WorldWideScience

Sample records for reliable energy source

  1. Reliable pump sources for high-energy class lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wölz, Martin; Pietrzak, Agnieszka; Kindsvater, Alex; Wolf, Jürgen; Meusel, Jens; Hülsewede, Ralf; Sebastian, Jürgen

    2015-05-01

    High-energy class laser systems operating at high average power are destined to serve fundamental research and commercial applications. System cost is becoming decisive, and JENOPTIK supports future developments with the new range of 500 W quasi-continuous wave (QCW) laser diode bars. In response to different strategies in implementing high-energy class laser systems, pump wavelengths of 880 nm and 940 nm are available. The higher power output per chip increases array irradiance and reduces the size of the optical system, lowering system cost. Reliability testing of the 880 nm laser diode bar has shown 1 Gshots at 500 W and 300 μs pulse duration, with insignificant degradation. Parallel operation in eight-bar diode stacks permits 4 kW pulse power operation. A new high-density QCW package is under development at JENOPTIK. Cost and reliability being the design criteria, the diode stacks are made by simultaneous soldering of submounts and insulating ceramic. The new QCW stack assembly technology permits an array irradiance of 12.5 kW/cm². We present the current state of the development, including laboratory data from prototypes using the new 500 W laser diode in dense packaging.

  2. RELIABLE DYNAMIC SOURCE ROUTING PROTOCOL (RDSRP FOR ENERGY HARVESTING WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Narasimhan

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Wireless sensor networks (WSNs carry noteworthy pros over traditional communication. Though, unkind and composite environments fake great challenges in the reliability of WSN communications. It is more vital to develop a reliable unipath dynamic source routing protocol (RDSRPl for WSN to provide better quality of service (QoS in energy harvesting wireless sensor networks (EH-WSN. This paper proposes a dynamic source routing approach for attaining the most reliable route in EH-WSNs. Performance evaluation is carried out using NS-2 and throughput and packet delivery ratio are chosen as the metrics.

  3. Wind Energy - How Reliable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    The reliability of a wind energy system depends on the size of the propeller and the size of the back-up energy storage. Design of the optimum system...speed incidents which generate a significant part of the wind energy . A nomogram is presented, based on some continuous wind speed measurements

  4. Reliability of Wave Energy Converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ambühl, Simon

    . Structural reliability considerations and optimizations impact operation and maintenance (O&M) costs as well as the initial investment costs. Furthermore, there is a control system for WEC applications which defines the harvested energy but also the loads onto the structure. Therefore, extreme loads but also...... WEPTOS. Calibration of safety factors are performed for welded structures at theWavestar device including different control systems for harvesting energy from waves. In addition, a case study of different O&M strategies for WECs is discussed, and an example of reliability-based structural optimization......There are many different working principles for wave energy converters (WECs) which are used to produce electricity from waves. In order for WECs to become successful and more competitive to other renewable electricity sources, the consideration of the structural reliability of WECs is essential...

  5. Could Shale Gas Become a Reliable Energy Source for Europe and Romania?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIANA PAPATULICĂ

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available While shale gas and oil is a success story in USA and Canada where production has considerably increased in the last five years the situation is quite different in Europe where exploration and production activities are quite low and prospects are not encouraging. Even in the Eastern Europe the first results of exploration are disappointing for the American companies, which have the technical expertise for exploring and extraction shale gas. Due to global warming there is now at the world scale a fierce confrontation between environmentalists and lobbyists of producing companies regarding the negative effects of hydraulic fracturing. Shale gas development in Europe depends more on the coal substitution by gas and on the use of CCS technologies. The collapse of crude oil prices may delay many projects in the field of shale gas and oil, especially in Europe. The prospects of oil gas in Romania are linked to the energy security concept, whose implementation requires diversification of energy supply on some levels. The development of shale gas in order to diversify the energy supply cannot compensate the groundwater pollution and other negative effects, like earthquake. The temporary withdrawal of Chevron from Romania will have some positive effects, allowing to our country a necessary time-out to better substantiate public policies in the field and to producing companies some time required for carrying out new technologies, less polluting and harmful.

  6. Reliability of Wave Energy Converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ambühl, Simon

    for welded structures at the Wavestar device includingdifferent control systems for harvesting energy from waves. In addition, a casestudy of different O&M strategies for WECs is discussed, and an example ofreliability-based structural optimization of the Wavestar foundation ispresented. The work performed......There are many different working principles for wave energy converters (WECs) which are used to produce electricity from waves. In order for WECs tobecome successful and more competitive to other renewable electricity sources,the consideration of the structural reliability of WECs is essential.......Structural reliability considerations and optimizations impact operation andmaintenance (O&M) costs as well as the initial investment costs.Furthermore, there is a control system for WEC applications which defines theharvested energy but also the loads onto the structure. Therefore, extremeloads but also fatigue loads...

  7. Reliability of Wave Energy Converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ambühl, Simon

    There are many different working principles for wave energy converters (WECs) which are used to produce electricity from waves. In order for WECs to become successful and more competitive to other renewable electricity sources, the consideration of the structural reliability of WECs is essential....... Structural reliability considerations and optimizations impact operation and maintenance (O&M) costs as well as the initial investment costs. Furthermore, there is a control system for WEC applications which defines the harvested energy but also the loads onto the structure. Therefore, extreme loads but also...... of the Wavestar foundation is presented. The work performed in this thesis focuses on the Wavestar and WEPTOS WEC devices which are only two working principles out of a large diversity. Therefore, in order to gain general statements and give advice for standards for structural WEC designs, more working principles...

  8. Geothermal Energy : An Alternative Source of Energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R R Shah

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays renewable sources are preferred over the non renewable source to generate the energy. The rapid rates of exhausting non-renewable resources have completed us to look out for new avenues in energy generation. According to global energy scenario, developed countries are adopting renewable resources as major source of energy. Geothermal energy originates from the original formation of the planet, from radioactive decay of minerals, and from solar energy absorbed at the surface. Geothermal energy is derived from the hot interior of the earth. The earth is a reservoir of heat energy, most of which is buried and is observed during episodes of volcanic eruption at the surfaces. Geothermal is one of the most promising renewable source of energy which is plentiful, eco-friendly, reliable and clean source of energy available in earth crust. In our country there is wide scope for the utilization of geothermal energy with proper strategically approach to meet the energy requirement. The future prospects of this heat energy as a sustainable source of renewable energy are indeed promising. Today India is the fifth largest consumer of electricity and by 2030 it will become third largest overtaking Japan and Russia according to statistical data available by Energy Planning Commission, Government of India.

  9. Nuclear reliability assurance data source guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-11-01

    Seven sources of reliability and maintainability data are reviewed for their potential for providing nuclear equipment data. Consideration is given to similarity to nuclear application, variety of equipment types reported, availability of data, and obsolescence of data. In addition, discussions of advantages and disadvantages of each data source are presented, and samples of either the data or the character of the data are included as appendixes.

  10. Diversification of energy sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    The concept of energy source diversification was introduced as a substitution conservation action. The current status and philosophy behind a diversification program is presented in the context of a national energy policy. Advantages, disadvantages (constraints), and methods of implementation for diversification are discussed. The energy source systems for diversification are listed and an example impact assessment is outlined which deals with the water requirements of the specific energy systems.

  11. Diversification of energy sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    The concept of energy source diversification was introduced as a substitution conservation action. The current status and philosophy behind a diversification program is presented in the context of a national energy policy. Advantages, disadvantages (constraints), and methods of implementation for diversification are discussed. The energy source systems for diversification are listed and an example impact assessment is outlined which deals with the water requirements of the specific energy systems.

  12. Reliability assessment of wave Energy devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ambühl, Simon; Kramer, Morten; Kofoed, Jens Peter

    2014-01-01

    Energy from waves may play a key role in sustainable electricity production in the future. Optimal reliability levels for components used for Wave Energy Devices (WEDs) need to be defined to be able to decrease their cost of electricity. Optimal reliability levels can be found using probabilistic...

  13. Enhancing Energy Efficient TCP by Partial Reliability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donckers, L.; Smit, G.J.M.; Smit, L.T.

    2002-01-01

    We present a study on the effects on a mobile system's energy efficiency of enhancing, with partial reliability, our energy efficient TCP variant (E/sup 2/TCP) (see Donckers, L. et al., Proc. 2nd Asian Int. Mobile Computing Conf. - AMOC2002, p.18-28, 2002). Partial reliability is beneficial for mult

  14. Alternative Energy Sources

    CERN Document Server

    Michaelides, Efstathios E (Stathis)

    2012-01-01

    Alternative Energy Sources is designed to give the reader, a clear view of the role each form of alternative energy may play in supplying the energy needs of the human society in the near and intermediate future (20-50 years).   The two first chapters on energy demand and supply and environmental effects, set the tone as to why the widespread use of alternative energy is essential for the future of human society. The third chapter exposes the reader to the laws of energy conversion processes, as well as the limitations of converting one energy form to another. The sections on exergy give a succinct, quantitative background on the capability/potential of each energy source to produce power on a global scale. The fourth, fifth and sixth chapters are expositions of fission and fusion nuclear energy. The following five chapters (seventh to eleventh) include detailed descriptions of the most common renewable energy sources – wind, solar, geothermal, biomass, hydroelectric – and some of the less common sources...

  15. Reliability engineering in solar energy: workshop proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gross, G.

    1980-03-01

    A workshop to reveal the scope of reliability-related activities in solar energy conversion projects and in nonsolar segments of industry is described. Two reliability programs, one in heating and cooling and one in photovoltaics, are explicated. This document also presents general suggestions for the establishment of a unified program for reliability, durability, maintainability, and safety (RDM and S) in present and future solar projects.

  16. Reliability engineering in solar energy: workshop proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gross, G.

    1980-03-01

    A workshop to reveal the scope of reliability-related activities in solar energy conversion projects and in nonsolar segments of industry is described. Two reliability programs, one in heating and cooling and one in photovoltaics, are explicated. This document also presents general suggestions for the establishment of a unified program for reliability, durability, maintainability, and safety (RDM and S) in present and future solar projects.

  17. Reliability Estimations of Control Systems Effected by Several Interference Sources

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DengBei-xing; JiangMing-hu; LiXing

    2003-01-01

    In order to establish the sufficient and necessary condition that arbitrarily reliable systems can not be constructed with function elements under interference sources, it is very important to expand set of interference sources with the above property. In this paper, the models of two types of interference sources are raised respectively: interference source possessing real input vectors and constant reliable interferen cesource. We study the reliability of the systems effected by the interference sources, and the lower bound of the reliability is presented. The results show that it is impossible that arbitrarily reliable systems can not be constructed with the elements effected by above interference sources.

  18. Reliability Assessment of Wave Energy Devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ambühl, Simon; Kramer, Morten; Kofoed, Jens Peter;

    2012-01-01

    This paper focuses on reliability assessment of Wave Energy Device (WED) substructures with respect to fatigue loading. Failure due to fatigue is an important failure mode of most offshore structures. The focus of the fatigue reliability assessment is in this paper on welded details in steel...... substructures. The methodology is illustrated using the Wavestar prototype located at Hanstholm (DK) as a case study. The stochastic model presented can be used for reliability assessment and for calibration of Fatigue Design Factors (FDF) of wave power plant substructures. The fatigue life is modeled using...

  19. A New Energy Source

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Foreign energy companies are flocking to China to participate in the development of a potentially meaningful new energy source, coalbed methane, which is found in coal deposits. China United Coalbed Methane Co. Ltd. signed a contract with U.S.-based Orion Energy International Inc. on April 5 to jointly exploit the resource in the Sanjiao region of coal-rich Shanxi Province. Covering an area of some 462 square km, Sanjiao is home to rich coalbed methane reserves with thick, multi-level coalbeds that have ...

  20. Reliability assessment of wave Energy devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ambühl, Simon; Kramer, Morten; Kofoed, Jens Peter

    2014-01-01

    Energy from waves may play a key role in sustainable electricity production in the future. Optimal reliability levels for components used for Wave Energy Devices (WEDs) need to be defined to be able to decrease their cost of electricity. Optimal reliability levels can be found using probabilistic...... methods. Extreme loads during normal operation, but also extreme loads simultaneous with failure of mechanical and electrical components as well as the control system, are of importance for WEDs. Furthermore, fatigue loading needs to be assessed. This paper focus on the Wavestar prototype which is located...

  1. Maximally reliable Markov chains under energy constraints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escola, Sean; Eisele, Michael; Miller, Kenneth; Paninski, Liam

    2009-07-01

    Signal-to-noise ratios in physical systems can be significantly degraded if the outputs of the systems are highly variable. Biological processes for which highly stereotyped signal generations are necessary features appear to have reduced their signal variabilities by employing multiple processing steps. To better understand why this multistep cascade structure might be desirable, we prove that the reliability of a signal generated by a multistate system with no memory (i.e., a Markov chain) is maximal if and only if the system topology is such that the process steps irreversibly through each state, with transition rates chosen such that an equal fraction of the total signal is generated in each state. Furthermore, our result indicates that by increasing the number of states, it is possible to arbitrarily increase the reliability of the system. In a physical system, however, an energy cost is associated with maintaining irreversible transitions, and this cost increases with the number of such transitions (i.e., the number of states). Thus, an infinite-length chain, which would be perfectly reliable, is infeasible. To model the effects of energy demands on the maximally reliable solution, we numerically optimize the topology under two distinct energy functions that penalize either irreversible transitions or incommunicability between states, respectively. In both cases, the solutions are essentially irreversible linear chains, but with upper bounds on the number of states set by the amount of available energy. We therefore conclude that a physical system for which signal reliability is important should employ a linear architecture, with the number of states (and thus the reliability) determined by the intrinsic energy constraints of the system.

  2. Power Electronics and Reliability in Renewable Energy Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaabjerg, Frede; Ma, Ke; Zhou, Dao

    2012-01-01

    Power Electronics are needed in almost all kind of renewable energy systems. It is used both for controlling the renewable source and also for interfacing to the load, which can be grid-connected or working in stand-alone mode. More and more efforts are put into making renewable energy systems...... better in terms of reliability in order to ensure a high availability of the power sources, in this case the knowledge of mission profile of a certain application is crucial for the reliability evaluation/design of power electronics. In this paper an overview on the power electronic circuits behind...... the most common converter configurations for wind turbine and photovoltaic is done. Next different aspects of improving the system reliability are mapped. Further on examples of how to control the chip temperature in different power electronic configurations as well as operation modes for wind power...

  3. Structural Reliability of Plain Bearings for Wave Energy Converter Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ambühl, Simon; Kramer, Morten Mejlhede; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2016-01-01

    The levelized cost of energy (LCOE) from wave energy converters (WECs) needs to be decreased in order to be able to become competitive with other renewable electricity sources. Probabilistic reliability methods can be used to optimize the structure of WECs. Optimization is often performed...... the hydraulic cycle when waves are passing. The new PTO system leads to different load characteristics at the floater itself compared to the actual setup where the turbine/generator is directly coupled to the fluctuating hydraulic pressure within the PTO system. This paper calculates the structural reliability...

  4. Reliability Estimations of Control Systems Effected by Several Interference Sources

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Deng Bei-xing; Jiang Ming-hu; Li Xing

    2003-01-01

    In order to estab lish the sufficient and necessary condition that arbitrarily reliable systems can not be construc-ted with function elements under interference sources, it is very important to expand set of interference sources with the above property. In this paper, the models of two types of in-terference sources are raised respectively: interference source possessing real input vectors and constant reliable interference source. We study the reliability of the systems effected by the interference sources, and the lower bound of the reliability is presented. The results show that it is impossible that arbi-trarily reliable systems can not be constructed with the ele-ments effected by above interference sources.

  5. Geothermal energy. Robust and reliable; Geothermie. Robuust en betrouwbaar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schrauwen, A. [ISSO, Rotterdam (Netherlands)

    2013-01-15

    Geothermal energy is a sustainable technique that uses heat from the earth to heat buildings or greenhouses. The heat originates from deep hot water sources (60C and higher) two kilometers below surface. Production facilities are not required because the energy in the hot water can be converted relatively easily. The technique is robust and reliable. Unlike other renewable energy technologies weather conditions do not have an impact on the supply of energy from a geothermal source [Dutch] Geothermie is een duurzame techniek die warmte uit de aarde gebruikt om gebouwen of kassen te verwarmen. De warmte is afkomstig uit diepe warmwaterbronnen (60C en hoger) die zich twee kilometer onder de oppervlakte bevinden. Productiefaciliteiten zijn overbodig omdat de in het warme water aanwezige energie relatief eenvoudig kan worden omgezet. De techniek is robuust en betrouwbaar. In tegenstelling tot andere duurzame technieken beinvloeden weersomstandigheden de energielevering uit een geothermische bron niet.

