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Sample records for relief moderately faulted

  1. Fault failure with moderate earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, M. J. S.; Linde, A. T.; Gladwin, M. T.; Borcherdt, R. D.

    1987-12-01

    High resolution strain and tilt recordings were made in the near-field of, and prior to, the May 1983 Coalinga earthquake ( ML = 6.7, Δ = 51 km), the August 4, 1985, Kettleman Hills earthquake ( ML = 5.5, Δ = 34 km), the April 1984 Morgan Hill earthquake ( ML = 6.1, Δ = 55 km), the November 1984 Round Valley earthquake ( ML = 5.8, Δ = 54 km), the January 14, 1978, Izu, Japan earthquake ( ML = 7.0, Δ = 28 km), and several other smaller magnitude earthquakes. These recordings were made with near-surface instruments (resolution 10 -8), with borehole dilatometers (resolution 10 -10) and a 3-component borehole strainmeter (resolution 10 -9). While observed coseismic offsets are generally in good agreement with expectations from elastic dislocation theory, and while post-seismic deformation continued, in some cases, with a moment comparable to that of the main shock, preseismic strain or tilt perturbations from hours to seconds (or less) before the main shock are not apparent above the present resolution. Precursory slip for these events, if any occurred, must have had a moment less than a few percent of that of the main event. To the extent that these records reflect general fault behavior, the strong constraint on the size and amount of slip triggering major rupture makes prediction of the onset times and final magnitudes of the rupture zones a difficult task unless the instruments are fortuitously installed near the rupture initiation point. These data are best explained by an inhomogeneous failure model for which various areas of the fault plane have either different stress-slip constitutive laws or spatially varying constitutive parameters. Other work on seismic waveform analysis and synthetic waveforms indicates that the rupturing process is inhomogeneous and controlled by points of higher strength. These models indicate that rupture initiation occurs at smaller regions of higher strength which, when broken, allow runaway catastrophic failure.

  2. The Role of Near-Fault Relief in Creating and Maintaining Strike-Slip Landscape Features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harbert, S.; Duvall, A. R.; Tucker, G. E.

    2016-12-01

    Geomorphic landforms, such as shutter ridges, offset river terraces, and deflected stream channels, are often used to assess the activity and slip rates of strike-slip faults. However, in some systems, such as parts of the Marlborough Fault System (South Island, NZ), an active strike-slip fault does not leave a strong landscape signature. Here we explore the factors that dampen or enhance the landscape signature of strike-slip faulting using the Channel-Hillslope Integrated Landscape Development model (CHILD). We focus on variables affecting the length of channel offsets, which enhance the signature of strike-slip motion, and the frequency of stream captures, which eliminate offsets and reduce this signature. We model a strike-slip fault that passes through a mountain ridge, offsetting streams that drain across this fault. We use this setup to test the response of channel offset length and capture frequency to fault characteristics, such as slip rate and ratio of lateral to vertical motion, and to landscape characteristics, such as relief contrasts controlled by erodibility. Our experiments show that relief downhill of the fault, whether generated by differential uplift across the fault or by an erodibility contrast, has the strongest effect on offset length and capture frequency. This relief creates shutter ridges, which block and divert streams while being advected along a fault. Shutter ridges and the streams they divert have long been recognized as markers of strike-slip motion. Our results show specifically that the height of shutter ridges is most responsible for the degree to which they create long channel offsets by preventing stream captures. We compare these results to landscape metrics in the Marlborough Fault System, where shutter ridges are common and often lithologically controlled. We compare shutter ridge length and height to channel offset length in order to assess the influence of relief on offset channel features in a real landscape. Based on our

  3. Alpine Fault, New Zealand, SRTM Shaded Relief and Colored Height

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    The Alpine fault runs parallel to, and just inland of, much of the west coast of New Zealand's South Island. This view was created from the near-global digital elevation model produced by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) and is almost 500 kilometers (just over 300 miles) wide. Northwest is toward the top. The fault is extremely distinct in the topographic pattern, nearly slicing this scene in half lengthwise. In a regional context, the Alpine fault is part of a system of faults that connects a west dipping subduction zone to the northeast with an east dipping subduction zone to the southwest, both of which occur along the juncture of the Indo-Australian and Pacific tectonic plates. Thus, the fault itself constitutes the major surface manifestation of the plate boundary here. Offsets of streams and ridges evident in the field, and in this view of SRTM data, indicate right-lateral fault motion. But convergence also occurs across the fault, and this causes the continued uplift of the Southern Alps, New Zealand's largest mountain range, along the southeast side of the fault. Two visualization methods were combined to produce this image: shading and color coding of topographic height. The shade image was derived by computing topographic slope in the northwest-southeast (image top to bottom) direction, so that northwest slopes appear bright and southeast slopes appear dark. Color coding is directly related to topographic height, with green at the lower elevations, rising through yellow and tan, to white at the highest elevations. Elevation data used in this image were acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on Feb. 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect 3-D measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data

  4. Magmatic controls on axial relief and faulting at mid-ocean ridges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhonglan; Buck, W. Roger

    2018-06-01

    Previous models do not simultaneously reproduce the observed range of axial relief and fault patterns at plate spreading centers. We suggest that this failure is due to the approximation that magmatic dikes open continuously rather than in discrete events. During short - lived events, dikes open not only in the strong axial lithosphere but also some distance into the underlying weaker asthenosphere. Axial valley relief affects the partitioning of magma between the lithosphere and asthenosphere during diking events. The deeper the valley, the more magma goes into lithospheric dikes in each event and so the greater the average opening rate of those dikes. The long-term rate of lithospheric dike opening controls faulting rate and axial depth. The feedback between axial valley depth D and lithospheric dike opening rate allows us to analytically relate steady-state values of D to lithospheric thickness HL and crustal thickness HC. A two-dimensional model numerical model with a fixed axial lithospheric structure illustrates the analytic model implications for axial faulting. The predictions of this new model are broadly consistent with global and segment-scale trends of axial depth and fault patterns with HL and HC.

  5. Fault Diagnosis for Hydraulic Servo System Using Compressed Random Subspace Based ReliefF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Ding

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Playing an important role in electromechanical systems, hydraulic servo system is crucial to mechanical systems like engineering machinery, metallurgical machinery, ships, and other equipment. Fault diagnosis based on monitoring and sensory signals plays an important role in avoiding catastrophic accidents and enormous economic losses. This study presents a fault diagnosis scheme for hydraulic servo system using compressed random subspace based ReliefF (CRSR method. From the point of view of feature selection, the scheme utilizes CRSR method to determine the most stable feature combination that contains the most adequate information simultaneously. Based on the feature selection structure of ReliefF, CRSR employs feature integration rules in the compressed domain. Meanwhile, CRSR substitutes information entropy and fuzzy membership for traditional distance measurement index. The proposed CRSR method is able to enhance the robustness of the feature information against interference while selecting the feature combination with balanced information expressing ability. To demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed CRSR method, a hydraulic servo system joint simulation model is constructed by HyPneu and Simulink, and three fault modes are injected to generate the validation data.

  6. San Andreas Fault, Southern California, Shaded relief, wrapped color as height

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    This topographic image vividly displays California's famous San Andreas Fault along the southwestern edge of the Mojave Desert, 75 kilometers (46 miles) north of downtown Los Angeles. The entire segment of the fault shown in this image last ruptured during the Fort Tejon earthquake of 1857. This was one of the greatest earthquakes ever recorded in the U.S., and it left an amazing surface rupture scar over 350 kilometers in length along the San Andreas. Were the Fort Tejon shock to happen today, the damage would run into billions of dollars, and the loss of life would likely be substantial, as the communities of Wrightwood, Palmdale, and Lancaster (among others) all lie upon or near the 1857 rupture area. The San Gabriel Mountains fill the lower left half of the image. At the extreme lower left is Pasadena. High resolution topographic data such as these are used by geologists to study the role of active tectonics in shaping the landscape, and to produce earthquake hazard maps.This image was generated using topographic data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission. Colors show the elevation as measured by SRTM. Each cycle of colors (from pink through blue back to pink) represents an equal amount of elevation difference (400 meters, or 1300 feet) similar to contour lines on a standard topographic map. This image contains about 2400 meters (8000 feet) of total relief. For the shading, a computer-generated artificial light source illuminates the elevation data to produce a pattern of light and shadows. Slopes facing the light appear bright, while those facing away are shaded. Shaded relief maps are commonly used in applications such as geologic mapping and land use planning.The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), launched on February 11,2000, uses the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. The mission is designed to collect three

  7. Amnioinfusion for relief of recurrent severe and moderate variable decelerations in labor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regi, Annie; Alexander, Nancy; Jose, Ruby; Lionel, Jessie; Varghese, Lilly; Peedicayil, Abraham

    2009-05-01

    To determine whether intrapartum amnioinfusion (AI) relieves recurrent moderate and severe variable decelerations in laboring women with clear or grade I meconium-stained amniotic fluid and reduces cesarean section rate for fetal distress. A randomized controlled trial was conducted in labor unit of Christian Medical College Hospital, Vellore, India, between October 2003 and September 2004. Women were randomized to receive AI (group I) and not to receive it (group II). A total of 150 women (75 in each group) were included in the study. There was significant relief of variable decelerations in group I and no difference in overall cesarean section rate but significant reduction in cesarean section rate for fetal distress in group I, and significant reduction in cesarean section rate for fetal distress in nulliparous women of group I. Neonatal acidemia was also significantly reduced in the nulliparous women receiving AI. The duration of maternal postpartum hospital stay was significantly reduced in group I. There were no adverse maternal or neonatal outcomes. AI was a beneficial therapeutic intervention in women patients showing fetal distress in first stage of labor, and it reduced cesarean section for fetal distress and neonatal acidemia.

  8. Cenozoic tectono-thermal history of the Tordrillo Mountains, Alaska: Paleocene-Eocene ridge subduction, decreasing relief, and late Neogene faulting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benowitz, Jeff A.; Haeussler, Peter J.; Layer, Paul W.; O'Sullivan, Paul B.; Wallace, Wes K.; Gillis, Robert J.

    2012-01-01

    Topographic development inboard of the continental margin is a predicted response to ridge subduction. New thermochronology results from the western Alaska Range document ridge subduction related orogenesis. K-feldspar thermochronology (KFAT) of bedrock samples from the Tordrillo Mountains in the western Alaska Range complement existing U-Pb, 40Ar/39Ar and AFT (apatite fission track) data to provide constraints on Paleocene pluton emplacement, and cooling as well as Late Eocene to Miocene vertical movements and exhumation along fault-bounded blocks. Based on the KFAT analysis we infer rapid exhumation-related cooling during the Eocene in the Tordrillo Mountains. Our KFAT cooling ages are coeval with deposition of clastic sediments in the Cook Inlet, Matanuska Valley and Tanana basins, which reflect high-energy depositional environments. The Tordrillo Mountains KFAT cooling ages are also the same as cooling ages in the Iliamna Lake region, the Kichatna Mountains of the western Alaska Range, and Mt. Logan in the Wrangell-St. Elias Mountains, thus rapid cooling at this time encompasses a broad region inboard of, and parallel to, the continental margin extending for several hundred kilometers. We infer these cooling events and deposition of clastic rocks are related to thermal effects that track the eastward passage of a slab window in Paleocene-Eocene time related to the subduction of the proposed Resurrection-Kula spreading ridge. In addition, we conclude that the reconstructed KFATmax negative age-elevation relationship is likely related to a long period of decreasing relief in the Tordrillo Mountains.

  9. Alternative medicine - pain relief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acupuncture - pain relief; Hypnosis - pain relief; Guided imagery - pain relief ... neck, shoulder, knee, or elbow) Osteoarthritis Rheumatoid arthritis Hypnosis is a focused state of concentration. With self- ...

  10. Faults Images

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Through the study of faults and their effects, much can be learned about the size and recurrence intervals of earthquakes. Faults also teach us about crustal...

  11. Fault finder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunch, Richard H.

    1986-01-01

    A fault finder for locating faults along a high voltage electrical transmission line. Real time monitoring of background noise and improved filtering of input signals is used to identify the occurrence of a fault. A fault is detected at both a master and remote unit spaced along the line. A master clock synchronizes operation of a similar clock at the remote unit. Both units include modulator and demodulator circuits for transmission of clock signals and data. All data is received at the master unit for processing to determine an accurate fault distance calculation.

  12. Faulting at Mormon Point, Death Valley, California: A low-angle normal fault cut by high-angle faults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keener, Charles; Serpa, Laura; Pavlis, Terry L.

    1993-04-01

    New geophysical and fault kinematic studies indicate that late Cenozoic basin development in the Mormon Point area of Death Valley, California, was accommodated by fault rotations. Three of six fault segments recognized at Mormon Point are now inactive and have been rotated to low dips during extension. The remaining three segments are now active and moderately to steeply dipping. From the geophysical data, one active segment appears to offset the low-angle faults in the subsurface of Death Valley.

  13. Surface faults in the gulf coastal plain between Victoria and Beaumont, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbeek, Earl R.

    1979-01-01

    Displacement of the land surface by faulting is widespread in the Houston-Galveston region, an area which has undergone moderate to severe land subsidence associated with fluid withdrawal (principally water, and to a lesser extent, oil and gas). A causative link between subsidence and fluid extraction has been convincingly reported in the published literature. However, the degree to which fluid withdrawal affects fault movement in the Texas Gulf Coast, and the mechanism(s) by which this occurs are as yet unclear. Faults that offset the ground surface are not confined to the large (>6000-km2) subsidence “bowl” centered on Houston, but rather are common and characteristic features of Gulf Coast geology. Current observations and conclusions concerning surface faults mapped in a 35,000-km2 area between Victoria and Beaumont, Texas (which area includes the Houston subsidence bowl) may be summarized as follows: (1) Hundreds of faults cutting the Pleistocene and Holocene sediments exposed in the coastal plain have been mapped. Many faults lie well outside the Houston-Galveston region; of these, more than 10% are active, as shown by such features as displaced, fractured, and patched road surfaces, structural failure of buildings astride faults, and deformed railroad tracks. (2) Complex patterns of surface faults are common above salt domes. Both radial patterns (for example, in High Island, Blue Ridge, Clam Lake, and Clinton domes) and crestal grabens (for example, in the South Houston and Friendswood-Webster domes) have been recognized. Elongate grabens connecting several known and suspected salt domes, such as the fault zone connecting Mykawa, Friendswood-Webster, and Clear Lake domes, suggest fault development above rising salt ridges. (3) Surface faults associated with salt domes tend to be short (10 km), occur singly or in simple grabens, have gently sinuous traces, and tend to lie roughly parallel to the ENE-NE “coastwise” trend common to regional growth

  14. Paper relief architecture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Latka, J.F.

    2014-01-01

    The article presents two contemporary projects of paper structures relief architecture designed and built by Shigeru Ban Architects and Voluntary Architect Network. Author of the article took part in design and construction process of one of the projects. The project of Yaan Nursery School, which

  15. Relief valve testing study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BROMM, R.D.

    2001-01-01

    Reclosing pressure-actuated valves, commonly called relief valves, are designed to relieve system pressure once it reaches the set point of the valve. They generally operate either proportional to the differential between their set pressure and the system pressure (gradual lift) or by rapidly opening fully when the set pressure is reached (pop action). A pop action valve allows the maximum fluid flow through the valve when the set pressure is reached. A gradual lift valve allows fluid flow in proportion to how much the system pressure has exceeded the set pressure of the valve (in the case of pressure relief) or has decreased below the set pressure (vacuum relief). These valves are used to protect systems from over and under pressurization. They are used on boilers, pressure vessels, piping systems and vacuum systems to prevent catastrophic failures of these systems, which can happen if they are under or over pressurized beyond the material tolerances. The construction of these valves ranges from extreme precision of less than a psi tolerance and a very short lifetime to extremely robust construction such as those used on historic railroad steam engines that are designed operate many times a day without changing their set pressure when the engines are operating. Relief valves can be designed to be immune to the effects of back pressure or to be vulnerable to it. Which type of valve to use depends upon the design requirements of the system

  16. Using 10Be erosion rates and fluvial channel morphology to constrain fault throw rates in the southwestern Sacramento River Valley, California, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cyr, A. J.

    2013-12-01

    The Sacramento - San Joaquin River Delta, California, USA, is a critical region for California water resources, agriculture, and threatened or endangered species. This landscape is affected by an extensive set of levees that enclose artificial islands created for agricultural use. In addition to their importance for sustaining agriculture, this levee system also supports extensive transport and power transmission infrastructure and urban/suburban development. These levees are susceptible to damage from even moderate ground shaking by either a large earthquake on one of the high-activity faults in the nearby San Francisco Bay region, or even a moderate earthquake on one of the low-activity faults in the Delta region itself. However, despite this danger the earthquake hazards in this region are poorly constrained due to our lack of understanding of faults in and near the Delta region. As part of an effort to better constrain the seismic hazard associated with known, but poorly constrained, faults in the region, a geomorphic analysis of the Dunnigan Hills, northwest of Woodland, CA, is being combined with cosmogenic 10Be catchment-averaged erosion rates. The Dunnigan Hills are a low-relief (maximum elevation 87 m) landscape generated by fault-bend folding above the west-vergent Sweitzer reverse fault that soles into a blind east-vergent reverse fault. These faults have been imaged by seismic reflection data, and local microseismicity indicates that this system is actively propagating to the east. However, the throw rates on the faults in this system remain unconstrained, despite the potential for significant shaking such as that experienced in the nearby April, 1892 earthquake sequence between Winters and Vacaville, Ca, ~25 km to the south, which has been estimated at magnitude 6.0 or greater. Geomorphic and cosmogenic 10Be analyses from 12 catchments draining the eastern flank of the Dunnigan Hills will be used to infer vertical rock uplift rates to better constrain

  17. Fault diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, Kathy

    1990-01-01

    The objective of the research in this area of fault management is to develop and implement a decision aiding concept for diagnosing faults, especially faults which are difficult for pilots to identify, and to develop methods for presenting the diagnosis information to the flight crew in a timely and comprehensible manner. The requirements for the diagnosis concept were identified by interviewing pilots, analyzing actual incident and accident cases, and examining psychology literature on how humans perform diagnosis. The diagnosis decision aiding concept developed based on those requirements takes abnormal sensor readings as input, as identified by a fault monitor. Based on these abnormal sensor readings, the diagnosis concept identifies the cause or source of the fault and all components affected by the fault. This concept was implemented for diagnosis of aircraft propulsion and hydraulic subsystems in a computer program called Draphys (Diagnostic Reasoning About Physical Systems). Draphys is unique in two important ways. First, it uses models of both functional and physical relationships in the subsystems. Using both models enables the diagnostic reasoning to identify the fault propagation as the faulted system continues to operate, and to diagnose physical damage. Draphys also reasons about behavior of the faulted system over time, to eliminate possibilities as more information becomes available, and to update the system status as more components are affected by the fault. The crew interface research is examining display issues associated with presenting diagnosis information to the flight crew. One study examined issues for presenting system status information. One lesson learned from that study was that pilots found fault situations to be more complex if they involved multiple subsystems. Another was pilots could identify the faulted systems more quickly if the system status was presented in pictorial or text format. Another study is currently under way to

  18. Music for pain relief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cepeda, M S; Carr, D B; Lau, J; Alvarez, H

    2006-04-19

    The efficacy of music for the treatment of pain has not been established. To evaluate the effect of music on acute, chronic or cancer pain intensity, pain relief, and analgesic requirements. We searched The Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, LILACS and the references in retrieved manuscripts. There was no language restriction. We included randomized controlled trials that evaluated the effect of music on any type of pain in children or adults. We excluded trials that reported results of concurrent non-pharmacological therapies. Data was extracted by two independent review authors. We calculated the mean difference in pain intensity levels, percentage of patients with at least 50% pain relief, and opioid requirements. We converted opioid consumption to morphine equivalents. To explore heterogeneity, studies that evaluated adults, children, acute, chronic, malignant, labor, procedural, or experimental pain were evaluated separately, as well as those studies in which patients chose the type of music. Fifty-one studies involving 1867 subjects exposed to music and 1796 controls met inclusion criteria. In the 31 studies evaluating mean pain intensity there was a considerable variation in the effect of music, indicating statistical heterogeneity ( I(2) = 85.3%). After grouping the studies according to the pain model, this heterogeneity remained, with the exception of the studies that evaluated acute postoperative pain. In this last group, patients exposed to music had pain intensity that was 0.5 units lower on a zero to ten scale than unexposed subjects (95% CI: -0.9 to -0.2). Studies that permitted patients to select the music did not reveal a benefit from music; the decline in pain intensity was 0.2 units, 95% CI (-0.7 to 0.2). Four studies reported the proportion of subjects with at least 50% pain relief; subjects exposed to music had a 70% higher likelihood of having pain relief than unexposed subjects (95% CI: 1.21 to 2.37). NNT = 5 (95% CI: 4 to 13). Three

  19. The moderator's moderator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williamson, G.K.

    1990-01-01

    A brief account is given of the development of graphite moderators for Magnox and advanced gas cooled reactors. The accident at Windscale in 1957 brought to worldwide attention the importance of irradiation damage in graphite and the consequent storage of Wigner energy. In spite of the Windscale setback, preparations for the civil programme of Magnox reactors went ahead apace. Some of the background to the disastrous Dungeness B tender is presented. In spite of all the difficulties and uncertainties, the graphite in UK reactors has performed well. In all cases, as far as the author is aware, the behaviour of the graphite moderators will not prevent design life being achieved. (author)

  20. Multiparameter Monitoring and Prevention of Fault-Slip Rock Burst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shan-chao Hu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Fault-slip rock burst is one type of the tectonic rock burst during mining. A detailed understanding of the precursory information of fault-slip rock burst and implementation of monitoring and early warning systems, as well as pressure relief measures, are essential to safety production in deep mines. This paper first establishes a mechanical model of stick-slip instability in fault-slip rock bursts and then reveals the failure characteristics of the instability. Then, change rule of mining-induced stress and microseismic signals before the occurrence of fault-slip rock burst are proposed, and multiparameter integrated early warning methods including mining-induced stress and energy are established. Finally, pressure relief methods targeting large-diameter boreholes and coal seam infusion are presented in accordance with the occurrence mechanism of fault-slip rock burst. The research results have been successfully applied in working faces 2310 of the Suncun Coal Mine, and the safety of the mine has been enhanced. These research results improve the theory of fault-slip rock burst mechanisms and provide the basis for prediction and forecasting, as well as pressure relief, of fault-slip rock bursts.

  1. Dynamic Behavior of Fault Slip Induced by Stress Waves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guang-an Zhu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Fault slip burst is a serious dynamic hazard in coal mining. A static and dynamic analysis for fault slip was performed to assess the risk of rock burst. A numerical model FLAC3D was established to understand the stress state and mechanical responses of fault rock system. The results obtained from the analysis show that the dynamic behavior of fault slip induced by stress waves is significantly affected by mining depth, as well as dynamic disturbance intensity and the distance between the stope and the fault. The isolation effect of the fault is also discussed based on the numerical results with the fault angle appearing to have the strongest influence on peak vertical stress and velocity induced by dynamic disturbance. By taking these risks into account, a stress-relief technology using break-tip blast was used for fault slip burst control. This technique is able to reduce the stress concentration and increase the attenuation of dynamic load by fracturing the structure of coal and rock. The adoption of this stress-relief method leads to an effective reduction of fault slip induced rock burst (FSIRB occurrence.

  2. Groundbreaking approach to disaster relief

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    The humanitarian response to Cyclone Nargis, which struck Myanmar on 2 and 3 May, heralds a fundamentally new approach to relief coordination. As a result, a unique survey showed what really happened to the survivors. Sarah Cumberland reports.

  3. Southern Alaska Coastal Relief Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building coastal-relief models (CRM) for select U.S. coastal regions. Bathymetric, topographic, and shoreline data...

  4. Decongestants: OTC Relief for Congestion

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... CorrectlyPain Relievers: Understanding Your OTC OptionsAntacids and Acid Reducers: OTC Relief for Heartburn and Acid RefluxOTC Cough ... Loss and Diet Plans Nutrients and Nutritional Info Sugar and Sugar Substitutes Exercise and Fitness Exercise Basics ...

  5. Allergy Relief for Your Child

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Products For Consumers Home For Consumers Consumer Updates Allergy Relief for Your Child Share Tweet Linkedin Pin ... at the FDA. Avoid Pollen, Mold and Other Allergy Triggers If your child has seasonal allergies, pay ...

  6. Flexible fault ride through strategy for wind farm clusters in power systems with high wind power penetration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Songyan; Chen, Ning; Yu, Daren; Foley, Aoife; Zhu, Lingzhi; Li, Kang; Yu, Jilai

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A flexible fault ride through strategy is proposed. • The strategy comprises of grid code requirements and power restrictions. • Slight faults and moderate faults are the main defending objectives. • Temporary overloading capability of the doubly fed induction generator is considered. - Abstract: This paper investigates a flexible fault ride through strategy for power systems in China with high wind power penetration. The strategy comprises of adaptive fault ride through requirements and maximum power restrictions of the wind farms with weak fault ride through capabilities. The slight faults and moderate faults with high probability are the main defending objective of the strategy. The adaptive fault ride through requirement in the strategy consists of two sub fault ride through requirements, a temporary slight voltage ride through requirement corresponding to a slight fault incident, with a moderate voltage ride through requirement corresponding to a moderate fault. The temporary overloading capability of the wind farm is reflected in both requirements to enhance the capability to defend slight faults and to avoid tripping when the crowbar is disconnected after moderate faults are cleared. For those wind farms that cannot meet the adaptive fault ride through requirement, restrictions are put on the maximum power output. Simulation results show that the flexible fault ride through strategy increases the fault ride through capability of the wind farm clusters and reduces the wind power curtailment during faults

  7. Optimal fault signal estimation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoorvogel, Antonie Arij; Niemann, H.H.; Saberi, A.; Sannuti, P.

    2002-01-01

    We consider here both fault identification and fault signal estimation. Regarding fault identification, we seek either exact or almost fault identification. On the other hand, regarding fault signal estimation, we seek either $H_2$ optimal, $H_2$ suboptimal or Hinfinity suboptimal estimation. By

  8. Fault-Related Controls on Upward Hydrothermal Flow: An Integrated Geological Study of the Têt Fault System, Eastern Pyrénées (France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Audrey Taillefer

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The way faults control upward fluid flow in nonmagmatic hydrothermal systems in extensional context is still unclear. In the Eastern Pyrénées, an alignment of twenty-nine hot springs (29°C to 73°C, along the normal Têt fault, offers the opportunity to study this process. Using an integrated multiscale geological approach including mapping, remote sensing, and macro- and microscopic analyses of fault zones, we show that emergence is always located in crystalline rocks at gneiss-metasediments contacts, mostly in the Têt fault footwall. The hot springs distribution is related to high topographic reliefs, which are associated with fault throw and segmentation. In more detail, emergence localizes either (1 in brittle fault damage zones at the intersection between the Têt fault and subsidiary faults or (2 in ductile faults where dissolution cavities are observed along foliations, allowing juxtaposition of metasediments. Using these observations and 2D simple numerical simulation, we propose a hydrogeological model of upward hydrothermal flow. Meteoric fluids, infiltrated at high elevation in the fault footwall relief, get warmer at depth because of the geothermal gradient. Topography-related hydraulic gradient and buoyancy forces cause hot fluid rise along permeability anisotropies associated with lithological juxtapositions, fracture, and fault zone compositions.

  9. Multiparameter Monitoring and Prevention of Fault-Slip Rock Burst

    OpenAIRE

    Hu, Shan-chao; Tan, Yun-liang; Ning, Jian-guo; Guo, Wei-Yao; Liu, Xue-sheng

    2017-01-01

    Fault-slip rock burst is one type of the tectonic rock burst during mining. A detailed understanding of the precursory information of fault-slip rock burst and implementation of monitoring and early warning systems, as well as pressure relief measures, are essential to safety production in deep mines. This paper first establishes a mechanical model of stick-slip instability in fault-slip rock bursts and then reveals the failure characteristics of the instability. Then, change rule of mining-i...

  10. Strong paleoearthquakes along the Talas-Fergana Fault, Kyrgyzstan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M. Korzhenkov

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The Talas-Fergana Fault, the largest strike-slip structure in Centred. Asia, forms an obliquely oriented boundary between the northeastern and southwestern parts of the Tianshan mountain belt. The fault underwent active right-lateral strike-slip during the Paleozoic, with right-lateral movements being rejuvenated in the Late Cenozoic. Tectonic movements along the intracontinental strike-slip faults contribute to absorb part of the regional crustal shortening linked to the India-Eurasia collision; knowledge of strike-slip motions along the Talas-Fergana Fault are necessary for a complete assessment of the active deformation of the Tianshan orogen. To improve our understanding of the intracontinental deformation of the Tianshan mountain belt and the occurrence of strong earthquakes along the whole length of the Talas-Fergana Fault, we identify features of relief arising during strong paleoearthquakes along the Talas-Fergana Fault, fault segmentation, the length of seismogenic ruptures, and the energy and age of ancient catastrophes. We show that during neotectonic time the fault developed as a dextral strike-slip fault, with possible dextral displacements spreading to secondary fault planes north of the main fault trace. We determine rates of Holocene and Late Pleistocene dextral movements, and our radiocarbon dating indicates tens of strong earthquakes occurring along the fault zone during arid interval of 15800 years. The reoccurrence of strong earthquakes along the Talas-Fergana Fault zone during the second half of the Holocene is about 300 years. The next strong earthquake along the fault will most probably occur along its southeastern chain during the next several decades. Seismotectonic deformation parameters indicate that M > 7 earthquakes with oscillation intensity I > IX have occurred.

  11. Stress relief of transition zones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woodward, J.; van Rooyen, D.

    1984-01-01

    This paper considers the problem of intergranular stress corrosion cracking, initiated on the primary side, in the expansion transition region of roller expanded Alloy 600 tubing. In general it is believed that residual stresses, arising from the expansion process, are the cause of the problem. The work reported here concentrated on the identification of an optimal, in-situ stress relief treatment

  12. Petroleum industry assists hurricane relief

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that the petroleum industry is aiding victims of last month's Hurricane Andrew with cash, clothing, food, water, and other supplies. Cash contributions announced as of last week totaled more than $2.7 million for distribution in South Florida and South Louisiana. Petroleum industry employees were collecting relief items such as bottled water and diapers for distribution in those areas

  13. Fraktalnist deformational relief polycrystalline aluminum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    М.В. Карускевич

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available  The possibility of the fractal geometry method application for the analisys of surface deformation structures under cyclic loading is presented.It is shown, that deformation relief of the alclad aluminium alloyes meets the criteria of the fractality. For the fractal demention estimation the method of  “box-counting”can be applied.

  14. Pictorial relief for equiluminant images

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Doorn, A.J.; De Ridder, H.; Koenderink, J.J.

    2005-01-01

    Pictorial relief depends strongly on “cues” in the image. For isoluminant renderings some cues are missing, namely all information that is related to luminance contrast (e.g., shading, atmospheric perspective). It has been suggested that spatial discrimination and especially pictorial space suffer

  15. How absent negativity relates to affect and motivation: an integrative relief model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deutsch, Roland; Smith, Kevin J M; Kordts-Freudinger, Robert; Reichardt, Regina

    2015-01-01

    The present paper concerns the motivational underpinnings and behavioral correlates of the prevention or stopping of negative stimulation - a situation referred to as relief. Relief is of great theoretical and applied interest. Theoretically, it is tied to theories linking affect, emotion, and motivational systems. Importantly, these theories make different predictions regarding the association between relief and motivational systems. Moreover, relief is a prototypical antecedent of counterfactual emotions, which involve specific cognitive processes compared to factual or mere anticipatory emotions. Practically, relief may be an important motivator of addictive and phobic behaviors, self destructive behaviors, and social influence. In the present paper, we will first provide a review of conflicting conceptualizations of relief. We will then present an integrative relief model (IRMO) that aims at resolving existing theoretical conflicts. We then review evidence relevant to distinctive predictions regarding the moderating role of various procedural features of relief situations. We conclude that our integrated model results in a better understanding of existing evidence on the affective and motivational underpinnings of relief, but that further evidence is needed to come to a more comprehensive evaluation of the viability of IRMO.

  16. How Absent Negativity Relates to Affect and Motivation: An Integrative Relief Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roland eDeutsch

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The present paper concerns the motivational underpinnings and behavioral correlates of the prevention or stopping of negative stimulation – a situation referred to as relief. Relief is of great theoretical and applied interest. Theoretically, it is tied to theories linking affect, emotion and motivational systems (Carver & Scheier, 1990; Gray & McNaughton, 2000; Higgins, 1997; Lang, Bradley, & Cuthbert, 1990. Importantly, these theories make different predictions regarding the association between relief and motivational systems. Moreover, relief is a prototypical antecedent of counterfactual emotions, which involve specific cognitive processes compared to factual or mere anticipatory emotions. Practically, relief may be an important motivator of addictive and phobic behaviors (Mowrer, 1951; Ostafin & Brooks, 2011, self destructive behaviors (Favazza, 1998; Franklin, Lee, Hanna, & Prinstein, 2013, and social influence (Dolinski & Nawrat, 1998. In the present paper, we will first provide a review of conflicting conceptualizations of relief. We will then present an integrative relief model (IRMO that aims at resolving existing theoretical conflicts. We then review evidence relevant to distinctive predictions regarding the moderating role of various procedural features of relief situations. We conclude that our integrated model results in a better understanding of existing evidence on the affective and motivational underpinnings of relief, but that further evidence is needed to come to a more comprehensive evaluation of the viability of IRMO.

  17. How absent negativity relates to affect and motivation: an integrative relief model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deutsch, Roland; Smith, Kevin J. M.; Kordts-Freudinger, Robert; Reichardt, Regina

    2015-01-01

    The present paper concerns the motivational underpinnings and behavioral correlates of the prevention or stopping of negative stimulation – a situation referred to as relief. Relief is of great theoretical and applied interest. Theoretically, it is tied to theories linking affect, emotion, and motivational systems. Importantly, these theories make different predictions regarding the association between relief and motivational systems. Moreover, relief is a prototypical antecedent of counterfactual emotions, which involve specific cognitive processes compared to factual or mere anticipatory emotions. Practically, relief may be an important motivator of addictive and phobic behaviors, self destructive behaviors, and social influence. In the present paper, we will first provide a review of conflicting conceptualizations of relief. We will then present an integrative relief model (IRMO) that aims at resolving existing theoretical conflicts. We then review evidence relevant to distinctive predictions regarding the moderating role of various procedural features of relief situations. We conclude that our integrated model results in a better understanding of existing evidence on the affective and motivational underpinnings of relief, but that further evidence is needed to come to a more comprehensive evaluation of the viability of IRMO. PMID:25806008

  18. Information Based Fault Diagnosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niemann, Hans Henrik; Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad

    2008-01-01

    Fault detection and isolation, (FDI) of parametric faults in dynamic systems will be considered in this paper. An active fault diagnosis (AFD) approach is applied. The fault diagnosis will be investigated with respect to different information levels from the external inputs to the systems. These ...

  19. 28 CFR 36.504 - Relief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... COMMERCIAL FACILITIES Enforcement § 36.504 Relief. (a) Authority of court. In a civil action under § 36.503, the court— (1) May grant any equitable relief that such court considers to be appropriate, including... disabilities; (2) May award other relief as the court considers to be appropriate, including monetary damages...

  20. Effectiveness of Property Tax Relief in Oregon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, William T.; Hwang, C. S.

    This study examines the effects of the 1979 Oregon Property Tax Relief Plan on 1980-81 school district budget decisions by comparing the available tax relief, the school expenditures, and the tax levies in the state for the years 1975-81. The history of direct and indirect property tax relief in Oregon is sketched for the years prior to 1979; the…

  1. Service Learning Through Disaster Relief

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donna J. Duerst

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The Rock County 4-H Disaster Relief Committee raised $1,550 to aid tsunami victims in Sri Lanka and then turned its attention to Hurricane Katrina relief efforts. Thirty-one 4-H youth participated in a service learning trip to the South with the objectives of helping hurricane victims, learning about new cultures and achieving personal growth during three days of service projects in Louisiana and Mississippi. Their written reflections and other evaluative measures revealed they learned about southern culture, gained a greater appreciation for their lives, gained self confidence and developed a desire to help others more often. The trip was a valuable developmental experience for the youth, and information from the trip could be utilized to create similar experiences based on service learning. This article provides an overview of the trip and describes the evaluation methods used to measure learning and assess personal growth.

  2. Summary: beyond fault trees to fault graphs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alesso, H.P.; Prassinos, P.; Smith, C.F.

    1984-09-01

    Fault Graphs are the natural evolutionary step over a traditional fault-tree model. A Fault Graph is a failure-oriented directed graph with logic connectives that allows cycles. We intentionally construct the Fault Graph to trace the piping and instrumentation drawing (P and ID) of the system, but with logical AND and OR conditions added. Then we evaluate the Fault Graph with computer codes based on graph-theoretic methods. Fault Graph computer codes are based on graph concepts, such as path set (a set of nodes traveled on a path from one node to another) and reachability (the complete set of all possible paths between any two nodes). These codes are used to find the cut-sets (any minimal set of component failures that will fail the system) and to evaluate the system reliability

  3. Fault tree handbook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haasl, D.F.; Roberts, N.H.; Vesely, W.E.; Goldberg, F.F.

    1981-01-01

    This handbook describes a methodology for reliability analysis of complex systems such as those which comprise the engineered safety features of nuclear power generating stations. After an initial overview of the available system analysis approaches, the handbook focuses on a description of the deductive method known as fault tree analysis. The following aspects of fault tree analysis are covered: basic concepts for fault tree analysis; basic elements of a fault tree; fault tree construction; probability, statistics, and Boolean algebra for the fault tree analyst; qualitative and quantitative fault tree evaluation techniques; and computer codes for fault tree evaluation. Also discussed are several example problems illustrating the basic concepts of fault tree construction and evaluation

  4. Paleoseismic Investigations along the Bubu Fault, Dodoma-Tanzania

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2002-11-04

    The central part of Tanzania, Dodoma, was hit by an Mw= 5.5 earthquake in November 4, 2002. It was part of a swarm of moderate earthquakes that affected the area. This paper, reports the first attempt to investigate significant past earthquakes along one of the known seismically active rift faults (Bubu fault, Gonga ...

  5. Fault Tolerant Feedback Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stoustrup, Jakob; Niemann, H.

    2001-01-01

    An architecture for fault tolerant feedback controllers based on the Youla parameterization is suggested. It is shown that the Youla parameterization will give a residual vector directly in connection with the fault diagnosis part of the fault tolerant feedback controller. It turns out...... that there is a separation be-tween the feedback controller and the fault tolerant part. The closed loop feedback properties are handled by the nominal feedback controller and the fault tolerant part is handled by the design of the Youla parameter. The design of the fault tolerant part will not affect the design...... of the nominal feedback con-troller....

  6. Investigation of the Meers fault in southwestern Oklahoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luza, K.V.; Madole, R.F.; Crone, A.J.

    1987-08-01

    The Meers fault is part of a major system of NW-trending faults that form the boundary between the Wichita Mountains and the Anadarko basin in southwestern Oklahoma. A portion of the Meers fault is exposed at the surface in northern Comanche County and strikes approximately N. 60 0 W. where it offsets Permian conglomerate and shale for at least 26 km. The scarp on the fault is consistently down to the south, with a maximum relief of 5 m near the center of the fault trace. Quaternary stratigraphic relationships and 10 14 C age dates constrain the age of the last movement of the Meers fault. The last movement postdates the Browns Creek Alluvium, late Pleistocene to early Holocene, and predates the East Cache Alluvium, 100 to 800 yr B.P. Fan alluvium, produced by the last fault movement, buried a soil that dates between 1400 and 1100 yr B.P. Two trenches excavated across the scarp near Canyon Creek document the near-surface deformation and provide some general information on recurrence. Trench 1 was excavated in the lower Holocene part of the Browns Creek Alluvium, and trench 2 was excavated in unnamed gravels thought to be upper Pleistocene. Flexing and warping was the dominant mode of deformation that produced the scarp. The stratigraphy in both trenches indicates one surface-faulting event, which implies a lengthy recurrence interval for surface faulting on this part of the fault. Organic-rich material from two samples that postdate the last fault movement yielded 14 C ages between 1600 and 1300 yr B.P. These dates are in excellent agreement with the dates obtained from soils buried by the fault-related fan alluvium

  7. The importance of context: When relative relief renders pain pleasant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leknes, Siri; Berna, Chantal; Lee, Michael C.; Snyder, Gregory D.; Biele, Guido; Tracey, Irene

    2013-01-01

    Context can influence the experience of any event. For instance, the thought that “it could be worse” can improve feelings towards a present misfortune. In this study we measured hedonic feelings, skin conductance, and brain activation patterns in 16 healthy volunteers who experienced moderate pain in two different contexts. In the “relative relief context,” moderate pain represented the best outcome, since the alternative outcome was intense pain. However, in the control context, moderate pain represented the worst outcome and elicited negative hedonic feelings. The context manipulation resulted in a “hedonic flip,” such that moderate pain elicited positive hedonics in the relative relief context. Somewhat surprisingly, moderate pain was even rated as pleasant in this context, despite being reported as painful in the control context. This “hedonic flip” was corroborated by physiological and functional neuroimaging data. When moderate pain was perceived as pleasant, skin conductance and activity in insula and dorsal anterior cingulate were significantly attenuated relative to the control moderate stimulus. “Pleasant pain” also increased activity in reward and valuation circuitry, including the medial orbitofrontal and ventromedial prefrontal cortices. Furthermore, the change in outcome hedonics correlated with activity in the periacqueductal grey (PAG) of the descending pain modulatory system (DPMS). The context manipulation also significantly increased functional connectivity between reward circuitry and the PAG, consistent with a functional change of the DPMS due to the altered motivational state. The findings of this study point to a role for brainstem and reward circuitry in a context-induced “hedonic flip” of pain. PMID:23352758

  8. Design of fault simulator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gabbar, Hossam A. [Faculty of Energy Systems and Nuclear Science, University of Ontario Institute of Technology (UOIT), Ontario, L1H 7K4 (Canada)], E-mail: hossam.gabbar@uoit.ca; Sayed, Hanaa E.; Osunleke, Ajiboye S. [Okayama University, Graduate School of Natural Science and Technology, Division of Industrial Innovation Sciences Department of Intelligent Systems Engineering, Okayama 700-8530 (Japan); Masanobu, Hara [AspenTech Japan Co., Ltd., Kojimachi Crystal City 10F, Kojimachi, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 102-0083 (Japan)

    2009-08-15

    Fault simulator is proposed to understand and evaluate all possible fault propagation scenarios, which is an essential part of safety design and operation design and support of chemical/production processes. Process models are constructed and integrated with fault models, which are formulated in qualitative manner using fault semantic networks (FSN). Trend analysis techniques are used to map real time and simulation quantitative data into qualitative fault models for better decision support and tuning of FSN. The design of the proposed fault simulator is described and applied on experimental plant (G-Plant) to diagnose several fault scenarios. The proposed fault simulator will enable industrial plants to specify and validate safety requirements as part of safety system design as well as to support recovery and shutdown operation and disaster management.

  9. Iowa Bedrock Faults

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — This fault coverage locates and identifies all currently known/interpreted fault zones in Iowa, that demonstrate offset of geologic units in exposure or subsurface...

  10. Layered Fault Management Architecture

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sztipanovits, Janos

    2004-01-01

    ... UAVs or Organic Air Vehicles. The approach of this effort was to analyze fault management requirements of formation flight for fleets of UAVs, and develop a layered fault management architecture which demonstrates significant...

  11. Paleoseismology of the Chelungpu Fault During the Past 1900 Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, W.; Lee, K.; Lee, L.; Yang, C. B.; Chen, Y.; Chang, H.

    2003-12-01

    The 1999 earthquake brought about 80-km-long surface ruptures along the Shihkang, Chelungpu, and Tajienshan Faults, central Taiwan. Several trenches have been excavated across the Chelungpu Fault of the middle segment. The surface ruptures display clear scarps ranging from 0.2 m to 4 m high, showing a complex geomorphic pattern due to coseismic faulting and folding. In the study, measurement of the vertical offset or structural relief was taken with reference to the hanging wall beyond the trishear deformation zone. Therefore we suggest that, for the measurement of offset, we should leave out the trishear zone, and that structural relief on the hanging wall should be represented as a real vertical offset. The net slip is then calculated from the structural relief and dip angle of the thrust on a vertical plane along the slip direction. By the excavation of the pineapple field across the Chelungpu Fault, we are able to first provide evidence of at least four earthquake events for the past about 1900 years, including the 1999 earthquake. Furthermore, based on the radiocarbon dates and historical record, the timing of the penultimate event is bracketed to be between 430 and 150 years ago, and the average recurrence interval smaller than 700 years. These data indicate that the average slip rate is about 8.7 mm/yr for the past 1900 years.

  12. Fault detection and isolation in systems with parametric faults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stoustrup, Jakob; Niemann, Hans Henrik

    1999-01-01

    The problem of fault detection and isolation of parametric faults is considered in this paper. A fault detection problem based on parametric faults are associated with internal parameter variations in the dynamical system. A fault detection and isolation method for parametric faults is formulated...

  13. Fault tolerant computing systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Randell, B.

    1981-01-01

    Fault tolerance involves the provision of strategies for error detection damage assessment, fault treatment and error recovery. A survey is given of the different sorts of strategies used in highly reliable computing systems, together with an outline of recent research on the problems of providing fault tolerance in parallel and distributed computing systems. (orig.)

  14. Fault zone hydrogeology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bense, V. F.; Gleeson, T.; Loveless, S. E.; Bour, O.; Scibek, J.

    2013-12-01

    Deformation along faults in the shallow crust (research effort of structural geologists and hydrogeologists. However, we find that these disciplines often use different methods with little interaction between them. In this review, we document the current multi-disciplinary understanding of fault zone hydrogeology. We discuss surface- and subsurface observations from diverse rock types from unlithified and lithified clastic sediments through to carbonate, crystalline, and volcanic rocks. For each rock type, we evaluate geological deformation mechanisms, hydrogeologic observations and conceptual models of fault zone hydrogeology. Outcrop observations indicate that fault zones commonly have a permeability structure suggesting they should act as complex conduit-barrier systems in which along-fault flow is encouraged and across-fault flow is impeded. Hydrogeological observations of fault zones reported in the literature show a broad qualitative agreement with outcrop-based conceptual models of fault zone hydrogeology. Nevertheless, the specific impact of a particular fault permeability structure on fault zone hydrogeology can only be assessed when the hydrogeological context of the fault zone is considered and not from outcrop observations alone. To gain a more integrated, comprehensive understanding of fault zone hydrogeology, we foresee numerous synergistic opportunities and challenges for the discipline of structural geology and hydrogeology to co-evolve and address remaining challenges by co-locating study areas, sharing approaches and fusing data, developing conceptual models from hydrogeologic data, numerical modeling, and training interdisciplinary scientists.

  15. Performance based fault diagnosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niemann, Hans Henrik

    2002-01-01

    Different aspects of fault detection and fault isolation in closed-loop systems are considered. It is shown that using the standard setup known from feedback control, it is possible to formulate fault diagnosis problems based on a performance index in this general standard setup. It is also shown...

  16. Remembering reliefs that have disappeared

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnaud, N.

    1998-01-01

    Natural radioactivity can give information about age but also about thermal evolution of rocks. The accumulation of decay products in a material can be disturbed by temperature rising. Over a certain temperature called opening temperature the decay products are migrating due to atomic diffusion. The decay reactions used usually are K 40 /Ar 40 , Sm 143 /Nd 144 , C 14 /N 14 and the successive disintegrations of uranium leading to lead. A method known as thermo-chronology studies these isotopic ratios and links them to temperatures. The application of this method to the understanding of the tectonic slab collision between India and Asia is described and some conclusions about the relief are drawn. (A.C.)

  17. Exercise Based- Pain Relief Program

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zadeh, Mahdi Hossein

    in the current study was to use exercise induced- muscle damage followed by ECC as an acute pain model and observe its effects on the sensitivity of the nociceptive system and blood supply in healthy subjects. Then, the effect of a repeated bout of the same exercise as a healthy pain relief strategy......Exercise-based pain management programs are suggested for relieving from musculoskeletal pain; however the pain experienced after unaccustomed, especially eccentric exercise (ECC) alters people´s ability to participate in therapeutic exercises. Subsequent muscle pain after ECC has been shown...... to cause localized pressure pain and hyperalgesia. A prior bout of ECC has been repeatedly reported to produce a protective adaptation known as repeated bout effect (RBE). One of the main scopes of the current project was to investigate the adaptations by which the RBE can be resulted from. The approach...

  18. Moderate Bravery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Majgaard, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The ability to act in a purposeful and effective way amid institutional tensions and paradoxes is, right now, a highly prized quality in public leadership. The purpose of this chapter is to qualify moderately brave acts as a learning format that combines the analytical and performative...

  19. Fault tolerant control for uncertain systems with parametric faults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niemann, Hans Henrik; Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad

    2006-01-01

    A fault tolerant control (FTC) architecture based on active fault diagnosis (AFD) and the YJBK (Youla, Jarb, Bongiorno and Kucera)parameterization is applied in this paper. Based on the FTC architecture, fault tolerant control of uncertain systems with slowly varying parametric faults...... is investigated. Conditions are given for closed-loop stability in case of false alarms or missing fault detection/isolation....

  20. Impact of Tax Relief on Public Finance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bikas Egidijus

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Tax reliefs are optional, but a very important element of the taxation system. This element is used for different purposes by a country’s government institutions. Tax reliefs are a form of tax expenditure that helps to reduce budget revenues. Tax reliefs influence individual and corporate financial behaviour and can have positive or negative effects on the economic and social factors. In the last few years, expansion of tax relief has attracted worldwide attention because of the fact that, after the global financial crisis, many countries are still suffering from fiscal deficits, and expansion of tax relief has not contributed to solving this problem. Tax reliefs are presupposed to be a fiscal policy tool of significance in various subsystems of public finances. The main aim of this article is to examine the impact of personal income tax reliefs on Lithuanian public finances. To achieve this aim, statistical information was systemized; Monte Carlo method was used to group data by horizontal rows and logical links analysed, which helped to evaluate the influence of tax reliefs on public finances. In the simulations, the Monte Carlo method helped to simulate random samples, which were then examined by adapting the conclusions of the theory of probability and mathematical statistics methods.

  1. Analysis of inservice inspection relief requests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aldrich, D.A.; Cook, J.F.

    1989-08-01

    Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) regulations require inspection (ISI) of boiling or pressurized water-cooled nuclear power plants be performed in accordance with a referenced edition and addenda of Section XI, ''Rules for Inservice Inspection of Nuclear Power Plant components,'' of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code. The regulations permit licensees to request relief from the NRC from specific ASME Code requirements that are determined to be impractical for the specific licensee. The NRC evaluates these requests and may grant such relief, but the NRC may also impose alternative or augmented inspections to assure structural reliability. The purpose,of this task was to evaluate the basis for ISI nondestructive examination (NDE) relief requests and to evaluate the effect of proposed ASME Code changes that would reduce the need for such requests or provide for more complete information in relief requests. This report contains the results of an analysis of an ISI relief request data base that has been expanded to include 1195 ISI relief requests versus the 296 relief requests covered in the first report in April 1987, EGG-SD-7430. Also relief requests were added to the data base which came from both first and second 10-year inspection intervals for several facilities. This provided the means to analyze the effect of recently approved ASME Code cases and updated Code requirements, some of which have been published as a result of earlier work on this task

  2. Evaluating acute pain intensity relief: challenges when using an 11-point numerical rating scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauny, Jean-Marc; Paquet, Jean; Lavigne, Gilles; Marquis, Martin; Daoust, Raoul

    2016-02-01

    Percentage of pain intensity difference (PercentPID) is a recognized way of evaluating pain relief with an 11-point numerical rating scale (NRS) but is not without flaws. A new metric, the slope of relative pain intensity difference (SlopePID), which consists in dividing PercentPID by the time between 2 pain measurements, is proposed. This study aims to validate SlopePID with 3 measures of subjective pain relief: a 5-category relief scale (not, a little, moderate, very, complete), a 2-category relief question ("I'm relieved," "I'm not relieved"), and a single-item question, "Wanting other medication to treat pain?" (Yes/No). This prospective cohort study included 361 patients in the emergency department who had an initial acute pain NRS > 3 and a pain intensity assessment within 90 minutes after analgesic administration. Mean age was 50.2 years (SD = 19.3) and 59% were women. Area under the curves of receiver operating characteristic curves analyses revealed similar discriminative power for PercentPID (0.83; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.79-0.88) and SlopePID (0.82; 95% CI, 0.77-0.86). Considering the "very" category from the 5-category relief scale as a substantial relief, the average cutoff for substantial relief was a decrease of 64% (95% CI, 59-69) for PercentPID and of 49% per hour (95% CI, 44-54) for SlopePID. However, when a cutoff criterion of 50% was used as a measure of pain relief for an individual patient, PercentPID underestimated pain-relieved patients by 12.1% (P pain intensity at baseline was an odd number compared with an even number (32.9% vs 45.0%, respectively). SlopePID should be used instead of PercentPID as a metric to evaluate acute pain relief on a 0 to 10 NRS.

