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Sample records for remediation operable unit

  1. Environmental Control Plan for the 300-FF-1 Operable Unit Remedial Action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlson, R.A.

    2000-01-01

    This environmental control plan is for the 300-FF-1 Operable Unit Remedial Action Project. The purpose of this plan is to identify environmental requirements for the 300-FF-1 operable unit Remedial Action/Waste Disposal Project

  2. Remedial Design/Remedial Action Work Plan for Operable Units 6-05 and 10-04, Phase III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. P. Wells

    2006-09-19

    The remedial design/remedial action for Operable Unit 6-05 (Waste Area Group 6) and Operable Unit 10-04 (Waste Area Group 10) - collectively called Operable Unit 10-04 has been divided into four phases. Phase I consists of developing and implementing institutional controls at Operable Unit 10-04 sites and developing and implementing Idaho National Laboratory-wide plans for both institutional controls and ecological monitoring. Phase II will remediate sites contaminated with trinitrotoluene and Royal Demolition Explosive. Phase III will remediate lead contamination at a gun range, and Phase IV will remediate hazards from unexploded ordnance. This Phase III remedial Design/Remedial Action Work Plan addresses the remediation of lead-contaminated soils found at the Security Training Facility (STF)-02 Gun Range located at the Idaho National Laboratory. Remediation of the STF-02 Gun Range will include excavating contaminated soils; physically separating copper and lead for recycling; returning separated soils below the remediation goal to the site; stabilizing contaminated soils, as required, and disposing of the separated soils that exceed the remediation goal; encapsulating and disposing of creosote-contaminated railroad ties and power poles; removing and disposing of the wooden building and asphalt pads found at the STF-02 Gun Range; sampling and analyzing soil to determine the excavation requirements; and when the remediation goals have been met, backfilling and contouring excavated areas and revegetating the affected area.

  3. Basewide Groundwater Operable Unit. Groundwater Operable Unit Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study Report. Volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-06-01

    units would be reused in the remedy. Contingency measures to be included in the remedy are potential metals removal prior to water end use, potential...onbase reuse of a portion of the water, and wellhead treatment on offbase supply wells. The contingency measures will only be implemented if necessary...94 LEGEND Ouatmar aluvi dposts agua Frmaion(cosoldatd aluval epoits W iead rdetilnsMhte omtin(neitccnlmeae ansoe9ndkeca F 70 Quvatei-lernayalvu e pk

  4. Interim remedial measures proposed plan for the 200-ZP-1 Operable Unit, Hanford Site, Washington

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parker, D.L.

    1993-12-01

    The purpose of this interim remedial measures (IRM) proposed plan is to present and solicit public comments on the IRM planned for the 200-ZP-1 Operable Unit at the Hanford Site in Washington state. The 200-ZP-1 is one of two operable units that envelop the groundwater beneath the 200 West Area of the Hanford Site

  5. Remedial design work plan for Lower East Fork Poplar Creek Operable Unit, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-10-01

    The Remedial Design Work Plan (RDWP) for Lower East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC) Operable Unit (OU) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. This remedial action fits into the overall Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) cleanup strategy by addressing contaminated floodplain soil. The objective of this remedial action is to minimize the risk to human health and the environment from contaminated soil in the Lower EFPC floodplain pursuant to the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) and the Federal Facility Agreement (FFA) (1992). In accordance with the FFA, a remedial investigation (RI) (DOE 1994a) and a feasibility study (DOE 1994b) were conducted to assess contamination of the Lower EFPC and propose remediation alternatives. The remedial investigation determined that the principal contaminant is mercury, which originated from releases during Y-12 Plant operations, primarily between 1953 and 1963. The recommended alternative by the feasibility study was to excavate and dispose of floodplain soils contaminated with mercury above the remedial goal option. Following the remedial investigation/feasibility study, and also in accordance with the FFA, a proposed plan was prepared to more fully describe the proposed remedy.

  6. Coordinating bifurcated remediation of soil and groundwater at sites containing multiple operable units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laney, D.F.

    1996-01-01

    On larger and/or more complex sites, remediation of soil and groundwater is sometimes bifurcated. This presents some unique advantages with respect to expedited cleanup of one medium, however, it requires skillful planning and significant forethought to ensure that initial remediation efforts do not preclude some long-term options, and/or unduly influence the subsequent selection of a technology for the other operable units and/or media. this paper examines how the decision to bifurcate should be approached, the various methods of bifurcation, the advantages and disadvantages of bifurcation, and the best methods to build flexibility into the design of initial remediation systems so as to allow for consideration of a fuller range of options for remediation of other operable units and/or media at a later time. Pollutants of concern include: metals; petroleum hydrocarbons; and chlorinated solvents

  7. Operable Unit 3: Proposed Plan/Environmental Assessment for interim remedial action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-12-01

    This document presents a Proposed Plan and an Environmental Assessment for an interim remedial action to be undertaken by the US Department of Energy (DOE) within Operable Unit 3 (OU3) at the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP). This proposed plan provides site background information, describes the remedial alternatives being considered, presents a comparative evaluation of the alternatives and a rationnale for the identification of DOE's preferred alternative, evaluates the potential environmental and public health effects associated with the alternatives, and outlines the public's role in helping DOE and the EPA to make the final decision on a remedy

  8. Engineering evaluation/conceptual plan for the 200-UP-1 groundwater operable unit interim remedial measure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myers, D.A.; Swanson, L.C.; Weeks, R.S.; Giacinto, J.; Gustafson, F.W.; Ford, B.H.; Wittreich, C.; Parnell, S.; Green, J.

    1995-04-01

    This report presents an engineering evaluation and conceptual plan for an interim remedial measure (ERM) to address a uranium and technetium-99 groundwater plume and an associated nitrate contamination plume in the 200-UP-1 Groundwater Operable Unit located in the 200 West Area of the Hanford Site. This report provides information regarding the need and potentially achievable objectives and goals for an IRM and evaluates alternatives to contain elevated concentrations of uranium, technetium-99, nitrate, and carbon tetrachloride and to obtain information necessary to develop final remedial actions for the operable unit

  9. Proposed plan for remedial action at the quarry residuals operable unit of the Weldon Spring Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-03-01

    This proposed plan addresses the management of contamination present in various components of the quarry residuals operable unit (QROU) of the Weldon Spring site, which is located in St. Charles County, Missouri. The QROU consists of (1) residual waste at the quarry proper; (2) the Femme Osage Slough, Little Femme Osage Creek, and Femme Osage Creek; and (3) quarry groundwater located primarily north of the slough. Potential impacts to the St. Charles County well field downgradient of the quarry area are also being addressed as part of the evaluations for this operable unit. Remedial activities for the QROU will be conducted by the US Department of Energy (DOE) in accordance with the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), as amended. As part of the remedial investigation/feasibility study (RI/FS) process required for the QROU under CERCLA, three major evaluation documents have been prepared to support cleanup decisions for this operable unit. decisions for this operable unit

  10. ALTERNATIVE REMEDIATION TECHNOLOGY STUDY FOR GROUNDWATER TREATMENT AT 200-PO-1 OPERABLE UNIT AT HANFORD SITE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DADO MA

    2008-07-31

    This study focuses on the remediation methods and technologies applicable for use at 200-PO-I Groundwater Operable Unit (OU) at the Hanford Site. The 200-PO-I Groundwater au requires groundwater remediation because of the existence of contaminants of potential concern (COPC). A screening was conducted on alternative technologies and methods of remediation to determine which show the most potential for remediation of groundwater contaminants. The possible technologies were screened to determine which would be suggested for further study and which were not applicable for groundwater remediation. COPCs determined by the Hanford Site groundwater monitoring were grouped into categories based on properties linking them by remediation methods applicable to each COPC group. The screening considered the following criteria. (1) Determine if the suggested method or technology can be used for the specific contaminants found in groundwater and if the technology can be applied at the 200-PO-I Groundwater au, based on physical characteristics such as geology and depth to groundwater. (2) Evaluate screened technologies based on testing and development stages, effectiveness, implementability, cost, and time. This report documents the results of an intern research project conducted by Mathew Dado for Central Plateau Remediation in the Soil and Groundwater Remediation Project. The study was conducted under the technical supervision of Gloria Cummins and management supervision of Theresa Bergman and Becky Austin.

  11. Phase I remedial investigation report for the 300-FF-5 operable unit, Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-01-01

    The focus of this remedial investigation (RI) is the 300-FF-5 operable unit, one of five operable units associated with the 300 Area aggregate of the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Hanford Site. The 300-FF-5 operable unit is a groundwater operable unit beneath the 300-FF-1, 300-FF-2, and 300-FF-3 source operable units. This operable unit was designated to include all contamination detected in the groundwater and sediments below the water table that emanates from the 300-FF-1, 300-FF-2, and 300-FF-3 operable units (DOE-RL 1990a). In November 1989, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) placed the 300 Area on the National Priorities List (NPL) contained within Appendix B of the National Oil and Hazardous Substance Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP, 53 FR 51391 et seq.). The EPA took this action pursuant to their authority under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA, 42 USC 9601 et seq.). The DOE Richland Operations Office (DOE-RL), the EPA and Washington Department of Ecology (Ecology) issued the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement), in May 1989 (Ecology et al. 1992, Rev. 2). This agreement, among other matters, governs all CERCLA efforts at the Hanford Site. In June 1990, a remedial investigation/feasibility study (RI/FS) workplan for the 300-FF-5 operable unit was issued pursuant to the Tri-Party Agreement.

  12. Phase I remedial investigation report for the 300-FF-5 operable unit, Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The focus of this remedial investigation (RI) is the 300-FF-5 operable unit, one of five operable units associated with the 300 Area aggregate of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Hanford Site. The 300-FF-5 operable unit is a groundwater operable unit beneath the 300-FF-1, 300-FF-2, and 300-FF-3 source operable units. This operable unit was designated to include all contamination detected in the groundwater and sediments below the water table that emanates from the 300-FF-1, 300-FF-2, and 300-FF-3 operable units (DOE-RL 1990a). In November 1989, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) placed the 300 Area on the National Priorities List (NPL) contained within Appendix B of the National Oil and Hazardous Substance Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP, 53 FR 51391 et seq.). The EPA took this action pursuant to their authority under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA, 42 USC 9601 et seq.). The DOE Richland Operations Office (DOE-RL), the EPA and Washington Department of Ecology (Ecology) issued the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement), in May 1989 (Ecology et al. 1992, Rev. 2). This agreement, among other matters, governs all CERCLA efforts at the Hanford Site. In June 1990, a remedial investigation/feasibility study (RI/FS) workplan for the 300-FF-5 operable unit was issued pursuant to the Tri-Party Agreement

  13. Screening of Potential Remediation Methods for the 200-ZP-1 Operable Unit at the Hanford Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Truex, Michael J.; Nimmons, Michael J.; Johnson, Christian D.; Dresel, P EVAN.; Murray, Christopher J.

    2006-08-07

    A screening-level evaluation of potential remediation methods for application to the contaminants of concern (COC) in the 200-ZP-1 Operable Unit at the Hanford Site was conducted based on the methods outlined in the Guidance for Conducting Remedial Investigations and Feasibility Studies under CERCLA Interim Final. The scope of this screening was to identify the most promising remediation methods for use in the more detailed analysis of remediation alternatives that will be conducted as part of the full feasibility study. The screening evaluation was conducted for the primary COC (potential major risk drivers). COC with similar properties were grouped for the screening evaluation. The screening evaluation was conducted in two primary steps. The initial screening step evaluated potential remediation methods based on whether they can be effectively applied within the environmental setting of the 200-ZP-1 Operable Unit for the specified contaminants. In the second step, potential remediation methods were screened using scoping calculations to estimate the scale of infrastructure, overall quantities of reagents, and conceptual approach for applying the method for each defined grouping of COC. Based on these estimates, each method was screened with respect to effectiveness, implementability, and relative cost categories of the CERCLA feasibility study screening process defined in EPA guidance.

  14. Proposed plan for interim remedial measures at the 100-KR-1 Operable Unit. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-09-01

    This proposed plan identifies the preferred alternative for interim remedial measures for remedial action of radioactive liquid waste disposal sites that include contaminated soils and structures at the 100-KR-1 Operable Unit, located at the Hanford Site. It also summarizes other remedial alternatives evaluated for interim remedial measures in this Operable Unit. The intent of interim remedial measures is to speed up actions to address contaminated areas that pose potential threats to human health and the environment. This proposed plan is being issued by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the lead regulatory agency; the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology), the support regulatory agency; and the US Department of Energy (DOE), the responsible agency. The EPA, Ecology, and the DOE are issuing this proposed plan as part of their public participation responsibilities under Section 117(a) of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA), commonly known as the ''Superfund Law.'' This proposed plan is intended to be a fact sheet for public review which briefly describes the remedial alternatives analyzed, identifies a preferred alternative, and summarizes the information relied upon to recommend the preferred alternative

  15. Interim action record of decision remedial alternative selection: TNX area groundwater operable unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmer, E.R.

    1994-10-01

    This document presents the selected interim remedial action for the TNX Area Groundwater Operable Unit at the Savannah River Site (SRS), which was developed in accordance with CERCLA of 1980, as amended by the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA) of 1986, and to the extent practicable, the National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution contingency Plan (NCP). This decision is based on the Administrative Record File for this specific CERCLA unit

  16. Phase 1 remedial investigation report for 200-BP-1 operable unit. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-09-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site, in Washington State is organized into numerically designated operational areas including the 100, 200, 300, 400, 600, and 1100 Areas. The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in November 1989 included the 200 Areas of the Hanford Site on the National Priority List (NPL) under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA). Inclusion on the NPL initiated the remedial investigation (RD process for the 200-BP-1 operable unit. These efforts are being addressed through the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Ecology et al. 1989) which was negotiated and approved by the DOE, the EPA, and the State of Washington Department of Ecology (Ecology) in May 1989. This agreement, known as the Tri-Party Agreement, governs all CERCLA efforts at Hanford. In March of 1990, the Department of Energy, Richland Operations (DOE-RL) issued a Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study (RI/FS) work plan (DOE-RL 1990a) for the 200-BP-1 operable unit. The work plan initiated the first phase of site characterization activities associated with the 200-BP-1 operable unit. The purpose of the 200-BP-1 operable unit RI is to gather and develop the necessary information to adequately understand the risks to human health and the environment posed by the site and to support the development and analysis of remedial alternatives during the FS. The RI analysis will, in turn, be used by Tri-Party Agreement signatories to make a risk-management-based selection of remedies for the releases of hazardous substances that have occurred from the 200-BP-1 operable unit.

  17. Phase 1 remedial investigation report for 200-BP-1 operable unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-09-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site, in Washington State is organized into numerically designated operational areas including the 100, 200, 300, 400, 600, and 1100 Areas. The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in November 1989 included the 200 Areas of the Hanford Site on the National Priority List (NPL) under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA). Inclusion on the NPL initiated the remedial investigation (RD process for the 200-BP-1 operable unit. These efforts are being addressed through the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Ecology et al. 1989) which was negotiated and approved by the DOE, the EPA, and the State of Washington Department of Ecology (Ecology) in May 1989. This agreement, known as the Tri-Party Agreement, governs all CERCLA efforts at Hanford. In March of 1990, the Department of Energy, Richland Operations (DOE-RL) issued a Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study (RI/FS) work plan (DOE-RL 1990a) for the 200-BP-1 operable unit. The work plan initiated the first phase of site characterization activities associated with the 200-BP-1 operable unit. The purpose of the 200-BP-1 operable unit RI is to gather and develop the necessary information to adequately understand the risks to human health and the environment posed by the site and to support the development and analysis of remedial alternatives during the FS. The RI analysis will, in turn, be used by Tri-Party Agreement signatories to make a risk-management-based selection of remedies for the releases of hazardous substances that have occurred from the 200-BP-1 operable unit

  18. Remedial investigation for the 200-BP-1 operable unit, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buckmaster, M.A.

    1991-01-01

    The Hanford Site, Richland, Washington, contains over 1500 identified waste sites that will be characterized and remediated over the next 30 years. In support of the ''Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order,'' the US Department of Energy has initiated a remedial investigation/feasibility study (RI/FS) at the 200-BP-1 operable unit. The 200-BP-1 RI is the first Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) investigation on the Hanford Site that involves drilling into highly radioactive and chemically contaminated soils. The initial phase of the site characterization is oriented toward determining the nature and extent of any contamination present in the vicinity of the 200-BP-1 operable unit. The major focus of the Phase I RI is the drilling and sampling of 10 inactive waste disposal units which received low level radioactive liquid waste

  19. GROUDWATER REMEDIATION AT THE 100-HR-3 OPERABLE UNIT HANFORD, SITE WASHINGTON, USA - 11507

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smoot, J.L.; Biebesheimer, F.H.; Eluskie, J.A.; Spiliotopoulos, A.; Tonkin, M.J.; Simpkin, T.

    2011-01-01

    The 100-HR-3 Groundwater Operable Unit (OU) at the Hanford Site underlies three former plutonium production reactors and the associated infrastructure at the 100-D and 100-H Areas. The primary contaminant of concern at the site is hexavalent chromium; the secondary contaminants are strontium-90, technetium-99, tritium, uranium, and nitrate. The hexavalent chromium plume is the largest plume of its type in the state of Washington, covering an area of approximately 7 km 2 (2.7 mi 2 ) with concentrations greater than 20 (micro)g/L. Concentrations range from 60,000 (micro)g/L near the former dichromate transfer station in the 100-D Area to large areas of 20 to 100 (micro)g/L across much of the plume area. Pump-and-treat operations began in 1997 and continued into 2010 at a limited scale of approximately 200 gal/min. Remediation of groundwater has been fairly successful in reaching remedial action objectives (RAOs) of 20 (micro)g/L over a limited region at the 100-H, but less effective at 100-D. In 2000, an in situ, permeable reactive barrier was installed downgradient of the hotspot in 100-D as a second remedy. The RAOs are still being exceeded over a large portion of the area. The CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company was awarded the remediation contract for groundwater in 2008 and initiated a remedial process optimization study consisting of modeling and technical studies intended to enhance the remediation. As a result of the study, 1,400 gal/min of expanded treatment capacity are being implemented. These new systems are designed to meet 2012 and 2020 target milestones for protection of the Columbia River and cleanup of the groundwater plumes.

  20. Remedial design work plan for the Lower East Fork Poplar Creek Operable Unit, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-02-01

    The Remedial Design Work Plan (RDWP) for the Lower East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC) Operable Unit (OU) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, has been prepared. The remedial investigation determined that the principal contaminant is mercury, which originated from releases during Y-12 Plant operations, primarily between 1953 and 1963. The recommended alternative, as stated in the Record of Decision (ROD) was to excavate and dispose of floodplain soils contaminated with mercury above the remedial goal option. Thereafter, a public hearing was held to review the proposed plan. Comments were incorporated. The revised selected remedy, per the ROD is to excavate and dispose of floodplain soils contaminated above the remediation goal of 400 parts per million mercury. The approved ROD with this goal will be the basis for remedial design (RD). The RD work plan (RDWP) is composed of six chapters. An introductory chapter describes the purpose and scope of the RDWP, the selected remedy as identified by the ROD; the roles and responsibilities of the RD team members, and the site background information, including site history, contaminants of concern, and site characteristics. Chapter 2 contains the design objectives, RD approach, regulatory considerations during RD, and the design criteria with assumptions. Chapter 3 presents the RD planning process to prepare this RDWP, as well as secondary RD support plans. Chapter 4 describes the scope of the RD activities in more detail and identifies what will be included in the design package. Chapter 5 presents the schedule for performance of the RD activities, identifying key RD milestones. Specific documents used in the preparation of this document are referenced in Chapter 6

  1. Identification of Promising Remediation Technologies for Iodine in the UP-1 Operable Unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strickland, Christopher E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Johnson, Christian D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Lee, Brady D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Qafoku, Nikolla [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Szecsody, James E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Truex, Michael J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Vermeul, Vincent R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2017-09-01

    Iodine-129 (129I) generated at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site during plutonium production was released to the subsurface, resulting in several large, though dilute, plumes in the groundwater, including the plume in the 200-UP-1 operable unit (OU). Because 129I is an uncommon contaminant, relevant remediation experience and scientific literature are limited, though work is under way to better understand the fate and transport of 129I in the environment and the effectiveness of potential remediation technologies. The recent UP-1 Evaluation Plan for Iodine and report on the Conceptual Model of Iodine Behavior in the Subsurface at the Hanford Site provide information on the history of contamination in the 200-UP-1 OU, relevant controlling processes (biological and geochemical), risk, the conceptual site model, and potential remedial options, which provided a foundation for this study. In this study, available information was compiled and used to categorize potential remediation technologies, culminating in a recommendation of promising technologies for further evaluation. Approaches to improve the technical information about promising technologies are also recommended in this study so that a subsequent evaluation of potential remediation alternatives can assess these technologies.

  2. Final record of decision for remedial actions at Operable Unit 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-12-01

    This decision document presents the selected remedial action for Operable Unit 4 of the Fernald Site in Fernald, Ohio. This remedial action was selected in accordance with the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), as amended by the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986 (SARA), and to the extent practicable 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 300, the National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP). For Operable Unit 4 at the FEMP, DOE has chosen to complete an integrated CERCLA/NEPA process. This decision was based on the longstanding interest on the part of local stakeholders to prepare an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) on the restoration activities at the FEMP and on the recognition that the draft document was issued and public comments received. Therefore, this single document is intended to serve as DOE's Record of Decision (ROD) for Operable Unit 4 under both CERCLA and NEPA; however, it is not the intent of the DOE to make a statement on the legal applicability of NEPA to CERCLA actions

  3. Remedial investigation/feasibility study report for Lower Watts Bar Reservoir Operable Unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-03-01

    This document is the combined Remedial Investigation and Feasibility Study Report for the lower Watts Bar Reservoir (LWBR) Operable Unit (OU). The LWBR is located in Roane, Rhea, and Meigs counties, Tennessee, and consists of Watts Bar Reservoir downstream of the Clinch river. This area has received hazardous substances released over a period of 50 years from the US Department of Energy`s Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR), a National Priority List site established under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA). As required by this law, the ORR and all off-site areas that have received contaminants, including LWBR, must be investigated to determine the risk to human health and the environment resulting from these releases, the need for any remedial action to reduce these risks, and the remedial actions that are most feasible for implementation in this OU. Contaminants from the ORR are primarily transported to the LWBR via the Clinch River. There is little data regarding the quantities of most contaminants potentially released from the ORR to the Clinch River, particularly for the early years of ORR operations. Estimates of the quantities released during this period are available for most radionuclides and some inorganic contaminants, indicating that releases 30 to 50 years ago were much higher than today. Since the early 1970s, the release of potential contaminants has been monitored for compliance with environmental law and reported in the annual environmental monitoring reports for the ORR.

  4. Remedial investigation/feasibility study report for Lower Watts Bar Reservoir Operable Unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-03-01

    This document is the combined Remedial Investigation and Feasibility Study Report for the lower Watts Bar Reservoir (LWBR) Operable Unit (OU). The LWBR is located in Roane, Rhea, and Meigs counties, Tennessee, and consists of Watts Bar Reservoir downstream of the Clinch river. This area has received hazardous substances released over a period of 50 years from the US Department of Energy's Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR), a National Priority List site established under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA). As required by this law, the ORR and all off-site areas that have received contaminants, including LWBR, must be investigated to determine the risk to human health and the environment resulting from these releases, the need for any remedial action to reduce these risks, and the remedial actions that are most feasible for implementation in this OU. Contaminants from the ORR are primarily transported to the LWBR via the Clinch River. There is little data regarding the quantities of most contaminants potentially released from the ORR to the Clinch River, particularly for the early years of ORR operations. Estimates of the quantities released during this period are available for most radionuclides and some inorganic contaminants, indicating that releases 30 to 50 years ago were much higher than today. Since the early 1970s, the release of potential contaminants has been monitored for compliance with environmental law and reported in the annual environmental monitoring reports for the ORR

  5. Status of remedial investigation activities in the Hanford Site 300 Area groundwater operable unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hulstrom, L.C.; Innis, B.E.; Frank, M.A.

    1993-09-01

    The Phase 1 remedial investigation (RI) and Phase 1 and 2 feasibility studies (FS) for the 300-FF-5 groundwater operable unit underlying the 300 Area on the Hanford Site have been completed. Analysis and evaluation of soil, sediment, and surface water, and biotic sampling data, groundwater chemistry, and radiological data gathered over the past 3 years has been completed. Risk assessment calculations have been performed. Use of the data gathered, coupled with information from an automated water level data collection system, has enabled engineers to track three plumes that represent the most significant contamination of the groundwater

  6. Remedial Action Report for Operable Units 6-05 and 10-04, Phase III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. P. Wells

    2007-08-15

    This Phase III remedial action report addresses the remediation of lead-contaminated soils found at the Security Training Facility STF-02 Gun Range at the Idaho National Laboratory Site. Phase I, consisting of developing and implementing institutional controls at Operble Unit 10-04 sites and developing and implementing Idaho National Laboratory Site-wide plans for both institutional controls and ecological monitoring, was addressed in a previous report. Phase II will remediate sites contaminated with trinitrotoluene and Royal Demolition Explosive. Phase IV will remediate hazards from unexploded ordnance.

  7. Remedial design report and remedial action work plan for the 100-HR-3 and 100-KR-4 groundwater operable units' interim action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-09-01

    This document is a combination remedial design report and remedial action work plan for the 100-HR-3 and 100-KR-4 Operable Units (located on the Hanford Site in Richland, Washington) interim action. The interim actions described in this document represent the first of an ongoing program to address groundwater contamination in each operable unit. This document describes the design basis, provides a description of the interim action, and identifies how they will meet the requirements set forth in the interim action Record of Decision

  8. Remedial investigation/feasibility study report for lower Watts Bar Reservoir Operable Unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-08-01

    This document is the combined Remedial Investigation and Feasibility Study Report for the Lower Watts Bar Reservoir (LWBR) Operable Unit (OU). The LWBR is located in Roane, Rhea, and Meigs counties, Tennessee, and consists of Watts Bar Reservoir downstream of the Clinch River. This area has received hazardous substances released over a period of 50 years from the U.S. Department of Energy's Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR), a National Priority List site established under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA). As required by this law, the ORR and all off-site areas that have received containments, including LWBR, must be investigated to determine the risk to human health and the environment resulting from these releases, the need for any remedial action to reduce these risks, and the remedial actions that are most feasible for implementation in this OU. Contaminants from the ORR are primarily transported to the LWBR via the Clinch River. Water-soluble contaminants released to ORR surface waters are rapidly diluted upon entering the Clinch River and then quickly transported downstream to the Tennessee River where further dilution occurs. Almost the entire quantity of these diluted contaminants rapidly flows through LWBR. In contrast, particle-associated contaminants tend to accumulate in the lower Clinch River and in LWBR in areas of sediment deposition. Those particle-associated contaminants that were released in peak quantities during the early years of ORR operations (e.g., mercury and 137 Cs) are buried under as much as 80 cm of cleaner sediment in LWBR. Certain contaminants, most notably polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), have accumulated in LWBR biota. The contamination of aquatic biota with PCBs is best documented for certain fish species and extends to reservoirs upstream of the ORR, indicating a contamination problem that is regional in scope and not specific to the ORR

  9. 300-FF-1 operable unit remedial investigation phase II report: Physical separation of soils treatability study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-04-01

    This report describes the approach and results of physical separations treatability tests conducted at the Hanford Site in the North Process Pond of the 300-FF-1 Operable Unit. Physical separation of soils was identified as a remediation alternative due to the potential to significantly reduce the amount of contaminated soils prior to disposal. Tests were conducted using a system developed at Hanford consisting of modified EPA equipment integrated with screens, hoppers, conveyors, tanks, and pumps from the Hanford Site. The treatability tests discussed in this report consisted of four parts, in which an estimated 84 tons of soil was processed: (1) a pre-test run to set up the system and adjust system parameters for soils to be processed; (2) a baseline run to establish the performance of the system - Test No. 1; (3) a final run in which the system was modified as a result of findings from the baseline run - Test No. 2; and (4) water treatment.

  10. 300-FF-1 operable unit remedial investigation phase II report: Physical separation of soils treatability study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-04-01

    This report describes the approach and results of physical separations treatability tests conducted at the Hanford Site in the North Process Pond of the 300-FF-1 Operable Unit. Physical separation of soils was identified as a remediation alternative due to the potential to significantly reduce the amount of contaminated soils prior to disposal. Tests were conducted using a system developed at Hanford consisting of modified EPA equipment integrated with screens, hoppers, conveyors, tanks, and pumps from the Hanford Site. The treatability tests discussed in this report consisted of four parts, in which an estimated 84 tons of soil was processed: (1) a pre-test run to set up the system and adjust system parameters for soils to be processed; (2) a baseline run to establish the performance of the system - Test No. 1; (3) a final run in which the system was modified as a result of findings from the baseline run - Test No. 2; and (4) water treatment

  11. Remedial Design/Remedial Action Work Plan for Operable Units 6-05 and 10-04, Phase IV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. P. Wells

    2006-11-14

    This Phase IV Remedial Design/Remedial Action Work Plan addresses the remediation of areas with the potential for UXO at the Idaho National Laboratory. These areas include portions of the Naval Proving Ground, the Arco High-Altitude Bombing Range, and the Twin Buttes Bombing Range. Five areas within the Naval Proving Ground that are known to contain UXO include the Naval Ordnance Disposal Area, the Mass Detonation Area, the Experimental Field Station, The Rail Car Explosion Area, and the Land Mine Fuze Burn Area. The Phase IV remedial action will be concentrated in these five areas. For other areas, such as the Arco High-Altitude Bombing Range and the Twin Buttes Bombing Range, ordnance has largely consisted of sand-filled practice bombs that do not pose an explosion risk. Ordnance encountered in these areas will be addressed under the Phase I Operations and Maintenance Plan that allows for the recovery and disposal of ordnance that poses an imminent risk to human health or the environment.

  12. Engineering evaluation/conceptual plan for the 200-UP-1 Groundwater Operable Unit interim remedial measure. Revision 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-03-01

    This report presents an engineering evaluation and conceptual plan for an interim remedial measure (IRM) to address a uranium and technetium-99 groundwater plume in the 200-UP-1 Groundwater Operable Unit located in the 200 West Area of the Hanford Site. This report provides information regarding the need for an IRM and its potentially achievable objectives and goals. The report also evaluates alternatives to contain elevated concentrations of uranium and technetium-99 and to obtain information necessary to develop final remedial actions for the operable unit

  13. Proposed plan for interim remedial measures at the 100-HR-1 Operable Unit, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    This proposed plan identifies the preferred alternative for interim remedial measures for remedial action of radioactive liquid waste disposal sites at the 100-HR-1 Operable Unit, located at the Hanford Site. It also summarizes other remedial alternatives evaluated for interim remedial measures in this operable unit. The intent of interim remedial measures is to speed up actions to address contaminated areas that historically received radioactive liquid waste discharges that pose a potential threat to human health and the environment. This proposed plan is being issued by the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology), the lead regulatory agency; the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the support regulatory agency; and the US Department of Energy (DOE), the responsible agency. Ecology, EPA, and DOE are issuing this proposed plan as part of their public participation responsibilities under Section 117(a) of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA), commonly known as the ''Superfund Program.'' The proposed plan is intended to be a fact sheet for public review that (1) briefly describes the remedial alternatives analyzed; (2) proposes a preferred alternative; (3) summarizes the information relied upon to recommend the preferred alternative; and (4) provides a basis for an interim action record of decision (ROD). The preferred alternative presented in this proposed plan is removal, treatment (as appropriate), and disposal of contaminated soil and associated structures. Treatment will be conducted if there is cost benefit

  14. Remedial investigation/feasibility study work plan for the 100-KR-4 operable unit, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-09-01

    Four areas of the Hanford Site (the 100, 200, 300, and 1100 Areas) have been included on the US Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) National Priorities List (NPL) under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA). This work plan and the attached supporting project plans establish the operable unit setting and the objectives, procedures, tasks, and schedule for conducting the CERCLA remedial investigation/feasibility study (RI/FS) for the 100-KR-4 operable unit. The 100-K Area consists of the 100-KR-4 groundwater operable unit and three source operable units. The 100-KR-4 operable unit includes all contamination found in the aquifer soils and water beneath the 100-K Area. Source operable units include facilities and unplanned release sites that are potential sources of contamination

  15. Remedial investigation/feasibility study work plan for the 100-KR-4 operable unit, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-09-01

    Four areas of the Hanford Site (the 100, 200, 300, and 1100 Areas) have been included on the US Environmental Protection Agency`s (EPA`s) National Priorities List (NPL) under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA). This work plan and the attached supporting project plans establish the operable unit setting and the objectives, procedures, tasks, and schedule for conducting the CERCLA remedial investigation/feasibility study (RI/FS) for the 100-KR-4 operable unit. The 100-K Area consists of the 100-KR-4 groundwater operable unit and three source operable units. The 100-KR-4 operable unit includes all contamination found in the aquifer soils and water beneath the 100-K Area. Source operable units include facilities and unplanned release sites that are potential sources of contamination.

  16. Operable Unit 1 remedial investigation report, Eielson Air Force Base, Alaska

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilmore, T.J.; Fruland, R.M.; Liikala, T.L.

    1994-06-01

    This remedial investigation report for operable Unit 1 (OU-1) at Eielson Air Force Base presents data, calculations, and conclusions as to the nature and extent of surface and subsurface contamination at the eight source areas that make up OU-1. The information is based on the 1993 field investigation result and previous investigations. This report is the first in a set of three for OU-1. The other reports are the baseline risk assessment and feasibility study. The information in these reports will lead to a Record of Decision that will guide and conclude the environmental restoration effort for OU-1 at Eielson Air Force Base. The primary contaminants of concern include fuels and fuel-related contaminants (diesel; benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene; total petroleum hydrocarbon; polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons), maintenance-related solvents and cleaners (volatile chlorinated hydrocarbons such as trichloroothylene), polychlorinated biphenyls, and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT). The origins of contaminants of concern include leaks from storage tanks, drums and piping, and spills. Ongoing operations and past sitewide practices also contribute to contaminants of concern at OU-1 source areas. These include spraying mixed oil and solvent wastes on unpaved roads and aerial spraying of DDT

  17. Remedial investigation/feasibility study work plan for the 300-FF-1 operable unit, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-03-01

    Over 1,400 waste facilities have been identified on the Hanford Site. Most of the waste facilities are located within geographic areas on the Hanford Site that are referred to as the 100, 200, 300, 400, and 1100 areas. The purpose of this work plan is to document the project scoping process and to outline all remedial investigation/feasibility study (RI/FS) activities, to determine the nature and extent of the threat presented by releases of hazardous substances from the operable unit, and to evaluate proposed remedies for such releases. The goal of the 300-FF-1 remedial investigation (RI) is to provide sufficient information needed to conduct the feasibility study (FS), by determining the nature and extent of the threat to public health and the environment posed by releases of hazardous substances from 300-FF-1, and the performance of specific remedial technologies. 62 refs., 28 figs., 48 tabs

  18. ANNUAL REPORT FOR THE FINAL GROUNDWATER REMEDIATION, TEST AREA NORTH, OPERABLE UNIT 1-07B, FISCAL YEAR 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    FORSYTHE, HOWARD S

    2010-04-14

    This Annual Report presents the data and evaluates the progress of the three-component remedy implemented for remediation of groundwater contamination at Test Area North, Operable Unit 1-07B, at the Idaho National Laboratory Site. Overall, each component is achieving progress toward the goal of total plume remediation. In situ bioremediation operations in the hot spot continue to operate as planned. Progress toward the remedy objectives is being made, as evidenced by continued reduction in the amount of accessible residual source and decreases in downgradient contaminant flux, with the exception of TAN-28. The injection strategy is maintaining effective anaerobic reductive dechlorination conditions, as evidenced by complete degradation of trichloroethene and ethene production in the biologically active wells. In the medial zone, the New Pump and Treat Facility operated in standby mode. Trichloroethene concentrations in the medial zone wells are significantly lower than the historically defined concentration range of 1,000 to 20,000 μg/L. The trichloroethene concentrations in TAN-33, TAN-36, and TAN-44 continue to be below 200 μg/L. Monitoring in the distal zone wells outside and downgradient of the plume boundary demonstrate that some plume expansion has occurred, but less than the amount allowed in the Record of Decision Amendment. Additional data need to be collected for wells in the monitored natural attenuation part of the plume to confirm that the monitored natural attenuation part of the remedy is proceeding as predicted in the modeling.

  19. Operable Unit 3-13, Group 3, Other Surface Soils Remediation Sets 4-6 (Phase II) Waste Management Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    G. L. Schwendiman

    2006-01-01

    This Waste Management Plan describes waste management and waste minimization activities for Group 3, Other Surface Soils Remediation Sets 4-6 (Phase II) at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center located within the Idaho National Laboratory. The waste management activities described in this plan support the selected response action presented in the Final Record of Decision for Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center, Operable Unit 3-13. This plan identifies the waste streams that will be generated during implementation of the remedial action and presents plans for waste minimization, waste management strategies, and waste disposition

  20. Remedial investigation/feasibility study work plan for the 100-FR-3 operable unit, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-09-01

    Four areas of the Hanford Site (the 100, 200, 300, and 1100 Areas) have been included on the US Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) National Priorities List (NPL) under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA). Figure 1-1 shows the location of these areas. Under the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement, Ecology et al. 1990a), signed by the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology), EPA, and the US Department of Energy (DOE), more than 1,000 inactive waste disposal and unplanned release sites on the Hanford Site have been grouped into a number of source and groundwater operable units. These operable units contain contamination in the form of hazardous waste, radioactive/hazardous mixed waste, and other CERCLA hazardous substances. This work plan and the attached supporting project plans establish the operable unit setting and the objectives, procedures, tasks, and schedule for conducting the CERCLA remedial investigation/feasibility study (RI/FS) for the 100-FR-3 operable unit. The 100-K Area consists of the 100-FR-3 groundwater operable unit and two source operable units. The 100-FR-3 operable unit includes all contamination found in the aquifer soils and water beneath the 100-F Area. Source operable units include facilities and unplanned release sites that are potential sources of contamination. A separate work plan has been initiated for the 100-FR-1 source operable unit (DOE-RL 1992a)

  1. Remedial investigation/feasibility study work plan for the 100-FR-1 operable unit, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-08-01

    Four areas of the Hanford Site (the 100, 200,300, and 1100 Areas) have been included on the US Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) National Priorities List (NPL) under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA). Under the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement, Ecology et al. 1990a), signed by the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology), EPA, and the US Department of Energy (DOE), more than 1,000 inactive waste disposal and unplanned release sites on the Hanford Site have been grouped into a number of source and groundwater operable units. These operable units contain contamination in the form of hazardous waste, radioactive/hazardous mixed waste, and other CERCLA hazardous substances. This work plan and the attached supporting project plans establish the objectives, procedures, tasks, and schedule for conducting the CERCLA remedial investigation/feasibility study (RI/FS) for the 100-FR-1 operable unit. The 100-FR-1 source operable unit is one of two source operable units in the 100-F Area. Source operable units include facilities and unplanned release sites that are potential sources of hazardous substance contamination. The groundwater affected or potentially affected by the entire 100-F Area is considered as a separate operable unit, the 100-FR-3 groundwater operable unit. A separate work plan has been initiated for the 100-FR-3 operable unit (DOE/RL 1992a)

  2. Sampling and analysis plan for remediation of Operable Unit 100-IU-3 waste site 600-104

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-08-01

    This sampling and analysis plan (SAP) presents the rationale and strategy for the sampling and analysis activities to support remediation of 100-IU-3 Operable Unit waste site 600-104. The purpose of the proposed sampling and analysis activities is to demonstrate that time-critical remediation of the waste site for soil containing 2,4-Dichlorophonoxyacetic acid salts and esters (2,4-D) and dioxin/furan isomers at concentrations that exceed cleanup levels has been effective. This shall be accomplished by sampling various locations of the waste site before and after remediation, analyzing the samples, and comparing the results to action levels set by the Washington State Department of Ecology

  3. Sampling and analysis plan for remediation of Operable Unit 100-IU-3 waste site 600-104. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-08-01

    This sampling and analysis plan presents the rationale and strategy for the sampling and analysis activities to support remediation of 100-IU-3 Operable Unit waste site 600-104. The purpose of the proposed sampling and analysis activities is to demonstrate that time-critical remediation of the waste site for soil containing 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid salts and esters (2,4-D) and dioxin/furan isomers at concentrations that exceed cleanup levels has been effective. This shall be accomplished by sampling various locations of the waste site before and after remediation, analyzing the samples, and comparing the results to action levels set by the Washington State Department of Ecology

  4. Field Sampling Plan for the Operable Units 6-05 and 10-04 Remedial Action, Phase IV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. Wells

    2006-11-14

    This Field Sampling Plan outlines the collection and analysis of samples in support of Phase IV of the Waste Area Group 10, Operable Units 6-05 and 10-04 remedial action. Phase IV addresses the remedial actions to areas with the potential for unexploded ordnance at the Idaho National Laboratory Site. These areas include portions of the Naval Proving Ground, the Arco High-Altitude Bombing Range, and the Twin Buttes Bombing Range. The remedial action consists of removal and disposal of ordnance by high-order detonation, followed by sampling to determine the extent, if any, of soil that might have been contaminated by the detonation activities associated with the disposal of ordnance during the Phase IV activities and explosives during the Phase II activities.

  5. Remedial investigation/feasibility study of the Clinch River/Poplar Creek operable unit. Volume 1, main text

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    This document is the combined Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study (RI/FS) Report for the Clinch River/Poplar Creek Operable Unit (CR/PC OU), an off-site OU associated with environmental restoration activities at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR). As a result of past, present, and potential future releases of hazardous substances into the environment, the ORR was placed on the National Priorities List in December 1989 (54 FR 48184). Sites on this list must be investigated for possible remedial action, as required by the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA, 42 U.S.C. 9601, et seq.). This report documents the findings of the remedial investigation of this OU and the feasibility of potential remedial action alternatives. These studies are authorized by Sect. 117 of CERCLA and were conducted in accordance with the requirements of the National Contingency Plan (40 CFR Part 300). DOE, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC) have entered into a Federal Facility Agreement (FFA), as authorized by Sect. 120 of CERCLA and Sects. 3008(h) and 6001 of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) (42 U.S.C. 6901, et seq.). The purpose of this agreement is to ensure a coordinated and effective response for all environmental restoration activities occurring at the ORR. In addition to other responsibilities, the FFA parties mutually define the OU boundaries, set remediation priorities, establish remedial investigation priorities and strategies, and identify and select remedial actions. A copy of this FFA is available from the DOE Information Resource Center in Oak Ridge, Tennessee.

  6. Remedial investigation/feasibility study of the Clinch River/Poplar Creek operable unit. Volume 1, main text

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-03-01

    This document is the combined Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study (RI/FS) Report for the Clinch River/Poplar Creek Operable Unit (CR/PC OU), an off-site OU associated with environmental restoration activities at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR). As a result of past, present, and potential future releases of hazardous substances into the environment, the ORR was placed on the National Priorities List in December 1989 (54 FR 48184). Sites on this list must be investigated for possible remedial action, as required by the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA, 42 U.S.C. 9601, et seq.). This report documents the findings of the remedial investigation of this OU and the feasibility of potential remedial action alternatives. These studies are authorized by Sect. 117 of CERCLA and were conducted in accordance with the requirements of the National Contingency Plan (40 CFR Part 300). DOE, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC) have entered into a Federal Facility Agreement (FFA), as authorized by Sect. 120 of CERCLA and Sects. 3008(h) and 6001 of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) (42 U.S.C. 6901, et seq.). The purpose of this agreement is to ensure a coordinated and effective response for all environmental restoration activities occurring at the ORR. In addition to other responsibilities, the FFA parties mutually define the OU boundaries, set remediation priorities, establish remedial investigation priorities and strategies, and identify and select remedial actions. A copy of this FFA is available from the DOE Information Resource Center in Oak Ridge, Tennessee

  7. Proposed plan for interim remedial measures at the 100-HR-1 Operable Unit, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington. Draft A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-09-01

    This proposed plan introduces the interim remedial measures for addressing contaminated soil at the 100-HR-1 Operable Unit, located at the Hanford Site. In addition, this plan includes a summary of other alternatives analyzed and considered for the 100-HR-1 Operable Unit. The EPA, DOE, and Washington State Dept. of Ecology believe that a combination of removal, treatment, and disposal technologies, where appropriate, would significantly reduce the potential threats to human health and the environment at the 100-HR-1 Operable Unit high-priority waste sites. The remedial actions described in this proposed plan are designed to minimize human health and ecological risks and ensure that additional contaminants originating from these waste sites are not transported to the groundwater. The 100-HR-1 Operable Unit contains the retention basin for the H reactor cooling system, process effluent trenches, the Pluto crib which received an estimated 260 gallons of radioactive liquid waste, process effluent pipelines, and solid waste sites used for the burial of decontaminated and decommissioned equipment from other facilities. Potential health threats would be from the isotopes of cesium, cobalt, europium, plutonium, and strontium, and from chromium, arsenic, lead, and chysene

  8. Remedial investigation/feasibility study work plan for the 100-BC-5 Operable Unit, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-04-01

    Four areas of the Hanford Site (the 100, 200, 300 and 1100 Areas) have been included on the US Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) National Priorities List (NPL) under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA). Figure 1-1 shows the location of these areas. Under the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement, Ecology et al. 1990a), signed by the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology), EPA, and the US Department of Energy (DOE), more than 1,000 inactive waste disposal and unplanned release sites on the Hanford Site have been grouped into a number of source and groundwater operable units. These operable units contain contamination in the form of hazardous waste, radioactive/hazardous mixed waste and other CERCLA hazardous substances. Also included in the Tri-Party Agreement are 55 Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) treatment, storage, or disposal (TSD) facilities that will be closed or permitted to operate in accordance with RCRA regulations, under the authority of Chapter 173-303 Washington Administrative Code (WAC). Some of the TSD facilities are included in the operable units. This work plant and the attached supporting project plans establish the operable unit setting and the objectives, procedures, tasks, and schedule for conducting the CERCLA remedial investigation/feasibility study (RI/FS) for the 100-BC-5 operable unit. The 100-B/C Area consists of the 100-BC-5 groundwater operable unit and four source operable units. The 100-BC-5 operable unit includes all contamination found in the aquifer soils and water beneath the 100-B/C Area. Source operable units include facilities and unplanned release sites that are potential sources of contamination

  9. Remedial investigation/feasibility study work plan for the 100-BC-2 operable unit, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-05-01

    This work plan and attached supporting project plans establish the operable unit setting and the objectives, procedures, tasks, and schedule for conducting the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA) remedial investigation/feasibility study (RI/FS) for the 100-BC-2 operable unit in the 100 Area of the Hanford Site. The 100 Area is one of four areas at the Hanford Site that are on the US Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) National Priorities List under CERCLA. The 100-BC-2 operable unit is one of two source operable units in the 100-B/C Area (Figure ES-1). Source operable units are those that contain facilities and unplanned release sites that are potential sources of hazardous substance contamination. The 100-BC-2 source operable unit contains waste sites that were formerly in the 100-BC-2, 100-BC-3, and 100-BC-4 operable units. Because of their size and geographic location, the waste sites from these two operable units were added to 100-BC-2. This allows for a more efficient and effective investigation of the remaining 100-B/C Reactor area waste sites. The investigative approach to waste sites associated with the 100-BC-2 operable unit are listed in Table ES-1. The waste sites fall into three general categories: high priority liquid waste disposal sites, low priority liquid waste disposal sites, and solid waste burial grounds. Several sites have been identified as candidates for conducting an IRM. Two sites have been identified as warranting additional limited field sampling. The two sites are the 116-C-2A pluto crib, and the 116-C-2C sand filter

  10. Remedial investigation/feasibility study work plan for the 100-BC-5 operable unit, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-07-01

    Four areas of the Hanford Site (the 100, 200, 300, and 1100 Areas) have been included on the US Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) National Priorities List (NPL) under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA). The Tri-Party Agreement requires that the cleanup programs at the Hanford Site integrate the requirements of CERCLA, RCRA, and Washington State's dangerous waste (the state's RCRA-equivalent) program. This work plan and the attached supporting project plans establish the operable unit setting and the objectives, procedures, tasks, and schedule for conducting the CERCLA remedial investigation/feasibility study (RI/FS) for the 100-BC-5 operable unit. The 100-B/C Area consists of the 100-BC-5 groundwater operable unit and four source operable units. The 100-BC-5 operable unit includes all contamination found in the aquifer soils and water beneath the 100-B/C Area. Source operable units include facilities and unplanned release sites that are potential sources of contamination

  11. Final Hazard Categorization for the Remediation of Six 300-FF-2 Operable Unit Solid Waste Burial Grounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ludowise, J.D.

    2006-01-01

    This report provides the final hazard categorization (FHC) for the remediation of six solid waste disposal sites (referred to as burial grounds) located in the 300-FF-2 Operable Unit (OU) on the Hanford Site. These six sites (618-1, 618-2, 618-3, 618-7, 618-8, and 618-13 Burial Grounds) were determined to have a total radionuclide inventory (WCH 2005a, WCH 2005d, WCH 2005e and WCH 2006b) that exceeds the DOE-STD-1027 Category 3 threshold quantity (DOE 1997) and are the subject of this analysis. This FHC document examines the hazards, identifies appropriate controls to manage the hazards, and documents the FHC and commitments for the 300-FF-2 Burial Grounds Remediation Project

  12. Final Hazard Categorization for the Remediation of Six 300-FF-2 Operable Unit Solid Waste Burial Grounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. D. Ludowise

    2006-12-12

    This report provides the final hazard categorization (FHC) for the remediation of six solid waste disposal sites (referred to as burial grounds) located in the 300-FF-2 Operable Unit (OU) on the Hanford Site. These six sites (618-1, 618-2, 618-3, 618-7, 618-8, and 618-13 Burial Grounds) were determined to have a total radionuclide inventory (WCH 2005a, WCH 2005d, WCH 2005e and WCH 2006b) that exceeds the DOE-STD-1027 Category 3 threshold quantity (DOE 1997) and are the subject of this analysis. This FHC document examines the hazards, identifies appropriate controls to manage the hazards, and documents the FHC and commitments for the 300-FF-2 Burial Grounds Remediation Project.

  13. Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study Work Plan for the 200-UP-1 Groundwater Operable Unit, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    This work plan identifies the objectives, tasks, and schedule for conducting a Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study for the 200-UP-1 Groundwater Operable Unit in the southern portion of the 200 West Groundwater Aggregate Area of the Hanford Site. The 200-UP-1 Groundwater Operable Unit addresses contamination identified in the aquifer soils and groundwater within its boundary, as determined in the 200 West Groundwater Aggregate Area Management Study Report (AAMSR) (DOE/RL 1992b). The objectives of this work plan are to develop a program to investigate groundwater contaminants in the southern portion of the 200 West Groundwater Aggregate Area that were designated for Limited Field Investigations (LFIs) and to implement Interim Remedial Measures (IRMs) recommended in the 200 West Groundwater AAMSR. The purpose of an LFI is to evaluate high priority groundwater contaminants where existing data are insufficient to determine whether an IRM is warranted and collect sufficient data to justify and implement an IRM, if needed. A Qualitative Risk Assessment (QRA) will be performed as part of the LFI. The purpose of an IRM is to develop and implement activities, such as contaminant source removal and groundwater treatment, that will ameliorate some of the more severe potential risks of groundwater contaminants prior to the RI and baseline Risk Assessment (RA) to be conducted under the Final Remedy Selection (FRS) at a later date. This work plan addresses needs of a Treatability Study to support the design and implementation of an interim remedial action for the Uranium- 99 T c -Nitrate multi-contaminant IRM plume identified beneath U Plant

  14. Hazard classification for the 200-ZP-1 Operable Unit Phase 2 and 3 interim remedial measure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oestreich, D.K.

    1996-04-01

    This safety assessment documents the Final Hazard Classification (FHC) for Phase 2 and 3 interim remedial measure (IRM) activities to be conducted in the 200 West Area of the Hanford Site. The 200-ZP-1 Phase 2 and 3 IRM activities will involve the air stripping of carbon tetrachloride (CCl 4 ) from extracted groundwater using a packed-bed stripper column followed by gas-phase adsorption of the CCl 4 from the stripper off-gas onto a granular activated carbon (GAC) bed. The stripper is designed to be operated at a feedwater flow rate of up to 1,893 L/min (500 gal/min) and to remove 13.6 kg/day (30.0 lb/day) of CCl 4 . For Phase 2, which includes the initial year of operation, it is planned to operate the stripper at 568 L/min (150 gal/min). The process flow diagram for the Phase 2 and 3 system is shown

  15. Remedial investigation/feasibility study work plan for the 100-KR-1 operable unit, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-07-01

    Four areas of the Hanford Site (the 100, 200, 300, and 1100 Areas) have been included on the US Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) National Priorities List (NPL) under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA). Figure 1-1 shows the location of these areas. Under the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement, Ecology et al. 1990a), signed by the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology), EPA, and the US Department of Energy (DOE), more than 1,000 inactive waste disposal and unplanned release sites on the Hanford Site have been grouped into a number of source and groundwater operable units. These operable units contain contamination in the form of hazardous waste, radioactive/hazardous mixed waste, and other CERCLA hazardous substances. Also included in the Tri-Party Agreement are 55 Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) treatment, storage, or disposal (TSD) facilities that will be closed or permitted to operate in accordance with RCRA regulations, under the authority of Chapter 173-303 Washington Administrative Code (WAC). Some of the TSD facilities are included in the operable units. This work plan and the attached supporting project plans establish the objectives, procedures, tasks, and schedule for conducting the CERCLA remedial investigation/feasibility study (RI/FS) for the 100-KR-1 operable unit. The 100-KR-1 source operable unit is one of three source operable units in the 100-K Area. Source operable units include facilities and unplanned release sites that are potential sources of hazardous substance contamination

  16. Subsurface Interim Measures/Interim Remedial Action Plan/ Environmental Assessment and Decision Document, Operable Unit No. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The subject Interim Measures/Interim Remedial Action plan/Environmental Assessment (IM/IRAP/EA) addresses residual free-phase volatile organic compound (VOC) contamination suspected in the subsurface within an area identified as Operable Unit No. 2 (OU2). This IM/IRAP/EA also addresses radionuclide contamination beneath the 903 Pad at OU2. Although subsurface VOC and radionuclide contamination on represent a source of OU2 ground-water contamination, they pose no immediate threat to public health or the environment. This volume contains five appendices

  17. Subsurface Interim Measures/Interim Remedial Action Plan/Environmental Assessment and Decision Document, Operable Unit No. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The subject Interim Measures/Interim Remedial Action plan/Environmental Assessment (IM/IRAP/EA) addresses residual free-phase volatile organic compound (VOC) contamination suspected in the subsurface within an area identified as Operable Unit No. 2 (OU2). This IM/IRAP/EA also addresses radionuclide contamination beneath the 903 Pad at OU2. Although subsurface VOC and radionuclide contamination on represent a source of OU2 ground-water contamination, they pose no immediate threat to public health or the environment. This IM/IRAP/EA identifies and evaluates interim remedial actions for removal of residual free-phase VOC contamination from three different subsurface environments at OU2. The term ''residual'' refers to the non-aqueous phase contamination remaining in the soil matrix (by capillary force) subsequent to the passage of non-aqueous or free-phase liquid through the subsurface. In addition to the proposed actions, this IM/IRAP/EA presents an assessment of the No Action Alternative. This document also considers an interim remedial action for the removal of radionuclides from beneath the 903 Pad

  18. Remediating and Monitoring White Phosphorus Contamination at Eagle River Flats (Operable Unit C), Fort Richardson, Alaska

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Walsh, M. E; Racine, C. H; Collins, C. M; Walsh, M. R; Bailey, R. N

    2001-01-01

    .... Army Engineer District, Alaska, and U.S. Army Alaska, Public Works, describing the results of research, monitoring, and remediation efforts addressing the white phosphorus contamination in Eagle River Flats, an 865-ha estuarine salt marsh...

  19. Record of Decision Remedial Alternative Selection for the Gunsite 113 Access Road (631-24G) Operable Unit: Final Action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmer, E.

