the differences between the three

  7. Cloud-to-Ground Lightning Estimates Derived from SSMI Microwave Remote Sensing and NLDN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winesett, Thomas; Magi, Brian; Cecil, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Lightning observations are collected using ground-based and satellite-based sensors. The National Lightning Detection Network (NLDN) in the United States uses multiple ground sensors to triangulate the electromagnetic signals created when lightning strikes the Earth's surface. Satellite-based lightning observations have been made from 1998 to present using the Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS) on the NASA Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite, and from 1995 to 2000 using the Optical Transient Detector (OTD) on the Microlab-1 satellite. Both LIS and OTD are staring imagers that detect lightning as momentary changes in an optical scene. Passive microwave remote sensing (85 and 37 GHz brightness temperatures) from the TRMM Microwave Imager (TMI) has also been used to quantify characteristics of thunderstorms related to lightning. Each lightning detection system has fundamental limitations. TRMM satellite coverage is limited to the tropics and subtropics between 38 deg N and 38 deg S, so lightning at the higher latitudes of the northern and southern hemispheres is not observed. The detection efficiency of NLDN sensors exceeds 95%, but the sensors are only located in the USA. Even if data from other ground-based lightning sensors (World Wide Lightning Location Network, the European Cooperation for Lightning Detection, and Canadian Lightning Detection Network) were combined with TRMM and NLDN, there would be enormous spatial gaps in present-day coverage of lightning. In addition, a globally-complete time history of observed lightning activity is currently not available either, with network coverage and detection efficiencies varying through the years. Previous research using the TRMM LIS and Microwave Imager (TMI) showed that there is a statistically significant correlation between lightning flash rates and passive microwave brightness temperatures. The physical basis for this correlation emerges because lightning in a thunderstorm occurs where ice is first

  8. Farm Management Support on Cloud Computing Platform: A System for Cropland Monitoring Using Multi-Source Remotely Sensed Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coburn, C. A.; Qin, Y.; Zhang, J.; Staenz, K.

    2015-12-01

    Food security is one of the most pressing issues facing humankind. Recent estimates predict that over one billion people don't have enough food to meet their basic nutritional needs. The ability of remote sensing tools to monitor and model crop production and predict crop yield is essential for providing governments and farmers with vital information to ensure food security. Google Earth Engine (GEE) is a cloud computing platform, which integrates storage and processing algorithms for massive remotely sensed imagery and vector data sets. By providing the capabilities of storing and analyzing the data sets, it provides an ideal platform for the development of advanced analytic tools for extracting key variables used in regional and national food security systems. With the high performance computing and storing capabilities of GEE, a cloud-computing based system for near real-time crop land monitoring was developed using multi-source remotely sensed data over large areas. The system is able to process and visualize the MODIS time series NDVI profile in conjunction with Landsat 8 image segmentation for crop monitoring. With multi-temporal Landsat 8 imagery, the crop fields are extracted using the image segmentation algorithm developed by Baatz et al.[1]. The MODIS time series NDVI data are modeled by TIMESAT [2], a software package developed for analyzing time series of satellite data. The seasonality of MODIS time series data, for example, the start date of the growing season, length of growing season, and NDVI peak at a field-level are obtained for evaluating the crop-growth conditions. The system fuses MODIS time series NDVI data and Landsat 8 imagery to provide information of near real-time crop-growth conditions through the visualization of MODIS NDVI time series and comparison of multi-year NDVI profiles. Stakeholders, i.e., farmers and government officers, are able to obtain crop-growth information at crop-field level online. This unique utilization of GEE in

  9. Introduction to remote sensing

    CERN Document Server

    Cracknell, Arthur P

    2007-01-01

    Addressing the need for updated information in remote sensing, Introduction to Remote Sensing, Second Edition provides a full and authoritative introduction for scientists who need to know the scope, potential, and limitations in the field. The authors discuss the physical principles of common remote sensing systems and examine the processing, interpretation, and applications of data. This new edition features updated and expanded material, including greater coverage of applications from across earth, environmental, atmospheric, and oceanographic sciences. Illustrated with remotely sensed colo

  10. Mobile-cloud assisted video summarization framework for efficient management of remote sensing data generated by wireless capsule sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehmood, Irfan; Sajjad, Muhammad; Baik, Sung Wook

    2014-09-15

    Wireless capsule endoscopy (WCE) has great advantages over traditional endoscopy because it is portable and easy to use, especially in remote monitoring health-services. However, during the WCE process, the large amount of captured video data demands a significant deal of computation to analyze and retrieve informative video frames. In order to facilitate efficient WCE data collection and browsing task, we present a resource- and bandwidth-aware WCE video summarization framework that extracts the representative keyframes of the WCE video contents by removing redundant and non-informative frames. For redundancy elimination, we use Jeffrey-divergence between color histograms and inter-frame Boolean series-based correlation of color channels. To remove non-informative frames, multi-fractal texture features are extracted to assist the classification using an ensemble-based classifier. Owing to the limited WCE resources, it is impossible for the WCE system to perform computationally intensive video summarization tasks. To resolve computational challenges, mobile-cloud architecture is incorporated, which provides resizable computing capacities by adaptively offloading video summarization tasks between the client and the cloud server. The qualitative and quantitative results are encouraging and show that the proposed framework saves information transmission cost and bandwidth, as well as the valuable time of data analysts in browsing remote sensing data.

  11. Mobile-Cloud Assisted Video Summarization Framework for Efficient Management of Remote Sensing Data Generated by Wireless Capsule Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irfan Mehmood

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Wireless capsule endoscopy (WCE has great advantages over traditional endoscopy because it is portable and easy to use, especially in remote monitoring health-services. However, during the WCE process, the large amount of captured video data demands a significant deal of computation to analyze and retrieve informative video frames. In order to facilitate efficient WCE data collection and browsing task, we present a resource- and bandwidth-aware WCE video summarization framework that extracts the representative keyframes of the WCE video contents by removing redundant and non-informative frames. For redundancy elimination, we use Jeffrey-divergence between color histograms and inter-frame Boolean series-based correlation of color channels. To remove non-informative frames, multi-fractal texture features are extracted to assist the classification using an ensemble-based classifier. Owing to the limited WCE resources, it is impossible for the WCE system to perform computationally intensive video summarization tasks. To resolve computational challenges, mobile-cloud architecture is incorporated, which provides resizable computing capacities by adaptively offloading video summarization tasks between the client and the cloud server. The qualitative and quantitative results are encouraging and show that the proposed framework saves information transmission cost and bandwidth, as well as the valuable time of data analysts in browsing remote sensing data.

  12. Mobile-Cloud Assisted Video Summarization Framework for Efficient Management of Remote Sensing Data Generated by Wireless Capsule Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehmood, Irfan; Sajjad, Muhammad; Baik, Sung Wook

    2014-01-01

    Wireless capsule endoscopy (WCE) has great advantages over traditional endoscopy because it is portable and easy to use, especially in remote monitoring health-services. However, during the WCE process, the large amount of captured video data demands a significant deal of computation to analyze and retrieve informative video frames. In order to facilitate efficient WCE data collection and browsing task, we present a resource- and bandwidth-aware WCE video summarization framework that extracts the representative keyframes of the WCE video contents by removing redundant and non-informative frames. For redundancy elimination, we use Jeffrey-divergence between color histograms and inter-frame Boolean series-based correlation of color channels. To remove non-informative frames, multi-fractal texture features are extracted to assist the classification using an ensemble-based classifier. Owing to the limited WCE resources, it is impossible for the WCE system to perform computationally intensive video summarization tasks. To resolve computational challenges, mobile-cloud architecture is incorporated, which provides resizable computing capacities by adaptively offloading video summarization tasks between the client and the cloud server. The qualitative and quantitative results are encouraging and show that the proposed framework saves information transmission cost and bandwidth, as well as the valuable time of data analysts in browsing remote sensing data. PMID:25225874

  13. Several thoughts for using new satellite remote sensing and global modeling for aerosol and cloud climate studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, Teruyuki; Hashimoto, Makiko; Takenaka, Hideaki; Goto, Daisuke; Oikawa, Eiji; Suzuki, Kentaroh; Uchida, Junya; Dai, Tie; Shi, Chong

    2017-04-01

    The rapid growth of satellite remote sensing technologies in the last two decades widened the utility of satellite data for understanding climate impacts of aerosols and clouds. The climate modeling community also has received the benefit of the earth observation and nowadays closed-collaboration of the two communities make us possible to challenge various applications for societal problems, such as for global warming and global-scale air pollution and others. I like to give several thoughts of new algorithm developments, model use of satellite data for climate impact studies and societal applications related with aerosols and clouds. Important issues are 1) Better aerosol detection and solar energy application using expanded observation ability of the third generation geostationary satellites, i.e. Himawari-8, GOES-R and future MTG, 2) Various observation functions by directional, polarimetric, and high resolution near-UV band by MISR, POLDER&PARASOL, GOSAT/CAI and future GOSAT2/CAI2, 3) Various applications of general purpose-imagers, MODIS, VIIRS and future GCOM-C/SGLI, and 4) Climate studies of aerosol and cloud stratification and convection with active and passive sensors, especially climate impact of BC aerosols using CLOUDSAT&CALIPSO and future Earth Explorer/EarthCARE.

  14. Remote Sensing of Aerosols from Satellites: Why Has It Been Do Difficult to Quantify Aerosol-Cloud Interactions for Climate Assessment, and How Can We Make Progress?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn, Ralph A.

    2015-01-01

    The organizers of the National Academy of Sciences Arthur M. Sackler Colloquia Series on Improving Our Fundamental Understanding of the Role of Aerosol-Cloud Interactions in the Climate System would like to post Ralph Kahn's presentation entitled Remote Sensing of Aerosols from Satellites: Why has it been so difficult to quantify aerosol-cloud interactions for climate assessment, and how can we make progress? to their public website.

  15. Satellite remote sensing of dust aerosol indirect effects on ice cloud formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ou, Steve Szu-Cheng; Liou, Kuo-Nan; Wang, Xingjuan; Hansell, Richard; Lefevre, Randy; Cocks, Stephen

    2009-01-20

    We undertook a new approach to investigate the aerosol indirect effect of the first kind on ice cloud formation by using available data products from the Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) and obtained physical understanding about the interaction between aerosols and ice clouds. Our analysis focused on the examination of the variability in the correlation between ice cloud parameters (optical depth, effective particle size, cloud water path, and cloud particle number concentration) and aerosol optical depth and number concentration that were inferred from available satellite cloud and aerosol data products. Correlation results for a number of selected scenes containing dust and ice clouds are presented, and dust aerosol indirect effects on ice clouds are directly demonstrated from satellite observations.

  16. Remote Sensing of Cloud Top Heights Using the Research Scanning Polarimeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair, Kenneth; van Diedenhoven, Bastiaan; Cairns, Brian; Yorks, John; Wasilewski, Andrzej

    2015-01-01

    Clouds cover roughly two thirds of the globe and act as an important regulator of Earth's radiation budget. Of these, multilayered clouds occur about half of the time and are predominantly two-layered. Changes in cloud top height (CTH) have been predicted by models to have a globally averaged positive feedback, however observational changes in CTH have shown uncertain results. Additional CTH observations are necessary to better and quantify the effect. Improved CTH observations will also allow for improved sub-grid parameterizations in large-scale models and accurate CTH information is important when studying variations in freezing point and cloud microphysics. NASA's airborne Research Scanning Polarimeter (RSP) is able to measure cloud top height using a novel multi-angular contrast approach. RSP scans along the aircraft track and obtains measurements at 152 viewing angles at any aircraft location. The approach presented here aggregates measurements from multiple scans to a single location at cloud altitude using a correlation function designed to identify the location-distinct features in each scan. During NASAs SEAC4RS air campaign, the RSP was mounted on the ER-2 aircraft along with the Cloud Physics Lidar (CPL), which made simultaneous measurements of CTH. The RSPs unique method of determining CTH is presented. The capabilities of using single and combinations of channels within the approach are investigated. A detailed comparison of RSP retrieved CTHs with those of CPL reveal the accuracy of the approach. Results indicate a strong ability for the RSP to accurately identify cloud heights. Interestingly, the analysis reveals an ability for the approach to identify multiple cloud layers in a single scene and estimate the CTH of each layer. Capabilities and limitations of identifying single and multiple cloud layers heights are explored. Special focus is given to sources of error in the method including optically thin clouds, physically thick clouds, multi

  17. Efficient Retrieval of Massive Ocean Remote Sensing Images via a Cloud-Based Mean-Shift Algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Mengzhao; Song, Wei; Mei, Haibin

    2017-07-23

    The rapid development of remote sensing (RS) technology has resulted in the proliferation of high-resolution images. There are challenges involved in not only storing large volumes of RS images but also in rapidly retrieving the images for ocean disaster analysis such as for storm surges and typhoon warnings. In this paper, we present an efficient retrieval of massive ocean RS images via a Cloud-based mean-shift algorithm. Distributed construction method via the pyramid model is proposed based on the maximum hierarchical layer algorithm and used to realize efficient storage structure of RS images on the Cloud platform. We achieve high-performance processing of massive RS images in the Hadoop system. Based on the pyramid Hadoop distributed file system (HDFS) storage method, an improved mean-shift algorithm for RS image retrieval is presented by fusion with the canopy algorithm via Hadoop MapReduce programming. The results show that the new method can achieve better performance for data storage than HDFS alone and WebGIS-based HDFS. Speedup and scaleup are very close to linear changes with an increase of RS images, which proves that image retrieval using our method is efficient.

  18. Cloud tolerance of remote sensing technologies to measure land surface temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conventional means to estimate land surface temperature (LST) from space relies on the thermal infrared (TIR) spectral window and is limited to cloud-free scenes. To also provide LST estimates during periods with clouds, a new method was developed to estimate LST based on passive microwave (MW) obse...

  19. Remote Sensing of Clouds And Precipitation: Event-Based Characterization, Life Cycle Evolution, and Aerosol Influences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esmaili, Rebekah Bradley

    Global climate models, numerical weather prediction, and flood models rely on accurate satellite precipitation products, which are the only datasets that are continuous in time and space across the globe. While there are more earth observing satellites than ever before, gaps in precipitation retrievals exist due to sensor and orbital limitations of low-earth (LEO) satellites, which are overcome by merging data from different sensors in satellite precipitation products (SPPs). Using cloud tracking at higher resolutions than the spatio-temporal scales of LEO satellites, this thesis examines how clouds typically form in the atmosphere, the rate that cloud size and temperature evolve over the life cycle, and the time of day that cloud development take place. This thesis found that cloud evolution was non-linear, which disagrees with the linear interpolation schemes used in SPPs. Longer lasting clouds tended to achieve their temperature and size maturity milestones at different times, while these stages often occurred simultaneously in shorter lasting clouds. Over the ocean, longer lasting clouds were found to occur more frequently at night, while shorter lasting clouds were more common during the daytime. This thesis also examines whether large-scale Saharan dust outbreaks can impact the trajectories and intensity of cloud clusters in the tropical Atlantic, which is predicted by modeling studies. The presented results show that proximity to Saharan dust outbreaks shifts Atlantic cloud development northward and intense storms becoming more common, whereas on days with low dust loading small-scale, warmer clouds are more common. A simplified view of cloud evolution in merged rainfall retrievals is a possible source of errors, which can propagate into higher level analysis. This thesis investigates the difference in the intensity, duration, and frequency of precipitation in IMERG, a next-generation satellite precipitation product with ground radar observations over the

  20. Optical remote sensing

    CERN Document Server

    Prasad, Saurabh; Chanussot, Jocelyn

    2011-01-01

    Optical remote sensing relies on exploiting multispectral and hyper spectral imagery possessing high spatial and spectral resolutions respectively. These modalities, although useful for most remote sensing tasks, often present challenges that must be addressed for their effective exploitation. This book presents current state-of-the-art algorithms that address the following key challenges encountered in representation and analysis of such optical remotely sensed data: challenges in pre-processing images, storing and representing high dimensional data, fusing different sensor modalities, patter

  1. REMOTE SENSING IN OCEANOGRAPHY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    remote sensing from satellites. Sensing of oceanographic variables from aircraft began with the photographing of waves and ice. Since then remote measurement of sea surface temperatures and wave heights have become routine. Sensors tested for oceanographic applications include multi-band color cameras, radar scatterometers, infrared spectrometers and scanners, passive microwave radiometers, and radar imagers. Remote sensing has found its greatest application in providing rapid coverage of large oceanographic areas for synoptic and analysis and

  2. Advanced Remote Sensing Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slonecker, Terrence; Jones, John W.; Price, Susan D.; Hogan, Dianna

    2008-01-01

    'Remote sensing' is a generic term for monitoring techniques that collect information without being in physical contact with the object of study. Overhead imagery from aircraft and satellite sensors provides the most common form of remotely sensed data and records the interaction of electromagnetic energy (usually visible light) with matter, such as the Earth's surface. Remotely sensed data are fundamental to geographic science. The Eastern Geographic Science Center (EGSC) of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is currently conducting and promoting the research and development of three different aspects of remote sensing science: spectral analysis, automated orthorectification of historical imagery, and long wave infrared (LWIR) polarimetric imagery (PI).

  3. Optical Remote Sensing Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Optical Remote Sensing Laboratory deploys rugged, cutting-edge electro-optical instrumentation for the collection of various event signatures, with expertise in...

  4. Remote Sensing of Cloud Top Height from SEVIRI: Analysis of Eleven Current Retrieval Algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamann, U.; Walther, A.; Baum, B.; Bennartz, R.; Bugliaro, L.; Derrien, M.; Francis, P. N.; Heidinger, A.; Joro, S.; Kniffka, A.; hide

    2014-01-01

    The role of clouds remains the largest uncertainty in climate projections. They influence solar and thermal radiative transfer and the earth's water cycle. Therefore, there is an urgent need for accurate cloud observations to validate climate models and to monitor climate change. Passive satellite imagers measuring radiation at visible to thermal infrared (IR) wavelengths provide a wealth of information on cloud properties. Among others, the cloud top height (CTH) - a crucial parameter to estimate the thermal cloud radiative forcing - can be retrieved. In this paper we investigate the skill of ten current retrieval algorithms to estimate the CTH using observations from the Spinning Enhanced Visible and InfraRed Imager (SEVIRI) onboard Meteosat Second Generation (MSG). In the first part we compare ten SEVIRI cloud top pressure (CTP) data sets with each other. The SEVIRI algorithms catch the latitudinal variation of the CTP in a similar way. The agreement is better in the extratropics than in the tropics. In the tropics multi-layer clouds and thin cirrus layers complicate the CTP retrieval, whereas a good agreement among the algorithms is found for trade wind cumulus, marine stratocumulus and the optically thick cores of the deep convective system. In the second part of the paper the SEVIRI retrievals are compared to CTH observations from the Cloud-Aerosol LIdar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP) and Cloud Profiling Radar (CPR) instruments. It is important to note that the different measurement techniques cause differences in the retrieved CTH data. SEVIRI measures a radiatively effective CTH, while the CTH of the active instruments is derived from the return time of the emitted radar or lidar signal. Therefore, some systematic differences are expected. On average the CTHs detected by the SEVIRI algorithms are 1.0 to 2.5 kilometers lower than CALIOP observations, and the correlation coefficients between the SEVIRI and the CALIOP data sets range between 0.77 and 0

  5. Added value of far-infrared radiometry for remote sensing of ice clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libois, Quentin; Blanchet, Jean-Pierre

    2017-06-01

    Several cloud retrieval algorithms based on satellite observations in the infrared have been developed in the last decades. However, these observations only cover the midinfrared (MIR, λ transparent in the FIR, using FIR channels would reduce by more than 50% the uncertainties on retrieved values of optical thickness, effective particle diameter, and cloud top altitude. Notably, this would extend the range of applicability of current retrieval methods to the polar regions and to clouds with large optical thickness, where MIR algorithms perform poorly. The high performance of solar reflection-based algorithms would thus be reached in nighttime conditions. Since the sensitivity of ice cloud thermal emission to effective particle diameter is approximately 5 times larger in the FIR than in the MIR, using FIR observations is a promising venue for studying ice cloud microphysics and precipitation processes. This is highly relevant for cirrus clouds and convective towers. This is also essential to study precipitation in the driest regions of the atmosphere, where strong feedbacks are at play between clouds and water vapor. The deployment in the near future of a FIR spaceborne radiometer is technologically feasible and should be strongly supported.

  6. Cloud Masking for Remotely Sensed Data Using Spectral and Principal Components Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ahmad

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Two methods of cloud masking tuned to tropical conditions have been developed, based on spectral analysis and Principal Components Analysis (PCA of Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS data. In the spectral approach, thresholds were applied to four reflective bands (1, 2, 3, and 4, three thermal bands (29, 31 and 32, the band 2/band 1 ratio, and the difference between band 29 and 31 in order to detect clouds. The PCA approach applied a threshold to the first principal component derived from the seven quantities used for spectral analysis. Cloud detections were compared with the standard MODIS cloud mask, and their accuracy was assessed using reference images and geographical information on the study area.

  7. Cloud Tolerance of Remote-Sensing Technologies to Measure Land Surface Temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Thomas R. H.; Hain, Christopher R.; Anderson, Martha C.; Crow, Wade T.

    2016-01-01

    Conventional methods to estimate land surface temperature (LST) from space rely on the thermal infrared(TIR) spectral window and is limited to cloud-free scenes. To also provide LST estimates during periods with clouds, a new method was developed to estimate LST based on passive microwave(MW) observations. The MW-LST product is informed by six polar-orbiting satellites to create a global record with up to eight observations per day for each 0.25resolution grid box. For days with sufficient observations, a continuous diurnal temperature cycle (DTC) was fitted. The main characteristics of the DTC were scaled to match those of a geostationary TIR-LST product. This paper tests the cloud tolerance of the MW-LST product. In particular, we demonstrate its stable performance with respect to flux tower observation sites (four in Europe and nine in the United States), over a range of cloudiness conditions up to heavily overcast skies. The results show that TIR based LST has slightly better performance than MW-LST for clear-sky observations but suffers an increasing negative bias as cloud cover increases. This negative bias is caused by incomplete masking of cloud-covered areas within the TIR scene that affects many applications of TIR-LST. In contrast, for MW-LST we find no direct impact of clouds on its accuracy and bias. MW-LST can therefore be used to improve TIR cloud screening. Moreover, the ability to provide LST estimates for cloud-covered surfaces can help expand current clear-sky-only satellite retrieval products to all-weather applications.

  8. Investigation of Arctic mixed-phase clouds by combining airborne remote sensing and in situ observations during VERDI, RACEPAC and ACLOUD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrlich, André; Bierwirth, Eike; Borrmann, Stephan; Crewell, Susanne; Herber, Andreas; Hoor, Peter; Jourdan, Olivier; Krämer, Martina; Lüpkes, Christof; Mertes, Stephan; Neuber, Roland; Petzold, Andreas; Schnaiter, Martin; Schneider, Johannes; Weigel, Ralf; Weinzierl, Bernadett; Wendisch, Manfred

    2016-04-01

    To improve our understanding of Arctic mixed-phase clouds a series of airborne research campaigns has been initiated by a collaboration of German research institutes. Clouds in areas dominated by a close sea-ice cover were observed during the research campaign Vertical distribution of ice in Arctic mixed-phase clouds (VERDI, April/May 2012) and the Radiation-Aerosol-Cloud Experiment in the Arctic Circle (RACEPAC, April/May 2014) which both were based in Inuvik, Canada. The aircraft (Polar 5 & 6, Basler BT-67) operated by the Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research, Germany did cover a wide area above the Canadian Beaufort with in total 149 flight hours (62h during VERDI, 87h during RACEPAC). For May/June 2017 a third campaign ACLOUD (Arctic Clouds - Characterization of Ice, aerosol Particles and Energy fluxes) with base in Svalbard is planned within the Transregional Collaborative Research Centre TR 172 ArctiC Amplification: Climate Relevant Atmospheric and SurfaCe Processes, and Feedback Mechanisms (AC)3 to investigate Arctic clouds in the transition zone between open ocean and sea ice. The aim of all campaigns is to combine remote sensing and in-situ cloud, aerosol and trace gas measurements to investigate interactions between radiation, cloud and aerosol particles. While during VERDI remote sensing and in-situ measurements were performed by one aircraft subsequently, for RACEPAC and ACLOUD two identical aircraft are coordinated at different altitudes to horizontally collocate both remote sensing and in-situ measurements. The campaign showed that in this way radiative and microphysical processes in the clouds can by studied more reliably and remote sensing methods can be validated efficiently. Here we will illustrate the scientific strategy of the projects including the progress in instrumentation. Differences in the general synoptic and sea ice situation and related changes in cloud properties at the different locations and seasons will be

  9. Hyperspectral remote sensing

    CERN Document Server

    Eismann, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Hyperspectral remote sensing is an emerging, multidisciplinary field with diverse applications that builds on the principles of material spectroscopy, radiative transfer, imaging spectrometry, and hyperspectral data processing. This book provides a holistic treatment that captures its multidisciplinary nature, emphasizing the physical principles of hyperspectral remote sensing.

  10. Laser Remote Sensing from ISS: CATS Cloud and Aerosol Level 2 Data Products (Heritage Edition)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodier, Sharon; Palm, Steve; Vaughan, Mark; Yorks, John; McGill, Matt; Jensen, Mike; Murray, Tim; Trepte, Chip

    2016-01-01

    With the recent launch of the Cloud-Aerosol Transport System (CATS) we have the opportunity to acquire a continuous record of space based lidar measurements spanning from the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations (CALIPSO) era to the start of the EarthCARE mission. Utilizing existing well-validated science algorithms from the CALIPSO mission, we will ingest the CATS data stream and deliver high-quality lidar data sets to the user community at the earliest possible opportunity. In this paper we present an overview of procedures necessary to generate CALIPSO-like lidar level 2 data products from the CATS level 1 data products.

  11. Multi-sensor cloud and aerosol retrieval simulator and remote sensing from model parameters - Part 2: Aerosols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wind, Galina; da Silva, Arlindo M.; Norris, Peter M.; Platnick, Steven; Mattoo, Shana; Levy, Robert C.

    2016-07-01

    operational remote-sensing algorithms.Specifically, the MCARS-computed radiances are input into the processing chain used to produce the MODIS Data Collection 6 aerosol product (M{O/Y}D04). The M{O/Y}D04 product is of course normally produced from M{O/Y}D021KM MODIS Level-1B radiance product directly acquired by the MODIS instrument. MCARS matches the format and metadata of a M{O/Y}D021KM product. The resulting MCARS output can be directly provided to MODAPS (MODIS Adaptive Processing System) as input to various operational atmospheric retrieval algorithms. Thus the operational algorithms can be tested directly without needing to make any software changes to accommodate an alternative input source.We show direct application of this synthetic product in analysis of the performance of the MOD04 operational algorithm. We use biomass-burning case studies over Amazonia employed in a recent Working Group on Numerical Experimentation (WGNE)-sponsored study of aerosol impacts on numerical weather prediction (Freitas et al., 2015). We demonstrate that a known low bias in retrieved MODIS aerosol optical depth appears to be due to a disconnect between actual column relative humidity and the value assumed by the MODIS aerosol product.

  12. Multi-Sensor Cloud and Aerosol Retrieval Simulator and Remote Sensing from Model Parameters . Part 2; Aerosols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wind, Galina; Da Silva, Arlindo M.; Norris, Peter M.; Platnick, Steven; Mattoo, Shana; Levy, Robert C.

    2016-01-01

    operational remote-sensing algorithms. Specifically, the MCARS-computed radiances are input into the processing chain used to produce the MODIS Data Collection 6 aerosol product (MOYD04). TheMOYD04 product is of course normally produced from MOYD021KM MODIS Level-1B radiance product directly acquired by the MODIS instrument. MCARS matches the format and metadata of a MOYD021KM product. The resulting MCARS output can be directly provided to MODAPS (MODIS Adaptive Processing System) as input to various operational atmospheric retrieval algorithms. Thus the operational algorithms can be tested directly without needing to make any software changes to accommodate an alternative input source. We show direct application of this synthetic product in analysis of the performance of the MOD04 operational algorithm. We use biomass-burning case studies over Amazonia employed in a recent Working Group on Numerical Experimentation (WGNE)-sponsored study of aerosol impacts on numerical weather prediction (Freitas et al., 2015). We demonstrate that a known low bias in retrieved MODIS aerosol optical depth appears to be due to a disconnect between actual column relative humidity and the value assumed by the MODIS aerosol product.

  13. Insights on the Feasibility, Modeling and Field Testing of Cirrus Cloud Thinning from Satellite Remote Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, D. L.; Garnier, A.; Mejia, J.; Avery, M. A.; Erfani, E.

    2016-12-01

    To date, it is not clear whether the climate intervention method known as cirrus cloud thinning (CCT) can be viable since it requires cirrus clouds to form through homogeneous ice nucleation (henceforth hom) and some recent GCM studies predict cirrus are formed primarily through heterogeneous ice nucleation (henceforth het). A new CALIPSO infrared retrieval method has been developed for single-layer cirrus cloud that measures the temperature dependence of their layer-averaged number concentration N, effective diameter De and ice water content for optical depths (OD) between 0.3 and 3.0. Based on N, the prevailing ice nucleation mechanism (hom or het) can be estimated as a function of temperature, season, latitude and surface type. These satellite results indicate that seeding cirrus clouds at high latitudes during winter may produce significant global surface cooling. This is because hom often appears to dominate over land during winter north of 30°N latitude while the same appears true for most of the Southern Hemisphere (south of 30°S) during all seasons. Moreover, the sampled cirrus cloud frequency of occurrence in the Arctic is at least twice as large during winter relative to other seasons, while frequency of occurrence in the Antarctic peaks in the spring and is second-highest during winter. During Arctic winter, a combination of frequent hom cirrus, maximum cirrus coverage and an extreme or absent sun angle produces the maximum seasonal cirrus net radiative forcing (warming). Thus a reduction in OD and coverage (via CCT) for these cirrus clouds could yield a significant net cooling effect. From these CALIPSO retrievals, De-T relationships are generated as a function of season, latitude and surface type (land vs. ocean). These will be used in CAM5 to estimate De and the ice fall speed, from which the cirrus radiative forcing will be estimated during winter north of 30°latitude, where hom cirrus are common. Another CAM5 simulation will replace the hom

  14. Investigation of drought-vulnerable regions in North Korea using remote sensing and cloud computing climate data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jinhang; Lim, Joongbin; Lee, Kyoo-Seock

    2018-02-08

    Drought is one of the most severe natural disasters in the world and leads to serious challenges that affect both the natural environment and human societies. North Korea (NK) has frequently suffered from severe and prolonged droughts since the second half of the twentieth century. These droughts affect the growing conditions of agricultural crops, which have led to food shortages in NK. However, it is not easy to obtain ground data because NK is one of the most closed-off societies in the world. In this situation, remote sensing (RS) techniques and cloud computing climate data (CCCD) can be used for drought monitoring in NK. RS-derived drought indices and CCCD were used to determine the drought-vulnerable regions in the spring season in NK. After the results were compared and discussed, the following conclusions were derived: (1) 10.0% of the total area of NK is estimated to be a drought-vulnerable region. The most susceptible regions to drought appear in the eastern and western coastal regions, far from BaekDu-DaeGan (BDDG), while fewer drought regions are found near BDDG and the Nahngrim Mountains. The drought-vulnerable regions are the coastal regions of South Hamgyong Province, North Hamgyong Province, South Pyongan Province, and South Hwanghae Province. The latter region is the food basket of NK. (2) In terms of land cover, the drought-vulnerable regions mainly consisted of croplands and mixed forest.

  15. Effects of Cloud Particles on Remote Sensing from Space in the 10-Micrometer Infrared Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-01-01

    ayers , that is , a plane-parallel atmosphere wi th infinite hori zontal extent . As a matter of fact, this is how the planeta ry atmosphere is being...Remote Probin g of the Atmosphe re, 1973. 43 . Hansen , J. E. and L. D. Travis , 1974 , “Light Scattering in Planeta ry • Atmospheres ,” Goddard

  16. LIDAR and atmosphere remote sensing

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Venkataraman, S

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available using state of the art Light Detection And Ranging (LiDAR) instrumentation and other active and passive remote sensing tools. First “Lidar Field Campaign” • 2-day measurement campaign at University of Pretoria • First 23-hour continuous measurement... head2rightCirrus cloud morphology and dynamics. Atmospheric Research in Southern Africa and Indian Ocean (ARSAIO) Slide 24 © CSIR 2008 www.csir.co.za Middle atmosphere dynamics and thermal structure: comparative studies from...

  17. Remote-Sensing Data Distribution and Processing in the Cloud at the ASF DAAC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoner, C.; Arko, S. A.; Nicoll, J. B.; Labelle-Hamer, A. L.

    2016-12-01

    The Alaska Satellite Facility (ASF) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC) has been tasked to archive and distribute data from both SENTINEL-1 satellites and from the NASA-ISRO Synthetic Aperture Radar (NISAR) satellite in a cost effective manner. In order to best support processing and distribution of these large data sets for users, the ASF DAAC enhanced our data system in a number of ways that will be detailed in this presentation.The SENTINEL-1 mission comprises a constellation of two polar-orbiting satellites, operating day and night performing C-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) imaging, enabling them to acquire imagery regardless of the weather. SENTINEL-1A was launched by the European Space Agency (ESA) in April 2014. SENTINEL-1B is scheduled to launch in April 2016.The NISAR satellite is designed to observe and take measurements of some of the planet's most complex processes, including ecosystem disturbances, ice-sheet collapse, and natural hazards such as earthquakes, tsunamis, volcanoes and landslides. NISAR will employ radar imaging, polarimetry, and interferometry techniques using the SweepSAR technology employed for full-resolution wide-swath imaging. NISAR data files are large, making storage and processing a challenge for conventional store and download systems.To effectively process, store, and distribute petabytes of data in a High-performance computing environment, ASF took a long view with regard to technology choices and picked a path of most flexibility and Software re-use. To that end, this Software tools and services presentation will cover Web Object Storage (WOS) and the ability to seamlessly move from local sunk cost hardware to public cloud, such as Amazon Web Services (AWS). A prototype of SENTINEL-1A system that is in AWS, as well as a local hardware solution, will be examined to explain the pros and cons of each. In preparation for NISAR files which will be even larger than SENTINEL-1A, ASF has embarked on a number of cloud

  18. Remote Sensing Information Gateway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remote Sensing Information Gateway, a tool that allows scientists, researchers and decision makers to access a variety of multi-terabyte, environmental datasets and to subset the data and obtain only needed variables, greatly improving the download time.

  19. Hyperspectral remote sensing

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Eismann, Michael Theodore

    2012-01-01

    ..., and hyperspectral data processing. While there are many resources that suitably cover these areas individually and focus on specific aspects of the hyperspectral remote sensing field, this book provides a holistic treatment...

  20. Massive Cloud-Based Big Data Processing for Ocean Sensor Networks and Remote Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwehr, K. D.

    2017-12-01

    Until recently, the work required to integrate and analyze data for global-scale environmental issues was prohibitive both in cost and availability. Traditional desktop processing systems are not able to effectively store and process all the data, and super computer solutions are financially out of the reach of most people. The availability of large-scale cloud computing has created tools that are usable by small groups and individuals regardless of financial resources or locally available computational resources. These systems give scientists and policymakers the ability to see how critical resources are being used across the globe with little or no barrier to entry. Google Earth Engine has the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Terra, MODIS Aqua, and Global Land Data Assimilation Systems (GLDAS) data catalogs available live online. Here we demonstrate these data to calculate the correlation between lagged chlorophyll and rainfall to identify areas of eutrophication, matching these events to ocean currents from datasets like HYbrid Coordinate Ocean Model (HYCOM) to check if there are constraints from oceanographic configurations. The system can provide addition ground truth with observations from sensor networks like the International Comprehensive Ocean-Atmosphere Data Set / Voluntary Observing Ship (ICOADS/VOS) and Argo floats. This presentation is intended to introduce users to the datasets, programming idioms, and functionality of Earth Engine for large-scale, data-driven oceanography.

  1. Remote sensing of natural phenomena

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miodrag D. Regodić

    2014-06-01

    monitoring natural phenomena The images taken from Remote Sensing have helped men to use the environment and natural resources in a better way. It is expected that the developement of new technologies will spread the usage of satellite images for the welfare of mankind as well.  Besides monitoring the surface of the Earth, the satellite monitoring of  the processes inside the Earth itself is of great importance since these processes can  cause different catastrophes such as earthquakes, volcano eruptions, floods, etc. Usage of satellite images in monitoring atmospheric phenomena The launch of artificial earth satellites has opened new possibilities for monitoring and studying atmospheric phenomena. A large number of meteorological satellites have been launched by now (Nimbus, Meteor, SNS, ESSA, Meteosat, Terra, etc.. Since these images are primarily used for weather forecast, meteorologists use them to get information about the characteristics of clouds related to their temperature, the temperature of the cloud layer, the degree of cloudness, the profiles of humidity content, the wind parameters, etc. Meteosat satellites Meteosat is the first European geostationary satellite designed for meteorological research. The use of these satellites enabled the surveying in the visible and the near IR part of the spectrum as well as in the infrared thermal and water steam track. Based on these images, it was possible to obtain data such as:  height of clouds, cloud spreading and moving, sea surface temperature, speed of wind, distribution of the water steam, balance of radiation, etc. Usage of satellite images in monitoring floods Satellite images are an excellent background and an initial phase for preventing severe catastrophic events caused by floods. Due to satellite images, it is possible to manage overflown regions before, during and after floods. This enables prevention, forecasting, detection and elimination of consequences, i.e. demage. Satellite images are of great help

  2. Hydrologic scales, cloud variability, remote sensing, and models: Implications for forecasting snowmelt and streamflow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, James J.; Dettinger, M.D.; Gehrke, F.; McIntire, T.J.; Hufford, Gary L.

    2004-01-01

    Accurate prediction of available water supply from snowmelt is needed if the myriad of human, environmental, agricultural, and industrial demands for water are to be satisfied, especially given legislatively imposed conditions on its allocation. Robust retrievals of hydrologic basin model variables (e.g., insolation or areal extent of snow cover) provide several advantages over the current operational use of either point measurements or parameterizations to help to meet this requirement. Insolation can be provided at hourly time scales (or better if needed during rapid melt events associated with flooding) and at 1-km spatial resolution. These satellite-based retrievals incorporate the effects of highly variable (both in space and time) and unpredictable cloud cover on estimates of insolation. The insolation estimates are further adjusted for the effects of basin topography using a high-resolution digital elevation model prior to model input. Simulations of two Sierra Nevada rivers in the snowmelt seasons of 1998 and 1999 indicate that even the simplest improvements in modeled insolation can improve snowmelt simulations, with 10%-20% reductions in root-mean-square errors. Direct retrieval of the areal extent of snow cover may mitigate the need to rely entirely on internal calculations of this variable, a reliance that can yield large errors that are difficult to correct until long after the season is complete and that often leads to persistent underestimates or overestimates of the volumes of the water to operational reservoirs. Agencies responsible for accurately predicting available water resources from the melt of snowpack [e.g., both federal (the National Weather Service River Forecast Centers) and state (the California Department of Water Resources)] can benefit by incorporating concepts developed herein into their operational forecasting procedures. ?? 2004 American Meteorological Society.

  3. A Sparse Dictionary Learning-Based Adaptive Patch Inpainting Method for Thick Clouds Removal from High-Spatial Resolution Remote Sensing Imagery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Fan; Yang, Xiaomei; Zhou, Chenghu; Li, Zhi

    2017-09-15

    Cloud cover is inevitable in optical remote sensing (RS) imagery on account of the influence of observation conditions, which limits the availability of RS data. Therefore, it is of great significance to be able to reconstruct the cloud-contaminated ground information. This paper presents a sparse dictionary learning-based image inpainting method for adaptively recovering the missing information corrupted by thick clouds patch-by-patch. A feature dictionary was learned from exemplars in the cloud-free regions, which was later utilized to infer the missing patches via sparse representation. To maintain the coherence of structures, structure sparsity was brought in to encourage first filling-in of missing patches on image structures. The optimization model of patch inpainting was formulated under the adaptive neighborhood-consistency constraint, which was solved by a modified orthogonal matching pursuit (OMP) algorithm. In light of these ideas, the thick-cloud removal scheme was designed and applied to images with simulated and true clouds. Comparisons and experiments show that our method can not only keep structures and textures consistent with the surrounding ground information, but also yield rare smoothing effect and block effect, which is more suitable for the removal of clouds from high-spatial resolution RS imagery with salient structures and abundant textured features.

  4. Building an Elastic Parallel OGC Web Processing Service on a Cloud-Based Cluster: A Case Study of Remote Sensing Data Processing Service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xicheng Tan

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Since the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC proposed the geospatial Web Processing Service (WPS, standard OGC Web Service (OWS-based geospatial processing has become the major type of distributed geospatial application. However, improving the performance and sustainability of the distributed geospatial applications has become the dominant challenge for OWSs. This paper presents the construction of an elastic parallel OGC WPS service on a cloud-based cluster and the designs of a high-performance, cloud-based WPS service architecture, the scalability scheme of the cloud, and the algorithm of the elastic parallel geoprocessing. Experiments of the remote sensing data processing service demonstrate that our proposed method can provide a higher-performance WPS service that uses less computing resources. Our proposed method can also help institutions reduce hardware costs, raise the rate of hardware usage, and conserve energy, which is important in building green and sustainable geospatial services or applications.

  5. Remote sensing image fusion

    CERN Document Server

    Alparone, Luciano; Baronti, Stefano; Garzelli, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    A synthesis of more than ten years of experience, Remote Sensing Image Fusion covers methods specifically designed for remote sensing imagery. The authors supply a comprehensive classification system and rigorous mathematical description of advanced and state-of-the-art methods for pansharpening of multispectral images, fusion of hyperspectral and panchromatic images, and fusion of data from heterogeneous sensors such as optical and synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images and integration of thermal and visible/near-infrared images. They also explore new trends of signal/image processing, such as

  6. Introduction to remote sensing

    CERN Document Server

    Campbell, James B

    2012-01-01

    A leading text for undergraduate- and graduate-level courses, this book introduces widely used forms of remote sensing imagery and their applications in plant sciences, hydrology, earth sciences, and land use analysis. The text provides comprehensive coverage of principal topics and serves as a framework for organizing the vast amount of remote sensing information available on the Web. Including case studies and review questions, the book's four sections and 21 chapters are carefully designed as independent units that instructors can select from as needed for their courses. Illustrations in

  7. Radar Remote Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Paul A.

    2012-01-01

    This lecture was just a taste of radar remote sensing techniques and applications. Other important areas include Stereo radar grammetry. PolInSAR for volumetric structure mapping. Agricultural monitoring, soil moisture, ice-mapping, etc. The broad range of sensor types, frequencies of observation and availability of sensors have enabled radar sensors to make significant contributions in a wide area of earth and planetary remote sensing sciences. The range of applications, both qualitative and quantitative, continue to expand with each new generation of sensors.

  8. Remote sensing: best practice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Gareth [Sgurr Energy (Canada)

    2011-07-01

    This paper presents remote sensing best practice in the wind industry. Remote sensing is a technique whereby measurements are obtained from the interaction of laser or acoustic pulses with the atmosphere. There is a vast diversity of tools and techniques available and they offer wide scope for reducing project uncertainty and risk but best practice must take into account versatility and flexibility. It should focus on the outcome in terms of results and data. However, traceability of accuracy requires comparison with conventional instruments. The framework for the Boulder protocol is given. Overviews of the guidelines for IEA SODAR and IEA LIDAR are also mentioned. The important elements of IEC 61400-12-1, an international standard for wind turbines, are given. Bankability is defined based on the Boulder protocol and a pie chart is presented that illustrates the uncertainty area covered by remote sensing. In conclusion it can be said that remote sensing is changing perceptions about how wind energy assessments can be made.

  9. Section summary: Remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belinda Arunarwati Margono

    2013-01-01

    Remote sensing is an important data source for monitoring the change of forest cover, in terms of both total removal of forest cover (deforestation), and change of canopy cover, structure and forest ecosystem services that result in forest degradation. In the context of Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), forest degradation monitoring requires information...

  10. Remote sensing for water quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giardino, Claudia

    2006-01-01

    The application of remote sensing to the study of lakes is begun in years 80 with the lunch of the satellites of second generation. Many experiences have indicated the contribution of remote sensing for the limnology [it

  11. Time-sensitive remote sensing

    CERN Document Server

    Lippitt, Christopher; Coulter, Lloyd

    2015-01-01

    This book documents the state of the art in the use of remote sensing to address time-sensitive information requirements. Specifically, it brings together a group of authors who are both researchers and practitioners, who work toward or are currently using remote sensing to address time-sensitive information requirements with the goal of advancing the effective use of remote sensing to supply time-sensitive information. The book addresses the theoretical implications of time-sensitivity on the remote sensing process, assessments or descriptions of methods for expediting the delivery and improving the quality of information derived from remote sensing, and describes and analyzes time-sensitive remote sensing applications, with an emphasis on lessons learned. This book is intended for remote sensing scientists, practitioners (e.g., emergency responders or administrators of emergency response agencies), and students, but will also be of use to those seeking to understand the potential of remote sensing to addres...

  12. Remote earth sensing experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trifonov, Yu V

    1981-01-01

    Description of data devices for deriving multi-spectral measuring television measurement data of middle and high resolution through use of second generation Meteor-type satellites. Options for developing a permanent and active remote sensing system in USSR are discussed. It is noted that the present experiment is an important step in that direction. Design and structural data for this particular device and its application in the experiment are covered.

  13. Assessment of the accuracy of the conventional ray-tracing technique: Implications in remote sensing and radiative transfer involving ice clouds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bi, Lei; Yang, Ping; Liu, Chao; Yi, Bingqi; Baum, Bryan A.; Diedenhoven, Bastiaan van; Iwabuchi, Hironobu

    2014-01-01

    A fundamental problem in remote sensing and radiative transfer simulations involving ice clouds is the ability to compute accurate optical properties for individual ice particles. While relatively simple and intuitively appealing, the conventional geometric-optics method (CGOM) is used frequently for the solution of light scattering by ice crystals. Due to the approximations in the ray-tracing technique, the CGOM accuracy is not well quantified. The result is that the uncertainties are introduced that can impact many applications. Improvements in the Invariant Imbedding T-matrix method (II-TM) and the Improved Geometric-Optics Method (IGOM) provide a mechanism to assess the aforementioned uncertainties. The results computed by the II-TM+IGOM are considered as a benchmark because the II-TM solves Maxwell's equations from first principles and is applicable to particle size parameters ranging into the domain at which the IGOM has reasonable accuracy. To assess the uncertainties with the CGOM in remote sensing and radiative transfer simulations, two independent optical property datasets of hexagonal columns are developed for sensitivity studies by using the CGOM and the II-TM+IGOM, respectively. Ice cloud bulk optical properties obtained from the two datasets are compared and subsequently applied to retrieve the optical thickness and effective diameter from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) measurements. Additionally, the bulk optical properties are tested in broadband radiative transfer (RT) simulations using the general circulation model (GCM) version of the Rapid Radiative Transfer Model (RRTMG) that is adopted in the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) Community Atmosphere Model (CAM, version 5.1). For MODIS retrievals, the mean bias of uncertainties of applying the CGOM in shortwave bands (0.86 and 2.13 μm) can be up to 5% in the optical thickness and as high as 20% in the effective diameter, depending on cloud optical

  14. Remote Sensing and the Earth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brosius, Craig A.; And Others

    This document is designed to help senior high school students study remote sensing technology and techniques in relation to the environmental sciences. It discusses the acquisition, analysis, and use of ecological remote data. Material is divided into three sections and an appendix. Section One is an overview of the basics of remote sensing.…

  15. IOCCG Report Number 16, 2015 Ocean Colour Remote Sensing in Polar Seas . Chapter 2; The Polar Environment: Sun, Clouds, and Ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comiso, Josefino C.; Perovich, Don; Stamnes, Knut; Stuart, Venetia (Editor)

    2015-01-01

    The polar regions are places of extremes. There are months when the regions are enveloped in unending darkness, and months when they are in continuous daylight. During the daylight months the sun is low on the horizon and often obscured by clouds. In the dark winter months temperatures are brutally cold, and high winds and blowing snow are common. Even in summer, temperatures seldom rise above 0degC. The cold winter temperatures cause the ocean to freeze, forming sea ice. This sea ice cover acts as a barrier limiting the transfer of heat, moisture, and momentum between the atmosphere and the ocean. It also greatly complicates the optical signature of the surface. Taken together, these factors make the polar regions a highly challenging environment for optical remote sensing of the ocean.