  6. Source reliability in auditory health persuasion : Its antecedents and consequences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elbert, Sarah P.; Dijkstra, Arie

    2015-01-01

    Persuasive health messages can be presented through an auditory channel, thereby enhancing the salience of the source, making it fundamentally different from written or pictorial information. We focused on the determinants of perceived source reliability in auditory health persuasion by

  7. Energy system comprising an electrochemical energy source

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roozeboom, F.; Notten, P.

    2010-01-01

    The invention relates to an energy system comprising an electrochemical energy source, wherein said electrochemical energy source comprises at least one assembly of a first electrode, a second electrode, and an intermediate solid-state electrolyte separating said first electrode and said second elec

  8. Reliability and Energy Output of Bifacial Modules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Aken, B.B.; Jansen, M.J.; Dekker, N.J.J. [ECN Solar Energy, Petten (Netherlands)

    2013-06-15

    Although flash tests under standard test conditions yields lower power due to transmittance of the back sheet, bifacial modules are expected to outperform their monofacial equivalents in terms of yearly energy output in the field. We compare flash tests for bifacial modules with and without a light scattering panel directly behind the modules: 3% more power output is obtained. We also report on the damp-heat reliability of modules with transparent back sheet. Finally we will present the results of an outdoor study comparing modules with transparent back sheet and modules with state-of-the-art AR coating on the front glass.

  9. Reusable Energy and Power Sources: Rechargeable Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiung, Steve C.; Ritz, John M.

    2007-01-01

    Rechargeable batteries are very popular within consumer electronics. If one uses a cell phone or portable electric tool, she/he understands the need to have a reliable product and the need to remember to use the recharging systems that follow a cycle of charge/discharge. Rechargeable batteries are being called "green" energy sources. They are a…

  10. Energy Sources: An Historical Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Constance M.

    1983-01-01

    Putting the present energy situation into an historical perspective provides meaning to today's energy concerns and demonstrates how important energy has always been to our life style. Primary energy sources of the United States from 1850 to the present are examined. (RM)

  11. A High Reliability Frequency Stabilized Semiconductor Laser Source Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Ultrastable, narrow linewidth, high reliability MOPA sources are needed for high performance LIDARs in NASA for, wind speed measurement, surface topography and earth...

  12. Source reliability in auditory health persuasion : Its antecedents and consequences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elbert, Sarah P.; Dijkstra, Arie

    2015-01-01

    Persuasive health messages can be presented through an auditory channel, thereby enhancing the salience of the source, making it fundamentally different from written or pictorial information. We focused on the determinants of perceived source reliability in auditory health persuasion by investigatin

  13. Structural Reliability of Plain Bearings for Wave Energy Converter Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Ambühl

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The levelized cost of energy (LCOE from wave energy converters (WECs needs to be decreased in order to be able to become competitive with other renewable electricity sources. Probabilistic reliability methods can be used to optimize the structure of WECs. Optimization is often performed for critical structural components, like welded details, bolts or bearings. This paper considers reliability studies with a focus on plain bearings available from stock for the Wavestar device, which exists at the prototype level. The Wavestar device is a point absorber WEC. The plan is to mount a new power take-off (PTO system consisting of a discrete displacement cylinder (DDC, which will allow different hydraulic cycles to operate at constant pressure levels. This setup increases the conversion efficiency, as well as decouples the electricity production from the pressure variations within the hydraulic cycle when waves are passing. The new PTO system leads to different load characteristics at the floater itself compared to the actual setup where the turbine/generator is directly coupled to the fluctuating hydraulic pressure within the PTO system. This paper calculates the structural reliability of the different available plain bearings planned to be mounted at the new PTO system based on a probabilistic approach, and the paper gives suggestions for fulfilling the minimal target reliability levels. The considered failure mode in this paper is the brittle fatigue failure of plain bearings. The performed sensitivity analysis shows that parameters defining the initial crack size have a big impact on the resulting reliability of the plain bearing.

  14. Different Reliability Assessment Approaches for Wave Energy Converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ambühl, Simon; Kramer, Morten Mejlhede; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2015-01-01

    Reliability assessments are of importance for wave energy converters (WECs) due to the fact that accessibility might be limited in case of failure and maintenance. These failure rates can be adapted by reliability considerations. There are two different approaches to how reliability can...... be estimated: the so-called classical reliability theory and the probabilistic reliability theory. The classical reliability theory is often used for failure rate estimations of mechanical and electrical components, whereas the probabilistic reliability theory is commonly used for structural components...

  15. Potential for natural evaporation as a reliable renewable energy resource.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavusoglu, Ahmet-Hamdi; Chen, Xi; Gentine, Pierre; Sahin, Ozgur

    2017-09-26

    About 50% of the solar energy absorbed at the Earth's surface drives evaporation, fueling the water cycle that affects various renewable energy resources, such as wind and hydropower. Recent advances demonstrate our nascent ability to convert evaporation energy into work, yet there is little understanding about the potential of this resource. Here we study the energy available from natural evaporation to predict the potential of this ubiquitous resource. We find that natural evaporation from open water surfaces could provide power densities comparable to current wind and solar technologies while cutting evaporative water losses by nearly half. We estimate up to 325 GW of power is potentially available in the United States. Strikingly, water's large heat capacity is sufficient to control power output by storing excess energy when demand is low, thus reducing intermittency and improving reliability. Our findings motivate the improvement of materials and devices that convert energy from evaporation.The evaporation of water represents an alternative source of renewable energy. Building on previous models of evaporation, Cavusoglu et al. show that the power available from this natural resource is comparable to wind and solar power, yet it does not suffer as much from varying weather conditions.

  16. Renewable energy sources; Erneuerbare Energien

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lenz, Volker [Deutsches BiomasseForschungsZentrum gGmbH (DBFZ), Leipzig (Germany); Kaltschmitt, Martin [Technische Univ. Hamburg-Harburg, Hamburg (Germany). Inst. fuer Umwelttechnik und Energiewirtschaft

    2012-07-01

    The development of the use of renewable energy sources in Germany in 2011 significantly was influenced by the disaster in Fukushima (Japan) and the change of course in the German energy policy. In addition, there is the amendment of the Renewable Energy Law (EEG) in an increasingly controversial area of tension between climate protection, energy utilization, cost minimization and considerations on sustainability. With this in mind, the authors of the contribution under consideration report on developments in Germany in the year 2011 in the field of energy supply and fuel supply from renewable energies. Beside the energy-economic framework conditions for the various possibilities for the use of renewable energies, the current status, developments and prospects are analysed. The contribution gives an outlook on the possible expansion of the supply of renewable energies in 2012.

  17. Open Source Software Reliability Growth Model by Considering Change- Point

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mashaallah Basirzadeh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The modeling technique for Software Reliability is reaching its prosperity. Software reliability growth models have been used extensively for closed source software. The design and development of open source software (OSS is different from closed source software. We observed some basic characteristics for open source software like (i more instructions execution and code coverage taking place with respect to time, (ii release early, release often (iii frequent addition of patches (iv heterogeneity in fault density and effort expenditure (v Frequent release activities seem to have changed the bug dynamics significantly (vi Bug reporting on bug tracking system drastically increases and decreases. Due to this reason bug reported on bug tracking system keeps an irregular state and fluctuations. Therefore, fault detection/removal process can not be smooth and may be changed at some time point called change-point. In this paper, an instructions executed dependent software reliability growth model has been developed by considering change-point in order to cater diverse and huge user profile, irregular state of bug tracking system and heterogeneity in fault distribution. We have analyzed actual software failure count data to show numerical examples of software reliability assessment for the OSS. We also compare our model with the conventional in terms of goodness-of-fit for actual data. We have shown that the proposed model can assist improvement of quality for OSS systems developed under the open source project.

  18. Reliability estimation for multiunit nuclear and fossil-fired industrial energy systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, W. G.; Wilson, J. V.; Klepper, O. H.

    1977-06-29

    As petroleum-based fuels grow increasingly scarce and costly, nuclear energy may become an important alternative source of industrial energy. Initial applications would most likely include a mix of fossil-fired and nuclear sources of process energy. A means for determining the overall reliability of these mixed systems is a fundamental aspect of demonstrating their feasibility to potential industrial users. Reliability data from nuclear and fossil-fired plants are presented, and several methods of applying these data for calculating the reliability of reasonably complex industrial energy supply systems are given. Reliability estimates made under a number of simplifying assumptions indicate that multiple nuclear units or a combination of nuclear and fossil-fired plants could provide adequate reliability to meet industrial requirements for continuity of service.

  19. Distribution Reliability of the Energy Supply Chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hidayat Rachmad

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Reliability of an oil fuel distribution system can be achieved by considering multiple attributes. Load-point indicators consisted of the frequency of failures, average duration of an outage and average annual outage time. Indicators of system performance were SAIFI and SAIDI and the method of the study was the Learning Vector Quantization (LVQ. Decisions were made by considering the multi-attribute oil fuel distribution system to determine high reliability, which was simulated on the agent. The use of agents in the simulation to determine the oil fuel distribution system reliability helped visualize the oil fuel distribution in meeting the quality of fuels received by consumers and made it easier to learn the problems faced by oil fuel distribution.

  20. Identifying Sources of Difference in Reliability in Content Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Murphy

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on a case study which identifies and illustrates sources of difference in agreement in relation to reliability in a context of quantitative content analysis of a transcript of an online asynchronous discussion (OAD. Transcripts of 10 students in a month-long online asynchronous discussion were coded by two coders using an instrument with two categories, five processes, and 19 indicators of Problem Formulation and Resolution (PFR. Sources of difference were identified in relation to: coders; tasks; and students. Reliability values were calculated at the levels of categories, processes, and indicators. At the most detailed level of coding on the basis of the indicator, findings revealed that the overall level of reliability between coders was .591 when measured with Cohen’s kappa. The difference between tasks at the same level ranged from .349 to .664, and the difference between participants ranged from .390 to .907. Implications for training and research are discussed.

  1. Evaluation of Network Reliability for Computer Networks with Multiple Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Kuei Lin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Evaluating the reliability of a network with multiple sources to multiple sinks is a critical issue from the perspective of quality management. Due to the unrealistic definition of paths of network models in previous literature, existing models are not appropriate for real-world computer networks such as the Taiwan Advanced Research and Education Network (TWAREN. This paper proposes a modified stochastic-flow network model to evaluate the network reliability of a practical computer network with multiple sources where data is transmitted through several light paths (LPs. Network reliability is defined as being the probability of delivering a specified amount of data from the sources to the sink. It is taken as a performance index to measure the service level of TWAREN. This paper studies the network reliability of the international portion of TWAREN from two sources (Taipei and Hsinchu to one sink (New York that goes through a submarine and land surface cable between Taiwan and the United States.

  2. Advanced Reactor PSA Methodologies for System Reliability Analysis and Source Term Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grabaskas, D.; Brunett, A.; Passerini, S.; Grelle, A.; Bucknor, M.

    2017-06-26

    Beginning in 2015, a project was initiated to update and modernize the probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) of the GE-Hitachi PRISM sodium fast reactor. This project is a collaboration between GE-Hitachi and Argonne National Laboratory (Argonne), and funded in part by the U.S. Department of Energy. Specifically, the role of Argonne is to assess the reliability of passive safety systems, complete a mechanistic source term calculation, and provide component reliability estimates. The assessment of passive system reliability focused on the performance of the Reactor Vessel Auxiliary Cooling System (RVACS) and the inherent reactivity feedback mechanisms of the metal fuel core. The mechanistic source term assessment attempted to provide a sequence specific source term evaluation to quantify offsite consequences. Lastly, the reliability assessment focused on components specific to the sodium fast reactor, including electromagnetic pumps, intermediate heat exchangers, the steam generator, and sodium valves and piping.

  3. Reliability-oriented energy storage sizing in wind power systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qin, Zian; Liserre, Marco; Blaabjerg, Frede;

    2014-01-01

    Energy storage can be used to suppress the power fluctuations in wind power systems, and thereby reduce the thermal excursion and improve the reliability. Since the cost of the energy storage in large power application is high, it is crucial to have a better understanding of the relationship...... between the size of the energy storage and the reliability benefit it can generate. Therefore, a reliability-oriented energy storage sizing approach is proposed for the wind power systems, where the power, energy, cost and the control strategy of the energy storage are all taken into account....... With the proposed approach, the computational effort is reduced and the impact of the energy storage system on the reliability of the wind power converter can be quantified....

  4. High-radiance LDP source: clean, reliable, and stable EUV source for mask inspection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teramoto, Yusuke; Santos, Bárbara; Mertens, Guido; Kops, Ralf; Kops, Margarete; von Wezyk, Alexander; Bergmann, Klaus; Yabuta, Hironobu; Nagano, Akihisa; Ashizawa, Noritaka; Taniguchi, Yuta; Shirai, Takahiro; Nakamura, Kiyotada; Aoki, Kazuya; Kasama, Kunihiko

    2016-03-01

    High-throughput and -resolution actinic mask inspection tools are needed as EUVL begins to enter into volume production phase. To realize such inspection tools, a high-radiance EUV source is necessary. Ushio's laser-assisted discharge-produced plasma (LDP) source is able to meet industry's requirements in radiance, cleanliness, stability and reliability. Ushio's LDP source has shown the peak radiance at plasma of 180 W/mm2/sr and the area-averaged radiance in a 200-μm-diameter circle behind the debris mitigation system of 120 W/mm2/sr. A new version of the debris mitigation system is in testing phase. Its optical transmission was confirmed to be 73 %, which is 4 % lower than that of the previous version and therefore will be improved. Cleanliness of the system is evaluated by exposing Ru mirrors placed behind the debris mitigation system. Ru sputter rate was proven to be sufficiently low as 3~5 nm/Gpulse at 7 kHz, whereas frequency-dependent sputter rate was 1~3 nm/Gpulse at 5~9 kHz as previously reported. Sn deposition remained very low (discharge frequencies. Pulse energy stability was approximately 10 %. Dose energy stability dropped from approximately 2 % to 0.1 % when feedback control was activated. EUV emission position stability was studied at 3 kHz. Deviation of the plasma center of gravity was 6 μm, which is 3 % of plasma diameter and therefore considered to be negligible. Reliability tests were performed on both R and D and prototype machines and up to 200 hours of non-interrupted operation was demonstrated.

  5. A highly reliable trigger for vacuum ARC plasma source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernardet, H.; Godechot, X.; Jarjat, F. [SODERN, Limeil-Brevannes (France)

    1996-08-01

    The authors have developed a reliable electrical trigger and its associated circuitry to fire vacuum arc plasma or ion source. They tested different embodiments of the trigger device in order to get a highly reliable one, which is able to perform more than 1.2 x 10{sup 6} shots at 60 A and 6.5 ps pulse length. The evolution of the ion current emitted has been recorded as a function of the number of shots. They have also investigated in which direction the plasma jet is emitted : axially or radially. This device can be used to fire a vacuum arc plasma or ion source by plasma injection. It has obvious advantage to be placed outside the cathode and therefore would ease maintenance of vacuum arc devices.

  6. Intermediate-energy light sources

    CERN Document Server

    Corbett, W

    2003-01-01

    Increasingly, atomic scale information underlies scientific and technological progress in disciplines ranging from pharmaceutical development to materials synthesis to environmental remediation. While a variety of research tools are used to provide atomic scale information, synchrotron radiation has proved invaluable in this quest. The rapid growth of soft- and hard X-ray synchrotron light sources stands as stark testimony to the importance and utility of synchrotron radiation. Starting from just a handful of synchrotron light sources in the early 1970s, this burgeoning field now includes over 70 proposed, in-construction, or operating facilities in 23 countries on five continents. Along the way, synchrotron light facilities have evolved from small laboratories extracting light parasitically from storage rings designed for high-energy physics research to large, dedicated sources using the latest technology to produce extraordinarily bright photon beams. The basic layout of a multi-GeV storage ring light sourc...

  7. Decarbonizing electricity generation with intermittent sources of energy

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    We examine the impact of public policies that aim to decarbonate electricity production by replacing fossil fuel energy by intermittent renewable sources, namely wind and solar power. We consider a model of energy investment and production with two sources of energy: one is clean but intermittent (e.g. wind), whereas the other one is reliable but polluting (e.g. coal). A carbon tax decreases electricity production while simultaneously increasing investment in wind power. This tax may however ...