  3. Fault strength in Marmara region inferred from the geometry of the principle stress axes and fault orientations: A case study for the Prince's Islands fault segment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinar, Ali; Coskun, Zeynep; Mert, Aydin; Kalafat, Dogan

    2015-04-01

    The general consensus based on historical earthquake data point out that the last major moment release on the Prince's islands fault was in 1766 which in turn signals an increased seismic risk for Istanbul Metropolitan area considering the fact that most of the 20 mm/yr GPS derived slip rate for the region is accommodated mostly by that fault segment. The orientation of the Prince's islands fault segment overlaps with the NW-SE direction of the maximum principle stress axis derived from the focal mechanism solutions of the large and moderate sized earthquakes occurred in the Marmara region. As such, the NW-SE trending fault segment translates the motion between the two E-W trending branches of the North Anatolian fault zone; one extending from the Gulf of Izmit towards Çınarcık basin and the other extending between offshore Bakırköy and Silivri. The basic relation between the orientation of the maximum and minimum principal stress axes, the shear and normal stresses, and the orientation of a fault provides clue on the strength of a fault, i.e., its frictional coefficient. Here, the angle between the fault normal and maximum compressive stress axis is a key parameter where fault normal and fault parallel maximum compressive stress might be a necessary and sufficient condition for a creeping event. That relation also implies that when the trend of the sigma-1 axis is close to the strike of the fault the shear stress acting on the fault plane approaches zero. On the other hand, the ratio between the shear and normal stresses acting on a fault plane is proportional to the coefficient of frictional coefficient of the fault. Accordingly, the geometry between the Prince's islands fault segment and a maximum principal stress axis matches a weak fault model. In the frame of the presentation we analyze seismological data acquired in Marmara region and interpret the results in conjuction with the above mentioned weak fault model.

  4. Fault kinematics and tectonic stress in the seismically active Manyara Dodoma Rift segment in Central Tanzania Implications for the East African Rift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macheyeki, Athanas S.; Delvaux, Damien; De Batist, Marc; Mruma, Abdulkarim

    2008-07-01

    The Eastern Branch of the East African Rift System is well known in Ethiopia (Main Ethiopian Rift) and Kenya (Kenya or Gregory Rift) and is usually considered to fade away southwards in the North Tanzanian Divergence, where it splits into the Eyasi, Manyara and Pangani segments. Further towards the south, rift structures are more weakly expressed and this area has not attracted much attention since the mapping and exploratory works of the 1950s. In November 4, 2002, an earthquake of magnitude Mb = 5.5 struck Dodoma, the capital city of Tanzania. Analysis of modern digital relief, seismological and geological data reveals that ongoing tectonic deformation is presently affecting a broad N-S trending belt, extending southward from the North Tanzanian Divergence to the region of Dodoma, forming the proposed "Manyara-Dodoma Rift segment". North of Arusha-Ngorongoro line, the rift is confined to a narrow belt (Natron graben in Tanzania) and south of it, it broadens into a wide deformation zone which includes both the Eyasi and Manyara grabens. The two-stage rifting model proposed for Kenya and North Tanzania also applies to the Manyara-Dodoma Rift segment. In a first stage, large, well-expressed topographic and volcanogenic structures were initiated in the Natron, Eyasi and Manyara grabens during the Late Miocene to Pliocene. From the Middle Pleistocene onwards, deformations related to the second rifting stage propagated southwards to the Dodoma region. These young structures have still limited morphological expressions compared to the structures formed during the first stage. However, they appear to be tectonically active as shown by the high concentration of moderate earthquakes into earthquake swarms, the distribution of He-bearing thermal springs, the morphological freshness of the fault scarps, and the presence of open surface fractures. Fault kinematic and paleostress analysis of geological fault data in basement rocks along the active fault lines show that recent

  5. Pictorial relief for equiluminant images

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Doorn, Andrea J.; de Ridder, Huib; Koenderink, Jan J.

    2005-03-01

    Pictorial relief depends strongly on "cues" in the image. For isoluminant renderings some cues are missing, namely all information that is related to luminance contrast (e.g., shading, atmospheric perspective). It has been suggested that spatial discrimination and especially pictorial space suffer badly in isoluminant conditions. We have investigated the issue through quantitative measurement of pictorial depth-structure under normal and isoluminant conditions. As stimuli we used monochrome halftone photographs, either as such, or "transposed" to Red/Green or Green/Red hue modulations. We used two distinct methods, one to probe pictorial pose (by way of correspondences settings between pictures of an object in different poses), the other to probe pictorial depth (by way of attitude settings of a gauge figure to a perceptual "fit"). In both experiments the depth reconstructions for Red/Green, Green/Red and monochrome conditions were very similar. Moreover, observers performed equally well in Red/Green, Green/Red and monochrome conditions. Thus, the general conclusion is that observers did not do markedly worse with the isoluminant Red/Green and Green/Red transposed images. Whereas the transposed images certainly looked weird, they were easily interpreted. Much of the structure of pictorial space was apparently preserved. Thus the notion that spatial representations are not sustained under isoluminant conditions should be applied with caution.

  6. Performance of balanced bellows safety relief valves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lai, Y.S.

    1992-01-01

    By the nature of its design, the set point and lift of a conventional spring loaded safety relief valve are sensitive to back pressure. One way to reduce the adverse effects of the back pressure on the safety relief valve function is to install a balanced bellows in a safety relief valve. The metallic bellows has a rather wide range of manufacturing tolerance which makes the design of the bellows safety relief valve very complicated. The state-of-the-art balanced bellows safety relief valve can only substantially minimize, but cannot totally eliminate the back pressure effects on its set point and relieving capacity. Set point change is a linear function of the back pressure to the set pressure ratio. Depending on the valve design, the set point correction factor can be either greater or smaller than unity. There exists an allowable back pressure and critical back pressure for each safety relief valve. When total back pressure exceeds the R a , the relieving capacity will be reduced mainly resulting from the valve lift being reduced by the back pressure and the capacity reduction factor should be applied in valve sizing. Once the R c is exceeded, the safety relief valve becomes unstable and loses its over pressure protection capability. The capacity reduction factor is a function of system overpressure, but their relationship is non-linear in nature. (orig.)

  7. Multi-Fault Rupture Scenarios in the Brawley Seismic Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyriakopoulos, C.; Oglesby, D. D.; Rockwell, T. K.; Meltzner, A. J.; Barall, M.

    2017-12-01

    event. For that reason, we are investigating scenarios of a moderate rupture on a cross fault, and determining conditions under which the rupture will propagate onto the adjacent SSAF. Our investigation will provide fundamental insights that may help us interpret faulting behaviors in other areas, such as the complex Mw 7.8 2016 Kaikoura (New Zealand) earthquake.

  8. Constraining the Distribution of Vertical Slip on the South Heli Shan Fault (Northeastern Tibet) From High-Resolution Topographic Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Haiyun; Zheng, Wenjun; Ge, Weipeng; Zhang, Peizhen; Zeng, Jiangyuan; Yu, Jingxing

    2018-03-01

    Reconstruction of the along-fault slip distribution provides an insight into the long-term rupture patterns of a fault, thereby enabling more accurate assessment of its future behavior. The increasing wealth of high-resolution topographic data, such as Light Detection and Ranging and photogrammetric digital elevation models, allows us to better constrain the slip distribution, thus greatly improving our understanding of fault behavior. The South Heli Shan Fault is a major active fault on the northeastern margin of the Tibetan Plateau. In this study, we built a 2 m resolution digital elevation model of the South Heli Shan Fault based on high-resolution GeoEye-1 stereo satellite imagery and then measured 302 vertical displacements along the fault, which increased the measurement density of previous field surveys by a factor of nearly 5. The cumulative displacements show an asymmetric distribution along the fault, comprising three major segments. An increasing trend from west to east indicates that the fault has likely propagated westward over its lifetime. The topographic relief of Heli Shan shows an asymmetry similar to the measured cumulative slip distribution, suggesting that the uplift of Heli Shan may result mainly from the long-term activity of the South Heli Shan Fault. Furthermore, the cumulative displacements divide into discrete clusters along the fault, indicating that the fault has ruptured in several large earthquakes. By constraining the slip-length distribution of each rupture, we found that the events do not support a characteristic recurrence model for the fault.

  9. Fault tree graphics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bass, L.; Wynholds, H.W.; Porterfield, W.R.

    1975-01-01

    Described is an operational system that enables the user, through an intelligent graphics terminal, to construct, modify, analyze, and store fault trees. With this system, complex engineering designs can be analyzed. This paper discusses the system and its capabilities. Included is a brief discussion of fault tree analysis, which represents an aspect of reliability and safety modeling

  10. Earthquake rupture process recreated from a natural fault surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, Thomas E.; Minasian, Diane L.

    2015-01-01

    What exactly happens on the rupture surface as an earthquake nucleates, spreads, and stops? We cannot observe this directly, and models depend on assumptions about physical conditions and geometry at depth. We thus measure a natural fault surface and use its 3D coordinates to construct a replica at 0.1 m resolution to obviate geometry uncertainty. We can recreate stick-slip behavior on the resulting finite element model that depends solely on observed fault geometry. We clamp the fault together and apply steady state tectonic stress until seismic slip initiates and terminates. Our recreated M~1 earthquake initiates at contact points where there are steep surface gradients because infinitesimal lateral displacements reduce clamping stress most efficiently there. Unclamping enables accelerating slip to spread across the surface, but the fault soon jams up because its uneven, anisotropic shape begins to juxtapose new high-relief sticking points. These contacts would ultimately need to be sheared off or strongly deformed before another similar earthquake could occur. Our model shows that an important role is played by fault-wall geometry, though we do not include effects of varying fluid pressure or exotic rheologies on the fault surfaces. We extrapolate our results to large fault systems using observed self-similarity properties, and suggest that larger ruptures might begin and end in a similar way, though the scale of geometrical variation in fault shape that can arrest a rupture necessarily scales with magnitude. In other words, fault segmentation may be a magnitude dependent phenomenon and could vary with each subsequent rupture.

  11. How do normal faults grow?

    OpenAIRE

    Blækkan, Ingvild; Bell, Rebecca; Rotevatn, Atle; Jackson, Christopher; Tvedt, Anette

    2018-01-01

    Faults grow via a sympathetic increase in their displacement and length (isolated fault model), or by rapid length establishment and subsequent displacement accrual (constant-length fault model). To test the significance and applicability of these two models, we use time-series displacement (D) and length (L) data extracted for faults from nature and experiments. We document a range of fault behaviours, from sympathetic D-L fault growth (isolated growth) to sub-vertical D-L growth trajectorie...

  12. Laparoscopic Adhesiolysis and Relief of Chronic Pelvic Pain

    OpenAIRE

    Nezhat, Farr R.; Crystal, Ruth Ann; Nezhat, Ceana H.; Nezhat, Camran R.

    2000-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the short- and long-term results of laparoscopic enterolysis in patients with chronic pelvic pain following hysterectomy. Methods: Forty-eight patients were evaluated at time intervals from 2 weeks to 5 years after laparoscopic enterolysis. Patients were asked to rate postoperative relief of their pelvic pain as complete/near complete relief (80-100% pain relief), significant relief (50-80% pain relief), or less than 50% or no pain relief. Results: We found that after 2...

  13. Impact of radiotherapy on pain relief and recalcification in plasma cell neoplasms. Long-term experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balducci, Mario; Chiesa, Silvia; Manfrida, Stefania

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the impact of radiotherapy on pain relief and on recalcification in patients with osteolytic lesions due to plasma cell neoplasm. Patients and Methods: Pain relief was evaluated according to a 0-10 verbal numerical rating scale (NRS) and recalcification was measured using radiological imaging. Results: From 1996-2007, 52 patients were treated. Median total dose was 38 Gy (range, 16-50 Gy). Pain before radiotherapy was reported by 45 of 52 (86.5%) patients as being severe (8 ≤ NRS ≤ 10) in 5 (11%), moderate (5 ≤ NRS ≤ 7) in 27 (60%), and mild in 13 (29%). Pain relief was achieved in 41 of 45 patients (91%): complete relief was obtained in 21 (51.2%) and partial relief in 20 patients (48.8%); patients with severe pain experienced resolution and none presented an increase of pain. Drugs reduction/suspension was achieved in 7 of the 21 patients with complete response. Of 42 patients evaluable for recalcification, 21 (50%) presented a radiological response, which was identified as complete in 16 (38%). Conclusion: Our data confirm the effectiveness of radiotherapy for pain relief, including a reduction in drug intake, and on recalcification, thus, supporting its use in a multidisciplinary approach. (orig.)

  14. Characterization of leaky faults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shan, Chao.

    1990-05-01

    Leaky faults provide a flow path for fluids to move underground. It is very important to characterize such faults in various engineering projects. The purpose of this work is to develop mathematical solutions for this characterization. The flow of water in an aquifer system and the flow of air in the unsaturated fault-rock system were studied. If the leaky fault cuts through two aquifers, characterization of the fault can be achieved by pumping water from one of the aquifers, which are assumed to be horizontal and of uniform thickness. Analytical solutions have been developed for two cases of either a negligibly small or a significantly large drawdown in the unpumped aquifer. Some practical methods for using these solutions are presented. 45 refs., 72 figs., 11 tabs

  15. Solar system fault detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrington, R.B.; Pruett, J.C. Jr.

    1984-05-14

    A fault detecting apparatus and method are provided for use with an active solar system. The apparatus provides an indication as to whether one or more predetermined faults have occurred in the solar system. The apparatus includes a plurality of sensors, each sensor being used in determining whether a predetermined condition is present. The outputs of the sensors are combined in a pre-established manner in accordance with the kind of predetermined faults to be detected. Indicators communicate with the outputs generated by combining the sensor outputs to give the user of the solar system and the apparatus an indication as to whether a predetermined fault has occurred. Upon detection and indication of any predetermined fault, the user can take appropriate corrective action so that the overall reliability and efficiency of the active solar system are increased.

  16. Fault zone processes in mechanically layered mudrock and chalk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrill, David A.; Evans, Mark A.; McGinnis, Ronald N.; Morris, Alan P.; Smart, Kevin J.; Wigginton, Sarah S.; Gulliver, Kirk D. H.; Lehrmann, Daniel; de Zoeten, Erich; Sickmann, Zach

    2017-04-01

    A 1.5 km long natural cliff outcrop of nearly horizontal Eagle Ford Formation in south Texas exposes northwest and southeast dipping normal faults with displacements of 0.01-7 m cutting mudrock, chalk, limestone, and volcanic ash. These faults provide analogs for both natural and hydraulically-induced deformation in the productive Eagle Ford Formation - a major unconventional oil and gas reservoir in south Texas, U.S.A. - and other mechanically layered hydrocarbon reservoirs. Fault dips are steep to vertical through chalk and limestone beds, and moderate through mudrock and clay-rich ash, resulting in refracted fault profiles. Steeply dipping fault segments contain rhombohedral calcite veins that cross the fault zone obliquely, parallel to shear segments in mudrock. The vertical dimensions of the calcite veins correspond to the thickness of offset competent beds with which they are contiguous, and the slip parallel dimension is proportional to fault displacement. Failure surface characteristics, including mixed tensile and shear segments, indicate hybrid failure in chalk and limestone, whereas shear failure predominates in mudrock and ash beds - these changes in failure mode contribute to variation in fault dip. Slip on the shear segments caused dilation of the steeper hybrid segments. Tabular sheets of calcite grew by repeated fault slip, dilation, and cementation. Fluid inclusion and stable isotope geochemistry analyses of fault zone cements indicate episodic reactivation at 1.4-4.2 km depths. The results of these analyses document a dramatic bed-scale lithologic control on fault zone architecture that is directly relevant to the development of porosity and permeability anisotropy along faults.

  17. Assessment of faulting and seismic hazards at Yucca Mountain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, J.L.; Frazier, G.A.; Grant, T.A.

    1989-01-01

    Yucca Mountain is being evaluated for the nation's first high-level nuclear-waste repository. Local faults appear to be capable of moderate earthquakes at recurrence intervals of tens of thousands of years. The major issues identified for the preclosure phase (<100 yrs) are the location and seismic design of surface facilities for handling incoming waste. It is planned to address surface fault rupture by locating facilities where no discernible recent (<100,000 yrs) faulting has occurred and to base the ground motion design on hypothetical earthquakes, postulated on nearby faults, that represent 10,000 yrs of average cumulative displacement. The major tectonic issues identified for the postclosure phase (10,000 yrs) are volcanism (not addressed here) and potential changes to the hydrologic system resulting from a local faulting event which could trigger potential thermal, mechanical, and chemical interactions with the ground water. Extensive studies are planned for resolving these issues. 33 refs., 3 figs

  18. Shaded Relief of Minnesota Elevation - Color

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This file is a product of a shaded relief process on the 30 meter resolution Digital Elevation Model data (dem30im3). This image was created using a custom AML...

  19. Shaded Relief of Minnesota Elevation - Black & White

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This file is a product of a shaded relief process on the 30 meter resolution Digital Elevation Model data (dem30im3). This image was created using a custom AML...

  20. Brain Circuits Encoding Reward from Pain Relief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navratilova, Edita; Atcherley, Christopher W; Porreca, Frank

    2015-11-01

    Relief from pain in humans is rewarding and pleasurable. Primary rewards, or reward-predictive cues, are encoded in brain reward/motivational circuits. While considerable advances have been made in our understanding of reward circuits underlying positive reinforcement, less is known about the circuits underlying the hedonic and reinforcing actions of pain relief. We review findings from electrophysiological, neuroimaging, and behavioral studies supporting the concept that the rewarding effect of pain relief requires opioid signaling in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), activation of midbrain dopamine neurons, and the release of dopamine in the nucleus accumbens (NAc). Understanding of circuits that govern the reward of pain relief may allow the discovery of more effective and satisfying therapies for patients with acute or chronic pain.

  1. Non-Drug Pain Relief: Imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    PATIENT EDUCATION patienteducation.osumc.edu Non-Drug Pain Relief: Imagery Relaxation helps lessen tension. One way to help decrease pain is to use imagery. Imagery is using your imagination to create a ...

  2. Supply Chain Management in Humanitarian Relief Logistics

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rodman, William

    2004-01-01

    Hundreds of millions of people are affected by disasters each year. This thesis explores the use of supply chain management techniques to overcome the barriers encountered by logistics managers during humanitarian relief operations...

  3. U.S. Coastal Relief Model - Hawaii

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NGDC's U.S. Coastal Relief Model (CRM) provides the first comprehensive view of the U.S. coastal zone integrating offshore bathymetry with land topography into a...

  4. U.S. Coastal Relief Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NGDC's U.S. Coastal Relief Model (CRM) provides the first comprehensive view of the U.S. coastal zone integrating offshore bathymetry with land topography into a...

  5. Lake Bathymetric DEM Shaded Relief Image

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Geo-referenced, shaded relief image of lake bathymetry classified at 5-foot depth intervals. This dataset has a cell resolution of 5 meters (occasionally 10m) as...

  6. The Team Approach to Pain Relief

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues The Team Approach to Pain Relief Past Issues / Fall 2007 ... Roberts is seen here with some of the team members, (left to right) Dr. Berger, Jacques Bolle, ...

  7. Fault Management Metrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Stephen B.; Ghoshal, Sudipto; Haste, Deepak; Moore, Craig

    2017-01-01

    This paper describes the theory and considerations in the application of metrics to measure the effectiveness of fault management. Fault management refers here to the operational aspect of system health management, and as such is considered as a meta-control loop that operates to preserve or maximize the system's ability to achieve its goals in the face of current or prospective failure. As a suite of control loops, the metrics to estimate and measure the effectiveness of fault management are similar to those of classical control loops in being divided into two major classes: state estimation, and state control. State estimation metrics can be classified into lower-level subdivisions for detection coverage, detection effectiveness, fault isolation and fault identification (diagnostics), and failure prognosis. State control metrics can be classified into response determination effectiveness and response effectiveness. These metrics are applied to each and every fault management control loop in the system, for each failure to which they apply, and probabilistically summed to determine the effectiveness of these fault management control loops to preserve the relevant system goals that they are intended to protect.

  8. Fault isolability conditions for linear systems with additive faults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niemann, Hans Henrik; Stoustrup, Jakob

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we shall show that an unlimited number of additive single faults can be isolated under mild conditions if a general isolation scheme is applied. Multiple faults are also covered. The approach is algebraic and is based on a set representation of faults, where all faults within a set...

  9. Three-Dimensional Growth of Flexural Slip Fault-Bend and Fault-Propagation Folds and Their Geomorphic Expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asdrúbal Bernal

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The three-dimensional growth of fault-related folds is known to be an important process during the development of compressive mountain belts. However, comparatively little is known concerning the manner in which fold growth is expressed in topographic relief and local drainage networks. Here we report results from a coupled kinematic and surface process model of fault-related folding. We consider flexural slip fault-bend and fault-propagation folds that grow in both the transport and strike directions, linked to a surface process model that includes bedrock channel development and hillslope diffusion. We investigate various modes of fold growth under identical surface process conditions and critically analyse their geomorphic expression. Fold growth results in the development of steep forelimbs and gentler, wider backlimbs resulting in asymmetric drainage basin development (smaller basins on forelimbs, larger basins on backlimbs. However, topographies developed above fault-propagation folds are more symmetric than those developed above fault-bend folds as a result of their different forelimb kinematics. In addition, the surface expression of fault-bend and fault-propagation folds depends both on the slip distribution along the fault and on the style of fold growth. When along-strike plunge is a result of slip events with gently decreasing slip towards the fault tips (with or without lateral propagation, large plunge-panel drainage networks are developed at the expense of backpanel (transport-opposing and forepanel (transport-facing drainage basins. In contrast, if the fold grows as a result of slip events with similar displacements along strike, plunge-panel drainage networks are poorly developed (or are transient features of early fold growth and restricted to lateral fold terminations, particularly when the number of propagation events is small. The absence of large-scale plunge-panel drainage networks in natural examples suggests that the

  10. Stress diffusion along the san andreas fault at parkfield, california.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malin, P E; Alvarez, M G

    1992-05-15

    Beginning in January 1990, the epicenters of microearthquakes associated with a 12-month increase in seismicity near Parkfield, California, moved northwest to southeast along the San Andreas fault. During this sequence of events, the locally variable rate of cumulative seismic moment increased. This increase implies a local increase in fault slip. These data suggest that a southeastwardly diffusing stress front propagated along the San Andreas fault at a speed of 30 to 50 kilometers per year. Evidently, this front did not load the Parkfield asperities fast enough to produce a moderate earthquake; however, a future front might do so.

  11. Fault Analysis in Cryptography

    CERN Document Server

    Joye, Marc

    2012-01-01

    In the 1970s researchers noticed that radioactive particles produced by elements naturally present in packaging material could cause bits to flip in sensitive areas of electronic chips. Research into the effect of cosmic rays on semiconductors, an area of particular interest in the aerospace industry, led to methods of hardening electronic devices designed for harsh environments. Ultimately various mechanisms for fault creation and propagation were discovered, and in particular it was noted that many cryptographic algorithms succumb to so-called fault attacks. Preventing fault attacks without

  12. Fault tolerant control based on active fault diagnosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niemann, Hans Henrik

    2005-01-01

    An active fault diagnosis (AFD) method will be considered in this paper in connection with a Fault Tolerant Control (FTC) architecture based on the YJBK parameterization of all stabilizing controllers. The architecture consists of a fault diagnosis (FD) part and a controller reconfiguration (CR......) part. The FTC architecture can be applied for additive faults, parametric faults, and for system structural changes. Only parametric faults will be considered in this paper. The main focus in this paper is on the use of the new approach of active fault diagnosis in connection with FTC. The active fault...... diagnosis approach is based on including an auxiliary input in the system. A fault signature matrix is introduced in connection with AFD, given as the transfer function from the auxiliary input to the residual output. This can be considered as a generalization of the passive fault diagnosis case, where...

  13. “Can LUSI be stopped? - A case study and lessons learned from the relief wells”

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutrisna, E.

    2009-12-01

    Since May 2006, in East Java, Indonesia, the LUSI mud volcano has been erupting huge volumes of mixture of predominately mud and water, with little sign of slowing down. It has disrupted social and economic life in this highly populated region. Most geologists believe LUSI is a naturally-occurring mud volcano (MV), like other MV in the Java island of particular interest are the MV along the Watukosek fault, such as, Kalang Anyar, Pulungan, Gunung Anyar, and Socah MV. All of these MV lie in the vicinity of the SSW/NNE trending Watukosek fault that passes through LUSI. The Porong collapse structure is an ancient MV closest to LUSI approx. 7 km away, which on seismic sections demonstrate its complex multi-branching plumbing system. Assuming that the mudflow passed through the wellbore due to an underground blowout, relief wells (RW) were planned to kill the mudflow and carried out in 3 stages, these were: 1. Re-entering the original Banjarpanji-1 (BJP-1) well to obtain accurate survey data so the relief wells could be steered into intersect this original well. 2. Drilling a monitoring well (M-1) to ascertain whether the soil had sufficient strength to support relief wells. 3. Drilling RW-1 and RW-2. Both RW-1 and RW-2 suffered of surface and subsurface problems never achieved their objectives and had to be aborted. Numbers of good lessons were learned from the relief well initiative, such as: 1. No gas or liquid flowed from the wellhead area when it was excavated one month after the eruption started. The wellhead remained intact and totally dead suggesting that the mud flowed to surface through a fault zone or a fracture network instead of up the wellbore. 2. The ‘fish’ in BJP-1 wellbore was found at its original location and not eroded away. This suggests that the mud flow did not pass through the wellbore. 3. The Temperature log showed lower temp. than surface mud temp. The Sonan log response was quiet. These results suggest that there was no near casing mudflow

  14. Reward and relief dimensions of temptation to drink: construct validity and role in predicting differential benefit from acamprosate and naltrexone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roos, Corey R; Mann, Karl; Witkiewitz, Katie

    2017-11-01

    Researchers have sought to distinguish between individuals whose alcohol use disorder (AUD) is maintained by drinking to relieve negative affect ('relief drinkers') and those whose AUD is maintained by the rewarding effects of alcohol ('reward drinkers'). As an opioid receptor antagonist, naltrexone may be particularly effective for reward drinkers. Acamprosate, which has been shown to down-regulate the glutamatergic system, may be particularly effective for relief drinkers. This study sought to replicate and extend prior work (PREDICT study; Glöckner-Rist et al. ) by examining dimensions of reward and relief temptation to drink and subtypes of individuals with distinct patterns of reward/relief temptation. We utilized data from two randomized clinical trials for AUD (Project MATCH, n = 1726 and COMBINE study, n = 1383). We also tested whether classes of reward/relief temptation would predict differential response to naltrexone and acamprosate in COMBINE. Results replicated prior work by identifying reward and relief temptation factors, which had excellent reliability and construct validity. Using factor mixture modeling, we identified five distinct classes of reward/relief temptation that replicated across studies. In COMBINE, we found a significant class-by-acamprosate interaction effect. Among those most likely classified in the high relief/moderate reward temptation class, individuals had better drinking outcomes if assigned to acamprosate versus placebo. We did not find a significant class-by-naltrexone interaction effect. Our study questions the orthogonal classification of drinkers into only two types (reward or relief drinkers) and adds to the body of research on moderators of acamprosate, which may inform clinical decision making in the treatment of AUD. © 2016 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  15. Olduvai Gorge, Shaded Relief and Colored Height

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    Three striking and important areas of Tanzania in eastern Africa are shown in this color-coded shaded relief image from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission. The largest circular feature in the center right is the caldera, or central crater, of the extinct volcano Ngorongoro. It is surrounded by a number of smaller volcanoes, all associated with the Great Rift Valley, a geologic fault system that extends for about 4,830 kilometers (2,995 miles) from Syria to central Mozambique. Ngorongoro's caldera is 22.5 kilometers (14 miles) across at its widest point and is 610 meters (2,000 feet) deep. Its floor is very level, holding a lake fed by streams running down the caldera wall. It is part of the Ngorongoro Conservation Area and is home to over 75,000 animals. The lakes south of the crater are Lake Eyasi and Lake Manyara, also part of the conservation area. The relatively smooth region in the upper left of the image is the Serengeti National Park, the largest in Tanzania. The park encompasses the main part of the Serengeti ecosystem, supporting the greatest remaining concentration of plains game in Africa including more than 3,000,000 large mammals. The animals roam the park freely and in the spectacular migrations, huge herds of wild animals move to other areas of the park in search of greener grazing grounds (requiring over 4,000 tons of grass each day) and water. The faint, nearly horizontal line near the center of the image is Olduvai Gorge, made famous by the discovery of remains of the earliest humans to exist. Between 1.9 and 1.2 million years ago a salt lake occupied this area, followed by the appearance of fresh water streams and small ponds. Exposed deposits show rich fossil fauna, many hominid remains and items belonging to one of the oldest stone tool technologies, called Olduwan. The time span of the objects recovered dates from 2,100,000 to 15,000 years ago. Two visualization methods were combined to produce the image: shading and color coding of

  16. Quaternary Fault Lines

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This data set contains locations and information on faults and associated folds in the United States that are believed to be sources of M>6 earthquakes during the...

  17. The Morelia-Acambay Fault System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velázquez Bucio, M.; Soria-Caballero, D.; Garduño-Monroy, V.; Mennella, L.

    2013-05-01

    The Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt (TMVB) is one of the most actives and representative zones of Mexico geologically speaking. Research carried out in this area gives stratigraphic, seismologic and historical evidence of its recent activity during the quaternary (Martinez and Nieto, 1990). Specifically the Morelia-Acambay faults system (MAFS) consist in a series of normal faults of dominant direction E - W, ENE - WSW y NE - SW which is cut in center west of the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt. This fault system appeared during the early Miocene although the north-south oriented structures are older and have been related to the activity of the tectonism inherited from the "Basin and Range" system, but that were reactivated by the east- west faults. It is believed that the activity of these faults has contributed to the creation and evolution of the longed lacustrine depressions such as: Chapala, Zacapu, Cuitzeo, Maravatio y Acambay also the location of monogenetic volcanoes that conformed the Michoacan-Guanajuato volcanic field (MGVF) and tend to align in the direction of the SFMA dominant effort. In a historical time different segments of the MAFS have been the epicenter of earthquakes from moderated to strong magnitude like the events of 1858 in Patzcuaro, Acambay in 1912, 1979 in Maravatio and 2007 in Morelia, among others. Several detailed analysis and semi-detailed analysis through a GIS platform based in the vectorial archives and thematic charts 1:50 000 scaled from the data base of the INEGI which has allowed to remark the influence of the MAFS segments about the morphology of the landscape and the identification of other structures related to the movement of the existent faults like fractures, alignments, collapses and others from the zone comprehended by the northwest of Morelia in Michoacán to the East of Acambay, Estado de México. Such analysis suggests that the fault segments possess a normal displacement plus a left component. In addition it can be

  18. Fault lubrication during earthquakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Toro, G; Han, R; Hirose, T; De Paola, N; Nielsen, S; Mizoguchi, K; Ferri, F; Cocco, M; Shimamoto, T

    2011-03-24

    The determination of rock friction at seismic slip rates (about 1 m s(-1)) is of paramount importance in earthquake mechanics, as fault friction controls the stress drop, the mechanical work and the frictional heat generated during slip. Given the difficulty in determining friction by seismological methods, elucidating constraints are derived from experimental studies. Here we review a large set of published and unpublished experiments (∼300) performed in rotary shear apparatus at slip rates of 0.1-2.6 m s(-1). The experiments indicate a significant decrease in friction (of up to one order of magnitude), which we term fault lubrication, both for cohesive (silicate-built, quartz-built and carbonate-built) rocks and non-cohesive rocks (clay-rich, anhydrite, gypsum and dolomite gouges) typical of crustal seismogenic sources. The available mechanical work and the associated temperature rise in the slipping zone trigger a number of physicochemical processes (gelification, decarbonation and dehydration reactions, melting and so on) whose products are responsible for fault lubrication. The similarity between (1) experimental and natural fault products and (2) mechanical work measures resulting from these laboratory experiments and seismological estimates suggests that it is reasonable to extrapolate experimental data to conditions typical of earthquake nucleation depths (7-15 km). It seems that faults are lubricated during earthquakes, irrespective of the fault rock composition and of the specific weakening mechanism involved.

  19. Vipava fault (Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ladislav Placer

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available During mapping of the already accomplished Razdrto – Senožeče section of motorway and geologic surveying of construction operations of the trunk road between Razdrto and Vipava in northwestern part of External Dinarides on the southwestern slope of Mt. Nanos, called Rebrnice, a steep NW-SE striking fault was recognized, situated between the Predjama and the Ra{a faults. The fault was named Vipava fault after the Vipava town. An analysis of subrecent gravitational slips at Rebrnice indicates that they were probably associated with the activity of this fault. Unpublished results of a repeated levelling line along the regional road passing across the Vipava fault zone suggest its possible present activity. It would be meaningful to verify this by appropriate geodetic measurements, and to study the actual gravitational slips at Rebrnice. The association between tectonics and gravitational slips in this and in similar extreme cases in the areas of Alps and Dinarides points at the need of complex studying of geologic proceses.

  20. Reply to comment by Tan et al. on "Sandbox modeling of evolving thrust wedges with different preexisting topographic relief: Implications for the Longmen Shan thrust belt, eastern Tibet"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Chuang; Jia, Dong; Yin, Hongwei; Chen, Zhuxin; Li, Zhigang; Li, Shen; Wei, Dongtao; Li, Yiquan; Yan, Bin; Wang, Maomao; Fang, Shaozhi; Cui, Jian

    2017-02-01

    Tan et al. comment that the preexisting topographic relief in our sandbox is opposed to its prototype in the central Longmen Shan. Therefore, the comparison between our sandbox modeling and the natural topography is questionable and does not agree with our conclusion that the Xiaoyudong fault is a tear fault. First, we are grateful to the authors for their approval of our sandbox modeling and its contribution to understanding fault behavior within thrust wedges. However, after reading the comment carefully, we found that they misunderstood the meaning of topographic relief we conveyed. In response, we would like to address the differences between the topography in their comment and the orogen-scale topography we investigated in our modeling to defend our conclusion.

  1. Fault morphology of the lyo Fault, the Median Tectonic Line Active Fault System

    OpenAIRE

    後藤, 秀昭

    1996-01-01

    In this paper, we investigated the various fault features of the lyo fault and depicted fault lines or detailed topographic map. The results of this paper are summarized as follows; 1) Distinct evidence of the right-lateral movement is continuously discernible along the lyo fault. 2) Active fault traces are remarkably linear suggesting that the angle of fault plane is high. 3) The lyo fault can be divided into four segments by jogs between left-stepping traces. 4) The mean slip rate is 1.3 ~ ...

  2. Glovebox pressure relief and check valve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blaedel, K.L.

    1986-01-01

    This device is a combined pressure relief valve and check valve providing overpressure protection and preventing back flow into an inert atmosphere enclosure. The pressure relief is embodied by a submerged vent line in a mercury reservior, the releif pressure being a function of the submerged depth. The pressure relief can be vented into an exhaust system and the relieving pressure is only slightly influenced by the varying pressure in the exhaust system. The check valve is embodied by a ball which floats on the mercury column and contacts a seat whenever vacuum exists within the glovebox enclosure. Alternatively, the check valve is embodied by a vertical column of mercury, the maximum back pressure being a function of the height of the column of mercury

  3. Glovebox pressure relief and check valve

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blaedel, K.L.

    1986-03-17

    This device is a combined pressure relief valve and check valve providing overpressure protection and preventing back flow into an inert atmosphere enclosure. The pressure relief is embodied by a submerged vent line in a mercury reservior, the releif pressure being a function of the submerged depth. The pressure relief can be vented into an exhaust system and the relieving pressure is only slightly influenced by the varying pressure in the exhaust system. The check valve is embodied by a ball which floats on the mercury column and contacts a seat whenever vacuum exists within the glovebox enclosure. Alternatively, the check valve is embodied by a vertical column of mercury, the maximum back pressure being a function of the height of the column of mercury.

  4. Optimal Laser Phototherapy Parameters for Pain Relief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kate, Rohit J; Rubatt, Sarah; Enwemeka, Chukuka S; Huddleston, Wendy E

    2018-03-27

    Studies on laser phototherapy for pain relief have used parameters that vary widely and have reported varying outcomes. The purpose of this study was to determine the optimal parameter ranges of laser phototherapy for pain relief by analyzing data aggregated from existing primary literature. Original studies were gathered from available sources and were screened to meet the pre-established inclusion criteria. The included articles were then subjected to meta-analysis using Cohen's d statistic for determining treatment effect size. From these studies, ranges of the reported parameters that always resulted into large effect sizes were determined. These optimal ranges were evaluated for their accuracy using leave-one-article-out cross-validation procedure. A total of 96 articles met the inclusion criteria for meta-analysis and yielded 232 effect sizes. The average effect size was highly significant: d = +1.36 (confidence interval [95% CI] = 1.04-1.68). Among all the parameters, total energy was found to have the greatest effect on pain relief and had the most prominent optimal ranges of 120-162 and 15.36-20.16 J, which always resulted in large effect sizes. The cross-validation accuracy of the optimal ranges for total energy was 68.57% (95% CI = 53.19-83.97). Fewer and less-prominent optimal ranges were obtained for the energy density and duration parameters. None of the remaining parameters was found to be independently related to pain relief outcomes. The findings of meta-analysis indicate that laser phototherapy is highly effective for pain relief. Based on the analysis of parameters, total energy can be optimized to yield the largest effect on pain relief.

  5. Active Fault Isolation in MIMO Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niemann, Hans Henrik; Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad

    2014-01-01

    isolation is based directly on the input/output s ignals applied for the fault detection. It is guaranteed that the fault group includes the fault that had occurred in the system. The second step is individual fault isolation in the fault group . Both types of isolation are obtained by applying dedicated......Active fault isolation of parametric faults in closed-loop MIMO system s are considered in this paper. The fault isolation consists of two steps. T he first step is group- wise fault isolation. Here, a group of faults is isolated from other pos sible faults in the system. The group-wise fault...

  6. Faults in parts of north-central and western Houston metropolitan area, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbeek, Earl R.; Ratzlaff, Karl W.; Clanton, Uel S.

    1979-01-01

    Hundreds of residential, commercial, and industrial structures in the Houston metropolitan area have sustained moderate to severe damage owing to their locations on or near active faults. Paved roads have been offset by faults at hundreds of locations, butted pipelines have been distorted by fault movements, and fault-induced gradient changes in drainage lines have raised concern among flood control engineers. Over 150 faults, many of them moving at rates of 0.5 to 2 cm/yr, have been mapped in the Houston area; the number of faults probably far exceeds this figure.This report includes a map of eight faults, in north-central and western Houston, at a scale useful for land-use planning. Seven of the faults, are known, to be active and have caused considerable damage to structures built on or near them. If the eighth fault is active, it may be of concern to new developments on the west side of Houston. A ninth feature shown on the map is regarded only as a possible fault, as an origin by faulting has not been firmly established.Seismic and drill-hold data for some 40 faults, studied in detail by various investigators have verified connections between scarps at the land surface and growth faults in the shallow subsurface. Some scarps, then, are known to be the surface manifestations of faults that have geologically long histories of movement. The degree to which natural geologic processes contribute to current fault movement, however, is unclear, for some of man’s activities may play a role in faulting as well.Evidence that current rates of fault movement far exceed average prehistoric rates and that most offset of the land surface in the Houston area has occurred only within the last 50 years indirectly suggest that fluid withdrawal may be accelerating or reinitiating movement on pre-existing faults. This conclusion, however, is based only on a coincidence in time between increased fault activity and increased rates of withdrawal of water, oil, and gas from

  7. Fault Detection for Industrial Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingwei Zhang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A new fault-relevant KPCA algorithm is proposed. Then the fault detection approach is proposed based on the fault-relevant KPCA algorithm. The proposed method further decomposes both the KPCA principal space and residual space into two subspaces. Compared with traditional statistical techniques, the fault subspace is separated based on the fault-relevant influence. This method can find fault-relevant principal directions and principal components of systematic subspace and residual subspace for process monitoring. The proposed monitoring approach is applied to Tennessee Eastman process and penicillin fermentation process. The simulation results show the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  8. Fault tree analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-09-01

    Suggestion are made concerning the method of the fault tree analysis, the use of certain symbols in the examination of system failures. This purpose of the fault free analysis is to find logical connections of component or subsystem failures leading to undesirable occurrances. The results of these examinations are part of the system assessment concerning operation and safety. The objectives of the analysis are: systematical identification of all possible failure combinations (causes) leading to a specific undesirable occurrance, finding of reliability parameters such as frequency of failure combinations, frequency of the undesirable occurrance or non-availability of the system when required. The fault tree analysis provides a near and reconstructable documentation of the examination. (orig./HP) [de

  9. 24 CFR 965.508 - Individual relief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Individual relief. 965.508 Section 965.508 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued... PHA-OWNED OR LEASED PROJECTS-GENERAL PROVISIONS Resident Allowances for Utilities § 965.508 Individual...

  10. Emergency networking: famine relief in ant colonies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sendova-Franks, A.B.; Hayward, R.; Wulf, B.; Klimek, T.; James, R.; Planque, R.; Britton, N.F.; Franks, N.R.

    2009-01-01

    Resource distribution is fundamental to social organization, but it poses a dilemma. How to facilitate the spread of useful resources but restrict harmful substances? This dilemma reaches a zenith in famine relief. Survival depends on distributing food fast but that could increase vulnerability to

  11. 32 CFR 516.19 - Injunctive relief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY AID OF CIVIL AUTHORITIES AND PUBLIC RELATIONS LITIGATION Reporting Legal Proceedings to HQDA § 516.19 Injunctive relief. (a) General. Plaintiffs...). Because these actions can quickly impede military functions, immediate and decisive action must be taken...

  12. 78 FR 19136 - Emergency Relief Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-29

    ... issuing this interim final rule in order to comply with the Disaster Relief Appropriations Act of 2013... FTA-2013-0004. All electronic submissions must be made to the U.S. Government electronic site at http... operating costs in the event of a catastrophic event, such as a natural disaster, that affects a wide area...

  13. Computer hardware fault administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archer, Charles J.; Megerian, Mark G.; Ratterman, Joseph D.; Smith, Brian E.

    2010-09-14

    Computer hardware fault administration carried out in a parallel computer, where the parallel computer includes a plurality of compute nodes. The compute nodes are coupled for data communications by at least two independent data communications networks, where each data communications network includes data communications links connected to the compute nodes. Typical embodiments carry out hardware fault administration by identifying a location of a defective link in the first data communications network of the parallel computer and routing communications data around the defective link through the second data communications network of the parallel computer.

  14. Fault Tolerant Computer Architecture

    CERN Document Server

    Sorin, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    For many years, most computer architects have pursued one primary goal: performance. Architects have translated the ever-increasing abundance of ever-faster transistors provided by Moore's law into remarkable increases in performance. Recently, however, the bounty provided by Moore's law has been accompanied by several challenges that have arisen as devices have become smaller, including a decrease in dependability due to physical faults. In this book, we focus on the dependability challenge and the fault tolerance solutions that architects are developing to overcome it. The two main purposes

  15. Fault tolerant linear actuator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tesar, Delbert

    2004-09-14

    In varying embodiments, the fault tolerant linear actuator of the present invention is a new and improved linear actuator with fault tolerance and positional control that may incorporate velocity summing, force summing, or a combination of the two. In one embodiment, the invention offers a velocity summing arrangement with a differential gear between two prime movers driving a cage, which then drives a linear spindle screw transmission. Other embodiments feature two prime movers driving separate linear spindle screw transmissions, one internal and one external, in a totally concentric and compact integrated module.

  16. Plate rotations, fault slip rates, fault locking, and distributed deformation in northern Central America from 1999-2017 GPS observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, A. P.; DeMets, C.; Briole, P.; Cosenza, B.; Flores, O.; Guzman-Speziale, M.; Hernandez, D.; Kostoglodov, V.; La Femina, P. C.; Lord, N. E.; Lasserre, C.; Lyon-Caen, H.; McCaffrey, R.; Molina, E.; Rodriguez, M.; Staller, A.; Rogers, R.

    2017-12-01

    We describe plate rotations, fault slip rates, and fault locking estimated from a new 100-station GPS velocity field at the western end of the Caribbean plate, where the Motagua-Polochic fault zone, Middle America trench, and Central America volcanic arc faults converge. In northern Central America, fifty-one upper-plate earthquakes caused approximately 40,000 fatalities since 1900. The proximity of main population centers to these destructive earthquakes and the resulting loss of human life provide strong motivation for studying the present-day tectonics of Central America. Plate rotations, fault slip rates, and deformation are quantified via a two-stage inversion of daily GPS position time series using TDEFNODE modeling software. In the first stage, transient deformation associated with three M>7 earthquakes in 2009 and 2012 is estimated and removed from the GPS position time series. In Stage 2, linear velocities determined from the corrected GPS time series are inverted to estimate deformation within the western Caribbean plate, slip rates along the Motagua-Polochic faults and faults in the Central America volcanic arc, and the gradient of extension in the Honduras-Guatemala wedge. Major outcomes of the second inversion include the following: (1) Confirmation that slip rates on the Motagua fault decrease from 17-18 mm/yr at its eastern end to 0-5 mm/yr at its western end, in accord with previous results. (2) A transition from moderate subduction zone locking offshore from southern Mexico and parts of southern Guatemala to weak or zero coupling offshore from El Salvador and parts of Nicaragua along the Middle America trench. (3) Evidence for significant east-west extension in southern Guatemala between the Motagua fault and volcanic arc. Our study also shows evidence for creep on the eastern Motagua fault that diminishes westward along the North America-Caribbean plate boundary.

  17. Wind turbine fault detection and fault tolerant control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Odgaard, Peter Fogh; Johnson, Kathryn

    2013-01-01

    In this updated edition of a previous wind turbine fault detection and fault tolerant control challenge, we present a more sophisticated wind turbine model and updated fault scenarios to enhance the realism of the challenge and therefore the value of the solutions. This paper describes...

  18. Fault management and systems knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    Pilots are asked to manage faults during flight operations. This leads to the training question of the type and depth of system knowledge required to respond to these faults. Based on discussions with multiple airline operators, there is agreement th...

  19. ESR dating of fault rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Hee Kwon

    2002-03-01

    Past movement on faults can be dated by measurement of the intensity of ESR signals in quartz. These signals are reset by local lattice deformation and local frictional heating on grain contacts at the time of fault movement. The ESR signals then trow back as a result of bombardment by ionizing radiation from surrounding rocks. The age is obtained from the ratio of the equivalent dose, needed to produce the observed signal, to the dose rate. Fine grains are more completely reset during faulting, and a plot of age vs grain size shows a plateau for grains below critical size : these grains are presumed to have been completely zeroed by the last fault activity. We carried out ESR dating of fault rocks collected from the Yangsan fault system. ESR dates from the this fault system range from 870 to 240 ka. Results of this research suggest that long-term cyclic fault activity continued into the pleistocene

  20. Fault diagnosis of induction motors

    CERN Document Server

    Faiz, Jawad; Joksimović, Gojko

    2017-01-01

    This book is a comprehensive, structural approach to fault diagnosis strategy. The different fault types, signal processing techniques, and loss characterisation are addressed in the book. This is essential reading for work with induction motors for transportation and energy.

  1. ESR dating of fault rocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hee Kwon [Kangwon National Univ., Chuncheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-03-15

    Past movement on faults can be dated by measurement of the intensity of ESR signals in quartz. These signals are reset by local lattice deformation and local frictional heating on grain contacts at the time of fault movement. The ESR signals then trow back as a result of bombardment by ionizing radiation from surrounding rocks. The age is obtained from the ratio of the equivalent dose, needed to produce the observed signal, to the dose rate. Fine grains are more completely reset during faulting, and a plot of age vs grain size shows a plateau for grains below critical size : these grains are presumed to have been completely zeroed by the last fault activity. We carried out ESR dating of fault rocks collected from the Yangsan fault system. ESR dates from the this fault system range from 870 to 240 ka. Results of this research suggest that long-term cyclic fault activity continued into the pleistocene.

  2. Introduction to fault tree analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barlow, R.E.; Lambert, H.E.

    1975-01-01

    An elementary, engineering oriented introduction to fault tree analysis is presented. The basic concepts, techniques and applications of fault tree analysis, FTA, are described. The two major steps of FTA are identified as (1) the construction of the fault tree and (2) its evaluation. The evaluation of the fault tree can be qualitative or quantitative depending upon the scope, extensiveness and use of the analysis. The advantages, limitations and usefulness of FTA are discussed

  3. Fault Tolerant Wind Farm Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Odgaard, Peter Fogh; Stoustrup, Jakob

    2013-01-01

    In the recent years the wind turbine industry has focused on optimizing the cost of energy. One of the important factors in this is to increase reliability of the wind turbines. Advanced fault detection, isolation and accommodation are important tools in this process. Clearly most faults are deal...... scenarios. This benchmark model is used in an international competition dealing with Wind Farm fault detection and isolation and fault tolerant control....

  4. Row fault detection system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archer, Charles Jens [Rochester, MN; Pinnow, Kurt Walter [Rochester, MN; Ratterman, Joseph D [Rochester, MN; Smith, Brian Edward [Rochester, MN

    2008-10-14

    An apparatus, program product and method checks for nodal faults in a row of nodes by causing each node in the row to concurrently communicate with its adjacent neighbor nodes in the row. The communications are analyzed to determine a presence of a faulty node or connection.

  5. Fault isolation techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumas, A.

    1981-01-01

    Three major areas that are considered in the development of an overall maintenance scheme of computer equipment are described. The areas of concern related to fault isolation techniques are: the programmer (or user), company and its policies, and the manufacturer of the equipment.

  6. Fault Tolerant Control Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøgh, S. A.

    This thesis considered the development of fault tolerant control systems. The focus was on the category of automated processes that do not necessarily comprise a high number of identical sensors and actuators to maintain safe operation, but still have a potential for improving immunity to component...

  7. Meteoric water in normal fault systems: Oxygen and hydrogen isotopic measurements on authigenic phases in brittle fault rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haines, S. H.; Anderson, R.; Mulch, A.; Solum, J. G.; Valley, J. W.; van der Pluijm, B. A.

    2009-12-01

    The nature of fluid circulation systems in normal fault systems is fundamental to understanding the nature of fluid movement within the upper crust, and has important implications for the on-going controversy about the strength of faults. Authigenic phases in clay gouges and fault breccias record the isotopic signature of the fluids they formed in equilibrium with, and can be used to understand the ‘plumbing system’ of brittle fault environments. We obtained paired oxygen and hydrogen isotopic measurements on authigenic illite and/or smectite in clay gouge from normal faults in two geologic environments, 1.) low-angle normal faults (Ruby Mountains detachment, NV; Badwater Turtleback, CA; Panamint range-front detachment; CA; Amargosa detachment; CA; Waterman Hills detachment, CA), and 2.) An intracratonic high-angle normal fault (Moab Fault, UT). All authigenic phases in these clay gouges are moderately light isotopically with respect to oxygen (illite δ18O -2.0 - + 11.5 ‰ SMOW, smectite δ18O +3.6 and 17.9 ‰) and very light isotopically with respect to hydrogen (illite δD -148 to -98 ‰ SMOW, smectite δD -147 to -92 ‰). Fluid compositions calculated from the authigenic clays at temperatures of 50 - 130 ○C (as indicated by clay mineralogy) indicate that both illite and smectite in normal fault clay gouge formed in the presence of near-pristine to moderately-evolved meteoric fluids and that igneous or metamorphic fluids are not involved in clay gouge formation in these normal fault settings. We also obtained paired oxygen and hydrogen isotopic measurements on chlorites derived from footwall chlorite breccias in 4 low-angle normal fault detachment systems (Badwater and Mormon Point Turtlebacks, CA, the Chemehuevi detachment, CA, and the Buckskin-Rawhide detachment, AZ). All chlorites are isotopically light to moderately light with respect to oxygen (δ18O +0.29 to +8.1 ‰ SMOW) and very light with respect to hydrogen (δD -97 to -113 ‰) and indicate

  8. Fault-Related Sanctuaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piccardi, L.

    2001-12-01

    Beyond the study of historical surface faulting events, this work investigates the possibility, in specific cases, of identifying pre-historical events whose memory survives in myths and legends. The myths of many famous sacred places of the ancient world contain relevant telluric references: "sacred" earthquakes, openings to the Underworld and/or chthonic dragons. Given the strong correspondence with local geological evidence, these myths may be considered as describing natural phenomena. It has been possible in this way to shed light on the geologic origin of famous myths (Piccardi, 1999, 2000 and 2001). Interdisciplinary researches reveal that the origin of several ancient sanctuaries may be linked in particular to peculiar geological phenomena observed on local active faults (like ground shaking and coseismic surface ruptures, gas and flames emissions, strong underground rumours). In many of these sanctuaries the sacred area is laid directly above the active fault. In a few cases, faulting has affected also the archaeological relics, right through the main temple (e.g. Delphi, Cnidus, Hierapolis of Phrygia). As such, the arrangement of the cult site and content of relative myths suggest that specific points along the trace of active faults have been noticed in the past and worshiped as special `sacred' places, most likely interpreted as Hades' Doors. The mythological stratification of most of these sanctuaries dates back to prehistory, and points to a common derivation from the cult of the Mother Goddess (the Lady of the Doors), which was largely widespread since at least 25000 BC. The cult itself was later reconverted into various different divinities, while the `sacred doors' of the Great Goddess and/or the dragons (offspring of Mother Earth and generally regarded as Keepers of the Doors) persisted in more recent mythologies. Piccardi L., 1999: The "Footprints" of the Archangel: Evidence of Early-Medieval Surface Faulting at Monte Sant'Angelo (Gargano, Italy

  9. Digital Shaded-Relief Image of Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riehle, J.R.; Fleming, Michael D.; Molnia, B.F.; Dover, J.H.; Kelley, J.S.; Miller, M.L.; Nokleberg, W.J.; Plafker, George; Till, A.B.