  16. Remote Sensing for Wind Energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peña, Alfredo; Hasager, Charlotte Bay; Lange, Julia

    The Remote Sensing in Wind Energy report provides a description of several topics and it is our hope that students and others interested will learn from it. The idea behind it began in year 2008 at DTU Wind Energy (formerly Risø) during the first PhD Summer School: Remote Sensing in Wind Energy...... state-of-the-art ‘guideline’ available for people involved in Remote Sensing in Wind Energy....

  17. Remote Sensing for Wind Energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The Remote Sensing in Wind Energy Compendium provides a description of several topics and it is our hope that students and others interested will learn from it. The idea behind this compendium began in year 2008 at Risø DTU during the first PhD Summer School: Remote Sensing in Wind Energy. Thus......-of-the-art compendium available for people involved in Remote Sensing in Wind Energy....

  18. Remote Sensing and Imaging Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-07

    Program Manager AFOSR/RSE Air Force Research Laboratory Remote Sensing and Imaging Physics 7 March 2012 Report Documentation Page Form...00-00-2012 to 00-00-2012 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Remote Sensing And Imaging Physics 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT...Imaging of Space Objects •Information without Imaging •Predicting the Location of Space Objects • Remote Sensing in Extreme Conditions •Propagation

  19. Geological remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Charlotte; Rivard, Benoit; de Souza Filho, Carlos; van der Meer, Freek

    2018-02-01

    Geology is defined as the 'study of the planet Earth - the materials of which it is made, the processes that act on these materials, the products formed, and the history of the planet and its life forms since its origin' (Bates and Jackson, 1976). Remote sensing has seen a number of variable definitions such as those by Sabins and Lillesand and Kiefer in their respective textbooks (Sabins, 1996; Lillesand and Kiefer, 2000). Floyd Sabins (Sabins, 1996) defined it as 'the science of acquiring, processing and interpreting images that record the interaction between electromagnetic energy and matter' while Lillesand and Kiefer (Lillesand and Kiefer, 2000) defined it as 'the science and art of obtaining information about an object, area, or phenomenon through the analysis of data acquired by a device that is not in contact with the object, area, or phenomenon under investigation'. Thus Geological Remote Sensing can be considered the study of, not just Earth given the breadth of work undertaken in planetary science, geological features and surfaces and their interaction with the electromagnetic spectrum using technology that is not in direct contact with the features of interest.

  20. Subsurface remote sensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schweitzer, Jeffrey S.; Groves, Joel L.

    2002-01-01

    Subsurface remote sensing measurements are widely used for oil and gas exploration, for oil and gas production monitoring, and for basic studies in the earth sciences. Radiation sensors, often including small accelerator sources, are used to obtain bulk properties of the surrounding strata as well as to provide detailed elemental analyses of the rocks and fluids in rock pores. Typically, instrument packages are lowered into a borehole at the end of a long cable, that may be as long as 10 km, and two-way data and instruction telemetry allows a single radiation instrument to operate in different modes and to send the data to a surface computer. Because these boreholes are often in remote locations throughout the world, the data are frequently transmitted by satellite to various locations around the world for almost real-time analysis and incorporation with other data. The complete system approach that permits rapid and reliable data acquisition, remote analysis and transmission to those making decisions is described

  1. Remote Sensing of Radiative and Microphysical Properties of Clouds During TC (sup 4): Results from MAS, MASTER, MODIS, and MISR

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Michael D.; Platnick, Steven; Wind, Galina; Arnold, G. Thomas; Dominguez, Roseanne T.

    2010-01-01

    The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Airborne Simulator (MAS) and MODIS/Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) Airborne Simulator (MASTER) were used to obtain measurements of the bidirectional reflectance and brightness temperature of clouds at 50 discrete wavelengths between 0.47 and 14.2 microns (12.9 microns for MASTER). These observations were obtained from the NASA ER-2 aircraft as part of the Tropical Composition, Cloud and Climate Coupling (TC4) experiment conducted over Central America and surrounding Pacific and Atlantic Oceans between 17 July and 8 August 2007. Multispectral images in eleven distinct bands were used to derive a confidence in clear sky (or alternatively the probability Of cloud) over land and ocean ecosystems. Based on the results of individual tests run as part of the cloud mask, an algorithm was developed to estimate the phase of the clouds (liquid water, ice, or undetermined phase). The cloud optical thickness and effective radius were derived for both liquid water and ice clouds that were detected during each flight, using a nearly identical algorithm to that implemented operationally to process MODIS Cloud data from the Aqua and Terra satellites (Collection 5). This analysis shows that the cloud mask developed for operational use on MODIS, and tested using MAS and MASTER data in TC(sup 4), is quite capable of distinguishing both liquid water and ice clouds during daytime conditions over both land and ocean. The cloud optical thickness and effective radius retrievals use five distinct bands of the MAS (or MASTER), and these results were compared with nearly simultaneous retrievals of marine liquid water clouds from MODIS on the Terra spacecraft. Finally, this MODIS-based algorithm was adapted to Multiangle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) data to infer the cloud optical thickness Of liquid water clouds from MISR. Results of this analysis are compared and contrasted.

  2. DEVELOPMENT OF IMPROVED TECHNIQUES FOR SATELLITE REMOTE SENSING OF CLOUDS AND RADIATION USING ARM DATA, FINAL REPORT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minnis, Patrick [NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, VA

    2013-06-28

    During the period, March 1997 – February 2006, the Principal Investigator and his research team co-authored 47 peer-reviewed papers and presented, at least, 138 papers at conferences, meetings, and workshops that were supported either in whole or in part by this agreement. We developed a state-of-the-art satellite cloud processing system that generates cloud properties over the Atmospheric Radiation (ARM) surface sites and surrounding domains in near-real time and outputs the results on the world wide web in image and digital formats. When the products are quality controlled, they are sent to the ARM archive for further dissemination. These products and raw satellite images can be accessed at http://cloudsgate2.larc.nasa.gov/cgi-bin/site/showdoc?docid=4&cmd=field-experiment-homepage&exp=ARM and are used by many in the ARM science community. The algorithms used in this system to generate cloud properties were validated and improved by the research conducted under this agreement. The team supported, at least, 11 ARM-related or supported field experiments by providing near-real time satellite imagery, cloud products, model results, and interactive analyses for mission planning, execution, and post-experiment scientific analyses. Comparisons of cloud properties derived from satellite, aircraft, and surface measurements were used to evaluate uncertainties in the cloud properties. Multiple-angle satellite retrievals were used to determine the influence of cloud structural and microphysical properties on the exiting radiation field.

  3. Remote Sensing for Wind Energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peña, Alfredo; Hasager, Charlotte Bay; Badger, Merete

    The Remote Sensing in Wind Energy report provides a description of several topics and it is our hope that students and others interested will learn from it. The idea behind it began in year 2008 at DTU Wind Energy (formerly Risø) during the first PhD Summer School: Remote Sensing in Wind Energy...... colleagues in the Meteorology and Test and Measurements Sections from DTU Wind Energy in the PhD Summer Schools. We hope to continue adding more topics in future editions and to update and improve as necessary, to provide a truly state-of-the-art ‘guideline’ available for people involved in Remote Sensing...

  4. Mississippi Sound Remote Sensing Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atwell, B. H.

    1973-01-01

    The Mississippi Sound Remote Sensing Study was initiated as part of the research program of the NASA Earth Resources Laboratory. The objective of this study is development of remote sensing techniques to study near-shore marine waters. Included within this general objective are the following: (1) evaluate existing techniques and instruments used for remote measurement of parameters of interest within these waters; (2) develop methods for interpretation of state-of-the-art remote sensing data which are most meaningful to an understanding of processes taking place within near-shore waters; (3) define hardware development requirements and/or system specifications; (4) develop a system combining data from remote and surface measurements which will most efficiently assess conditions in near-shore waters; (5) conduct projects in coordination with appropriate operating agencies to demonstrate applicability of this research to environmental and economic problems.

  5. Remote sensing of oil slicks

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Fondekar, S.P.; Rao, L.V.G.

    the drawback of expensive conventional surveying methods. An airborne remote sensing system used for monitoring and surveillance of oil comprises different sensors such as side-looking airborne radar, synthetic aperture radar, infrared/ultraviolet line scanner...

  6. Remote sensing technology: symposium proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    Papers were presented in four subject areas: applications of remote sensing; data analysis, digital and analog; acquisition systems; and general. Abstracts of individual items from the conference were prepared separately for the data base

  7. Classification of remotely sensed images

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Dudeni, N

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available For this research, the researchers examine various existing image classification algorithms with the aim of demonstrating how these algorithms can be applied to remote sensing images. These algorithms are broadly divided into supervised...

  8. Remote sensing for vineyard management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philipson, W. R.; Erb, T. L.; Fernandez, D.; Mcleester, J. N.

    1980-01-01

    Cornell's Remote Sensing Program has been involved in a continuing investigation to assess the value of remote sensing for vineyard management. Program staff members have conducted a series of site and crop analysis studies. These include: (1) panchromatic aerial photography for planning artificial drainage in a new vineyard; (2) color infrared aerial photography for assessing crop vigor/health; and (3) color infrared aerial photography and aircraft multispectral scanner data for evaluating yield related factors. These studies and their findings are reviewed.

  9. Scale issues in remote sensing

    CERN Document Server

    Weng, Qihao

    2014-01-01

    This book provides up-to-date developments, methods, and techniques in the field of GIS and remote sensing and features articles from internationally renowned authorities on three interrelated perspectives of scaling issues: scale in land surface properties, land surface patterns, and land surface processes. The book is ideal as a professional reference for practicing geographic information scientists and remote sensing engineers as well as a supplemental reading for graduate level students.

  10. Remote sensing and resource exploration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Baz, F.; Hassan, M.H.A.; Cappellini, V.

    1989-01-01

    The purpose of the Workshop was to study in depth the application of remote sensing technology to the fields of archaeology, astronomy, geography, geology, and physics. Some emphasis was placed on utilizing remote sensing methods and techniques in the search for water, mineral and land resources. The Workshop was attended by 90 people from 35 countries. The proceedings of this meeting includes 15 papers, 12 of them have a separate abstract in the INIS Database. Refs, figs and tabs

  11. An Overview on Data Mining of Nighttime Light Remote Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LI Deren

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available When observing the Earth from above at night, it is clear that the human settlement and major economic regions emit glorious light. At cloud-free nights, some remote sensing satellites can record visible radiance source, including city light, fishing boat light and fire, and these nighttime cloud-free images are remotely sensed nighttime light images. Different from daytime remote sensing, nighttime light remote sensing provides a unique perspective on human social activities, thus it has been widely used for spatial data mining of socioeconomic domains. Historically, researches on nighttime light remote sensing mostly focus on urban land cover and urban expansion mapping using DMSP/OLS imagery, but the nighttime light images are not the unique remote sensing source to do these works. Through decades of development of nighttime light product, the nighttime light remote sensing application has been extended to numerous interesting and scientific study domains such as econometrics, poverty estimation, light pollution, fishery and armed conflict. Among the application cases, it is surprising to see the Gross Domestic Production (GDP data can be corrected using the nighttime light data, and it is interesting to see mechanism of several diseases can be revealed by nighttime light images, while nighttime light are the unique remote sensing source to do the above works. As the nighttime light remote sensing has numerous applications, it is important to summarize the application of nighttime light remote sensing and its data mining fields. This paper introduced major satellite platform and sensors for observing nighttime light at first. Consequently, the paper summarized the progress of nighttime light remote sensing data mining in socioeconomic parameter estimation, urbanization monitoring, important event evaluation, environmental and healthy effects, fishery dynamic mapping, epidemiological research and natural gas flaring monitoring. Finally, future

  12. Multi-spectral remote sensing of the vortex formerly known as White Oval BA: Temperature structure and cloud properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orton, G.; Parrish, P.; Yanamandra-Fisher, P.; Baines, K.; Mousis, O.; Pantin, E.; Fujiyoshi, T.; Fuse, T.; Simon-Miller, A.

    White Oval BA: Temperature structure and cloud properties G. Orton, P. Parrish, P. Yanamandra-Fisher, K. Baines (1), O. Mousis (2), E. Pantin (3), T. Fuse, T. Fujiyoshi (4), A. Simon-Miller (5) (1) Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Calif. Inst. of Technology, USA, (2) Obs. de Besancon, France, (3) C.E.A., France, (4) Subaru National Astron. Obs., Japan, (5) NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, USA. (Glenn.Orton@jpl.nasa.gov) White Oval BA, constituted from 3 predecessor vortices (known as Jupiter's "classical" White Ovals) after successive mergers in 1998 and 2000, became second-largest vortex in the atmosphere of Jupiter (and possibly the solar system) at the time of its formation. While it continues in this distinction, it required a name change after a 2005 December through 2006 February transformation which made it appear visually the same color as the Great Red Spot. Our campaign to understand the changes involved examination of the detailed color and wind field using Hubble Space Telescope instrumentation on several orbits in April. The field of temperatures, ammonia distribution and clouds were also examined using the mid-infrared VISIR camera/spectrometer on ESO's 8.2-m Very Large Telescope (3), the NASA Infrared telescope with the mid-infrared MIRSI instrument and the refurbished near-infrared facility camera NSFCam2. High-resolution images of the Oval were made before the color change with the COMICS mid-infrared facility on the Subaru telescope. We are using these data, and possibly others to be acquired during the summer, to characterize the extent to which changes in storm strength (vorticity, positive vertical motion) influenced (i) the depth from which colored cloud particles may have been "dredged up" from depth or (ii) the altitude to which particles may have been lofted and subject to high-energy UV radiation which caused a color change, as alternative explanations for the phenomenon. Clues to this will provide clues to the chemistry of Jupiter's cloud

  13. Remote Sensing of Environmental Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    North, G. W.

    1971-01-01

    Environmental pollution is a problem of international scope and concern. It can be subdivided into problems relating to water, air, or land pollution. Many of the problems in these three categories lend themselves to study and possible solution by remote sensing. Through the use of remote sensing systems and techniques, it is possible to detect and monitor, and in some cases, identify, measure, and study the effects of various environmental pollutants. As a guide for making decisions regarding the use of remote sensors for pollution studies, a special five-dimensional sensor/applications matrix has been designed. The matrix defines an environmental goal, ranks the various remote sensing objectives in terms of their ability to assist in solving environmental problems, lists the environmental problems, ranks the sensors that can be used for collecting data on each problem, and finally ranks the sensor platform options that are currently available.

  14. Remote sensing in meteorology, oceanography and hydrology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cracknell, A P [ed.

    1981-01-01

    Various aspects of remote sensing are discussed. Topics include: the EARTHNET data acquisition, processing, and distribution facility the design and implementation of a digital interactive image processing system geometrical aspects of remote sensing and space cartography remote sensing of a complex surface legal aspects of remote sensing remote sensing of pollution, dust storms, ice masses, and ocean waves and currents use of satellite images for weather forecasting. Notes on field trips and work-sheets for laboratory exercises are included.

  15. Mobile teleoperator remote sensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, E.L.

    1986-01-01

    Sensing systems are an important element of mobile teleoperators and robots. This paper discusses certain problems and limitations of vision and other sensing systems with respect to operations in a radiological accident environment. Methods which appear promising for near-term improvements to sensor technology are described. 3 refs

  16. Photogrammetry - Remote Sensing and Geoinformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazaridou, M. A.; Patmio, E. N.

    2012-07-01

    Earth and its environment are studied by different scientific disciplines as geosciences, science of engineering, social sciences, geography, etc. The study of the above, beyond pure scientific interest, is useful for the practical needs of man. Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing (defined by Statute II of ISPRS) is the art, science, and technology of obtaining reliable information from non-contact imaging and other sensor systems about the Earth and its environment, and other physical objects and of processes through recording, measuring, analyzing and representation. Therefore, according to this definition, photogrammetry and remote sensing can support studies of the above disciplines for acquisition of geoinformation. This paper concerns basic concepts of geosciences (geomorphology, geology, hydrology etc), and the fundamentals of photogrammetry-remote sensing, in order to aid the understanding of the relationship between photogrammetry-remote sensing and geoinformation and also structure curriculum in a brief, concise and coherent way. This curriculum can represent an appropriate research and educational outline and help to disseminate knowledge in various directions and levels. It resulted from our research and educational experience in graduate and post-graduate level (post-graduate studies relative to the protection of environment and protection of monuments and historical centers) in the Lab. of Photogrammetry - Remote Sensing in Civil Engineering Faculty of Aristotle University of Thessaloniki.

  17. Airborne Spectral BRDF of Various Surface Types (Ocean, Vegetation, Snow, Desert, Wetlands, Cloud Decks, Smoke Layers) for Remote Sensing Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatebe, Charles K.; King, Michael D.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we describe measurements of the bidirectional reflectance-distribution function (BRDF) acquired over a 30-year period (1984-2014) by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA's) Cloud Absorption Radiometer (CAR). Our BRDF database encompasses various natural surfaces that are representative of many land cover or ecosystem types found throughout the world. CAR's unique measurement geometry allows a comparison of measurements acquired from different satellite instruments with various geometrical configurations, none of which are capable of obtaining such a complete and nearly instantaneous BRDF. This database is therefore of great value in validating many satellite sensors and assessing corrections of reflectances for angular effects. These data can also be used to evaluate the ability of analytical models to reproduce the observed directional signatures, to develop BRDF models that are suitable for sub-kilometer-scale satellite observations over both homogeneous and heterogeneous landscape types, and to test future spaceborne sensors. All of these BRDF data are publicly available and accessible in hierarchical data format (http:car.gsfc.nasa.gov/).

  18. Remote Sensing for Wind Energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The Remote Sensing in Wind Energy Compendium provides a description of several topics and it is our hope that students and others interested will learn from it. The idea behind this compendium began in year 2008 at Risø DTU during the first PhD Summer School: Remote Sensing in Wind Energy. Thus...... in the Meteorology and Test and Measurements Programs from the Wind Energy Division at Risø DTU in the PhD Summer Schools. We hope to add more topics in future editions and to update as necessary, to provide a truly state-of-the-art compendium available for people involved in Remote Sensing in Wind Energy....

  19. Current perspective on remote sensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodman, R.H.

    1992-01-01

    Surveillance and tracking of oil spills has been a feature of most spill response situations for many years. The simplest and most direct method uses visual observations from an aircraft and hand-plotting of the data on a map. This technique has proven adequate for most small spills and for responses in fair weather. As the size of the spill increases or the weather deteriorates, there is a need to augment visual aerial observations with remote sensing methods. Remote sensing and its associated systems are one of the most technically complex and sophisticated elements of an oil spill response. During the past few years, a number of initiatives have been undertaken to use contemporary electronic and computing systems to develop new and improved remote sensing systems

  20. Integrating Remote Sensing Data, Hybrid-Cloud Computing, and Event Notifications for Advanced Rapid Imaging & Analysis (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, H.; Owen, S. E.; Yun, S.; Lundgren, P.; Fielding, E. J.; Agram, P.; Manipon, G.; Stough, T. M.; Simons, M.; Rosen, P. A.; Wilson, B. D.; Poland, M. P.; Cervelli, P. F.; Cruz, J.

    2013-12-01

    Space-based geodetic measurement techniques such as Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) and Continuous Global Positioning System (CGPS) are now important elements in our toolset for monitoring earthquake-generating faults, volcanic eruptions, hurricane damage, landslides, reservoir subsidence, and other natural and man-made hazards. Geodetic imaging's unique ability to capture surface deformation with high spatial and temporal resolution has revolutionized both earthquake science and volcanology. Continuous monitoring of surface deformation and surface change before, during, and after natural hazards improves decision-making from better forecasts, increased situational awareness, and more informed recovery. However, analyses of InSAR and GPS data sets are currently handcrafted following events and are not generated rapidly and reliably enough for use in operational response to natural disasters. Additionally, the sheer data volumes needed to handle a continuous stream of InSAR data sets also presents a bottleneck. It has been estimated that continuous processing of InSAR coverage of California alone over 3-years would reach PB-scale data volumes. Our Advanced Rapid Imaging and Analysis for Monitoring Hazards (ARIA-MH) science data system enables both science and decision-making communities to monitor areas of interest with derived geodetic data products via seamless data preparation, processing, discovery, and access. We will present our findings on the use of hybrid-cloud computing to improve the timely processing and delivery of geodetic data products, integrating event notifications from USGS to improve the timely processing for response, as well as providing browse results for quick looks with other tools for integrative analysis.

  1. BisQue: cloud-based system for management, annotation, visualization, analysis and data mining of underwater and remote sensing imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedorov, D.; Miller, R. J.; Kvilekval, K. G.; Doheny, B.; Sampson, S.; Manjunath, B. S.

    2016-02-01

    Logistical and financial limitations of underwater operations are inherent in marine science, including biodiversity observation. Imagery is a promising way to address these challenges, but the diversity of organisms thwarts simple automated analysis. Recent developments in computer vision methods, such as convolutional neural networks (CNN), are promising for automated classification and detection tasks but are typically very computationally expensive and require extensive training on large datasets. Therefore, managing and connecting distributed computation, large storage and human annotations of diverse marine datasets is crucial for effective application of these methods. BisQue is a cloud-based system for management, annotation, visualization, analysis and data mining of underwater and remote sensing imagery and associated data. Designed to hide the complexity of distributed storage, large computational clusters, diversity of data formats and inhomogeneous computational environments behind a user friendly web-based interface, BisQue is built around an idea of flexible and hierarchical annotations defined by the user. Such textual and graphical annotations can describe captured attributes and the relationships between data elements. Annotations are powerful enough to describe cells in fluorescent 4D images, fish species in underwater videos and kelp beds in aerial imagery. Presently we are developing BisQue-based analysis modules for automated identification of benthic marine organisms. Recent experiments with drop-out and CNN based classification of several thousand annotated underwater images demonstrated an overall accuracy above 70% for the 15 best performing species and above 85% for the top 5 species. Based on these promising results, we have extended bisque with a CNN-based classification system allowing continuous training on user-provided data.

  2. Remote Sensing of Water Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, P. G.

    1971-01-01

    Remote sensing, as a tool to aid in the control of water pollution, offers a means of making rapid, economical surveys of areas that are relatively inaccessible on the ground. At the same time, it offers the only practical means of mapping pollution patterns that cover large areas. Detection of oil slicks, thermal pollution, sewage, and algae are discussed.

  3. Satellite Remote Sensing: Aerosol Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn, Ralph A.

    2013-01-01

    Aerosols are solid or liquid particles suspended in the air, and those observed by satellite remote sensing are typically between about 0.05 and 10 microns in size. (Note that in traditional aerosol science, the term "aerosol" refers to both the particles and the medium in which they reside, whereas for remote sensing, the term commonly refers to the particles only. In this article, we adopt the remote-sensing definition.) They originate from a great diversity of sources, such as wildfires, volcanoes, soils and desert sands, breaking waves, natural biological activity, agricultural burning, cement production, and fossil fuel combustion. They typically remain in the atmosphere from several days to a week or more, and some travel great distances before returning to Earth's surface via gravitational settling or washout by precipitation. Many aerosol sources exhibit strong seasonal variability, and most experience inter-annual fluctuations. As such, the frequent, global coverage that space-based aerosol remote-sensing instruments can provide is making increasingly important contributions to regional and larger-scale aerosol studies.

  4. Operational Use of Remote Sensing within USDA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bethel, Glenn R.

    2007-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation of remote sensing imagery within the USDA is shown. USDA Aerial Photography, Digital Sensors, Hurricane imagery, Remote Sensing Sources, Satellites used by Foreign Agricultural Service, Landsat Acquisitions, and Aerial Acquisitions are also shown.

  5. Remote sensing for nuclear power plant siting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siegal, B.S.; Welby, C.W.

    1981-01-01

    It is shown that satellite remote sensing provides timely and cost-effective information for siting and site evaluation of nuclear power plants. Side-looking airborne radar (SLAR) imagery is especially valuable in regions of prolonged cloud cover and haze, and provides additional assurance in siting and licensing. In addition, a wide range of enhancement techniques should be employed and different types of image should be color-combined to provide structural and lithologic information. Coastal water circulation can also be studied through repetitive coverage and the inherently synoptic nature of imaging satellites. Among the issues discussed are snow cover, sun angle, and cloud cover, and actual site evaluation studies in the Bataan peninsula of the Philippines and Laguna Verde, California

  6. Remote Sensing Best Paper Award 2013

    OpenAIRE

    Prasad Thenkabail

    2013-01-01

    Remote Sensing has started to institute a “Best Paper” award to recognize the most outstanding papers in the area of remote sensing techniques, design and applications published in Remote Sensing. We are pleased to announce the first “Remote Sensing Best Paper Award” for 2013. Nominations were selected by the Editor-in-Chief and selected editorial board members from among all the papers published in 2009. Reviews and research papers were evaluated separately.

  7. Remote sensing for agriculture, ecosystems, and hydrology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engman, E.T.

    1998-01-01

    This volume contains the proceedings of SPIE's remote sensing symposium which was held September 22--24, 1998, in Barcelona, Spain. Topics of discussion include the following: calibration techniques for soil moisture measurements; remote sensing of grasslands and biomass estimation of meadows; evaluation of agricultural disasters; monitoring of industrial and natural radioactive elements; and remote sensing of vegetation and of forest fires

  8. ACCURACY DIMENSIONS IN REMOTE SENSING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Á. Barsi

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The technological developments in remote sensing (RS during the past decade has contributed to a significant increase in the size of data user community. For this reason data quality issues in remote sensing face a significant increase in importance, particularly in the era of Big Earth data. Dozens of available sensors, hundreds of sophisticated data processing techniques, countless software tools assist the processing of RS data and contributes to a major increase in applications and users. In the past decades, scientific and technological community of spatial data environment were focusing on the evaluation of data quality elements computed for point, line, area geometry of vector and raster data. Stakeholders of data production commonly use standardised parameters to characterise the quality of their datasets. Yet their efforts to estimate the quality did not reach the general end-user community running heterogeneous applications who assume that their spatial data is error-free and best fitted to the specification standards. The non-specialist, general user group has very limited knowledge how spatial data meets their needs. These parameters forming the external quality dimensions implies that the same data system can be of different quality to different users. The large collection of the observed information is uncertain in a level that can decry the reliability of the applications. Based on prior paper of the authors (in cooperation within the Remote Sensing Data Quality working group of ISPRS, which established a taxonomy on the dimensions of data quality in GIS and remote sensing domains, this paper is aiming at focusing on measures of uncertainty in remote sensing data lifecycle, focusing on land cover mapping issues. In the paper we try to introduce how quality of the various combination of data and procedures can be summarized and how services fit the users’ needs. The present paper gives the theoretic overview of the issue, besides

  9. Accuracy Dimensions in Remote Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barsi, Á.; Kugler, Zs.; László, I.; Szabó, Gy.; Abdulmutalib, H. M.

    2018-04-01

    The technological developments in remote sensing (RS) during the past decade has contributed to a significant increase in the size of data user community. For this reason data quality issues in remote sensing face a significant increase in importance, particularly in the era of Big Earth data. Dozens of available sensors, hundreds of sophisticated data processing techniques, countless software tools assist the processing of RS data and contributes to a major increase in applications and users. In the past decades, scientific and technological community of spatial data environment were focusing on the evaluation of data quality elements computed for point, line, area geometry of vector and raster data. Stakeholders of data production commonly use standardised parameters to characterise the quality of their datasets. Yet their efforts to estimate the quality did not reach the general end-user community running heterogeneous applications who assume that their spatial data is error-free and best fitted to the specification standards. The non-specialist, general user group has very limited knowledge how spatial data meets their needs. These parameters forming the external quality dimensions implies that the same data system can be of different quality to different users. The large collection of the observed information is uncertain in a level that can decry the reliability of the applications. Based on prior paper of the authors (in cooperation within the Remote Sensing Data Quality working group of ISPRS), which established a taxonomy on the dimensions of data quality in GIS and remote sensing domains, this paper is aiming at focusing on measures of uncertainty in remote sensing data lifecycle, focusing on land cover mapping issues. In the paper we try to introduce how quality of the various combination of data and procedures can be summarized and how services fit the users' needs. The present paper gives the theoretic overview of the issue, besides selected, practice

  10. Sensitivity analysis in remote sensing

    CERN Document Server

    Ustinov, Eugene A

    2015-01-01

    This book contains a detailed presentation of general principles of sensitivity analysis as well as their applications to sample cases of remote sensing experiments. An emphasis is made on applications of adjoint problems, because they are more efficient in many practical cases, although their formulation may seem counterintuitive to a beginner. Special attention is paid to forward problems based on higher-order partial differential equations, where a novel matrix operator approach to formulation of corresponding adjoint problems is presented. Sensitivity analysis (SA) serves for quantitative models of physical objects the same purpose, as differential calculus does for functions. SA provides derivatives of model output parameters (observables) with respect to input parameters. In remote sensing SA provides computer-efficient means to compute the jacobians, matrices of partial derivatives of observables with respect to the geophysical parameters of interest. The jacobians are used to solve corresponding inver...

  11. Remote sensing and water resources

    CERN Document Server

    Champollion, N; Benveniste, J; Chen, J

    2016-01-01

    This book is a collection of overview articles showing how space-based observations, combined with hydrological modeling, have considerably improved our knowledge of the continental water cycle and its sensitivity to climate change. Two main issues are highlighted: (1) the use in combination of space observations for monitoring water storage changes in river basins worldwide, and (2) the use of space data in hydrological modeling either through data assimilation or as external constraints. The water resources aspect is also addressed, as well as the impacts of direct anthropogenic forcing on land hydrology (e.g. ground water depletion, dam building on rivers, crop irrigation, changes in land use and agricultural practices, etc.). Remote sensing observations offer important new information on this important topic as well, which is highly useful for achieving water management objectives. Over the past 15 years, remote sensing techniques have increasingly demonstrated their capability to monitor components of th...

  12. Remote Sensing Information Science Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Keith C.; Scepan, Joseph; Hemphill, Jeffrey; Herold, Martin; Husak, Gregory; Kline, Karen; Knight, Kevin

    2002-01-01

    This document is the final report summarizing research conducted by the Remote Sensing Research Unit, Department of Geography, University of California, Santa Barbara under National Aeronautics and Space Administration Research Grant NAG5-10457. This document describes work performed during the period of 1 March 2001 thorough 30 September 2002. This report includes a survey of research proposed and performed within RSRU and the UCSB Geography Department during the past 25 years. A broad suite of RSRU research conducted under NAG5-10457 is also described under themes of Applied Research Activities and Information Science Research. This research includes: 1. NASA ESA Research Grant Performance Metrics Reporting. 2. Global Data Set Thematic Accuracy Analysis. 3. ISCGM/Global Map Project Support. 4. Cooperative International Activities. 5. User Model Study of Global Environmental Data Sets. 6. Global Spatial Data Infrastructure. 7. CIESIN Collaboration. 8. On the Value of Coordinating Landsat Operations. 10. The California Marine Protected Areas Database: Compilation and Accuracy Issues. 11. Assessing Landslide Hazard Over a 130-Year Period for La Conchita, California Remote Sensing and Spatial Metrics for Applied Urban Area Analysis, including: (1) IKONOS Data Processing for Urban Analysis. (2) Image Segmentation and Object Oriented Classification. (3) Spectral Properties of Urban Materials. (4) Spatial Scale in Urban Mapping. (5) Variable Scale Spatial and Temporal Urban Growth Signatures. (6) Interpretation and Verification of SLEUTH Modeling Results. (7) Spatial Land Cover Pattern Analysis for Representing Urban Land Use and Socioeconomic Structures. 12. Colorado River Flood Plain Remote Sensing Study Support. 13. African Rainfall Modeling and Assessment. 14. Remote Sensing and GIS Integration.

  13. Remote sensing for wind energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pena, A.; Bay Hasager, C.; Lange, J. [Technical Univ. of Denmark. DTU Wind Energy, DTU Risoe Campus, Roskilde (Denmark) (and others

    2013-06-15

    The Remote Sensing in Wind Energy report provides a description of several topics and it is our hope that students and others interested will learn from it. The idea behind it began in year 2008 at DTU Wind Energy (formerly Risoe) during the first PhD Summer School: Remote Sensing in Wind Energy. Thus it is closely linked to the PhD Summer Schools where state-of-the-art is presented during the lecture sessions. The advantage of the report is to supplement with in-depth, article style information. Thus we strive to provide link from the lectures, field demonstrations, and hands-on exercises to theory. The report will allow alumni to trace back details after the course and benefit from the collection of information. This is the third edition of the report (first externally available), after very successful and demanded first two, and we warmly acknowledge all the contributing authors for their work in the writing of the chapters, and we also acknowledge all our colleagues in the Meteorology and Test and Measurements Sections from DTU Wind Energy in the PhD Summer Schools. We hope to continue adding more topics in future editions and to update and improve as necessary, to provide a truly state-of-the-art 'guideline' available for people involved in Remote Sensing in Wind Energy. (Author)

  14. Passive microwave remote sensing of soil moisture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, T.J.; Schmugge, T.J.

    1986-01-01

    Microwave remote sensing provides a unique capability for direct observation of soil moisture. Remote measurements from space afford the possibility of obtaining frequent, global sampling of soil moisture over a large fraction of the Earth's land surface. Microwave measurements have the benefit of being largely unaffected by cloud cover and variable surface solar illumination, but accurate soil moisture estimates are limited to regions that have either bare soil or low to moderate amounts of vegetation cover. A particular advantage of passive microwave sensors is that in the absence of significant vegetation cover soil moisture is the dominant effect on the received signal. The spatial resolutions of passive microwave soil moisture sensors currently considered for space operation are in the range 10–20 km. The most useful frequency range for soil moisture sensing is 1–5 GHz. System design considerations include optimum choice of frequencies, polarizations, and scanning configurations, based on trade-offs between requirements for high vegetation penetration capability, freedom from electromagnetic interference, manageable antenna size and complexity, and the requirement that a sufficient number of information channels be available to correct for perturbing geophysical effects. This paper outlines the basic principles of the passive microwave technique for soil moisture sensing, and reviews briefly the status of current retrieval methods. Particularly promising are methods for optimally assimilating passive microwave data into hydrologic models. Further studies are needed to investigate the effects on microwave observations of within-footprint spatial heterogeneity of vegetation cover and subsurface soil characteristics, and to assess the limitations imposed by heterogeneity on the retrievability of large-scale soil moisture information from remote observations

  15. Remote Sensing Wind and Wind Shear System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contents: Remote sensing of wind shear and the theory and development of acoustic doppler; Wind studies; A comparison of methods for the remote detection of winds in the airport environment; Acoustic doppler system development; System calibration; Airport operational tests.

  16. Remote Sensing and Reflectance Profiling in Entomology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nansen, Christian; Elliott, Norman

    2016-01-01

    Remote sensing describes the characterization of the status of objects and/or the classification of their identity based on a combination of spectral features extracted from reflectance or transmission profiles of radiometric energy. Remote sensing can be benchtop based, and therefore acquired at a high spatial resolution, or airborne at lower spatial resolution to cover large areas. Despite important challenges, airborne remote sensing technologies will undoubtedly be of major importance in optimized management of agricultural systems in the twenty-first century. Benchtop remote sensing applications are becoming important in insect systematics and in phenomics studies of insect behavior and physiology. This review highlights how remote sensing influences entomological research by enabling scientists to nondestructively monitor how individual insects respond to treatments and ambient conditions. Furthermore, novel remote sensing technologies are creating intriguing interdisciplinary bridges between entomology and disciplines such as informatics and electrical engineering.

  17. Basic Remote Sensing Investigations for Beach Reconnaissance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Progress is reported on three tasks designed to develop remote sensing beach reconnaissance techniques applicable to the benthic, beach intertidal...and beach upland zones. Task 1 is designed to develop remote sensing indicators of important beach composition and physical parameters which will...ultimately prove useful in models to predict beach conditions. Task 2 is designed to develop remote sensing techniques for survey of bottom features in

  18. LWIR Microgrid Polarimeter for Remote Sensing Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-28

    Polarimeter for Remote Sensing Studies 5b. GRANT NUMBER FA9550-08-1-0295 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 1. Scott Tyo 5e. TASK...and tested at the University of Arizona, and preliminary images are shown in this final report. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Remote Sensing , polarimetry 16...7.0 LWIR Microgrid Polarimeter for Remote Sensing Studies J. Scott Tyo College of Optical Sciences University of Arizona Tucson, AZ, 85721 tyo

  19. Data Quality in Remote Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batini, C.; Blaschke, T.; Lang, S.; Albrecht, F.; Abdulmutalib, H. M.; Barsi, Á.; Szabó, G.; Kugler, Zs.

    2017-09-01

    The issue of data quality (DQ) is of growing importance in Remote Sensing (RS), due to the widespread use of digital services (incl. apps) that exploit remote sensing data. In this position paper a body of experts from the ISPRS Intercommission working group III/IVb "DQ" identifies, categorises and reasons about issues that are considered as crucial for a RS research and application agenda. This ISPRS initiative ensures to build on earlier work by other organisations such as IEEE, CEOS or GEO, in particular on the meritorious work of the Quality Assurance Framework for Earth Observation (QA4EO) which was established and endorsed by the Committee on Earth Observation Satellites (CEOS) but aims to broaden the view by including experts from computer science and particularly database science. The main activities and outcomes include: providing a taxonomy of DQ dimensions in the RS domain, achieving a global approach to DQ for heterogeneous-format RS data sets, investigate DQ dimensions in use, conceive a methodology for managing cost effective solutions on DQ in RS initiatives, and to address future challenges on RS DQ dimensions arising in the new era of the big Earth data.

  20. Taiwan's second remote sensing satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chern, Jeng-Shing; Ling, Jer; Weng, Shui-Lin

    2008-12-01

    FORMOSAT-2 is Taiwan's first remote sensing satellite (RSS). It was launched on 20 May 2004 with five-year mission life and a very unique mission orbit at 891 km altitude. This orbit gives FORMOSAT-2 the daily revisit feature and the capability of imaging the Arctic and Antarctic regions due to the high enough altitude. For more than three years, FORMOSAT-2 has performed outstanding jobs and its global effectiveness is evidenced in many fields such as public education in Taiwan, Earth science and ecological niche research, preservation of the world heritages, contribution to the International Charter: space and major disasters, observation of suspected North Korea and Iranian nuclear facilities, and scientific observation of the atmospheric transient luminous events (TLEs). In order to continue the provision of earth observation images from space, the National Space Organization (NSPO) of Taiwan started to work on the second RSS from 2005. This second RSS will also be Taiwan's first indigenous satellite. Both the bus platform and remote sensing instrument (RSI) shall be designed and manufactured by NSPO and the Instrument Technology Research Center (ITRC) under the supervision of the National Applied Research Laboratories (NARL). Its onboard computer (OBC) shall use Taiwan's indigenous LEON-3 central processing unit (CPU). In order to achieve cost effective design, the commercial off the shelf (COTS) components shall be widely used. NSPO shall impose the up-screening/qualification and validation/verification processes to ensure their normal functions for proper operations in the severe space environments.

  1. 1999 IEEE international geoscience and remote sensing symposium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-07-01

    The theme of IGARSS'99, ``Remote Sensing of the System Earth--A Challenge for the 21st Century,'' shows how earth observation based on satellite remote sensing can significantly contribute to the future study of the environment and the changes it is undergoing, whether from natural causes or human activities. The wide range of topics offers an interdisciplinary approach and suggests integrated techniques and theory in remote sensing are essential for modeling and understanding the environment. Topics covered include: new instrumentation and future systems; high resolution SAR/InSAR; earth system science educational initiative; data fusion; radar sensing of ice sheets; image processing techniques; clouds and ice particles; internal waves; natural hazards and disaster monitoring; advanced passive and active sensors and sensor calibration; radar assessment of rain, oil spills and natural slicks; data standards and distribution; and vegetation monitoring using BRDF approaches.

  2. Introductory remote sensing principles and concepts principles and concepts

    CERN Document Server

    Gibson, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Introduction to Remote Sensing Principles and Concepts provides a comprehensive student introduction to both the theory and application of remote sensing. This textbook* introduces the field of remote sensing and traces its historical development and evolution* presents detailed explanations of core remote sensing principles and concepts providing the theory required for a clear understanding of remotely sensed images.* describes important remote sensing platforms - including Landsat, SPOT and NOAA * examines and illustrates many of the applications of remotely sensed images in various fields.

  3. Textbooks and technical references for remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudd, R. D.; Bowden, L. W.; Colwell, R. N.; Estes, J. E.

    1980-01-01

    A selective bibliography is presented which cites 89 textbooks, monographs, and articles covering introductory and advanced remote sensing techniques, photointerpretation, photogrammetry, and image processing.

  4. Remote sensing of the biosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-01-01

    The current state of understanding of the biosphere is reviewed, the major scientific issues to be addressed are discussed, and techniques, existing and in need of development, for the science are evaluated. It is primarily concerned with developing the scientific capabilities of remote sensing for advancing the subject. The global nature of the scientific objectives requires the use of space-based techniques. The capability to look at the Earth as a whole was developed only recently. The space program has provided the technology to study the entire Earth from artificial satellites, and thus is a primary force in approaches to planetary biology. Space technology has also permitted comparative studies of planetary atmospheres and surfaces. These studies coupled with the growing awareness of the effects that life has on the entire Earth, are opening new lines of inquiry in science.

  5. Lunar remote sensing and measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, H.J.; Boyce, J.M.; Schaber, G.G.; Scott, D.H.

    1980-01-01

    Remote sensing and measurements of the Moon from Apollo orbiting spacecraft and Earth form a basis for extrapolation of Apollo surface data to regions of the Moon where manned and unmanned spacecraft have not been and may be used to discover target regions for future lunar exploration which will produce the highest scientific yields. Orbital remote sensing and measurements discussed include (1) relative ages and inferred absolute ages, (2) gravity, (3) magnetism, (4) chemical composition, and (5) reflection of radar waves (bistatic). Earth-based remote sensing and measurements discussed include (1) reflection of sunlight, (2) reflection and scattering of radar waves, and (3) infrared eclipse temperatures. Photographs from the Apollo missions, Lunar Orbiters, and other sources provide a fundamental source of data on the geology and topography of the Moon and a basis for comparing, correlating, and testing the remote sensing and measurements. Relative ages obtained from crater statistics and then empirically correlated with absolute ages indicate that significant lunar volcanism continued to 2.5 b.y. (billion years) ago-some 600 m.y. (million years) after the youngest volcanic rocks sampled by Apollo-and that intensive bombardment of the Moon occurred in the interval of 3.84 to 3.9 b.y. ago. Estimated fluxes of crater-producing objects during the last 50 m.y. agree fairly well with fluxes measured by the Apollo passive seismic stations. Gravity measurements obtained by observing orbiting spacecraft reveal that mare basins have mass concentrations and that the volume of material ejected from the Orientale basin is near 2 to 5 million km 3 depending on whether there has or has not been isostatic compensation, little or none of which has occurred since 3.84 b.y. ago. Isostatic compensation may have occurred in some of the old large lunar basins, but more data are needed to prove it. Steady fields of remanent magnetism were detected by the Apollo 15 and 16 subsatellites

  6. Energy and remote sensing applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summers, R. A.; Smith, W. L.; Short, N. M.

    1978-01-01

    The nature of the U.S. energy problem is examined. Based upon the best available estimates, it appears that demand for OPEC oil will exceed OPEC productive capacity in the early to mid-eighties. The upward pressure on world oil prices resulting from this supply/demand gap could have serious international consequences, both financial and in terms of foreign policy implementation. National Energy Plan objectives in response to this situation are discussed. Major strategies for achieving these objectives include a conversion of industry and utilities from oil and gas to coal and other abundant fuels. Remote sensing from aircraft and spacecraft could make significant contributions to the solution of energy problems in a number of ways, related to exploration of energy-related resources, the efficiency and safety of exploitation procedures, power plant siting, environmental monitoring and assessment, and the transportation infrastructure.

  7. Remote Sensing of Ocean Color

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dierssen, Heidi M.; Randolph, Kaylan

    The oceans cover over 70% of the earth's surface and the life inhabiting the oceans play an important role in shaping the earth's climate. Phytoplankton, the microscopic organisms in the surface ocean, are responsible for half of the photosynthesis on the planet. These organisms at the base of the food web take up light and carbon dioxide and fix carbon into biological structures releasing oxygen. Estimating the amount of microscopic phytoplankton and their associated primary productivity over the vast expanses of the ocean is extremely challenging from ships. However, as phytoplankton take up light for photosynthesis, they change the color of the surface ocean from blue to green. Such shifts in ocean color can be measured from sensors placed high above the sea on satellites or aircraft and is called "ocean color remote sensing." In open ocean waters, the ocean color is predominantly driven by the phytoplankton concentration and ocean color remote sensing has been used to estimate the amount of chlorophyll a, the primary light-absorbing pigment in all phytoplankton. For the last few decades, satellite data have been used to estimate large-scale patterns of chlorophyll and to model primary productivity across the global ocean from daily to interannual timescales. Such global estimates of chlorophyll and primary productivity have been integrated into climate models and illustrate the important feedbacks between ocean life and global climate processes. In coastal and estuarine systems, ocean color is significantly influenced by other light-absorbing and light-scattering components besides phytoplankton. New approaches have been developed to evaluate the ocean color in relationship to colored dissolved organic matter, suspended sediments, and even to characterize the bathymetry and composition of the seafloor in optically shallow waters. Ocean color measurements are increasingly being used for environmental monitoring of harmful algal blooms, critical coastal habitats

  8. Project THEMIS: A Center for Remote Sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report summarizes the technical work accomplished under Project THEMIS, A Center for Remote Sensing at the University of Kansas during the...period 16 September 1967 through 15 September 1973. The highlights of the four major areas forming the remote sensing system are presented. A detailed description of the latest radar spectrometer results is presented.

  9. Remote sensing of wetlands applications and advances

    CERN Document Server

    Tiner, Ralph W; Klemas, Victor V

    2015-01-01

    Effectively Manage Wetland Resources Using the Best Available Remote Sensing Techniques Utilizing top scientists in the wetland classification and mapping field, Remote Sensing of Wetlands: Applications and Advances covers the rapidly changing landscape of wetlands and describes the latest advances in remote sensing that have taken place over the past 30 years for use in mapping wetlands. Factoring in the impact of climate change, as well as a growing demand on wetlands for agriculture, aquaculture, forestry, and development, this text considers the challenges that wetlands pose for remote sensing and provides a thorough introduction on the use of remotely sensed data for wetland detection. Taking advantage of the experiences of more than 50 contributing authors, the book describes a variety of techniques for mapping and classifying wetlands in a multitude of environments ranging from tropical to arctic wetlands including coral reefs and submerged aquatic vegetation. The authors discuss the advantages and di...