  8. Enhanced Reliability of Photovoltaic Systems with Energy Storage and Controls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manz, D.; Schelenz, O.; Chandra, R.; Bose, S.; de Rooij, M.; Bebic, J.

    2008-02-01

    This report summarizes efforts to reconfigure loads during outages to allow individual customers the opportunity to enhance the reliability of their electric service through the management of their loads, photovoltaics, and energy storage devices.

  9. Reliability and cost evaluation of small isolated power systems containing photovoltaic and wind energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karki, Rajesh

    Renewable energy application in electric power systems is growing rapidly worldwide due to enhanced public concerns for adverse environmental impacts and escalation in energy costs associated with the use of conventional energy sources. Photovoltaics and wind energy sources are being increasingly recognized as cost effective generation sources. A comprehensive evaluation of reliability and cost is required to analyze the actual benefits of utilizing these energy sources. The reliability aspects of utilizing renewable energy sources have largely been ignored in the past due the relatively insignificant contribution of these sources in major power systems, and consequently due to the lack of appropriate techniques. Renewable energy sources have the potential to play a significant role in the electrical energy requirements of small isolated power systems which are primarily supplied by costly diesel fuel. A relatively high renewable energy penetration can significantly reduce the system fuel costs but can also have considerable impact on the system reliability. Small isolated systems routinely plan their generating facilities using deterministic adequacy methods that cannot incorporate the highly erratic behavior of renewable energy sources. The utilization of a single probabilistic risk index has not been generally accepted in small isolated system evaluation despite its utilization in most large power utilities. Deterministic and probabilistic techniques are combined in this thesis using a system well-being approach to provide useful adequacy indices for small isolated systems that include renewable energy. This thesis presents an evaluation model for small isolated systems containing renewable energy sources by integrating simulation models that generate appropriate atmospheric data, evaluate chronological renewable power outputs and combine total available energy and load to provide useful system indices. A software tool SIPSREL+ has been developed which generates

  10. Reliability and cost-benefits of adding alternate power sources to an independent micro-grid community

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanrioven, M. [Department of Electrical Engineering, Yildiz Technical University, Besiktas, Istanbul, 34349 (Turkey)

    2005-10-04

    Interest in alternative energy resources such as wind, solar energy and fuel cell (FC) has been on the increase due to improved public awareness of the high energy cost and adverse environmental impacts of conventional energy sources. Therefore, the rapid growth and potential future demand for these energy sources suggest a need to consider both reliability and cost-benefits of the supply for each case. This paper presents a simulation methodology for reliability and cost assessment of these energy sources in an independent micro-grid (IMG) system, which is a distribution system with distributed energy sources such as micro-turbine, photovoltaic and fuel cells. A systematic technique and a computer program for reliability and cost assessment of the IMG system containing FC, photovoltaic (PV) and wind energy (WE) have been developed. The adequacy of the IMG is evaluated in three steps: (i) atmospheric data is generated for PV and WE in addition to the development of a 50kW PEM FC generation and energy conversion model, (ii) the power delivered by these energy sources is calculated, and (iii) system adequacy and energy indices are calculated based on the system load balance equation, which is the combination of generated power and system load demand. The suggested technique can then be used to help system planners to provide objective indicators for suitable installation locations, operating policies, and energy type and size selection for IMG system containing alternative energy sources. (author)

  11. New renewable energy sources; Nye fornybare energikilder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-07-01

    This booklet describes in simple terms the so-called new renewable energy sources: solar energy, biomass, wind power and wave power. In addition, there are brief discussions on hydrogen, ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC), tidal power, geothermal energy, small hydropower plants and energy from salt gradients. The concept of new renewable energy sources is used to exclude large hydropower plants as these are considered conventional energy sources. The booklet also discusses the present energy use, the external frames for new renewable energy sources, and prospects for the future energy supply.

  12. Calorimeter for pulsed energy sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pearce, J.W.; Edmonds, P.H.

    1979-01-01

    A common problem in plasma physics experiments is the measurement of the energy deposited on a water-cooled plate by a pulsed energy source. Examples of this are neutral-beam-line defining plate and targets and tokamak water-cooled limiters. One method of measuring this energy is to integrate the product of the temperature rise (..delta..T) and the flow rate (F) of the coolant over the interval between the pulses. The two input parameters ..delta..T and F are derived from a differential thermopile and a turbine flow meter, respectively. A simple digital readout circuit displays the deposited energy in a light-emitting diode display. The circuit uses a commercially available, dual-slope analog-to-digital converter (ADC) in a novel configuration that multiplies ..delta..T and F directly. Calibration of the readout circuit is quick and simple, and short-term accuracies of 5% are easily obtained. Over longer periods the accuracy becomes degraded, primarily by thermal drifts in the thermopile amplifier and in the thermopile connections and the wiring. This offset must be compensated for by a simple adjustment before each experimental run. This readout circuit has been used successfully on the Impurity Study Experiment (ISX-B) neutral beam lines and is most convenient for deposited energy measurements in applications in which computerized data acquisition is not available.

  13. Continuously Optimized Reliable Energy (CORE) Microgrid: Models & Tools (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2013-07-01

    This brochure describes Continuously Optimized Reliable Energy (CORE), a trademarked process NREL employs to produce conceptual microgrid designs. This systems-based process enables designs to be optimized for economic value, energy surety, and sustainability. Capabilities NREL offers in support of microgrid design are explained.

  14. INTERMEDIATE-ENERGY LIGHT SOURCES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corbett, William

    2002-11-25

    Increasingly, atomic scale information underlies scientific and technological progress in disciplines ranging from pharmaceutical development to materials synthesis to environmental remediation. While a variety of research tools are used to provide atomic scale information, synchrotron radiation has proved invaluable in this quest. The rapid growth of soft- and hard X-ray synchrotron light sources stands as stark testimony to the importance and utility of synchrotron radiation. Starting from just a handful of synchrotron light sources in the early 1970s, this burgeoning field now includes over 70 proposed, in-construction, or operating facilities in 23 countries on five continents. Along the way, synchrotron light facilities have evolved from small laboratories extracting light parasitically from storage rings designed for high-energy physics research to large, dedicated sources using the latest technology to produce extraordinarily bright photon beams. The basic layout of a multi-GeV storage ring light source employs periodic bending magnets to guide a charged particle beam around the storage ring. As the charged beam is accelerated in an arc, it produces a sweeping fan of synchrotron radiation that extends from the infrared part of the electromagnetic spectrum (<1 eV) to hard X rays (>20 keV). Quadrupole magnets keep the electrons tightly focused, and a radio-frequency acceleration system replenishes beam energy lost to radiation emission. To optimize the output radiation, a premium is placed on high current electron beams with small cross section and extreme position stability. Magnetic insertion devices are used to further enhance radiation output by a factor of 10 or more over bend magnet sources. The storage ring vacuum chamber includes exit ports to allow portions of the radiation fan to propagate down photon beam transport lines to optical systems and experimental stations. A typical storage ring features 10 or more such radiation ports. The photon beam

  15. Reliability and energy efficiency of zero energy homes (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhere, Neelkanth G.

    2016-09-01

    Photovoltaic (PV) modules and systems are being installed increasingly on residential homes to increase the proportion of renewable energy in the energy mix. The ultimate goal is to attain sustainability without subsidy. The prices of PV modules and systems have declined substantially during the recent years. They will be reduced further to reach grid parity. Additionally the total consumed energy must be reduced by making the homes more energy efficient. FSEC/UCF Researchers have carried out research on development of PV cells and systems and on reducing the energy consumption in homes and by small businesses. Additionally, they have provided guidance on PV module and system installation and to make the homes energy efficient. The produced energy is fed into the utility grid and the consumed energy is obtained from the utility grid, thus the grid is assisting in the storage. Currently the State of Florida permits net metering leading to equal charge for the produced and consumed electricity. This paper describes the installation of 5.29 KW crystalline silicon PV system on a south-facing tilt at approximately latitude tilt on a single-story, three-bedroom house. It also describes the computer program on Building Energy Efficiency and the processes that were employed for reducing the energy consumption of the house by improving the insulation, air circulation and windows, etc. Finally it describes actual consumption and production of electricity and the installation of additional crystalline silicon PV modules and balance of system to make it a zero energy home.

  16. Reliable and Energy Efficient Protocol for MANET Multicasting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bander H. AlQarni

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A mobile ad hoc network (MANET consists of a self-configured set of portable mobile nodes without any central infrastructure to regulate traffic in the network. These networks present problems such as lack of congestion control, reliability, and energy consumption. In this paper, we present a new model for MANET multicasting called Reliable and Energy Efficient Protocol Depending on Distance and Remaining Energy (REEDDRE. Our proposal is based on a tone system to provide more efficiency and better performance, and it combines solutions over the Medium Access Control (MAC layer. The protocol consists of a new construction method for mobile nodes using a clustering approach that depends on distance and remaining energy to provide more stability and to reduce energy consumption. In addition, we propose an adjustment to the typical multicast flow by adding unicast links between clusters. We further present in our model a technique to provide more reliability based on a busy tone system (RMBTM to reduce excessive control overhead caused by control packets in error recovery. We simulate our proposal using OPNET, and the results show enhancement in terms of reliability, packet delivery ratio (PDR, energy consumption, and throughput.

  17. Injector power supplies reliability improvements at the Advanced Photon Source.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hillman, A.; Pasky, S.; Sereno, N.; Soliday, R.; Wang, J.

    2006-01-01

    Operational goals for the Advanced Photon Source (APS) facility include 97% availability and a mean time between unscheduled beam losses (faults) of 70 hours, with more than 5000 user hours of scheduled beam per year. To meet this objective, our focus has been maximizing the mean time between faults (MTBF). We have made various hardware and software improvements to better operate and monitor the injector power supply systems. These improvements have been challenging to design and implement in light of the facility operating requirements but are critical to maintaining maximum reliability and availability of beam for user operations. This paper presents actions taken as well as future plans to continue improving injector power supply hardware and software to meet APS user operation goals. The Advanced Photon Source (APS) has two major components. The storage ring (SR) accelerator is the primary accelerator that delivers X-ray beams to users and uses over 1,400 power supplies. The injector accelerators provide beam to the SR and use 361 different supplies. The control system ranges from the standard VME-IOC and Allen Bradley to GESPAC with additional mini-PLCs for monitoring. Injector power supplies range from {approx}30 watts DC to a ramped peak of 4.6 megawatts in 250 ms. Finally, all accelerators use pulsed supplies, and some of them deliver peak power in megawatts. In the SR, each multipole and corrector magnet is separately powered, with only the main dipole magnets on a common bus. Independent power supplies provide increased flexibility, but place additional demands on power supply reliability. The APS reliability goals are 97% availability and 70 hours mean time to unscheduled beam loss. There are 5,129 user hours scheduled per year, 1,315 hours used for machine studies, and the remaining 2,316 hours used for maintenance. The present annual operating schedule provides for three user runs (typically 10 to 12 weeks long), and three machine shutdowns (typically

  18. Hybrid energy sources for embedded sensor nodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Ramon; Farinholt, Kevin; Park, Gyuhae

    2011-04-01

    In this paper, we present a series of hybrid energy configurations that are designed to provide a robust power source for embedded sensing hardware. The proper management of energy resources is a critical component in the design of any deployed sensing network. For systems that are installed in remote or inaccessible locations, or those with an operational lifespan that exceeds traditional battery technologies, energy harvesting is an attractive alternative. Unfortunately, the dependence on a single energy source (i.e. solar) can cause potential problems when environmental conditions preclude the system from operating at peak performance. In this paper we consider the use of a hybrid energy source that extracts energy from multiple sources and uses this collective energy to power sensing hardware. The sources considered in this work include: solar, vibration, thermal gradients, and RF energy capture. Methods of increasing the efficiency, energy storage medium, target applications and the integrated use of energy harvesting sources with wireless energy transmission will be discussed.

  19. Reliability and cost/worth evaluation of generating systems utilizing wind and solar energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagen

    The utilization of renewable energy resources such as wind and solar energy for electric power supply has received considerable attention in recent years due to adverse environmental impacts and fuel cost escalation associated with conventional generation. At the present time, wind and/or solar energy sources are utilized to generate electric power in many applications. Wind and solar energy will become important sources for power generation in the future because of their environmental, social and economic benefits, together with public support and government incentives. The wind and sunlight are, however, unstable and variable energy sources, and behave far differently than conventional sources. Energy storage systems are, therefore, often required to smooth the fluctuating nature of the energy conversion system especially in small isolated applications. The research work presented in this thesis is focused on the development and application of reliability and economic benefits assessment associated with incorporating wind energy, solar energy and energy storage in power generating systems. A probabilistic approach using sequential Monte Carlo simulation was employed in this research and a number of analyses were conducted with regards to the adequacy and economic assessment of generation systems containing wind energy, solar energy and energy storage. The evaluation models and techniques incorporate risk index distributions and different operating strategies associated with diesel generation in small isolated systems. Deterministic and probabilistic techniques are combined in this thesis using a system well-being approach to provide useful adequacy indices for small isolated systems that include renewable energy and energy storage. The concepts presented and examples illustrated in this thesis will help power system planners and utility managers to assess the reliability and economic benefits of utilizing wind energy conversion systems, solar energy conversion

  20. Implementation of Reliable Open Source IRIS Recognition System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhananjay Ikhar

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available RELIABLE automatic recognition of persons has long been an attractive goal. As in all pattern recognition problems, the key issue is the relation between inter-class and intra-class variability: objects can be reliably classified only if the variability among different instances of a given class is less than the variability between different classes.The objective of this paper is to implement an open-source iris recognition system in order to verify the claimed performance of the technology. The development tool used will be MATLAB, and emphasis will be only on the software for performing recognition and not hardware for capturing an eye image. A reliable application development approach will be employed in order to produce results quickly. MATLAB provides an excellent environment, with its image processing toolbox. To test the system, a database of 756 grayscale eye images courtesy of Chinese Academy of Sciences-Institute of Automation (CASIA is used. The system is to be composed of a number of sub-systems, which correspond to each stage of iris recognition. These stages are- image acquisition, segmentation, normalization and feature encoding. The input to the system will be an eye image, and the output will be an iris template, which will provide a mathematical representation of the iris region. Which conclude the objectives to design recognition system are- study of different biometrics and their features? Study of different recognition systems and their steps, selection of simple and efficient recognition algorithm for implementation, selection of fast and efficient tool for processing, apply the implemented algorithm to different database and find out performance factors.

  1. Sewage sludge as a biomass energy source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Kolat

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The major part of the dry matter content of sewage sludge consists of nontoxic organic compounds, in general a combination of primary sludge and secondary microbiological sludge. The sludge also contains a substantive amount of inorganic material and a small amount of toxic components. There are many sludge-management options in which production of energy is one of the key treatment steps. The most important options are anaerobic digestion, co-digestion, incineration in combination with energy recovery and co-incineration in coal-fired power plants. The goal of our applied research is to verify, if the sludge from waste water treatment plants may be used as a biomass energy source in respect of the EU legislation, which would comply with emission limits or the proposal of energy process optimizing the preparation of coal/sludge mixture for combustion in the existing fluid bed boilers in the Czech Republic. The paper discusses the questions of thermal usage of mechanically drained stabilized sewage sludge from the waste water treatment plants in the boiler with circulated fluid layer. The paper describes methods of thermal analysis of coal, sewage sludge and its mixtures, mud transport to the circulating fluidised bed boiler, effects on efficiency, operational reliability of the combustion equipment, emissions and solid combustion residues.

  2. Automated Energy Distribution and Reliability System Status Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buche, D. L.; Perry, S.

    2007-10-01

    This report describes Northern Indiana Public Service Co. project efforts to develop an automated energy distribution and reliability system. The purpose of this project was to implement a database-driven GIS solution that would manage all of the company's gas, electric, and landbase objects.

  3. Improving Reliability and Durability of Efficient and Clean Energy Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Prabhakar [Univ. of Connecticut, Storrs, CT (United States)

    2010-08-01

    Overall objective of the research program was to develop an in-depth understanding of the degradation processes in advanced electrochemical energy conversion systems. It was also the objective of the research program to transfer the technology to participating industries for implementation in manufacturing of cost effective and reliable integrated systems.

  4. Automated Energy Distribution and Reliability System (AEDR): Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buche, D. L.