    1997-01-01

    This decision document presents the selected remedial action for the Gunsite 113 Access Road Unit located at the Savannah River Site near Aiken, SC. The selected action was developed in accordance with CERCLA, as amended, and to the extent practicable, the National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP). The selected remedy satisfies both CERCLA and RCRA 3004(U) requirements. This decision is based ont he Administrative Record File for this specific RCRA/CERCLA Unit

  20. Remedial investigation/feasibility study of the Clinch River/Poplar Creek operable unit. Volume 1: Main text

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-06-01

    This report presents the findings of an investigation into contamination of the Clinch River and Poplar Creek near the US Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) in eastern Tennessee. For more than 50 years, various hazardous and radioactive substances have been released to the environment as a result of operations and waste management activities at the ORR. In 1989, the ORR was placed on the National Priorities List (NPL), established and maintained under the federal Comprehensive environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA). Under CERCLA, NPL sites must be investigated to determine the nature and extent of contamination at the site, assess the risk to human health and the environment posed by the site, and, if necessary, identify feasible remedial alternatives that could be used to clean the site and reduce risk. To facilitate the overall environmental restoration effort at the ORR, CERCLA activities are being implemented individually as distinct operable units (OUs). This document is the combined Remedial Investigation and Feasibility Study Report for the Clinch River/Poplar Creek OU.

  1. TECHNICAL EVALUATION OF SOIL REMEDIATION ALTERNATIVES AT THE BUILDING 812 OPERABLE UNIT, LAWRENCE LIVERMORE NATIONAL LABORATORY SITE 300

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eddy-Dilek, C.; Miles, D.; Abitz, R.

    2009-08-14

    The Department of Energy Livermore Site Office requested a technical review of remedial alternatives proposed for the Building 812 Operable Unit, Site 300 at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The team visited the site and reviewed the alternatives proposed for soil remediation in the draft RI/FS and made the following observations and recommendations. Based on the current information available for the site, the team did not identify a single technology that would be cost effective and/or ecologically sound to remediate DU contamination at Building 812 to current remedial goals. Soil washing is not a viable alternative and should not be considered at the site unless final remediation levels can be negotiated to significantly higher levels. This recommendation is based on the results of soil washing treatability studies at Fernald and Ashtabula that suggest that the technology would only be effective to address final remediation levels higher than 50 pCi/g. The technical review team identified four areas of technical uncertainty that should be resolved before the final selection of a preferred remedial strategy is made. Areas of significant technical uncertainty that should be addressed include: (1) Better delineation of the spatial distribution of surface contamination and the vertical distribution of subsurface contamination in the area of the firing table and associated alluvial deposits; (2) Chemical and physical characterization of residual depleted uranium (DU) at the site; (3) Determination of actual contaminant concentrations in air particulates to support risk modeling; and (4) More realistic estimation of cost for remedial alternatives, including soil washing, that were derived primarily from vendor estimates. Instead of conducting the planned soil washing treatability study, the team recommends that the site consider a new phased approach that combines additional characterization approaches and technologies to address the technical uncertainty in

  2. Technical Evaluation of Soil Remediation Alternatives at the Building 812 Operable Unit, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Site 300

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eddy-Dilek, C.; Miles, D.; Abitz, R.

    2009-01-01

    The Department of Energy Livermore Site Office requested a technical review of remedial alternatives proposed for the Building 812 Operable Unit, Site 300 at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The team visited the site and reviewed the alternatives proposed for soil remediation in the draft RI/FS and made the following observations and recommendations. Based on the current information available for the site, the team did not identify a single technology that would be cost effective and/or ecologically sound to remediate DU contamination at Building 812 to current remedial goals. Soil washing is not a viable alternative and should not be considered at the site unless final remediation levels can be negotiated to significantly higher levels. This recommendation is based on the results of soil washing treatability studies at Fernald and Ashtabula that suggest that the technology would only be effective to address final remediation levels higher than 50 pCi/g. The technical review team identified four areas of technical uncertainty that should be resolved before the final selection of a preferred remedial strategy is made. Areas of significant technical uncertainty that should be addressed include: (1) Better delineation of the spatial distribution of surface contamination and the vertical distribution of subsurface contamination in the area of the firing table and associated alluvial deposits; (2) Chemical and physical characterization of residual depleted uranium (DU) at the site; (3) Determination of actual contaminant concentrations in air particulates to support risk modeling; and (4) More realistic estimation of cost for remedial alternatives, including soil washing, that were derived primarily from vendor estimates. Instead of conducting the planned soil washing treatability study, the team recommends that the site consider a new phased approach that combines additional characterization approaches and technologies to address the technical uncertainty in

  3. Remedial investigation/feasibility study for the Clinch River/Poplar Creek operable unit. Volume 3. Appendix E

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    This document contains Appendix E: Toxicity Information and Uncertainty Analysis, description of methods, from the combined Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study Report for the Clinch River/Poplar Crack (CR/PC) Operable Unit (OU). The CR/PC OU is located in Anderson and Roane Counties, Tennessee and consists of the Clinch River and several of its embayments in Melton Hill and Watts Bar Reservoirs. These waters have received hazardous substances released over a period of 50 years from the US Department of Energy`s Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR), a National Priority List site established under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act. A remedial investigation has been conducted to determine the current nature and extent of any contamination and to assess the resulting risk to human health and the environment. The feasibility study evaluates remedial action alternatives to identify any that are feasible for implementation and that would effectively reduce risk. Historical studies had indicated that current problems would likely include {sup 137}Cs in sediment of the Clinch River, mercury in sediment and fish of Poplar Creek and PCBs and pesticides in fish from throughout the OU. Peak releases of mercury and {sup 137}Cs occurred over 35 years ago, and current releases are low. Past releases of PCBs from the ORR are poorly quantified, and current releases are difficult to quantify because levels are so low. The site characterization focused on contaminants in surface water, sediment, and biota. Contaminants in surface water were all found to be below Ambient Water Quality Criteria. Other findings included the following: elevated metals including cesium 137 and mercury in McCoy Branch sediments; PCBs and chlordane elevated in several fish species, presenting the only major human health risk, significant ecological risks in Poplar Creek but not in the Clinch River.

  4. Remedial investigation/feasibility study for the Clinch River/Poplar Creek operable unit. Volume 4. Appendix F

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    This section contains ecotoxicological profiles for the COPECs for the combined Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study Report for the Clinch River/Poplar Crack (CR/PC) Operable Unit (OU). The ecotoxicological information is presented for only those endpoints for which the chemicals are COPECs. The CR/PC OU is located in Anderson and Roane Counties, Tennessee and consists of the Clinch River and several of its embayments in Melton Hill and Watts Bar Reservoirs. These waters have received hazardous substances released over a period of 50 years from the US Department of Energy`s Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR), a National Priority List site established under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act. A remedial investigation has been conducted to determine the current nature and extent of any contamination and to assess the resulting risk to human health and the environment. The feasibility study evaluates remedial action alternatives to identify any that are feasible for implementation and that would effectively reduce risk. Historical studies had indicated that current problems would likely include {sup 137}Cs in sediment of the Clinch River, mercury in sediment and fish of Poplar Creek and PCBs and pesticides in fish from throughout the OU. Peak releases of mercury and {sup 137}Cs occurred over 35 years ago, and current releases are low. Past releases of PCBs from the ORR are poorly quantified, and current releases are difficult to quantify because levels are so low. The site characterization focused on contaminants in surface water, sediment, and biota. Contaminants in surface water were all found to be below Ambient Water Quality Criteria. Other findings included the following: elevated metals including cesium 137 and mercury in McCoy Branch sediments; PCBs and chlordane elevated in several fish species, presenting the only major human health risk, significant ecological risks in Poplar Creek but not in the Clinch River.

  5. Remedial investigation/feasibility study for the Clinch River/Poplar Creek operable unit. Volume 4. Appendix F

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-09-01

    This section contains ecotoxicological profiles for the COPECs for the combined Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study Report for the Clinch River/Poplar Crack (CR/PC) Operable Unit (OU). The ecotoxicological information is presented for only those endpoints for which the chemicals are COPECs. The CR/PC OU is located in Anderson and Roane Counties, Tennessee and consists of the Clinch River and several of its embayments in Melton Hill and Watts Bar Reservoirs. These waters have received hazardous substances released over a period of 50 years from the US Department of Energy's Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR), a National Priority List site established under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act. A remedial investigation has been conducted to determine the current nature and extent of any contamination and to assess the resulting risk to human health and the environment. The feasibility study evaluates remedial action alternatives to identify any that are feasible for implementation and that would effectively reduce risk. Historical studies had indicated that current problems would likely include 137 Cs in sediment of the Clinch River, mercury in sediment and fish of Poplar Creek and PCBs and pesticides in fish from throughout the OU. Peak releases of mercury and 137 Cs occurred over 35 years ago, and current releases are low. Past releases of PCBs from the ORR are poorly quantified, and current releases are difficult to quantify because levels are so low. The site characterization focused on contaminants in surface water, sediment, and biota. Contaminants in surface water were all found to be below Ambient Water Quality Criteria. Other findings included the following: elevated metals including cesium 137 and mercury in McCoy Branch sediments; PCBs and chlordane elevated in several fish species, presenting the only major human health risk, significant ecological risks in Poplar Creek but not in the Clinch River

  6. Remedial investigation/feasibility study for the Clinch River/Poplar Creek operable unit. Volume 1. Main text

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    This is the combined Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study Report for the Clinch River/Poplar Crack (CR/PC) Operable Unit (OU). The CR/PC OU is located in Anderson and Roane Counties, Tennessee and consists of the Clinch River and several of its embayments in Melton Hill and Watts Bar Reservoirs. These waters have received hazardous substances released over a period of 50 years from the US Department of Energy`s Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR), a National Priority List site established under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act. A remedial investigation has been conducted to determine the current nature and extent of any contamination and to assess the resulting risk to human health and the environment. The feasibility study evaluates remedial action alternatives to identify any that are feasible for implementation and that would effectively reduce risk. Historical studies had indicated that current problems would likely include {sup 137}Cs in sediment of the Clinch River, mercury in sediment and fish of Poplar Creek and PCBs and pesticides in fish from throughout the OU. Peak releases of mercury and {sup 137}Cs occurred over 35 years ago, and current releases are low. Past releases of PCBs from the ORR are poorly quantified, and current releases are difficult to quantify because levels are so low. The site characterization focused on contaminants in surface water, sediment, and biota. Contaminants in surface water were all found to be below Ambient Water Quality Criteria. Other findings included the following: elevated metals including cesium 137 and mercury in McCoy Branch sediments; PCBs and chlordane elevated in several fish species, presenting the only major human health risk, significant ecological risks in Poplar Creek but not in the Clinch River.

  7. Remedial investigation/feasibility study for the Clinch River/Poplar Creek operable unit. Volume 3. Appendix E

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-09-01

    This document contains Appendix E: Toxicity Information and Uncertainty Analysis, description of methods, from the combined Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study Report for the Clinch River/Poplar Crack (CR/PC) Operable Unit (OU). The CR/PC OU is located in Anderson and Roane Counties, Tennessee and consists of the Clinch River and several of its embayments in Melton Hill and Watts Bar Reservoirs. These waters have received hazardous substances released over a period of 50 years from the US Department of Energy's Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR), a National Priority List site established under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act. A remedial investigation has been conducted to determine the current nature and extent of any contamination and to assess the resulting risk to human health and the environment. The feasibility study evaluates remedial action alternatives to identify any that are feasible for implementation and that would effectively reduce risk. Historical studies had indicated that current problems would likely include 137 Cs in sediment of the Clinch River, mercury in sediment and fish of Poplar Creek and PCBs and pesticides in fish from throughout the OU. Peak releases of mercury and 137 Cs occurred over 35 years ago, and current releases are low. Past releases of PCBs from the ORR are poorly quantified, and current releases are difficult to quantify because levels are so low. The site characterization focused on contaminants in surface water, sediment, and biota. Contaminants in surface water were all found to be below Ambient Water Quality Criteria. Other findings included the following: elevated metals including cesium 137 and mercury in McCoy Branch sediments; PCBs and chlordane elevated in several fish species, presenting the only major human health risk, significant ecological risks in Poplar Creek but not in the Clinch River

  8. Remedial investigation/feasibility study for the Clinch River/Poplar Creek operable unit. Volume 1. Main text

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-09-01

    This is the combined Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study Report for the Clinch River/Poplar Crack (CR/PC) Operable Unit (OU). The CR/PC OU is located in Anderson and Roane Counties, Tennessee and consists of the Clinch River and several of its embayments in Melton Hill and Watts Bar Reservoirs. These waters have received hazardous substances released over a period of 50 years from the US Department of Energy's Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR), a National Priority List site established under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act. A remedial investigation has been conducted to determine the current nature and extent of any contamination and to assess the resulting risk to human health and the environment. The feasibility study evaluates remedial action alternatives to identify any that are feasible for implementation and that would effectively reduce risk. Historical studies had indicated that current problems would likely include 137 Cs in sediment of the Clinch River, mercury in sediment and fish of Poplar Creek and PCBs and pesticides in fish from throughout the OU. Peak releases of mercury and 137 Cs occurred over 35 years ago, and current releases are low. Past releases of PCBs from the ORR are poorly quantified, and current releases are difficult to quantify because levels are so low. The site characterization focused on contaminants in surface water, sediment, and biota. Contaminants in surface water were all found to be below Ambient Water Quality Criteria. Other findings included the following: elevated metals including cesium 137 and mercury in McCoy Branch sediments; PCBs and chlordane elevated in several fish species, presenting the only major human health risk, significant ecological risks in Poplar Creek but not in the Clinch River

  9. Remedial investigation work plan for the Groundwater Operable Unit at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-03-01

    This Remedial Investigation (RI) Work Plan has been developed as part of the US Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) investigation of the Groundwater Operable Unit (GWOU) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) located near Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The first iteration of the GWOU RI Work Plan is intended to serve as a strategy document to guide the ORNL GWOU RI. The Work Plan provides a rationale and organization for groundwater data acquisition, monitoring, and remedial actions to be performed during implementation of environmental restoration activities associated with the ORNL GWOU. It Is important to note that the RI Work Plan for the ORNL GWOU is not a prototypical work plan. The RI will be conducted using annual work plans to manage the work activities, and task reports will be used to document the results of the investigations. Sampling and analysis results will be compiled and reported annually with a review of data relative to risk (screening level risk assessment review) for groundwater. This Work Plan outlines the overall strategy for the RI and defines tasks which are to be conducted during the initial phase of investigation. This plan is presented with the understanding that more specific addenda to the plan will follow.

  10. Remedial investigation work plan for the Groundwater Operable Unit at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-03-01

    This Remedial Investigation (RI) Work Plan has been developed as part of the US Department of Energy's (DOE's) investigation of the Groundwater Operable Unit (GWOU) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) located near Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The first iteration of the GWOU RI Work Plan is intended to serve as a strategy document to guide the ORNL GWOU RI. The Work Plan provides a rationale and organization for groundwater data acquisition, monitoring, and remedial actions to be performed during implementation of environmental restoration activities associated with the ORNL GWOU. It Is important to note that the RI Work Plan for the ORNL GWOU is not a prototypical work plan. The RI will be conducted using annual work plans to manage the work activities, and task reports will be used to document the results of the investigations. Sampling and analysis results will be compiled and reported annually with a review of data relative to risk (screening level risk assessment review) for groundwater. This Work Plan outlines the overall strategy for the RI and defines tasks which are to be conducted during the initial phase of investigation. This plan is presented with the understanding that more specific addenda to the plan will follow

  11. Feasibility study for remedial action for the Quarry Residuals Operable Unit at the Weldon Spring Site, Weldon Spring, Missouri

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-03-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is conducting cleanup activities at the Weldon Spring site, which is located in St. Charles County, Missouri, about 48 km (30 mi) west of St. Louis (Figure 1.1). Cleanup of the Weldon Spring site consists of several integrated components. The quarry residuals operable unit (QROU) is one of four operable units being evaluated. In accordance with the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), as amended, a remedial investigation/feasibility study (RI/FS) is being conducted to evaluate conditions and potential responses for the following areas and/or media that constitute the QROU: (1) the residual material (soil and sediment) remaining at the Weldon Spring quarry after removal of the bulk waste (about 11 million L [3 million gal] of uranium-contaminated ponded water was also addressed previous to bulk waste removal); (2) other media located in the surrounding vicinity of the quarry, including adjacent soil, surface water, and sediment in Femme Osage Slough and several creeks; and (3) quarry groundwater located primarily north of Femme Osage Slough. Potential impacts to the St. Charles County well field downgradient of the quarry area are also being addressed as part of QROU RI/FS evaluations. For remedial action sites, it is DOE policy to integrate values associated with the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) into the CERCLA decision-making process. The analyses contained herein address NEPA values as appropriate to the actions being considered for the QROU. A work plan summarizing initial site conditions and providing conceptual site hydrogeological and exposure models was published in January 1994. The RI and baseline risk assessment (BRA) reports have been completed. The RI discusses in detail the nature and extent and the fate and transport of contamination at the quarry area

  12. Feasibility study for remedial action for the Quarry Residuals Operable Unit at the Weldon Spring Site, Weldon Spring, Missouri

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is conducting cleanup activities at the Weldon Spring site, which is located in St. Charles County, Missouri, about 48 km (30 mi) west of St. Louis (Figure 1.1). Cleanup of the Weldon Spring site consists of several integrated components. The quarry residuals operable unit (QROU) is one of four operable units being evaluated. In accordance with the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), as amended, a remedial investigation/feasibility study (RI/FS) is being conducted to evaluate conditions and potential responses for the following areas and/or media that constitute the QROU: (1) the residual material (soil and sediment) remaining at the Weldon Spring quarry after removal of the bulk waste (about 11 million L [3 million gal] of uranium-contaminated ponded water was also addressed previous to bulk waste removal); (2) other media located in the surrounding vicinity of the quarry, including adjacent soil, surface water, and sediment in Femme Osage Slough and several creeks; and (3) quarry groundwater located primarily north of Femme Osage Slough. Potential impacts to the St. Charles County well field downgradient of the quarry area are also being addressed as part of QROU RI/FS evaluations. For remedial action sites, it is DOE policy to integrate values associated with the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) into the CERCLA decision-making process. The analyses contained herein address NEPA values as appropriate to the actions being considered for the QROU. A work plan summarizing initial site conditions and providing conceptual site hydrogeological and exposure models was published in January 1994. The RI and baseline risk assessment (BRA) reports have been completed. The RI discusses in detail the nature and extent and the fate and transport of contamination at the quarry area.

  13. Superfund Record of Decision (EPA Region 6): United Nuclear Corporation, Mckinley County, New Mexico, ground-water operable unit (first remedial action) September 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    The United Nuclear Corporation (UNC) site is located approximately 17 miles northeast of Gallup, New Mexico in McKinley County. The site operated as a State-licensed uranium mill facility from June 1977 to May 1982. It includes an ore-processing mill (about 25 acres) and an unlined tailings pond area (about 100 acres). In July 1979, approximately 23 million gallons of tailings and pond water were released to a nearby river as a result of a dam breach in the tailings pond area. The site damage was repaired; however, attention was focused on ground-water contamination resulting from tailings seepage. Nevertheless, the offsite migration of radionuclides and chemical constituents from uranium milling byproduct materials into the ground water, as well as to surface water and air, are still principal threats at the site. The remedial action will address onsite ground water contamination. Source control and onsite surface reclamation will be implemented under the direction of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and integrated with this ground water operable unit. The primary contaminants of concern affecting the ground water are metals including arsenic, and radioactive substances including radium-226/228 and gross alpha. The selected remedial action for the site is included

  14. Waste Area Group 10, Operable Unit 10-08, Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study Annual Status Report for Fiscal Year 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. P. Wells

    2007-05-09

    This report provides a status of the progress made in Fiscal Year 2006 on tasks identified in the Waste Area Group 10, Operable Unit 10-08, Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study Work Plan. Major accomplishments include: (1) groundwater sampling and review of the groundwater monitoring data, (2) installation of a Sitewide groundwater-level monitoring network, (3) update of the Groundwater Monitoring and Field Sampling Plan of Operable Unit 10-08, (4) re-evaluation of the risk at Site TSF-08, (5) progress on the Operable Unit 10-08 Sitewide Groundwater Model.

  15. Remedial investigation/feasibility study of the Clinch River/Poplar Creek operable unit. Volume 5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    This volume is in support of the findings of an investigation into contamination of the Clinch River and Poplar Creek near the Oak Ridge Reservation (for more than 50 years, various hazardous and radioactive substances have been released to the environment as a result of operations and waste management activities there). It addresses the quality assurance objectives for measuring the data, presents selected historical data, contains data from several discrete water characterization studies, provides data supporting the sediment characterization, and contains data related to several biota characterization studies.

  16. Remedial investigation work plan for Bear Creek Valley Operable Unit 4 (shallow groundwater in Bear Creek Valley) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-12-01

    The enactment of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) in 1976 and the Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments (HSWA) to RCRA in 1984 created management requirements for hazardous waste fadities. The facilities within the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) were in the process of meeting the RCRA requirements when ORR was placed on the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCIA) National Priorities List (NPL) on November 21, 1989. Under RCRA, the actions typically follow the RCRA Facility Assessment (RIFA)/RCRA Facility Investigation (RFI)/Coffective Measures Study (CMS)/Corrective Measures Implementation process. Under CERCLA, the actions follow the Pre at sign ary Assessment/Site Investigation (PA/Sl) Remedial Investigation Feasibility Study (RI/FS)/Remedial Design/Remedial Action process. The development of this document will incorporate requirements under both RCRA and CERCIA into an RI Work Plan for the lint phase of characterization of Bear Creek Valley (BCV) Operable Unit (OU) 4

  17. Feasibility study for remedial action for the groundwater operable units at the chemical plant area and the ordnance works area, Weldon Spring, Missouri

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-07-15

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the U.S. Department of Army (DA) are conducting an evaluation to identify the appropriate response action to address groundwater contamination at the Weldon Spring Chemical Plant (WSCP) and the Weldon Spring Ordnance Works (WSOW), respectively. The two areas are located in St. Charles County, about 48 km (30 rni) west of St. Louis. The groundwater operable unit (GWOU) at the WSCP is one of four operable units being evaluated by DOE as part of the Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project (WSSRAP). The groundwater operable unit at the WSOW is being evaluated by the DA as Operable Unit 2 (OU2); soil and pipeline contamination are being managed under Operable Unit 1 (OU1). Remedial activities at the WSCP and the WSOW are being conducted in accordance with the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA). Consistent with DOE policy, National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) values have been incorporated into the CERCLA process. A remedial investigation/feasibility study (RI/FS) work plan summarizing initial site conditions and providing site hydrogeological and exposure models was published in August of 1995 (DOE 1995). The remedial investigation (RI) and baseline risk assessment (BRA) have also recently been completed. The RI (DOE and DA 1998b) discusses in detail the nature, extent, fate, and transport of groundwater and spring water contamination. The BRA (DOE and DA 1998a) is a combined baseline assessment of potential human health and ecological impacts and provides the estimated potential health risks and ecological impacts associated with groundwater and springwater contamination if no remedial action were taken. This feasibility study (FS) has been prepared to evaluate potential options for addressing groundwater contamination at the WSCP and the WSOW. A brief description of the history and environmental setting of the sites is presented in Section 1.1, key information relative to the

  18. Feasibility study for remedial action for the groundwater operable units at the chemical plant area and the ordnance works area at the Weldon Spring Site, Weldon Spring, Missouri

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the U.S. Department of Army (DA) are conducting an evaluation to identify the appropriate response action to address groundwater contamination at the Weldon Spring Chemical Plant (WSCP) and the Weldon Spring Ordnance Works (WSOW), respectively. The two areas are located in St. Charles County, about 48 km (30 rni) west of St. Louis. The groundwater operable unit (GWOU) at the WSCP is one of four operable units being evaluated by DOE as part of the Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project (WSSRAP). The groundwater operable unit at the WSOW is being evaluated by the DA as Operable Unit 2 (OU2); soil and pipeline contamination are being managed under Operable Unit 1 (OU1). Remedial activities at the WSCP and the WSOW are being conducted in accordance with the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA). Consistent with DOE policy, National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) values have been incorporated into the CERCLA process. A remedial investigation/feasibility study (RI/FS) work plan summarizing initial site conditions and providing site hydrogeological and exposure models was published in August of 1995 (DOE 1995). The remedial investigation (RI) and baseline risk assessment (BRA) have also recently been completed. The RI (DOE and DA 1998b) discusses in detail the nature, extent, fate, and transport of groundwater and spring water contamination. The BRA (DOE and DA 1998a) is a combined baseline assessment of potential human health and ecological impacts and provides the estimated potential health risks and ecological impacts associated with groundwater and springwater contamination if no remedial action were taken. This feasibility study (FS) has been prepared to evaluate potential options for addressing groundwater contamination at the WSCP and the WSOW. A brief description of the history and environmental setting of the sites is presented in Section 1.1, key information relative to the

  19. Data Base Management Plan for the remedial investigation of Waste Area Grouping 10, Operable Unit 3, at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-10-01

    This Data Base Management Plan describes the gathering, verifying, analyzing, reporting, and archiving of data generated during the remedial investigation of Waste Area Grouping 10, Operable Unit 3. This investigation will produce data documenting wellhead surveys, well headspace gas pressure measurements, geophysical surveys, water level measurements, and borehole geophysical logs. Close Support Laboratory analyses will be performed on well headspace gas and well water samples

  20. Progress Toward Cleanup of Operable Unit 1 Groundwater at the US DOE Mound, Ohio, Site: Success of a Phase-Combined Remedy – 15310

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hooten, Gwendolyn [U.S. Department of Energy, Harrison, OH (United States). Office of Legacy Management; Cato, Rebecca [Stoller Newport News Nuclear Inc., Weldon Spring, MS (United States); Looney, Brian [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Huntsman, Brent [Terran Corporation, Beavercreek, OH (United States)

    2015-03-01

    Operable Unit 1 (OU-1) soil and groundwater have been affected by volatile organic compounds (VOC) Present groundwater remedy is collection, treatment, and disposal (pump and treat [P&T]) Several combinations of technologies were used to address soil and groundwater contamination Monitored natural attenuation (MNA) is a viable alternative Majority of source term has been excavated VOC concentrations in groundwater have decreased Attenuation mechanisms have been observed in the subsurface at OU-1

  1. Remedial Investigation work plan for Bear Creek Valley Operable Unit 4 (shallow groundwater in Bear Creek Valley) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-09-01

    To effectively evaluate the cumulative impact of releases from multiple sources of contamination, a structured approach has been adopted for Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) based on studies of the groundwater and surface water separate from studies of the sources. Based on the realization of the complexity of the hydrogeologic regime of the ORR, together with the fact that there are numerous sources contributing to groundwater contamination within a geographical area, it was agreed that more timely investigations, at perhaps less cost, could be achieved by separating the sources of contamination from the groundwater and surface water for investigation and remediation. The result will be more immediate attention [Records of Decision (RODS) for interim measures or removal actions] for the source Operable Units (OUs) while longer-term remediation investigations continue for the hydrogeologic regime`s, which are labeled as integrator OUs. This Remedial Investigation work plan contains summaries of geographical, historical, operational, geological, and hydrological information specific to the unit. Taking advantage of the historical data base and ongoing monitoring activities and applying the observational approach to focus data gathering activities will allow the Feasibility Study to evaluate all probable or likely alternatives.

  2. Remedial investigation work plan for Bear Creek Valley Operable Unit 4 (shallow groundwater in Bear Creek Valley) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-07-01

    To effectively evaluate the cumulative impact of releases from multiple sources of contamination, a structured approach has been adopted for Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) based on studies of the groundwater and surface water separate from studies of the sources. Based on the realization of the complexity of the hydrogeologic regime of the ORR, together with the fact that there are numerous sources contributing to groundwater contamination within a geographical area, it was agreed that more timely investigations, at perhaps less cost, could be achieved by separating the sources of contamination from the groundwater and surface water for investigation and remediation. The result will be more immediate attention [Records of Decision (RODs) for interim measures or removal actions] for the source Operable Units (OUs) while longer-term remediation investigations continue for the hydrogeologic regimes, which are labeled as integrator OUs. This remedial investigation work plan contains summaries of geographical, historical, operational, geological, and hydrological information specific to the unit. Taking advantage of the historical data base and ongoing monitoring activities and applying the observational approach to focus data gathering activities will allow the feasibility study to evaluate all probable or likely alternatives.

  3. Remedial investigation work plan for Bear Creek Valley Operable Unit 4 (shallow groundwater in Bear Creek Valley) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-07-01

    To effectively evaluate the cumulative impact of releases from multiple sources of contamination, a structured approach has been adopted for Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) based on studies of the groundwater and surface water separate from studies of the sources. Based on the realization of the complexity of the hydrogeologic regime of the ORR, together with the fact that there are numerous sources contributing to groundwater contamination within a geographical area, it was agreed that more timely investigations, at perhaps less cost, could be achieved by separating the sources of contamination from the groundwater and surface water for investigation and remediation. The result will be more immediate attention [Records of Decision (RODs) for interim measures or removal actions] for the source Operable Units (OUs) while longer-term remediation investigations continue for the hydrogeologic regimes, which are labeled as integrator OUs. This remedial investigation work plan contains summaries of geographical, historical, operational, geological, and hydrological information specific to the unit. Taking advantage of the historical data base and ongoing monitoring activities and applying the observational approach to focus data gathering activities will allow the feasibility study to evaluate all probable or likely alternatives

  4. Remedial Investigation work plan for Bear Creek Valley Operable Unit 4 (shallow groundwater in Bear Creek Valley) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-09-01

    To effectively evaluate the cumulative impact of releases from multiple sources of contamination, a structured approach has been adopted for Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) based on studies of the groundwater and surface water separate from studies of the sources. Based on the realization of the complexity of the hydrogeologic regime of the ORR, together with the fact that there are numerous sources contributing to groundwater contamination within a geographical area, it was agreed that more timely investigations, at perhaps less cost, could be achieved by separating the sources of contamination from the groundwater and surface water for investigation and remediation. The result will be more immediate attention [Records of Decision (RODS) for interim measures or removal actions] for the source Operable Units (OUs) while longer-term remediation investigations continue for the hydrogeologic regime's, which are labeled as integrator OUs. This Remedial Investigation work plan contains summaries of geographical, historical, operational, geological, and hydrological information specific to the unit. Taking advantage of the historical data base and ongoing monitoring activities and applying the observational approach to focus data gathering activities will allow the Feasibility Study to evaluate all probable or likely alternatives

  5. Feasibility study report for Operable Unit 4: Fernald Environmental Management Project, Fernald, Ohio: Remedial investigation and feasibility study: Volume 3: Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-02-01

    This report documents the Feasibility Study (FS) phase of the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP) Operable Unit 4 Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study (RI/FS) Program. The FEMP, formerly known as the Feed Materials Production Center (FMPC), is a US Department of Energy (DOE) facility that operated from 1952 to 1989. The facility's primarily function was to provide high purity uranium metal products to support United States defense programs. Production operations were suspended in 1989 to focus on environmental restoration and waste management activities at the facility. The RI/FS is being conducted pursuant to the terms of a Consent Agreement between DOE and the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) under Sections 120 and 106(a) of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), as amended. The Ohio Environmental Protection Agency (OEPA) is also participating in the RI/FS process at the FEMP through direct involvement in program review meetings and technical review of project documentation. The objective of the RI/FS process is to gather information to support an informed risk management decision regarding which remedy appears to be the most appropriate action for addressing the environmental concerns identified at the FEMP. This volume contains appendices F--J

  6. Cost estimating for CERCLA remedial alternatives a unit cost methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brettin, R.W.; Carr, D.J.; Janke, R.J.

    1995-06-01

    The United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Guidance for Conducting Remedial Investigations and Feasibility Studies Under CERCLA, Interim Final, dated October 1988 (EPA 1988) requires a detailed analysis be conducted of the most promising remedial alternatives against several evaluation criteria, including cost. To complete the detailed analysis, order-of-magnitude cost estimates (having an accuracy of +50 percent to -30 percent) must be developed for each remedial alternative. This paper presents a methodology for developing cost estimates of remedial alternatives comprised of various technology and process options with a wide range of estimated contaminated media quantities. In addition, the cost estimating methodology provides flexibility for incorporating revisions to remedial alternatives and achieves the desired range of accuracy. It is important to note that the cost estimating methodology presented here was developed as a concurrent path to the development of contaminated media quantity estimates. This methodology can be initiated before contaminated media quantities are estimated. As a result, this methodology is useful in developing cost estimates for use in screening and evaluating remedial technologies and process options. However, remedial alternative cost estimates cannot be prepared without the contaminated media quantity estimates. In the conduct of the feasibility study for Operable Unit 5 at the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP), fourteen remedial alternatives were retained for detailed analysis. Each remedial alternative was composed of combinations of remedial technologies and processes which were earlier determined to be best suited for addressing the media-specific contaminants found at the FEMP site, and achieving desired remedial action objectives

  7. Data compilation task report for the source investigation of the 300-FF-1 operable unit phase 1 remedial investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, J.S.; Fruland, R.M.; Fruchter, J.S.

    1990-02-01

    This report provides additional information on facility and waste characteristics for the 300-FF-1 operable unit. The additional information gathered and reported includes meetings and on-site visits with current and past personnel having knowledge of operations in the operable unit, a more precise determination of the location of the Process Sewer lines and Retired Radioactive Liquid Waste Sewer, a better understanding of the phosphoric acid spill at the 340 Complex, and a search for engineering plans and environmental reports related to the operable unit. As a result of this data-gathering effort, recommendations for further investigation include characterization of the 307 Trenches to determine the origin of an underlying uranium plume in the groundwater, more extensive sampling of near-surface and dike sediments in the North and South Process Ponds to better define the extent of horizontal contamination, and detection of possible leaks in the abandoned Radioactive Waste Sewer by either electromagnetic induction or remote television camera inspection techniques. 16 refs., 4 figs., 5 tabs

  8. Remedial investigation concept plan for the groundwater operable units at the chemical plant area and the ordnance works area, Weldon Spring, Missouri

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-07-15

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the U.S. Department of the Army (DA) are conducting cleanup activities at two properties--the DOE chemical plant area and the DA ordnance works area (the latter includes the training area)--located in the Weldon Spring area in St. Charles County, Missouri. These areas are on the National Priorities List (NPL), and cleanup activities at both areas are conducted in accordance with the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), as amended. DOE and DA are conducting a joint remedial investigation (RI) and baseline risk assessment (BRA) as part of the remedial investigation/feasibility study (RI/FS) for the groundwater operable units for the two areas. This joint effort will optimize further data collection and interpretation efforts and facilitate overall remedial decision making since the aquifer of concern is common to both areas. A Work Plan issued jointly in 1995 by DOE and the DA discusses the results of investigations completed at the time of preparation of the report. The investigations were necessary to provide an understanding of the groundwater system beneath the chemical plant area and the ordnance works area. The Work Plan also identifies additional data requirements for verification of the evaluation presented.

  9. Remedial investigation/feasibility study Work Plan and addenda for Operable Unit 4-12: Central Facilities Area Landfills II and III at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keck, K.N.; Stormberg, G.J.; Porro, I.; Sondrup, A.J.; McCormick, S.H.

    1993-07-01

    This document is divided into two main sections -- the Work Plan and the addenda. The Work Plan describes the regulatory history and physical setting of Operable Unit 4-12, previous sampling activities, and data. It also identifies a preliminary conceptual model, preliminary remedial action alternatives, and preliminary applicable or relevant and appropriate requirements. In addition, the Work Plan discusses data gaps and data quality objectives for proposed remedial investigation activities. Also included are tasks identified for the remedial investigation/feasibility study (RI/FS) and a schedule of RI/FS activities. The addenda include details of the proposed field activities (Field Sampling Plan), anticipated quality assurance activities (Quality Assurance Project Plan), policies and procedures to protect RI/FS workers and the environment during field investigations (Health and Safety Plan), and policies, procedures, and activities that the Department of Energy will use to involve the public in the decision-making process concerning CFA Landfills II and III RI/FS activities (Community Relations Plan)

  10. Remedial investigation/feasibility study Work Plan and addenda for Operable Unit 4-12: Central Facilities Area Landfills II and III at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keck, K.N.; Stormberg, G.J.; Porro, I.; Sondrup, A.J.; McCormick, S.H.

    1993-07-01

    This document is divided into two main sections -- the Work Plan and the addenda. The Work Plan describes the regulatory history and physical setting of Operable Unit 4-12, previous sampling activities, and data. It also identifies a preliminary conceptual model, preliminary remedial action alternatives, and preliminary applicable or relevant and appropriate requirements. In addition, the Work Plan discusses data gaps and data quality objectives for proposed remedial investigation activities. Also included are tasks identified for the remedial investigation/feasibility study (RI/FS) and a schedule of RI/FS activities. The addenda include details of the proposed field activities (Field Sampling Plan), anticipated quality assurance activities (Quality Assurance Project Plan), policies and procedures to protect RI/FS workers and the environment during field investigations (Health and Safety Plan), and policies, procedures, and activities that the Department of Energy will use to involve the public in the decision-making process concerning CFA Landfills II and III RI/FS activities (Community Relations Plan).

  11. Remedial investigation concept plan for the groundwater operable units at the chemical plant area and the ordnance works area, Weldon Spring, Missouri

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the U.S. Department of the Army (DA) are conducting cleanup activities at two properties--the DOE chemical plant area and the DA ordnance works area (the latter includes the training area)--located in the Weldon Spring area in St. Charles County, Missouri. These areas are on the National Priorities List (NPL), and cleanup activities at both areas are conducted in accordance with the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), as amended. DOE and DA are conducting a joint remedial investigation (RI) and baseline risk assessment (BRA) as part of the remedial investigation/feasibility study (RI/FS) for the groundwater operable units for the two areas. This joint effort will optimize further data collection and interpretation efforts and facilitate overall remedial decision making since the aquifer of concern is common to both areas. A Work Plan issued jointly in 1995 by DOE and the DA discusses the results of investigations completed at the time of preparation of the report. The investigations were necessary to provide an understanding of the groundwater system beneath the chemical plant area and the ordnance works area. The Work Plan also identifies additional data requirements for verification of the evaluation presented

  12. Work plan for the remedial investigation/feasibility study-environmental assessment for the quarry residuals operable unit at the Weldon Spring Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is conducting cleanup activities at the Weldon Spring site, which is located in St. Charles County, Missouri, about 48 km (30 mi) west of St. Louis. The Weldon Spring site consists of two noncontiguous areas -- the chemical plant area, which includes four raffinate pits, and the quarry. Cleanup activities at the Weldon Spring site are conducted in accordance with the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), as amended, incorporating the values of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). The contents of the documents prepared for the project are not intended to represent a statement regarding the legal applicability of NEPA to remedial actions conducted under CERCLA. In accordance with the integrated CERCLA/NEPA approach, a remedial investigation/feasibility study-environmental assessment (RI/FS-EA) is being conducted to evaluate conditions and potential responses for the quarry residuals operable unit (QROU). This operable unit consists of the following areas and/or media: the residual material remaining at the Weldon Spring quarry after removal of the pond water and bulk waste; underlying groundwater; and other media located in the surrounding vicinity of the quarry, including adjacent soil, surface water, and sediment in Femme Osage Slough. This work plan identifies the activities within the RI/FS-EA process that are being proposed to address contamination remaining at the quarry area

  13. Work plan for the remedial investigation/feasibility study-environmental assessment for the quarry residuals operable unit at the Weldon Spring Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-01-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is conducting cleanup activities at the Weldon Spring site, which is located in St. Charles County, Missouri, about 48 km (30 mi) west of St. Louis. The Weldon Spring site consists of two noncontiguous areas -- the chemical plant area, which includes four raffinate pits, and the quarry. Cleanup activities at the Weldon Spring site are conducted in accordance with the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), as amended, incorporating the values of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). The contents of the documents prepared for the project are not intended to represent a statement regarding the legal applicability of NEPA to remedial actions conducted under CERCLA. In accordance with the integrated CERCLA/NEPA approach, a remedial investigation/feasibility study-environmental assessment (RI/FS-EA) is being conducted to evaluate conditions and potential responses for the quarry residuals operable unit (QROU). This operable unit consists of the following areas and/or media: the residual material remaining at the Weldon Spring quarry after removal of the pond water and bulk waste; underlying groundwater; and other media located in the surrounding vicinity of the quarry, including adjacent soil, surface water, and sediment in Femme Osage Slough. This work plan identifies the activities within the RI/FS-EA process that are being proposed to address contamination remaining at the quarry area.

  14. Superfund Record of Decision (EPA Rregion 4): Oak Ridge Reservation (USDOE), (Operable Unit 3), Anderson County, Oak Ridge, TN. (Second remedial action), September 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) (USDOE) (Operable Unit 3) site is an active nuclear weapons component manufacturing facility located in Oak Ridge, Anderson County, Tennessee. The Y-12 plant, which is addressed as Operable Unit 3, is one of several hundred waste disposal sites or areas of contamination at the ORR site requiring Superfund remedial action. The site occupies the upper reaches of East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC) in Bear Creek Valley. From 1940 to the present, the Y-12 plant has been used to produce nuclear weapons components. From 1955 to 1963, mercury was used in a column-exchange process to separate lithium isotopes. Testing of the three concrete tanks showed that the tank sediment contained mercury, and that contaminated waste is still being discharged into two of the three tanks. The Record of Decision (ROD) focuses on the contaminated sediment in the sedimentation tanks as an interim action. The primary contaminants of concern affecting the sediment are mercury, a metal and radioactive materials. The selected interim remedial action for the site is included

  15. Subsurface Interim Measures/Interim Remedial Action Plan and Decision Document for the 903 Pad, Mound, and East Trenches Areas (Operable Unit No. 2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is pursuing an Interim Measure/Interim Remedial Action (IM/IRA) at the 903 Pad, Mound, and East Trenches Areas (Operable Unit No. 2) at the Rocky Flats Plant (RFP). This MIRA is to be conducted to provide information that will aid in the selection and design of final remedial actions at OU2 that will address removal of suspected free-phase volatile organic compound (VOC) contamination. The Plan involves investigating the removal of residual free-phase VOCs by in situ vacuum-enhanced vapor extraction technology at 3 suspected VOC source areas within OU2. VOC-contaminated vapors extracted from the subsurface would be treated by granular activated carbon (GAC) adsorption and discharged. The Plan also includes water table depression, when applicable at the test sites, to investigate the performance of vapor extraction technology in the saturated zone. The Plan provides for treatment of any contaminated ground water recovered during the IM/IRA at existing RFP treatment facilities. The proposed MVIRA Plan is presented in the document entitled ''Proposed Subsurface Interim Measures/Interim Remedial Action Plan/Environmental Assessment and Decision Document, 903 Pad, Mound, and East Trenches Areas, Operable Unit No. 2, '' dated 20 March 1992. Information concerning the proposed Subsurface IM/IRA was presented during a DOE Quarterly Review meeting held on 07 April 1992 and a public meeting held on 07 May 1992, at the Marriott Hotel in Golden, Colorado. The Responsiveness Summary presents DOE's response to all comments received at the public meeting, as well as those mailed to date to DOE during the public comment period

  16. Environmental, safety, and health plan for the remedial investigation of Waste Area Grouping 10, Operable Unit 3, at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-10-01

    This document outlines the environmental, safety, and health (ES ampersand H) approach to be followed for the remedial investigation of Waste Area Grouping (WAG) 10 at Oak at Ridge National Laboratory. This ES ampersand H Plan addresses hazards associated with upcoming Operable Unit 3 field work activities and provides the program elements required to maintain minimal personnel exposures and to reduce the potential for environmental impacts during field operations. The hazards evaluation for WAG 10 is presented in Sect. 3. This section includes the potential radiological, chemical, and physical hazards that may be encountered. Previous sampling results suggest that the primary contaminants of concern will be radiological (cobalt-60, europium-154, americium-241, strontium-90, plutonium-238, plutonium-239, cesium-134, cesium-137, and curium-244). External and internal exposures to radioactive materials will be minimized through engineering controls (e.g., ventilation, containment, isolation) and administrative controls (e.g., procedures, training, postings, protective clothing)

  17. Remedial investigation/feasibility study of the Clinch River/Poplar Creek Operable Unit. Volume 2. Biota and representative concentrations of contaminants. Appendixes A, B, C, D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    This report presents the findings of an investigation into contamination of the Clinch River and Poplar Creek near the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) in eastern Tennessee. For more than 50 years, various hazardous and radioactive substances have been released to the environment as a result of operations and waste management activities at the ORR. In 1989, the ORR was placed on the National Priorities List (NPL), established and maintained under the federal Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA). Under CERCLA, NPL sites must be investigated to determine the nature and extent of contamination at the site, assess the risk to human health and the environment posed by the site, and, if necessary, identify feasible remedial alternatives that could be used to clean the site and reduce risk. To facilitate the overall environmental restoration effort at the ORR, CERCLA activities are being implemented individually as distinct operable units (OU`s). This document is the combined Remedial Investigation and Feasibility Study Report for the Clinch River/Poplar Creek OU.

  18. Remedial Investigation Work Plan for Chestnut Ridge Operable Unit 1 (Chestnut Ridge Security Pits) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-09-01

    This Remedial Investigation (RI) Work Plan specifically addresses Chestnut Ridge Operable Unit 1, (OU1) which consists of the Chestnut Ridge Security Pits (CRSP). The CRSP are located {approximately}800 ft southeast of the central portion of the Y-12 Plant atop Chestnut Ridge, which is bounded to the northwest by Bear Creek Valley and to the southeast by Bethel Valley. Operated from 1973 to 1988, the CRSP consisted of a series of trenches used for the disposal of classified hazardous and nonhazardous waste materials. Disposal of hazardous waste materials was discontinued in December 1984, while nonhazardous waste disposal ended on November 8, 1988. An RI is being conducted at this site in response to CERCLA regulations. The overall objectives of the RI are to collect data necessary to evaluate the nature and extent of contaminants of concern (COC), support an ecological risk assessment (ERA) and a human health risk assessment (HHRA), support the evaluation of remedial alternatives, and ultimately develop a Record of Decision for the site. The purpose of this Work Plan is to outline RI activities necessary to define the nature and extent of suspected contaminants at Chestnut Ridge OU1. Potential migration pathways also will be investigated. Data collected during the RI will be used to evaluate the overall risk posed to human health and the environment by OU1.

  19. Remedial investigation/feasibility study of the Clinch River/Poplar Creek operable unit. Volume 4. Information related to the feasibility study and ARARs. Appendixes G, H, I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    This report presents the findings of an investigation into contamination of the Clinch River and Poplar Creek near the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) in eastern Tennessee. For more than 50 years, various hazardous and radioactive substances have been released to the environment as a result of operations and waste management activities at the ORR. In 1989, the ORR was placed on the National Priorities List (NPL), established and maintained under the federal Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA). Under CERCLA, NPL sites must be investigated to determine the nature and extent of contamination at the site, assess the risk to human health and the environment posed by the site, and, if necessary, identify feasible remedial alternatives that could be used to clean the site and reduce risk. To facilitate the overall environmental restoration effort at the ORR, CERCLA activities are being implemented individually as distinct operable units (OUs). This document is the combined Remedial Investigation and Feasibility Study Report for the Clinch River/Poplar Creek OU.

  20. Remedial investigation/feasibility study of the Clinch River/Poplar Creek Operable Unit. Volume 3. Risk assessment information. Appendixes E, F

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    This report presents the findings of an investigation into contamination of the Clinch River and Poplar Creek near the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) in eastern Tennessee. For more than 50 years, various hazardous and radioactive substances have been released to the environment as a result of operations and waste management activities at the ORR. In 1989, the ORR was placed on the National Priorities List (NPL), established and maintained under the federal Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA). Under CERCLA, NPL sites must be investigated to determine the nature and extent of contamination at the site, assess the risk to human health and the environment posed by the site, and, if necessary, identify feasible remedial alternatives that could be used to clean the site and reduce risk. To facilitate the overall environmental restoration effort at the ORR, CERCLA activities are being implemented individually as distinct operable units (OUs). This document is Volume 3 of the combined Remedial Investigation and Feasibility Study Report for the Clinch River/Poplar Creek OU.

  1. Remedial investigation/feasibility study of the Clinch River/Poplar Creek operable unit. Volume 3: Appendixes E and F -- Risk assessment information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-06-01

    This report presents the findings of an investigation into contamination of the Clinch River and Poplar Creek near the US Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) in eastern Tennessee. For more than 50 years, various hazardous and radioactive substances have been released to the environment as a result of operations and waste management activities at the ORR. In 1989, the ORR was placed on the National Priorities List (NPL), established and maintained under the federal Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA). Under CERCLA, NPL sites must be investigated to determine the nature and extent of contamination at the site, assess the risk to human health and the environment posed by the site, and, if necessary, identify feasible remedial alternatives that could be used to clean the site and reduce risk. To facilitate the overall environmental restoration effort at the ORR, CERCLA activities are being implemented individually as distinct operable units (OUs). This document is the combined Remedial Investigation and Feasibility Study Report for the Clinch River/Poplar Creek OU.

  2. Remedial Investigation Work Plan for Chestnut Ridge Operable Unit 1 (Chestnut Ridge Security Pits) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-09-01

    This Remedial Investigation (RI) Work Plan specifically addresses Chestnut Ridge Operable Unit 1, (OU1) which consists of the Chestnut Ridge Security Pits (CRSP). The CRSP are located ∼800 ft southeast of the central portion of the Y-12 Plant atop Chestnut Ridge, which is bounded to the northwest by Bear Creek Valley and to the southeast by Bethel Valley. Operated from 1973 to 1988, the CRSP consisted of a series of trenches used for the disposal of classified hazardous and nonhazardous waste materials. Disposal of hazardous waste materials was discontinued in December 1984, while nonhazardous waste disposal ended on November 8, 1988. An RI is being conducted at this site in response to CERCLA regulations. The overall objectives of the RI are to collect data necessary to evaluate the nature and extent of contaminants of concern (COC), support an ecological risk assessment (ERA) and a human health risk assessment (HHRA), support the evaluation of remedial alternatives, and ultimately develop a Record of Decision for the site. The purpose of this Work Plan is to outline RI activities necessary to define the nature and extent of suspected contaminants at Chestnut Ridge OU1. Potential migration pathways also will be investigated. Data collected during the RI will be used to evaluate the overall risk posed to human health and the environment by OU1

  3. Remedial investigation/feasibility study of the Clinch River/Poplar Creek Operable Unit. Volume 5. Appendixes J, K, L, M, and N-other supporting information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-06-01

    This report presents the findings of an investigation into contamination of the Clinch River and Poplar Creek near the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) in eastern Tennessee. For more than 50 years, various hazardous and radioactive substances have been released to the environment as a result of operations and waste management activities at the ORR. In 1989, the ORR was placed on the National Priorities List (NPL), established and maintained under the federal Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA). Under CERCLA, NPL sites must be investigated to determine the nature and extent of contamination at the site, assess the risk to human health and the environment posed by the site, and, if necessary, identify feasible remedial alternatives that could be used to clean the site and reduce risk. To facilitate the overall environmental restoration effort at the ORR, CERCLA activities are being implemented individually as distinct operable units (OUs). This document is Volume 5 of the combined Remedial Investigation and Feasibility Study Report for the Clinch River/Poplar Creek OU.

  4. Remedial investigation work plan for Chestnut Ridge Operable Unit 4 (Rogers Quarry/Lower McCoy Branch) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-09-01

    The Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant includes - 800 acres near the northeast comer of the reservation and adjacent to the city of Oak Ridge (Fig. 1-1). The plant is a manufacturing and developmental engineering facility that produced components for various nuclear weapons systems and provides engineering support to other Energy Systems facilities. More than 200 contaminated sites have been identified at the Y-12 Plant that resulted from past waste management practices. Many of the sites have operable units (OUs) based on priority and on investigative and remediation requirements. This Remedial Investigation RI work plan specifically addresses Chestnut Ridge OU 4. Chestnut Ridge OU 4 consists of Rogers Quarry and Lower McCoy Branch (MCB). Rogers Quarry, which is also known as Old Rogers Quarry or Bethel Valley Quarry was used for quarrying from the late 1940s or early 1950s until about 1960. Since that time, the quarry has been used for disposal of coal ash and materials from Y-12 production operations, including classified materials. Disposal of coal ash ended in July 1993. An RI is being conducted at this site in response to CERCLA regulations. The overall objectives of the RI are to collect data necessary to evaluate the nature and extent of contaminants of concern, support an Ecological Risk Assessment and a Human Health Risk Assessment, support the evaluation of remedial alternatives, and ultimately develop a Record of Decision for the site. The purpose of this work plan is to outline RI activities necessary to define the nature and extent of suspected contaminants at Chestnut Ridge OU 4. Potential migration pathways also will be investigated. Data collected during the RI will be used to evaluate the risk posed to human health and the environment by OU 4.

  5. Proposed Plan for Interim Remedial Actions at the 100-NR-1 Source Sites Operable Unit and the 100-NR-2 Groundwater Operable Unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukherjee, B.

    1998-02-01

    This Proposed Plan summary includes brief descriptions of the key issues for the 100-N Area contaminated soil and groundwater. This summary is intended as a simplified introduction to readers who might not be familiar with the contaminated site cleanup process or Hanford Site issues. The detailed Proposed Plan is attached to this summary. Some of the buildings and surrounding soils in the 100 Area of the Hanford Site were contaminated during operation of the nuclear reactors. The contamination poses a potential threat to public health and/or the environment. The potential threat to the public is exposure to people on or near the site to radiation and chemicals. The potential threat to the environment is contamination in the soil that has migrated to the groundwater and could eventually harm the Columbia River. Because of these potential threats, the Federal Government decided that the 100 Area was a high priority for cleanup and placed it on the National Priorities List

  6. Remedial investigation/feasibility study for the Clinch River/Poplar Creek operable unit. Volume 2. Appendixes A, B, C, D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-09-01

    This document contains appendices A (water characterization), B (sediment characterization), C (biota Characterization), D (applicable or relevant and appropriate requirements) from the combined Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study Report for the Clinch River/Poplar Crack (CR/PC) Operable Unit (OU). The CR/PC OU is located in Anderson and Roane Counties, Tennessee and consists of the Clinch River and several of its embayments in Melton Hill and Watts Bar Reservoirs. These waters have received hazardous substances released over a period of 50 years from the US Department of Energy's Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR), a National Priority List site established under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act. A remedial investigation has been conducted to determine the current nature and extent of any contamination and to assess the resulting risk to human health and the environment. The feasibility study evaluates remedial action alternatives to identify any that are feasible for implementation and that would effectively reduce risk. Historical studies had indicated that current problems would likely include 137 Cs in sediment of the Clinch River, mercury in sediment and fish of Poplar Creek and PCBs and pesticides in fish from throughout the OU. Peak releases of mercury and 137 Cs occurred over 35 years ago, and current releases are low. Past releases of PCBs from the ORR are poorly quantified, and current releases are difficult to quantify because levels are so low. The site characterization focused on contaminants in surface water, sediment, and biota. Contaminants in surface water were all found to be below Ambient Water Quality Criteria. Other findings included the following: elevated metals including cesium 137 and mercury in McCoy Branch sediments; PCBs and chlordane elevated in several fish species, presenting the only major human health risk, significant ecological risks in Poplar Creek but not in the Clinch River

  7. Remedial investigation/feasibility study for the Clinch River/Poplar Creek operable unit. Volume 2. Appendixes A, B, C, D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    This document contains appendices A (water characterization), B (sediment characterization), C (biota Characterization), D (applicable or relevant and appropriate requirements) from the combined Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study Report for the Clinch River/Poplar Crack (CR/PC) Operable Unit (OU). The CR/PC OU is located in Anderson and Roane Counties, Tennessee and consists of the Clinch River and several of its embayments in Melton Hill and Watts Bar Reservoirs. These waters have received hazardous substances released over a period of 50 years from the US Department of Energy`s Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR), a National Priority List site established under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act. A remedial investigation has been conducted to determine the current nature and extent of any contamination and to assess the resulting risk to human health and the environment. The feasibility study evaluates remedial action alternatives to identify any that are feasible for implementation and that would effectively reduce risk. Historical studies had indicated that current problems would likely include {sup 137}Cs in sediment of the Clinch River, mercury in sediment and fish of Poplar Creek and PCBs and pesticides in fish from throughout the OU. Peak releases of mercury and {sup 137}Cs occurred over 35 years ago, and current releases are low. Past releases of PCBs from the ORR are poorly quantified, and current releases are difficult to quantify because levels are so low. The site characterization focused on contaminants in surface water, sediment, and biota. Contaminants in surface water were all found to be below Ambient Water Quality Criteria. Other findings included the following: elevated metals including cesium 137 and mercury in McCoy Branch sediments; PCBs and chlordane elevated in several fish species, presenting the only major human health risk, significant ecological risks in Poplar Creek but not in the Clinch River.