  10. Best practices in Remote Sensing for REDD+

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dons, Klaus; Grogan, Kenneth

    2012-01-01

    due to steep terrain, • phenological gradients across natural, agricultural and forestry ecosystems including plantations and • the need to serve the REDD-specific context of deforestation and forest degradation across spatial and temporal scales make remote sensing based approaches particularly...... be expected from remote sensing imagery and the provided information shall help to better anticipate problems that will be encountered when acquiring, analyzing and interpreting remote sensing data. Beyond remote sensing, it may be a good point of departure for a large group of scientists with a diverse...... and governance, and deforestation and forest degradation processes. The second part summarizes the available literature on remote sensing based good practices for REDD. It largely draws from the documents of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate...

  11. Remote sensing for global change, climate change and atmosphere and ocean forecasting. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    This volume is separated in three sessions. First part is on remote sensing for global change (with global modelling, land cover change on global scale, ocean colour studies of marine biosphere, biological and hydrological interactions and large scale experiments). Second part is on remote sensing for climate change (with earth radiation and clouds, sea ice, global climate research programme). Third part is on remote sensing for atmosphere and ocean forecasting (with temperatures and humidity, winds, data assimilation, cloud imagery, sea surface temperature, ocean waves and topography). (A.B.). refs., figs., tabs

  12. Remote sensing of terrestrial tropospheric aerosols from aircraft and satellites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishchenko, M I; Cairns, B; Chowdhary, J; Geogdzhayev, I V; Liu, L; Travis, L D

    2005-01-01

    This review paper outlines the rationale for long-term monitoring of the global distribution of natural and anthropogenic aerosols and clouds with specificity, accuracy, and coverage necessary for a reliable quantification of the direct and indirect aerosol effects on climate. We discuss the hierarchy of passive instruments suitable for aerosol remote sensing and give examples of aerosol retrievals obtained with instruments representing the low and the high end of this hierarchy

  13. Preface: Remote Sensing in Coastal Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepak R. Mishra

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The Special Issue (SI on “Remote Sensing in Coastal Environments” presents a wide range of articles focusing on a variety of remote sensing models and techniques to address coastal issues and processes ranging for wetlands and water quality to coral reefs and kelp habitats. The SI is comprised of twenty-one papers, covering a broad range of research topics that employ remote sensing imagery, models, and techniques to monitor water quality, vegetation, habitat suitability, and geomorphology in the coastal zone. This preface provides a brief summary of each article published in the SI.

  14. Online Cloud Offloading Using Heterogeneous Enhanced Remote Radio Heads

    KAUST Repository

    Shnaiwer, Yousef N.; Sorour, Sameh; Sadeghi, Parastoo; Al-Naffouri, Tareq Y.

    2018-01-01

    This paper studies the cloud offloading gains of using heterogeneous enhanced remote radio heads (eRRHs) and dual-interface clients in fog radio access networks (F-RANs). First, the cloud offloading problem is formulated as a collection

  15. National Satellite Land Remote Sensing Data Archive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faundeen, John L.; Kelly, Francis P.; Holm, Thomas M.; Nolt, Jenna E.

    2013-01-01

    The National Satellite Land Remote Sensing Data Archive (NSLRSDA) resides at the U.S. Geological Survey's (USGS) Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS) Center. Through the Land Remote Sensing Policy Act of 1992, the U.S. Congress directed the Department of the Interior (DOI) to establish a permanent Government archive containing satellite remote sensing data of the Earth's land surface and to make this data easily accessible and readily available. This unique DOI/USGS archive provides a comprehensive, permanent, and impartial observational record of the planet's land surface obtained throughout more than five decades of satellite remote sensing. Satellite-derived data and information products are primary sources used to detect and understand changes such as deforestation, desertification, agricultural crop vigor, water quality, invasive plant species, and certain natural hazards such as flood extent and wildfire scars.

  16. Biophysical applications of satellite remote sensing

    CERN Document Server

    Hanes, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    Including an introduction and historical overview of the field, this comprehensive synthesis of the major biophysical applications of satellite remote sensing includes in-depth discussion of satellite-sourced biophysical metrics such as leaf area index.

  17. NOAA Coastal Mapping Remote Sensing Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Remote Sensing Division is responsible for providing data to support the Coastal Mapping Program, Emergency Response efforts, and the Aeronautical Survey Program...

  18. GNSS remote sensing theory, methods and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Jin, Shuanggen; Xie, Feiqin

    2014-01-01

    This book presents the theory and methods of GNSS remote sensing as well as its applications in the atmosphere, oceans, land and hydrology. It contains detailed theory and study cases to help the reader put the material into practice.

  19. Comprehensive, integrated, remote sensing at DOE sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lackey, J.G.; Burson, Z.G.

    1985-01-01

    The Department of Energy has established a program called Comprehensive, Integrated Remote Sensing (CIRS). The overall objective of the program is to provide a state-of-the-art data base of remotely sensed data for all users of such information at large DOE sites. The primary types of remote sensing provided, at present, consist of the following: large format aerial photography, video from aerial platforms, multispectral scanning, and airborne nuclear radiometric surveys. Implementation of the CIRS Program by EG and G Energy Measurements, Inc. began with field operations at the Savannah River Plant in 1982 and is continuing at that DOE site at a level of effort of about $1.5 m per year. Integrated remote sensing studies were subsequently extended to the West Valley Demonstration Project in this summer and fall of 1984. It is expected that the Program will eventually be extended to cover all large DOE sites on a continuing basis

  20. Environmental monitoring by means of remote sensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Theilen-Willige, B.

    1993-01-01

    Aircraft and satellite aerial photographs represent indispensible tools for environmental observation today. They contribute to a systematic inventory of important environmental parameters such as climate, vegetation or surface water. Their great importance lies in the continuous monitoring of large regions so that changes in environmental conditions are quickly detected. This book provides an overview of the capabilities of remote sensing in environmental monitoring and in the recognition of environmental problems as well as of the usefulness of remote sensing data for environmental planning. Also addressed is the role of remote sensing in the monitoring of natural hazards such as earthquakes and volcano eruptions as well as problems of remote sensing technology transfer to developing countries. (orig.) [de

  1. Hyperspectral remote sensing for light pollution monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Marcoionni

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available industries. In this paper we introduce the results from a remote sensing campaign performed in September 2001 at night time. For the first time nocturnal light pollution was measured at high spatial and spectral resolution using two airborne hyperspectral sensors, namely the Multispectral Infrared and Visible Imaging Spectrometer (MIVIS and the Visible InfraRed Scanner (VIRS-200. These imagers, generally employed for day-time Earth remote sensing, were flown over the Tuscany coast (Italy on board of a Casa 212/200 airplane from an altitude of 1.5-2.0 km. We describe the experimental activities which preceded the remote sensing campaign, the optimization of sensor configuration, and the images as far acquired. The obtained results point out the novelty of the performed measurements and highlight the need to employ advanced remote sensing techniques as a spectroscopic tool for light pollution monitoring.

  2. Remote Sensing: Physics And Environmental Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    EI Raey, M.

    2007-01-01

    Full text: Basic principles of remote sensing of environment are outlined emphasizing inherent physical and target properties leading to proper identification and classification. Basic processing techniques are discussed. Applications of remote sensing techniques in various aspects of environmental monitoring and assessment is surveyed with emphasis on aspects of main concern to developing communities such as planning, sea level impacts, mine detection and earthquake prediction are all outlined and discussed

  3. Freeware for GIS and Remote Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lena Halounová

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Education in remote sensing and GIS is based on software utilization. The software needs to be installed in computer rooms with a certain number of licenses. The commercial software equipment is therefore financially demanding and not only for universities, but especially for students. Internet research brings a long list of free software of various capabilities. The paper shows a present state of GIS, image processing and remote sensing free software.

  4. Retrieval operators of remote sensing applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, T.; Shah, A.

    2014-01-01

    A set of operators of remote sensing applications have been proposed to fulfill most of the Functional Requirements (FR). These operators capture the functions of the applications, which can be considered as the services provided by the applications. In general, a good application meets maximum FR from user. In this paper, we have defined a remote sensing application by a set, having all images created at dissimilar time instances, and each image is categorized into set of different layers. (author)

  5. Freeware for GIS and Remote Sensing

    OpenAIRE

    Lena Halounová

    2007-01-01

    Education in remote sensing and GIS is based on software utilization. The software needs to be installed in computer rooms with a certain number of licenses. The commercial software equipment is therefore financially demanding and not only for universities, but especially for students. Internet research brings a long list of free software of various capabilities. The paper shows a present state of GIS, image processing and remote sensing free software.

  6. REMOTE SENSING FOR ENVIRONMENTAL COMPLIANCE MONITORING

    Science.gov (United States)

    I. Remote Sensing Basics A. The electromagnetic spectrum demonstrates what we can see both in the visible and beyond the visible part of the spectrum through the use of various types of sensors. B. Resolution refers to what a remote sensor can see and how often. 1. Sp...

  7. Remote Sensing Digital Image Analysis An Introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Richards, John A

    2013-01-01

    Remote Sensing Digital Image Analysis provides the non-specialist with a treatment of the quantitative analysis of satellite and aircraft derived remotely sensed data. Since the first edition of the book there have been significant developments in the algorithms used for the processing and analysis of remote sensing imagery; nevertheless many of the fundamentals have substantially remained the same.  This new edition presents material that has retained value since those early days, along with new techniques that can be incorporated into an operational framework for the analysis of remote sensing data. The book is designed as a teaching text for the senior undergraduate and postgraduate student, and as a fundamental treatment for those engaged in research using digital image processing in remote sensing.  The presentation level is for the mathematical non-specialist.  Since the very great number of operational users of remote sensing come from the earth sciences communities, the text is pitched at a leve...

  8. Autonomous Coral Reef Survey in Support of Remote Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven G. Ackleson

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available An autonomous surface vehicle instrumented with optical and acoustical sensors was deployed in Kane'ohe Bay, HI, U.S.A., to provide high-resolution, in situ observations of coral reef reflectance with minimal human presence. The data represented a wide range in bottom type, water depth, and illumination and supported more thorough investigations of remote sensing methods for identifying and mapping shallow reef features. The in situ data were used to compute spectral bottom reflectance and remote sensing reflectance, Rrs,λ, as a function of water depth and benthic features. The signals were used to distinguish between live coral and uncolonized sediment within the depth range of the measurements (2.5–5 m. In situRrs, λ were found to compare well with remotely sensed measurements from an imaging spectrometer, the Airborne Visible and Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS, deployed on an aircraft at high altitude. Cloud cover and in situ sensor orientation were found to have minimal impact on in situRrs, λ, suggesting that valid reflectance data may be collected using autonomous surveys even when atmospheric conditions are not favorable for remote sensing operations. The use of reflectance in the red and near infrared portions of the spectrum, expressed as the red edge height, REHλ, was investigated for detecting live aquatic vegetative biomass, including coral symbionts and turf algae. The REHλ signal from live coral was detected in Kane'ohe Bay to a depth of approximately 4 m with in situ measurements. A remote sensing algorithm based on the REHλ signal was defined and applied to AVIRIS imagery of the entire bay and was found to reveal areas of shallow, dense coral and algal cover. The peak wavelength of REHλ decreased with increasing water depth, indicating that a more complete examination of the red edge signal may potentially yield a remote sensing approach to simultaneously estimate vegetative biomass and bathymetry in shallow water.

  9. Remote Sensing Best Paper Award for the Year 2014

    OpenAIRE

    Prasad Thenkabail

    2014-01-01

    Remote Sensing has started to institute a “Best Paper” award to recognize the most outstanding papers in the area of remote sensing techniques, design and applications published in Remote Sensing. We are pleased to announce the first “Remote Sensing Best Paper Award” for the year 2014.

  10. Tunnel-Site Selection by Remote Sensing Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    A study of the role of remote sensing for geologic reconnaissance for tunnel-site selection was commenced. For this study, remote sensing was defined...conventional remote sensing . Future research directions are suggested, and the extension of remote sensing to include airborne passive microwave

  11. Remote Sensing of Energy Distribution Characteristics over the Tibet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, J.; Husi, L.; Wang, T.

    2017-12-01

    The overall objective of our study is to quantify the spatiotemporal characteristics and changes of typical factors dominating water and energy cycles in the Tibet region. Especially, we focus on variables of clouds optical & microphysical parameters, surface shortwave and longwave radiation. Clouds play a key role in the Tibetan region's water and energy cycles. They seriously impact the precipitation, temperature and surface energy distribution. Considering that proper cloud products with relatively higher spatial and temporal sampling and with satisfactory accuracy are serious lacking in the Tibet region, except cloud optical thickness, cloud effective radius and liquid/ice water content, the cloud coverage dynamics at hourly scales also analyzed jointly based on measurements of Himawari-8, and MODIS. Surface radiation, as an important energy source in perturbating the Tibet's evapotranspiration, snow and glacier melting, is a controlling factor in energy balance in the Tibet region. All currently available radiation products in this area are not suitable for regional scale study of water and energy exchange and snow/glacier melting due to their coarse resolution and low accuracies because of cloud and topography. A strategy for deriving land surface upward and downward radiation by fusing optical and microwave remote sensing data is proposed. At the same time, the big topographic effect on the surface radiation are also modelled and analyzed over the Tibet region.

  12. Oil spill remote sensing sensors and aircraft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fingas, M.; Fruhwirth, M.; Gamble, L.

    1992-01-01

    The most common form of remote sensing as applied to oil spills is aerial remote sensing. The technology of aerial remote sensing, mainly from aircraft, is reviewed along with aircraft-mounted remote sensors and aircraft modifications. The characteristics, advantages, and limitations of optical techniques, infrared and ultraviolet sensors, fluorosensors, microwave and radar sensors, and slick thickness sensors are discussed. Special attention is paid to remote sensing of oil under difficult circumstances, such as oil in water or oil on ice. An infrared camera is the first sensor recommended for oil spill work, as it is the cheapest and most applicable device, and is the only type of equipment that can be bought off-the-shelf. The second sensor recommended is an ultraviolet and visible-spectrum device. The laser fluorosensor offers the only potential for discriminating between oiled and un-oiled weeds or shoreline, and for positively identifying oil pollution on ice and in a variety of other situations. However, such an instrument is large and expensive. Radar, although low in priority for purchase, offers the only potential for large-area searches and foul-weather remote sensing. Most other sensors are experimental or do not offer good potential for oil detection or mapping. 48 refs., 8 tabs

  13. Sensing our Environment: Remote sensing in a physics classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaacson, Sivan; Schüttler, Tobias; Cohen-Zada, Aviv L.; Blumberg, Dan G.; Girwidz, Raimund; Maman, Shimrit

    2017-04-01

    Remote sensing is defined as data acquisition of an object, deprived physical contact. Fundamentally, most remote sensing applications are referred to as the use of satellite- or aircraft-based sensor technologies to detect and classify objects mainly on Earth or other planets. In the last years there have been efforts to bring the important subject of remote sensing into schools, however, most of these attempts focused on geography disciplines - restricting to the applications of remote sensing and to a less extent the technique itself and the physics behind it. Optical remote sensing is based on physical principles and technical devices, which are very meaningful from a theoretical point of view as well as for "hands-on" teaching. Some main subjects are radiation, atom and molecular physics, spectroscopy, as well as optics and the semiconductor technology used in modern digital cameras. Thus two objectives were outlined for this project: 1) to investigate the possibilities of using remote sensing techniques in physics teaching, and 2) to identify its impact on pupil's interest in the field of natural sciences. This joint project of the DLR_School_Lab, Oberpfaffenhofen of the German Aerospace Center (DLR) and the Earth and Planetary Image Facility (EPIF) at BGU, was conducted in 2016. Thirty teenagers (ages 16-18) participated in the project and were exposed to the cutting edge methods of earth observation. The pupils on both sides participated in the project voluntarily, knowing that at least some of the project's work had to be done in their leisure time. The pupil's project started with a day at EPIF and DLR respectively, where the project task was explained to the participants and an introduction to remote sensing of vegetation was given. This was realized in lectures and in experimental workshops. During the following two months both groups took several measurements with modern optical remote sensing systems in their home region with a special focus on flora

  14. Current NASA Earth Remote Sensing Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luvall, Jeffrey C.; Sprigg, William A.; Huete, Alfredo; Pejanovic, Goran; Nickovic, Slobodan; Ponce-Campos, Guillermo; Krapfl, Heide; Budge, Amy; Zelicoff, Alan; Myers, Orrin; hide

    2011-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews current NASA Earth Remote Sensing observations in specific reference to improving public health information in view of pollen sensing. While pollen sampling has instrumentation, there are limitations, such as lack of stations, and reporting lag time. Therefore it is desirable use remote sensing to act as early warning system for public health reasons. The use of Juniper Pollen was chosen to test the possibility of using MODIS data and a dust transport model, Dust REgional Atmospheric Model (DREAM) to act as an early warning system.

  15. Multiscale and Multitemporal Urban Remote Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesev, V.

    2012-07-01

    The remote sensing of urban areas has received much attention from scientists conducting studies on measuring sprawl, congestion, pollution, poverty, and environmental encroachment. Yet much of the research is case and data-specific where results are greatly influenced by prevailing local conditions. There seems to be a lack of epistemological links between remote sensing and conventional theoretical urban geography; in other words, an oversight for the appreciation of how urban theory fuels urban change and how urban change is measured by remotely sensed data. This paper explores basic urban theories such as centrality, mobility, materiality, nature, public space, consumption, segregation and exclusion, and how they can be measured by remote sensing sources. In particular, the link between structure (tangible objects) and function (intangible or immaterial behavior) is addressed as the theory that supports the wellknow contrast between land cover and land use classification from remotely sensed data. The paper then couches these urban theories and contributions from urban remote sensing within two analytical fields. The first is the search for an "appropriate" spatial scale of analysis, which is conveniently divided between micro and macro urban remote sensing for measuring urban structure, understanding urban processes, and perhaps contributions to urban theory at a variety of scales of analysis. The second is on the existence of a temporal lag between materiality of urban objects and the planning process that approved their construction, specifically how time-dependence in urban structural-functional models produce temporal lags that alter the causal links between societal and political functional demands and structural ramifications.

  16. Developing status of satellite remote sensing and its application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Wanliang; Liu Dechang

    2005-01-01

    This paper has discussed the latest development of satellite remote sensing in sensor resolutions, satellite motion models, load forms, data processing and its application. The authors consider that sensor resolutions of satellite remote sensing have increased largely. Valid integration of multisensors is a new idea and technology of satellite remote sensing in the 21st century, and post-remote sensing application technology is the important part of deeply applying remote sensing information and has great practical significance. (authors)

  17. Image Fusion Technologies In Commercial Remote Sensing Packages

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Wassai, Firouz Abdullah; Kalyankar, N. V.

    2013-01-01

    Several remote sensing software packages are used to the explicit purpose of analyzing and visualizing remotely sensed data, with the developing of remote sensing sensor technologies from last ten years. Accord-ing to literature, the remote sensing is still the lack of software tools for effective information extraction from remote sensing data. So, this paper provides a state-of-art of multi-sensor image fusion technologies as well as review on the quality evaluation of the single image or f...

  18. Effect of remote clouds on surface UV irradiance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deguenther, M.; Meerkoetter, R. [Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V. (DLR), Wessling (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik der Atmosphaere

    2000-06-01

    Clouds affect local surface UV irradiance, even if the horizontal distance from the radiation observation site amounts to several kilometers. In order to investigate this effect, which we call remote clouds effect, a 3-dimensional radiative transfer model is applied. Assuming the atmosphere is subdivided into a quadratic based sector and its surrounding, we quantify the influence of changing cloud coverage within this surrounding from 0% to 100% on surface UV irradiance at the sector center. To work out this remote clouds influence as a function of sector base size, we made some calculations for different sizes between 10 km x 10 km and 100 km x 100 km. It appears that in the case of small sectors (base size {<=}20 km x 20 km) the remote clouds effect is highly variable: Depending on cloud structure, solar zenith angle and wavelength, the surface UV irradiance may be enhanced up to 15% as well as reduced by more than 50%. In contrast, for larger sectors it is always the case that enhancements become smaller by 5% if sector base size exceeds 60 km x 60 km. However, these values are upper estimates of the remote cloud effects and they are found only for special cloud structures. Since these structures might occur but cannot be regarded as typical, different satellite observed cloud formations (horizontal resolution about 1 km x 1 km) have also been investigated. For these more common cloud distributions we find remote cloud effects to be distinctly smaller than the corresponding upper estimates, e.g., for a sector with base size of 25 km x 25 km the surface UV irradiance error due to ignoring the actual remote clouds and replacing their influence with periodic horizontal boundary conditions is less than 3%, whereas the upper estimate of remote clouds effect would suggest an error close to 10%. (orig.)

  19. Equivalent Sensor Radiance Generation and Remote Sensing from Model Parameters. Part 1; Equivalent Sensor Radiance Formulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wind, Galina; DaSilva, Arlindo M.; Norris, Peter M.; Platnick, Steven E.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we describe a general procedure for calculating equivalent sensor radiances from variables output from a global atmospheric forecast model. In order to take proper account of the discrepancies between model resolution and sensor footprint the algorithm takes explicit account of the model subgrid variability, in particular its description of the probably density function of total water (vapor and cloud condensate.) The equivalent sensor radiances are then substituted into an operational remote sensing algorithm processing chain to produce a variety of remote sensing products that would normally be produced from actual sensor output. This output can then be used for a wide variety of purposes such as model parameter verification, remote sensing algorithm validation, testing of new retrieval methods and future sensor studies. We show a specific implementation using the GEOS-5 model, the MODIS instrument and the MODIS Adaptive Processing System (MODAPS) Data Collection 5.1 operational remote sensing cloud algorithm processing chain (including the cloud mask, cloud top properties and cloud optical and microphysical properties products.) We focus on clouds and cloud/aerosol interactions, because they are very important to model development and improvement.

  20. Remote Sensing of Ecology, Biodiversity and Conservation: A Review from the Perspective of Remote Sensing Specialists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Cattet

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Remote sensing, the science of obtaining information via noncontact recording, has swept the fields of ecology, biodiversity and conservation (EBC. Several quality review papers have contributed to this field. However, these papers often discuss the issues from the standpoint of an ecologist or a biodiversity specialist. This review focuses on the spaceborne remote sensing of EBC from the perspective of remote sensing specialists, i.e., it is organized in the context of state-of-the-art remote sensing technology, including instruments and techniques. Herein, the instruments to be discussed consist of high spatial resolution, hyperspectral, thermal infrared, small-satellite constellation, and LIDAR sensors; and the techniques refer to image classification, vegetation index (VI, inversion algorithm, data fusion, and the integration of remote sensing (RS and geographic information system (GIS.

  1. Remote sensing of ecology, biodiversity and conservation: a review from the perspective of remote sensing specialists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kai; Franklin, Steven E; Guo, Xulin; Cattet, Marc

    2010-01-01

    Remote sensing, the science of obtaining information via noncontact recording, has swept the fields of ecology, biodiversity and conservation (EBC). Several quality review papers have contributed to this field. However, these papers often discuss the issues from the standpoint of an ecologist or a biodiversity specialist. This review focuses on the spaceborne remote sensing of EBC from the perspective of remote sensing specialists, i.e., it is organized in the context of state-of-the-art remote sensing technology, including instruments and techniques. Herein, the instruments to be discussed consist of high spatial resolution, hyperspectral, thermal infrared, small-satellite constellation, and LIDAR sensors; and the techniques refer to image classification, vegetation index (VI), inversion algorithm, data fusion, and the integration of remote sensing (RS) and geographic information system (GIS).

  2. PHOTOGRAMMETRY – REMOTE SENSING AND GEOINFORMATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Lazaridou

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Earth and its environment are studied by different scientific disciplines as geosciences, science of engineering, social sciences, geography, etc. The study of the above, beyond pure scientific interest, is useful for the practical needs of man. Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing (defined by Statute II of ISPRS is the art, science, and technology of obtaining reliable information from non-contact imaging and other sensor systems about the Earth and its environment, and other physical objects and of processes through recording, measuring, analyzing and representation. Therefore, according to this definition, photogrammetry and remote sensing can support studies of the above disciplines for acquisition of geoinformation. This paper concerns basic concepts of geosciences (geomorphology, geology, hydrology etc, and the fundamentals of photogrammetry-remote sensing, in order to aid the understanding of the relationship between photogrammetry-remote sensing and geoinformation and also structure curriculum in a brief, concise and coherent way. This curriculum can represent an appropriate research and educational outline and help to disseminate knowledge in various directions and levels. It resulted from our research and educational experience in graduate and post-graduate level (post-graduate studies relative to the protection of environment and protection of monuments and historical centers in the Lab. of Photogrammetry – Remote Sensing in Civil Engineering Faculty of Aristotle University of Thessaloniki.

  3. Photogrammetry and remote sensing education subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazaridou, Maria A.; Karagianni, Aikaterini Ch.

    2017-09-01

    The rapid technologic advances in the scientific areas of photogrammetry and remote sensing require continuous readjustments at the educational programs and their implementation. The teaching teamwork should deal with the challenge to offer the volume of the knowledge without preventing the understanding of principles and methods and also to introduce "new" knowledge (advances, trends) followed by evaluation and presentation of relevant applications. This is of particular importance for a Civil Engineering Faculty as this in Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, as the framework of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing is closely connected with applications in the four educational Divisions of the Faculty. This paper refers to the above and includes subjects of organizing the courses in photogrammetry and remote sensing in the Civil Engineering Faculty of Aristotle University of Thessaloniki. A scheme of the general curriculum as well the teaching aims and methods are also presented.

  4. Remote Sensing of Landslides—A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaoying Zhao

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Triggered by earthquakes, rainfall, or anthropogenic activities, landslides represent widespread and problematic geohazards worldwide. In recent years, multiple remote sensing techniques, including synthetic aperture radar, optical, and light detection and ranging measurements from spaceborne, airborne, and ground-based platforms, have been widely applied for the analysis of landslide processes. Current techniques include landslide detection, inventory mapping, surface deformation monitoring, trigger factor analysis and mechanism inversion. In addition, landslide susceptibility modelling, hazard assessment, and risk evaluation can be further analyzed using a synergic fusion of multiple remote sensing data and other factors affecting landslides. We summarize the 19 articles collected in this special issue of Remote Sensing of Landslide, in the terms of data, methods and applications used in the papers.

  5. Remote sensing applications in environmental research

    CERN Document Server

    Srivastava, Prashant K; Gupta, Manika; Islam, Tanvir

    2014-01-01

    Remote Sensing Applications in Environmental Research is the basis for advanced Earth Observation (EO) datasets used in environmental monitoring and research. Now that there are a number of satellites in orbit, EO has become imperative in today's sciences, weather and natural disaster prediction. This highly interdisciplinary reference work brings together diverse studies on remote sensing and GIS, from a theoretical background to its applications, represented through various case studies and the findings of new models. The book offers a comprehensive range of contributions by well-known scientists from around the world and opens a new window for students in presenting interdisciplinary and methodological resources on the latest research. It explores various key aspects and offers state-of-the-art research in a simplified form, describing remote sensing and GIS studies for those who are new to the field, as well as for established researchers.

  6. Satellite Remote Sensing in Seismology. A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew A. Tronin

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A wide range of satellite methods is applied now in seismology. The first applications of satellite data for earthquake exploration were initiated in the ‘70s, when active faults were mapped on satellite images. It was a pure and simple extrapolation of airphoto geological interpretation methods into space. The modern embodiment of this method is alignment analysis. Time series of alignments on the Earth's surface are investigated before and after the earthquake. A further application of satellite data in seismology is related with geophysical methods. Electromagnetic methods have about the same long history of application for seismology. Stable statistical estimations of ionosphere-lithosphere relation were obtained based on satellite ionozonds. The most successful current project "DEMETER" shows impressive results. Satellite thermal infra-red data were applied for earthquake research in the next step. Numerous results have confirmed previous observations of thermal anomalies on the Earth's surface prior to earthquakes. A modern trend is the application of the outgoing long-wave radiation for earthquake research. In ‘80s a new technology—satellite radar interferometry—opened a new page. Spectacular pictures of co-seismic deformations were presented. Current researches are moving in the direction of pre-earthquake deformation detection. GPS technology is also widely used in seismology both for ionosphere sounding and for ground movement detection. Satellite gravimetry has demonstrated its first very impressive results on the example of the catastrophic Indonesian earthquake in 2004. Relatively new applications of remote sensing for seismology as atmospheric sounding, gas observations, and cloud analysis are considered as possible candidates for applications.

  7. Remote sensing of land surface phenology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, G.A.; Brown, Jesslyn F.

    2014-01-01

    Remote sensing of land-surface phenology is an important method for studying the patterns of plant and animal growth cycles. Phenological events are sensitive to climate variation; therefore phenology data provide important baseline information documenting trends in ecology and detecting the impacts of climate change on multiple scales. The USGS Remote sensing of land surface phenology program produces annually, nine phenology indicator variables at 250 m and 1,000 m resolution for the contiguous U.S. The 12 year archive is available at http://phenology.cr.usgs.gov/index.php.

  8. Thermal infrared remote sensing sensors, methods, applications

    CERN Document Server

    Kuenzer, Claudia

    2013-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive overview of the state of the art in the field of thermal infrared remote sensing. Temperature is one of the most important physical environmental variables monitored by earth observing remote sensing systems. Temperature ranges define the boundaries of habitats on our planet. Thermal hazards endanger our resources and well-being. In this book renowned international experts have contributed chapters on currently available thermal sensors as well as innovative plans for future missions. Further chapters discuss the underlying physics and image processing techni

  9. Offshore winds mapped from satellite remote sensing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasager, Charlotte Bay

    2014-01-01

    the uncertainty on the model results on the offshore wind resource, it is necessary to compare model results with observations. Observations from ground-based wind lidar and satellite remote sensing are the two main technologies that can provide new types of offshore wind data at relatively low cost....... The advantages of microwave satellite remote sensing are 1) horizontal spatial coverage, 2) long data archives and 3) high spatial detail both in the coastal zone and of far-field wind farm wake. Passive microwave ocean wind speed data are available since 1987 with up to 6 observations per day with near...

  10. Remote sensing from UAVs for hydrological monitoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bandini, Filippo; Garcia, Monica; Bauer-Gottwein, Peter

    compared to other technologies: compared to field based techniques, remote sensing with UAVs is a non-destructive technique, less time consuming, ensures a reduced time between acquisition and interpretation of data and gives the possibility to access remote and unsafe areas. Compared to full...... will be able to record the spectral signatures of water and land surfaces with a pixel resolution of around 15 cm, whereas the thermal camera will sense water and land surface temperature with a resolution of 40 cm. Post-processing of data from the thermal camera will allow retrieving vegetation and soil...

  11. Space remote sensing systems an introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, H S

    1985-01-01

    Space Remote Sensing Systems: An Introduction discusses the space remote sensing system, which is a modern high-technology field developed from earth sciences, engineering, and space systems technology for environmental protection, resource monitoring, climate prediction, weather forecasting, ocean measurement, and many other applications. This book consists of 10 chapters. Chapter 1 describes the science of the atmosphere and the earth's surface. Chapter 2 discusses spaceborne radiation collector systems, while Chapter 3 focuses on space detector and CCD systems. The passive space optical rad

  12. Monitoring water quality by remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, R. L. (Principal Investigator)

    1977-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. A limited study was conducted to determine the applicability of remote sensing for evaluating water quality conditions in the San Francisco Bay and delta. Considerable supporting data were available for the study area from other than overflight sources, but short-term temporal and spatial variability precluded their use. The study results were not sufficient to shed much light on the subject, but it did appear that, with the present state of the art in image analysis and the large amount of ground truth needed, remote sensing has only limited application in monitoring water quality.

  13. Kite Aerial Photography as a Tool for Remote Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sallee, Jeff; Meier, Lesley R.

    2010-01-01

    As humans, we perform remote sensing nearly all the time. This is because we acquire most of our information about our surroundings through the senses of sight and hearing. Whether viewed by the unenhanced eye or a military satellite, remote sensing is observing objects from a distance. With our current technology, remote sensing has become a part…

  14. Deep Space Network Radiometric Remote Sensing Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Steven J.

    1994-01-01

    Planetary spacecraft are viewed through a troposphere that absorbs and delays radio signals propagating through it. Tropospheric water, in the form of vapor, cloud liquid, and precipitation, emits radio noise which limits satellite telemetry communication link performance. Even at X-band, rain storms have severely affected several satellite experiments including a planetary encounter. The problem will worsen with DSN implementation of Ka-band because communication link budgets will be dominated by tropospheric conditions. Troposphere-induced propagation delays currently limit VLBI accuracy and are significant sources of error for Doppler tracking. Additionally, the success of radio science programs such as satellite gravity wave experiments and atmospheric occultation experiments depends on minimizing the effect of water vapor-induced propagation delays. In order to overcome limitations imposed by the troposphere, the Deep Space Network has supported a program of radiometric remote sensing. Currently, water vapor radiometers (WVRs) and microwave temperature profilers (MTPs) support many aspects of the Deep Space Network operations and research and development programs. Their capability to sense atmospheric water, microwave sky brightness, and atmospheric temperature is critical to development of Ka-band telemetry systems, communication link models, VLBI, satellite gravity wave experiments, and radio science missions. During 1993, WVRs provided data for propagation model development, supported planetary missions, and demonstrated advanced tracking capability. Collection of atmospheric statistics is necessary to model and predict performance of Ka-band telemetry links, antenna arrays, and radio science experiments. Since the spectrum of weather variations has power at very long time scales, atmospheric measurements have been requested for periods ranging from one year to a decade at each DSN site. The resulting database would provide reliable statistics on daily

  15. Slovenian experience in applicability of remote sensing data in hydrology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horvat, A; Vidmar, A; Petan, S; Brilly, M [University of Ljubljana, Faculty of Civil and Geodetic Engineering, Chair of Hydrology and Hydraulic Engineering, Hajdrihova 28, Ljubljana (Slovenia)], E-mail: mbrillygg@uni-lj.si

    2008-11-01

    Nowadays remote sensing data are great value for many ways of use as for snow hydrology. Snow cover mapping on basis of satellite images is widely spread because it is easier than in-situ measuring and interpolating. To verify the use of satellite imagery (MODIS product) we used all available data of snow cover and satellite images and compared detected snow cover on images and in-situ measured snow cover. The information about clouds and snow cover measured on the Ljubljana climatological station were acquired and analysed. The use of satellite images showed out to be useless because of climate characteristics of Slovenia and low elevation of much area.

  16. Slovenian experience in applicability of remote sensing data in hydrology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horvat, A; Vidmar, A; Petan, S; Brilly, M

    2008-01-01

    Nowadays remote sensing data are great value for many ways of use as for snow hydrology. Snow cover mapping on basis of satellite images is widely spread because it is easier than in-situ measuring and interpolating. To verify the use of satellite imagery (MODIS product) we used all available data of snow cover and satellite images and compared detected snow cover on images and in-situ measured snow cover. The information about clouds and snow cover measured on the Ljubljana climatological station were acquired and analysed. The use of satellite images showed out to be useless because of climate characteristics of Slovenia and low elevation of much area.

  17. Remote sensing of environmental pollution on teesside

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Genderen, J.L.

    1974-01-01

    A preliminary reconnaissance is being carried out to study the methods and procedures most useful for the detection of vegetation stress resulting from the various forms of environmental pollution, in the industrial area of Teesside, NE England, by means of a multiband remote sensing programme.

  18. Polarimetric Remote Sensing of Atmospheric Particulate Pollutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Z.; Zhang, Y.; Hong, J.

    2018-04-01

    Atmospheric particulate pollutants not only reduce atmospheric visibility, change the energy balance of the troposphere, but also affect human and vegetation health. For monitoring the particulate pollutants, we establish and develop a series of inversion algorithms based on polarimetric remote sensing technology which has unique advantages in dealing with atmospheric particulates. A solution is pointed out to estimate the near surface PM2.5 mass concentrations from full remote sensing measurements including polarimetric, active and infrared remote sensing technologies. It is found that the mean relative error of PM2.5 retrieved by full remote sensing measurements is 35.5 % in the case of October 5th 2013, improved to a certain degree compared to previous studies. A systematic comparison with the ground-based observations further indicates the effectiveness of the inversion algorithm and reliability of results. A new generation of polarized sensors (DPC and PCF), whose observation can support these algorithms, will be onboard GF series satellites and launched by China in the near future.

  19. Satellite Remote Sensing in Offshore Wind Energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasager, Charlotte Bay; Badger, Merete; Astrup, Poul

    2013-01-01

    Satellite remote sensing of ocean surface winds are presented with focus on wind energy applications. The history on operational and research-based satellite ocean wind mapping is briefly described for passive microwave, scatterometer and synthetic aperture radar (SAR). Currently 6 GW installed...

  20. Remote sensing in uranium exploration. Basic guidance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    The purpose of this publication is to provide the reader with a basis for making an intelligent approach to the use of remote sensing in uranium exploration. It includes: A description of the various techniques; specific applications in view of exploration strategy and selection of appropriate techniques, and some examples of applications; availability and costs; a bibliography

  1. Satellite Remote Sensing for Monitoring and Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remote sensing technology has the potential to enhance the engagement of communities and managers in the implementation and performance of best management practices. This presentation will use examples from U.S. numeric criteria development and state water quality monitoring prog...

  2. POLARIMETRIC REMOTE SENSING OF ATMOSPHERIC PARTICULATE POLLUTANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Li

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric particulate pollutants not only reduce atmospheric visibility, change the energy balance of the troposphere, but also affect human and vegetation health. For monitoring the particulate pollutants, we establish and develop a series of inversion algorithms based on polarimetric remote sensing technology which has unique advantages in dealing with atmospheric particulates. A solution is pointed out to estimate the near surface PM2.5 mass concentrations from full remote sensing measurements including polarimetric, active and infrared remote sensing technologies. It is found that the mean relative error of PM2.5 retrieved by full remote sensing measurements is 35.5 % in the case of October 5th 2013, improved to a certain degree compared to previous studies. A systematic comparison with the ground-based observations further indicates the effectiveness of the inversion algorithm and reliability of results. A new generation of polarized sensors (DPC and PCF, whose observation can support these algorithms, will be onboard GF series satellites and launched by China in the near future.

  3. Applications of quantitative remote sensing to hydrology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Su, Z.; Troch, P.A.A.

    2003-01-01

    In order to quantify the rates of the exchanges of energy and matter among hydrosphere, biosphere and atmosphere, quantitative description of land surface processes by means of measurements at different scales are essential. Quantitative remote sensing plays an important role in this respect. The

  4. Integrated remotely sensed datasets for disaster management

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Timothy; Farrell, Ronan; Curtis, Andrew; Fotheringham, A. Stewart

    2008-10-01

    Video imagery can be acquired from aerial, terrestrial and marine based platforms and has been exploited for a range of remote sensing applications over the past two decades. Examples include coastal surveys using aerial video, routecorridor infrastructures surveys using vehicle mounted video cameras, aerial surveys over forestry and agriculture, underwater habitat mapping and disaster management. Many of these video systems are based on interlaced, television standards such as North America's NTSC and European SECAM and PAL television systems that are then recorded using various video formats. This technology has recently being employed as a front-line, remote sensing technology for damage assessment post-disaster. This paper traces the development of spatial video as a remote sensing tool from the early 1980s to the present day. The background to a new spatial-video research initiative based at National University of Ireland, Maynooth, (NUIM) is described. New improvements are proposed and include; low-cost encoders, easy to use software decoders, timing issues and interoperability. These developments will enable specialists and non-specialists collect, process and integrate these datasets within minimal support. This integrated approach will enable decision makers to access relevant remotely sensed datasets quickly and so, carry out rapid damage assessment during and post-disaster.

  5. Remote sensing in uranium exploration. Basic guidance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-01-01

    The purpose of this publication is to provide the reader with a basis for making an intelligent approach to the use of remote sensing in uranium exploration. It includes: A description of the various techniques; specific applications in view of exploration strategy and selection of appropriate techniques, and some examples of applications; availability and costs; a bibliography.

  6. Semiconductor laser technology for remote sensing experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Joseph

    1988-01-01

    Semiconductor injection lasers are required for implementing virtually all spaceborne remote sensing systems. Their main advantages are high reliability and efficiency, and their main roles are envisioned in pumping and injection locking of solid state lasers. In some shorter range applications they may even be utilized directly as the sources.

  7. Remote sensing applications for monitoring rangeland vegetation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Remote sensing techniques hold considerable promise for the inventory and monitoring of natural resources on rangelands. A significant lack of information concerning basic spectral characteristics of range vegetation and soils has resulted in a lack of rangeland applications. The parameters of interest for range condition ...

  8. Lidar Remote Sensing for Industry and Environment Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Upendra N. (Editor); Itabe, Toshikazu (Editor); Sugimoto, Nobuo (Editor)

    2000-01-01

    Contents include the following: 1. Keynote paper: Overview of lidar technology for industrial and environmental monitoring in Japan. 2. lidar technology I: NASA's future active remote sensing mission for earth science. Geometrical detector consideration s in laser sensing application (invited paper). 3. Lidar technology II: High-power femtosecond light strings as novel atmospheric probes (invited paper). Design of a compact high-sensitivity aerosol profiling lidar. 4. Lasers for lidars: High-energy 2 microns laser for multiple lidar applications. New submount requirement of conductively cooled laser diodes for lidar applications. 5. Tropospheric aerosols and clouds I: Lidar monitoring of clouds and aerosols at the facility for atmospheric remote sensing (invited paper). Measurement of asian dust by using multiwavelength lidar. Global monitoring of clouds and aerosols using a network of micropulse lidar systems. 6. Troposphere aerosols and clouds II: Scanning lidar measurements of marine aerosol fields at a coastal site in Hawaii. 7. Tropospheric aerosols and clouds III: Formation of ice cloud from asian dust particles in the upper troposphere. Atmospheric boundary layer observation by ground-based lidar at KMITL, Thailand (13 deg N, 100 deg. E). 8. Boundary layer, urban pollution: Studies of the spatial correlation between urban aerosols and local traffic congestion using a slant angle scanning on the research vessel Mirai. 9. Middle atmosphere: Lidar-observed arctic PSC's over Svalbard (invited paper). Sodium temperature lidar measurements of the mesopause region over Syowa Station. 10. Differential absorption lidar (dIAL) and DOAS: Airborne UV DIAL measurements of ozone and aerosols (invited paper). Measurement of water vapor, surface ozone, and ethylene using differential absorption lidar. 12. Space lidar I: Lightweight lidar telescopes for space applications (invited paper). Coherent lidar development for Doppler wind measurement from the International Space

  9. Remote optical stethoscope and optomyography sensing device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golberg, Mark; Polani, Sagi; Ozana, Nisan; Beiderman, Yevgeny; Garcia, Javier; Ruiz-Rivas Onses, Joaquin; Sanz Sabater, Martin; Shatsky, Max; Zalevsky, Zeev

    2017-02-01

    In this paper we present the usage of photonic remote laser based device for sensing nano-vibrations for detection of muscle contraction and fatigue, eye movements and in-vivo estimation of glucose concentration. The same concept is also used to realize a remote optical stethoscope. The advantage of doing the measurements from a distance is in preventing passage of infections as in the case of optical stethoscope or in the capability to monitor e.g. sleep quality without disturbing the patient. The remote monitoring of glucose concentration in the blood stream and the capability to perform opto-myography for the Messer muscles (chewing) is very useful for nutrition and weight control. The optical configuration for sensing the nano-vibrations is based upon analyzing the statistics of the secondary speckle patterns reflected from various tissues along the body of the subjects. Experimental results present the preliminary capability of the proposed configuration for the above mentioned applications.

  10. Remote Sensing of Mangrove Ecosystems: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Dech

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Mangrove ecosystems dominate the coastal wetlands of tropical and subtropical regions throughout the world. They provide various ecological and economical ecosystem services contributing to coastal erosion protection, water filtration, provision of areas for fish and shrimp breeding, provision of building material and medicinal ingredients, and the attraction of tourists, amongst many other factors. At the same time, mangroves belong to the most threatened and vulnerable ecosystems worldwide and experienced a dramatic decline during the last half century. International programs, such as the Ramsar Convention on Wetlands or the Kyoto Protocol, underscore the importance of immediate protection measures and conservation activities to prevent the further loss of mangroves. In this context, remote sensing is the tool of choice to provide spatio-temporal information on mangrove ecosystem distribution, species differentiation, health status, and ongoing changes of mangrove populations. Such studies can be based on various sensors, ranging from aerial photography to high- and medium-resolution optical imagery and from hyperspectral data to active microwave (SAR data. Remote-sensing techniques have demonstrated a high potential to detect, identify, map, and monitor mangrove conditions and changes during the last two decades, which is reflected by the large number of scientific papers published on this topic. To our knowledge, a recent review paper on the remote sensing of mangroves does not exist, although mangrove ecosystems have become the focus of attention in the context of current climate change and discussions of the services provided by these ecosystems. Also, climate change-related remote-sensing studies in coastal zones have increased drastically in recent years. The aim of this review paper is to provide a comprehensive overview and sound summary of all of the work undertaken, addressing the variety of remotely sensed data applied for mangrove

  11. Remote sensing science - new concepts and applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerstl, S.A.; Cooke, B.J.; Henderson, B.G.; Love, S.P.; Zardecki, A.

    1996-10-01

    This is the final report of a one-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The science and technology of satellite remote sensing is an emerging interdisciplinary field that is growing rapidly with many global and regional applications requiring quantitative sensing of earth`s surface features as well as its atmosphere from space. It is possible today to resolve structures on the earth`s surface as small as one meter from space. If this high spatial resolution is coupled with high spectral resolution, instant object identification can also be achieved. To interpret these spectral signatures correctly, it is necessary to perform a computational correction on the satellite imagery that removes the distorting effects of the atmosphere. This project studied such new concepts and applied innovative new approaches in remote sensing science.

  12. NASA Fluid Lensing & MiDAR: Next-Generation Remote Sensing Technologies for Aquatic Remote Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chirayath, Ved

    2018-01-01

    We present two recent instrument technology developments at NASA, Fluid Lensing and MiDAR, and their application to remote sensing of Earth's aquatic systems. Fluid Lensing is the first remote sensing technology capable of imaging through ocean waves in 3D at sub-cm resolutions. MiDAR is a next-generation active hyperspectral remote sensing and optical communications instrument capable of active fluid lensing. Fluid Lensing has been used to provide 3D multispectral imagery of shallow marine systems from unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs, or drones), including coral reefs in American Samoa and stromatolite reefs in Hamelin Pool, Western Australia. MiDAR is being deployed on aircraft and underwater remotely operated vehicles (ROVs) to enable a new method for remote sensing of living and nonliving structures in extreme environments. MiDAR images targets with high-intensity narrowband structured optical radiation to measure an objectâ€"TM"s non-linear spectral reflectance, image through fluid interfaces such as ocean waves with active fluid lensing, and simultaneously transmit high-bandwidth data. As an active instrument, MiDAR is capable of remotely sensing reflectance at the centimeter (cm) spatial scale with a signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) multiple orders of magnitude higher than passive airborne and spaceborne remote sensing systems with significantly reduced integration time. This allows for rapid video-frame-rate hyperspectral sensing into the far ultraviolet and VNIR wavelengths. Previously, MiDAR was developed into a TRL 2 laboratory instrument capable of imaging in thirty-two narrowband channels across the VNIR spectrum (400-950nm). Recently, MiDAR UV was raised to TRL4 and expanded to include five ultraviolet bands from 280-400nm, permitting UV remote sensing capabilities in UV A, B, and C bands and enabling mineral identification and stimulated fluorescence measurements of organic proteins and compounds, such as green fluorescent proteins in terrestrial and

  13. Optical/Infrared Signatures for Space-Based Remote Sensing

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Picard, R. H; Dewan, E. M; Winick, J. R; O'Neil, R. R

    2007-01-01

    This report describes work carried out under the Air Force Research Laboratory's basic research task in optical remote-sensing signatures, entitled Optical / Infrared Signatures for Space-Based Remote Sensing...