    2008-07-01

    This report describes Northern Indiana Public Service Co. project efforts to develop an automated energy distribution and reliability system. The purpose of this project was to implement a database-driven GIS solution that would manage all of the company's gas, electric, and landbase objects.

  5. Potential of renewable and alternative energy sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konovalov, V.; Pogharnitskaya, O.; Rostovshchikova, A.; Matveenko, I.

    2015-11-01

    The article deals with application potential of clean alternative renewable energy sources. By means of system analysis the forecast for consumption of electrical energy in Tomsk Oblast as well as main energy sources of existing energy system have been studied up to 2018. Engineering potential of renewable and alternative energy sources is evaluated. Besides, ranking in the order of their efficiency descending is performed. It is concluded that Tomsk Oblast has high potential of alternative and renewable energy sources, among which the most promising development perspective is implementation of gasification stations to save fuel consumed by diesel power stations as well as building wind-power plants.

  6. GLOBAL ENERGY CRISIS AND RENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCES

    OpenAIRE

    Katarzyna Piechota

    2013-01-01

    The sudden development of the mankind at the turn of the 19th and 20th centuries brought along the growth in importance of exploiting the energy of different type. When uninterruptedly a demand for the energy is growing, and abilities of increasing the supply for her are limited, we can deal with the occurrence of an energy crisis. The article is moving the subject matter of an global energy crisis. A definition of an energy crisis, his genesis and effects were included in it for world econom...

  7. Design for reliability in power electronics in renewable energy systems – status and future

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Huai; Blaabjerg, Frede; Ma, Ke

    2013-01-01

    Advances in power electronics enable efficient and flexible interconnection of renewable sources, loads and electric grids. While targets concerning efficiency of power converters are within reach, recent research endeavors to predict and improve their reliability to ensure high availability, low......, the lifetime prediction of reliability-critical components IGBT modules is discussed in a 2.3 MW wind power converter. Finally, the challenges and opportunities to achieve more reliable power electronic converters are discussed....... maintenance costs, and herefore, low Levelized-Cost-of-Energy (LCOE) of renewable energy systems. This paper presents the prior-art Design for Reliability (DFR) process for power converters and addresses the paradigm shift to Physics-of-Failure (PoF) approach and mission profile based analysis. Moreover...

  8. Toxoplasmosis and pregnancy: Reliability of internet sources of information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bobić Branko

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Health education of women of childbearing age has been shown to be an acceptable approach to the prevention of toxoplasmosis, the most frequent congenitally transmitted parasitic infection. Objective. The aim of this study was to evaluate the Internet as a source of health education on toxoplasmosis in pregnancy. Methods. A group of 100 pregnant women examined in the National Reference Laboratory for Toxoplasmosis was surveyed by a questionnaire on the source of their information on toxoplasmosis. We also analyzed information offered by websites in the Serbian and Croatian languages through the Google search engine, using “toxoplasmosis” as a keyword. The 23 top websites were evaluated for comprehensiveness and accuracy of information on the impact of toxoplasmosis on the course of pregnancy, diagnosis and prevention. Results. Having knowledge on toxoplasmosis was confirmed by 64 (64.0% examined women, 40.6% (26/64 of whom learned about toxoplasmosis through the Internet, 48.4% from physicians, and 10.9% from friends. Increase in the degree of education was found to be associated with the probability that pregnant women would be informed via the Internet (RR=3.15, 95% CI=1.27-7.82, p=0.013. Analysis of four interactive websites (allowing users to ask questions showed that routes of infection were the most common concern, particularly the risk presented by pet cats and dogs, followed by the diagnosis of infection (who and when should be tested, and how should the results be interpreted. Of 20 sites containing educational articles, only seven were authorized and two listed sources. Evaluation confirmed that information relevant to pregnant women was significantly more accurate than comprehensive, but no site gave both comprehensive and completely accurate information. Only four sites (20% were good sources of information for pregnant women. Conclusion. Internet has proved itself as an important source of information. However

  9. High Energy Sources Observed with OMC

    CERN Document Server

    Risquez, D; Mas-Hesse, J M; Kuulkers, E

    2008-01-01

    The INTEGRAL Optical Monitoring Camera, OMC, has detected many high energy sources. We have obtained V-band fluxes and light curves for their counterparts. In the cases of previously unknown counterparts, we have searched for characteristic variations in optical sources around the high-energy target position. Results about the Galactic Bulge Monitoring, INTEGRAL Gamma-Ray sources (IGR), and other high energy sources are presented.

  10. Reliability-based design optimization for nonlinear energy harvesters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seong, Sumin; Lee, Soobum; Hu, Chao

    2015-03-01

    The power output of a vibration energy harvesting device is highly sensitive to uncertainties in materials, manufacturing, and operating conditions. Although the use of a nonlinear spring (e.g., snap-through mechanism) in energy harvesting device has been reported to reduce the sensitivity of power output with respect to the excitation frequency, the nonlinear spring characteristic remains significantly sensitive and it causes unreliable power generation. In this paper, we present a reliability-based design optimization (RBDO) study of vibration energy harvesters. For a nonlinear harvester, a purely mechanical nonlinear spring design implemented in the middle of cantilever beam harvester is considered in the study. This design has the curved section in the center of beam that causes bi-stable configuration. When vibrating, the inertia of the tip mass activates the curved shell to cause snap-through buckling and make the nature of vibration nonlinear. In this paper, deterministic optimization (DO) is performed to obtain deterministic optimum of linear and nonlinear energy harvester configuration. As a result of the deterministic optimization, an optimum bi-stable vibration configuration of nonlinear harvester can be obtained for reliable power generation despite uncertainty on input vibration condition. For the linear harvester, RBDO is additionally performed to find the optimum design that satisfies a target reliability on power generation, while accounting for uncertainty in material properties and geometric parameters.

  11. Reliability-Based Structural Optimization of Wave Energy Converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ambühl, Simon; Kramer, Morten; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2014-01-01

    More and more wave energy converter (WEC) concepts are reaching prototype level. Once the prototype level is reached, the next step in order to further decrease the levelized cost of energy (LCOE) is optimizing the overall system with a focus on structural and maintenance (inspection) costs......, as well as on the harvested power from the waves. The target of a fully-developed WEC technology is not maximizing its power output, but minimizing the resulting LCOE. This paper presents a methodology to optimize the structural design of WECs based on a reliability-based optimization problem...

  12. Life cycle assessment of renewable energy sources

    CERN Document Server

    Singh, Anoop; Olsen, Stig Irving

    2013-01-01

    Governments are setting challenging targets to increase the production of energy and transport fuel from sustainable sources. The emphasis is increasingly on renewable sources including wind, solar, geothermal, biomass based biofuel, photovoltaics or energy recovery from waste. What are the environmental consequences of adopting these other sources? How do these various sources compare to each other? Life Cycle Assessment of Renewable Energy Sources tries to answer these questions based on the universally adopted method of Life Cycle Assessment (LCA). This book introduces the concept and impor

  13. Activities on component reliability under the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, A.G.; Kaufer, B.; Carlsson, L. [OECD Nuclear Energy Agency, 92 - Issy-les-Moulineaux (France)

    2000-06-01

    The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) Nuclear Energy Agency has 27 Member countries. Under the auspices of the Nuclear Safety Division are two senior committees dealing with regulatory aspects (CNRA) and technological aspects (CSNI). Under these two committees activities relevant to component reliability are carried out under the three principal working groups (PWGs): PWG-1 on operating experience, PWG-3 on integrity of components and structures, and PWG-5 on risk assessment. Although the principal interest of these committees is safety, this inevitably includes component reliability issues. PWG1 is concerned with operating experience. It is concerned mainly with the analysis of safety significant incidents, but it undertakes special studies as well. In the area of reliability it has issued a report on the evidence of ageing effects on certain safety-related components. PWG3 has activities in fracture mechanics, non-destructive examination and material degradation, as being the three aspects of structural integrity for metal reactor components. It has recently widened its scope to include the ageing of concrete structures and the seismic behaviour of structures. In the area of component reliability, it has organised workshops on pipe leak and break probabilities, and on probabilistic structural integrity analysis. PWG5 considers risk assessment, and as part of this considers the collection of reliability data. It has organised a questionnaire and has held two workshops covering the issue of data collection. This paper provides background on the agency itself, while focusing on the component reliability activities within NEA carried out mainly through the Committee on the safety of nuclear installations and the groups of technical experts on operating experience, structural integrity, and risk assessment, principal working groups nos. 1, 3 and 5 (orig.)

  14. Energy sources for the future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duggan, J.L.; Cloutier, R.J. (eds.)

    1977-04-01

    The symposium program was designed for college faculty members who are teaching or plan to teach energy courses at their educational institutions. Lectures were presented on socio-economic aspects of energy development, fusion reactors, solar energy, coal-fired power plants, nuclear power, radioactive waste disposal, and radiation hazards. A separate abstract was prepared for each of 16 of the 18 papers presented; two papers were processed earlier: Residential Energy Use Alternatives to the Year 2000, by Eric Hurst (EAPA 2:257; ERA 1:25978) and The Long-Term Prospects for Solar Energy, by W. G. Pollard (EAPA 3:1008). Fourteen of the papers are included in Energy Abstracts for Policy Analysis. (EAPA).

  15. Reliable and Energy Efficient Protocol for Wireless Sensor Network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KAN Baoqiang; CAI Li; XU Yongjun

    2007-01-01

    Low-power design is one of the most important issues in wireless sensor networks (WSNs), while reliable information transmitting should be ensured as well. Transmitting power (TP) control is a simple method to make the power consumption down, but excessive interferences from potential adjacent operating links and communication reliability between nodes should be considered. In this paper, a reliable and energy efficient protocol is presented, which adopts adaptive rate control based on an optimal TP. A mathematical model considering average interference and network connectivity was used to predict the optimal TP. Then for the optimal TP, active nodes adaptively chose the data rate with the change of bit-error-rate(BER) performance. The efficiency of the new strategy was validated by mathematical analysis and simulations. Compared with 802.11 DCF which uses maximum unified TP and BASIC protocol, it is shown that the higher average throughput can achieve while the energy consumption per useful bit can be reduced according to the results.

  16. Radioistopes to Solar to High Energy Accelerators - Chip-Scale Energy Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lal, Amit

    2013-12-01

    This talk will present MEMS based power sources that utilize radioisotopes, solar energy, and potentially nuclear energy through advancements in integration of new structures and materials within MEMS. Micro power harvesters can harness power from vibration, radioisotopes, light, sound, and biology may provide pathways to minimize or even eliminate batteries in sensor nodes. In this talk work on radioisotope thin films for MEMS will be include the self-reciprocating cantilever, betavoltaic cells, and high DC voltages. The self-reciprocating cantilever energy harvester allows small commercially viable amounts of radioisotopes to generate mW to Watts of power so that very reliable power sources that last 100s of years are possible. The tradeoffs between reliability and potential stigma with radioisotopes allow one to span a useful design space with reliability as a key parameter. These power sources provide pulsed power at three different time scales using mechanical, RF, and static extraction of energy from collected charge. Multi-use capability, both harvesting radioisotope power and local vibration energy extends the reliability of micro-power sources further.

  17. Energy Efficiency and Reliability in Wireless Biomedical Implant Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Abouei, Jamshid; Plataniotis, Konstantinos N; Pasupathy, Subbarayan

    2011-01-01

    The use of wireless implant technology requires correct delivery of the vital physiological signs of the patient along with the energy management in power-constrained devices. Toward these goals, we present an augmentation protocol for the physical layer of the Medical Implant Communications Service (MICS) with focus on the energy efficiency of deployed devices over the MICS frequency band. The present protocol uses the rateless code with the Frequency Shift Keying (FSK) modulation scheme to overcome the reliability and power cost concerns in tiny implantable sensors due to the considerable attenuation of propagated signals across the human body. In addition, the protocol allows a fast start-up time for the transceiver circuitry. The main advantage of using rateless codes is to provide an inherent adaptive duty-cycling for power management, due to the flexibility of the rateless code rate. Analytical results demonstrate that an 80% energy saving is achievable with the proposed protocol when compared to the IE...

  18. Design for Reliability of Power Electronics in Renewable Energy Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma, Ke; Yang, Yongheng; Wang, Huai

    2014-01-01

    Power electronics is the enabling technology for maximizing the power captured from renewable electrical generation, e.g., the wind and solar technology, and also for an efficient integration into the grid. Therefore, it is important that the power electronics are reliable and do not have too many...... failures during operation which otherwise will increase cost for operation, maintenance and reputation. Typically, power electronics in renewable electrical generation has to be designed for 20–30 years of operation, and in order to do that, it is crucial to know about the mission profile of the power...... electronics technology as well as to know how the power electronics technology is loaded in terms of temperature and other stressors relevant, to reliability. Hence, this chapter will show the basics of power electronics technology for renewable energy systems, describe the mission profile of the technology...

  19. Cyanate as energy source for nitrifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palatinszky, Marton; Herbold, Craig; Jehmlich, Nico

    2015-01-01

    recognized energy sources that promote the aerobic growth of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria and archaea. Here we report the aerobic growth of a pure culture of the ammonia-oxidizing thaumarchaeote Nitrososphaera gargensis1 using cyanate as the sole source of energy and reductant; to our knowledge, the first...

  20. ERP Reliability Analysis (ERA) Toolbox: An open-source toolbox for analyzing the reliability of event-related brain potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clayson, Peter E; Miller, Gregory A

    2017-01-01

    Generalizability theory (G theory) provides a flexible, multifaceted approach to estimating score reliability. G theory's approach to estimating score reliability has important advantages over classical test theory that are relevant for research using event-related brain potentials (ERPs). For example, G theory does not require parallel forms (i.e., equal means, variances, and covariances), can handle unbalanced designs, and provides a single reliability estimate for designs with multiple sources of error. This monograph provides a detailed description of the conceptual framework of G theory using examples relevant to ERP researchers, presents the algorithms needed to estimate ERP score reliability, and provides a detailed walkthrough of newly-developed software, the ERP Reliability Analysis (ERA) Toolbox, that calculates score reliability using G theory. The ERA Toolbox is open-source, Matlab software that uses G theory to estimate the contribution of the number of trials retained for averaging, group, and/or event types on ERP score reliability. The toolbox facilitates the rigorous evaluation of psychometric properties of ERP scores recommended elsewhere in this special issue.

  1. Alternatives sources of energy in the Czech energy mix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, Lisy; Marek, Balas; Zdenek, Skala

    2010-09-15

    The paper features a basic outline of the situation in the energy sector of the Czech Republic. It brings information about the current state of the country's energy mix and indicative targets of the State Energy Policy. Though coal and nuclear energy will remain the country's energy staples, great stress is also put on the growth of share of renewable and alternative energy sources. Out of these, the greatest potential in the Czech Republic is that of biomass and waste. To make the use of these sources cost-effective, it is necessary to put stress on heat and power cogeneration.

  2. Exploiting the energy source of the stars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jesper; Jensen, Thomas; Jessen, Martin

    With increasing energy demands and a limited supply of fossil fuels, the need for efficient, clean, and sustainable energy sources grows ever more pressing. Nuclear fusion – the process from which stars like the Sun derive their energy – holds the potential to help address this challenge. To mimic...