    1997-01-01

    Introduction One of the most spectacular physiographic images of the conterminous United States, and the first to have been produced digitally, is that by Thelin and Pike (USGS I-2206, 1991). The image is remarkable for its crispness of detail and for the natural appearance of the artificial land surface. Our goal has been to produce a shaded-relief image of Alaska that has the same look and feel as the Thelin and Pike image. The Alaskan image could have been produced at the same scale as its lower 48 counterpart (1:3,500,000). But by insetting the Aleutian Islands into the Gulf of Alaska, we were able to print the Alaska map at a larger scale (1:2,500,000) and about the same physical size as the Thelin and Pike image. Benefits of the 1:2,500,000 scale are (1) greater resolution of topographic features and (2) ease of reference to the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) (1987) Alaska Map E and the statewide geologic map (Beikman, 1980), which are both 1:2,500,000 scale. Manually drawn, shaded-relief images of Alaska's land surface have long been available (for example, Department of the Interior, 1909; Raisz, 1948). The topography depicted on these early maps is mainly schematic. Maps showing topographic contours were first available for the entire State in 1953 (USGS, 1:250,000) (J.H. Wittmann, USGS, written commun., 1996). The Alaska Map E was initially released in 1954 in both planimetric (revised in 1973 and 1987) and shaded-relief versions (revised in 1973, 1987, and 1996); topography depicted on the shaded-relief version is based on the 1:250,000-scale USGS topographic maps. Alaska Map E was later modified to include hypsometric tinting by Raven Maps and Images (1989, revised 1993) as copyrighted versions. Other shaded-relief images were produced for The National Geographic Magazine (LaGorce, 1956; 1:3,000,000) or drawn by Harrison (1970; 1:7,500,000) for The National Atlas of the United States. Recently, the State of Alaska digitally produced a shaded-relief image

  10. Medications for Pain Relief during Labor and Delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... FAQ086 LABOR, DELIVERY, AND POSTPARTUM CARE Medications for Pain Relief During Labor and Delivery • What types of medications for pain relief are used during labor and delivery? • What are ...

  11. Mechanical Designs for Relief Valves for Cryogenic Apparatuses and Installations

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2016-01-01

    There are also pressure relief valves with warm seat available on which the set pressure is based on an adjustment of forces by permanent magnets. Pressure vessel rules allows also the choice for an active triggered pressure relief valve (Cont...

  12. LAMPF first-fault identifier for fast transient faults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swanson, A.R.; Hill, R.E.

    1979-01-01

    The LAMPF accelerator is presently producing 800-MeV proton beams at 0.5 mA average current. Machine protection for such a high-intensity accelerator requires a fast shutdown mechanism, which can turn off the beam within a few microseconds of the occurrence of a machine fault. The resulting beam unloading transients cause the rf systems to exceed control loop tolerances and consequently generate multiple fault indications for identification by the control computer. The problem is to isolate the primary fault or cause of beam shutdown while disregarding as many as 50 secondary fault indications that occur as a result of beam shutdown. The LAMPF First-Fault Identifier (FFI) for fast transient faults is operational and has proven capable of first-fault identification. The FFI design utilized features of the Fast Protection System that were previously implemented for beam chopping and rf power conservation. No software changes were required

  13. Late-Cenozoic relief evolution under evolving climate: A review

    OpenAIRE

    Champagnac Jean Daniel; Valla Pierre G.; Herman Frédéric

    2014-01-01

    The present review paper is an attempt to summarize quantitative evidence of Late Cenozoic changes in topographic relief. Different meanings of the word "relief" as it is commonly used and detail the metrics used to quantify it. We then specify methodological tools used to quantify relief change (primarily low temperature thermochronometry and terrestrial cosmogenic nuclides) and analyze published evidence for different regions.Our review first shows that relief changes and rates of changes a...

  14. Fault-tolerant computing systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dal Cin, M.; Hohl, W.

    1991-01-01

    Tests, Diagnosis and Fault Treatment were chosen as the guiding themes of the conference. However, the scope of the conference included reliability, availability, safety and security issues in software and hardware systems as well. The sessions were organized for the conference which was completed by an industrial presentation: Keynote Address, Reconfiguration and Recover, System Level Diagnosis, Voting and Agreement, Testing, Fault-Tolerant Circuits, Array Testing, Modelling, Applied Fault Tolerance, Fault-Tolerant Arrays and Systems, Interconnection Networks, Fault-Tolerant Software. One paper has been indexed separately in the database. (orig./HP)

  15. Fault rocks and uranium mineralization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tong Hangshou.

    1991-01-01

    The types of fault rocks, microstructural characteristics of fault tectonite and their relationship with uranium mineralization in the uranium-productive granite area are discussed. According to the synthetic analysis on nature of stress, extent of crack and microstructural characteristics of fault rocks, they can be classified into five groups and sixteen subgroups. The author especially emphasizes the control of cataclasite group and fault breccia group over uranium mineralization in the uranium-productive granite area. It is considered that more effective study should be made on the macrostructure and microstructure of fault rocks. It is of an important practical significance in uranium exploration

  16. Network Fault Diagnosis Using DSM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiang Hao; Yan Pu-liu; Chen Xiao; Wu Jing

    2004-01-01

    Difference similitude matrix (DSM) is effective in reducing information system with its higher reduction rate and higher validity. We use DSM method to analyze the fault data of computer networks and obtain the fault diagnosis rules. Through discretizing the relative value of fault data, we get the information system of the fault data. DSM method reduces the information system and gets the diagnosis rules. The simulation with the actual scenario shows that the fault diagnosis based on DSM can obtain few and effective rules.

  17. Crisis Communication Practices at an International Relief Agency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genova, Gina L.

    2006-01-01

    When a disaster strikes, the affected population relies upon the swift response and aid rendered by relief organizations such as the California-based Direct Relief International. Since 1948, Direct Relief's mission has been to provide essential material resources to locally run health programs in areas affected by natural disasters, wars, and…

  18. 48 CFR 252.229-7001 - Tax relief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Tax relief. 252.229-7001... Clauses 252.229-7001 Tax relief. As prescribed in 229.402-70(a), use the following clause: Tax Relief (JUN 1997) (a) Prices set forth in this contract are exclusive of all taxes and duties from which the United...

  19. 19 CFR 210.52 - Motions for temporary relief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ....52 Customs Duties UNITED STATES INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION INVESTIGATIONS OF UNFAIR PRACTICES IN IMPORT TRADE ADJUDICATION AND ENFORCEMENT Temporary Relief § 210.52 Motions for temporary relief... issuance of temporary relief, the Commission will be guided by practice under Rule 65 of the Federal Rules...

  20. Photobiomodulation: Implications for Anesthesia and Pain Relief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Roberta T; Armati, Patricia J

    2016-12-01

    This review examines the evidence of neural inhibition as a mechanism underlying pain relief and anesthetic effect of photobiomodulation (PBM). PBM for pain relief has also been used for more than 30 years; however, the mechanism of its effectiveness has not been well understood. We review electrophysiological studies in humans and animal models and cell culture studies to examine neural responses to PBM. Evidence shows that PBM can inhibit nerve function in vivo, in situ, ex vivo, and in culture. Animal studies using noxious stimuli indicate nociceptor-specific inhibition with other studies providing direct evidence of local conduction block, leading to inhibited translation of pain centrally. Evidence of PBM-disrupted neuronal physiology affecting axonal flow, cytoskeleton organization, and decreased ATP is also presented. PBM changes are reversible with no side effects or nerve damage. This review provides strong evidence in neuroscience identifying inhibition of neural function as a mechanism for the clinical application of PBM in pain and anesthesia.

  1. Reports of "satisfactory relief" by IBS patients receiving usual medical care are confounded by baseline symptom severity and do not accurately reflect symptom improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehead, William E; Palsson, Olafur S; Levy, Rona L; Feld, Andrew D; VonKorff, Michael; Turner, Marsha

    2006-05-01

    Treatment trials for irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) usually define a responder as a patient who reports satisfactory relief or adequate relief of symptoms at the end of the trial. However, these measures have not been adequately validated. (1) Compare a binary satisfactory relief measure to alternative ways of defining a treatment responder. (2) Determine whether baseline IBS symptom severity or psychological distress influence the sensitivity of these outcome measures. A total of 350 patients (81% females, average age 50 yr) who had a medical diagnosis of IBS and satisfied Rome II criteria, were recruited from Group Health Cooperative of Puget Sound. At baseline the Irritable Bowel Severity Scale (IBSS) was used to assess symptom severity and to classify patients as mild, moderate, or severe. Psychological distress and IBS-specific quality of life (IBS-QOL) were also assessed. After 6 months treatment with standard medical care, IBSS and IBS-QOL were reassessed, and patients were asked whether they had experienced satisfactory relief and whether they were somewhat or markedly better. Initial severity of IBS significantly affected the proportion who reported satisfactory relief (mild, 72%; moderate, 53%; severe, 44%) and the proportion who were somewhat or markedly better (mild, 62%; moderate, 44%; severe, 38%), but did not affect the proportion with a 50% reduction in symptoms (mild, 26%; moderate, 25%; severe, 23%). Although mild patients were the most likely to report satisfactory relief, they showed no average decrease in symptom severity or improvement in IBS-QOL. Conversely, severe patients, who were the least likely to report satisfactory relief, had the largest reductions in IBS symptom severity and the largest improvements in IBS-QOL. Psychological distress had no significant effect on the responder rate after adjusting for IBS symptom severity. These data from a descriptive study suggest that satisfactory relief is confounded with initial IBS symptom

  2. Coordinating Robot Teams for Disaster Relief

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-01

    eventually guide vehicles in cooperation with its Operator(s), but in this paper we assume static mission goals, a fixed number of vehicles, and a...is tedious and error prone. Kress-Gazit et al. (2009) instead synthesize an FSA from an LTL specification using a game theory approach (Bloem et al...helping an Operator coordinate a team of vehicles in Disaster Relief. Acknowledgements Thanks to OSD ASD (R&E) for sponsoring this research. The

  3. Relief Evolution in Tectonically Active Mountain Ranges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whipple, Kelin X.

    2004-01-01

    The overall aims of this 3-yr project, as originally proposed were to: (1) investigate quantitatively the roles of fluvial and glacial erosion in the evolution of relief in mountainous regions, and (2) test rigorously the quality and accuracy of SRTM topographic data in areas of rugged relief - both the most challenging and of greatest interest to geomorphic, neotectonic, and hazards applications. Natural laboratories in both the western US and the Southern Alps of New Zealand were identified as most promising. The project has been both successful and productive, despite the fact that no SRTM data for our primary field sites in New Zealand were released on the time frame of the work effort. Given the delayed release of SRTM data, we pursued the scientific questions of the roles of fluvial and, especially, glacial erosion in the evolution of relief in mountainous regions using available digital elevation models (DEMs) for the Southern Alps of New Zealand (available at both 25m and 50m pixel sizes), and USGS 10m and 30m DEMs within the Western US. As emphasized in the original proposal, we chose the emphasis on the role of glacial modification of topographic relief because there has been little quantitative investigation of glacial erosion processes at landscape scale. This is particularly surprising considering the dramatic sculpting of most mid- and high-latitude mountain ranges, the prodigious quantities of glacially-derived sediment in terrestrial and marine basins, and the current cross-disciplinary interest in the role of denudational processes in orogenesis and the evolution of topography in general. Moreover, the evolution of glaciated landscapes is not only a fundamental problem in geomorphology in its own right, but also is at the heart of the debate over Late Cenozoic linkages between climate and tectonics.

  4. Venting of gas deflagrations through relief pipes

    OpenAIRE

    Ferrara, Gabriele

    2006-01-01

    Vent devices for gas and dust explosions are often ducted to safety locations by means of relief pipes for the discharge of hot combustion products or blast waves (NFPA 68, 2002). The presence of the duct is likely to increase the severity of the explosion with respect to simply vented vessels posing a problem for the proper design of this venting configuration. The phenomenology of the vented explosion is complicated as the interaction of combustion in the duct with primary combustion in...

  5. San Gabriel Mountains, California, Shaded relief, color as height

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    This topographic image shows the relationship of the urban area of Pasadena, California to the natural contours of the land. The image includes the alluvial plain on which Pasadena and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory sit, and the steep range of the San Gabriel Mountains. The mountain front and the arcuate valley running from upper left to the lower right are active fault zones, along which the mountains are rising. The chaparral-covered slopes above Pasadena are also a prime area for wildfires and mudslides. Hazards from earthquakes, floods and fires are intimately related to the topography in this area. Topographic data and other remote sensing images provide valuable information for assessing and mitigating the natural hazards for cities along the front of active mountain ranges.This shaded relief image was generated using topographic data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission. A computer-generated artificial light source illuminates the elevation data to produce a pattern of light and shadows. Slopes facing the light appear bright, while those facing away are shaded. On flatter surfaces, the pattern of light and shadows can reveal subtle features in the terrain. Colors show the elevation as measured by SRTM. Colors range from blue at the lowest elevations to white at the highest elevations. This image contains about 2300 meters (7500 feet) of total relief. White speckles on the face of some of the mountains are holes in the data caused by steep terrain. These will be filled using coverage from an intersecting pass.The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), launched on February 11,2000, uses the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. The mission is designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, an additional C-band imaging antenna

  6. Fault activity characteristics in the northern margin of the Tibetan Plateau before the Menyuan Ms6.4 earthquake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongzhuo Xu

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Fault deformation characteristics in the northern margin of the Tibetan Plateau before the Menyuan Ms6.4 earthquake are investigated through time-series and structural geological analysis based on cross-fault observation data from the Qilian Mountain–Haiyuan Fault belt and the West Qinling Fault belt. The results indicate: 1 Group short-term abnormal variations appeared in the Qilian Mountain–Haiyuan Fault belt and the West Qinling Fault belt before the Menyuan Ms6.4 earthquake. 2 More medium and short-term anomalies appear in the middle-eastern segment of the Qilian Mountain Fault belt and the West Qinling Fault belt, suggesting that the faults' activities are strong in these areas. The faults' activities in the middle-eastern segment of the Qilian Fault belt result from extensional stress, as before the earthquake, whereas those in the West Qinling Fault belt are mainly compressional. 3 In recent years, moderate-strong earthquakes occurred in both the Kunlun Mountain and the Qilian Mountain Fault belts, and some energy was released. It is possible that the seismicity moved eastward under this regime. Therefore, we should pay attention to the West Qinling Mountain area where an Ms6–7 earthquake could occur in future.

  7. Anticipation and choice heuristics in the dynamic consumption of pain relief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Story, Giles W; Vlaev, Ivo; Dayan, Peter; Seymour, Ben; Darzi, Ara; Dolan, Raymond J

    2015-03-01

    Humans frequently need to allocate resources across multiple time-steps. Economic theory proposes that subjects do so according to a stable set of intertemporal preferences, but the computational demands of such decisions encourage the use of formally less competent heuristics. Few empirical studies have examined dynamic resource allocation decisions systematically. Here we conducted an experiment involving the dynamic consumption over approximately 15 minutes of a limited budget of relief from moderately painful stimuli. We had previously elicited the participants' time preferences for the same painful stimuli in one-off choices, allowing us to assess self-consistency. Participants exhibited three characteristic behaviors: saving relief until the end, spreading relief across time, and early spending, of which the last was markedly less prominent. The likelihood that behavior was heuristic rather than normative is suggested by the weak correspondence between one-off and dynamic choices. We show that the consumption choices are consistent with a combination of simple heuristics involving early-spending, spreading or saving of relief until the end, with subjects predominantly exhibiting the last two.

  8. Anticipation and Choice Heuristics in the Dynamic Consumption of Pain Relief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Story, Giles W.; Vlaev, Ivo; Dayan, Peter; Seymour, Ben; Darzi, Ara; Dolan, Raymond J.

    2015-01-01

    Humans frequently need to allocate resources across multiple time-steps. Economic theory proposes that subjects do so according to a stable set of intertemporal preferences, but the computational demands of such decisions encourage the use of formally less competent heuristics. Few empirical studies have examined dynamic resource allocation decisions systematically. Here we conducted an experiment involving the dynamic consumption over approximately 15 minutes of a limited budget of relief from moderately painful stimuli. We had previously elicited the participants’ time preferences for the same painful stimuli in one-off choices, allowing us to assess self-consistency. Participants exhibited three characteristic behaviors: saving relief until the end, spreading relief across time, and early spending, of which the last was markedly less prominent. The likelihood that behavior was heuristic rather than normative is suggested by the weak correspondence between one-off and dynamic choices. We show that the consumption choices are consistent with a combination of simple heuristics involving early-spending, spreading or saving of relief until the end, with subjects predominantly exhibiting the last two. PMID:25793302

  9. Faults in Linux

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palix, Nicolas Jean-Michel; Thomas, Gaël; Saha, Suman

    2011-01-01

    In 2001, Chou et al. published a study of faults found by applying a static analyzer to Linux versions 1.0 through 2.4.1. A major result of their work was that the drivers directory contained up to 7 times more of certain kinds of faults than other directories. This result inspired a number...... of development and research efforts on improving the reliability of driver code. Today Linux is used in a much wider range of environments, provides a much wider range of services, and has adopted a new development and release model. What has been the impact of these changes on code quality? Are drivers still...... a major problem? To answer these questions, we have transported the experiments of Chou et al. to Linux versions 2.6.0 to 2.6.33, released between late 2003 and early 2010. We find that Linux has more than doubled in size during this period, but that the number of faults per line of code has been...

  10. The Sorong Fault Zone, Indonesia: Mapping a Fault Zone Offshore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melia, S.; Hall, R.

    2017-12-01

    The Sorong Fault Zone is a left-lateral strike-slip fault zone in eastern Indonesia, extending westwards from the Bird's Head peninsula of West Papua towards Sulawesi. It is the result of interactions between the Pacific, Caroline, Philippine Sea, and Australian Plates and much of it is offshore. Previous research on the fault zone has been limited by the low resolution of available data offshore, leading to debates over the extent, location, and timing of movements, and the tectonic evolution of eastern Indonesia. Different studies have shown it north of the Sula Islands, truncated south of Halmahera, continuing to Sulawesi, or splaying into a horsetail fan of smaller faults. Recently acquired high resolution multibeam bathymetry of the seafloor (with a resolution of 15-25 meters), and 2D seismic lines, provide the opportunity to trace the fault offshore. The position of different strands can be identified. On land, SRTM topography shows that in the northern Bird's Head the fault zone is characterised by closely spaced E-W trending faults. NW of the Bird's Head offshore there is a fold and thrust belt which terminates some strands. To the west of the Bird's Head offshore the fault zone diverges into multiple strands trending ENE-WSW. Regions of Riedel shearing are evident west of the Bird's Head, indicating sinistral strike-slip motion. Further west, the ENE-WSW trending faults turn to an E-W trend and there are at least three fault zones situated immediately south of Halmahera, north of the Sula Islands, and between the islands of Sanana and Mangole where the fault system terminates in horsetail strands. South of the Sula islands some former normal faults at the continent-ocean boundary with the North Banda Sea are being reactivated as strike-slip faults. The fault zone does not currently reach Sulawesi. The new fault map differs from previous interpretations concerning the location, age and significance of different parts of the Sorong Fault Zone. Kinematic

  11. ESR dating of fault rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Hee Kwon

    2003-02-01

    Past movement on faults can be dated by measurement of the intensity of ESR signals in quartz. These signals are reset by local lattice deformation and local frictional heating on grain contacts at the time of fault movement. The ESR signals then grow back as a result of bombardment by ionizing radiation from surrounding rocks. The age is obtained from the ratio of the equivalent dose, needed to produce the observed signal, to the dose rate. Fine grains are more completely reset during faulting, and a plot of age vs. grain size shows a plateau for grains below critical size; these grains are presumed to have been completely zeroed by the last fault activity. We carried out ESR dating of fault rocks collected near the Gori nuclear reactor. Most of the ESR signals of fault rocks collected from the basement are saturated. This indicates that the last movement of the faults had occurred before the Quaternary period. However, ESR dates from the Oyong fault zone range from 370 to 310 ka. Results of this research suggest that long-term cyclic fault activity of the Oyong fault zone continued into the Pleistocene

  12. Large earthquakes and creeping faults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Ruth A.

    2017-01-01

    Faults are ubiquitous throughout the Earth's crust. The majority are silent for decades to centuries, until they suddenly rupture and produce earthquakes. With a focus on shallow continental active-tectonic regions, this paper reviews a subset of faults that have a different behavior. These unusual faults slowly creep for long periods of time and produce many small earthquakes. The presence of fault creep and the related microseismicity helps illuminate faults that might not otherwise be located in fine detail, but there is also the question of how creeping faults contribute to seismic hazard. It appears that well-recorded creeping fault earthquakes of up to magnitude 6.6 that have occurred in shallow continental regions produce similar fault-surface rupture areas and similar peak ground shaking as their locked fault counterparts of the same earthquake magnitude. The behavior of much larger earthquakes on shallow creeping continental faults is less well known, because there is a dearth of comprehensive observations. Computational simulations provide an opportunity to fill the gaps in our understanding, particularly of the dynamic processes that occur during large earthquake rupture and arrest.

  13. ESR dating of fault rocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hee Kwon [Kangwon National Univ., Chuncheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-02-15

    Past movement on faults can be dated by measurement of the intensity of ESR signals in quartz. These signals are reset by local lattice deformation and local frictional heating on grain contacts at the time of fault movement. The ESR signals then grow back as a result of bombardment by ionizing radiation from surrounding rocks. The age is obtained from the ratio of the equivalent dose, needed to produce the observed signal, to the dose rate. Fine grains are more completely reset during faulting, and a plot of age vs. grain size shows a plateau for grains below critical size; these grains are presumed to have been completely zeroed by the last fault activity. We carried out ESR dating of fault rocks collected near the Gori nuclear reactor. Most of the ESR signals of fault rocks collected from the basement are saturated. This indicates that the last movement of the faults had occurred before the Quaternary period. However, ESR dates from the Oyong fault zone range from 370 to 310 ka. Results of this research suggest that long-term cyclic fault activity of the Oyong fault zone continued into the Pleistocene.

  14. Vibration monitoring and fault diagnostics of a thermal power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hafeez, T.; Ghani, R.; Chohan, G.Y.; Amir, M.

    2003-01-01

    A thermal power plant was monitored from HP-turbine to the generator end. The vibration data at different plant locations was obtained with the help of a data collector/analyzer. The spectra of-all locations generate the symptoms for different problems of moderate and high vibration levels like bent shaft, misalignment in the exciter rotor and three couplings, mechanical looseness on generator and exciter sides. The possible causes of these faults are discussed on the basis of presented vibration spectra in this paper. The faults were later on rectified on the basis of this diagnostics. (author)

  15. Real-time fault diagnosis and fault-tolerant control

    OpenAIRE

    Gao, Zhiwei; Ding, Steven X.; Cecati, Carlo

    2015-01-01

    This "Special Section on Real-Time Fault Diagnosis and Fault-Tolerant Control" of the IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics is motivated to provide a forum for academic and industrial communities to report recent theoretic/application results in real-time monitoring, diagnosis, and fault-tolerant design, and exchange the ideas about the emerging research direction in this field. Twenty-three papers were eventually selected through a strict peer-reviewed procedure, which represent the mo...

  16. Imaging of Subsurface Faults using Refraction Migration with Fault Flooding

    KAUST Repository

    Metwally, Ahmed Mohsen Hassan

    2017-05-31

    We propose a novel method for imaging shallow faults by migration of transmitted refraction arrivals. The assumption is that there is a significant velocity contrast across the fault boundary that is underlain by a refracting interface. This procedure, denoted as refraction migration with fault flooding, largely overcomes the difficulty in imaging shallow faults with seismic surveys. Numerical results successfully validate this method on three synthetic examples and two field-data sets. The first field-data set is next to the Gulf of Aqaba and the second example is from a seismic profile recorded in Arizona. The faults detected by refraction migration in the Gulf of Aqaba data were in agreement with those indicated in a P-velocity tomogram. However, a new fault is detected at the end of the migration image that is not clearly seen in the traveltime tomogram. This result is similar to that for the Arizona data where the refraction image showed faults consistent with those seen in the P-velocity tomogram, except it also detected an antithetic fault at the end of the line. This fault cannot be clearly seen in the traveltime tomogram due to the limited ray coverage.

  17. Imaging of Subsurface Faults using Refraction Migration with Fault Flooding

    KAUST Repository

    Metwally, Ahmed Mohsen Hassan; Hanafy, Sherif; Guo, Bowen; Kosmicki, Maximillian Sunflower

    2017-01-01

    We propose a novel method for imaging shallow faults by migration of transmitted refraction arrivals. The assumption is that there is a significant velocity contrast across the fault boundary that is underlain by a refracting interface. This procedure, denoted as refraction migration with fault flooding, largely overcomes the difficulty in imaging shallow faults with seismic surveys. Numerical results successfully validate this method on three synthetic examples and two field-data sets. The first field-data set is next to the Gulf of Aqaba and the second example is from a seismic profile recorded in Arizona. The faults detected by refraction migration in the Gulf of Aqaba data were in agreement with those indicated in a P-velocity tomogram. However, a new fault is detected at the end of the migration image that is not clearly seen in the traveltime tomogram. This result is similar to that for the Arizona data where the refraction image showed faults consistent with those seen in the P-velocity tomogram, except it also detected an antithetic fault at the end of the line. This fault cannot be clearly seen in the traveltime tomogram due to the limited ray coverage.

  18. Moderator mixing after a pressure tube failure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacKinnon, J.C.; Fortman, R.A.; Hadaller, G.I.

    1997-01-01

    During a guaranteed shutdown state (GSS) in a CANDU reactor, there must be sufficient negative reactivity to ensure subcriticality in the event of a process failure. In one of the acceptable states, the reactor is kept subcritical by a high concentration of a neutron-absorbing chemical (the poison gadolinium nitrate) dissolved in the moderator (i.e., the moderator is guaranteed overpoisoned). A postulated accident scenario which is considered as a part of reactor safety analysis is the rupture of a fuel channel (i.e., a pressure tube/calandria tube break) when the reactor is in a GSS. If one of the channels in the core breaks (requiring a simultaneous failure of both the pressure tube and the surrounding calandria tube), coolant from the primary heat transport system will be discharged into the moderator, causing an associated displacement of fluid through relief ducts at the top of the calandria vessel. The incoming (unpoisoned) coolant may mix quickly with the moderator, or may mix slowly while displacing poisoned moderator through the relief ducts. The effectiveness of mixing generally depends on the break location, the coolant discharge rate and the moderator circulation. If an in-core loss of coolant accident occurred while the reactor is in this overpoisoned state, it must be guaranteed that even with the dilution of the poison by the incoming coolant the reactor will remain subcritical on both a local and global basis. This paper presents an overview of an experimental program in progress at the Moderator Test Facility at Stern Laboratories to investigate coolant/poison mixing for a simulated in-core fishmouth pressure tube/calandria tube rupture. The nominal system conditions investigated are of a reactor in a GSS, with coolant in the primary heat transport system at the same temperature as the heavily poisoned moderator, i.e., a depressurised 'cold' state. The results presented are those obtained during the commissioning of the modified Test Facility. The

  19. Wilshire fault: Earthquakes in Hollywood?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hummon, Cheryl; Schneider, Craig L.; Yeats, Robert S.; Dolan, James F.; Sieh, Kerry E.; Huftile, Gary J.

    1994-04-01

    The Wilshire fault is a potentially seismogenic, blind thrust fault inferred to underlie and cause the Wilshire arch, a Quaternary fold in the Hollywood area, just west of downtown Los Angeles, California. Two inverse models, based on the Wilshire arch, allow us to estimate the location and slip rate of the Wilshire fault, which may be illuminated by a zone of microearthquakes. A fault-bend fold model indicates a reverse-slip rate of 1.5-1.9 mm/yr, whereas a three-dimensional elastic-dislocation model indicates a right-reverse slip rate of 2.6-3.2 mm/yr. The Wilshire fault is a previously unrecognized seismic hazard directly beneath Hollywood and Beverly Hills, distinct from the faults under the nearby Santa Monica Mountains.

  20. What is Fault Tolerant Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blanke, Mogens; Frei, C. W.; Kraus, K.

    2000-01-01

    Faults in automated processes will often cause undesired reactions and shut-down of a controlled plant, and the consequences could be damage to the plant, to personnel or the environment. Fault-tolerant control is the synonym for a set of recent techniques that were developed to increase plant...... availability and reduce the risk of safety hazards. Its aim is to prevent that simple faults develop into serious failure. Fault-tolerant control merges several disciplines to achieve this goal, including on-line fault diagnosis, automatic condition assessment and calculation of remedial actions when a fault...... is detected. The envelope of the possible remedial actions is wide. This paper introduces tools to analyze and explore structure and other fundamental properties of an automated system such that any redundancy in the process can be fully utilized to enhance safety and a availability....

  1. LOFT pressurizer safety: relief valve reliability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, E.S.

    1978-01-01

    The LOFT pressurizer self-actuating safety-relief valves are constructed to the present state-of-the-art and should have reliability equivalent to the valves in use on PWR plants in the U.S. There have been no NRC incident reports on valve failures to lift that would challenge the Technical Specification Safety Limit. Fourteen valves have been reported as lifting a few percentage points outside the +-1% Tech. Spec. surveillance tolerance (9 valves tested over and 5 valves tested under specification). There have been no incident reports on failures to reseat. The LOFT surveillance program for assuring reliability is equivalent to nuclear industry practice

  2. LOFT pressurizer safety: relief valve reliability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, E.S.

    1978-01-18

    The LOFT pressurizer self-actuating safety-relief valves are constructed to the present state-of-the-art and should have reliability equivalent to the valves in use on PWR plants in the U.S. There have been no NRC incident reports on valve failures to lift that would challenge the Technical Specification Safety Limit. Fourteen valves have been reported as lifting a few percentage points outside the +-1% Tech. Spec. surveillance tolerance (9 valves tested over and 5 valves tested under specification). There have been no incident reports on failures to reseat. The LOFT surveillance program for assuring reliability is equivalent to nuclear industry practice.

  3. Shaded Relief of Rio Sao Francisco, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    This topographic image acquired by SRTM shows an area south of the Sao Francisco River in Brazil. The scrub forest terrain shows relief of about 400 meters (1300 feet). Areas such as these are difficult to map by traditional methods because of frequent cloud cover and local inaccessibility. This region has little topographic relief, but even subtle changes in topography have far-reaching effects on regional ecosystems. The image covers an area of 57 km x 79 km and represents one quarter of the 225 km SRTM swath. Colors range from dark blue at water level to white and brown at hill tops. The terrain features that are clearly visible in this image include tributaries of the Sao Francisco, the dark-blue branch-like features visible from top right to bottom left, and on the left edge of the image, and hills rising up from the valley floor. The San Francisco River is a major source of water for irrigation and hydroelectric power. Mapping such regions will allow scientists to better understand the relationships between flooding cycles, forestation and human influences on ecosystems.This shaded relief image was generated using topographic data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission. A computer-generated artificial light source illuminates the elevation data to produce a pattern of light and shadows. Slopes facing the light appear bright, while those facing away are shaded. On flatter surfaces, the pattern of light and shadows can reveal subtle features in the terrain. Shaded relief maps are commonly used in applications such as geologic mapping and land use planning.The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), launched on February 11, 2000, uses the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. The mission is designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200

  4. Pain relief in labour: tramadol versus pentazocine

    OpenAIRE

    Kavita Chandnani; H. B. Sainee

    2013-01-01

    Background: The present study was undertaken to compare the effect of 100 mg intramuscular tramadol to 30 mg intramuscular Pentazocine for labour analgesia. Methods: A total of 60 cases with 37-40 weeks pregnancy in labour, without any foetal or maternal complications were selected. Out of them Inj. Tramadol was given to 30 cases while rest of the 30 patients received injection Pentazocine. Results: In Tramadol group pain relief was observed in 80% cases, effect started as early as 7-8 min an...

  5. Targinact--opioid pain relief without constipation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-01

    Targinact (Napp Pharmaceuticals Ltd) is a modified-release combination product containing the strong opioid oxycodone plus the opioid antagonist naloxone. It is licensed for "severe pain, which can be adequately managed only with opioid analgesics".1 The summary of product characteristics (SPC) states that "naloxone is added to counteract opioid-induced constipation by blocking the action of oxycodone at opioid receptors locally in the gut". Advertising for the product claims "better pain relief", "superior GI [gastrointestinal] tolerability" and "improved quality of life" "compared to previous treatment in a clinical practice study (n=7836)". Here we consider whether Targinact offers advantages over using strong opioids plus laxatives where required.

  6. [Body integrity identity disorder, relief after amputation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blom, R M; Braam, A W; de Boer-Kreeft, N; Sonnen, M P A M

    2014-01-01

    Body integrity identity disorder (BIID) is a rare condition in which a person, for no apparent physical reason, is tormented by the experience that a body-part, such as a limb, does not really belong to the body. Patients experience an intense desire for the limb to be amputated (a 'desire' formerly referred to as 'apotemnophilia'). We report on a 58-year-old male patient with BIID who froze one of his legs so that he could amputate it himself. A surgeon ultimately intervened and amputated the leg professionally. The patient was extremely relieved and was still experiencing relief at a follow-up three years later.

  7. Predictors of early dyspnoea relief in acute heart failure and the association with 30-day outcomes: findings from ASCEND-HF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mentz, Robert J.; Hernandez, Adrian F.; Stebbins, Amanda; Ezekowitz, Justin A.; Felker, G. Michael; Heizer, Gretchen M.; Atar, Dan; Teerlink, John R.; Califf, Robert M.; Massie, Barry M.; Hasselblad, Vic; Starling, Randall C.; O'Connor, Christopher M.; Ponikowski, Piotr

    2013-01-01

    Aims To examine the characteristics associated with early dyspnoea relief during acute heart failure (HF) hospitalization, and its association with 30-day outcomes. Methods and results ASCEND-HF was a randomized trial of nesiritide vs. placebo in 7141 patients hospitalized with acute HF in which dyspnoea relief at 6 h was measured on a 7-point Likert scale. Patients were classified as having early dyspnoea relief if they experienced moderate or marked dyspnoea improvement at 6 h. We analysed the clinical characteristics, geographical variation, and outcomes (mortality, mortality/HF hospitalization, and mortality/hospitalization at 30 days) associated with early dyspnoea relief. Early dyspnoea relief occurred in 2984 patients (43%). In multivariable analyses, predictors of dyspnoea relief included older age and oedema on chest radiograph; higher systolic blood pressure, respiratory rate, and natriuretic peptide level; and lower serum blood urea nitrogen (BUN), sodium, and haemoglobin (model mean C index = 0.590). Dyspnoea relief varied markedly across countries, with patients enrolled from Central Europe having the lowest risk-adjusted likelihood of improvement. Early dyspnoea relief was associated with lower risk-adjusted 30-day mortality/HF hospitalization [hazard ratio (HR) 0.81; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.68–0.96] and mortality/hospitalization (HR 0.85; 95% CI 0.74–0.99), but similar mortality. Conclusion Clinical characteristics such as respiratory rate, pulmonary oedema, renal function, and natriuretic peptide levels are associated with early dyspnoea relief, and moderate or marked improvement in dyspnoea was associated with a lower risk for 30-day outcomes. PMID:23159547

  8. Advanced cloud fault tolerance system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumangali, K.; Benny, Niketa

    2017-11-01

    Cloud computing has become a prevalent on-demand service on the internet to store, manage and process data. A pitfall that accompanies cloud computing is the failures that can be encountered in the cloud. To overcome these failures, we require a fault tolerance mechanism to abstract faults from users. We have proposed a fault tolerant architecture, which is a combination of proactive and reactive fault tolerance. This architecture essentially increases the reliability and the availability of the cloud. In the future, we would like to compare evaluations of our proposed architecture with existing architectures and further improve it.

  9. Final Technical Report: PV Fault Detection Tool.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, Bruce Hardison [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Jones, Christian Birk [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-12-01

    The PV Fault Detection Tool project plans to demonstrate that the FDT can (a) detect catastrophic and degradation faults and (b) identify the type of fault. This will be accomplished by collecting fault signatures using different instruments and integrating this information to establish a logical controller for detecting, diagnosing and classifying each fault.

  10. A clinical trial comparing Lanconone® with ibuprofen for rapid relief in acute joint pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girandola, Robert N; Srivastava, Shalini; Loullis, Costas C

    2016-04-06

    To study the effect of Lanconone® (1000 mg) on acute pain on exertion as compared to the standard of care, Ibuprofen (400 mg). The study recruited 72 subjects diagnosed with mild to moderate knee joint pain on exertion. Subjects with Pain Visual Analogue Scale of more than 40 mm were included. Uphill walking was provided as the stressor using Naughton's protocol on a treadmill. The subjects walked for 10 minutes continuously followed by a rest period and baseline pain score for index knee joint was recorded. Subjects were administered a single dose of Lanconone® (1000 mg)/Ibuprofen (400 mg). Thereafter the same stressor was provided at 0.5, 1, 2, 3, 4, and 6 hours, subsequently, pain scores were recorded on a visual analogue scale. Double stopwatch method was used to evaluate the onset of pain relief and time taken to meaningful pain relief. Both Lanconone® and Ibuprofen showed the first perceived pain relief at 65.31 ± 35.57 mins as compared to 60.82 ± 32.56 mins respectively. The mean time taken to experience meaningful pain relief in Lanconone® group was 196.59 ± 70.85 mins compared to 167.13 ± 71.41 mins amongst Ibuprofen group. The meaningful pain relief continued for 6 hours. The current study successfully demonstrated rapid pain-relieving potential of Lanconone® which was comparable to Ibuprofen. No adverse event related to the interventions was reported in the study. Clinical trials.gov NCT02417506 . 21 January 2015.

  11. Effectiveness of the World Health Organization cancer pain relief guidelines: an integrative review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Cathy L

    2016-01-01

    Inadequate cancer pain relief has been documented extensively across historical records. In response, in 1986, the World Health Organization (WHO) developed guidelines for cancer pain treatment. The purpose of this paper is to disseminate the results of a comprehensive, integrative review of studies that evaluate the effectiveness of the WHO guidelines. Studies were included if they: 1) identified patients treated with the guidelines, 2) evaluated self-reported pain, 3) identified instruments used, 4) provided data documenting pain relief, and 5) were written in English. Studies were coded for duration of treatment, definition of pain relief, instruments used, findings related to pain intensity or relief, and whether measures were used other than the WHO analgesic ladder. Twenty-five studies published since 1987 met the inclusion criteria. Evidence indicates 20%–100% of patients with cancer pain can be provided pain relief with the use of the WHO guidelines – while considering their status of treatment or end-of-life care. Due to multiple limitations in included studies, analysis was limited to descriptions. Future research to examine the effectiveness of the WHO guidelines needs to consider recommendations to facilitate study comparisons by standardizing outcome measures. Recent studies have reported that patients with cancer experience pain at moderate or greater levels. The WHO guidelines reflect the knowledge and effectual methods to relieve most cancer pain, but the guidelines are not being adequately employed. Part of the explanation for the lack of adoption of the WHO guidelines is that they may be considered outdated by many because they are not specific to the pharmacological and interventional options used in contemporary pain management practices. The conundrum of updating the WHO guidelines is to encompass the latest pharmacological and interventional innovations while maintaining its original simplicity. PMID:27524918

  12. Pain relief by Cyberknife radiosurgery for spinal metastasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sunyoung; Chun, Mison

    2012-01-01

    To report pain relief effect in patients with spinal metastases treated with Cyberknife® and to analyze the factors associated with pain relapse after initial pain relief. We retrospectively analyzed patients with spinal metastasis treated with stereotactic body radiosurgery between April 2007 and June 2009. A total of 57 patients with 73 lesions were available for analysis with a median follow-up of 6.8 months (range, 1-30). Pain was assessed by a verbal/visual analogue scale at each visit: from 0 to 10. Pain relief was defined as a decrease of at least three levels of the pain score without an increase in analgesic use. Complete relief was defined as no analgesics or a score 0 or 1. Pain relief was achieved in 88% of the lesions, with complete relief in 51% within 7 days from the start of radiosurgery. The median duration of pain relief was 3.2 months (range, 1-30). Pain reappeared in 16 patients (27%). Spinal cord compression (P = 0.001) and performance status (P = 0.01) were predictive of pain relapse by multivariate Cox analysis. All 6 patients treated with solitary spinal metastasis experienced pain relief; 5 of them were alive without evidence of disease at a median of 16 months (range, 7-30). As previous studies have shown, our study confirms that pain relief with spinal radiosurgery is around 90%. In particular, long-term pain relief and disease control was observed in patients with solitary spinal metastasis.

  13. Relief memory consolidation requires protein synthesis within the nucleus accumbens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruning, Johann E A; Breitfeld, Tino; Kahl, Evelyn; Bergado-Acosta, Jorge R; Fendt, Markus

    2016-06-01

    Relief learning refers to the association of a stimulus with the relief from an aversive event. The thus-learned relief stimulus then can induce, e.g., an attenuation of the startle response or approach behavior, indicating positive valence. Previous studies revealed that the nucleus accumbens is essential for the acquisition and retrieval of relief memory. Here, we ask whether the nucleus accumbens is also the brain site for consolidation of relief memory into a long-term form. In rats, we blocked local protein synthesis within the nucleus accumbens by local infusions of anisomycin at different time points during a relief conditioning experiment. Accumbal anisomycin injections immediately after the relief conditioning session, but not 4 h later, prevented the consolidation into long-term relief memory. The retention of already consolidated relief memory was not affected by anisomycin injections. This identifies a time window and site for relief memory consolidation. These findings should complement our understanding of the full range of effects of adverse experiences, including cases of their distortion in humans such as post-traumatic stress disorder and/or phobias. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Width and dip of the southern San Andreas Fault at Salt Creek from modeling of geophysical data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langenheim, Victoria; Athens, Noah D.; Scheirer, Daniel S.; Fuis, Gary S.; Rymer, Michael J.; Goldman, Mark R.; Reynolds, Robert E.

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the geometry and width of the southernmost stretch of the San Andreas Fault zone using new gravity and magnetic data along line 7 of the Salton Seismic Imaging Project. In the Salt Creek area of Durmid Hill, the San Andreas Fault coincides with a complex magnetic signature, with high-amplitude, short-wavelength magnetic anomalies superposed on a broader magnetic anomaly that is at least 5 km wide centered 2–3 km northeast of the fault. Marine magnetic data show that high-frequency magnetic anomalies extend more than 1 km west of the mapped trace of the San Andreas Fault. Modeling of magnetic data is consistent with a moderate to steep (> 50 degrees) northeast dip of the San Andreas Fault, but also suggests that the sedimentary sequence is folded west of the fault, causing the short wavelength of the anomalies west of the fault. Gravity anomalies are consistent with the previously modeled seismic velocity structure across the San Andreas Fault. Modeling of gravity data indicates a steep dip for the San Andreas Fault, but does not resolve unequivocally the direction of dip. Gravity data define a deeper basin, bounded by the Powerline and Hot Springs Faults, than imaged by the seismic experiment. This basin extends southeast of Line 7 for nearly 20 km, with linear margins parallel to the San Andreas Fault. These data suggest that the San Andreas Fault zone is wider than indicated by its mapped surface trace.

  15. Fault current limiter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darmann, Francis Anthony

    2013-10-08

    A fault current limiter (FCL) includes a series of high permeability posts for collectively define a core for the FCL. A DC coil, for the purposes of saturating a portion of the high permeability posts, surrounds the complete structure outside of an enclosure in the form of a vessel. The vessel contains a dielectric insulation medium. AC coils, for transporting AC current, are wound on insulating formers and electrically interconnected to each other in a manner such that the senses of the magnetic field produced by each AC coil in the corresponding high permeability core are opposing. There are insulation barriers between phases to improve dielectric withstand properties of the dielectric medium.

  16. Ibuprofen is superior to paracetamol for pain relief following third molar removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraiolo, Debra M; Veitz-Keenan, Analia

    2014-12-01

    The Cochrane Oral Health Group's Trials Register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), Medline, Embase and the metaRegister of Controlled Trials were searched with no language restrictions. Randomised controlled double-blinded clinical trials using the third molar model were included. Two review authors independently and in duplicate extracted data. The proportion of patients with at least 50% pain relief (based on total pain relief (TOTPAR) and summed pain intensity difference (SPID) data) was calculated for all three drugs at both two and six hours post-dosing and meta-analysed for comparison. Seven studies involving 2241 patients were included. Two studies were considered to be at low risk of bias, three at high risk and two unclear risk of bias. Ibuprofen was found to be a superior analgesic to paracetamol at several doses, with high quality evidence suggesting that ibuprofen 400 mg is superior to 1000 mg paracetamol based on pain relief (estimated from TOTPAR data) and the use of rescue medication meta-analyses. Risk ratio (RR) for at least 50% pain relief (based on TOTPAR) at six hours was 1.47 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.28 to 1.69; five trials) favouring 400 mg ibuprofen over 1000 mg paracetamol, RR for not using rescue medication (also favouring ibuprofen) was 1.50 (95% CI 1.25 to 1.79; four trials). For combined drug RR for at least 50% of the maximum pain relief over six hours of 1.77 (95% CI 1.32 to 2.39) (paracetamol 1000 mg and ibuprofen 400 mg) (one trial; moderate quality evidence). RR not using rescue medication 1.60 (95% CI 1.36 to 1.88) (two trials; moderate quality evidence). Adverse events were comparable between the treatment groups, but no formal analysis could be undertaken. There is high quality evidence that ibuprofen is superior to paracetamol at doses of 200 mg to 512 mg and 600 mg to 1000 mg respectively based on pain relief and use of rescue medication data collected at six hours postoperatively. The

  17. Iraq's Debt Relief: Procedure and Potential Implications for International Debt Relief

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Weiss, Martin A

    2009-01-01

    .... Reducing this debt to a sustainable level has been a priority of the U.S. government. Since 2003, debt relief negotiations have taken place in a variety of fora and led to the cancellation of a significant amount of Iraq's external debt...

  18. Fault zone architecture of a major oblique-slip fault in the Rawil depression, Western Helvetic nappes, Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasser, D.; Mancktelow, N. S.

    2009-04-01

    The Helvetic nappes in the Swiss Alps form a classic fold-and-thrust belt related to overall NNW-directed transport. In western Switzerland, the plunge of nappe fold axes and the regional distribution of units define a broad depression, the Rawil depression, between the culminations of Aiguilles Rouge massif to the SW and Aar massif to the NE. A compilation of data from the literature establishes that, in addition to thrusts related to nappe stacking, the Rawil depression is cross-cut by four sets of brittle faults: (1) SW-NE striking normal faults that strike parallel to the regional fold axis trend, (2) NW-SE striking normal faults and joints that strike perpendicular to the regional fold axis trend, and (3) WNW-ESE striking normal plus dextral oblique-slip faults as well as (4) WSW-ENE striking normal plus dextral oblique-slip faults that both strike oblique to the regional fold axis trend. We studied in detail a beautifully exposed fault from set 3, the Rezli fault zone (RFZ) in the central Wildhorn nappe. The RFZ is a shallow to moderately-dipping (ca. 30-60˚) fault zone with an oblique-slip displacement vector, combining both dextral and normal components. It must have formed in approximately this orientation, because the local orientation of fold axes corresponds to the regional one, as does the generally vertical orientation of extensional joints and veins associated with the regional fault set 2. The fault zone crosscuts four different lithologies: limestone, intercalated marl and limestone, marl and sandstone, and it has a maximum horizontal dextral offset component of ~300 m and a maximum vertical normal offset component of ~200 m. Its internal architecture strongly depends on the lithology in which it developed. In the limestone, it consists of veins, stylolites, cataclasites and cemented gouge, in the intercalated marls and limestones of anastomosing shear zones, brittle fractures, veins and folds, in the marls of anastomosing shear zones, pressure

  19. Fault Management Design Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, John C.; Johnson, Stephen B.

    2014-01-01

    Development of dependable systems relies on the ability of the system to determine and respond to off-nominal system behavior. Specification and development of these fault management capabilities must be done in a structured and principled manner to improve our understanding of these systems, and to make significant gains in dependability (safety, reliability and availability). Prior work has described a fundamental taxonomy and theory of System Health Management (SHM), and of its operational subset, Fault Management (FM). This conceptual foundation provides a basis to develop framework to design and implement FM design strategies that protect mission objectives and account for system design limitations. Selection of an SHM strategy has implications for the functions required to perform the strategy, and it places constraints on the set of possible design solutions. The framework developed in this paper provides a rigorous and principled approach to classifying SHM strategies, as well as methods for determination and implementation of SHM strategies. An illustrative example is used to describe the application of the framework and the resulting benefits to system and FM design and dependability.

  20. Increasing the Useful Life of Quench Reliefs with Inconel Bellows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soyars, W. M. [Fermilab

    1999-01-01

    Reliable quench relief valves are an important part of superconducting magnet systems. Fermilab developed bellows-actuated cryogenic quench reliefs which have been in use since the early l 980's. The original design uses a stainless steel bellows. A high frequency, low amplitude vibration during relieving events has resulted in fatigue failures in the original design. To take advantage of the improved resistance to fatigue of Inconel, a nickel-chromium alloy, reliefs using Inconel 625 bellows were made. Design, development, and testing of the new version reliefs will be discussed. Tests show that relief valve lifetimes using Inconel bellows are more than five times greater than when using the original stainless steel bellows. Inconel bellows show great promise in increasing the lifetime of quench relief valves, and thus the reliability of accelerator cryogenic systems.

  1. Accelerometer having integral fault null

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozeman, Richard J., Jr.

    1995-08-01

    An improved accelerometer is introduced. It comprises a transducer responsive to vibration in machinery which produces an electrical signal related to the magnitude and frequency of the vibration; and a decoding circuit responsive to the transducer signal which produces a first fault signal to produce a second fault signal in which ground shift effects are nullified.

  2. Doubling Your Payoff: Winning Pain Relief Engages Endogenous Pain Inhibition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Susanne; Gandhi, Wiebke; Kwan, Saskia; Ahmed, Alysha-Karima; Schweinhardt, Petra

    2015-01-01

    When in pain, pain relief is much sought after, particularly for individuals with chronic pain. In analogy to augmentation of the hedonic experience ("liking") of a reward by the motivation to obtain a reward ("wanting"), the seeking of pain relief in a motivated state might increase the experience of pain relief when obtained. We tested this hypothesis in a psychophysical experiment in healthy human subjects, by assessing potential pain-inhibitory effects of pain relief "won" in a wheel of fortune game compared with pain relief without winning, exploiting the fact that the mere chance of winning induces a motivated state. The results show pain-inhibitory effects of pain relief obtained by winning in behaviorally assessed pain perception and ratings of pain intensity. Further, the higher participants scored on the personality trait novelty seeking, the more pain inhibition was induced. These results provide evidence that pain relief, when obtained in a motivated state, engages endogenous pain-inhibitory systems beyond the pain reduction that underlies the relief in the first place. Consequently, such pain relief might be used to improve behavioral pain therapy, inducing a positive, perhaps self-amplifying feedback loop of reduced pain and improved functionality.

  3. Sharing Information among Various Organizations in Relief Efforts

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Costur, Gurkan

    2005-01-01

    .... An analysis is presented of the December 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami relief effort; specifically, how different organizations such as the military, United Nations, and non-governmental organizations...

  4. Sandy PMO Disaster Relief Appropriations Act of 2013 Financial Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Sandy PMO: Disaster Relief Appropriations Act of 2013 (Sandy Supplemental Bill) Financial Data. This is the Sandy Supplemental Quarterly Financial Datasets that are...

  5. Shaded relief of Bahia State, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    This topographic image is the first to show the full 240-kilometer-wide (150 mile)swath collected by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). The area shown is in the state of Bahia in Brazil. The semi-circular mountains along the left side of the image are the Serra Da Jacobin, which rise to 1100 meters (3600 feet) above sea level. The total relief shown is approximately 800 meters (2600 feet). The top part of the image is the Sertao, a semi-arid region, that is subject to severe droughts during El Nino events. A small portion of the San Francisco River, the longest river (1609 kilometers or 1000 miles) entirely within Brazil, cuts across the upper right corner of the image. This river is a major source of water for irrigation and hydroelectric power. Mapping such regions will allow scientists to better understand the relationships between flooding cycles, drought and human influences on ecosystems.This shaded relief image was generated using topographic data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission. A computer-generated artificial light source illuminates the elevation data to produce a pattern of light and shadows. Slopes facing the light appear bright, while those facing away are shaded. On flatter surfaces, the pattern of light and shadows can reveal subtle features in the terrain. Colors show the elevation as measured by SRTM. Colors range from green at the lowest elevations to reddish at the highest elevations. Shaded relief maps are commonly used in applications such as geologic mapping and land use planning.The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), launched on February 11, 2000, uses the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. The mission is designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, an additional C-band imaging

  6. Efficient Cryosolid Positron Moderators

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    table layout Figure 21 shows the integration of the IR spectroscopy optics with the positron Moderation and Annihilation vacuum chambers on the...Characterization of Cryogenic Moderators The application of Matrix Isolation Spectroscopy (MIS) to characterizing cryogenic solid positron ...Matrix Isolation Spectroscopy capability into our Positron Moderation apparatus, which enables spectroscopic characterization of the cryogenic

  7. Fault isolatability conditions for linear systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stoustrup, Jakob; Niemann, Henrik

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we shall show that an unlimited number of additive single faults can be isolated under mild conditions if a general isolation scheme is applied. Multiple faults are also covered. The approach is algebraic and is based on a set representation of faults, where all faults within a set...... the faults have occurred. The last step is a fault isolation (FI) of the faults occurring in a specific fault set, i.e. equivalent with the standard FI step. A simple example demonstrates how to turn the algebraic necessary and sufficient conditions into explicit algorithms for designing filter banks, which...

  8. ESR dating of the fault rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Hee Kwon

    2005-01-01

    We carried out ESR dating of fault rocks collected near the nuclear reactor. The Upcheon fault zone is exposed close to the Ulzin nuclear reactor. The space-time pattern of fault activity on the Upcheon fault deduced from ESR dating of fault gouge can be summarised as follows : this fault zone was reactivated between fault breccia derived from Cretaceous sandstone and tertiary volcanic sedimentary rocks about 2 Ma, 1.5 Ma and 1 Ma ago. After those movements, the Upcheon fault was reactivated between Cretaceous sandstone and fault breccia zone about 800 ka ago. This fault zone was reactivated again between fault breccia derived form Cretaceous sandstone and Tertiary volcanic sedimentary rocks about 650 ka and after 125 ka ago. These data suggest that the long-term(200-500 k.y.) cyclic fault activity of the Upcheon fault zone continued into the Pleistocene. In the Ulzin area, ESR dates from the NW and EW trend faults range from 800 ka to 600 ka NE and EW trend faults were reactivated about between 200 ka and 300 ka ago. On the other hand, ESR date of the NS trend fault is about 400 ka and 50 ka. Results of this research suggest the fault activity near the Ulzin nuclear reactor fault activity continued into the Pleistocene. One ESR date near the Youngkwang nuclear reactor is 200 ka

  9. The use of microtomography in structural geology: A new methodology to analyse fault faces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacques, Patricia D.; Nummer, Alexis Rosa; Heck, Richard J.; Machado, Rômulo

    2014-09-01

    This paper describes a new methodology to kinematically analyze faults in microscale dimensions (voxel size = 40 μm), using images obtained by X-ray computed microtomography (μCT). The equipment used is a GE MS8x-130 scanner. It was developed using rocks samples from Santa Catarina State, Brazil, and constructing micro Digital Elevation Models (μDEMs) for the fault surface, for analysing microscale brittle structures including striations, roughness and steps. Shaded relief images were created for the μDEMs, which enabled the generation of profiles to classify the secondary structures associated with the main fault surface. In the case of a sample with mineral growth that covers the fault surface, it is possible to detect the kinematic geometry even with the mineral cover. This technique proved to be useful for determining the sense of movement of faults, especially when it is not possible to determine striations in macro or microscopic analysis. When the sample has mineral deposit on the surface (mineral cover) this technique allows a relative chronology and geometric characterization between the faults with and without covering.