  14. Mapping Water Use and Drought with Satellite Remote Sensing

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson, Martha

    2014-01-01

    Mapping water use and drought with satellite remote sensing. Martha C. Anderson, Bill Kustas, Feng Gao, Kate Semmens. USDA-Agricultural Research Service Hydrology and Remote Sensing Laboratory, Beltsville, MD. Chris Hain NOAA-NESDIS

  15. Opportunities for Increasing Societal Value of Remote Sensing Data ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Opportunities for Increasing Societal Value of Remote Sensing Data in South Africa's Strategic Development Priorities: A Review. ... Despite the enormous capital required to fund remote sensing initiatives, governments ... HOW TO USE AJOL.

  16. Assessing the accuracy of remote sensing techniques in vegetation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Assessing the accuracy of remote sensing techniques in vegetation fractions estimation. ... This study aimed at exploring different remote sensing (RS) techniques for quantitatively measuring vegetation and bare soil ... HOW TO USE AJOL.

  17. Forest structural assessment using remote sensing technologies: an ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    -Natal and MONDI Business Paper have recently embarked on a remote sensing cooperative. The primary focus of this cooperative is to explore the potential benefits associated with using remote sensing for forestry-related activities.

  18. Remote sensing using MIMO systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bikhazi, Nicolas; Young, William F; Nguyen, Hung D

    2015-04-28

    A technique for sensing a moving object within a physical environment using a MIMO communication link includes generating a channel matrix based upon channel state information of the MIMO communication link. The physical environment operates as a communication medium through which communication signals of the MIMO communication link propagate between a transmitter and a receiver. A spatial information variable is generated for the MIMO communication link based on the channel matrix. The spatial information variable includes spatial information about the moving object within the physical environment. A signature for the moving object is generated based on values of the spatial information variable accumulated over time. The moving object is identified based upon the signature.

  19. Remote Sensing Image in the Application of Agricultural Tourism Planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guojing Fan

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces the processing technology of high resolution remote sensing image, the specific making process of tourism map and different remote sensing data in the key application of tourism planning and so on. Remote sensing extracts agricultural tourism planning information, improving the scientificalness and operability of agricultural tourism planning. Therefore remote sensing image in the application of agricultural tourism planning will be the inevitable trend of tourism development.

  20. Coastal remote sensing – towards integrated coastal research and management

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Lück-Vogel, Melanie

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available coastal resources and anthropogenic infrastructure for a safer future. What is the role of remote sensing? The coastal zone connects terrestrial biophysical systems with marine systems. Some marine ecosystems cannot function without intact inland... for the development of sound integrated management solutions. To date, however, remote sensing applications usually focus on areas landward from the highwater line (?terrestrial? remote sensing), while ?marine? remote sensing does not pay attention to the shallow...

  1. Economic optimization and evolutionary programming when using remote sensing data

    OpenAIRE

    Shamin Roman; Alberto Gabriel Enrike; Uryngaliyeva Ayzhana; Semenov Aleksandr

    2018-01-01

    The article considers the issues of optimizing the use of remote sensing data. Built a mathematical model to describe the economic effect of the use of remote sensing data. It is shown that this model is incorrect optimisation task. Given a numerical method of solving this problem. Also discusses how to optimize organizational structure by using genetic algorithm based on remote sensing. The methods considered allow the use of remote sensing data in an optimal way. The proposed mathematical m...

  2. Remote sensing applications for the dam industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pryse-Phillips, A.; Woolgar, R. [Hatch Ltd., St. John' s, NL (Canada); Puestow, T.; Warren, S. [Memorial Univ. of Newfoundland, St. John' s, NL (Canada). C-Core; Rogers, K. [Nalcor Energy, St. John' s, NL (Canada); Khan, A. [Government of Newfoundland and Labrador, St. Johns, NL (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    There has been an increase in the earth observation missions providing satellite imagery for operational monitoring applications. This technique has been found to be especially useful for the surveillance of large, remote areas, which is challenging to achieve in a cost-effective manner by conventional field-based or aerial means. This paper discussed the utility of satellite-based monitoring for different applications relevant to hydrology and water resources management. Emphasis was placed on the monitoring of river ice covers in near, real-time and water resources management. The paper first outlined river ice monitoring using remote sensing on the Lower Churchill River. The benefits of remote sensing over traditional survey methods for the dam industry was then outlined. Satellite image acquisition and interpretation for the Churchill River was then presented. Several images were offered. Watershed physiographic characterization using remote sensing was also described. It was concluded that satellite imagery proved to be a useful tool to develop physiographic characteristics when conducting rainfall-runoff modelling. 3 refs., 1 tab., 11 figs.

  3. Annotated bibliography of remote sensing methods for monitoring desertification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, A.S.; Robinove, Charles J.

    1981-01-01

    Remote sensing techniques are valuable for locating, assessing, and monitoring desertification. Remotely sensed data provide a permanent record of the condition of the land in a format that allows changes in land features and condition to be measured. The annotated bibliography of 118 items discusses remote sensing methods that may be applied to desertification studies.

  4. Towards operational environmental applications using terrestrial remote sensing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldkamp JG; Velde RJ van de; LBG

    1996-01-01

    Dit rapport beschrijft de resultaten van het Beleidscommissie Remote Sensing (BCRS) project 'Verankering van toepassingen van terrestrische remote sensing bij RIVM'. Het had ten eerste tot doel te voldoen aan de voorwaarden, zoals gesteld in de inventarisatie van remote sensing als

  5. History and future of remote sensing technology and education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colwell, R. N.

    1980-01-01

    A historical overview of the discovery and development of photography, related sciences, and remote sensing technology is presented. The role of education to date in the development of remote sensing is discussed. The probable future and potential of remote sensing and training is described.

  6. Remote sensing for studying atmospheric aerosols in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanniah, Kasturi D.; Kamarul Zaman, Nurul A. F.

    2015-10-01

    The aerosol system is Southeast Asia is complex and the high concentrations are due to population growth, rapid urbanization and development of SEA countries. Nevertheless, only a few studies have been carried out especially at large spatial extent and on a continuous basis to study atmospheric aerosols in Malaysia. In this review paper we report the use of remote sensing data to study atmospheric aerosols in Malaysia and document gaps and recommend further studies to bridge the gaps. Satellite data have been used to study the spatial and seasonal patterns of aerosol optical depth (AOD) in Malaysia. Satellite data combined with AERONET data were used to delineate different types and sizes of aerosols and to identify the sources of aerosols in Malaysia. Most of the aerosol studies performed in Malaysia was based on station-based PM10 data that have limited spatial coverage. Thus, satellite data have been used to extrapolate and retrieve PM10 data over large areas by correlating remotely sensed AOD with ground-based PM10. Realising the critical role of aerosols on radiative forcing numerous studies have been conducted worldwide to assess the aerosol radiative forcing (ARF). Such studies are yet to be conducted in Malaysia. Although the only source of aerosol data covering large region in Malaysia is remote sensing, satellite observations are limited by cloud cover, orbital gaps of satellite track, etc. In addition, relatively less understanding is achieved on how the atmospheric aerosol interacts with the regional climate system. These gaps can be bridged by conducting more studies using integrated approach of remote sensing, AERONET and ground based measurements.

  7. Remote-Sensing Time Series Analysis, a Vegetation Monitoring Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKellip, Rodney; Prados, Donald; Ryan, Robert; Ross, Kenton; Spruce, Joseph; Gasser, Gerald; Greer, Randall

    2008-01-01

    The Time Series Product Tool (TSPT) is software, developed in MATLAB , which creates and displays high signal-to- noise Vegetation Indices imagery and other higher-level products derived from remotely sensed data. This tool enables automated, rapid, large-scale regional surveillance of crops, forests, and other vegetation. TSPT temporally processes high-revisit-rate satellite imagery produced by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and by other remote-sensing systems. Although MODIS imagery is acquired daily, cloudiness and other sources of noise can greatly reduce the effective temporal resolution. To improve cloud statistics, the TSPT combines MODIS data from multiple satellites (Aqua and Terra). The TSPT produces MODIS products as single time-frame and multitemporal change images, as time-series plots at a selected location, or as temporally processed image videos. Using the TSPT program, MODIS metadata is used to remove and/or correct bad and suspect data. Bad pixel removal, multiple satellite data fusion, and temporal processing techniques create high-quality plots and animated image video sequences that depict changes in vegetation greenness. This tool provides several temporal processing options not found in other comparable imaging software tools. Because the framework to generate and use other algorithms is established, small modifications to this tool will enable the use of a large range of remotely sensed data types. An effective remote-sensing crop monitoring system must be able to detect subtle changes in plant health in the earliest stages, before the effects of a disease outbreak or other adverse environmental conditions can become widespread and devastating. The integration of the time series analysis tool with ground-based information, soil types, crop types, meteorological data, and crop growth models in a Geographic Information System, could provide the foundation for a large-area crop-surveillance system that could identify

  8. Remote Sensing and In-Situ Observations of Arctic Mixed-Phase and Cirrus Clouds Acquired During Mixed-Phase Arctic Cloud Experiment: Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Uninhabited Aerospace Vehicle Participation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McFarquhar, G.M.; Freer, M.; Um, J.; McCoy, R.; Bolton, W.

    2005-01-01

    The Atmospheric Radiation Monitor (ARM) uninhabited aerospace vehicle (UAV) program aims to develop measurement techniques and instruments suitable for a new class of high altitude, long endurance UAVs while supporting the climate community with valuable data sets. Using the Scaled Composites Proteus aircraft, ARM UAV participated in Mixed-Phase Arctic Cloud Experiment (M-PACE), obtaining unique data to help understand the interaction of clouds with solar and infrared radiation. Many measurements obtained using the Proteus were coincident with in-situ observations made by the UND Citation. Data from M-PACE are needed to understand interactions between clouds, the atmosphere and ocean in the Arctic, critical interactions given large-scale models suggest enhanced warming compared to lower latitudes is occurring

  9. Research on cloud-based remote measurement and analysis system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Zhiqiang; He, Lingsong; Su, Wei; Wang, Can; Zhang, Changfan

    2015-02-01

    The promising potential of cloud computing and its convergence with technologies such as cloud storage, cloud push, mobile computing allows for creation and delivery of newer type of cloud service. Combined with the thought of cloud computing, this paper presents a cloud-based remote measurement and analysis system. This system mainly consists of three parts: signal acquisition client, web server deployed on the cloud service, and remote client. This system is a special website developed using asp.net and Flex RIA technology, which solves the selective contradiction between two monitoring modes, B/S and C/S. This platform supplies customer condition monitoring and data analysis service by Internet, which was deployed on the cloud server. Signal acquisition device is responsible for data (sensor data, audio, video, etc.) collection and pushes the monitoring data to the cloud storage database regularly. Data acquisition equipment in this system is only conditioned with the function of data collection and network function such as smartphone and smart sensor. This system's scale can adjust dynamically according to the amount of applications and users, so it won't cause waste of resources. As a representative case study, we developed a prototype system based on Ali cloud service using the rotor test rig as the research object. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed system architecture is feasible.

  10. A framework for developing remote sensing applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, T.; Hayat, M.F.; Afzal, M.; Asif, H.M.S.; Asif, K.H.

    2014-01-01

    Remote Sensing Application (RSA) is important as one of the critical enabler of e-systems such as e- governments, e-commerce, and e-sciences. In this study, we argued that owning to the specialized needs of RSA such as volatility and interactive nature, a customized Software Engineering (SE) approach should be adapted for their development. Based on this argument we have also identified the shortcomings of the conventional SE approaches and the classical waterfall software development life cycle model. In this study, we have proposed a modification to the classical waterfall software development life cycle model for proposing a customized software development Framework for RSAs. We have identified four (4) different types of changes that can occur to an already developed RS application. The proposed framework was capable to incorporate all four types of changes. Remote Sensing, software engineering, functional requirements, types of changes. (author)

  11. Review of oil spill remote sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fingas, Merv; Brown, Carl

    2014-06-15

    Remote-sensing for oil spills is reviewed. The use of visible techniques is ubiquitous, however it gives only the same results as visual monitoring. Oil has no particular spectral features that would allow for identification among the many possible background interferences. Cameras are only useful to provide documentation. In daytime oil absorbs light and remits this as thermal energy at temperatures 3-8K above ambient, this is detectable by infrared (IR) cameras. Laser fluorosensors are useful instruments because of their unique capability to identify oil on backgrounds that include water, soil, weeds, ice and snow. They are the only sensor that can positively discriminate oil on most backgrounds. Radar detects oil on water by the fact that oil will dampen water-surface capillary waves under low to moderate wave/wind conditions. Radar offers the only potential for large area searches, day/night and foul weather remote sensing. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. National Satellite Land Remote Sensing Data Archive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faundeen, John L.; Longhenry, Ryan

    2018-06-13

    The National Satellite Land Remote Sensing Data Archive is managed on behalf of the Secretary of the Interior by the U.S. Geological Survey’s Earth Resources Observation and Science Center. The Land Remote Sensing Policy Act of 1992 (51 U.S.C. §601) directed the U.S. Department of the Interior to establish a permanent global archive consisting of imagery over land areas obtained from satellites orbiting the Earth. The law also directed the U.S. Department of the Interior, delegated to the U.S. Geological Survey, to ensure proper storage and preservation of imagery, and timely access for all parties. Since 2008, these images have been available at no cost to the user.

  13. The 1997 remote sensing mission to Kazakhstan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinmaus, K.; Robert, B.; Berezin, S.A.

    1997-01-01

    In June and July of 1997, the US Department of Energy, in cooperation with the Republic of Kazakhstan Ministry of Science - Academy of Science conducted a remote sensing mission to Kazakhstan. The mission was conducted as a technology demonstration under a Memorandum of Understanding between the United States Department of Energy and the Republic of Kazakhstan's Ministry of science - Academy of Science. The mission was performed using a US Navy P-3 Orion aircraft and imaging capabilities developed by the Department of Energy's Office of Non-proliferation and National Security. The imaging capabilities consisted of two imaging pods - a synthetic aperture radar (SAR) pod and a multi sensor imaging pod (MSI). Seven experiments were conducted to demonstrate how remote sensing can be used to support city planning, land cover mapping, mineral exploration, and non-proliferation monitoring. Results of the mission will be presented

  14. Surveillance and remote sensing: ITOPF participation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nichols, J.A.

    1992-01-01

    Although the Federation does not sponsor or undertake surveillance and remote sensing research and development projects, it is a potential user of remote sensing equipment when responding to oil spills. Indeed, the Federation has already made use of suitably equipped aircraft on a number of occasions in Europe. Several countries in north west Europe, viz. France, Germany, Netherlands, Norway, Sweden and the U.K., operate aircraft fitted with broadly similar systems comprising side-looking airborne radar (SLAR), infra-red line scanners (IRLS) and ultra-violet line scanners (UVLS). These aircraft are used routinely for the detection of operational discharges of oil from ships in violation of the International Convention on the Prevention of Pollution from Ships 73/78 (MARPOL 73/78)

  15. Upgraded airborne scanner for commercial remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Sheng-Huei; Rubin, Tod D.

    1994-06-01

    Traditional commercial remote sensing has focused on the geologic market, with primary focus on mineral identification and mapping in the visible through short-wave infrared spectral regions (0.4 to 2.4 microns). Commercial remote sensing users now demand airborne scanning capabilities spanning the entire wavelength range from ultraviolet through thermal infrared (0.3 to 12 microns). This spectral range enables detection, identification, and mapping of objects and liquids on the earth's surface and gases in the air. Applications requiring this range of wavelengths include detection and mapping of oil spills, soil and water contamination, stressed vegetation, and renewable and non-renewable natural resources, and also change detection, natural hazard mitigation, emergency response, agricultural management, and urban planning. GER has designed and built a configurable scanner that acquires high resolution images in 63 selected wave bands in this broad wavelength range.

  16. An Overview of GNSS Remote Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-27

    Aplicaciones Cientificas-C (SAC-C) satellites. CHAMP provided 8 years of radio oc- cultation data consisting of around 440,000 measurements from February...applications, various modifi- cations of terrestrial receivers are required, including hardware and software modifications to enhance surviv- ability in a...Dop- pler shifts. On the other hand, special hardware and software is required to support non-navigation remote sensing applications in space, such

  17. Information mining in remote sensing imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiang

    The volume of remotely sensed imagery continues to grow at an enormous rate due to the advances in sensor technology, and our capability for collecting and storing images has greatly outpaced our ability to analyze and retrieve information from the images. This motivates us to develop image information mining techniques, which is very much an interdisciplinary endeavor drawing upon expertise in image processing, databases, information retrieval, machine learning, and software design. This dissertation proposes and implements an extensive remote sensing image information mining (ReSIM) system prototype for mining useful information implicitly stored in remote sensing imagery. The system consists of three modules: image processing subsystem, database subsystem, and visualization and graphical user interface (GUI) subsystem. Land cover and land use (LCLU) information corresponding to spectral characteristics is identified by supervised classification based on support vector machines (SVM) with automatic model selection, while textural features that characterize spatial information are extracted using Gabor wavelet coefficients. Within LCLU categories, textural features are clustered using an optimized k-means clustering approach to acquire search efficient space. The clusters are stored in an object-oriented database (OODB) with associated images indexed in an image database (IDB). A k-nearest neighbor search is performed using a query-by-example (QBE) approach. Furthermore, an automatic parametric contour tracing algorithm and an O(n) time piecewise linear polygonal approximation (PLPA) algorithm are developed for shape information mining of interesting objects within the image. A fuzzy object-oriented database based on the fuzzy object-oriented data (FOOD) model is developed to handle the fuzziness and uncertainty. Three specific applications are presented: integrated land cover and texture pattern mining, shape information mining for change detection of lakes, and

  18. Remote Sensing using Signals of Opportunity

    OpenAIRE

    Yertay, Alibek; Garrison, James L

    2013-01-01

    Today, there are more than eight thousand satellites in space. Therefore, Radio Frequency (RF) signals broadcast from satellites can be accessed from almost every point on the earth. There will be number of satellites available at most points on earth with different frequency bands. These satellite signals can be used for remote sensing, therefore software that visualizes footprints of satellites and shows characteristics of every satellite available at any point would be useful in determinin...

  19. Mesoscale Modeling, Forecasting and Remote Sensing Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    remote sensing , cyclonic scale diagnostic studies and mesoscale numerical modeling and forecasting are summarized. Mechanisms involved in the release of potential instability are discussed and simulated quantitatively, giving particular attention to the convective formulation. The basic mesoscale model is documented including the equations, boundary condition, finite differences and initialization through an idealized frontal zone. Results of tests including a three dimensional test with real data, tests of convective/mesoscale interaction and tests with a detailed

  20. Integrated remotely sensed datasets for disaster management

    OpenAIRE

    McCarthy, Tim; Farrell, Ronan; Curtis, Andrew; Fotheringham, A. Stewart

    2008-01-01

    Video imagery can be acquired from aerial, terrestrial and marine based platforms and has been exploited for a range of remote sensing applications over the past two decades. Examples include coastal surveys using aerial video, routecorridor infrastructures surveys using vehicle mounted video cameras, aerial surveys over forestry and agriculture, underwater habitat mapping and disaster management. Many of these video systems are based on interlaced, television standards such as North...

  1. Benchmarking of Remote Sensing Segmentation Methods

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mikeš, Stanislav; Haindl, Michal; Scarpa, G.; Gaetano, R.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 5 (2015), s. 2240-2248 ISSN 1939-1404 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-10911S Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : benchmark * remote sensing segmentation * unsupervised segmentation * supervised segmentation Subject RIV: BD - Theory of Information Impact factor: 2.145, year: 2015 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2015/RO/haindl-0445995.pdf

  2. Remote sensing for oil spill detection and response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engelhardt, F.R.

    1999-01-01

    This paper focuses on the use of remote sensing for marine oil spill detection and response. The surveillance and monitoring of discharges, and the main elements of effective surveillance are discussed. Tactical emergency response and the requirements for selecting a suitable remote sensing approach, airborne remote sensing systems, and the integration of satellite and airborne imaging are examined. Specifications of satellite surveillance systems potentially usable for oil spill detection, and specifications of airborne remote sensing systems suitable for oil spill detection, monitoring and supplemental actions are tabulated, and a schema of integrated satellite-airborne remote sensing (ISARS) is presented. (UK)

  3. Remote Sensing of Landscapes with Spectral Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, John B.; Gillespie, Alan R.

    2006-05-01

    Remote Sensing of Landscapes with Spectral Images describes how to process and interpret spectral images using physical models to bridge the gap between the engineering and theoretical sides of remote-sensing and the world that we encounter when we venture outdoors. The emphasis is on the practical use of images rather than on theory and mathematical derivations. Examples are drawn from a variety of landscapes and interpretations are tested against the reality seen on the ground. The reader is led through analysis of real images (using figures and explanations); the examples are chosen to illustrate important aspects of the analytic framework. This textbook will form a valuable reference for graduate students and professionals in a variety of disciplines including ecology, forestry, geology, geography, urban planning, archeology and civil engineering. It is supplemented by a web-site hosting digital color versions of figures in the book as well as ancillary images (www.cambridge.org/9780521662214). Presents a coherent view of practical remote sensing, leading from imaging and field work to the generation of useful thematic maps Explains how to apply physical models to help interpret spectral images Supplemented by a website hosting digital colour versions of figures in the book, as well as additional colour figures

  4. Ambiguity of Quality in Remote Sensing Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynnes, Christopher; Leptoukh, Greg

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews some of the issues in quality of remote sensing data. Data "quality" is used in several different contexts in remote sensing data, with quite different meanings. At the pixel level, quality typically refers to a quality control process exercised by the processing algorithm, not an explicit declaration of accuracy or precision. File level quality is usually a statistical summary of the pixel-level quality but is of doubtful use for scenes covering large areal extents. Quality at the dataset or product level, on the other hand, usually refers to how accurately the dataset is believed to represent the physical quantities it purports to measure. This assessment often bears but an indirect relationship at best to pixel level quality. In addition to ambiguity at different levels of granularity, ambiguity is endemic within levels. Pixel-level quality terms vary widely, as do recommendations for use of these flags. At the dataset/product level, quality for low-resolution gridded products is often extrapolated from validation campaigns using high spatial resolution swath data, a suspect practice at best. Making use of quality at all levels is complicated by the dependence on application needs. We will present examples of the various meanings of quality in remote sensing data and possible ways forward toward a more unified and usable quality framework.

  5. Remote sensing to monitor uranium tailing sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-02-01

    This report concerns the feasibility of using remotely-sensed data for long-term monitoring of uranium tailings. Decommissioning of uranium mine tailings sites may require long-term monitoring to confirm that no unanticipated release of contaminants occurs. Traditional ground-based monitoring of specific criteria of concern would be a significant expense depending on the nature and frequency of the monitoring. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether available remote-sensing data and techniques were applicable to the long-term monitoring of tailings sites. This objective was met by evaluating to what extent the data and techniques could be used to identify and discriminate information useful for monitoring tailings sites. The cost associated with obtaining and interpreting this information was also evaluated. Satellite and aircraft remote-sensing-based activities were evaluated. A monitoring programme based on annual coverage of Landsat Thematic Mapper data is recommended. Immediately prior to and for several years after decommissioning of the tailings sites, airborne multispectral and thermal infrared surveys combined with field verification data are required in order to establish a baseline for the long-term satellite-based monitoring programme. More frequent airborne surveys may be required if rapidly changing phenomena require monitoring. The use of a geographic information system is recommended for the effective storage and manipulation of data accumulated over a number of years

  6. Remote sensing approach to structural modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Ghawaby, M.A.

    1989-01-01

    Remote sensing techniques are quite dependable tools in investigating geologic problems, specially those related to structural aspects. The Landsat imagery provides discrimination between rock units, detection of large scale structures as folds and faults, as well as small scale fabric elements such as foliation and banding. In order to fulfill the aim of geologic application of remote sensing, some essential surveying maps might be done from images prior to the structural interpretation: land-use, land-form drainage pattern, lithological unit and structural lineament maps. Afterwards, the field verification should lead to interpretation of a comprehensive structural model of the study area to apply for the target problem. To deduce such a model, there are two ways of analysis the interpreter may go through: the direct and the indirect methods. The direct one is needed in cases where the resources or the targets are controlled by an obvious or exposed structural element or pattern. The indirect way is necessary for areas where the target is governed by a complicated structural pattern. Some case histories of structural modelling methods applied successfully for exploration of radioactive minerals, iron deposits and groundwater aquifers in Egypt are presented. The progress in imagery, enhancement and integration of remote sensing data with the other geophysical and geochemical data allow a geologic interpretation to be carried out which become better than that achieved with either of the individual data sets. 9 refs

  7. Hyperspectral remote sensing of plant pigments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackburn, George Alan

    2007-01-01

    The dynamics of pigment concentrations are diagnostic of a range of plant physiological properties and processes. This paper appraises the developing technologies and analytical methods for quantifying pigments non-destructively and repeatedly across a range of spatial scales using hyperspectral remote sensing. Progress in deriving predictive relationships between various characteristics and transforms of hyperspectral reflectance data are evaluated and the roles of leaf and canopy radiative transfer models are reviewed. Requirements are identified for more extensive intercomparisons of different approaches and for further work on the strategies for interpreting canopy scale data. The paper examines the prospects for extending research to the wider range of pigments in addition to chlorophyll, testing emerging methods of hyperspectral analysis and exploring the fusion of hyperspectral and LIDAR remote sensing. In spite of these opportunities for further development and the refinement of techniques, current evidence of an expanding range of applications in the ecophysiological, environmental, agricultural, and forestry sciences highlights the growing value of hyperspectral remote sensing of plant pigments.

  8. Noninvasive Remote Sensing Techniques for Infrastructures Diagnostics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelo Palombo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper aims at analyzing the potentialities of noninvasive remote sensing techniques used for detecting the conservation status of infrastructures. The applied remote sensing techniques are ground-based microwave radar interferometer and InfraRed Thermography (IRT to study a particular structure planned and made in the framework of the ISTIMES project (funded by the European Commission in the frame of a joint Call “ICT and Security” of the Seventh Framework Programme. To exploit the effectiveness of the high-resolution remote sensing techniques applied we will use the high-frequency thermal camera to measure the structures oscillations by high-frequency analysis and ground-based microwave radar interferometer to measure the dynamic displacement of several points belonging to a large structure. The paper describes the preliminary research results and discusses on the future applicability and techniques developments for integrating high-frequency time series data of the thermal imagery and ground-based microwave radar interferometer data.

  9. Mineralogy and Astrobiology Detection Using Laser Remote Sensing Instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abedin, M. Nurul; Bradley, Arthur T.; Sharma, Shiv K.; Misra, Anupam K.; Lucey, Paul G.; Mckay, Chistopher P.; Ismail, Syed; Sandford, Stephen P.

    2015-01-01

    A multispectral instrument based on Raman, laser-induced fluorescence (LIF), laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS), and a lidar system provides high-fidelity scientific investigations, scientific input, and science operation constraints in the context of planetary field campaigns with the Jupiter Europa Robotic Lander and Mars Sample Return mission opportunities. This instrument conducts scientific investigations analogous to investigations anticipated for missions to Mars and Jupiter's icy moons. This combined multispectral instrument is capable of performing Raman and fluorescence spectroscopy out to a >100 m target distance from the rover system and provides single-wavelength atmospheric profiling over long ranges (>20 km). In this article, we will reveal integrated remote Raman, LIF, and lidar technologies for use in robotic and lander-based planetary remote sensing applications. Discussions are focused on recently developed Raman, LIF, and lidar systems in addition to emphasizing surface water ice, surface and subsurface minerals, organics, biogenic, biomarker identification, atmospheric aerosols and clouds distributions, i.e., near-field atmospheric thin layers detection for next robotic-lander based instruments to measure all the above-mentioned parameters. OCIS codes: (120.0280) Remote sensing and sensors; (130.0250) Optoelectronics; (280.3640) Lidar; (300.2530) Fluorescence, laser-induced; (300.6450) Spectroscopy, Raman; (300.6365) Spectroscopy, laser induced breakdown

  10. Extending remote sensing estimates of Greenland ice sheet melting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heavner, M.; Loveland, R.

    2010-12-01

    The Melt Area Detection Index (MADI), a remote sensing algorithm to discriminate between dry and wet snow, has been previously developed and applied to the western portion of the Greenland ice sheet for the years 2000-2006, using Moderate Resolution Imaging Radiospectrometer (MODIS) data (Chylek et al, 2007). We extend that work both spatially and temporally by taking advantage of newly available data, and developing algorithms that facilitate the sensing of cloud cover and the automated inference of wet snow regions. The automated methods allow the development of a composite melt area data product with 0.25 km^2 spatial resolution and approximately two week temporal resolution. We discuss melt area dynamics that are inferred from this high resolution composite melt area. Chylek, P., M. McCabe, M. K. Dubey, and J. Dozier (2007), Remote sensing of Greenland ice sheet using multispectral near-infrared and visible radiances, J. Geophys. Res., 112, D24S20, doi:10.1029/2007JD008742.

  11. Research Status and Development Trend of Remote Sensing in China Using Bibliometric Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Y.; Zhang, J.; Niu, R.

    2015-06-01

    Remote sensing was introduced into China in 1970s and then began to flourish. At present, China has developed into a big remote sensing country, and remote sensing is increasingly playing an important role in various fields of national economic construction and social development. Based on China Academic Journals Full-text Database and China Citation Database published by China National Knowledge Infrastructure, this paper analyzed academic characteristics of 963 highly cited papers published by 16 professional and academic journals in the field of surveying and mapping from January 2010 to December 2014 in China, which include hot topics, literature authors, research institutions, and fundations. At the same time, it studied a total of 51,149 keywords published by these 16 journals during the same period. Firstly by keyword selection, keyword normalization, keyword consistency and keyword incorporation, and then by analysis of high frequency keywords, the progress and prospect of China's remote sensing technology in data acquisition, data processing and applications during the past five years were further explored and revealed. It can be seen that: highly cited paper analysis and word frequency analysis is complementary on subject progress analysis; in data acquisition phase, research focus is new civilian remote sensing satellite systems and UAV remote sensing system; research focus of data processing and analysis is multi-source information extraction and classification, laser point cloud data processing, objectoriented high resolution image analysis, SAR data and hyper-spectral image processing, etc.; development trend of remote sensing data processing is quantitative, intelligent, automated, and real-time, and the breadth and depth of remote sensing application is gradually increased; parallel computing, cloud computing and geographic conditions monitoring and census are the new research focuses to be paid attention to.

  12. Remote observations of eruptive clouds and surface thermal activity during the 2009 eruption of Redoubt volcano

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webley, P. W.; Lopez, T. M.; Ekstrand, A. L.; Dean, K. G.; Rinkleff, P.; Dehn, J.; Cahill, C. F.; Wessels, R. L.; Bailey, J. E.; Izbekov, P.; Worden, A.

    2013-06-01

    Volcanoes often erupt explosively and generate a variety of hazards including volcanic ash clouds and gaseous plumes. These clouds and plumes are a significant hazard to the aviation industry and the ground features can be a major hazard to local communities. Here, we provide a chronology of the 2009 Redoubt Volcano eruption using frequent, low spatial resolution thermal infrared (TIR), mid-infrared (MIR) and ultraviolet (UV) satellite remote sensing data. The first explosion of the 2009 eruption of Redoubt Volcano occurred on March 15, 2009 (UTC) and was followed by a series of magmatic explosive events starting on March 23 (UTC). From March 23-April 4 2009, satellites imaged at least 19 separate explosive events that sent ash clouds up to 18 km above sea level (ASL) that dispersed ash across the Cook Inlet region. In this manuscript, we provide an overview of the ash clouds and plumes from the 19 explosive events, detailing their cloud-top heights and discussing the variations in infrared absorption signals. We show that the timing of the TIR data relative to the event end time was critical for inferring the TIR derived height and true cloud top height. The ash clouds were high in water content, likely in the form of ice, which masked the negative TIR brightness temperature difference (BTD) signal typically used for volcanic ash detection. The analysis shown here illustrates the utility of remote sensing data during volcanic crises to measure critical real-time parameters, such as cloud-top heights, changes in ground-based thermal activity, and plume/cloud location.

  13. Hyperspectral remote sensing of wild oyster reefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Bris, Anthony; Rosa, Philippe; Lerouxel, Astrid; Cognie, Bruno; Gernez, Pierre; Launeau, Patrick; Robin, Marc; Barillé, Laurent

    2016-04-01

    The invasion of the wild oyster Crassostrea gigas along the western European Atlantic coast has generated changes in the structure and functioning of intertidal ecosystems. Considered as an invasive species and a trophic competitor of the cultivated conspecific oyster, it is now seen as a resource by oyster farmers following recurrent mass summer mortalities of oyster spat since 2008. Spatial distribution maps of wild oyster reefs are required by local authorities to help define management strategies. In this work, visible-near infrared (VNIR) hyperspectral and multispectral remote sensing was investigated to map two contrasted intertidal reef structures: clusters of vertical oysters building three-dimensional dense reefs in muddy areas and oysters growing horizontally creating large flat reefs in rocky areas. A spectral library, collected in situ for various conditions with an ASD spectroradiometer, was used to run Spectral Angle Mapper classifications on airborne data obtained with an HySpex sensor (160 spectral bands) and SPOT satellite HRG multispectral data (3 spectral bands). With HySpex spectral/spatial resolution, horizontal oysters in the rocky area were correctly classified but the detection was less efficient for vertical oysters in muddy areas. Poor results were obtained with the multispectral image and from spatially or spectrally degraded HySpex data, it was clear that the spectral resolution was more important than the spatial resolution. In fact, there was a systematic mud deposition on shells of vertical oyster reefs explaining the misclassification of 30% of pixels recognized as mud or microphytobenthos. Spatial distribution maps of oyster reefs were coupled with in situ biomass measurements to illustrate the interest of a remote sensing product to provide stock estimations of wild oyster reefs to be exploited by oyster producers. This work highlights the interest of developing remote sensing techniques for aquaculture applications in coastal

  14. Optical Remote Sensing Potentials for Looting Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athos Agapiou

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Looting of archaeological sites is illegal and considered a major anthropogenic threat for cultural heritage, entailing undesirable and irreversible damage at several levels, such as landscape disturbance, heritage destruction, and adverse social impact. In recent years, the employment of remote sensing technologies using ground-based and/or space-based sensors has assisted in dealing with this issue. Novel remote sensing techniques have tackled heritage destruction occurring in war-conflicted areas, as well as illicit archeological activity in vast areas of archaeological interest with limited surveillance. The damage performed by illegal activities, as well as the scarcity of reliable information are some of the major concerns that local stakeholders are facing today. This study discusses the potential use of remote sensing technologies based on the results obtained for the archaeological landscape of Ayios Mnason in Politiko village, located in Nicosia district, Cyprus. In this area, more than ten looted tombs have been recorded in the last decade, indicating small-scale, but still systematic, looting. The image analysis, including vegetation indices, fusion, automatic extraction after object-oriented classification, etc., was based on high-resolution WorldView-2 multispectral satellite imagery and RGB high-resolution aerial orthorectified images. Google Earth© images were also used to map and diachronically observe the site. The current research also discusses the potential for wider application of the presented methodology, acting as an early warning system, in an effort to establish a systematic monitoring tool for archaeological areas in Cyprus facing similar threats.

  15. Remote sensing for nuclear power plant siting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siegal, B.S.; Welby, C.W.

    1981-01-01

    Remote sensing techniques enhance the selection and evaluation process for nuclear power plant siting. The principal advantage is the synoptic view which improves recognition of linear features, possibly indicative of faults. The interpretation of such images, in conjunction with seismological studies, also permits delineation of seismo-tectonic provinces. In volcanic terrains, geomorphic-age boundaries can be delineated and volcanic centers identified, providing necessary guidance for field sampling and regional model derivation. The use of such techniques is considered for studies in the Philippines, Mexico, and Greece. 5 refs

  16. USDOE Remote Sensing Laboratory multisensor surveys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tinney, L.; Christel, L.; Clark, H.; Mackey, H.

    1996-01-01

    The United States Department of Energy (USDOE) maintains a Remote Sensing Laboratory (RSL) to support nuclear related programs of the US Government. The mission of the organization includes both emergency response and routine environmental assessments of nuclear facilities. The unique suite of equipment used by RSL for multisensor surveys of nuclear facilities include gamma radiation sensors, mapping quality aerial cameras, video cameras, thermal imagers, and multispectral scanners. Results for RSL multisensor surveys that have been conducted at the Savannah River Site (SRS) located in South Carolina are presented

  17. Remote sensing and communications in random media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papanicolaou, George

    2003-04-01

    Reliable, high-capacity communications in scattering media can be effectively established with some basic remote sensing techniques involving time reversal. I will formulate these problems and discuss the various mathematical approaches that can be used for analysis. It turns out that stochastic analysis plays an important role and, in some cases, gives very satisfactory results. One such result is the spectacular increase in communications capacity in a richly scattering environment. I will end with a discussion of applications and computational issues that arise in the realistic simulation of communication systems.

  18. Parallelizing remote sensing image geometric correction

    OpenAIRE

    Bernabeu i Altayó, Gerard; Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona. Departament d'Arquitectura de Computadors i Sistemes Operatius

    2012-01-01

    Remote sensing spatial, spectral, and temporal resolutions of images, acquired Les resolucions espacials, espectrals i temporals d'imatges de teledetecci ó, adquirides a una mida raonable, donen com a resultat imatges que es poden processar per a representar grans àrees de terreny amb un nivell de detall espacial que es Las resoluciones espaciales, espectrales y temporales de imágenes de teledetección, adquiridas a un tamaño razonable, dan como resultado imágenes que se pueden procesar ...

  19. Application of remote sensing to environmental management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Handley, J F

    1980-01-01

    The contribution of remote sensing to environmental management procedures at the sub-regional scale is examined in relation to the County Structure environmental management plan for Merseyside County, England. The various seasons, scales and emulsions used for aerial photography in the county are indicated, and results of aerial surveys of the distribution of derelict and despoiled land and of natural environments are presented and compared with ground surveys. The use of color infrared and panchromatic aerial photographs indicating areas of environmental stress and land use in the formulation, implementation and monitoring of environmental management activities is then discussed.

  20. Remote sensing and actuation using unmanned vehicles

    CERN Document Server

    Chao, Haiyang

    2012-01-01

    Unmanned systems and robotics technologies have become very popular recently owing to their ability to replace human beings in dangerous, tedious, or repetitious jobs. This book fill the gap in the field between research and real-world applications, providing scientists and engineers with essential information on how to design and employ networked unmanned vehicles for remote sensing and distributed control purposes. Target scenarios include environmental or agricultural applications such as river/reservoir surveillance, wind profiling measurement, and monitoring/control of chemical leaks.

  1. Remote shock sensing and notification system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muralidharan, Govindarajan; Britton, Charles L.; Pearce, James; Jagadish, Usha; Sikka, Vinod K.

    2008-11-11

    A low-power shock sensing system includes at least one shock sensor physically coupled to a chemical storage tank to be monitored for impacts, and an RF transmitter which is in a low-power idle state in the absence of a triggering signal. The system includes interference circuitry including or activated by the shock sensor, wherein an output of the interface circuitry is coupled to an input of the RF transmitter. The interface circuitry triggers the RF transmitting with the triggering signal to transmit an alarm message to at least one remote location when the sensor senses a shock greater than a predetermined threshold. In one embodiment the shock sensor is a shock switch which provides an open and a closed state, the open state being a low power idle state.

  2. Online Cloud Offloading Using Heterogeneous Enhanced Remote Radio Heads

    KAUST Repository

    Shnaiwer, Yousef N.

    2018-02-12

    This paper studies the cloud offloading gains of using heterogeneous enhanced remote radio heads (eRRHs) and dual-interface clients in fog radio access networks (F-RANs). First, the cloud offloading problem is formulated as a collection of independent sets selection problem over a network coding graph, and its NP-hardness is shown. Therefore, a computationally simple online heuristic algorithm is proposed, that maximizes cloud offloading by finding an efficient schedule of coded file transmissions from the eRRHs and the cloud base station (CBS). Furthermore, a lower bound on the average number of required CBS channels to serve all clients is derived. Simulation results show that our proposed framework that uses both network coding and a heterogeneous F-RAN setting enhances cloud offloading as compared to conventional homogeneous F-RANs with network coding.

  3. Remote sensing research in geographic education: An alternative view

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, H.; Cary, T. K.; Goward, S. N.

    1981-01-01

    It is noted that within many geography departments remote sensing is viewed as a mere technique a student should learn in order to carry out true geographic research. This view inhibits both students and faculty from investigation of remotely sensed data as a new source of geographic knowledge that may alter our understanding of the Earth. The tendency is for geographers to accept these new data and analysis techniques from engineers and mathematicians without questioning the accompanying premises. This black-box approach hinders geographic applications of the new remotely sensed data and limits the geographer's contribution to further development of remote sensing observation systems. It is suggested that geographers contribute to the development of remote sensing through pursuit of basic research. This research can be encouraged, particularly among students, by demonstrating the links between geographic theory and remotely sensed observations, encouraging a healthy skepticism concerning the current understanding of these data.

  4. Remote sensing programs and courses in engineering and water resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiefer, R. W.

    1981-01-01

    The content of typical basic and advanced remote sensing and image interpretation courses are described and typical remote sensing graduate programs of study in civil engineering and in interdisciplinary environmental remote sensing and water resources management programs are outlined. Ideally, graduate programs with an emphasis on remote sensing and image interpretation should be built around a core of five courses: (1) a basic course in fundamentals of remote sensing upon which the more specialized advanced remote sensing courses can build; (2) a course dealing with visual image interpretation; (3) a course dealing with quantitative (computer-based) image interpretation; (4) a basic photogrammetry course; and (5) a basic surveying course. These five courses comprise up to one-half of the course work required for the M.S. degree. The nature of other course work and thesis requirements vary greatly, depending on the department in which the degree is being awarded.

  5. Proceedings of the eighth thematic conference on geologic remote sensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balmer, M.L.; Lange, F.F.; Levi, C.G.

    1991-01-01

    These proceedings contain papers presented at the Eighth Thematic Conference on Geologic Remote Sensing. This meeting was held April 29-May 2, 1991, in Denver, Colorado, USA. The conference was organized by the Environmental Research Institute of Michigan, in Cooperation with an international program committee composed primarily of geologic remote sensing specialists. The meeting was convened to discuss state-of-the-art exploration, engineering, and environmental applications of geologic remote sensing as well as research and development activities aimed at increasing the future capabilities of this technology. The presentations in these volumes address the following topics: Spectral Geology; U.S. and International Hydrocarbon Exploration; Radar and Thermal Infrared Remote Sensing; Engineering Geology and Hydrogeology; Minerals Exploration; Remote Sensing for Marine and Environmental Applications; Image Processing and Analysis; Geobotanical Remote Sensing; Data Integration and Geographic Information Systems

  6. Remote sensing in operational range management programs in Western Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, M. D.

    1977-01-01

    A pilot program carried out in Western Canada to test remote sensing under semi-operational conditions and display its applicability to operational range management programs was described. Four agencies were involved in the program, two in Alberta and two in Manitoba. Each had different objectives and needs for remote sensing within its range management programs, and each was generally unfamiliar with remote sensing techniques and their applications. Personnel with experience and expertise in the remote sensing and range management fields worked with the agency personnel through every phase of the pilot program. Results indicate that these agencies have found remote sensing to be a cost effective tool and will begin to utilize remote sensing in their operational work during ensuing seasons.

  7. Providing Data Quality Information for Remote Sensing Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albrecht, F.; Blaschke, T.; Lang, S.; Abdulmutalib, H. M.; Szabó, G.; Barsi, Á.; Batini, C.; Bartsch, A.; Kugler, Zs.; Tiede, D.; Huang, G.

    2018-04-01

    The availability and accessibility of remote sensing (RS) data, cloud processing platforms and provided information products and services has increased the size and diversity of the RS user community. This development also generates a need for validation approaches to assess data quality. Validation approaches employ quality criteria in their assessment. Data Quality (DQ) dimensions as the basis for quality criteria have been deeply investigated in the database area and in the remote sensing domain. Several standards exist within the RS domain but a general classification - established for databases - has been adapted only recently. For an easier identification of research opportunities, a better understanding is required how quality criteria are employed in the RS lifecycle. Therefore, this research investigates how quality criteria support decisions that guide the RS lifecycle and how they relate to the measured DQ dimensions. Subsequently follows an overview of the relevant standards in the RS domain that is matched to the RS lifecycle. Conclusively, the required research needs are identified that would enable a complete understanding of the interrelationships between the RS lifecycle, the data sources and the DQ dimensions, an understanding that would be very valuable for designing validation approaches in RS.

  8. Yb:YAG Lasers for Space Based Remote Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewing, J.J.; Fan, T. Y.

    1998-01-01

    Diode pumped solid state lasers will play a prominent role in future remote sensing missions because of their intrinsic high efficiency and low mass. Applications including altimetry, cloud and aerosol measurement, wind velocity measurement by both coherent and incoherent methods, and species measurements, with appropriate frequency converters, all will benefit from a diode pumped primary laser. To date the "gold standard" diode pumped Nd laser has been the laser of choice for most of these concepts. This paper discusses an alternate 1 micron laser, the YB:YAG laser, and its potential relevance for lidar applications. Conceptual design analysis and, to the extent possible at the time of the conference, preliminary experimental data on the performance of a bread board YB:YAG oscillator will be presented. The paper centers on application of YB:YAG for altimetry, but extension to other applications will be discussed.

  9. Preface to: Pan Ocean Remote Sensing Conference (PORSEC)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Desa, E.; Brown, R.; Shenoi, S.S.C.; Joseph, G.

    Conference (PORSEC), earlier known as the Paci c Ocean Remote Sensing Conference (PORSEC), was formed in 1992 to provide a venue for international cooperation in the increasingly important area of remote sensing of the ocean. Many countries that border... and ocean dynamics, and modeling with satellite sensor (mainly microwave) data. Some of the presentations are of regional interest, while others will nd an audience beyond the satellite remote sensing community. These rst results through their simple...

  10. Some problems on remote sensing geology for uranium prospecting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Tinghuai.

    1988-01-01

    Remote sensing is a kind of very effective method which can be used in all stages of geological prospecting. Geological prospecting with remote sensing method must be based on different genetic models of ore deposits, characteristics of geology-landscape and comprehensive analysis for geophysical and geochemical data, that is, by way of conceptual model prospecting. The prospecting results based on remote sensing geology should be assessed from three aspects such as direct, indirect and potential ones

  11. SYMPOSIUM ON REMOTE SENSING IN THE POLAR REGIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Arctic Institute of North America long has been interested in encouraging full and specific attention to applications of remote sensing to polar...research problems. The major purpose of the symposium was to acquaint scientists and technicians concerned with remote sensing with some of the...special problems of the polar areas and, in turn, to acquaint polar scientists with the potential of the use of remote sensing . The Symposium therefore was

  12. Remote sensing applied in uranium exploration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conradsen, K.; Nilsson, G.; Thyrsted, T.