  3. Energy technology sources, systems and frontier conversion

    CERN Document Server

    Ohta, Tokio

    1994-01-01

    This book provides a concise and technical overview of energy technology: the sources of energy, energy systems and frontier conversion. As well as serving as a basic reference book for professional scientists and students of energy, it is intended for scientists and policy makers in other disciplines (including practising engineers, biologists, physicists, economists and managers in energy related industries) who need an up-to-date and authoritative guide to the field of energy technology.Energy systems and their elemental technologies are introduced and evaluated from the view point

  4. WEAMR — A Weighted Energy Aware Multipath Reliable Routing Mechanism for Hotline-Based WSNs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tufail, Ali; Qamar, Arslan; Khan, Adil Mehmood; Baig, Waleed Akram; Kim, Ki-Hyung

    2013-01-01

    Reliable source to sink communication is the most important factor for an efficient routing protocol especially in domains of military, healthcare and disaster recovery applications. We present weighted energy aware multipath reliable routing (WEAMR), a novel energy aware multipath routing protocol which utilizes hotline-assisted routing to meet such requirements for mission critical applications. The protocol reduces the number of average hops from source to destination and provides unmatched reliability as compared to well known reactive ad hoc protocols i.e., AODV and AOMDV. Our protocol makes efficient use of network paths based on weighted cost calculation and intelligently selects the best possible paths for data transmissions. The path cost calculation considers end to end number of hops, latency and minimum energy node value in the path. In case of path failure path recalculation is done efficiently with minimum latency and control packets overhead. Our evaluation shows that our proposal provides better end-to-end delivery with less routing overhead and higher packet delivery success ratio compared to AODV and AOMDV. The use of multipath also increases overall life time of WSN network using optimum energy available paths between sender and receiver in WDNs. PMID:23669714

  5. WEAMR-a weighted energy aware multipath reliable routing mechanism for hotline-based WSNs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tufail, Ali; Qamar, Arslan; Khan, Adil Mehmood; Baig, Waleed Akram; Kim, Ki-Hyung

    2013-05-13

    Reliable source to sink communication is the most important factor for an efficient routing protocol especially in domains of military, healthcare and disaster recovery applications. We present weighted energy aware multipath reliable routing (WEAMR), a novel energy aware multipath routing protocol which utilizes hotline-assisted routing to meet such requirements for mission critical applications. The protocol reduces the number of average hops from source to destination and provides unmatched reliability as compared to well known reactive ad hoc protocols i.e., AODV and AOMDV. Our protocol makes efficient use of network paths based on weighted cost calculation and intelligently selects the best possible paths for data transmissions. The path cost calculation considers end to end number of hops, latency and minimum energy node value in the path. In case of path failure path recalculation is done efficiently with minimum latency and control packets overhead. Our evaluation shows that our proposal provides better end-to-end delivery with less routing overhead and higher packet delivery success ratio compared to AODV and AOMDV. The use of multipath also increases overall life time of WSN network using optimum energy available paths between sender and receiver in WDNs.

  6. WEAMR — A Weighted Energy Aware Multipath Reliable Routing Mechanism for Hotline-Based WSNs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ki-Hyung Kim

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Reliable source to sink communication is the most important factor for an efficient routing protocol especially in domains of military, healthcare and disaster recovery applications. We present weighted energy aware multipath reliable routing (WEAMR, a novel energy aware multipath routing protocol which utilizes hotline-assisted routing to meet such requirements for mission critical applications. The protocol reduces the number of average hops from source to destination and provides unmatched reliability as compared to well known reactive ad hoc protocols i.e., AODV and AOMDV. Our protocol makes efficient use of network paths based on weighted cost calculation and intelligently selects the best possible paths for data transmissions. The path cost calculation considers end to end number of hops, latency and minimum energy node value in the path. In case of path failure path recalculation is done efficiently with minimum latency and control packets overhead. Our evaluation shows that our proposal provides better end-to-end delivery with less routing overhead and higher packet delivery success ratio compared to AODV and AOMDV. The use of multipath also increases overall life time of WSN network using optimum energy available paths between sender and receiver in WDNs.

  7. Reliability-Based Structural Optimization of Wave Energy Converters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Ambühl

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available More and more wave energy converter (WEC concepts are reaching prototypelevel. Once the prototype level is reached, the next step in order to further decrease thelevelized cost of energy (LCOE is optimizing the overall system with a focus on structuraland maintenance (inspection costs, as well as on the harvested power from the waves.The target of a fully-developed WEC technology is not maximizing its power output,but minimizing the resulting LCOE. This paper presents a methodology to optimize thestructural design of WECs based on a reliability-based optimization problem and the intentto maximize the investor’s benefits by maximizing the difference between income (e.g., fromselling electricity and the expected expenses (e.g., structural building costs or failure costs.Furthermore, different development levels, like prototype or commercial devices, may havedifferent main objectives and will be located at different locations, as well as receive varioussubsidies. These points should be accounted for when performing structural optimizationsof WECs. An illustrative example on the gravity-based foundation of the Wavestar deviceis performed showing how structural design can be optimized taking target reliability levelsand different structural failure modes due to extreme loads into account.

  8. Renewable energy sources 1991, part 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalicka, L.

    1991-12-01

    The International Conference on Renewable Energy Sources was held in Prague on 1-4 Jul. 1991. Part 2 of the proceedings is devoted to the use of the energy of wind, biogas, and small hydroelectric sources. The publication contains 14 contributions, of which 3 were inputted in INIS. Topics covered include: a wind power plant in Sweden and its environmental impacts, economic aspects of the introduction of alternative energy sources in Czechoslovakia, and the efficiency of application of a Fresnel lens-based solar collector.

  9. Key Generation Using External Source Excitation: Capacity, Reliability, and Secrecy Exponent

    CERN Document Server

    Chou, Tzu-Han; Sayeed, Akbar M

    2011-01-01

    We study the fundamental limits to secret key generation from an excited distributed source (EDS). In an EDS a pair of terminals observe dependent sources of randomness excited by a pre-arranged signal. We first determine the secret key capacity for such systems with one-way public messaging. We then characterize a tradeoff between the secret key rate and exponential bounds on the probability of key agreement failure and on the secrecy of the key generated. We find that there is a fundamental tradeoff between reliability and secrecy. We then explore this framework within the context of reciprocal wireless channels. In this setting, the users transmit pre-arranged excitation signals to each other. When the fading is Rayleigh, the observations of the users are jointly Gaussian sources. We show that an on-off excitation signal with an SNR-dependent duty cycle achieves the secret key capacity of this system. Furthermore, we characterize a fundamental metric -- minimum energy per key bit for reliable key generatio...

  10. A RELIABLE AND ENERGY EFFICIENCT ROUTING PROTOCOL FOR MANETs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pallavi Kaliyar

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available A mobile ad-hoc network (MANETs is an infrastructure less network in which the mobile nodes communicate with each other. Due to its various characteristics like highly dynamic topology and limited battery power of the nodes, routing is one of the key issue. Also, it is not possible to give a significant amount of power to the mobile nodes of ad-hoc networks. Because of all this the energy consumption is also an important issue. Due to limited battery power, some other issues like if some node gets fail, which results in loss of data packets and no reliable data transfer has been raised. In this paper, an algorithm is proposed for data transmission which detects the node failure (due to energy before it actually happens. Because of this network lifetime gets improved. The proposed routing algorithm is energy efficient as compared to AODV routing algorithm. The performance is analyzed on the basis of various performance metrics like Energy Consumption, Packet Delivery Ratio, Network Life Time, Network Routing Overhead and number of Exhausted nodes in the network by using the NS2 Simulator.

  11. Fusion as a future energy source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, D. J.

    2016-11-01

    Fusion remains the main source of energy generation in the Universe and is indirectly the origin of nearly all terrestrial energy (including fossil fuels) but it is the only fundamental energy source not used directly on Earth. Here we look at the characteristics of Earth-based fusion power, how it might contribute to future energy supply and what that tells us about the future direction of the R&D programme. The focus here is Magnetic Confinement Fusion although many of the points apply equally to inertial confinement fusion.

  12. CARDOON, RENEWABLE SOURCE OF ENERGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia NEAGU

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardoon (Cynara cardunculus is a herbaceous perennial plant in the vegetable, artichoke, wild or garden, which belongs to the Compositae family (Asteraceae Compositae-and more precisely Cynara species and is grown specifically for the production of biomass (solid bio fuel as a pellet, or solid and liquid bio fuel, bio diesel. In this paper I have tried to highlight the profitability and economic efficiency of growing of this plant. Production capacity exceeding 2 tonnes dry matter/1000mp. The yield depends on climatic conditions, adequate soil moisture, soil nutrients, and range from 1 to 3 t/1000mp, dry. Cardoon seed contains on average 24% oil (category: 19-32%, with the same qualities as the sunflower. Quantity of seed production to 480 kgs/1000mp, while ordinary productivities range 70 to 330 kg/1000mp, always depending on the total biomass production. Growing cardooncan replace traditional crops, partly by ensuring a good profit for the farmer (double the wheat and rapeseed and bio fuel production with high energy content. Solid bio fuels (pellets, briquettes, artichokes, etc. can reach the enduser, at prices up to 30-40% lower than the price of oil. Because cardoon is a perennial plant which grows once every 10-12 years, and preparing the ground and sowing it will be carried out at intervals so large (this plant is harvested annually,it is remarkable cost reduction efficiency of growing this plant.In addition to the obvious environmental advantages by producing green energy, growing artichokes garden preserves the soil covered for the most part of the year, thereby minimizing the risk of soil erosion and limit the pollution of soil and groundwater with agrochemical products, especially in areas with intensive agriculture, because it does not require additional fertilization and/or with the use of chemical fertilizers or pesticides.

  13. THE SEARCH FOR ALTERNATIVE ENERGY SOURCES:

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    Department of Crop Science and Technology. Federal University of ... source. Key words: Biodiesel, Alternative energy, Oil seeds, Jatropha, Moringa. ... Among the biofuel crops grown in Europe and the US, biodiesel is usually measured to be ...

  14. ALTERNATIVE SOURCES OF ENERGY - ALTERNATIVE SOURCES OF POLLUTION?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius-Razvan SURUGIU

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available In many countries of the world investments are made for obtaining energy efficiency, pursuing to increase the generation of non-polluting fuels due to the fact that energy is vital for any economy. The increase in non-polluting fuels and in renewable energy generation might lead to diminishing the dependence of countries less endowed with conventional energy resources on oil and natural gas from Russia or from Arab countries. Nevertheless, environmental issues represent serious questions facing the mankind, requiring the identification, prevention, and why not, their total solving.European Union countries depend on imports of energy, especially on oil imports. At the same time, the European Union countries record a high volume of greenhouse gas emissions, substances adding to global warming. The transport sector is the main consumer of fossil fuels and generator of greenhouse gas emissions. Therefore, diversifying the energy supply used in the transport sector with less polluting sources is an essential objective of the European Union policy in the transport, energy and environment sector. Road transports’ is the sector recording the highest consumption of energy and the highest volume of greenhouse gas emissions.The use of ecologic fuels in the transport sector is an important factor for achieving the objectives of European policies in the field. It is yet to be seen to what extent alternative energy sources are damaging to the environment, as it is a known fact that even for them is recorded a certain level of negative externalities.

  15. A High Reliability Frequency Stabilized Semiconductor Laser Source Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA needs high stability laser source of 1W output power for Lidar applications. Princeton Optronics has developed ultra-stable, narrow linewidth diode pumped solid...

  16. High-Energy Compton Scattering Light Sources

    CERN Document Server

    Hartemann, Fred V; Barty, C; Crane, John; Gibson, David J; Hartouni, E P; Tremaine, Aaron M

    2005-01-01

    No monochromatic, high-brightness, tunable light sources currently exist above 100 keV. Important applications that would benefit from such new hard x-ray sources include: nuclear resonance fluorescence spectroscopy, time-resolved positron annihilation spectroscopy, and MeV flash radiography. The peak brightness of Compton scattering light sources is derived for head-on collisions and found to scale with the electron beam brightness and the drive laser pulse energy. This gamma 2

  17. High Energy Sources Monitored with OMC

    CERN Document Server

    Risquez, D; Caballero-Garcia, M D; Alfonso-Garzon, J; Mas-Hesse, J M

    2008-01-01

    The Optical Monitoring Camera on-board INTEGRAL (OMC) provides Johnson V band photometry of any potentially variable source within its field of view. Taking advantage of the INTEGRAL capabilities allowing the simultaneous observation of different kind of objects in the optical, X and gamma rays bands, we have performed a study of the optical counterparts of different high-energy sources. Up to now, OMC has detected the optical counterpart for more than 100 sources from the High Energy Catalog (Ebisawa et al., 2003). The photometrically calibrated light curves produced by OMC can be accessed through our web portal at: http://sdc.laeff.inta.es/omc

  18. Fusion energy - an abundant energy source for the future

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    this goal, mankind will have a sustainable base load energy source with abundant resources, having no CO2 release, and with no longlived radioactive waste. This presentation will describe the basics of fusion energy production and the status and future prospects of the research. Considerations...

  19. Modeling of renewable hybrid energy sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dumitru Cristian Dragos

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent developments and trends in the electric power consumption indicate an increasing use of renewable energy. Renewable energy technologies offer the promise of clean, abundant energy gathered from self-renewing resources such as the sun, wind, earth and plants. Virtually all regions of the world have renewable resources of one type or another. By this point of view studies on renewable energies focuses more and more attention. The present paper intends to present different mathematical models related to different types of renewable energy sources such as: solar energy and wind energy. It is also presented the validation and adaptation of such models to hybrid systems working in geographical and meteorological conditions specific to central part of Transylvania region. The conclusions based on validation of such models are also shown.

  20. UP TO 100,000 RELIABLE STRONG GRAVITATIONAL LENSES IN FUTURE DARK ENERGY EXPERIMENTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serjeant, S. [Department of Physical Sciences, The Open University, Milton Keynes MK7 6AA (United Kingdom)

    2014-09-20

    The Euclid space telescope will observe ∼10{sup 5} strong galaxy-galaxy gravitational lens events in its wide field imaging survey over around half the sky, but identifying the gravitational lenses from their observed morphologies requires solving the difficult problem of reliably separating the lensed sources from contaminant populations, such as tidal tails, as well as presenting challenges for spectroscopic follow-up redshift campaigns. Here I present alternative selection techniques for strong gravitational lenses in both Euclid and the Square Kilometre Array, exploiting the strong magnification bias present in the steep end of the Hα luminosity function and the H I mass function. Around 10{sup 3} strong lensing events are detectable with this method in the Euclid wide survey. While only ∼1% of the total haul of Euclid lenses, this sample has ∼100% reliability, known source redshifts, high signal-to-noise, and a magnification-based selection independent of assumptions of lens morphology. With the proposed Square Kilometre Array dark energy survey, the numbers of reliable strong gravitational lenses with source redshifts can reach 10{sup 5}.

  1. Space-Qualifiable High Reliability Frequency-Stabilized CW Laser Source Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose the development and space qualification of a high reliability frequency-stabilized CW laser source at 1064 nm wavelength region to satisfy the...

  2. Space-Qualifiable High Reliability Frequency-Stabilized CW Laser Source Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose the SBIR Phase II effort to develop and space-qualify a 1.06 micron high reliability frequency-stabilized CW laser source that fully satisfies the...

  3. Open Source Energy Simulation for Elementary School

    CERN Document Server

    Lye, Sze Yee

    2012-01-01

    With the interactivity and multiple representation features, computer simulations lend itself to the guided inquiry learning. However, these simulations are usually designed for post-elementary students. Thus, the aim of this study is to investigate how the use of guided inquiry approach with customized energy simulation can improve students' understanding of this topic. In this ongoing research, the case study is adopted. In the first phase of the study, we have modified open source energy simulation based on principles for reducing extraneous processing, existing energy simulation and guided inquiry approach. The modified simulation is sent to teachers for evaluation and the feedback is encouraging. In the next phase of the study, the guided inquiry lesson package involving the energy simulation would be designed and deployed in an elementary classroom. Multiple data sources would be collected to seek a deeper understanding on how this learning package can possibly impact students' understanding of the phys...

  4. Forest biomass as an energy source

    Science.gov (United States)

    P.E. Laks; R.W. Hemingway; A. Conner

    1979-01-01

    The Task Force on Forest Biomass as an Energy Source was chartered by the Society of American Foresters on September 26, 1977, and took its present form following an amendment to the charter on October 5, 1977. It built upon the findings of two previous task forces, the Task Force on Energy and Forest Resources and the Task Force for Evaluation of the CORRIM Report (...

  5. Renewable Energy Sources for Electricity Generation

    OpenAIRE

    Norrga, Staffan; Stridh, Bengt; Meier, Stephan; Nee, Hans-Peter

    2012-01-01

    The use of conventional energy sources for electricity generation, such as fossil fuel combustion and nuclear power, is questioned because of environmental and safety issues and concerns about possible anthropogenic climate change. This has led to rapid developments in the field of renewable energy exploitation. Entire new fast-growing industries are formed to supply equipment for renewable power plants. The contribution from Swedish industry to this development has so far largely been limite...

  6. Rapid and reliable sky localization of gravitational wave sources

    CERN Document Server

    Cornish, Neil J

    2016-01-01

    The first detection of gravitational waves by LIGO from the merger of two compact objects has sparked new interest in detecting electromagnetic counterparts to these violent events. For mergers involving neutron stars, it is thought that prompt high-energy emission in gamma rays and x-rays will be followed days to weeks later by an afterglow in visible light, infrared and radio. Rapid sky localization using the data from a network of gravitational wave detectors is essential to maximize the chances of making a joint detection. Here I describe a new technique that is able to produce accurate, fully Bayesian sky maps in seconds or less. The technique can be applied to spin-precessing compact binaries, and can take into account detector calibration and spectral estimation uncertainties.