  10. Pattern Recognition of Signals for the Fault-Slip Type of Rock Burst in Coal Mines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. S. Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The fault-slip type of rock burst is a major threat to the safety of coal mining, and effectively recognizing its signals patterns is the foundation for the early warning and prevention. At first, a mechanical model of the fault-slip was established and the mechanism of the rock burst induced by the fault-slip was revealed. Then, the patterns of the electromagnetic radiation, acoustic emission (AE, and microseismic signals in the fault-slip type of rock burst were proposed, in that before the rock burst occurs, the electromagnetic radiation intensity near the sliding surface increases rapidly, the AE energy rises exponentially, and the energy released by microseismic events experiences at least one peak and is close to the next peak. At last, in situ investigations were performed at number 1412 coal face in the Huafeng Mine, China. Results showed that the signals patterns proposed are in good agreement with the process of the fault-slip type of rock burst. The pattern recognition can provide a basis for the early warning and the implementation of relief measures of the fault-slip type of rock burst.

  11. Fault Current Characteristics of the DFIG under Asymmetrical Fault Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan Xiao

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available During non-severe fault conditions, crowbar protection is not activated and the rotor windings of a doubly-fed induction generator (DFIG are excited by the AC/DC/AC converter. Meanwhile, under asymmetrical fault conditions, the electrical variables oscillate at twice the grid frequency in synchronous dq frame. In the engineering practice, notch filters are usually used to extract the positive and negative sequence components. In these cases, the dynamic response of a rotor-side converter (RSC and the notch filters have a large influence on the fault current characteristics of the DFIG. In this paper, the influence of the notch filters on the proportional integral (PI parameters is discussed and the simplified calculation models of the rotor current are established. Then, the dynamic performance of the stator flux linkage under asymmetrical fault conditions is also analyzed. Based on this, the fault characteristics of the stator current under asymmetrical fault conditions are studied and the corresponding analytical expressions of the stator fault current are obtained. Finally, digital simulation results validate the analytical results. The research results are helpful to meet the requirements of a practical short-circuit calculation and the construction of a relaying protection system for the power grid with penetration of DFIGs.

  12. Creating global comparative analyses of tectonic rifts, monogenetic volcanism and inverted relief

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Wyk de Vries, Benjamin

    2016-04-01

    I have been all around the world, and to other planets and have travelled from the present to the Archaean and back to seek out the most significant tectonic rifts, monogenetic volcanoes and examples of inverted relief. I have done this to provide a broad foundation of the comparative analysis for the Chaîne des Puys - Limagne fault nomination to UNESCO world Heritage. This would have been an impossible task, if not for the cooperation of the scientific community and for Google Earth, Google Maps and academic search engines. In preparing global comparisons of geological features, these quite recently developed tools provide a powerful way to find and describe geological features. The ability to do scientific crowd sourcing, rapidly discussing with colleagues about features, allows large numbers of areas to be checked and the open GIS tools (such as Google Earth) allow a standardised description. Search engines also allow the literature on areas to be checked and compared. I will present a comparative study of rifts of the world, monogenetic volcanic field and inverted relief, integrated to analyse the full geological system represented by the Chaîne des Puys - Limagne fault. The analysis confirms that the site is an exceptional example of the first steps of continental drift in a mountain rift setting, and that this is necessarily seen through the combined landscape of tectonic, volcanic and geomorphic features. The analysis goes further to deepen the understanding of geological systems and stresses the need for more study on geological heritage using such a global and broad systems approach.

  13. Arc fault detection system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jha, K.N.

    1999-05-18

    An arc fault detection system for use on ungrounded or high-resistance-grounded power distribution systems is provided which can be retrofitted outside electrical switchboard circuits having limited space constraints. The system includes a differential current relay that senses a current differential between current flowing from secondary windings located in a current transformer coupled to a power supply side of a switchboard, and a total current induced in secondary windings coupled to a load side of the switchboard. When such a current differential is experienced, a current travels through a operating coil of the differential current relay, which in turn opens an upstream circuit breaker located between the switchboard and a power supply to remove the supply of power to the switchboard. 1 fig.

  14. Arc fault detection system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jha, Kamal N.

    1999-01-01

    An arc fault detection system for use on ungrounded or high-resistance-grounded power distribution systems is provided which can be retrofitted outside electrical switchboard circuits having limited space constraints. The system includes a differential current relay that senses a current differential between current flowing from secondary windings located in a current transformer coupled to a power supply side of a switchboard, and a total current induced in secondary windings coupled to a load side of the switchboard. When such a current differential is experienced, a current travels through a operating coil of the differential current relay, which in turn opens an upstream circuit breaker located between the switchboard and a power supply to remove the supply of power to the switchboard.

  15. Probabilistic assessment of faults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foden, R.W.

    1987-01-01

    Probabilistic safety analysis (PSA) is the process by which the probability (or frequency of occurrence) of reactor fault conditions which could lead to unacceptable consequences is assessed. The basic objective of a PSA is to allow a judgement to be made as to whether or not the principal probabilistic requirement is satisfied. It also gives insights into the reliability of the plant which can be used to identify possible improvements. This is explained in the article. The scope of a PSA and the PSA performed by the National Nuclear Corporation (NNC) for the Heysham II and Torness AGRs and Sizewell-B PWR are discussed. The NNC methods for hazards, common cause failure and operator error are mentioned. (UK)

  16. Coincident steam generator tube rupture and stuck-open safety relief valve carryover tests: MB-2 steam generator transient response test program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garbett, K.; Mendler, O.J.; Gardner, G.C.; Garnsey, R.; Young, M.Y.

    1987-03-01

    In PWR steam generator tube rupture (SGTR) faults, a direct pathway for the release of radioactive fission products can exist if there is a coincident stuck-open safety relief valve (SORV) or if the safety relief valve is cycled. In addition to the release of fission products from the bulk steam generator water by moisture carryover, there exists the possibility that some primary coolant may be released without having first mixed with the bulk water - a process called primary coolant bypassing. The MB-2 Phase II test program was designed specifically to identify the processes for droplet carryover during SGTR faults and to provide data of sufficient accuracy for use in developing physical models and computer codes to describe activity release. The test program consisted of sixteen separate tests designed to cover a range of steady-state and transient fault conditions. These included a full SGTR/SORV transient simulation, two SGTR overfill tests, ten steady-state SGTR tests at water levels ranging from very low levels in the bundle up to those when the dryer was flooded, and three moisture carryover tests without SGTR. In these tests the influence of break location and the effect of bypassing the dryer were also studied. In a final test the behavior with respect to aerosol particles in a dry steam generator, appropriate to a severe accident fault, was investigated

  17. Absolute age determination of quaternary faults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheong, Chang Sik; Lee, Seok Hoon; Choi, Man Sik

    2000-03-01

    To constrain the age of neotectonic fault movement, Rb-Sr, K-Ar, U-series disequilibrium, C-14 and Be-10 methods were applied to the fault gouges, fracture infillings and sediments from the Malbang, Ipsil, Wonwonsa faults faults in the Ulsan fault zone, Yangsan fault in the Yeongdeog area and southeastern coastal area. Rb-Sr and K-Ar data imply that the fault movement of the Ulan fault zone initiated at around 30 Ma and preliminary dating result for the Yang san fault is around 70 Ma in the Yeongdeog area. K-Ar and U-series disequilibrium dating results for fracture infillings in the Ipsil fault are consistent with reported ESR ages. Radiocarbon ages of quaternary sediments from the Jeongjari area are discordant with stratigraphic sequence. Carbon isotope data indicate a difference of sedimentry environment for those samples. Be-10 dating results for the Suryum fault area are consistent with reported OSL results

  18. Absolute age determination of quaternary faults

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheong, Chang Sik; Lee, Seok Hoon; Choi, Man Sik [Korea Basic Science Institute, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)] (and others)

    2000-03-15

    To constrain the age of neotectonic fault movement, Rb-Sr, K-Ar, U-series disequilibrium, C-14 and Be-10 methods were applied to the fault gouges, fracture infillings and sediments from the Malbang, Ipsil, Wonwonsa faults faults in the Ulsan fault zone, Yangsan fault in the Yeongdeog area and southeastern coastal area. Rb-Sr and K-Ar data imply that the fault movement of the Ulan fault zone initiated at around 30 Ma and preliminary dating result for the Yang san fault is around 70 Ma in the Yeongdeog area. K-Ar and U-series disequilibrium dating results for fracture infillings in the Ipsil fault are consistent with reported ESR ages. Radiocarbon ages of quaternary sediments from the Jeongjari area are discordant with stratigraphic sequence. Carbon isotope data indicate a difference of sedimentry environment for those samples. Be-10 dating results for the Suryum fault area are consistent with reported OSL results.

  19. Comparison of Cenozoic Faulting at the Savannah River Site to Fault Characteristics of the Atlantic Coast Fault Province: Implications for Fault Capability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cumbest, R.J.

    2000-01-01

    This study compares the faulting observed on the Savannah River Site and vicinity with the faults of the Atlantic Coastal Fault Province and concludes that both sets of faults exhibit the same general characteristics and are closely associated. Based on the strength of this association it is concluded that the faults observed on the Savannah River Site and vicinity are in fact part of the Atlantic Coastal Fault Province. Inclusion in this group means that the historical precedent established by decades of previous studies on the seismic hazard potential for the Atlantic Coastal Fault Province is relevant to faulting at the Savannah River Site. That is, since these faults are genetically related the conclusion of ''not capable'' reached in past evaluations applies.In addition, this study establishes a set of criteria by which individual faults may be evaluated in order to assess their inclusion in the Atlantic Coast Fault Province and the related association of the ''not capable'' conclusion

  20. The Relation Between Plate Spreading Rate, Crustal Thickness and Axial Relief at Mid-Ocean Ridges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Z.; Buck, W. R.

    2017-12-01

    Variations in axial valley relief and in faulting at plate spreading centers are clearly related to magma supply and axial lithospheric structure. Previous models that consider the interaction of magmatic dikes with lithospheric stretching do not successfully reproduce both of these trends. We present the first model that reproduces these trends by making simple assumptions about the partitioning of magma between dikes, gabbros and extrusives. A key concept is that dikes open not only in the brittle axial lithosphere but also into the underlying ductile crust, where they cool to form gabbro. The amount of gabbro so intruded depends on magma pressure that is related to axial relief. The deeper the valley the less magma goes into gabbros and the more magma is available for dikes to accommodate plate separation. We define the fraction of plate separation rate accommodated by dikes as M. If Mreasonable. Finally, we describe themo-mechanical models that allow us to relate plate spreading rate and crustal thickness and to axial valley depth.

  1. Subaru FATS (fault tracking system)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winegar, Tom W.; Noumaru, Junichi

    2000-07-01

    The Subaru Telescope requires a fault tracking system to record the problems and questions that staff experience during their work, and the solutions provided by technical experts to these problems and questions. The system records each fault and routes it to a pre-selected 'solution-provider' for each type of fault. The solution provider analyzes the fault and writes a solution that is routed back to the fault reporter and recorded in a 'knowledge-base' for future reference. The specifications of our fault tracking system were unique. (1) Dual language capacity -- Our staff speak both English and Japanese. Our contractors speak Japanese. (2) Heterogeneous computers -- Our computer workstations are a mixture of SPARCstations, Macintosh and Windows computers. (3) Integration with prime contractors -- Mitsubishi and Fujitsu are primary contractors in the construction of the telescope. In many cases, our 'experts' are our contractors. (4) Operator scheduling -- Our operators spend 50% of their work-month operating the telescope, the other 50% is spent working day shift at the base facility in Hilo, or day shift at the summit. We plan for 8 operators, with a frequent rotation. We need to keep all operators informed on the current status of all faults, no matter the operator's location.

  2. A contribution to better understanding of structural characteristics and tectonic phases of the Boč region, Periadriatic Fault Zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lea Žibret

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine properties of the tectonic contact between Permian/Mesozoic limestones and less competent Miocene clastites on the northeastern foothill of the Boč Mt. Because fault planes signifiantly mark the relief, this contact was studied by a detailed structural mapping, which showed that the Boč Mt. is limited by subvertical faults in its northeastern part. To ensure that mapped subvertical contact is compatible with regional geodynamics of the area, additionally paleostress analysis of fault-slip data was performed. Four individual paleostress tensor groups were documented in a wider Boč area and compared by published structural data from the border zone between Alps, Dinarides and Pannonian Basin. The oldest paleostress tensor group (Phase 1 is likely of Lower and Middle Miocene age and indicates SW-NE extension accommodated by W-E to WNW-ESE striking normal faults. Phase 2 can be correlated with Middle to Late Miocene NW-SE to WNWESE directed extension accommodated by NNE-SSW striking normal faults. Phase 3 is correlated with Late Miocene W-E directed contraction accommodated by N-S striking sinistral faults and NNE-SSW to NE-SW striking dextral faults. The youngest paleostress tensor group (Phase 4 fis well with Pliocene to Quaternary NNW-SSE to N-S directed contraction accommodated by NW-SE to W-E striking dextral faults and NE-SW striking reverse faults. Since the documented paleostress phases fis well with the geodynamic processes of the Alps-Dinarides-Carpathians territory the subvertical border in the northeastern part of Boč Mt. seems to be an acceptable structural solution. The study is important because the study area is located at interaction zone between two major Alpine fault systems: the Periadriatic and the Lavanttal faults.

  3. Why the 2002 Denali fault rupture propagated onto the Totschunda fault: implications for fault branching and seismic hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, David P.; Haeussler, Peter J.; Seitz, Gordon G.; Dawson, Timothy E.

    2012-01-01

    The propagation of the rupture of the Mw7.9 Denali fault earthquake from the central Denali fault onto the Totschunda fault has provided a basis for dynamic models of fault branching in which the angle of the regional or local prestress relative to the orientation of the main fault and branch plays a principal role in determining which fault branch is taken. GeoEarthScope LiDAR and paleoseismic data allow us to map the structure of the Denali-Totschunda fault intersection and evaluate controls of fault branching from a geological perspective. LiDAR data reveal the Denali-Totschunda fault intersection is structurally simple with the two faults directly connected. At the branch point, 227.2 km east of the 2002 epicenter, the 2002 rupture diverges southeast to become the Totschunda fault. We use paleoseismic data to propose that differences in the accumulated strain on each fault segment, which express differences in the elapsed time since the most recent event, was one important control of the branching direction. We suggest that data on event history, slip rate, paleo offsets, fault geometry and structure, and connectivity, especially on high slip rate-short recurrence interval faults, can be used to assess the likelihood of branching and its direction. Analysis of the Denali-Totschunda fault intersection has implications for evaluating the potential for a rupture to propagate across other types of fault intersections and for characterizing sources of future large earthquakes.

  4. Architecture of thrust faults with alongstrike variations in fault-plane dip: anatomy of the Lusatian Fault, Bohemian Massif

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Coubal, Miroslav; Adamovič, Jiří; Málek, Jiří; Prouza, V.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 59, č. 3 (2014), s. 183-208 ISSN 1802-6222 Institutional support: RVO:67985831 ; RVO:67985891 Keywords : fault architecture * fault plane geometry * drag structures * thrust fault * sandstone * Lusatian Fault Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy Impact factor: 1.405, year: 2014

  5. Reward, motivation and emotion of pain and its relief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porreca, Frank; Navratilova, Edita

    2016-01-01

    The experience of pain depends on interpretation of context and past experience that guide the choice of an immediate behavioral response and influence future decisions of actions to avoid harm. The aversive qualities of pain underlie its physiological role in learning and motivation. In this review, we highlight findings from human and animal investigations that suggest that both pain, and the relief of pain, are complex emotions that are comprised of feelings and their motivational consequences. Relief of aversive states, including pain, is rewarding. How relief of pain aversiveness occurs is not well understood. Termination of aversive states can directly provide relief as well as reinforce behaviors that result in avoidance of pain. Emerging preclinical data also suggests that relief may elicit a positive hedonic value that results from activation of neural cortical and mesolimbic brain circuits that may also motivate behavior. Brain circuits mediating the reward of pain relief, as well as relief-induced motivation are significantly impacted as pain becomes chronic. In chronic pain states, the negative motivational value of nociception may be increased while the value of the reward of pain relief may decrease. As a consequence, the impact of pain on these ancient, and conserved brain limbic circuits suggest a path forward for discovery of new pain therapies. PMID:28106670

  6. 30 CFR 203.53 - What relief will MMS grant?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What relief will MMS grant? 203.53 Section 203.53 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS REVENUE...-Life Leases § 203.53 What relief will MMS grant? (a) If we approve your application and you meet...

  7. Bas-Relief Modeling from Normal Images with Intuitive Styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Zhongping; Ma, Weiyin; Sun, Xianfang

    2014-05-01

    Traditional 3D model-based bas-relief modeling methods are often limited to model-dependent and monotonic relief styles. This paper presents a novel method for digital bas-relief modeling with intuitive style control. Given a composite normal image, the problem discussed in this paper involves generating a discontinuity-free depth field with high compression of depth data while preserving or even enhancing fine details. In our framework, several layers of normal images are composed into a single normal image. The original normal image on each layer is usually generated from 3D models or through other techniques as described in this paper. The bas-relief style is controlled by choosing a parameter and setting a targeted height for them. Bas-relief modeling and stylization are achieved simultaneously by solving a sparse linear system. Different from previous work, our method can be used to freely design bas-reliefs in normal image space instead of in object space, which makes it possible to use any popular image editing tools for bas-relief modeling. Experiments with a wide range of 3D models and scenes show that our method can effectively generate digital bas-reliefs.

  8. Donation to disaster relief campaigns: underlying social cognitive factors exposed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosterhof, Liesbeth; Heuvelman, A.; Peters, O.

    2009-01-01

    number of very serious natural disasters have put an enormous pressure on relief organizations in the last few years. The present study exposes underlying social cognitive factors for donation to relief campaigns. A causal model was constructed, based on social cognitive theory, research on

  9. 46 CFR 154.801 - Pressure relief systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pressure relief systems. 154.801 Section 154.801 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SAFETY... Vent Systems § 154.801 Pressure relief systems. (a) Each cargo tank that has a volume of 20m3 (706 ft.3...

  10. 47 CFR 52.19 - Area code relief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... meetings to which the telecommunications industry and the public are invited on area code relief for a... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Area code relief. 52.19 Section 52.19 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) NUMBERING...

  11. The control of tonic pain by active relief learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Suyi; Mano, Hiroaki; Lee, Michael; Yoshida, Wako; Kawato, Mitsuo; Robbins, Trevor W; Seymour, Ben

    2018-02-27

    Tonic pain after injury characterises a behavioural state that prioritises recovery. Although generally suppressing cognition and attention, tonic pain needs to allow effective relief learning to reduce the cause of the pain. Here, we describe a central learning circuit that supports learning of relief and concurrently suppresses the level of ongoing pain. We used computational modelling of behavioural, physiological and neuroimaging data in two experiments in which subjects learned to terminate tonic pain in static and dynamic escape-learning paradigms. In both studies, we show that active relief-seeking involves a reinforcement learning process manifest by error signals observed in the dorsal putamen. Critically, this system uses an uncertainty ('associability') signal detected in pregenual anterior cingulate cortex that both controls the relief learning rate, and endogenously and parametrically modulates the level of tonic pain. The results define a self-organising learning circuit that reduces ongoing pain when learning about potential relief. © 2018, Zhang et al.

  12. The control of tonic pain by active relief learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mano, Hiroaki; Lee, Michael; Yoshida, Wako; Kawato, Mitsuo; Robbins, Trevor W

    2018-01-01

    Tonic pain after injury characterises a behavioural state that prioritises recovery. Although generally suppressing cognition and attention, tonic pain needs to allow effective relief learning to reduce the cause of the pain. Here, we describe a central learning circuit that supports learning of relief and concurrently suppresses the level of ongoing pain. We used computational modelling of behavioural, physiological and neuroimaging data in two experiments in which subjects learned to terminate tonic pain in static and dynamic escape-learning paradigms. In both studies, we show that active relief-seeking involves a reinforcement learning process manifest by error signals observed in the dorsal putamen. Critically, this system uses an uncertainty (‘associability’) signal detected in pregenual anterior cingulate cortex that both controls the relief learning rate, and endogenously and parametrically modulates the level of tonic pain. The results define a self-organising learning circuit that reduces ongoing pain when learning about potential relief. PMID:29482716

  13. Fault Features Extraction and Identification based Rolling Bearing Fault Diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qin, B; Sun, G D; Zhang L Y; Wang J G; HU, J

    2017-01-01

    For the fault classification model based on extreme learning machine (ELM), the diagnosis accuracy and stability of rolling bearing is greatly influenced by a critical parameter, which is the number of nodes in hidden layer of ELM. An adaptive adjustment strategy is proposed based on vibrational mode decomposition, permutation entropy, and nuclear kernel extreme learning machine to determine the tunable parameter. First, the vibration signals are measured and then decomposed into different fault feature models based on variation mode decomposition. Then, fault feature of each model is formed to a high dimensional feature vector set based on permutation entropy. Second, the ELM output function is expressed by the inner product of Gauss kernel function to adaptively determine the number of hidden layer nodes. Finally, the high dimension feature vector set is used as the input to establish the kernel ELM rolling bearing fault classification model, and the classification and identification of different fault states of rolling bearings are carried out. In comparison with the fault classification methods based on support vector machine and ELM, the experimental results show that the proposed method has higher classification accuracy and better generalization ability. (paper)

  14. Shaded relief, color as height, Fiji

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    The Sovereign Democratic Republic of the Fiji Islands, commonly known as Fiji, is an independent nation consisting of some 332 islands surrounding the Koro Sea in the South Pacific Ocean. This topographic image shows Viti Levu, the largest island in the group. With an area of 10,429 square kilometers (about 4000 square miles), it comprises more than half the area of the Fiji Islands. Suva, the capital city, lies on the southeast shore. The Nakauvadra, the rugged mountain range running from north to south, has several peaks rising above 900 meters (about 3000 feet). Mount Tomanivi, in the upper center, is the highest peak at 1324 meters (4341 feet). The distinct circular feature on the north shore is the Tavua Caldera, the remnant of a large shield volcano that was active about 4 million years ago. Gold has been mined on the margin of the caldera since the 1930's. The Nadrau plateau is the low relief highland in the center of the mountain range. The coastal plains in the west, northwest and southeast account for only 15 percent of Viti Levu's area but are the main centers of agriculture and settlement.This shaded relief image was generated using topographic data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission. A computer-generated artificial light source illuminates the elevation data to produce a pattern of light and shadows. Slopes facing the light appear bright, while those facing away are shaded. On flatter surfaces, the pattern of light and shadows can reveal subtle features in the terrain. Colors show the elevation as measured by SRTM. Colors range from green at the lowest elevations top ink at the highest elevations. This image contains about 1300 meters(4300 feet) of total relief.The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), launched on February 11,2000, uses the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. The mission is designed to collect

  15. 20 CFR 410.561b - Fault.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Fault. 410.561b Section 410.561b Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL COAL MINE HEALTH AND SAFETY ACT OF 1969, TITLE IV-BLACK LUNG BENEFITS (1969- ) Payment of Benefits § 410.561b Fault. Fault as used in without fault (see § 410...

  16. Fault Detection for Diesel Engine Actuator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blanke, M.; Bøgh, S.A.; Jørgensen, R.B.

    1994-01-01

    Feedback control systems are vulnerable to faults in control loop sensors and actuators, because feedback actions may cause abrupt responses and process damage when faults occur.......Feedback control systems are vulnerable to faults in control loop sensors and actuators, because feedback actions may cause abrupt responses and process damage when faults occur....

  17. 22 CFR 17.3 - Fault.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Fault. 17.3 Section 17.3 Foreign Relations...) § 17.3 Fault. A recipient of an overpayment is without fault if he or she performed no act of... agency may have been at fault in initiating an overpayment will not necessarily relieve the individual...

  18. Active fault diagnosis by temporary destabilization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niemann, Hans Henrik; Stoustrup, Jakob

    2006-01-01

    An active fault diagnosis method for parametric or multiplicative faults is proposed. The method periodically adds a term to the controller that for a short period of time renders the system unstable if a fault has occurred, which facilitates rapid fault detection. An illustrative example is given....

  19. From fault classification to fault tolerance for multi-agent systems

    CERN Document Server

    Potiron, Katia; Taillibert, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    Faults are a concern for Multi-Agent Systems (MAS) designers, especially if the MAS are built for industrial or military use because there must be some guarantee of dependability. Some fault classification exists for classical systems, and is used to define faults. When dependability is at stake, such fault classification may be used from the beginning of the system's conception to define fault classes and specify which types of faults are expected. Thus, one may want to use fault classification for MAS; however, From Fault Classification to Fault Tolerance for Multi-Agent Systems argues that

  20. Digital relief 3D model of the Khibiny massive (Kola peninsula)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chesalova, Elena; Asavin, Alex

    2015-04-01

    On the basis of maps of 1: 50,000 and 1: 200,000 3D model Khibiny massif developed. We used software ARC / INFO v10.2 ESRI. This project will be organised to build background for gas pollution monitoring network. We planned to use the model to estimate local heterogeneities in the composition of the atmosphere at the emanation of greenhouse gases in the area, the construction of models of vertical distribution of the content of trace gases in the rock mass. In addition to the project GIS digital elevation model contains layers of geological and tectonic map that allows us to estimate the area of the output of certain petrographic rock groups characterized by different ratios of emitted hydrocarbons (CH4/ H2). The model allows to construct a classification of fault in the array. At first glance, there are two groups of faults - the ancient associated with the formation of the intrusive phases sequence, and the young - due to recent tectonic shifts. Ancient faults form a common semicircular structure of the pluton cause overall asymmetry Khibin heights with the transition to the border area between the Khibiny and Lovoozero. Modern tectonics mainly represented by radial and chord faults which are formed narrow mountain valleys and troughs. It remains an open question as to which system fault (old or young) is more productive to gas emanations? On the one hand the system characterized by a large old depth, on the other hand a young more active faults. Address these issues require further detailed observations. The essential question is to assess the possibility of maintaining a constant concentration gradient of these impurities in the atmosphere due to gas emanations of fracture zones and areas enriched occluded gases. In the simulation of these processes can be used initially set parameters: 1 the flow rate of the gas impurities 2 the value of wind flows in closed and open valley 3 Assessment of thermal diffusion coefficients determined by the temperature gradient

  1. Differential Fault Analysis on CLEFIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hua; Wu, Wenling; Feng, Dengguo

    CLEFIA is a new 128-bit block cipher proposed by SONY corporation recently. The fundamental structure of CLEFIA is a generalized Feistel structure consisting of 4 data lines. In this paper, the strength of CLEFIA against the differential fault attack is explored. Our attack adopts the byte-oriented model of random faults. Through inducing randomly one byte fault in one round, four bytes of faults can be simultaneously obtained in the next round, which can efficiently reduce the total induce times in the attack. After attacking the last several rounds' encryptions, the original secret key can be recovered based on some analysis of the key schedule. The data complexity analysis and experiments show that only about 18 faulty ciphertexts are needed to recover the entire 128-bit secret key and about 54 faulty ciphertexts for 192/256-bit keys.

  2. Fault Tolerant External Memory Algorithms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Allan Grønlund; Brodal, Gerth Stølting; Mølhave, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    Algorithms dealing with massive data sets are usually designed for I/O-efficiency, often captured by the I/O model by Aggarwal and Vitter. Another aspect of dealing with massive data is how to deal with memory faults, e.g. captured by the adversary based faulty memory RAM by Finocchi and Italiano....... However, current fault tolerant algorithms do not scale beyond the internal memory. In this paper we investigate for the first time the connection between I/O-efficiency in the I/O model and fault tolerance in the faulty memory RAM, and we assume that both memory and disk are unreliable. We show a lower...... bound on the number of I/Os required for any deterministic dictionary that is resilient to memory faults. We design a static and a dynamic deterministic dictionary with optimal query performance as well as an optimal sorting algorithm and an optimal priority queue. Finally, we consider scenarios where...

  3. Cell boundary fault detection system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archer, Charles Jens [Rochester, MN; Pinnow, Kurt Walter [Rochester, MN; Ratterman, Joseph D [Rochester, MN; Smith, Brian Edward [Rochester, MN

    2009-05-05

    A method determines a nodal fault along the boundary, or face, of a computing cell. Nodes on adjacent cell boundaries communicate with each other, and the communications are analyzed to determine if a node or connection is faulty.

  4. Deformation around basin scale normal faults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spahic, D.

    2010-01-01

    Faults in the earth crust occur within large range of scales from microscale over mesoscopic to large basin scale faults. Frequently deformation associated with faulting is not only limited to the fault plane alone, but rather forms a combination with continuous near field deformation in the wall rock, a phenomenon that is generally called fault drag. The correct interpretation and recognition of fault drag is fundamental for the reconstruction of the fault history and determination of fault kinematics, as well as prediction in areas of limited exposure or beyond comprehensive seismic resolution. Based on fault analyses derived from 3D visualization of natural examples of fault drag, the importance of fault geometry for the deformation of marker horizons around faults is investigated. The complex 3D structural models presented here are based on a combination of geophysical datasets and geological fieldwork. On an outcrop scale example of fault drag in the hanging wall of a normal fault, located at St. Margarethen, Burgenland, Austria, data from Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) measurements, detailed mapping and terrestrial laser scanning were used to construct a high-resolution structural model of the fault plane, the deformed marker horizons and associated secondary faults. In order to obtain geometrical information about the largely unexposed master fault surface, a standard listric balancing dip domain technique was employed. The results indicate that for this normal fault a listric shape can be excluded, as the constructed fault has a geologically meaningless shape cutting upsection into the sedimentary strata. This kinematic modeling result is additionally supported by the observation of deformed horizons in the footwall of the structure. Alternatively, a planar fault model with reverse drag of markers in the hanging wall and footwall is proposed. Deformation around basin scale normal faults. A second part of this thesis investigates a large scale normal fault

  5. Grooved cold moderator tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, K.; Kiyanagi, Y.; Iwasa, H.; Watanabe, N.; Ikeda, S.; Carpenter, J.M.; Ishikawa, Y.

    1983-01-01

    We performed some grooved cold moderator experiments for methane at 20 K by using the Hokkaido University linac to obtain information to be used in the planning of the KENS-I' project. Cold neutron gains, spatial distribution of emitted beams and time distribution of the neutrons in the grooved cold moderator were measured. Furthermore, we assessed the effects of the grooved cold moderator on the performances of the spectrometers presently installed at the KENS-I cold source. We concluded that the grooved cold moderator benefited appreciably the performances of the spectrometers

  6. Qademah Fault Passive Data

    KAUST Repository

    Hanafy, Sherif M.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: In this field trip we collect passive data to 1. Convert passive to surface waves 2. Locate Qademah fault using surface wave migration INTRODUCTION: In this field trip we collected passive data for several days. This data will be used to find the surface waves using interferometry and then compared to active-source seismic data collected at the same location. A total of 288 receivers are used. A 3D layout with 5 m inline intervals and 10 m cross line intervals is used, where we used 12 lines with 24 receivers at each line. You will need to download the file (rec_times.mat), it contains important information about 1. Field record no 2. Record day 3. Record month 4. Record hour 5. Record minute 6. Record second 7. Record length P.S. 1. All files are converted from original format (SEG-2) to matlab format P.S. 2. Overlaps between records (10 to 1.5 sec.) are already removed from these files

  7. Exposing the faults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richardson, P.J.

    1989-01-01

    UK NIREX, the body with responsibility for finding an acceptable strategy for deposition of radioactive waste has given the impression throughout its recent public consultation that the problem of nuclear waste is one of public and political acceptability, rather than one of a technical nature. However the results of the consultation process show that it has no mandate from the British public to develop a single, national, deep repository for the burial of radioactive waste. There is considerable opposition to this method of managing radioactive waste and suspicion of the claims by NIREX concerning the supposed integrity and safety of this deep burial option. This report gives substance to those suspicions and details the significant areas of uncertainty in the concept of effective geological containment of hazardous radioactive elements, which remain dangerous for tens of thousands of years. Because the science of geology is essentially retrospective rather than predictive, NIREX's plans for a single, national, deep 'repository' depend heavily upon a wide range of assumptions about the geological and hydrogeological regimes in certain areas of the UK. This report demonstrates that these assumptions are based on a limited understanding of UK geology and on unvalidated and simplistic theoretical models of geological processes, the performance of which can never be directly tested over the long time-scales involved. NIREX's proposals offer no guarantees for the safe and effective containment of radioactivity. They are deeply flawed. This report exposes the faults. (author)

  8. Fault-tolerant rotary actuator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tesar, Delbert

    2006-10-17

    A fault-tolerant actuator module, in a single containment shell, containing two actuator subsystems that are either asymmetrically or symmetrically laid out is provided. Fault tolerance in the actuators of the present invention is achieved by the employment of dual sets of equal resources. Dual resources are integrated into single modules, with each having the external appearance and functionality of a single set of resources.

  9. Static Decoupling in fault detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niemann, Hans Henrik

    1998-01-01

    An algebraic approach is given for a design of a static residual weighting factor in connection with fault detection. A complete parameterization is given of the weighting factor which will minimize a given performance index......An algebraic approach is given for a design of a static residual weighting factor in connection with fault detection. A complete parameterization is given of the weighting factor which will minimize a given performance index...

  10. Diagnosis and fault-tolerant control

    CERN Document Server

    Blanke, Mogens; Lunze, Jan; Staroswiecki, Marcel

    2016-01-01

    Fault-tolerant control aims at a gradual shutdown response in automated systems when faults occur. It satisfies the industrial demand for enhanced availability and safety, in contrast to traditional reactions to faults, which bring about sudden shutdowns and loss of availability. The book presents effective model-based analysis and design methods for fault diagnosis and fault-tolerant control. Architectural and structural models are used to analyse the propagation of the fault through the process, to test the fault detectability and to find the redundancies in the process that can be used to ensure fault tolerance. It also introduces design methods suitable for diagnostic systems and fault-tolerant controllers for continuous processes that are described by analytical models of discrete-event systems represented by automata. The book is suitable for engineering students, engineers in industry and researchers who wish to get an overview of the variety of approaches to process diagnosis and fault-tolerant contro...

  11. Geochemistry, mineralization, structure, and permeability of a normal-fault zone, Casino mine, Alligator Ridge district, north central Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, K. Jill; Evans, James P.

    2003-05-01

    We examine the geochemical signature and structure of the Keno fault zone to test its impact on the flow of ore-mineralizing fluids, and use the mined exposures to evaluate structures and processes associated with normal fault development. The fault is a moderately dipping normal-fault zone in siltstone and silty limestone with 55-100 m of dip-slip displacement in north-central Nevada. Across-strike exposures up to 180 m long, 65 m of down-dip exposure and 350 m of along-strike exposure allow us to determine how faults, fractures, and fluids interact within mixed-lithology carbonate-dominated sedimentary rocks. The fault changes character along strike from a single clay-rich slip plane 10-20 mm thick at the northern exposure to numerous hydrocarbon-bearing, calcite-filled, nearly vertical slip planes in a zone 15 m wide at the southern exposure. The hanging wall and footwall are intensely fractured but fracture densities do not vary markedly with distance from the fault. Fault slip varies from pure dip-slip to nearly pure strike-slip, which suggests that either slip orientations may vary on faults in single slip events, or stress variations over the history of the fault caused slip vector variations. Whole-rock major, minor, and trace element analyses indicate that Au, Sb, and As are in general associated with the fault zone, suggesting that Au- and silica-bearing fluids migrated along the fault to replace carbonate in the footwall and adjacent hanging wall rocks. Subsequent fault slip was associated with barite and calcite and hydrocarbon-bearing fluids deposited at the southern end of the fault. No correlation exists at the meter or tens of meter scale between mineralization patterns and fracture density. We suggest that the fault was a combined conduit-barrier system in which the fault provides a critical connection between the fluid sources and fractures that formed before and during faulting. During the waning stages of deposit formation, the fault behaved as

  12. Pain relief by touch: a quantitative approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancini, Flavia; Nash, Thomas; Iannetti, Gian Domenico; Haggard, Patrick

    2014-03-01

    Pain relief by touch has been studied for decades in pain neuroscience. Human perceptual studies revealed analgesic effects of segmental tactile stimulation, as compared to extrasegmental touch. However, the spatial organisation of touch-pain interactions within a single human dermatome has not been investigated yet. In 2 experiments we tested whether, how, and where within a dermatome touch modulates the perception of laser-evoked pain. We measured pain perception using intensity ratings, qualitative descriptors, and signal detection measures of sensitivity and response bias. Touch concurrent with laser pulses produced a significant analgesia, and reduced the sensitivity in detecting the energy of laser stimulation, implying a functional loss of information within the ascending Aδ pathway. Touch also produced a bias to judge laser stimuli as less painful. This bias decreased linearly when the distance between the laser and tactile stimuli increased. Thus, our study provides evidence for a spatial organisation of intrasegmental touch-pain interactions. Copyright © 2013 International Association for the Study of Pain. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Evaluation of reward from pain relief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navratilova, Edita; Xie, Jennifer Yanhua; King, Tamara; Porreca, Frank

    2014-01-01

    The human experience of pain is multidimensional and comprises sensory, affective, and cognitive dimensions. Preclinical assessment of pain has been largely focused on the sensory features that contribute to nociception. The affective (aversive) qualities of pain are clinically significant but have received relatively less mechanistic investigation in preclinical models. Recently, operant behaviors such as conditioned place preference, avoidance, escape from noxious stimulus, and analgesic drug self-administration have been used in rodents to evaluate affective aspects of pain. An important advance of such operant behaviors is that these approaches may allow the detection and mechanistic investigation of spontaneous neuropathic or ongoing inflammatory/nociceptive (i.e., nonevoked) pain that is otherwise difficult to assess in nonverbal animals. Operant measures may allow the identification of mechanisms that contribute differentially to reflexive hypersensitivity or to pain affect and may inform the decision to progress novel mechanisms to clinical trials for pain therapy. Additionally, operant behaviors may allow investigation of the poorly understood mechanisms and neural circuits underlying motivational aspects of pain and the reward of pain relief. PMID:23496247

  14. Technology and Information Sharing in Disaster Relief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjerge, Benedikte; Clark, Nathan; Fisker, Peter; Raju, Emmanuel

    2016-01-01

    This paper seeks to examine the extent to which technological advances can enhance inter-organizational information sharing in disaster relief. Our case is the Virtual OSOCC (On-Site Operations Coordination Centre) which is a part of the Global Disaster Alert and Coordination System (GDACS) under the United Nations Office for Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (UN OCHA). The online platform, which has been developing for more than a decade, provides a unique insight into coordination behaviour among disaster management agencies and individual actors. We build our study on the analysis of a complete database of user interaction including more than 20,000 users and 11,000 comments spread across approximately 300 disaster events. Controlling for types and severities of the events, location-specific vulnerabilities, and the overall trends, we find that the introduction of new features have led to increases in user activity. We supplement the data-driven approach with evidence from semi-structured interviews with administrators and key users, as well as a survey among all users specifically designed to capture and assess the elements highlighted by both interviews and data analysis.

  15. Influence of relief on permanent preservation areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Santos, Alexandre Rosa; Chimalli, Tessa; Peluzio, João Batista Esteves; da Silva, Aderbal Gomes; Dos Santos, Gleissy Mary Amaral Dino Alves; Lorenzon, Alexandre Simões; Teixeira, Thaisa Ribeiro; de Castro, Nero Lemos Martins; Soares Ribeiro, Carlos Antonio Alvares

    2016-01-15

    Many countries have environmental legislation to protecting natural resources on private property. In Brazil, the Brazilian Forestry Code determines specific areas to maintain with natural vegetation cover, known as areas of permanent preservation (APP). Currently, there are few studies that relate topographic variables on APP. In this context, we sought to evaluate the influence of relief on the conservation of areas of permanent preservation (APP) in the areas surrounding Caparaó National Park, Brazil. By using the chi-squared statistical test, we verified that the presence of forest cover is closely associated with altitude. The classes of APP in better conservation status are slopes in addition to hilltops and mountains, whereas APP streams and springs are among the areas most affected by human activities. The most deforested areas are located at altitudes below 1100.00 m and on slopes less than 45°. All orientations of the sides were significant for APP conservation status, with the southern, southeastern, and southwestern sides showing the lower degrees of impact. The methodology can be adjusted to environmental legislation to other countries.

  16. Technology and Information Sharing in Disaster Relief.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benedikte Bjerge

    Full Text Available This paper seeks to examine the extent to which technological advances can enhance inter-organizational information sharing in disaster relief. Our case is the Virtual OSOCC (On-Site Operations Coordination Centre which is a part of the Global Disaster Alert and Coordination System (GDACS under the United Nations Office for Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (UN OCHA. The online platform, which has been developing for more than a decade, provides a unique insight into coordination behaviour among disaster management agencies and individual actors. We build our study on the analysis of a complete database of user interaction including more than 20,000 users and 11,000 comments spread across approximately 300 disaster events. Controlling for types and severities of the events, location-specific vulnerabilities, and the overall trends, we find that the introduction of new features have led to increases in user activity. We supplement the data-driven approach with evidence from semi-structured interviews with administrators and key users, as well as a survey among all users specifically designed to capture and assess the elements highlighted by both interviews and data analysis.

  17. Aeromagnetic anomalies over faulted strata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grauch, V.J.S.; Hudson, Mark R.

    2011-01-01

    High-resolution aeromagnetic surveys are now an industry standard and they commonly detect anomalies that are attributed to faults within sedimentary basins. However, detailed studies identifying geologic sources of magnetic anomalies in sedimentary environments are rare in the literature. Opportunities to study these sources have come from well-exposed sedimentary basins of the Rio Grande rift in New Mexico and Colorado. High-resolution aeromagnetic data from these areas reveal numerous, curvilinear, low-amplitude (2–15 nT at 100-m terrain clearance) anomalies that consistently correspond to intrasedimentary normal faults (Figure 1). Detailed geophysical and rock-property studies provide evidence for the magnetic sources at several exposures of these faults in the central Rio Grande rift (summarized in Grauch and Hudson, 2007, and Hudson et al., 2008). A key result is that the aeromagnetic anomalies arise from the juxtaposition of magnetically differing strata at the faults as opposed to chemical processes acting at the fault zone. The studies also provide (1) guidelines for understanding and estimating the geophysical parameters controlling aeromagnetic anomalies at faulted strata (Grauch and Hudson), and (2) observations on key geologic factors that are favorable for developing similar sedimentary sources of aeromagnetic anomalies elsewhere (Hudson et al.).

  18. Passive fault current limiting device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Daniel J.; Cha, Yung S.

    1999-01-01

    A passive current limiting device and isolator is particularly adapted for use at high power levels for limiting excessive currents in a circuit in a fault condition such as an electrical short. The current limiting device comprises a magnetic core wound with two magnetically opposed, parallel connected coils of copper, a high temperature superconductor or other electrically conducting material, and a fault element connected in series with one of the coils. Under normal operating conditions, the magnetic flux density produced by the two coils cancel each other. Under a fault condition, the fault element is triggered to cause an imbalance in the magnetic flux density between the two coils which results in an increase in the impedance in the coils. While the fault element may be a separate current limiter, switch, fuse, bimetal strip or the like, it preferably is a superconductor current limiter conducting one-half of the current load compared to the same limiter wired to carry the total current of the circuit. The major voltage during a fault condition is in the coils wound on the common core in a preferred embodiment.

  19. RECENT GEODYNAMICS OF FAULT ZONES: FAULTING IN REAL TIME SCALE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. O. Kuzmin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent deformation processes taking place in real time are analyzed on the basis of data on fault zones which were collected by long-term detailed geodetic survey studies with application of field methods and satellite monitoring.A new category of recent crustal movements is described and termed as parametrically induced tectonic strain in fault zones. It is shown that in the fault zones located in seismically active and aseismic regions, super intensive displacements of the crust (5 to 7 cm per year, i.e. (5 to 7·10–5 per year occur due to very small external impacts of natural or technogenic / industrial origin.The spatial discreteness of anomalous deformation processes is established along the strike of the regional Rechitsky fault in the Pripyat basin. It is concluded that recent anomalous activity of the fault zones needs to be taken into account in defining regional regularities of geodynamic processes on the basis of real-time measurements.The paper presents results of analyses of data collected by long-term (20 to 50 years geodetic surveys in highly seismically active regions of Kopetdag, Kamchatka and California. It is evidenced by instrumental geodetic measurements of recent vertical and horizontal displacements in fault zones that deformations are ‘paradoxically’ deviating from the inherited movements of the past geological periods.In terms of the recent geodynamics, the ‘paradoxes’ of high and low strain velocities are related to a reliable empirical fact of the presence of extremely high local velocities of deformations in the fault zones (about 10–5 per year and above, which take place at the background of slow regional deformations which velocities are lower by the order of 2 to 3. Very low average annual velocities of horizontal deformation are recorded in the seismic regions of Kopetdag and Kamchatka and in the San Andreas fault zone; they amount to only 3 to 5 amplitudes of the earth tidal deformations per year.A ‘fault

  20. Evidence for slip partitioning and bimodal slip behavior on a single fault: Surface slip characteristics of the 2013 Mw7.7 Balochistan, Pakistan earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnhart, William; Briggs, Richard; Reitman, Nadine G.; Gold, Ryan D.; Hayes, Gavin

    2015-01-01

    Deformation is commonly accommodated by strain partitioning on multiple, independent strike-slip and dip-slip faults in continental settings of oblique plate convergence. As a corollary, individual faults tend to exhibit one sense of slip – normal, reverse, or strike-slip – until whole-scale changes in boundary conditions reactivate preexisting faults in a new deformation regime. In this study, we show that a single continental fault may instead partition oblique strain by alternatively slipping in a strike-slip or a dip-slip sense during independent fault slip events. We use 0.5 m resolution optical imagery and sub-pixel correlation analysis of the 200+ km 200+km"> 2013 Mw7.7 Balochistan, Pakistan earthquake to document co-seismic surface slip characteristics and Quaternary tectonic geomorphology along the causative Hoshab fault. We find that the 2013 earthquake, which involved a ∼6:1 strike-slip to dip-slip ratio, ruptured a structurally segmented fault. Quaternary geomorphic indicators of gross fault-zone morphology reveal both reverse-slip and strike-slip deformation in the rupture area of the 2013 earthquake that varies systematically along fault strike despite nearly pure strike-slip motion in 2013. Observations of along-strike variations in range front relief and geomorphic offsets suggest that the Hoshab fault accommodates a substantial reverse component of fault slip in the Quaternary, especially along the southern section of the 2013 rupture. We surmise that Quaternary bimodal slip along the Hoshab fault is promoted by a combination of the arcuate geometry of the Hoshab fault, the frictional weakness of the Makran accretionary prism, and time variable loading conditions from adjacent earthquakes and plate interactions.

  1. Moderation for Professional Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earle, Sarah

    2017-01-01

    Moderation is put forward as they key strategy for improving the reliability of teacher assessment. However, for many teachers the word "moderation" conjures up ideas of uncomfortable situations in which marking is being checked by others and there are prolonged arguments about tiny features of individual work. In this article, the…

  2. Methane pellet moderator development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foster, C.A.; Schechter, D.E.; Carpenter, J.M.

    2004-01-01

    A methane pellet moderator assembly consisting of a pelletizer, a helium cooled sub-cooling tunnel, a liquid helium cooled cryogenic pellet storage hopper and a 1.5L moderator cell has been constructed for the purpose demonstrating a system for use in high-power spallation sources. (orig.)

  3. Elasto-plastic deformation and plate weakening due to normal faulting in the subducting plate along the Mariana Trench

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zhiyuan; Lin, Jian

    2018-06-01

    We investigated variations in the elasto-plastic deformation of the subducting plate along the Mariana Trench through an analysis of flexural bending and normal fault characteristics together with geodynamic modeling. Most normal faults were initiated at the outer-rise region and grew toward the trench axis with strikes mostly subparallel to the local trench axis. The average trench relief and maximum fault throws were measured to be significantly greater in the southern region (5 km and 320 m, respectively) than the northern and central regions (2 km and 200 m). The subducting plate was modeled as an elasto-plastic slab subjected to tectonic loading at the trench axis. The calculated strain rates and velocities revealed an array of normal fault-like shear zones in the upper plate, resulting in significant faulting-induced reduction in the deviatoric stresses. We then inverted for solutions that best fit the observed flexural bending and normal faulting characteristics, revealing normal fault penetration to depths of 21, 20, and 32 km beneath the seafloor for the northern, central, and southern regions, respectively, which is consistent with the observed depths of the relocated normal faulting earthquakes in the central Mariana Trench. The calculated deeper normal faults of the southern region might lead to about twice as much water being carried into the mantle per unit trench length than the northern and central regions. We further calculated that normal faulting has reduced the effective elastic plate thickness Te by up to 52% locally in the southern region and 33% in both the northern and central regions. The best-fitting solutions revealed a greater apparent angle of the pulling force in the southern region (51-64°) than in the northern (22-35°) and central (20-34°) regions, which correlates with a general southward increase in the seismically-determined dip angle of the subducting slab along the Mariana Trench.

  4. Fault Management Guiding Principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newhouse, Marilyn E.; Friberg, Kenneth H.; Fesq, Lorraine; Barley, Bryan

    2011-01-01

    Regardless of the mission type: deep space or low Earth orbit, robotic or human spaceflight, Fault Management (FM) is a critical aspect of NASA space missions. As the complexity of space missions grows, the complexity of supporting FM systems increase in turn. Data on recent NASA missions show that development of FM capabilities is a common driver for significant cost overruns late in the project development cycle. Efforts to understand the drivers behind these cost overruns, spearheaded by NASA's Science Mission Directorate (SMD), indicate that they are primarily caused by the growing complexity of FM systems and the lack of maturity of FM as an engineering discipline. NASA can and does develop FM systems that effectively protect mission functionality and assets. The cost growth results from a lack of FM planning and emphasis by project management, as well the maturity of FM as an engineering discipline, which lags behind the maturity of other engineering disciplines. As a step towards controlling the cost growth associated with FM development, SMD has commissioned a multi-institution team to develop a practitioner's handbook representing best practices for the end-to-end processes involved in engineering FM systems. While currently concentrating primarily on FM for science missions, the expectation is that this handbook will grow into a NASA-wide handbook, serving as a companion to the NASA Systems Engineering Handbook. This paper presents a snapshot of the principles that have been identified to guide FM development from cradle to grave. The principles range from considerations for integrating FM into the project and SE organizational structure, the relationship between FM designs and mission risk, and the use of the various tools of FM (e.g., redundancy) to meet the FM goal of protecting mission functionality and assets.

  5. Moderator for nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milgram, M.S.; Dunn, J.T.; Hart, R.S.

    1995-01-01

    This invention relates to a moderator for a nuclear reactor and more specifically, to a composite moderator. A moderator is designed to slow down, or thermalize, neutrons which are released during nuclear reactions in the reactor fuel. Pure or almost pure materials like light water, heavy water, beryllium or graphite are used singly as moderators at present. All these materials, are used widely. Graphite has a good mechanical strength at high temperatures encountered in the nuclear core and therefore is used as both the moderator and core structural material. It also exhibits a low neutron-capture cross section and high neutron scattering cross section. However, graphite is susceptible to attach by carbon dioxide and/or oxygen where applicable, and releases stress energy under certain circumstances, although under normal operating conditions these reactions can be controlled. (author). 1 tab

  6. Ultrasonic evaluation of heat treatment for stress relief in steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bittencourt, Marcelo de S.Q.; Lamy, Carlos A.; Goncalves Filho, Orlando J.A.; Payao Filho, Joao da C.