  8. Remedial Investigation Work Plan for Chestnut Ridge Operable Unit 1 (Chestnut Ridge Security Pits) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-03-01

    This document outlines the activities necessary to conduct a Remedial Investigation (RI) of the Chestnut Ridge Security Pits (CRSP) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. The CRSP, also designated Chestnut Ridge Operable Unit (OU) 1, is one of four OUs along Chestnut Ridge on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR). The purpose of the RI is to collect data to (1) evaluate the nature and extent of known and suspected contaminants, (2) support an Ecological Risk Assessment (ERA) and a Human Health Risk Assessment (HHRA), (3) support the feasibility study in the development and analysis of remedial alternatives, and (4) ultimately, develop a Record of Decision (ROD) for the site. This chapter summarizes the regulatory background of environmental investigation on the ORR and the approach currently being followed and provides an overview of the RI to be conducted at the CRSP. Subsequent chapters provide details on site history, sampling activities, procedures and methods, quality assurance (QA), health and safety, and waste management related to the RI

  9. Surface Water Interim Measures/Interim Remedial Action Plan/ Environmental and Decision Document, South Walnut Creek Basin, Operable Unit No.2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    Water quality investigations have identified the presence of volatile organic compound (VOC) and radionuclide contamination of surface water at the Rocky Flats Plant (RFP). The subject interim Measures/Interim Remedial Action Plan/Environmental Assessment (IM/IRAP/EA) addresses contaminated surface water in a portion of the South Walnut Creek drainage basin located within an area identified as Operable Unit No. 2 (OU 2). There is no immediate threat to public health and the environment posed by this surface water contamination. The affected surface water is contained within the plant boundary by existing detention ponds, and is treated prior to discharge for removal of volatile contaminants and suspended particulates to which radionuclides, if present, are likely to absorb. However, there is a potential threat and the Department of Energy (DOE) is implementing this Surface Water IM/IRAP at the request of the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and Colorado Department of Health (CDH). Implementation of the Surface Water IM/IRA will enhance the DOE's efforts towards containing and managing contaminated surface water, and will mitigate downgradient migration of contaminants. Another factor in implementing this IM/IRA is the length of time it will take to complete the investigations and engineering studies necessary to determine the final remedy for OU 2. 44 refs., 23 figs., 14 tabs

  10. Remedial Investigation Work Plan for Chestnut Ridge Operable Unit 1 (Chestnut Ridge Security Pits) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-03-01

    This document outlines the activities necessary to conduct a Remedial Investigation (RI) of the Chestnut Ridge Security Pits (CRSP) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. The CRSP, also designated Chestnut Ridge Operable Unit (OU) 1, is one of four OUs along Chestnut Ridge on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR). The purpose of the RI is to collect data to (1) evaluate the nature and extent of known and suspected contaminants, (2) support an Ecological Risk Assessment (ERA) and a Human Health Risk Assessment (HHRA), (3) support the feasibility study in the development and analysis of remedial alternatives, and (4) ultimately, develop a Record of Decision (ROD) for the site. This chapter summarizes the regulatory background of environmental investigation on the ORR and the approach currently being followed and provides an overview of the RI to be conducted at the CRSP. Subsequent chapters provide details on site history, sampling activities, procedures and methods, quality assurance (QA), health and safety, and waste management related to the RI.

  11. Surface Water Interim Measures/Interim Remedial Action Plan/Environmental Assessment and Decision Document for South Walnut Creek Basin (Operable Unit No. 2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is pursuing an Interim Measure/Interim Remedial Action (IM/IRA) at the 903 Pad, Mound, and East Trenches Areas (Operable Unit No. 2) at the Rocky Flats Plant (RFP). This IM/IRA is to be conducted to minimize the release from these areas of hazardous substances that pose a potential threat to the public health and environment. The Plan involved the collection of contaminated surface water at specific locations, treatment by chemical precipitation, cross-flow membrane filtration and granular activated carbon (GAC) adsorption, and surface discharge of treated water. Information for the initial configuration of the Plan is presented in the document entitled ''Proposed Interim Measures/Interim Remedial Action Plan and Decision Document, 903 Pad, Mound, and East Trenches Areas, Operable Unit No. 2'' (IM/IRAP) dated 26 September 1990. Information concerning the proposed Surface Water IM/IRA was presented during a public meeting held from 7 to 10 p.m., Tuesday, 23 October 1990, at the Westminster City Park Recreation Center in Westminster, Colorado. This Responsiveness Summary presents DOE's response to all comments received at the public meeting, as well as those mailed to DOE during the public comment period which ended 24 November 1990. There were a number of technical comments on the plan that DOE has addressed herein. It is noted that several major issues were raised by the comments. Regardless of the estimated low risk to the public from construction and water transport activities, the popular sentiment of the public, based on comments received, is strong concern over worker and public health risks from these activities. In the light of public and municipal concerns, DOE proposes to eliminate from this IM/IRA the interbasin transfer of Woman Creek seepage to the South Walnut Creek drainage and to address collection and treatment of contaminated South Walnut Creek and Woman Creek surface water under two separate IM/IRAs

  12. Independent Review of Elemental Phosphorus Remediation at the Eastern Michaud Flats FMC Operable Unit near Pocatello, Idaho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martino, L. E. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Jerden, J. J. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Kimmell, T. A. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Quinn, J. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2016-01-01

    If, despite risks to workers and these potential impacts, stakeholders decide that P4 wastes need to be excavated and treated, the Review Team determined that a number of the ETTs examined warrant further consideration for the treatment of P4 waste that has been characterized (for example, P4 waste present in the historical ponds). Nevertheless, concerns about the health and safety of site investigation workers using then-available investigation approaches prevented the collection of subsurface samples containing P4 from large areas of the site (e.g., the railroad swale, the vadose zone beneath the Furnace Building, and the abandoned railcars), As a result, the contaminant CSM in those particular areas was not refined enough to allow the Review Team to draw conclusions about using some of the ETTs to treat P4 waste in those areas. The readiness of an ETT for implementation varies depending on many factors, including stakeholder input, permitting, and remedial action construction requirements. Technologies that could be ready for use in the near term (within 1 year) include the following: mechanical excavation, containment technologies, off-site incineration, and drying and mechanical mixing under a tent structure. Technologies that could be ready for use in the mid-term (1 to 2 years) include cutter suction dredging, thermal-hydraulic dredging, and underground pipeline cleaning technologies. Technologies requiring a longer lead time (2 to 5 years) include on-site incineration, a land disposal restriction waste treatment system, an Albright & Wilson batch mud still, post-treatment on-site disposal, and post-treatment off-site disposal.

  13. Remedial Investigation Work Plan for Upper East Fork Poplar Creek Operable Unit 3 at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Environmental Restoration Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-08-01

    Upper East Fork Popular Creek Operable Unit 3 (UEFPC OU 3) is a source term OU composed of seven sites, and is located in the western portion of the Y-12 Plant. For the most part, the UEFPC OU 3 sites served unrelated purposes and are geographically removed from one another. The seven sites include the following: Building 81-10, the S-2 Site, Salvage Yard oil storage tanks, the Salvage Yard oil/solvent drum storage area, Tank Site 2063-U, the Salvage Yard drum deheader, and the Salvage Yard scrap metal storage area. All of these sites are contaminated with at least one or more hazardous and/or radioactive chemicals. All sites have had some previous investigation under the Y-12 Plant RCRA Program. The work plan contains summaries of geographical, historical, operational, geological, and hydrological information specific to each OU 3 site. The potential for release of contaminants to receptors through various media is addressed, and a sampling and analysis plan is presented to obtain objectives for the remedial investigation. Proposed sampling activities are contingent upon the screening level risk assessment, which includes shallow soil sampling, soil borings, monitoring well installation, groundwater sampling, and surface water sampling. Data from the site characterization activities will be used to meet the above objectives. A Field Sampling Investigation Plan, Health and Safety Plan, and Waste Management Plan are also included in this work plan.

  14. Remedial Investigation Work Plan for Upper East Fork Poplar Creek Operable Unit 3 at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-08-01

    Upper East Fork Popular Creek Operable Unit 3 (UEFPC OU 3) is a source term OU composed of seven sites, and is located in the western portion of the Y-12 Plant. For the most part, the UEFPC OU 3 sites served unrelated purposes and are geographically removed from one another. The seven sites include the following: Building 81-10, the S-2 Site, Salvage Yard oil storage tanks, the Salvage Yard oil/solvent drum storage area, Tank Site 2063-U, the Salvage Yard drum deheader, and the Salvage Yard scrap metal storage area. All of these sites are contaminated with at least one or more hazardous and/or radioactive chemicals. All sites have had some previous investigation under the Y-12 Plant RCRA Program. The work plan contains summaries of geographical, historical, operational, geological, and hydrological information specific to each OU 3 site. The potential for release of contaminants to receptors through various media is addressed, and a sampling and analysis plan is presented to obtain objectives for the remedial investigation. Proposed sampling activities are contingent upon the screening level risk assessment, which includes shallow soil sampling, soil borings, monitoring well installation, groundwater sampling, and surface water sampling. Data from the site characterization activities will be used to meet the above objectives. A Field Sampling Investigation Plan, Health and Safety Plan, and Waste Management Plan are also included in this work plan

  15. Remedial investigation work plan for Bear Creek Valley Operable Unit 2 (Rust Spoil Area, SY-200 Yard, Spoil Area 1) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Environmental Restoration Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-05-01

    The enactment of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) in 1976 and the Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments (HSWA) to RCRA in 1984 created management requirements for hazardous waste facilities. The facilities within the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) were in the process of meeting the RCRA requirements when ORR was placed on the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) National Priorities List (NPL) on November 21, 1989. Under RCRA, the actions typically follow the RCRA Facility Assessment (RFA)/RCRA Facility Investigation (RFI)/Corrective Measures Study (CMS)/Corrective Measures implementation process. Under CERCLA the actions follow the PA/SI/Remedial Investigation (RI)/Feasibility Study (FS)/Remedial Design/Remedial Action process. The development of this document will incorporate requirements under both RCRA and CERCLA into an RI work plan for the characterization of Bear Creek Valley (BCV) Operable Unit (OU) 2.

  16. Remedial investigation report on Bear Creek Valley Operable Unit 2 (Rust Spoil Area, Spoil Area 1, and SY-200 Yard) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Volume 1, Main text

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-08-01

    The enactment of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) in 1976 and the Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments (HSWA) to RCRA in 1984 created management requirements for hazardous waste facilities. The facilities within the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) were in the process of meeting the RCRA requirements when the ORR was placed on the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) National Priorities List (NPL) on November 21, 1989. Under RCRA, the actions typically follow the RCRA Facility Assessment/RCRA Facility Investigation (RFI)/Corrective Measures Study (CMS)/Corrective Measures Implementation process. Under CERCLA, the actions follow the preliminary assessment/site investigation/Remedial Investigation (RI)/Feasibility Study (FS)/Remedial Design/Remedial Action process. This document incorporates requirements under both RCRA and CERCLA in the form of an RI report for the characterization of Bear Creek Valley (BCV) Operable Unit (OU) 2

  17. Remedial investigation work plan for Bear Creek Valley Operable Unit 2 (Rust Spoil Area, SY-200 Yard, Spoil Area 1) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-05-01

    The enactment of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) in 1976 and the Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments (HSWA) to RCRA in 1984 created management requirements for hazardous waste facilities. The facilities within the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) were in the process of meeting the RCRA requirements when ORR was placed on the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) National Priorities List (NPL) on November 21, 1989. Under RCRA, the actions typically follow the RCRA Facility Assessment (RFA)/RCRA Facility Investigation (RFI)/Corrective Measures Study (CMS)/Corrective Measures implementation process. Under CERCLA the actions follow the PA/SI/Remedial Investigation (RI)/Feasibility Study (FS)/Remedial Design/Remedial Action process. The development of this document will incorporate requirements under both RCRA and CERCLA into an RI work plan for the characterization of Bear Creek Valley (BCV) Operable Unit (OU) 2

  18. Adaptive remediation using portable treatment units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bahowick, S.; Folsom, E.; Pico, T.

    1996-01-01

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is using adaptive remediation to optimize their environmental restoration strategy. Adaptive remediation uses hydrostratigraphic analysis to gain a better understanding of the subsurface characteristics, hydraulic tests to optimize contaminant transport models, and Portable Treatment Units (PTUs) as an alternative to fixed facilities. Hydrostratigraphic analysis is an optimization tool that improves the ability to identify and target contaminant migration pathways, identify the relationship between plumes and source areas, and better define hydraulic capture areas. Hydraulic tests, performed with PTUs, provide valuable data about subsurface characteristics. As clean up progresses, PTUs can be moved to the appropriate extraction wells to optimize contaminant mass removal. PTUs can also be placed to support innovative treatment technologies such as steam injection and microbial filters. Construction of PTUs will reduce by one-half the capital costs of building the rest of the fixed treatment system planned in the Record of Decision. Regulatory agencies are receptive to the use of the PTUs because the same treatment technology is being used and the PTUs will be able to clean up the plume cheaper and faster. Using adaptive remediation, LLNL is more effectively implementing remediation plans, improving cleanup time, and reducing project costs

  19. Remedial investigation report on Bear Creek Valley Operable Unit 2 (rust spoil area, spoil area 1, and SY-200 yard) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Volume 2. Appendixes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-08-01

    This document contains the appendices to the Remedial Investigation Report on Bear Creek Valley Operable Unit 2 (Rust Spoil Area, Spoil Area 1, and SY-200 Yard) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The appendices include Current and historical soil boring and groundwater monitoring well information, well construction logs, and field change orders; Analytical data; Human health risk assessment data; and Data quality.

  20. Remedial investigation report on Bear Creek Valley Operable Unit 2 (rust spoil area, spoil area 1, and SY-200 yard) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Volume 2. Appendixes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-08-01

    This document contains the appendices to the Remedial Investigation Report on Bear Creek Valley Operable Unit 2 (Rust Spoil Area, Spoil Area 1, and SY-200 Yard) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The appendices include Current and historical soil boring and groundwater monitoring well information, well construction logs, and field change orders; Analytical data; Human health risk assessment data; and Data quality

  1. Remedial investigation report on Chestnut Ridge Operable Unit 2 (filled coal ash pond/Upper McCoy Branch) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Volume 2: Appendixes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-08-01

    This report comprises appendices A--J which support the Y-12 Plant`s remedial action report involving Chestnut Ridge Operable Unit 2 (filled coal ash pond/Upper McCoy Branch). The appendices cover the following: Sampling fish from McCoy Branch; well and piezometer logs; ecological effects of contaminants in McCoy Branch 1989-1990; heavy metal bioaccumulation data; microbes in polluted sediments; and baseline human health risk assessment data.

  2. Remedial investigation report on Chestnut Ridge Operable Unit 2 (filled coal ash pond/Upper McCoy Branch) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Volume 2: Appendixes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-08-01

    This report comprises appendices A--J which support the Y-12 Plant's remedial action report involving Chestnut Ridge Operable Unit 2 (filled coal ash pond/Upper McCoy Branch). The appendices cover the following: Sampling fish from McCoy Branch; well and piezometer logs; ecological effects of contaminants in McCoy Branch 1989-1990; heavy metal bioaccumulation data; microbes in polluted sediments; and baseline human health risk assessment data

  3. Remedial Investigation work plan for Bear Creek Valley Operable Unit 2 (Rust Spoil Area, SY-200 Yard, Spoil Area 1) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-09-01

    This Remedial Investigation (RI) work plan contains summaries of geographical, historical, operational, geological, and hydrological information specific to the unit. The potential for release of contamination to receptors through the various media is addressed, and a sampling and analysis plan is presented to determine the extent of release of contamination to the surrounding environment. Proposed activities include walkover radiation surveys at all sites, soil borings at SY-200, piezometer installation and water table sampling at SA-1 and SY-200, and surface water and sediment runoff sampling at all three sites. Data from the site characterization activities will be combined with data from ongoing site-wide monitoring programs (i.e., groundwater, surface water, and biological monitoring) to provide input for a screening-level risk assessment and evaluation of altemative remedial actions

  4. Proposed plan for remedial action for the Groundwater Operable Unit at the Chemical Plant Area of the Weldon Spring Site, Weldon Spring, Missouri

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    This Proposed Plan addresses the remediation of groundwater contamination at the chemical plant area of the Weldon Spring site in Weldon Spring, Missouri. The site is located approximately 48 km (30 mi) west of St. Louis in St. Charles County . Remedial activities at the site will be conducted in accordance with the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA). The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), in conjunction with the U.S. Department of the Army (DA), conducted a joint remedial investigation/feasibility study (RI/FS) to allow for a comprehensive evaluation of groundwater conditions at the Weldon Spring chemical plant area and the Weldon Spring ordnance works area, which is an Army site adjacent to the chemical plant area. Consistent with DOE policy, National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) values have been incorporated into the CERCLA process. That is, the analysis conducted and presented in the RVFS reports included an evaluation of environmental impacts that is comparable to that performed under NEPA. This Proposed Plan summarizes information about chemical plant area groundwater that is presented in the following documents: (1) The Remedial Investigation (RI), which presents information on the nature and extent of contamination; (2) The Baseline Risk Assessment (BRA), which evaluates impacts to human health and the environment that could occur if no cleanup action of the groundwater were taken (DOE and DA 1997a); and (3) The Feasibility Study (FS) and the Supplemental FS, which develop and evaluate remedial action alternatives for groundwater remediation

  5. Groundwater remediation in the Straz leaching operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novak, J.

    2001-01-01

    The locality affected by consequences of the chemical mining of the uranium during underground leaching 'in situ' is found in the area of the Czech Republic in the northeastern part of the Ceska Lipa district. In the contribution the complex groundwater remediation project is discussed. First, the risks of the current state are expressed. Then the alternatives of remediation of the both Cenomanian and Turonian aquifers are presented. Evaluation of the remediation alternatives with the view to the time-consumption, economy, ecology and the elimination of unacceptable risks for the population and environment is done. Finally, the present progress of remediation and the conception of remediation of chemical mining on deposit of Straz pod Ralskem are presented. (orig.)

  6. Remedial investigation/feasibility study of the Clinch River/Poplar Creek Operable Unit. Volume 2. Appendixes A, B, C, and D-Biota and representative concentrations of contaminants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-06-01

    This report presents the findings of an investigation into contamination of the Clinch River and Poplar Creek near the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) in eastern Tennessee. For more than 50 years, various hazardous and radioactive substances have been released to the environment as a result of operations and waste management activities at the ORR. In 1989, the ORR was placed on the National Priorities List (NPL), established and maintained under the federal Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA). Under CERCLA, NPL sites must be investigated to determine the nature and extent of contamination at the site, assess the risk to human health and the environment posed by the site, and, if necessary, identify feasible remedial alternatives that could be used to clean the site and reduce risk. To facilitate the overall environmental restoration effort at the ORR, CERCLA activities are being implemented individually as distinct operable units (OUs). This document is Volume 2 of the combined Remedial Investigation and Feasibility Study Report for the Clinch River/Poplar Creek OU.

  7. Remedial investigation/feasibility study of the Clinch River/Poplar Creek Operable Unit. Volume 4. Appendixes G, H, and I and information related to the feasibility study and ARARs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-06-01

    This report presents the findings of an investigation into contamination of the Clinch River and Poplar Creek near the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) in eastern Tennessee. For more than 50 years, various hazardous and radioactive substances have been released to the environment as a result of operations and waste management activities at the ORR. In 1989, the ORR was placed on the National Priorities List (NPL), established and maintained under the federal Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA). Under CERCLA, NPL sites must be investigated to determine the nature and extent of contamination at the site, assess the risk to human health and the environment posed by the site, and, if necessary, identify feasible remedial alternatives that could be used to clean the site and reduce risk. To facilitate the overall environmental restoration effort at the ORR, CERCLA activities are being implemented individually as distinct operable units (OUs). This document is Volume 4 of the combined Remedial Investigation and Feasibility Study Report for the Clinch River/Poplar Creek OU.

  8. Operable Unit Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This dataset consists of operable unit data from multiple Superfund sites in U.S. EPA Region 8. These data were acquired from multiple sources at different times and...

  9. Remedial investigation/feasibility study for the Clinch River/Poplar Creek operable unit. Volume 5. Appendixes G, H, I, J

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    The Quality Assurance/Quality Control (QA/QC) Program for Phase 2 of the Clinch River Remedial Investigation (CRRI) was designed to comply with both Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5700.6C and Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) QAMS-005/80 (EPA 1980a) guidelines. QA requirements and the general QA objectives for Phase 2 data were defined in the Phase 2 Sampling and Analysis Plan (SAP)-Quality Assurance Project Plan, and scope changes noted in the Phase 2 Sampling and Analysis Plan Addendum. The QA objectives for Phase 2 data were the following: (1) Scientific data generated will withstand scientific and legal scrutiny. (2) Data will be gathered using appropriate procedures for sample collection, sample handling and security, chain of custody (COC), laboratory analyses, and data reporting. (3) Data will be of known precision and accuracy. (4) Data will meet data quality objectives (DQOs) defined in the Phase 2 SAP.

  10. Work plan for the remedial investigation/feasibility study for the groundwater operable units at the Chemical Plant Area and the Ordnance Works Area, Weldon Spring, Missouri

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-08-01

    US Department of Energy (DOE) and the US Army Corps of Engineers (CE) are conducting cleanup activities at two properties, the chemical plant area and the ordnance works area, located adjacent to one another in St. Charles County, Missouri. In accordance with the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), as amended, DOE and CE are evaluating conditions and potential responses at the chemical plant area and at the ordnance works area, respectively, to address groundwater and surface water contamination. This work plan provides a comprehensive evaluation of areas that are relevant to the (GWOUs) of both the chemical plant and the ordnance works area. Following areas or media are addressed in this work plan: groundwater beneath the chemical plant area (including designated vicinity properties described in Section 5 of the RI for the chemical plant area [DOE 1992d]) and beneath the ordnance works area; surface water and sediment at selected springs, including Burgermeister Spring. The organization of this work plan is as follows: Chapter 1 discusses the objectives for conducting the evaluation, including a summary of relevant site information and overall environmental compliance activities to be undertaken; Chapter 2 presents a history and a description of the site and areas addressed within the GWOUs, along with currently available data; Chapter 3 presents a preliminary evaluation of areas included in the GWOUs, which is based on information given in Section 2, and discusses data requirements; Chapter 4 presents rationale for data collection or characterization activities to be carried out in the remedial investigation (RI) phase, along with brief summaries of supporting documents ancillary to this work plan; Chapter 5 discusses the activities planned for GWOUs under each of the 14 tasks for an remedial (RI/FS); Chapter 6 presents proposed schedules for RI/FS for the GWOUS; and Chapter 7 explains the project management structure

  11. Work plan for the remedial investigation/feasibility study for the groundwater operable units at the Chemical Plant Area and the Ordnance Works Area, Weldon Spring, Missouri

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-08-01

    US Department of Energy (DOE) and the US Army Corps of Engineers (CE) are conducting cleanup activities at two properties, the chemical plant area and the ordnance works area, located adjacent to one another in St. Charles County, Missouri. In accordance with the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), as amended, DOE and CE are evaluating conditions and potential responses at the chemical plant area and at the ordnance works area, respectively, to address groundwater and surface water contamination. This work plan provides a comprehensive evaluation of areas that are relevant to the (GWOUs) of both the chemical plant and the ordnance works area. Following areas or media are addressed in this work plan: groundwater beneath the chemical plant area (including designated vicinity properties described in Section 5 of the RI for the chemical plant area [DOE 1992d]) and beneath the ordnance works area; surface water and sediment at selected springs, including Burgermeister Spring. The organization of this work plan is as follows: Chapter 1 discusses the objectives for conducting the evaluation, including a summary of relevant site information and overall environmental compliance activities to be undertaken; Chapter 2 presents a history and a description of the site and areas addressed within the GWOUs, along with currently available data; Chapter 3 presents a preliminary evaluation of areas included in the GWOUs, which is based on information given in Section 2, and discusses data requirements; Chapter 4 presents rationale for data collection or characterization activities to be carried out in the remedial investigation (RI) phase, along with brief summaries of supporting documents ancillary to this work plan; Chapter 5 discusses the activities planned for GWOUs under each of the 14 tasks for an remedial (RI/FS); Chapter 6 presents proposed schedules for RI/FS for the GWOUS; and Chapter 7 explains the project management structure.

  12. Environmental remediation and waste management in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muntzing, L.M.; Person, J.C.

    1994-01-01

    Environmental remediation of radioactively and chemically contaminated sites represents one of the most complex challenges of our age. It is currently a problem at nuclear weapons sites in the United States, but as the civilian nuclear industry everywhere deals with decommissioning and decontamination, the lessons learned from these early activities will be influential. The task is challenging for several reasons. First, standards governing remedial action are complex and constantly evolving. Second, unless contaminated material is to be stabilized in place, it must be removed and sent to another facility for storage and ultimate disposal. Third the task is technically demanding. Those who undertake the challenge must be technically sophisticated, creative, and innovative. Fourth, the challenge is a risky one. Those who seek to remediate past contamination may find themselves exposed to expanding and unfair allegations of liability for that very contamination. Finally, there is often a basic crisis of public confidence regarding remediation efforts

  13. Operation and Maintenance Plan for the 300-FF-5 Operable Unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singleton, K.M.

    1996-09-01

    This document is the operation and maintenance plan for the 300-FF-5 groundwater operable unit. The purpose of this plan is to identify tasks necessary to verify the effectiveness of the selected alternative. This plan also describes the monitoring program and administrative tasks that will be used as the preferred alternative for the remediation of groundwater in the 300-FF-5 Operable Unit. The preferred alternative selected for remediation of groundwater consists of institutional controls

  14. Addendum to the remedial investigation report on Bear Creek Valley Operable Unit 2 (Rust Spoil Area, Spoil Area 1, and SY-200 Yard) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Volume 1: Main text

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-04-01

    This addendum to the Remedial Investigation (RI) Report on Bear Creek Valley Operable Unit (OU) 2 at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant was prepared in accordance with requirements under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) for reporting the results of a site characterization for public review. This addendum is a supplement to a document that was previously issued in January 1995 and that provided the Environmental Restoration Program with information about the results of the 1993 investigation performed at OU 2. The January 1995 D2 version of the RI Report on Bear Creek Valley OU 2 included information on risk assessments that have evaluated impacts to human health and the environment. Information provided in the document formed the basis for the development of the Feasibility Study Report. This addendum includes revisions to four chapters of information that were a part of the document issued in January 1995. Specifically, it includes revisions to Chaps. 2, 3, 4, and 9. Volume 1 of this document is not being reissued in its entirety as a D3 version because only the four chapters just mentioned have been affected by requested changes. Note also that Volume 2 of this RI Report on Bear Creek Valley OU 2 is not being reissued in conjunction with Volume 1 of this document because there have been no changes requested or made to the previously issued version of Volume 2 of this document.

  15. 40 CFR 300.435 - Remedial design/remedial action, operation and maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... features of the selected remedy with respect to scope, performance, or cost. To amend the ROD, the lead...) Include appropriate language in the solicitation requiring potential prime contractors to submit... protection of human health and the environment, the operation of such treatment or other measures for a...

  16. 200-BP-5 operable unit treatability test report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-04-01

    The 200-BP-5 Operable Unit was established in response to recommendations presented in the 200 East Groundwater Aggregate Area Management Study Report (AAMSR) (DOE-RL 1993a). Recognizing different approaches to remediation, the groundwater AAMSR recommended separating groundwater from source and vadose zone operable units and subdividing 200 East Area groundwater into two operable units. The division between the 200-BP-5 and 200-PO-1 Operable Units was based principally on source operable unit boundaries and distribution of groundwater plumes derived from either B Plant or Plutonium/Uranium Extraction (PUREX) Plant liquid waste disposal sites.

  17. 200-BP-5 operable unit treatability test report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-04-01

    The 200-BP-5 Operable Unit was established in response to recommendations presented in the 200 East Groundwater Aggregate Area Management Study Report (AAMSR) (DOE-RL 1993a). Recognizing different approaches to remediation, the groundwater AAMSR recommended separating groundwater from source and vadose zone operable units and subdividing 200 East Area groundwater into two operable units. The division between the 200-BP-5 and 200-PO-1 Operable Units was based principally on source operable unit boundaries and distribution of groundwater plumes derived from either B Plant or Plutonium/Uranium Extraction (PUREX) Plant liquid waste disposal sites

  18. Environmental remediation and waste management in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muntzing, L.M.; Person, J.C.

    1994-01-01

    Environmental remediation of radioactively and chemically contaminated sites represents one of the most complex challenges of our age. It is currently a problem at nuclear weapons sites in the Unites States, but as the civilian nuclear industry everywhere deals with decommissioning and decontamination, the lessons learned from these early activities will be influential. The task is challenging for several reasons. First, standards governing remedial action are complex and constantly evolving. Second, unless contaminated material is to be stabilized in place, it must be removed and sent to another facility for storage and ultimate disposal. Third, the task is technically demanding. Those who undertake the challenge must be technically sophisticated, creative, and innovative. Fourth, the challenge is a risky one. Those who seek to remediate past contamination may find themselves exposed to expanding and unfair allegations of liability for that very contamination. Finally, there is often a basic crisis of public confidence regarding remediation efforts. This paper briefly outlines some of the liabilities surrounding environmental contracting and ways to minimize risks

  19. Operation and maintenance manual for the temporary septic holding tank at the 100-D remedial action support facility. Revision 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelty, G.G.

    1996-10-01

    This manual was prepared to provide detailed information for the operation and maintenance of the sanitary wastewater holding system at the 100-D Remedial Action Support Facility located in the 100-DR-1 Operable Unit at the Hanford Site. This document describes operations, including the type and frequency of required maintenance, and system failure response procedures

  20. Operation and maintenance manual for the temporary septic holding tank at the 100-D remedial action support facility. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelty, G.G.

    1996-09-01

    This manual provides detailed information for the operation and maintenance of the sanitary wastewater holding system at the 100-D Remedial Action Support Facility located in the 100-DR-1 Operable Unit of the Hanford Site. This document describes operations, including the type and frequency of required maintenance, and system failure response procedures

  1. Survey method for radiological surveys of 300 FF-1 Operable Unit soil and materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greif, A.A.

    1997-06-01

    This technical basis document is to be used to survey soils at the 300-FF-1 Operable Unit during remediation of the site. Its purpose is to provide a basis for the survey methods to be employed by the Radiological Control Technician to determine if excavated areas require continued remediation in accordance with the Record of Decision for the operable unit

  2. Remedial Investigation Report on Chestnut Ridge Operable Unit 2 (Filled Coal Ash Pond/Upper McCoy Branch) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Volume 1. Main Text

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-08-01

    This document is a report on the remedial investigation (RI) of Chestnut Ridge Operable Unit (OU) 2 at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. Chestnut Ridge OU 2 consists of Upper McCoy Branch (UMB), the Filled Coal Ash Pond (FCAP), and the area surrounding the Sluice Channel formerly associated with coal ash disposal in the FCAP. Chestnut Ridge OU 2 is located within the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Oak Ridge Reservation in Anderson County, Tennessee, approximately 24 miles west of Knoxville. The pond is an 8.5-acre area on the southern slope of Chestnut Ridge, 0.5 mile south of the main Y-12 Plant and geographically separated from the Y-12 Plant by Chestnut Ridge. The elevation of the FCAP is ∼ 950 ft above mean sea level (msl), and it is relatively flat and largely vegetated. Two small ponds are usually present at the northeast and northwest comers of the FCAP. The Sluice Channel Area extends ∼1000 ft from the northern margin of the FCAP to the crest of Chestnut Ridge, which has an elevation of ∼1100 ft above msl. The Sluice Channel Area is largely vegetated also. McCoy Branch runs from the top of Chestnut Ridge across the FCAP into Rogers Quarry and out of the quarry where it runs a short distance into Milton Hill Lake at McCoy Embayment, termed UMB. The portion south of Rogers Quarry, within Chestnut Ridge OU 4, is termed Lower McCoy Branch. The DOE Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant disposed of coal ash from its steam plant operations as a slurry that was discharged into an ash retention impoundment; this impoundment is the FCAP. The FCAP was built in 1955 to serve as a settling basin after coal ash slurried over Chestnut Ridge from the Y-12 Plant. The FCAP was constructed by building an earthen dam across the northern tributary of McCoy Branch. The dam was designed to hold 20 years of Y-12 steam plant ash. By July 1967, ash had filled up the impoundment storage behind the dam to within 4 ft of the top

  3. Remedial Investigation Report on Chestnut Ridge Operable Unit 2 (Filled Coal Ash Pond/Upper McCoy Branch) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Volume 1. Main Text

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-08-01

    This document is a report on the remedial investigation (RI) of Chestnut Ridge Operable Unit (OU) 2 at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. Chestnut Ridge OU 2 consists of Upper McCoy Branch (UMB), the Filled Coal Ash Pond (FCAP), and the area surrounding the Sluice Channel formerly associated with coal ash disposal in the FCAP. Chestnut Ridge OU 2 is located within the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Oak Ridge Reservation in Anderson County, Tennessee, approximately 24 miles west of Knoxville. The pond is an 8.5-acre area on the southern slope of Chestnut Ridge, 0.5 mile south of the main Y-12 Plant and geographically separated from the Y-12 Plant by Chestnut Ridge. The elevation of the FCAP is {approximately} 950 ft above mean sea level (msl), and it is relatively flat and largely vegetated. Two small ponds are usually present at the northeast and northwest comers of the FCAP. The Sluice Channel Area extends {approximately}1000 ft from the northern margin of the FCAP to the crest of Chestnut Ridge, which has an elevation of {approximately}1100 ft above msl. The Sluice Channel Area is largely vegetated also. McCoy Branch runs from the top of Chestnut Ridge across the FCAP into Rogers Quarry and out of the quarry where it runs a short distance into Milton Hill Lake at McCoy Embayment, termed UMB. The portion south of Rogers Quarry, within Chestnut Ridge OU 4, is termed Lower McCoy Branch. The DOE Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant disposed of coal ash from its steam plant operations as a slurry that was discharged into an ash retention impoundment; this impoundment is the FCAP. The FCAP was built in 1955 to serve as a settling basin after coal ash slurried over Chestnut Ridge from the Y-12 Plant. The FCAP was constructed by building an earthen dam across the northern tributary of McCoy Branch. The dam was designed to hold 20 years of Y-12 steam plant ash. By July 1967, ash had filled up the impoundment storage behind the dam to within 4 ft of the top.

  4. Integrated Ground Operations Demonstration Units

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The overall goal of the AES Integrated Ground Operations Demonstration Units (IGODU) project is to demonstrate cost efficient cryogenic operations on a relevant...

  5. Award of merit: transportable remediation unit -Jacques Whitford Environment Limited -Toronto

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1995-01-01

    A unique hybrid of remediation technologies was designed to deal with the problem of removing the gasoline and fuel-oil found in soils and groundwater as a result of spills or leakage at petroleum storage and dispensing facilities. Liquid petroleum hydrocarbons were found discharging into a creek in a residential and commercial neighborhood of Metropolitan Toronto. Numerous in-place soil and ground water remediation approaches were evaluated in the course of searching for a solution. A full-scale, transportable, in-situ bioslurping remediation unit was recommended. The unit was connected to 13 specially designed vertical bioslurping wells, and to a buried horizontal header network comprised of four separate zones that could be used to simultaneously extract and/or inject air and water flows. Cycling of various modes of operation was based on detailed monitoring and analysis, which allowed for optimal recovery and biological degradation of contaminants. After only four months of operation, over 4000 kg of petroleum hydrocarbon contaminants had been removed and treated, and all of the mobile liquid hydrocarbons at the water table had been removed. Treatment cost was estimated at $100 to $120 per tonne of contaminated soil, but assuming that the unit could be used at more than one site, the net treatment cost would decrease to $20 to $30 per tonne. 1 ill

  6. Risk-based decision analysis for groundwater operable units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiaramonte, G.R.

    1995-01-01

    This document proposes a streamlined approach and methodology for performing risk assessment in support of interim remedial measure (IRM) decisions involving the remediation of contaminated groundwater on the Hanford Site. This methodology, referred to as ''risk-based decision analysis,'' also supports the specification of target cleanup volumes and provides a basis for design and operation of the groundwater remedies. The risk-based decision analysis can be completed within a short time frame and concisely documented. The risk-based decision analysis is more versatile than the qualitative risk assessment (QRA), because it not only supports the need for IRMs, but also provides criteria for defining the success of the IRMs and provides the risk-basis for decisions on final remedies. For these reasons, it is proposed that, for groundwater operable units, the risk-based decision analysis should replace the more elaborate, costly, and time-consuming QRA

  7. 40 CFR 63.7886 - What are the general standards I must meet for my affected remediation material management units?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... refinery) is no longer subject to this subpart. (3) If the remediation material management unit is also... emissions limitations and work practice standards under the other subpart (e.g., you install and operate the required air pollution controls or have implemented the required work practice to reduce HAP emissions to...

  8. Interim Action Proposed Plan for the Chemicals, Metals, and Pesticides (CMP) Pits Operable Unit; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradley, J.

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this Interim Action Proposed Plan (IAPP) is to describe the preferred interim remedial action for addressing the Chemicals, Metals, and Pesticides (CMP) Pits Operable Unit and to provide an opportunity for public input into the remedial action selection process

  9. Cyanide speciation at four gold leach operations undergoing remediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Craig A; Grimes, David J; Leinz, Reinhard W; Rye, Robert O

    2008-02-15

    Analyses have been made of 81 effluents from four gold leach operations in various stages of remediation to identify the most -persistent cyanide species. Total cyanide and weak acid-dissociable (WAD) cyanide were measured using improved methods, and metals known to form stable cyanocomplexes were also measured. Typically, total cyanide greatly exceeded WAD indicating that cyanide was predominantly in strong cyanometallic complexes. Iron was generally too low to accommodate the strongly complexed cyanide as Fe(CN)6s3- or Fe(CN)6(4-), but cobalt was abundant enough to implicate Co(CN)6(3-) or its dissociation products (Co(CN)(6-x)(H2O)x((3-x)-)). Supporting evidenceforcobalt-cyanide complexationwas found in tight correlations between cobalt and cyanide in some sample suites. Also, abundant free cyanide was produced upon UV illumination. Iron and cobalt cyanocomplexes both photodissociate; however, the iron concentration was insufficient to have carried the liberated cyanide, while the cobalt concentration was sufficient. Cobalt cyanocomplexes have not previously been recognized in cyanidation wastes. Their identification atfour separate operations, which had treated ores that were not especially rich in cobalt, suggests that cobalt complexation may be a common source of cyanide persistence. There is a need for more information on the importance and behavior of cobalt cyanocomplexes in ore-processing wastes at gold mines.

  10. Electrodialytic remediation of copper mine tailings: Comparing different operational conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rojo, Adrian; Hansen, Henrik K.; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.

    2006-01-01

    This work compares and evaluates sixteen electrodialytic laboratory remediation experiments on copper mine tailings. Different parameters were analyzed, such as remediation time, voltage drop, addition of desorbing agents, and the use of pulsed electrical fields. The results show that electric...... of copper citrate complexes. Using pulsed electric fields the remediation process with sulphuric acid addition was also improved by a decrease in the polarization cell. Main results: considering remediation with watery tailing as the base line, for three weeks experiments no copper removal was observed......, adding sulphuric acid total copper removal reached 39%. Adding citric acid, total copper removal was improved in terms of remediation time: after 5h experiment copper removal was 16% instead of 9% obtained after 72h with sulphuric acid addition. Using pulsed electric fields total copper removal was also...

  11. Explanation of significant differences for the TNX groundwater operable unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmer, E.R.

    1997-01-01

    This Explanation of Significant Differences (ESD) is being issued by the Department of Energy (DOE), the lead agency for the Savannah River Site (SRS), with concurrence by the Environmental Protection Agency-Region IV (EPA) and South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC) to announce changes in the interim remediation strategy selected for the TNX Groundwater Operable Unit. The TNX Area is located adjacent to the Savannah River in the southwestern portion of SRS. The remedy selected in the Interim Record of Decision (IROD) to achieve the interim action goals was the Hybrid Groundwater Corrective Action (HGCA). The HGCA consisted of a recirculation well system and an air stripper with a series of groundwater extraction wells. The original remediation strategy needs to be modified because the recirculation well system was determined to be ineffective in this area due to geological factors and the nature of the contamination

  12. Remedial investigation work plan for Bear Creek Valley Operable Unit 1 (S-3 Ponds, Boneyard/Burnyard, Oil Landfarm, Sanitary Landfill 1, and the Burial Grounds, including Oil Retention Ponds 1 and 2) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-09-01

    The intent and scope of the work plan are to assemble all data necessary to facilitate selection of remediation alternatives for the sites in Bear Creek Valley Operable Unit 1 (BCV OU 1) such that the risk to human health and the environment is reduced to acceptable levels based on agreements with regulators. The ultimate goal is to develop a final Record Of Decision (ROD) for all of the OUs in BCV, including the integrator OU. However, the initial aim of the source OUs is to develop a ROD for interim measures. For source OUs such as BCV OU 1, data acquisition will not be carried out in a single event, but will be carried out in three stages that accommodate the schedule for developing a ROD for interim measures and the final site-wide ROD. The three stages are as follows: Stage 1, Assemble sufficient data to support decisions such as the need for removal actions, whether to continue with the remedial investigation (RI) process, or whether no further action is required. If the decision is made to continue the RI/FS process, then: Stage 2, Assemble sufficient data to allow for a ROD for interim measures that reduce risks to the human health and the environment. Stage 3, Provide input from the source OU that allows a final ROD to be issued for all OUs in the BCV hydrologic regime. One goal of the RI work plan will be to ensure that sampling operations required for the initial stage are not repeated at later stages. The overall goals of this RI are to define the nature and extent of contamination so that the impact of leachate, surface water runoff, and sediment from the OU I sites on the integrator OU can be evaluated, the risk to human health and the environment can be defined, and the general physical characteristics of the subsurface can be determined such that remedial alternatives can be screened

  13. Remedial investigation work plan for Bear Creek Valley Operable Unit 1 (S-3 Ponds, Boneyard/Burnyard, Oil Landfarm, Sanitary Landfill 1, and the Burial Grounds, including Oil Retention Ponds 1 and 2) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Volume 1, Main text

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-09-01

    The intent and scope of the work plan are to assemble all data necessary to facilitate selection of remediation alternatives for the sites in Bear Creek Valley Operable Unit 1 (BCV OU 1) such that the risk to human health and the environment is reduced to acceptable levels based on agreements with regulators. The ultimate goal is to develop a final Record Of Decision (ROD) for all of the OUs in BCV, including the integrator OU. However, the initial aim of the source OUs is to develop a ROD for interim measures. For source OUs such as BCV OU 1, data acquisition will not be carried out in a single event, but will be carried out in three stages that accommodate the schedule for developing a ROD for interim measures and the final site-wide ROD. The three stages are as follows: Stage 1, Assemble sufficient data to support decisions such as the need for removal actions, whether to continue with the remedial investigation (RI) process, or whether no further action is required. If the decision is made to continue the RI/FS process, then: Stage 2, Assemble sufficient data to allow for a ROD for interim measures that reduce risks to the human health and the environment. Stage 3, Provide input from the source OU that allows a final ROD to be issued for all OUs in the BCV hydrologic regime. One goal of the RI work plan will be to ensure that sampling operations required for the initial stage are not repeated at later stages. The overall goals of this RI are to define the nature and extent of contamination so that the impact of leachate, surface water runoff, and sediment from the OU I sites on the integrator OU can be evaluated, the risk to human health and the environment can be defined, and the general physical characteristics of the subsurface can be determined such that remedial alternatives can be screened.

  14. 200-BP-5 operable unit Technical Baseline report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacques, I.D.; Kent, S.K.

    1991-10-01

    This report supports development of a remedial investigation/feasibility study work plan for the 200-BP-5 operable unit. The report summarizes baseline information for waste sites and unplanned release sites located in the 200-BP-5 operable unit. The sites were investigated by the Technical Baseline Section of the Environmental Engineering Group, Westinghouse Hanford Company (Westinghouse Hanford). The investigation consisted of review and evaluation of current and historical Hanford Site reports, drawings, and photographs, and was supplemented with recent inspections of the Hanford Site and employee interviews. No field investigations or sampling were conducted

  15. Operable Unit 3-13, Group 3, Other Surface Soils (Phase II) Field Sampling Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G. L. Schwendiman

    2006-07-27

    This Field Sampling Plan describes the Operable Unit 3-13, Group 3, Other Surface Soils, Phase II remediation field sampling activities to be performed at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center located within the Idaho National Laboratory Site. Sampling activities described in this plan support characterization sampling of new sites, real-time soil spectroscopy during excavation, and confirmation sampling that verifies that the remedial action objectives and remediation goals presented in the Final Record of Decision for Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center, Operable Unit 3-13 have been met.

  16. SCOPING SUMMARY FOR THE P-AREA OPERABLE UNIT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kupar, J; Sadika Baladi, S; Mark Amidon, M

    2007-01-01

    This scoping summary supports development of the combined Remedial Investigation (RI)/Baseline Risk Assessment (BRA)/Feasibility Study (FS) for the P-Area Operable Unit (PAOU), or Combined document, which will be submitted on or before 09/28/2007. The objective of this Feasibility Study scoping summary meeting is to agree on the likely response actions to be evaluated and developed as alternatives in the combined document and agree on the uncertainties identified and whether they have been adequately managed

  17. SCOPING SUMMARY FOR THE P-AREA OPERABLE UNIT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kupar, J; Sadika Baladi, S; Mark Amidon, M

    2007-05-22

    This scoping summary supports development of the combined Remedial Investigation (RI)/Baseline Risk Assessment (BRA)/Feasibility Study (FS) for the P-Area Operable Unit (PAOU), or Combined document, which will be submitted on or before 09/28/2007. The objective of this Feasibility Study scoping summary meeting is to agree on the likely response actions to be evaluated and developed as alternatives in the combined document and agree on the uncertainties identified and whether they have been adequately managed.

  18. Organization of Control Units with Operational Addressing

    OpenAIRE

    Alexander A. Barkalov; Roman M. Babakov; Larysa A. Titarenko

    2012-01-01

    The using of operational addressing unit as the block of control unit is proposed. The new structure model of Moore finite-state machine with reduced hardware amount is developed. The generalized structure of operational addressing unit is suggested. An example of synthesis process for Moore finite-state machine with operational addressing unit is given. The analytical researches of proposed structure of control unit are executed.

  19. 100-BC-1 Operable Unit focused feasibility study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Day, R.E.

    1994-01-01

    The standard Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act feasibility study includes development and screening of alternatives (Phases 1 and 2) and the detailed analysis of alternatives (Phase 3). This focused feasibility study constitutes the Phase 3 portion of the feasibility study process for the remedial alternatives initially developed and screened in the 100 Area Feasibility Study Phases 1 and 2 (DOE-RL 1993a). The focused feasibility study process is conducted in two stages, a Process Document (DOE-RL 1994a) and an operable unit-specific focused feasibility study document, such as this one. The focused feasibility study process is performed by implementing a ''plug-in'' style approach; as defined in greater detail in the Process Document, which is a companion to this document. The objective of this focused feasibility study is to provide decision makers with sufficient information to allow appropriate and timely selection of interim remedial measures for candidate waste sites associated with the 100-BC-1 Operable Unit which is located in the north-central part of the Hanford Site. The interim remedial measure candidate waste sites are determined in the Limited Field Investigation (DOE-RL 1993b). Site profiles are developed for each of these waste sites. The site profiles are used in the application of the plug-in approach. The waste site either plugs into the analysis of the alternatives for the group, or deviations from the developed group alternatives are described and documented

  20. Flammable gas deflagration consequence calculations for the tank waste remediation system basis for interim operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Vleet, R.J., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-08-13

    This paper calculates the radiological dose consequences and the toxic exposures for deflagration accidents at various Tank Waste Remediation System facilities. These will be used in support of the Tank Waste Remediation System Basis for Interim Operation.The attached SD documents the originator`s analysis only. It shall not be used as the final or sole document for effecting changes to an authorization basis or safety basis for a facility or activity.

  1. Superfund record of decision (EPA Region 3), Westinghouse Elevator Company Plant, Operable Unit 2, Cumberland Township, Adams County, Gettysburg, PA, March 31, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-04-01

    This Record of Decision (ROD) presents the selected remedial action for Operable Unit 2 (Soils) at the Westinghouse Elevator Company Plant Site in Adams County, Pennsylvania. The selected remedy for the soils at the Westinghouse Elevator Plant is No Additional Action for this Operable Unit. The other alternatives evaluated would produce little or no environmental benefit at substantial cost.

  2. Unit environmental transport assessment of contaminants from Hanford's past-practice waste sites. Hanford Remedial Action Environmental Impact Statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whelan, G.; Buck, J.W.; Castleton, K.J.

    1995-06-01

    The US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office (DOE-RL) contracted Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to provide support to Advanced Sciences, Incorporated (ASI) in implementing tile regional no-action risk assessment in the Hanford Remedial Action Environmental Impact Statement. Researchers at PNL were charged with developing unit concentrations for soil, groundwater, surface water, and air at multiple locations within an 80-km radius from the center of tile Hanford installation. Using the Multimedia Environmental Pollutant Assessment System (MEPAS), PNL simulated (1) a unit release of one ci for each radionuclide and one kg for each chemical from contaminated soils and ponded sites, (2) transport of the contaminants in and through various environmental media and (3) exposure/risk of four exposure scenarios, outlined by the Hanford Site Baseline Remedial Action Methodology. These four scenarios include residential, recreational, industrial, and agricultural exposures. Spacially and temporally distributed environmental concentrations based on unit releases of radionuclides and chemicals were supported to ASI in support of the HRA-EIS. Risk for the four exposure scenarios, based on unit environment concentrations in air, water, and soil. were also supplied to ASI. This report outlines the procedure that was used to implement the unit transport portion of the HRA-EIS baseline risk assessment. Deliverables include unit groundwater, surface water, air, and soil concentrations at multiple locations within an 80-km radius from the center of the Hanford installation

  3. Annual Summary Report, February to December 1998, for the 100-HR-3 and 100-KR-4 Pump-and-Treat Operations and Operable Units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boutin, R. J.

    1999-01-01

    This annual summary report discusses the interim remedial actions at the 100-HR-3 and 100-KR-4 Operable Units (OUs) for February 1,1998, through December 31, 1998. This is the second annual summary report that has been submitted for these OUs; the first report was released in April 1998 (DOE-RL 1998). Ongoing annual summaries and performance evaluations of each of the pump-and-treat systems are required by the Remedial Design Report and Remedial Action Work Plan for the 100-HR-3 and 100-KR-4 Groundwater Operable Units' Interim Action (RDR/RAWP) (DOE-RL 1996)

  4. Overview of uranium mill tailings remedial action project of the United States of America 1995-1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edge, R.

    1997-01-01

    From the early 1940's through the 1960's the United States federal government contracted for processed uranium ore for national defense research, weapons development and commercial nuclear energy. When these contracts were terminated, the mills ceased operation leaving large uranium tailings on the former mill sites. The purpose of the Uranium Remedial Action Project (UMTRA) is to minimize or eliminate potential health hazards resulting from exposure of the public to the tailings at these abandons sites. There are 24 inactive uranium mill tailings sites, in 10 states and an Indian reservation lands, included for clean up under the auspices of UMTRA. Presently the last 2 sites are under remediation. This paper addresses the progress of the project over the last two years. (author)

  5. Feasibility Study for Operable Unit 7-13/14

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    K. Jean Holdren Thomas E. Bechtold Brian D. Preussner

    2007-01-01

    The Subsurface Disposal Area is a radioactive waste landfill located within the Radioactive Waste Management Complex at the Idaho National Laboratory Site in southeastern Idaho. This Feasibility Study for Operable Unit 7-13/14 analyzes options for mitigating risks to human health and the environment associated with the landfill. Analysis is conducted in accordance with the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act, using nine evaluation criteria to develop detailed and comparative analysis of five assembled alternatives. Assembled alternatives are composed of discrete modules. Ultimately, decision-makers will select, recombine, and sum various modules into an optimized preferred alternative and final remedial decision

  6. Feasibility Study for Operable Unit 7-13/14

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K. Jean Holdren

    2007-05-29

    The Subsurface Disposal Area is a radioactive waste landfill located within the Radioactive Waste Management Complex at the Idaho National Laboratory Site in southeastern Idaho. This Feasibility Study for Operable Unit 7-13/14 analyzes options for mitigating risks to human health and the environment associated with the landfill. Analysis is conducted in accordance with the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act, using nine evaluation criteria to develop detailed and comparative analysis of five assembled alternatives. Assembled alternatives are composed of discrete modules. Ultimately, decision-makers will select, recombine, and sum various modules into an optimized preferred alternative and final remedial decision.

  7. Feasibility study report for the 200-BP-1 operable unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-06-01

    This feasibility study examines a range of alternatives and provides recommendations for selecting a preferred alternative for remediating contamination at the 200-BP-1 operable unit. The 200-BP-1 operable unit is located in the center of the Hanford Site along the northern boundary of the 200 East Area. The 241-BY Tank Farm is located immediately to the south of the operable unit. 200-BP-1 is a source operable unit with contaminated soils associated primarily with nine inactive cribs (known as the 216-B cribs). These cribs were used for disposal of low-level radioactive liquid waste from U Plant uranium recovery operations, and waste storage tank condensate from the adjacent 241-BY Tank Farm. The cribs used for disposal of U Plant waste were in operation from 1955--1965, and the cribs used for disposal of tank condensate were in operation from 1965--1975. In addition to the cribs, four unplanned releases of radioactive materials have occurred within the operable unit. Contaminated surface soils associated with the unplanned releases have been consolidated over the cribs and covered with clean soil to reduce contaminant migration and exposure. Discharge of wastes to the cribs has resulted in soil and groundwater contamination. The groundwater is being addressed as part of the 200 East Aggregate Area, groundwater operable unit. Contaminated soils at the site can be categorized by the types of contaminants, their distribution in the soil column, and the risk posed by the various potential exposure pathways. Below the clean soil cover, the near surface soils contain low-levels of contamination with cesium-137, radium-226, strontium-90, thorium-228, and uranium. The lifetime incremental cancer risk associated with these soils if they were exposed at the surface is 9x10 -5

  8. Feasibility study report for the 200-BP-1 operable unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    This feasibility study (FS) examines a range of alternatives and provides recommendations for selecting a preferred altemative for remediating contamination at the 200-BP-1 operable unit. The 200-BP-1 operable unit is located in the center of the Hanford Site along the northern boundary of the 200 East Area. The 241-BY Tank Farm is located immediately to the south of the operable unit. 200-BP-1 is a source operable unit with contaminated soils associated primarily with nine inactive cribs (known as the 216-B cribs). These cribs were used for disposal of low-level radioactive liquid waste from U Plant uranium recovery operations, and waste storage tank condensate from the adjacent 241-BY Tank Farm. The cribs used for disposal of U Plant waste were in operation from 1955--1965, and the cribs used for disposal of tank condensate were in operation from 1965-1975. In addition to the cribs, four unplanned releases of radioactive materials have occurred within the operable unit. Contaminated surface soils associated with the unplanned releases have been consolidated over the cribs and covered with clean soil to reduce contaminant migration and exposure. Discharge of wastes to the cribs has resulted in soil and groundwater contamination. The groundwater is being addressed as part of the 200 East Aggregate Area groundwater operable unit. Contaminated soils at the site can be categorized by the types of contaminants, their distribution in the soil column, and the risk posed by the various potential exposure pathways. Below the clean soil cover, the near surface soils contain low-:levels of contamination with cesium-137, radium-226, strontium-90, thorium-228 and uranium. The lifetime incremental cancer risk associated with these soils if they were exposed at the surface is 9 x 10 5

  9. Feasibility study report for the 200-BP-1 operable unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-06-01

    This feasibility study examines a range of alternatives and provides recommendations for selecting a preferred alternative for remediating contamination at the 200-BP-1 operable unit. The 200-BP-1 operable unit is located in the center of the Hanford Site along the northern boundary of the 200 East Area. The 241-BY Tank Farm is located immediately to the south of the operable unit. 200-BP-1 is a source operable unit with contaminated soils associated primarily with nine inactive cribs (known as the 216-B cribs). These cribs were used for disposal of low-level radioactive liquid waste from U Plant uranium recovery operations, and waste storage tank condensate from the adjacent 241-BY Tank Farm. The cribs used for disposal of U Plant waste were in operation from 1955--1965, and the cribs used for disposal of tank condensate were in operation from 1965--1975. In addition to the cribs, four unplanned releases of radioactive materials have occurred within the operable unit. Contaminated surface soils associated with the unplanned releases have been consolidated over the cribs and covered with clean soil to reduce contaminant migration and exposure. Discharge of wastes to the cribs has resulted in soil and groundwater contamination. The groundwater is being addressed as part of the 200 East Aggregate Area, groundwater operable unit. Contaminated soils at the site can be categorized by the types of contaminants, their distribution in the soil column, and the risk posed by the various potential exposure pathways. Below the clean soil cover, the near surface soils contain low-levels of contamination with cesium-137, radium-226, strontium-90, thorium-228, and uranium. The lifetime incremental cancer risk associated with these soils if they were exposed at the surface is 9{times}10{sup {minus}5}.