  7. Source reliability in a combined wind-solar-hydro system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traca de Almeida, A.; Martins, A.; Jesus, H.; Climaco, J.

    1983-06-01

    The results of an examination of the feasibility of using coupled wind-solar-hydro power generation systems to provide all of Portugal's electricity by the year 2000 are reported. Portugal used 15.6 TWh of electricity in 1981, of which hydro supplied 10 TWh. Demand is expected to reach 34 TWh in 2000 AD. The full development of hydropower resource would furnish 18 TWh and a storage capacity of 4.5 TWh. The installed hydro system could meet the peak demand of 6 GW, while solar cells and wind turbines must produce 16 TWh annually plus a reserve. The Growian wind turbine, 100 m tall, is considered for its 2.2 MW output. A coastal strip of wind turbines 150 x 20 km, with 1 km spacing between the machines, would be needed to produce 5.4 GW of power. Partially tracking solar cell arrays generating 9.4 GW of electricity would require an area of 100 sq km. Computer simulations of the annual rainfall, combined with projections of the variations in wind-solar output, demonstrates that a reserve margin of 1.20 will be necessary. The costs of installation of the renewable energy converters are estimated at about three times that currently necessary for obtaining the same capacity from fission power plants, although the situation may change due to import and technical considerations.

  8. Understanding Bulk Power Reliability: The Importance of Good Data and A Critical Review of Existing Sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisher, Emily; Eto, Joseph H.; LaCommare, Kristina Hamachi

    2011-10-19

    Bulk power system reliability is of critical importance to the electricity sector. Complete and accurate information on events affecting the bulk power system is essential for assessing trends and efforts to maintain or improve reliability. Yet, current sources of this information were not designed with these uses in mind. They were designed, instead, to support real-time emergency notification to industry and government first-responders. This paper reviews information currently collected by both industry and government sources for this purpose and assesses factors that might affect their usefulness in supporting the academic literature that has relied upon them to draw conclusions about the reliability of the US electric power system.

  9. Energy source possibilities in underwater technics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farin, Juho

    1991-04-01

    Underwater energy source possibilities are treated. The power demand of underwater vehicles is restricted to approximately 0.5 MW. Besides well known primary and secondary batteries as well as conventional diesel engines and closed cycle diesels, fuel cells, radio nuclear isotopes and small nuclear reactors have already been installed or tested in conditions representative of underwater.

  10. Power conversion from environmentally scavenged energy sources.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Druxman, Lee Daniel

    2007-09-01

    As the power requirements for modern electronics continue to decrease, many devices which were once dependent on wired power are now being implemented as portable devices operating from self-contained power sources. The most prominent source of portable power is the electrochemical battery, which converts chemical energy into electricity. However, long lasting batteries require large amounts of space for chemical storage, and inevitably require replacement when the chemical reaction no longer takes place. There are many transducers and scavenging energy sources (SES) that are able to exploit their environment to generate low levels of electrical power over a long-term time period, including photovoltaic cells, thermoelectric generators, thermionic generators, and kinetic/piezoelectric power generators. This generated power is sustainable as long as specific environmental conditions exist and also does not require the large volume of a long lifetime battery. In addition to the required voltage generation, stable power conversion requires excess energy to be efficiently stored in an ultracapacitor or similar device and monitoring control algorithms to be implemented, while computer modeling and simulation can be used to complement experimental testing. However, building an efficient and stable power source scavenged from a varying input source is challenging.

  11. Kansas Energy Sources: A Geological Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merriam, Daniel F., E-mail: dmerriam@kgs.ku.edu [University of Kansas (United States); Brady, Lawrence L.; Newell, K. David [University of Kansas, Kansas Geological Survey (United States)

    2012-03-15

    Kansas produces both conventional energy (oil, gas, and coal) and nonconventional (coalbed gas, wind, hydropower, nuclear, geothermal, solar, and biofuels) and ranks the 22nd in state energy production in the U.S. Nonrenewable conventional petroleum is the most important energy source with nonrenewable, nonconventional coalbed methane gas becoming increasingly important. Many stratigraphic units produce oil and/or gas somewhere in the state with the exception of the Salina Basin in north-central Kansas. Coalbed methane is produced from shallow wells drilled into the thin coal units in southeastern Kansas. At present, only two surface coal mines are active in southeastern Kansas. Although Kansas has been a major exporter of energy in the past (it ranked first in oil production in 1916), now, it is an energy importer.

  12. Compact Neutron Sources for Energy and Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uesaka, Mitsuru; Kobayashi, Hitoshi

    We choose nuclear data and nuclear material inspection for energy application, and nondestructive testing of explosive and hidden nuclear materials for security application. Low energy (˜100keV) electrostatic accelerators of deuterium are commercially available for nondestructive testing. For nuclear data measurement, electrostatic ion accelerators and L-band (1.428GHz) and S-band (2.856GHz) electron linear accelerators (linacs) are used for the neutron source. Compact or mobile X-band (9.3, 11.424GHz) electron linac neutron sources are under development. A compact proton linac neutron source is used for nondestructive testing, especially water in solids. Several efforts for more neutron intensity using proton and deuteron accelerators are also introduced.

  13. Burning plasmas in ITER for energy source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inoue, Nobuyuki [Atomic Energy Commission, Tokyo (Japan)

    2002-10-01

    Fusion research and development has two aspects. One is an academic research on science and technology, i.e., discovery and understanding of unexpected phenomena and, development of innovative technology, respectively. The other is energy source development to realize fusion as a viable energy future. Fusion research has been made remarkable progress in the past several decades, and ITER will soon realize burning plasma that is essential for both academic research and energy development. With ITER, scientific research on unknown phenomena such as self-organization of the plasma in burning state will become possible and it contributes to create a variety of academic outcome. Fusion researchers will have a responsibility to generate actual energy, and electricity generation immediately after the success of burning plasma control experiment in ITER is the next important step that has to be discussed seriously. (author)

  14. Reliability of quantitative EEG (qEEG) measures and LORETA current source density at 30 days.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannon, Rex L; Baldwin, Debora R; Shaw, Tiffany L; Diloreto, Dominic J; Phillips, Sherman M; Scruggs, Annie M; Riehl, Timothy C

    2012-06-14

    There is a growing interest for using quantitative EEG and LORETA current source density in clinical and research settings. Importantly, if these indices are to be employed in clinical settings then the reliability of these measures is of great concern. Neuroguide (Applied Neurosciences) is sophisticated software developed for the analyses of power, and connectivity measures of the EEG as well as LORETA current source density. To date there are relatively few data evaluating topographical EEG reliability contrasts for all 19 channels and no studies have evaluated reliability for LORETA calculations. We obtained 4 min eyes-closed and eyes-opened EEG recordings at 30-day intervals. The EEG was analyzed in Neuroguide and FFT power, coherence and phase was computed for traditional frequency bands (delta, theta, alpha and beta) and LORETA current source density was calculated in 1 Hz increments and summed for total power in eight regions of interest (ROI). In order to obtain a robust measure of reliability we utilized a random effects model with an absolute agreement definition. The results show very good reproducibility for total absolute power and coherence. Phase shows lower reliability coefficients. LORETA current source density shows very good reliability with an average 0.81 for ECB and 0.82 for EOB. Similarly, the eight regions of interest show good to very good agreement across time. Implications for future directions and use of qEEG and LORETA in clinical populations are discussed.

  15. A Hierarchical Energy Efficient Reliable Transport Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prabhudutta Mohanty

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The two important requirements for many Wireless Senor Networks (WSNs are prolonged network lifetime and end-to-end reliability. The sensor nodes consume more energy during data transmission than the data sensing. In WSN, the redundant data increase the energy consumption, latency and reduce reliability during data transmission. Therefore, it is important to support energy efficient reliable data transport in WSNs. In this paper, we present a Hierarchical Energy Efficient Reliable Transport Protocol (HEERTP for the data transmission within the WSN. This protocol maximises the network lifetime by controlling the redundant data transmission with the co-ordination of Base Station (BS. The proposed protocol also achieves end-to-end reliability using a hop-by-hop acknowledgement scheme. We evaluate the performance of the proposed protocol through simulation. The simulation results reveal that our proposed protocol achieves better performance in terms of energy efficiency, latency and reliability than the existing protocols.

  16. Commentary: Advances in Research on Sourcing-Source Credibility and Reliable Processes for Producing Knowledge Claims

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinn, Clark A.; Rinehart, Ronald W.

    2016-01-01

    In our commentary on this excellent set of articles on "Sourcing in the Reading Process," we endeavor to synthesize the findings from the seven articles and discuss future research. We discuss significant contributions related to source memory, source evaluation, use of sources in action and belief, integration of information from…

  17. Mono-energy coronary angiography with a compact light source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggl, Elena; Mechlem, Korbinian; Braig, Eva; Kulpe, Stephanie; Dierolf, Martin; Günther, Benedikt; Achterhold, Klaus; Herzen, Julia; Gleich, Bernhard; Rummeny, Ernst; Noël, Peter B.; Pfeiffer, Franz; Muenzel, Daniela

    2017-03-01

    While conventional x-ray tube sources reliably provide high-power x-ray beams for everyday clinical practice, the broad spectra that are inherent to these sources compromise the diagnostic image quality. For a monochromatic x-ray source on the other hand, the x-ray energy can be adjusted to optimal conditions with respect to contrast and dose. However, large-scale synchrotron sources impose high spatial and financial demands, making them unsuitable for clinical practice. During the last decades, research has brought up compact synchrotron sources based on inverse Compton scattering, which deliver a highly brilliant, quasi-monochromatic, tunable x-ray beam, yet fitting into a standard laboratory. One application that could benefit from the invention of these sources in clinical practice is coronary angiography. Being an important and frequently applied diagnostic tool, a high number of complications in angiography, such as renal failure, allergic reaction, or hyperthyroidism, are caused by the large amount of iodine-based contrast agent that is required for achieving sufficient image contrast. Here we demonstrate monochromatic angiography of a porcine heart acquired at the MuCLS, the first compact synchrotron source. By means of a simulation, the CNR in a coronary angiography image achieved with the quasi-mono-energetic MuCLS spectrum is analyzed and compared to a conventional x-ray-tube spectrum. The results imply that the improved CNR achieved with a quasi-monochromatic spectrum can allow for a significant reduction of iodine contrast material.

  18. Fusion - An energy source for synthetic fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fillo, J. A.; Powell, J.; Steinberg, M.

    1980-05-01

    An important first step in the synthesis of liquid and gaseous fuels is the production of hydrogen. Thermonuclear fusion offers an inexhaustible source of energy for the production of hydrogen from water. Depending on design, electric generation efficiencies of 40 to 60% and hydrogen production efficiencies by high temperature electrolysis of 50 to 70% are projected for fusion reactors using high temperature blankets. Fusion/coal symbiotic systems appear economically promising for the first generation of commercial fusion synfuels plants. In the long term, there could be a gradual transition to an inexhaustible energy system based solely on fusion.

  19. Cyanate as energy source for nitrifiers

    OpenAIRE

    Palatinszky, Marton; Herbold, Craig; Jehmlich, Nico; Pogoda, Mario; Han, Ping; von Bergen, Martin; Lagkouvardos, Ilias; Søren M Karst; Galushko, Alexander; Koch, Hanna; Berry, David; Daims, Holger; Wagner, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Ammonia- and nitrite-oxidizers are collectively responsible for the aerobic oxidation of ammonia via nitrite to nitrate and play essential roles for the global biogeochemical nitrogen cycle. The physiology of these nitrifying microbes has been intensively studied since the first experiments of Sergei Winogradsky more than a century ago. Urea and ammonia are the only recognized energy sources that promote the aerobic growth of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria and archaea. Here we report the aerobic ...

  20. Electric Power From Ambient Energy Sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeSteese, John G.; Hammerstrom, Donald J.; Schienbein, Lawrence A.

    2000-10-03

    This report summarizes research on opportunities to produce electric power from ambient sources as an alternative to using portable battery packs or hydrocarbon-fueled systems in remote areas. The work was an activity in the Advanced Concepts Project conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for the Office of Research and Development in the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Nonproliferation and National Security.

  1. Renewable energy sources 1991, part 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalicka, L.

    1991-12-01

    The Fourth International Conference on Renewable Energy Sources was held at Prague Technical University from 1-4 Jul. 1991. Part 3 of the proceedings contains a report on the conference and 10 contributions, of which 2 were inputted in INIS: one deals with the economic problems of wind-, solar- and oil-driven water pumps, the other deals with the decrease in sunshine brought about by the operation of Czechoslovak nuclear power plants.

  2. Nuclear energy such as an alternative energy source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Domingos, D.B.; Stecher, L.C.; Menzel, F.; Coelho, T.S.; Giariola, R.S, E-mail: douglasborgesdomingos@gmail.com [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    Nuclear power is still an unknown subject to many and ends up being left out when it comes to alternative energy sources and environmental preservation. Unfamiliarity and the disclosures information that are not always correct end up not to show the public the true risks and benefits of this source. The strength of public opinion is the main barrier to the advancement of this technology. So, this paper aims to demystify the villain aspect of nuclear energy that could become a major source for power generation. For this, will be made a historical retrospective of the theories that enabled the field of nuclear fission, the authors and key points, such as will be described how nuclear fission reaction is produced, controlled and sustained and how energy is produced, will be also made an argument on key facts that lead public opinion to stand up against nuclear power, as the generation of radioactive waste and nuclear weapons. Are presented possible solutions beyond the learning and improvements resulting from the occurred accidents. After these analyzes was observed that, besides being a potentially clean source for power generation, it can be safe in order that the waste generated are already safely managed and intelligence groups also monitor terrorist groups, seeking to ensure global security in relation to nuclear weapons and, at the issue of accidents, each event has brought learning and became the nuclear industry today, one of the safest. (author)

  3. Energy Security: The Pathway to a Cost-Effective, Efficient, and Reliable Energy Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-12

    reducing its dependence on oil. Many of these sources are already proven, or hold great promise. NUCLEAR ENERGY Chernobyl . Three-Mile Island. Any...energy sector, even though deaths from the Chernobyl "disaster" have yet to reach fifty. 96 Facts about the industry, and not nervous innuendo spurred by...both government and industry should look to expand where economically and socially feasible. BIOMASS Biomass uses plant, animal manure, or

  4. Reliability and Maintenance for Offshore Wind Turbines and Wave Energy Devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2015-01-01

    Wind turbines are in some countries contributing significantly the production of electricity and wave energy devices have the potential to be developed in a similarway. For both offshore wind turbines and wave energy devices reliability is a key issue since costs to operation and maintenance may...... be significant contributors to the Levelized Cost Of Energy and OM costs are highly dependent on the reliability of the components implying that it is important to focus on increasing the reliability as much as is economically reasonable. This paper describes basic aspects for reliability analysis of wind...... turbines and wave energy devices with special focus on structural components. The reliability assessment needs include the effects of the control system and possible faults due to failure of electrical/mechanical components and e.g. loss of grid connection. The target reliability level for wind turbine...

  5. Building Energy Management Open Source Software

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahman, Saifur [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ. (Virginia Tech), Blacksburg, VA (United States)

    2017-08-25

    Funded by the U.S. Department of Energy in November 2013, a Building Energy Management Open Source Software (BEMOSS) platform was engineered to improve sensing and control of equipment in small- and medium-sized commercial buildings. According to the Energy Information Administration (EIA), small- (5,000 square feet or smaller) and medium-sized (between 5,001 to 50,000 square feet) commercial buildings constitute about 95% of all commercial buildings in the U.S. These buildings typically do not have Building Automation Systems (BAS) to monitor and control building operation. While commercial BAS solutions exist, including those from Siemens, Honeywell, Johnsons Controls and many more, they are not cost effective in the context of small- and medium-sized commercial buildings, and typically work with specific controller products from the same company. BEMOSS targets small and medium-sized commercial buildings to address this gap.