    2000-01-01

    Residual stresses in materials arise due to the manufacturing processes. As a consequence, in the nuclear area some components must suffer a stress relief treatment according to strict criteria. Although these treatments are carefully carried on, concern with nuclear safety is constantly growing. This work proposes a nondestructive ultrasonic method to guarantee the efficiency of the heat treatment. It was used a short peened steel plate with tensile and compressive stresses which was submitted to a stress relief treatment. The results show that the proposed ultrasonic method could be used to confirm the efficiency of the stress relief heat treatment. (author)

  7. Fault geometry and earthquake mechanics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. J. Andrews

    1994-06-01

    Full Text Available Earthquake mechanics may be determined by the geometry of a fault system. Slip on a fractal branching fault surface can explain: 1 regeneration of stress irregularities in an earthquake; 2 the concentration of stress drop in an earthquake into asperities; 3 starting and stopping of earthquake slip at fault junctions, and 4 self-similar scaling of earthquakes. Slip at fault junctions provides a natural realization of barrier and asperity models without appealing to variations of fault strength. Fault systems are observed to have a branching fractal structure, and slip may occur at many fault junctions in an earthquake. Consider the mechanics of slip at one fault junction. In order to avoid a stress singularity of order 1/r, an intersection of faults must be a triple junction and the Burgers vectors on the three fault segments at the junction must sum to zero. In other words, to lowest order the deformation consists of rigid block displacement, which ensures that the local stress due to the dislocations is zero. The elastic dislocation solution, however, ignores the fact that the configuration of the blocks changes at the scale of the displacement. A volume change occurs at the junction; either a void opens or intense local deformation is required to avoid material overlap. The volume change is proportional to the product of the slip increment and the total slip since the formation of the junction. Energy absorbed at the junction, equal to confining pressure times the volume change, is not large enongh to prevent slip at a new junction. The ratio of energy absorbed at a new junction to elastic energy released in an earthquake is no larger than P/µ where P is confining pressure and µ is the shear modulus. At a depth of 10 km this dimensionless ratio has th value P/µ= 0.01. As slip accumulates at a fault junction in a number of earthquakes, the fault segments are displaced such that they no longer meet at a single point. For this reason the

  8. Fault Analysis in Solar Photovoltaic Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ye

    Fault analysis in solar photovoltaic (PV) arrays is a fundamental task to increase reliability, efficiency and safety in PV systems. Conventional fault protection methods usually add fuses or circuit breakers in series with PV components. But these protection devices are only able to clear faults and isolate faulty circuits if they carry a large fault current. However, this research shows that faults in PV arrays may not be cleared by fuses under some fault scenarios, due to the current-limiting nature and non-linear output characteristics of PV arrays. First, this thesis introduces new simulation and analytic models that are suitable for fault analysis in PV arrays. Based on the simulation environment, this thesis studies a variety of typical faults in PV arrays, such as ground faults, line-line faults, and mismatch faults. The effect of a maximum power point tracker on fault current is discussed and shown to, at times, prevent the fault current protection devices to trip. A small-scale experimental PV benchmark system has been developed in Northeastern University to further validate the simulation conclusions. Additionally, this thesis examines two types of unique faults found in a PV array that have not been studied in the literature. One is a fault that occurs under low irradiance condition. The other is a fault evolution in a PV array during night-to-day transition. Our simulation and experimental results show that overcurrent protection devices are unable to clear the fault under "low irradiance" and "night-to-day transition". However, the overcurrent protection devices may work properly when the same PV fault occurs in daylight. As a result, a fault under "low irradiance" and "night-to-day transition" might be hidden in the PV array and become a potential hazard for system efficiency and reliability.

  9. Radial basis function neural network in fault detection of automotive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Radial basis function neural network in fault detection of automotive engines. ... Five faults have been simulated on the MVEM, including three sensor faults, one component fault and one actuator fault. The three sensor faults ... Keywords: Automotive engine, independent RBFNN model, RBF neural network, fault detection

  10. Evidence of a tectonic transient within the Idrija fault system in Western Slovenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vičič, Blaž; Costa, Giovanni; Aoudia, Abdelkrim

    2017-04-01

    Western Slovenia and North-eastern Italy are areas of medium rate seismicity with rare historic earthquakes of higher magnitudes. From mainly reverse component faulting in north-western part of the region where 1976 Friuli earthquakes took place, tectonic regime changes to mostly strike-slip faulting in the Dinaric region, continuing towards southeast. In the northern part of the Idrija fault system, which represent the broader Dinaric strike-slip system there were two strong earthquakes in the recent times - Mw=5.6 1998 and Mw=5.2 2004 earthquakes. Further to the south, along the Idrija fault system, Idrija fault is the causative fault of 1511 Mw=6.8 earthquake. The southeastern most part of the Idrija fault system produced a Mw=5.2 earthquake in 1926 and few historic Mw>4 earthquakes. Since 2004 Mw=5.2 earthquake, no stronger earthquakes were recorded in the region covered by dense seismic network. Seismicity is mostly concentrated in Friuli region and north-western part of Idrija fault system - mostly on the Ravne fault which is the causative fault for the 1998 and 2004 earthquakes. In the central part of the fault system no strong or moderate earthquakes were recorded, except of an earthquake along the Idrija fault in 2014 of magnitude 3.4. Low magnitude background seismicity is burst like with no apparent temporal or spatial distribution. Seismicity of the southern part of Idrija fault system is again a bit higher than in the central part of the fault system with earthquakes up to Mw=4.4 that happened in 2014. In this study, detailed analysis of the seismicity is performed with manual relocation of the seismicity in the period between 2006 and 2016. With manual inspection of the waveform data, slight temporal clustering of seismicity is observed. We use a template algorithm method to increase the detection rate of the seismicity. Templates of seismicity in the north-western and south-eastern part of Idrija fault system are created. The continuous waveform data

  11. Proceedings: The Appendix 'K' relief workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-11-01

    The licensing and operation of commercial LWRs were impacted significantly when Appendix 'K' requirements for loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) and emergency core cooling systems (ECCS) analyses were implemented in 1974. The Appendix K requirements included both criteria and mandatory assumptions for LOCA analysis. Plants must meet these criteria, using analysis methods that have included very conservative assumptions, such as estimating decay heat energy as 20% greater than the 1971 American Nuclear Society standard. Additional constraints were placed on the application of specific models and correlations. The Appendix K requirements had a significant impact on licensing, analysis, fuel design, reload management, plant operation, and some supporting equipment. The overall impact of Appendix K could be translated into increased costs of millions of dollars per year to utilities. The Appendix 'K' Relief Workshop provided an improved understanding of the trade-offs -- both benefits and efforts required -- inherent in continuing to use existing analysis methods or adopting BE analysis under revised NRC rule. A range of options is available to each utility. The workshop explored options and benefits to the utility industry from LOCA/ECCS rule change. A forum for complete and open discussion of the issues germaine to the question of BE methodology versus existing methodology in view of LOCA/ECCS rule changes was incorporated. Both regulatory and utility perspectives on the implementation of proposed changes were discussed. Existing and planned efforts in developing and implementing BE uncertainty methodologies for plant-licensing application have been included. The individual papers have been cataloged separately

  12. Safety relief valve alternate analysis method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, R.H.; Javid, A.; Khatua, T.P.

    1981-01-01

    An experimental test program was started in the United States in 1976 to define and quantify Safety Relief Valve (SRV) phenomena in General Electric Mark I Suppression Chambers. The testing considered several discharged devices and was used to correlate SRV load prediction models. The program was funded by utilities with Mark I containments and has resulted in a detailed SRV load definition as a portion of the Mark I containment program Load Definition Report (LDR). The (USNRC) has reviewed and approved the LDR SRV load definition. In addition, the USNRC has permitted calibration of structural models used for predicting torus response to SRV loads. Model calibration is subject to confirmatory in-plant testing. The SRV methodology given in the LDR requires that transient dynamic pressures be applied to a torus structural model that includes a fluid added mass matrix. Preliminary evaluations of torus response have indicated order of magnitude conservatisms, with respect to test results, which could result in unrealistic containment modifications. In addition, structural response trends observed in full-scale tests between cold pipe, first valve actuation and hot pipe, subsequent valve actuation conditions have not been duplicated using current analysis methods. It was suggested by others that an energy approach using current fluid models be utilized to define loads. An alternate SRV analysis method is defined to correct suppression chamber structural response to a level that permits economical but conservative design. Simple analogs are developed for the purpose of correcting the analytical response obtained from LDR analysis methods. Analogs evaluated considered forced vibration and free vibration structural response. The corrected response correlated well with in-plant test response. The correlation of the analytical model at test conditions permits application of the alternate analysis method at design conditions. (orig./HP)

  13. The Effect of Different Local Anesthesia Methods on Pain Relief in Outpatient Endometrial Biopsy: Randomized Clinical Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaheh Olad-Saheb-Madarek

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Endometrial biopsy is necessary for diagnosing the reason of abnormal uterine bleeding in perimenopausal women. Currently outpatient endometrial biopsy is used for evaluation of abnormal uterine bleeding which is associated with moderate to severe pain. Using lidocaine is one of the procedures which is used for pain relief while biopsy. This study is aimed at comparing the effect of different local anesthesia procedures on pain relief during endometrial biopsy. Methods: In this randomized clinical trial, 160 multiparous 40-55 years old women with AUB, candidates for endometrial biopsy, were randomly assigned into four equal groups, to receive: 1-intrauterine lidocaine; 2-cervical spray lidocaine; 3- intrauterine lidocaine plus cervical spray lidocaine; or 4-intrauterine distilled water. Pain relief was measured at 3 different times: during endometrial biopsy, just after and 15 minutes after biopsy. Results: Pain intensity was reduced significantly at different times in intrauterine lidocaine and intrauterine lidocaine with cervical spray lidocaine receivers in compare with the groups which received cervical spray lidocaine and distilled water. The mean of difference pain relief during biopsy and 15 minutes after that was reduced significantly in the group which received intrauterine lidocaine and intrauterine lidocaine with cervical spray lidocaine in comparison with the other two groups. Conclusion: Intrauterine lidocaine was effective during endometrial biopsy, and using it with cervical spray lidocaine had no more beneficial effect.

  14. Application of fault current limiters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neumann, A.

    2007-11-30

    This report presents the results of a study commissioned by the Department for Business, Enterprise and Industry (BERR; formerly the Department of Trade and Industry) into the application of fault current limiters in the UK. The study reviewed the current state of fault current limiter (FCL) technology and regulatory position in relation to all types of current limiters. It identified significant research and development work with respect to medium voltage FCLs and a move to high voltage. Appropriate FCL technologies being developed include: solid state breakers; superconducting FCLs (including superconducting transformers); magnetic FCLs; and active network controllers. Commercialisation of these products depends on successful field tests and experience, plus material development in the case of high temperature superconducting FCL technologies. The report describes FCL techniques, the current state of FCL technologies, practical applications and future outlook for FCL technologies, distribution fault level analysis and an outline methodology for assessing the materiality of the fault level problem. A roadmap is presented that provides an 'action agenda' to advance the fault level issues associated with low carbon networks.

  15. U.S. Coastal Relief Model - Northwest Pacific

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NGDC's U.S. Coastal Relief Model (CRM) provides the first comprehensive view of the U.S. coastal zone integrating offshore bathymetry with land topography into a...

  16. U.S. Coastal Relief Model - Western Gulf of Mexico

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NGDC's U.S. Coastal Relief Model (CRM) provides the first comprehensive view of the U.S. coastal zone integrating offshore bathymetry with land topography into a...

  17. U.S. Coastal Relief Model - Southeast Atlantic

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NGDC's U.S. Coastal Relief Model (CRM) provides the first comprehensive view of the U.S. coastal zone integrating offshore bathymetry with land topography into a...

  18. U.S. Coastal Relief Model - Central Gulf of Mexico

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NGDC's U.S. Coastal Relief Model (CRM) provides the first comprehensive view of the U.S. coastal zone integrating offshore bathymetry with land topography into a...

  19. U.S. Coastal Relief Model - Central Pacific

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NGDC's U.S. Coastal Relief Model (CRM) provides the first comprehensive view of the U.S. coastal zone integrating offshore bathymetry with land topography into a...

  20. U.S. Coastal Relief Model - Southern California

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NGDC's U.S. Coastal Relief Model (CRM) provides the first comprehensive view of the U.S. coastal zone integrating offshore bathymetry with land topography into a...

  1. U.S. Coastal Relief Model - Northeast Atlantic

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NGDC's U.S. Coastal Relief Model (CRM) provides the first comprehensive view of the U.S. coastal zone integrating offshore bathymetry with land topography into a...

  2. U.S. Coastal Relief Model - Puerto Rico

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NGDC's U.S. Coastal Relief Model (CRM) provides the first comprehensive view of the U.S. coastal zone integrating offshore bathymetry with land topography into a...

  3. U.S. Coastal Relief Model - Southern California Version 2

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NGDC's U.S. Coastal Relief Model (CRM) provides a comprehensive view of the U.S. coastal zone integrating offshore bathymetry with land topography into a seamless...

  4. Knowledge of and attitude towards pain relief during labour of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study determined women's knowledge of and attitudes to pain relief during labour. Methods ... Department of Family Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the Free State, Bloemfontein, South Africa .... Breathing exercises. 25.

  5. Antiemetic Medicines: OTC Relief for Nausea and Vomiting

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... CorrectlyPain Relievers: Understanding Your OTC OptionsAntacids and Acid Reducers: OTC Relief for Heartburn and Acid RefluxOTC Cough ... Loss and Diet Plans Nutrients and Nutritional Info Sugar and Sugar Substitutes Exercise and Fitness Exercise Basics ...

  6. Anti-Seizure Medications: Relief from Nerve Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anti-seizure medications: Relief from nerve pain Anti-seizure drugs often are used to help control the type of ... by damaged nerves. By Mayo Clinic Staff Anti-seizure medications were originally designed to treat people with ...

  7. Engineering and Design. Design, Construction, and Maintenance of Relief Wells

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1992-01-01

    The objective of this manual is to provide guidance and information on the design, construction, and maintenance of pressure relief wells installed for the purpose of relieving subsurface hydrostatic...

  8. 29 CFR 1601.23 - Preliminary or temporary relief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., or political subdivision. (b) In a case involving a government, governmental agency, or political... private individuals from exercising their rights to seek temporary or preliminary relief on their own...

  9. High efficiency positron moderation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taqqu, D.

    1990-01-01

    A new positron moderation scheme is proposed. It makes use of electric and magnetic fields to confine the β + emitted by a radioactive source forcing them to slow down within a thin foil. A specific arrangement is described where an intermediary slowed-down beam of energy below 10 keV is produced. By directing it towards a standard moderator optimal conversion into slow positrons is achieved. This scheme is best applied to short lived β + emitters for which a 25% moderation efficiency can be reached. Within the state of the art technology a slow positron source intensity exceeding 2 x 10 10 e + /sec is achievable. (orig.)

  10. Interviewing the moderator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Traulsen, Janine Morgall; Almarsdóttir, Anna Birna; Björnsdóttir, Ingunn

    2004-01-01

    There has been an upsurge of academic interest in using focus groups (FGs) as a main or stand-alone qualitative method. In this article, the authors introduce a recently developed ancillary method to FGs called interviewing the moderator. The method is employed immediately after an FG and consists...... of a one-on-one interview with the FG moderator by another member of the research team. The authors argue, with reference to a specific study, that interviewing the moderator adds a new and valuable dimension to group interviews used in research. They describe how this method came about and provide...

  11. Fault trees for diagnosis of system fault conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambert, H.E.; Yadigaroglu, G.

    1977-01-01

    Methods for generating repair checklists on the basis of fault tree logic and probabilistic importance are presented. A one-step-ahead optimization procedure, based on the concept of component criticality, minimizing the expected time to diagnose system failure is outlined. Options available to the operator of a nuclear power plant when system fault conditions occur are addressed. A low-pressure emergency core cooling injection system, a standby safeguard system of a pressurized water reactor power plant, is chosen as an example illustrating the methods presented

  12. Identifying Conventionally Sub-Seismic Faults in Polygonal Fault Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fry, C.; Dix, J.

    2017-12-01

    Polygonal Fault Systems (PFS) are prevalent in hydrocarbon basins globally and represent potential fluid pathways. However the characterization of these pathways is subject to the limitations of conventional 3D seismic imaging; only capable of resolving features on a decametre scale horizontally and metres scale vertically. While outcrop and core examples can identify smaller features, they are limited by the extent of the exposures. The disparity between these scales can allow for smaller faults to be lost in a resolution gap which could mean potential pathways are left unseen. Here the focus is upon PFS from within the London Clay, a common bedrock that is tunnelled into and bears construction foundations for much of London. It is a continuation of the Ieper Clay where PFS were first identified and is found to approach the seafloor within the Outer Thames Estuary. This allows for the direct analysis of PFS surface expressions, via the use of high resolution 1m bathymetric imaging in combination with high resolution seismic imaging. Through use of these datasets surface expressions of over 1500 faults within the London Clay have been identified, with the smallest fault measuring 12m and the largest at 612m in length. The displacements over these faults established from both bathymetric and seismic imaging ranges from 30cm to a couple of metres, scales that would typically be sub-seismic for conventional basin seismic imaging. The orientations and dimensions of the faults within this network have been directly compared to 3D seismic data of the Ieper Clay from the offshore Dutch sector where it exists approximately 1km below the seafloor. These have typical PFS attributes with lengths of hundreds of metres to kilometres and throws of tens of metres, a magnitude larger than those identified in the Outer Thames Estuary. The similar orientations and polygonal patterns within both locations indicates that the smaller faults exist within typical PFS structure but are

  13. Spontaneous formation of optically induced surface relief gratings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leblond, H; Barille, R; Ahmadi-Kandjani, S; Nunzi, J-M; Ortyl, E; Kucharski, S

    2009-01-01

    We develop a model based on Fick's law of diffusion as a phenomenological description of the molecular motion, and on the coupled mode theory, to describe single-beam surface relief grating formation in azopolymer thin films. The model allows us to explain the mechanism of spontaneous patterning, and self-organization. It allows us to compute the surface relief profile and its evolution, with good agreement with experiments.

  14. Spontaneous formation of optically induced surface relief gratings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leblond, H; Barille, R; Ahmadi-Kandjani, S; Nunzi, J-M [Laboratoire POMA, Universite d' Angers, CNRS FRE 2988, 2, Bd Lavoisier, 49045 Angers (France); Ortyl, E; Kucharski, S, E-mail: herve.leblond@univ-angers.f [Wroclaw University of Technology, Faculty of Chemistry, Department of Polymer Engineering and Technology, 50-370 Wroclaw (Poland)

    2009-10-28

    We develop a model based on Fick's law of diffusion as a phenomenological description of the molecular motion, and on the coupled mode theory, to describe single-beam surface relief grating formation in azopolymer thin films. The model allows us to explain the mechanism of spontaneous patterning, and self-organization. It allows us to compute the surface relief profile and its evolution, with good agreement with experiments.

  15. Fault-tolerant architecture: Evaluation methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Battle, R.E.; Kisner, R.A.

    1992-08-01

    The design and reliability of four fault-tolerant architectures that may be used in nuclear power plant control systems were evaluated. Two architectures are variations of triple-modular-redundant (TMR) systems, and two are variations of dual redundant systems. The evaluation includes a review of methods of implementing fault-tolerant control, the importance of automatic recovery from failures, methods of self-testing diagnostics, block diagrams of typical fault-tolerant controllers, review of fault-tolerant controllers operating in nuclear power plants, and fault tree reliability analyses of fault-tolerant systems

  16. Fault Isolation for Shipboard Decision Support

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lajic, Zoran; Blanke, Mogens; Nielsen, Ulrik Dam

    2010-01-01

    Fault detection and fault isolation for in-service decision support systems for marine surface vehicles will be presented in this paper. The stochastic wave elevation and the associated ship responses are modeled in the frequency domain. The paper takes as an example fault isolation of a containe......Fault detection and fault isolation for in-service decision support systems for marine surface vehicles will be presented in this paper. The stochastic wave elevation and the associated ship responses are modeled in the frequency domain. The paper takes as an example fault isolation...... to the quality of decisions given to navigators....

  17. An architecture for fault tolerant controllers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niemann, Hans Henrik; Stoustrup, Jakob

    2005-01-01

    degradation in the sense of guaranteed degraded performance. A number of fault diagnosis problems, fault tolerant control problems, and feedback control with fault rejection problems are formulated/considered, mainly from a fault modeling point of view. The method is illustrated on a servo example including......A general architecture for fault tolerant control is proposed. The architecture is based on the (primary) YJBK parameterization of all stabilizing compensators and uses the dual YJBK parameterization to quantify the performance of the fault tolerant system. The approach suggested can be applied...

  18. Fault estimation - A standard problem approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stoustrup, J.; Niemann, Hans Henrik

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents a range of optimization based approaches to fault diagnosis. A variety of fault diagnosis problems are reformulated in the so-called standard problem set-up introduced in the literature on robust control. Once the standard problem formulations are given, the fault diagnosis...... problems can be solved by standard optimization techniques. The proposed methods include (1) fault diagnosis (fault estimation, (FE)) for systems with model uncertainties; FE for systems with parametric faults, and FE for a class of nonlinear systems. Copyright...

  19. Bali, Shaded Relief and Colored Height

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    The volcanic nature of the island of Bali is evident in this shaded relief image generated with data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM).Bali, along with several smaller islands, make up one of the 27 Provinces of Indonesia. It lies over a major subduction zone where the Indo-Australian tectonic plate collides with the Sunda plate, creating one of the most volcanically active regions on the planet.The most significant feature on Bali is Gunung Agung, the symmetric, conical mountain at the right-center of the image. This 'stratovolcano,' 3,148 meters (10,308 feet) high, is held sacred in Balinese culture, and last erupted in 1963 after being dormant and thought inactive for 120 years. This violent event resulted in over 1,000 deaths, and coincided with a purification ceremony called Eka Dasa Rudra, meant to restore the balance between nature and man. This most important Balinese rite is held only once per century, and the almost exact correspondence between the beginning of the ceremony and the eruption is though to have great religious significance.Two visualization methods were combined to produce the image: shading and color coding of topographic height. The shade image was derived by computing topographic slope in the northwest-southeast direction, so that northwest slopes appear bright and southeast slopes appear dark. Color coding is directly related to topographic height, with green at the lower elevations, rising through yellow and tan, to white at the highest elevations.Elevation data used in this image were acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on Feb. 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect 3-D measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter (approximately 200-foot

  20. Colored Height and Shaded Relief, Kamchatka Peninsula

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Russia's Kamchatka Peninsula, lying between the Sea of Okhotsk to the west and the Bering Sea and Pacific Ocean to the east, is one of the most active volcanic regions along the Pacific Ring of Fire. It covers an area about the size of Colorado but contains more than 100 volcanoes stretching across the 1000-kilometer-long (620-mile-long) land mass. A dozen or more of these have active vents, with the youngest located along the eastern half of the peninsula. This color-coded shaded relief image, generated with data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), shows Kamchatka's volcanic nature to dramatic effect.Kliuchevskoi, one of the most active and renowned volcanoes in the world, dominates the main cluster of volcanoes called the Kliuchi group, visible as a circular feature in the center-right of the image. The two other main volcanic ranges lie along northeast-southwest lines, with the older, less active range occupying the center and western half of Kamchatka. The younger, more active belt begins at the southernmost point of the peninsula and continues upward along the Pacific coastline.Two visualization methods were combined to produce this image: shading and color coding of topographic height. The shade image was derived by computing topographic slope in the north-south direction, so northern slopes appear bright and southern slopes appear dark. Color coding is directly related to topographic height, with green at the lower elevations, rising through yellow and brown to white at the highest elevations.The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission flew aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11, 2000. The mission used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission was designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter (200

  1. Sinai Peninsula, Shaded Relief and Colored Height

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    The Sinai Peninsula, located between Africa and Asia, is a result of those two continents pulling apart from each other. Earth's crust is cracking, stretching, and lowering along the two northern branches of the Red Sea, namely the Gulf of Suez, seen here on the west (left), and the Gulf of Aqaba, seen to the east (right). This color-coded shaded relief image shows the triangular nature of the peninsula, with the coast of the Mediterranean Sea forming the northern side of the triangle. The Suez Canal can be seen as the narrow vertical blue line in the upper left connecting the Red Sea to the Mediterranean. The peninsula is divided into three distinct parts; the northern region consisting chiefly of sandstone, plains and hills, the central area dominated by the Tih Plateau, and the mountainous southern region where towering peaks abound. Much of the Sinai is deeply dissected by river valleys, or wadis, that eroded during an earlier geologic period and break the surface of the plateau into a series of detached massifs with a few scattered oases. Two visualization methods were combined to produce the image: shading and color coding of topographic height. The shade image was derived by computing topographic slope in the northwest-southeast direction, so that northwest slopes appear bright and southeast slopes appear dark. Color coding is directly related to topographic height, with green at the lower elevations, rising through yellow and tan, to white at the highest elevations. Elevation data used in this image were acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on Feb. 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect 3-D measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter (approximately 200-foot) mast, installed

  2. Ireland, Shaded Relief and Colored Height

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    The island of Ireland comprises a large central lowland of limestone with a relief of hills surrounded by a discontinuous border of coastal mountains which vary greatly in geological structure. The mountain ridges of the south are composed of old red sandstone separated by limestone river valleys. Granite predominates in the mountains of Galway, Mayo and Donegal in the west and north-west and in Counties Down and Wicklow on the east coast, while a basalt plateau covers much of the north-east of the country. The central plain, which is broken in places by low hills, is extensively covered with glacial deposits of clay and sand. It has considerable areas of bog and numerous lakes. The island has seen at least two general glaciations and everywhere ice-smoothed rock, mountain lakes, glacial valleys and deposits of glacial sand, gravel and clay mark the passage of the ice. Two visualization methods were combined to produce this image: shading and color coding of topographic height. The shade image was derived by computing topographic slope in the northwest-southeast direction, so that northwest slopes appear bright and southeast slopes appear dark. Color coding is directly related to topographic height, with green at the lower elevations, rising through yellow and tan, to white at the highest elevations. Elevation data used in this image were acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on Feb. 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect 3-D measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter (approximately 200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between NASA, the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency

  3. Integrated fault tree development environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dixon, B.W.

    1986-01-01

    Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) techniques are utilized in the nuclear industry to perform safety analyses of complex defense-in-depth systems. A major effort in PRA development is fault tree construction. The Integrated Fault Tree Environment (IFTREE) is an interactive, graphics-based tool for fault tree design. IFTREE provides integrated building, editing, and analysis features on a personal workstation. The design philosophy of IFTREE is presented, and the interface is described. IFTREE utilizes a unique rule-based solution algorithm founded in artificial intelligence (AI) techniques. The impact of the AI approach on the program design is stressed. IFTREE has been developed to handle the design and maintenance of full-size living PRAs and is currently in use

  4. South America, Shaded Relief and Colored Height

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    This image of South America was generated with data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). For this broad view the resolution of the data was first reduced to 30 arcseconds (about 928 meters north-south but variable east-west), matching the best previously existing global digital topographic data set called GTOPO30. The data were then resampled to a Mercator projection with approximately square pixels (about one kilometer, or 0.6 miles, on each side). Even at this decreased resolution the variety of landforms comprising the South American continent is readily apparent.Topographic relief in South America is dominated by the Andes Mountains, which extend all along the Pacific Coast. These mountains are created primarily by the convergence of the Nazca and South American tectonic plates. The Nazca Plate, which underlies the eastern Pacific Ocean, slides under western South America resulting in crustal thickening, uplift, and volcanism. Another zone of plate convergence occurs along the northwestern coast of South America where the Caribbean Plate also slides under the South American Plate and forms the northeastern extension of the Andes Mountains.East of the Andes, much of northern South America drains into the Amazon River, the world's largest river in terms of both watershed area and flow volume. Topographic relief is very low in much of the Amazon Basin but SRTM data provide an excellent detailed look at the basin's three-dimensional drainage pattern, including the geologic structural trough (syncline) that hosts the eastern river channel.North of the Amazon, the Guiana Highlands commonly stand in sharp contrast to the surrounding lowlands, indeed hosting the world's tallest waterfall, Angel Falls (979 meters or 3212 feet). Folded and fractured bedrock structures are distinctive in the topographic pattern.South of the Amazon, the Brazilian Highlands show a mix of landforms, including some broad areas of consistent topographic patterns that indicate the

  5. Update: San Andreas Fault experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christodoulidis, D. C.; Smith, D. E.

    1984-01-01

    Satellite laser ranging techniques are used to monitor the broad motion of the tectonic plates comprising the San Andreas Fault System. The San Andreas Fault Experiment, (SAFE), has progressed through the upgrades made to laser system hardware and an improvement in the modeling capabilities of the spaceborne laser targets. Of special note is the launch of the Laser Geodynamic Satellite, LAGEOS spacecraft, NASA's only completely dedicated laser satellite in 1976. The results of plate motion projected into this 896 km measured line over the past eleven years are summarized and intercompared.

  6. Segmented fuel and moderator rod

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doshi, P.K.

    1987-01-01

    This patent describes a continuous segmented fuel and moderator rod for use with a water cooled and moderated nuclear fuel assembly. The rod comprises: a lower fuel region containing a column of nuclear fuel; a moderator region, disposed axially above the fuel region. The moderator region has means for admitting and passing the water moderator therethrough for moderating an upper portion of the nuclear fuel assembly. The moderator region is separated from the fuel region by a water tight separator

  7. Fault-tolerant system for catastrophic faults in AMR sensors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zambrano Constantini, A.C.; Kerkhoff, Hans G.

    Anisotropic Magnetoresistance angle sensors are widely used in automotive applications considered to be safety-critical applications. Therefore dependability is an important requirement and fault-tolerant strategies must be used to guarantee the correct operation of the sensors even in case of

  8. Implications of Seismically Active Fault Structures in Ankay and Alaotra Regions of Northern and Central Madagascar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malloy, S.; Stamps, D. S.

    2017-12-01

    The purpose of the study is to gain a better understanding of the seismically active fault structures in central and northern Madagascar. We study the Ankay and Lake Alaotra regions of Madagascar, which are segmented by multiple faults that strike N-S. In general, normal seismic events occur on faults bounding the Alaotra-Ankay rift basin where Quaternary alluvium is present. Due to this pattern and moderate amounts of low magnitude seismic activity along these faults, it is hypothesized the region currently undergoes E-W extension. In this work we test how variations in fault strength and net slip changes influence expected crustal movement in the region. Using the Coulomb stress failure point as a test of strength we are able to model the Alaotra-Ankay region using MATLAB Coulomb 3.3.01. This program allows us to define realistic Poisson's ratio and Young's modulus of mapped rock compositions in the region, i.e. paragneiss and orthogneiss, create 3D fault geometries, and calculate static stress changes with coinciding surface displacements. We impose slip along multiple faults and calculate seismic moment that we balance by the 3 observed earthquake magnitudes available in the USGS CMT database. Our calculations of surface displacements indicate 1-3 millimeters could be observed across the Alaotra-Ankay rift. These values are within the observable range of precision GNSS observations, therefore our results will guide future research into the area and direct potential GNSS station installation.

  9. Fault Management Assistant (FMA), Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — S&K Aerospace (SKA) proposes to develop the Fault Management Assistant (FMA) to aid project managers and fault management engineers in developing better and more...

  10. SDEM modelling of fault-propagation folding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, O.R.; Egholm, D.L.; Poulsen, Jane Bang

    2009-01-01

    and variations in Mohr-Coulomb parameters including internal friction. Using SDEM modelling, we have mapped the propagation of the tip-line of the fault, as well as the evolution of the fold geometry across sedimentary layers of contrasting rheological parameters, as a function of the increased offset......Understanding the dynamics and kinematics of fault-propagation-folding is important for evaluating the associated hydrocarbon play, for accomplishing reliable section balancing (structural reconstruction), and for assessing seismic hazards. Accordingly, the deformation style of fault-propagation...... a precise indication of when faults develop and hence also the sequential evolution of secondary faults. Here we focus on the generation of a fault -propagated fold with a reverse sense of motion at the master fault, and varying only the dip of the master fault and the mechanical behaviour of the deformed...

  11. Mt. Elgon, Africa, Shaded Relief and Colored Height

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    The striking contrast of geologic structures in Africa is shown in this shaded relief image of Mt. Elgon on the left and a section of the Great Rift Valley on the right. Mt. Elgon is a solitary extinct volcano straddling the border between Uganda and Kenya, and at 4,321 meters (14,178 feet) tall is the eighth highest mountain in Africa. It is positioned on the Pre-Cambriam bedrock of the Trans Nzoia Plateau, and is similar to other such volcanoes in East Africa in that it is associated with the formation of the Rift Valley. However one thing that sets Mt. Elgon apart is its age. Although there is no verifiable evidence of its earliest volcanic activity, Mt. Elgon is estimated to be at least 24 million years old, making it the oldest extinct volcano in East Africa. This presents a striking comparison to Mt. Kilimanjaro, the highest mountain in Africa at 5,895 meters (19,341 feet), which is just over one million years old. Judging by the diameter of its base, it is a common belief among geological experts that Mt. Elgon was once the highest mountains in Africa, however erosion has played a significant role in reducing the height to its present value. Juxtaposed with this impressive mountain is a section of the Great Rift Valley, a geological fault system that extends for about 4,830 kilometers (2,995 miles) from Syria to central Mozambique. Erosion has concealed some sections, but in some sections like that shown here, there are sheer cliffs several thousand feet high. The present configuration of the valley, which dates from the mid-Pleistocene epoch, results from a rifting process associated with thermal currents in the Earth's mantle. Two visualization methods were combined to produce the image: shading and color coding of topographic height. The shade image was derived by computing topographic slope in the northwest-southeast direction, so that northwest slopes appear bright and southeast slopes appear dark. Color coding is directly related to topographic height

  12. Rupture preparation process controlled by surface roughness on meter-scale laboratory fault

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, Futoshi; Fukuyama, Eiichi; Xu, Shiqing; Mizoguchi, Kazuo; Kawakata, Hironori; Takizawa, Shigeru

    2018-05-01

    We investigate the effect of fault surface roughness on rupture preparation characteristics using meter-scale metagabbro specimens. We repeatedly conducted the experiments with the same pair of rock specimens to make the fault surface rough. We obtained three experimental results under the same experimental conditions (6.7 MPa of normal stress and 0.01 mm/s of loading rate) but at different roughness conditions (smooth, moderately roughened, and heavily roughened). During each experiment, we observed many stick-slip events preceded by precursory slow slip. We investigated when and where slow slip initiated by using the strain gauge data processed by the Kalman filter algorithm. The observed rupture preparation processes on the smooth fault (i.e. the first experiment among the three) showed high repeatability of the spatiotemporal distributions of slow slip initiation. Local stress measurements revealed that slow slip initiated around the region where the ratio of shear to normal stress (τ/σ) was the highest as expected from finite element method (FEM) modeling. However, the exact location of slow slip initiation was where τ/σ became locally minimum, probably due to the frictional heterogeneity. In the experiment on the moderately roughened fault, some irregular events were observed, though the basic characteristics of other regular events were similar to those on the smooth fault. Local stress data revealed that the spatiotemporal characteristics of slow slip initiation and the resulting τ/σ drop for irregular events were different from those for regular ones even under similar stress conditions. On the heavily roughened fault, the location of slow slip initiation was not consistent with τ/σ anymore because of the highly heterogeneous static friction on the fault, which also decreased the repeatability of spatiotemporal distributions of slow slip initiation. These results suggest that fault surface roughness strongly controls the rupture preparation process

  13. A summary of the active fault investigation in the extension sea area of Kikugawa fault and the Nishiyama fault , N-S direction fault in south west Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, S.

    2010-12-01

    In this study, we carried out two sets of active fault investigation by the request from Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology in the sea area of the extension of Kikugawa fault and the Nishiyama fault. We want to clarify the five following matters about both active faults based on those results. (1)Fault continuity of the land and the sea. (2) The length of the active fault. (3) The division of the segment. (4) Activity characteristics. In this investigation, we carried out a digital single channel seismic reflection survey in the whole area of both active faults. In addition, a high-resolution multichannel seismic reflection survey was carried out to recognize the detailed structure of a shallow stratum. Furthermore, the sampling with the vibrocoring to get information of the sedimentation age was carried out. The reflection profile of both active faults was extremely clear. The characteristics of the lateral fault such as flower structure, the dispersion of the active fault were recognized. In addition, from analysis of the age of the stratum, it was recognized that the thickness of the sediment was extremely thin in Holocene epoch on the continental shelf in this sea area. It was confirmed that the Kikugawa fault extended to the offing than the existing results of research by a result of this investigation. In addition, the width of the active fault seems to become wide toward the offing while dispersing. At present, we think that we can divide Kikugawa fault into some segments based on the distribution form of the segment. About the Nishiyama fault, reflection profiles to show the existence of the active fault was acquired in the sea between Ooshima and Kyushu. From this result and topographical existing results of research in Ooshima, it is thought that Nishiyama fault and the Ooshima offing active fault are a series of structure. As for Ooshima offing active fault, the upheaval side changes, and a direction changes too. Therefore, we

  14. Development of fault parameters for use in risk assessment modeling in the Pasco Basin, Columbia Plateau, South Central Washington: a preliminary study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caggiano, J.A.

    1982-03-01

    Preliminary data on strain rate, seismicity, and estimated earthquake source parameters suggest limitations on the extent of postulated faulting and its impact on a nuclear waste repository in Columbia River basalt. Structural relief of dated basalt flows, attitude of Pliocene sediments, geodetic surveys, size and distribution of earthquakes, and focal mechanism solutions indicate that deformation of basalt under north-south compression was under way in the Miocene and has continued on existing structures at an average rate of much less than 1 mm/yr in the Pasco Basin. Lengths and displacements of mapped faults suggest limits on the postulated fault that could intersect a repository and produce an earthquake of about magnitude 6.5. Using a credible earthquake permits calculation of preliminary source parameters for risk assessment modeling during a single episode of slip on the postulated new fault and indicates displacement of less than or equal to 1, m on a steeply dipping fault of less than or equal to 50 km length could occur. Preliminary source parameter calculations suggest that displacements of less than or equal to 2 cm may occur during microearthquakes in swarms. The area of fault rupture may be tens of square meters up to a few square kilometers, suggesting slip on joints. Seismic moments for postulated earthquakes in the interconnecting fault and microearthquake scenarios compare favorably with reported values for similar-sized earthquakes in different media and suggest that the estimated fault parameters are reasonable until an adequate tectonic model has been developed

  15. ASSESSMENT OF THE INFLUENCE OF MODERN CRUSTAL MOVEMENTS AND THE RECENTLY ACTIVATED PRECAMBRIAN STRUCTURAL PLAN ON THE RELIEF OF THE LAKE LADOGA REGION (THE SOUTHEASTERN BALTIC SHIELD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. O. Agibalov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the influence of modern crustal movements and the recently activated Precambrian structural plan on the relief of theLakeLadogaregion. It presents the results of comprehensive studies, including processing of the regional geological and geomorphological data by the modern methods, as the major novelty of our work. The solutions of earthquake focal mechanisms suggest the current subhorizontal NW compression in the study area. Based on the computer simulation by the Roxar software, we have identified areas wherein new fractures are most likely to occur, determined the dominant directions of such fractures, and revealed the areas of intense vertical movements in the given stress state. The input database included a digital model of the relief and the spatial patterns of ancient faults represented by large-size inhomogeneities influencing the stress field. Strain values were estimated from the horizontal displacements recorded by the International GPS Service for Geodynamics (IGS and the GPS networks in theRepublicofKareliaand the southeastern regions ofFinland. Using the LESSA software, we have estima­ted the relief orientation characteristics: the density of lineaments, and elongation lines, which are indicative of the changes in the dominant directions of the strike of the lineaments (‘hatches’ in the study area. By interpreting the satellite images and the topographic maps (scale 1:20000, we reveal a number of geological structures, such as gra­nite-gneiss domes and large-size faults, which are directly reflected in the relief. The study results give grounds to establish an indirect relationship between the relief and the modern field of deformation: the areas with high strain values correspond to the areas with steep slopes. The computer simulation data show a NE-trending linear zone with the increased amplitudes of vertical movements. This zone occupies the region along the NW shoreLakeLadoga. In the block

  16. 31 CFR 29.522 - Fault.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fault. 29.522 Section 29.522 Money... Overpayments § 29.522 Fault. (a) General rule. A debtor is considered to be at fault if he or she, or any other... requirement. (3) The following factors may affect the decision as to whether the debtor is or is not at fault...

  17. H infinity Integrated Fault Estimation and Fault Tolerant Control of Discrete-time Piecewise Linear Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tabatabaeipour, Seyed Mojtaba; Bak, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we consider the problem of fault estimation and accommodation for discrete time piecewise linear systems. A robust fault estimator is designed to estimate the fault such that the estimation error converges to zero and H∞ performance of the fault estimation is minimized. Then, the es...

  18. 30 CFR 204.205 - How do I obtain accounting and auditing relief?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How do I obtain accounting and auditing relief... MINERALS REVENUE MANAGEMENT ALTERNATIVES FOR MARGINAL PROPERTIES Accounting and Auditing Relief § 204.205 How do I obtain accounting and auditing relief? (a) To take cumulative reports and payments relief...

  19. 30 CFR 204.201 - Who may obtain accounting and auditing relief?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Who may obtain accounting and auditing relief... MINERALS REVENUE MANAGEMENT ALTERNATIVES FOR MARGINAL PROPERTIES Accounting and Auditing Relief § 204.201 Who may obtain accounting and auditing relief? (a) You may obtain accounting and auditing relief under...

  20. 30 CFR 204.211 - When may MMS rescind relief for a property?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false When may MMS rescind relief for a property? 204... MMS rescind relief for a property? (a) MMS may retroactively rescind the relief for your property if MMS determines that your property was not eligible for the relief obtained under this subpart because...

  1. Reactivation of precambrian faults on the southwestern continental margin of India: Evidence from gravity anomalies

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Subrahmanyam, V.; Ramana, M.V.; Rao, D.G.

    con- fi~ration of the western continental margin, with various structural styles, has been considered as a single unit, even though there exists a difference of opinion about the origin and evolution of the Chagos-Laccadive Ridge complex...’tVATION OF PRECAMBRIAN FAULTS ON THE SW CON~~E~AL MARGIN OF INDIA 337 shelf break due to the steep topographic relief of shelf. Furthermore, the gradients might have played a dominant role in shaping the bathymetry when the block movement took place along the pre...

  2. Cell boundary fault detection system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archer, Charles Jens [Rochester, MN; Pinnow, Kurt Walter [Rochester, MN; Ratterman, Joseph D [Rochester, MN; Smith, Brian Edward [Rochester, MN

    2011-04-19

    An apparatus and program product determine a nodal fault along the boundary, or face, of a computing cell. Nodes on adjacent cell boundaries communicate with each other, and the communications are analyzed to determine if a node or connection is faulty.

  3. RESULTS, RESPONSIBILITY, FAULT AND CONTROL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evgeniy Stoyanov

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper focuses on the responsibility arising from the registered financial results. The analysis of this responsibility presupposes its evaluation and determination of the role of fault in the formation of negative results. The search for efficiency in this whole process is justified by the understanding of the mechanisms that regulate the behavior of economic actors.

  4. Fault detection using (PI) observers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niemann, Hans Henrik; Stoustrup, J.; Shafai, B.

    1997-01-01

    The fault detection and isolation (FDI) problem in connection with Proportional Integral (PI) Observers is considered in this paper. A compact formulation of the FDI design problem using PI observers is given. An analysis of the FDI design problem is derived with respectt to the time domain...

  5. Exact, almost and delayed fault detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niemann, Hans Henrik; Saberi, Ali; Stoorvogel, Anton A.

    1999-01-01

    Considers the problem of fault detection and isolation while using zero or almost zero threshold. A number of different fault detection and isolation problems using exact or almost exact disturbance decoupling are formulated. Solvability conditions are given for the formulated design problems....... The l-step delayed fault detection problem is also considered for discrete-time systems....

  6. 5 CFR 831.1402 - Fault.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fault. 831.1402 Section 831.1402...) RETIREMENT Standards for Waiver of Overpayments § 831.1402 Fault. A recipient of an overpayment is without fault if he/she performed no act of commission or omission which resulted in the overpayment. The fact...

  7. 40 CFR 258.13 - Fault areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fault areas. 258.13 Section 258.13... SOLID WASTE LANDFILLS Location Restrictions § 258.13 Fault areas. (a) New MSWLF units and lateral expansions shall not be located within 200 feet (60 meters) of a fault that has had displacement in Holocene...

  8. On the "stacking fault" in copper

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fransens, J.R.; Pleiter, F

    2003-01-01

    The results of a perturbed gamma-gamma angular correlations experiment on In-111 implanted into a properly cut single crystal of copper show that the defect known in the literature as "stacking fault" is not a planar faulted loop but a stacking fault tetrahedron with a size of 10-50 Angstrom.

  9. 20 CFR 255.11 - Fault.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Fault. 255.11 Section 255.11 Employees... § 255.11 Fault. (a) Before recovery of an overpayment may be waived, it must be determined that the overpaid individual was without fault in causing the overpayment. If recovery is sought from other than the...

  10. 5 CFR 845.302 - Fault.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fault. 845.302 Section 845.302... EMPLOYEES RETIREMENT SYSTEM-DEBT COLLECTION Standards for Waiver of Overpayments § 845.302 Fault. A recipient of an overpayment is without fault if he or she performed no act of commission or omission that...

  11. Fault-related clay authigenesis along the Moab Fault: Implications for calculations of fault rock composition and mechanical and hydrologic fault zone properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solum, J.G.; Davatzes, N.C.; Lockner, D.A.

    2010-01-01

    The presence of clays in fault rocks influences both the mechanical and hydrologic properties of clay-bearing faults, and therefore it is critical to understand the origin of clays in fault rocks and their distributions is of great importance for defining fundamental properties of faults in the shallow crust. Field mapping shows that layers of clay gouge and shale smear are common along the Moab Fault, from exposures with throws ranging from 10 to ???1000 m. Elemental analyses of four locations along the Moab Fault show that fault rocks are enriched in clays at R191 and Bartlett Wash, but that this clay enrichment occurred at different times and was associated with different fluids. Fault rocks at Corral and Courthouse Canyons show little difference in elemental composition from adjacent protolith, suggesting that formation of fault rocks at those locations is governed by mechanical processes. Friction tests show that these authigenic clays result in fault zone weakening, and potentially influence the style of failure along the fault (seismogenic vs. aseismic) and potentially influence the amount of fluid loss associated with coseismic dilation. Scanning electron microscopy shows that authigenesis promotes that continuity of slip surfaces, thereby enhancing seal capacity. The occurrence of the authigenesis, and its influence on the sealing properties of faults, highlights the importance of determining the processes that control this phenomenon. ?? 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Architecting Fault-Tolerant Software Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sözer, Hasan

    2009-01-01

    The increasing size and complexity of software systems makes it hard to prevent or remove all possible faults. Faults that remain in the system can eventually lead to a system failure. Fault tolerance techniques are introduced for enabling systems to recover and continue operation when they are

  13. Machine Learning of Fault Friction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, P. A.; Rouet-Leduc, B.; Hulbert, C.; Marone, C.; Guyer, R. A.

    2017-12-01

    We are applying machine learning (ML) techniques to continuous acoustic emission (AE) data from laboratory earthquake experiments. Our goal is to apply explicit ML methods to this acoustic datathe AE in order to infer frictional properties of a laboratory fault. The experiment is a double direct shear apparatus comprised of fault blocks surrounding fault gouge comprised of glass beads or quartz powder. Fault characteristics are recorded, including shear stress, applied load (bulk friction = shear stress/normal load) and shear velocity. The raw acoustic signal is continuously recorded. We rely on explicit decision tree approaches (Random Forest and Gradient Boosted Trees) that allow us to identify important features linked to the fault friction. A training procedure that employs both the AE and the recorded shear stress from the experiment is first conducted. Then, testing takes place on data the algorithm has never seen before, using only the continuous AE signal. We find that these methods provide rich information regarding frictional processes during slip (Rouet-Leduc et al., 2017a; Hulbert et al., 2017). In addition, similar machine learning approaches predict failure times, as well as slip magnitudes in some cases. We find that these methods work for both stick slip and slow slip experiments, for periodic slip and for aperiodic slip. We also derive a fundamental relationship between the AE and the friction describing the frictional behavior of any earthquake slip cycle in a given experiment (Rouet-Leduc et al., 2017b). Our goal is to ultimately scale these approaches to Earth geophysical data to probe fault friction. References Rouet-Leduc, B., C. Hulbert, N. Lubbers, K. Barros, C. Humphreys and P. A. Johnson, Machine learning predicts laboratory earthquakes, in review (2017). https://arxiv.org/abs/1702.05774Rouet-LeDuc, B. et al., Friction Laws Derived From the Acoustic Emissions of a Laboratory Fault by Machine Learning (2017), AGU Fall Meeting Session S025

  14. Tuberculosis Relief Belt Supporting Project (Tuberculosis Patient Management Project for Poverty Group).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jae Kyoung; Jeong, Ina; Lee, Ji Yeon; Kim, Jung Hyun; Han, Ah Yeon; Kim, So Yeon; Joh, Joon Sung

    2018-03-07

    The "Tuberculosis Relief Belt Supporting Project (Tuberculosis Patient Management Project for Poverty Groups)" is a national program for socioeconomically vulnerable tuberculosis (TB) patients. We sought to evaluate the clinical and socioeconomic characteristics of poverty-stricken TB patients, and determined the need for relief. We examined in-patients with TB, who were supported by this project at the National Medical Center from 2014 to 2015. We retrospectively investigated the patients' socioeconomic status, clinical characteristics, and project expenditures. Fifty-eight patients were enrolled. Among 55 patients with known income status, 24 (43.6%) had no income. Most patients (80%) lived alone. A total of 48 patients (82.8%) had more than one underlying disease. More than half of the enrolled patients (30 patients, 51.7%) had smear-positive TB. Cavitary disease was found in 38 patients (65.5%). Among the 38 patients with known resistance status, 19 (50%) had drug-resistant TB. In terms of disease severity, 96.6% of the cases had moderate-to-severe disease. A total of 14 patients (26.4%) died during treatment. Nursing expenses were supported for 12 patients (20.7%), with patient transportation costs reimbursed for 35 patients (60%). In terms of treatment expenses for 31 people (53.4%), 93.5% of them were supported by uninsured benefits. Underlying disease, infectivity, drug resistance, severity, and death occurred frequently in socioeconomically vulnerable patients with TB. Many uninsured treatment costs were not supported by the current government TB programs, and the "Tuberculosis Relief Belt Supporting Project" compensated for these limitations. Copyright©2018. The Korean Academy of Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases.

  15. Preliminary development of an advanced modular pressure relief cushion: Testing and user evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeto, Tyler; Mitchell, Steven J; Bogie, Kath M

    2018-02-01

    Effective pressure relief cushions are identified as a core assistive technology need by the World Health Organization Global Cooperation on Assistive Technology. High quality affordable wheelchair cushions could provide effective pressure relief for many individuals with limited access to advanced assistive technology. Value driven engineering (VdE) principles were employed to develop a prototype modular cushion. Low cost dynamically responsive gel balls were arranged in a close packed array and seated in bilayer foam for containment and support. Two modular cushions, one with high compliance balls and one with moderate compliance balls were compared with High Profile and Low Profile Roho ® and Jay ® Medical 2 cushions. ISO 16480-2 biomechanical standardized tests were applied to assess cushion performance. A preliminary materials cost analysis was carried out. A prototype modular cushion was evaluated by 12 participants who reported satisfaction using a questionnaire based on the Quebec User Evaluation of Satisfaction with Assistive Technology (QUEST 2.0) instrument. Overall the modular cushions performed better than, or on par with, the most widely prescribed commercially available cushions under ISO 16480-2 testing. Users rated the modular cushion highly for overall appearance, size and dimensions, comfort, safety, stability, ease of adjustment and general ease of use. Cost-analysis indicated that every modular cushion component a could be replaced several times and still maintain cost-efficacy over the complete cushion lifecycle. A VdE modular cushion has the potential provide effective pressure relief for many users at a low lifetime cost. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Pharmacological interventions for pain relief during orthodontic treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monk, Aoife B; Harrison, Jayne E; Worthington, Helen V; Teague, Annabel

    2017-11-28

    rating scale (NRS) or categorical scale. Two review authors independently screened the search results, agreed the studies to be included and extracted information from the included studies regarding methods, participants, interventions, outcomes, harms and results. We planned to resolve any discrepancies or disagreements through discussion. We used the Cochrane 'Risk of bias' tool to assess the risk of bias in the studies. We identified 32 relevant RCTs, which included 3110 participants aged 9 to 34 years, 2348 of whom we were able to include in our analyses. Seventeen of the studies had more than two arms. We were able to use data from 12 trials in meta-analyses that compared analgesics versus control (no treatment or a placebo); nine that compared non-steroidal anti-inflammatories (NSAIDs) versus paracetamol; and two that compared pre-emptive versus post-treatment ibuprofen for pain control following orthodontic treatment. One study provided data for the comparison of NSAIDs versus local anaesthetic.We found moderate-quality evidence that analgesics effectively reduced pain following orthodontic treatment when compared to no treatment or a placebo at 2 hours (mean difference (MD) -11.66 mm on a 0 to 100 mm VAS, 95% confidence interval (CI) -16.15 to -7.17; 10 studies, 685 participants), 6 hours (MD -24.27 mm on a VAS, 95% CI -31.44 to -17.11; 9 studies, 535 participants) and 24 hours (MD -21.19 mm on a VAS, 95% CI -28.31 to -14.06; 12 studies, 1012 participants).We did not find any evidence of a difference in efficacy between NSAID and paracetamol at 2, 6 or 24 hours (at 24 hours: MD -0.51, 95% CI -8.93 to 7.92; 9 studies, 734 participants; low-quality evidence).Very low-quality evidence suggested pre-emptive ibuprofen gave better pain relief at 2 hours than ibuprofen taken post treatment (MD -11.30, 95% CI -16.27 to -6.33; one study, 41 participants), however, the difference was no longer significant at 6 or 24 hours.A single study of 48 participants compared topical

  17. Holocene rupture of the Repongaere Fault, Gisborne : implications for Raukumara Peninsula deformation and impact on the Waipaoa sedimentary system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berryman, K.R.; Marden, M.; Palmer, A.; Litchfield, N.J.