  10. Best management practices plan for the Lower East Fork Poplar Creek Operable Unit, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-04-01

    This plan was prepared in support of the Phase II Remedial Design Report (DOE/OR/01-1449 ampersand D1) and in accordance with requirements under CERCLA to present the plan for best management practices to be followed during the remediation. This document provides the Environmental Restoration Program with information about spill prevention and control, water quality monitoring, good housekeeping practices, sediment and erosion control measures, and inspections and environmental compliance practices to be used during Phase II of the remediation project for the Lower East Fork Poplar Creek Operable Unit

  11. 200-UP-2 Operable Unit technical baseline report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deford, D.H.

    1991-02-01

    This report is prepared in support of the development of a Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study (RI/FS) Work Plan for the 200-UP-2 Operable Unit by EBASCO Environmental, Incorporated. It provides a technical baseline of the 200-UP-2 Operable Unit and results from an environmental investigation undertaken by the Technical Baseline Section of the Environmental Engineering Group, Westinghouse Hanford Company (Westinghouse Hanford). The 200-UP-2 Operable Unit Technical Baseline Report is based on review and evaluation of numerous Hanford Site current and historical reports, Hanford Site drawings and photographs and is supplemented with Hanford Site inspections and employee interviews. No field investigations or sampling were conducted. Each waste site in the 200-UP-2 Operable Unit is described separately. Close relationships between waste units, such as overflow from one to another, are also discussed. The 200-UP-2 Operable Unit consists of liquid-waste disposal sites in the vicinity of, and related to, U Plant operations in the 200 West Area of the Hanford Site. The ''U Plant'' refers to the 221-U Process Canyon Building, a chemical separations facility constructed during World War 2. It also includes the Uranium Oxide (UO 3 ) Plant, which was constructed at the same time and, like the 221-U Process Canyon Building, was later converted for other missions. Waste sites in the 200-UP-2 Operable Unit are associated with the U Plant Uranium Metal Recovery Program mission that occurred between 1952 and 1958 and the UO 3 Plant's ongoing uranium oxide mission and include one or more cribs, reverse wells, french drains, septic tanks and drain fields, trenches, catch tanks, settling tanks, diversion boxes, waste vaults, and the lines and encasements that connect them. 11 refs., 1 tab

  12. Feasibility study report for Operable Unit 4: Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-02-01

    This report documents the Feasibility Study (FS) phase of the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP) Operable Unit 4 Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study (RI/FS) Program. The FEMP, formerly known as the Feed Materials Production Center (FMPC), is a US Department of Energy (DOE) facility that operated from 1952 to 1989. The facility's primarily function was to provide high purity uranium metal products to support United States defense programs. Production operations were suspended in 1989 to focus on environmental restoration and waste management activities at the facility. The RI/FS is being conducted pursuant to the terms of a Consent Agreement between DOE and the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) under Sections 120 and 106(a) of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), as amended. The Ohio Environmental Protection Agency (OEPA) is also participating in the RI/FS process at the FEMP through direct involvement in program review meetings and technical review of project documentation. The objective of the RI/FS process is to gather information to support an informed risk management decision regarding which remedy appears to be the most appropriate action for addressing the environmental concerns identified at the FEMP

  13. Feasibility study report for Operable Unit 4: Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-02-01

    This report documents the Feasibility Study (FS) phase of the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP) Operable Unit 4 Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study (RI/FS) Program. The FEMP, formerly known as the Feed Materials Production Center (FMPC), is a US Department of Energy (DOE) facility that operated from 1952 to 1989. The facility's primarily function was to provide high purity uranium metal products to support United States defense programs. Production operations were suspended in 1989 to focus on environmental restoration and waste management activities at the facility. The RI/FS is being conducted pursuant to the terms of a Consent Agreement between DOE and the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) under Sections 120 and 106(a) of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), as amended. The Ohio Environmental Protection Agency (OEPA) is also participating in the RI/FS process at the FEMP through direct involvement in program review meetings and technical review of project documentation. The objective of the RI/FS process is to gather information to support an informed risk management decision regarding which remedy appears to be the most appropriate action for addressing the environmental concerns identified at the FEMP. This volume contains appendices A--E

  14. Preliminary remediation goals for use at the US Department of Energy Oak Ridge Operations Office. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-05-01

    This technical memorandum presents Preliminary Remediation Goals (PRGs) for use in human health risk assessment efforts under the United States Department of Energy, Oak Ridge Operations Office Environmental Restoration (ER) Division. This document provides the ER Division with standardized PRGs which are integral to the Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study process. They are used during project scooping (Data Quality Objectives development), in screening level risk assessments to support early action or No Further Investigation decisions, and in the baselines risk assessment where they are employed in the selection of chemicals of potential concern. The primary objective of this document is to standardize these values and eliminate any duplication of effort by providing PRGs to all contractors involved in risk activities. In addition, by managing the assumptions and systems used in PRG derivation, the ER Risk Assessment Program will be able to control the level of quality assurance associated with these risk-based guideline values

  15. Preliminary remediation goals for use at the U.S. Department of Energy Oak Ridge Operations Office

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-06-01

    This report presents Preliminary Remediation Goals (PRGs) for use in human health risk assessment efforts under the United States Department of Energy, Oak Ridge Operations Office Environmental Restoration (ER) Division. Chemical-specific PRGs are concentration goals for individual chemicals for specific medium and land use combinations. The PRGs are referred to as risk-based because they have been calculated using risk assessment procedures. Risk-based calculations set concentration limits using both carcinogenic or noncarcinogenic toxicity values under specific exposure pathways. The PRG is a concentration that is derived from a specified excess cancer risk level or hazard quotient. This report provides the ER Division with standardized PRGs which are integral to the Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study process. By managing the assumptions and systems used in PRG derivation, the Environmental Restoration Risk Assessment Program will be able to control the level of quality assurance associated with these risk-based guideline values

  16. Preliminary remediation goals for use at the U.S. Department of Energy Oak Ridge Operations Office

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-06-01

    This report presents Preliminary Remediation Goals (PRGs) for use in human health risk assessment efforts under the United States Department of Energy, Oak Ridge Operations Office Environmental Restoration (ER) Division. Chemical-specific PRGs are concentration goals for individual chemicals for specific medium and land use combinations. The PRGs are referred to as risk-based because they have been calculated using risk assessment procedures. Risk-based calculations set concentration limits using both carcinogenic or noncarcinogenic toxicity values under specific exposure pathways. The PRG is a concentration that is derived from a specified excess cancer risk level or hazard quotient. This report provides the ER Division with standardized PRGs which are integral to the Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study process. By managing the assumptions and systems used in PRG derivation, the Environmental Restoration Risk Assessment Program will be able to control the level of quality assurance associated with these risk-based guideline values.

  17. Preliminary remediation goals for use at the US Department of Energy Oak Ridge Operations Office. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-05-01

    This technical memorandum presents Preliminary Remediation Goals (PRGs) for use in human health risk assessment efforts under the United States Department of Energy, Oak Ridge Operations Office Environmental Restoration (ER) Division. This document provides the ER Division with standardized PRGs which are integral to the Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study process. They are used during project scooping (Data Quality Objectives development), in screening level risk assessments to support early action or No Further Investigation decisions, and in the baselines risk assessment where they are employed in the selection of chemicals of potential concern. The primary objective of this document is to standardize these values and eliminate any duplication of effort by providing PRGs to all contractors involved in risk activities. In addition, by managing the assumptions and systems used in PRG derivation, the ER Risk Assessment Program will be able to control the level of quality assurance associated with these risk-based guideline values.

  18. Physical protection of nuclear operational units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-07-01

    The general principles of and basic requirements for the physical protection of operational units in the nuclear field are established. They concern the operational units whose activities are related with production, utilization, processing, reprocessing, handling, transport or storage of materials of interest for the Brazilian Nuclear Program. (I.C.R.) [pt

  19. Junior Leader Training Development in Operational Units

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-01

    UNITS Successful operational units do not arise without tough, realistic, and challenging training. Field Manual (FM) 7-0, Training Units and D...operations. The manual provides junior leaders with guidance on how to conduct training and training management. Of particular importance is the definition...1 Relation htp between ADDIE and the Anny Training Management Model. The Army Training Management Model and ADDIE process appear in TRADOC PAM 350

  20. Storm water control plan for the Lower East Fork Poplar Creek Operable Unit, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-04-01

    This document provides the Environmental Restoration Program with information about the erosion and sediment control, storm water management, maintenance, and reporting and record keeping practices to be employed during Phase II of the remediation project for the Lower East Fork Poplar Creek (LEFPC) Operable Unit

  1. 2006 Annual Operations Report for INTEC Operable Unit 3-13, Group 1, Tank Farm Interim Action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D. E. Shanklin

    2007-01-01

    This annual operations report describes the requirements followed and activities conducted to inspect, monitor, and maintain the items installed during performance of the Waste Area Group 3, Operable Unit 3-13, Group 1, Tank Farm Interim Action, at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center. This report covers the time period from January 1 through December 31, 2006, and describes inspection and monitoring activities for the surface-sealed areas within the tank farm, concrete-lined ditches and culverts in and around the tank farm, the lift station, and the lined evaporation pond. These activities are intended to assure that the interim action is functioning adequately to meet the objectives stated in the Operable Unit 3-13, Record of Decision for the Group 1, Tank Farm Interim Action (DOE/ID-10660) as described in the Group 1 Remedial Design/Remedial Action Work Plan (DOE/ID-10772)

  2. 100-KR-1 Operable Unit focused feasibility study report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-11-01

    The standard Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 Feasibility Study (FS) includes development and screening of alternatives and the detailed analysis of alternatives. This focused feasibility study (FFS) was conducted for the 100-KR-1 Operable Unit at the Hanford Site in southeastern Washington. The objective of this operable unit-specific FFS is to provide decision makers with sufficient information to allow appropriate and timely selection of interim remedial measures (IRM) for the five sites (116-K-1 crib, 116-K-2 trench, 116-KE-4 and 116-KW-3 retention basins, and process effluent pipelines) associated with the 100-KR-1 Operable Unit. The IRM candidate waste sites are determined in the limited field investigation. Site profiles are developed for each of these waste site. The site profiles are used in the application of the plug-in approach. The waste site either plugs into the analysis of the alternatives for the group, or deviations from the developed group alternatives are described and documented

  3. Nuclear units operating improvement by using operating experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rotaru, I.; Bilegan, I.C.

    1997-01-01

    The paper presents how the information experience can be used to improve the operation of nuclear units. This areas include the following items: conservative decision making; supervisory oversight; teamwork; control room distraction; communications; expectations and standards; operator training and fundamental knowledge, procedure quality and adherence; plant status awareness. For each of these topics, the information illustrate which are the principles, the lessons learned from operating experience and the most appropriate exemplifying documents. (authors)

  4. SURF: Taking Sustainable Remediation from Concept to Standard Operating Procedure (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, L. M.; Wice, R. B.; Torrens, J.

    2013-12-01

    Over the last decade, many sectors of industrialized society have been rethinking behavior and re-engineering practices to reduce consumption of energy and natural resources. During this time, green and sustainable remediation (GSR) has evolved from conceptual discussions to standard operating procedure for many environmental remediation practitioners. Government agencies and private sector entities have incorporated GSR metrics into their performance criteria and contracting documents. One of the early think tanks for the development of GSR was the Sustainable Remediation Forum (SURF). SURF brings together representatives of government, industry, consultancy, and academia to parse the means and ends of incorporating societal and economic considerations into environmental cleanup projects. Faced with decades-old treatment programs with high energy outputs and no endpoints in sight, a small group of individuals published the institutional knowledge gathered in two years of ad hoc meetings into a 2009 White Paper on sustainable remediation drivers, practices, objectives, and case studies. Since then, SURF has expanded on those introductory topics, publishing its Framework for Integrating Sustainability into Remediation Projects, Guidance for Performing Footprint Analyses and Life-Cycle Assessments for the Remediation Industry, a compendium of metrics, and a call to improve the integration of land remediation and reuse. SURF's research and members have also been instrumental in the development of additional guidance through ASTM International and the Interstate Technology and Regulatory Council. SURF's current efforts focus on water reuse, the international perspective on GSR (continuing the conversations that were the basis of SURF's December 2012 meeting at the National Academy of Sciences in Washington, DC), and ways to capture and evaluate the societal benefits of site remediation. SURF also promotes and supports student chapters at universities across the US

  5. Evaluation of unit risk factors in support of the Hanford Remedial Action Environmental Impact Statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strenge, D.L.; Chamberlain, P.J. II.

    1994-11-01

    This report describes the generation of unit risk factors for use with the Graphical Information System (GIS) being developed by Advanced Sciences, Inc. for the Hanford Remedial Action Environmental Impact Statement. The GIS couples information on source inventory and environmental transport with unit risk factors to estimate the potential risk from contamination at all locations on the Hanford Site. The major components of the effort to generate the unit risk factors were: determination of pollutants to include in the study, definition of media of concern, and definition of exposure assessment scenarios, methods, and parameters. The selection of pollutants was based on inventory lists which indicated the pollutants likely to be encountered at the known waste sites. The final pollutants selected included 47 chemical pollutants and 101 radionuclides. Unit risk factors have been generated for all 148 pollutants per unit initial concentration in five media: soil (per unit mass), soil (per unit area), air, groundwater, and surface water. The exposure scenarios were selected as the basis for the unit risk factor generation. The endpoint in the exposure assessment analysis is expressed as risk of developing cancer for radionuclides and carcinogenic chemicals. For noncarcinogenic chemicals, the risk endpoint is the hazard quotient. The cancer incidence and hazard quotient values are evaluated for all exposure pathways, pollutants, and scenarios. The hazard index values and unit risk values are used by the GIS to produce maps of risk for the Hanford Site

  6. Phase I and II feasibility study report for the 300-FF-5 operable unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-12-31

    The purpose of this Phase I/II feasibility study is to assemble and screen a list of alternatives for remediation of the 300-FF-5 operable site on the Hanford Reservation. This screening is based on information gathered in the Phase I Remedial Investigation (RI) and on currently available information on remediation technologies. The alternatives remaining after screening provide a range of response actions for remediation. In addition, key data needs are identified for collection during a Phase II RI (if necessary). This Phase I/II FS represents a primary document as defined by the Tri-Party Agreement, but will be followed by a Phase III FS that will further develop the alternatives and provide a detailed evaluation of them. The following remedial action objectives were identified for the 300-FF-5 operable unit: Limit current human exposure to contaminated groundwater in the unit; Limit discharge of contaminated groundwater to the Columbia River; Reduce contaminant concentrations in groundwater below acceptable levels by the year 2018.

  7. Phase I and II feasibility study report for the 300-FF-5 operable unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of this Phase I/II feasibility study is to assemble and screen a list of alternatives for remediation of the 300-FF-5 operable site on the Hanford Reservation. This screening is based on information gathered in the Phase I Remedial Investigation (RI) and on currently available information on remediation technologies. The alternatives remaining after screening provide a range of response actions for remediation. In addition, key data needs are identified for collection during a Phase II RI (if necessary). This Phase I/II FS represents a primary document as defined by the Tri-Party Agreement, but will be followed by a Phase III FS that will further develop the alternatives and provide a detailed evaluation of them. The following remedial action objectives were identified for the 300-FF-5 operable unit: Limit current human exposure to contaminated groundwater in the unit; Limit discharge of contaminated groundwater to the Columbia River; Reduce contaminant concentrations in groundwater below acceptable levels by the year 2018

  8. Basewide Groundwater Operable Unit. Groundwater Operable Unit Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study Report. Volume 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-06-01

    Waters Plan Protection of Aquatic Life Freshwater Aquatic ULie Protection Freshwater Freshwater 1-Hour CopudAcute Chronic Average 4-Day...2 of 3 ARARs TB~s Clean Water Act Ambient Water Quality Criteria Inland Surface Waters Plan Protection of Aquatic Life Freshwater Aquatic Life...as a drinking water source. Response: The Air Force concurs with the establishment of a 106 risk target volume as the goal of the interim

  9. Basewide Groundwater Operable Unit. Groundwater Operable Unit Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study Report. Volume 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-06-01

    chemicals from offgas streams, such as gases from municipal wastewater treatment plants. Recently, biofiltration has been employed to treat VOCs in...L 6-12 W orks Cited ....................................... L6-12 L7 Cometabolic Biofiltration Implementation Plan .................... L7...by eliminating outlying values that dispro- portionately skewed the results. The average composite scores were plotted (Figures Li-1 through LU-5), and

  10. 100-HR-2 Operable Unit Focused Feasibility study report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The standard Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA) Feasibility Study (FS) includes development and screening of alternatives (Phases 1 and 2) and the detailed analysis of alternatives (Phase 3). This focused feasibility study (FFS) was conducted for the 100-HR-2 Operable Unit (OU) at the Hanford Site in southeastern Washington. This FFS constitutes the Phase 3 portion of the FS process for the remedial alternatives initially developed and screened in the 100 Area Feasibility Study Phases 1 and 2 (DOE-RL 1993a). The objective of this OU-specific FFS is to provide decision makers with sufficient information to allow appropriate and timely selection of interim remedial measures (IRM) for the seven IRM candidate sites associated with the 100-HR-2 OU. The IRM candidate waste sites identified in Table ES-1 are determined in the limited field investigation (DOE-RL 1994b). Site profiles are developed for each of these waste sites. The site profiles are used in the application of the plug-in approach. The waste site either plugs into the analysis of the alternatives for the group, or deviations from the developed group alternatives are described and documented. A summary for the 100-HR-2 IRM candidate waste site is as follows: none of the waste sites require additional alternative development. six of the seven waste sites directly plug into the waste site group alternatives. The site-specific detailed analysis is conducted, referencing the waste site group analysis as appropriate. A waste site detailed analysis summary is presented in Table ES-1.A comparative analysis of remedial alternatives is presented for each waste site. A summary of the comparative analysis is presented in Table ES-2

  11. Denver Radium Site -- Operable Unit I closeout report for the US Environmental Protection Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-08-01

    The Denver Radium Site consists of properties in the Denver, Colorado, area having radioactive contamination left from radium processing in the early 1900s. The properties are divided into 11 gaps or operable units to facilitate remedial action of the Site. Operable Unit I is an 8-acre block bounded by Quivas Street to the east, Shoshone Street to the west, West 12th Avenue to the south, and West 13th Avenue to the north. The primary focus of interest concerning investigations of radiological contamination was a radium, vanadium, and uranium processing facility at 1201 Quivas Street owned by the Pittsburgh Radium Company (PRC) from 1925 until 1926. The Radium Ores Company, which was associated with PRC, operated the facility until 1927. A Remedial investigation (RI) of Operable Unit I was prepared by Jacobs Engineering Group and CH 2 M Hill on behalf of EPA in April 1986. The draft Feasibility Study (FS), prepared by Jacobs Engineering Group and CH 2 M Hill, was issued in July 1987 (the final FS is the Community Relations Responsiveness Summary with an errata to the draft, issued September 1987). The RI focused on radium uranium processing residues discarded in the early 1900s. These residues contained uranium, radium, and thorium. EPA s Community Relations Plan involved the community in the decision-making process relating to the remedy to be implemented at Operable Unit X, and promoted communications among interested parties throughout the course of the project. The remedial action alternative preferred by EPA for Operable Unit I was Off-Site Permanent Disposal. Because a permanent disposal facility was not available at the time the Record of Decision was issued in September 1987, EPA selected the On-Site Temporary Containment (capping) with the Off-Site Permanent Disposal alternative

  12. Remedial action and waste disposal project -- 300-FF-1 remedial action readiness assessment plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    April, J.G.; Carlson, R.A.; Greif, A.A.; Johnson, C.R.; Orewiler, R.I.; Perry, D.M.; Plastino, J.C.; Roeck, F.V.; Tuttle, B.G.

    1997-04-01

    This Readiness Assessment Plan presents the methodology used to assess the readiness of the 300-FF-1 Remedial Action Project. Remediation involves the excavation, treatment if applicable, and final disposal of contaminated soil and debris associated with the waste sites in the 300-FF-1 Operable Unit. The scope of the 300-FF-1 remediation is to excavate, transport, and dispose of contaminated solid from sites identified in the 300-FF-1 Operable Unit

  13. Soil washing physical separations test procedure - 300-FF-1 operable unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belden, R.D.

    1993-10-08

    This procedure provides the operations approach, a field sampling plan, and laboratory procedures for a soil washing test to be conducted by Alternative Remedial Technologies, Inc. (ART) in the 300-FF-1 area at the Hanford site. The {open_quotes}Quality Assurance Project Plan for the Soil Washing Physical Separations Test, 300-FF-1 Operable Unit,{close_quotes} Hanford, Washington, Alternative Remedial Technologies, Inc., February 1994 (QAPP) is provided in a separate document that presents the procedural and organizational guidelines for this test. This document describes specifications, responsibilities, and general procedures to be followed to conduct physical separation soil treatability tests in the North Process Pond of the 300-FF-1 Operable Unit (OU) at the Hanford Site. These procedures are based on the {open_quotes}300-FF-1 Physical Separations CERCLA Treatability Test Plan, DOE/RL 92-2l,{close_quotes} (DOE-RL 1993).

  14. Soil washing physical separations test procedure - 300-FF-1 operable unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belden, R.D.

    1993-01-01

    This procedure provides the operations approach, a field sampling plan, and laboratory procedures for a soil washing test to be conducted by Alternative Remedial Technologies, Inc. (ART) in the 300-FF-1 area at the Hanford site. The open-quotes Quality Assurance Project Plan for the Soil Washing Physical Separations Test, 300-FF-1 Operable Unit,close quotes Hanford, Washington, Alternative Remedial Technologies, Inc., February 1994 (QAPP) is provided in a separate document that presents the procedural and organizational guidelines for this test. This document describes specifications, responsibilities, and general procedures to be followed to conduct physical separation soil treatability tests in the North Process Pond of the 300-FF-1 Operable Unit (OU) at the Hanford Site. These procedures are based on the open-quotes 300-FF-1 Physical Separations CERCLA Treatability Test Plan, DOE/RL 92-2l,close quotes (DOE-RL 1993)

  15. Unpacking Referent Units in Fraction Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philipp, Randolph A.; Hawthorne, Casey

    2015-01-01

    Although fraction operations are procedurally straightforward, they are complex, because they require learners to conceptualize different units and view quantities in multiple ways. Prospective secondary school teachers sometimes provide an algebraic explanation for inverting and multiplying when dividing fractions. That authors of this article…

  16. Preparing nuclear power plant units for operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hudcovic, R.; Telgarsky, K.; Kmosena, J.

    1984-01-01

    The factors are listed which have to be taken into consideration for planning the unit operation, i.e., the implementation of planned repairs, checks of equipment and refuellings. All basic input data were evaluated as the basic for drawing up the schedule of routine repairs and overhauls for the coming period. (E.S.)

  17. Biota of the 300-FF-1 operable unit. [Westinghouse Hanford Company

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rickard, W.H. Jr.; Fitzner, R.E.; Brandt, C.A.

    1990-10-01

    This report summarizes Task 5a-2 of the Phase I Remedial Investigation -- Operable Unit Characterization of the 300-FF-1 Operable Unit on the Hanford Site, near Richland, Washington. The ultimate goal of Phase I is to determine the nature and extent of the threat to public health and the environment from releases of hazardous substances from the operable unit. The purpose of Task 5a-2 was to determine what species inhabit the 300-FF-1 Operable Unit and how they use the unit. The focus is on those species listed as endangered or threatened, those that are economically important, or those that constitute significant components of the human food chain. 39 refs., 5 figs., 5 tabs.

  18. Sampling and analysis plan for treatment water and creek water for the Lower East Fork Poplar Creek Operable Unit, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-04-01

    This document provides the Environmental Restoration Program with information about the methodology, organizational structure, quality assurance and health and safety practices to be employed during the water sampling and analysis activities associated with the remediation of the Lower East Fork Poplar Creek Operable Unit during remediation of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration and Bruner sites

  19. Sampling and analysis plan for treatment water and creek water for the Lower East Fork Poplar Creek Operable Unit, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-04-01

    This document provides the Environmental Restoration Program with information about the methodology, organizational structure, quality assurance and health and safety practices to be employed during the water sampling and analysis activities associated with the remediation of the Lower East Fork Poplar Creek Operable Unit during remediation of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration and Bruner sites.

  20. Draft final feasibility study report and proposed plan for Operable Unit 4, response to comments: Fernald Environmental Management Project, Fernald, Ohio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-02-01

    This report contains questions and comments regarding a risk evaluation and possible remedial action of Operable Unit 4 at the Feed Materials Production Center at Fernald, Ohio. Attention is focused on the US EPA Region V feasibility study and on the CRARE. The CRARE is a post-remediation time frame document

  1. Draft final feasibility study report and proposed plan for Operable Unit 4, response to comments: Fernald Environmental Management Project, Fernald, Ohio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-02-01

    This report contains questions and comments regarding a risk evaluation and possible remedial action of Operable Unit 4 at the Feed Materials Production Center at Fernald, Ohio. Attention is focused on the US EPA Region V feasibility study and on the CRARE. The CRARE is a post-remediation time frame document.

  2. Operating performance of LWR nuclear generating units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pia, S.

    1984-01-01

    This work aims at reviewing, on the basis of historical data, the operational problem areas which explain the degree of availability and productivity achieved up to now by nuclear power plants in commercial operation in the world. The operating performance data of nuclear power plants area analysed with respect to plant type, size and other significant reference parameters and they are evaluated also by comparison with fossil generating unit data. Major performance indices data are presented for both nuclear and fossil units type and distribution of outage causes. Unplanned full outages caused by nuclear power plant equipment and components failure are particulary emphasized. The trend for unplanned full outages due to the failure of components shows decreasing numerical values in 1981 with respect to the previous years. But this result should be weighed with the increasing plant unavailability hours needed for maintenance and repair action (chiefly preventive maintenance on critical components). This means that the number and downtime of forced outage must be drastically reduced for economic reasons (production losses and problems associated with the unavailable unit unplanned replacement) as well as for plant safe and reliable operation (sudden unavailability of key components and frequency of transients associated with plant shutdown and routine startup operation)

  3. Technical assistance to Department of Energy/Office of Operational Safety Assurance Program for remedial action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denham, D.H.; Cross, F.T.; Kennedy, W.E. Jr.; Marks, S.; Soldat, J.K.; Stenner, R.D.

    1986-01-01

    This project was initiated in FY 1984 to provide technical assistance to the Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Operational Safety (OOS) in developing and implementing its Assurance Program for Remedial Action (APRA), i.e., overview of the DOE remedial action programs. During this second year of the project,* the technical assistance included report and procedure reviews, and assistance with conducting the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Program (UMTRAP) Office (DOE/AL) appraisal. This included participation in preappraisal visits to UMTRAP sites in Canonsburg, Pennsylvania; Grand Junction, Colorado; and Salt Lake City, Utah. Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) also transferred the PNL-developed document review software to the Oak Ridge Associated Universities (ORAU) staff in Grand Junction, Colorado, in anticipation of future document reviews by the ORAU staff. Other accomplishments have included publication of two formal documents and three project reports, preparation and presentation of five topical reports at national and international meetings, two foreign trip reports, and comments on proposed draft standards of the Environmental Protection Agency (40 CFR 193). The project manager has also participated on National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP) and American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) subcommittees developing decommissioning standards, as well as International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) advisory groups developing environmental monitoring guidelines

  4. Phase 1 and 2 feasibility study report for the 300-FF-1 Operable Unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-11-01

    The 300-FF-1 Operable Unit (OU) feasibility study (FS) presented in this document completes the FS process only through the first two study phases: Phase I, Remedial Alternatives Development, and Phase II, Remedial Alternatives Screening in accordance with CERCIA guidance for performing Remedial Investigations and Feasibility Studies (RI/FS) (EPA 1988a). This Phase I/II study provides a generalized view of workable remedial technologies as applied to the site contamination problems as a whole. Phase III, Detailed Analysis of Alternatives, will be performed at a later date to further evaluate screened alternatives based on the nine criteria in the CERCLA RI/FS guidance. The purpose of this Phase I/II FS is to develop and screen a range of alternatives for remediation of contamination present in the vadose zone of the 300-FF-1 OU. The scope of work for this Phase I/II FS includes five primary tasks: 1. Review existing documents and their associated data from relevant investigations and studies; 2. Establish remedial action objectives (RAO) and general response actions (GRA); 3. Identify applicable or relevant and appropriate requirements (ARARS) pertinent to all general response actions (including waste disposal); 4. Develop remedial alternatives (Phase I) applicable to the 300-FF-1 OU including identification and screening of technologies and process options, and assembly of remedial alternatives from representative technology types; 5. Screen alternatives (Phase II) developed in Phase I for implementability, effectiveness, and cost to identify those alternatives which warrant advancement to the detailed analysis phase (Phase III) of the FS.

  5. 200-UP-2 operable unit radiological surveys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wendling, M.A.

    1994-01-01

    This report summarizes and documents the results of the radiological surveys conducted from August 17 through December 16, 1993 over a partial area of the 200-UP-2 Operable Unit, 200-W Area, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington. In addition, this report explains the survey methodology of the Mobile Surface Contamination Monitor 11 (MSCM-II) and the Ultra Sonic Ranging And Data System (USRADS). The radiological survey of the 200-UP-2 Operable Unit was conducted by the Site Investigative Surveys/Environmental Restoration Health Physics Organization of the Westinghouse Hanford Company. The survey methodology for the majority of area was based on utilization of the MSCM-II or the USRADS for automated recording of the gross beta/gamma radiation levels at or near six (6) inches from the surface soil

  6. Assurance program for remedial action (APRA) microcomputer-operated bibliography management system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stenner, R.D.; Washburn, D.K.; Denham, D.H.

    1985-10-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) provided technical assistance to the Office of Operational Safety (OOS) in developing their Assurance Program for Remedial Action (APRA). The APRA Bibliography Management System (BMS), a microcomputer-operated system designed to file, locate and retrieve project-specific bibliographic data, was developed to manage the documentation associated with APRA. The BMS uses APRABASE, a PNL-developed computer program written in dBASE II language, which is designed to operate using the commercially available dBASE II database software. The paper describes the APRABASE computer program, its associated subprograms, and the dBASE II APRA file. Although the BMS was designed to manage APRA-associated documents, it could be easily adapted for use in handling bibliographic data associated with any project

  7. Assurance Program for Remedial Action (APRA) microcomputer-operated bibliography management system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stenner, R.D.; Washburn, D.K.; Denham, D.H.

    1986-01-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) provided technical assistance to the Office of Operational Safety (OOS) in developing their Assurance Program for Remedial Action (APRA). The APRA Bibliography Management System (BMS), a microcomputer-operated system designed to file, locate and retrieve project-specific bibliographic data, was developed to manage the documentation associated with APRA. The BMS uses APRABASE, a PNL-developed computer program written in dBASE II/sup (b)/ language, which is designed to operate using the commercially available dBASE II database software. This paper describes the APRABASE computer program, its associated subprograms, and the dBASE II APRA file. Although the BMS was designed to manage APRA-associated documents, it could be easily adapted for use in handling bibliographic data associated with any project

  8. Remediation of a uranium-contaminated quarry utilizing submersible, remotely operated vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fleming, K.N.

    1992-01-01

    The Kerr Hollow Quarry (KHQ) Disposal Site on the Oak Ridge (Tennessee) Reservation was previously used to treat and dispose of pyrophoric and water-reactive wastes contaminated with small quantities of radioactive materials (almost exclusively uranium and uranium daughters) from processes at the Department of Energy-owned, Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant and Oak Ridge National Laboratory. This paper describes remediation techniques utilizing a small, remotely operated submarine with an attached camera to visually locate waste containers, determine whether containers have been breached, transport small containers, and direct a larger remotely operated grappling machine to move larger waste for shredding operations. Most of the solid waste is reduced under water by a metal shredder. Non-shreddable items (e. g. , gas cylinders and larger structures) are mechanically breached under water to allow the contents to fully react. The waste is then removed from the water, monitored, the material is segregated, and transported to a temporary waste storage area until disposal

  9. Qualitative risk assessment for the 100-KR-4 groundwater operable unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biggerstaff, R.L.

    1994-06-30

    This report provides the qualitative risk assessment (QRA) for the 100-KR-4 groundwater operable unit at the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State. The extent of the groundwater beneath the 100 K Area is defined in the Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study Work Plan for the 100-KR-4 Operable Unit (DOE-RL 1992a). The QRA is an evaluation or risk using a limited amount of data and a predefined set of human and environmental exposure scenarios and is not intended to replace or be a substitute for a baseline risk assessment.

  10. Qualitative risk assessment for the 100-KR-4 groundwater operable unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biggerstaff, R.L.

    1994-01-01

    This report provides the qualitative risk assessment (QRA) for the 100-KR-4 groundwater operable unit at the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State. The extent of the groundwater beneath the 100 K Area is defined in the Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study Work Plan for the 100-KR-4 Operable Unit (DOE-RL 1992a). The QRA is an evaluation or risk using a limited amount of data and a predefined set of human and environmental exposure scenarios and is not intended to replace or be a substitute for a baseline risk assessment

  11. Survey Method for Radiological Surveys of 300-FF-1 Operable Unit Soils and Material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brehm, D.M.

    1998-06-01

    This technical basis is to be used to survey soils at the 300-FF-1 Operable Unit during remediation of the site. Its purpose is to provide a basis for the survey methods to be employed by radiological control technician (RCTs) to guide the excavation effort in accordance with the 300-FF-1 waste site Record of Decision (ROD). The ROD for the 300-FF-1 Operable Unit requires selective excavation, removal, and disposal of contaminated soil above 350 pCi/g total uranium activity. Soil above this level will be disposed of as radioactive waste. The remaining soil will remain onsite

  12. 100 Area source operable unit focused feasibility study report. Draft A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-09-01

    In accordance with the Hanford Past-Practice Strategy (HPPS), a focused feasibility study (FFS) is performed for those waste sites which have been identified as candidates for interim remedial measures (IRM) based on information contained in applicable work plans and limited field investigations (LFI). The FFS process for the 100 Area source operable units will be conducted in two stages. This report, hereafter referred to as the Process Document, documents the first stage of the process. In this stage, IRM alternatives are developed and analyzed on the basis of waste site groups associated with the 100 Area source operable units. The second stage, site-specific evaluation of the IRM alternatives presented in this Process Document, is documented in a series of operable unit-specific reports. The objective of the FFS (this Process Document and subsequent operable unit-specific reports) is to provide decision makers with sufficient information to allow appropriate and timely selection of IRM for sites associated with the 100 Area source operable units. Accordingly, the following information is presented: a presentation of remedial action objectives; a description of 100 Area waste site groups and associated group profiles; a description of IRM alternatives; and detailed and comparative analyses of the IRM alternatives

  13. Current Conditions Risk Assessment for the 300-FF-5 Groundwater Operable Unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miley, Terri B.; Bunn, Amoret L.; Napier, Bruce A.; Peterson, Robert E.; Becker, James M.

    2007-11-01

    This report updates a baseline risk assessment for the 300 Area prepared in 1994. The update includes consideration of changes in contaminants of interest and in the environment that have occurred during the period of interim remedial action, i.e., 1996 to the present, as well as the sub-regions, for which no initial risk assessments have been conducted. In 1996, a record of decision (ROD) stipulated interim remedial action for groundwater affected by releases from 300 Area sources, as follows: (a) continued monitoring of groundwater that is contaminated above health-based levels to ensure that concentrations continue to decrease, and (b) institutional controls to ensure that groundwater use is restricted to prevent unacceptable exposure to groundwater contamination. In 2000, the groundwater beneath the two outlying sub-regions was added to the operable unit. In 2001, the first 5-year review of the ROD found that the interim remedy and remedial action objectives were still appropriate, although the review called for additional characterization activities. This report includes a current conditions baseline ecological and human health risk assessment using maximum concentrations in the environmental media of the 300-FF-5 Operable Unit and downstream conditions at the City of Richland, Washington. The scope for this assessment includes only current measured environmental concentrations and current use scenarios. Future environmental concentrations and future land uses are not considered in this assessment.

  14. Site-specific waste management instruction for the 100-KR-4 Operable Unit drilling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hadley, J.T.

    1996-07-01

    This site-specific waste management instruction provides guidance for the management of waste generated as a result of groundwater well installations in the 100-KR-4 Operable Unit (OU). The well installations are necessary to implement the Remedial Action (RA) option (pump-and-treat using ion exchange) to prevent discharge of hexavalent chromium at levels above those considered protective of aquatic life in the Columbia River and riverbed sediments

  15. Site-specific waste management instruction for the 100-KR-4 Operable Unit drilling. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hadley, J.T.

    1996-08-01

    This site-specific waste management instruction provides guidance for the management of waste generated as a result of groundwater well installations in the 100-KR-4 Operable Unit (OU). The well installations are necessary to implement the Remedial Action (RA) option (pump-and-treat using ion exchange) to prevent discharge of hexavalent chromium at levels above those considered protective of aquatic life in the Columbia River and riverbed sediments

  16. Data validation report for the 100-HR-3 Operable Unit, fifth round groundwater samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vukelich, S.E.

    1994-01-01

    The data from the chemical analysis of 68 samples from the 100-HR-3 Operable Unit Third Quarter 1993 Groundwater Sampling Investigation and their related quality assurance samples were reviewed and validated to verify that reported sample results were of sufficient quality to support decisions regarding remedial actions performed at the site. Sample analysis included inorganics and general chemical parameters. Fifty three samples were validated for radiochemical parameters

  17. Data validation report for the 100-KR-4 operable unit first quarter, 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krug, A.D.

    1994-01-01

    Samples were obtained from the 100-KR-4 Operable Unit first Quarter 1994 Groundwater Sampling event. The data from the chemical analysis of fifty-eight samples from this sampling event and their related quality assurance samples were reviewed and validated to verify that reported samples results were of sufficient quality to support decisions regarding remedial actions performed at this site. Information fro the sampling event and the information validation processes are presented in this document

  18. Data validation report for the 100-D Ponds Operable Unit: 100-D ponds sampling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stankovich, M.T.

    1994-01-01

    Westinghouse-Hanford has requested that 100 percent of the Sample Delivery Groups be validated for the 100-D Ponds Operable Unit Sampling Investigation. Therefore the data from the chemical analysis of all 30 samples from this sampling event and their related quality assurance samples were reviewed and validated to verify that reported sample results were of sufficient quality to support decisions regarding remedial actions performed at this site

  19. Data validation summary report for the 100-BC-5 Operable Unit Round 8 Groundwater Sampling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kearney, A.T.

    1996-03-01

    The information provided in this validation summary report includes data from the chemical analyses of samples from the 100-BC-5 Operable Unit Round 8 Groundwater Sampling Investigation. All of the data from this sampling event and their related quality assurance samples were reviewed and validated to verify that the reported sample results were of sufficient quality to support decisions regarding remedial actions performed at this site. Sample analyses included metals, general chemistry and radiochemistry

  20. Contaminant Attenuation and Transport Characterization of 200-DV-1 Operable Unit Sediment Samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Truex, Michael J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Szecsody, James E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Qafoku, Nikolla [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Strickland, Christopher E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Moran, James J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Lee, Brady D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Snyder, Michelle M.V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Lawter, Amanda R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Resch, Charles T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Gartman, Brandy N. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhong, Lirong [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Nims, Megan K. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Saunders, Danielle L. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Williams, Benjamin D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Horner, Jacob A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Leavy, Ian I. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Baum, Steven R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Christiansen, Beren B. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Clayton, Ray E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); McElroy, Erin M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Appriou, Delphine [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Tyrrell, Kimberly J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Striluk, Miranda L. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2017-05-15

    A laboratory study was conducted to quantify contaminant attenuation processes and associated contaminant transport parameters that are needed to evaluate transport of contaminants through the vadose zone to the groundwater. The laboratory study information, in conjunction with transport analyses, can be used as input to evaluate the feasibility of Monitored Natural Attenuation and other remedies for the 200-DV-1 Operable Unit at the Hanford Site.

  1. Environmental remediation cost in Fukushima area. Trial calculation using the unit cost factor method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishikura, Takeshi; Fujita, Reiko

    2013-01-01

    In order to perform environmental remediation in Fukushima area in a swift and adequate way, it is necessary to obtain perspective of total cost and allocate resources adequately. At present such had not been fixed as what decontamination method should be applied to relevant contaminated places in Fukushima area or what disposition and processing process should be applied to radioactive soils and wastes produced by decontamination, it would be difficult to assess the cost exactly. But it would be better to calculate rough cost on trial and then upgrade the accuracy of the cost gradually based on latest knowledge. Cleanup subcommittee of AESJ utilized published process flow and unit cost and based on original proposed scenario: soils produced by decontamination were classified into intermediate storage facility and controllable processing place based on their contamination concentration and with limited reuse, rough estimated cost was obtained as 6 - 9 trillion yen for basic case. (T. Tanaka)

  2. Remedies for Breach Under the United Nations Convention on Contracts for International Sale of Goods (CISG)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lookofsky, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    For every breach of a binding contract, there must be some remedy. The gap-filling remedial structure of the 1980 Vienna Sales Convention (CISG) reflects the fact that all significant forms of remedial relief may be said to fall within three basic courses of action which modern legal systems make...

  3. HDS unit revamp and operating experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reinhardt, J. [Veba Oel Verarbeitungs-GmbH, Gelsenkirchen (Germany); Balfanz, U. [Aral Forschung, Gelsenkirchen (Germany); Dimmig, T. [TU Bergakademie Freiberg, Freiberg (Germany)

    2002-12-01

    Ruhr Oel GmbH, a joint venture between BP and PDVSA, operates a HDS unit at its Gelsenkirchen-Scholven site. The unit produces a major blend component for diesel fuel. Driven by ambitious German environmental policy and by an agreement between the German car and oil industries on the one hand and the government on the other, more stringent low sulphur fuel specifications will be enforced in Germany much earlier than in the rest of the European Union. In view of this situation a project was developed to fulfill the new product specifications with minimum investment. In a joint effort involving the refinery, the company research facilities and the catalyst supplier (AKZO NOBEL), pilot plant tests were performed to develop the best catalyst system and the new process conditions. Based on these results, an existing HDS unit was accordingly revamped. After the revamp, the unit produced diesel fuel with 50 ppm sulphur content and furthermore test runs at 10 ppm were carried out successfully. These results are displayed in this article. (orig.)

  4. Habitat Demonstration Unit Medical Operations Workstation Upgrades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trageser, Katherine H.

    2011-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the design and fabrication associated with upgrades for the Medical Operations Workstation in the Habitat Demonstration Unit. The work spanned a ten week period. The upgrades will be used during the 2011 Desert Research and Technology Studies (Desert RATS) field campaign. Upgrades include a deployable privacy curtain system, a deployable tray table, an easily accessible biological waste container, reorganization and labeling of the medical supplies, and installation of a retractable camera. All of the items were completed within the ten week period.

  5. Superfund record of decision (EPA Region 4): Marzone Inc. /Chevron Chemical Company Superfund Site, Operable Unit 1, Tifton, GA, September 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-09-30

    This decision document (Record of Decision) presents the selected remedial action for the Marzone, Inc./Chevron Chemical Company Site in Tift County, Georgia. EPA has organized the work at this Site into two phases or operable units (OUs). Operable Unit No. 1 involves contamination on the 1.68-acre former Marzone pesticide blending area, part of the Slack Property, and railroad drainage ditch past the southwest corner of the horse pasture, and contaminated groundwater related to the Site. This first operable unit is broken down into two separate remedies; one for groundwater and the other for soil.

  6. 300-FF-1 remedial design report/remedial action work plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gustafson, F.W.

    1997-02-01

    The 300 Area has been divided into three operable units 300-FF-1, 300-FF-2, and 300-FF-5 all of which are in various stages of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA) process. The 300-FF-1 Operable Unit, the subject of this report, includes liquid waste disposal sites, landfills, and a burial ground. This Remedial Design Report/Remedial Action Work Plan (RDR/RAWP) provides a summary description of each waste site included in the 300-FF-1 Operable Unit, the basis for remedial actions to be taken, and the remedial action approach and management process for implementing these actions. The remedial action approach and management sections provide a description of the remedial action process description, the project schedule, the project team, required planning documentation, the remedial action change process, the process for verifying attainment of the remedial action goals, and the required CERCLA and RCRA closeout documentation. Appendix A provides additional details on each waste site. In addition to remediation of the waste sites, waste generated during the remedial investigation/feasibility study portions of the project will also be disposed at the Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility (ERDF). Appendix B provides a summary of the modeling performed in the 300-FF-1 Phase 3 FS and a description of the modeling effort to be used to show attainment of the remedial action goals. Appendix C provides the sampling and analysis plan (SAP) for all sampling and field-screening activities performed during remediation and for verification of attainment with the remedial action goals. Appendix D provides the public involvement plan, prepared to ensure information is provided to the public during remedial design and remedial action processes

  7. 300-FF-1 remedial design report/remedial action work plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gustafson, F.W.

    1997-02-01

    The 300 Area has been divided into three operable units 300-FF-1, 300-FF-2, and 300-FF-5 all of which are in various stages of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA) process. The 300-FF-1 Operable Unit, the subject of this report, includes liquid waste disposal sites, landfills, and a burial ground. This Remedial Design Report/Remedial Action Work Plan (RDR/RAWP) provides a summary description of each waste site included in the 300-FF-1 Operable Unit, the basis for remedial actions to be taken, and the remedial action approach and management process for implementing these actions. The remedial action approach and management sections provide a description of the remedial action process description, the project schedule, the project team, required planning documentation, the remedial action change process, the process for verifying attainment of the remedial action goals, and the required CERCLA and RCRA closeout documentation. Appendix A provides additional details on each waste site. In addition to remediation of the waste sites, waste generated during the remedial investigation/feasibility study portions of the project will also be disposed at the Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility (ERDF). Appendix B provides a summary of the modeling performed in the 300-FF-1 Phase 3 FS and a description of the modeling effort to be used to show attainment of the remedial action goals. Appendix C provides the sampling and analysis plan (SAP) for all sampling and field-screening activities performed during remediation and for verification of attainment with the remedial action goals. Appendix D provides the public involvement plan, prepared to ensure information is provided to the public during remedial design and remedial action processes.

  8. Use of solidification/stabilization treatment technology for environmental remediation in the United States and Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilk, C.M.

    2002-01-01

    In the United States (U.S.) Solidification/Stabilization (S/S) treatment is used to treat hazardous wastes for disposal, and in the remediation/site restoration of contaminated land. S/S is also an increasingly popular technology for Brownfields (industrial property) redevelopment since treated wastes can often be left on-site and to actually improve the site's soil for subsequent construction. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) considers S/S to be an established treatment technology. EPA has identified S/S treatment as Best Demonstrated Available Treatment Technology (BDAT) for at least 57 commonly produced industrial wastes (Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA)-listed hazardous wastes) and has selected S/S treatment for 25% of its Superfund (abandoned or uncontrolled) site remediation projects. S/S treatment involves mixing a binding reagent into the contaminated media or waste. Successful treatment is accomplished through physical changes to the waste form, and often, chemical changes to the hazardous constituents themselves. Commonly used S/S binding reagents in include portland cement, cement kiln dust, lime, lime kiln dust and fly ash. These materials are used alone or in combination. Proprietary reagents are also beginning to be marketed and used in the U.S. and Canada. This paper will discuss: (a) applicability of the technology to various wastes, (b) basic cement chemistry relating to S/S, (c) tests used to design treatability studies and to verify treatment, (d) basics on implementation of the technology in the field, and (e) examples of actual projects. (author)

  9. Limited field investigation report for the 100-DR-1 Operable Unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-06-01

    This limited field investigation (LFI) report summarizes the data collection and analysis activities conducted during the 100-DR-1 Source Operable Unite LFI and the associated qualitative risk assessment (QRA), and makes recommendations on the continued candidacy of high-priority sites for interim remedial measures (IRM). The results and recommendations presented in this report are generally independent of future land use scenarios. The 100-DR-1 Operable Unit is one of four operable units associated with the 100 D/DR Area at the Hanford Site. The 100-DR-1 Operable Unit encompasses approximately 1.5 km 2 (0.59 mi 2 ) and is located immediately adjacent to the Columbia River shoreline. In general, it contains waste facilities associated with the original plant facilities constructed to support D Reactor facilities, as well as cooling water retention basin systems for both D and DR Reactors. The 100-DR-1 LFI began the investigative phase of the remedial investigation for a select number of high-priority sites. The LFI was performed to provide additional data needed to support selection, design and implementation of IRM, if needed. The LFI included data compilation, nonintrusive investigations, intrusive investigations, summarization of 100 Area aggregate studies, and data evaluation

  10. Large-Scale Pumping Test Recommendations for the 200-ZP-1 Operable Unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spane, Frank A.

    2010-09-08

    CH2M Hill Plateau Remediation Company (CHPRC) is currently assessing aquifer characterization needs to optimize pump-and-treat remedial strategies (e.g., extraction well pumping rates, pumping schedule/design) in the 200-ZP-1 operable unit (OU), and in particular for the immediate area of the 241 TX-TY Tank Farm. Specifically, CHPRC is focusing on hydrologic characterization opportunities that may be available for newly constructed and planned ZP-1 extraction wells. These new extraction wells will be used to further refine the 3-dimensional subsurface contaminant distribution within this area and will be used in concert with other existing pump-and-treat wells to remediate the existing carbon tetrachloride contaminant plume. Currently, 14 extraction wells are actively used in the Interim Record of Decision ZP-1 pump-and-treat system for the purpose of remediating the existing carbon tetrachloride contamination in groundwater within this general area. As many as 20 new extraction wells and 17 injection wells may be installed to support final pump-and-treat operations within the OU area. It should be noted that although the report specifically refers to the 200-ZP-1 OU, the large-scale test recommendations are also applicable to the adjacent 200-UP-1 OU area. This is because of the similar hydrogeologic conditions exhibited within these two adjoining OU locations.

  11. Remedial investigation work plan for Bear Creek Valley Operable Unit 1 (S-3 Ponds, Boneyard/Burnyard, Oil Landfarm, Sanitary Landfill I, and the Burial Grounds, including Oil Retention Ponds 1 and 2) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Volume 1, Main text

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-03-01

    This document refers to data concerning the Environmental Restoration Program implemented at the Oak Ridge Y-12 plant. Topics discussed include: Remediation plans for the burial grounds, sanitary landfill I, oil retention ponds, S-3 ponds, and the boneyard/burnyard at Y-12. This document also contains information about the environmental policies regulating the remediation

  12. RCRA facility investigation/corrective measures study work plan for the 200-UP-2 Operable Unit, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-06-01

    The 200-UP-2 Operable Unit is one of two source operable units at the U Plant Aggregate Area at the Hanford Site. Source operable units include waste management units and unplanned release sites that are potential sources of radioactive and/or hazardous substance contamination. This work plan, while maintaining the title RFI/CMS, presents the background and direction for conducting a limited field investigation in the 200-UP-2 Operable Unit, which is the first part of the process leading to final remedy selection. This report discusses the background, prior recommendations, goals, organization, and quality assurance for the 200-UP-2 Operable Unit Work Plan. The discussion begins with a summary of the regulatory framework and the role of the work plan. The specific recommendations leading into the work plan are then addressed. Next, the goals and organization of the report are discussed. Finally, the quality assurance and supporting documentation are presented

  13. Record of Decision for the Ford Building Waste Unit (643-11G) Operable Unit; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fraley, S.

    2002-01-01

    This decision document presents the selected remedial for the Ford Building Waste Unit (FBWU), in Aiken, South Carolina, which was chosen in accordance with CERCLA, as amended by SARA, and, to the extent practical, the National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP). This decision is based on the Administrative Record File for this specific RCRA/CERCLA site

  14. Limited field investigation report for the 100-HR-2 Operable Unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-07-01

    This report summarizes the data collection and analysis activities conducted during the 100-HR-2 Operable Unit investigative phase and the associated qualitative risk assessment. The 100-HR-2 Operable Unit contains solid waste burial grounds, an ash pit, burn pits, electrical facilities, septic systems, and support facilities. All known and suspected areas of contamination were classified as solid waste burial grounds or low-priority waste sites based on the collective knowledge of the operable unit managers (representatives from the US Department of Energy, the US Environmental Protection Agency, and Washington State Department of Ecology during the preparation of the 100-HR-2 Operable Unit Work Plan (DOE-RL 1993f). Solid waste burial grounds were judged to pose sufficient risk(s), through one or more pathways, to require evaluation for an interim remedial measure as per the Hanford Past-Practice Strategy (DOE-RL 1991) and negotiations with the Department of Energy, US Environmental Protection Agency, and Washington State Department of Ecology. An interim remedial measure is intended to achieve remedies that are likely to lead to a final record of decision. Low-priority sites are those judged not to pose significant risk to require the streamlined evaluation. There were six low-priority waste sites and seven solid waste burial grounds identified. The purpose of this report is to: (1) provide a summary of site investigative activities; (2) refine the conceptual exposure model (as needed); (3) identify chemical- and location-specific corrective action requirements; and 4) provide a human health and ecological QRA associated with solid waste burial grounds

  15. The Effectiveness of Peer Tutoring in Remedying Misconceptions of Operating System Concepts: A Design-Based Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çakiroglu, Ünal; Öngöz, Sakine

    2017-01-01

    This study attempted to examine students' experiences on collaborative work with peer tutoring in projects. The study also focused impact of peer tutoring on remedying misconceptions. The study was conducted in the context of an operating system course in which 30 pre-service ICT teachers are the participants. Data were gathered from pre-tests,…

  16. Operations and Maintenance Manual for the Temporary Septic Holding Tank at the 100-C Remedial Action Restroom Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmquist, C.A.

    1997-11-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide detailed information regarding the operations and maintenance of the septic holding tank system at the 100-C Remedial Action Restroom Facility. Specific information provided in this document includes the type and frequency of required maintenance and failure response procedures

  17. Operations and Maintenance Manual for the Temporary Septic Holding Tank at the 100-C Remedial Action Support Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmquist, C.A.

    1997-12-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide detailed information regarding the operations and maintenance of the septic holding tank system at the 100-C Remedial Action Restroom Facility. Specific information provided in this document includes the type and frequency of required maintenance and failure response procedures

  18. A case study of the remediation of Syncrude's Research Centre and the changes made in Syncrude's research operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, P.; Evans, P.; Ziervogel, H.; Parraguez, C.

    1996-01-01

    The new Research Centre for Syncrude Canada has made safeguarding the environment a priority. The former research facility in northeast Edmonton was decommissioned because of contamination at the site caused by more than 25 years of industrial operations. The process to decommission the site was based on a cost effective, phased approach to site dismantling, investigations and remediation. During the site remediation, several areas of contamination were found, with little background information to understand how the material had entered the soil. At he new facility a conscientious effort will be made to document all activities to prevent future occurrences of this type. 1 ref., 1 tab., 4 figs

  19. Remedial action and waste disposal project: 100-B/C remedial action readiness evaluation plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    April, J.G.; Bryant, D.L.; Cislo, G.B.