    1985-01-01

    A research project, aiming at investigation the use of remote sensing in uranium exploration, has been accomplished on data from South Greenland. During the project, analyses have been done on pure remote sensing data (Landsat MSS) and on integrated data of various types, including geochemical, aeromagnetic, radiometric and geological data in addition to the MSS data. Ratioing, factor analysis and discriminant analysis were used for enhancement of colour anomalies which correspond to oxidation zones. Some of the anomalies coincide with U and Nb mineralizations. Lineaments were mapped visually from photoprints, digitized and analysed statistically. A sinusoidal model could be applied to the general directional frequency distribution and was used to define ten classes of significant directions. Three of these directions were of major geological significance. Thus some of the major alkaline intrusions are situated at the intersections of some of the lineaments, a particular NE-SW trending lineament coincides with a geochemical boundary and pitchblende occurrences may be related to a WNW-ESE direction. The various types of data set were brought onto format of the Landsat images and collected in a data base. Representing three different types of data (Landsat MSS-band 7, aeromagnetic data and the geochemical Fe-content of stream sediments) on basis of intensity, hue and saturation revealed new features among which can be mentioned a possible indication of a subsurface continuation of one of the major alkaline intrusions. (author)

  13. Remote sensing application for property tax evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Sadhana

    2008-02-01

    This paper presents a study for linking remotely sensed data with property tax related issues. First, it discusses the key attributes required for property taxation and evaluates the capabilities of remote sensing technology to measure these attributes accurately at parcel level. Next, it presents a detailed case study of six representative wards of different characteristics in Dehradun, India, that illustrates how measurements of several of these attributes supported by field survey can be combined to address the issues related to property taxation. Information derived for various factors quantifies the property taxation contributed by an average dwelling unit of the different income groups. Results show that the property tax calculated in different wards varies between 55% for the high-income group, 32% for the middle-income group, 12% for the low-income group and 1% for squatter units. The study concludes that higher spatial resolution satellite data and integrates social survey helps to assess the socio-economic status of the population for tax contribution purposes.

  14. Landscape Pattern Detection in Archaeological Remote Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arianna Traviglia

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Automated detection of landscape patterns on Remote Sensing imagery has seen virtually little or no development in the archaeological domain, notwithstanding the fact that large portion of cultural landscapes worldwide are characterized by land engineering applications. The current extraordinary availability of remotely sensed images makes it now urgent to envision and develop automatic methods that can simplify their inspection and the extraction of relevant information from them, as the quantity of information is no longer manageable by traditional “human” visual interpretation. This paper expands on the development of automatic methods for the detection of target landscape features—represented by field system patterns—in very high spatial resolution images, within the framework of an archaeological project focused on the landscape engineering embedded in Roman cadasters. The targets of interest consist of a variety of similarly oriented objects of diverse nature (such as roads, drainage channels, etc. concurring to demark the current landscape organization, which reflects the one imposed by Romans over two millennia ago. The proposed workflow exploits the textural and shape properties of real-world elements forming the field patterns using multiscale analysis of dominant oriented response filters. Trials showed that this approach provides accurate localization of target linear objects and alignments signaled by a wide range of physical entities with very different characteristics.

  15. Remote Sensing and Cropping Practices: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnès Bégué

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available For agronomic, environmental, and economic reasons, the need for spatialized information about agricultural practices is expected to rapidly increase. In this context, we reviewed the literature on remote sensing for mapping cropping practices. The reviewed studies were grouped into three categories of practices: crop succession (crop rotation and fallowing, cropping pattern (single tree crop planting pattern, sequential cropping, and intercropping/agroforestry, and cropping techniques (irrigation, soil tillage, harvest and post-harvest practices, crop varieties, and agro-ecological infrastructures. We observed that the majority of the studies were exploratory investigations, tested on a local scale with a high dependence on ground data, and used only one type of remote sensing sensor. Furthermore, to be correctly implemented, most of the methods relied heavily on local knowledge on the management practices, the environment, and the biological material. These limitations point to future research directions, such as the use of land stratification, multi-sensor data combination, and expert knowledge-driven methods. Finally, the new spatial technologies, and particularly the Sentinel constellation, are expected to improve the monitoring of cropping practices in the challenging context of food security and better management of agro-environmental issues.

  16. Support for global science: Remote sensing's challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estes, J. E.; Star, J. L.

    1986-01-01

    Remote sensing uses a wide variety of techniques and methods. Resulting data are analyzed by man and machine, using both analog and digital technology. The newest and most important initiatives in the U. S. civilian space program currently revolve around the space station complex, which includes the core station as well as co-orbiting and polar satellite platforms. This proposed suite of platforms and support systems offers a unique potential for facilitating long term, multidisciplinary scientific investigations on a truly global scale. Unlike previous generations of satellites, designed for relatively limited constituencies, the space station offers the potential to provide an integrated source of information which recognizes the scientific interest in investigating the dynamic coupling between the oceans, land surface, and atmosphere. Earth scientist already face problems that are truly global in extent. Problems such as the global carbon balance, regional deforestation, and desertification require new approaches, which combine multidisciplinary, multinational research teams, employing advanced technologies to produce a type, quantity, and quality of data not previously available. The challenge before the international scientific community is to continue to develop both the infrastructure and expertise to, on the one hand, develop the science and technology of remote sensing, while on the other hand, develop an integrated understanding of global life support systems, and work toward a quantiative science of the biosphere.

  17. Machine learning in geosciences and remote sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David J. Lary

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Learning incorporates a broad range of complex procedures. Machine learning (ML is a subdivision of artificial intelligence based on the biological learning process. The ML approach deals with the design of algorithms to learn from machine readable data. ML covers main domains such as data mining, difficult-to-program applications, and software applications. It is a collection of a variety of algorithms (e.g. neural networks, support vector machines, self-organizing map, decision trees, random forests, case-based reasoning, genetic programming, etc. that can provide multivariate, nonlinear, nonparametric regression or classification. The modeling capabilities of the ML-based methods have resulted in their extensive applications in science and engineering. Herein, the role of ML as an effective approach for solving problems in geosciences and remote sensing will be highlighted. The unique features of some of the ML techniques will be outlined with a specific attention to genetic programming paradigm. Furthermore, nonparametric regression and classification illustrative examples are presented to demonstrate the efficiency of ML for tackling the geosciences and remote sensing problems.

  18. Satellite remote sensing in epidemiological studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorek-Hamer, Meytar; Just, Allan C; Kloog, Itai

    2016-04-01

    Particulate matter air pollution is a ubiquitous exposure linked with multiple adverse health outcomes for children and across the life course. The recent development of satellite-based remote-sensing models for air pollution enables the quantification of these risks and addresses many limitations of previous air pollution research strategies. We review the recent literature on the applications of satellite remote sensing in air quality research, with a focus on their use in epidemiological studies. Aerosol optical depth (AOD) is a focus of this review and a significant number of studies show that ground-level particulate matter can be estimated from columnar AOD. Satellite measurements have been found to be an important source of data for particulate matter model-based exposure estimates, and recently have been used in health studies to increase the spatial breadth and temporal resolution of these estimates. It is suggested that satellite-based models improve our understanding of the spatial characteristics of air quality. Although the adoption of satellite-based measures of air quality in health studies is in its infancy, it is rapidly growing. Nevertheless, further investigation is still needed in order to have a better understanding of the AOD contribution to these prediction models in order to use them with higher accuracy in epidemiological studies.

  19. Domestic parking estimation using remotely sensed data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramzi, Ahmed

    2012-10-01

    Parking is an integral part of the traffic system everywhere. Provision of parking facilities to meet peak of demands parking in cities of millions is always a real challenge for traffic and transport experts. Parking demand is a function of population and car ownership which is obtained from traffic statistics. Parking supply in an area is the number of legal parking stalls available in that area. The traditional treatment of the parking studies utilizes data collected either directly from on street counting and inquiries or indirectly from local and national traffic censuses. Both methods consume time, efforts, and funds. Alternatively, it is reasonable to make use of the eventually available data based on remotely sensed data which might be flown for other purposes. The objective of this work is to develop a new approach based on utilization of integration of remotely sensed data, field measurements, censuses and traffic records of the studied area for studying domestic parking problems in residential areas especially in informal areas. Expected outcomes from the research project establish a methodology to manage the issue and to find the reasons caused the shortage in domestics and the solutions to overcome this problems.

  20. Land remote sensing commercialization: A status report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, W. P.; Heacock, E. L.

    1984-01-01

    The current offer by the United States Department of Commerce to transfer the U.S. land remote sensing program to the private sector is described. A Request for Proposals (RFP) was issued, soliciting offers from U.S. firms to provide a commercial land remote sensing satellite system. Proposals must address a complete system including satellite, communications, and ground data processing systems. Offerors are encouraged to propose to take over the Government LANDSAT system which consists of LANDSAT 4 and LANDSAT D'. Also required in proposals are the market development procedures and plans to ensure that commercialization is feasible and the business will become self-supporting at the earliest possible time. As a matter of Federal Policy, the solicitation is designed to protect both national security and foreign policy considerations. In keeping with these concerns, an offeror must be a U.S. Firm. Requirements for data quality, quantity, distribution and delivery are met by current operational procedures. It is the Government's desire that the Offeror be prepared to develop and operate follow-on systems without Government subsidies. However, to facilitate rapid commercialization, an offeror may elect to include in his proposal mechanisms for short term government financial assistance.

  1. Remote sensing inputs to water demand modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estes, J. E.; Jensen, J. R.; Tinney, L. R.; Rector, M.

    1975-01-01

    In an attempt to determine the ability of remote sensing techniques to economically generate data required by water demand models, the Geography Remote Sensing Unit, in conjunction with the Kern County Water Agency of California, developed an analysis model. As a result it was determined that agricultural cropland inventories utilizing both high altitude photography and LANDSAT imagery can be conducted cost effectively. In addition, by using average irrigation application rates in conjunction with cropland data, estimates of agricultural water demand can be generated. However, more accurate estimates are possible if crop type, acreage, and crop specific application rates are employed. An analysis of the effect of saline-alkali soils on water demand in the study area is also examined. Finally, reference is made to the detection and delineation of water tables that are perched near the surface by semi-permeable clay layers. Soil salinity prediction, automated crop identification on a by-field basis, and a potential input to the determination of zones of equal benefit taxation are briefly touched upon.

  2. Levee Health Monitoring With Radar Remote Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, C. E.; Bawden, G. W.; Deverel, S. J.; Dudas, J.; Hensley, S.; Yun, S.

    2012-12-01

    Remote sensing offers the potential to augment current levee monitoring programs by providing rapid and consistent data collection over large areas irrespective of the ground accessibility of the sites of interest, at repeat intervals that are difficult or costly to maintain with ground-based surveys, and in rapid response to emergency situations. While synthetic aperture radar (SAR) has long been used for subsidence measurements over large areas, applying this technique directly to regional levee monitoring is a new endeavor, mainly because it requires both a wide imaging swath and fine spatial resolution to resolve individual levees within the scene, a combination that has not historically been available. Application of SAR remote sensing directly to levee monitoring has only been attempted in a few pilot studies. Here we describe how SAR remote sensing can be used to assess levee conditions, such as seepage, drawing from the results of two levee studies: one of the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta levees in California that has been ongoing since July 2009 and a second that covered the levees near Vicksburg, Mississippi, during the spring 2011 floods. These studies have both used data acquired with NASA's UAVSAR L-band synthetic aperture radar, which has the spatial resolution needed for this application (1.7 m single-look), sufficiently wide imaging swath (22 km), and the longer wavelength (L-band, 0.238 m) required to maintain phase coherence between repeat collections over levees, an essential requirement for applying differential interferometry (DInSAR) to a time series of repeated collections for levee deformation measurement. We report the development and demonstration of new techniques that employ SAR polarimetry and differential interferometry to successfully assess levee health through the quantitative measurement of deformation on and near levees and through detection of areas experiencing seepage. The Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta levee study, which covers

  3. Physics teaching by infrared remote sensing of vegetation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schüttler, Tobias; Maman, Shimrit; Girwidz, Raimund

    2018-05-01

    Context- and project-based teaching has proven to foster different affective and cognitive aspects of learning. As a versatile and multidisciplinary scientific research area with diverse applications for everyday life, satellite remote sensing is an interesting context for physics education. In this paper we give a brief overview of satellite remote sensing of vegetation and how to obtain your own, individual infrared remote sensing data with affordable converted digital cameras. This novel technique provides the opportunity to conduct individual remote sensing measurement projects with students in their respective environment. The data can be compared to real satellite data and is of sufficient accuracy for educational purposes.

  4. Remote Sensing Training for Middle School through the Center of Excellence in Remote Sensing Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayden, L. B.; Johnson, D.; Baltrop, J.

    2012-12-01

    Remote sensing has steadily become an integral part of multiple disciplines, research, and education. Remote sensing can be defined as the process of acquiring information about an object or area of interest without physical contact. As remote sensing becomes a necessity in solving real world problems and scientific questions an important question to consider is why remote sensing training is significant to education and is it relevant to training students in this discipline. What has been discovered is the interest in Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) fields, specifically remote sensing, has declined in our youth. The Center of Excellence in Remote Sensing Education and Research (CERSER) continuously strives to provide education and research opportunities on ice sheet, coastal, ocean, and marine science. One of those continued outreach efforts are Center for Remote Sensing of Ice Sheets (CReSIS) Middle School Program. Sponsored by the National Science Foundation CReSIS Middle School Program offers hands on experience for middle school students. CERSER and NSF offer students the opportunity to study and learn about remote sensing and its vital role in today's society as it relate to climate change and real world problems. The CReSIS Middle School Program is an annual two-week effort that offers middle school students experience with remote sensing and its applications. Specifically, participants received training with Global Positioning Systems (GPS) where the students learned the tools, mechanisms, and applications of a Garmin 60 GPS. As a part of the program the students were required to complete a fieldwork assignment where several longitude and latitude points were given throughout campus. The students had to then enter the longitude and latitude points into the Garmin 60 GPS, navigate their way to each location while also accurately reading the GPS to make sure travel was in the right direction. Upon completion of GPS training the

  5. Benefits to world agriculture through remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buffalano, A. C.; Kochanowski, P.

    1976-01-01

    Remote sensing of agricultural land permits crop classification and mensuration which can lead to improved forecasts of production. This technique is particularly important for nations which do not already have an accurate agricultural reporting system. Better forecasts have important economic effects. International grain traders can make better decisions about when to store, buy, and sell. Farmers can make better planting decisions by taking advantage of production estimates for areas out of phase with their own agricultural calendar. World economic benefits will accrue to both buyers and sellers because of increased food supply and price stabilization. This paper reviews the econometric models used to establish this scenario and estimates the dollar value of benefits for world wheat as 200 million dollars annually for the United States and 300 to 400 million dollars annually for the rest of the world.

  6. Biomass Burning Emissions from Fire Remote Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichoku, Charles

    2010-01-01

    Knowledge of the emission source strengths of different (particulate and gaseous) atmospheric constituents is one of the principal ingredients upon which the modeling and forecasting of their distribution and impacts depend. Biomass burning emissions are complex and difficult to quantify. However, satellite remote sensing is providing us tremendous opportunities to measure the fire radiative energy (FRE) release rate or power (FRP), which has a direct relationship with the rates of biomass consumption and emissions of major smoke constituents. In this presentation, we will show how the satellite measurement of FRP is facilitating the quantitative characterization of biomass burning and smoke emission rates, and the implications of this unique capability for improving our understanding of smoke impacts on air quality, weather, and climate. We will also discuss some of the challenges and uncertainties associated with satellite measurement of FRP and how they are being addressed.

  7. Toward interactive search in remote sensing imagery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porter, Reid B [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hush, Do [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Harvey, Neal [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Theile, James [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-01-01

    To move from data to information in almost all science and defense applications requires a human-in-the-loop to validate information products, resolve inconsistencies, and account for incomplete and potentially deceptive sources of information. This is a key motivation for visual analytics which aims to develop techniques that complement and empower human users. By contrast, the vast majority of algorithms developed in machine learning aim to replace human users in data exploitation. In this paper we describe a recently introduced machine learning problem, called rare category detection, which may be a better match to visual analytic environments. We describe a new design criteria for this problem, and present comparisons to existing techniques with both synthetic and real-world datasets. We conclude by describing an application in broad-area search of remote sensing imagery.

  8. Remote Sensing of Parasitic Nematodes in Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Gary W.; King, Roger; Kelley, Amber T.; Vickery, John

    2007-01-01

    A method and apparatus for remote sensing of parasitic nematodes in plants, now undergoing development, is based on measurement of visible and infrared spectral reflectances of fields where the plants are growing. Initial development efforts have been concentrated on detecting reniform nematodes (Rotylenchulus reniformis) in cotton plants, because of the economic importance of cotton crops. The apparatus includes a hand-held spectroradiometer. The readings taken by the radiometer are processed to extract spectral reflectances at sixteen wavelengths between 451 and 949 nm that, taken together, have been found to be indicative of the presence of Rotylenchulus reniformis. The intensities of the spectral reflectances are used to estimate the population density of the nematodes in an area from which readings were taken.

  9. Remote sensing with laser spectrum radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tianhe; Zhou, Tao; Jia, Xiaodong

    2016-10-01

    The unmanned airborne (UAV) laser spectrum radar has played a leading role in remote sensing because the transmitter and the receiver are together at laser spectrum radar. The advantages of the integrated transceiver laser spectrum radar is that it can be used in the oil and gas pipeline leak detection patrol line which needs the non-contact reflective detection. The UAV laser spectrum radar can patrol the line and specially detect the swept the area are now in no man's land because most of the oil and gas pipelines are in no man's land. It can save labor costs compared to the manned aircraft and ensure the safety of the pilots. The UAV laser spectrum radar can be also applied in the post disaster relief which detects the gas composition before the firefighters entering the scene of the rescue.

  10. Toward interactive search in remote sensing imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Reid; Hush, Don; Harvey, Neal; Theiler, James

    2010-04-01

    To move from data to information in almost all science and defense applications requires a human-in-the-loop to validate information products, resolve inconsistencies, and account for incomplete and potentially deceptive sources of information. This is a key motivation for visual analytics which aims to develop techniques that complement and empower human users. By contrast, the vast majority of algorithms developed in machine learning aim to replace human users in data exploitation. In this paper we describe a recently introduced machine learning problem, called rare category detection, which may be a better match to visual analytic environments. We describe a new design criteria for this problem, and present comparisons to existing techniques with both synthetic and real-world datasets. We conclude by describing an application in broad-area search of remote sensing imagery.

  11. Remote sensing of sagebrush canopy nitrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Jessica J.; Glenn, Nancy F.; Sankey, Temuulen T.; Derryberry, DeWayne R.; Germino, Matthew J.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a combination of techniques suitable for remotely sensing foliar Nitrogen (N) in semiarid shrublands – a capability that would significantly improve our limited understanding of vegetation functionality in dryland ecosystems. The ability to estimate foliar N distributions across arid and semi-arid environments could help answer process-driven questions related to topics such as controls on canopy photosynthesis, the influence of N on carbon cycling behavior, nutrient pulse dynamics, and post-fire recovery. Our study determined that further exploration into estimating sagebrush canopy N concentrations from an airborne platform is warranted, despite remote sensing challenges inherent to open canopy systems. Hyperspectral data transformed using standard derivative analysis were capable of quantifying sagebrush canopy N concentrations using partial least squares (PLS) regression with an R2 value of 0.72 and an R2 predicted value of 0.42 (n = 35). Subsetting the dataset to minimize the influence of bare ground (n = 19) increased R2 to 0.95 (R2 predicted = 0.56). Ground-based estimates of canopy N using leaf mass per unit area measurements (LMA) yielded consistently better model fits than ground-based estimates of canopy N using cover and height measurements. The LMA approach is likely a method that could be extended to other semiarid shrublands. Overall, the results of this study are encouraging for future landscape scale N estimates and represent an important step in addressing the confounding influence of bare ground, which we found to be a major influence on predictions of sagebrush canopy N from an airborne platform.

  12. TRACKING FARM MANAGEMENT PRACTICES WITH REMOTE SENSING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. P. Stals

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Earth observation (EO data is effective in monitoring agricultural cropping activity over large areas. An example of such an application is the GeoTerraImage crop type classification for the South African Crop Estimates Committee (CEC. The satellite based classification of crop types in South Africa provides a large scale, spatial and historical record of agricultural practices in the main crop growing areas. The results from these classifications provides data for the analysis of trends over time, in order to extract valuable information that can aid decision making in the agricultural sector. Crop cultivation practices change over time as farmers adapt to demand, exchange rate and new technology. Through the use of remote sensing, grain crop types have been identified at field level since 2008, providing a historical data set of cropping activity for the three most important grain producing provinces of Mpumalanga, Freestate and North West province in South Africa. This historical information allows the analysis of farm management practices to identify changes and trends in crop rotation and irrigation practices. Analysis of crop type classification over time highlighted practices such as: frequency of cultivation of the same crop on a field, intensified cultivation on centre pivot irrigated fields with double cropping of a winter grain followed by a summer grain in the same year and increasing cultivation of certain types of crops over time such as soyabeans. All these practices can be analysed in a quantitative spatial and temporal manner through the use of the remote sensing based crop type classifications.

  13. Data Fusion for Earth Science Remote Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braverman, Amy

    2007-01-01

    Beginning in 2004, NASA has supported the development of an international network of ground-based remote sensing installations for the measurement of greenhouse gas columns. This collaboration has been successful and is currently used in both carbon cycle investigations and in the efforts to validate the GOSAT space-based column observations of CO2 and CH4. With the support of a grant, this research group has established a network of ground-based column observations that provide an essential link between the satellite observations of CO2, CO, and CH4 and the extensive global in situ surface network. The Total Carbon Column Observing Network (TCCON) was established in 2004. At the time of this report seven sites, employing modern instrumentation, were operational or were expected to be shortly. TCCON is expected to expand. In addition to providing the most direct means of tying the in situ and remote sensing data sets together, TCCON provides a means of testing the retrieval algorithms of SCIAMACHY and GOSAT over the broadest variation in atmospheric state. TCCON provides a critically maintained and long timescale record for identification of temporal drift and spatial bias in the calibration of the space-based sensors. Finally, the global observations from TCCON are improving our understanding of how to use column observations to provide robust estimates of surface exchange of C02 and CH4 in advance of the launch of OCO and GOSAT. TCCON data are being used to better understand the impact of both regional fluxes and long-range transport on gradients in the C02 column. Such knowledge is essential for identifying the tools required to best use the space-based observations. The technical approach and methodology of retrieving greenhouse gas columns from near-IR solar spectra, data quality and process control are described. Additionally, the impact of and relevance to NASA of TCCON and satellite validation and carbon science are addressed.

  14. Portable remote sensing image processing system; Kahangata remote sensing gazo shori system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujikawa, S; Uchida, K; Tanaka, S; Jingo, H [Dowa Engineering Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Hato, M [Earth Remote Sensing Data Analysis Center, Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-10-22

    Recently, geological analysis using remote sensing data has been put into practice due to data with high spectral resolution and high spatial resolution. There has been a remarkable increase in both software and hardware of personal computer. Software is independent of hardware due to Windows. It has become easy to develop softwares. Under such situation, a portable remote sensing image processing system coping with Window 95 has been developed. Using this system, basic image processing can be conducted, and present location can be displayed on the image in real time by linking with GPS. Accordingly, it is not required to bring printed images for the field works of image processing. This system can be used instead of topographic maps for overseas surveys. Microsoft Visual C++ ver. 2.0 is used for the software. 1 fig.

  15. Monitoring of Gangotri glacier using remote sensing and ground ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Dozier J 1989a Remote sensing of snow in the visible and near-infrared wavelengths; In: Theory and Applications of. Optical Remote Sensing (ed.) Asrar G (New York: John. Wiley and Sons), pp. 527–547. Dozier J 1989b Spectral signature of alpine snow cover from the Landsat Thematic Mapper; Rem. Sens. Environ. 28.

  16. Estimation of areal soil water content through microwave remote sensing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oevelen, van P.J.

    2000-01-01

    In this thesis the use of microwave remote sensing to estimate soil water content is investigated. A general framework is described which is applicable to both passive and active microwave remote sensing of soil water content. The various steps necessary to estimate areal soil water content

  17. Mapping of Landscape Cover Using Remote Sensing and GIS in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tadesse

    present study, Remote Sensing (RS) and Geographical Information System (GIS) techniques were used. Remotely sensed .... growing stock in Tahno range of Dehradun Forest Division. Okhandiara (2008) .... areas on an image by identifying 'training' sites of known targets and then extrapolating those spectral signatures to ...

  18. Synergies of multiple remote sensing data sources for REDD+ monitoring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sy, de V.; Herold, M.; Achard, F.; Asner, G.P.; Held, A.; Kellndorfer, J.; Verbesselt, J.

    2012-01-01

    Remote sensing technologies can provide objective, practical and cost-effective solutions for developing and maintaining REDD+ monitoring systems. This paper reviews the potential and status of available remote sensing data sources with a focus on different forest information products and synergies

  19. Deriving harmonised forest information in Europe using remote sensing methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seebach, Lucia Maria

    the need for harmonised forest information can be satisfied using remote sensing methods. In conclusion, the study showed that it is possible to derive harmonised forest information of high spatial detail in Europe with remote sensing. The study also highlighted the imperative provision of accuracy...

  20. Recent developments in remote sensing for coastal and marine applications

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Lück-Vogel, Melanie

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available at the coast is that it is in a permanent state of change. Remote sensing, whether from orbiting (space-borne) or air-borne platforms, can greatly assist in the task of monitoring coastal environments. In particular, remote sensing enables simultaneous or near...

  1. Remote sensing fire and fuels in southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philip Riggan; Lynn Wolden; Bob Tissell; David Weise; J. Coen

    2011-01-01

    Airborne remote sensing at infrared wavelengths has the potential to quantify large-fire properties related to energy release or intensity, residence time, fuel-consumption rate, rate of spread, and soil heating. Remote sensing at a high temporal rate can track fire-line outbreaks and acceleration and spotting ahead of a fire front. Yet infrared imagers and imaging...

  2. Remote sensing observation used in offshore wind energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasager, Charlotte Bay; Pena Diaz, Alfredo; Christiansen, Merete Bruun

    2008-01-01

    Remote sensing observations used in offshore wind energy are described in three parts: ground-based techniques and applications, airborne techniques and applications, and satellite-based techniques and applications. Ground-based remote sensing of winds is relevant, in particular, for new large wind...

  3. Application of remote sensing to agricultural field trials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Clevers, J.G.P.W.

    1986-01-01

    Remote sensing techniques enable quantitative information about a field trial to be obtained instantaneously and non-destructively. The aim of this study was to identify a method that can reduce inaccuracies in field trial analysis, and to identify how remote sensing can support and/or

  4. Potential benefits of remote sensing: Theoretical framework and empirical estimate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisgruber, L. M.

    1972-01-01

    A theoretical framwork is outlined for estimating social returns from research and application of remote sensing. The approximate dollar magnitude is given of a particular application of remote sensing, namely estimates of corn production, soybeans, and wheat. Finally, some comments are made on the limitations of this procedure and on the implications of results.

  5. Remote sensing education in NASA's technology transfer program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstein, R. H.

    1981-01-01

    Remote sensing is a principal focus of NASA's technology transfer program activity with major attention to remote sensing education the Regional Program and the University Applications Program. Relevant activities over the past five years are reviewed and perspective on future directions is presented.

  6. Remote Sensing Data Visualization, Fusion and Analysis via Giovanni

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leptoukh, G.; Zubko, V.; Gopalan, A.; Khayat, M.

    2007-01-01

    We describe Giovanni, the NASA Goddard developed online visualization and analysis tool that allows users explore various phenomena without learning remote sensing data formats and downloading voluminous data. Using MODIS aerosol data as an example, we formulate an approach to the data fusion for Giovanni to further enrich online multi-sensor remote sensing data comparison and analysis.

  7. Landsat's role in ecological applications of remote sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren B. Cohen; Samuel N. Goward

    2004-01-01

    Remote sensing, geographic information systems, and modeling have combined to produce a virtual explosion of growth in ecological investigations and applications that are explicitly spatial and temporal. Of all remotely sensed data, those acquired by landsat sensors have played the most pivotal role in spatial and temporal scaling. Modern terrestrial ecology relies on...

  8. The potential of remote sensing technology for the detection and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Internationally, a number of studies have successfully used remote sensing technology to monitor forest damage. Remote sensing technology allows for instantaneous methods of assessments whereby ground assessments would be impossible on a regular basis. This paper provides an overview of how advances in ...

  9. Remote sensing and change detection in rangelands | Palmer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To most land managers, remote sensing has remained illusive, seldom allowing the manager to use it to its full potential. In contrast, the policy maker, backed by GIS laboratories and remote sensing specialists, is confronted by plausible scenarios of degradation and transformation. After intervening, he is seldom active long ...

  10. Advancing Atmosphere-Ocean Remote Sensing with Spaceborne High Spectral Resolution Lidar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hostetler, C. A.; Behrenfeld, M. J.; Chepfer, H.; Hu, Y.; Hair, J. W.; Trepte, C. R.; Winker, D. M.; Ferrare, R. A.; Burton, S. P.; Scarino, A. J.; Powell, K. A.; Michaud, J.

    2016-12-01

    More than 1600 publications employing observations from the CALIOP lidar on CALIPSO testify to the value of spaceborne lidar for aerosol and cloud remote sensing. Recent publications have shown the value of CALIOP data for retrievals of key ocean carbon cycle stocks. In this presentation we focus on the advantages of a more advanced technique, High Spectral Resolution Lidar (HSRL), for aerosol, cloud, and ocean remote sensing. An atmosphere-ocean optimized HSRL achieves greater accuracy over the standard backscatter lidar technique for retrievals of aerosol and cloud extinction and backscatter profiles, provides additional capability to retrieve aerosol and cloud microphysical parameters, and enables vertically-resolved characterization of scattering and absorption properties of suspended and dissolved materials in the ocean. Numerous publications highlight the synergy of coincident CALIOP and passive A-train observations for studies of aerosol-cloud radiative effects and cloud-climate feedback. Less appreciated is the complementarity that would exist between an optimized spaceborne lidar and passive ocean color. An optimized HSRL flown in formation with the Plankton, Aerosol, and ocean Ecosystem (PACE) mission would provide phytoplankton vertical distribution, which is needed for accurately estimating net primary productivity but absent in the PACE ocean color data. The HSRL would also provide data needed to improve atmospheric correction schemes in ocean color retrievals. Because lidar provides measurements both night and day, through tenuous clouds and aerosol layers, and in holes between clouds, the sampling achieved is highly complementary to passive radiometry, providing data in important high latitude regions where ocean color data are sparse or nonexistent. In this presentation we will discuss 1) relevant aerosol, cloud, and ocean retrievals from airborne HSRL field missions; 2) the advantages of an optimized spaceborne HSRL for aerosol, cloud, and ocean

  11. Remote Sensing-Derived Bathymetry of Lake Poopó

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adalbert Arsen

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Located within the Altiplano at 3,686 m above sea level, Lake Poopó is remarkably shallow and very sensitive to hydrologic recharge. Progressive drying has been observed in the entire Titicaca-Poopó-Desaguadero-Salar de Coipasa (TPDS system during the last decade, causing dramatic changes to Lake Poopó’s surface and its regional water supplies. Our research aims to improve understanding of Lake Poopó water storage capacity. Thus, we propose a new method based on freely available remote sensing data to reproduce Lake Poopó bathymetry. Laser ranging altimeter ICESat (Ice, Cloud, and land Elevation Satellite is used during the lake’s lowest stages to measure vertical heights with high precision over dry land. These heights are used to estimate elevations of water contours obtained with Landsat imagery. Contour points with assigned elevation are filtered and grouped in a points cloud. Mesh gridding and interpolation function are then applied to construct 3D bathymetry. Complementary analysis of Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS surfaces from 2000 to 2012 combined with bathymetry gives water levels and storage evolution every 8 days.

  12. Eucalyptus Cloud to Remotely Provision e-Governance Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sreerama Prabhu Chivukula

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Remote rural areas are constrained by lack of reliable power supply, essential for setting up advanced IT infrastructure as servers or storage; therefore, cloud computing comprising an Infrastructure-as-a-Service (IaaS is well suited to provide such IT infrastructure in remote rural areas. Additional cloud layers of Platform-as-a-Service (PaaS and Software-as-a-Service (SaaS can be added above IaaS. Cluster-based IaaS cloud can be set up by using open-source middleware Eucalyptus in data centres of NIC. Data centres of the central and state governments can be integrated with State Wide Area Networks and NICNET together to form the e-governance grid of India. Web service repositories at centre, state, and district level can be built over the national e-governance grid of India. Using Globus Toolkit, we can achieve stateful web services with speed and security. Adding the cloud layer over the e-governance grid will make a grid-cloud environment possible through Globus Nimbus. Service delivery can be in terms of web services delivery through heterogeneous client devices. Data mining using Weka4WS and DataMiningGrid can produce meaningful knowledge discovery from data. In this paper, a plan of action is provided for the implementation of the above proposed architecture.

  13. Dynamic integration of remote cloud resources into local computing clusters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fleig, Georg; Erli, Guenther; Giffels, Manuel; Hauth, Thomas; Quast, Guenter; Schnepf, Matthias [Institut fuer Experimentelle Kernphysik, Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    In modern high-energy physics (HEP) experiments enormous amounts of data are analyzed and simulated. Traditionally dedicated HEP computing centers are built or extended to meet this steadily increasing demand for computing resources. Nowadays it is more reasonable and more flexible to utilize computing power at remote data centers providing regular cloud services to users as they can be operated in a more efficient manner. This approach uses virtualization and allows the HEP community to run virtual machines containing a dedicated operating system and transparent access to the required software stack on almost any cloud site. The dynamic management of virtual machines depending on the demand for computing power is essential for cost efficient operation and sharing of resources with other communities. For this purpose the EKP developed the on-demand cloud manager ROCED for dynamic instantiation and integration of virtualized worker nodes into the institute's computing cluster. This contribution will report on the concept of our cloud manager and the implementation utilizing a remote OpenStack cloud site and a shared HPC center (bwForCluster located in Freiburg).

  14. A feasibility study of using remotely sensed data for water resource models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruff, J. F.

    1973-01-01

    Remotely sensed data were collected to demonstrate the feasibility of applying the results to water resource problems. Photographs of the Wolf Creek watershed in southwestern Colorado were collected over a one year period. Cloud top temperatures were measured using a radiometer. Thermal imagery of the Wolf Creek Pass area was obtained during one pre-dawn flight. Remote sensing studies of water resource problems for user agencies were also conducted. The results indicated that: (1) remote sensing techniques could be used to assist in the solution of water resource problems; (2) photogrammetric determination of snow depths is feasible; (3) changes in turbidity or suspended material concentration can be observed; and (4) surface turbulence can be related to bed scour; and (5) thermal effluents into rivers can be monitored.

  15. A NDVI assisted remote sensing image adaptive scale segmentation method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hong; Shen, Jinxiang; Ma, Yanmei

    2018-03-01

    Multiscale segmentation of images can effectively form boundaries of different objects with different scales. However, for the remote sensing image which widely coverage with complicated ground objects, the number of suitable segmentation scales, and each of the scale size is still difficult to be accurately determined, which severely restricts the rapid information extraction of the remote sensing image. A great deal of experiments showed that the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) can effectively express the spectral characteristics of a variety of ground objects in remote sensing images. This paper presents a method using NDVI assisted adaptive segmentation of remote sensing images, which segment the local area by using NDVI similarity threshold to iteratively select segmentation scales. According to the different regions which consist of different targets, different segmentation scale boundaries could be created. The experimental results showed that the adaptive segmentation method based on NDVI can effectively create the objects boundaries for different ground objects of remote sensing images.

  16. Use of Openly Available Satellite Images for Remote Sensing Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, C.-K.

    2011-09-01

    With the advent of Google Earth, Google Maps, and Microsoft Bing Maps, high resolution satellite imagery are becoming more easily accessible than ever. It have been the case that the college students may already have wealth experiences with the high resolution satellite imagery by using these software and web services prior to any formal remote sensing education. It is obvious that the remote sensing education should be adjusted to the fact that the audience are already the customers of remote sensing products (through the use of the above mentioned services). This paper reports the use of openly available satellite imagery in an introductory-level remote sensing course in the Department of Geomatics of National Cheng Kung University as a term project. From the experience learned from the fall of 2009 and 2010, it shows that this term project has effectively aroused the students' enthusiastic toward Remote Sensing.

  17. Online catalog access and distribution of remotely sensed information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutton, Stephen M.

    1997-09-01

    Remote sensing is providing voluminous data and value added information products. Electronic sensors, communication electronics, computer software, hardware, and network communications technology have matured to the point where a distributed infrastructure for remotely sensed information is a reality. The amount of remotely sensed data and information is making distributed infrastructure almost a necessity. This infrastructure provides data collection, archiving, cataloging, browsing, processing, and viewing for applications from scientific research to economic, legal, and national security decision making. The remote sensing field is entering a new exciting stage of commercial growth and expansion into the mainstream of government and business decision making. This paper overviews this new distributed infrastructure and then focuses on describing a software system for on-line catalog access and distribution of remotely sensed information.

  18. ESA remote-sensing programme - Present activities and future plans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plevin, J [ESA, Directorate of Planning and Future Programmes, Paris, France; Pryke, I [ESA, Directorate of Applications Programmes, Toulouse, France

    1979-02-01

    The present activities and future missions of the ESA program of spaceborne remote sensing of earth resources and environment are discussed. Program objectives have been determined to be the satisfaction of European regional needs by agricultural, land use, water resources, coastal and polar surveys, and meeting the requirements of developing nations in the areas of agricultural production, mineral exploration and disaster warning and assessment. The Earthnet system of data processing centers presently is used for the distribution of remote sensing data acquired by NASA satellites. Remote sensing experiments to be flown aboard Spacelab are the Metric Camera, to test high resolution mapping capabilities of a large format camera, and the Microwave Remote-Sensing Experiment, which operates as a two-frequency scatterometer, a synthetic aperture radar and a passive microwave radiometer. Studies carried out on the definition of future remote sensing satellite systems are described, including studies of system concepts for land applications and coastal monitoring satellites.

  19. Remote Sensing of shallow sea floor for digital earth environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yahya, N N; Hashim, M; Ahmad, S

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the sea floor biodiversity requires spatial information that can be acquired from remote sensing satellite data. Species volume, spatial patterns and species coverage are some of the information that can be derived. Current approaches for mapping sea bottom type have evolved from field observation, visual interpretation from aerial photography, mapping from remote sensing satellite data along with field survey and hydrograhic chart. Remote sensing offers most versatile technique to map sea bottom type up to a certain scale. This paper reviews the technical characteristics of signal and light interference within marine features, space and remote sensing satellite. In addition, related image processing techniques that are applicable to remote sensing satellite data for sea bottom type digital mapping is also presented. The sea bottom type can be differentiated by classification method using appropriate spectral bands of satellite data. In order to verify the existence of particular sea bottom type, field observations need to be carried out with proper technique and equipment

  20. The function of remote sensing in support of environmental policy

    OpenAIRE

    de Leeuw, Jan; Georgiadou, P.Y.; Georgiadou, Yola; Kerle, Norman; de Gier, Alfred; Inoue, Yoshio; Ferwerda, Jelle; Smies, Maarten; Narantuya, Davaa

    2010-01-01

    Limited awareness of environmental remote sensing’s potential ability to support environmental policy development constrains the technology’s utilization. This paper reviews the potential of earth observation from the perspective of environmental policy. A literature review of “remote sensing and policy” revealed that while the number of publications in this field increased almost twice as rapidly as that of remote sensing literature as a whole (15.3 versus 8.8% yr−1), there is apparently lit...

  1. Application of the remote-sensing communication model to a time-sensitive wildfire remote-sensing system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher D. Lippitt; Douglas A. Stow; Philip J. Riggan

    2016-01-01

    Remote sensing for hazard response requires a priori identification of sensor, transmission, processing, and distribution methods to permit the extraction of relevant information in timescales sufficient to allow managers to make a given time-sensitive decision. This study applies and demonstrates the utility of the Remote Sensing Communication...

  2. Commercial future: making remote sensing a media event

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lurie, Ian

    1999-12-01

    The rapid growth of commercial remote sensing has made high quality digital sensing data widely available -- now, remote sensing must become and remain a strong, commercially viable industry. However, this new industry cannot survive without an educated consumer base. To access markets, remote sensing providers must make their product more accessible, both literally and figuratively: Potential customers must be able to find the data they require, when they require it, and they must understand the utility of the information available to them. The Internet and the World Wide Web offer the perfect medium to educate potential customers and to sell remote sensing data to those customers. A well-designed web presence can provide both an information center and a market place for companies offering their data for sale. A very high potential web-based market for remote sensing lies in media. News agencies, web sites, and a host of other visual media services can use remote sensing data to provide current, relevant information regarding news around the world. This paper will provide a model for promotion and sale of remote sensing data via the Internet.

  3. Operational programs in forest management and priority in the utilization of remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglass, R. W.

    1978-01-01

    A speech is given on operational remote sensing programs in forest management and the importance of remote sensing in forestry is emphasized. Forest service priorities in using remote sensing are outlined.

  4. Ten ways remote sensing can contribute to conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Robert A.; Byler, Dirck; Eastman, J. Ron; Fleishman, Erica; Geller, Gary; Goetz, Scott; Guild, Liane; Hamilton, Healy; Hansen, Matt; Headley, Rachel; Hewson, Jennifer; Horning, Ned; Kaplin, Beth A.; Laporte, Nadine; Leidner, Allison K.; Leimgruber, Peter; Morisette, Jeffrey T.; Musinsky, John; Pintea, Lilian; Prados, Ana; Radeloff, Volker C.; Rowen, Mary; Saatchi, Sassan; Schill, Steve; Tabor, Karyn; Turner, Woody; Vodacek, Anthony; Vogelmann, James; Wegmann, Martin; Wilkie, David; Wilson, Cara

    2014-01-01

    In an effort to increase conservation effectiveness through the use of Earth observation technologies, a group of remote sensing scientists affiliated with government and academic institutions and conservation organizations identified 10 questions in conservation for which the potential to be answered would be greatly increased by use of remotely sensed data and analyses of those data. Our goals were to increase conservation practitioners’ use of remote sensing to support their work, increase collaboration between the conservation science and remote sensing communities, identify and develop new and innovative uses of remote sensing for advancing conservation science, provide guidance to space agencies on how future satellite missions can support conservation science, and generate support from the public and private sector in the use of remote sensing data to address the 10 conservation questions. We identified a broad initial list of questions on the basis of an email chain-referral survey. We then used a workshop-based iterative and collaborative approach to whittle the list down to these final questions (which represent 10 major themes in conservation): How can global Earth observation data be used to model species distributions and abundances? How can remote sensing improve the understanding of animal movements? How can remotely sensed ecosystem variables be used to understand, monitor, and predict ecosystem response and resilience to multiple stressors? How can remote sensing be used to monitor the effects of climate on ecosystems? How can near real-time ecosystem monitoring catalyze threat reduction, governance and regulation compliance, and resource management decisions? How can remote sensing inform configuration of protected area networks at spatial extents relevant to populations of target species and ecosystem services? How can remote sensing-derived products be used to value and monitor changes in ecosystem services? How can remote sensing be used to

  5. Ten ways remote sensing can contribute to conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Robert A; Byler, Dirck; Eastman, J Ron; Fleishman, Erica; Geller, Gary; Goetz, Scott; Guild, Liane; Hamilton, Healy; Hansen, Matt; Headley, Rachel; Hewson, Jennifer; Horning, Ned; Kaplin, Beth A; Laporte, Nadine; Leidner, Allison; Leimgruber, Peter; Morisette, Jeffrey; Musinsky, John; Pintea, Lilian; Prados, Ana; Radeloff, Volker C; Rowen, Mary; Saatchi, Sassan; Schill, Steve; Tabor, Karyn; Turner, Woody; Vodacek, Anthony; Vogelmann, James; Wegmann, Martin; Wilkie, David; Wilson, Cara

    2015-04-01

    In an effort to increase conservation effectiveness through the use of Earth observation technologies, a group of remote sensing scientists affiliated with government and academic institutions and conservation organizations identified 10 questions in conservation for which the potential to be answered would be greatly increased by use of remotely sensed data and analyses of those data. Our goals were to increase conservation practitioners' use of remote sensing to support their work, increase collaboration between the conservation science and remote sensing communities, identify and develop new and innovative uses of remote sensing for advancing conservation science, provide guidance to space agencies on how future satellite missions can support conservation science, and generate support from the public and private sector in the use of remote sensing data to address the 10 conservation questions. We identified a broad initial list of questions on the basis of an email chain-referral survey. We then used a workshop-based iterative and collaborative approach to whittle the list down to these final questions (which represent 10 major themes in conservation): How can global Earth observation data be used to model species distributions and abundances? How can remote sensing improve the understanding of animal movements? How can remotely sensed ecosystem variables be used to understand, monitor, and predict ecosystem response and resilience to multiple stressors? How can remote sensing be used to monitor the effects of climate on ecosystems? How can near real-time ecosystem monitoring catalyze threat reduction, governance and regulation compliance, and resource management decisions? How can remote sensing inform configuration of protected area networks at spatial extents relevant to populations of target species and ecosystem services? How can remote sensing-derived products be used to value and monitor changes in ecosystem services? How can remote sensing be used to

  6. Computational Ghost Imaging for Remote Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erkmen, Baris I.

    2012-01-01

    This work relates to the generic problem of remote active imaging; that is, a source illuminates a target of interest and a receiver collects the scattered light off the target to obtain an image. Conventional imaging systems consist of an imaging lens and a high-resolution detector array [e.g., a CCD (charge coupled device) array] to register the image. However, conventional imaging systems for remote sensing require high-quality optics and need to support large detector arrays and associated electronics. This results in suboptimal size, weight, and power consumption. Computational ghost imaging (CGI) is a computational alternative to this traditional imaging concept that has a very simple receiver structure. In CGI, the transmitter illuminates the target with a modulated light source. A single-pixel (bucket) detector collects the scattered light. Then, via computation (i.e., postprocessing), the receiver can reconstruct the image using the knowledge of the modulation that was projected onto the target by the transmitter. This way, one can construct a very simple receiver that, in principle, requires no lens to image a target. Ghost imaging is a transverse imaging modality that has been receiving much attention owing to a rich interconnection of novel physical characteristics and novel signal processing algorithms suitable for active computational imaging. The original ghost imaging experiments consisted of two correlated optical beams traversing distinct paths and impinging on two spatially-separated photodetectors: one beam interacts with the target and then illuminates on a single-pixel (bucket) detector that provides no spatial resolution, whereas the other beam traverses an independent path and impinges on a high-resolution camera without any interaction with the target. The term ghost imaging was coined soon after the initial experiments were reported, to emphasize the fact that by cross-correlating two photocurrents, one generates an image of the target. In

  7. The remote sensing of tropospheric composition from space

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burrows, John P. [Bremen Univ. (DE). Inst. fuer Umweltphysik (IUP); Platt, Ulrich [Heidelberg Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Umweltphysik; Borrell, Peter (eds.) [P and PMB Consultants, Newcastle-under-Lyme (United Kingdom)

    2011-07-01

    The impact of anthropogenic activities on our atmospheric environment is of growing public concern and satellite-based techniques now provide an essential component of observational strategies on regional and global scales. The purpose of this book is to summarise the state of the art in the field in general, while describing both key techniques and findings in particular. It opens with an historical perspective of the field together with the basic principles of remote sensing from space. Three chapters follow on the techniques and on the solutions to the problems associated with the various spectral regions in which observations are made. The particular challenges posed by aerosols and clouds are covered in the next two chapters. Of special importance is the accuracy and reliability of remote sensing data and these issues are covered in a chapter on validation. The final section of the book is concerned with the exploitation of data, with chapters on observational aspects, which includes both individual and synergistic studies, and on the comparison of global and regional observations with chemical transport and climate models and the added value that the interaction brings to both. The book concludes with scientific needs and likely future developments in the field, and the necessary actions to be taken if we are to have the global observation system that the Earth needs in its present, deteriorating state. The appendices provide a comprehensive list of satellite instruments, global representations of some ancillary data such as fire counts and light pollution, a list of abbreviations and acronyms, and a set of colourful timelines indicating the satellite coverage of tropospheric composition in the foreseeable future. Altogether, this book will be a timely reference and overview for anyone working at the interface of environmental, atmospheric and space sciences. (orig.)