    2009-01-01

    The Repongaere Fault is one of a series of active normal faults within the Raukumara Peninsula, eastern North Island, New Zealand. These faults appear to form in response to rapid uplift of the Raukumara Range and related extensional strain. However, the activity of these normal faults is poorly constrained. This paper presents new mapping of the active surface trace of the Repongaere Fault, c. 18 km northwest of Gisborne, and the results of two paleoseismic trenches. These results are then used to assess the seismic hazard posed by this fault and impacts on the Waipaoa Sedimentary System in which the fault is situated. Active traces can be mapped for c. 4.5 km, but we infer the surface rupture length to be at least 9 km. Tephras within the trenches constrain the timing of the most recent surface rupture event to have occurred during deposition of the Waimihia Tephra (c. 3400 cal. yr BP), and at least one event in the period c. 13 800-C5470 cal. yr BP, with single-event displacements of ≥0.4-1.1 m. From these data a mean dip-slip rate of c. 0.1 mm/yr and a maximum recurrence interval of 4490-6900 yr, can be calculated. If the Repongaere Fault is representative of other Raukumara Peninsula normal faults, then this relatively low rate of activity supports the interpretation that these faults are not contributing significantly to the deformation of the Raukumara Peninsula. The low rate of activity is also consistent with the very localised evidence for landscape impacts, a calculated moderate M w of 6.3-6.7, and the fault's location within the lower part of the Waipaoa River catchment. Together, these observations suggest that Repongaere Fault earthquakes have minimal, localised impact on the Waipaoa Sedimentary System. (author). 64 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  18. Fault diagnosis and fault-tolerant control based on adaptive control approach

    CERN Document Server

    Shen, Qikun; Shi, Peng

    2017-01-01

    This book provides recent theoretical developments in and practical applications of fault diagnosis and fault tolerant control for complex dynamical systems, including uncertain systems, linear and nonlinear systems. Combining adaptive control technique with other control methodologies, it investigates the problems of fault diagnosis and fault tolerant control for uncertain dynamic systems with or without time delay. As such, the book provides readers a solid understanding of fault diagnosis and fault tolerant control based on adaptive control technology. Given its depth and breadth, it is well suited for undergraduate and graduate courses on linear system theory, nonlinear system theory, fault diagnosis and fault tolerant control techniques. Further, it can be used as a reference source for academic research on fault diagnosis and fault tolerant control, and for postgraduates in the field of control theory and engineering. .

  19. Cold moderators at ORNL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucas, A. T.

    1997-09-01

    The Advanced Neutron Source (ANS) cold moderators were not an 'Oak Ridge first', but would have been the largest both physically and in terms of cold neutron flux. Two cold moderators were planned each 410 mm in diameter and containing about 30L of liquid deuterium. They were to be completely independent of each other. A modular system design was used to provide greater reliability and serviceability. When the ANS was terminated, upgrading of the resident High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) was examined and an initial study was made into the feasibility of adding a cold source. Because the ANS design was modular, it was possible to use many identical design features. Sub-cooled liquid at 4 bar abs was initially chosen for the HFIR design concept, but this was subsequently changed to 15 bar abs to operate above the critical pressure. As in the ANS, the hydrogen will operate at a constant pressure throughout the temperature range and a completely closed loop with secondary containment was adopted. The heat load of 2 kW made the heat flux comparable with that of the ANS. Subsequent studies into the construction of cryogenic moderators for the proposed new Synchrotron Neutron source indicated that again many of the same design concepts could be used. By connecting the two cold sources together in series, the total heat load of 2 kW is very close to that of the HFIR allowing a very similar supercritical hydrogen system to be configured. The two hydrogen moderators of the SNS provide a comparable heat load to the HFIR moderator. It is subsequently planned to connect the two in series and operate from a single cold loop system, once again using supercritical hydrogen. The spallation source also provided an opportunity to re-examine a cold pellet solid methane moderator operating at 20K.

  20. Change in failure stress on the southern san andreas fault system caused by the 1992 magnitude = 7.4 landers earthquake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, R S; King, G C; Lin, J

    1992-11-20

    The 28 June Landers earthquake brought the San Andreas fault significantly closer to failure near San Bernardino, a site that has not sustained a large shock since 1812. Stress also increased on the San Jacinto fault near San Bernardino and on the San Andreas fault southeast of Palm Springs. Unless creep or moderate earthquakes relieve these stress changes, the next great earthquake on the southern San Andreas fault is likely to be advanced by one to two decades. In contrast, stress on the San Andreas north of Los Angeles dropped, potentially delaying the next great earthquake there by 2 to 10 years.

  1. Coupled moderator neutronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russell, G.J.; Pitcher, E.J.; Ferguson, P.D.

    1995-01-01

    Optimizing the neutronic performance of a coupled-moderator system for a Long-Pulse Spallation Source is a new and challenging area for the spallation target-system designer. For optimal performance of a neutron source, it is essential to have good communication with instrument scientists to obtain proper design criteria and continued interaction with mechanical, thermal-hydraulic, and materials engineers to attain a practical design. A good comprehension of the basics of coupled-moderator neutronics will aid in the proper design of a target system for a Long-Pulse Spallation Source

  2. Inventory slack routing application in emergency logistics and relief distributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xianfeng; Hao, Wei; Lu, Yang

    2018-01-01

    Various natural and manmade disasters during last decades have highlighted the need of further improving on governmental preparedness to emergency events, and a relief supplies distribution problem named Inventory Slack Routing Problem (ISRP) has received increasing attentions. In an ISRP, inventory slack is defined as the duration between reliefs arriving time and estimated inventory stock-out time. Hence, a larger inventory slack could grant more responsive time in facing of various factors (e.g., traffic congestion) that may lead to delivery lateness. In this study, the relief distribution problem is formulated as an optimization model that maximize the minimum slack among all dispensing sites. To efficiently solve this problem, we propose a two-stage approach to tackle the vehicle routing and relief allocation sub-problems. By analyzing the inter-relations between these two sub-problems, a new objective function considering both delivery durations and dispensing rates of demand sites is applied in the first stage to design the vehicle routes. A hierarchical routing approach and a sweep approach are also proposed in this stage. Given the vehicle routing plan, the relief allocation could be easily solved in the second stage. Numerical experiment with a comparison of multi-vehicle Traveling Salesman Problem (TSP) has demonstrated the need of ISRP and the capability of the proposed solution approaches.

  3. Robust Fault Diagnosis Design for Linear Multiagent Systems with Incipient Faults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingping Xia

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The design of a robust fault estimation observer is studied for linear multiagent systems subject to incipient faults. By considering the fact that incipient faults are in low-frequency domain, the fault estimation of such faults is proposed for discrete-time multiagent systems based on finite-frequency technique. Moreover, using the decomposition design, an equivalent conclusion is given. Simulation results of a numerical example are presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed techniques.

  4. rTMS Induced Tinnitus Relief Is Related to an Increase in Auditory Cortical Alpha Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Nadia; Lorenz, Isabel; Langguth, Berthold; Weisz, Nathan

    2013-01-01

    Chronic tinnitus, the continuous perception of a phantom sound, is a highly prevalent audiological symptom. A promising approach for the treatment of tinnitus is repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) as this directly affects tinnitus-related brain activity. Several studies indeed show tinnitus relief after rTMS, however effects are moderate and vary strongly across patients. This may be due to a lack of knowledge regarding how rTMS affects oscillatory activity in tinnitus sufferers and which modulations are associated with tinnitus relief. In the present study we examined the effects of five different stimulation protocols (including sham) by measuring tinnitus loudness and tinnitus-related brain activity with Magnetoencephalography before and after rTMS. Changes in oscillatory activity were analysed for the stimulated auditory cortex as well as for the entire brain regarding certain frequency bands of interest (delta, theta, alpha, gamma). In line with the literature the effects of rTMS on tinnitus loudness varied strongly across patients. This variability was also reflected in the rTMS effects on oscillatory activity. Importantly, strong reductions in tinnitus loudness were associated with increases in alpha power in the stimulated auditory cortex, while an unspecific decrease in gamma and alpha power, particularly in left frontal regions, was linked to an increase in tinnitus loudness. The identification of alpha power increase as main correlate for tinnitus reduction sheds further light on the pathophysiology of tinnitus. This will hopefully stimulate the development of more effective therapy approaches. PMID:23390539

  5. Active fault traces along Bhuj Fault and Katrol Hill Fault, and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    face, passing through the alluvial-colluvial fan at location 2. The gentle warping of the surface was completely modified because of severe cultivation practice. Therefore, it was difficult to confirm it in field. To the south ... scarp has been modified by present day farming. At location 5 near Wandhay village, an active fault trace ...

  6. Novel neural networks-based fault tolerant control scheme with fault alarm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Qikun; Jiang, Bin; Shi, Peng; Lim, Cheng-Chew

    2014-11-01

    In this paper, the problem of adaptive active fault-tolerant control for a class of nonlinear systems with unknown actuator fault is investigated. The actuator fault is assumed to have no traditional affine appearance of the system state variables and control input. The useful property of the basis function of the radial basis function neural network (NN), which will be used in the design of the fault tolerant controller, is explored. Based on the analysis of the design of normal and passive fault tolerant controllers, by using the implicit function theorem, a novel NN-based active fault-tolerant control scheme with fault alarm is proposed. Comparing with results in the literature, the fault-tolerant control scheme can minimize the time delay between fault occurrence and accommodation that is called the time delay due to fault diagnosis, and reduce the adverse effect on system performance. In addition, the FTC scheme has the advantages of a passive fault-tolerant control scheme as well as the traditional active fault-tolerant control scheme's properties. Furthermore, the fault-tolerant control scheme requires no additional fault detection and isolation model which is necessary in the traditional active fault-tolerant control scheme. Finally, simulation results are presented to demonstrate the efficiency of the developed techniques.

  7. Managing Space System Faults: Coalescing NASA's Views

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muirhead, Brian; Fesq, Lorraine

    2012-01-01

    Managing faults and their resultant failures is a fundamental and critical part of developing and operating aerospace systems. Yet, recent studies have shown that the engineering "discipline" required to manage faults is not widely recognized nor evenly practiced within the NASA community. Attempts to simply name this discipline in recent years has been fraught with controversy among members of the Integrated Systems Health Management (ISHM), Fault Management (FM), Fault Protection (FP), Hazard Analysis (HA), and Aborts communities. Approaches to managing space system faults typically are unique to each organization, with little commonality in the architectures, processes and practices across the industry.

  8. Synthesis of Fault-Tolerant Embedded Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eles, Petru; Izosimov, Viacheslav; Pop, Paul

    2008-01-01

    This work addresses the issue of design optimization for fault- tolerant hard real-time systems. In particular, our focus is on the handling of transient faults using both checkpointing with rollback recovery and active replication. Fault tolerant schedules are generated based on a conditional...... process graph representation. The formulated system synthesis approaches decide the assignment of fault-tolerance policies to processes, the optimal placement of checkpoints and the mapping of processes to processors, such that multiple transient faults are tolerated, transparency requirements...

  9. Diagnosis and Fault-tolerant Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blanke, Mogens; Kinnaert, Michel; Lunze, Jan

    the applicability of the presented methods. The theoretical results are illustrated by two running examples which are used throughout the book. The book addresses engineering students, engineers in industry and researchers who wish to get a survey over the variety of approaches to process diagnosis and fault......The book presents effective model-based analysis and design methods for fault diagnosis and fault-tolerant control. Architectural and structural models are used to analyse the propagation of the fault through the process, to test the fault detectability and to find the redundancies in the process...

  10. Computer aided construction of fault tree

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovacs, Z.

    1982-01-01

    Computer code CAT for the automatic construction of the fault tree is briefly described. Code CAT makes possible simple modelling of components using decision tables, it accelerates the fault tree construction process, constructs fault trees of different complexity, and is capable of harmonized co-operation with programs PREPandKITT 1,2 for fault tree analysis. The efficiency of program CAT and thus the accuracy and completeness of fault trees constructed significantly depends on the compilation and sophistication of decision tables. Currently, program CAT is used in co-operation with programs PREPandKITT 1,2 in reliability analyses of nuclear power plant systems. (B.S.)

  11. Active fault detection in MIMO systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niemann, Hans Henrik; Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad

    2014-01-01

    The focus in this paper is on active fault detection (AFD) for MIMO systems with parametric faults. The problem of design of auxiliary inputs with respect to detection of parametric faults is investigated. An analysis of the design of auxiliary inputs is given based on analytic transfer functions...... from auxiliary input to residual outputs. The analysis is based on a singular value decomposition of these transfer functions Based on this analysis, it is possible to design auxiliary input as well as design of the associated residual vector with respect to every single parametric fault in the system...... such that it is possible to detect these faults....

  12. Deformation associated with continental normal faults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resor, Phillip G.

    Deformation associated with normal fault earthquakes and geologic structures provide insights into the seismic cycle as it unfolds over time scales from seconds to millions of years. Improved understanding of normal faulting will lead to more accurate seismic hazard assessments and prediction of associated structures. High-precision aftershock locations for the 1995 Kozani-Grevena earthquake (Mw 6.5), Greece image a segmented master fault and antithetic faults. This three-dimensional fault geometry is typical of normal fault systems mapped from outcrop or interpreted from reflection seismic data and illustrates the importance of incorporating three-dimensional fault geometry in mechanical models. Subsurface fault slip associated with the Kozani-Grevena and 1999 Hector Mine (Mw 7.1) earthquakes is modeled using a new method for slip inversion on three-dimensional fault surfaces. Incorporation of three-dimensional fault geometry improves the fit to the geodetic data while honoring aftershock distributions and surface ruptures. GPS Surveying of deformed bedding surfaces associated with normal faulting in the western Grand Canyon reveals patterns of deformation that are similar to those observed by interferometric satellite radar interferometry (InSAR) for the Kozani Grevena earthquake with a prominent down-warp in the hanging wall and a lesser up-warp in the footwall. However, deformation associated with the Kozani-Grevena earthquake extends ˜20 km from the fault surface trace, while the folds in the western Grand Canyon only extend 500 m into the footwall and 1500 m into the hanging wall. A comparison of mechanical and kinematic models illustrates advantages of mechanical models in exploring normal faulting processes including incorporation of both deformation and causative forces, and the opportunity to incorporate more complex fault geometry and constitutive properties. Elastic models with antithetic or synthetic faults or joints in association with a master

  13. Parents' knowledge, attitudes, use of pain relief methods and satisfaction related to their children's postoperative pain management: a descriptive correlational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chng, Hui Yi; He, Hong-Gu; Chan, Sally Wai-Chi; Liam, Joanne Li Wee; Zhu, Lixia; Cheng, Karis Kin Fong

    2015-06-01

    To examine parents' knowledge about and attitudes towards pain management, use of pain relief strategies and satisfaction with their children's postoperative pain management, as well as the relationships among these variables. Children's postoperative pain is inadequately managed worldwide. Despite increasing emphasis on parental involvement in children's postoperative pain management, few studies have examined parents' management of their child's postoperative pain in Singapore. A descriptive correlational study. A convenience sample of 60 parents having 6- to 14-year-old children undergoing inpatient elective surgery in a public hospital in Singapore was recruited. Data were collected one day after each child's surgery using the Pain Management Knowledge and Attitudes questionnaire and the Parents' Use of Pain Relief Strategies questionnaire. Descriptive statistics, Mann-Whitney U tests, Kruskal-Wallis tests and Spearman's rank correlation coefficient were used for data analyses. Parents displayed moderate levels of knowledge, attitudes and use of pain relief methods in relation to their children's postoperative pain and pain management. They were generally satisfied with the management of their child's postoperative pain. There was significant difference in Parents' Use of Pain Relief Strategies scores between parents with and without previous experience of caring for their hospitalised child. Statistically significant positive correlations were found between parents' knowledge and attitude, knowledge and satisfaction, attitude and satisfaction, knowledge and pain relief strategies, as well as attitude and pain relief strategies. This study indicates the need to provide parents with more information regarding their children's postoperative pain management. Future studies are needed to develop educational interventions for parents to improve their knowledge and attitudes, which will eventually improve their use of pain relief strategies for their children. Health

  14. Mesoscopic Structural Observations of Cores from the Chelungpu Fault System, Taiwan Chelungpu-Fault Drilling Project Hole-A, Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroki Sone

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Structural characteristics of fault rocks distributed within major fault zones provide basic information in understanding the physical aspects of faulting. Mesoscopic structural observations of the drilledcores from Taiwan Chelungpu-fault Drilling Project Hole-A are reported in this article to describe and reveal the distribution of fault rocks within the Chelungpu Fault System.

  15. Numerical modelling of the mechanical and fluid flow properties of fault zones - Implications for fault seal analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heege, J.H. ter; Wassing, B.B.T.; Giger, S.B.; Clennell, M.B.

    2009-01-01

    Existing fault seal algorithms are based on fault zone composition and fault slip (e.g., shale gouge ratio), or on fault orientations within the contemporary stress field (e.g., slip tendency). In this study, we aim to develop improved fault seal algorithms that account for differences in fault zone

  16. Moderator Chemistry Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dewitt, L.V.; Gibbs, A.; Lambert, D.P.; Bohrer, S.R.; Fanning, R.L.; Houston, M.W.; Stinson, S.L.; Deible, R.W.; Abdel-Khalik, S.I.

    1990-11-01

    Over the past fifteen months, the Systems Chemistry Group of the Reactor Engineering Department has undertaken a comprehensive study of the Department's moderator chemistry program at Savannah River Site (SRS). An internal review was developed to formalize and document this program. Objectives were as outlined in a mission statement and action plan. In addition to the mission statement and action plan, nine separate task reports have been issued during the course of this study. Each of these task reports is included in this document as a chapter. This document is an organized compilation of the individual reports issued by the Systems Chemistry Group in assessment of SRS moderator chemistry to determine if there were significant gaps in the program as ft existed in October, 1989. While these reviews found no significant gaps in that mode of operation, or any items that adversely affected safety, items were identified that could be improved. Many of the items have already been dear with or are in the process of completion under this Moderator Chemistry Program and other Reactor Restart programs. A complete list of the items of improvement found under this assessment is found in Chapter 9, along with a proposed time table for correcting remaining items that can be improved for the chemistry program of SRS reactors. An additional external review of the moderator chemistry processes, recommendations, and responses to/from the Reactor Corrosion Mitigation Committee is included as Appendix to this compilation

  17. Den moderate revolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Bøje

    "normale" industrivirksomheder, men den er absolut set begrænset. Årsagerne til denne kun "moderate revolution" af organisationsformerne diskuteres: Er det fordi klassisk organisation og social nærkontakt er nødvendig i den nye økonomi, eller er det manglende fantasi og tryghedsbehov? Begge muligheder...

  18. Cryogenic moderator design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diplock, B.R.

    1983-01-01

    This paper describes the present design of the two cold moderators to be built for the Spallation Neutron Source. It discusses the reasons behind a number of the design features and highlights several problem areas requiring solutions before a final design can be constructed

  19. In Everything Moderation

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    For many people, drinking alcohol is a regular part of social occasions, but moderation is important. Excessive alcohol consumption can lead to serious health and social problems. A recent report found that binge drinking is common among women and girls. In this podcast, Dr. Dafna Kanny discusses the dangers of binge drinking.

  20. High tsunami frequency as a result of combined strike-slip faulting and coastal landslides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornbach, Matthew J.; Braudy, Nicole; Briggs, Richard W.; Cormier, Marie-Helene; Davis, Marcy B.; Diebold, John B.; Dieudonne, Nicole; Douilly, Roby; Frohlich, Cliff; Gulick, Sean P.S.; Johnson, Harold E.; Mann, Paul; McHugh, Cecilia; Ryan-Mishkin, Katherine; Prentice, Carol S.; Seeber, Leonardo; Sorlien, Christopher C.; Steckler, Michael S.; Symithe, Steeve Julien; Taylor, Frederick W.; Templeton, John

    2010-01-01

    Earthquakes on strike-slip faults can produce devastating natural hazards. However, because they consist predominantly of lateral motion, these faults are rarely associated with significant uplift or tsunami generation. And although submarine slides can generate tsunami, only a few per cent of all tsunami are believed to be triggered in this way. The 12 January Mw 7.0 Haiti earthquake exhibited primarily strike-slip motion but nevertheless generated a tsunami. Here we present data from a comprehensive field survey that covered the onshore and offshore area around the epicentre to document that modest uplift together with slope failure caused tsunamigenesis. Submarine landslides caused the most severe tsunami locally. Our analysis suggests that slide-generated tsunami occur an order-of-magnitude more frequently along the Gonave microplate than global estimates predict. Uplift was generated because of the earthquake's location, where the Caribbean and Gonave microplates collide obliquely. The earthquake also caused liquefaction at several river deltas that prograde rapidly and are prone to failure. We conclude that coastal strike-slip fault systems such as the Enriquillo-Plantain Garden fault produce relief conducive to rapid sedimentation, erosion and slope failure, so that even modest predominantly strike-slip earthquakes can cause potentially catastrophic slide-generated tsunami - a risk that is underestimated at present.

  1. Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Systems for Disaster Relief: Tornado Alley

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeBusk, Wesley M.

    2009-01-01

    Unmanned aerial vehicle systems are currently in limited use for public service missions worldwide. Development of civil unmanned technology in the United States currently lags behind military unmanned technology development in part because of unresolved regulatory and technological issues. Civil unmanned aerial vehicle systems have potential to augment disaster relief and emergency response efforts. Optimal design of aerial systems for such applications will lead to unmanned vehicles which provide maximum potentiality for relief and emergency response while accounting for public safety concerns and regulatory requirements. A case study is presented that demonstrates application of a civil unmanned system to a disaster relief mission with the intent on saving lives. The concept utilizes unmanned aircraft to obtain advanced warning and damage assessments for tornados and severe thunderstorms. Overview of a tornado watch mission architecture as well as commentary on risk, cost, need for, and design tradeoffs for unmanned aerial systems are provided.

  2. Epidural morphine for postoperative pain relief in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henneberg, S W; Hole, P; Haas, Inge Madsen De

    1993-01-01

    Epidural morphine for postoperative pain relief is in general use, and has proved to be very efficient in adults. The epidural technique and the use of epidural morphine are much less frequent in children. For 2 years we have prospectively followed 76 children who had epidural morphine...... for postoperative pain relief after major abdominal surgery. The age distribution was from newborn to 13 years, with a median age of 12 months. It was estimated that 94% of the patients had good analgesia for the first 24 postoperative hours and no other opioids were given. The side effects were few, but one case...... the investigation. We observed a change in the sleeping pattern with an increased number of sleep-induced myoclonia during the administration of epidural morphine. In conclusion, the use of epidural morphine in children for postoperative pain relief is very efficient. The minimal effective dose has not been...

  3. Bridging the sanitation gap between disaster relief and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Ka-Man; Ramirez, Claudia; Liu, Weilong; Kirilova, Darina; Vick, David; Mari, Joe; Smith, Rachel; Lam, Ho-Yin; Ostovari, Afshin; Shibakawa, Akifumi; Liu, Yang; Samant, Sidharth; Osaro, Lucky

    2015-10-01

    By interpreting disasters as opportunities to initiate the fulfilment of development needs, realise the vulnerability of the affected community and environment, and extend the legacy of relief funds and effort, this paper builds upon the concept linking relief, rehabilitation and development (LRRD) in the sanitation sector. It aims to use a composite of case studies to devise a framework for a semi-hypothetical scenario to identify critical components and generic processes for a LRRD action plan. The scenario is based on a latrine wetland sanitation system in a Muslim community. Several sub-frameworks are developed: (i) latrine design; (ii) assessment of human waste treatment; (iii) connective sanitation promotion strategy; and (iv) ecological systems and environmental services for sanitation and development. This scenario illustrates the complex issues involved in LRRD in sanitation work and provides technical notes and references for a legacy plan for disaster relief and development. © 2015 The Author(s). Disasters © Overseas Development Institute, 2015.

  4. Experiences from tsunami relief activity: implications for medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasubramaniam, Sudharsanam Manni; Mohan, Yogesh; Roy, Gautam

    2012-01-01

    A tsunami struck the coast of Tamilnadu and Pondicherry on 26 December 2004. Jawaharlal Institute of Postgraduate Medical Education & Research, (JIPMER) in Pondicherry played a vital role in providing medical relief. The experiences from the relief activities revealed areas of deficiency in medical education in regards to disaster preparedness. A qualitative study using focus group discussion was employed to find the lacunae in skills in managing medical relief measures. Many skills were identified; the most important of which was addressing the psychological impact of the tsunami on the victims. Limited coordination and leadership skills were also identified. It is recommended that activity-based learning can be included in the curriculum to improve these skills.

  5. Patient expectations predict greater pain relief with joint arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandhi, Rajiv; Davey, John Roderick; Mahomed, Nizar

    2009-08-01

    We examined the relationship between patient expectations of total joint arthroplasty and functional outcomes. We surveyed 1799 patients undergoing primary hip or knee arthroplasty for demographic data and Western Ontario McMaster University Osteoarthritis Index scores at baseline, 3 months, and 1 year of follow-up. Patient expectations were determined with 3 survey questions. The patients with the greatest expectations of surgery were younger, male, and had a lower body mass index. Linear regression modeling showed that a greater expectation of pain relief with surgery independently predicted greater reported pain relief at 1 year of follow-up, adjusted for all relevant covariates (P relief after joint arthroplasty is an important predictor of outcomes at 1 year.

  6. Active faults paragenesis and the state of crustal stresses in the Late Cenozoic in Central Mongolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Sankov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Active faults of the Hangay-Hentiy tectonic saddle region in Central Mongolia are studied by space images interpretation, relief analysis, structural methods and tectonic stress reconstruction. The study results show that faults activation during the Late Cenozoic stage was selective, and a cluster pattern of active faults is typical for the study region. Morphological and genetic types and the kinematics of faults in the Hangay-Hentiy saddle region are related the direction of the ancient inherited structural heterogeneities. Latitudinal and WNW trending faults are left lateral strike-slips with reverse or thrust component (Dzhargalantgol and North Burd faults. NW trending faults are reverse faults or thrusts with left lateral horizontal component. NNW trending faults have right lateral horizontal component. The horizontal component of the displacements, as a rule, exceeds the vertical one. Brittle deformations in fault zones do not conform with the Pliocene and, for the most part, Pleistocene topography. With some caution it may be concluded that the last phase of revitalization of strike slip and reverse movements along the faults commenced in the Late Pleistocene. NE trending disjunctives are normal faults distributed mainly within the Hangay uplift. Their features are more early activation within the Late Cenozoic and the lack of relation to large linear structures of the previous tectonic stages. According to the stress tensor reconstructions of the last phase of deformation in zones of active faults of the Hangay-Hentiy saddle using data on tectonic fractures and fault displacements, it is revealed that conditions of compression and strike-slip with NNE direction of the axis of maximum compression were dominant. Stress tensors of extensional type with NNW direction of minimum compression are reconstructed for the Orkhon graben. It is concluded that the activation of faults in Central Mongolia in the Pleistocene-Holocene, as well as

  7. Development of methods for evaluating active faults

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-08-15

    The report for long-term evaluation of active faults was published by the Headquarters for Earthquake Research Promotion on Nov. 2010. After occurrence of the 2011 Tohoku-oki earthquake, the safety review guide with regard to geology and ground of site was revised by the Nuclear Safety Commission on Mar. 2012 with scientific knowledges of the earthquake. The Nuclear Regulation Authority established on Sep. 2012 is newly planning the New Safety Design Standard related to Earthquakes and Tsunamis of Light Water Nuclear Power Reactor Facilities. With respect to those guides and standards, our investigations for developing the methods of evaluating active faults are as follows; (1) For better evaluation on activities of offshore fault, we proposed a work flow to date marine terrace (indicator for offshore fault activity) during the last 400,000 years. We also developed the analysis of fault-related fold for evaluating of blind fault. (2) To clarify the activities of active faults without superstratum, we carried out the color analysis of fault gouge and divided the activities into thousand of years and tens of thousands. (3) To reduce uncertainties of fault activities and frequency of earthquakes, we compiled the survey data and possible errors. (4) For improving seismic hazard analysis, we compiled the fault activities of the Yunotake and Itozawa faults, induced by the 2011 Tohoku-oki earthquake. (author)

  8. ESR dating of the fault rocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hee Kwon [Kangwon National Univ., Chuncheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-01-15

    Past movement on faults can be dated by measurement of the intensity of ESR signals in quartz. These signals are reset by local lattice deformation and local frictional heating on grain contacts at the time of fault movement. The ESR signals then grow back as a result of bombardment by ionizing radiation from surrounding rocks. The age is obtained from the ratio of the equivalent dose, needed to produce the observed signal, to the dose rate. Fine grains are more completely reset during faulting, and a plot of age vs, grain size shows a plateau for grains below critical size : these grains are presumed to have been completely zeroed by the last fault activity. We carried out ESR dating of fault rocks collected near the Ulzin nuclear reactor. ESR signals of quartz grains separated from fault rocks collected from the E-W trend fault are saturated. This indicates that the last movement of these faults had occurred before the quaternary period. ESR dates from the NW trend faults range from 300ka to 700ka. On the other hand, ESR date of the NS trend fault is about 50ka. Results of this research suggest that long-term cyclic fault activity near the Ulzin nuclear reactor continued into the pleistocene.

  9. Fault Recoverability Analysis via Cross-Gramian

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shaker, Hamid Reza

    2016-01-01

    Engineering systems are vulnerable to different kinds of faults. Faults may compromise safety, cause sub-optimal operation and decline in performance if not preventing the whole system from functioning. Fault tolerant control (FTC) methods ensure that the system performance maintains within...... with feedback control. Fault recoverability provides important and useful information which could be used in analysis and design. However, computing fault recoverability is numerically expensive. In this paper, a new approach for computation of fault recoverability for bilinear systems is proposed...... approach for computation of fault recoverability is proposed which reduces the computational burden significantly. The proposed results are used for an electro-hydraulic drive to reveal the redundant actuating capabilities in the system....

  10. Active fault diagnosis by controller modification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stoustrup, Jakob; Niemann, Hans Henrik

    2010-01-01

    Two active fault diagnosis methods for additive or parametric faults are proposed. Both methods are based on controller reconfiguration rather than on requiring an exogenous excitation signal, as it is otherwise common in active fault diagnosis. For the first method, it is assumed that the system...... considered is controlled by an observer-based controller. The method is then based on a number of alternate observers, each designed to be sensitive to one or more additive faults. Periodically, the observer part of the controller is changed into the sequence of fault sensitive observers. This is done...... in a way that guarantees the continuity of transition and global stability using a recent result on observer parameterization. An illustrative example inspired by a field study of a drag racing vehicle is given. For the second method, an active fault diagnosis method for parametric faults is proposed...

  11. Improved DFIG Capability during Asymmetrical Grid Faults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Dao; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2015-01-01

    In the wind power application, different asymmetrical types of the grid fault can be categorized after the Y/d transformer, and the positive and negative components of a single-phase fault, phase-to-phase fault, and two-phase fault can be summarized. Due to the newly introduced negative and even...... the natural component of the Doubly-Fed Induction Generator (DFIG) stator flux during the fault period, their effects on the rotor voltage can be investigated. It is concluded that the phase-to-phase fault has the worst scenario due to its highest introduction of the negative stator flux. Afterwards......, the capability of a 2 MW DFIG to ride through asymmetrical grid faults can be estimated at the existing design of the power electronics converter. Finally, a control scheme aimed to improve the DFIG capability is proposed and the simulation results validate its feasibility....

  12. Fault kinematics and localised inversion within the Troms-Finnmark Fault Complex, SW Barents Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zervas, I.; Omosanya, K. O.; Lippard, S. J.; Johansen, S. E.

    2018-04-01

    The areas bounding the Troms-Finnmark Fault Complex are affected by complex tectonic evolution. In this work, the history of fault growth, reactivation, and inversion of major faults in the Troms-Finnmark Fault Complex and the Ringvassøy Loppa Fault Complex is interpreted from three-dimensional seismic data, structural maps and fault displacement plots. Our results reveal eight normal faults bounding rotated fault blocks in the Troms-Finnmark Fault Complex. Both the throw-depth and displacement-distance plots show that the faults exhibit complex configurations of lateral and vertical segmentation with varied profiles. Some of the faults were reactivated by dip-linkages during the Late Jurassic and exhibit polycyclic fault growth, including radial, syn-sedimentary, and hybrid propagation. Localised positive inversion is the main mechanism of fault reactivation occurring at the Troms-Finnmark Fault Complex. The observed structural styles include folds associated with extensional faults, folded growth wedges and inverted depocentres. Localised inversion was intermittent with rifting during the Middle Jurassic-Early Cretaceous at the boundaries of the Troms-Finnmark Fault Complex to the Finnmark Platform. Additionally, tectonic inversion was more intense at the boundaries of the two fault complexes, affecting Middle Triassic to Early Cretaceous strata. Our study shows that localised folding is either a product of compressional forces or of lateral movements in the Troms-Finnmark Fault Complex. Regional stresses due to the uplift in the Loppa High and halokinesis in the Tromsø Basin are likely additional causes of inversion in the Troms-Finnmark Fault Complex.

  13. Synapsin determines memory strength after punishment- and relief-learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niewalda, Thomas; Michels, Birgit; Jungnickel, Roswitha; Diegelmann, Sören; Kleber, Jörg; Kähne, Thilo; Gerber, Bertram

    2015-05-13

    Adverse life events can induce two kinds of memory with opposite valence, dependent on timing: "negative" memories for stimuli preceding them and "positive" memories for stimuli experienced at the moment of "relief." Such punishment memory and relief memory are found in insects, rats, and man. For example, fruit flies (Drosophila melanogaster) avoid an odor after odor-shock training ("forward conditioning" of the odor), whereas after shock-odor training ("backward conditioning" of the odor) they approach it. Do these timing-dependent associative processes share molecular determinants? We focus on the role of Synapsin, a conserved presynaptic phosphoprotein regulating the balance between the reserve pool and the readily releasable pool of synaptic vesicles. We find that a lack of Synapsin leaves task-relevant sensory and motor faculties unaffected. In contrast, both punishment memory and relief memory scores are reduced. These defects reflect a true lessening of associative memory strength, as distortions in nonassociative processing (e.g., susceptibility to handling, adaptation, habituation, sensitization), discrimination ability, and changes in the time course of coincidence detection can be ruled out as alternative explanations. Reductions in punishment- and relief-memory strength are also observed upon an RNAi-mediated knock-down of Synapsin, and are rescued both by acutely restoring Synapsin and by locally restoring it in the mushroom bodies of mutant flies. Thus, both punishment memory and relief memory require the Synapsin protein and in this sense share genetic and molecular determinants. We note that corresponding molecular commonalities between punishment memory and relief memory in humans would constrain pharmacological attempts to selectively interfere with excessive associative punishment memories, e.g., after traumatic experiences. Copyright © 2015 Niewalda et al.

  14. Synapsin Determines Memory Strength after Punishment- and Relief-Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niewalda, Thomas; Michels, Birgit; Jungnickel, Roswitha; Diegelmann, Sören; Kleber, Jörg; Kähne, Thilo

    2015-01-01

    Adverse life events can induce two kinds of memory with opposite valence, dependent on timing: “negative” memories for stimuli preceding them and “positive” memories for stimuli experienced at the moment of “relief.” Such punishment memory and relief memory are found in insects, rats, and man. For example, fruit flies (Drosophila melanogaster) avoid an odor after odor-shock training (“forward conditioning” of the odor), whereas after shock-odor training (“backward conditioning” of the odor) they approach it. Do these timing-dependent associative processes share molecular determinants? We focus on the role of Synapsin, a conserved presynaptic phosphoprotein regulating the balance between the reserve pool and the readily releasable pool of synaptic vesicles. We find that a lack of Synapsin leaves task-relevant sensory and motor faculties unaffected. In contrast, both punishment memory and relief memory scores are reduced. These defects reflect a true lessening of associative memory strength, as distortions in nonassociative processing (e.g., susceptibility to handling, adaptation, habituation, sensitization), discrimination ability, and changes in the time course of coincidence detection can be ruled out as alternative explanations. Reductions in punishment- and relief-memory strength are also observed upon an RNAi-mediated knock-down of Synapsin, and are rescued both by acutely restoring Synapsin and by locally restoring it in the mushroom bodies of mutant flies. Thus, both punishment memory and relief memory require the Synapsin protein and in this sense share genetic and molecular determinants. We note that corresponding molecular commonalities between punishment memory and relief memory in humans would constrain pharmacological attempts to selectively interfere with excessive associative punishment memories, e.g., after traumatic experiences. PMID:25972175

  15. Pain relief and clinical outcome: from opioids to balanced analgesia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kehlet, H

    1996-01-01

    If it is generally accepted that adequate postoperative pain relief will improve outcome from surgery, several controlled trials demonstrated this only for lower body surgical procedures with epidural and spinal anesthetics. Important effects on outcome were not shown when postoperative opioids...... were administered with patient controlled (PCA) or epidural techniques. However, the most optimal pain relief seems to be best achieved with balanced analgesia techniques using combinations of epidural opioids and local anesthetics and systemic non-steroidal antiinflammatory drugs. Future efforts...... should aim at including physical rehabilitation programs in the pain treatment regimen....

  16. Acupucture as pain relief during delivery - a randomized controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borup, Lissa; Wurlitzer, Winnie; Hedegaard, Morten

    2009-01-01

    Background: Many women need some kind of analgesic treatment to relieve pain during childbirth. The objective of our study was to compare the effect of acupuncture with transcutaneous electric nerve stimulation (TENS) and traditional analgesics for pain relief and relaxation during delivery...... with respect to pain intensity, birth experience, and obstetric outcome. Methods: A randomized controlled trial was conducted with 607 healthy women in labor at term who received acupuncture, TENS, or traditional analgesics. Primary outcomes were the need for pharmacological and invasive methods, level of pain...... to existing pain relief methods. (BIRTH 36:1 March 2009)...

  17. Experimental investigation of processes in primary circuit relief system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomas, Z.; Simo, T.; Konecny, A.

    1989-01-01

    The protective condenser (direct contact condenser) is one of the basic components of the primary circuit relief system of WWER power plants. The steam flowing from the surge tank through relief valves into the subcooled water condensates in the protective condenser vessel. Two simple physical models were designed and constructed for investigation of bubbling through (contact condensation). An experimental program was performed with the aim of determining the distribution of temperatures in the axis of the steam jet and its vicinity, determining the velocity field of water into vicinity of steam jets, observing the geometrical shape of jets and their interaction and determining important values for mathematical model. (orig.)

  18. Superconducting dc fault current limiter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cointe, Y.

    2007-12-01

    Within the framework of the electric power market liberalization, DC networks have many interests compared to alternative ones, but their protections need to use new systems. Superconducting fault current limiters enable by an overstepping of the critical current to limit the fault current to a preset value, lower than the theoretical short-circuit current. For these applications, coated conductors offer excellent opportunities. We worked on the implementation of these materials and built a test bench. We carried out limiting experiments to estimate the quench homogeneity at various short-circuit parameters. An important point is the temperature measurement by deposited sensors on the ribbon, results are in good correlation with the theoretical models. Improved quench behaviours for temperatures close to the critical temperature have been confirmed. Our results enable to better understand the limitation mechanisms of coated conductors. (author)

  19. Perspective View, San Andreas Fault

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    The prominent linear feature straight down the center of this perspective view is California's famous San Andreas Fault. The image, created with data from NASA's Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), will be used by geologists studying fault dynamics and landforms resulting from active tectonics. This segment of the fault lies west of the city of Palmdale, Calif., about 100 kilometers (about 60 miles) northwest of Los Angeles. The fault is the active tectonic boundary between the North American plate on the right, and the Pacific plate on the left. Relative to each other, the Pacific plate is moving away from the viewer and the North American plate is moving toward the viewer along what geologists call a right lateral strike-slip fault. Two large mountain ranges are visible, the San Gabriel Mountains on the left and the Tehachapi Mountains in the upper right. Another fault, the Garlock Fault lies at the base of the Tehachapis; the San Andreas and the Garlock Faults meet in the center distance near the town of Gorman. In the distance, over the Tehachapi Mountains is California's Central Valley. Along the foothills in the right hand part of the image is the Antelope Valley, including the Antelope Valley California Poppy Reserve. The data used to create this image were acquired by SRTM aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11, 2000.This type of display adds the important dimension of elevation to the study of land use and environmental processes as observed in satellite images. The perspective view was created by draping a Landsat satellite image over an SRTM elevation model. Topography is exaggerated 1.5 times vertically. The Landsat image was provided by the United States Geological Survey's Earth Resources Observations Systems (EROS) Data Center, Sioux Falls, South Dakota.SRTM uses the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour

  20. Nuclear power plant pressurizer fault diagnosis using fuzzy signed-digraph and spurious faults elimination methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Joo Hyun

    1994-02-01

    In this work, the Fuzzy Signed Digraph(FSD) method which has been researched for the fault diagnosis of industrial process plant systems is improved and applied to the fault diagnosis of the Kori-2 nuclear power plant pressurizer. A method for spurious faults elimination is also suggested and applied to the fault diagnosis. By using these methods, we could diagnose the multi-faults of the pressurizer and could also eliminate the spurious faults of the pressurizer caused by other subsystems. Besides the multi-fault diagnosis and system-wide diagnosis capabilities, the proposed method has many merits such as real-time diagnosis capability, independency of fault pattern, direct use of sensor values, and transparency of the fault propagation to the operators

  1. Nuclear power plant pressurizer fault diagnosis using fuzzy signed-digraph and spurious faults elimination methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Joo Hyun; Seong, Poong Hyun

    1994-01-01

    In this work, the Fuzzy Signed Digraph (FSD) method which has been researched for the fault diagnosis of industrial process plant systems is improved and applied to the fault diagnosis of the Kori-2 nuclear power plant pressurizer. A method for spurious faults elimination is also suggested and applied to the fault diagnosis. By using these methods, we could diagnose the multi-faults of the pressurizer and could also eliminate the spurious faults of the pressurizer caused by other subsystems. Besides the multi-fault diagnosis and system-wide diagnosis capabilities, the proposed method has many merits such as real-time diagnosis capability, independency of fault pattern, direct use of sensor values, and transparency of the fault propagation to the operators. (Author)

  2. Three-dimensional numerical modeling of the influence of faults on groundwater flow at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, Andrew J.B. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1999-06-01

    Numerical simulations of groundwater flow at Yucca Mountain, Nevada are used to investigate how the faulted hydrogeologic structure influences groundwater flow from a proposed high-level nuclear waste repository. Simulations are performed using a 3-D model that has a unique grid block discretization to accurately represent the faulted geologic units, which have variable thicknesses and orientations. Irregular grid blocks enable explicit representation of these features. Each hydrogeologic layer is discretized into a single layer of irregular and dipping grid blocks, and faults are discretized such that they are laterally continuous and displacement varies along strike. In addition, the presence of altered fault zones is explicitly modeled, as appropriate. The model has 23 layers and 11 faults, and approximately 57,000 grid blocks and 200,000 grid block connections. In the past, field measurement of upward vertical head gradients and high water table temperatures near faults were interpreted as indicators of upwelling from a deep carbonate aquifer. Simulations show, however, that these features can be readily explained by the geometry of hydrogeologic layers, the variability of layer permeabilities and thermal conductivities, and by the presence of permeable fault zones or faults with displacement only. In addition, a moderate water table gradient can result from fault displacement or a laterally continuous low permeability fault zone, but not from a high permeability fault zone, as others postulated earlier. Large-scale macrodispersion results from the vertical and lateral diversion of flow near the contact of high and low permeability layers at faults, and from upward flow within high permeability fault zones. Conversely, large-scale channeling can occur due to groundwater flow into areas with minimal fault displacement. Contaminants originating at the water table can flow in a direction significantly different than that of the water table gradient, and isolated

  3. Three-dimensional numerical modeling of the influence of faults on groundwater flow at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, Andrew J.B.

    1999-01-01

    Numerical simulations of groundwater flow at Yucca Mountain, Nevada are used to investigate how the faulted hydrogeologic structure influences groundwater flow from a proposed high-level nuclear waste repository. Simulations are performed using a 3-D model that has a unique grid block discretization to accurately represent the faulted geologic units, which have variable thicknesses and orientations. Irregular grid blocks enable explicit representation of these features. Each hydrogeologic layer is discretized into a single layer of irregular and dipping grid blocks, and faults are discretized such that they are laterally continuous and displacement varies along strike. In addition, the presence of altered fault zones is explicitly modeled, as appropriate. The model has 23 layers and 11 faults, and approximately 57,000 grid blocks and 200,000 grid block connections. In the past, field measurement of upward vertical head gradients and high water table temperatures near faults were interpreted as indicators of upwelling from a deep carbonate aquifer. Simulations show, however, that these features can be readily explained by the geometry of hydrogeologic layers, the variability of layer permeabilities and thermal conductivities, and by the presence of permeable fault zones or faults with displacement only. In addition, a moderate water table gradient can result from fault displacement or a laterally continuous low permeability fault zone, but not from a high permeability fault zone, as others postulated earlier. Large-scale macrodispersion results from the vertical and lateral diversion of flow near the contact of high and low permeability layers at faults, and from upward flow within high permeability fault zones. Conversely, large-scale channeling can occur due to groundwater flow into areas with minimal fault displacement. Contaminants originating at the water table can flow in a direction significantly different than that of the water table gradient, and isolated

  4. Landforms along transverse faults parallel to axial zone of folded mountain front, north-eastern Kumaun Sub-Himalaya, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luirei, Khayingshing; Bhakuni, S. S.; Negi, Sanjay S.

    2017-02-01

    The shape of the frontal part of the Himalaya around the north-eastern corner of the Kumaun Sub-Himalaya, along the Kali River valley, is defined by folded hanging wall rocks of the Himalayan Frontal Thrust (HFT). Two parallel faults (Kalaunia and Tanakpur faults) trace along the axial zone of the folded HFT. Between these faults, the hinge zone of this transverse fold is relatively straight and along these faults, the beds abruptly change their attitudes and their widths are tectonically attenuated across two hinge lines of fold. The area is constituted of various surfaces of coalescing fans and terraces. Fans comprise predominantly of sandstone clasts laid down by the steep-gradient streams originating from the Siwalik range. The alluvial fans are characterised by compound and superimposed fans with high relief, which are generated by the tectonic activities associated with the thrusting along the HFT. The truncated fan along the HFT has formed a 100 m high-escarpment running E-W for ˜5 km. Quaternary terrace deposits suggest two phases of tectonic uplift in the basal part of the hanging wall block of the HFT dipping towards the north. The first phase is represented by tilting of the terrace sediments by ˜30 ∘ towards the NW; while the second phase is evident from deformed structures in the terrace deposit comprising mainly of reverse faults, fault propagation folds, convolute laminations, flower structures and back thrust faults. The second phase produced ˜1.0 m offset of stratification of the terrace along a thrust fault. Tectonic escarpments are recognised across the splay thrust near south of the HFT trace. The south facing hill slopes exhibit numerous landslides along active channels incising the hanging wall rocks of the HFT. The study area shows weak seismicity. The major Moradabad Fault crosses near the study area. This transverse fault may have suppressed the seismicity in the Tanakpur area, and the movement along the Moradabad and Kasganj

  5. Watching Faults Grow in Sand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, M. L.

    2015-12-01

    Accretionary sandbox experiments provide a rich environment for investigating the processes of fault development. These experiments engage students because 1) they enable direct observation of fault growth, which is impossible in the crust (type 1 physical model), 2) they are not only representational but can also be manipulated (type 2 physical model), 3) they can be used to test hypotheses (type 3 physical model) and 4) they resemble experiments performed by structural geology researchers around the world. The structural geology courses at UMass Amherst utilize a series of accretionary sandboxes experiments where students first watch a video of an experiment and then perform a group experiment. The experiments motivate discussions of what conditions they would change and what outcomes they would expect from these changes; hypothesis development. These discussions inevitably lead to calculations of the scaling relationships between model and crustal fault growth and provide insight into the crustal processes represented within the dry sand. Sketching of the experiments has been shown to be a very effective assessment method as the students reveal which features they are analyzing. Another approach used at UMass is to set up a forensic experiment. The experiment is set up with spatially varying basal friction before the meeting and students must figure out what the basal conditions are through the experiment. This experiment leads to discussions of equilibrium and force balance within the accretionary wedge. Displacement fields can be captured throughout the experiment using inexpensive digital image correlation techniques to foster quantitative analysis of the experiments.

  6. Pain relief at the end of life: nurses' experiences regarding end-of-life pain relief in patients with dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brorson, Hanna; Plymoth, Henrietta; Örmon, Karin; Bolmsjö, Ingrid

    2014-03-01

    Patients with dementia receive suboptimal palliative care, and this patient group is at risk to have pain at the end of life. Because communicative impairments are common in this patient group, nurses play an important caregiver role in identifying, assessing, and relieving patients' pain. This study aimed to describe nurses' experiences regarding end-of-life pain relief in patients with dementia. This descriptive exploratory qualitative study was based on seven semistructured interviews. Burnard's content analysis inspired the data analysis. Two main categories were identified: (1) nurses' experience of difficulties concerning pain relief and (2) nurses' experience of resources concerning pain relief. Nurses experienced difficulties, such as feeling of powerlessness because of difficulties in obtaining adequate prescriptions for analgesics, ethical dilemmas, feeling of inadequacy because analgesia did not have the desired effect, and a feeling of not being able to connect with the patient. Factors, including knowledge about the patient, professional experience, utilization of pain assessment tools, interpersonal relationships, and interprofessional cooperation, served as resources and enabled end-of-life pain relief. The results of this study highlight the complexity of pain relief in patients with dementia at the end of life from a nursing perspective. The inability of patients with dementia to verbally communicate their pain makes them a vulnerable patient group, dependent on their caregivers. Knowing the life story of the patient, professional experience, teamwork based on good communication, and use of a pain assessment tool were reported by the nurses to improve pain relief at the end of life for patients with dementia. Copyright © 2014 American Society for Pain Management Nursing. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. A sigh of relief or a sigh to relieve: The psychological and physiological relief effect of deep breaths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlemincx, Elke; Van Diest, Ilse; Van den Bergh, Omer

    2016-10-15

    Both animal and human research have revealed important associations between sighs and relief. Previously we argued to conceive of sighs as resetters which temporarily induce relief. The present study aimed to investigate the psychological and physiological relief effect of sighs by instructed deep breaths and spontaneous sighs compared to a control breathing maneuver. Participants completed three blocks of 40 trials during which uncertainty cues were followed by either safety cues followed by a positive picture, or danger cues followed by a negative picture. One block was presented without breathing instructions, two subsequent blocks with breathing instructions. During the presentation of the safety and danger cues, an instruction was given to either 'take a deep breath' or 'postpone the next inhalation for 2 s (breath hold). Continuously, participants rated relief and Frontalis electromyography was recorded. Trait anxiety sensitivity was assessed by the Anxiety Sensitivity Index. Self-reported relief and physiological tension were compared 5s before and after instructed deep breaths and breath holds, and before and after spontaneous deep breaths and breath holds in the respective blocks. Results show that self-reported relief following an instructed deep breath was higher than before. Physiological tension decreased following a spontaneous sigh in high anxiety sensitive persons and following a spontaneous breath hold in low anxiety sensitive persons. These results are the first to show that a deep breath relieves and, in anxiety sensitive persons, reduces physiological tension. These findings support the hypothesis that sighs are psychological and physiological resetters. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. A fault detection and diagnosis in a PWR steam generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Seung Yub

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop a fault detection and diagnosis scheme that can monitor process fault and instrument fault of a steam generator. The suggested scheme consists of a Kalman filter and two bias estimators. Method of detecting process and instrument fault in a steam generator uses the mean test on the residual sequence of Kalman filter, designed for the unfailed system, to make a fault decision. Once a fault is detected, two bias estimators are driven to estimate the fault and to discriminate process fault and instrument fault. In case of process fault, the fault diagnosis of outlet temperature, feed-water heater and main steam control valve is considered. In instrument fault, the fault diagnosis of steam generator's three instruments is considered. Computer simulation tests show that on-line prompt fault detection and diagnosis can be performed very successfully.(Author)

  9. Coseismic landslides reveal near-surface rock strength in a high-relief tectonically active setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallen, Sean F.; Clark, Marin K.; Godt, Jonathan W.

    2014-01-01

    We present quantitative estimates of near-surface rock strength relevant to landscape evolution and landslide hazard assessment for 15 geologic map units of the Longmen Shan, China. Strength estimates are derived from a novel method that inverts earthquake peak ground acceleration models and coseismic landslide inventories to obtain material proper- ties and landslide thickness. Aggregate rock strength is determined by prescribing a friction angle of 30° and solving for effective cohesion. Effective cohesion ranges are from 70 kPa to 107 kPa for 15 geologic map units, and are approximately an order of magnitude less than typical laboratory measurements, probably because laboratory tests on hand-sized specimens do not incorporate the effects of heterogeneity and fracturing that likely control near-surface strength at the hillslope scale. We find that strength among the geologic map units studied varies by less than a factor of two. However, increased weakening of units with proximity to the range front, where precipitation and active fault density are the greatest, suggests that cli- matic and tectonic factors overwhelm lithologic differences in rock strength in this high-relief tectonically active setting.

  10. [Moderately haloalkaliphilic aerobic methylobacteria].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trotsenko, Iu A; Doronina, N V; Li, Ts D; Reshetnikov, A S

    2007-01-01

    Aerobic methylobacteria utilizing oxidized and substituted methane derivatives as carbon and energy sources are widespread in nature and involved in the global carbon cycle, being a unique biofilter on the path of these C1 compounds from different ecosystems to the atmosphere. New data on the biological features of moderately halophilic, neutrophilic, and alkaliphilic methylobacteria isolated from biotopes with higher osmolarity (seas, saline and soda lakes, saline soils, and deteriorating marble) are reviewed. Particular attention is paid to the latest advances in the study of the mechanisms of osmoadaptation of aerobic moderately haloalkaliphilic methylobacteria: formation of osmolytes, in particular, molecular and genetic aspects of biosynthesis of the universal bioprotectant ectoine. The prospects for further studies of the physiological and biochemical principles of haloalkalophily and for the application of haloalkaliphilic aerobic methylobacteria in biosynthesis and biodegradation are discussed.

  11. Cold moderator scattering kernels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacFarlane, R.E.

    1989-01-01

    New thermal-scattering-law files in ENDF format have been developed for solid methane, liquid methane liquid ortho- and para-hydrogen, and liquid ortho- and para-deuterium using up-to-date models that include such effects as incoherent elastic scattering in the solid, diffusion and hindered vibration and rotations in the liquids, and spin correlations for the hydrogen and deuterium. These files were generated with the new LEAPR module of the NJOY Nuclear Data Processing System. Other modules of this system were used to produce cross sections for these moderators in the correct format for the continuous-energy Monte Carlo code (MCNP) being used for cold-moderator-design calculations at the Los Alamos Neutron Scattering Center (LANSCE). 20 refs., 14 figs

  12. Research of fault activity in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nohara, T.; Nakatsuka, N.; Takeda, S.