  6. A new topology of fuel cell hybrid power source for efficient operation and high reliability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bizon, Nicu

    2011-03-01

    This paper analyzes a new fuel cell Hybrid Power Source (HPS) topology having the feature to mitigate the current ripple of the fuel cell inverter system. In the operation of the inverter system that is grid connected or supplies AC motors in vehicle application, the current ripple normally appears at the DC port of the fuel cell HPS. Consequently, if mitigation measures are not applied, this ripple is back propagated to the fuel cell stack. Other features of the proposed fuel cell HPS are the Maximum Power Point (MPP) tracking, high reliability in operation under sharp power pulses and improved energy efficiency in high power applications. This topology uses an inverter system directly powered from the appropriate fuel cell stack and a controlled buck current source as low power source used for ripple mitigation. The low frequency ripple mitigation is based on active control. The anti-ripple current is injected in HPS output node and this has the LF power spectrum almost the same with the inverter ripple. Consequently, the fuel cell current ripple is mitigated by the designed active control. The ripple mitigation performances are evaluated by indicators that are defined to measure the mitigation ratio of the low frequency harmonics. In this paper it is shown that good performances are obtained by using the hysteretic current control, but better if a dedicated nonlinear controller is used. Two ways to design the nonlinear control law are proposed. First is based on simulation trials that help to draw the characteristic of ripple mitigation ratio vs. fuel cell current ripple. The second is based on Fuzzy Logic Controller (FLC). The ripple factor is up to 1% in both cases.

  7. 75 FR 41166 - Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability; Notice of Reestablishment of the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-15

    ... of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability; Notice of Reestablishment of the Electricity Advisory... the Electricity Advisory Committee has been reestablished for a two-year period. The Committee will provide advice to the Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability (DOE), on its programs to...

  8. Distributed Energy Resources, Power Quality and Reliability - Background

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schienbein, Lawrence A.; DeSteese, John G.

    2002-01-31

    Power quality [PQ] and power reliability [PR] gained importance in the industrialized world as the pace of installation of sensitive appliances and other electrical loads by utility customers accelerated, beginning in the mid 1980s. Utility-grid-connected customers rapidly discovered that this equipment was increasingly sensitive to various abnormalities in the electricity supply.

  9. Test-retest reliability of resting-state magnetoencephalography power in sensor and source space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Buro, María Carmen; Garcés, Pilar; Maestú, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    Several studies have reported changes in spontaneous brain rhythms that could be used as clinical biomarkers or in the evaluation of neuropsychological and drug treatments in longitudinal studies using magnetoencephalography (MEG). There is an increasing necessity to use these measures in early diagnosis and pathology progression; however, there is a lack of studies addressing how reliable they are. Here, we provide the first test-retest reliability estimate of MEG power in resting-state at sensor and source space. In this study, we recorded 3 sessions of resting-state MEG activity from 24 healthy subjects with an interval of a week between each session. Power values were estimated at sensor and source space with beamforming for classical frequency bands: delta (2-4 Hz), theta (4-8 Hz), alpha (8-13 Hz), low beta (13-20 Hz), high beta (20-30 Hz), and gamma (30-45 Hz). Then, test-retest reliability was evaluated using the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). We also evaluated the relation between source power and the within-subject variability. In general, ICC of theta, alpha, and low beta power was fairly high (ICC > 0.6) while in delta and gamma power was lower. In source space, fronto-posterior alpha, frontal beta, and medial temporal theta showed the most reliable profiles. Signal-to-noise ratio could be partially responsible for reliability as low signal intensity resulted in high within-subject variability, but also the inherent nature of some brain rhythms in resting-state might be driving these reliability patterns. In conclusion, our results described the reliability of MEG power estimates in each frequency band, which could be considered in disease characterization or clinical trials.

  10. Cyanate as an energy source for nitrifiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palatinszky, Marton; Herbold, Craig; Jehmlich, Nico; Pogoda, Mario; Han, Ping; von Bergen, Martin; Lagkouvardos, Ilias; Karst, Søren M; Galushko, Alexander; Koch, Hanna; Berry, David; Daims, Holger; Wagner, Michael

    2015-08-06

    Ammonia- and nitrite-oxidizing microorganisms are collectively responsible for the aerobic oxidation of ammonia via nitrite to nitrate and have essential roles in the global biogeochemical nitrogen cycle. The physiology of nitrifiers has been intensively studied, and urea and ammonia are the only recognized energy sources that promote the aerobic growth of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria and archaea. Here we report the aerobic growth of a pure culture of the ammonia-oxidizing thaumarchaeote Nitrososphaera gargensis using cyanate as the sole source of energy and reductant; to our knowledge, the first organism known to do so. Cyanate, a potentially important source of reduced nitrogen in aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems, is converted to ammonium and carbon dioxide in Nitrososphaera gargensis by a cyanase enzyme that is induced upon addition of this compound. Within the cyanase gene family, this cyanase is a member of a distinct clade also containing cyanases of nitrite-oxidizing bacteria of the genus Nitrospira. We demonstrate by co-culture experiments that these nitrite oxidizers supply cyanase-lacking ammonia oxidizers with ammonium from cyanate, which is fully nitrified by this microbial consortium through reciprocal feeding. By screening a comprehensive set of more than 3,000 publically available metagenomes from environmental samples, we reveal that cyanase-encoding genes clustering with the cyanases of these nitrifiers are widespread in the environment. Our results demonstrate an unexpected metabolic versatility of nitrifying microorganisms, and suggest a previously unrecognized importance of cyanate in cycling of nitrogen compounds in the environment.

  11. Biochar As a Renewable Energy Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Richard

    2011-11-01

    Biochar is a form of charcoal prepared by heating biomass in limited air. It is porous and has high surface area, maintaining much of the morphology of the biomass. The heat for its preparation arises primarily from burning volatiles emitted upon heating. About half the chemical energy in the biomass is contained in the biochar, about 40% is used for the conversion, and about 10% may be used as a local heat source. The biochar can serve as a soil additive where it acts as a template for the growth of bacteria and fungi which then lead to improved growth of biomass by as much as several hundred percent. It remains inert in the soil for many years. Thus, it sequesters the carbon, originally coming from the carbon dioxide absorbed during the photosynthesis occurring during the growth of the biomass. Its use reduces fertilizer and water needs and to pollution arising from the run-off of fertilizer and emission of noxious vapors. Its use is best done at a local level, close to sources of biomass from farm and forest waste. The Pioneer Valley Biochar Initiative along with the Center of Agriculture of the University of Massachusetts, Amherst is promoting the use of biochar on local farms which reduces their dependence on energy arising from fossil fuel and nuclear sources.

  12. Energy efficiency and renewable energy sources in Nordic homes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hyysalo, S.; Rinkinen, J. [Aalto Univ. School of Economics, Helsinki (Finland). Dept. of Management and International Business; Heiskanen, E. [National Consumer Research Centre, Helsinki (Finland)

    2011-07-01

    The role of citizens as innovators, adaptors of existing technologies and diffusers of new climate-relevant innovations has been studied extensively in recent years. Since the late 1970s, sociological and demographic research on residential energy use has consistently found great variations in energy use among similar households. It has been suggested that these variations constitute a source of innovative low-carbon practices. Yet, while there are many generic technologies available for end-use efficiency and renewables, their slow rate of diffusion suggests that they are not as such applicable to local conditions. Citizens have a key role in their adoption and adaptation to local conditions, as well in their diffusion to other users. Against this backdrop, the track 4 of NCF called for poster presentations of innovative new products, modifications of existing products, news ways of make use of existing technologies as well as such living practices that reduce energy use or enable the utilization of renewable energy sources in domestic settings in the Nordic countries. (orig.)

  13. PASOTRON high-energy microwave source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goebel, Dan M.; Schumacher, Robert W.; Butler, Jennifer M.; Hyman, Jay, Jr.; Santoru, Joseph; Watkins, Ron M.; Harvey, Robin J.; Dolezal, Franklin A.; Eisenhart, Robert L.; Schneider, Authur J.

    1992-04-01

    A unique, high-energy microwave source, called PASOTRON (Plasma-Assisted Slow-wave Oscillator), has been developed. The PASOTRON utilizes a long-pulse E-gun and plasma- filled slow-wave structure (SWS) to produce high-energy pulses from a simple, lightweight device that utilizes no externally produced magnetic fields. Long pulses are obtained from a novel E-gun that employs a low-pressure glow discharge to provide a stable, high current- density electron source. The electron accelerator consists of a high-perveance, multi-aperture array. The E-beam is operated in the ion-focused regime where the plasma filling the SWS space-charge neutralizes the beam, and the self-pinch force compresses the beamlets and increases the beam current density. A scale-model PASOTRON, operating as a backward- wave oscillator in C-band with a 100-kV E-beam, has produced output powers in the 3 to 5 MW range and pulse lengths of over 100 microsecond(s) ec, corresponding to an integrated energy per pulse of up to 500 J. The E-beam to microwave-radiation power conversion efficiency is about 20%.

  14. Impact of Distributed Energy Resources on the Reliability of a Critical Telecommunications Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robinson, D.; Atcitty, C.; Zuffranieri, J.; Arent, D.

    2006-03-01

    Telecommunications has been identified by the Department of Homeland Security as a critical infrastructure to the United States. Failures in the power systems supporting major telecommunications service nodes are a main contributor to major telecommunications outages, as documented by analyses of Federal Communications Commission (FCC) outage reports by the National Reliability Steering Committee (under auspices of the Alliance for Telecommunications Industry Solutions). There are two major issues that are having increasing impact on the sensitivity of the power distribution to telecommunication facilities: deregulation of the power industry, and changing weather patterns. A logical approach to improve the robustness of telecommunication facilities would be to increase the depth and breadth of technologies available to restore power in the face of power outages. Distributed energy resources such as fuel cells and gas turbines could provide one more onsite electric power source to provide backup power, if batteries and diesel generators fail. But does the diversity in power sources actually increase the reliability of offered power to the office equipment, or does the complexity of installing and managing the extended power system induce more potential faults and higher failure rates? This report analyzes a system involving a telecommunications facility consisting of two switch-bays and a satellite reception system.

  15. Towards consistent and reliable Dutch and international energy statistics for the chemical industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neelis, M.L.; Pouwelse, J.W.

    2008-01-01

    Consistent and reliable energy statistics are of vital importance for proper monitoring of energy-efficiency policies. In recent studies, irregularities have been reported in the Dutch energy statistics for the chemical industry. We studied in depth the company data that form the basis of the energy

  16. Design for Reliability of Power Electronics in Renewable Energy Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma, Ke; Yang, Yongheng; Wang, Huai

    2014-01-01

    Power electronics is the enabling technology for maximizing the power captured from renewable electrical generation, e.g., the wind and solar technology, and also for an efficient integration into the grid. Therefore, it is important that the power electronics are reliable and do not have too many...... failures during operation which otherwise will increase cost for operation, maintenance and reputation. Typically, power electronics in renewable electrical generation has to be designed for 20–30 years of operation, and in order to do that, it is crucial to know about the mission profile of the power...... and demonstrate how the power electronics is loaded under different stressors. Further, some systematic methods to design the power electronics technology for reliability will be given and demonstrated with two cases—one is a wind power and the other is photovoltaic application....

  17. High energy neutrinos from astrophysical sources

    CERN Document Server

    Perrone, L

    2002-01-01

    Summary form only given. High energy muon neutrinos coming from astrophysical sources could be detected as upward-going muons produced in charged-current interactions of nu /sub mu /'s with the matter surrounding the detector. About 1300 events have been analyzed. We present the results of a search for either a diffuse astrophysical neutrino flux or a point-like source of neutrinos in the sample of upward-going muons gathered by MACRO. We find no evidence for either type of signal. The muon flux upper limit for the diffuse signal has been set at the level of 1.5*10/sup -14/cm/sup -2/ s/sup -1/ sr/sup -1/. (1 refs).

  18. Reliability Assessment Considering the Coordination of Wind Power, Solar Energy and Energy Storage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Haiying; BAI Xiaomin; XU Jing

    2012-01-01

    Large-scale integration of wind power and solar photovoltaic (PV) power in an electric grid can result in a high operating risk due to their randomness and intermi- ttency. Energy storage (ES) can be used to coordinate with them to reduce this risk by improving supply continuity. It is therefore important to evaluate the reliability benefits of systems consist of wind power, solar photovoltaic power and energy storage. The objective of this paper is to evaluate how the parameters such as the capacity and characteristics of ES and the configuration of a hybrid generation system (HGS) affect the system adequacy based on the sequential Monte Carlo approach.

  19. A heuristic-based approach for reliability importance assessment of energy producers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akhavein, A., E-mail: a_akhavein@azad.ac.i [Department of Engineering, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Fotuhi Firuzabad, M., E-mail: fotuhi@sharif.ed [Department of Electrical Engineering, Sharif University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2011-03-15

    Reliability of energy supply is one of the most important issues of service quality. On one hand, customers usually have different expectations for service reliability and price. On the other hand, providing different level of reliability at load points is a challenge for system operators. In order to take reasonable decisions and obviate reliability implementation difficulties, market players need to know impacts of their assets on system and load-point reliabilities. One tool to specify reliability impacts of assets is the criticality or reliability importance measure by which system components can be ranked based on their effect on reliability. Conventional methods for determination of reliability importance are essentially on the basis of risk sensitivity analysis and hence, impose prohibitive calculation burden in large power systems. An approach is proposed in this paper to determine reliability importance of energy producers from perspective of consumers or distribution companies in a composite generation and transmission system. In the presented method, while avoiding immense computational burden, the energy producers are ranked based on their rating, unavailability and impact on power flows in the lines connecting to the considered load points. Study results on the IEEE reliability test system show successful application of the proposed method. - Research highlights: {yields} Required reliability level at load points is a concern in modern power systems. {yields} It is important to assess reliability importance of energy producers or generators. {yields} Generators can be ranked based on their impacts on power flow to a selected area. {yields} Ranking of generators is an efficient tool to assess their reliability importance.

  20. Energy-Efficient Reliability-Aware Scheduling Algorithm on Heterogeneous Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyong Tang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The amount of energy needed to operate high-performance computing systems increases regularly since some years at a high pace, and the energy consumption has attracted a great deal of attention. Moreover, high energy consumption inevitably contains failures and reduces system reliability. However, there has been considerably less work of simultaneous management of system performance, reliability, and energy consumption on heterogeneous systems. In this paper, we first build the precedence-constrained parallel applications and energy consumption model. Then, we deduce the relation between reliability and processor frequencies and get their parameters approximation value by least squares curve fitting method. Thirdly, we establish a task execution reliability model and formulate this reliability and energy aware scheduling problem as a linear programming. Lastly, we propose a heuristic Reliability-Energy Aware Scheduling (REAS algorithm to solve this problem, which can get good tradeoff among system performance, reliability, and energy consumption with lower complexity. Our extensive simulation performance evaluation study clearly demonstrates the tradeoff performance of our proposed heuristic algorithm.

  1. Photovoltaics as a worldwide energy source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, G. J.

    Photovoltaic energy systems have historically been treated as a bulk power generation source for the future. However, utilities and other agencies involved with electrification throughout the world are beginning to find photovoltaics a least-cost option to meet specific loads both for themselves and their customers, in both off-grid and grid-connected applications. These expanding markets offer the potential of hundreds of megawatts of sales in the coming decade, but a strategy addressing both industrial growth and user acceptance is necessary to capitalize on this opportunity.

  2. Radiant Energy Power Source for Jet Aircraft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doellner, O.L.

    1992-02-01

    This report beings with a historical overview on the origin and early beginnings of Radiant Energy Power Source for Jet Aircraft. The report reviews the work done in Phase I (Grant DE-FG01-82CE-15144) and then gives a discussion of Phase II (Grant DE-FG01-86CE-15301). Included is a reasonably detailed discussion of photovoltaic cells and the research and development needed in this area. The report closes with a historical perspective and summary related to situations historically encountered on projects of this nature. 15 refs.

  3. Energy Recovery Linacs for Light Source Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    George Neil

    2011-04-01

    Energy Recovery Linacs are being considered for applications in present and future light sources. ERLs take advantage of the continuous operation of superconducting rf cavities to accelerate high average current beams with low losses. The electrons can be directed through bends, undulators, and wigglers for high brightness x ray production. They are then decelerated to low energy, recovering power so as to minimize the required rf drive and electrical draw. When this approach is coupled with advanced continuous wave injectors, very high power, ultra-short electron pulse trains of very high brightness can be achieved. This paper will review the status of worldwide programs and discuss the technology challenges to provide such beams for photon production.