    1996-06-01

    The Readiness Evaluation Plan presents the methodology used to assess the readiness of the 100-B/C Remedial Action Project. The 100 Areas Remedial Action Project will remediate the 100 Areas liquid waste site identified in the Interim Action Record of Decision for the 100- BC-1, 100-DR-1, and 100-HR-1 Operable Units. These sites are located in the 100 Area of the Hanford Site in Richland, Washington

  20. Qualitative risk assessment for the 100-HR-3 groundwater operable unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vukelich, S.E. [Golder Associates, Inc., Richland, WA (United States)

    1994-09-22

    This report provides the qualitative risk assessment for the 100-HR-3 operable unit on the Hanford Reservation. 100-HR-3 is a ground water unit. The purpose of the QRA at the 100-HR-3 operable unit is to focus on a predefined set of human and environmental exposure scenarios in order to provides sufficient information that will assist the Tri-Party signatories (Washington State Department of Ecology, EPA and US DOE) in making defensible decisions on the necessity of Interim Remedial Measures. Frequent- and occasional-use exposure scenarios are evaluated in the human health risk assessment to provide bounding estimates of risk. The ecological risk assessment consists of an evaluation of the risks to riparian and aquatic receptors which live in or near the Columbia River.

  1. Qualitative risk assessment for the 100-HR-3 groundwater operable unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vukelich, S.E.

    1994-01-01

    This report provides the qualitative risk assessment for the 100-HR-3 operable unit on the Hanford Reservation. 100-HR-3 is a ground water unit. The purpose of the QRA at the 100-HR-3 operable unit is to focus on a predefined set of human and environmental exposure scenarios in order to provides sufficient information that will assist the Tri-Party signatories (Washington State Department of Ecology, EPA and US DOE) in making defensible decisions on the necessity of Interim Remedial Measures. Frequent- and occasional-use exposure scenarios are evaluated in the human health risk assessment to provide bounding estimates of risk. The ecological risk assessment consists of an evaluation of the risks to riparian and aquatic receptors which live in or near the Columbia River

  2. Eielson Air Force Base operable unit 2 and other areas record of decision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, R.E.; Smith, R.M.

    1994-10-01

    This decision document presents the selected remedial actions and no action decisions for Operable Unit 2 (OU2) at Eielson Air Force Base (AFB), Alaska, chosen in accordance with state and federal regulations. This document also presents the decision that no further action is required for 21 other source areas at Eielson AFB. This decision is based on the administrative record file for this site. OU2 addresses sites contaminated by leaks and spills of fuels. Soils contaminated with petroleum products occur at or near the source of contamination. Contaminated subsurface soil and groundwater occur in plumes on the top of a shallow groundwater table that fluctuates seasonally. These sites pose a risk to human health and the environment because of ingestion, inhalation, and dermal contact with contaminated groundwater. The purpose of this response is to prevent current or future exposure to the contaminated groundwater, to reduce further contaminant migration into the groundwater, and to remediate groundwater

  3. 200-UP-1 groundwater remedial design/remedial action work plan. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-07-01

    This 200-UP-1 remedial design report presents the objective and rationale developed for the design and implementation of the selected interim remedial measure for the 200-UP-1 Operable Unit, located in the 200 West Area of the Hanford Site

  4. RCRA Facility Investigation/Remedial Investigation Report for the Gunsite 113 Access Road Unit (631-24G) - March 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmer, E. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States)

    1996-03-01

    Gunsite 113 Access Road Unit is located in the northeast corner of SRS. In the mid 1980`s, sparse vegetation, dead trees, and small mounds of soil were discovered on a portion of the road leading to Gunsite 113. This area became the Gunsite 113 Access Road Unit (Gunsite 113). The unit appears to have been used as a spoil dirt and / or road construction debris disposal area. There is no documentation or record of any hazardous substance management, disposal, or any type of waste disposal at this unit. Based upon the available evidence, there are no potential contaminants of concern available for evaluation by a CERCLA baseline risk assessment. Therefore, there is no determinable health risk associated with Gunsite 113. In addition, it is also reasonable to conclude that, since contamination is below risk-based levels, the unit presents no significant ecological risk. It is recommended that no further remedial action be performed at this unit.

  5. RCRA Facility Investigation/Remedial Investigation Report for the Gunsite 113 Access Road Unit (631-24G) - March 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmer, E.

    1996-03-01

    Gunsite 113 Access Road Unit is located in the northeast corner of SRS. In the mid 1980's, sparse vegetation, dead trees, and small mounds of soil were discovered on a portion of the road leading to Gunsite 113. This area became the Gunsite 113 Access Road Unit (Gunsite 113). The unit appears to have been used as a spoil dirt and / or road construction debris disposal area. There is no documentation or record of any hazardous substance management, disposal, or any type of waste disposal at this unit. Based upon the available evidence, there are no potential contaminants of concern available for evaluation by a CERCLA baseline risk assessment. Therefore, there is no determinable health risk associated with Gunsite 113. In addition, it is also reasonable to conclude that, since contamination is below risk-based levels, the unit presents no significant ecological risk. It is recommended that no further remedial action be performed at this unit

  6. Limited field investigation report for the 100-HR-2 Operable Unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-09-01

    This report summarizes the data collection and analysis activities conducted during the 100-HR-2 Operable Unit investigative phase and the associated qualitative risk assessment (QRA). The 100-HR-2 Operable Unit contains solid waste burial grounds, an ash pit, bum pits, electrical facilities, septic systems, and support facilities. All known and suspected areas of contamination were classified as solid waste burial grounds or low-priority waste sites based on the collective knowledge of the operable unit managers (representatives from the US Department of Energy [DOE], the US Environmental Protection Agency [EPA], and Washington Department of Ecology [Ecology]) during the preparation of the 100-HR-2 Operable Unit work plan (DOE/RL 1993f). Solid waste burial grounds were judged to pose sufficient risk(s), through one or more pathways, to require evaluation for an interim remedial measure (IRM) as per the Hanford Past-Practice Strategy (HPPS) (DOE/RL 1991) and negotiations with DOE, EPA, and Ecology. An IRM is intended to achieve remedies that are likely to lead to a final record of decision. Low-priority sites are those judged not to pose significant risk to require the streamlined evaluation. There were six low-priority waste sites and seven solid waste burial grounds identified. The investigative phase was conducted in accordance with the RCRA Facility Investigation/Corrective Measures Study Work Plan for the 100-HR-2 Operable Unit (DOE/RL 1993f). The QRA was performed in accordance with the Hanford Site Baseline Risk Assessment Methodology (DOE/RL 1993b) and the recommendations incorporate the strategies of the HPPS. The purpose of this report is to: (1) provide a summary of site investigative activities; (2) refine the conceptual exposure model (as needed); (3) identify chemical- and location-specific corrective action requirements; and (4) provide a human health and ecological QRA associated with solid waste burial grounds

  7. Nuclear Site Remediation and Restoration during Decommissioning of Nuclear Installations. A Report by the NEA Co-operative Programme on Decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orr, Peter; Mitchell, Nick; Mobbs, Shelly; Bennest, Terry; Abu-Eid, Rateb-Boby; Berton, Marie-Anne; Dehaye, Catherine Ollivier; Pellenz, Gilles; Cruikshank, Julian; Diaz Arocas, Paloma; Garcia Tapias, Ester; Hess, Norbert; Hong, Sam-Bung; Miller, Susan; Monken-Fernandes, Horst; ); Morse, John; Nitzsche, Olaf; Ooms, Bart; Osimani, Celso; Stuart Walker

    2014-01-01

    Decommissioning of nuclear facilities and related remedial actions are currently being undertaken around the world to enable sites or parts of sites to be reused for other purposes. Remediation has generally been considered as the last step in a sequence of decommissioning steps, but the values of prevention, long-term planning and parallel remediation are increasingly being recognised as important steps in the process. This report, prepared by the Task Group on Nuclear Site Restoration of the NEA Co-operative Programme on Decommissioning, highlights lessons learnt from remediation experiences of NEA member countries that may be particularly helpful to practitioners of nuclear site remediation, regulators and site operators. It provides observations and recommendations to consider in the development of strategies and plans for efficient nuclear site remediation that ensures protection of workers and the environment. (authors)

  8. Limited field investigation report for the 100-NR-1 Operable Unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-03-01

    This limited field investigation (LFI) report summarizes the data collection and analysis activities conducted during the 100-NR-1 Source Operable Unit LFI and the associated qualitative risk assessment (QRA), and makes recommendations on the continued candidacy of high-priority sites for interim remedial measures (IRM). The results and recommendations presented in this report are generally independent of future land-use scenarios. This report is unique in that it is based on Hanford-specific agreements discussed in the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement) (Ecology et al. 1992), the Hanford Site Risk Assessment Methodology (DOE-RL 1994a), the Remedial Investigation Feasibility Study Work Plan for the 100-NR-1 Operable Unit (DOE-RL 1992a), and the Hanford Past-Practice Strategy (HPPS) (DOE-RL 1991), and must be viewed in this context. The HPPS emphasizes initiating and completing waste site cleanup through interim actions. The strategy includes paths for interim decision-making and a final remedy-selection process for the operable unit. A LFI report is required, in accordance with the HPPS, when waste sites are to be considered for IRM and existing data are insufficient to formulate a conceptual model or perform a QRA. The purpose of the report is to identify those sites that are recommended to remain as candidates for IRM, provide a preliminary summary of site characterization studies, refine the conceptual model as needed, identify potential contaminant- and location-specific applicable or relevant and appropriate requirements (ARAR), and provide a qualitative assessment of the risks associated with the sites. This assessment includes consideration of whether contaminant concentrations pose a risk to human health or the environment that warrants action through IRM

  9. RCRA Facility Investigation/Remedial Investigation Report for Gunsite 720 Rubble Pit Unit (631-16G) - March 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmer, E. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States)

    1996-03-01

    Gunsite 720 Rubble Pit Unit is located on the west side of SRS. In the early to mid 1980`s, while work was being performed in this area, nine empty, partially buried drums, labeled `du Pont Freon 11`, were found. As a result, Gunsite 720 became one of the original waste units specified in the SRS RCRA Facility Assessment (RFA). The drums were excavated on July 30, 1987 and placed on a pallet at the unit. Both the drums and pallet were removed and disposed of in October 1989. The area around the drums was screened during the excavation and the liquid (rainwater) that collected in the excavated drums was sampled prior to disposal. No evidence of hazardous materials was found. Based on the review of the analytical data and screening techniques used to evaluate all the chemicals of potential concern at Gunsite 720 Rubble Pit Unit, it is recommended that no further remedial action be performed at this unit.

  10. RCRA Facility Investigation/Remedial Investigation Report for Gunsite 720 Rubble Pit Unit (631-16G) - March 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmer, E.

    1996-03-01

    Gunsite 720 Rubble Pit Unit is located on the west side of SRS. In the early to mid 1980's, while work was being performed in this area, nine empty, partially buried drums, labeled 'du Pont Freon 11', were found. As a result, Gunsite 720 became one of the original waste units specified in the SRS RCRA Facility Assessment (RFA). The drums were excavated on July 30, 1987 and placed on a pallet at the unit. Both the drums and pallet were removed and disposed of in October 1989. The area around the drums was screened during the excavation and the liquid (rainwater) that collected in the excavated drums was sampled prior to disposal. No evidence of hazardous materials was found. Based on the review of the analytical data and screening techniques used to evaluate all the chemicals of potential concern at Gunsite 720 Rubble Pit Unit, it is recommended that no further remedial action be performed at this unit

  11. 100-OL-1 Operable Unit Pilot Study: XRF Evaluation of Select Pre-Hanford Orchards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bunn, Amoret L.; Fritz, Brad G.; Pulsipher, Brent A.; Gorton, Alicia M.; Bisping, Lynn E.; Brandenberger, Jill M.; Pino, Christian; Martinez, Dominique M.; Rana, Komal; Wellman, Dawn M.

    2014-11-20

    Prior to the acquisition of land by the U.S. Department of War in February 1943 and the creation of the Hanford Site, the land along the Columbia River was home to over 1000 people. Farming and orchard operations by both homesteaders and commercial organizations were prevalent. Orchard activities and the associated application of lead arsenate pesticide ceased in 1943, when residents were moved from the Hanford Site at the beginning of the Manhattan Project. Today, the residues from historical application of lead arsenate pesticide persist in some locations on the Hanford Site. In 2012, the U.S. Department of Energy, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and Washington State Department of Ecology established the 100-OL-1 Operable Unit (OU) through the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order, known as the Tri-Party Agreement. The pre-Hanford orchard lands identified as the 100-OL-1 OU are located south of the Columbia River and east of the present-day Vernita Bridge, and extend southeast to the former Hanford townsite. The discontinuous orchard lands within 100-OL-1 OU are approximately 20 km2 (5000 ac). A pilot study was conducted to support the approval of the remedial investigation/feasibility study work plan to evaluate the 100-OL-1 OU. This pilot study evaluated the use of a field portable X-ray fluorescence (XRF) analyzer for evaluating lead and arsenic concentrations on the soil surface as an indicator of lead arsenate pesticide residues in the OU. The objectives of the pilot study included evaluating a field portable XRF analyzer as the analytical method for decision making, estimating the nature and extent of lead and arsenic in surface soils in four decision units, evaluating the results for the purpose of optimizing the sampling approach implemented in the remedial investigation, and collecting information to improve the cost estimate and planning the cultural resources review for sampling activities in the remedial investigation. Based on

  12. 2014 Highlights of Ferry Operations in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-01

    Based on information provided by operators who responded to the 2014 National Census of Ferry Operators (NCFO), the Bureau of Transportation Statistics (BTS) conservatively estimates that ferries in the United States carried just over 115 million pas...

  13. UNITED STATES AND GERMAN BILATERAL AGREEMENT ON REMEDIATION OF HAZARDOUS WASTE SITES

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and Germany's Bundesministerium fur Forschung und Technologie (BMFT) are involved in a collaborative effort called the U.S. and German Bilateral Agreement on Remediation of Hazardous Waste Sites. he purpose of this interim status rep...

  14. Public Participation Plan for Waste Area Group 7 Operable Unit 7-13/14 at the Idaho National Laboratory Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    B. G. Meagher

    2007-01-01

    This Public Participation Plan outlines activities being planned to: (1) brief the public on results of the remedial investigation and feasibility study, (2) discuss the proposed plan for remediation of Operable Unit 7-13/14 with the public, and (3) encourage public participation in the decision-making process. Operable Unit 7-13/14 is the Comprehensive Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study for Waste Area Group 7. Analysis focuses on the Subsurface Disposal Area (SDA) within the Radioactive Waste Management Complex at the Idaho National Laboratory (Site). This plan, a supplement to the Idaho National Laboratory Community Relations Plan (DOE-ID 2004), will be updated as necessary. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Idaho Department of Environmental Quality (DEQ), and U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) will participate in the public involvement activities outlined in this plan. Collectively, DOE, DEQ, and EPA are referred to as the Agencies. Because history has shown that implementing the minimum required public involvement activities is not sufficient for high-visibility cleanup projects, this plan outlines additional opportunities the Agencies are providing to ensure that the public's information needs are met and that the Agencies can use the public's input for decisions regarding remediation activities

  15. Analysis of Serbian Military Riverine Units Capability for Participation in the United Nations Peacekeeping Operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slobodan Radojevic

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses required personnel, training capacities and equipment for participation in the United Nations peacekeeping operations with the riverine elements. In order to meet necessary capabilities for engagement in United Nations peacekeeping operations, Serbian military riverine units have to be compatible with the issued UN requirements. Serbian Armed Forces have the potential to reach such requirements with the River Flotilla as a pivot for the participation in UN missions. Serbian Military Academy adopted and developed educational and training program in accordance with the provisions and recommendations of the IMO conventions and IMO model courses. Serbian Military Academy has opportunities for education and training military riverine units for participation in the United Nations peacekeeping operations. Moreover, Serbia has Multinational Operations Training Center and Peacekeeping Operations Center certified to provide selection, training, equipping and preparations of individuals and units to the United Nations multinational operations.

  16. Limited field investigation report for the 100-KR-4 Operable Unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-07-01

    This limited field investigation (LFI) was conducted to optimize the use of interim remedial measures (IRM) for expediting clean up while maintaining a technically sound and cost-effective program. The 100-KR-4 Operable Unit is one of four operable units associated with the 100 K Area. Operable units KR-1, KR-2 and KR-3 address contaminant sources while 100-KR-4 addresses contamination present in the underlying groundwater. The IRM decision process for groundwater operable units is based on three aspects: (1) Is the concentration greater than Hanford background? (2) Does the concentration present a medium or high human-health risk? (3) Does the concentration exceed an ecologically based applicable, relevant and appropriate requirements (ARAR) or present an environmental hazard quotient > I? The primary methods of investigation used during this LFI were the installation of monitoring wells and sampling of groundwater. The samples collected from the groundwater and soils were submitted for laboratory analysis. Boreholes were surveyed for radiological contamination using downhole geophysical techniques to further delineate the location and degree of contamination. All soil samples were screened to ascertain the presence of volatile organic compounds and radionuclides. Analytical data were subjected to validation; all first round and a minimum of 10% of subsequent round data were validated

  17. Site remediation techniques in India: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anomitra Banerjee; Miller Jothi

    2013-01-01

    India is one of the developing countries operating site remediation techniques for the entire nuclear fuel cycle waste for the last three decades. In this paper we intend to provide an overview of remediation methods currently utilized at various hazardous waste sites in India, their advantages and disadvantages. Over the years the site remediation techniques have been well characterized and different processes for treatment, conditioning and disposal are being practiced. Remediation Methods categorized as biological, chemical or physical are summarized for contaminated soils and environmental waters. This paper covers the site remediation techniques implemented for treatment and conditioning of wastelands arising from the operation of nuclear power plant, research reactors and fuel reprocessing units. (authors)

  18. UNITED STATES SPECIAL OPERATIONS FORCES IN AFRICA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-16

    hundreds of traditional African religions associated with the plethora of tribal groups as well as large populations of Muslims, primarily in the...engagement, and the complexities of the African continent, Special Operations Forces (SOF) are uniquely suited to further those interests. Additionally...protecting access to abundant strategic resources, fostering integration into the global economy, and empowering Africans and their partners to deal

  19. Operational experience in the United Kingdom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gronow, W.S.

    1977-01-01

    In the UK there are 26 Magnox reactors and 4 AGRs operating on 11 licensed sites; a further 6 AGRs are under construction on 2 additional and one of the existing sites. The arrangements by which the Nuclear Installations Inspectorate, on behalf of the Health and Safety Executive, carries out its regulatory functions at operating nuclear power plants are described. The range of activities undertaken is described with special reference being made to the biennial shutdowns for approved maintenance and inspections which are required by conditions attached to the site licence. The other means by which the continuing safety of these power reactors is assured are explained and include the relationship with the licensee's own Nuclear Safety Committee, approved arrangements for modifications to plant systems or components which have importance for safety and long term reviews of safety aspects. (author)

  20. Record of Decision for Tank Farm Soil and INTEC Groundwater, Operable Unit 3-14

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L. S. Cahn

    2007-05-16

    This decision document presents the selected remedy for Operable Unit (OU) 3-14 tank farm soil and groundwater at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC), which is located on the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Site. The tank farm was initially evaluated in the OU 3-13 Record of Decision (ROD), and it was determined that additional information was needed to make a final decision. Additional information has been obtained on the nature and extent of contamination in the tank farm and on the impact to groundwater. The selected remedy was chosen in accordance with the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Liability and Compensation Act of 1980 (CERCLA) (42 USC 9601 et seq.), as amended by the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986 (Public Law 99-499) and the National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (40 CFR 300). The selected remedy is intended to be the final action for tank farm soil and groundwater at INTEC. The response action selected in this ROD is necessary to protect the public health, welfare, or the environment from actual or threatened releases of hazardous substances into the environment. Such a release or threat of release may present an imminent and substantial endangerment to public health, welfare, or the environment. The remedial actions selected in this ROD are designed to reduce the potential threats to human health and the environment to acceptable levels. In addition, DOE-ID, EPA, and DEQ (the Agencies) have determined that no action is necessary under CERCLA to protect public health, welfare, or the environment at 16 sites located outside the tank farm boundary. The purposes of the selected remedy are to (1) contain contaminated soil as the radionuclides decay in place, (2) isolate current and future workers and biological receptors from contact with contaminated soil, and (3) restore the portion of Snake River Plain Aquifer contaminated by INTEC releases to Idaho Ground Water Quality

  1. Unit costs of waste management operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kisieleski, W.E.; Folga, S.M.; Gillette, J.L.; Buehring, W.A.

    1994-04-01

    This report provides estimates of generic costs for the management, disposal, and surveillance of various waste types, from the time they are generated to the end of their institutional control. Costs include monitoring and surveillance costs required after waste disposal. Available data on costs for the treatment, storage, disposal, and transportation of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive, low-level radioactive, transuranic radioactive, hazardous, mixed (low-level radioactive plus hazardous), and sanitary wastes are presented. The costs cover all major elements that contribute to the total system life-cycle (i.e., ''cradle to grave'') cost for each waste type. This total cost is the sum of fixed and variable cost components. Variable costs are affected by operating rates and throughput capacities and vary in direct proportion to changes in the level of activity. Fixed costs remain constant regardless of changes in the amount of waste, operating rates, or throughput capacities. Key factors that influence cost, such as the size and throughput capacity of facilities, are identified. In many cases, ranges of values for the key variables are presented. For some waste types, the planned or estimated costs for storage and disposal, projected to the year 2000, are presented as graphics

  2. Fast reactor operation in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, R.R.; Cissel, D.W.

    1978-01-01

    Of the many American facilities dedicated to fast reactor technology, six qualify as liquid-metal-cooled fast reactors. All of these satisfy the following criteria: an unmoderated neutron spectrum, highly enriched fuel material, substantial heat production, and the use of a liquid metal coolant. These include the following: EBR-I Clementine, LAMPRE, EBR-II, EFFBR, and SEFOR. Collectively, these facilities encompassed all of the more important features of liquid-metal-cooled fast reactor technology. Coolant types ranged from mercury in Clementine, to NaK in EBR-I, and sodium in the others. Fuels included enriched-uranium metallic alloys in EBR-I, EBR-II, and EFFBR; metallic plutonium in Clementine; molten plutonium alloy in LAMPRE; and a mixed UO 2 -PuO 2 ceramic in SEFOR. Heat removal techniques ranged from air-blast cooling in LAMPRE and SEFOR; steam-electrical generation in EBR-I, EBR-II, and EFFBR; to a mercury-to-water heat dump in Clementine. Operational experience with such diverse systems has contributed heavily to the U.S. Each of the six systems is described from the viewpoints of purpose, history, design, and operation. Attempts are made to limit descriptive material to the most important features and to refer the reader to a few select references if additional information is needed

  3. Sampling and Analysis Plan Update for Groundwater Monitoring 1100-EM-1 Operable Unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DR Newcomer

    1999-01-01

    This document updates the sampling and analysis plan (Department of Energy/Richland Operations--95-50) to reflect current groundwater monitoring at the 1100-EM-1Operable Unit. Items requiring updating included sampling and analysis protocol, quality assurance and quality control, groundwater level measurement procedure, and data management. The plan covers groundwater monitoring, as specified in the 1993 Record of Decision, during the 5-year review period from 1995 through 1999. Following the 5-year review period, groundwater-monitoring data will be reviewed by Environmental Protection Agency to evaluate the progress of natural attenuation of trichloroethylene. Monitored natural attenuation and institutional controls for groundwater use at the inactive Horn Rapids Landfill was the selected remedy specified in the Record of Decision

  4. Analysis of operating reliability of WWER-1000 unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bortlik, J.

    1985-01-01

    The nuclear power unit was divided into 33 technological units. Input data for reliability analysis were surveys of operating results obtained from the IAEA information system and certain indexes of the reliability of technological equipment determined using the Bayes formula. The missing reliability data for technological equipment were used from the basic variant. The fault tree of the WWER-1000 unit was determined for the peak event defined as the impossibility of reaching 100%, 75% and 50% of rated power. The period was observed of the nuclear power plant operation with reduced output owing to defect and the respective time needed for a repair of the equipment. The calculation of the availability of the WWER-1000 unit was made for different variant situations. Certain indexes of the operating reliability of the WWER-1000 unit which are the result of a detailed reliability analysis are tabulated for selected variants. (E.S.)

  5. An Appraisal Of The Operation And Management Of Unit Trust ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An Appraisal Of The Operation And Management Of Unit Trust Schemes In Nigeria. ... Open Access DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT ... instead of being invested in shares or in money market instruments as a result of widespread financial illiteracy.

  6. FEASIBILITY STUDY REPORT FOR THE 200-ZP-1 GROUNDWATER OPERABLE UNIT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BYRNES ME

    2008-07-18

    The Hanford Site, managed by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), encompasses approximately 1,517 km{sup 2} (586 mi{sup 2}) in the Columbia Basin of south-central Washington State. In 1989, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) placed the 100, 200, 300, and 1100 Areas of the Hanford Site on the 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 300, 'National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan' National Contingency Plan [NCPD], Appendix B, 'National Priorities List' (NPL), pursuant to the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA). The 200 Areas NPL sites consist of the 200 West and 200 East Areas (Figure 1-1). The 200 Areas contain waste management facilities, inactive irradiated fuel reprocessing facilities, and the 200 North Area (formerly used for interim storage and staging of irradiated fuel). Several waste sites in the 600 Area, located near the 200 Areas, also are included in the 200 Areas NPL site. The 200 Areas NPL site is in a region referred to as the 'Central Plateau' and consists of approximately 700 waste sites, excluding sites assigned to the tank farm waste management areas (WMAs). The 200-ZP-1 Groundwater Operable Unit (OU) consists of the groundwater located under the northern portion of the 200 West Area. Waste sources that contributed to the 200-ZP-1 OU included cribs and trenches that received liquid and/or solid waste in the past from the Z Plant and T Plant aggregate areas, WMA-T, WMA-TX/TY, and the State-Approved Land Disposal Site (SALDS). This feasibility study (FS) for the 200-ZP-1 Groundwater OU was prepared in accordance with the requirements of CERCLA decision documents. These decision documents are part of the Administrative Record for the selection of remedial actions for each waste site and present the selected remedial actions that are chosen in accordance with CERCLA, as amended by the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986

  7. Initial startup and operations of Yonggwang Units 3 and 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collier, T.J.; Chari, D.R.; Kiraly, F.

    1996-01-01

    A significant milestone in the nuclear power industry was achieved in 1995, when Yonggwang (YGN) Units 3 and 4 were accepted into in commercial operation by Korea Electric Power Corporation (KEPCO). YGN Unit 3 was accepted into commercial operation on March 31, 1995, the original date established during project initiation. YGN Unit 4 was accepted into operation on January 1, 1996, 3 months ahead of schedule. Each YGN unit produces approximately 1,050 Mwe and supplies approximately ten percent of the total electric power demand in the Republic of Korea (ROK). The overall plant efficiency is approximately 37% which is at least 1% higher than most nuclear units. Since achieving commercial operation, YGN Unit 3 has operated at essentially full power which has resulted in an annual performance rate in excess of 85%. YGN Unit 3 is the first of six pressurized water reactors which are currently under design and construction in the ROK and serves as the reference design for the Korean Standard Nuclear Power Plant program. Both YGN Units 3 and 4 include a System 800 Nuclear Steam Supply System (NSSS). The NSSS is rated at 2,815 Mwth and is the ABB-CE standard design. The design includes numerous advanced design features which enhance plant safety, performance and operability. A well executed startup test program was successfully completed on both units prior to commercial operation. A summary of the YGN NSSS design features, the startup test program and selected test results demonstrating the performance of those features are presented in this paper

  8. Final hazard classification and auditable safety analysis for the 300-FF-1 Operable Unit liquid waste sites, landfills, and Burial Ground 618-4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adam, W.J.; Larson, A.R.

    1996-12-01

    This document provides the hazard categorizations and classifications for the activities associated with the 300-FF-1 Operable Unit (OU) remediation. Categories and classifications presented are applicable only to the 300-FF-1 OU waste sites specifically listed in the inventory. The purpose of this remedial action is to remove contaminated soil, debris, and solid waste from liquid waste sites, landfills, and Burial Ground 618-4 within the 300-FF-1 OU. Resulting waste from this project will be sent to the Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility (ERDF) in the 200 West Area. The 300-FF-1 OU is part of the 300 Area of the Hanford Site and is next to the Columbia River. The objective of this remedial action is to reduce contamination at these waste sites to levels that are acceptable for industrial purposes. Specific remedial objectives (cleanup goals) for each contaminant of concern (COC) are provided in a table, along with the maximum soil concentration detected

  9. Stability Analysis for Operation of DG Units in Smart Grids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pouresmaeil, Edris; Shaker, Hamid Reza; Mehrasa, Majid

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a multifunction control strategy for the stable operation of Distributed Generation (DG) units during grid integration. The proposed control model is based on Direct Lyapunov Control (DLC) theory and provides a stable region for the appropriate operation of DG units during grid....... Application of this concept can guarantee to reduce the stress on the grid during the energy demand peak. Simulation results are presented to demonstrate the proficiency and performance of the proposed DLC technique in DG technology....

  10. Pilot-scale treatability test plan for the 200-UP-1 groundwater Operable Unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wittreich, C.D.

    1994-05-01

    This document presents the treatability test plan for pilot-scale pump and treat testing at the 200-UP-1 Operable Unit. This treatability test plan has been prepared in response to an agreement between the US Department of Energy, the US Environmental Protection Agency, and the Washington State Department of Ecology, as documented in Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Ecology et al. 1989a) Change Control Form M-13-93-03 (Ecology et al. 1994). The agreement also requires that, following completion of the activities described in this test plan, a 200-UP-1 Operable Unit interim remedial measure (IRM) proposed plan be developed for use in preparing an interim action record of decision (ROD). The IRM Proposed Plan will be supported by the results of the testing described in this treatability test plan, as well as by other 200-UP-1 Operable Unit activities (e.g., limited field investigation, development of a qualitative risk assessment). Once issued, the interim action ROD will specify the interim action for groundwater contamination at the 200-UP-1 Operable Unit. The approach discussed in this treatability test plan is to conduct a pilot-scale pump and treat test for the contaminant plume associated with the 200-UP-1 Operable Unit. Primary contaminants of concern are uranium and technetium-99; the secondary contaminant of concern is nitrate. The pilot-scale treatability testing presented in this test plan has as its primary purpose to assess the performance of aboveground treatment systems with respect to the ability to remove the primary contaminants in groundwater withdrawn from the contaminant plume

  11. Pilot-scale treatability test plan for the 200-BP-5 operable unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-08-01

    This document presents the treatability test plan for pilot-scale pump and treat testing at the 200-BP-5 Operable Unit. This treatability test plan has been prepared in response to an agreement between the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and the State of Washington Department of Ecology (Ecology), as documented in Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement, Ecology et al. 1989a) Change Control Form M-13-93-03 (Ecology et al. 1994) and a recent 200 NPL Agreement Change Control Form (Appendix A). The agreement also requires that, following completion of the activities described in this test plan, a 200-BP-5 Operable Unit Interim Remedial Measure (IRM) Proposed Plan be developed for use in preparing an Interim Action Record of Decision (ROD). The IRM Proposed Plan will be supported by the results of this treatability test plan, as well as by other 200-BP-5 Operable Unit activities (e.g., development of a qualitative risk assessment). Once issued, the Interim Action ROD will specify the interim action(s) for groundwater contamination at the 200-BP-5 Operable Unit. The treatability test approach is to conduct a pilot-scale pump and treat test for each of the two contaminant plumes associated with the 200-BP-5 Operable Unit. Primary contaminants of concern are 99 Tc and 60 Co for underwater affected by past discharges to the 216-BY Cribs, and 90 Sr, 239/240 Pu, and Cs for groundwater affected by past discharges to the 216-B-5 Reverse Well. The purpose of the pilot-scale treatability testing presented in this testplan is to provide the data basis for preparing an IRM Proposed Plan. To achieve this objective, treatability testing must: Assess the performance of groundwater pumping with respect to the ability to extract a significant amount of the primary contaminant mass present in the two contaminant plumes

  12. Limited field investigation report for the 100-HR-3 operable unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-09-01

    This limited field investigation (LFI) was conducted to assess the applicability of interim remedial measures (IRM) for reducing human health and environmental risks within the 100-HR-3 Groundwater Operable Unit. The 100-HR-3 Operable Unit is comprised of three subareas; the 100 D Area, the 100 H Area and those portions of the 600 Area between the two reactor areas. The operable unit is one of seven operable units associated with the 100 D and H Areas. Operable units 100-DR-1, 100-DR-2, 100-DR-3, 100-HR-1, 100-HR-2 and 100-IU-4 address contaminant sources while 100-HR-3 addresses contamination present in the underlying groundwater. The primary method of field investigation used during this LFI was the installation and sampling of monitoring wells. Samples were collected from the groundwater and soils, and submitted for laboratory analysis. Boreholes were surveyed for radiological contamination using downhole geophysical techniques to further delineate the locations and levels of contaminants. All samples were screened to ascertain the presence of volatile organic compounds and radionuclides. Analytical data were subjected to validation; all round one, two and three and a minimum of 10% of round four data associated with the LFI were validated. A screening method was used to identify contaminants of potential concern (COPC). This screening method eliminated from further consideration, constituents that were below background. Constituents which are considered non-toxic to humans were eliminated from the human health evaluation. Data consistency and blank contamination were also evaluated in the screening process. These COPC were then evaluated further in the qualitative risk assessment (QRA). A human health QRA was performed using conservative (maximum equilibrated contaminant levels from the LFI) analyses

  13. Eielson Air Force Base Operable Unit 2 baseline risk assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, R.E.; Jarvis, T.T.; Jarvis, M.R.; Whelan, G.

    1994-10-01

    Operable Unit 2 at Eielson Air Force Base (AFB) near Fairbanks, is one of several operable units characterized by petroleum, oil, and lubricant contamination, and by the presence of organic products floating at the water table, as a result of Air Force operations since the 1940s. The base is approximately 19,270 acres in size, and comprises the areas for military operations and a residential neighborhood for military dependents. Within Operable Unit 2, there are seven source areas. These source areas were grouped together primarily because of the contaminants released and hence are not necessarily in geographical proximity. Source area ST10 includes a surface water body (Hardfill Lake) next to a fuel spill area. The primary constituents of concern for human health include benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes (BTEX). Monitored data showed these volatile constituents to be present in groundwater wells. The data also showed an elevated level of trace metals in groundwater.

  14. 100-HR-1 Operable Unit focused feasibility study report. Draft A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-09-01

    The standard Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 Feasibility Study (FS) includes development and screening of alternatives (phases 1 and 2) and the detailed analysis of alternatives (phase 3). This focused feasibility study (FFS) constitutes the phase 3 portion of the FS process. The FFS process is conducted in two stages, a Process Document (DOE-RL 1994a) and an operable unit-specific FFS document, such as this one. The FFS process is performed by implementing a ''plug-in'' style approach as defined in great detail in the Process Document. The objective of this operable unit-specific FFS is to provide decision makers with sufficient information to allow appropriate and timely selection of interim remedial measures (IRM) for sites associated with the 100-HR-1 Operable Unit. The IRM candidate waste sites are determined in the limited field investigation. Site profiles are developed for each of these waste sites. The site profiles are used in the application of the plug-in approach. The waste site either plugs into the analysis of the alternatives for the group, or deviations from the developed group alternatives are described and documented

  15. Treatment/Disposal Plan for Drummed Waste from the 300-FF-1 Operable Unit, 618-4 Burial Ground

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lerch, J.A.

    1999-01-01

    The objective of this plan is to support selection of a safe, environmentally responsible, and cost-effective treatment and disposal method for drums containing depleted uranium metal chips submerged in oil that have been and will be excavated from the 618-4 Burial Ground. Remediation of the 300-FF-1 Operable Unit, 618-4 Burial Ground was initiated in fiscal year (FY) 1998 as an excavation and removal operation. Routine processes were established to excavate and ship contaminated soil and debris to the Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility (ERDF) for disposal

  16. Integrated Ground Operations Demonstration Units Testing Plans and Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Robert G.; Notardonato, William U.; Currin, Kelly M.; Orozco-Smith, Evelyn M.

    2012-01-01

    Cryogenic propellant loading operations with their associated flight and ground systems are some of the most complex, critical activities in launch operations. Consequently, these systems and operations account for a sizeable portion of the life cycle costs of any launch program. NASA operations for handling cryogens in ground support equipment have not changed substantially in 50 years, despite advances in cryogenics, system health management and command and control technologies. This project was developed to mature, integrate and demonstrate advancement in the current state of the art in these areas using two distinct integrated ground operations demonstration units (GODU): GODU Integrated Refrigeration and Storage (IRAS) and GODU Autonomous Control

  17. Baseline risk assessment for the quarry residuals operable unit of the Weldon Spring Site, Weldon Spring, Missouri

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-02-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is conducting cleanup activities at the Weldon Spring site, located in St. Charles County, Missouri, about 48 km (30 mi) west of St. Louis. Cleanup of the site consists of several integrated components. The quarry residuals operable unit (QROU), consisting of the Weldon Spring quarry and its surrounding area, is one of four operable units being evaluated. In accordance with requirements of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), as amended, DOE is conducting a remedial investigation/feasibility study (RI/FS) to determine the proper response to address various contaminated media that constitute the QROU. Specifically, the operable unit consists of the following areas and media: the residual material remaining at the Weldon Spring quarry after removal of the pond water and the bulk waste; groundwater underlying the quarry and surrounding area; and other media located in the surrounding vicinity of the quarry, including surface water and sediment at Femme Osage Slough, Little Femme Osage Creek, and Femme Osage Creek. An initial evaluation of conditions at the quarry area identified remaining data requirements needed to support the conceptual site exposure and hydrogeological models. These data requirements are discussed in the RI/FS work plan issued in January 1994. Soil contamination located at a property adjacent to the quarry, referred to as Vicinity Property 9 (VP9), was originally part of the scope of the QROU, as discussed in the work plan. However, a decision was subsequently made to remediate this vicinity property as part of cleanup activities for the chemical plant operable unit, as provided for in the Record of Decision (ROD). Remediation of VP9 was completed in early 1996. Hence, this baseline risk assessment (BRA) does not address VP9

  18. Baseline risk assessment for the quarry residuals operable unit of the Weldon Spring Site, Weldon Spring, Missouri

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-02-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is conducting cleanup activities at the Weldon Spring site, located in St. Charles County, Missouri, about 48 km (30 mi) west of St. Louis. Cleanup of the site consists of several integrated components. The quarry residuals operable unit (QROU), consisting of the Weldon Spring quarry and its surrounding area, is one of four operable units being evaluated. In accordance with requirements of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), as amended, DOE is conducting a remedial investigation/feasibility study (RI/FS) to determine the proper response to address various contaminated media that constitute the QROU. Specifically, the operable unit consists of the following areas and media: the residual material remaining at the Weldon Spring quarry after removal of the pond water and the bulk waste; groundwater underlying the quarry and surrounding area; and other media located in the surrounding vicinity of the quarry, including surface water and sediment at Femme Osage Slough, Little Femme Osage Creek, and Femme Osage Creek. An initial evaluation of conditions at the quarry area identified remaining data requirements needed to support the conceptual site exposure and hydrogeological models. These data requirements are discussed in the RI/FS work plan issued in January 1994. Soil contamination located at a property adjacent to the quarry, referred to as Vicinity Property 9 (VP9), was originally part of the scope of the QROU, as discussed in the work plan. However, a decision was subsequently made to remediate this vicinity property as part of cleanup activities for the chemical plant operable unit, as provided for in the Record of Decision (ROD). Remediation of VP9 was completed in early 1996. Hence, this baseline risk assessment (BRA) does not address VP9.

  19. The United States Department of Energy, Office of Environmental Management's Progress and Challenges in Environmental Remediation and Decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szilagyi, A.; Collazo, Y.

    2008-01-01

    The United States Department of Energy Environmental Management Program (EM) is responsible for managing the world largest environmental cleanup program comprised of unparalleled scope, complexity, diversity of facilities and contaminants and technical challenges. Established in 1989, EM mission is the safe and successful cleanup of the Cold War legacy brought about from five decades of nuclear weapons development and government-sponsored nuclear energy research. Within this mission, EM is responsible for radioactive liquid wastes, spent nuclear fuel, nuclear materials, solid radioactive waste, contaminated soils and groundwater and contaminated facilities located in 14 States, on over 2,000,000 acres of land and over 4500 facilities requiring decommissioning. Since 1989 EM has, and continues to evolve into a true project management oriented organization with world-class engineering and technology capabilities, and as the National Academy of Public Administration has concluded, a with the changes underway, EM is on a solid path to becoming a high performing organization. Not only has EM grown and matured as a functional organization, but it has also achieved some remarkable on the ground accomplishments in environmental remediation, deactivation and decommissioning and waste management/nuclear material stabilization. These accomplishments have been made within a context of having to work with some of the most dangerous substances known to humanity; of having to perform first of a kind tasks in highly hazardous environments; and of having to design, construct and operate first of a kind technology and facilities to solve problems that once seemed unsolvable. In addition, EM accomplishments have been made with the highest priority and focus given to safety and risk reduction. In October 2006, and with a life cycle cost of $6.7 Billion, cleanup/D and D was completed at the 800+ facility 6200 acre former nuclear weapons complex at Rocky Flats (Denver, Colorado). Today

  20. The use of cognitive remediation therapy on a child adolescent eating disorder unit: Patients and therapist perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giombini, Lucia; Turton, Robert; Turco, Matteo; Nesbitt, Sophie; Lask, Bryan

    2017-04-01

    Cognitive remediation therapy (CRT) is an intervention for anorexia nervosa (AN) that focuses on ameliorating the neuropsychological inefficiencies that underlie the illness. The current literature has reported promising results regarding its efficacy as an intervention for AN. However, there is a scarcity of studies considering the implementation of CRT in a child and adolescent population. This article describes an individual CRT therapy programme for children and adolescents with AN delivered on an inpatient unit for eating disorders. It considers the therapeutic process including the differing viewpoints of the patients and the therapists. The article concludes that CRT can be viewed as an engaging therapeutic intervention that could be useful as an additional treatment for AN.

  1. Final Remedial Investigation Sampling Plan Addendum. Milan Army Ammunition Plant Remedial Investigation Southern Study Area (Operable Unit No. 5)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-09-01

    91-D-0012 Task Order No. 0007 2.4.7 Milan Army Ammunition Plant, Phytoremediation Pilot Study, USAEC, 1996 .. .............................. 2-28 2.5...indicated that heavy metal contamination (lead, chromium, and mercury ) was present at relatively low levels, and explosive contamination was limited to...and MI172 where lead was found at 22.9 j.g/1 and 18.4 Ig/l, respectively. 2.4.7 Milan Army Ammunition Plant, Phytoremediation Pilot Study, USAEC, 1996

  2. 200 Areas soil remediation strategy -- Environmental Restoration Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-09-01

    The remediation and waste management activities in the 200 Areas of the Hanford Site (located in Richland, Washington) currently range from remediating groundwater, remediating source units (contaminated soils), decontaminating and decommissioning of buildings and structures, maintaining facilities, managing transuranic, low-level and mixed waste, and operating tank farms that store high-level waste. This strategy focuses on the assessment and remediation of soil that resulted from the discharge of liquids and solids from processing facilities to the ground (e.g., ponds, ditches, cribs, burial grounds) in the 200 Areas and addresses only those waste sites assigned to the Environmental Restoration Program

  3. Data validation report for the 100-HR-3 Operable Unit first quarter 1994 groundwater sampling data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biggerstaff, R.L.

    1994-06-24

    Westinghouse-Hanford has requested that a minimum of 20% of the total number of Sample Delivery Groups be validated for the 100-HR-3 Operable Unit First Quarter 1994 Groundwater Sampling Investigation. Therefore, the data from the chemical analysis of twenty-four samples from this sampling event and their related quality assurance samples were reviewed and validated to verify that reported sample results were of sufficient quality to support decisions regarding remedial actions performed at this site. The samples were analyzed by Thermo-Analytic Laboratories (TMA) and Roy F. Weston Laboratories (WESTON) using US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) CLP protocols. Sample analyses included: inorganics; and general chemical parameters. Forty-two samples were validated for radiochemical parameters by TMA and Teledyne.

  4. Data validation report for the 100-HR-3 Operable Unit first quarter 1994 groundwater sampling data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biggerstaff, R.L.

    1994-01-01

    Westinghouse-Hanford has requested that a minimum of 20% of the total number of Sample Delivery Groups be validated for the 100-HR-3 Operable Unit First Quarter 1994 Groundwater Sampling Investigation. Therefore, the data from the chemical analysis of twenty-four samples from this sampling event and their related quality assurance samples were reviewed and validated to verify that reported sample results were of sufficient quality to support decisions regarding remedial actions performed at this site. The samples were analyzed by Thermo-Analytic Laboratories (TMA) and Roy F. Weston Laboratories (WESTON) using US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) CLP protocols. Sample analyses included: inorganics; and general chemical parameters. Forty-two samples were validated for radiochemical parameters by TMA and Teledyne

  5. Analysis on Isolation Condenser Operation by Fukushima Daiichi Unit 1 Operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Man Cheol

    2014-01-01

    Fukushima Daiichi nuclear accident resulted in the core damage in three reactors and the release of considerable amount of radioactive material to the environment, not to mention significant social impact and anti-nuclear atmosphere all around the world. This paper provides a review of the findings related to shift operators' operation of the isolation condenser in Unit 1 to examine shift operators' response to the situation. Based on the review of the findings, a situation assessment model was developed to analyze shift operators' understanding on whether core cooling was successfully performed in Unit 1 through the operation of isolation condenser. It was found that lack of information could be one of the main causes for the failure in core cooling by the IC in Unit 1. It is also recommended that the differences in the mathematical model for the situation assessment and that of the real operator need to be further investigated

  6. Analysis on Isolation Condenser Operation by Fukushima Daiichi Unit 1 Operators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Man Cheol [Chungang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-08-15

    Fukushima Daiichi nuclear accident resulted in the core damage in three reactors and the release of considerable amount of radioactive material to the environment, not to mention significant social impact and anti-nuclear atmosphere all around the world. This paper provides a review of the findings related to shift operators' operation of the isolation condenser in Unit 1 to examine shift operators' response to the situation. Based on the review of the findings, a situation assessment model was developed to analyze shift operators' understanding on whether core cooling was successfully performed in Unit 1 through the operation of isolation condenser. It was found that lack of information could be one of the main causes for the failure in core cooling by the IC in Unit 1. It is also recommended that the differences in the mathematical model for the situation assessment and that of the real operator need to be further investigated.

  7. Operational behaviour of WWER nuclear power units after Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milivojevic, S.; Spasojevic, D.

    2000-01-01

    The indicators of effectiveness of WWER operation, in 1987-1998 were analyzed. For three groups of nuclear units (WWER, NPP Kozloduy, NPP Paks), the trends of Indicators flow were established. The comparative analysis of forced outage rate, and load factor of WWERs and nuclear units all in the world was carried out; it gives the general picture of accident influence on the states and the relations of these indicators in considered period (author)

  8. On Point: The United States Army in Operation Iraqi Freedom

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    to retain operational context. Moreover, times noted in the text have been adjusted from Greenwich Mean Time (“ Zulu ”) to local Kuwait time (+ 3...TF 1-64 AR unit history is composed of short narratives for each subordinate unit. Most cite times in zulu . 34. Ibid. 35. Ibid. Numbers of enemy...places in the world. Inside the city cemetery is the Tomb of Ali, son-in-law and cousin to Mohammed and founder of the Shiite sect. Coalition leaders

  9. An assessment of dioxin contamination from the intermittent operation of a municipal waste incinerator in Japan and associated remediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Nobuo; Takaoka, Masaki

    2013-04-01

    Significant dioxin (polychlorinated dibenzo-para-dioxins (PCDDs)/polychlorinated dibenzo-furans (PCDFs)) pollution from a municipal solid waste incinerator was discovered in 1997 in Osaka prefecture/Japan. The cause and mechanism of pollution was identified by a detailed assessment of the environment and incinerator plant. The primary sources of PCDD/PCDF pollution were high dioxin releases from an intermittently operated waste incinerator with PCDD/PCDF emissions of 150 ng-TEQ/Nm(3). PCDD/PCDF also accumulated in the wet scrubber system (3,000 μg TEQ/L) by adsorption and water recirculation in the incinerator. Scrubber water was air-cooled with a cooling tower located on the roof of the incinerator. High concentrations of dioxins in the cooling water were released as aerosols into the surrounding and caused heavy soil pollution in the area near the plant. These emissions were considered as the major contamination pathway from the plant. Decontamination and soil remediation in and around the incinerator plant were conducted using a variety of destruction technologies (including incineration, photochemical degradation and GeoMelt technology). Although the soil remediation process was successfully finished in December 2006 about 3% of the waste still remains. The case demonstrates that releases from incinerators which do not use best available technology or which are not operated according to best environmental practices can contaminate their operators and surrounding land. This significant pollution had a large impact on the Japanese government's approach toward controlling dioxin pollution. Since this incident, a ministerial conference on dioxins has successfully strengthened control measures.

  10. Implementation of Active Learning Method in Unit Operations II Subject

    OpenAIRE

    Ma'mun, Sholeh

    2018-01-01

    ABSTRACT: Active Learning Method which requires students to take an active role in the process of learning in the classroom has been applied in Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Industrial Technology, Islamic University of Indonesia for Unit Operations II subject in the Even Semester of Academic Year 2015/2016. The purpose of implementation of the learning method is to assist students in achieving competencies associated with the Unit Operations II subject and to help in creating...

  11. Limited field investigation report for the 100-HR-1 Operable Unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-08-01

    This limited field investigation (LFI) report summarizes the data collection and analysis activities conducted during the 100-HR-1 Source Operable Unit LFI and the associated qualitative risk assessment (QRA) (WHC 1993a), and makes recommendations on the continued candidacy of high-priority sites for interim remedial measures (IRM). The results and recommendations presented in this report are generally independent of future land use scenarios. A LFI Report is required, in accordance with the HPPS, when waste sites are to be considered for IRMs. The LFI is an integral part of the remedial investigation/feasibility study (RI/FS) or Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) facility investigation/corrective measures study (RFI/CMS) and process and functions as a focused RI or RFI for selection of IRMs. The purpose of the report is to identify those sites that are recommended to remain as candidates for IRMs, provide a preliminary summary of site characterization studies, refine the conceptual model as needed, identify contaminant- and location-specific applicable or relevant and appropriate requirements (ARA), and provide a qualitative assessment of the risks associated with the sites. This assessment includes consideration of whether contaminant concentrations pose an unacceptable risk that warrants action through IRMs. The 100-HR-1 unit encompasses approximately 100 acres adjacent to the Columbia River shoreline. It contains waste units associated with the original plant facilities constructed to support the H Reactor. The area also contains evaporation basins which received liquid process wastes and nonroutine deposits of chemical wastes from the 300 Area, where fuel elements for the N Reactor were produced

  12. Operational safety experience reporting in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartfield, R.A.

    1978-01-01

    Licensees of nuclear power plants in the United States have many reporting requirements included in their technical specifications and the code of federal regulations, title 10. The Nuclear Regulatory Commisson receives these reports and utilizes them in its regulatory program. Part of this usage includes collecting and publishing this operating experience data in various reports and storing information in various data systems. This paper will discuss the data systems and reports on operating experience published and used by the NRC. In addition, some observations on operating experience will be made. Subjects included will be the Licensee Event Report (LER) Data File, the Operating Unit Status Report (Gray Book), Radiation Exposure Reports, Effluents Reports, the Nuclear Plant Reliability Data System, Current Events, Bulletin Wrapups and Annual Summaries. Some of the uses of the reports and systems will be discussed. The Abnormal Occurence Report to the US Congress will also be described and discussed. (author)

  13. ICDF Complex Remedial Action Work Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    W. M. Heileson

    2006-12-01

    This Remedial Action Work Plan provides the framework for operation of the Idaho Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) Disposal Facility Complex (ICDF). This facility includes (a) an engineered landfill that meets the substantial requirements of DOE Order 435.1, Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Subtitle C, Idaho Hazardous Waste Management Act, and Toxic Substances Control Act polychlorinated biphenyl landfill requirements; (b) centralized receiving, inspections, administration, storage/staging, and treatment facilities necessary for CERCLA investigation-derived, remedial, and removal waste at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) prior to final disposition in the disposal facility or shipment off-Site; and (c) an evaporation pond that has been designated as a corrective action management unit. The ICDF Complex, including a buffer zone, will cover approximately 40 acres, with a landfill disposal capacity of approximately 510,000 yd3. The ICDF Complex is designed and authorized to accept INL CERCLA-generated wastes, and includes the necessary subsystems and support facilities to provide a complete waste management system. This Remedial Action Work Plan presents the operational approach and requirements for the various components that are part of the ICDF Complex. Summaries of the remedial action work elements are presented herein, with supporting information and documents provided as appendixes to this work plan that contain specific detail about the operation of the ICDF Complex. This document presents the planned operational process based upon an evaluation of the remedial action requirements set forth in the Operable Unit 3-13 Final Record of Decision.

  14. Maximizing Operational Efficiencies in Waste Management on the Hanford Plateau Remediation Contract in a Down-turned Market - 13484

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simiele, Connie J.; Blackford, L. Ty [CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Contract - CHPRC (United States); West, Lori D. [East Tennessee Materials and Energy Corporation - M and EC (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Recent changes in DOE priorities and funding have pressed DOE and its contractors to look for innovative methods to sustain critical operations at sites across the Complex. At the Hanford Site, DOE Richland Operations and its prime contractor, CH2M Hill Plateau Remediation Company (CHPRC), have completed in-depth assessments of the Plateau Remediation Contract (PRC) operations that compared available funding to mission and operational objectives in an effort to maintain requisite safety and compliance margins while realizing cost savings that meet funding profiles. These assessments included confirmation of current baseline activities, identification of potential efficiencies, barriers to implementation, and potential increased risks associated with implementation. Six operating PRC waste management facilities were evaluated against three possible end-states: complete facility closure, maintaining base operations, and performing minimum safe surveillance and maintenance activities. The costs to completely close evaluated facilities were determined to be prohibitively high and this end-state was quickly dropped from consideration. A summary of the analysis of remaining options by facility, efficiencies identified, impact to risk profiles, and expected cost savings is provided in Table I. The expected cost savings are a result of: - right-sizing and cross-training work crews to address maintenance activities across facilities; - combining and sequencing 'like-moded' operational processes; - cross-cutting emergency planning and preparedness staffing; - resource redistribution and optimization; - reducing areas requiring routine surveillance and inspection. For the efficiencies identified, there are corresponding increases in risk, including a loss of breadth and depth of available resources; lengthened response time to emergent issues; inability to invest in opportunities for improvement (OFIs); potential single-point failures or non-compliancies due to

  15. Maximizing Operational Efficiencies in Waste Management on the Hanford Plateau Remediation Contract in a Down-turned Market - 13484

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simiele, Connie J.; Blackford, L. Ty; West, Lori D.

    2013-01-01

    Recent changes in DOE priorities and funding have pressed DOE and its contractors to look for innovative methods to sustain critical operations at sites across the Complex. At the Hanford Site, DOE Richland Operations and its prime contractor, CH2M Hill Plateau Remediation Company (CHPRC), have completed in-depth assessments of the Plateau Remediation Contract (PRC) operations that compared available funding to mission and operational objectives in an effort to maintain requisite safety and compliance margins while realizing cost savings that meet funding profiles. These assessments included confirmation of current baseline activities, identification of potential efficiencies, barriers to implementation, and potential increased risks associated with implementation. Six operating PRC waste management facilities were evaluated against three possible end-states: complete facility closure, maintaining base operations, and performing minimum safe surveillance and maintenance activities. The costs to completely close evaluated facilities were determined to be prohibitively high and this end-state was quickly dropped from consideration. A summary of the analysis of remaining options by facility, efficiencies identified, impact to risk profiles, and expected cost savings is provided in Table I. The expected cost savings are a result of: - right-sizing and cross-training work crews to address maintenance activities across facilities; - combining and sequencing 'like-moded' operational processes; - cross-cutting emergency planning and preparedness staffing; - resource redistribution and optimization; - reducing areas requiring routine surveillance and inspection. For the efficiencies identified, there are corresponding increases in risk, including a loss of breadth and depth of available resources; lengthened response time to emergent issues; inability to invest in opportunities for improvement (OFIs); potential single-point failures or non-compliancies due to resource

  16. Operations and maintenance manual for the temporary septic holding tank at the 300-FF-1 Remedial Action Support Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilkeson, D.E.; Jackson, G.J.