    2004-01-01

    Six hundreds and eighty earthquakes causing significant damage have been recorded since the 7. century in Japan. It is important to recognize faults that will or are expected to be active in future in order to help reduce earthquake damage, estimate earthquake damage insurance and siting of nuclear facilities. Such faults are called 'active faults' in Japan, the definition of which is a fault that has moved intermittently for at least several hundred thousand years and is expected to continue to do so in future. Scientific research of active faults has been ongoing since the 1930's. Many results indicated that major earthquakes and fault movements in shallow crustal regions in Japan occurred repeatedly at existing active fault zones during the past. After the 1995 Southern Hyogo Prefecture Earthquake, 98 active fault zones were selected for fundamental survey, with the purpose of efficiently conducting an active fault survey in 'Plans for Fundamental Seismic Survey and Observation' by the headquarters for earthquake research promotion, which was attached to the Prime Minister's office of Japan. Forty two administrative divisions for earthquake disaster prevention have investigated the distribution and history of fault activity of 80 active fault zones. Although earthquake prediction is difficult, the behaviour of major active faults in Japan is being recognised. Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute (JNC) submitted a report titled 'H12: Project to Establish the. Scientific and Technical Basis for HLW Disposal in Japan' to the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) of Japan for official review W. The Guidelines, which were defined by AEC, require the H12 Project to confirm the basic technical feasibility of safe HLW disposal in Japan. In this report the important issues relating to fault activity were described that are to understand the characteristics of current fault movements and the spatial extent and magnitude of the effects caused by these movements, and to

  13. Fault tolerant operation of switched reluctance machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei

    The energy crisis and environmental challenges have driven industry towards more energy efficient solutions. With nearly 60% of electricity consumed by various electric machines in industry sector, advancement in the efficiency of the electric drive system is of vital importance. Adjustable speed drive system (ASDS) provides excellent speed regulation and dynamic performance as well as dramatically improved system efficiency compared with conventional motors without electronics drives. Industry has witnessed tremendous grow in ASDS applications not only as a driving force but also as an electric auxiliary system for replacing bulky and low efficiency auxiliary hydraulic and mechanical systems. With the vast penetration of ASDS, its fault tolerant operation capability is more widely recognized as an important feature of drive performance especially for aerospace, automotive applications and other industrial drive applications demanding high reliability. The Switched Reluctance Machine (SRM), a low cost, highly reliable electric machine with fault tolerant operation capability, has drawn substantial attention in the past three decades. Nevertheless, SRM is not free of fault. Certain faults such as converter faults, sensor faults, winding shorts, eccentricity and position sensor faults are commonly shared among all ASDS. In this dissertation, a thorough understanding of various faults and their influence on transient and steady state performance of SRM is developed via simulation and experimental study, providing necessary knowledge for fault detection and post fault management. Lumped parameter models are established for fast real time simulation and drive control. Based on the behavior of the faults, a fault detection scheme is developed for the purpose of fast and reliable fault diagnosis. In order to improve the SRM power and torque capacity under faults, the maximum torque per ampere excitation are conceptualized and validated through theoretical analysis and

  14. Does Immediate Pain Relief After an Injection into the Sacroiliac Joint with Anesthetic and Corticosteroid Predict Subsequent Pain Relief?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Byron J; Huynh, Lisa; Levin, Josh; Rinkaekan, Pranathip; Kordi, Ramin; Kennedy, David J

    2018-02-01

    To determine if immediate pain response following an injection with local anesthetic and corticosteroid predicts subsequent relief. Prospective observational cohort. An institutional review board-approved prospective study from a single academic medical center. Patients with clinical diagnosis of sacroiliac (SIJ) pain and referred for SIJ injection were enrolled; 1 cc of 2% lidocaine and 1 cc of triamcinolone 40 mg/mL were injected into the SIJ. Pain score on 0-10 numeric rating scale (NRS) during provocation maneuvers was recorded immediately before injection, immediately after injection, and at two and four weeks of follow-up. Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) was also recorded. Various cutoffs were identified to establish positive anesthetic response and successful outcomes at follow-up. These were used to calculated likelihood ratios. Of those with 100% anesthetic response, six of 11 (54.5%, 95% confidence interval [CI]+/-29.4%, +LR 2.6, 95% CI = 1.1-5.9) demonstrated 50% or greater pain relief at follow-up, and four of 11 (36.5%, 95% CI+/-28.4%, +LR 3.00, 95% CI = 1.4-5.1) had 100% relief at two to four weeks. Fourteen of 14 (100%, 95% CI+/-21.5%, -LR 0.0, 95% CI = 0.0-2.1) with an initial negative block failed to achieve 100% relief at follow-up. Patients who fail to achieve initial relief after SIJ injection with anesthetic and steroid are very unlikely to achieve significant pain relief at follow-up; negative likelihood ratios (LR) in this study, based on how success is defined, range between 0 and 0.9. Clinically significant positive likelihood ratios of anesthetic response to SIJ injection are more limited and less robust, but are valuable in predicting 50% relief or 100% relief at two to four weeks. © 2017 American Academy of Pain Medicine. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  15. Intraplate seismicity along the Gedi Fault in Kachchh rift basin of western India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Vishwa; Rastogi, B. K.; Kumar, Santosh

    2017-11-01

    The Kachchh rift basin is located on the western continental margin of India and has a history of experiencing large to moderate intraplate earthquakes with M ≥ 5. During the past two centuries, two large earthquakes of Mw 7.8 (1819) and Mw 7.7 (2001) have occurred in the Kachchh region, the latter with an epicenter near Bhuj. The aftershock activity of the 2001 Bhuj earthquake is still ongoing with migration of seismicity. Initially, epicenters migrated towards the east and northeast within the Kachchh region but, since 2007, it has also migrated to the south. The triggered faults are mostly within 100 km and some up to 200 km distance from the epicentral area of the mainshock. Most of these faults are trending in E-W direction, and some are transverse. It was noticed that some faults generate earthquakes down to the Moho depth whereas some faults show earthquake activity within the upper crustal volume. The Gedi Fault, situated about 50 km northeast of the 2001 mainshock epicenter, triggered the largest earthquake of Mw 5.6 in 2006. We have carried out detailed seismological studies to evaluate the seismic potential of the Gedi Fault. We have relocated 331 earthquakes by HypoDD to improve upon location errors. Further, the relocated events are used to estimate the b value, p value, and fractal correlation dimension Dc of the fault zone. The present study indicates that all the events along the Gedi Fault are shallow in nature, with focal depths less than 20 km. The estimated b value shows that the Gedi aftershock sequence could be classified as Mogi's type 2 sequence, and the p value suggests a relatively slow decay of aftershocks. The fault plane solutions of some selected events of Mw > 3.5 are examined, and activeness of the Gedi Fault is assessed from the results of active fault studies as well as GPS and InSAR results. All these results are critically examined to evaluate the material properties and seismic potential of the Gedi Fault that may be useful

  16. Robust Mpc for Actuator–Fault Tolerance Using Set–Based Passive Fault Detection and Active Fault Isolation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Feng

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a fault-tolerant control (FTC scheme is proposed for actuator faults, which is built upon tube-based model predictive control (MPC as well as set-based fault detection and isolation (FDI. In the class of MPC techniques, tubebased MPC can effectively deal with system constraints and uncertainties with relatively low computational complexity compared with other robust MPC techniques such as min-max MPC. Set-based FDI, generally considering the worst case of uncertainties, can robustly detect and isolate actuator faults. In the proposed FTC scheme, fault detection (FD is passive by using invariant sets, while fault isolation (FI is active by means of MPC and tubes. The active FI method proposed in this paper is implemented by making use of the constraint-handling ability of MPC to manipulate the bounds of inputs.

  17. Epidural morphine for postoperative pain relief in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henneberg, S W; Hole, P; Haas, Inge Madsen De

    1993-01-01

    the investigation. We observed a change in the sleeping pattern with an increased number of sleep-induced myoclonia during the administration of epidural morphine. In conclusion, the use of epidural morphine in children for postoperative pain relief is very efficient. The minimal effective dose has not been...

  18. Eksplorasi Pose dalam Pemotretan Model Melalui Kajian Visual Relief Karmawibhangga

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noor Latif CM

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Karmawibhangga Relief panel located at the foot of Borobudur is a relic of the visual artifacts that contains fragments of past life with a very high historical value. 160 Karmawibhangga panels tell the reality of people's lives at the time wrapped with a moral message plight. The relief provides a lot of visual references to be excavated and reconstructed again for the benefit of the creative industries today. This research digged one small part of the masterpieces of the past through photography. Understanding visual artists who create these reliefs will be beauty in the show gestures in building a very interesting story to be re-examined. Visual communication through gestures in relief Karmawibhangga enables new assumptions about body language dialect differences to current conditions. Through model genre photography, it is very useful in connection with the development of local nuanced scientific photography. Efforts to develop the traditions and culture through new media are expected to be creative commodity with a very strong product differentiation. 

  19. Careful: Acetaminophen in Pain Relief Medicines Can Cause Liver Damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Pain Relievers and Fever Reducers Careful: Acetaminophen in pain relief medicines can cause liver damage Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options Linkedin Pin ... ingredient in many over-the-counter and prescription medicines that help relieve pain and reduce fever. More than 600 over-the- ...

  20. Building relations with women's organisations in relief work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gell, F

    1997-02-01

    An Oxfam Emergency Team arrived in Ingushetia in the Northern Caucasus region of the former Soviet Union in August 1996 to set up a program of shelter, rehabilitation, and relief in response to the large influx of people displaced by conflicts in the neighboring republics of Chechnya and North Ossetia. The team was also tasked with contacting community organizations such as women's groups and developing a relationship with them through joint relief work. The Chechen population was comprised of mainly women, children, and the elderly. The internally displaced population of 100,000 people is now scattered throughout the republic in collective centers and host families. Small committees of women were formed to help identify the most vulnerable residents and to distribute winter clothing. It was found during the relief work that fledgling women's groups are establishing themselves as vehicles for change, increasingly open to work with and learn from international organizations such as Oxfam. The Chechen branch of the Union of North Caucasian Women and the Ingushetian ALMOS played leading roles in peacemaking, human rights observance, and humanitarian relief.

  1. Topology-optimized broadband surface relief transmission grating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andkjær, Jacob; Ryder, Christian P.; Nielsen, Peter C.

    2014-01-01

    We propose a design methodology for systematic design of surface relief transmission gratings with optimized diffraction efficiency. The methodology is based on a gradient-based topology optimization formulation along with 2D frequency domain finite element simulations for TE and TM polarized plane...

  2. 19 CFR 210.68 - Complainant's temporary relief bond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Section 210.68 Customs Duties UNITED STATES INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION INVESTIGATIONS OF UNFAIR PRACTICES IN IMPORT TRADE ADJUDICATION AND ENFORCEMENT Temporary Relief § 210.68 Complainant's temporary... by Individual Surety United States International Trade Commission Affidavit by Individual Surety 19...

  3. Japanese women's experiences of pharmacological pain relief in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doering, Keiko; Patterson, Jean; Griffiths, Christine R

    2014-06-01

    In Japan, most women manage labour pain without pharmacological interventions. However, New Zealand statistics show a high percentage of epidural use amongst Asian women. Entonox (a gas mixture of nitrous oxide and oxygen) and pethidine are also available to women in New Zealand. This article investigates how Japanese women in New Zealand respond to the use of pharmacological pain relief in labour. The study was guided by two research questions: (1) How do Japanese women experience and manage labour pain in New Zealand? (2) How do they feel about the use of pharmacological pain relief? Thirteen Japanese women who had given birth in New Zealand were interviewed individually or in a focus group. The conversations were analysed using thematic analysis. Although in Japan very few women use pain relief, nine women received epidural and/or Entonox out of 11 women who experienced labour pain. The contrast between their Japanese cultural expectations and their birth experiences caused some of the women subsequent personal conflict. Japanese women's cultural perspectives and passive attitudes were demonstrated to influence the decision-making process concerning pain relief. It was concluded that understanding Japanese cultural worldviews and approaches to the role of pain in labour would help maternity providers in their provision of appropriate care for Japanese women. Copyright © 2013 Australian College of Midwives. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Effective International Medical Disaster Relief: A Qualitative Descriptive Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broby, Nicolette; Lassetter, Jane H; Williams, Mary; Winters, Blaine A

    2018-04-01

    Purpose The aim of this study was to assist organizations seeking to develop or improve their medical disaster relief effort by identifying fundamental elements and processes that permeate high-quality, international, medical disaster relief organizations and the teams they deploy. A qualitative descriptive design was used. Data were gathered from interviews with key personnel at five international medical response organizations, as well as during field observations conducted at multiple sites in Jordan and Greece, including three refugee camps. Data were then reviewed by the research team and coded to identify patterns, categories, and themes. The results from this qualitative, descriptive design identified three themes which were key characteristics of success found in effective, well-established, international medical disaster relief organizations. These characteristics were first, ensuring an official invitation had been extended and the need for assistance had been identified. Second, the response to that need was done in an effective and sustainable manner. Third, effective organizations strived to obtain high-quality volunteers. By following the three key characteristics outlined in this research, organizations are more likely to improve the efficiency and quality of their work. In addition, they will be less likely to impede the overall recovery process. Broby N , Lassetter JH , Williams M , Winters BA . Effective international medical disaster relief: a qualitative descriptive study. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2018;33(2):119-126.

  5. Pentazocine Pain Relief in Adult Patients With Acute Abdominal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    jen

    on pain relief, diagnostic accuracy and treatment decisions in patients with acute ... With level of power at 80% and a 5% significance level, a ... 72 hours` duration and were judged by the attending physician to require surgical consultation. .... Clinically Important Differences Between Pre Injection, Post Injection and Final ...

  6. Corruption in cyclone preparedness and relief efforts in coastal Bangladesh

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mahmud, Tanvir; Prowse, Martin

    2012-01-01

    This article seeks to draw possible lessons for adaptation programmes in Bangladesh by examining whether cyclone preparedness and relief interventions are subject to corrupt practices. Based on a random sample survey of 278 households, three focus-group discussions and seven key-informant...

  7. Measured Maritime Responses to Disaster Relief Scenarios in the Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-01

    command center. USS TORTUGA assisted the Japanese Ground Self Defense Force (JGSDF) by moving nearly 100 vehicles and 300 SDF personnel from Hokkaido to...northern Honshu and thus facilitated faster relief. Subsequently, TORTUGA became the flagship for Task Group 776.36, a port clearance group that

  8. A Closer Look: The American Taxpayer Relief Act of 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balmer, Mary

    2013-01-01

    School districts may be affected by the American Taxpayer Relief Act of 2012 with regard to fixed assets management and education entities. The act avoids the scheduled increases to individual income tax rates for most Americans and extends a host of expired and expiring tax provisions for both individuals and businesses. The provisions described…

  9. 78 FR 49242 - Relief From Joint and Several Liability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-13

    ... 66(c) allows the requesting spouse to avoid liability for tax on community income of which the... is added to Sec. 1.66-4(j)(2)(ii) for claims for equitable relief from the Federal income tax... amended as follows: PART 1--INCOME TAXES 0 Paragraph 1. The authority citation for part 1 continues to...

  10. Poverty Relief or Poverty Eradication? | Kritzinger | Acta Theologica

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The author challenges the reader to make two mindshifts: from a focus on poverty relief to an emphasis on poverty eradication; and from viewing the poor as the objects of poverty alleviation to accepting them as the subjects of poverty eradication. The case is argued and a practical approach towards poverty eradication is ...

  11. 108 AN ASSESSMENT OF TAX RELIEFS AND ECONOMIC ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    As advantageous as the payment of taxes to the government is, as a result of its ... Therefore, this study seeks to examine the nature of tax reliefs available to tax ... in the level of economic activity or tax payer's behaviour, then the tax policy ... The implication of this is that any tax payer that receives earned income shall be.

  12. Seismic assessment of the Pickering pressure relief duct

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghobarah, A.

    1995-05-01

    The objectives of the study are to examine the structural response of the Pickering pressure relief duct when subjected to earthquake ground motion and to estimate the seismic withstand capacity of various components of the structural system on the basis of performance criteria consistent with the safety function of the duct. (author). 24 refs., 16 tabs., 31 figs

  13. Diffraction from relief gratings on a biomimetic elastomer cast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerrero, Raphael A.; Aranas, Erika B.

    2010-01-01

    Biomimetic optical elements combine the optimized designs of nature with the versatility of materials engineering. We employ a beetle carapace as the template for fabricating relief gratings on an elastomer substrate. Biological surface features are successfully replicated by a direct casting procedure. Far-field diffraction effects are discussed in terms of the Fraunhofer approximation in Fourier space.

  14. A Surface Relief Meter Based on Trinocular Vision

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ernst, V.G.S.; Sablik, P.W.; Balendonck, J.; Houkes, Z.; Regtien, Paulus P.L.

    1995-01-01

    The concept for the relief meter being developed, appears to function well, when used with the artificial images. The described matching criterion leads to high matching percentages, and accurate results. The percentage of mismatches is reduced to practically zero for the tested scenes. Future work

  15. 2-minute Gridded Global Relief Data (ETOPO2) v2

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Two-minute gridded global relief for both ocean and land areas are available in the ETOPO2v2 (2006) database. ETOPO2v2 replaced ETOPO2 (2001). The historic 2-minute...

  16. Pain Relief in Labor: A Randomized Controlled Trial Comparing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusions: This study showed that 600 mg intramuscular paracetamol provides similar and modest pain relief in labor when compared to 100 mg intramuscular tramadol. It also has fewer maternal adverse effects and favorable neonatal outcome such as tramadol. It is concluded that intramuscular paracetamol is simple, ...

  17. 27 CFR 24.158 - Extent of relief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Extent of relief. 24.158 Section 24.158 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT..., until all tax is fully paid. (d) Wine vinegar plant bond. The surety will be relieved of liability for...

  18. Petrophysical, Geochemical, and Hydrological Evidence for Extensive Fracture-Mediated Fluid and Heat Transport in the Alpine Fault's Hanging-Wall Damage Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townend, John; Sutherland, Rupert; Toy, Virginia G.; Doan, Mai-Linh; Célérier, Bernard; Massiot, Cécile; Coussens, Jamie; Jeppson, Tamara; Janku-Capova, Lucie; Remaud, Léa.; Upton, Phaedra; Schmitt, Douglas R.; Pezard, Philippe; Williams, Jack; Allen, Michael John; Baratin, Laura-May; Barth, Nicolas; Becroft, Leeza; Boese, Carolin M.; Boulton, Carolyn; Broderick, Neil; Carpenter, Brett; Chamberlain, Calum J.; Cooper, Alan; Coutts, Ashley; Cox, Simon C.; Craw, Lisa; Eccles, Jennifer D.; Faulkner, Dan; Grieve, Jason; Grochowski, Julia; Gulley, Anton; Hartog, Arthur; Henry, Gilles; Howarth, Jamie; Jacobs, Katrina; Kato, Naoki; Keys, Steven; Kirilova, Martina; Kometani, Yusuke; Langridge, Rob; Lin, Weiren; Little, Tim; Lukacs, Adrienn; Mallyon, Deirdre; Mariani, Elisabetta; Mathewson, Loren; Melosh, Ben; Menzies, Catriona; Moore, Jo; Morales, Luis; Mori, Hiroshi; Niemeijer, André; Nishikawa, Osamu; Nitsch, Olivier; Paris, Jehanne; Prior, David J.; Sauer, Katrina; Savage, Martha K.; Schleicher, Anja; Shigematsu, Norio; Taylor-Offord, Sam; Teagle, Damon; Tobin, Harold; Valdez, Robert; Weaver, Konrad; Wiersberg, Thomas; Zimmer, Martin

    2017-12-01

    Fault rock assemblages reflect interaction between deformation, stress, temperature, fluid, and chemical regimes on distinct spatial and temporal scales at various positions in the crust. Here we interpret measurements made in the hanging-wall of the Alpine Fault during the second stage of the Deep Fault Drilling Project (DFDP-2). We present observational evidence for extensive fracturing and high hanging-wall hydraulic conductivity (˜10-9 to 10-7 m/s, corresponding to permeability of ˜10-16 to 10-14 m2) extending several hundred meters from the fault's principal slip zone. Mud losses, gas chemistry anomalies, and petrophysical data indicate that a subset of fractures intersected by the borehole are capable of transmitting fluid volumes of several cubic meters on time scales of hours. DFDP-2 observations and other data suggest that this hydrogeologically active portion of the fault zone in the hanging-wall is several kilometers wide in the uppermost crust. This finding is consistent with numerical models of earthquake rupture and off-fault damage. We conclude that the mechanically and hydrogeologically active part of the Alpine Fault is a more dynamic and extensive feature than commonly described in models based on exhumed faults. We propose that the hydrogeologically active damage zone of the Alpine Fault and other large active faults in areas of high topographic relief can be subdivided into an inner zone in which damage is controlled principally by earthquake rupture processes and an outer zone in which damage reflects coseismic shaking, strain accumulation and release on interseismic timescales, and inherited fracturing related to exhumation.

  19. Seismic variability of subduction thrust faults: Insights from laboratory models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbi, F.; Funiciello, F.; Faccenna, C.; Ranalli, G.; Heuret, A.

    2011-06-01

    Laboratory models are realized to investigate the role of interface roughness, driving rate, and pressure on friction dynamics. The setup consists of a gelatin block driven at constant velocity over sand paper. The interface roughness is quantified in terms of amplitude and wavelength of protrusions, jointly expressed by a reference roughness parameter obtained by their product. Frictional behavior shows a systematic dependence on system parameters. Both stick slip and stable sliding occur, depending on driving rate and interface roughness. Stress drop and frequency of slip episodes vary directly and inversely, respectively, with the reference roughness parameter, reflecting the fundamental role for the amplitude of protrusions. An increase in pressure tends to favor stick slip. Static friction is a steeply decreasing function of the reference roughness parameter. The velocity strengthening/weakening parameter in the state- and rate-dependent dynamic friction law becomes negative for specific values of the reference roughness parameter which are intermediate with respect to the explored range. Despite the simplifications of the adopted setup, which does not address the problem of off-fault fracturing, a comparison of the experimental results with the depth distribution of seismic energy release along subduction thrust faults leads to the hypothesis that their behavior is primarily controlled by the depth- and time-dependent distribution of protrusions. A rough subduction fault at shallow depths, unable to produce significant seismicity because of low lithostatic pressure, evolves into a moderately rough, velocity-weakening fault at intermediate depths. The magnitude of events in this range is calibrated by the interplay between surface roughness and subduction rate. At larger depths, the roughness further decreases and stable sliding becomes gradually more predominant. Thus, although interplate seismicity is ultimately controlled by tectonic parameters (velocity of

  20. Barriers to spousal contribution to childbirth pain relief in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emelonye, A U; Pitkäaho, T; Aregbesola, A; Vehviläinen-Julkunen, K

    2017-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the barriers inhibiting the use of spousal presence for childbirth pain relief in health facilities and recommendations from three perspectives: the midwife, the woman, and the spouse. Spousal presence is a non-invasive, participatory and inexpensive technique used in pain management during childbirth. Although it contributes to a large extent in relieving childbirth pain, it is underutilized in Nigerian hospitals. Overcoming the challenges impeding spousal presence and participation during childbirth will improve maternal outcome, satisfaction and midwifery care practices. A cross-sectional survey conducted in four hospitals in Nigeria involving midwives (n = 100), women (n = 142) and their spouses (n = 142) from June to December 2014 using pretested questionnaires. Five themes were identified: poor infrastructural facility, lack of adequate pain management policy, lack of midwife pain management practices, midwives' attitudes towards spousal presence during childbirth and feelings about spousal presence during childbirth pain relief. Infrastructural defects in the health facilities resulting in the lack of privacy in maternity units for both spouses and partners negatively influence the presence of a spouse during childbirth and pain relief. Adopting effective strategies such as good infrastructural facilities, staff training and spouse-friendly hospital policies will encourage spouses to fully participate in and contribute to childbirth pain relief. This study identified poor staff attitudes towards pain relief and spousal presence during childbirth as barriers. Providing adequate policies on pain management, continuous staff education and orientation on spousal relationship will improve active spousal participation and maternal satisfaction during childbirth. © 2016 International Council of Nurses.

  1. Earthquake swarms near eastern Himalayan Syntaxis along Jiali Fault in Tibet: A seismotectonic appraisal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basab Mukhopadhyay

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The seismotectonic characteristics of ten repeated earthquake swarm sequence within a seismic cluster along Jiali Fault in eastern Himalayan Syntaxis (EHS have been analysed. The swarms are spatially disposed in and around Yigong Lake (a natural lake formed by blocking of Yigong River by landslide and are characterized by low magnitude, crustal events with low to moderate b values. Ms : mb discriminant functions though indicate anomalous nature of the earthquakes within swarm but are considered as natural events that occurred under condition of high apparent stress and stress gradients. Composite fault plane solutions of selected swarms indicate strike–slip sense of shear on fault planes; solution parameters show low plunging compression and tensional axes along NW–SE and NE–SW respectively with causative fault plane oriented ENE–WSW, dipping steeply towards south or north. The fault plane is in excellent agreement with the disposition and tectonic movement registered by right lateral Jiali Fault. The process of pore pressure perturbation and resultant ‘r–t plot’ with modelled diffusivity (D = 0.12 m2/s relates the diffusion of pore pressure to seismic sequence in a fractured poro-elastic fluid saturated medium at average crustal depth of 15–20 km. The low diffusivity depicts a highly fractured interconnected medium that is generated due to high stress activity near the eastern syntaxial bent of Himalaya. It is proposed that hydro fracturing with respect to periodic pore pressure variations is responsible for generation of swarms in the region. The fluid pressure generated due to shearing and infiltrations of surface water within dilated seismogenic fault (Jiali Fault are causative factors.

  2. Electric Stimulation for Pain Relief in Patients with Fibromyalgia: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar, Ana Paula de Silva; Stein, Cinara; Marchese, Ritchele Redivo; Plentz, Rodrigo Della Mea; Pagnussat, Aline De Souza

    2017-02-01

    each study. Furthermore, most of the studies showed some biases and lack of methodological quality. This meta-analysis indicates that there is low-quality evidence for the effectiveness of ES for pain relief in patients with FM. However, moderate-quality evidence for the effectiveness of electroacupuncture (EA), combined or not combined with other types of treatment, was found for pain relief. PROSPERO under the identification CRD42015025323Key words: Electric stimulation, electroacupuncture, transcutaneous electric nerve stimulation, pain, fibromyalgia, review, physical therapy, rehabilitation.

  3. Fuzzy fault diagnosis system of MCFC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Zhenlei; Qian Feng; Cao Guangyi

    2005-01-01

    A kind of fault diagnosis system of molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) stack is proposed in this paper. It is composed of a fuzzy neural network (FNN) and a fault diagnosis element. FNN is able to deal with the information of the expert knowledge and the experiment data efficiently. It also has the ability to approximate any smooth system. FNN is used to identify the fault diagnosis model of MCFC stack. The fuzzy fault decision element can diagnose the state of the MCFC generating system, normal or fault, and can decide the type of the fault based on the outputs of FNN model and the MCFC system. Some simulation experiment results are demonstrated in this paper.

  4. Fault diagnosis based on controller modification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niemann, Hans Henrik

    2015-01-01

    Detection and isolation of parametric faults in closed-loop systems will be considered in this paper. A major problem is that a feedback controller will in general reduce the effects from variations in the systems including parametric faults on the controlled output from the system. Parametric...... faults can be detected and isolated using active methods, where an auxiliary input is applied. Using active methods for the diagnosis of parametric faults in closed-loop systems, the amplitude of the applied auxiliary input need to be increased to be able to detect and isolate the faults in a reasonable......-parameterization (after Youla, Jabr, Bongiorno and Kucera) for the controller, it is possible to modify the feedback controller with a minor effect on the closed-loop performance in the fault-free case and at the same time optimize the detection and isolation in a faulty case. Controller modification in connection...

  5. A setup for active fault diagnosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niemann, Hans Henrik

    2006-01-01

    A setup for active fault diagnosis (AFD) of parametric faults in dynamic systems is formulated in this paper. It is shown that it is possible to use the same setup for both open loop systems, closed loop systems based on a nominal feedback controller as well as for closed loop systems based...... on a reconfigured feedback controller. This will make the proposed AFD approach very useful in connection with fault tolerant control (FTC). The setup will make it possible to let the fault diagnosis part of the fault tolerant controller remain unchanged after a change in the feedback controller. The setup for AFD...... is based on the YJBK (after Youla, Jabr, Bongiorno and Kucera) parameterization of all stabilizing feedback controllers and the dual YJBK parameterization. It is shown that the AFD is based directly on the dual YJBK transfer function matrix. This matrix will be named the fault signature matrix when...

  6. Fault displacement along the Naruto-South fault, the Median Tectonic Line active fault system in the eastern part of Shikoku, southwestern Japan

    OpenAIRE

    高田, 圭太; 中田, 高; 後藤, 秀昭; 岡田, 篤正; 原口, 強; 松木, 宏彰

    1998-01-01

    The Naruto-South fault is situated of about 1000m south of the Naruto fault, the Median Tectonic Line active fault system in the eastern part of Shikoku. We investigated fault topography and subsurface geology of this fault by interpretation of large scale aerial photographs, collecting borehole data and Geo-Slicer survey. The results obtained are as follows; 1) The Naruto-South fault runs on the Yoshino River deltaic plain at least 2.5 km long with fault scarplet. the Naruto-South fault is o...

  7. Comparison of GPS and Quaternary slip rates: Insights from a new Quaternary fault database for Central Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohadjer, Solmaz; Ehlers, Todd; Bendick, Rebecca; Mutz, Sebastian

    2016-04-01

    Previous studies related to the kinematics of deformation within the India-Asia collision zone have relied on slip rate data for major active faults to test kinematic models that explain the deformation of the region. The slip rate data, however, are generally disputed for many of the first-order faults in the region (e.g., Altyn Tagh and Karakorum faults). Several studies have also challenged the common assumption that geodetic slip rates are representative of Quaternary slip rates. What has received little attention is the degree to which geodetic slip rates relate to Quaternary slip rates for active faults in the India-Asia collision zone. In this study, we utilize slip rate data from a new Quaternary fault database for Central Asia to determine the overall relationship between Quaternary and GPS-derived slip rates for 18 faults. The preliminary analysis investigating this relationship uses weighted least squares and a re-sampling analysis to test the sensitivity of this relationship to different data point attributes (e.g., faults associated with data points and dating methods used for estimating Quaternary slip rates). The resulting sample subsets of data points yield a maximum possible Pearson correlation coefficient of ~0.6, suggesting moderate correlation between Quaternary and GPS-derived slip rates for some faults (e.g., Kunlun and Longmen Shan faults). Faults with poorly correlated Quaternary and GPS-derived slip rates were identified and dating methods used for the Quaternary slip rates were examined. Results indicate that a poor correlation between Quaternary and GPS-derived slip rates exist for the Karakorum and Chaman faults. Large differences between Quaternary and GPS slip rates for these faults appear to be connected to qualitative dating of landforms used in the estimation of the Quaternary slip rates and errors in the geomorphic and structural reconstruction of offset landforms (e.g., offset terrace riser reconstructions for Altyn Tagh fault

  8. Integrated study on the topographic and shallow subsurface expression of the Grote Brogel Fault at the boundary of the Roer Valley Graben, Belgium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deckers, Jef; Van Noten, Koen; Schiltz, Marco; Lecocq, Thomas; Vanneste, Kris

    2018-01-01

    The Grote Brogel Fault (GBF) is a major WNW-ESE striking normal fault in Belgium that diverges westward from the NW-SE striking western border fault system of the Roer Valley Graben. The GBF delimits the topographically higher Campine Block from the subsiding Roer Valley Graben, and is expressed in the Digital Terrain Model (DTM) by relief gradients or scarps. By integrating DTM, Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT), Cone Penetration Test (CPT) and borehole data, we studied the Quaternary activity of the GBF and its effects on local hydrogeology. In the shallow subsurface (< 50 m) underneath these scarps, fault splays of the GBF were interpreted on newly acquired ERT profiles at two investigation sites: one on the eastern section and the other on the western section, near the limit of the visible surface trace of the fault. Borehole and CPT data enabled stratigraphic interpretations of the ERT profiles and thereby allowed measuring vertical fault offsets at the base of Pleistocene fluvial deposits of up to 12 m. Groundwater measurements in the boreholes and CPTs indicate that the GBF acts as a hydrologic boundary that prevents groundwater flow from the elevated footwall towards the hangingwall, resulting in hydraulic head differences of up to 12.7 m. For the two investigation sites, the hydraulic head changes correlate with the relief gradient, which in turn correlates with the Quaternary vertical offset of the GBF. ERT profiles at the eastern site also revealed a local soft-linked stepover in the shallow subsurface, which affects groundwater levels in the different fault blocks, and illustrates the complex small-scale geometry of the GBF.

  9. Computer modelling of superconductive fault current limiters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weller, R.A.; Campbell, A.M.; Coombs, T.A.; Cardwell, D.A.; Storey, R.J. [Cambridge Univ. (United Kingdom). Interdisciplinary Research Centre in Superconductivity (IRC); Hancox, J. [Rolls Royce, Applied Science Division, Derby (United Kingdom)

    1998-05-01

    Investigations are being carried out on the use of superconductors for fault current limiting applications. A number of computer programs are being developed to predict the behavior of different `resistive` fault current limiter designs under a variety of fault conditions. The programs achieve solution by iterative methods based around real measured data rather than theoretical models in order to achieve accuracy at high current densities. (orig.) 5 refs.

  10. Fault Diagnosis in Deaerator Using Fuzzy Logic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Srinivasan

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a fuzzy logic based fault diagnosis system for a deaerator in a power plant unit is presented. The system parameters are obtained using the linearised state space deaerator model. The fuzzy inference system is created and rule base are evaluated relating the parameters to the type and severity of the faults. These rules are fired for specific changes in system parameters and the faults are diagnosed.

  11. Qademah Fault Seismic Data Set - Northern Part

    KAUST Repository

    Hanafy, Sherif M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Is the Qademah fault that was detected in 2010 the main fault? We collected a long 2D profile, 526 m, where the fault that was detected in 2010 is at around 300 m. Layout: We collected 264 CSGs, each has 264 receivers. The shot and receiver interval is 2 m. We also collected an extra 48 CSGs with offset = 528 to 622 m with shot interval = 2 m. The receivers are the same as the main survey.

  12. Distributed bearing fault diagnosis based on vibration analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolenc, Boštjan; Boškoski, Pavle; Juričić, Đani

    2016-01-01

    Distributed bearing faults appear under various circumstances, for example due to electroerosion or the progression of localized faults. Bearings with distributed faults tend to generate more complex vibration patterns than those with localized faults. Despite the frequent occurrence of such faults, their diagnosis has attracted limited attention. This paper examines a method for the diagnosis of distributed bearing faults employing vibration analysis. The vibrational patterns generated are modeled by incorporating the geometrical imperfections of the bearing components. Comparing envelope spectra of vibration signals shows that one can distinguish between localized and distributed faults. Furthermore, a diagnostic procedure for the detection of distributed faults is proposed. This is evaluated on several bearings with naturally born distributed faults, which are compared with fault-free bearings and bearings with localized faults. It is shown experimentally that features extracted from vibrations in fault-free, localized and distributed fault conditions form clearly separable clusters, thus enabling diagnosis.

  13. Identifiability of Additive Actuator and Sensor Faults by State Augmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Suresh; Gonzalez, Oscar R.; Upchurch, Jason M.

    2014-01-01

    A class of fault detection and identification (FDI) methods for bias-type actuator and sensor faults is explored in detail from the point of view of fault identifiability. The methods use state augmentation along with banks of Kalman-Bucy filters for fault detection, fault pattern determination, and fault value estimation. A complete characterization of conditions for identifiability of bias-type actuator faults, sensor faults, and simultaneous actuator and sensor faults is presented. It is shown that FDI of simultaneous actuator and sensor faults is not possible using these methods when all sensors have unknown biases. The fault identifiability conditions are demonstrated via numerical examples. The analytical and numerical results indicate that caution must be exercised to ensure fault identifiability for different fault patterns when using such methods.

  14. A Design Method for Fault Reconfiguration and Fault-Tolerant Control of a Servo Motor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing He

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A design scheme that integrates fault reconfiguration and fault-tolerant position control is proposed for a nonlinear servo system with friction. Analysis of the non-linear friction torque and fault in the system is used to guide design of a sliding mode position controller. A sliding mode observer is designed to achieve fault reconfiguration based on the equivalence principle. Thus, active fault-tolerant position control of the system can be realized. A real-time simulation experiment is performed on a hardware-in-loop simulation platform. The results show that the system reconfigures well for both incipient and abrupt faults. Under the fault-tolerant control mechanism, the output signal for the system position can rapidly track given values without being influenced by faults.

  15. An Active Fault-Tolerant Control Method Ofunmanned Underwater Vehicles with Continuous and Uncertain Faults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daqi Zhu

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces a novel thruster fault diagnosis and accommodation system for open-frame underwater vehicles with abrupt faults. The proposed system consists of two subsystems: a fault diagnosis subsystem and a fault accommodation sub-system. In the fault diagnosis subsystem a ICMAC(Improved Credit Assignment Cerebellar Model Articulation Controllers neural network is used to realize the on-line fault identification and the weighting matrix computation. The fault accommodation subsystem uses a control algorithm based on weighted pseudo-inverse to find the solution of the control allocation problem. To illustrate the proposed method effective, simulation example, under multi-uncertain abrupt faults, is given in the paper.

  16. Fault prediction for nonlinear stochastic system with incipient faults based on particle filter and nonlinear regression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Bo; Fang, Huajing

    2017-05-01

    This paper is concerned with the fault prediction for the nonlinear stochastic system with incipient faults. Based on the particle filter and the reasonable assumption about the incipient faults, the modified fault estimation algorithm is proposed, and the system state is estimated simultaneously. According to the modified fault estimation, an intuitive fault detection strategy is introduced. Once each of the incipient fault is detected, the parameters of which are identified by a nonlinear regression method. Then, based on the estimated parameters, the future fault signal can be predicted. Finally, the effectiveness of the proposed method is verified by the simulations of the Three-tank system. Copyright © 2017 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Effect size comparison of ketorolac nasal spray and commonly prescribed oral combination opioids for pain relief after third molar extraction surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niebler, Gwendolyn; Dayno, Jeffrey

    2016-01-01

    Opioids are frequently used for treatment of moderate to severe short-term pain, but concerns exist about this treatment approach. Ketorolac tromethamine nasal spray, a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory, is indicated for the short-term management of moderate to moderately severe pain requiring analgesia at the opioid level. However, there are no direct comparison studies between ketorolac nasal spray and opioids. The objective of this study was to use an effect size analysis to compare the effectiveness of ketorolac nasal spray with oral combination opioid formulations in treating moderate to severe short-term pain. An effect size analysis of three randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled studies of third molar extraction surgery compared pain relief with ketorolac nasal spray and commonly prescribed combination opioids including hydrocodone/acetaminophen (APAP), oxycodone/APAP, oxycodone/ibuprofen and tramadol HCl/APAP. Effect size comparisons were made using total pain relief scores (TOTPAR6 or TOTPAR8; the weighted sum of pain relief scores through 6 or 8 h). Pain relief was measured using a five-point categorical rating scale (0 = none; 4 = complete). The effect size equivalent correlation, r, was determined using an online effect size calculator. The treatment effect size r compared with placebo was classified using established criteria (small = 0.20-0.49, moderate = 0.50-0.79 and large = ≥ 0.80). TOTPAR6 data indicated a moderate effect size for ketorolac nasal spray 31.5 mg (0.51) and oxycodone/ibuprofen 5/400 mg (0.64) and a small effect size for hydrocodone/APAP 7.5/500 mg (0.24) and oxycodone/APAP 5/325 mg (0.32). TOTPAR8 data indicated small effect sizes for ketorolac nasal spray (0.48), hydrocodone/APAP 10/650 mg (0.43), tramadol HCl/APAP 75/650 mg (0.35) and tramadol HCl/APAP 37.5/325 mg (0.17). The treatment effect sizes of ketorolac nasal spray were similar to or higher than the opioid comparators after third molar surgery, a well-accepted pain

  18. Ibuprofen and/or paracetamol (acetaminophen) for pain relief after surgical removal of lower wisdom teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Edmund; Worthington, Helen V; van Wijk, Arjen; Yates, Julian M; Coulthard, Paul; Afzal, Zahid

    2013-12-12

    identified were scanned independently and in duplicate by two review authors, any disagreements were resolved by discussion, or if necessary a third review author was consulted. The proportion of patients with at least 50% pain relief (based on total pain relief (TOTPAR) and summed pain intensity difference (SPID) data) was calculated for all three drugs at both two and six hours postdosing and meta-analysed for comparison. The proportion of participants using rescue medication over both six and eight hours was also collated and compared. The number of patients experiencing adverse events or the total number of adverse events reported or both were analysed for comparison. Seven studies were included, they were all parallel-group studies, two studies were assessed as at low risk of bias and three at high risk of bias; two were considered to have unclear bias in their methodology. A total of 2241 participants were enrolled in these trials.Ibuprofen was found to be a superior analgesic to paracetamol at several doses with high quality evidence suggesting that ibuprofen 400 mg is superior to 1000 mg paracetamol based on pain relief (estimated from TOTPAR data) and the use of rescue medication meta-analyses. The risk ratio for at least 50% pain relief (based on TOTPAR) at six hours was 1.47 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.28 to 1.69; five trials) favouring 400 mg ibuprofen over 1000 mg paracetamol, and the risk ratio for not using rescue medication (also favouring ibuprofen) was 1.50 (95% CI 1.25 to 1.79; four trials).The combined drug showed promising results, with a risk ratio for at least 50% of the maximum pain relief over six hours of 1.77 (95% CI 1.32 to 2.39) (paracetamol 1000 mg and ibuprofen 400 mg) (one trial; moderate quality evidence), and risk ratio not using rescue medication 1.60 (95% CI 1.36 to 1.88) (two trials; moderate quality evidence).The information available regarding adverse events from the studies (including nausea, vomiting, headaches and dizziness

  19. A preliminary structural analysis of the pattern of post-glacial faults in Northern Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talbot, C.

    1986-10-01

    The post-glacial kinematics inferred from the structures suggest horizontal NW or WNW compression with lateral relief to the NE at depth below surficial upward relief. These kinematics are sufficiently similar to the kinematics throughout Europe north of the Alps to suspect the neotectonic motion of the Eurasian lithospheric plate over the last 38 or even 58 (+/- 2)Ma as the causative force. Large displacements appear to have occurred within a hundred years or so of the last ice retreating from any particular part of northern Scandinavia. This suggests a sudden relief during glacial unloading (and melting of ground water) of plate tectonic forces accumulated during glacial loading. Recent earthquakes in the region display similar kinematics to the post-glacial fractures on a regional scale but indications of ground movement along the forested fault scarps in the lifetime of the trees is observed at only a few localities. Only geodetic strain measurements or small-earthquake monitoring will resolve whether current ductile or seismic motion is occuring along the most obvious post-glacial scarps. Such investigations are under way. (orig./DG)

  20. Liquefaction along Late Pleistocene to early Holocene Faults as Revealed by Lidar in Northwest Tasmania, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, J.; Gardner, T.

    2016-12-01

    In northwest Tasmania well-preserved mid-Holocene beach ridges with maximum radiocarbon ages of 5.25 ka occur along the coast; inland are a parallel set of lower relief beach ridges of probable MIS 5e age. The latter are cut by northeast-striking faults clearly visible on LIDAR images, with a maximum vertical displacement (evident as difference in topographic elevation) of 3 m. Also distinct on the LIDAR images are large sand boils along the fault lines; they are up to 5 m in diameter and 2-3 m high and mostly occur on the hanging wall close to the fault traces. Without LIDAR it would have been almost impossible to distinguish either the fault scarps or the sand boils. Excavations through the sand boils show that they are massive, with no internal structure, suggesting that they formed in a single event. They are composed of well-sorted, very fine white sand, identical to the sand in the underlying beach ridges. The sand boils overlie a peaty paleosol; this formed in the tea-tree swamp that formerly covered the area, and has been offset along the faults. Radiocarbon dating of the buried organic-rich paleosol gave ages of 14.8-7.2 ka, suggesting that the faulting is latest Pleistocene to early Holocene in age; it occurred prior to deposition of the mid-Holocene beach ridges, which are not offset. The beach ridge sediments are up to 7 m thick and contain an iron-cemented hard pan 1-3 m below the surface. The water table is very shallow and close to the ground surface, so the sands of the beach ridges are mostly saturated. During faulting these sands experienced extensive liquefaction. The resulting sand boils rose to a substantial height of 2-3 m, probably possibly reflecting the elevation of the potentiometric surface within the confined part of the beach ridge sediments below the iron-cemented hard pan. Motion on the faults was predominantly dip slip (shown by an absence of horizontal offset) and probably reverse, which is consistent with the present-day northwest

  1. Triphenylmethane, a possible moderator material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hügle, Th.; Mocko, M.; Hartl, M.A.; Daemen, L.L.; Muhrer, G.

    2014-01-01

    New challenges in neutron scattering result in an increased demand in novel moderator concepts. The most direct way to address the problem would be to change the moderator material itself. However the range of available neutron moderator materials is small. In this paper, we discuss triphenylmethane, a possible moderator material especially promising for cold neutron moderator applications. Our investigations include a parallel experimental and theoretical approach ranging from cross-section measurements and inelastic neutron spectroscopy to molecular modeling. -- Highlights: • Triphenylmethane as a potential moderator material is discussed. • Parallel theoretical and experimental approach. • Possibly very useful for cold neutrons

  2. Integrating cyber attacks within fault trees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nai Fovino, Igor; Masera, Marcelo; De Cian, Alessio

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, a new method for quantitative security risk assessment of complex systems is presented, combining fault-tree analysis, traditionally used in reliability analysis, with the recently introduced Attack-tree analysis, proposed for the study of malicious attack patterns. The combined use of fault trees and attack trees helps the analyst to effectively face the security challenges posed by the introduction of modern ICT technologies in the control systems of critical infrastructures. The proposed approach allows considering the interaction of malicious deliberate acts with random failures. Formal definitions of fault tree and attack tree are provided and a mathematical model for the calculation of system fault probabilities is presented.

  3. Fault tolerant control design for hybrid systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Hao; Jiang, Bin [Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Nanjing (China); Cocquempot, Vincent [Universite des Sciences et Technologies de Lille, Villeneuve d' Ascq (France)

    2010-07-01

    This book intends to provide the readers a good understanding on how to achieve Fault Tolerant Control goal of Hybrid Systems. The book can be used as a reference for the academic research on Fault Tolerant Control and Hybrid Systems or used in Ph.D. study of control theory and engineering. The knowledge background for this monograph would be some undergraduate and graduate courses on Fault Diagnosis and Fault Tolerant Control theory, linear system theory, nonlinear system theory, Hybrid Systems theory and Discrete Event System theory. (orig.)

  4. Soil radon levels across the Amer fault

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Font, Ll.; Baixeras, C.; Moreno, V.; Bach, J.

    2008-01-01

    Soil radon levels have been measured across the Amer fault, which is located near the volcanic region of La Garrotxa, Spain. Both passive (LR-115, time-integrating) and active (Clipperton II, time-resolved) detectors have been used in a survey in which 27 measurement points were selected in five lines perpendicular to the Amer fault in the village area of Amer. The averaged results show an influence of the distance to the fault on the mean soil radon values. The dynamic results show a very clear seasonal effect on the soil radon levels. The results obtained support the hypothesis that the fault is still active

  5. Integrating cyber attacks within fault trees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nai Fovino, Igor [Joint Research Centre - EC, Institute for the Protection and Security of the Citizen, Ispra, VA (Italy)], E-mail: igor.nai@jrc.it; Masera, Marcelo [Joint Research Centre - EC, Institute for the Protection and Security of the Citizen, Ispra, VA (Italy); De Cian, Alessio [Department of Electrical Engineering, University di Genova, Genoa (Italy)

    2009-09-15

    In this paper, a new method for quantitative security risk assessment of complex systems is presented, combining fault-tree analysis, traditionally used in reliability analysis, with the recently introduced Attack-tree analysis, proposed for the study of malicious attack patterns. The combined use of fault trees and attack trees helps the analyst to effectively face the security challenges posed by the introduction of modern ICT technologies in the control systems of critical infrastructures. The proposed approach allows considering the interaction of malicious deliberate acts with random failures. Formal definitions of fault tree and attack tree are provided and a mathematical model for the calculation of system fault probabilities is presented.

  6. Fault detection and fault-tolerant control for nonlinear systems

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Linlin

    2016-01-01

    Linlin Li addresses the analysis and design issues of observer-based FD and FTC for nonlinear systems. The author analyses the existence conditions for the nonlinear observer-based FD systems to gain a deeper insight into the construction of FD systems. Aided by the T-S fuzzy technique, she recommends different design schemes, among them the L_inf/L_2 type of FD systems. The derived FD and FTC approaches are verified by two benchmark processes. Contents Overview of FD and FTC Technology Configuration of Nonlinear Observer-Based FD Systems Design of L2 nonlinear Observer-Based FD Systems Design of Weighted Fuzzy Observer-Based FD Systems FTC Configurations for Nonlinear Systems< Application to Benchmark Processes Target Groups Researchers and students in the field of engineering with a focus on fault diagnosis and fault-tolerant control fields The Author Dr. Linlin Li completed her dissertation under the supervision of Prof. Steven X. Ding at the Faculty of Engineering, University of Duisburg-Essen, Germany...

  7. Multinarasi Relief Yeh Pulu Basis Penciptaan Seni Lukis Kontemporer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Wayan Adnyana

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Kajian ini merupakan skema penelitian terapan, yang bertujuan untuk mengungkap konsep multinarasi relief Yeh Pulu, Bedulu, Gianyar, Bali, sebagai basis penciptaan seni lukis kontemporer. Secara metodologis penelitian ini dilakukan dalam dua tahapan: penelitian lapangan (kajian atas narasi relief berdasar perspektif ikonologi Panofsky (1971, dan berikutnya penelitian eksperimen terkait penciptaan seni lukis kontemporer berdasar perspektif ‘art practice as a research’ (Sullivan, 2005 yang menunjuk pada tiga tahapan: eksperimen medium, bahasa visual, dan penyusunan konteks yang relevan. Berdasar kajian ikonologi, terutama tahap analisis ikonografi, ditemukan bahwa narasi relief Yeh Pulu bersifat multinarasi, yakni pahatan relief yang memiliki beragam jenis tema cerita, seperti praktik pertanian, berburu, meditasi, pesta, asmara, dan lain-lain. Kemudian konsep multinarasi dalam penciptaan seni lukis kontemporer, menjadi: (a secara medium menggunakan multiteknik dan medium; (b bahasa visual, menghadirkan berbagai adegan secara berulang, terpadu dan bahkan terkesan saling berlawanan; (c konteks yang relevan, dengan memasukan ikon tokok-toko pahlawan dunia pop, seperti superman, superwomen, dan lain-lain. Secara ikonologis, bangunan visual yang mempertemukan adegan multinarasi relief Yeh Pulu dengan narasi kepahlawanan dunia pop, menjadi semakin menguatkan konsep multinarasi dalam membangun pesan kepahlawanan dunia sehari-hari dalam karya seni lukis kontemporer semakin berhasil. Penelitian ini melibatkan: Anak Agung Rai Remawa (pengumpul data, dan  Ni Luh Desi In Diana Sari (fotografi dan layout. This paper serves as an applied research scheme which aims to reveal the concept of multiple narratives of Yeh Pulu Relief, located in Bedulu, Bali, as the basis for the creation of contemporary painting. Methodologically speaking, this study was conducted in two stages: a field research (a field study on the relief narratives based on Panofsky

  8. Study of fault diagnosis software design for complex system based on fault tree

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan Run; Li Yazhou; Wang Jianye; Hu Liqin; Wang Jiaqun; Wu Yican

    2012-01-01

    Complex systems always have high-level reliability and safety requirements, and same does their diagnosis work. As a great deal of fault tree models have been acquired during the design and operation phases, a fault diagnosis method which combines fault tree analysis with knowledge-based technology has been proposed. The prototype of fault diagnosis software has been realized and applied to mobile LIDAR system. (authors)

  9. The morphology of strike-slip faults - Examples from the San Andreas Fault, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilham, Roger; King, Geoffrey

    1989-01-01

    The dilatational strains associated with vertical faults embedded in a horizontal plate are examined in the framework of fault kinematics and simple displacement boundary conditions. Using boundary element methods, a sequence of examples of dilatational strain fields associated with commonly occurring strike-slip fault zone features (bends, offsets, finite rupture lengths, and nonuniform slip distributions) is derived. The combinations of these strain fields are then used to examine the Parkfield region of the San Andreas fault system in central California.

  10. Shaded Relief with Height as Color, North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    This image of North America was generated with data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). For this broad view the resolution of the data was first reduced to 30 arcseconds (about 928 meters north-south and 736 meters east-west in central North America), matching the best previously existing global digital topographic data set called GTOPO30. The data were then resampled to a Mercator projection with approximately square pixels (about one kilometer, or 0.6 miles, on each side). Even at this decreased resolution the variety of landforms comprising the North American continent is readily apparent.Active tectonics (structural deformation of the Earth's crust) along and near the Pacific -- North American plate boundary creates the great topographic relief seen along the Pacific coast. Earth's crustal plates converge in southern Mexico and in the northwest United States, melting the crust and producing volcanic cones. Along the California coast, the plates are sliding laterally past each other, producing a pattern of slices within the San Andreas fault system. And, where the plates are diverging, the crust appears torn apart as one huge tear along the Gulf of California (northwest Mexico), and as the several fractures comprising the Basin and Range province (in and around Nevada).Across the Great Plains, erosional patterns dominate, with streams channels surrounding and penetrating the remnants of older smooth slopes east of the Rocky Mountains. This same erosion process is exposing the bedrock structural patterns of the Black Hills in South Dakota and the Ozark Mountains in Arkansas. Lateral erosion and sediment deposition by the Mississippi River has produced the flatlands of the lower Mississippi Valley and the Mississippi Delta.To the north, evidence of the glaciers of the last ice age is widely found, particularly east of the Canadian Rocky Mountains and around the Great Lakes. From northeastern British Columbia, across Alberta, Saskatchewan, and

  11. Qademah Fault 3D Survey

    KAUST Repository

    Hanafy, Sherif M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Collect 3D seismic data at Qademah Fault location to 1. 3D traveltime tomography 2. 3D surface wave migration 3. 3D phase velocity 4. Possible reflection processing Acquisition Date: 26 – 28 September 2014 Acquisition Team: Sherif, Kai, Mrinal, Bowen, Ahmed Acquisition Layout: We used 288 receiver arranged in 12 parallel lines, each line has 24 receiver. Inline offset is 5 m and crossline offset is 10 m. One shot is fired at each receiver location. We use the 40 kgm weight drop as seismic source, with 8 to 15 stacks at each shot location.