  8. Remote sensing, hydrological modeling and in situ observations in snow cover research: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Chunyu

    2018-06-01

    Snow is an important component of the hydrological cycle. As a major part of the cryosphere, snow cover also represents a valuable terrestrial water resource. In the context of climate change, the dynamics of snow cover play a crucial role in rebalancing the global energy and water budgets. Remote sensing, hydrological modeling and in situ observations are three techniques frequently utilized for snow cover investigations. However, the uncertainties caused by systematic errors, scale gaps, and complicated snow physics, among other factors, limit the usability of these three approaches in snow studies. In this paper, an overview of the advantages, limitations and recent progress of the three methods is presented, and more effective ways to estimate snow cover properties are evaluated. The possibility of improving remotely sensed snow information using ground-based observations is discussed. As a rapidly growing source of volunteered geographic information (VGI), web-based geotagged photos have great potential to provide ground truth data for remotely sensed products and hydrological models and thus contribute to procedures for cloud removal, correction, validation, forcing and assimilation. Finally, this review proposes a synergistic framework for the future of snow cover research. This framework highlights the cross-scale integration of in situ and remotely sensed snow measurements and the assimilation of improved remote sensing data into hydrological models.

  9. Remote sensing of coral reefs and their physical environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mumby, Peter J.; Skirving, William; Strong, Alan E.; Hardy, John T.; LeDrew, Ellsworth F.; Hochberg, Eric J.; Stumpf, Rick P.; David, Laura T.

    2004-01-01

    There has been a vast improvement in access to remotely sensed data in just a few recent years. This revolution of information is the result of heavy investment in new technology by governments and industry, rapid developments in computing power and storage, and easy dissemination of data over the internet. Today, remotely sensed data are available to virtually anyone with a desktop computer. Here, we review the status of one of the most popular areas of marine remote sensing research: coral reefs. Previous reviews have focused on the ability of remote sensing to map the structure and habitat composition of coral reefs, but have neglected to consider the physical environment in which reefs occur. We provide a holistic review of what can, might, and cannot be mapped using remote sensing at this time. We cover aspects of reef structure and health but also discuss the diversity of physical environmental data such as temperature, winds, solar radiation and water quality. There have been numerous recent advances in the remote sensing of reefs and we hope that this paper enhances awareness of the diverse data sources available, and helps practitioners identify realistic objectives for remote sensing in coral reef areas

  10. Remote sensing of coral reefs and their physical environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mumby, Peter J.; Skirving, William; Strong, Alan E.; Hardy, John T.; LeDrew, Ellsworth F.; Hochberg, Eric J.; Stumpf, Rick P.; David, Laura T

    2004-02-01

    There has been a vast improvement in access to remotely sensed data in just a few recent years. This revolution of information is the result of heavy investment in new technology by governments and industry, rapid developments in computing power and storage, and easy dissemination of data over the internet. Today, remotely sensed data are available to virtually anyone with a desktop computer. Here, we review the status of one of the most popular areas of marine remote sensing research: coral reefs. Previous reviews have focused on the ability of remote sensing to map the structure and habitat composition of coral reefs, but have neglected to consider the physical environment in which reefs occur. We provide a holistic review of what can, might, and cannot be mapped using remote sensing at this time. We cover aspects of reef structure and health but also discuss the diversity of physical environmental data such as temperature, winds, solar radiation and water quality. There have been numerous recent advances in the remote sensing of reefs and we hope that this paper enhances awareness of the diverse data sources available, and helps practitioners identify realistic objectives for remote sensing in coral reef areas.

  11. Review of Remote Sensing Needs and Applications in Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Molly E.

    2007-01-01

    Remote sensing data has had an important role in identifying and responding to inter-annual variations in the African environment during the past three decades. As a largely agricultural region with diverse but generally limited government capacity to acquire and distribute ground observations of rainfall, temperature and other parameters, remote sensing is sometimes the only reliable measure of crop growing conditions in Africa. Thus, developing and maintaining the technical and scientific capacity to analyze and utilize satellite remote sensing data in Africa is critical to augmenting the continent's local weather/climate observation networks as well as its agricultural and natural resource development and management. The report Review of Remote Sensing Needs and Applications in Africa' has as its central goal to recommend to the US Agency for International Development an appropriate approach to support sustainable remote sensing applications at African regional remote sensing centers. The report focuses on "RS applications" to refer to the acquisition, maintenance and archiving, dissemination, distribution, analysis, and interpretation of remote sensing data, as well as the integration of interpreted data with other spatial data products. The report focuses on three primary remote sensing centers: (1) The AGRHYMET Regional Center in Niamey, Niger, created in 1974, is a specialized institute of the Permanent Interstate Committee for Drought Control in the Sahel (CILSS), with particular specialization in science and techniques applied to agricultural development, rural development, and natural resource management. (2) The Regional Centre for Maiming of Resources for Development (RCMRD) in Nairobi, Kenya, established in 1975 under the auspices of the United Nations Economic Commission for Africa and the Organization of African Unity (now the African Union), is an intergovernmental organization, with 15 member states from eastern and southern Africa. (3) The

  12. Educational activities of remote sensing archaeology (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadjimitsis, Diofantos G.; Agapiou, Athos; Lysandrou, Vasilki; Themistocleous, Kyriacos; Cuca, Branka; Nisantzi, Argyro; Lasaponara, Rosa; Masini, Nicola; Krauss, Thomas; Cerra, Daniele; Gessner, Ursula; Schreier, Gunter

    2016-10-01

    Remote sensing science is increasingly being used to support archaeological and cultural heritage research in various ways. Satellite sensors either passive or active are currently used in a systematic basis to detect buried archaeological remains and to systematic monitor tangible heritage. In addition, airborne and low altitude systems are being used for documentation purposes. Ground surveys using remote sensing tools such as spectroradiometers and ground penetrating radars can detect variations of vegetation and soil respectively, which are linked to the presence of underground archaeological features. Education activities and training of remote sensing archaeology to young people is characterized of highly importance. Specific remote sensing tools relevant for archaeological research can be developed including web tools, small libraries, interactive learning games etc. These tools can be then combined and aligned with archaeology and cultural heritage. This can be achieved by presenting historical and pre-historical records, excavated sites or even artifacts under a "remote sensing" approach. Using such non-form educational approach, the students can be involved, ask, read, and seek to learn more about remote sensing and of course to learn about history. The paper aims to present a modern didactical concept and some examples of practical implementation of remote sensing archaeology in secondary schools in Cyprus. The idea was built upon an ongoing project (ATHENA) focused on the sue of remote sensing for archaeological research in Cyprus. Through H2020 ATHENA project, the Remote Sensing Science and Geo-Environment Research Laboratory at the Cyprus University of Technology (CUT), with the support of the National Research Council of Italy (CNR) and the German Aerospace Centre (DLR) aims to enhance its performance in all these new technologies.

  13. A Review of Oil Spill Remote Sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fingas, Merv; Brown, Carl E

    2017-12-30

    The technical aspects of oil spill remote sensing are examined and the practical uses and drawbacks of each technology are given with a focus on unfolding technology. The use of visible techniques is ubiquitous, but limited to certain observational conditions and simple applications. Infrared cameras offer some potential as oil spill sensors but have several limitations. Both techniques, although limited in capability, are widely used because of their increasing economy. The laser fluorosensor uniquely detects oil on substrates that include shoreline, water, soil, plants, ice, and snow. New commercial units have come out in the last few years. Radar detects calm areas on water and thus oil on water, because oil will reduce capillary waves on a water surface given moderate winds. Radar provides a unique option for wide area surveillance, all day or night and rainy/cloudy weather. Satellite-carried radars with their frequent overpass and high spatial resolution make these day-night and all-weather sensors essential for delineating both large spills and monitoring ship and platform oil discharges. Most strategic oil spill mapping is now being carried out using radar. Slick thickness measurements have been sought for many years. The operative technique at this time is the passive microwave. New techniques for calibration and verification have made these instruments more reliable.

  14. Environmental remote sensing for the petroleum industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, R.N.

    1991-01-01

    Remote sensing techniques developed for exploration programs can often be used to address environmental issues facing the petroleum industry. While this industry becomes increasingly more environmentally conscious, budgets remain tight, requiring any technology used in environmental applications to be cost effective, widely available and reliable. In this paper a three-fold analysis of environmental issues facing the petroleum industry concludes: major areas of concern included environmental mapping natural habitats, surface cover, change through time, pollution monitoring (hazardous wastes, oil seeps and spills on and offshore), earth hazards assessment, baseline studies, facilities sitting and crisis response. options matrices were developed plotting current and near future RS technology vs environmental concerns, and each sensor/platform combination subjectively evaluated to determine which combination could best address the problem. While presently available RS technology (both airborne and spaceborne) has significant capability toward environmental mapping, hazards detection and other concerns, the anticipated launches of ERS-1, JERS-1, Landsat-6 and other systems will provide environmentally useful data available today only from relatively expensive and local airborne surveys. Low altitude airborne surveys and ground/sea truth will continue to be critical to any quantitative studies

  15. Application of remote sensing in aquatic ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousef, Foad

    I utilized state the art remote sensing and GIS (Geographical Information System) techniques to study large scale biological, physical and ecological processes of coastal, nearshore, and offshore waters of Lake Michigan and Lake Superior. These processes ranged from chlorophyll alpha and primary production time series analysies in Lake Michigan to coastal stamp sand threats on Buffalo Reef in Lake Superior. I used SeaWiFS (Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor) satellite imagery to trace various biological, chemical and optical water properties of Lake Michigan during the past decade and to investigate the collapse of early spring primary production. Using spatial analysis techniques, I was able to connect these changes to some important biological processes of the lake (quagga mussels filtration). In a separate study on Lake Superior, using LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) and aerial photos, we examined natural coastal erosion in Grand Traverse Bay, Michigan, and discussed a variety of geological features that influence general sediment accumulation patterns and interactions with migrating tailings from legacy mining. These sediments are moving southwesterly towards Buffalo Reef, creating a threat to the lake trout and lake whitefish breeding ground.

  16. Development of airborne remote sensing data assimilation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gudu, B R; Bi, H Y; Wang, H Y; Qin, S X; Ma, J W

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, an airborne remote sensing data assimilation system for China Airborne Remote Sensing System is introduced. This data assimilation system is composed of a land surface model, data assimilation algorithms, observation data and fundamental parameters forcing the land surface model. In this data assimilation system, Variable Infiltration Capacity hydrologic model is selected as the land surface model, which also serves as the main framework of the system. Three-dimensional variation algorithm, four-dimensional variation algorithms, ensemble Kalman filter and Particle filter algorithms are integrated in this system. Observation data includes ground observations and remotely sensed data. The fundamental forcing parameters include soil parameters, vegetation parameters and the meteorological data

  17. Multi-source remote sensing data management system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qin Kai; Zhao Yingjun; Lu Donghua; Zhang Donghui; Wu Wenhuan

    2014-01-01

    In this thesis, the author explored multi-source management problems of remote sensing data. The main idea is to use the mosaic dataset model, and the ways of an integreted display of image and its interpretation. Based on ArcGIS and IMINT feature knowledge platform, the author used the C# and other programming tools for development work, so as to design and implement multi-source remote sensing data management system function module which is able to simply, conveniently and efficiently manage multi-source remote sensing data. (authors)

  18. Searches over graphs representing geospatial-temporal remote sensing data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brost, Randolph; Perkins, David Nikolaus

    2018-03-06

    Various technologies pertaining to identifying objects of interest in remote sensing images by searching over geospatial-temporal graph representations are described herein. Graphs are constructed by representing objects in remote sensing images as nodes, and connecting nodes with undirected edges representing either distance or adjacency relationships between objects and directed edges representing changes in time. Geospatial-temporal graph searches are made computationally efficient by taking advantage of characteristics of geospatial-temporal data in remote sensing images through the application of various graph search techniques.

  19. Remote sensing of severe convective storms over Qinghai-Xizang Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, R. J.; Liu, J. M.; Tsao, D. Y.; Smith, R. E.

    1984-01-01

    The American satellite, GOES-1 was moved to the Indian Ocean at 58 deg E during the First GARP Global Experiment (FGGE). The Qinghai-Xizang Plateau significantly affects the initiation and development of heavy rainfall and severe storms in China, just as the Rocky Mountains influence the local storms in the United States. Satelite remote sensing of short-lived, meso-scale convective storms is particularly important for covering a huge area of a high elevation with a low population density, such as the Qinghai-Xizang Plateau. Results of this study show that a high growth rate of the convective clouds, followed by a rapid collapse of the cloud top, is associated with heavy rainfall in the area. The tops of the convective clouds developed over the Plateau lie between the altitudes of the two tropopauses, while the tops of convective clouds associated with severe storms in the United States usually extend much above the tropopause.

  20. Emerging Use of Dual Channel Infrared for Remote Sensing of Sea Ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, N. S.; Serreze, M. C.; Gallaher, D. W.; Koenig, L.; Schaefer, K. M.; Campbell, G. G.; Thompson, J. A.; Grant, G.; Fetterer, F. M.

    2017-12-01

    Using GOES-16 data as a proxy for overhead persistent infrared, we examine the feasibility of using a dual channel shortwave / midwave infrared (SWIR/MWIR) approach to detect and chart sea ice in Hudson Bay through a series of images with a temporal scale of less than fifteen minutes. While not traditionally exploited for sea ice remote sensing, the availability of near continuous shortwave and midwave infrared data streams over the Arctic from overhead persistent infrared (OPIR) satellites could provide an invaluable source of information regarding the changing Arctic climate. Traditionally used for the purpose of missile warning and strategic defense, characteristics of OPIR make it an attractive source for Arctic remote sensing as the temporal resolution can provide insight into ice edge melt and motion processes. Fundamentally, the time series based algorithm will discern water/ice/clouds using a SWIR/MWIR normalized difference index. Cloud filtering is accomplished through removing pixels categorized as clouds while retaining a cache of previous ice/water pixels to replace any cloud obscured (and therefore omitted) pixels. Demonstration of the sensitivity of GOES-16 SWIR/MWIR to detect and discern water/ice/clouds provides a justification for exploring the utility of military OPIR sensors for civil and commercial applications. Potential users include the scientific community as well as emergency responders, the fishing industry, oil and gas industries, and transportation industries that are seeking to exploit changing conditions in the Arctic but require more accurate and timely ice charting products.

  1. Digital methods and remote sensing in archaeology archaeology in the age of sensing

    CERN Document Server

    Campana, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    This volume debuts the new scope of Remote Sensing, which was first defined as the analysis of data collected by sensors that were not in physical contact with the objects under investigation (using cameras, scanners, and radar systems operating from spaceborne or airborne platforms). A wider characterization is now possible: Remote Sensing can be any non-destructive approach to viewing the buried and nominally invisible evidence of past activity. Spaceborne and airborne sensors, now supplemented by laser scanning, are united using ground-based geophysical instruments and undersea remote sensing, as well as other non-invasive techniques such as surface collection or field-walking survey. Now, any method that enables observation of evidence on or beneath the surface of the earth, without impact on the surviving stratigraphy, is legitimately within the realm of Remote Sensing. The new interfaces and senses engaged in Remote Sensing appear throughout the book. On a philosophical level, this is about the landscap...

  2. Intelligent Observation Strategies for Geosynchronous Remote Sensing for Natural Hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moe, K.; Cappelaere, P. G.; Frye, S. W.; LeMoigne, J.; Mandl, D.; Flatley, T.; Geist, A.

    2015-12-01

    Geosynchronous satellites offer a unique perspective for monitoring environmental factors important to understanding natural hazards and supporting the disasters management life cycle, namely forecast, detection, response, recovery and mitigation. In the NASA decadal survey for Earth science, the GEO-CAPE mission was proposed to address coastal and air pollution events in geosynchronous orbit, complementing similar initiatives in Asia by the South Koreans and by ESA in Europe, thereby covering the northern hemisphere. In addition to analyzing the challenges of identifying instrument capabilities to meet the science requirements, and the implications of hosting the instrument payloads on commercial geosynchronous satellites, the GEO-CAPE mission design team conducted a short study to explore strategies to optimize the science return for the coastal imaging instrument. The study focused on intelligent scheduling strategies that took into account cloud avoidance techniques as well as onboard processing methods to reduce the data storage and transmission loads. This paper expands the findings of that study to address the use of intelligent scheduling techniques and near-real time data product acquisition of both the coastal water and air pollution events. The topics include the use of onboard processing to refine and execute schedules, to detect cloud contamination in observations, and to reduce data handling operations. Analysis of state of the art flight computing capabilities will be presented, along with an assessment of cloud detection algorithms and their performance characteristics. Tools developed to illustrate operational concepts will be described, including their applicability to environmental monitoring domains with an eye to the future. In the geostationary configuration, the payload becomes a networked "thing" with enough connectivity to exchange data seamlessly with users. This allows the full field of view to be sensed at very high rate under the

  3. Intelligent Observation Strategies for Geosynchronous Remote Sensing for Natural Hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moe, Karen; Cappleare, Patrice; Frye, Stuart; LeMoigne, Jacqueline; Mandl, Daniel; Flatley, Thomas; Geist, Alessandro

    2015-01-01

    Geosynchronous satellites offer a unique perspective for monitoring environmental factors important to understanding natural hazards and supporting the disasters management life cycle, namely forecast, detection, response, recovery and mitigation. In the NASA decadal survey for Earth science, the GEO-CAPE mission was proposed to address coastal and air pollution events in geosynchronous orbit, complementing similar initiatives in Asia by the South Koreans and by ESA in Europe, thereby covering the northern hemisphere. In addition to analyzing the challenges of identifying instrument capabilities to meet the science requirements, and the implications of hosting the instrument payloads on commercial geosynchronous satellites, the GEO-CAPE mission design team conducted a short study to explore strategies to optimize the science return for the coastal imaging instrument. The study focused on intelligent scheduling strategies that took into account cloud avoidance techniques as well as onboard processing methods to reduce the data storage and transmission loads. This paper expands the findings of that study to address the use of intelligent scheduling techniques and near-real time data product acquisition of both the coastal water and air pollution events. The topics include the use of onboard processing to refine and execute schedules, to detect cloud contamination in observations, and to reduce data handling operations. Analysis of state of the art flight computing capabilities will be presented, along with an assessment of cloud detection algorithms and their performance characteristics. Tools developed to illustrate operational concepts will be described, including their applicability to environmental monitoring domains with an eye to the future. In the geostationary configuration, the payload becomes a networked thing with enough connectivity to exchange data seamlessly with users. This allows the full field of view to be sensed at very high rate under the control

  4. A demonstration of adjoint methods for multi-dimensional remote sensing of the atmosphere and surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, William G.K.; Hasekamp, Otto P.

    2018-01-01

    Highlights: • We demonstrate adjoint methods for atmospheric remote sensing in a two-dimensional setting. • Searchlight functions are used to handle the singularity of measurement response functions. • Adjoint methods require two radiative transfer calculations to evaluate the measurement misfit function and its derivatives with respect to all unknown parameters. • Synthetic retrieval studies show the scalability of adjoint methods to problems with thousands of measurements and unknown parameters. • Adjoint methods and the searchlight function technique are generalizable to 3D remote sensing. - Abstract: In previous work, we derived the adjoint method as a computationally efficient path to three-dimensional (3D) retrievals of clouds and aerosols. In this paper we will demonstrate the use of adjoint methods for retrieving two-dimensional (2D) fields of cloud extinction. The demonstration uses a new 2D radiative transfer solver (FSDOM). This radiation code was augmented with adjoint methods to allow efficient derivative calculations needed to retrieve cloud and surface properties from multi-angle reflectance measurements. The code was then used in three synthetic retrieval studies. Our retrieval algorithm adjusts the cloud extinction field and surface albedo to minimize the measurement misfit function with a gradient-based, quasi-Newton approach. At each step we compute the value of the misfit function and its gradient with two calls to the solver FSDOM. First we solve the forward radiative transfer equation to compute the residual misfit with measurements, and second we solve the adjoint radiative transfer equation to compute the gradient of the misfit function with respect to all unknowns. The synthetic retrieval studies verify that adjoint methods are scalable to retrieval problems with many measurements and unknowns. We can retrieve the vertically-integrated optical depth of moderately thick clouds as a function of the horizontal coordinate. It is also

  5. Structural mapping based on potential field and remote sensing data ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Swarnapriya Chowdari

    2017-08-31

    Aug 31, 2017 ... to comprehend the tectonic development of the ... software for the analysis and interpretation of G– .... The application of remote sensing for mapping ..... Pf1 and Pf2 show profile locations adopted for joint G–M modelling.

  6. and remote sensing for multi-temporal analysis of sand ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    dalel

    remote sensing techniques particularly those referring to change detection. This kind of ... Technol. depending on many factors in relation to climate conditions, nature .... geomorphologic position make it a perfect wind corridor. (Chahbani ...

  7. Application of remote sensing technique in biomass change detection

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ethiopian Journal of Environmental Studies and Management ... technology provides an efficient avenue of assessment of biomass content of any area. ... use data, can be integrated into GIS together with results from remote sensing analysis ...

  8. Overview of remote sensing of chlorophyll flourescene in ocean waters

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Overview of remote sensing of chlorophyll flourescene in ocean waters. ... Besides empirical algorithms with the blue-green ratio, the algorithms based on ... between fluorescence and chlorophyll concentration and the red shift phenomena.

  9. Quantitative remote sensing in thermal infrared theory and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Tang, Huajun

    2014-01-01

    This comprehensive technical overview of the core theory of thermal remote sensing and its applications in hydrology, agriculture, and forestry includes a host of illuminating examples and covers everything from the basics to likely future trends in the field.

  10. Remote sensing monitoring the spatio-temporal changes of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Xiaoming Cao

    2017-06-16

    Jun 16, 2017 ... mainly focused on the models established by the remote sensing data in .... Page 5 of 16 58. Organization (WMO) World Weather Watch Pro- gram. ...... the disorder of urban sprawl would bring decreased vegetation cover and ...

  11. Remote sensing application for delineating coastal vegetation - A case study

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Kunte, P.D.; Wagle, B.G.

    Remote sensing data has been used for mapping coastal vegetation along the Goa Coast, India. The study envisages the use of digital image processing techniques for delineating geomorphic features and associated vegetation, including mangrove, along...

  12. Decision tree approach for classification of remotely sensed satellite

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    DTC) algorithm for classification of remotely sensed satellite data (Landsat TM) using open source support. The decision tree is constructed by recursively partitioning the spectral distribution of the training dataset using WEKA, open source ...

  13. Advances in remote sensing of vegetation function and traits

    KAUST Repository

    Houborg, Rasmus; Fisher, Joshua B.; Skidmore, Andrew K.

    2015-01-01

    Remote sensing of vegetation function and traits has advanced significantly over the past half-century in the capacity to retrieve useful plant biochemical, physiological and structural quantities across a range of spatial and temporal scales

  14. Use of microwave remote sensing in salinity estimation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, R.P.; Kumar, V.; Srivastav, S.K.

    1990-01-01

    Soil-moisture interaction and the consequent liberation of ions causes the salinity of waters. The salinity of river, lake, ocean and ground water changes due to seepage and surface runoff. We have studied the feasibility of using microwave remote sensing for the estimation of salinity by carrying out numerical calculations to study the microwave remote sensing responses of various models representative of river, lake and ocean water. The results show the dependence of microwave remote sensing responses on the salinity and surface temperature of water. The results presented in this paper will be useful in the selection of microwave sensor parameters and in the accurate estimation of salinity from microwave remote sensing data

  15. JEarth | Analytical Remote Sensing Imagery Application for Researchers and Practitioners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prashad, L.; Christensen, P. R.; Anwar, S.; Dickenshied, S.; Engle, E.; Noss, D.

    2009-12-01

    The ASU 100 Cities Project and the ASU Mars Space Flight Facility (MSFF) present JEarth, a set of analytical Geographic Information System (GIS) tools for viewing and processing Earth-based remote sensing imagery and vectors, including high-resolution and hyperspectral imagery such as TIMS and MASTER. JEarth is useful for a wide range of researchers and practitioners who need to access, view, and analyze remote sensing imagery. JEarth stems from existing MSFF applications: the Java application JMars (Java Mission-planning and Analysis for Remote Sensing) for viewing and analyzing remote sensing imagery and THMPROC, a web-based, interactive tool for processing imagery to create band combinations, stretches, and other imagery products. JEarth users can run the application on their desktops by installing Java-based open source software on Windows, Mac, or Linux operating systems.

  16. Conditional Estimation of Vector Patterns in Remote Sensing and GIS

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Masuch, J

    1999-01-01

    .... This effort is cooperatively conducted with the professional researchers at the Remote Sensing GIS Center of the US Army Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory in Hanover, New Hampshire...

  17. Integrated ancillary and remote sensing data for land use ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Full Name

    The application of GMM to remote sensing image classification ... A . The boundary that has a Mahalanobis distance to the centre ... yields the Baye's theorem: ..... bands were extracted using the layer properties tool and visualised in MATLAB ...

  18. Remote Sensing Image Classification Based on Stacked Denoising Autoencoder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Liang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Focused on the issue that conventional remote sensing image classification methods have run into the bottlenecks in accuracy, a new remote sensing image classification method inspired by deep learning is proposed, which is based on Stacked Denoising Autoencoder. First, the deep network model is built through the stacked layers of Denoising Autoencoder. Then, with noised input, the unsupervised Greedy layer-wise training algorithm is used to train each layer in turn for more robust expressing, characteristics are obtained in supervised learning by Back Propagation (BP neural network, and the whole network is optimized by error back propagation. Finally, Gaofen-1 satellite (GF-1 remote sensing data are used for evaluation, and the total accuracy and kappa accuracy reach 95.7% and 0.955, respectively, which are higher than that of the Support Vector Machine and Back Propagation neural network. The experiment results show that the proposed method can effectively improve the accuracy of remote sensing image classification.

  19. SparkRS - Spark for Remote Sensing, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed innovation is Spark-RS, an open source software project that enables GPU-accelerated remote sensing workflows in an Apache Spark distributed computing...

  20. 348 A GIS AND REMOTE SENSING APPROACH TO ASSESSMENT ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Osondu

    A GIS AND REMOTE SENSING APPROACH TO ASSESSMENT OF DEFORESTATION IN ... This study measured and analyzed deforestation in Uyo and examined the possible effects of the ..... the Burkill technique, (1985, 1994, 1995, 1997.

  1. 348 A GIS AND REMOTE SENSING APPROACH TO ASSESSMENT ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Osondu

    remote sensing data for Uyo for the periods 1969, 1978, 1988, 2001 and 2004; evaluate the ... geographical information system (GIS) technology was applied to carry out this research. Field ..... preventing erosion, landslides, and making the.

  2. Use of Remote Sensing for Decision Support in Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Policelli, Frederick S.

    2007-01-01

    Over the past 30 years, the scientific community has learned a great deal about the Earth as an integrated system. Much of this research has been enabled by the development of remote sensing technologies and their operation from space. Decision makers in many nations have begun to make use of remote sensing data for resource management, policy making, and sustainable development planning. This paper makes an attempt to provide a survey of the current state of the requirements and use of remote sensing for sustainable development in Africa. This activity has shown that there are not many climate data ready decision support tools already functioning in Africa. There are, however, endusers with known requirements who could benefit from remote sensing data.

  3. Blending the most fundamental Remote-Sensing principles (RS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Blending the most fundamental Remote-Sensing principles (RS) with the most functional spatial knowledge (GIS) with the objective of the determination of the accident-prone palms and points (case study: Tehran-Hamadan Highway on Saveh Superhighway)

  4. Towards Dynamic Remote Data Auditing in Computational Clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khurram Khan, Muhammad; Anuar, Nor Badrul

    2014-01-01

    Cloud computing is a significant shift of computational paradigm where computing as a utility and storing data remotely have a great potential. Enterprise and businesses are now more interested in outsourcing their data to the cloud to lessen the burden of local data storage and maintenance. However, the outsourced data and the computation outcomes are not continuously trustworthy due to the lack of control and physical possession of the data owners. To better streamline this issue, researchers have now focused on designing remote data auditing (RDA) techniques. The majority of these techniques, however, are only applicable for static archive data and are not subject to audit the dynamically updated outsourced data. We propose an effectual RDA technique based on algebraic signature properties for cloud storage system and also present a new data structure capable of efficiently supporting dynamic data operations like append, insert, modify, and delete. Moreover, this data structure empowers our method to be applicable for large-scale data with minimum computation cost. The comparative analysis with the state-of-the-art RDA schemes shows that the proposed scheme is secure and highly efficient in terms of the computation and communication overhead on the auditor and server. PMID:25121114

  5. Towards Dynamic Remote Data Auditing in Computational Clouds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Sookhak

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cloud computing is a significant shift of computational paradigm where computing as a utility and storing data remotely have a great potential. Enterprise and businesses are now more interested in outsourcing their data to the cloud to lessen the burden of local data storage and maintenance. However, the outsourced data and the computation outcomes are not continuously trustworthy due to the lack of control and physical possession of the data owners. To better streamline this issue, researchers have now focused on designing remote data auditing (RDA techniques. The majority of these techniques, however, are only applicable for static archive data and are not subject to audit the dynamically updated outsourced data. We propose an effectual RDA technique based on algebraic signature properties for cloud storage system and also present a new data structure capable of efficiently supporting dynamic data operations like append, insert, modify, and delete. Moreover, this data structure empowers our method to be applicable for large-scale data with minimum computation cost. The comparative analysis with the state-of-the-art RDA schemes shows that the proposed scheme is secure and highly efficient in terms of the computation and communication overhead on the auditor and server.

  6. NASA Remote Sensing Data for Epidemiological Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maynard, Nancy G.; Vicente, G. A.

    2002-01-01

    In response to the need for improved observations of environmental factors to better understand the links between human health and the environment, NASA has established a new program to significantly improve the utilization of NASA's diverse array of data, information, and observations of the Earth for health applications. This initiative, lead by Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) has the following goals: (1) To encourage interdisciplinary research on the relationships between environmental parameters (e.g., rainfall, vegetation) and health, (2) Develop practical early warning systems, (3) Create a unique system for the exchange of Earth science and health data, (4) Provide an investigator field support system for customers and partners, (5) Facilitate a system for observation, identification, and surveillance of parameters relevant to environment and health issues. The NASA Environment and Health Program is conducting several interdisciplinary projects to examine applications of remote sensing data and information to a variety of health issues, including studies on malaria, Rift Valley Fever, St. Louis Encephalitis, Dengue Fever, Ebola, African Dust and health, meningitis, asthma, and filariasis. In addition, the NASA program is creating a user-friendly data system to help provide the public health community with easy and timely access to space-based environmental data for epidemiological studies. This NASA data system is being designed to bring land, atmosphere, water and ocean satellite data/products to users not familiar with satellite data/products, but who are knowledgeable in the Geographic Information Systems (GIS) environment. This paper discusses the most recent results of the interdisciplinary environment-health research projects and provides an analysis of the usefulness of the satellite data to epidemiological studies. In addition, there will be a summary of presently-available NASA Earth science data and a description of how it may be obtained.

  7. Using remote sensing to predict earthquake impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fylaktos, Asimakis; Yfantidou, Anastasia

    2017-09-01

    Natural hazards like earthquakes can result to enormous property damage, and human casualties in mountainous areas. Italy has always been exposed to numerous earthquakes, mostly concentrated in central and southern regions. Last year, two seismic events near Norcia (central Italy) have occurred, which led to substantial loss of life and extensive damage to properties, infrastructure and cultural heritage. This research utilizes remote sensing products and GIS software, to provide a database of information. We used both SAR images of Sentinel 1A and optical imagery of Landsat 8 to examine the differences of topography with the aid of the multi temporal monitoring technique. This technique suits for the observation of any surface deformation. This database is a cluster of information regarding the consequences of the earthquakes in groups, such as property and infrastructure damage, regional rifts, cultivation loss, landslides and surface deformations amongst others, all mapped on GIS software. Relevant organizations can implement these data in order to calculate the financial impact of these types of earthquakes. In the future, we can enrich this database including more regions and enhance the variety of its applications. For instance, we could predict the future impacts of any type of earthquake in several areas, and design a preliminarily model of emergency for immediate evacuation and quick recovery response. It is important to know how the surface moves, in particular geographical regions like Italy, Cyprus and Greece, where earthquakes are so frequent. We are not able to predict earthquakes, but using data from this research, we may assess the damage that could be caused in the future.

  8. Mid infrared lasers for remote sensing applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walsh, Brian M., E-mail: brian.m.walsh@nasa.gov [NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, VA 23681 (United States); Lee, Hyung R. [National Institute of Aerospace, Hampton, VA 23666 (United States); Barnes, Norman P. [Science Systems and Applications, Inc., Hampton, VA 23666 (United States)

    2016-01-15

    To accurately measure the concentrations of atmospheric gasses, especially the gasses with low concentrations, strong absorption features must be accessed. Each molecular species or constituent has characteristic mid-infrared absorption features by which either column content or range resolved concentrations can be measured. Because of these characteristic absorption features the mid infrared spectral region is known as the fingerprint region. However, as noted by the Decadal Survey, mid-infrared solid-state lasers needed for DIAL systems are not available. The primary reason is associated with short upper laser level lifetimes of mid infrared transitions. Energy gaps between the energy levels that produce mid-infrared laser transitions are small, promoting rapid nonradiative quenching. Nonradiative quenching is a multiphonon process, the more phonons needed, the smaller the effect. More low energy phonons are required to span an energy gap than high energy phonons. Thus, low energy phonon materials have less nonradiative quenching compared to high energy phonon materials. Common laser materials, such as oxides like YAG, are high phonon energy materials, while fluorides, chlorides and bromides are low phonon materials. Work at NASA Langley is focused on a systematic search for novel lanthanide-doped mid-infrared solid-state lasers using both quantum mechanical models (theoretical) and spectroscopy (experimental) techniques. Only the best candidates are chosen for laser studies. The capabilities of modeling materials, experimental challenges, material properties, spectroscopy, and prospects for lanthanide-doped mid-infrared solid-state laser devices will be presented. - Highlights: • We discuss mid infrared lasers and laser materials. • We discuss applications to remote sensing. • We survey the lanthanide ions in low phonon materials for potential. • We present examples of praseodymium mid infrared spectroscopy and laser design.

  9. Remote Sensing and Quantization of Analog Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauss, Karl F.

    2011-01-01

    This method enables sensing and quantization of analog strain gauges. By manufacturing a piezoelectric sensor stack in parallel (physical) with a piezoelectric actuator stack, the capacitance of the sensor stack varies in exact proportion to the exertion applied by the actuator stack. This, in turn, varies the output frequency of the local sensor oscillator. The output, F(sub out), is fed to a phase detector, which is driven by a stable reference, F(sub ref). The output of the phase detector is a square waveform, D(sub out), whose duty cycle, t(sub W), varies in exact proportion according to whether F(sub out) is higher or lower than F(sub ref). In this design, should F(sub out) be precisely equal to F(sub ref), then the waveform has an exact 50/50 duty cycle. The waveform, D(sub out), is of generally very low frequency suitable for safe transmission over long distances without corruption. The active portion of the waveform, t(sub W), gates a remotely located counter, which is driven by a stable oscillator (source) of such frequency as to give sufficient digitization of t(sub W) to the resolution required by the application. The advantage to this scheme is that it negates the most-common, present method of sending either very low level signals (viz. direct output from the sensors) across great distances (anything over one-half meter) or the need to transmit widely varying higher frequencies over significant distances thereby eliminating interference [both in terms of beat frequency generation and in-situ EMI (electromagnetic interference)] caused by ineffective shielding. It also results in a significant reduction in shielding mass.

  10. Grid workflow validation using ontology-based tacit knowledge: A case study for quantitative remote sensing applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jia; Liu, Longli; Xue, Yong; Dong, Jing; Hu, Yingcui; Hill, Richard; Guang, Jie; Li, Chi

    2017-01-01

    Workflow for remote sensing quantitative retrieval is the ;bridge; between Grid services and Grid-enabled application of remote sensing quantitative retrieval. Workflow averts low-level implementation details of the Grid and hence enables users to focus on higher levels of application. The workflow for remote sensing quantitative retrieval plays an important role in remote sensing Grid and Cloud computing services, which can support the modelling, construction and implementation of large-scale complicated applications of remote sensing science. The validation of workflow is important in order to support the large-scale sophisticated scientific computation processes with enhanced performance and to minimize potential waste of time and resources. To research the semantic correctness of user-defined workflows, in this paper, we propose a workflow validation method based on tacit knowledge research in the remote sensing domain. We first discuss the remote sensing model and metadata. Through detailed analysis, we then discuss the method of extracting the domain tacit knowledge and expressing the knowledge with ontology. Additionally, we construct the domain ontology with Protégé. Through our experimental study, we verify the validity of this method in two ways, namely data source consistency error validation and parameters matching error validation.

  11. Remote Sensing and the Kyoto Protocol: A Workshop Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenqvist, Ake; Imhoff, Marc; Milne, Anthony; Dobson, Craig

    2000-01-01

    The Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change contains quantified, legally binding commitments to limit or reduce greenhouse gas emissions to 1990 levels and allows carbon emissions to be balanced by carbon sinks represented by vegetation. The issue of using vegetation cover as an emission offset raises a debate about the adequacy of current remote sensing systems and data archives to both assess carbon stocks/sinks at 1990 levels, and monitor the current and future global status of those stocks. These concerns and the potential ratification of the Protocol among participating countries is stimulating policy debates and underscoring a need for the exchange of information between the international legal community and the remote sensing community. On October 20-22 1999, two working groups of the International Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing (ISPRS) joined with the University of Michigan (Michigan, USA) to convene discussions on how remote sensing technology could contribute to the information requirements raised by implementation of, and compliance with, the Kyoto Protocol. The meeting originated as a joint effort between the Global Monitoring Working Group and the Radar Applications Working Group in Commission VII of the ISPRS, co-sponsored by the University of Michigan. Tile meeting was attended by representatives from national government agencies and international organizations and academic institutions. Some of the key themes addressed were: (1) legal aspects of transnational remote sensing in the context of the Kyoto Protocol; (2) a review of the current and future and remote sensing technologies that could be applied to the Kyoto Protocol; (3) identification of areas where additional research is needed in order to advance and align remote sensing technology with the requirements and expectations of the Protocol; and 94) the bureaucratic and research management approaches needed to align the remote sensing

  12. Applications of airborne remote sensing in atmospheric sciences research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serafin, R. J.; Szejwach, G.; Phillips, B. B.

    1984-01-01

    This paper explores the potential for airborne remote sensing for atmospheric sciences research. Passive and active techniques from the microwave to visible bands are discussed. It is concluded that technology has progressed sufficiently in several areas that the time is right to develop and operate new remote sensing instruments for use by the community of atmospheric scientists as general purpose tools. Promising candidates include Doppler radar and lidar, infrared short range radiometry, and microwave radiometry.

  13. The Potential of AI Techniques for Remote Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estes, J. E.; Sailer, C. T. (Principal Investigator); Tinney, L. R.

    1984-01-01

    The current status of artificial intelligence AI technology is discussed along with imagery data management, database interrogation, and decision making. Techniques adapted from the field of artificial intelligence (AI) have significant, wide ranging impacts upon computer-assisted remote sensing analysis. AI based techniques offer a powerful and fundamentally different approach to many remote sensing tasks. In addition to computer assisted analysis, AI techniques can also aid onboard spacecraft data processing and analysis and database access and query.

  14. Using remotely-sensed data for optimal field sampling

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Debba, Pravesh

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available M B E R 2 0 0 8 15 USING REMOTELY- SENSED DATA FOR OPTIMAL FIELD SAMPLING BY DR PRAVESH DEBBA STATISTICS IS THE SCIENCE pertaining to the collection, summary, analysis, interpretation and presentation of data. It is often impractical... studies are: where to sample, what to sample and how many samples to obtain. Conventional sampling techniques are not always suitable in environmental studies and scientists have explored the use of remotely-sensed data as ancillary information to aid...

  15. DARLA: Data Assimilation and Remote Sensing for Littoral Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-01

    at reasonable logistical or financial costs . Remote sensing provides an attractive alternative. We discuss the range of different sensors that are...DARLA: Data Assimilation and Remote Sensing for Littoral Applications Final Report Award Number: N000141010932 Andrew T. Jessup Chris Chickadel...20. Radermacher, M., M. Wengrove, J. V. de Vries, and R. Holman (2014), Applicability of video-derived bathymetry estimates to nearshore current

  16. [Use of Remote Sensing for Crop and Soil Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johannsen, Chris J.

    1997-01-01

    The primary agricultural objective of this research is to determine what soil and crop information can be verified from remotely sensed images during the growing season. Specifically: (1) Elements of crop stress due to drought, weeds, disease and nutrient deficiencies will be documented with ground truth over specific agricultural sites and (2) Use of remote sensing with GPS and GIS technology for providing a safe and environmentally friendly application of fertilizers and chemicals will be documented.

  17. CSIR-NLC mobile LIDAR for atmosphere remote sensing

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Sivakumar, V

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Africa. 2Department of Geography, Geoinformatics and Meteorology, University of Pretoria, Lynwood Road, Pretoria 0002, South Africa. 3Tshwane University of Technology, Pretoria 0001, South Africa. ABSTRACT A mobile LIDAR (LIght Detection... obtained using the CSIR-NLC mobile LIDAR in a 23 hour field campaign at the University of Pretoria. Index Terms— Atmospheric measurements, Remote sensing, Aerosols, Air pollution, Meteorology 1. INTRODUCTION Remote sensing is a technique...

  18. Barium Nitrate Raman Laser Development for Remote Sensing of Ozone

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCray, Christopher L.; Chyba, Thomas H.

    1997-01-01

    In order to understand the impact of anthropogenic emissions upon the earth's environment, scientists require remote sensing techniques which are capable of providing range-resolved measurements of clouds, aerosols, and the concentrations of several chemical constituents of the atmosphere. The differential absorption lidar (DIAL) technique is a very promising method to measure concentration profiles of chemical species such as ozone and water vapor as well as detect the presence of aerosols and clouds. If a suitable DIAL system could be deployed in space, it would provide a global data set of tremendous value. Such systems, however, need to be compact, reliable, and very efficient. In order to measure atmospheric gases with the DIAL technique, the laser transmitter must generate suitable on-line and off-line wavelength pulse pairs. The on-line pulse is resonant with an absorption feature of the species of interest. The off-line pulse is tuned so that it encounters significantly less absorption. The relative backscattered power for the two pulses enables the range-resolved concentration to be computed. Preliminary experiments at NASA LaRC suggested that the solid state Raman shifting material, Ba(NO3)2, could be utilized to produce these pulse pairs. A Raman oscillator pumped at 532 nm by a frequency-doubled Nd:YAG laser can create first Stokes laser output at 563 nm and second Stokes output at 599 nm. With frequency doublers, UV output at 281 nm and 299 nm can be subsequently obtained. This all-solid state system has the potential to be very efficient, compact, and reliable. Raman shifting in Ba(NO3)2, has previously been performed in both the visible and the infrared. The first Raman oscillator in the visible region was investigated in 1986 with the configurations of plane-plane and unstable telescopic resonators. However, most of the recent research has focused on the development of infrared sources for eye-safe lidar applications.

  19. Problems in global fire evaluation: Is remote sensing the solution?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, J.M.

    1991-01-01

    In this chapter the author critically examines the prospects for reducing uncertainties over global biomass burning using remote sensing. First he considers the global temporal, spatial, and intensity distributions of fires and the remotely sensible signals they create and discusses the opportunities and problems that exist for matching available sensors to fire signal. Then he considers problems relating to instrumentation and to atmospheric interference

  20. Remote sensing mapping of carbon and energy fluxes over forests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roerink, G.J.; Wit, de A.J.W.; Pelgrum, H.; Mücher, C.A.

    2001-01-01

    This report presents the results of the EU project "Carbon and water fluxes of Mediterranean forests and impacts of land use/cover changes". The objectives of the project can be summarized as follows: (I) surface energy balance mapping using remote sensing, (ii) carbon uptake mapping using remote

  1. Remote sensing terminology: past experience and recent needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kancheva, Rumiana

    2013-10-01

    Terminology is a key issue for a better understanding among people using various languages. Terminology accuracy is essential during all phases of international cooperation. It is crucial to keep up with the latest quantitative and qualitative developments and novelties of the terminology in advanced technology fields such as aerospace science and industry. This is especially true in remote sensing and geoinformatics which develop rapidly and have wide and ever extending applications in various domains of human activity. The importance of the correct use of remote sensing terms refers not only to people working in this field but also to experts in many disciplines who handle remote sensing data and information products. The paper is devoted to terminology issues that refer to all aspects of remote sensing research and application areas. The attention is drawn on the recent needs and peculiarities of compiling specialized dictionaries in the subject area of remote sensing. Details are presented about the work in progress on the preparation of an English-Bulgarian dictionary of remote sensing terms focusing on Earth observations and geoinformation science. Our belief is that the elaboration of bilingual and multilingual dictionaries and glossaries in this spreading, most technically advanced and promising field of human expertise is of great practical importance. Any interest in cooperation and initiating of suchlike collaborative multilingual projects is welcome and highly appreciated.

  2. Remote sensing of ecosystem health: opportunities, challenges, and future perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhaoqin; Xu, Dandan; Guo, Xulin

    2014-11-07

    Maintaining a healthy ecosystem is essential for maximizing sustainable ecological services of the best quality to human beings. Ecological and conservation research has provided a strong scientific background on identifying ecological health indicators and correspondingly making effective conservation plans. At the same time, ecologists have asserted a strong need for spatially explicit and temporally effective ecosystem health assessments based on remote sensing data. Currently, remote sensing of ecosystem health is only based on one ecosystem attribute: vigor, organization, or resilience. However, an effective ecosystem health assessment should be a comprehensive and dynamic measurement of the three attributes. This paper reviews opportunities of remote sensing, including optical, radar, and LiDAR, for directly estimating indicators of the three ecosystem attributes, discusses the main challenges to develop a remote sensing-based spatially-explicit comprehensive ecosystem health system, and provides some future perspectives. The main challenges to develop a remote sensing-based spatially-explicit comprehensive ecosystem health system are: (1) scale issue; (2) transportability issue; (3) data availability; and (4) uncertainties in health indicators estimated from remote sensing data. However, the Radarsat-2 constellation, upcoming new optical sensors on Worldview-3 and Sentinel-2 satellites, and improved technologies for the acquisition and processing of hyperspectral, multi-angle optical, radar, and LiDAR data and multi-sensoral data fusion may partly address the current challenges.