    1997-02-01

    This document provides detailed information regarding the operations and maintenance of the septic holding tank system at the 300-FF-1 Remedial Action Support Facility, located in the 300 Area. This document includes the type and frequency of requirement maintenance, failure response procedures, and reporting requirements. Sanitary wastewater and raw sewage will enter the holding tank via a sloped 102 mm polyvinyl chloride (PVC) line from the office trailers. The septic holding tank will be emptied, as required, by system demands. During normal usage, it is estimated that the tank will require pumping every 3 working days. Approximately 834 gallons of sanitary wastewater and raw sewage will be disposed of into the septic system during this time

  17. Adaptation of Professional Skills in the Unit Operations Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rende, Deniz; Rende, Sevinc; Baysal, Nihat

    2012-01-01

    We introduce the design of three consecutive unit operations laboratory (UOL) courses that retain the academic rigor of the course while incorporating skills essential for professional careers, such as ability to propose ideas, develop practical solutions, participate in teamwork, meet deadlines, establish communication between technical support…

  18. Pressure Swing Adsorption in the Unit Operations Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganley, Jason

    2018-01-01

    This paper describes a student laboratory in the Unit Operations Laboratory at the Colorado School of Mines: air separation by pressure swing adsorption. The flexibility of the system enables students to study the production of enriched nitrogen or oxygen streams. Automatic data acquisition permits the study of cycle steps and performance.…

  19. Thunderstorm Algorithm for Determining Unit Commitment in Power System Operation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arif Nur Afandi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Solving the unit commitment problem is an important task in power system operation for deciding a balanced power production between various types of generating units under technical constraints and environmental limitations. This paper presents a new intelligent computation method, called the Thunderstorm Algorithm (TA, for searching the optimal solution of the integrated economic and emission dispatch (IEED problem as the operational assessment for determining unit commitment. A simulation using the IEEE-62 bus system showed that TA has smooth convergence and is applicable for solving the IEED problem. The IEED’s solution is associated with the total fuel consumption and pollutant emission. The proposed TA method seems to be a viable new approach for finding the optimal solution of the IEED problem.

  20. Optimal operation of cogeneration units. State of art and perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polimeni, S.

    2001-01-01

    Optimal operation of cogeneration plants and of power plant fueling waste products is a complex challenge as they have to fulfill, beyond the contractual obligation of electric power supply, the constraints of supplying the required thermal energy to the user (for cogeneration units) or to burn completely the by-products of the industrial complex where they are integrated. Electrical power market evolution is pushing such units to a more and more volatile operation caused by uncertain selling price levels. This work intends to pinpoint the state of art in the optimization of these units outlining the important differences among the different size and cycles. The effect of the market liberalization on the automation systems and the optimization algorithms will be discussed [it

  1. A Remedy to Crises: Danish Special Operations Forces in Whole-of-Government Stabilization Engagements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    special operations forces, capacity building, state building 15. NUMBER OF PAGES 89 16. PRICE CODE 17. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF REPORT... psychology , beliefs (such as religion), and behaviors.”66 This knowledge is essential for decision makers who maneuver not only against adversaries, but...To further influence and inform target audiences, the military uses a variety of information-operation capabilities, including psychological

  2. Status report: Fernald site remediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Craig, J.R. Jr.; Saric, J.A.; Schneider, T.; Yates, M.K.

    1995-01-01

    The Fernald site is rapidly transitioning from a Remedial Investigation/ Feasibility Study (RI/FS) site to one where design and construction of the remedies dominates. Fernald is one of the first sites in the Department of Energy (DOE) complex to accomplish this task and real physical progress is being made in moving the five operable units through the CERCLA process. Two of the required Records of Decision (ROD) are in hand and all five operable units will have received their RODs (IROD for OU3) by the end of 1995. Pre-design investigations, design work or construction are now in progress on the operable units. The lessons learned from the work done to date include implementing innovations in the RI and FS process as well as effective use of Removal Actions to begin the actual site remediation. Also, forging close working relationships with the Federal and State Regulators, citizens action groups and the Fernald Citizens Task Force has helped move the program forward. The Fernald successes have been achieved by close coordination and cooperation among all groups working on the projects and by application of innovative technologies within the decision making process

  3. Centrifugal microfluidic platforms: advanced unit operations and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strohmeier, O; Keller, M; Schwemmer, F; Zehnle, S; Mark, D; von Stetten, F; Zengerle, R; Paust, N

    2015-10-07

    Centrifugal microfluidics has evolved into a mature technology. Several major diagnostic companies either have products on the market or are currently evaluating centrifugal microfluidics for product development. The fields of application are widespread and include clinical chemistry, immunodiagnostics and protein analysis, cell handling, molecular diagnostics, as well as food, water, and soil analysis. Nevertheless, new fluidic functions and applications that expand the possibilities of centrifugal microfluidics are being introduced at a high pace. In this review, we first present an up-to-date comprehensive overview of centrifugal microfluidic unit operations. Then, we introduce the term "process chain" to review how these unit operations can be combined for the automation of laboratory workflows. Such aggregation of basic functionalities enables efficient fluidic design at a higher level of integration. Furthermore, we analyze how novel, ground-breaking unit operations may foster the integration of more complex applications. Among these are the storage of pneumatic energy to realize complex switching sequences or to pump liquids radially inward, as well as the complete pre-storage and release of reagents. In this context, centrifugal microfluidics provides major advantages over other microfluidic actuation principles: the pulse-free inertial liquid propulsion provided by centrifugal microfluidics allows for closed fluidic systems that are free of any interfaces to external pumps. Processed volumes are easily scalable from nanoliters to milliliters. Volume forces can be adjusted by rotation and thus, even for very small volumes, surface forces may easily be overcome in the centrifugal gravity field which enables the efficient separation of nanoliter volumes from channels, chambers or sensor matrixes as well as the removal of any disturbing bubbles. In summary, centrifugal microfluidics takes advantage of a comprehensive set of fluidic unit operations such as

  4. Expert system for operational personnel support during power unit operation control in regulation range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanitskij, V.A.

    1992-01-01

    The problems met when developing the systems for NPP operator support in the process of power unit operation are considered. The expert system for NPP personnel intelligent support combining the properties belonging to the artificial intelligence systems including selection of the analysis method taking into account the concrete technological situation and capability of application of algothmic calculations of the equipment characteristics using the information accumulated during the system development, erection and operation is described

  5. Mitigation action plan for 300-FF-1 remedial action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weiss, S.G.

    1996-10-01

    A record of decision was issued (dated July 1996), for remediation of waste sites in the 300-FF-1 Operable Unit in the 300 Area of the Hanford Site. The selected remedies for the 300-FF-1 and 300-FF-5 waste sites include selective excavation and disposal of contaminated soil and debris from the process waste units, excavation and removal of the 618-4 Burial Ground, and institutional controls for groundwater. This mitigation action plan explains how cultural resources will be managed and how revegetation for these remedial activities will be planned

  6. Radioactive acid digestion test unit nonradioactive startup operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, C.R.; Cowan, R.G.; Crippen, M.D.; Divine, J.R.

    1978-05-01

    The Radioactive Acid Digestion Test Unit (RADTU) will process 5 kg/hour of combustible solid waste and is designed to handle almost all solid combustible waste found in plutonium processing with plutonium contamination levels up to scrap. The RADTU is designed with special safety features to safely contain high masses of fissile materials and to safely handle unusual materials and reactive chemicals which may find their way into the waste. Nonradioactive operating experience to date has been very satisfactory. RADTU has been operated for extended runs on both a 24-hour per day basis as well as on a one shift per day basis. Some minor operating problems have been encountered as expected in a shakedown operation. In general, solutions to these have been readily found. 12 figures

  7. Environmental restoration and remediation technical data management plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Key, K.T.; Fox, R.D.

    1994-02-01

    The tasks performed in the Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study (RI/FS) work plan for each Hanford Site operable unit must meet the requirements of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA) and the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement, Ecology et. al 1992). An extensive amount of data will be generated in the evaluation and remediation of hazardous waste sites at the Site. The data must be of sufficient quality, as they will be used to evaluate the need, select the method(s), and support the full remediation of the waste sites as stipulated in the Tri-Party Agreement. In particular, a data management plan (DMP) is to be included in an RI/FS work plan for managing the technical data obtained during the characterization of an operable unit, as well as other data related to the study of the operable unit. Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA) sites are involved in the operable unit. Thus, the data management activities for the operable unit should be applied consistently to RCRA sites in the operable unit as well. This DMP provides common direction for managing-the environmental technical data of all defined operable units at the Hanford Site during the RI/FS activities. Details specific to an operable unit will be included in the actual work plan of that operable unit

  8. The Department of Energy's Remedial Action Assessment System (RAAS): Decision support tools for performing streamlined feasibility studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, M.K.

    1994-06-01

    The United States Department of Energy (DOE) faces the major task of cleaning up hundreds of waste sites across the nation, which will require completion of a large number of remedial investigation/feasibility studies (RI/FSs). The intent of each RI/FS is to characterize the waste problems and environmental conditions at the operable unit level, segment the remediation problem into manageable medium-specific and contaminant-specific pieces, define corresponding remediation objectives, and identify remedial response actions to satisfy those objectives. The RI/FS team can then identify combinations of remediation technologies that will meet the remediation objectives. Finally, the team must evaluate these remedial alternatives in terms of effectiveness, implementability, cost, and acceptability. The Remedial Action Assessment System (RAAS) is being developed by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to support DOE in this effort

  9. Advanced Transport Operating System (ATOPS) control display unit software description

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slominski, Christopher J.; Parks, Mark A.; Debure, Kelly R.; Heaphy, William J.

    1992-01-01

    The software created for the Control Display Units (CDUs), used for the Advanced Transport Operating Systems (ATOPS) project, on the Transport Systems Research Vehicle (TSRV) is described. Module descriptions are presented in a standardized format which contains module purpose, calling sequence, a detailed description, and global references. The global reference section includes subroutines, functions, and common variables referenced by a particular module. The CDUs, one for the pilot and one for the copilot, are used for flight management purposes. Operations performed with the CDU affects the aircraft's guidance, navigation, and display software.

  10. Conceptual site models for groundwater contamination at 100-BC-5, 100-KR-4, 100-HR-3, and 100-FR-3 operable units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, R.E.; Raidl, R.F.; Denslow, C.W.

    1996-09-01

    This document presents technical information on groundwater contamination in the 100-BC-5, 100-KR-4, 100-HR-3, and 100-FR-3 Operable Units on the Hanford Site in Richland, Washington. These operable units are defined for groundwater that underlies the retired plutonium production reactors and their associated support facilities. This technical information supports conceptual site models (CSM) for each operable unit. The goal in maintaining a CSM is to ensure that a reasonable understanding of contamination issues in each groundwater operable unit is available for selecting a final remediation alternative and for developing a record of decision. CSMs are developed for hazardous waste sites to help evaluate potential risks to human health and the environment from exposure to contamination

  11. Licensed operating reactors. Operating units status report, data as of 2-28-79

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-03-01

    This report is divided into three sections: the first contains monthly highlights and statistics for commercial operating units, and errata from previously reported data; the second is a compilation of detailed information on each unit, provided by NRC Regional Offices and IE Headquarters; and the third section is an appendix containing comparative statistics of U.S. nuclear/fossil capacity, identification of nuclear power plants within regional Electric Reliability Councils, the relative status of U.S. nuclear electric production to all U.S. electric production by state, and selected Edison Electric Institute operating statistics. Throughout the report, statistical factors for periods greater than a report month, or for more than one unit, are computed as the arithmetic average of each unit's individual operating statistics. The statistical factors for each unit for the report month are computed from actual power production for the month. The factors for the life-span of each unit (the ''Cumulative'' column) are reported by the utility and are not entirely re-computed by NRC. Utility power production data is checked for consistency with previously submitted statistics

  12. Treatability test plan for the 200-ZP-1 operable unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-07-01

    This document presents the treatability test plan for pilot-scale pump and treat testing at the 200-ZP-1 Operable Unit. The approach discussed in this treatability test plan is to conduct a pilot-scale pump and treat test for the contaminant plume associated with the 200-ZP-1 Operable Unit. The primary contaminants of concern are carbon tetrachloride, chloroform, and trichloroethylene (TCE). The pilot-scale treatability testing has as its primary purpose to assess the performance of aboveground treatment systems with respect to the ability to remove the primary contaminants present in groundwater withdrawn from the contaminant plume. The overall scope of this test plan includes: description of the pump and treat system to be tested, as well as the test performance objectives and data quality objectives (DQOs) that will be used to evaluate the effectiveness of the pilot-scale treatment system; discussion of the treatment technology to be tested and supporting development activities, including process flow and conceptual design descriptions and equipment, fabrication, utility, and system startup needs; description of pilot-scale treatment system performance, operating procedures, and operational controls, as well as anticipated monitoring activities, analytes, parameters, analytical procedures, and quality assurance protocols; summaries of other related treatability testing elements, including personnel and environmental health and safety controls, process and secondary waste management and disposition, schedule, and program organization

  13. Heat recovery unit operation of HVAC system in IMEF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paek, S. R.; Oh, Y. W.; Song, E. S.; Park, D. K.; Joo, Y. S.; Hong, K. P.

    2003-01-01

    HVAC system including a supply and exhaust air system in IMEF(Irradiated Materials Examination Facility) is an essential facility for preventing a leakage of radioactive materials and for a preservation of a working environment. It costs a lot to operate the HVAC system in IMEF because our ventilation type is once-through system, and an air flow is maintained from low level contamination area to high level and maintained high turns of ventilation air under certain conditions. As HRU(Heat Recovery Unit) at HVAC system based on PIEF(Post Irradiation Examination Facility) operation experiences is designed and adopted, it prevents from a heating coil freezing destruction in winter and makes much energy saving etc.. Heat pipe type HRU is adopted in IMEF, and a construction and operation result of HRU is examined

  14. Monticello Mill Tailings Site, Operable Unit lll, Annual Groundwater Report, May 2015 Through April 2016

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, Jason [USDOE Office of Legacy Management (LM), Washington, DC (United States); Smith, Fred [Navarro Research and Engineering, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-10-01

    This report provides the annual analysis of water quality restoration progress, cumulative through April 2016, for Operable Unit (OU) III, surface water and groundwater, of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Legacy Management (LM) Monticello Mill Tailings Site (MMTS). The MMTS is a Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act National Priorities List site located in and near the city of Monticello, San Juan County, Utah. MMTS comprises the 110-acre site of a former uranium- and vanadium-ore-processing mill (mill site) and 1700 acres of surrounding private and municipal property. Milling operations generated 2.5 million cubic yards of waste (tailings) from 1942 to 1960. The tailings were impounded at four locations on the mill site. Inorganic constituents in the tailings drained from the impoundments to contaminate local surface water (Montezuma Creek) and groundwater in the underlying alluvial aquifer. Mill tailings dispersed by wind and water also contaminated properties surrounding and downstream of the mill site. Remedial actions to remove and isolate radiologically contaminated soil, sediment, and debris from the former mill site, Operable Unit I (OU I), and surrounding properties (OU II) were completed in 1999 with the encapsulation of the wastes in an engineered repository located on DOE property 1 mile south of the former mill site. This effectively removed the primary source of groundwater contamination; however, contamination of groundwater and surface water remains within OU III at levels that exceed water quality protection standards. Uranium is the primary contaminant of concern (COC). LM implemented monitored natural attenuation with institutional controls as the OU III remedy in 2004. Because groundwater restoration proceeded more slowly than expected and did not meet performance criteria established in the OU III Record of Decision (June 2004), LM implemented a contingency action in 2009 by an Explanation of

  15. Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study, Operable Unit 5, Elmendorf AFB, Anchorage, Alaska. Volume 1. Text

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-03-04

    the protective steel casing to hold it in place and proec the surface seal. Protective steel boilards set in concrete were installed around monitorig ...banks, high watermarks, channel morphology, and canopy cover (Appendix J, Table 1.3). Weather Comdltlaos This assessment included approximate cloud

  16. 618-10 Burial Ground Trench Remediation and 618-10 and 618-11 Burial Ground Nonintrusive Characterization of Vertical Pipe Units Lessons Learned

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darby, J. W.

    2012-06-28

    A “lessons learned” is a noteworthy practice or innovative approach that is captured and shared to promote repeat application, or an adverse work practice/experience that is captured and shared to avoid reoccurrence. This document provides the lessons learned identified by the 618-10 Burial Ground trench remediation and the 618-10 and 618-11 Burial Ground nonintrusive characterization of the vertical pipe units (VPUs).

  17. WTP Waste Feed Qualification: Glass Fabrication Unit Operation Testing Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stone, M. E. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL). Hanford Missions Programs; Newell, J. D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL). Process Technology Programs; Johnson, F. C. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL). Engineering Process Development; Edwards, T. B. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL). Engineering Process Development

    2016-07-14

    The waste feed qualification program is being developed to protect the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) design, safety basis, and technical basis by assuring waste acceptance requirements are met for each staged waste feed campaign prior to transfer from the Tank Operations Contractor to the feed receipt vessels inside the Pretreatment Facility. The Waste Feed Qualification Program Plan describes the three components of waste feed qualification: 1. Demonstrate compliance with the waste acceptance criteria 2. Determine waste processability 3. Test unit operations at laboratory scale. The glass fabrication unit operation is the final step in the process demonstration portion of the waste feed qualification process. This unit operation generally consists of combining each of the waste feed streams (high-level waste (HLW) and low-activity waste (LAW)) with Glass Forming Chemicals (GFCs), fabricating glass coupons, performing chemical composition analysis before and after glass fabrication, measuring hydrogen generation rate either before or after glass former addition, measuring rheological properties before and after glass former addition, and visual observation of the resulting glass coupons. Critical aspects of this unit operation are mixing and sampling of the waste and melter feeds to ensure representative samples are obtained as well as ensuring the fabrication process for the glass coupon is adequate. Testing was performed using a range of simulants (LAW and HLW simulants), and these simulants were mixed with high and low bounding amounts of GFCs to evaluate the mixing, sampling, and glass preparation steps in shielded cells using laboratory techniques. The tests were performed with off-the-shelf equipment at the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) that is similar to equipment used in the SRNL work during qualification of waste feed for the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) and other waste treatment facilities at the

  18. Management of legacy spent nuclear fuel wastes at the Chalk River Laboratories: operating experience and progress towards waste remediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cox, D.S.; Bainbridge, I.B.; Greenfield, K.R.

    2006-01-01

    AECL has been managing and storing a diversity of spent nuclear fuel, arising from operations at its Chalk River Laboratories (CRL) site over more than 50 years. A subset of about 22 tonnes of research reactor fuels, primarily metallic uranium, have been identified as a high priority for remediation, based on monitoring and inspection that has determined that these fuels and their storage containers are corroding. This paper describes the Fuel Packaging and Storage (FPS) project, which AECL has launched to retrieve these fuels from current storage, and to emplace them in a new above-ground dry storage system, as a prerequisite step to decommissioning some of the early-design waste storage structures at CRL. The retrieved fuels will be packaged in a new storage container, and subjected to a cold vacuum drying process that will remove moisture, and thereby reduce the extent of future corrosion and degradation. The FPS project will enable improved interim storage to be implemented for legacy fuels at CRL, until a decision is made on the ultimate disposition of legacy fuels in Canada. (author)

  19. The quality of operative notes at a general surgery unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, A; Bunting, M; Atherstone, A

    2008-09-01

    With the increasingly litigious nature of medical practice, accurate documentation is critical. This is particularly true for operative procedures, and medical councils have identified this and published guidelines to aid surgeons. However, these remain a frequently cited weakness in their defence in medico-legal cases. This study assessed the accuracy of operative notes in a general surgery unit in order to improve our practice. An audit of 100 consecutive operative notes was performed, and notes were assessed using the Royal College of Surgeons guidelines. The quality of note-taking of trainees was compared with that of consultant surgeons. A series of operation note pro formas was designed in response to the findings. Of the notes, 66% were completed by trainees. The vast majority of notes had no diagram to demonstrate the surgical findings or illustrate the actions. Specialist surgeons were more likely to describe the actions accurately, but less likely to describe wound closure methods or dressings used. They were also less likely to complete adequate postoperative orders. This study identifies key areas of weakness in our operative note-keeping. Pro formas should be introduced and made available for commonly performed procedures, and diagrams should be used wherever possible.

  20. Post-remediation biomonitoring of pesticides and other contaminants in marine waters and sediment near the United Heckathorn Superfund Site, Richmond, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LD Antrim; NP Kohn

    2000-05-26

    Marine sediment remediation at the United Heckathorn Superfund Site was completed in April 1997. Water and mussel tissues were sampled in February 1999 from four stations near Lauritzen Canal in Richmond, California, for Year 2 of post-remediation monitoring of marine areas near the United Heckathorn Site. Dieldrin and dichlorodiphenyl trichloroethane (DDT) were analyzed in water samples, tissue samples from resident mussels, and tissue samples from transplanted mussels deployed for 4 months. Concentrations of dieldrin and total DDT in water and total DDT in tissue were compared with Year 1 of post-remediation monitoring, and with preremediation data from the California State Mussel Watch program (tissues) and the Ecological Risk Assessment for the United Heckathorn Superfund Site (tissues and water). Mussel tissues were also analyzed for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB), which were detected in sediment samples. Chlorinated pesticide concentrations in water samples were similar to preremediation levels and did not meet remediation goals. Mean dieidrin concentrations in water ranged from 0.62 rig/L to 12.5 ng/L and were higher than the remediation goal (0.14 ng/L) at all stations. Mean total DDT concentrations in water ranged from 14.4 ng/L to 62.3 ng/L and exceeded the remediation goal (0.59 ng/L) at all stations. The highest concentrations of both pesticides were found at the Lauritzen Canal/End station. Despite exceedence of the remediation goals, chlorinated pesticide concentrations in Lauritzen Canal water samples were notably lower in 1999 than in 1998. Tissue samples from biomonitoring organisms (mussels) provide an indication of the longer-term integrated exposure to contaminants in the water column, which overcomes the limitations of grab samples of water. Biomonitoring results indicated that the bioavailability of chlorinated pesticides has been reduced from preremediation levels both in the dredged area and throughout Richmond Harbor. Total DDT and

  1. Training operators of VVER-1000 units in Eastern Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Normand, X.; Nabet, E.; Hauesberger, P.

    1996-01-01

    The VVER 1000 is the most recent nuclear reactor designed in the former Soviet Union. Its design and operation principles are close to Western four-loop reactors in the 1000- to 1500-MW class; therefore, the Western simulation technology is usually directly applicable to the simulation of these units. Moreover, the current number of state-of-the-art training simulators in operation is very limited. A total of 19 units are in operation, while only 2 modern simulators are available (full-scope type) in Balakovo and Zaporozhe. Access to these simulators is practically limited to the respective plants' trainees, which means that the other units have to be satisfied with hands-on training. Facing this situation and taking into account the predicted lifetime of these plants (15 to 25 yr to go, maybe more), a lot of effort has been made in recent years to provide the plants with modern simulators. The major hurdles to this action were obviously financial and technical (availability of codes, computers, software tools). Today, one full-scope project (Kalinin) is almost complete, and three have been announced (Novovoronezh, Khmelnitsky, Kozloduy). Full-scope simulators are clearly the ultimate target of a concerned power plants. However, all users do realize the advantages of the complementary approach with compact simulators: 1. They can be available quickly for starting the training process. 2. They cover a training field that is not (or partly) addressed by full-scope simulators, i.e., the demonstration of physical phenomena in normal and accidental situations

  2. The role of heat pipes in intensified unit operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reay, David; Harvey, Adam

    2013-01-01

    Heat pipes are heat transfer devices that rely, most commonly, on the evaporation and condensation of a working fluid contained within them, with passive pumping of the condensate back to the evaporator. They are sometimes referred to as ‘thermal superconductors’ because of their exceptionally high effective thermal conductivity (substantially higher than any metal). This, together with several other characteristics make them attractive to a range of intensified unit operations, particularly reactors. The majority of modern computers deploy heat pipes for cooling of the CPU. The application areas of heat pipes come within a number of broad groups, each of which describes a property of the heat pipe. The ones particularly relevant to chemical reactors are: i. Separation of heat source and sink. ii. Temperature flattening, or isothermalisation. iii. Temperature control. Chemical reactors, as a heat pipe application area, highlight the benefits of the heat pipe based on isothermalisation/temperature flattening device and on being a highly effective heat transfer unit. Temperature control, done passively, is also of relevance. Heat pipe technology offers a number of potential benefits to reactor performance and operation. The aim of increased yield of high purity, high added value chemicals means less waste and higher profitability. Other intensified unit operations, such as those employing sorption processes, can also profit from heat pipe technology. This paper describes several variants of heat pipe and the opportunities for their use in intensified plant, and will give some current examples. -- Highlights: ► Heat pipes – thermal superconductors – can lead to improved chemical reactor performance. ► Isothermalisation within a reactor vessel is an ideal application. ► The variable conductance heat pipe can control reaction temperatures within close limits. ► Heat pipes can be beneficial in intensified reactors

  3. Temporary septic holding tank at the 100-D remedial action support facility -- Engineering report. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelty, G.G.

    1996-09-01

    This document provides an engineering evaluation for the temporary septic holding tank that will be installed at the 100-D Remedial Action Support Facility at the 100-DR-1 Operable Unit in the Hanford Site. This support facility will be installed at the 100-DR-1 Operable Unit to provide office and work space for the workers involved in remediation activities of the various waste sites located at the Hanford Site

  4. The role of historical operations information for supporting remedial investigation work at the former Harshaw Chemical Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, R.; Peterson, J.; Picel, K.; Kolhoff, A.; Devaughn, J.

    2008-01-01

    In the early stages of hazardous, toxic, and radioactive waste (HTRW) site investigations, basic record searches are performed to help direct the agencies investigating contaminated sites to areas of concern and to identify contaminants of interest (COI). Plans developed on the basis of this preliminary research alone are often incomplete and result in unexpected discoveries either while in the field investigating the site or after the reports have been written. Many of the sites investigated under the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action program (FUSRAP) have complex histories that are slowly uncovered over the life of the project. Because of programmatic constraints, nuances of these sites are often discovered late in their programs and result in increased expenditures in order to fully characterize the site, perform a robust feasibility study, and recommend appropriate alternatives for remediation. By identifying resources for public records, classified records, historic aerial photographs, and other sources of site-specific historical information, a process can be established to optimize the collection of information and to develop efficient and complete project plans. In many cases, interviews with past site employees are very useful tools. In combining what is found in the records, observed on historic aerial photographs, and heard from former employees and family members, teams investigating these sites can begin to compile sound and more complete conceptual site models (CSMs). The former Harshaw Chemical Site (HCS) illustrates this discovery process. HCS is part of FUSRAP. Preliminary investigations by the US Department of Energy (DOE) in the 1970s provided an initial CSM of activities that had taken place that may have resulted in contamination. The remedial investigation (RI) conducted by the US Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) was designed around this CSM. The RI work, however, identified a number of site conditions that were unexpected, including new

  5. Article separation apparatus and method for unit operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardini, Allan F.; Gervais, Kevin L.; Mathews, Royce A.; Hockey, Ronald L.

    2010-06-22

    An apparatus and method are disclosed for separating articles from a group of articles. The apparatus includes a container for containing one or more articles coupled to a suitable fluidizer for suspending articles within the container and transporting articles to an induction tube. A portal in the induction tube introduces articles singly into the induction tube. A vacuum pulls articles through the induction tube separating the articles from the group of articles in the container. The apparatus and method can be combined with one or more unit operations or modules, e.g., for inspecting articles, assessing quality of articles, or ascertaining material properties and/or parameters of articles, including layers thereof.

  6. Operational benchmark for VVER-1000, unit 6, Kozloduy NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apostolov, T.; Petrov, B.

    1999-01-01

    Benchmark calculations have been carried out using the 3D nodal code TRAPEZ. Global neutron-physics characteristics of the VVER-1000 core, Kozloduy NPP Unit 6, have been determined taking into account the real loading patterns and operational history of the first three cycles. The code TRLOAD has been used to perform the fuel reloading between any two cycles. The reactor and components descriptions as well as material compositions are given. The results presented include the critical boric acid concentration, the radial power distribution, the axial power distribution for the maximum overload assembly, and the burnup distribution at three different moments during each cycle. Calculated values have been compared with measured data. It is shown that the results obtained by the TRAPEZ code are in good agreement with the experimental data. The information presented could serve as a test case for validation of code packages designed for analyzing the steady-state operation of VVERs. (author)

  7. Operational aerial snow surveying in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peck, E L; Carroll, T R; Vandemark, S C

    1980-03-01

    An airborne gamma radiation detector and data acquisition system has been designed for rapid measurement of the snow cover water equivalent over large open areas. Research and field tests conducted prior to the implementation of an operational snow measurement system in the United States are reviewed. Extensive research test flights were conducted over large river basins of the north-central plains and in the high mountain valleys of the inter-mountain West. Problems encountered during development include: (1) error in the gross gamma flux produced by atmospheric radon gas daughters; (2) spatial and temporal variability in soil moisture; and (3) errors in gamma radiation count rate introduced by aircraft and cosmic background radiation. Network design of operational flight line and ground observation data used in a river forecasting system are discussed. 22 references, 4 figures, 2 tables.

  8. Technical challenges in the qualitative ecological risk assessments performed on the Hanford Site operable units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Probasco, K.M.

    1994-01-01

    Qualitative Risk Assessments (QRAS) have been selected as the method for providing the risk-driver indications for interim, remedial, and cleanup actions for the Hanford Site operable units' ecological risk assessments. This expedited response action path has been developed for the Hanford Site to facilitate time-critical decisions and generate immediate emergency cleanup actions. Tight budgets and aggressive time schedules are a major factor in the development of the QRA process. The QRA is a quick way to find immediate threats and a good precursor to a full risk assessment. However, numerous technical challenges have been identified with the QRA approach. The QRA approach differs from a baseline risk assessment in several ways. The main differences involve the use of data that have previously been gathered from the site, and the development of a ''bias-for-action'' document that would reveal qualitative risks from the contaminants identified at the operable units. Technical challenges concerning the ecological portion of these QRAs have raised questions about using the ORA for decision-making and may have weakened the validity of its use in the established procedural framework. Challenges involving such issues as the extrapolation of the contaminant data, data validation and screening techniques, receptor selections, and the final risk characterization outcome threaten the feasibility of the QRA as a decision-making tool. This discussion provides insight into resolving technical challenges and may be a ''lessons-learned'' device for those interested in the QRA approach. Ultimately, these challenges are proving to be learning tools for scientists, regulators, and ecologists and are identifying the data gaps and research direction for future ecological baseline risk assessments

  9. 200-UP-1 Operable Unit borehole summary report for FY 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darrach, M.E.

    1996-07-01

    This report details the well construction, sampling, analyses, and geologic character of the Ringold Formation as it was encountered in five wells drilled in the 200-UP-1 Operable Unit during fiscal year (FY) 1995. The 200-UP-1 Interim Remedial Measure Drilling Description of Work was prepared to support the FY 95 field work and presented the specific field activities and procedural requirements to be implemented. The geology of the vadose zone is not described in the text of this report. Vadose zone geology in the immediate area is characterized in sufficient detail in existing documents. However, the borehole logs and well summary sheets provided in the appendices depict the vadose zone stratigraphy and well construction details. Sieve analyses conducted on sediments from the saturated zone were used to design the well completions; these analyses are included. Where applicable, inferences are made concerning the geologic character of the saturated interval. In addition, a synopsis of the preliminary well development process is outlined. Other related information is included with this report as supplemental data

  10. Limited field investigation report for the 100-NR-1 operable unit. Draft A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-08-01

    This limited field investigation (LFI) report summarizes the data collection and analysis activities conducted during the 100-NR-1 Source Operable Unit LFI and the associated qualitative risk assessment (QRA), and makes recommendations on the continued candidacy of high-priority sites for interim remedial measures (IRM). The results and recommendations presented in this report are generally independent of future land-use scenarios. An LFI report is required when waste sites are to be considered for IRM and existing data are insufficient to formulate a conceptual model or perform a QRA. The purpose of the report is to identify those sites that are recommended to remain as candidates for IRM, provide a preliminary summary of site characterization studies, refine the conceptual model as needed, identify potential contaminant and location-specific applicable or relevant and appropriate requirements (ARAR), and provide a qualitative assessment of the risks associated with the sites. This assessment includes consideration of whether contaminant concentrations pose a risk to human health or the environment that warrants action through IRM. Seven sites were intrusively investigated: 1322-N, 116-N-2, 119-N, 120-N-2, 120-N-1, South Settling Pond, and the 166-N Tank Farm (UN-100-N-17) unplanned release at the 166-N Tank Farm. Vadose zone sediments from these sites were sampled and analyzed. Radiological contamination is the primary concern as confirmed through this study

  11. Limited field investigation report for the 100-FR-1 Operable Unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-09-01

    This limited field investigation (LFI) report summarizes the data collection and analysis activities conducted during the 100-FR-1 Source Operable Unit LFI and the associated qualitative risk assessment (QRA), and makes recommendations on the continued candidacy of high-priority sites for interim remedial measures (IRM). The results and recommendations presented in this report are generally independent of future land use scenarios. An LFI is required when existing data are insufficient to formulate a conceptual model and perform a QRA. The purpose of the report is to identify those sites that are recommended to remain as candidates for IRM, provide a preliminary summary of site characterization studies, refine the conceptual model as needed, identify contaminant- and location-specific applicable or relevant and appropriate requirements (ARAR), and provide a qualitative assessment of the risks associated with the sites. This assessment includes consideration of whether contaminant concentrations pose an unacceptable risk that warrants action through IRM. The final decision to conduct an IRM will rely on many factors including risk, ARAR, future land use, point of compliance, time of compliance, a bias-for-action, and the threat to human health and the environment

  12. Data validation report for the 100-FR-3 Operable Unit, third round groundwater samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayres, J.M.

    1994-01-01

    Westinghouse-Hanford has requested that a minimum of 20% of the total number of Sample Delivery Groups be validated for the 100-FR-3 operable Unit Third Round Groundwater sampling investigation. Therefore, the data from the chemical analysis of 51 samples from this sampling event and their related quality assurance samples were reviewed and validated to verify that reported sample results were of sufficient quality to support decisions regarding remedial actions performed at this site. The report is broken down into sections for each chemical analysis and radiochemical analysis type. Each section addresses the data package completeness, holding time adherence, instrument calibration and tuning acceptability, blank results, accuracy, precision, system performance, as well as the compound identification and quantitation. In addition, each section has an overall assessment and summary for the data packages reviewed for the particular chemical/radiochemical analyses. Detailed backup information is provided to the reader by SDG No. and sample number. For each data package, a matrix of chemical analyses per sample number is presented, as well as data qualification summaries

  13. Surface radiation survey and soil sampling of the 300-FF-1 operable unit, Hanford Site, southeastern Washington: A case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teel, S.S.; Olsen, K.B.

    1990-10-01

    The methods used for conducting a radiological characterization of the soil surface for the Phase I Remedial Investigation of a Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) site is presented via a case study. The study site is an operable unit (300-FF-1) located in and adjacent to the 300 Area of the US Department of Energy's Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State. The operable unit contains liquid and solid waste disposal facilities associated with nuclear fuels fabrication. Continuous surface radiation surveying and soil sampling of selected locations were conducted. Contamination was found in several locations within the operable unit including areas near the liquid and solid waste disposal facilities. Instruments used during surveying included portable beta/gamma (P-11) detectors, and the Ultrasonic Ranging and Data System using an NaI (Tl) detector. Laboratory analyses results indicate that above-background radiation levels were primarily due to the presence of uranium. Both types of field instruments used in the study were effective in detecting surface contamination from radionuclides; however, each had specific advantages. Guidelines are presented for the optimum use of these instruments when performing a radiological characterization of the soil surface. 4 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs

  14. Operation of the radioactive acid digestion test unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blasewitz, A.G.; Allen, C.R.; Lerch, R.E.; Ely, P.C.; Richardson, G.L.

    1980-01-01

    The Radioactive Acid Digestion Test Unit (RADTU) has been constructed at Hanford to demonstrate the application of the Acid Digestion Process for treating combustible transuranic wastes and scrap materials. The RADTU with its original tray digestion vessel has recently completed a six-month campaign processing potentially contaminated nonglovebox wastes from a Hanford plutonium facility. During this campaign, it processed 2100 kg of largely cellulosic wastes at an average sustained processing rate of 3 kg/h as limited by the water boiloff rate from the acid feeds. The on-line operating efficiency was nearly 50% on a twelve hour/day, five day/week basis. Following this campaign, a new annular high rate digester has been installed for testing. In preliminary tests with simulated wastes, the new digester demonstrated a sustained capacity of 10 kg/h with greatly improved intimacy of contact between the digestion acid and the waste. The new design also doubles the heat transfer surface, which with reduced heat loss area, is expected to provide at least three times the water boiloff rate of the previous tray digester design. Following shakedown testing with simulated and low-level wastes, the new unit will be used to process combustible plutonium scrap and waste from Hanford plutonium facilities for the purposes of volume reduction, plutonium recovery, and stabilization of the final waste form

  15. The IAEA network on environmental management and remediation (ENVIRONET) - promoting sustainable uranium production operations by taking environmental remediation under a life-cycle perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monken-Fernandes, H.

    2010-01-01

    Some of the past uranium production operations have caused extensive environmental problems. The lack of appropriate regulatory framework in addition to the fact that environmental issues were not conveniently addressed in the operations contributed to this situation. Nowadays, this situation has changed dramatically and lessons learned from the past have led to the implementation of responsible operations from both environmental and social perspectives. Involvement of different stakeholders in the decision making process turned out to be a mandatory issue in many countries. With the so called 'Renascence of Nuclear Power' new production sites will come into play. The sustainability of the uranium industry will depend on the adoption of good practices in these operations under a life-cycle perspective. The recently launched IAEA initiative - the ENVIRONET is aimed at contributing to expedite the transfer of experience amongst its members. It brings together private and state-owned companies, research institutes, and governmental organizations providing a forum for information and experience exchange. Sharing of practical experience is to be addressed by means of training courses and workshops. In addition to this long distance training and educational material will be made available. This paper will present the ENVIRONET and describe how networking can contribute to the implementation of sustainable and responsible uranium production operations worldwide. (author)

  16. 77 FR 62247 - Dynamic Positioning Operations Guidance for Vessels Other Than Mobile Offshore Drilling Units...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-12

    ... Operations Guidance for Vessels Other Than Mobile Offshore Drilling Units Operating on the U.S. Outer... ``Mobile Offshore Drilling Unit Dynamic Positioning Guidance''. The notice recommended owners and operators of Mobile Offshore Drilling Units (MODUs) follow Marine Technology Society (MTS) Dynamic Positioning...

  17. Aquifer test plan for the 100-HR-3 Operable Unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swanson, L.C.; Hartman, M.J.

    1994-01-01

    This test plan directs hydrologic testing activities planned at three existing Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA) wells in the 100-HR-3 Operable Unit of the Hanford Site. Three additional wells will be installed near these existing wells and used as additional testing arid observation points during the field activities. Figure 1 shows the locations of the three test sites. A primary objective of the testing program is to provide more detailed hydraulic characterization information for the unconfined aquifer and targeted test sites than provided by the initial reconnaissance-level slug testing of Vukelich. A second objective is to evaluate the applicability of slug interference and dipole flow tests for detailed hydraulic characterization in an unconfined aquifer. This aquifer testing program will also be useful for substantiating hydraulic conductivities reported from previous slug tests and evaluating the effects of filter pack volume/configuration on slug test data. Vukelich recommended additional testing to address the latter two issues

  18. Confirmatory Sampling and Analysis Plan for the Lower East Fork Poplar Creek operable unit, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-04-01

    On December 21, 1989, the EPA placed the US Department of Energy's (DOE's) Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) on the National Priorities List (NPL). On January 1, 1992, a Federal Facilities Agreement (FFA) between the DOE Field Office in Oak Ridge (DOE-OR), EPA Region IV, and the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC) went into effect. This FFA establishes the procedural framework and schedule by which DOE-OR will develop, coordinate, implement and monitor environmental restoration activities on the ORR in accordance with applicable federal and state environmental regulations. The DOE-OR Environmental Restoration Program for the ORR addresses the remediation of areas both within and outside the ORR boundaries. This sampling and analysis plan focuses on confirming the cleanup of the stretch of EFPC flowing from Lake Reality at the Y-12 Plant through the City of Oak Ridge, to Poplar Creek on the ORR and its associated floodplain. Both EFPC and its floodplain have been contaminated by releases from the Y-12 Plant since the mid-1950s. Because the EFPC site-designated as an ORR operable unit (OU) under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) is included on the NPL, its remediation must follow the specific procedures mandated by CERCLA, as amended by the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act in 1986

  19. Confirmatory Sampling and Analysis Plan for the Lower East Fork Poplar Creek operable unit, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-04-01

    On December 21, 1989, the EPA placed the US Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) on the National Priorities List (NPL). On January 1, 1992, a Federal Facilities Agreement (FFA) between the DOE Field Office in Oak Ridge (DOE-OR), EPA Region IV, and the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC) went into effect. This FFA establishes the procedural framework and schedule by which DOE-OR will develop, coordinate, implement and monitor environmental restoration activities on the ORR in accordance with applicable federal and state environmental regulations. The DOE-OR Environmental Restoration Program for the ORR addresses the remediation of areas both within and outside the ORR boundaries. This sampling and analysis plan focuses on confirming the cleanup of the stretch of EFPC flowing from Lake Reality at the Y-12 Plant through the City of Oak Ridge, to Poplar Creek on the ORR and its associated floodplain. Both EFPC and its floodplain have been contaminated by releases from the Y-12 Plant since the mid-1950s. Because the EFPC site-designated as an ORR operable unit (OU) under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) is included on the NPL, its remediation must follow the specific procedures mandated by CERCLA, as amended by the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act in 1986.

  20. Operating power plant experience with condensate polishing units in morpholine/ammonia-OH cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumbhar, A.G.; Padmakumari, T.V.; Narasimhan, S.V.; Mathur, P.K.

    1995-01-01

    Impurity removal efficiency of condensate polisher plant (CPP) in ammonium cycle is poor. Cost considerations demand CPP operation in amine-OH cycle. With certain precautions such as higher regeneration levels, good regenerent quality, minimized cross contamination, continuous monitoring of influent and effluent and provision for 100% standby bed, it is possible to operate CPP beyond H-OH cycle while keeping the effluent impurities within the specified limits. This paper presents problem associated with the Madras Atomic Power Station (MAPS) CPP operation in morpholine-OH form and Korba Super Thermal Power Station (KSTPS) CPP in ammonia-OH form and suggested remedial measures. (author). 3 refs., 1 fig

  1. Optimising the remediation of sites contaminated by the Wismut uranium mining operations using performance and risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pelz, F.; Jakubick, A.Th.; Kahnt, R.

    2003-01-01

    The cost and risk assessment at Wismut GmbH is performed for optimising the remediation of sites contaminated by uranium mining and milling. An iterative either probabilistic or deterministic 'top-down' model of the remediation project as an integrated system is used. Initially all relevant processes are captured in a rather abstract and simplistic way. In the course of the model development those variables and processes to which results have been shown to be sensitive are described in more detail. This approach is useful for identifying any gaps in the knowledge base that have to be filled in the course of the multi-attributive decision making. The requirement for optimisation, also with respect to socio-economic impacts, is met by including other variables in addition to costs and health risks. (authors)

  2. Optimising the remediation of sites contaminated by the Wismut uranium mining operations using performance and risk assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pelz, F.; Jakubick, A.Th.; Kahnt, R. [Wismut GmbH, Chemnitz (Germany)

    2003-07-01

    The cost and risk assessment at Wismut GmbH is performed for optimising the remediation of sites contaminated by uranium mining and milling. An iterative either probabilistic or deterministic 'top-down' model of the remediation project as an integrated system is used. Initially all relevant processes are captured in a rather abstract and simplistic way. In the course of the model development those variables and processes to which results have been shown to be sensitive are described in more detail. This approach is useful for identifying any gaps in the knowledge base that have to be filled in the course of the multi-attributive decision making. The requirement for optimisation, also with respect to socio-economic impacts, is met by including other variables in addition to costs and health risks. (authors)

  3. Qualitative risk assessment for 100-DR-1 source operable unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naiknimbalkar, N.M.

    1994-01-01

    The Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology), the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and the US Department of Energy (DOE), signatories to the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order have developed the Hanford site Past-Practice Strategy to emphasize initiating and completing waste site cleanups with a bias for action. This strategy relies, in part, upon the use of a qualitative risk assessment (QRA) to assist in decision-making. The QRA is performed using the Hanford Site Baseline Risk Assessment Methodology (HSBRAM) as guidance (DOE-RL 1993a). The results will be used, along with other considerations, to make a recommendation for or against an interim remedial measure (IRM) at each high-priority waste site. The objective of conducting IRMs at Hanford, is to achieve cleanup and reduce risk in the shortest time possible and in a cost effective manner

  4. Monticello Mill Tailings Site Operable Unit III Annual Groundwater Report May 2014 Through April 2015, October 2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, Jason [USDOE Office of Legacy Management, Washington, DC (United States); Smith, Fred [Navarro Research and Engineering, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-10-01

    This report provides the annual analysis of water quality restoration progress, cumulative through April 2015, for Operable Unit (OU) III, surface water and groundwater, of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Legacy Management Monticello Mill Tailings Site (MMTS). The MMTS is a Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act National Priorities List site located in and near the city of Monticello, San Juan County, Utah. MMTS comprises the 110-acre site of a former uranium- and vanadium-ore-processing mill (mill site) and 1,700 acres of surrounding private and municipal property. Milling operations generated 2.5 million cubic yards of waste (tailings) from 1942 to 1960. The tailings were impounded at four locations on the mill site. Inorganic constituents in the tailings drained from the impoundments to contaminate local surface water (Montezuma Creek) and groundwater in the underlying alluvial aquifer. Mill tailings dispersed by wind and water also contaminated properties surrounding and downstream of the mill site. Remedial actions to remove and isolate radiologically contaminated soil, sediment, and debris from the former mill site (OU I) and surrounding properties (OU II) were completed in 1999 with the encapsulation of the wastes in an engineered repository located on DOE property 1 mile south of the former mill site. Contamination of groundwater and surface water remains within OU III at levels that exceed water quality protection standards. Uranium is the primary contaminant of concern. LM implemented monitored natural attenuation with institutional controls as the OU III remedy in 2004. Because groundwater restoration proceeded more slowly than expected and did not meet performance criteria established in the OU III Record of Decision (June 2004), LM implemented a contingency action in 2009 by an Explanation of Significant Difference to include a pump-and-treat system using a single extraction well and treatment by zero

  5. Operator support system for power unit control in abnormal modes of operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurka, J.

    1993-01-01

    I and C system technology, partly Soviet and partly Czechoslovakian, used on the NPP Dukovany units represents the control technology standard of late 70-ties and it becomes the weak part of the whole system. The modernization of the system, therefore, is necessary and it is already in preparation. The specification of both the scope and the depth of upgrading/replacement is being carried out within the framework of the PHARE program. The second phase of the program aimed at the final specifications of requirements on new I and C system is in progress. The output will serve as detailed specification for bid invitation for control system supplier. Parallely, the preparation of specification for WWER-440 full-scope plant simulator for operator training is in progress as well. In the case of two units with WWER-1000 MW reactors, the completion of construction of which was even threaten for a certain period of time, essential changes have taken place in the design of both the I and C systems and the reactor core. 7 figs

  6. 40 CFR 60.105a - Monitoring of emissions and operations for fluid catalytic cracking units (FCCU) and fluid coking...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., Catalytic Reforming Units, and Sulfur Recovery Units. (iii) The owner or operator shall install, operate... for fluid catalytic cracking units (FCCU) and fluid coking units (FCU). 60.105a Section 60.105a... and operations for fluid catalytic cracking units (FCCU) and fluid coking units (FCU). (a) FCCU and...

  7. 77 FR 29701 - Impact of Construction (Under a Combined License) of New Nuclear Power Plant Units on Operating...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-18

    ... New Nuclear Power Plant Units on Operating Units at Multi-Unit Sites AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory... construct and operate new nuclear power plants (NPPs) on multi-unit sites to provide an evaluation of the... License) of New Nuclear Power Plants on Operating Units at Multi-Unit Sites (Package). ML112630039 Federal...

  8. 2016 Highlights of Ferry Operations in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    This publication highlights data collected by the 2016 NCFO. The Bureau of Transportation Statistics (BTS) conducted the NCFO from April through November 2016, collecting the operational characteristics of the 2015 calendar year ferry operations.

  9. Unit information system operational displays for VVER-1000 reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anikanov, S.S.; Carrera, J.P.; Gordon, P.

    1997-01-01

    The role of high level operational displays is explained as well as the principles of the design of such displays. The tasks of WWER operating personnel are described and the support provided by operational displays is highlighted. The architecture of the displays is also dealt with. (A.K.)

  10. United States Military in Central Asia: Beyond Operation Enduring Freedom

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-10-23

    Malinowski , advocacy director for Human Rights Watch, stated, “the United States is most effective in promoting liberty around the world when people...26 U.S. President, The National Security Strategy of the United States of America, page? 27 Thomas Malinowski , “Testimony

  11. Operative training in otolaryngology in the United Kingdom: a specialist registrar survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Georgalas, Christos; Hadjihannas, Edward; Ghufoor, Khalid; Pracy, Paul; Papesch, Michael

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the current status of operative training for otolaryngology specialist registrars in the United Kingdom. DESIGN: Web-based questionnaire survey. PARTICIPANTS: All otolaryngology specialist registrars in the United Kingdom. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The overall satisfaction with

  12. Tank waste remediation system dangerous waste training plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    POHTO, R.E.

    1999-01-01

    This document outlines the dangerous waste training program developed and implemented for all Treatment, Storage, and Disposal (TSD) Units operated by Lockheed Martin Hanford Corporation (LMHC) Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) in the Hanford 200 East, 200 West and 600 Areas and the <90 Day Accumulation Area at 209E. Operating TSD Units operated by TWRS are: the Double-Shell Tank (DST) System (including 204-AR Waste Transfer Building), the 600 Area Purgewater Storage and the Effluent Treatment Facility. TSD Units undergoing closure are: the Single-Shell Tank (SST) System, 207-A South Retention Basin, and the 216-B-63 Trench

  13. How Can the United States Army Improve Human Intelligence in Peace Operations?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wright, David

    2003-01-01

    .... These secondary collectors, such as the Military Police, Psychological Operations, Civil Affairs and Line Units conduct liaison with international and local police forces, host-government official...

  14. USE OF ELECTRONIC CASE HISTORIES IN OPERATION OF MEDICAL UNITS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. B. Boltenkova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction of electronic case histories to medical units including TB units is one of the factors allowing enhancing quality of medical care provision. Use of the electronic case histories provides conditions for information transparency improvement in a medical unit: financial, statistic and medico-technological. Information contained in the electronic case history is important and required both for internal and external use. Use of electronic case histories contributes to reduction of labor costs of workers in medical units, provides fast access of medical personnel to information, formalizes data, provides preservation, invariance and reliability of the information entered into electronic case history during the whole period of storage, regulates the access rights and confidentiality, personifies data and allows unifying health data of all Russian population into one pool.

  15. Approved CAMU equals faster, better, cheaper remediation at the Fernald Environmental Management Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dupuis-Nouille, E.M.; Goidell, L.C.; Strimbu, M.J.; Nickel, K.A.

    1996-01-01

    A 1,050 acre Corrective Action Management Unit (CAMU) was approved for the Fernald Protection Agency Environmental Management Project (FEMP) by the US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) to manage environmental media remediation waste in the Operable Unit 5 Record of Decision, 1995. Debris is also proposed for management as remediation waste under the CAMU Rule in the Operable Unit 3 Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study (RI/FS) Report, as of December 1995. Application of the CAMU Rule at the FEMP will allow consolidation of low-level mixed waste and hazardous waste that presents minimal threat from these two operable units in an on-property engineered disposal facility without triggering land disposal restrictions (LDRs). The waste acceptance criteria for the on property disposal facility are based on a combination of site-specific risk-based concentration standards, as opposed to non-site-specific requirements imposed by regulatory classifications

  16. Design and operation of gas-heated thermal pumping units

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rostek, H A [Ruhrgas A.G., Essen (Germany, F.R.)

    1979-03-01

    The first gas heat pump systems have been operated since spring 1977. These are applied in living houses, school, swimming pools, and sport places and administration buildings. The heating performance of these systems is 150-3800 kW. Two of these systems, one in a swimming pool and one in a house for several families are operating, each of them for one heating period. The operational experiences with these gas heat pumps are reported on, basing on measurement results. The experience gathered from the operation of gas heat pumps systems is applied to the planning of other plants. The development of a standardized gas heat pump-series is emphasized.

  17. The United States Department of Energy, Office of Environmental Management's Progress and Challenges in Environmental Remediation and Decommissioning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szilagyi, A.; Collazo, Y. [US Dept. of Energy, Charles Negin, Project Enhancement Corporation (United States)

    2008-07-01

    The United States Department of Energy Environmental Management Program (EM) is responsible for managing the world largest environmental cleanup program comprised of unparalleled scope, complexity, diversity of facilities and contaminants and technical challenges. Established in 1989, EM mission is the safe and successful cleanup of the Cold War legacy brought about from five decades of nuclear weapons development and government-sponsored nuclear energy research. Within this mission, EM is responsible for radioactive liquid wastes, spent nuclear fuel, nuclear materials, solid radioactive waste, contaminated soils and groundwater and contaminated facilities located in 14 States, on over 2,000,000 acres of land and over 4500 facilities requiring decommissioning. Since 1989 EM has, and continues to evolve into a true project management oriented organization with world-class engineering and technology capabilities, and as the National Academy of Public Administration has concluded, a with the changes underway, EM is on a solid path to becoming a high performing organization. Not only has EM grown and matured as a functional organization, but it has also achieved some remarkable on the ground accomplishments in environmental remediation, deactivation and decommissioning and waste management/nuclear material stabilization. These accomplishments have been made within a context of having to work with some of the most dangerous substances known to humanity; of having to perform first of a kind tasks in highly hazardous environments; and of having to design, construct and operate first of a kind technology and facilities to solve problems that once seemed unsolvable. In addition, EM accomplishments have been made with the highest priority and focus given to safety and risk reduction. In October 2006, and with a life cycle cost of $6.7 Billion, cleanup/D and D was completed at the 800+ facility 6200 acre former nuclear weapons complex at Rocky Flats (Denver, Colorado). Today

  18. Trade Remedies: A Primer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jones, Vivian C

    2006-01-01

    The United States and many of its trading partners use laws known as trade remedies to mitigate the adverse impact of various trade practices on domestic industries and workers. U.S. antidumping laws (19 U.S.C. 1673 et seq...

  19. Trade Remedies: A Primer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jones, Vivian C

    2007-01-01

    The United States and many of its trading partners use laws known as trade remedies to mitigate the adverse impact of various trade practices on domestic industries and workers. U.S. antidumping (AD) laws (19 U.S.C. 1673 et seq...

  20. Trade Remedies: A Primer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jones, Vivian C

    2008-01-01

    The United States and many of its trading partners use laws known as trade remedies to mitigate the adverse impact of various trade practices on domestic industries and workers. U.S. antidumping (AD) laws (19 U.S.C. 1673 et seq...

  1. Safety assessment for the proposed pilot-scale treatability tests for the 200-UP-1 and 200-ZP-1 groundwater operable units. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-12-01

    This safety assessment provides an analysis of the proposed pilot-scale treatability test activities to be and conducted within the 200 Area groundwater operable units on the Hanford Site. The 200-UP-1 and 200-ZP-1 operable units are located in the 200 West Area of the Hanford Site. These tests will evaluate an ion exchange (IX) water purification treatment system and granular activated carbon (GAC). A detailed engineering analysis of (GAC) adsorption for remediation of groundwater contamination. A detailed engineering analysis of the IX treatment system. The principal source of information for this assessment, states that the performance objective of the treatment systems is to remove 90% of the uranium and technetium-99 ( 99 Tc) from the extracted groundwater at the 200-UP-1 site. The performance objective for 200-ZP-1 is to remove 90% of the carbon tetrachloride (CCl 4 ), chloroform, and trichloroethylene (TCE) from the extracted groundwater

  2. Operational test procedure for SY tank farm replacement exhauster unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McClees, J.