  12. Fault-ignorant quantum search

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vrana, Péter; Reeb, David; Reitzner, Daniel; Wolf, Michael M

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the problem of quantum searching on a noisy quantum computer. Taking a fault-ignorant approach, we analyze quantum algorithms that solve the task for various different noise strengths, which are possibly unknown beforehand. We prove lower bounds on the runtime of such algorithms and thereby find that the quadratic speedup is necessarily lost (in our noise models). However, for low but constant noise levels the algorithms we provide (based on Grover's algorithm) still outperform the best noiseless classical search algorithm. (paper)

  13. Fault Detection/Isolation Verification,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-08-01

    63 - A I MCC ’I UNCLASSIFIED SECURITY CLASSIPICATION OP THIS PAGE tMh*f Dal f&mered, REPORT D00CUMENTATION PAGE " .O ORM 1. REPORT NUM.9ft " 2. GOVT...test the performance of th .<ver) DO 2" 1473 EoIoTON OP iNov os i OSoLTe UNCLASSIFIED SECURITY CLASSIPICATION 0 T"IS PAGE (P 3 . at Sted) I...UNCLASSIFIED Acumy, C .AMICATIN Of THIS PAGS. (m ... DO&.m , Algorithm on these netowrks , several different fault scenarios were designed for each network. Each

  14. Moderation of neutron energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marlatt, G.R.

    1986-01-01

    This patent describes a nuclear reactor system having a nuclear reactor which has a core including fuel assemblies, means for transmitting through the core a coolant, the coolant having a predetermined neutron-energy moderating property, sealed tubes in the core, each tube containing a material having a different neutron-energy moderating property than the coolant, means, when actuated, to engage at least certain of the tubes, for opening certain of the tubes to permit the coolant to replace the material in the tubes thereby to change the energy spectrum of the neutrons in the reactor, hydraulic means, connected to the opening means, for actuating the opening means to engage certain of the tubes to open the tubes. A device, external to the reactor, connected to the hydraulic means controlls the actuation of the opening means, the opening means being so set with reference to the tubes that only certain of the tubes are opened at any time as the opening means is advanced towards the tubes by the hydraulic means

  15. How do people define moderation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    vanDellen, Michelle R; Isherwood, Jennifer C; Delose, Julie E

    2016-06-01

    Eating in moderation is considered to be sound and practical advice for weight maintenance or prevention of weight gain. However, the concept of moderation is ambiguous, and the effect of moderation messages on consumption has yet to be empirically examined. The present manuscript examines how people define moderate consumption. We expected that people would define moderate consumption in ways that justified their current or desired consumption rather than view moderation as an objective standard. In Studies 1 and 2, moderate consumption was perceived to involve greater quantities of an unhealthy food (chocolate chip cookies, gummy candies) than perceptions of how much one should consume. In Study 3, participants generally perceived themselves to eat in moderation and defined moderate consumption as greater than their personal consumption. Furthermore, definitions of moderate consumption were related to personal consumption behaviors. Results suggest that the endorsement of moderation messages allows for a wide range of interpretations of moderate consumption. Thus, we conclude that moderation messages are unlikely to be effective messages for helping people maintain or lose weight. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Passive Fault-tolerant Control of Discrete-time Piecewise Affine Systems against Actuator Faults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tabatabaeipour, Seyed Mojtaba; Izadi-Zamanabadi, Roozbeh; Bak, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a new method for passive fault-tolerant control of discrete time piecewise affine systems. Actuator faults are considered. A reliable piecewise linear quadratic regulator (LQR) state feedback is designed such that it can tolerate actuator faults. A sufficient condition f...... is illustrated on a numerical example and a two degree of freedom helicopter....

  17. Rectifier Fault Diagnosis and Fault Tolerance of a Doubly Fed Brushless Starter Generator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liwei Shi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a rectifier fault diagnosis method with wavelet packet analysis to improve the fault tolerant four-phase doubly fed brushless starter generator (DFBLSG system reliability. The system components and fault tolerant principle of the high reliable DFBLSG are given. And the common fault of the rectifier is analyzed. The process of wavelet packet transforms fault detection/identification algorithm is introduced in detail. The fault tolerant performance and output voltage experiments were done to gather the energy characteristics with a voltage sensor. The signal is analyzed with 5-layer wavelet packets, and the energy eigenvalue of each frequency band is obtained. Meanwhile, the energy-eigenvalue tolerance was introduced to improve the diagnostic accuracy. With the wavelet packet fault diagnosis, the fault tolerant four-phase DFBLSG can detect the usual open-circuit fault and operate in the fault tolerant mode if there is a fault. The results indicate that the fault analysis techniques in this paper are accurate and effective.

  18. Fault-tolerant cooperative output regulation for multi-vehicle systems with sensor faults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Liguo; He, Xiao; Zhou, D. H.

    2017-10-01

    This paper presents a unified framework of fault diagnosis and fault-tolerant cooperative output regulation (FTCOR) for a linear discrete-time multi-vehicle system with sensor faults. The FTCOR control law is designed through three steps. A cooperative output regulation (COR) controller is designed based on the internal mode principle when there are no sensor faults. A sufficient condition on the existence of the COR controller is given based on the discrete-time algebraic Riccati equation (DARE). Then, a decentralised fault diagnosis scheme is designed to cope with sensor faults occurring in followers. A residual generator is developed to detect sensor faults of each follower, and a bank of fault-matching estimators are proposed to isolate and estimate sensor faults of each follower. Unlike the current distributed fault diagnosis for multi-vehicle systems, the presented decentralised fault diagnosis scheme in each vehicle reduces the communication and computation load by only using the information of the vehicle. By combing the sensor fault estimation and the COR control law, an FTCOR controller is proposed. Finally, the simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness of the FTCOR controller.

  19. Fault-tolerant reference generation for model predictive control with active diagnosis of elevator jamming faults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ferranti, L.; Wan, Y.; Keviczky, T.

    2018-01-01

    This paper focuses on the longitudinal control of an Airbus passenger aircraft in the presence of elevator jamming faults. In particular, in this paper, we address permanent and temporary actuator jamming faults using a novel reconfigurable fault-tolerant predictive control design. Due to their

  20. FSN-based fault modelling for fault detection and troubleshooting in CANDU stations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nasimi, E., E-mail: elnara.nasimi@brucepower.com [Bruce Power LLP., Tiverton, Ontario(Canada); Gabbar, H.A. [Univ. of Ontario Inst. of Tech., Oshawa, Ontario (Canada)

    2013-07-01

    An accurate fault modeling and troubleshooting methodology is required to aid in making risk-informed decisions related to design and operational activities of current and future generation of CANDU designs. This paper presents fault modeling approach using Fault Semantic Network (FSN) methodology with risk estimation. Its application is demonstrated using a case study of Bruce B zone-control level oscillations. (author)

  1. Fault Diagnosis and Fault Tolerant Control with Application on a Wind Turbine Low Speed Shaft Encoder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Odgaard, Peter Fogh; Sardi, Hector Eloy Sanchez; Escobet, Teressa

    2015-01-01

    tolerant control of wind turbines using a benchmark model. In this paper, the fault diagnosis scheme is improved and integrated with a fault accommodation scheme which enables and disables the individual pitch algorithm based on the fault detection. In this way, the blade and tower loads are not increased...

  2. 78 FR 33467 - Second Allocation of Public Transportation Emergency Relief Funds in Response to Hurricane Sandy...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-04

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Transit Administration Second Allocation of Public Transportation Emergency Relief Funds in Response to Hurricane Sandy: Response, Recovery & Resiliency; Correction... allocation of $3.7 billion under the Public Transportation Emergency Relief Program to the four FTA...

  3. 48 CFR 252.229-7010 - Relief from customs duty on fuel (United Kingdom).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., February 1973, entitled “Relief from Customs Duty and/or Value Added Tax on United States Government... Office. (b) Specific information should be included in the request for tax relief, such as the number of...

  4. Asthma Patients in US Overuse Quick-Relief Inhalers, Underuse Control Medications

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... quick-relief inhalers, underuse control medications Share | Asthma patients in US overuse quick-relief inhalers, underuse control ... and uncontrolled asthma result in poor health outcomes. Patients with well-controlled asthma are at lower risk ...

  5. Integration of real-time mapping technology in disaster relief distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-01

    Vehicle routing for disaster relief distribution involves many challenges that distinguish this problem from those in commercial settings, given the time sensitive and resource constrained nature of relief activities. While operations research approa...

  6. Moderator Configuration Options for ESS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zanini, L.; Batkov, K.; Klinkby, Esben Bryndt

    2016-01-01

    The current, still evolving status of the design and the optimization work for the moderator configuration for the European Spallation Source is described. The moderator design has been strongly driven by the low-dimensional moderator concept recently proposed for use in spallation neutron sources...... or reactors. Quasi-two dimensional, disc- or tube-shaped moderators,can provide strong brightness increase (factor of 3 or more) with respect to volume para-H2moderators, which constitute the reference, state-of-the-art technology for high-intensity coupled moderators. In the design process other, more...... conventional, principles were also considered,such as the importance of moderator positioning, of the premoderator, and beam extraction considerations. Different design and configuration options are evaluated and compared with the reference volume moderator configuration described in the ESS Technical Design...

  7. Estimation of Erosion Dissection of North-Eastern Caucasus Relief for Recreational Land Use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zagir V. Ataev

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The digital model of the relief (DMR of North-East Caucasus relief was used for an estimation of an erosive partition of territory. The card of usages of erosive forms and density of an erosive partition of a relief was made on basis of GIS-technology. The analysis of these parameters has allowed to estimate the potential of a relief of studied territory for such kinds of touristic and recreational activity, as foot and a cycle tourism

  8. Fault Management Techniques in Human Spaceflight Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Hagan, Brian; Crocker, Alan

    2006-01-01

    This paper discusses human spaceflight fault management operations. Fault detection and response capabilities available in current US human spaceflight programs Space Shuttle and International Space Station are described while emphasizing system design impacts on operational techniques and constraints. Preflight and inflight processes along with products used to anticipate, mitigate and respond to failures are introduced. Examples of operational products used to support failure responses are presented. Possible improvements in the state of the art, as well as prioritization and success criteria for their implementation are proposed. This paper describes how the architecture of a command and control system impacts operations in areas such as the required fault response times, automated vs. manual fault responses, use of workarounds, etc. The architecture includes the use of redundancy at the system and software function level, software capabilities, use of intelligent or autonomous systems, number and severity of software defects, etc. This in turn drives which Caution and Warning (C&W) events should be annunciated, C&W event classification, operator display designs, crew training, flight control team training, and procedure development. Other factors impacting operations are the complexity of a system, skills needed to understand and operate a system, and the use of commonality vs. optimized solutions for software and responses. Fault detection, annunciation, safing responses, and recovery capabilities are explored using real examples to uncover underlying philosophies and constraints. These factors directly impact operations in that the crew and flight control team need to understand what happened, why it happened, what the system is doing, and what, if any, corrective actions they need to perform. If a fault results in multiple C&W events, or if several faults occur simultaneously, the root cause(s) of the fault(s), as well as their vehicle-wide impacts, must be

  9. Effects of Fault Displacement on Emplacement Drifts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duan, F.

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this analysis is to evaluate potential effects of fault displacement on emplacement drifts, including drip shields and waste packages emplaced in emplacement drifts. The output from this analysis not only provides data for the evaluation of long-term drift stability but also supports the Engineered Barrier System (EBS) process model report (PMR) and Disruptive Events Report currently under development. The primary scope of this analysis includes (1) examining fault displacement effects in terms of induced stresses and displacements in the rock mass surrounding an emplacement drift and (2 ) predicting fault displacement effects on the drip shield and waste package. The magnitude of the fault displacement analyzed in this analysis bounds the mean fault displacement corresponding to an annual frequency of exceedance of 10 -5 adopted for the preclosure period of the repository and also supports the postclosure performance assessment. This analysis is performed following the development plan prepared for analyzing effects of fault displacement on emplacement drifts (CRWMS M and O 2000). The analysis will begin with the identification and preparation of requirements, criteria, and inputs. A literature survey on accommodating fault displacements encountered in underground structures such as buried oil and gas pipelines will be conducted. For a given fault displacement, the least favorable scenario in term of the spatial relation of a fault to an emplacement drift is chosen, and the analysis is then performed analytically. Based on the analysis results, conclusions are made regarding the effects and consequences of fault displacement on emplacement drifts. Specifically, the analysis will discuss loads which can be induced by fault displacement on emplacement drifts, drip shield and/or waste packages during the time period of postclosure

  10. Fault kinematics and depocenter evolution of oil-bearing, continental successions of the Mina del Carmen Formation (Albian) in the Golfo San Jorge basin, Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paredes, José Matildo; Plazibat, Silvana; Crovetto, Carolina; Stein, Julián; Cayo, Eric; Schiuma, Ariel

    2013-10-01

    Up to 10% of the liquid hydrocarbons of the Golfo San Jorge basin come from the Mina del Carmen Formation (Albian), an ash-dominated fluvial succession preserved in a variably integrated channel network that evolved coeval to an extensional tectonic event, poorly analyzed up to date. Fault orientation, throw distribution and kinematics of fault populations affecting the Mina del Carmen Formation were investigated using a 3D seismic dataset in the Cerro Dragón field (Eastern Sector of the Golfo San Jorge basin). Thickness maps of the seismic sub-units that integrate the Mina del Carmen Formation, named MEC-A-MEC-C in ascending order, and mapping of fluvial channels performed applying geophysical tools of visualization were integrated to the kinematical analysis of 20 main normal faults of the field. The study provides examples of changes in fault throw patterns with time, associated with faults of different orientations. The "main synrift phase" is characterized by NE-SW striking (mean Az = 49°), basement-involved normal faults that attains its maximum throw on top of the volcanic basement; this set of faults was active during deposition of the Las Heras Group and Pozo D-129 formation. A "second synrift phase" is recognized by E-W striking normal faults (mean Az = 91°) that nucleated and propagated from the Albian Mina del Carmen Formation. Fault activity was localized during deposition of the MEC-A sub-unit, but generalized during deposition of MEC-B sub-unit, producing centripetal and partially isolated depocenters. Upward decreasing in fault activity is inferred by more gradual thickness variation of MEC-C and the overlying Lower Member of Bajo Barreal Formation, evidencing passive infilling of relief associated to fault boundaries, and conformation of wider depocenters with well integrated networks of channels of larger dimensions but random orientation. Lately, the Mina del Carmen Formation was affected by the downward propagation of E-W to ESE-WNW striking

  11. Spallation neutron source moderator design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charlton, L.A.; Barnes, J.M.; Gabriel, T.A.; Johnson, J.O.

    1998-01-01

    This paper describes various aspects of the spallation neutron source (SNS) moderator design. Included are the effects of varying the moderator location, interaction effects between moderators, and the impact on neutron output when various reflector materials are used. Also included is a study of the neutron output from composite moderators, where it is found that a combination of liquid H 2 O and liquid H 2 can produce a spectrum very similar to liquid methane (L-CH 4 ). (orig.)

  12. Computer aided fault tree synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poucet, A.

    1983-01-01

    Nuclear as well as non-nuclear organisations are showing during the past few years a growing interest in the field of reliability analysis. This urges for the development of powerful, state of the art methods and computer codes for performing such analysis on complex systems. In this report an interactive, computer aided approach is discussed, based on the well known fault tree technique. The time consuming and difficut task of manually constructing a system model (one or more fault trees) is replaced by an efficient interactive procedure in which the flexibility and the learning process inherent to the manual approach are combined with the accuracy in the modelling and the speed of the fully automatical approach. The method presented is based upon the use of a library containing component models. The possibility of setting up a standard library of models of general use and the link with a data collection system are discussed. The method has been implemented in the CAFTS-SALP software package which is described shortly in the report

  13. Paleoseismicity of two historically quiescent faults in Australia: Implications for fault behavior in stable continental regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crone, A.J.; De Martini, P. M.; Machette, M.M.; Okumura, K.; Prescott, J.R.

    2003-01-01

    Paleoseismic studies of two historically aseismic Quaternary faults in Australia confirm that cratonic faults in stable continental regions (SCR) typically have a long-term behavior characterized by episodes of activity separated by quiescent intervals of at least 10,000 and commonly 100,000 years or more. Studies of the approximately 30-km-long Roopena fault in South Australia and the approximately 30-km-long Hyden fault in Western Australia document multiple Quaternary surface-faulting events that are unevenly spaced in time. The episodic clustering of events on cratonic SCR faults may be related to temporal fluctuations of fault-zone fluid pore pressures in a volume of strained crust. The long-term slip rate on cratonic SCR faults is extremely low, so the geomorphic expression of many cratonic SCR faults is subtle, and scarps may be difficult to detect because they are poorly preserved. Both the Roopena and Hyden faults are in areas of limited or no significant seismicity; these and other faults that we have studied indicate that many potentially hazardous SCR faults cannot be recognized solely on the basis of instrumental data or historical earthquakes. Although cratonic SCR faults may appear to be nonhazardous because they have been historically aseismic, those that are favorably oriented for movement in the current stress field can and have produced unexpected damaging earthquakes. Paleoseismic studies of modern and prehistoric SCR faulting events provide the basis for understanding of the long-term behavior of these faults and ultimately contribute to better seismic-hazard assessments.

  14. SNS moderator design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charlton, L.A.; Barnes, J.M.; Gabriel, T.A.; Johnson, J.O.

    1997-01-01

    The pulsed-neutron source SNS facility will start operation at 1 MW. A later upgrade to 5 MW is planned. The facility consists of a linear accelerator, an accumulator ring, and a target station. The protons from the accumulator ring will be injected into the target station at 1 GeV. The subsequent spallation process will then produce low-energy thermal neutrons that may be used for a wide variety of experiments. In this paper the authors discuss neutronic calculations which address various aspects of the moderate design. The computer codes HETC and MCNP were used for these calculations with the former code performing the high-energy transport. Neutrons which fell in energy to 20 MeV or less were then passed to MCNP for further transport

  15. FLUID MODERATED REACTOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wigner, E.P.; Ohlinger, L.A.; Young, G.J.; Weinberg, A.M.

    1957-10-22

    A reactor which utilizes fissionable fuel elements in rod form immersed in a moderator or heavy water and a means of circulating the heavy water so that it may also function as a coolant to remove the heat generated by the fission of the fuel are described. In this design, the clad fuel elements are held in vertical tubes immersed in heavy water in a tank. The water is circulated in a closed system by entering near the tops of the tubes, passing downward through the tubes over the fuel elements and out into the tank, where it is drawn off at the bottom, passed through heat exchangers to give up its heat and then returned to the tops of the tubes for recirculation.

  16. 30 CFR 204.204 - What accounting and auditing relief will MMS not allow?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What accounting and auditing relief will MMS... INTERIOR MINERALS REVENUE MANAGEMENT ALTERNATIVES FOR MARGINAL PROPERTIES Accounting and Auditing Relief § 204.204 What accounting and auditing relief will MMS not allow? MMS will not approve your request for...

  17. 21 CFR 882.5880 - Implanted spinal cord stimulator for pain relief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Implanted spinal cord stimulator for pain relief... Implanted spinal cord stimulator for pain relief. (a) Identification. An implanted spinal cord stimulator for pain relief is a device that is used to stimulate electrically a patient's spinal cord to relieve...

  18. 21 CFR 882.5890 - Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulator for pain relief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... pain relief. 882.5890 Section 882.5890 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Devices § 882.5890 Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulator for pain relief. (a) Identification. A transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulator for pain relief is a device used to apply an electrical current to...

  19. 21 CFR 882.5840 - Implanted intracerebral/subcortical stimulator for pain relief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... pain relief. 882.5840 Section 882.5840 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Devices § 882.5840 Implanted intracerebral/subcortical stimulator for pain relief. (a) Identification. An implanted intracerebral/subcortical stimulator for pain relief is a device that applies electrical current...

  20. 31 CFR 309.12 - Relief on account of loss, theft or destruction, etc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Relief on account of loss, theft or... BILLS § 309.12 Relief on account of loss, theft or destruction, etc. (a) Relief on account of the loss, theft, destruction, mutilation or defacement of Treasury bills may be given only under the authority of...

  1. 30 CFR 204.202 - What is the cumulative royalty reports and payments relief option?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Auditing Relief § 204.202 What is the cumulative royalty reports and payments relief option? (a) The... information on Form MMS-2014 for the calendar year, the same as if it were a monthly report; and (5) Report... section until the date MMS receives it. (d) If you take relief you are not qualified for, you may be...

  2. ASSESSMENT OF SURFACE QUALITY FOR CHOSEN MILLING STRATEGIES WHEN PRODUCING RELIEF SURFACES

    OpenAIRE

    Jan Varga; Jozef Stahovec; Jozef Beno; Marek Vrabeľ

    2014-01-01

    The paper deals with design and modeling of the relief surfaces that are produced in milling. Modeled and real surface quality is presented for the chosen fragments of the relief surfaces. Fragmentation of the relief surfaces has been made by the surface sampling. Milling strategies are compared with regard to surface formation. Surface quality was checked with regard to applied cutting conditions.

  3. Reward and motivation in pain and pain relief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navratilova, Edita; Porreca, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Pain is fundamentally unpleasant, a feature that protects the organism by promoting motivation and learning. Relief of aversive states, including pain, is rewarding. The aversiveness of pain, as well as the reward from relief of pain, is encoded by brain reward/motivational mesocorticolimbic circuitry. In this Review, we describe current knowledge of the impact of acute and chronic pain on reward/motivation circuits gained from preclinical models and from human neuroimaging. We highlight emerging clinical evidence suggesting that anatomical and functional changes in these circuits contribute to the transition from acute to chronic pain. We propose that assessing activity in these conserved circuits can offer new outcome measures for preclinical evaluation of analgesic efficacy to improve translation and speed drug discovery. We further suggest that targeting reward/motivation circuits may provide a path for normalizing the consequences of chronic pain to the brain, surpassing symptomatic management to promote recovery from chronic pain. PMID:25254980

  4. Pressure relief experiments on a cyclindrical carbon brick tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lang, H.; Weise, H.J.; Ennen, P.

    1978-08-01

    Pressure relief experiments have been carried out on a carbon brick tube. The outer diameter of the specimen was 580 mm, the inner diameter 280 mm, the length 800 mm. The experiments were made with helium at the temperature of the environment. The measurements were carried out in the pressure range from 15 upto 39 bar. The pressure loss was measured dependent on the initial pressure and on time at 5 positions uniformly distributed over the thickness of the tube wall and in the pressure vessel. The maximum pressure transients occurred amounted to approximately 60 bar/second. The maximum overpressure with respect to the environment which occurred in the carbon brick during the relief experiments was about 3.3 bar. The measurements distinctly showed the presence and the effects of inhomogeneities in the sample material. No damages or changes in the carbon brick, which could be regarded as a consequence of the experiments, were found. (orig./GSC) [de

  5. Safety and relief valves in light water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, A.

    1985-12-01

    Information is presented to: provide an introduction to and descriptions of various types of safety and relief valves in both PWR and BWR plants; describe anticipated operating conditions for these valves; describe the test facilities, procedures, and major results for both types of valves; present an extensive discussion of modeling and analysis of safety and relief valve performance, including the prediction of flow capacity and stability during operation; deal with the analyses related to the prediction of thermal-hydraulic loads on discharge piping and comparison against test data; discuss results of small-scale valve tests and flow visualization studies through transparent valve models; and describe an EPRI study for optimizing a typical PWR over-pressure protection system to enhance the availability and reliability of plant operation and thus reduce operation costs

  6. Diffraction efficiency calculations of polarization diffraction gratings with surface relief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazarova, D.; Sharlandjiev, P.; Berberova, N.; Blagoeva, B.; Stoykova, E.; Nedelchev, L.

    2018-03-01

    In this paper, we evaluate the optical response of a stack of two diffraction gratings of equal one-dimensional periodicity. The first one is a surface-relief grating structure; the second, a volume polarization grating. This model is based on our experimental results from polarization holographic recordings in azopolymer films. We used films of commercially available azopolymer (poly[1-[4-(3-carboxy-4-hydroxyphenylazo) benzenesulfonamido]-1,2-ethanediyl, sodium salt]), shortly denoted as PAZO. During the recording process, a polarization grating in the volume of the material and a relief grating on the film surface are formed simultaneously. In order to evaluate numerically the optical response of this “hybrid” diffraction structure, we used the rigorous coupled-wave approach (RCWA). It yields stable numerical solutions of Maxwell’s vector equations using the algebraic eigenvalue method.

  7. Methods for recognition and segmentation of active fault

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hyun, Chang Hun; Noh, Myung Hyun; Lee, Kieh Hwa; Chang, Tae Woo; Kyung, Jai Bok; Kim, Ki Young

    2000-03-01

    In order to identify and segment the active faults, the literatures of structural geology, paleoseismology, and geophysical explorations were investigated. The existing structural geological criteria for segmenting active faults were examined. These are mostly based on normal fault systems, thus, the additional criteria are demanded for application to different types of fault systems. Definition of the seismogenic fault, characteristics of fault activity, criteria and study results of fault segmentation, relationship between segmented fault length and maximum displacement, and estimation of seismic risk of segmented faults were examined in paleoseismic study. The history of earthquake such as dynamic pattern of faults, return period, and magnitude of the maximum earthquake originated by fault activity can be revealed by the study. It is confirmed through various case studies that numerous geophysical explorations including electrical resistivity, land seismic, marine seismic, ground-penetrating radar, magnetic, and gravity surveys have been efficiently applied to the recognition and segmentation of active faults

  8. Density of oxidation-induced stacking faults in damaged silicon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuper, F.G.; Hosson, J.Th.M. De; Verwey, J.F.

    1986-01-01

    A model for the relation between density and length of oxidation-induced stacking faults on damaged silicon surfaces is proposed, based on interactions of stacking faults with dislocations and neighboring stacking faults. The model agrees with experiments.

  9. A Fault-tolerant RISC Microprocessor for Spacecraft Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timoc, Constantin; Benz, Harry

    1990-01-01

    Viewgraphs on a fault-tolerant RISC microprocessor for spacecraft applications are presented. Topics covered include: reduced instruction set computer; fault tolerant registers; fault tolerant ALU; and double rail CMOS logic.

  10. Mechanical behavior of multipass welded joint during stress relief annealing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueda, Yukio; Fukuda, Keiji; Nakacho, Keiji; Takahashi, Eiji; Sakamoto, Koichi.

    1978-01-01

    An investigation into mechanical behavior of a multipass welded joint of a pressure vessel during stress relief annealing was conducted. The study was performed theoretically and experimentally on idealized research models. In the theoretical analysis, the thermal elastic-plastic creep theory developed by the authors was applied. The behavior of multipass welded joints during the entire thermal cycle, from welding to stress relief annealing, was consistently analyzed by this theory. The results of the analysis show a good, fundamentally coincidence with the experimental findings. The outline of the results and conclusions is as follows. (1) In the case of the material (2 1/4Cr-1Mo steel) furnished in this study, the creep strain rate during stress relief annealing below 575 0 C obeys the strain-hardening creep law using the transient creep and the one above 575 0 C obeys the power creep law using the stational creep. (2) In the transverse residual stress (σsub(x)) distribution after annealing, the location of the largest tensile stress on the top surface is about 15 mm away from the toe of weld, and the largest at the cross section is just below the finishing bead. These features are similar to those of welding residual stresses. But the stress distribution after annealing is smoother than one from welding. (3) The effectiveness of stress relief annealing depends greatly on the annealing temperature. For example, most of residual stresses are relieved at the heating stage with a heating rate of 30 0 C/hr. to 100 0 C/hr. if the annealing temperature is 650 0 C, but if the annealing temperature is 550 0 C, the annealing is not effective even with a longer holding time. (4) In the case of multipass welding residual stresses studied in this paper, the behaviors of high stresses during annealing are approximated by ones during anisothermal relaxation. (auth.)

  11. Tax reliefs in legal entities' capital gains tax

    OpenAIRE

    Dimitrijević, Marko

    2013-01-01

    Reducing a national corporate tax rate and introducing numerous/ ample tax reliefs may have adverse effects on a country's reputation as it is perceived as being susceptible to unfair tax competition practices and prone to allowing the subsidiaries of foreign companies to enter the national market at any cost (even at the expense of preserving its natural assets). For this reason, it is essential to find the right balance between the need to attract foreign capital (on the one hand) and the p...

  12. Multiple cutaneous leiomyomas: Pain relief with pulsed hysocine butyl bromide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaliyadan Feroze

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A 35-year-old male patient presented to our outpatient department, complaining of multiple, raised skin lesions on the forehead and back, associated with intermittent pain, especially on exposure to cold. A diagnosis of cutaneous leiomyoma (type 2 segmental was made, which was confirmed by skin biopsy. The patient was started on a trial of pulsed Hyoscine Butyl bromide tablets, following which the patient had significant relief from pain associated with the lesions.

  13. Exploring Heat Stress Relief Measures among the Australian Labour Force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zander, Kerstin K; Mathew, Supriya; Garnett, Stephen T

    2018-02-26

    Australia experiences frequent heat waves and generally high average temperatures throughout the continent with substantial impacts on human health and the economy. People adapt to heat by adopting various relief measures in their daily lives including changing their behaviour. Many labour intensive outdoor industries implement standards for heat stress management for their workforce. However, little is known about how people cope with heat at their workplaces apart from studies targeting some specific industries where labourers are exposed to extreme heat. Here, we analysed responses from 1719 people in the Australian labour force to self-reported heat stress and associated coping mechanisms. Three quarters of respondents experienced heat stress at their workplace with fatigue and headache being the two most frequently stated symptoms. Almost all of those who were affected by heat would hydrate (88%), 67% would cool, and 44% would rest as a strategy for coping with heat. About 10% intended to change their jobs because of heat stress in the workplace. We found differences in heat relief measures across gender, education, health, level of physical intensity of job, and time spent working outside. People working in jobs that were not very demanding physically were more likely to choose cooling down as a relief measure, while those in labour intensive jobs and jobs that required considerable time outside were more likely to rest. This has potential consequences for their productivity and work schedules. Heat affects work in Australia in many types of industry with impact dependent on workforce acclimatisation, yet public awareness and work relief plans are often limited to outdoor and labour intensive industries. Industries and various levels of government in all sectors need to implement standards for heat management specific to climate zones to help people cope better with high temperatures as well as plan strategies in anticipation of projected temperature

  14. Exploring Heat Stress Relief Measures among the Australian Labour Force

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerstin K. Zander

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Australia experiences frequent heat waves and generally high average temperatures throughout the continent with substantial impacts on human health and the economy. People adapt to heat by adopting various relief measures in their daily lives including changing their behaviour. Many labour intensive outdoor industries implement standards for heat stress management for their workforce. However, little is known about how people cope with heat at their workplaces apart from studies targeting some specific industries where labourers are exposed to extreme heat. Here, we analysed responses from 1719 people in the Australian labour force to self-reported heat stress and associated coping mechanisms. Three quarters of respondents experienced heat stress at their workplace with fatigue and headache being the two most frequently stated symptoms. Almost all of those who were affected by heat would hydrate (88%, 67% would cool, and 44% would rest as a strategy for coping with heat. About 10% intended to change their jobs because of heat stress in the workplace. We found differences in heat relief measures across gender, education, health, level of physical intensity of job, and time spent working outside. People working in jobs that were not very demanding physically were more likely to choose cooling down as a relief measure, while those in labour intensive jobs and jobs that required considerable time outside were more likely to rest. This has potential consequences for their productivity and work schedules. Heat affects work in Australia in many types of industry with impact dependent on workforce acclimatisation, yet public awareness and work relief plans are often limited to outdoor and labour intensive industries. Industries and various levels of government in all sectors need to implement standards for heat management specific to climate zones to help people cope better with high temperatures as well as plan strategies in anticipation of projected

  15. Reverse fault growth and fault interaction with frictional interfaces: insights from analogue models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonanno, Emanuele; Bonini, Lorenzo; Basili, Roberto; Toscani, Giovanni; Seno, Silvio

    2017-04-01

    The association of faulting and folding is a common feature in mountain chains, fold-and-thrust belts, and accretionary wedges. Kinematic models are developed and widely used to explain a range of relationships between faulting and folding. However, these models may result not to be completely appropriate to explain shortening in mechanically heterogeneous rock bodies. Weak layers, bedding surfaces, or pre-existing faults placed ahead of a propagating fault tip may influence the fault propagation rate itself and the associated fold shape. In this work, we employed clay analogue models to investigate how mechanical discontinuities affect the propagation rate and the associated fold shape during the growth of reverse master faults. The simulated master faults dip at 30° and 45°, recalling the range of the most frequent dip angles for active reverse faults that occurs in nature. The mechanical discontinuities are simulated by pre-cutting the clay pack. For both experimental setups (30° and 45° dipping faults) we analyzed three different configurations: 1) isotropic, i.e. without precuts; 2) with one precut in the middle of the clay pack; and 3) with two evenly-spaced precuts. To test the repeatability of the processes and to have a statistically valid dataset we replicate each configuration three times. The experiments were monitored by collecting successive snapshots with a high-resolution camera pointing at the side of the model. The pictures were then processed using the Digital Image Correlation method (D.I.C.), in order to extract the displacement and shear-rate fields. These two quantities effectively show both the on-fault and off-fault deformation, indicating the activity along the newly-formed faults and whether and at what stage the discontinuities (precuts) are reactivated. To study the fault propagation and fold shape variability we marked the position of the fault tips and the fold profiles for every successive step of deformation. Then we compared

  16. Fault-Tolerant Approach for Modular Multilevel Converters under Submodule Faults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deng, Fujin; Tian, Yanjun; Zhu, Rongwu

    2016-01-01

    The modular multilevel converter (MMC) is attractive for medium- or high-power applications because of the advantages of its high modularity, availability, and high power quality. The fault-tolerant operation is one of the important issues for the MMC. This paper proposed a fault-tolerant approach...... for the MMC under submodule (SM) faults. The characteristic of the MMC with arms containing different number of healthy SMs under faults is analyzed. Based on the characteristic, the proposed approach can effectively keep the MMC operation as normal under SM faults. It can effectively improve the MMC...

  17. Fertility and Symptom Relief following Robot-Assisted Laparoscopic Myomectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael C. Pitter

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To examine success of robot-assisted laparoscopic myomectomy (RALM measured by sustained symptom relief and fertility. Methods. This is a retrospective survey of 426 women who underwent RALM for fibroids, symptom relief, or infertility at three practice sites across the US. We examined rates of symptom recurrence and pregnancy and factors associated with these outcomes. Results. Overall, 70% of women reported being symptom-free, with 62.9% free of symptoms after three years. At >3 years, 66.7% of women who underwent surgery to treat infertility and 80% who were also symptom-free reported achieving pregnancy. Factors independently associated with symptom recurrence included greater time after surgery, preoperative dyspareunia, multiple fibroid surgeries, smoking after surgery, and preexisting diabetes. Factors positively correlated with achieving pregnancy included desiring pregnancy, prior pregnancy, greater time since surgery, and Caucasian race. Factors negatively correlated with pregnancy were advanced age and symptom recurrence. Conclusions. This paper, the first to examine symptom recurrence after RALM, demonstrates both short- and long-term effectiveness in providing symptom relief. Furthermore, RALM may have the potential to improve the chance of conception, even in a population at high risk of subfertility, with greater benefits among those who remain symptom-free. These findings require prospective validation.

  18. Neural mechanisms underlying the induction and relief of perceptual curiosity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marieke eJepma

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Curiosity is one of the most basic biological drives in both animals and humans, and has been identified as a key motive for learning and discovery. Despite the importance of curiosity and related behaviors, the topic has been largely neglected in human neuroscience; hence little is known about the neurobiological mechanisms underlying curiosity. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI to investigate what happens in our brain during the induction and subsequent relief of perceptual curiosity. Our core findings were that (i the induction of perceptual curiosity, through the presentation of ambiguous visual input, activated the anterior insula and anterior cingulate cortex, brain regions sensitive to conflict and arousal; (ii the relief of perceptual curiosity, through visual disambiguation, activated regions of the striatum that have been related to reward processing; and (iii the relief of perceptual curiosity was associated with hippocampal activation and enhanced incidental memory. These findings provide the first demonstration of the neural basis of human perceptual curiosity. Our results provide neurobiological support for a classic psychological theory of curiosity, which holds that curiosity is an aversive condition of increased arousal whose termination is rewarding and facilitates memory.

  19. The Curiosity Mars Rover's Fault Protection Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benowitz, Ed

    2014-01-01

    The Curiosity Rover, currently operating on Mars, contains flight software onboard to autonomously handle aspects of system fault protection. Over 1000 monitors and 39 responses are present in the flight software. Orchestrating these behaviors is the flight software's fault protection engine. In this paper, we discuss the engine's design, responsibilities, and present some lessons learned for future missions.

  20. A Game Theoretic Fault Detection Filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Walter H.; Speyer, Jason L.

    1995-01-01

    The fault detection process is modelled as a disturbance attenuation problem. The solution to this problem is found via differential game theory, leading to an H(sub infinity) filter which bounds the transmission of all exogenous signals save the fault to be detected. For a general class of linear systems which includes some time-varying systems, it is shown that this transmission bound can be taken to zero by simultaneously bringing the sensor noise weighting to zero. Thus, in the limit, a complete transmission block can he achieved, making the game filter into a fault detection filter. When we specialize this result to time-invariant system, it is found that the detection filter attained in the limit is identical to the well known Beard-Jones Fault Detection Filter. That is, all fault inputs other than the one to be detected (the "nuisance faults") are restricted to an invariant subspace which is unobservable to a projection on the output. For time-invariant systems, it is also shown that in the limit, the order of the state-space and the game filter can be reduced by factoring out the invariant subspace. The result is a lower dimensional filter which can observe only the fault to be detected. A reduced-order filter can also he generated for time-varying systems, though the computational overhead may be intensive. An example given at the end of the paper demonstrates the effectiveness of the filter as a tool for fault detection and identification.

  1. Modular representation and analysis of fault trees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olmos, J; Wolf, L [Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge (USA). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering

    1978-08-01

    An analytical method to describe fault tree diagrams in terms of their modular compositions is developed. Fault tree structures are characterized by recursively relating the top tree event to all its basic component inputs through a set of equations defining each of the modulus for the fault tree. It is shown that such a modular description is an extremely valuable tool for making a quantitative analysis of fault trees. The modularization methodology has been implemented into the PL-MOD computer code, written in PL/1 language, which is capable of modularizing fault trees containing replicated components and replicated modular gates. PL-MOD in addition can handle mutually exclusive inputs and explicit higher order symmetric (k-out-of-n) gates. The step-by-step modularization of fault trees performed by PL-MOD is demonstrated and it is shown how this procedure is only made possible through an extensive use of the list processing tools available in PL/1. A number of nuclear reactor safety system fault trees were analyzed. PL-MOD performed the modularization and evaluation of the modular occurrence probabilities and Vesely-Fussell importance measures for these systems very efficiently. In particular its execution time for the modularization of a PWR High Pressure Injection System reduced fault tree was 25 times faster than that necessary to generate its equivalent minimal cut-set description using MOCUS, a code considered to be fast by present standards.

  2. Fault tolerancy in cooperative adaptive cruise control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nunen, E. van; Ploeg, J.; Medina, A.M.; Nijmeijer, H.

    2013-01-01

    Future mobility requires sound solutions in the field of fault tolerance in real-time applications amongst which Cooperative Adaptive Cruise Control (CACC). This control system cannot rely on the driver as a backup and is constantly active and therefore more prominent to the occurrences of faults

  3. Training for Skill in Fault Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, J. D.

    1974-01-01

    The Knitting, Lace and Net Industry Training Board has developed a training innovation called fault diagnosis training. The entire training process concentrates on teaching based on the experiences of troubleshooters or any other employees whose main tasks involve fault diagnosis and rectification. (Author/DS)

  4. Dynamic modeling of gearbox faults: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Xihui; Zuo, Ming J.; Feng, Zhipeng

    2018-01-01

    Gearbox is widely used in industrial and military applications. Due to high service load, harsh operating conditions or inevitable fatigue, faults may develop in gears. If the gear faults cannot be detected early, the health will continue to degrade, perhaps causing heavy economic loss or even catastrophe. Early fault detection and diagnosis allows properly scheduled shutdowns to prevent catastrophic failure and consequently result in a safer operation and higher cost reduction. Recently, many studies have been done to develop gearbox dynamic models with faults aiming to understand gear fault generation mechanism and then develop effective fault detection and diagnosis methods. This paper focuses on dynamics based gearbox fault modeling, detection and diagnosis. State-of-art and challenges are reviewed and discussed. This detailed literature review limits research results to the following fundamental yet key aspects: gear mesh stiffness evaluation, gearbox damage modeling and fault diagnosis techniques, gearbox transmission path modeling and method validation. In the end, a summary and some research prospects are presented.

  5. Detecting Fan Faults in refrigerated Cabinets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thybo, C.; Rasmussen, B.D.; Izadi-Zamanabadi, Roozbeh

    2002-01-01

    Fault detection in supermarket refrigeration systems is an important topic due to both economic and food safety reasons. If faults can be detected and diagnosed before the system drifts outside the specified operational envelope, service costs can be reduced and in extreme cases the costly discar...

  6. Fault Detection for a Diesel Engine Actuator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blanke, M.; Bøgh, S.A.; Jørgensen, R.B.

    1995-01-01

    An electro-mechanical position servo is introduced as a benchmark for mode-based Fault Detection and Identification (FDI).......An electro-mechanical position servo is introduced as a benchmark for mode-based Fault Detection and Identification (FDI)....

  7. Norm based design of fault detectors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rank, Mike Lind; Niemann, Hans Henrik

    1999-01-01

    The design of fault detectors for fault detection and isolation (FDI) in dynamic systems is considered in this paper from a norm based point of view. An analysis of norm based threshold selection is given based on different formulations of FDI problems. Both the nominal FDI problem as well...

  8. Naive Fault Tree : formulation of the approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rajabalinejad, M

    2017-01-01

    Naive Fault Tree (NFT) accepts a single value or a range of values for each basic event and returns values for the top event. This accommodates the need of commonly used Fault Trees (FT) for precise data making them prone to data concerns and limiting their area of application. This paper extends

  9. Intermittent resistive faults in digital cmos circuits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerkhoff, Hans G.; Ebrahimi, Hassan

    2015-01-01

    A major threat in extremely dependable high-end process node integrated systems in e.g. Avionics are no failures found (NFF). One category of NFFs is the intermittent resistive fault, often originating from bad (e.g. Via or TSV-based) interconnections. This paper will show the impact of these faults

  10. Engine gearbox fault diagnosis using empirical mode ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Kiran Vernekar

    Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Institute of Technology Karnataka,. Surathkal ... proposed approach is an effective method for engine fault diagnosis. Keywords. Engine fault ... (DAQ) card and analysed using LabVIEW software from. Figure 1. .... and reduce numerical difficulties during the calculation. T.

  11. Statistical fault detection in photovoltaic systems

    KAUST Repository

    Garoudja, Elyes; Harrou, Fouzi; Sun, Ying; Kara, Kamel; Chouder, Aissa; Silvestre, Santiago

    2017-01-01

    and efficiency. Here, an innovative model-based fault-detection approach for early detection of shading of PV modules and faults on the direct current (DC) side of PV systems is proposed. This approach combines the flexibility, and simplicity of a one-diode model

  12. Fission product retention during faults involving steam generator tube rupture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodliffe, R.S.

    1983-08-01

    In some PWR fault conditions, such as stuck open safety relief valve in the secondary circuit or main steam line break, the release of fission products to the atmosphere may be increased by the leakage of primary coolant into the secondary circuit following steam generator tube rupture. The release may be reduced by retention either within the primary circuit or within the affected steam generator unit (SGU). The mechanisms leading to retention are reviewed and quantified where possible. The parameters on which any analysis will be most critically dependent are identified. Fission product iodine and caesium may be retained in the secondary side of a SGU either by partition to retained water or by droplet deposition on surfaces and subsequent evaporation to dryness. Two extreme simplifications are considered: SGU 'dry', i.e. the secondary side is steam filled, and SGU 'wet', i.e. the tube bundle is covered with water. Consideration is given to: the distribution of fission products between gaseous and aerosol forms; mechanisms for droplet formation, deposition and resuspension; fission product retention during droplet or film evaporation primary coolant mixing and droplet scrubbing in a wet SGU; and the performance of moisture separators and steam driers. (author)

  13. Spatial analysis of hypocenter to fault relationships for determining fault process zone width in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnold, Bill Walter; Roberts, Barry L.; McKenna, Sean Andrew; Coburn, Timothy C.

    2004-01-01

    Preliminary investigation areas (PIA) for a potential repository of high-level radioactive waste must be evaluated by NUMO with regard to a number of qualifying factors. One of these factors is related to earthquakes and fault activity. This study develops a spatial statistical assessment method that can be applied to the active faults in Japan to perform such screening evaluations. This analysis uses the distribution of seismicity near faults to define the width of the associated process zone. This concept is based on previous observations of aftershock earthquakes clustered near active faults and on the assumption that such seismic activity is indicative of fracturing and associated impacts on bedrock integrity. Preliminary analyses of aggregate data for all of Japan confirmed that the frequency of earthquakes is higher near active faults. Data used in the analysis were obtained from NUMO and consist of three primary sources: (1) active fault attributes compiled in a spreadsheet, (2) earthquake hypocenter data, and (3) active fault locations. Examination of these data revealed several limitations with regard to the ability to associate fault attributes from the spreadsheet to locations of individual fault trace segments. In particular, there was no direct link between attributes of the active faults in the spreadsheet and the active fault locations in the GIS database. In addition, the hypocenter location resolution in the pre-1983 data was less accurate than for later data. These pre-1983 hypocenters were eliminated from further analysis

  14. Spatial analysis of hypocenter to fault relationships for determining fault process zone width in Japan.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnold, Bill Walter; Roberts, Barry L.; McKenna, Sean Andrew; Coburn, Timothy C. (Abilene Christian University, Abilene, TX)

    2004-09-01

    Preliminary investigation areas (PIA) for a potential repository of high-level radioactive waste must be evaluated by NUMO with regard to a number of qualifying factors. One of these factors is related to earthquakes and fault activity. This study develops a spatial statistical assessment method that can be applied to the active faults in Japan to perform such screening evaluations. This analysis uses the distribution of seismicity near faults to define the width of the associated process zone. This concept is based on previous observations of aftershock earthquakes clustered near active faults and on the assumption that such seismic activity is indicative of fracturing and associated impacts on bedrock integrity. Preliminary analyses of aggregate data for all of Japan confirmed that the frequency of earthquakes is higher near active faults. Data used in the analysis were obtained from NUMO and consist of three primary sources: (1) active fault attributes compiled in a spreadsheet, (2) earthquake hypocenter data, and (3) active fault locations. Examination of these data revealed several limitations with regard to the ability to associate fault attributes from the spreadsheet to locations of individual fault trace segments. In particular, there was no direct link between attributes of the active faults in the spreadsheet and the active fault locations in the GIS database. In addition, the hypocenter location resolution in the pre-1983 data was less accurate than for later data. These pre-1983 hypocenters were eliminated from further analysis.

  15. Active fault diagnosis in closed-loop uncertain systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niemann, Hans Henrik

    2006-01-01

    Fault diagnosis of parametric faults in closed-loop uncertain systems by using an auxiliary input vector is considered in this paper, i.e. active fault diagnosis (AFD). The active fault diagnosis is based directly on the socalled fault signature matrix, related to the YJBK (Youla, Jabr, Bongiorno...... and Kucera) parameterization. Conditions are given for exact detection and isolation of parametric faults in closed-loop uncertain systems....

  16. Stability of fault submitted to fluid injections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brantut, N.; Passelegue, F. X.; Mitchell, T. M.

    2017-12-01

    Elevated pore pressure can lead to slip reactivation on pre-existing fractures and faults when the coulomb failure point is reached. From a static point of view, the reactivation of fault submitted to a background stress (τ0) is a function of the peak strength of the fault, i.e. the quasi-static effective friction coefficient (µeff). However, this theory is valid only when the entire fault is affected by fluid pressure, which is not the case in nature, and during human induced-seismicity. In this study, we present new results about the influence of the injection rate on the stability of faults. Experiments were conducted on a saw-cut sample of westerly granite. The experimental fault was 8 cm length. Injections were conducted through a 2 mm diameter hole reaching the fault surface. Experiments were conducted at four different order magnitudes fluid pressure injection rates (from 1 MPa/minute to 1 GPa/minute), in a fault system submitted to 50 and 100 MPa confining pressure. Our results show that the peak fluid pressure leading to slip depends on injection rate. The faster the injection rate, the larger the peak fluid pressure leading to instability. Wave velocity surveys across the fault highlighted that decreasing the injection-rate leads to an increase of size of the fluid pressure perturbation. Our result demonstrate that the stability of the fault is not only a function of the fluid pressure requires to reach the failure criterion, but is mainly a function of the ratio between the length of the fault affected by fluid pressure and the total fault length. In addition, we show that the slip rate increases with the background effective stress and with the intensity of the fluid pressure pertubation, i.e. with the excess shear stress acting on the part of the fault pertubated by fluid injection. Our results suggest that crustal fault can be reactivated by local high fluid overpressures. These results could explain the "large" magnitude human-induced earthquakes

  17. From tomographic images to fault heterogeneities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Amato

    1994-06-01

    Full Text Available Local Earthquake Tomography (LET is a useful tool for imaging lateral heterogeneities in the upper crust. The pattern of P- and S-wave velocity anomalies, in relation to the seismicity distribution along active fault zones. can shed light on the existence of discrete seismogenic patches. Recent tomographic studies in well monitored seismic areas have shown that the regions with large seismic moment release generally correspond to high velocity zones (HVZ's. In this paper, we discuss the relationship between the seismogenic behavior of faults and the velocity structure of fault zones as inferred from seismic tomography. First, we review some recent tomographic studies in active strike-slip faults. We show examples from different segments of the San Andreas fault system (Parkfield, Loma Prieta, where detailed studies have been carried out in recent years. We also show two applications of LET to thrust faults (Coalinga, Friuli. Then, we focus on the Irpinia normal fault zone (South-Central Italy, where a Ms = 6.9 earthquake occurred in 1980 and many thousands of attershock travel time data are available. We find that earthquake hypocenters concentrate in HVZ's, whereas low velocity zones (LVZ’ s appear to be relatively aseismic. The main HVZ's along which the mainshock rupture bas propagated may correspond to velocity weakening fault regions, whereas the LVZ's are probably related to weak materials undergoing stable slip (velocity strengthening. A correlation exists between this HVZ and the area with larger coseismic slip along the fault, according to both surface evidence (a fault scarp as high as 1 m and strong ground motion waveform modeling. Smaller wave-length, low-velocity anomalies detected along the fault may be the expression of velocity strengthening sections, where aseismic slip occurs. According to our results, the rupture at the nucleation depth (~ 10-12 km is continuous for the whole fault lenoth (~ 30 km, whereas at shallow depth

  18. An effort allocation model considering different budgetary constraint on fault detection process and fault correction process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijay Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Fault detection process (FDP and Fault correction process (FCP are important phases of software development life cycle (SDLC. It is essential for software to undergo a testing phase, during which faults are detected and corrected. The main goal of this article is to allocate the testing resources in an optimal manner to minimize the cost during testing phase using FDP and FCP under dynamic environment. In this paper, we first assume there is a time lag between fault detection and fault correction. Thus, removal of a fault is performed after a fault is detected. In addition, detection process and correction process are taken to be independent simultaneous activities with different budgetary constraints. A structured optimal policy based on optimal control theory is proposed for software managers to optimize the allocation of the limited resources with the reliability criteria. Furthermore, release policy for the proposed model is also discussed. Numerical example is given in support of the theoretical results.

  19. Fault-tolerant Control of Unmanned Underwater Vehicles with Continuous Faults: Simulations and Experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Liu

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available A novel thruster fault diagnosis and accommodation method for open-frame underwater vehicles is presented in the paper. The proposed system consists of two units: a fault diagnosis unit and a fault accommodation unit. In the fault diagnosis unit an ICMAC (Improved Credit Assignment Cerebellar Model Articulation Controllers neural network information fusion model is used to realize the fault identification of the thruster. The fault accommodation unit is based on direct calculations of moment and the result of fault identification is used to find the solution of the control allocation problem. The approach resolves the continuous faulty identification of the UV. Results from the experiment are provided to illustrate the performance of the proposed method in uncertain continuous faulty situation.

  20. Fault-tolerant Control of Unmanned Underwater Vehicles with Continuous Faults: Simulations and Experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Liu

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A novel thruster fault diagnosis and accommodation method for open-frame underwater vehicles is presented in the paper. The proposed system consists of two units: a fault diagnosis unit and a fault accommodation unit. In the fault diagnosis unit an ICMAC (Improved Credit Assignment Cerebellar Model Articulation Controllers neural network information fusion model is used to realize the fault identification of the thruster. The fault accommodation unit is based on direct calculations of moment and the result of fault identification is used to find the solution of the control allocation problem. The approach resolves the continuous faulty identification of the UV. Results from the experiment are provided to illustrate the performance of the proposed method in uncertain continuous faulty situation.