  3. Remote Sensing of Ecosystem Health: Opportunities, Challenges, and Future Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaoqin Li

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Maintaining a healthy ecosystem is essential for maximizing sustainable ecological services of the best quality to human beings. Ecological and conservation research has provided a strong scientific background on identifying ecological health indicators and correspondingly making effective conservation plans. At the same time, ecologists have asserted a strong need for spatially explicit and temporally effective ecosystem health assessments based on remote sensing data. Currently, remote sensing of ecosystem health is only based on one ecosystem attribute: vigor, organization, or resilience. However, an effective ecosystem health assessment should be a comprehensive and dynamic measurement of the three attributes. This paper reviews opportunities of remote sensing, including optical, radar, and LiDAR, for directly estimating indicators of the three ecosystem attributes, discusses the main challenges to develop a remote sensing-based spatially-explicit comprehensive ecosystem health system, and provides some future perspectives. The main challenges to develop a remote sensing-based spatially-explicit comprehensive ecosystem health system are: (1 scale issue; (2 transportability issue; (3 data availability; and (4 uncertainties in health indicators estimated from remote sensing data. However, the Radarsat-2 constellation, upcoming new optical sensors on Worldview-3 and Sentinel-2 satellites, and improved technologies for the acquisition and processing of hyperspectral, multi-angle optical, radar, and LiDAR data and multi-sensoral data fusion may partly address the current challenges.

  4. Prospecting for coal in China with remote sensing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ke-long Tan; Yu-qing Wan; Sun-xin Sun; Gui-bao Bao; Jing-shui Kuang [Aerophotogrammetry and Remote Sensing Center of China Coal, Xi' an (China)

    2008-12-15

    In China it is important to explore coal prospecting by taking advantage of modern remote sensing and geographic information system technologies. Given a theoretical basis for coal prospecting by remote sensing, the methodologies and existing problems are demonstrated systematically by summarizing past practices of coal prospecting with remote sensing. A new theory of coal prospecting with remote sensing is proposed. In uncovered areas, coal resources can be prospected by direct interpretation. In coal bearing strata of developed areas covered by thin Quaternary strata or vegetation, prospecting for coal can be carried out by indirect interpretation of geomorphology and vegetation. For deeply buried underground deposits, coal prospecting can rely on tectonic structures, interpretation and analysis of new tectonic clues and regularity of coal formation and preservation controlled by tectonic structures. By applying newly hyper-spectral, multi-polarization, multi-angle, multi-temporal and multi-resolution remote sensing data and carrying out integrated analysis of geographic attributes, ground attributes, geophysical exploration results, geochemical exploration results, geological drilling results and remote sensing data by GIS tools, coal geology resources and mineralogical regularities can be explored and coal resource information can be acquired with some confidence. 12 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  5. Remote Sensing of Ecosystem Health: Opportunities, Challenges, and Future Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhaoqin; Xu, Dandan; Guo, Xulin

    2014-01-01

    Maintaining a healthy ecosystem is essential for maximizing sustainable ecological services of the best quality to human beings. Ecological and conservation research has provided a strong scientific background on identifying ecological health indicators and correspondingly making effective conservation plans. At the same time, ecologists have asserted a strong need for spatially explicit and temporally effective ecosystem health assessments based on remote sensing data. Currently, remote sensing of ecosystem health is only based on one ecosystem attribute: vigor, organization, or resilience. However, an effective ecosystem health assessment should be a comprehensive and dynamic measurement of the three attributes. This paper reviews opportunities of remote sensing, including optical, radar, and LiDAR, for directly estimating indicators of the three ecosystem attributes, discusses the main challenges to develop a remote sensing-based spatially-explicit comprehensive ecosystem health system, and provides some future perspectives. The main challenges to develop a remote sensing-based spatially-explicit comprehensive ecosystem health system are: (1) scale issue; (2) transportability issue; (3) data availability; and (4) uncertainties in health indicators estimated from remote sensing data. However, the Radarsat-2 constellation, upcoming new optical sensors on Worldview-3 and Sentinel-2 satellites, and improved technologies for the acquisition and processing of hyperspectral, multi-angle optical, radar, and LiDAR data and multi-sensoral data fusion may partly address the current challenges. PMID:25386759

  6. What is a picture worth? A history of remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Gerald K.

    1979-01-01

    Remote sensing is the use of electromagnetic energy to measure the physical properties of distant objects. It includes photography and geophysical surveying as well as newer techniques that use other parts of the electromagnetic spectrum. The history of remote sensing begins with photography. The origin of other types of remote sensing can be traced to World War II, with the development of radar, sonar, and thermal infrared detection systems. Since the 1960s, sensors have been designed to operate in virtually all of the electromagnetic spectrum. Today a wide variety of remote sensing instruments are available for use in hydrological studies; satellite data, such as Skylab photographs and Landsat images are particularly suitable for regional problems and studies. Planned future satellites will provide a ground resolution of 10–80 m. Remote sensing is currently used for hydrological applications in most countries of the world. The range of applications includes groundwater exploration determination of physical water quality, snowfield mapping, flood-inundation delineation, and making inventories of irrigated land. The use of remote sensing commonly results in considerable hydrological information at minimal cost. This information can be used to speed-up the development of water resources, to improve management practices, and to monitor environmental problems.

  7. Remote sensing of atmospheric particulates: Technological innovation and physical limitations in applications to short-range weather prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curran, R. J.; Kropfil, R.; Hallett, J.

    1984-01-01

    Techniques for remote sensing of particles, from cloud droplet to hailstone size, using optical and microwave frequencies are reviewed. The inherent variability of atmospheric particulates is examined to delineate conditions when the signal can give information to be effectively utilized in a forecasting context. The physical limitations resulting from the phase, size, orientation and concentration variability of the particulates are assessed.

  8. Fitting the multitemporal curve: a fourier series approach to the missing data problem in remote sensing analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evan Brooks; Valerie Thomas; Wynne Randolph; John Coulston

    2012-01-01

    With the advent of free Landsat data stretching back decades, there has been a surge of interest in utilizing remotely sensed data in multitemporal analysis for estimation of biophysical parameters. Such analysis is confounded by cloud cover and other image-specific problems, which result in missing data at various aperiodic times of the year. While there is a wealth...

  9. Thermal Remote Sensing with Uav-Based Workflows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boesch, R.

    2017-08-01

    Climate change will have a significant influence on vegetation health and growth. Predictions of higher mean summer temperatures and prolonged summer draughts may pose a threat to agriculture areas and forest canopies. Rising canopy temperatures can be an indicator of plant stress because of the closure of stomata and a decrease in the transpiration rate. Thermal cameras are available for decades, but still often used for single image analysis, only in oblique view manner or with visual evaluations of video sequences. Therefore remote sensing using a thermal camera can be an important data source to understand transpiration processes. Photogrammetric workflows allow to process thermal images similar to RGB data. But low spatial resolution of thermal cameras, significant optical distortion and typically low contrast require an adapted workflow. Temperature distribution in forest canopies is typically completely unknown and less distinct than for urban or industrial areas, where metal constructions and surfaces yield high contrast and sharp edge information. The aim of this paper is to investigate the influence of interior camera orientation, tie point matching and ground control points on the resulting accuracy of bundle adjustment and dense cloud generation with a typically used photogrammetric workflow for UAVbased thermal imagery in natural environments.

  10. Suitability Evaluation for Products Generation from Multisource Remote Sensing Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jining Yan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available With the arrival of the big data era in Earth observation, the remote sensing communities have accumulated a large amount of invaluable and irreplaceable data for global monitoring. These massive remote sensing data have enabled large-area and long-term series Earth observation, and have, in particular, made standard, automated product generation more popular. However, there is more than one type of data selection for producing a certain remote sensing product; no single remote sensor can cover such a large area at one time. Therefore, we should automatically select the best data source from redundant multisource remote sensing data, or select substitute data if data is lacking, during the generation of remote sensing products. However, the current data selection strategy mainly adopts the empirical model, and has a lack of theoretical support and quantitative analysis. Hence, comprehensively considering the spectral characteristics of ground objects and spectra differences of each remote sensor, by means of spectrum simulation and correlation analysis, we propose a suitability evaluation model for product generation. The model will enable us to obtain the Production Suitability Index (PSI of each remote sensing data. In order to validate the proposed model, two typical value-added information products, NDVI and NDWI, and two similar or complementary remote sensors, Landsat-OLI and HJ1A-CCD1, were chosen, and the verification experiments were performed. Through qualitative and quantitative analysis, the experimental results were consistent with our model calculation results, and strongly proved the validity of the suitability evaluation model. The proposed production suitability evaluation model could assist with standard, automated, serialized product generation. It will play an important role in one-station, value-added information services during the big data era of Earth observation.

  11. Remote sensing by satellite - Technical and operational implications for international cooperation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, S. E.

    1976-01-01

    International cooperation in the U.S. Space Program is discussed and related to the NASA program for remote sensing of the earth. Satellite remote sensing techniques are considered along with the selection of the best sensors and wavelength bands. The technology of remote sensing satellites is considered with emphasis on the Landsat system configuration. Future aspects of remote sensing satellites are considered.

  12. TCR backscattering characterization for microwave remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riccio, Giovanni; Gennarelli, Claudio

    2014-05-01

    A Trihedral Corner Reflector (TCR) is formed by three mutually orthogonal metal plates of various shapes and is a very important scattering structure since it exhibits a high monostatic Radar Cross Section (RCS) over a wide angular range. Moreover it is a handy passive device with low manufacturing costs and robust geometric construction, the maintenance of its efficiency is not difficult and expensive, and it can be used in all weather conditions (i.e., fog, rain, smoke, and dusty environment). These characteristics make it suitable as reference target and radar enhancement device for satellite- and ground-based microwave remote sensing techniques. For instance, TCRs have been recently employed to improve the signal-to-noise ratio of the backscattered signal in the case of urban ground deformation monitoring [1] and dynamic survey of civil infrastructures without natural corners as the Musmeci bridge in Basilicata, Italy [2]. The region of interest for the calculation of TCR's monostatic RCS is here confined to the first quadrant containing the boresight direction. The backscattering term is presented in closed form by evaluating the far-field scattering integral involving the contributions related to the direct illumination and the internal bouncing mechanisms. The Geometrical Optics (GO) laws allow one to determine the field incident on each TCR plate and the patch (integration domain) illuminated by it, thus enabling the use of a Physical Optics (PO) approximation for the corresponding surface current densities to consider for integration on each patch. Accordingly, five contributions are associated to each TCR plate: one contribution is due to the direct illumination of the whole internal surface; two contributions originate by the impinging rays that are simply reflected by the other two internal surfaces; and two contributions are related to the impinging rays that undergo two internal reflections. It is useful to note that the six contributions due to the

  13. Unmanned aerial systems for photogrammetry and remote sensing: A review

    OpenAIRE

    Colomina, Ismael; Molina, Pere

    2014-01-01

    We discuss the evolution and state-of-the-art of the use of Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) in the field of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing (PaRS). UAS, Remotely-Piloted Aerial Systems, Unmanned Aerial Vehicles or simply, drones are a hot topic comprising a diverse array of aspects including technology, privacy rights, safety and regulations, and even war and peace. Modern photogrammetry and remote sensing identified the potential of UAS-sourced imagery more than thirty years ago. In the last...

  14. Remote Sensing: The View from Above. Know Your Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia, PA.

    This publication identifies some of the general concepts of remote sensing and explains the image collection process and computer-generated reconstruction of the data. Monitoring the ecological collapse in coral reefs, weather phenomena like El Nino/La Nina, and U.S. Space Shuttle-based sensing projects are some of the areas for which remote…

  15. Footprint Representation of Planetary Remote Sensing Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, S. H. G.; Gasselt, S. V.; Michael, G.; Neukum, G.

    The geometric outline of remote sensing image data, the so called footprint, can be represented as a number of coordinate tuples. These polygons are associated with according attribute information such as orbit name, ground- and image resolution, solar longitude and illumination conditions to generate a powerful base for classification of planetary experiment data. Speed, handling and extended capabilites are the reasons for using geodatabases to store and access these data types. Techniques for such a spatial database of footprint data are demonstrated using the Relational Database Management System (RDBMS) PostgreSQL, spatially enabled by the PostGIS extension. Exemplary, footprints of the HRSC and OMEGA instruments, both onboard ESA's Mars Express Orbiter, are generated and connected to attribute information. The aim is to provide high-resolution footprints of the OMEGA instrument to the science community for the first time and make them available for web-based mapping applications like the "Planetary Interactive GIS-on-the-Web Analyzable Database" (PIG- WAD), produced by the USGS. Map overlays with HRSC or other instruments like MOC and THEMIS (footprint maps are already available for these instruments and can be integrated into the database) allow on-the-fly intersection and comparison as well as extended statistics of the data. Footprint polygons are generated one by one using standard software provided by the instrument teams. Attribute data is calculated and stored together with the geometric information. In the case of HRSC, the coordinates of the footprints are already available in the VICAR label of each image file. Using the VICAR RTL and PostgreSQL's libpq C library they are loaded into the database using the Well-Known Text (WKT) notation by the Open Geospatial Consortium, Inc. (OGC). For the OMEGA instrument, image data is read using IDL routines developed and distributed by the OMEGA team. Image outlines are exported together with relevant attribute

  16. DARLA: Data Assimilation and Remote Sensing for Littoral Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jessup, A.; Holman, R. A.; Chickadel, C.; Elgar, S.; Farquharson, G.; Haller, M. C.; Kurapov, A. L.; Özkan-Haller, H. T.; Raubenheimer, B.; Thomson, J. M.

    2012-12-01

    DARLA is 5-year collaborative project that couples state-of-the-art remote sensing and in situ measurements with advanced data assimilation (DA) modeling to (a) evaluate and improve remote sensing retrieval algorithms for environmental parameters, (b) determine the extent to which remote sensing data can be used in place of in situ data in models, and (c) infer bathymetry for littoral environments by combining remotely-sensed parameters and data assimilation models. The project uses microwave, electro-optical, and infrared techniques to characterize the littoral ocean with a focus on wave and current parameters required for DA modeling. In conjunction with the RIVET (River and Inlets) Project, extensive in situ measurements provide ground truth for both the remote sensing retrieval algorithms and the DA modeling. Our goal is to use remote sensing to constrain data assimilation models of wave and circulation dynamics in a tidal inlet and surrounding beaches. We seek to improve environmental parameter estimation via remote sensing fusion, determine the success of using remote sensing data to drive DA models, and produce a dynamically consistent representation of the wave, circulation, and bathymetry fields in complex environments. The objectives are to test the following three hypotheses: 1. Environmental parameter estimation using remote sensing techniques can be significantly improved by fusion of multiple sensor products. 2. Data assimilation models can be adequately constrained (i.e., forced or guided) with environmental parameters derived from remote sensing measurements. 3. Bathymetry on open beaches, river mouths, and at tidal inlets can be inferred from a combination of remotely-sensed parameters and data assimilation models. Our approach is to conduct a series of field experiments combining remote sensing and in situ measurements to investigate signature physics and to gather data for developing and testing DA models. A preliminary experiment conducted at

  17. Multi- and hyperspectral geologic remote sensing: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Meer, Freek D.; van der Werff, Harald M. A.; van Ruitenbeek, Frank J. A.; Hecker, Chris A.; Bakker, Wim H.; Noomen, Marleen F.; van der Meijde, Mark; Carranza, E. John M.; Smeth, J. Boudewijn de; Woldai, Tsehaie

    2012-02-01

    Geologists have used remote sensing data since the advent of the technology for regional mapping, structural interpretation and to aid in prospecting for ores and hydrocarbons. This paper provides a review of multispectral and hyperspectral remote sensing data, products and applications in geology. During the early days of Landsat Multispectral scanner and Thematic Mapper, geologists developed band ratio techniques and selective principal component analysis to produce iron oxide and hydroxyl images that could be related to hydrothermal alteration. The advent of the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflectance Radiometer (ASTER) with six channels in the shortwave infrared and five channels in the thermal region allowed to produce qualitative surface mineral maps of clay minerals (kaolinite, illite), sulfate minerals (alunite), carbonate minerals (calcite, dolomite), iron oxides (hematite, goethite), and silica (quartz) which allowed to map alteration facies (propylitic, argillic etc.). The step toward quantitative and validated (subpixel) surface mineralogic mapping was made with the advent of high spectral resolution hyperspectral remote sensing. This led to a wealth of techniques to match image pixel spectra to library and field spectra and to unravel mixed pixel spectra to pure endmember spectra to derive subpixel surface compositional information. These products have found their way to the mining industry and are to a lesser extent taken up by the oil and gas sector. The main threat for geologic remote sensing lies in the lack of (satellite) data continuity. There is however a unique opportunity to develop standardized protocols leading to validated and reproducible products from satellite remote sensing for the geology community. By focusing on geologic mapping products such as mineral and lithologic maps, geochemistry, P-T paths, fluid pathways etc. the geologic remote sensing community can bridge the gap with the geosciences community. Increasingly

  18. Remote sensing strategies for global resource exploration and environmental management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Frederick B.

    Since 1972, satellite remote sensing, when integrated with other exploration techniques, has demonstrated operational exploration and engineering cost savings and reduced exploration risks through improved geological mapping. Land and ocean remote sensing satellite systems under development for the 1990's by the United States, France, Japan, Canada, ESA, Russia, China, and others, will significantly increase our ability to explore for, develop, and manage energy and mineral resources worldwide. A major difference between these systems is the "Open Skies" and "Non-Discriminatory Access to Data" policies as have been practiced by the U.S. and France and the restrictive nationalistic data policies as have been practiced by Russia and India. Global exploration will use satellite remote sensing to better map regional structural and basin-like features that control the distribution of energy and mineral resources. Improved sensors will better map lithologic and stratigraphic units and identify alteration effects in rocks, soils, and vegetation cover indicative of undiscovered subsurface resources. These same sensors will also map and monitor resource development. The use of satellite remote sensing data will grow substantially through increasing integration with other geophysical, geochemical, and geologic data using improved geographic information systems (GIS). International exploration will focus on underdeveloped countries rather than on mature exploration areas such as the United States, Europe, and Japan. Energy and mineral companies and government agencies in these countries and others will utilize available remote sensing data to acquire economic intelligence on global resources. If the "Non-Discriminatory Access to Data" principle is observed by satellite producing countries, exploration will remain competitive "on the ground". In this manner, remote sensing technology will continue to be developed to better explore for and manage the world's needed resources

  19. Geological remote sensing signatures of terrestrial impact craters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garvin, J.B.; Schnetzler, C.; Grieve, R.A.F.

    1988-01-01

    Geological remote sensing techniques can be used to investigate structural, depositional, and shock metamorphic effects associated with hypervelocity impact structures, some of which may be linked to global Earth system catastrophies. Although detailed laboratory and field investigations are necessary to establish conclusive evidence of an impact origin for suspected crater landforms, the synoptic perspective provided by various remote sensing systems can often serve as a pathfinder to key deposits which can then be targetted for intensive field study. In addition, remote sensing imagery can be used as a tool in the search for impact and other catastrophic explosion landforms on the basis of localized disruption and anomaly patterns. In order to reconstruct original dimensions of large, complex impact features in isolated, inaccessible regions, remote sensing imagery can be used to make preliminary estimates in the absence of field geophysical surveys. The experienced gained from two decades of planetary remote sensing of impact craters on the terrestrial planets, as well as the techniques developed for recognizing stages of degradation and initial crater morphology, can now be applied to the problem of discovering and studying eroded impact landforms on Earth. Preliminary results of remote sensing analyses of a set of terrestrial impact features in various states of degradation, geologic settings, and for a broad range of diameters and hence energies of formation are summarized. The intention is to develop a database of remote sensing signatures for catastrophic impact landforms which can then be used in EOS-era global surveys as the basis for locating the possibly hundreds of missing impact structures

  20. Acoustic remote sensing of ocean flows

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Joseph, A.; Desa, E.

    Acoustic techniques have become powerful tools for measurement of ocean circulation mainly because of the ability of acoustic signals to travel long distances in water, and the inherently non-invasive nature of measurement. The satellite remote...

  1. A demonstration of adjoint methods for multi-dimensional remote sensing of the atmosphere and surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, William G. K.; Hasekamp, Otto P.

    2018-01-01

    In previous work, we derived the adjoint method as a computationally efficient path to three-dimensional (3D) retrievals of clouds and aerosols. In this paper we will demonstrate the use of adjoint methods for retrieving two-dimensional (2D) fields of cloud extinction. The demonstration uses a new 2D radiative transfer solver (FSDOM). This radiation code was augmented with adjoint methods to allow efficient derivative calculations needed to retrieve cloud and surface properties from multi-angle reflectance measurements. The code was then used in three synthetic retrieval studies. Our retrieval algorithm adjusts the cloud extinction field and surface albedo to minimize the measurement misfit function with a gradient-based, quasi-Newton approach. At each step we compute the value of the misfit function and its gradient with two calls to the solver FSDOM. First we solve the forward radiative transfer equation to compute the residual misfit with measurements, and second we solve the adjoint radiative transfer equation to compute the gradient of the misfit function with respect to all unknowns. The synthetic retrieval studies verify that adjoint methods are scalable to retrieval problems with many measurements and unknowns. We can retrieve the vertically-integrated optical depth of moderately thick clouds as a function of the horizontal coordinate. It is also possible to retrieve the vertical profile of clouds that are separated by clear regions. The vertical profile retrievals improve for smaller cloud fractions. This leads to the conclusion that cloud edges actually increase the amount of information that is available for retrieving the vertical profile of clouds. However, to exploit this information one must retrieve the horizontally heterogeneous cloud properties with a 2D (or 3D) model. This prototype shows that adjoint methods can efficiently compute the gradient of the misfit function. This work paves the way for the application of similar methods to 3D remote

  2. AUTOMATIC GLOBAL REGISTRATION BETWEEN AIRBORNE LIDAR DATA AND REMOTE SENSING IMAGE BASED ON STRAIGHT LINE FEATURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Q. Liu

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available An automatic global registration approach for point clouds and remote sensing image based on straight line features is proposed which is insensitive to rotational and scale transformation. First, the building ridge lines and contour lines in point clouds are automatically detected as registration primitives by integrating region growth and topology identification. Second, the collinear condition equation is selected as registration transformation function which is based on rotation matrix described by unit quaternion. The similarity measure is established according to the distance between the corresponding straight line features from point clouds and the image in the same reference coordinate system. Finally, an iterative Hough transform is adopted to simultaneously estimate the parameters and obtain correspondence between registration primitives. Experimental results prove the proposed method is valid and the spectral information is useful for the following classification processing.

  3. POLARIZATION REMOTE SENSING PHYSICAL MECHANISM, KEY METHODS AND APPLICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Yang

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available China's long-term planning major projects "high-resolution earth observation system" has been invested nearly 100 billion and the satellites will reach 100 to 2020. As to 2/3 of China's area covered by mountains,it has a higher demand for remote sensing. In addition to light intensity, frequency, phase, polarization is also the main physical characteristics of remote sensing electromagnetic waves. Polarization is an important component of the reflected information from the surface and the atmospheric information, and the polarization effect of the ground object reflection is the basis of the observation of polarization remote sensing. Therefore, the effect of eliminating the polarization effect is very important for remote sensing applications. The main innovations of this paper is as follows: (1 Remote sensing observation method. It is theoretically deduced and verified that the polarization can weaken the light in the strong light region, and then provide the polarization effective information. In turn, the polarization in the low light region can strengthen the weak light, the same can be obtained polarization effective information. (2 Polarization effect of vegetation. By analyzing the structure characteristics of vegetation, polarization information is obtained, then the vegetation structure information directly affects the absorption of biochemical components of leaves. (3 Atmospheric polarization neutral point observation method. It is proved to be effective to achieve the ground-gas separation, which can achieve the effect of eliminating the atmospheric polarization effect and enhancing the polarization effect of the object.

  4. Water Column Correction for Coral Reef Studies by Remote Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoffoli, Maria Laura; Frouin, Robert; Kampel, Milton

    2014-01-01

    Human activity and natural climate trends constitute a major threat to coral reefs worldwide. Models predict a significant reduction in reef spatial extension together with a decline in biodiversity in the relatively near future. In this context, monitoring programs to detect changes in reef ecosystems are essential. In recent years, coral reef mapping using remote sensing data has benefited from instruments with better resolution and computational advances in storage and processing capabilities. However, the water column represents an additional complexity when extracting information from submerged substrates by remote sensing that demands a correction of its effect. In this article, the basic concepts of bottom substrate remote sensing and water column interference are presented. A compendium of methodologies developed to reduce water column effects in coral ecosystems studied by remote sensing that include their salient features, advantages and drawbacks is provided. Finally, algorithms to retrieve the bottom reflectance are applied to simulated data and actual remote sensing imagery and their performance is compared. The available methods are not able to completely eliminate the water column effect, but they can minimize its influence. Choosing the best method depends on the marine environment, available input data and desired outcome or scientific application. PMID:25215941

  5. Water Column Correction for Coral Reef Studies by Remote Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Laura Zoffoli

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Human activity and natural climate trends constitute a major threat to coral reefs worldwide. Models predict a significant reduction in reef spatial extension together with a decline in biodiversity in the relatively near future. In this context, monitoring programs to detect changes in reef ecosystems are essential. In recent years, coral reef mapping using remote sensing data has benefited from instruments with better resolution and computational advances in storage and processing capabilities. However, the water column represents an additional complexity when extracting information from submerged substrates by remote sensing that demands a correction of its effect. In this article, the basic concepts of bottom substrate remote sensing and water column interference are presented. A compendium of methodologies developed to reduce water column effects in coral ecosystems studied by remote sensing that include their salient features, advantages and drawbacks is provided. Finally, algorithms to retrieve the bottom reflectance are applied to simulated data and actual remote sensing imagery and their performance is compared. The available methods are not able to completely eliminate the water column effect, but they can minimize its influence. Choosing the best method depends on the marine environment, available input data and desired outcome or scientific application.

  6. Remote Sensing Open Access Journal: Increasing Impact through Quality Publications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasad S. Thenkabail

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Remote Sensing, an open access journal (http://www.mdpi.com/journal/remotesensing has grown at rapid pace since its first publication five years ago, and has acquired a strong reputation. It is a “pathfinder” being the first open access journal in remote sensing. For those academics who were used to waiting a year or two for their peer-reviewed scientific work to be reviewed, revised, edited, and published, Remote Sensing offers a publication time frame that is unheard of (in most cases, less than four months. However, we do this after multiple peer-reviews, multiple revisions, much editorial scrutiny and decision-making, and professional editing by an editorial office before a paper is published online in our tight time frame, bringing a paradigm shift in scientific publication. As a result, there has been a swift increase in submissions of higher and higher quality manuscripts from the best authors and institutes working on Remote Sensing, Geographic Information Systems (GIS, Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS, GIScience, and all related geospatial science and technologies from around the world. The purpose of this editorial is to update everyone interested in Remote Sensing on the progress made over the last year, and provide an outline of our vision for the immediate future. [...

  7. [Analysis of related factors of slope plant hyperspectral remote sensing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wei-Qi; Zhao, Yun-Sheng; Tu, Lin-Ling

    2014-09-01

    In the present paper, the slope gradient, aspect, detection zenith angle and plant types were analyzed. In order to strengthen the theoretical discussion, the research was under laboratory condition, and modeled uniform slope for slope plant. Through experiments we found that these factors indeed have influence on plant hyperspectral remote sensing. When choosing slope gradient as the variate, the blade reflection first increases and then decreases as the slope gradient changes from 0° to 36°; When keeping other factors constant, and only detection zenith angle increasing from 0° to 60°, the spectral characteristic of slope plants do not change significantly in visible light band, but decreases gradually in near infrared band; With only slope aspect changing, when the dome meets the light direction, the blade reflectance gets maximum, and when the dome meets the backlit direction, the blade reflectance gets minimum, furthermore, setting the line of vertical intersection of incidence plane and the dome as an axis, the reflectance on the axis's both sides shows symmetric distribution; In addition, spectral curves of different plant types have a lot differences between each other, which means that the plant types also affect hyperspectral remote sensing results of slope plants. This research breaks through the limitations of the traditional vertical remote sensing data collection and uses the multi-angle and hyperspectral information to analyze spectral characteristics of slope plants. So this research has theoretical significance to the development of quantitative remote sensing, and has application value to the plant remote sensing monitoring.

  8. Water column correction for coral reef studies by remote sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoffoli, Maria Laura; Frouin, Robert; Kampel, Milton

    2014-09-11

    Human activity and natural climate trends constitute a major threat to coral reefs worldwide. Models predict a significant reduction in reef spatial extension together with a decline in biodiversity in the relatively near future. In this context, monitoring programs to detect changes in reef ecosystems are essential. In recent years, coral reef mapping using remote sensing data has benefited from instruments with better resolution and computational advances in storage and processing capabilities. However, the water column represents an additional complexity when extracting information from submerged substrates by remote sensing that demands a correction of its effect. In this article, the basic concepts of bottom substrate remote sensing and water column interference are presented. A compendium of methodologies developed to reduce water column effects in coral ecosystems studied by remote sensing that include their salient features, advantages and drawbacks is provided. Finally, algorithms to retrieve the bottom reflectance are applied to simulated data and actual remote sensing imagery and their performance is compared. The available methods are not able to completely eliminate the water column effect, but they can minimize its influence. Choosing the best method depends on the marine environment, available input data and desired outcome or scientific application.

  9. Spatial Autocorrelation and Uncertainty Associated with Remotely-Sensed Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel A. Griffith

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Virtually all remotely sensed data contain spatial autocorrelation, which impacts upon their statistical features of uncertainty through variance inflation, and the compounding of duplicate information. Estimating the nature and degree of this spatial autocorrelation, which is usually positive and very strong, has been hindered by computational intensity associated with the massive number of pixels in realistically-sized remotely-sensed images, a situation that more recently has changed. Recent advances in spatial statistical estimation theory support the extraction of information and the distilling of knowledge from remotely-sensed images in a way that accounts for latent spatial autocorrelation. This paper summarizes an effective methodological approach to achieve this end, illustrating results with a 2002 remotely sensed-image of the Florida Everglades, and simulation experiments. Specifically, uncertainty of spatial autocorrelation parameter in a spatial autoregressive model is modeled with a beta-beta mixture approach and is further investigated with three different sampling strategies: coterminous sampling, random sub-region sampling, and increasing domain sub-regions. The results suggest that uncertainty associated with remotely-sensed data should be cast in consideration of spatial autocorrelation. It emphasizes that one remaining challenge is to better quantify the spatial variability of spatial autocorrelation estimates across geographic landscapes.

  10. Remote Sensing Image Registration Using Multiple Image Features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kun Yang

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Remote sensing image registration plays an important role in military and civilian fields, such as natural disaster damage assessment, military damage assessment and ground targets identification, etc. However, due to the ground relief variations and imaging viewpoint changes, non-rigid geometric distortion occurs between remote sensing images with different viewpoint, which further increases the difficulty of remote sensing image registration. To address the problem, we propose a multi-viewpoint remote sensing image registration method which contains the following contributions. (i A multiple features based finite mixture model is constructed for dealing with different types of image features. (ii Three features are combined and substituted into the mixture model to form a feature complementation, i.e., the Euclidean distance and shape context are used to measure the similarity of geometric structure, and the SIFT (scale-invariant feature transform distance which is endowed with the intensity information is used to measure the scale space extrema. (iii To prevent the ill-posed problem, a geometric constraint term is introduced into the L2E-based energy function for better behaving the non-rigid transformation. We evaluated the performances of the proposed method by three series of remote sensing images obtained from the unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV and Google Earth, and compared with five state-of-the-art methods where our method shows the best alignments in most cases.

  11. Remote sensing education and Internet/World Wide Web technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, J.A.; Egbert, S.L.

    2001-01-01

    Remote sensing education is increasingly in demand across academic and professional disciplines. Meanwhile, Internet technology and the World Wide Web (WWW) are being more frequently employed as teaching tools in remote sensing and other disciplines. The current wealth of information on the Internet and World Wide Web must be distilled, nonetheless, to be useful in remote sensing education. An extensive literature base is developing on the WWW as a tool in education and in teaching remote sensing. This literature reveals benefits and limitations of the WWW, and can guide its implementation. Among the most beneficial aspects of the Web are increased access to remote sensing expertise regardless of geographic location, increased access to current material, and access to extensive archives of satellite imagery and aerial photography. As with other teaching innovations, using the WWW/Internet may well mean more work, not less, for teachers, at least at the stage of early adoption. Also, information posted on Web sites is not always accurate. Development stages of this technology range from on-line posting of syllabi and lecture notes to on-line laboratory exercises and animated landscape flyovers and on-line image processing. The advantages of WWW/Internet technology may likely outweigh the costs of implementing it as a teaching tool.

  12. Forest biodiversity and its assessment by remote sensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Innes, J.L.; Koch, B.

    1998-01-01

    Several international conventions and agreements have stressed the importance of the assessment of forest biodiversity. However, the methods by which such assessments can be made remain unclear. Remote sensing represents an important tool for looking at ecosystem diversity and various structural aspects of individual ecosystems. It provides a means to make assessments across several different spatial scales, and is also critical for assessments of changes in ecosystem pattern over time. Many different forms of remote sensing are available. While lately the emphasis on laser scanner and synthetic aperture radar data has increased, most work to date has used photographs and digital optical imagery, primarily from airborne and spaceborne platforms. These provide the opportunity to assess different phenomena from the landscape to the stand scale. Remote sensing provides the most efficient tool available for determining landscape-scale elements of forest biodiversity, such as the relative proportion of matrix and patches and their physical arrangement. At intermediate scales, remote sensing provides an ideal tool for evaluating the presence of corridors and the nature of edges. At the stand scale, remote sensing technologies are likely to deliver an increasing amount of information about the structural attributes of forest stands, such as the nature of the canopy surface, the presence of layering within the canopy and presence of (very) coarse woody debris on the forest floor. Given the rate of development in the technology, even greater usage is likely in the future. (author)

  13. Research on the Construction of Remote Sensing Automatic Interpretation Symbol Big Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Y.; Liu, R.; Liu, J.; Cheng, T.

    2018-04-01

    Remote sensing automatic interpretation symbol (RSAIS) is an inexpensive and fast method in providing precise in-situ information for image interpretation and accuracy. This study designed a scientific and precise RSAIS data characterization method, as well as a distributed and cloud architecture massive data storage method. Additionally, it introduced an offline and online data update mode and a dynamic data evaluation mechanism, with the aim to create an efficient approach for RSAIS big data construction. Finally, a national RSAIS database with more than 3 million samples covering 86 land types was constructed during 2013-2015 based on the National Geographic Conditions Monitoring Project of China and then annually updated since the 2016 period. The RSAIS big data has proven to be a good method for large scale image interpretation and field validation. It is also notable that it has the potential to solve image automatic interpretation with the assistance of deep learning technology in the remote sensing big data era.

  14. REMOTELY SENSED DATA FUSION IN MODERN AGE ARCHAEOLOGY AND MILITARY HISTORICAL RECONSTRUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Juhász

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available LiDAR technology has become one of the major remote sensing methods in the last few years. There are several areas, where the scanned 3D point clouds can be used very efficiently. In our study we review the potential applications of LiDAR data in military historical reconstruction. Obviously, the base of this kind of investigation must be the archive data, but it is an interesting challenge to integrate a cutting edge method into such tasks. The LiDAR technology can be very useful, especially in vegetation covered areas, where the conventional remote sensing technologies are mostly inefficient. We review two typical sample projects where we integrated LiDAR data in military historical GIS reconstruction. Finally, we summarize, how laser scanned data can support the different parts of reconstruction work and define the technological steps of LiDAR data processing.

  15. Nasa's Land Remote Sensing Plans for the 1980's

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higg, H. C.; Butera, K. M.; Settle, M.

    1985-01-01

    Research since the launch of LANDSAT-1 has been primarily directed to the development of analysis techniques and to the conduct of applications studies designed to address resource information needs in the United States and in many other countries. The current measurement capabilities represented by MSS, TM, and SIR-A and B, coupled with the present level of remote sensing understanding and the state of knowledge in the discipline earth sciences, form the foundation for NASA's Land Processes Program. Science issues to be systematically addressed include: energy balance, hydrologic cycle, biogeochemical cycles, biological productivity, rock cycle, landscape development, geological and botanical associations, and land surface inventory, monitoring, and modeling. A global perspective is required for using remote sensing technology for problem solving or applications context. A successful model for this kind of activity involves joint research with a user entity where the user provides a test site and ground truth and NASA provides the remote sensing techniques to be tested.

  16. Researching on the process of remote sensing video imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, He-rao; Zheng, Xin-qi; Sun, Yi-bo; Jia, Zong-ren; Wang, He-zhan

    Unmanned air vehicle remotely-sensed imagery on the low-altitude has the advantages of higher revolution, easy-shooting, real-time accessing, etc. It's been widely used in mapping , target identification, and other fields in recent years. However, because of conditional limitation, the video images are unstable, the targets move fast, and the shooting background is complex, etc., thus it is difficult to process the video images in this situation. In other fields, especially in the field of computer vision, the researches on video images are more extensive., which is very helpful for processing the remotely-sensed imagery on the low-altitude. Based on this, this paper analyzes and summarizes amounts of video image processing achievement in different fields, including research purposes, data sources, and the pros and cons of technology. Meantime, this paper explores the technology methods more suitable for low-altitude video image processing of remote sensing.

  17. A review of remote sensing applications for oil palm studies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Khai Loong Chong; Kasturi Devi Kanniah; Christine Pohl; Kian Pang Tan

    2017-01-01

    Oil palm becomes an increasingly important source of vegetable oil for its production exceeds soybean,sunflower,and rapeseed.The growth of the oil palm industry causes degradation to the environment,especially when the expansion of plantations goes uncontrolled.Remote sensing is a useful tool to monitor the development of oil palm plantations.In order to promote the use of remote sensing in the oil palm industry to support their drive for sustainability,this paper provides an understanding toward the use of remote sensing and its applications to oil palm plantation monitoring.In addition,the existing knowledge gaps are identified and recommendations for further research are given.

  18. Quantitative interpretation of great lakes remote sensing data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shook, D.F.; Salzman, J.; Svehla, R.A.; Gedney, R.T.

    1980-01-01

    Remote sensing has been applied in the past to the surveillance of Great Lakes water quality, but it has been only partially successful because of the completely empirical approach taken in relating the multispectral scanning data at visible and near-infrared wavelengths to water parameters. Any remote sensing approach using water color information must take into account (1) the existence of many different organic and inorganic species throughtout the Greak Lakes, (2) the occurrence of a mixture of species in most locations, and (3) spatial (inter- and interlake as well as vertical) variations in types and concentrations of species. The radiative transfer model provides a potential method for an orderly analysis of remote sensing data and a physical basis for developing quantitative algorithms. Predictions and field measurements of volume reflectances are presented which clearly show the advantage of using a radiative transfer model. Spectral absorptance and backscattering coefficients for two inorganic sediments are reported

  19. Validating firn compaction model with remote sensing data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, S. B.; Stenseng, Lars; Sørensen, Louise Sandberg

    A comprehensive understanding of firn processes is of outmost importance, when estimating present and future changes of the Greenland Ice Sheet. Especially, when remote sensing altimetry is used to assess the state of ice sheets and their contribution to global sea level rise, firn compaction...... models have been shown to be a key component. Now, remote sensing data can also be used to validate the firn models. Radar penetrating the upper part of the firn column in the interior part of Greenland shows a clear layering. The observed layers from the radar data can be used as an in-situ validation...... correction relative to the changes in the elevation of the surface observed with remote sensing altimetry? What model time resolution is necessary to resolved the observed layering? What model refinements are necessary to give better estimates of the surface mass balance of the Greenland ice sheet from...

  20. China national space remote sensing infrastructure and its application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ming

    2016-07-01

    Space Infrastructure is a space system that provides communication, navigation and remote sensing service for broad users. China National Space Remote Sensing Infrastructure includes remote sensing satellites, ground system and related systems. According to the principle of multiple-function on one satellite, multiple satellites in one constellation and collaboration between constellations, series of land observation, ocean observation and atmosphere observation satellites have been suggested to have high, middle and low resolution and fly on different orbits and with different means of payloads to achieve a high ability for global synthetically observation. With such an infrastructure, we can carry out the research on climate change, geophysics global surveying and mapping, water resources management, safety and emergency management, and so on. I This paper gives a detailed introduction about the planning of this infrastructure and its application in different area, especially the international cooperation potential in the so called One Belt and One Road space information corridor.

  1. Scientific Programming Using Java: A Remote Sensing Example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prados, Don; Mohamed, Mohamed A.; Johnson, Michael; Cao, Changyong; Gasser, Jerry

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents results of a project to port remote sensing code from the C programming language to Java. The advantages and disadvantages of using Java versus C as a scientific programming language in remote sensing applications are discussed. Remote sensing applications deal with voluminous data that require effective memory management, such as buffering operations, when processed. Some of these applications also implement complex computational algorithms, such as Fast Fourier Transformation analysis, that are very performance intensive. Factors considered include performance, precision, complexity, rapidity of development, ease of code reuse, ease of maintenance, memory management, and platform independence. Performance of radiometric calibration code written in Java for the graphical user interface and of using C for the domain model are also presented.

  2. Magnetoseismology ground-based remote sensing of Earth's magnetosphere

    CERN Document Server

    Menk, Frederick W

    2013-01-01

    Written by a researcher at the forefront of the field, this first comprehensive account of magnetoseismology conveys the physics behind these movements and waves, and explains how to detect and investigate them. Along the way, it describes the principles as applied to remote sensing of near-Earth space and related remote sensing techniques, while also comparing and intercalibrating magnetoseismology with other techniques. The example applications include advanced data analysis techniques that may find wider used in areas ranging from geophysics to medical imaging, and remote sensing using radar systems that are of relevance to defense surveillance systems. As a result, the book not only reviews the status quo, but also anticipates new developments. With many figures and illustrations, some in full color, plus additional computational codes for analysis and evaluation. Aimed at graduate readers, the text assumes knowledge of electromagnetism and physical processes at degree level, but introductory chapters wil...

  3. Remote-sensing image encryption in hybrid domains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoqiang; Zhu, Guiliang; Ma, Shilong

    2012-04-01

    Remote-sensing technology plays an important role in military and industrial fields. Remote-sensing image is the main means of acquiring information from satellites, which always contain some confidential information. To securely transmit and store remote-sensing images, we propose a new image encryption algorithm in hybrid domains. This algorithm makes full use of the advantages of image encryption in both spatial domain and transform domain. First, the low-pass subband coefficients of image DWT (discrete wavelet transform) decomposition are sorted by a PWLCM system in transform domain. Second, the image after IDWT (inverse discrete wavelet transform) reconstruction is diffused with 2D (two-dimensional) Logistic map and XOR operation in spatial domain. The experiment results and algorithm analyses show that the new algorithm possesses a large key space and can resist brute-force, statistical and differential attacks. Meanwhile, the proposed algorithm has the desirable encryption efficiency to satisfy requirements in practice.

  4. Hyperspectral remote sensing of postfire soil properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarah A. Lewis; Peter R. Robichaud; William J. Elliot; Bruce E. Frazier; Joan Q. Wu

    2004-01-01

    Forest fires may induce changes in soil organic properties that often lead to water repellent conditions within the soil profile that decrease soil infiltration capacity. The remote detection of water repellent soils after forest fires would lead to quicker and more accurate assessment of erosion potential. An airborne hyperspectral image was acquired over the Hayman...

  5. Modeling of Cloud/Radiation Processes for Cirrus Cloud Formation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Liou, K

    1997-01-01

    This technical report includes five reprints and pre-prints of papers associated with the modeling of cirrus cloud and radiation processes as well as remote sensing of cloud optical and microphysical...

  6. Local evaluation of air pollution by remote sensing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1975-02-01

    Air pollution in Kanagawa Prefecture was studied by examining the relationship between tree vitality (on the ground) and the density distribution of trees as remotely measured with an aerial multiband camera. There was a close relationship between tree vitality and air pollution; a positive significant correlation existed between the density determination of trees obtained by remote sensing and the vitality of trees. The best time for photographing the trees by multiband camera was August. 4 figures, 24 tables.

  7. Sensitive change detection for remote sensing monitoring of nuclear treaties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Canty, Morton J.; Nielsen, Allan Aasbjerg; Schlittenhardt, Jörg

    2005-01-01

    change is a commonplace application in remote sensing, the detection of anthropogenic changes associated with nuclear activities, whether declared or clandestine, presents a difficult challenge. It is necessary to discriminate subtle, often weak signals of interest on a background of irrelevant...... in multispectral, bitemporal image data: New approaches to change detection studies, Remote Sens. Environ. 64(1), 1998, pp. 1--19. Nielsen, A. A., Iteratively re-weighted multivariate alteration detection in multi- and hyperspectral data, to be published....

  8. ICUD-0499 Low-cost remotely sensed environmental monitoring stations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Rasmus; Thorndahl, Søren Liedtke

    2017-01-01

    This study contributes with extensive research of applying low-cost remotely sensed monitoring stations to an urban environment. Design requirements are scrutinized, including applications for remote data access, hardware design, and monitoring network design. A network of 9 monitoring stations...... measuring stream water level is deployed during July 2017. Data is streamed to a web page using cellular-based data transmission. Monitoring network performance is quantified with respect to local physical and weather conditions....

  9. Remote sensing of water and nitrogen stress in broccoli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsheikha, Diael-Deen Mohamed

    Remote sensing is being used in agriculture for crop management. Ground based remote sensing data acquisition system was used for collection of high spatial and temporal resolution data for irrigated broccoli crop. The system was composed of a small cart that ran back and forth on a rail system that was mounted on a linear move irrigation system. The cart was equipped with a sensor that had 4 discrete wavelengths; 550 nm, 660 nm, 720 nm, and 810 nm, and an infrared thermometer, all had 10 nm bandwidth. A global positioning system was used to indicate the cart position. The study consisted of two parts; the first was to evaluate remotely sensed reflectance and indices in broccoli during the growing season, and determine whether remotely sensed indices or standard deviation of indices can distinguish between nitrogen and water stress in broccoli, and the second part of the study was to evaluate remotely sensed indices and standard deviation of remotely sensed indices in broccoli during daily changes in solar zenith angle. Results indicated that nitrogen was detected using Ratio Vegetation index, RVI, Normalized Difference Vegetation Index, NDVI, Canopy Chlorophyll Concentration Index, CCCI, and also using the reflectance in the Near-Infrared, NIR, bands. The Red reflectance band capability of showing stress was not as clear as the previous indices and bands reflectance. The Canopy Chlorophyll Concentration Index, CCCI, was the most successful index. The Crop Water Stress Index was able to detect water stress but it was highly affected by the solar zenith angle change along the day.

  10. Development of Web-Based Remote Desktop to Provide Adaptive User Interfaces in Cloud Platform

    OpenAIRE

    Shuen-Tai Wang; Hsi-Ya Chang

    2014-01-01

    Cloud virtualization technologies are becoming more and more prevalent, cloud users usually encounter the problem of how to access to the virtualized remote desktops easily over the web without requiring the installation of special clients. To resolve this issue, we took advantage of the HTML5 technology and developed web-based remote desktop. It permits users to access the terminal which running in our cloud platform from anywhere. We implemented a sketch of web interfac...

  11. Trusted Bytecode Virtual Machine Module: A Novel Method for Dynamic Remote Attestation in Cloud Computing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Songzhu Mei

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Cloud computing bring a tremendous complexity to information security. Remote attestation can be used to establish trust relationship in cloud. TBVMM is designed to extend the existing chain of trust into the software layers to support dynamic remote attestation for cloud computing. TBVMM uses Bayesian network and Kalman filter to solve the dynamicity of the trusted relationship. It is proposed to fill the trust gap between the infrastructure and upper software stacks.

  12. Suppression of Instability on Sensing Signal of Optical Pulse Correlation Measurement in Remote Fiber Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirokazu Kobayashi

    2012-01-01

    response and improve the accuracy of signals at the focused sensing regions. We also experimentally demonstrate remote temperature monitoring over a 30 km-long distance using a remote reference technique, and we estimate the resolution and the measurable span of the temperature variation as (1.1/L∘C and (5.9×10/L°C, respectively, where L is the length of the fiber in the sensing region.