    1995-01-01

    This operational test procedure will verify that the remaining functions not tested per WHC-SD-WM-ATP-080, or components disturbed during final installation, as well as interfaces with other tank farm equipment and remote monitoring stations are operating correctly

  3. BN-600 power unit 15-year operating experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saraev, O.M.; Oshkanov, N.N.; Vylomov, V.V.

    1996-01-01

    Comprehensive experience has been gained with the operating fast reactor BN-600 with a power out of 600 MWe. This paper includes important performance results and gives also an overview of the experience gained from BN-600 NPP commercial operation during 15 years. (author). 2 figs, 1 tab

  4. Briefing paper -- Remedial Action Assessment System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buelt, J.L.

    1990-04-01

    Congress has mandated a more comprehensive management of hazardous wastes with the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA or ''Superfund'') and the Superfund Amendment and Reauthorization Act (SARA). This mandate includes restoration of disposal sites contaminated through past disposal practices. This mandate applies to facilities operated for and by the Department of Energy (DOE), just as it does to industrial and other institutions. To help implement the CERCLA/SARA remedial investigation and feasibility study (RI/FS) process in a consistent, timely, and cost-effective manner, a methodology needs to be developed that will allow definition, sorting, and screening of remediation technologies for each operable unit (waste site). This need is stated specifically in Section 2.2.2.1 of the October 1989 Applied Research, Development, Demonstration, Testing, and Evaluation (RDDT ampersand E) Plan of the DOE. This Briefing Paper is prepared to respond to this need. 1 fig

  5. Alternative Remedies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home › Aging & Health A to Z › Alternative Remedies Font ... medical treatment prescribed by their healthcare provider. Using this type of alternative therapy along with traditional treatments is ...

  6. Genealogy Remediated

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marselis, Randi

    2007-01-01

    Genealogical websites are becoming an increasingly popular genre on the Web. This chapter will examine how remediation is used creatively in the construction of family history. While remediation of different kinds of old memory materials is essential in genealogy, digital technology opens new...... possibilities. Genealogists use their private websites to negotiate family identity and hereby create a sense of belonging in an increasingly complex society. Digital technologies enhance the possibilities of coorporation between genealogists. Therefore, the websites are also used to present archival...

  7. Information Operations: Countering the Asymmetric Threat to the United States

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McKeown, Wendell

    1999-01-01

    .... The cornerstone of Joint Vision 2010 is information superiority. Every facet of future military operations will be critically linked to an aggregate cyber network that relies on critical national infrastructures to provide for information superiority...

  8. An Examination of the United States Air Service's Logistics Operations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hunt, Andrew

    1998-01-01

    This historical study details the U.S. Air Service's logistics operations at home and abroad in an attempt to determine the relationship between the process and more recently established logistic principles...

  9. 7 CFR 631.22 - Access to operating unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LONG TERM CONTRACTING GREAT PLAINS CONSERVATION PROGRAM Miscellaneous § 631.22... unit for the purpose of ascertaining the accuracy of any representations made in a contract or leading up to a contract, and as to the performance of the terms and conditions of the contract. Access shall...

  10. Brunswick Steam Electric Plant, Units 1 and 2. Annual operating report for 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    Net electrical energy generated by Unit 1 was 30,399 MWH with the generator on line 334.5 hrs. Unit 2 generated 2,481,014 MWH with the generator on line 4,915.53 hrs. Information is presented concerning operations, shutdowns and power reductions, maintenance, power generation, modifications, changes to operational procedures, radiation exposures, and leak rate testing

  11. Increasing the flexibility of base-load generating units in operation on fossil fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Girshfel' d, V Ya; Khanaev, V A; Volkova, E D; Gorelov, V A; Gershenkroi, M L

    1979-01-01

    Increasing the flexibility of base-load generating units operating on fossil fuel by modifying them is a necessary measure. The highest economic effect is attained with modification of gas- and oil-fired generating units in the Western United Power Systems of the European part of the SPSS. On the basis of available experience, 150- and 200-MW units can be extensively used to regulate the power in the European part of the SPSS through putting them into reserve for the hours of the load dip at night. The change under favorable conditions of 150- and 200-MW units operating on coal to a district-heating operating mode does not reduce the possibilities for flexible operation of these units because it is possible greatly to unload the turbines while the minimum load level of the pulverized fuel fired boiler is retained through transferring a part of the heat load to the desuperheater. It is necessary to accumulate and analyze experience with operation of generating units (especially of supercritical units) with regular shutdowns and starts of groups of units and to solve the problems of modification of generating units, with differentiation with respect to types of fuel and to the united power supply system.

  12. Twenty years of operation of WWER 440/230 units in Jaslovske Bohunice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomek, J.

    1998-01-01

    It is twenty years this year since the first unit WWER 440 of Slovak Nuclear Power Plant Jaslovske Bohunice was commissioned. There are four units WWER 440 in operation Jaslovske Bohunice site. First two units of older soviet PWR design V-230 (also known as V-1) and other two units of newer V-213 type (also known as V-2). The goal of this presentation is to summarize and evaluate the operation of Unit 1 and 2 for this period of time and mainly to describe what has been done and what is planned to be done to increase the nuclear safety and operational reliability of both units. The operating organization and regulatory authority assume that an internationally acceptable level of safety will be reached by accomplishing of the upgrading program.(author)

  13. Derivation of residual radioactive material guidelines for 13 radionuclides present in Operable Unit IV at Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faillace, E.; Nimmagadda, M.; Yu, C.

    1994-12-01

    Residual radioactive material guidelines for 13 radionuclides (americium-241; cobalt-60; cesium-137; europium-152, -154, and -155; plutonium-238, -239, and -240; strontium-90; and uranium-234, -235, and -238) were derived for Operable Unit (OU) IV at Brookhaven National Laboratory. This site has been identified for remedial action under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980, as amended by the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986. Single-nuclide guidelines were derived on the basis of the requirement that the 50-year committed effective dose equivalent to a hypothetical individual who lives or works in the immediate vicinity of OU IV should not exceed a dose constraint of 30 mrem/yr following remedial action for the current use and plausible future use scenarios or a dose limit of 100 mrem/yr for plausible but less likely future use scenarios. The US Department of Energy (DOE) residual radioactive material guideline computer code, RESRAD, was used in this evaluation; RESRAD implements the methodology described in the DOE manual for determining residual radioactive material guidelines. Four potential scenarios were considered; each assumed that, for a period of 1,000 years following remedial action, the site would be used without radiological restrictions. The four scenarios varied with regard to the type of site use, time spent at the site, and sources of food consumed

  14. AN OPERATIONAL MANAGEMENT MODEL FOR A COAL MINING PRODUCTION UNIT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Visser

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available

    ENGLISH ABSTRACT: The coal mining industry faces increased pressure for higher quality coal at lower cost and increased volumes. To satisfy these requirements the industry needs technically skilled first line supervisors with operational management skills. Most first line supervisors possess the necessary technical, but not the required operational management skills. Various operational management philosophies, describing world-class operational management practices exist; however, it is not possible to implement these philosophies as-is in a mining environment due to the various differences between manufacturing and mining. The solution is to provide an operational management model, adapted from these philosophies, to first line supervisors in the coal mining industry.

    AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Die steenkoolmynbedryf ervaar groeiende druk van die mark vir hoër gehalte steenkool, laer koste en verhoogde volumes. Om hierdie behoefte te bevredig benodig die myn tegniesgeskoolde eerstelyntoesighouers met bedryfsbestuursvaardighede. Ongelukkig beskik die meeste toesighouers wel oor die nodige tegniese kennis, maar nie die nodige bedryfsbestuursvaardighede nie. Daar bestaan verskeie bedryfsbestuursfilosofieë wat wêreldklas bedryfsbestuurspraktyke omskryf. Dit is egter nie moontlik om die filisofieë net so in die mynbedryf te implimenteer nie a.g.v. die verskille tussen vervaardiging en mynbou. Die oplossing is om ‘n bedryfsbestuurmodel wat op hierdie filosofieë geskoei is, aan eerstelyntoesighouers in die steenkoolbedryf te verskaf.

  15. Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, Units 1 and 2. Annual operating report: January--December 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    Unit 1 successfully completed its first core cycle with unit availability of 95.2 percent. Saltwater leakage into the condenser continues to be a problem. Unit 2 achieved initial criticality November 30 and was initially paralleled to the Baltimore system on December 7. Information is presented concerning operations, specifications, maintenance, shutdowns and power reduction, and personnel exposures

  16. Thermal soil remediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, D.

    1999-01-01

    The environmental properties and business aspects of thermal soil remediation are described. Thermal soil remediation is considered as being the best option in cleaning contaminated soil for reuse. The thermal desorption process can remove hydrocarbons such as gasoline, kerosene and crude oil, from contaminated soil. Nelson Environmental Remediation (NER) Ltd. uses a mobile thermal desorption unit (TDU) with high temperature capabilities. NER has successfully applied the technology to target heavy end hydrocarbon removal from Alberta's gumbo clay in all seasons. The TDU consist of a feed system, a counter flow rotary drum kiln, a baghouse particulate removal system, and a secondary combustion chamber known as an afterburner. The technology has proven to be cost effective and more efficient than bioremediation and landfarming

  17. MGP site remediation: Working toward presumptive remedies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larsen, B.R.

    1996-01-01

    Manufactured Gas Plants (MGPs) were prevalent in the United States during the 19th and first half of the 20th centuries. MGPs produced large quantities of waste by-products, which varied depending on the process used to manufacture the gas, but most commonly were tars and polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons. There are an estimated 3,000 to 5,000 abandoned MGP sites across the United States. Because these sites are not concentrated in one geographic location and at least three different manufacturing processes were used, the waste characteristics are very heterogeneous. The question of site remediation becomes how to implement a cost-effective remediation with the variety of cleanup technologies available for these sites. Because of the significant expenditure required for characterization and cleanup of MGP sites, owners and regulatory agencies are beginning to look at standardizing cleanup technologies for these sites. This paper discusses applicable cleanup technologies and the attitude of state regulatory agencies towards the use of presumptive remedies, which can reduce the amount of characterization and detailed analysis necessary for any particular site. Additionally, this paper outlines the process of screening and evaluating candidate technologies, and the progress being made to match the technology to the site

  18. Operational challenges and opportunities in pastured poultry operations in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkhoraibi, C; Pitesky, M; Dailey, N; Niemeier, D

    2017-06-01

    As pastured poultry production has gained increased popularity in the United States in recent years, there is a growing need for research and outreach efforts aimed at this sector of poultry production. In order to get familiarized with American pastured poultry producers, we conducted an online questionnaire aimed primarily at evaluating what operational challenges are faced by producers and what educational opportunities should be initiated by researchers. Results showed that pastured poultry farms largely vary in total number of acres farmed and total number of birds kept. The vast majority of farms (96%) rotate their flocks on pasture and include livestock species (78%) in their rotation systems. Mobile coops are the preferred housing option provided by producers (88%). The most common source of mortality listed by respondents was predation (52%), followed by "other" (32%). However, predation was not selected as the most important challenge by the majority of respondents. Sixty-four percent of participants instead mentioned providing adequate feed at reasonable cost as the major challenge in raising poultry on pasture, followed again by "other" (52%) and lack of processing facilities for small numbers of birds (40%). Finally, the topics considered by respondents as the most helpful to learn more about were how to improve egg production rate and/or feed conversion ratio (67%), followed by how to improve pasture condition and optimum vegetative cover all year round (62%). Despite its small sample size, this study's results provide some valuable insights of challenges encountered and information needed on pastured poultry farms. © 2017 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  19. Pilgrim Nuclear Power Station, Unit 1. Annual operating report, 1975

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    Net electric power generated in 1975 was 1,074,401 MW(e) with the generator on line 4,680.7 hrs. Information is presented concerning operations, maintenance, radioactive effluents and waste shipments, health physics, shutdowns, and personnel exposures

  20. Startup operation of Browns Ferry's 1152-MW nuclear units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calhoun, J.R.; Green, H.J.; Beers, R.B.

    1975-01-01

    An overview is presented of startup operation for the Browns Ferry-1 reactor, and comparisons are made with the startup of Browns Ferry-2. Included are comments on the selection of the BWR type steam supply system, reactor fueling, problems encountered, and plant availability

  1. Brunswick Steam Electric Plant, Unit 2. Annual operating report, 1975

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    Initial criticality occurred in March and start-up testing continued for most of the year. Information is presented concerning operations, shutdowns, maintenance, design changes, personnel radiation exposures, thermal transients, safety/relief valve malfunctions, condenser tube leaks, and recirculation pump seal failures

  2. Pilgrim Nuclear Power Station, Unit 1. Annual operating report, 1975

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    Net electrical power generated was 2,587,248 MWH(e) with the reactor on line 6,242.4 hr. Information is presented concerning operations, power generation, shutdowns, corrective maintenance, chemistry and radiochemistry, occupational radiation exposure, release of radioactive materials, and reportable occurrences

  3. Description of work vadose drilling at the 1301-N and 1325-N facilities, 100-NR-1 operable unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-08-01

    This description of work (DOW) details the field activities associated with the sampling of the vadose zone soils beneath the 1301-N and 1325-N cribs and trenches and will serve as a field guide for those performing the work. These activities are undertaken pursuant to the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Ecology et al., 1994a) Milestone M-16-94-01H-Tl and the June 30, 1994 Milestone Change Request M-16-94-02 (Ecology et al., 1994b). Three vadose zone borings, 1301-N-1, 1301-N-2, and 1325-N-1, will be constructed to investigate the vertical and horizontal distribution of radionuclide contamination in sediments beneath the cribs and trenches. The boreholes are also intended to intersect subsurface areas that may have been contaminated by dangerous wastes, i.e., metals, in effluent disposed during past operation of the facilities. This limited field investigation will provide data for the evaluation of remedial alternatives. Data from the investigation are expected to confirm that the cribs and trenches are high priority sites in the 100-NR-1 operable unit. Data, from the investigation will be used to evaluate alternatives for closure of the 1301-N and 1325-N sites. The contaminants of potential concern (COPCs) for the 1301-N/1325-N limited field investigation are presented in Table 1

  4. Cognitive model of the power unit operator activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chachko, S.A.

    1992-01-01

    Basic notions making it possible to study and simulate the peculiarities of man-operator activity, in particular his way of thiking, are considered. Special attention is paid to cognitive models based on concept of decisive role of knowledge (its acquisition, storage and application) in the man mental processes and activity. The models are based on three basic notions, which are the professional world image, activity strategy and spontaneous decisions

  5. Operations Research and the US (United States) Army

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-04-07

    technology "developed more rapidly than it could be absorbed effectively into military tactics and strategy." 4 World War II is usually identified as...Corporation, was formed by the Air Force as a non-profit organization to provide technological advice. 7 By the early 1950’s the public recognized operations... enlight - ening. He recognized the important and clearly distinguishable roles played by the technical analyst and the military decision maker. The systems

  6. Cost and Operational Effectiveness Analysis of Aiternative Force Structures for Fulfillment of the United States Marine Corps Operational Support Airlift and Search and Rescue Missions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chase, Eric

    2000-01-01

    This thesis provides a preliminary cost and operational effectiveness analysis of alternative force structures for the United States Marine Corps operational support airlift and search and rescue missions...

  7. Experimental determinations of the turbine condenser operation at Cernavoda NPP Unit 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romascu, Gabriel; Dragusin, Dumitru; Rogociu, Ioan; Macodean, Luminita; Marciulescu, George

    1999-01-01

    The condenser system represents one of the most important BOP (balance of plant) systems of the CANDU 700 MW Unit at Cernavoda NPP. The paper presents theoretical calculation elements, mathematical model for simulation of condenser operation and the results obtained by model implementation as compared to operation data. The model could be adapted to other turbine and operation regime types. (authors)

  8. 14 CFR 375.41 - Agricultural and industrial operations within the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Agricultural and industrial operations... Agricultural and industrial operations within the United States. Foreign civil aircraft shall not be used for such commercial air operations as crop dusting, pest control, pipeline patrol, mapping, surveying...

  9. Operation of the radioactive acid-digestion test unit (RADTU)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blasewitz, A.G.; Allen, C.R.; Lerch, R.E.; Ely, P.C.; Richardson, G.L.

    1981-01-01

    At the Karlsruhe Nuclear Research Center, research and development work concerned with the acid digestion of combustible waste with high plutonium content is being carried out. The main objectives are the reduction of the waste volume, the recovery of the plutonium and the transformation of the process residues into a product suitable for final disposal. For this purpose an inactive demonstration plant with a throughput of 1.5 kg/h has been constructed. In the first version, the reactor of this plant was a tray reactor of the HEDL type. During test operations the sedimentation of a residue was observed on the tray. The density of this residue was higher than that of the residue suspended in the reaction acid. Experiments using tantalum oxide (D=8.4 g/cm 3 ) to simulate the plutonium oxide (D=11.5 g/cm 3 ) have verified this observation. This means that in active operation a sedimentation of plutonium oxide on the tray is to be expected. With respect to these results a new reactor was developed where the settling of the residue is avoided by appropriate design and high circulation velocity of the reaction acid. The reactor consists of a tube 50-80 mm in diameter, which is curved to form a closed loop with an arm length of about 1x1 m. Since October 1979 this ring reactor has been under inactive test operation. Its behaviour is very stable. The velocity of the reaction acid in the heater is 0.5-1 m/s. A settling of residues or tantalum oxide has not been observed. The throughput attained is comparable to that of the tray reactor but the space requirement is three times smaller, and the volume of the reaction acid four times smaller. (author)

  10. Radioprotection in the operation of accelerator and plasma units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ewen, K.

    1984-01-01

    Relatively great problems of radioprotection can be caused by accelerator units, above all in the field of science, because all kinds of ionizing radiation and radioactive substances can be produced in all stages of aggregation. Furthermore, activities with relatively long half-lifes are induced by high particle streams with energies beyond the thresholds of many nuclear reations, to that the conditions of a control zone, even of a prohibited zone exist at many points after having switched off the accelerator. Not all of these radioprotective problems can be solved by constructive or technical measures. A sufficient skill of the persons responsible for radioprotection is very important in this connection. Efficient radioprotective measures are only possible by a close cooperation between the radiation protection officer, the competent authority, and the expert. (orig.) [de

  11. United Kingdom: Procurement Related Nuclear Experience (Operating Experience)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    Procurement of nuclear facilities in the United Kingdom is subject to nuclear site licence conditions issued by the Government through the Office for Nuclear Regulation (ONR). Each nuclear facility in the United Kingdom must have a nuclear site licence and must comply with the 36 general conditions that are set out in the Licence Condition Handbook (October 2014). In addition, the ONR has published a technical assessment guide for the procurement of nuclear safety related items or services; a guide on intelligent customers and a guide on records management also apply to the procurement phase, and ONR interventions look across all three of these documents. Procurement governance arrangements need to be developed (including a policy, manual, procedures and template documents) and approved within the utility company. The ONR monitors the arrangements via interventions and deems the arrangements to be ‘adequate’. Some procurement contracts become lifetime records for nuclear safety related systems and need to be retained while the plant is in place. A formal record retention schedule needs to be created and managed by the procurement organization. The utility company may elect to set hold points during the various procurement stages and, importantly, obtain approval for the contract and its content from all technical stakeholders (with particular emphasis on the engineering, project management and design authority quality functions before contract award). For contracts with high nuclear safety significance, the ONR may enforce additional hold points before and/or after contract award. There is a general requirement that the utility puts in place adequate arrangements to ensure that suitably qualified and experienced personnel are employed to implement adequate management arrangements and to act as an intelligent customer. This includes being able to demonstrate that any contractor or supplier is suitable, capable and experienced, and has the necessary processes and

  12. French uranium mining sites remediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roche, M.

    2002-01-01

    Following a presentation of the COGEMA's general policy for the remediation of uranium mining sites and the regulatory requirements, the current phases of site remediation operations are described. Specific operations for underground mines, open pits, milling facilities and confining the milled residues to meet long term public health concerns are detailed and discussed in relation to the communication strategies to show and explain the actions of COGEMA. A brief review of the current remediation situation at the various French facilities is finally presented. (author)

  13. Ground Operations Demonstration Unit for Liquid Hydrogen Initial Test Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Notardonato, W. U.; Johnson, W. L.; Swanger, A. M.; Tomsik, T.

    2015-01-01

    NASA operations for handling cryogens in ground support equipment have not changed substantially in 50 years, despite major technology advances in the field of cryogenics. NASA loses approximately 50% of the hydrogen purchased because of a continuous heat leak into ground and flight vessels, transient chill down of warm cryogenic equipment, liquid bleeds, and vent losses. NASA Kennedy Space Center (KSC) needs to develop energy-efficient cryogenic ground systems to minimize propellant losses, simplify operations, and reduce cost associated with hydrogen usage. The GODU LH2 project has designed, assembled, and started testing of a prototype storage and distribution system for liquid hydrogen that represents an advanced end-to-end cryogenic propellant system for a ground launch complex. The project has multiple objectives including zero loss storage and transfer, liquefaction of gaseous hydrogen, and densification of liquid hydrogen. The system is unique because it uses an integrated refrigeration and storage system (IRAS) to control the state of the fluid. This paper will present and discuss the results of the initial phase of testing of the GODU LH2 system.

  14. Standard formatted data units-control authority operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to illustrate a Control Authority's (CA) possible operation. The document is an interpretation and expansion of the concept found in the CA Procedures Recommendation. The CA is described in terms of the functions it performs for the management and control of data descriptions (metadata). Functions pertaining to the organization of Member Agency Control Authority Offices (MACAOs) (e.g., creating and disbanding) are not discussed. The document also provides an illustrative operational view of a CA through scenarios describing interaction between those roles involved in collecting, controlling, and accessing registered metadata. The roles interacting with the CA are identified by their actions in requesting and responding to requests for metadata, and by the type of information exchanged. The scenarios and examples presented in this document are illustrative only. They represent possible interactions supported by either a manual or automated system. These scenarios identify requirements for an automated system. These requirements are expressed by identifying the information to be exchanged and the services that may be provided by a CA for that exchange.

  15. Preparation status for continuous operation of Kori unit 1 NPP in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, C.H. . E-mail : chechee@khnp.co.kr

    2005-01-01

    Kori unit 1 Nuclear Power Plant is the first commercial operation plant in Korea. In Korea, the life extension of NPP beyond design lifetime reached practically application stage. Preparations status for continuous operation of Kori unit 1, Many researches have demonstrated that life extension beyond design lifetime is possible in terms of technology. This paper is to introduce and to share the continuous operation preparations status and schedule for Kori unit 1 License Renewal Process an additional every 10 years beyond the design life 30 years term. (author)

  16. Hospital markup and operation outcomes in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gani, Faiz; Ejaz, Aslam; Makary, Martin A; Pawlik, Timothy M

    2016-07-01

    Although the price hospitals charge for operations has broad financial implications, hospital pricing is not subject to regulation. We sought to characterize national variation in hospital price markup for major cardiothoracic and gastrointestinal operations and to evaluate perioperative outcomes of hospitals relative to hospital price markup. All hospitals in which a patient underwent a cardiothoracic or gastrointestinal procedure were identified using the Nationwide Inpatient Sample for 2012. Markup ratios (ratio of charges to costs) for the total cost of hospitalization were compared across hospitals. Risk-adjusted morbidity, failure-to-rescue, and mortality were calculated using multivariable, hierarchical logistic regression. Among the 3,498 hospitals identified, markup ratios ranged from 0.5-12.2, with a median markup ratio of 2.8 (interquartile range 2.7-3.9). For the 888 hospitals with extreme markup (greatest markup ratio quartile: markup ratio >3.9), the median markup ratio was 4.9 (interquartile range 4.3-6.0), with 10% of these hospitals billing more than 7 times the Medicare-allowable costs (markup ratio ≥7.25). Extreme markup hospitals were more often large (46.3% vs 33.8%, P markup ratio compared with 19.3% (n = 452) and 6.8% (n = 35) of nonprofit and government hospitals, respectively. Perioperative morbidity (32.7% vs 26.4%, P markup hospitals. There is wide variation in hospital markup for cardiothoracic and gastrointestinal procedures, with approximately a quarter of hospital charges being 4 times greater than the actual cost of hospitalization. Hospitals with an extreme markup had greater perioperative morbidity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. The chemical energy unit partial oxidation reactor operation simulation modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mrakin, A. N.; Selivanov, A. A.; Batrakov, P. A.; Sotnikov, D. G.

    2018-01-01

    The chemical energy unit scheme for synthesis gas, electric and heat energy production which is possible to be used both for the chemical industry on-site facilities and under field conditions is represented in the paper. The partial oxidation reactor gasification process mathematical model is described and reaction products composition and temperature determining algorithm flow diagram is shown. The developed software product verification showed good convergence of the experimental values and calculations according to the other programmes: the temperature determining relative discrepancy amounted from 4 to 5 %, while the absolute composition discrepancy ranged from 1 to 3%. The synthesis gas composition was found out practically not to depend on the supplied into the partial oxidation reactor (POR) water vapour enthalpy and compressor air pressure increase ratio. Moreover, air consumption coefficient α increase from 0.7 to 0.9 was found out to decrease synthesis gas target components (carbon and hydrogen oxides) specific yield by nearly 2 times and synthesis gas target components required ratio was revealed to be seen in the water vapour specific consumption area (from 5 to 6 kg/kg of fuel).

  18. Nurse managers' decision-making in daily unit operation in peri-operative settings: a cross-sectional descriptive study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siirala, Eriikka; Peltonen, Laura-Maria; Lundgrén-Laine, Heljä; Salanterä, Sanna; Junttila, Kristiina

    2016-09-01

    To describe the tactical and the operational decisions made by nurse managers when managing the daily unit operation in peri-operative settings. Management is challenging as situations change rapidly and decisions are constantly made. Understanding decision-making in this complex environment helps to develop decision support systems to support nurse managers' operative and tactical decision-making. Descriptive cross-sectional design. Data were collected from 20 nurse managers with the think-aloud method during the busiest working hours and analysed using thematic content analysis. Nurse managers made over 700 decisions; either ad hoc (n = 289), near future (n = 268) or long-term (n = 187) by nature. Decisions were often made simultaneously with many interruptions. Ad hoc decisions covered staff allocation, ensuring adequate staff, rescheduling surgical procedures, confirmation tangible resources and following-up the daily unit operation. Decisions in the near future were: planning of surgical procedures and tangible resources, and planning staff allocation. Long-term decisions were: human recourses, nursing development, supplies and equipment, and finances in the unit. Decision-making was vulnerable to interruptions, which sometimes complicated the managing tasks. The results can be used when planning decision support systems and when defining the nurse managers' tasks in peri-operative settings. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Female Participation in Formed Police Units: A Report on the Integration of Women in Formed Police Units of Peacekeeping Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-01

    of Peacekeeping Operations in accor- dance with the principles of United Nations (UN) Res- olution 1325. To address this topic the study (1) briefly...that the eligibility criteria was revised to include women who played support roles to the combatants, as cooks, por- ters, sex slaves or spies

  20. Sampling and analysis plan for the site characterization of the waste area Grouping 1 groundwater operable unit at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-11-01

    Waste Area Grouping (WAG) 1 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) includes all of the former ORNL radioisotope research, production, and maintenance facilities; former waste management areas; and some former administrative buildings. Site operations have contaminated groundwater, principally with radiological contamination. An extensive network of underground pipelines and utilities have contributed to the dispersal of contaminants to a known extent. In addition, karst geology, numerous spills, and pipeline leaks, together with the long and varied history of activities at specific facilities at ORNL, complicate contaminant migration-pathway analysis and source identification. To evaluate the extent of contamination, site characterization activity will include semiannual and annual groundwater sampling, as well as monthly water level measurements (both manual and continuous) at WAG 1. This sampling and analysis plan provides the methods and procedures to conduct site characterization for the Phase 1 Remedial Investigation of the WAG 1 Groundwater Operable Unit

  1. Multi-unit Operations in Non-Nuclear Systems: Lessons Learned for Small Modular Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    OHara J. M.; Higgins, J.; DAgostino, A.

    2012-01-17

    The nuclear-power community has reached the stage of proposing advanced reactor designs to support power generation for decades to come. Small modular reactors (SMRs) are one approach to meet these energy needs. While the power output of individual reactor modules is relatively small, they can be grouped to produce reactor sites with different outputs. Also, they can be designed to generate hydrogen, or to process heat. Many characteristics of SMRs are quite different from those of current plants and may be operated quite differently. One difference is that multiple units may be operated by a single crew (or a single operator) from one control room. The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is examining the human factors engineering (HFE) aspects of SMRs to support licensing reviews. While we reviewed information on SMR designs to obtain information, the designs are not completed and all of the design and operational information is not yet available. Nor is there information on multi-unit operations as envisioned for SMRs available in operating experience. Thus, to gain a better understanding of multi-unit operations we sought the lesson learned from non-nuclear systems that have experience in multi-unit operations, specifically refineries, unmanned aerial vehicles and tele-intensive care units. In this paper we report the lessons learned from these systems and the implications for SMRs.

  2. Analysis of Fukushima unit 2 accident considering the operating conditions of RCIC system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sung Il, E-mail: sikim@kaeri.re.kr; Park, Jong Hwa; Ha, Kwang Soon; Cho, Song-Won; Song, JinHo

    2016-03-15

    Highlights: • Fukushima unit 2 accident was analyzed using MELCOR 1.8.6. • RCIC operating conditions were assumed and best case was selected. • Effect of RCIC operating condition on accident scenario was found. - Abstract: A severe accident in Fukushima occurred on March 11, 2011 and units 1, 2 and 3 were damaged severely. A tsunami following an earthquake made the supply of electricity power stop, and the safety systems, which use AC or DC power in plants could not operate properly. It is supposed that the degree of core degradation of unit 2 is less serious than in the other plants, and it was estimated that the operation of reactor core isolation cooling (RCIC) system at the initial stage of the accident minimized the core damage through decay heat removal. Although the operating conditions of the RCIC system are not known clearly, it can be important to analyze the accident scenario of unit 2. In this study, best case of the Fukushima unit 2 accident was presented considering the operating conditions of the RCIC system. The effects of operating condition on core degradation and fission product release rate to environment were also examined. In addition, importance of torus room flooding level in the accident analysis was discussed. MELCOR 1.8.6 was used in this research, and the geometries of plant and operating conditions of safety system were obtained from TEPCO through OECD/NEA BSAF Project.

  3. Explicit isospectral flows for the AKNS operator on the unit interval

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amour, L

    2009-01-01

    We consider the AKNS operator on the unit interval. The boundary conditions are self-adjoint separated boundary conditions. For fixed boundary conditions, we make the formulae for flows induced by general tangent vector fields on isospectral sets explicit

  4. Analysis of the Vertical Takeoff and Landing Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (VTUAV) in Small Unit Urban Operations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cason, Roman

    2004-01-01

    ...) to replace the aging Pioneer Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) system. This thesis examines the critical elements this platform must possess to effectively support small units operating in urban environments...

  5. Start-up and commercial operation of the Laguna Verde power plants, unit 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torres R, J.F.

    1991-01-01

    The main features of the unit 1 of the Laguna Verde Power Plant is presented as well as the phases of the start-up process. The process includes various steps and tests up to start the commercial operation. (author)

  6. Description of work for 100-DR-2 Operable Unit Vadose Drilling/test pits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naiknimbalkar, N.

    1993-01-01

    This report describes the scope of work for the boreholes/test pits of the 100-DR-2 Operable Unit. Sampling and field activities include: Soil screening; geologic sampling; soil sampling (physical property); analytical sampling and depths; and geophysical logging

  7. Pilgrim Nuclear Power Station, Unit 1. Annual operating report for 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Net electrical power generated was 2,415,511 MWH with the generator on line 5,333.6 hrs. Information is presented concerning operations, procedure changes, tests, experiments, maintenance, unit shutdowns and power reductions, and radiation doses to personnel

  8. Salem Nuclear Generating Station, Unit 1. Annual operating report for 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    Initial reactor criticality was achieved 12/11/76 and power generation began 12/25/76. Information is presented concerning operation, maintenance, procedure and specification changes, power generation, unit shutdowns and forced power reductions, testing, and personnel radiation exposures

  9. An operating nuclear utility's experience with the ALARA design of a new nuclear unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodgers, R.C.

    1985-01-01

    This talk presents a review of how operating experience at Northeast Utilities has been factored into the design of a new nuclear unit and the development and management of the radiation protection program. Their operational experience has indicated that there are two facets to keeping radiation exposures ALARA. The first is the proper ALARA design of the unit. The other facet is the design of a comprehensive radiation protection program. The author discusses these facets in some detail

  10. Quad-Cities Station, Units 1 and 2. Semiannual operating report, January--June 1975

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    Unit 1 generated 2,024,125 net electrical MWH and the generator was on line 3162.6 hours. Unit 2 generated 746,184 net electrical MWH and was on line 1475.3 hrs. Data is included concerning operations, power generation, shutdowns, maintenance, changes, and tests. (FS)

  11. H. B. Robinson Plant, Unit 2. Annual operating report for 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    The unit achieved a good performance record through the year, experiencing only short duration shutdowns or power reductions. Information is presented concerning operations, maintenance, shutdowns, and occupational radiation exposures. In November there was a scheduled refueling lasting 40 days. After a start-up physics test program, the unit achieved 100 percent power on December 22, 1976

  12. Dresden Nuclear Power Station, Units 1, 2, and 3. Annual operating report: January thru December 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    Net electrical energy generated by Unit 1 was 953,015.5 MWH with the generator on line 7,399.37 hrs. Unit 2 generated 4,371,553.689 MWH with the generator on line 6,664.58 hrs while Unit 3 generated 4,034,251 MWH with the generator on line 7,234.86 hrs. Information is presented concerning operations, maintenance, and shutdowns

  13. 2005 Annual Operations Report for INTEC Operable Unit 3-13, Group 1, Tank Farm Interim Action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D. Shanklin

    2006-01-01

    This annual operations report describes the requirements followed and activities conducted to inspect, monitor, and maintain the items installed during performance of the Waste Area Group 3, Operable Unit 3-13, Group 1, Tank Farm Interim Action, at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center. This report describes inspection and monitoring activities for the surface-sealed areas within the tank farm, concrete-lined ditches and culverts in and around the tank farm, the lift station, and the lined evaporation pond. These activities are intended to assure that the interim action is functioning adequately to meet the objectives stated in the Operable Unit 3-13, Record of Decision for the Group 1, Tank Farm Interim Action, (DOE/ID-10660) and as amended by the agreement to resolve dispute, which was effective in February 2003

  14. Biodegradation of chloroethene compounds in groundwater at Operable Unit 1, Naval Undersea Warfare Center, Division Keyport, Washington, 1999-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinicola, R.S.; Huffman, R.L.

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey evaluated the biodegradation of chloroethene compounds in groundwater beneath the former landfill at Operable Unit 1 (OU 1) of the U.S. Naval Undersea Warfare Center (NUWC), Division Keyport. The predominant contaminants in groundwater are the chloroethene compounds trichloroethene, cis-1,2-dichloroethene, and vinyl chloride. The remedy selected for groundwater contamination at OU 1 includes phytoremediation and natural attenuation. In 1999, the U.S. Navy planted two hybrid poplar plantations, referred to as the northern and southern plantations, over the most contaminated parts of the landfill. The U.S. Navy monitors tree health, groundwater levels, and contaminant concentrations to assess the effectiveness of phytoremediation. The U.S. Geological Survey began a cooperative effort with the U.S. Navy in 1995 to monitor the effectiveness of natural attenuation processes for removing and controlling the migration of chloroethenes and chloroethanes. Field and laboratory studies from 1996 through 2000 demonstrated that biodegradation of chloroethenes and chloroethanes in shallow groundwater at OU 1 was substantial. The U.S. Geological Survey monitored geochemical and contaminant concentrations in groundwater annually from 2001 through 2010. This report presents groundwater geochemical and contaminant data collected by the U.S. Geological Survey during June 2010 and evaluates evidence for continued biodegradation of chloroethenes in groundwater.

  15. Assessment and remediation of odor emissions from a complex industrial facility (Ambient air odor regulations in Canada and the United States)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boose, T.; Reusing, G.

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes the findings of a review and presents examples of ambient air odor regulations in Canada and the United States. State and provincial odor regulations were reviewed and other metropolitan cities or counties (regions) that have separate odor regulations were also included. The key topics addressed in this paper include an assessment of the methods used for odor regulation and the methods used to evaluate the odor impact to determine compliance with the regulation. Three types of ambient air odor regulations were identified: 1. 28 States, Provinces and regions (jurisdictions) have specific odor regulations. These regulations generally define what constitutes an odor impact and typically provide requirements for remedial measures; 2. 25 jurisdictions regulate odors by a general prohibition regulation. These regulations define odor in ambient air as a condition of air pollution, nuisance or objectionable odor that would typically prevent persons from the enjoyment of life and property; and 3. 13 jurisdictions do not have specific or general prohibition regulations regarding odors. For the jurisdictions that have specific or general prohibition odor regulations, there are a number of different techniques used to define what constitutes an odor impact. Odor impacts are typically defined in a regulation by one (or more) of the following techniques: dilution to threshold, or odor unit limit; determination of odor emission rates; odor concentration limits for selected chemicals (ppm); comparison with the n-butanol intensity scale (1 to 8); and investigation by an agency investigator. Compliance with odor regulations is typically determined using one (or more) of the following field methods: odor stack testing and dispersion modelling; odor panel analysis of stack or ambient air samples; chemical monitoring (ppm); odor school certified / agency investigator; and scentometer. (author)

  16. 78 FR 14361 - U.S. Steel Tubular Products, Inc., Mckeesport Tubular Operations Division, Subsidiary of United...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-05

    ... Products, Inc., Mckeesport Tubular Operations Division, Subsidiary of United States Steel Corporation, Mckeesport, PA; Notice of Initiation of Investigation To Terminate Certification of Eligibility Pursuant to... Tubular Products, McKeesport Tubular Operations Division, Subsidiary of United States Steel Corporation...

  17. Operating experience with unit for sulfuric acid alkylation of isobutane by butylenes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tagavov, I.T.; Sumanov, V.T.; Khadzhiev, S.N.

    1988-09-01

    The operation of units for the sulfuric acid alkylation of isobutanes by butylenes have been performed. The reaction was carried out in a KSG-3 horizontal sulfuric acid contractor. A butane-butylene fraction from catalytic cracking and an isobutane fraction from the central gas fractionating unit were used as a feedstock. The studies have shown that the unit will give a high-quality product under various conditions of operation. The specific consumption of sulfuric acid in processing different types of feed remains within acceptable limits.

  18. Decommissioning strategy of the operating WWER type units in the Ukraine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Litvinsky, L.L.; Lobach, Yu.N.; Skripov, A.E.

    2002-01-01

    At present in Ukraine, 13 WWER type units are in operation and two other ones are in the final stage of construction. Decommissioning of these units is expected after the year 2010. General planning of their decommissioning is developed in the framework of the decommissioning strategy of operating WWER type units. The strategy contains the objectives, principles and main tasks of the decommissioning as well as the activities at each phase of decommissioning. It is considered a broad range of factors important for the planning and implementation of decommissioning. (author)

  19. Clarification of Institutional Controls at the Rocky Flats Site Central Operable Unit and Implementation of the Soil Disturbance Review Plan - 13053

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DiSalvo, Rick [Stoller LMS Team, 11025 Dover St, Suite 1000, Westminster, CO 80021 (United States); Surovchak, Scott [U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Legacy Management, 11025 Dover St, Suite 1000, Westminster, CO 80021 (United States); Spreng, Carl [Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment, 4300 Cherry Creek Dr. S, Denver, CO 80246-1530 (United States); Moritz, Vera [U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Region 8, 1595 Wynkoop St., Denver, CO 80202-1129 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Cleanup and closure of DOE's Rocky Flats Site in Colorado, which was placed on the CERCLA National Priority List in 1989, was accomplished under CERCLA, RCRA, and the Colorado Hazardous Waste Act (CHWA). The physical cleanup work was completed in late 2005 and all buildings and other structures that composed the Rocky Flats industrial complex were removed from the surface, but remnants remain in the subsurface. Other remaining features include two landfills closed in place with covers, four groundwater treatment systems, and surface water and groundwater monitoring systems. Under the 2006 Corrective Action Decision/Record of Decision for Rocky Flats Plant (US DOE) Peripheral Operable Unit and the Central Operable Unit (CAD/ROD), the response actions selected for the Central Operable Unit (OU) are institutional controls (ICs), physical controls, and continued monitoring and maintenance. The objectives of these ICs were to prevent unacceptable exposure to remaining subsurface contamination and to prevent contaminants from mobilizing to surface water and to prevent interfering with the proper functioning of the engineered components of the remedy. An amendment in 2011 of the 2006 CAD/ROD clarified the ICs to prevent misinterpretation that would prohibit work to manage and maintain the Central OU property. The 2011 amendment incorporated a protocol for a Soil Disturbance Review Plan for work subject to ICs that requires approval from the State and public notification by DOE prior to conducting approved soil-disturbing work. (authors)

  20. OPERATING OF MOBILE MACHINE UNITS SYSTEM USING THE MODEL OF MULTICOMPONENT COMPLEX MOVEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Lebedev

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available To solve the problems of mobile machine units system operating it is proposed using complex multi-component (composite movement physical models. Implementation of the proposed method is possible by creating of automatic operating systems of fuel supply to the engines using linear accelerometers. Some examples to illustrate the proposed method are offered.

  1. Operating of mobile machine units system using the model of multicomponent complex movement

    OpenAIRE

    A. Lebedev; R. Kaidalov; N. Artiomov; M. Shulyak; M. Podrigalo; D. Abramov; D. Klets

    2015-01-01

    To solve the problems of mobile machine units system operating it is proposed using complex multi-component (composite) movement physical models. Implementation of the proposed method is possible by creating of automatic operating systems of fuel supply to the engines using linear accelerometers. Some examples to illustrate the proposed method are offered.

  2. Oconee Nuclear Station, Units 1, 2, and 3. Semiannual operating report, January--June 1975

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    Information is presented concerning operations, performance characteristics, changes, tests, inspections, containment leak tests, maintenance, primary coolant chemistry, station staff changes, reservoir investigations, plume mapping, and operational environmental radioactivity monitoring data for oconee Units 1, 2, and 3. The non-radiological environmental surveillance program is also described. (FS)

  3. Effect of RCIC Operating Conditions on the Accident Scenario in Fukushima Unit 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Sung Il; Park, Jong Hwa; Ha, Kwang Soon

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted by using MELCOR 1.8.6. Fukushima unit 2 accident was analyzed using MELCOR in this study, and best estimate scenario with considering RCIC operating conditions was presented. Researches on the boiling water reactor (BWR) plant with reactor core isolation cooling (RCIC) system have been conducted. Research on the RCIC operation in Fukushima unit 2 was also conducted by Sandia National Laboratory. MELCOR analysis of the Fukushima unit 2 accident was conducted in the report and energy balance in wetwell was described by considering RCIC operation. However, the effect of RCIC operation condition on the accident scenario has not been studied. The operating conditions of RCIC system affect the pressures in wetwell and drywell, and the high pressure can make leakage path of fission product from PCV to reactor building. Thus it can be directly related with the amount of fission product which released to environment. In this study, severe accident on Fukushima unit 2 was analyzed considering the operating condition of RCIC system, and best estimated scenario was presented. In addition, the effect of RCIC turbine efficiency on the accident progression was examined. Energy balance in suppression chamber was also considered with discussion on the effect of torus room flooding level. It was found that the operating condition of RCIC turbine not only affects the variation of drywell pressure but also the amount of released fission products to environment. It was also confirmed that the RCIC turbine efficiency in the accident would be less than normal operating condition

  4. Analysis of long-time operation of micro-cogeneration unit with fuel cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patsch Marek

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Micro-cogeneration is cogeneration with small performance, with maximal electric power up to 50 kWe. On the present, there are available small micro-cogeneration units with small electric performance, about 1 kWe, which are usable also in single family houses or flats. These micro-cogeneration units operate on principle of conventional combustion engine, Stirling engine, steam engine or fuel cell. Micro-cogeneration units with fuel cells are new progressive developing type of units for single family houses. Fuel cell is electrochemical device which by oxidation-reduction reaction turn directly chemical energy of fuel to electric power, secondary products are pure water and thermal energy. The aim of paper is measuring and evaluation of operation parameters of micro-cogeneration unit with fuel cell which uses natural gas as a fuel.

  5. United States Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office, completion report Operation KLAXON, Fiscal Year 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-06-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV), Completion Report provides a summary of activities conducted at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) between October 1, 1992, and September 30, 1993, associated with Operation KLAXON. (In the past, each annual Completion Report dealt with a series of underground nuclear detonations; however, because no nuclear tests were conducted during FY 1993, this Report summarizes continuing nonnuclear and nuclear test readiness activities at the NTS sponsored by DOE/NV.) The report serves as a reference for those involved with the planning and execution of Operation KLAXON and also serves as a planning guide for future operations. Information in the report covers the logistics and management of activities. Scientific information and data associated with NTS activities are presented in technical documents published by participating agencies. In September 1992, Congress legislated a nine-month moratorium on the testing of nuclear weapons. The bill also provided for a resumption of testing (with no more than five tests per year, or a total of 15 during the next three years) in July 1993, and mandated an end to nuclear testing, entirely, by 1996. President Bush signed the bill into law in October 1992.

  6. United States Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office, completion report Operation KLAXON, Fiscal Year 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-06-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV), Completion Report provides a summary of activities conducted at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) between October 1, 1992, and September 30, 1993, associated with Operation KLAXON. (In the past, each annual Completion Report dealt with a series of underground nuclear detonations; however, because no nuclear tests were conducted during FY 1993, this Report summarizes continuing nonnuclear and nuclear test readiness activities at the NTS sponsored by DOE/NV.) The report serves as a reference for those involved with the planning and execution of Operation KLAXON and also serves as a planning guide for future operations. Information in the report covers the logistics and management of activities. Scientific information and data associated with NTS activities are presented in technical documents published by participating agencies. In September 1992, Congress legislated a nine-month moratorium on the testing of nuclear weapons. The bill also provided for a resumption of testing (with no more than five tests per year, or a total of 15 during the next three years) in July 1993, and mandated an end to nuclear testing, entirely, by 1996. President Bush signed the bill into law in October 1992

  7. Use of Special Operations Forces in United Nations Missions: a Method to Resolve Complexity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-21

    physical stamina and psychological stability, followed by a rigorous training program are the imperatives to create SOF soldiers.42 Mark Bowden in...recommendation is that the United Nations should establish a Special Operations planning cell within the UN Department of Peacekeeping Operations. As of...now, the cell is nonexistent. This cell should be able to facilitate the integration of SOF into the overall peace operations concept. Finally, the

  8. ICDF Complex Remedial Action Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    W. M. Heileson

    2007-09-26

    This Idaho CERCLA Disposal Facility (ICDF) Remedial Action Report has been prepared in accordance with the requirements of Section 6.2 of the INEEL CERCLA Disposal Facility Remedial Action Work Plan. The agency prefinal inspection of the ICDF Staging, Storage, Sizing, and Treatment Facility (SSSTF) was completed in June of 2005. Accordingly, this report has been developed to describe the construction activities completed at the ICDF along with a description of any modifications to the design originally approved for the facility. In addition, this report provides a summary of the major documents prepared for the design and construction of the ICDF, a discussion of relevant requirements and remedial action objectives, the total costs associated with the development and operation of the facility to date, and identification of necessary changes to the Agency-approved INEEL CERCLA Disposal Facility Remedial Action Work Plan and the ICDF Complex Operations and Maintenance Plan.

  9. Indian Point Station, Units 1, 2, and 3. Annual operating report for 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    Unit 1 remained in a shutdown condition pending a decision by the Company on the installation of an ECCS as required by NRC. Net electrical power generated by Unit 2 was 2,267,654 MWH with the unit on line 3,056.45 hrs. Unit 3 generated 1,872,947 MWH and was on line 2,286.01 hrs. Information is presented concerning operations, reportable events, corrective maintenance, fuel performance, radioactivity releases, shutdowns, primary coolant chemistry, and occupational radiation exposures

  10. Results of toxicity tests and chemical analyses conducted on sediments collected from the TNX Outfall Delta Operable Unit, July 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Specht, W.L.

    2000-01-01

    In order to provide unit specific toxicity data that will be used to address critical uncertainty in the ecological risk assessment (ERA) for the TNX Outfall Delta Operable Unit (TNXOD OU), sediments were collected from eight locations in the Inner Swamp portion of the operable unit and two unit specific background locations. These samples were analyzed for total mercury, total uranium, and sediment toxicity

  11. An Analysis of United States Marine Corps Enlisted Entry-Level Training Using Supply Chain and Operations Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-01

    An Analysis of United States Marine Corps Enlisted Entry-Level Training Using Supply Chain and Operations Management ______________________________________ By...Report 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE: An Analysis of United States Marine Corps Enlisted Entry-Level Training Using Supply Chain and Operations Management 6...Level Training; United States Marine Corps; Operations Management ; Supply Chain Management; Process Analysis 16. PRICE CODE 17. SECURITY

  12. Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study, Operable Unit 5, Elmendorf AFB, Anchorage, Alaska. Volume 2. Text and Appendices A - J

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-03-04

    hitting abandoned paper sheathed copper wire telephone cable at 4.2’. Boring moved. No discernible floating product. 35.0 . 40.0 45.0 50.0 55.0 - jPROJECT...0.60 U N/C Magnesium, Mg 14.3 U 14.3 U N/C Manganese, Mn 0.80 U 0.80 U N/C Mercury, Hg 0.10 U 0.10 U N/C Nikel , Ni 7.7 U 7.7 U N/C Potassium, K 191 U

  13. Offpost Operable Unit Remedial Investigation and Chemical Specific Applicable or Relevant and Appropriate Requirements, Version 3.1. Volume 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-12-01

    dried eggs and processed herbs and spices;... (iii) 250 parts per million in or on concentrated tomato products and dried figs; and (iv) 125 parts...eggplant, peppers, potatoes, summer squash and tomatoes . 4 4 4 H-25 4 38. PRIMARY NAME: Ethyl benzene (Ethylbenzene) CERCLA Hazardous Substance: Yes...C’. .R. § 141. 12 and the aquatic life standard as poenrtial ’\\ RAIZS reqa ire no( further discus~it n in this" con text. I8 Q h )tn omen ts ()n Fthfi

  14. Object reasoning for waste remediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pennock, K.A.; Bohn, S.J.; Franklin, A.L.

    1991-08-01

    A large number of contaminated waste sites across the United States await size remediation efforts. These sites can be physically complex, composed of multiple, possibly interacting, contaminants distributed throughout one or more media. The Remedial Action Assessment System (RAAS) is being designed and developed to support decisions concerning the selection of remediation alternatives. The goal of this system is to broaden the consideration of remediation alternatives, while reducing the time and cost of making these considerations. The Remedial Action Assessment System is a hybrid system, designed and constructed using object-oriented, knowledge- based systems, and structured programming techniques. RAAS uses a combination of quantitative and qualitative reasoning to consider and suggest remediation alternatives. The reasoning process that drives this application is centered around an object-oriented organization of remediation technology information. This paper describes the information structure and organization used to support this reasoning process. In addition, the paper describes the level of detail of the technology related information used in RAAS, discusses required assumptions and procedural implications of these assumptions, and provides rationale for structuring RAAS in this manner. 3 refs., 3 figs

  15. Production and remediation of low-sludge, simulated Purex waste glasses, 1: Effects of sludge oxide additions on melter operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramsey, W.G.

    1993-01-01

    Glass produced during the Purex 4 campaigns of the Integrated Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) Melter System (IDMS) and the 774 Research Melter contained a lower fraction of sludge components than targeted by the Product Composition Control System (PCCS). Purex 4 glass was more durable than the benchmark (EA) glass, but less durable than most simulated SRS high-level waste glasses. Also, Purex 4 glass was considerably less durable than predicted by the algorithm which will be used to control production of DWPF glass. A melter run was performed using the 774 Research Melter to determine if the initial PCCS target composition determined for Purex 4 would produce acceptable glass whose durability could be accurately modeled by Hydration Thermodynamics. Reagent grade oxides and carbonates were added to Purex 4 melter feed stock to simulate a higher sludge loading. Each canister of glass produced was sampled and the composition, crystallinity, and durability was determined. This document details the melter operation and composition and crystallinity analyses

  16. Remedial Action Assessment System: A computer-based methodology for conducting feasibility studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, M.K.; Buelt, J.L.; Stottlemyre, J.A.

    1991-02-01

    Because of the complexity and number of potential waste sites facing the US Department of Energy (DOE) for potential cleanup, DOE is supporting the development of a computer-based methodology to streamline the remedial investigation/feasibility study process. The Remedial Action Assessment System (RAAS), can be used for screening, linking, and evaluating established technology processes in support of conducting feasibility studies. It is also intended to do the same in support of corrective measures studies. The user interface employs menus, windows, help features, and graphical information while RAAS is in operation. Object-oriented programming is used to link unit processes into sets of compatible processes that form appropriate remedial alternatives. Once the remedial alternatives are formed, the RAAS methodology can evaluate them in terms of effectiveness, implementability, and cost. RAAS will access a user-selected risk assessment code to determine the reduction of risk after remedial action by each recommended alternative. The methodology will also help determine the implementability of the remedial alternatives at a site and access cost estimating tools to provide estimates of capital, operating, and maintenance costs. This paper presents the characteristics of two RAAS prototypes currently being developed. These include the RAAS Technology Information System, which accesses graphical, tabular and textual information about technologies, and the main RAAS methodology, which screens, links, and evaluates remedial technologies. 4 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  17. The Applied Meteorology Unit: Nineteen Years Successfully Transitioning Research Into Operations for America's Space Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madura, John T.; Bauman, William H., III; Merceret, Francis J.; Roeder, William P.; Brody, Frank C.; Hagemeyer, Bartlett C.

    2011-01-01

    The Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) provides technology development and transition services to improve operational weather support to America's space program . The AMU was founded in 1991 and operates under a triagency Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the United States Air Force (USAF) and the National Weather Service (NWS) (Ernst and Merceret, 1995). It is colocated with the 45th Weather Squadron (45WS) at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS) and funded by the Space Shuttle Program . Its primary customers are the 45WS, the Spaceflight Meteorology Group (SMG) operated for NASA by the NWS at the Johnson Space Center (JSC) in Houston, TX, and the NWS forecast office in Melbourne, FL (MLB). The gap between research and operations is well known. All too frequently, the process of transitioning research to operations fails for various reasons. The mission of the AMU is in essence to bridge this gap for America's space program.

  18. Multipurpose units: combining of technological operations of a soil cultivating and seeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. A. Petukhov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The modern domestic market of technique for grain crops seeding differs variety of machines brands and types. The intensive type technologies combining technological operations of a soil cultivating and grain crops seeding in one pass are more widely used. The authors have established that one-operational units in new machine park have to be replaced multipurpose, universal and combined machines. Such approach will reduce number of machines in grain production from 20-30 to 5-6 name titles. Possibilities of multipurpose sowing units for simultaneous fertilizers application, soil cultivating and weeds destruction were analyzed. It was specified that nowadays there are several technologies types with two, four or six operations overlapping. Operational performance, technological and economical efficiency of the best multipurpose and also efficiency of technological operations overlapping at grain crops cultivating in the conditions of their real operation and at a trial establishment in the Kuban research institute of information and technical and economic studies of agro-industrial complex engineering and technical services were studied. Tit was defined that use of multipurpose sowing units and also studied efficiency of decreases operational costs by 48-71 percent, fuel consumption - by 41-76 percent and reduces labor input by 72-80 percent. Thus grain crops seeding is possible in optimal agrotime because of 4-6 technological operations overlapping in one pass.

  19. Characterization and remediation of highly radioactive contaminated soil at Hanford

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buckmaster, M.A.; Erickson, J.K.

    1993-09-01

    The Hanford Site, Richland, Washington, contains over 1,500 identified waste sites and numerous groundwater plumes that will be characterized and remediated over the next 30 years. As a result of the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order, the US Department of Energy (DOE) has initiated a remedial investigation/feasibility study (RI/FS) at the 200-BP-1 operable unit. The 200-BP-1 RI/FS is the first Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) investigation on the Hanford Site that involves highly radioactive and chemically contaminated soils. The initial phase of site characterization was designed to assess the nature and extent of contamination associated with the source waste sites within the 200-BP-1 operable unit. Characterization activities consisted of drilling and sampling, chemical and physical analysis of samples, and development of a conceptual vadose zone model. These data were then used. to develop remedial alternatives during the FS evaluation. The preferred alternative resulting from the RI/FS process for the 200-BP-1 operable unit is to construct a surface isolation barrier. The multi-layered earthen barrier will be designed to prevent migration of contaminants resulting from water infiltration, biointrusion, and wind and water erosion

  20. Compex system for teaching and training operators for TPP and NPP power units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsiptsyura, R.D.

    1985-01-01

    Requirements, taken as a principle for constructing the system for operator teaching and training (OTT), have been formulated on the basis of investigation of operators' work at TPP and NPP power units. Functional structure and a structural block-diagram for OTT are built. As a criterion, which determines the structure of any trainers, being a part of OTT a requirement has been chosen satisfying the correspondence beetween habits developed with the help of trainers and habits of real operators' work. Results of analysis permit to confirm that refusal or under statement of the role of any stage of operator training leads to reduction of quality of his training

  1. NRC plan for cleanup operations at Three Mile Island Unit 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lo, R.; Snyder, B.J.

    1980-07-01

    The NRC plan defines the functional role of the NRC in cleanup operations at Three Mile Island Unit 2 to assure that agency regulatory responsibilities and objectives will be fulfilled. The plan outlines NRC functions in TMI-2 cleanup operations in the following areas: (1) the functional relationship of NRC to other government agencies, the public, and the licensee to coordinate activities, (2) the functional roles of these organizations in cleanup operations, (3) the NRC review and decision-making procedure for the licensee's proposed cleanup operation, (4) the NRC/licensee estimated schedule of major actions, and (5) NRC's functional role in overseeing implementation of approved licensee activities

  2. Study of the thermal behavior of a latent heat cold storage unit operating under frosting conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simard, A.P.; Lacroix, M.

    2003-01-01

    A study is performed of the thermal behavior of a latent heat cold storage unit operating under frosting conditions. This unit is employed to maintain the temperature inside the refrigerated compartment of a truck below 265 K. The system consists of parallel plates filled with a phase change material (PCM) that absorbs heat from the flow of warm moist air. A mathematical model for the system is first presented and, next, validated with numerical and experimental data. It is then exploited to assess the effects of design parameters and operating conditions on the performance of the system. The recommended thickness and distance separating the PCM plates are found to be 50x10 -3 and 30x10 -3 m, respectively. The results indicate that the performance of the unit is enhanced by turbulent air flow in spite of the increased pressure loss and accentuated frost growth. The unit also performs well even when the surrounding relative humidity is 100%

  3. Barriers to high conversion operations in an ebullated bed unit -- Relationship between sedimentation and operability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sherwood, D. [Criterion Catalysts Company L.P., Houston, TX (United States)

    2000-07-01

    Ebullated-Bed (EB) catalytic processes are high temperature, high pressure residue hydrocrackers, which transform sour feeds into light, sweet products. EB processes typically involve one or more trains, with one, two, or three EB reactors in series. The key to operating any EB process is to control the 'sediment' which tends to increase with increasing level of conversion. Sediment problems are generally attributed to the catalyst. While this is true in some cases, there are certain problems that occur regardless of the catalyst used, whereas in some situations sediments from the EB process can actually be controlled by the catalyst. This paper describes two typical sedimentation patterns; one in which the sediment increases, and another in which sediment decreases as the EB products move through the recovery section. The benefits of sediment control are illustrated for the latter sedimentation pattern.

  4. Estimation of the optimal operating conditions for a radiation chemical neutralization unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Putilov, A.V.; Kamenetskaya, S.A.; Pshezhetskii, S.Ya.; Kazakov, M.S.; Kudryavtsev, S.L.; Petrukhin, N.V.; Misharin, B.A.; Koneev, V.Z.

    1985-01-01

    An estimate is made of the effect of the hydrodynamic conditions on the efficiency of foam units for the radiation chemical neutralization of impurities, taking into account the penetrating power of accelerated electrons having various energies. Expressions are obtained for calculating the efficiency of such units with sectionized operation of the chamber and taking account of the effect of incomplete mixing of the products of radiolysis through the height of the foam layer

  5. Design and operational parameters of transportable supercritical water oxidation waste destruction unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McFarland, R.D.; Brewer, G.R.; Rofer, C.K.

    1991-12-01

    Supercritical water oxidation (SCWO) is the destruction of hazardous waste by oxidation in the presence of water at temperatures and pressures above its critical point. A 1 gal/h SCWO waste destruction unit (WDU) has been designed, built, and operated at Los Alamos National Laboratory. This unit is transportable and is intended to demonstrate the SCWO technology on wastes at Department of Energy sites. This report describes the design of the WDU and the preliminary testing phase leading to demonstration

  6. Control technique for enhancing the stable operation of distributed generation units within a microgrid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehrasa, Majid; Pouresmaeil, Edris; Mehrjerdi, Hasan; Jørgensen, Bo Nørregaard; Catalão, João P.S.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A control technique for enhancing the stable operation of distributed generation units is proposed. • Passivity-based control technique is considered to analyze the dynamic and steady-state behaviors. • The compensation of instantaneous variations in the reference current components is considered. • Simulation results confirm the performance of the control scheme within the microgrid. - Abstract: This paper describes a control technique for enhancing the stable operation of distributed generation (DG) units based on renewable energy sources, during islanding and grid-connected modes. The Passivity-based control technique is considered to analyze the dynamic and steady-state behaviors of DG units during integration and power sharing with loads and/or power grid, which is an appropriate tool to analyze and define a stable operating condition for DG units in microgrid technology. The compensation of instantaneous variations in the reference current components of DG units in ac-side, and dc-link voltage variations in dc-side of interfaced converters, are considered properly in the control loop of DG units, which is the main contribution and novelty of this control technique over other control strategies. By using the proposed control technique, DG units can provide the continuous injection of active power from DG sources to the local loads and/or utility grid. Moreover, by setting appropriate reference current components in the control loop of DG units, reactive power and harmonic current components of loads can be supplied during the islanding and grid-connected modes with a fast dynamic response. Simulation results confirm the performance of the control scheme within the microgrid during dynamic and steady-state operating conditions

  7. Turkey Point Plant, Units 3 and 4. Semiannual operating report No. 7, July--December 1975

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    Unit 3 generated 1,968,074 MWh(e) net electric power and the generator was on line 2,802.9 hrs. Unit 4 generated 2,560,476 MWh(e) and was on line 3,944.8 hrs. Information is presented concerning operations, power generation, shutdowns, maintenance, changes, tests, experiments, radioactive effluent releases, radiological environmental monitoring, and occupational personnel radiation monitoring

  8. Reservoir release patterns for hydropower operations at the Aspinall Unit on the Gunnison River, Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yin, S.C.L.; Sedlacek, J.

    1995-05-01

    This report presents the development of reservoir release patterns for the Aspinall Unit, which includes Blue Mesa, Morrow Point, and Crystal Reservoirs on the Gunnison River in Colorado. Release patterns were assessed for two hydropower operational scenarios--seasonally adjusted steady flows and seasonally adjusted high fluctuating flows--and three representative hydrologic years--moderate (1987), dry (1989), and wet (1983). The release patterns for the operational scenarios were developed with the aid of monthly, daily, and hourly reservoir operational models, which simulate the linked operation of the three Aspinall Unit reservoirs. Also presented are reservoir fluctuations and downstream water surface elevations corresponding to the reservoir release patterns. Both of the hydropower operational scenarios evaluated are based on the ecological research flows proposed by the US Fish and Wildlife Service for the Aspinall Unit. The first operational scenario allows only seasonally adjusted steady flows (no hourly fluctuations at any dam within one day), whereas the second scenario permits high fluctuating flows from Blue Mesa and Morrow Point Reservoirs during certain times of the year. Crystal Reservoir would release a steady flow within each day under both operational scenarios

  9. Data management implementation plan for the site characterization of the Waste Area Grouping 1 Groundwater Operable Unit at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ball, T.S.; Nickle, E.B.

    1994-10-01

    The Waste Area Grouping (WAG) 1 Groundwater Operable Unit (OU) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, is undergoing a site characterization. This project is not mandated by the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA); therefore, no formalized meetings for data quality objective (DQO) development were held. Internally, DQOs were generated by the project team based on the end uses of the data to be collected. The 150-acre WAG 1 is contained within the ORNL security area. It includes all of the former ORNL radioisotope research, production, and maintenance facilities; former waste management areas; and some former administrative facilities. The goal of the WAG 1 Groundwater Site Characterization is to provide the necessary data on the nature and extent of groundwater contamination with an acceptable level of uncertainty to support the selection of remedial alternatives and to identify additional data needs for future actions. Primary objectives for the site characterization are: (1) To identify and characterize contaminant migration pathways based on the collection of groundwater data; (2) to identify sources of groundwater contamination and evaluate remedial actions which could be implemented to control or eliminate these sources; and (3) To conduct groundwater monitoring in support of other OUs in WAG 1 and the ORNL Groundwater OU

  10. Challenges for Deep Vadose Zone Remediation at the Hanford Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morse, John G.; Charboneau, Briant L.; Lober, Robert W.; Triplett, Mark B.

    2008-01-01

    The 'deep vadose zone' is defined as the region below the practical depth of surface remedy influence (e.g., excavation or barrier). At the Hanford Site, this region of the Central Plateau poses unique challenges for characterization and remediation. The contaminants in this region also pose a potentially significant continuing or future threat to groundwater. Currently, deep vadose zone characterization efforts and remedy selection are spread over multiple waste site Operable Units and tank farm Waste Management Areas. A particular challenge for this effort is the situation in which past leaks from single-shell tanks have become commingled with discharges from nearby liquid disposal sites. The Hanford Site is working with all affected parties, including the Washington State Department of Ecology, the Environmental Protection Agency, DOE-RL, DOE-ORP, and multiple contractor organizations to develop a unified approach to conducting work and reaching remediation decisions. This effort addresses the complex and challenging technical and regulatory issues within this environment. A true inter-Agency effort is evaluating the best strategy or combination of strategies for focusing technical investigations, including treatability studies, and for attaining remedy decisions on the Hanford Site

  11. Prospects and requirements for an operational modelling unit in flood crisis situations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anders Katharina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Dike failure events pose severe flood crisis situations on areas in the hinterland of dikes. In recent decades the importance of being prepared for dike breaches has been increasingly recognized. However, the pre-assessment of inundation resulting from dike breaches is possible only based on scenarios, which might not reflect the situation of a real event. This paper presents a setup and workflow that allows to model dike breachinduced inundation operationally, i.e. when an event is imminent or occurring. A comprehensive system setup of an operational modelling unit has been developed and implemented in the frame of a federal project in Saxony-Anhalt, Germany. The modelling unit setup comprises a powerful methodology of flood modelling and elaborated operational guidelines for crisis situations. Nevertheless, it is of fundamental importance that the modelling unit is instated prior to flood events as a permanent system. Moreover the unit needs to be fully integrated in flood crisis management. If these crucial requirements are met, a modelling unit is capable of fundamentally supporting flood management with operational prognoses of adequate quality even in the limited timeframe of crisis situations.

  12. Biblis 1,300 MW unit B in operation for thirty years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lauer, H.

    2006-01-01

    Over the past thirty years, unit B of the Biblis nuclear power station has contributed towards safe, reliable and non-polluting electricity generation. Unit B was the first 1,300 MW unit in the world confirming the good experience accumulated in the construction and operation of plants this size. It laid the foundation for the advanced development of nuclear power plants up to the convoy line. The good availability this plant has achieved in its operating cycles proves the mature state of technology and the high level of qualification and motivation of the power plant staff and the personnel of external firms contracted to work for Biblis. Biblis B has served as a reference plant in German nuclear safety research, demonstrating that units this size can be operated safely. Unit B is also living proof of the possibility to raise nuclear power plants built in the seventies to the current state of the art by implementing the appropriate backfitting and modernization measures. Today, Biblis B is operated at a safety level clearly higher than that to be achieved for new plants internationally. This is also evident from comparison with the guiding values for the safety of new facilities as published by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). (orig.)

  13. RCRA facility investigation report for the 200-PO-1 operable unit. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-05-01

    This Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Facility Investigation (RFI) report is prepared in support of the RFI/corrective measures study process for the 200-PO-1 Groundwater Operable Unit in the 200 East Area of the Hanford Site. This report summarizes existing information on this operable unit presented in the 200 East and PUREX Aggregate Area Management Study Reports, contaminant specific studies, available modeling data, and groundwater monitoring data summary reports. Existing contaminant data are screened against current regulatory limits to determine contaminants of potential concern (COPC). Each identified COPC is evaluated using well-specific and plume trend analyses

  14. Structural characterization and condition for measurement statistics preservation of a unital quantum operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Kai-Yan; Fung, Chi-Hang Fred; Chau, H F

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the necessary and sufficient condition for a convex cone of positive semidefinite operators to be fixed by a unital quantum operation ϕ acting on finite-dimensional quantum states. By reducing this problem to the problem of simultaneous diagonalization of the Kraus operators associated with ϕ, we can completely characterize the kinds of quantum states that are fixed by ϕ. Our work has several applications. It gives a simple proof of the structural characterization of a unital quantum operation that acts on finite-dimensional quantum states—a result not explicitly mentioned in earlier studies. It also provides a necessary and sufficient condition for determining what kind of measurement statistics is preserved by a unital quantum operation. Finally, our result clarifies and extends the work of Størmer by giving a proof of a reduction theorem on the unassisted and entanglement-assisted classical capacities, coherent information, and minimal output Renyi entropy of a unital channel acting on a finite-dimensional quantum state. (paper)

  15. Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station, Units 2 and 3. Annual operating report: January--December 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    Unit 2 experienced 11 forced outages, 5 power reductions, and one major refueling outage which lasted about 3 months during which time the feedwater spargers were replaced. Net electrical power generated was 5,569,633 MWH with the generator on line 5,998 hrs. Unit 3 experienced 17 forced outages, 11 power reductions and 2 major outages. The first refueling outage began 12/24/77. Net electrical power generated was 6,049,644 MWH with the unit on line 6,829 hrs. Information is presented concerning operations, personnel exposures, radioactive releases, maintenance, and irradiated fuel examination

  16. NUMATH: a nuclear-material-holdup estimator for unit operations and chemical processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krichinsky, A.M.

    1981-01-01

    A computer program, NUMATH (Nuclear Material Holdup Estimator), has been developed to permit inventory estimation in vessels involved in unit operations and chemical processes. This program has been implemented in an operating nuclear fuel processing plant. NUMATH's purpose is to provide steady-state composition estimates for material residing in process vessels until representative samples can be obtained and chemical analyses can be performed. Since these compositions are used for inventory estimation, the results are determined for and cataloged in container-oriented files. The estimated compositions represent material collected in applicable vessels-including consideration for material previously acknowledged in these vessels. The program utilizes process measurements and simple material balance models to estimate material holdups and distribution within unit operations. During simulated run testing, NUMATH-estimated inventories typically produced material balances within 7% of the associated measured material balances for uranium and within 16% of the associated, measured material balance for thorium during steady-state process operation

  17. Cost of presumptive source term Remedial Actions Laboratory for energy-related health research, University of California, Davis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Last, G.V.; Bagaasen, L.M.; Josephson, G.B.; Lanigan, D.C.; Liikala, T.L.; Newcomer, D.R.; Pearson, A.W.; Teel, S.S.

    1995-12-01

    A Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study (RI/FS) is in progress at the Laboratory for Energy Related Health Research (LEHR) at the University of California, Davis. The purpose of the RI/FS is to gather sufficient information to support an informed risk management decision regarding the most appropriate remedial actions for impacted areas of the facility. In an effort to expedite remediation of the LEHR facility, the remedial project managers requested a more detailed evaluation of a selected set of remedial actions. In particular, they requested information on both characterization and remedial action costs. The US Department of Energy -- Oakland Office requested the assistance of the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to prepare order-of-magnitude cost estimates for presumptive remedial actions being considered for the five source term operable units. The cost estimates presented in this report include characterization costs, capital costs, and annual operation and maintenance (O ampersand M) costs. These cost estimates are intended to aid planning and direction of future environmental remediation efforts

  18. Categorization of safety related motor operated valve safety significance for Ulchin Unit 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, D. I.; Kim, K. Y.

    2002-03-01

    We performed a categorization of safety related Motor Operated Valve (MOV) safety significance for Ulchin Unit 3. The safety evaluation of MOV of domestic nuclear power plants affects the generic data used for the quantification of MOV common cause failure ( CCF) events in Ulchin Units 3 PSA. Therefore, in this study, we re-estimated the MGL(Multiple Greek Letter) parameter used for the evaluation of MOV CCF probabilities in Ulchin Units 3 Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) and performed a classification of the MOV safety significance. The re-estimation results of the MGL parameter show that its value is decreased by 30% compared with the current value in Ulchin Unit 3 PSA. The categorization results of MOV safety significance using the changed value of MGL parameter shows that the number of HSSCs(High Safety Significant Components) is decreased by 54.5% compared with those using the current value of it in Ulchin Units 3 PSA

  19. Hanford Site waste management units report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-04-01

    The Hanford Site Waste Management Units Report was originated to provide information responsive to Section 3004(u) of the Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments of the 1984. This report provides a comprehensive inventory of all types of waste management units at the Hanford Site, including a description of the units and the waste they contain. Waste management units in the report include: (1) Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA) disposal units, (2) Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA) disposal units, (3) unplanned releases, (4) inactive contaminated structures, (5) RCRA treatment, storage, and disposal (TSD) units, and (6) other storage areas. Because of the comprehensive nature of the units report, the list of units is more extensive than required by Section 3004(u) of Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments of the 1984. In Sections 3.0 through 6.0 of this report, the four aggregate areas are subdivided into their operable units. The operable units are further divided into two parts: (1) those waste management units assigned to the operable unit that will be remediated as part of the Environmental Restoration Remedial Actions (ERRA) Program, and (2) those waste management units located within the operable unit boundaries but not assigned to the ERRA program. Only some operable unit sections contain the second part

  20. 40 CFR 60.2989 - Does this subpart directly affect incineration unit owners and operators in my State?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... incineration unit owners and operators in my State? 60.2989 Section 60.2989 Protection of Environment... SOURCES Emission Guidelines and Compliance Times for Other Solid Waste Incineration Units That Commenced... incineration unit owners and operators in my State? (a) No, this subpart does not directly affect incineration...

  1. 40 CFR 62.15145 - What are the operating practice requirements for my municipal waste combustion unit?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... requirements for my municipal waste combustion unit? 62.15145 Section 62.15145 Protection of Environment... Combustion Units Constructed on or Before August 30, 1999 Good Combustion Practices: Operating Requirements § 62.15145 What are the operating practice requirements for my municipal waste combustion unit? (a) You...

  2. Electrodialytic remediation of suspended mine tailings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henrik K.; Rojo, Adrian; Pino, Denisse

    2008-01-01

    This work shows the laboratory results of nine electrodialytic remediation experiments on copper mine tailings. A newly designed remediation cell, where the solids were kept in suspension by airflow, was tested. The results show that electric current could remove copper from suspended tailings...... efficiency from 1% to 80% compared to experiments with no stirring but with the same operational conditions. This showed the crucial importance of having the solids in suspension and not settled during the remediation....

  3. RCRA facility investigation/corrective measures study work plan for the 100-HR-1 operable unit, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-09-01

    Four areas of the Hanford Site (the 100, 200, 300, and 1100 Areas) have been included on the US. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) National Priorities List (NPL) under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA). Under the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order, signed by the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology), EPA, and the US Department of Energy (DOE), more than 1,000 inactive waste disposal and unplanned release sites on the Hanford Site have been grouped into a number of source and groundwater operable units. These operable units contain contamination in the form of hazardous waste, radioactive/hazardous mixed waste, and other CERCLA hazardous substances. This work plan and the attached supporting project plans establish the operable unit setting and the objectives, procedures, tasks, and schedule for conducting the RCRA facility investigation/corrective measures study (RFI/CMS) for the 100-HR-1 source operable unit. Source operable units include facilities and unplanned release sites that are potential sources of contamination. The 100-HR-3 operable unit underlies the D/DR and H Areas, the 600 Area between them, and the six source operable units these areas contain. The 100-HR-3 operable unit includes all contamination found in the aquifer soils and water within its boundary. Separate work plans have been initiated for the 100-HR-3 groundwater operable unit (DOE-RL 1992a) and the 100-DR-1 (DOE-RL 1992b) source operable units

  4. Hydrologic resources management program and underground test area operable unit fy 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, D. F., LLNL

    1998-05-01

    This report present the results of FY 1997 technical studies conducted by the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) as part of the Hydrology and Radionuclide Migration Program (HRMP) and Underground Test Area Operable Unit (UGTA). The HRMP is sponsored by the US Department of Energy to assess the environmental (radiochemical and hydrologic) consequences of underground nuclear weapons testing at the Nevada Test Site.

  5. Use of the LITEE Lorn Manufacturing Case Study in a Senior Chemical Engineering Unit Operations Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Nithin Susan; Abulencia, James Patrick

    2011-01-01

    This study focuses on the effectiveness of incorporating the Laboratory for Innovative Technology and Engineering Education (LITEE) Lorn Manufacturing case into a senior level chemical engineering unit operations course at Manhattan College. The purpose of using the case study is to demonstrate the relevance of ethics to chemical engineering…

  6. Ambiguity in Units and the Referents: Two Cases in Rational Number Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathouz, Margaret

    2010-01-01

    I explore the impact of ambiguous referral to the unit on understanding of decimal and fraction operations during episodes in two different mathematics courses for pre-service teachers (PSTs). In one classroom, the instructor introduces a rectangular area diagram to help the PSTs visualize decimal multiplication. A transcript from this classroom…

  7. Qualitative risk assessment for the 100-NR-2 Operable Unit. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-03-01

    This qualitative risk assessment provides information about the 100- NR-2 Groundwater Operable Unit of the Hanford reservation. Topics discussed in this report are: data evaluation; human health risk assessment overview; ecological evaluations; summary of uncertainty; results of both the ecological and human health evaluations; toxicity assessment; risk characterization; and a summary of contaminants of potential concern

  8. Donald C. Cook Nuclear Power Plant, Unit 1. Annual operating report for 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    The unit was paralleled to the grid 83.1 percent of the time and 7,073,200 MWH gross was generated. There were six scheduled outages and 14 forced outages/load reductions. Information is presented concerning operations, shutdowns, power reductions, inservice maintenance, personnel radiation exposures, fuel history, and facility changes

  9. A Moveable Feast--A Progressive Approach to the Unit Operations Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conner, Wm. Curtis, Jr.; Hammond, Karl D.; Laurence, Robert L.

    2011-01-01

    The authors describe an alternative format for the senior laboratory in which students are allowed--indeed, expected--to communicate with previous groups and build on their results. The effect is a unit operations laboratory in which students are empowered to propose the experiments they wish to do and in which the cumulative experience of the…

  10. NSSS design and cycle 1 operating history data for Arkansas Nuclear One, Unit-2. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gagne, P.A.

    1981-03-01

    This report contains design and cycle 1 operating data for the Arkansas Nuclear One, Unit-2 nuclear steam supply system. The design data include descriptions of the reactor core, reactor coolant system, and control systems which are a part of the nuclear steam supply system. Operating history data are provided for the period of December 1978 through January 1980. The most important operating history data provided include reactor power, cumulative fuel burnup, control rod position, primary coolant temperature, and a series of power distribution state points

  11. Formerly utilized MED/AEC sites remedial action program: radiological survey of the Building Site 421, United States, Watertown Arsenel, Watertown, MA. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-02-01

    This report contains the results of surveys of the current radiological condition of the Building Site 421, United States Arsenal Watertown, Watertown, Massachusetts. Findings of this survey indicate there are four spots involving an area of less than 6000 cm/sup 2/ of identifiable low-level residual radioactivity on the concrete pad which is all that remains of Building Site 421. The largest spot is approximately 5000 cm/sup 2/. The other three spots are 100 cm/sup 2/ or less. The beta-gamma readings at these spots are 8.4 x 10/sup 2/ dis/min-100 cm/sup 2/, 2.2 x 10/sup 5/ dis/min-100 cm/sup 2/, 2.2 x 10/sup 5/ dis/min-100 cm/sup 2/ and 8.5 x 10/sup 4/ dis/min-100 cm/sup 2/. No alpha contamination was found at these locations. Gamma spectral analysis of a chip of contaminated concrete from one of the spots indicates that the contaminant is natural uranium. This contamination is fixed in the concrete and does not present an internal or external exposure hazard under present conditions. A hypothetical hazard analysis under a conservative set of assumed conditions indicates minimal internal hazard. The highest End Window contact reading was 0.09 mR/h. None of the other three spots indicated an elevated direct reading with the End Window Detector. Radon daughter concentrations were determined at three locations on the Building 421 pad. These were 0.00013 WL, 0.00011 WL and 0.00009 WL. According to the Surgeon General's Guidelines found in 10 CFR 712, radon daughter concentrations below 0.03 WL do not require remedial action in structures other than private dwellings and schools. Soil samples taken about the site indicate no elevated levels above the natural background levels in the soil. A gamma spectral analysis of a water sample obtained from the storm sewer line near the Building 421 pad indicates no elevated radioactivity in the sample. It was therefore felt that no contamination is present in this sewer.

  12. Formerly utilized MED/AEC sites remedial action program: radiological survey of the Building Site 421, United States, Watertown Arsenel, Watertown, MA. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-02-01

    This report contains the results of surveys of the current radiological condition of the Building Site 421, United States Arsenal Watertown, Watertown, Massachusetts. Findings of this survey indicate there are four spots involving an area of less than 6000 cm 2 of identifiable low-level residual radioactivity on the concrete pad which is all that remains of Building Site 421. The largest spot is approximately 5000 cm 2 . The other three spots are 100 cm 2 or less. The beta-gamma readings at these spots are 8.4 x 10 2 dis/min-100 cm 2 , 2.2 x 10 5 dis/min-100 cm 2 , 2.2 x 10 5 dis/min-100 cm 2 and 8.5 x 10 4 dis/min-100 cm 2 . No alpha contamination was found at these locations. Gamma spectral analysis of a chip of contaminated concrete from one of the spots indicates that the contaminant is natural uranium. This contamination is fixed in the concrete and does not present an internal or external exposure hazard under present conditions. A hypothetical hazard analysis under a conservative set of assumed conditions indicates minimal internal hazard. The highest End Window contact reading was 0.09 mR/h. None of the other three spots indicated an elevated direct reading with the End Window Detector. Radon daughter concentrations were determined at three locations on the Building 421 pad. These were 0.00013 WL, 0.00011 WL and 0.00009 WL. According to the Surgeon General's Guidelines found in 10 CFR 712, radon daughter concentrations below 0.03 WL do not require remedial action in structures other than private dwellings and schools. Soil samples taken about the site indicate no elevated levels above the natural background levels in the soil. A gamma spectral analysis of a water sample obtained from the storm sewer line near the Building 421 pad indicates no elevated radioactivity in the sample. It was therefore felt that no contamination is present in this sewer

  13. Operating experience gained during the copper oxide plugging incident in Koeberg unit 1 generator stator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mellor, S.P.; Matthee, F.W. [ESKOM, Koeberg Nuclear Power Station (South Africa)

    2002-07-01

    In June 1999 Koeberg's unit 1 started to experience adverse operating conditions which were later ascribed to blockages in the hollow conductors of the generator stator. These blockages were attributed to copper oxide plugs which developed progressively during the following year and culminated in reduced power operation. Many attempts were made to address the plugging by implementing various off-line and on-line cleaning processes. Subsequent to a successful on-line cleaning operation, the unit was returned to full power and the chemistry regime for the stator cooling water system was changed to allow for operation at an elevated pH. This paper discusses Koeberg's experience with copper oxide blockages, describes the initial indications of the problem and the impact on the operating parameters. The remainder of the paper focuses on the actions taken to address the deteriorating situation and the different cleaning methods implemented to remove the copper oxide deposits. The paper concludes with the current status of the unit 1 generator stator and the lessons learned during the resolution of this problem. (authors)

  14. Operating experience gained during the copper oxide plugging incident in Koeberg unit 1 generator stator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mellor, S.P.; Matthee, F.W.

    2002-01-01

    In June 1999 Koeberg's unit 1 started to experience adverse operating conditions which were later ascribed to blockages in the hollow conductors of the generator stator. These blockages were attributed to copper oxide plugs which developed progressively during the following year and culminated in reduced power operation. Many attempts were made to address the plugging by implementing various off-line and on-line cleaning processes. Subsequent to a successful on-line cleaning operation, the unit was returned to full power and the chemistry regime for the stator cooling water system was changed to allow for operation at an elevated pH. This paper discusses Koeberg's experience with copper oxide blockages, describes the initial indications of the problem and the impact on the operating parameters. The remainder of the paper focuses on the actions taken to address the deteriorating situation and the different cleaning methods implemented to remove the copper oxide deposits. The paper concludes with the current status of the unit 1 generator stator and the lessons learned during the resolution of this problem. (authors)

  15. Level 1 shutdown and low power operation of Mochovce NPP, Unit 1, Slovakia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halada, P.; Cillik, I.; Stojka, T.; Kuzma, M.; Prochaska, J.; Vrtik, L.

    2004-01-01

    The paper presents general approach, used methods and form of documentation of the results that have been applied within the shutdown and low power PSA (SPSA) study for Mochovce NPP, Unit 1, Slovakia. The SPSA project was realized by VUJE Trnava Inc., Slovakia in 2001-2002 years. The Level 1 SPSA study for Mochovce NPP Unit 1 covers internal events as well as internal (fires, floods and heavy load drop) and external (aircraft crash, extreme meteorological conditions, seismic event and influence of surrounding industry) hazards. Mochovce NPP consists of two operating units equipped with VVER 440/V213 reactors safety upgraded before construction finishing and operation start. 87 safety measures based on VVER 440 operational experience and international mission insights were implemented to enhance its operational and nuclear safety. The SPSA relates to full power PSA (FPSA) as a continuation of the effort to create a harmonized level 1 PSA model for all operational modes of the plant with the goal to use it for further purposes as follows: Real Time Risk Monitor, Maintenance Optimization, Technical Specifications Optimization, Living PSA. (author)

  16. Point Beach Nuclear Plant, Units 1 and 2. Semiannual operating report No. 10, January--June 1975

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    Unit 1 operated at an average capacity factor of 65.2 percent with a net efficiency of 31.41 percent. Unit 2 operted at an average capacity factor of 88.6 lpercent with a net efficiency of 32.28 percent. Unit 1 was essentially base loaded while Unit 2 operated on load follow. Information is presented concerning power generation, shutdowns, corrective maintenance, chemistry and radiochemistry, occupational radiation exposure, release of radioactive materials, abnormal occurrences, and environmental monitoring. (FS)

  17. Emergency operating instruction improvements at San Onofre Nuclear Generating Station Units 2 and 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trillo, M.W.; Smith, B.H.

    1989-01-01

    In late 1987, San Onofre nuclear generating station (SONGS) began an extensive upgrade of the units 2 and 3 emergency operating instructions (EOIs). The original intent of this program was to incorporate revised generic guidance and to correct problems that were identified by operators. While this program was in progress, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) conducted a series of audits of emergency operating procedure (EOP) development and maintenance programs as 16 commercial nuclear facilities in the United States. These audits included four stations with Combustion Engineering-designed nuclear steam supply systems. (One of these audits included a review of preupgrade SONGS units 2 and 3 EOIs.) Significant industrywide comments resulted from these audits. The NRC has stated its intent to continue the review and audit of EOIs and the associated maintenance programs at all US commercial nuclear facilities. The units 2 and 3 EOI upgrade program developed procedural improvements and procedural program maintenance improvements that address many of the existing audit comments that have been received by the industry. Other resulting improvements may be useful in minimizing NRC comments in future such audits. Specific improvements are discussed. The upgrade program resulted in benefits that were not originally anticipated. The results of this program can be of significant use by other utilities in addressing the industrywide concerns that have been raised in recent NRC audits of EOP development and maintenance programs

  18. Remediation of spent block in Uvanas deposit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nurgaziev, M.A.; Iskakov, M.M.

    2012-01-01

    In 2007 by 'Kazatomprom' and 'Mining company' board decision, the branch of 'Mining company', 'Steppe ore management body' is reorganized in structure subdivision, the basic activity of which is organization and carrying out remediation works on spent blocks of PSV uranium deposit. In 2002 works are completed on OVOS for operating deposits Uvanas, Kanjugan, Northern Karamurun and Eastern Minkuduk. The results of present work were reported in IAEA conference. The working project 'Remediation of spent blocks of PSV uranium deposit PV-17 polygon of Steppe ore management body' approved in 2005 was developed for carrying out the remediation works. Works funding were carried out from liquidation fund of the current deposit established in accordance with the Republic of Kazakhstan law 'About interior and interior use'. Deposits remediation is the part of deposit operation life cycle which obliges to operate deposits with minimum expenditures for remediation.

  19. Conclusions and recommendations of the SCOPE-RADSITE workshop on remediation achievements after uranium mining and milling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vandenhove, H.; Vandecasteele, C.M.; Collard, G.

    2002-01-01

    The SCOPE-RADSITE Project provides a unique international scientific forum where the radioactive wastes generated in the development of nuclear weapons, including their potential impact on the environment and human populations, are studied and reviewed. At the present SCOPE-RADSITE workshop a team of experts presented the current status of uranium mining and milling operations in the United States, in the former Soviet Union (FSU) and in Central and Eastern Europe. The effect of radiocontaminants resulting from the uranium mining and milling operations to species other than humans and the combined effects of environmental radiation and other agents were discussed. Finally, three cases of remediation projects were presented: remediation at COGEMA sites in France, the WISMUT rehabilitation project in Germany and uranium mine reclamation in Texas and remediation achievements were described. Finally the workshop discussed important issues and recommendations to be considered when approaching remediation of past legacies resulting from uranium mining and milling. (author)

  20. Land Conversion, Social Impacts, and Legal Remedies ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Land Conversion, Social Impacts, and Legal Remedies: Understanding the Role of Community Paralegals in Addressing Impacts of Land Use Change in Asia. This project addresses the ... Pays d' institution. United States. Site internet.

  1. Radon remediation in irish schools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Synnott, H.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: Commencing in 1998, the Radiological Protection Institute of Ireland carried out radon measurements in 3826 schools in the Republic of I reland on behalf of the Irish Department of Education and Science (D.E.S.). This represents approximately 97% of all schools in the country. Approximately 25% (984) schools had radon concentrations above the Irish national schools Reference Level for radon of 200 Bq/m 3 and required remedial work. The number of individual rooms with radon concentrations above 200 Bq/m 3 was 3020. Remedial work in schools commenced in early 2000. In general schools with maximum radon concentrations in the range 200 -400 Bq/m 3 in one or more rooms were remediated through the installation of passive systems such as an increase in permanent background ventilation mainly wall vents and trickle vents in windows. Schools with maximum radon concentrations greater than 400 Bq/m 3 were usually remediated through the provision of active systems mainly fan assisted sub -slab de pressurization or where this was not possible fan assisted under floor ventilation. The cost of the remedial programme was funded by central Government. Active systems were installed by specialized remedial contractors working to the specifications of a radon remedial expert appointed by the D.E.S. to design remedial systems for affected schools. Schools requiring increased ventilation were granted aided 190 pounds per affected room and had to organize the work themselves. In most schools radon remediation was successful in reducing existing radon concentrations to below the Reference Level. Average radon concentration reduction factors for sub-slab de pressurization systems and fan assisted fan assisted under floor ventilation ranged from 5 to 40 with greater reduction rates found at higher original radon concentrations. Increasing ventilation in locations with moderately elevated radon concentrations (200 - 400 Bq/m 3 ) while not as effective as active systems produced on

  2. Surry Power Station, Units 1 and 2. Semiannual operating report, July--December 1974

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1974-01-01

    Net electric power generated by Surry Unit 1 was 6,930,353 MWH with the generator on line for 10,417.7 hours. Net electric power generated by Unit 2 was 5,699,299 MWH with the generator on line for 8,384.2 hours. Information is presented concerning operation, radioactive effluent releases, solid radioactive wastes, fuel shipments, occurrences in which temperature limitations on the condenser cooling water discharge were exceeded, changes in station organization, occupational personnel radiation exposure, nonradiological monitoring including thermal, physical, and biological programs, and the radiological environmental monitoring program. (U.S.)

  3. Retrofitting and operation solid radwaste system Dresden Station, Units 2 and 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Testa, J.; Homer, J.C.

    1982-01-01

    Units 2 and 3 at Dresden Station are twin 794 MW (net) BWR units that became operational in 1970 and 1971. The waste streams are typical of BWR stations, namely, bead resin and filter sludge (powdered resins and diatomaceous earth), evaporator concentrate containing approximately 25% dissolved solids and dry active waste. The original solid radwaste system utilized cement for solidification in open top 55 gallon drums. Remote handling was provided by means of a monorail with moving platforms supporting the drums. A relatively light-weight compactor was used to compact DAW into 55 gallon drums. Difficulties were experienced with this system

  4. Qualitative risk assessment for the 100-FR-1 source operable unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corporation, I.T.

    1994-08-01

    This report provides the Qualitative risk assessment (QRA) for the waste sites associated with the 100-FR-1 Operable Unit. The QRA is an evaluation of risk for a predefined set of human and ecological exposure scenarios. It is not intended to replace or be a substitute for a baseline risk assessment. The QRA is streamlined to consider only two human health scenarios (frequent-and occasional-use) with four exposure pathways (soil ingestion, fugitive dust inhalation, inhalation of volatile organics, and external radiation exposure) and a limited ecological evaluation. The use of these scenarios and pathways was agreed to by the 100 Area Tri-Party unit managers

  5. Indian Point Station, Unit 1 and 2. Semiannual operating report No. 24, July--December 1974

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    Net electrical power generated by Unit 1 was 519,130 MWH with the reactor critical for 2,400.39 hours and the generator on line for 2,316.14 hours. Unit 2 generated 2,427,828 MWH electrical power, was critical for 3,590.31 hours and the generator was on line for 3,485.41 hours. Operations and maintenance are summarized. Information is presented concerning radioactive effluent releases, occupational personnel radiation protection, primary coolant chemistry, changes, tests, and experiments. Environmental radioactivity is discussed. (U.S.)

  6. Commercial operation and outage experience of ABWR at Kashiwazaki-Kariwa units Nos. 6 and 7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anahara, N.; Yamada, M.; Kataoka, H.

    2000-01-01

    Kashiwazaki-Kariwa Nuclear Power Station Units Nos. 6 and 7, the world's first ABWRs (Advanced Boiling Water Reactor), started commercial operation on November 7, 1996 and July 2, 1997, respectively, and continued their commercial operation with a high capacity factor, low occupational radiation exposure and radioactive waste. Units 6 and 7 were in their 3rd cycle operation until 25th April 1999 and 1st November 1999, respectively. Thermal efficiency was 35.4-35.8% (design thermal efficiency: 34.5%) during these period, demonstrating better performance than that of BWR-5 (design thermal efficiency: 33.4%). Nos. 6 and 7 have experienced 2 annual outages. The first outage of unit No. 6 started on November 20, 1997 and was completed within 61 days (including 6 New Year holidays), and the second outage started on March 13, 1999 and was completed within 44 days. The first annual outage of unit No. 7 started on May 27, 1998, earlier than it would normally have been, to avoid an annual outage during the summer, and was completed within 55 days, and the second outage started on September 18th, 1999 and was completed within 45 days, All annual outages were carried out within a very short time period without any severe malfunctions, including newly designed ABWR systems and equipment. As the first outage in Japan, 55 days is a very short period, despite the fact that the Nos. 6 and 7 are the first ABWRs in the world and the largest capacity units in Japan. The total occupational radiation exposure of No. 6 was 300 man-mSv (1st outage) and 331 man-mSv (2nd outage). That of Unit 7 was 153 man-mSv (1st outage) Those of unit No. 6 were at the same level as those of unit No. 3, which is the latest design 1100MW(e) BWR-5. That of unit No. 7 was the lowest ever at Kashiwazaki-Kariwa nuclear power station. The drums of radioactive waste discharged during the annual outage numbered 54 (1st outage) for No. 6 and 62 (1st outage) for No. 7, which was less than the design target of 100

  7. Automated processing of whole blood units: operational value and in vitro quality of final blood components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurado, Marisa; Algora, Manuel; Garcia-Sanchez, Félix; Vico, Santiago; Rodriguez, Eva; Perez, Sonia; Barbolla, Luz

    2012-01-01

    The Community Transfusion Centre in Madrid currently processes whole blood using a conventional procedure (Compomat, Fresenius) followed by automated processing of buffy coats with the OrbiSac system (CaridianBCT). The Atreus 3C system (CaridianBCT) automates the production of red blood cells, plasma and an interim platelet unit from a whole blood unit. Interim platelet unit are pooled to produce a transfusable platelet unit. In this study the Atreus 3C system was evaluated and compared to the routine method with regards to product quality and operational value. Over a 5-week period 810 whole blood units were processed using the Atreus 3C system. The attributes of the automated process were compared to those of the routine method by assessing productivity, space, equipment and staffing requirements. The data obtained were evaluated in order to estimate the impact of implementing the Atreus 3C system in the routine setting of the blood centre. Yield and in vitro quality of the final blood components processed with the two systems were evaluated and compared. The Atreus 3C system enabled higher throughput while requiring less space and employee time by decreasing the amount of equipment and processing time per unit of whole blood processed. Whole blood units processed on the Atreus 3C system gave a higher platelet yield, a similar amount of red blood cells and a smaller volume of plasma. These results support the conclusion that the Atreus 3C system produces blood components meeting quality requirements while providing a high operational efficiency. Implementation of the Atreus 3C system could result in a large organisational improvement.

  8. An analysis of post-traumatic stress symptoms in United States Air Force drone operators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chappelle, Wayne; Goodman, Tanya; Reardon, Laura; Thompson, William

    2014-06-01

    Remotely piloted aircraft (RPA), commonly referred to as "drones," have emerged over the past decade as an innovative warfighting tool. Given there is a paucity of empirical research assessing drone operators, the purpose of this study was to assess for the prevalence of PTSD symptoms among this cohort. Of the 1084 United States Air Force (USAF) drone operators that participated, a total of 4.3% endorsed a pattern of symptoms of moderate to extreme level of severity meeting criteria outlined in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-4th edition. The incidence of PTSD among USAF drone operators in this study was lower than rates of PTSD (10-18%) among military personnel returning from deployment but higher than incidence rates (less than 1%) of USAF drone operators reported in electronic medical records. Although low PTSD rates may be promising, limitations to this study are discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Diphenylarsinic acid contaminated soil remediation by titanium dioxide (P25) photocatalysis: Degradation pathway, optimization of operating parameters and effects of soil properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, A-nan [Key Laboratory of Soil Environment and Pollution Remediation, Institute of Soil Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008 (China); Graduate School of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100039 (China); Teng, Ying [Key Laboratory of Soil Environment and Pollution Remediation, Institute of Soil Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008 (China); Hu, Xue-feng [Yantai Institute of Coastal Zone Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Yantai 264003 (China); Wu, Long-hua; Huang, Yu-juan [Key Laboratory of Soil Environment and Pollution Remediation, Institute of Soil Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008 (China); Luo, Yong-ming, E-mail: ymluo@yic.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Soil Environment and Pollution Remediation, Institute of Soil Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008 (China); Yantai Institute of Coastal Zone Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Yantai 264003 (China); Christie, Peter [Key Laboratory of Soil Environment and Pollution Remediation, Institute of Soil Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008 (China)

    2016-01-15

    Diphenylarsinic acid (DPAA) is formed during the leakage of arsenic chemical weapons in sites and poses a high risk to biota. However, remediation methods for DPAA contaminated soils are rare. Here, the photocatalytic oxidation (PCO) process by nano-sized titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}) was applied to degrade DPAA in soil. The degradation pathway was firstly studied, and arsenate was identified as the final product. Then, an orthogonal array experimental design of L{sub 9}(3){sup 4}, only 9 experiments were needed, instead of 81 experiments in a conventional one-factor-at-a-time, was used to optimize the operational parameters soil:water ratio, TiO{sub 2} dosage, irradiation time and light intensity to increase DPAA removal efficiency. Soil:water ratio was found to have a more significant effect on DPAA removal efficiency than other properties. The optimum conditions to treat 4 g soil with a DPAA concentration of 20 mg kg{sup −1} were found to be a 1:10 soil: water ratio, 40 mW cm{sup −2} light intensity, 5% TiO{sub 2} in soil, and a 3-hour irradiation time, with a removal efficiency of up to 82.7%. Furthermore, this method (except for a change in irradiation time from 3 to 1.5 h) was validated in nine different soils and the removal efficiencies ranged from 57.0 to 78.6%. Removal efficiencies were found to be negatively correlated with soil electrical conductivity, organic matter content, pH and total phosphorus content. Finally, coupled with electron spin resonance (ESR) measurement, these soil properties affected the generation of OH• by TiO{sub 2} in soil slurry. This study suggests that TiO{sub 2} photocatalytic oxidation is a promising treatment for removing DPAA from soil. - Highlights: • DPAA was degraded into arsenate through TiO{sub 2} (P25) photocatalytic oxidation. • Soil/water ratio was more influential on the removal of DPAA in soil by TiO{sub 2} (P25). • Soil properties affected the adsorption of DPAA and the generation of OH• by Ti

  10. Diphenylarsinic acid contaminated soil remediation by titanium dioxide (P25) photocatalysis: Degradation pathway, optimization of operating parameters and effects of soil properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, A-nan; Teng, Ying; Hu, Xue-feng; Wu, Long-hua; Huang, Yu-juan; Luo, Yong-ming; Christie, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Diphenylarsinic acid (DPAA) is formed during the leakage of arsenic chemical weapons in sites and poses a high risk to biota. However, remediation methods for DPAA contaminated soils are rare. Here, the photocatalytic oxidation (PCO) process by nano-sized titanium dioxide (TiO_2) was applied to degrade DPAA in soil. The degradation pathway was firstly studied, and arsenate was identified as the final product. Then, an orthogonal array experimental design of L_9(3)"4, only 9 experiments were needed, instead of 81 experiments in a conventional one-factor-at-a-time, was used to optimize the operational parameters soil:water ratio, TiO_2 dosage, irradiation time and light intensity to increase DPAA removal efficiency. Soil:water ratio was found to have a more significant effect on DPAA removal efficiency than other properties. The optimum conditions to treat 4 g soil with a DPAA concentration of 20 mg kg"−"1 were found to be a 1:10 soil: water ratio, 40 mW cm"−"2 light intensity, 5% TiO_2 in soil, and a 3-hour irradiation time, with a removal efficiency of up to 82.7%. Furthermore, this method (except for a change in irradiation time from 3 to 1.5 h) was validated in nine different soils and the removal efficiencies ranged from 57.0 to 78.6%. Removal efficiencies were found to be negatively correlated with soil electrical conductivity, organic matter content, pH and total phosphorus content. Finally, coupled with electron spin resonance (ESR) measurement, these soil properties affected the generation of OH• by TiO_2 in soil slurry. This study suggests that TiO_2 photocatalytic oxidation is a promising treatment for removing DPAA from soil. - Highlights: • DPAA was degraded into arsenate through TiO_2 (P25) photocatalytic oxidation. • Soil/water ratio was more influential on the removal of DPAA in soil by TiO_2 (P25). • Soil properties affected the adsorption of DPAA and the generation of OH• by TiO_2.

  11. Economics of biofiltration for remediation projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yudelson, J.M.; Tinari, P.D.

    1995-01-01

    Biofilters with granular activated carbon (GAC) filter backup units offer substantial savings compared to conventional GAC filters and catalytic/thermal oxidation (Catox) units in controlling emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from petroleum remediation projects. Provided that the biofilter supplier is willing to satisfy the client's and consultant's risk-management concerns, biofilters offer anew method for reducing the cost of remediation projects, with savings of up to $10,000 (24%) per facility in 24-month projects and up to $16,000 (32%) per facility in 36-month projects for simple gas station remediation projects. Savings will be greater for longer projects and projects with higher average contaminant loadings

  12. Remedial action assessment system (RAAS) - A computer-based methodology for conducting feasibility studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buelt, J.L.; Stottlemyre, J.A.; White, M.K.

    1991-01-01

    Because of the great complexity and number of potential waste sites facing the US Department of Energy (DOE) for potential cleanup, the DOE is supporting the development of a computer-based methodology to streamline the remedial investigation/feasibility study process required for DOE operable units. DOE operable units are generally more complex in nature because of the existence of multiple waste sites within many of the operable units and the presence of mixed radioactive and hazardous chemical wastes. Consequently, Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) is developing the Remedial Action Assessment System (RAAS), which is aimed at screening, linking, and evaluating established technology process options in support of conducting feasibility studies under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA). It is also intended to do the same in support of corrective measures studies required by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). One of the greatest attributes of the RAAS project is that the computer interface with the user is being designed to be friendly, intuitive, and interactive. Consequently, the user interface employs menus, windows, help features, and graphical information while RAAS is in operation. During operation, each technology process option is represented by an open-quotes objectclose quotes module. Object-oriented programming is then used to link these unit processes into remedial alternatives. In this way, various object modules representing technology process options can communicate so that a linked set of compatible processes form an appropriate remedial alternative. Once the remedial alternatives are formed, they can be evaluated in terms of effectiveness, implementability, and cost

  13. Rail transportation of Fernald remediation waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fellman, R.T.; Lojek, D.A.; Motl, G.P.; Weddendorf, W.K.

    1995-01-01

    Remediation of the Department of Energy (DOE) Fernald site located north of Cincinnati will generate large quantities of low-level radwaste. This volume includes approximately 1,050,000 tons of material to be removed from eight waste pits comprising Operable Unit 1 (OU-1). The remedial alternative selected includes waste material excavation, drying and transportation by rail to a burial site in the arid west for disposal. Rail transportation was selected not only because rail transportation is safer than truck transportation, but also because of the sheer magnitude of the project and the availability of bulk rail car unloading facilities at a representative disposal site. Based upon current waste quantity estimates as presented in the Feasibility Study for OUI, a fully-loaded 47-car unit train would depart the Fernald site weekly for five years. This paper illustrates the steps taken to obtain agency and public acceptance of the Record of Decision for the remedy which hinged on rail transportation. A preliminary, but detailed, rail transportation plan was prepared for the project to support a series of CERCLA public meetings conducted in late 1994. Some of the major issues addressed in the plan included the following: (1) Scope of project leading to selection of rail transportation; (2) Waste classification; (3) Rail Company overview; (4) Train configuration and rail car selection; (5) Routing; (6) Safety; (7) Prior Notification Requirements (8) Emergency Response. A series of three public meetings identified a number of issues of prime concern to Fernald stakeholders. Following resolution of these issues during the public comment period, a Record of Decision (ROD) approving implementation of the rail transportation strategy was approved pending incorporation of EPA and State of Ohio comments on December 22, 1994

  14. Dose rate evaluation of workers on the operation floor in Fukushima-Daiichi Unit 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsushita, Kaoru; Kurosawa, Masahiko; Shirai, Keisuke; Matsuoka, Ippei; Mukaida, Naoki

    2017-09-01

    At Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant Unit 3, installation of a fuel handling machine is planned to support the removal of spent fuel. The dose rates at the workplace were calculated based on the source distribution measured using a collimator in order to confirm that the dose rates on the operation floor were within a manageable range. It was confirmed that the accuracy of the source distribution was C/M = 1.0-2.4. These dose rates were then used to plan the work on the operation floor.

  15. Ageing Management of the reactor internals in Belgian nuclear units in view of Long Term Operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerard, R.; Bertolis, D.; Vissers, S.

    2012-01-01

    The reactor internals support the reactor core, distribute the coolant flow through the core, and guide and protect the rod control cluster assemblies and in-core instrumentation. Their integrity must be guaranteed in all operating and accident conditions. They are exposed to specific degradation mechanisms linked to the intense neutron irradiation, like Irradiation Assisted Stress Corrosion Cracking (IASCC) or potentially void swelling, in addition to more classical mechanisms like fatigue, wear and stress corrosion cracking. A rigorous follow-up of in-service degradation and an effective ageing management is therefore of crucial importance and contributes to the safe and economical operation of nuclear PWR units. (author)

  16. Development of in-situ product removal strategies in biocatalysis applying scaled-down unit operations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heintz, Søren; Börner, Tim; Ringborg, Rolf Hoffmeyer

    2017-01-01

    different process steps while operating it as a combined system, giving the possibility to test and characterize the performance of novel process concepts and biocatalysts with minimal influence of inhibitory products. Here the capabilities of performing process development by applying scaled-down unit...... operations are highlighted through a case study investigating the asymmetric synthesis of 1-methyl-3-phenylpropylamine (MPPA) using ω-transaminase, an enzyme in the sub-family of amino transferases (ATAs). An on-line HPLC system was applied to avoid manual sample handling and to semi...

  17. HANFORD GROUNDWATER REMEDIATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CHARBONEAU, B; THOMPSON, M; WILDE, R.; FORD, B.; GERBER, M.S.

    2006-02-01

    geographically dispersed community is united in its desire to protect the Columbia River and have a voice in Hanford's future. This paper presents the challenges, and then discusses the progress and efforts underway to reduce the risk posed by contaminated groundwater at Hanford. While Hanford groundwater is not a source of drinking water on or off the Site, there are possible near-shore impacts where it flows into the Columbia River. Therefore, this remediation is critical to the overall efforts to clean up the Site, as well as protect a natural resource.

  18. Steam generator tube integrity requirements and operating experience in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karwoski, K.J.

    2009-01-01

    Steam generator tube integrity is important to the safe operation of pressurized-water reactors. For ensuring tube integrity, the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission uses a regulatory framework that is largely performance based. This performance-based framework is supplemented with some prescriptive requirements. The framework recognizes that there are three combinations of tube materials and heat treatments currently used in the United States and that the operating experience depends, in part, on the type of material used. This paper summarizes the regulatory framework for ensuring steam generator tube integrity, it highlights the current status of steam generators, and it highlights some of the steam generator issues and challenges that exist in the United States. (author)

  19. Groundwater Monitoring Plan for the Reactor Technology Complex Operable Unit 2-13

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richard P. Wells

    2007-01-01

    This Groundwater Monitoring Plan describes the objectives, activities, and assessments that will be performed to support the on-going groundwater monitoring requirements at the Reactor Technology Complex, formerly the Test Reactor Area (TRA). The requirements for groundwater monitoring were stipulated in the Final Record of Decision for Test Reactor Area, Operable Unit 2-13, signed in December 1997. The monitoring requirements were modified by the First Five-Year Review Report for the Test Reactor Area, Operable Unit 2-13, at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory to focus on those contaminants of concern that warrant continued surveillance, including chromium, tritium, strontium-90, and cobalt-60. Based upon recommendations provided in the Annual Groundwater Monitoring Status Report for 2006, the groundwater monitoring frequency was reduced to annually from twice a year

  20. Development of Regulatory Audit Programs for Wolsong Unit 1 Continued Operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hong Key; Nho, Seung Hwan; Song, Myung Ho [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-05-15

    Wolsong Unit 1 (PHWR type) design life expires on November 20, 2010. In relation to it, KHNP submitted its application to get approval of the MEST on December 30, 2009 and KINS is under review to confirm the appropriateness of continued operation. For the comprehensive review of Wolsong Unit 1 continued operation, KINS has developed the review guidelines for PHWR type reactor including a total of 39 aging management program (AMP) items and 7 time limited aging analysis (TLAA) items. Evaluations or calculations to verify the integrity of nuclear components are required for plant specific AMP and TLAA items as well as the ones specified in the guidelines. In this paper, audit calculation programs developed for KINS staff use in reviewing applicant's submitted evaluation results are presented