  13. A closer look at temperature changes with remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metz, Markus; Rocchini, Duccio; Neteler, Markus

    2014-05-01

    Temperature is a main driver for important ecological processes. Time series temperature data provide key environmental indicators for various applications and research fields. High spatial and temporal resolution is crucial in order to perform detailed analyses in various fields of research. While meteorological station data are commonly used, they often lack completeness or are not distributed in a representative way. Remotely sensed thermal images from polar orbiting satellites are considered to be a good alternative to the scarce meteorological data as they offer almost continuous coverage of the Earth with very high temporal resolution. A drawback of temperature data obtained by satellites is the occurrence of gaps (due to clouds, aerosols) that must be filled. We have reconstructed a seamless and gap-free time series for land surface temperature (LST) at continental scale for Europe from MODIS LST products (Moderate Resolution Imaging Sensor instruments onboard the Terra and Aqua satellites), keeping the temporal resolution of four records per day and enhancing the spatial resolution from 1 km to 250 m. Here we present a new procedure to reconstruct MODIS LST time series with unprecedented detail in space and time, at the same time providing continental coverage. Our method constitutes a unique new combination of weighted temporal averaging with statistical modeling and spatial interpolation. We selected as auxiliary variables datasets which are globally available in order to propose a worldwide reproducible method. Compared to existing similar datasets, the substantial quantitative difference translates to a qualitative difference in applications and results. We consider both our dataset and the new procedure for its creation to be of utmost interest to a broad interdisciplinary audience. Moreover, we provide examples for its implications and applications, such as disease risk assessment, epidemiology, environmental monitoring, and temperature anomalies. In

  14. Advanced and applied remote sensing of environmental conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slonecker, E. Terrence; Fisher, Gary B.; Marr, David A.; Milheim, Lesley E.; Roig-Silva, Coral M.

    2013-01-01

    "Remote sensing” is a general term for monitoring techniques that collect information without being in physical contact with the object of study. Overhead imagery from aircraft and satellite sensors provides the most common form of remotely sensed data and records the interaction of electromagnetic energy (usually visible light) with matter, such as the Earth’s surface. Remotely sensed data are fundamental to geographic science. The U.S. Geological Survey’s (USGS) Eastern Geographic Science Center (EGSC) is currently conducting and promoting the research and development of several different aspects of remote sensing science in both the laboratory and from overhead instruments. Spectroscopy is the science of recording interactions of energy and matter and is the bench science for all remote sensing. Visible and infrared analysis in the laboratory with special instruments called spectrometers enables the transfer of this research from the laboratory to multispectral (5–15 broad bands) and hyperspectral (50–300 narrow contiguous bands) analyses from aircraft and satellite sensors. In addition, mid-wave (3–5 micrometers, µm) and long-wave (8–14 µm) infrared data analysis, such as attenuated total reflectance (ATR) spectral analysis, are also conducted. ATR is a special form of vibrational infrared spectroscopy that has many applications in chemistry and biology but has recently been shown to be especially diagnostic for vegetation analysis.

  15. [Hyperspectral remote sensing in monitoring the vegetation heavy metal pollution].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Na; Lü, Jian-sheng; Altemann, W

    2010-09-01

    Mine exploitation aggravates the environment pollution. The large amount of heavy metal element in the drainage of slag from the mine pollutes the soil seriously, doing harm to the vegetation growing and human health. The investigation of mining environment pollution is urgent, in which remote sensing, as a new technique, helps a lot. In the present paper, copper mine in Dexing was selected as the study area and China sumac as the study plant. Samples and spectral data in field were gathered and analyzed in lab. The regression model from spectral characteristics for heavy metal content was built, and the feasibility of hyperspectral remote sensing in environment pollution monitoring was testified.

  16. Remote sensing of wet lands in irrigated areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ham, H. H.

    1972-01-01

    The use of airborne remote sensing techniques to: (1) detect drainage problem areas, (2) delineate the problem in terms of areal extent, depth to the water table, and presence of excessive salinity, and (3) evaluate the effectiveness of existing subsurface drainage facilities, is discussed. Experimental results show that remote sensing, as demonstrated in this study and as presently constituted and priced, does not represent a practical alternative as a management tool to presently used visual and conventional photographic methods in the systematic and repetitive detection and delineation of wetlands.

  17. Optical registration of spaceborne low light remote sensing camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chong-yang; Hao, Yan-hui; Xu, Peng-mei; Wang, Dong-jie; Ma, Li-na; Zhao, Ying-long

    2018-02-01

    For the high precision requirement of spaceborne low light remote sensing camera optical registration, optical registration of dual channel for CCD and EMCCD is achieved by the high magnification optical registration system. System integration optical registration and accuracy of optical registration scheme for spaceborne low light remote sensing camera with short focal depth and wide field of view is proposed in this paper. It also includes analysis of parallel misalignment of CCD and accuracy of optical registration. Actual registration results show that imaging clearly, MTF and accuracy of optical registration meet requirements, it provide important guarantee to get high quality image data in orbit.

  18. Earth Remote Sensing for Weather Forecasting and Disaster Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molthan, Andrew; Bell, Jordan; Case, Jonathan; Cole, Tony; Elmer, Nicholas; McGrath, Kevin; Schultz, Lori; Zavodsky, Brad

    2016-01-01

    NASA's constellation of current missions provide several opportunities to apply satellite remote sensing observations to weather forecasting and disaster response applications. Examples include: Using NASA's Terra and Aqua MODIS, and the NASA/NOAA Suomi-NPP VIIRS missions to prepare weather forecasters for capabilities of GOES-R; Incorporating other NASA remote sensing assets for improving aspects of numerical weather prediction; Using NASA, NOAA, and international partner resources (e.g. ESA/Sentinel Series); and commercial platforms (high-res, or UAV) to support disaster mapping.

  19. RFI and Remote Sensing of the Earth from Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Vine, D. M.; Johnson, J. T.; Piepmeier, J.

    2016-01-01

    Passive microwave remote sensing of the Earth from space provides information essential for understanding the Earth's environment and its evolution. Parameters such as soil moisture, sea surface temperature and salinity, and profiles of atmospheric temperature and humidity are measured at frequencies determined by the physics (e.g. sensitivity to changes in desired parameters) and by the availability of suitable spectrum free from interference. Interference from manmade sources (radio frequency interference) is an impediment that in many cases limits the potential for accurate measurements from space. A review is presented here of the frequencies employed in passive microwave remote sensing of the Earth from space and the associated experience with RFI.

  20. Noise estimation for remote sensing image data analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Qian

    2004-01-01

    Noise estimation does not receive much attention in remote sensing society. It may be because normally noise is not large enough to impair image analysis result. Noise estimation is also very challenging due to the randomness nature of the noise (for random noise) and the difficulty of separating the noise component from the signal in each specific location. We review and propose seven different types of methods to estimate noise variance and noise covariance matrix in a remotely sensed image. In the experiment, it is demonstrated that a good noise estimate can improve the performance of an algorithm via noise whitening if this algorithm assumes white noise.

  1. Study on edge-extraction of remote sensing image

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wen Jianguang; Xiao Qing; Xu Huiping

    2005-01-01

    Image edge-extraction is an important step in image processing and recognition, and also a hot spot in science study. In this paper, based on primary methods of the remote sensing image edge-extraction, authors, for the first time, have proposed several elements which should be considered before processing. Then, the qualities of several methods in remote sensing image edge-extraction are systematically summarized. At last, taking Near Nasca area (Peru) as an example the edge-extraction of Magmatic Range is analysed. (authors)

  2. Prototype simulates remote sensing spectral measurements on fruits and vegetables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Federico

    1998-09-01

    A prototype was designed to simulate spectral packinghouse measurements in order to simplify fruit and vegetable damage assessment. A computerized spectrometer is used together with lenses and an externally controlled illumination in order to have a remote sensing simulator. A laser is introduced between the spectrometer and the lenses in order to mark the zone where the measurement is being taken. This facilitates further correlation work and can assure that the physical and remote sensing measurements are taken in the same place. Tomato ripening and mango anthracnose spectral signatures are shown.

  3. Remote sensing for environmental monitoring and resource management. Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The subject of this volume is remote sensing for environmental monitoring and resource management. This session is divided in eight parts. First part is on general topics, methodology and meteorology. Second part is on geology, environment and land cover. Third part is on disaster monitoring. Fourth part is on operational status of remote sensing. Fifth part is on coastal zones and inland waters. Sixth and seventh parts are on forestry and agriculture. Eighth part is on instrumentation and systems. (A.B.). refs., figs., tabs

  4. Remote sensing models and methods for image processing

    CERN Document Server

    Schowengerdt, Robert A

    2007-01-01

    Remote sensing is a technology that engages electromagnetic sensors to measure and monitor changes in the earth's surface and atmosphere. Normally this is accomplished through the use of a satellite or aircraft. This book, in its 3rd edition, seamlessly connects the art and science of earth remote sensing with the latest interpretative tools and techniques of computer-aided image processing. Newly expanded and updated, this edition delivers more of the applied scientific theory and practical results that helped the previous editions earn wide acclaim and become classroom and industry standa

  5. Microwave and millimeter-wave remote sensing for security applications

    CERN Document Server

    Nanzer, Jeffrey

    2012-01-01

    Microwave and millimeter-wave remote sensing techniques are fast becoming a necessity in many aspects of security as detection and classification of objects or intruders becomes more difficult. This groundbreaking resource offers you expert guidance in this burgeoning area. It provides you with a thorough treatment of the principles of microwave and millimeter-wave remote sensing for security applications, as well as practical coverage of the design of radiometer, radar, and imaging systems. You learn how to design active and passive sensors for intruder detection, concealed object detection,

  6. Evaluation of Reconstructed Remote Sensing Time Series Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera-Camacho, J.; Didan, K.; Barreto-munoz, A.; Yitayew, M.

    2011-12-01

    Vegetation phenology is the study of vegetation state, function and change over time and is directly linked to the carbon cycle and an integrative measure of climate change impacts. Field observations of phenology can address some questions associated with phenology and climate change, but they are not effective at estimating and understanding large scale change in biome seasonality. Synoptic remote sensing has emerged as a practical tool for studying the land surface vegetation over large spatial and temporal scales. However, the presence of clouds, noise, inadequate processing algorithms result in poor quality data that needs to be discarded. Discarded data is so prevalent sometimes that up to 80% of the spatial and temporal coverage is missing which inhibits the proper study of vegetation phenology. To improve these data records gap filling techniques are employed. The purpose is to accurately reconstruct the VI time series profile, while preserving as much of the original data to support accurate land surface vegetation characterization. Some methods use complex Fourier Transform (FT) functions, Gaussian fitting models, or Piecewise techniques, while others are based on simpler linear interpolation. The impact of these gap filling methods on the resulting record is yet to be fully explored and characterized. In this project, we devised a new hybrid gap filling technique based on finding the seasonally variable per-pixel optimum composite period and then filling the remaining gaps with a simple local interpolation using the Inverse Distance Weighting (IDW) approach. The method is further constrained by a moving window long term average to minimize the biases that may result from over- or under-fitting. This method was applied to a 30-year sensor independent Vegetation Index ESDR from AHRR and MODIS records. To understand the impact of this gap filling technique, we performed statistical analyses to determine the error and uncertainty associated with estimating

  7. An integrated approach to the remote sensing of floating ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, W. J.; Ramseier, R. O.; Weeks, W. F.; Gloersen, P.

    1976-01-01

    Review article on remote sensing applications to glaciology. Ice parameters sensed include: ice cover vs open water, ice thickness, distribution and morphology of ice formations, vertical resolution of ice thickness, ice salinity (percolation and drainage of brine; flushing of ice body with fresh water), first-year ice and multiyear ice, ice growth rate and surface heat flux, divergence of ice packs, snow cover masking ice, behavior of ice shelves, icebergs, lake ice and river ice; time changes. Sensing techniques discussed include: satellite photographic surveys, thermal IR, passive and active microwave studies, microwave radiometry, microwave scatterometry, side-looking radar, and synthetic aperture radar. Remote sensing of large aquatic mammals and operational ice forecasting are also discussed.

  8. Portraying Urban Functional Zones by Coupling Remote Sensing Imagery and Human Sensing Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Tu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Portraying urban functional zones provides useful insights into understanding complex urban systems and establishing rational urban planning. Although several studies have confirmed the efficacy of remote sensing imagery in urban studies, coupling remote sensing and new human sensing data like mobile phone positioning data to identify urban functional zones has still not been investigated. In this study, a new framework integrating remote sensing imagery and mobile phone positioning data was developed to analyze urban functional zones with landscape and human activity metrics. Landscapes metrics were calculated based on land cover from remote sensing images. Human activities were extracted from massive mobile phone positioning data. By integrating them, urban functional zones (urban center, sub-center, suburbs, urban buffer, transit region and ecological area were identified by a hierarchical clustering. Finally, gradient analysis in three typical transects was conducted to investigate the pattern of landscapes and human activities. Taking Shenzhen, China, as an example, the conducted experiment shows that the pattern of landscapes and human activities in the urban functional zones in Shenzhen does not totally conform to the classical urban theories. It demonstrates that the fusion of remote sensing imagery and human sensing data can characterize the complex urban spatial structure in Shenzhen well. Urban functional zones have the potential to act as bridges between the urban structure, human activity and urban planning policy, providing scientific support for rational urban planning and sustainable urban development policymaking.

  9. The use of remote sensing for landslide studies in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tofani, Veronica; Agostini, Andrea; Segoni, Samuele; Catani, Filippo; Casagli, Nicola

    2013-04-01

    The existing remote sensing techniques and their actual application in Europe for landslide detection, mapping and monitoring have been investigated. Data and information necessary to evaluate the subjects have been collected through a questionnaire, designed using a Google form, which was disseminated among end-users and researchers involved in landslide. In total, 49 answers were collected, coming from 17 European countries and from different kinds of institutions (universities, research institutes, public institutes and private companies). The spatial distribution of the answers is consistent with the distribution of landslides in Europe, the significance of landslides impact on society and the estimated landslide susceptibility in the various countries. The outcomes showed that landslide detection and mapping is mainly performed with aerial photos, often associated with optical and radar imagery. Concerning landslide monitoring, satellite radars prevail over the other types of data followed by aerial photos and meteorological sensors. Since subsampling the answers according to the different typology of institutions it is not noticeable a clear gap between research institutes and end users, it is possible to infer that in landslide remote sensing the research is advancing at the same pace as its day-to-day application. Apart from optical and radar imagery, other techniques are less widespread and some of them are not so well established, notwithstanding their performances are increasing at a fast rate as scientific and technological improvements are accomplished. Remote sensing is mainly used for detection/mapping and monitoring of slides, flows and lateral spreads with a preferably large scale of analysis (1:5000 - 1:25000). All the compilers integrate remote sensing data with other thematic data, mainly geological maps, landslide inventory maps and DTMs and derived maps. Concerning landslide monitoring, the results of the questionnaire stressed that the best

  10. NASA Fluid Lensing & MiDAR - Next-Generation Remote Sensing Technologies for Aquatic Remote Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chirayath, Ved

    2018-01-01

    Piti's Tepungan Bay and Tumon Bay, two of five marine preserves in Guam, have not been mapped to a level of detail sufficient to support proposed management strategies. This project addresses this gap by providing high resolution maps to promote sustainable, responsible use of the area while protecting natural resources. Dr. Chirayath, a research scientist at the NASA Ames Laboratory, developed a theoretical model and algorithm called 'Fluid Lensing'. Fluid lensing removes optical distortions caused by moving water, improving the clarity of the images taken of the corals below the surface. We will also be using MiDAR, a next-generation remote sensing instrument that provides real-time multispectral video using an array of LED emitters coupled with NASA's FluidCam Imaging System, which may assist Guam's coral reef response team in understanding the severity and magnitude of coral bleaching events. This project will produce a 3D orthorectified model of the shallow water coral reef ecosystems in Tumon Bay and Piti marine preserves. These 3D models may be printed, creating a tactile diorama and increasing understanding of coral reefs among various audiences, including key decision makers. More importantly, the final data products can enable accurate and quantitative health assessment capabilities for coral reef ecosystems.

  11. Earth and atmospheric remote sensing; Proceedings of the Meeting, Orlando, FL, Apr. 2-4, 1991

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curran, Robert J. (Editor); Smith, James A. (Editor); Watson, Ken (Editor)

    1991-01-01

    The papers presented in this volume address the technical aspects of earth and atmospheric remote sensing. Topics discussed include spaceborne and ground-based applications of laser remote sensing, advanced applications of lasers in remote sensing, laser ranging applications, data analysis and systems for biospheric processes, measurements for biospheric processes, and remote sensing for geology and geophysics. Papers are presented on a space-qualified laser transmitter for lidar applications, solid state lasers for planetary exploration, automated band selection for multispectral meteorological applications, aerospace remote sensing of natural water organics, and remote sensing of volcanic ash hazards to aircraft.

  12. (abstract) Deep Space Network Radiometric Remote Sensing Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Steven J.

    1994-01-01

    Planetary spacecraft are viewed through a troposphere that absorbs and delays radio signals propagating through it. Tropospheric water, in the form of vapor, cloud liquid,and precipitation , emits radio noise which limits satellite telemetry communication link performance. Even at X-band, rain storms have severely affected several satellite experiments including a planetary encounter. The problem will worsen with DSN implementation of Ka-band becausecommunication link budgets will be dominated by tropospheric conditions. Troposphere-induced propagation delays currently limit VLBI accuracy and are significant sources of error for Doppler tracking. Additionally, the success of radio science programs such as satellite gravity wave experiments and atmospheric occultation experiments depends on minimizing the effect of watervapor-induced prop agation delays. In order to overcome limitations imposed by the troposphere, the Deep Space Network has supported a program of radiometric remote sensing. Currently, water vapor radiometers (WVRs) and microwave temperature profilers (MTPs) support many aspects of the Deep Space Network operations and research and development programs. Their capability to sense atmospheric water, microwave sky brightness, and atmospheric temperature is critical to development of Ka-band telemetry systems, communication link models, VLBI, satellite gravity waveexperiments, and r adio science missions. During 1993, WVRs provided data for propagation mode development, supp orted planetary missions, and demonstrated advanced tracking capability. Collection of atmospheric statistics is necessary to model and predict performance of Ka-band telemetry links, antenna arrays, and radio science experiments. Since the spectrum of weather variations has power at very long time scales, atmospheric measurements have been requested for periods ranging from one year to a decade at each DSN site. The resulting database would provide reliable statistics on daily

  13. An improvement of the retrieval of temperature and relative humidity profiles from a combination of active and passive remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Che, Yunfei; Ma, Shuqing; Xing, Fenghua; Li, Siteng; Dai, Yaru

    2018-03-01

    This paper focuses on an improvement of the retrieval of atmospheric temperature and relative humidity profiles through combining active and passive remote sensing. Ground-based microwave radiometer and millimeter-wavelength cloud radar were used to acquire the observations. Cloud base height and cloud thickness determinations from cloud radar were added into the atmospheric profile retrieval process, and a back-propagation neural network method was used as the retrieval tool. Because a substantial amount of data are required to train a neural network, and as microwave radiometer data are insufficient for this purpose, 8 years of radiosonde data from Beijing were used as the database. The monochromatic radiative transfer model was used to calculate the brightness temperatures in the same channels as the microwave radiometer. Parts of the cloud base heights and cloud thicknesses in the training data set were also estimated using the radiosonde data. The accuracy of the results was analyzed through a comparison with L-band sounding radar data and quantified using the mean bias, root-mean-square error (RMSE), and correlation coefficient. The statistical results showed that an inversion with cloud information was the optimal method. Compared with the inversion profiles without cloud information, the RMSE values after adding cloud information reduced to varying degrees for the vast majority of height layers. These reductions were particularly clear in layers with clouds. The maximum reduction in the RMSE for the temperature profile was 2.2 K, while that for the humidity profile was 16%.

  14. Balloonborne lidar payloads for remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepherd, O.; Aurilio, G.; Hurd, A. G.; Rappaport, S. A.; Reidy, W. P.; Rieder, R. J.; Bedo, D. E.; Swirbalus, R. A.

    1994-02-01

    A series of lidar experiments has been conducted using the Atmospheric Balloonborne Lidar Experiment payload (ABLE). These experiments included the measurement of atmospheric Rayleigh and Mie backscatter from near space (approximately 30 km) and Raman backscatter measurements of atmospheric constituents as a function of altitude. The ABLE payload consisted of a frequency-tripled Nd:YAG laser transmitter, a 50 cm receiver telescope, and filtered photodetectors in various focal plane configurations. The payload for lidar pointing, thermal control, data handling, and remote control of the lidar system. Comparison of ABLE performance with that of a space lidar shows significant performance advantages and cost effectiveness for balloonborne lidar systems.

  15. Remote Sensing the Phytoplankton Seasonal Succession of the Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Raitsos, Dionysios E.; Pradhan, Yaswant; Brewin, Robert J. W.; Stenchikov, Georgiy L.; Hoteit, Ibrahim

    2013-01-01

    , and thus could provide an important source of nutrients to the open waters. Remotely-sensed synoptic observations highlight that Chl-a does not increase regularly from north to south as previously thought. The Northern part of the Central Red Sea province

  16. Cooling effect of rivers on metropolitan Taipei using remote sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yen-Chang; Tan, Chih-Hung; Wei, Chiang; Su, Zi-Wen

    2014-01-23

    This study applied remote sensing technology to analyze how rivers in the urban environment affect the surface temperature of their ambient areas. While surface meteorological stations can supply accurate data points in the city, remote sensing can provide such data in a two-dimensional (2-D) manner. The goal of this paper is to apply the remote sensing technique to further our understanding of the relationship between the surface temperature and rivers in urban areas. The 2-D surface temperature data was retrieved from Landsat-7 thermal infrared images, while data collected by Formosat-2 was used to categorize the land uses in the urban area. The land surface temperature distribution is simulated by a sigmoid function with nonlinear regression analysis. Combining the aforementioned data, the range of effect on the surface temperature from rivers can be derived. With the remote sensing data collected for the Taipei Metropolitan area, factors affecting the surface temperature were explored. It indicated that the effect on the developed area was less significant than on the ambient nature zone; moreover, the size of the buffer zone between the river and city, such as the wetlands or flood plain, was found to correlate with the affected distance of the river surface temperature.

  17. Characterizing meadow vegetation with multitemporal Landsat thematic mapper remote sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alan A. Ager; Karen E. Owens

    2004-01-01

    Wet meadows are important biological components in the Blue Mountains of eastern Oregon. Many meadows in the Blue Mountains and elsewhere in the Western United States are in a state of change owing to grazing, mining, logging, road development, and other factors. This project evaluated the utility of remotely sensed data to characterize and monitor meadow vegetation...

  18. Integrated Gis-remote sensing processing applied to vegetation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A remotely sensed digital image of SPOT by its linear enhancement on a large memory, high speed, and digital electronic computer revealed from false colour composite that vegetation is expressed as red. Further processing of SPOT digital image for arithmetic banding of Normalized Differential Vegetation Index (NDVI) ...

  19. Potential to monitor plant stress using remote sensing tools

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ramoelo, Abel

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available simple ratio indices were selected for mapping leaf water potential and leaf N for wet and dry season using RapidEye data. We conclude that remote sensing images can be applied for the long term vegetation monitoring for future biodiversity conservation...

  20. Site specific N application and remote sensing of cotton crop

    Science.gov (United States)

    A spatial variable nitrogen (N) rate trial and remote sensing of cotton crop was conducted during 2003 at Paul Good Farms, Mississippi, USA. The N rate trial consisted of three, 8-row transects at the east and west side of the field that were selected to represent variable soil and elevation feature...

  1. Hyperspectral remote sensing of canopy biodiversity in Hawaiian lowland rainforests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimberly M. Carlson; Gregory P. Asner; R. Flint Hughes; Rebecca Ostertag; Roberta E. Martin

    2007-01-01

    Mapping biological diversity is a high priority for conservation research, management and policy development, but few studies have provided diversity data at high spatial resolution from remote sensing. We used airborne imaging spectroscopy to map woody vascular plant species richness in lowland tropical forest ecosystems in Hawaii. Hyperspectral signatures spanning...

  2. First European Workshop on 'Remote sensing in mineral exploration'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Wambeke, L.; Sanderson, D.J.; Dolan, J.M.

    1986-01-01

    The First European Workshop on 'Remote sensing in mineral exploration' organized by the Commission of the European Communities in February 1985 took stock of the results obtained within the European Community on the application of remote sensing techniques in exploration. The papers presented in this publication are essentially based on data obtained with the first generation of satellites and some airborne experiments. Important progress in data processing and interpretation has been made in the EEC since 1979 and is continuing to be made. The main aim is to provide the EC mining industry with a new tool for exploration. Significant results have already been obtained with the EEC playing an important role in the promotion of this relatively new technique. The main R and D trend is towards an integration of multidata sets (remote sensing, geochemical, geophysical and other data) to improve the methodology for delineating new targets in exploration. Another general trend is the participation of mining companies in remote sensing experiments. Further improvement for exploration is expected in the near future with the thematic mapper and the spot imageries as well as new airborne sensors

  3. Microwave interferometric radiometry in remote sensing: An invited historical review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martin-Neira, M.; LeVine, D. M.; Kerr, Y.

    2014-01-01

    The launch of the Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) mission on 2 November 2009 marked a milestone in remote sensing for it was the first time a radiometer capable of acquiring wide field of view images at every single snapshot, a unique feature of the synthetic aperture technique, made...

  4. Review of commonly used remote sensing and ground-based ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This review provides an overview of the use of remote sensing data, the development of spectral reflectance indices for detecting plant water stress, and the usefulness of field measurements for ground-truthing purposes. Reliable measurements of plant water stress over large areas are often required for management ...

  5. A review of hyperspectral remote sensing and its application in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Multispectral imagery has been used as the data source for water and land observational remote sensing from airborne and satellite systems since the early 1960s. Over the past two decades, advances in sensor technology have made it possible for the collection of several hundred spectral bands. This is commonly ...

  6. Spatial Analysis of Political Capital Citation Using Remote Sensing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Spatial Analysis of Political Capital Citation Using Remote Sensing and GIS; A Case Study of Lokoja. ... The PDF file you selected should load here if your Web browser has a PDF reader plug-in installed (for example, a recent version of Adobe Acrobat Reader). If you would like more information about how to print, save, ...

  7. WINDLIDAR: een remote sensing meettechniek voor het bepalen van windvelden

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Vliet REC; van der Meulen A; Swart DPJ

    1986-01-01

    Windlidar is een remote sensing techniek voor het bepalen van wind- velden. Het systeem is gebaseerd op het herkennen van aerosol struc- turen in de atmosfeer met behulp van correlatie technieken. Afmetingen en levensduur vormen de belangrijkste parameters in deze techniek. Het verticale

  8. Remote sensing estimates of impervious surfaces for pluvial flood modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaspersen, Per Skougaard; Drews, Martin

    This paper investigates the accuracy of medium resolution (MR) satellite imagery in estimating impervious surfaces for European cities at the detail required for pluvial flood modelling. Using remote sensing techniques enables precise and systematic quantification of the influence of the past 30...

  9. Using Remote Sensing and Geospatial Technology for Climate Change Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Helen; Kelly, Kimberle; Yetter, Laura

    2014-01-01

    This curriculum and instruction paper describes initial implementation and evaluation of remote-sensing exercises designed to promote post-secondary climate literacy in the geosciences. Tutorials developed by the first author engaged students in the analysis of climate change data obtained from NASA satellite missions, including the LANDSAT,…

  10. Remote sensing the vulnerability of vegetation in natural terrestrial ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alistair M. S. Smith; Crystal A. Kolden; Wade T. Tinkham; Alan F. Talhelm; John D. Marshall; Andrew T. Hudak; Luigi Boschetti; Michael J. Falkowski; Jonathan A. Greenberg; John W. Anderson; Andrew Kliskey; Lilian Alessa; Robert F. Keefe; James R. Gosz

    2014-01-01

    Climate change is altering the species composition, structure, and function of vegetation in natural terrestrial ecosystems. These changes can also impact the essential ecosystem goods and services derived from these ecosystems. Following disturbances, remote-sensing datasets have been used to monitor the disturbance and describe antecedent conditions as a means of...

  11. Quantifying early-seral forest composition with remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayma A. Cooley; Peter T. Wolter; Brian R. Sturtevant

    2016-01-01

    Spatially explicit modeling of recovering forest structure within two years following wildfire disturbance has not been attempted, yet such knowledge is critical for determining successional pathways. We used remote sensing and field data, along with digital climate and terrain data, to model and map early-seral aspen structure and vegetation species richness following...

  12. Estimation of Forest Degradation with Remote Sensing and GIS Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dons, Klaus

    +). An indirect remote sensing (RS) approach has been suggested to map the infrastructure used for degradation rather than the actual change in forest canopy cover. This offers a way to delineate intact forest land and to model and estimate emissions from forest degradation in the non‐intact forest land – thereby...

  13. Can hyperspectral remote sensing detect species specific biochemicals?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Discrimination of a few plants scattered among many plants is a goal common to detection of agricultural weeds and invasive species. Detection of clandestinely grown Cannabis sativa L. is in many ways a special case of weed detection. Remote sensing technology provides an automated, computer based,...

  14. A review of geothermal mapping techniques using remotely sensed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Exploiting geothermal (GT) resources requires first and foremost locating suitable areas for its development. Remote sensing offers a synoptic capability of covering large areas in real time and can cost effectively explore prospective geothermal sites not easily detectable using conventional survey methods, thus can aid in ...

  15. Watermarking techniques for electronic delivery of remote sensing images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barni, Mauro; Bartolini, Franco; Magli, Enrico; Olmo, Gabriella

    2002-09-01

    Earth observation missions have recently attracted a growing interest, mainly due to the large number of possible applications capable of exploiting remotely sensed data and images. Along with the increase of market potential, the need arises for the protection of the image products. Such a need is a very crucial one, because the Internet and other public/private networks have become preferred means of data exchange. A critical issue arising when dealing with digital image distribution is copyright protection. Such a problem has been largely addressed by resorting to watermarking technology. A question that obviously arises is whether the requirements imposed by remote sensing imagery are compatible with existing watermarking techniques. On the basis of these motivations, the contribution of this work is twofold: assessment of the requirements imposed by remote sensing applications on watermark-based copyright protection, and modification of two well-established digital watermarking techniques to meet such constraints. More specifically, the concept of near-lossless watermarking is introduced and two possible algorithms matching such a requirement are presented. Experimental results are shown to measure the impact of watermark introduction on a typical remote sensing application, i.e., unsupervised image classification.

  16. UAV low-altitude remote sensing for precision weed management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Precision weed management, an application of precision agriculture, accounts for within-field variability of weed infestation and herbicide damage. Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) provide a unique platform for remote sensing of field crops. They are more efficient and flexible than manned agricultur...

  17. Remote sensing and modeling in the Adriatic Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bekkering, J.A.

    1989-01-01

    The final objective of the project is to cast the scientific and practical base for the creation of an operational system to trace and predict the pathway and fate of pollutants in the marine environment, based principally on Remote Sensing from space. 20 refs, 2 figs, 5 tabs

  18. Factors affecting the remotely sensed response of coniferous forest plantations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danson, F.M.; Curran, P.J.

    1993-01-01

    Remote sensing of forest biophysical properties has concentrated upon forest sites with a wide range of green vegetation amount and thereby leaf area index and canopy cover. However, coniferous forest plantations, an important forest type in Europe, are managed to maintain a large amount of green vegetation with little spatial variation. Therefore, the strength of the remotely sensed signal will, it is hypothesized, be determined more by the structure of this forest than by its cover. Airborne Thematic Mapper (ATM) and SPOT-1 HRV data were used to determine the effects of this structural variation on the remotely sensed response of a coniferous forest plantation in the United Kingdom. Red and near infrared radiance were strongly and negatively correlated with a range of structural properties and with the age of the stands but weakly correlated with canopy cover. A composite variable, related to the volume of the canopy, accounted for over 75% of the variation in near infrared radiance. A simple model that related forest structural variables to the remotely sensed response was used to understand and explain this response from a coniferous forest plantation

  19. Radar remote sensing to support tropical forest management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanden, van der J.J.

    1997-01-01

    This text describes an investigation into the potential of radar remote sensing for application to tropical forest management. The information content of various radar images is compared and assessed with regard to the information requirements of parties involved in tropical forest

  20. A phased array bread board for future remote sensing applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahn, R. W.; Schmidt, E.

    The next generation of SAR antennas will be of the active phased-array type. The ongoing development of a phased-array breadboard for remote sensing is described. Starting from a detailed system design, a functional representative breadboard was developed. The design and the performance of the breadboard are discussed.

  1. Spatial and temporal remote sensing data fusion for vegetation monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    The suite of available remote sensing instruments varies widely in terms of sensor characteristics, spatial resolution and acquisition frequency. For example, the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) provides daily global observations at 250m to 1km spatial resolution. While imagery...

  2. Supervised remote sensing image classification: An example of a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    These conventional multi-class classifiers/algorithms are usually written in programming languages such as C, C++, and python. The objective of this research is to experiment the use of a binary classifier/algorithm for multi-class remote sensing task, implemented in MATLAB. MATLAB is a programming language just like C ...

  3. Supervised Gaussian mixture model based remote sensing image ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Using the supervised classification technique, both simulated and empirical satellite remote sensing data are used to train and test the Gaussian mixture model algorithm. For the purpose of validating the experiment, the resulting classified satellite image is compared with the ground truth data. For the simulated modelling, ...

  4. Assessing the potential of remote sensing to discriminate invasive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The usefulness of remote sensing to discriminate Seriphium plumosum from grass using a field spectrometer data was investigated in this study. Analysis focused on wavelength regions that showed potential of discriminating S. plumosum from grass which were determined from global pair spectral comparison between S.

  5. Remote Sensing of the Heliospheric Solar Wind using Radio ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    tribpo

    Astr. (2000) 21, 439–444. Remote Sensing of the Heliospheric Solar Wind using Radio. Astronomy Methods and Numerical Simulations. S. Ananthakrishnan, National Center for Radio Astrophysics, Tata Institute of. Fundamental Research, Pune, India. Abstract. The ground-based radio astronomy method of interplanetary.

  6. Monitoring Shoreline Change using Remote Sensing and GIS: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Key words: remote sensing, geographic information system (GIS), aerial photographs, shoreline change. Data from aerial photographs taken in 1981, 1992 and 2002 of the Kunduchi shoreline off the Dar es Salaam coast were integrated in a geographic information system (GIS) to determine shoreline change in that locality.

  7. Remote Sensing and GIS Assessment of Flood Vulnerability of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lokoja, the Kogi state capital, is located at the Niger-Benue confluence. Hazards erupt when human activities in the confluence area are not properly managed. This article uses the Remote Sensing and GIS technique to assess the flood vulnerability zones of the town using the bench mark minimum and maximum water ...

  8. Forest inventory in the digital remote sensing age | | Southern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Applications of sampling theory together with the technical developments in the field of remote sensing have opened new paths in forest inventory. This paper presents an overview of ongoing research in the field of automatic feature extraction and pattern recognition, which may provide options towards a fully automated ...

  9. Remote sensing: a tool for park planning and management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draeger, William C.; Pettinger, Lawrence R.

    1981-01-01

    Remote sensing may be defined as the science of imaging or measuring objects from a distance. More commonly, however, the term is used in reference to the acquisition and use of photographs, photo-like images, and other data acquired from aircraft and satellites. Thus, remote sensing includes the use of such diverse materials as photographs taken by hand from a light aircraft, conventional aerial photographs obtained with a precision mapping camera, satellite images acquired with sophisticated scanning devices, radar images, and magnetic and gravimetric data that may not even be in image form. Remotely sensed images may be color or black and white, can vary in scale from those that cover only a few hectares of the earth's surface to those that cover tens of thousands of square kilometers, and they may be interpreted visually or with the assistance of computer systems. This article attempts to describe several of the commonly available types of remotely sensed data, to discuss approaches to data analysis, and to demonstrate (with image examples) typical applications that might interest managers of parks and natural areas.

  10. Unmanned aerial systems for photogrammetry and remote sensing: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colomina, I.; Molina, P.

    2014-06-01

    We discuss the evolution and state-of-the-art of the use of Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) in the field of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing (PaRS). UAS, Remotely-Piloted Aerial Systems, Unmanned Aerial Vehicles or simply, drones are a hot topic comprising a diverse array of aspects including technology, privacy rights, safety and regulations, and even war and peace. Modern photogrammetry and remote sensing identified the potential of UAS-sourced imagery more than thirty years ago. In the last five years, these two sister disciplines have developed technology and methods that challenge the current aeronautical regulatory framework and their own traditional acquisition and processing methods. Navety and ingenuity have combined off-the-shelf, low-cost equipment with sophisticated computer vision, robotics and geomatic engineering. The results are cm-level resolution and accuracy products that can be generated even with cameras costing a few-hundred euros. In this review article, following a brief historic background and regulatory status analysis, we review the recent unmanned aircraft, sensing, navigation, orientation and general data processing developments for UAS photogrammetry and remote sensing with emphasis on the nano-micro-mini UAS segment.

  11. Remote Sensing of Irrigated Agriculture: Opportunities and Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chelsea Cervantes

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Over the last several decades, remote sensing has emerged as an effective tool to monitor irrigated lands over a variety of climatic conditions and locations. The objective of this review, which summarizes the methods and the results of existing remote sensing studies, is to synthesize principle findings and assess the state of the art. We take a taxonomic approach to group studies based on location, scale, inputs, and methods, in an effort to categorize different approaches within a logical framework. We seek to evaluate the ability of remote sensing to provide synoptic and timely coverage of irrigated lands in several spectral regions. We also investigate the value of archived data that enable comparison of images through time. This overview of the studies to date indicates that remote sensing-based monitoring of irrigation is at an intermediate stage of development at local scales. For instance, there is overwhelming consensus on the efficacy of vegetation indices in identifying irrigated fields. Also, single date imagery, acquired at peak growing season, may suffice to identify irrigated lands, although to multi-date image data are necessary for improved classification and to distinguish different crop types. At local scales, the mapping of irrigated lands with remote sensing is also strongly affected by the timing of image acquisition and the number of images used. At the regional and global scales, on the other hand, remote sensing has not been fully operational, as methods that work in one place and time are not necessarily transferable to other locations and periods. Thus, at larger scales, more work is required to indentify the best spectral indices, best time periods, and best classification methods under different climatological and cultural environments. Existing studies at regional scales also establish the fact that both remote sensing and national statistical approaches require further refinement with a substantial investment of

  12. Building a Better Urban Picture: Combining Day and Night Remote Sensing Imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingling Zhang

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Urban areas play a very important role in global climate change. There is increasing need to understand global urban areas with sufficient spatial details for global climate change mitigation. Remote sensing imagery, such as medium resolution Landsat daytime multispectral imagery and coarse resolution Defense Meteorological Satellite Program/Operational Linescan System (DMSP/OLS nighttime light imagery, has provided a powerful tool for characterizing and mapping cities, with advantages and disadvantages. Here we propose a framework to merge cloud and cloud shadow-free Landsat Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI composite and DMSP/OLS Night Time Light (NTL to characterize global urban areas at a 30 m resolution, through a Normalized Difference Urban Index (NDUI to make full use of them while minimizing their limitations. We modify the maximum NDVI value multi-date image compositing method to generate the cloud and cloud shadow-free Landsat NDVI composite, which is critical for generating a global NDUI. Evaluation results show the NDUI can effectively increase the separability between urban areas and bare lands as well as farmland, capturing large scale urban extents and, at the same time, providing sufficient spatial details inside urban areas. With advanced cloud computing facilities and the open Landsat data archives available, NDUI has the potential for global studies at the 30 m scale.

  13. Analysis of Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) hyperspectral remote sensing monitoring key technology in coastal wetland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yi; Zhang, Jie; Zhang, Jingyu

    2016-01-01

    The coastal wetland, a transitional zone between terrestrial ecosystems and marine ecosystems, is the type of great value to ecosystem services. For the recent 3 decades, area of the coastal wetland is decreasing and the ecological function is gradually degraded with the rapid development of economy, which restricts the sustainable development of economy and society in the coastal areas of China in turn. It is a major demand of the national reality to carry out the monitoring of coastal wetlands, to master the distribution and dynamic change. UAV, namely unmanned aerial vehicle, is a new platform for remote sensing. Compared with the traditional satellite and manned aerial remote sensing, it has the advantage of flexible implementation, no cloud cover, strong initiative and low cost. Image-spectrum merging is one character of high spectral remote sensing. At the same time of imaging, the spectral curve of each pixel is obtained, which is suitable for quantitative remote sensing, fine classification and target detection. Aimed at the frontier and hotspot of remote sensing monitoring technology, and faced the demand of the coastal wetland monitoring, this paper used UAV and the new remote sensor of high spectral imaging instrument to carry out the analysis of the key technologies of monitoring coastal wetlands by UAV on the basis of the current situation in overseas and domestic and the analysis of developing trend. According to the characteristic of airborne hyperspectral data on UAV, that is "three high and one many", the key technology research that should develop are promoted as follows: 1) the atmosphere correction of the UAV hyperspectral in coastal wetlands under the circumstance of complex underlying surface and variable geometry, 2) the best observation scale and scale transformation method of the UAV platform while monitoring the coastal wetland features, 3) the classification and detection method of typical features with high precision from multi scale

  14. Regularization destriping of remote sensing imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basnayake, Ranil; Bollt, Erik; Tufillaro, Nicholas; Sun, Jie; Gierach, Michelle

    2017-07-01

    We illustrate the utility of variational destriping for ocean color images from both multispectral and hyperspectral sensors. In particular, we examine data from a filter spectrometer, the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) on the Suomi National Polar Partnership (NPP) orbiter, and an airborne grating spectrometer, the Jet Population Laboratory's (JPL) hyperspectral Portable Remote Imaging Spectrometer (PRISM) sensor. We solve the destriping problem using a variational regularization method by giving weights spatially to preserve the other features of the image during the destriping process. The target functional penalizes the neighborhood of stripes (strictly, directionally uniform features) while promoting data fidelity, and the functional is minimized by solving the Euler-Lagrange equations with an explicit finite-difference scheme. We show the accuracy of our method from a benchmark data set which represents the sea surface temperature off the coast of Oregon, USA. Technical details, such as how to impose continuity across data gaps using inpainting, are also described.

  15. Remote Sensing in Human Health: A 10-Year Bibliometric Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Viana

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available A mixed methods bibliometric analysis was performed to ascertain the characteristic of scientific literature published in a 10-year period (2007–2016 regarding the application of remote sensing data in human health. A search was performed on the Scopus database, followed by manual revision using synthesis studies’ techniques, requiring the authors to sort through more than 8000 medical concepts to create the query, and to manually select relevant papers from over 2000 documents. From the initial 2752 papers identified, 520 articles were selected for analysis, showing that the United States ranked first, with a total of 250 (48.1% of the total documents, followed by France and the United Kingdom, with 67 (12.9% of the total and 54 (10.4% of the total documents, respectively. When considering authorship, the top three authors were Vounatsou P (22 articles, Utzinger J (19 articles, and Vignolles C (13 articles. Regarding disease-specific keywords, malaria, dengue, and schistosomiasis were the most frequent keywords, occurring 142, 34, and 24 times, respectively. For some infectious diseases and other highly pathogenic or emerging infectious diseases, remote sensing has become a very powerful instrument. Also, several studies relate different environmental factors retrieved by remote sensing data with other diseases, such as asthma exacerbations. Health-related remote sensing publications are increasing and this paper highlights the importance of these related technologies toward better information and, ideally, better provision of healthcare. On the other hand, this paper provides an overall picture of the state of the research regarding the application of remote sensing data in human health and identifies the most active stakeholders e.g., authors and institutions in the field, informing possible new collaboration research groups.

  16. Remote Sensing Applications to Water Quality Management in Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehrter, J. C.; Schaeffer, B. A.; Hagy, J.; Spiering, B.; Barnes, B.; Hu, C.; Le, C.; McEachron, L.; Underwood, L. W.; Ellis, C.; Fisher, B.

    2013-12-01

    Optical datasets from estuarine and coastal systems are increasingly available for remote sensing algorithm development, validation, and application. With validated algorithms, the data streams from satellite sensors can provide unprecedented spatial and temporal data for local and regional coastal water quality management. Our presentation will highlight two recent applications of optical data and remote sensing to water quality decision-making in coastal regions of the state of Florida; (1) informing the development of estuarine and coastal nutrient criteria for the state of Florida and (2) informing the rezoning of the Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary. These efforts involved building up the underlying science to demonstrate the applicability of satellite data as well as an outreach component to educate decision-makers about the use, utility, and uncertainties of remote sensing data products. Scientific developments included testing existing algorithms and generating new algorithms for water clarity and chlorophylla in case II (CDOM or turbidity dominated) estuarine and coastal waters and demonstrating the accuracy of remote sensing data products in comparison to traditional field based measurements. Including members from decision-making organizations on the research team and interacting with decision-makers early and often in the process were key factors for the success of the outreach efforts and the eventual adoption of satellite data into the data records and analyses used in decision-making. Florida coastal water bodies (black boxes) for which remote sensing imagery were applied to derive numeric nutrient criteria and in situ observations (black dots) used to validate imagery. Florida ocean color applied to development of numeric nutrient criteria

  17. A Review of Ocean/Sea Subsurface Water Temperature Studies from Remote Sensing and Non-Remote Sensing Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elahe Akbari

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Oceans/Seas are important components of Earth that are affected by global warming and climate change. Recent studies have indicated that the deeper oceans are responsible for climate variability by changing the Earth’s ecosystem; therefore, assessing them has become more important. Remote sensing can provide sea surface data at high spatial/temporal resolution and with large spatial coverage, which allows for remarkable discoveries in the ocean sciences. The deep layers of the ocean/sea, however, cannot be directly detected by satellite remote sensors. Therefore, researchers have examined the relationships between salinity, height, and temperature of the oceans/Seas to estimate their subsurface water temperature using dynamical models and model-based data assimilation (numerical based and statistical approaches, which simulate these parameters by employing remotely sensed data and in situ measurements. Due to the requirements of comprehensive perception and the importance of global warming in decision making and scientific studies, this review provides comprehensive information on the methods that are used to estimate ocean/sea subsurface water temperature from remotely and non-remotely sensed data. To clarify the subsurface processes, the challenges, limitations, and perspectives of the existing methods are also investigated.

  18. Proceedings of the Eleventh International Symposium on Remote Sensing of Environment, volume 2. [application and processing of remotely sensed data

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-01-01

    Application and processing of remotely sensed data are discussed. Areas of application include: pollution monitoring, water quality, land use, marine resources, ocean surface properties, and agriculture. Image processing and scene analysis are described along with automated photointerpretation and classification techniques. Data from infrared and multispectral band scanners onboard LANDSAT satellites are emphasized.

  19. A Remote Sensing Survey of Deepwater Port Group on Yangtze River Delta

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lou, Dong; Zhiu, Bingjian; Zhu, Yingbo

    2005-01-01

    ...+, SPOT, ESR- 2SAR and NOAA-AVHRR remote sensing data as well as other general data. TM/ETM+ and SPOT remote sensing images were used to obtain the information about port conditions, shoreline types and storage fields...

  20. MULTI-TEMPORAL REMOTE SENSING IMAGE CLASSIFICATION - A MULTI-VIEW APPROACH

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — MULTI-TEMPORAL REMOTE SENSING IMAGE CLASSIFICATION - A MULTI-VIEW APPROACH VARUN CHANDOLA AND RANGA RAJU VATSAVAI Abstract. Multispectral remote sensing images have...