  4. Outlook for alternative energy sources. [aviation fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Card, M. E.

    1980-01-01

    Predictions are made concerning the development of alternative energy sources in the light of the present national energy situation. Particular emphasis is given to the impact of alternative fuels development on aviation fuels. The future outlook for aircraft fuels is that for the near term, there possibly will be no major fuel changes, but minor specification changes may be possible if supplies decrease. In the midterm, a broad cut fuel may be used if current development efforts are successful. As synfuel production levels increase beyond the 1990's there may be some mixtures of petroleum-based and synfuel products with the possibility of some shale distillate and indirect coal liquefaction products near the year 2000.

  5. FINANCING RENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCES INVESTMENT IN POLAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerzy Piotr Gwizdała

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In Poland, as in other European Union countries, the project finance structure is used to finance investments in the field of energy. This method investment financing is often used in the world. The upward trend inhibition in recent periods has been due to the global financial crisis and financial instability in the euro zone. On account of the necessity to develop the energy infrastructure associated with renewable sources, the considerable strengthening in the use of project finance techniques can be expected. The particular progression may be observed in the case of public-private partnership (ppp, where public investments are carried out by private companies. Companies, in case of investment realization in the field of ppp, almost always use project finance, because it is a beneficial way to separate the risks associated with an investment from the balance sheet of the compa-ny.

  6. SO2 - An indirect source of energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kriek, R.J.; Van Ravenswaay, J.P.; Potgieter, M.

    2013-01-01

    Global sulphur dioxide (SO2) emissions peaked around the mid- 1970s, after which they declined. However, with the growth of specifically China, emissions are on the rise again. In 2008, global anthropogenic SO2 emissions totalled 127 Mt, with energy production accounting for 63.2 Mt and metal......-related processes 12.8 Mt. As a well-known gaseous pollutant, SO2 is not per se known as a source of energy. However, in the presence of water SO2 can be electro-oxidized at the anode of an electrolyser to produce hydrogen ions, which in turn can be reduced at the cathode of the electrolyser to produce hydrogen gas...

  7. Utilizing alternative energy sources in France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magnien, M.

    1977-01-01

    The relative merits of various alternative-energy sources are discussed with particular reference to their suitability in the French context. The case is presented for decentralized solar power as against centralized solar-power production and some test installations in France are described. The potential for geothermal power is examined, and it is shown that the resource is essentially nonrenewable. A history of wind generation in France is presented, and power extraction from the seas is discussed, with particular reference to the Rance tidal-power scheme. While the public romance with alternative-energy schemes is accepted, it is pointed out that this may only last for as long as their implementation is on a small scale.

  8. Spherical explosion with central energy source

    CERN Document Server

    Masuyama, Miyu; Tsuboki, Yoichiro

    2015-01-01

    We present a novel semi-analytic solution describing the propagation of a spherical blast wave driven by a central energy source. The initial density profile has a power-law function of the distance from the center and the energy is injected only into the central region at a rate given by a power-law function of time. This solution is composed of three regions separated by the contact surface and the shock front. The innermost region is assumed to be uniform and the outside of the contact surface includes the shocked matter described by self-similar solutions. We analytically derive the applicable range of parameters of this solution from requirements to satisfy boundary conditions. We perform numerical simulations for flows with various values of parameters, some of which reside out of the thus derived applicable range, and compare with the semi-analytic solutions.

  9. Solar-hydrogen energy as an alternative energy source for mobile robots and the new-age car

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulaiman, A.; Inambao, F.; Bright, G.

    2014-07-01

    The disastrous effects of climate change as witnessed in recent violent storms, and the stark reality that fossil fuels are not going to last forever, is certain to create renewed demands for alternative energy sources. One such alternative source, namely solar energy, although unreliable because of its dependence on available sunlight, can nevertheless be utilised to generate a secondary source of energy, namely hydrogen, which can be stored and thereby provide a constant and reliable source of energy. The only draw-back with hydrogen, though, is finding efficient means for its storage. This study demonstrates how this problem can be overcome by the use of metal hydrides which offers a very compact and safe way of storing hydrogen. It also provides a case study of how solar and hydrogen energy can be combined in an energy system to provide an efficient source of energy that can be applied for modern technologies such as a mobile robot. Hydrogen energy holds out the most promise amongst the various alternative energy sources, so much so that it is proving to be the energy source of choice for automobile manufacturers in their quest for alternative fuels to power their cars of the future.

  10. Microalgae: An Alternative Source of Renewable Energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Z. A. Saifullah

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an overview on the potentiality of microalgae with particular emphasis as a sustainable renewable energy source for biodiesel. One of the most important dilemmas of the modern world is to supply maximal amount of energy with minimal environmental impact. The total energy demand of our planet is increasing with population growth whereas the fossil fuel reserves are dwindling swiftly. Biodiesel produced from biomass is widely considered to be one of the most sustainable alternatives to fossil fuels and a viable means for energy security and environmental and economic sustainability. But as a large area of arable land is required to cultivate biodiesel producing terrestrial plants, it may lead towards food scarcity and deforestation. Microalgae have a number of characteristics that allow the production concepts of biodiesel which are significantly more sustainable than their alternatives. Microalgae possess high biomass productivity, oils with high lipid content, fast growth rates, possibility of utilizing marginal and infertile land, capable of growing in salt water and waste streams, and capable of utilizing solar light and CO2 gas as nutrients.

  11. People’s Perceptions on Renewable Energy Sources Penetration Prospects in the Khorezm Province, Uzbekistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahtiyor R. ESHCHANOV

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The energy sectors of fossil fuel-rich Kazakhstan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan are heavily dependent on non-renewable resources. The abundance of these resources acts as a retardant the process of energy diversification in the above mentioned Central Asian states. Nevertheless, the future diversification of energy sources is an inevitable process due to many reasons; man-made climate change, the need for transition to reliable and secure energy sources and availability of a vast potential for renewable energy generation being the most important ones.

  12. Using Ground Source Heat Pumps for Renewable Energy

    OpenAIRE

    Xhevat BERISHA

    2017-01-01

    This paper provides background information on the current energy supply, energy demand, and energy sources in Kosovo. Moreover, it presents the country‟s current level of applying alternative energy sources. Additionally, this paper focuses on geothermal energy as a renewable energy resource with the potential to contribute to a sustainable use of resources to meet renewable energy and energy efficiency requirements of the European Union (EU), “EU 20 20 by 2020” policy. Hence, a careful analy...

  13. Multi-wavelength identification of high-energy sources

    CERN Document Server

    Mignani, R P

    2009-01-01

    The nature of most of the ~300 high-energy gamma-ray sources discovered by the EGRET instrument aboard the Gamma-ray Observatory (GRO) between 1991 and 1999 is one of the greatest enigmas in high-energy astrophysics. While about half of the extragalactic sources have been optically identified with Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN), only a meagre 10% of the galactic sources have a reliable identification. This low success rate has mainly to be ascribed to the local crowding of potential optical counterparts and to the large gamma-ray error boxes (of the order of one degree in radius) which prevented a straightforward optical identification. Indeed, a multi-wavelength identification strategy, based on a systematic coverage of the gamma-ray error boxes, has been the only do-able approach. The situation is now greatly improving thanks to the observations performed by the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope which, thanks to the LAT instrument, provides a factor of 50 improvement in sensitivity and a factor of 10 improvemen...

  14. Building Energy Management Open Source Software

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2017-06-20

    This is the repository for Building Energy Management Open Source Software (BEMOSS), which is an open source operating system that is engineered to improve sensing and control of equipment in small- and medium-sized commercial buildings. BEMOSS offers the following key features: (1) Open source, open architecture – BEMOSS is an open source operating system that is built upon VOLTTRON – a distributed agent platform developed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). BEMOSS was designed to make it easy for hardware manufacturers to seamlessly interface their devices with BEMOSS. Software developers can also contribute to adding additional BEMOSS functionalities and applications. (2) Plug & play – BEMOSS was designed to automatically discover supported load controllers (including smart thermostats, VAV/RTUs, lighting load controllers and plug load controllers) in commercial buildings. (3) Interoperability – BEMOSS was designed to work with load control devices form different manufacturers that operate on different communication technologies and data exchange protocols. (4) Cost effectiveness – Implementation of BEMOSS deemed to be cost-effective as it was built upon a robust open source platform that can operate on a low-cost single-board computer, such as Odroid. This feature could contribute to its rapid deployment in small- or medium-sized commercial buildings. (5) Scalability and ease of deployment – With its multi-node architecture, BEMOSS provides a distributed architecture where load controllers in a multi-floor and high occupancy building could be monitored and controlled by multiple single-board computers hosting BEMOSS. This makes it possible for a building engineer to deploy BEMOSS in one zone of a building, be comfortable with its operation, and later on expand the deployment to the entire building to make it more energy efficient. (6) Ability to provide local and remote monitoring – BEMOSS provides both local and remote monitoring

  15. Cyanate as energy source for nitrifiers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palatinszky, Marton; Herbold, Craig; Jehmlich, Nico; Pogoda, Mario; Han, Ping; von Bergen, Martin; Lagkouvardos, Ilias; Karst, Søren M.; Galushko, Alexander; Koch, Hanna; Berry, David; Daims, Holger; Wagner, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Ammonia- and nitrite-oxidizers are collectively responsible for the aerobic oxidation of ammonia via nitrite to nitrate and play essential roles for the global biogeochemical nitrogen cycle. The physiology of these nitrifying microbes has been intensively studied since the first experiments of Sergei Winogradsky more than a century ago. Urea and ammonia are the only recognized energy sources that promote the aerobic growth of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria and archaea. Here we report the aerobic growth of a pure culture of the ammonia-oxidizing thaumarchaeote Nitrososphaera gargensis1 on cyanate as the sole source of energy and reductant, the first organism known to do so. Cyanate, which is a potentially important source of reduced nitrogen in aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems2, is converted to ammonium and CO2 by this archaeon using a cyanase that is induced upon addition of this compound. Within the cyanase gene family, this cyanase is a member of a distinct clade that also contains cyanases of nitrite-oxidizing bacteria of the genus Nitrospira. We demonstrate by co-culture experiments that these nitrite-oxidizers supply ammonia-oxidizers lacking cyanase with ammonium from cyanate, which is fully nitrified by this consortium through reciprocal feeding. Screening of a comprehensive set of more than 3,000 publically available metagenomes from environmental samples revealed that cyanase-encoding genes clustering with the cyanases of these nitrifiers are widespread in the environment. Our results demonstrate an unexpected metabolic versatility of nitrifying microbes and suggest a previously unrecognized importance of cyanate for N-cycling in the environment. PMID:26222031

  16. Study of laser vaporization of mercury: application to the energy enhancement of a VUV coherent source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philippet, L.; Chénais, S.; Forget, S.; Castex, M.-C.

    We developed a reliable and convenient source of coherent pulsed radiation at 125 nm obtained by resonant four-wave-mixing in a mercury vapour. Recently, we improved the yield of the source by using a pulsed laser to create an ablation plume of mercury atoms, in which the nonlinear mixing takes place with increased efficiency. We discuss here the characteristics of the plume created by mercury vaporization, in relation to the energy source enhancement.

  17. Reliability of Coulomb stress changes inferred from correlated uncertainties of finite-fault source models

    KAUST Repository

    Woessner, J.

    2012-07-14

    Static stress transfer is one physical mechanism to explain triggered seismicity. Coseismic stress-change calculations strongly depend on the parameterization of the causative finite-fault source model. These models are uncertain due to uncertainties in input data, model assumptions, and modeling procedures. However, fault model uncertainties have usually been ignored in stress-triggering studies and have not been propagated to assess the reliability of Coulomb failure stress change (ΔCFS) calculations. We show how these uncertainties can be used to provide confidence intervals for co-seismic ΔCFS-values. We demonstrate this for the MW = 5.9 June 2000 Kleifarvatn earthquake in southwest Iceland and systematically map these uncertainties. A set of 2500 candidate source models from the full posterior fault-parameter distribution was used to compute 2500 ΔCFS maps. We assess the reliability of the ΔCFS-values from the coefficient of variation (CV) and deem ΔCFS-values to be reliable where they are at least twice as large as the standard deviation (CV ≤ 0.5). Unreliable ΔCFS-values are found near the causative fault and between lobes of positive and negative stress change, where a small change in fault strike causes ΔCFS-values to change sign. The most reliable ΔCFS-values are found away from the source fault in the middle of positive and negative ΔCFS-lobes, a likely general pattern. Using the reliability criterion, our results support the static stress-triggering hypothesis. Nevertheless, our analysis also suggests that results from previous stress-triggering studies not considering source model uncertainties may have lead to a biased interpretation of the importance of static stress-triggering.

  18. Potential evaluation of biomass-based energy sources for Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Mustafa Ozcan; Semra Öztürk; Yuksel Oguz

    2015-01-01

    Turkey has great potential with respect to renewable energy sources (RES) and, among such sources, “biomass energy” is of particular importance. The purpose of this study is to determine the primary electrical energy potential obtainable from the biomass potential, according to different biomass source types. In this study, the biomass sources of municipal solid wastes, energy crops, animal manure and urban wastewater treatment sludge are evaluated. For each source, individual biogas and biom...

  19. Use and perceptions of information among family physicians: sources considered accessible, relevant, and reliable

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosteniuk, Julie G.; Morgan, Debra G.; D'Arcy, Carl K.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: The research determined (1) the information sources that family physicians (FPs) most commonly use to update their general medical knowledge and to make specific clinical decisions, and (2) the information sources FPs found to be most physically accessible, intellectually accessible (easy to understand), reliable (trustworthy), and relevant to their needs. Methods: A cross-sectional postal survey of 792 FPs and locum tenens, in full-time or part-time medical practice, currently practicing or on leave of absence in the Canadian province of Saskatchewan was conducted during the period of January to April 2008. Results: Of 666 eligible physicians, 331 completed and returned surveys, resulting in a response rate of 49.7% (331/666). Medical textbooks and colleagues in the main patient care setting were the top 2 sources for the purpose of making specific clinical decisions. Medical textbooks were most frequently considered by FPs to be reliable (trustworthy), and colleagues in the main patient care setting were most physically accessible (easy to access). Conclusions: When making specific clinical decisions, FPs were most likely to use information from sources that they considered to be reliable and generally physically accessible, suggesting that FPs can best be supported by facilitating easy and convenient access to high-quality information. PMID:23405045

  20. 46 CFR 111.10-5 - Multiple energy sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Multiple energy sources. 111.10-5 Section 111.10-5...-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Power Supply § 111.10-5 Multiple energy sources. Failure of any single generating set energy source such as a boiler, diesel, gas turbine, or steam turbine must not cause all generating...

  1. Self-Calibrated Energy-Efficient and Reliable Channels for On-Chip Interconnection Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Po-Tsang Huang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Energy-efficient and reliable channels are provided for on-chip interconnection networks (OCINs using a self-calibrated voltage scaling technique with self-corrected green (SCG coding scheme. This self-calibrated low-power coding and voltage scaling technique increases reliability and reduces energy consumption simultaneously. The SCG coding is a joint bus and error correction coding scheme that provides a reliable mechanism for channels. In addition, it achieves a significant reduction in energy consumption via a joint triplication bus power model for crosstalk avoidance. Based on SCG coding scheme, the proposed self-calibrated voltage scaling technique adjusts voltage swing for energy reduction. Furthermore, this technique tolerates timing variations. Based on UMC 65 nm CMOS technology, the proposed channels reduces energy consumption by nearly 28.3% compared with that for uncoded channels at the lowest voltage. This approach makes the channels of OCINs tolerant of transient malfunctions and realizes energy efficiency.

  2. Current Source Converter Based Wind Energy Conversion Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Samir Kouro; Jing-ya DAI; Bin WU

    2011-01-01

    The increase in the installed capacity of wind energy conversion systems (WECS) has triggered the development of more demanding grid codes and additional requirements on performance.In order to meet these requirements the industry trend has shifted to full-scale power converter interfaces in modern multi-megawatt WECS.As consequence,a wide variety of new power converter topologies and WECS configurations have been introduced in recent years.Among them,current source converter(CSC) based configurations have attracted attention due to a series of advantages like:simple structure,grid friendly waveforms,controllable power factor,and reliable grid short-circuit protection.This paper presents the latest developments in CSC interfaces for WECS and related technologies such as modulation methods,control schemes and grid code compatibility.

  3. Electric discharge excitation and energy source integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosjean, D. F.

    1985-01-01

    Methods of transferring energy from electrical storage to an electro-negative gas discharge at high repetition rates of approx. modeling of the pertinent kinetics of a He/Xe/HCl gas mixture which was performed in conjunction with various configurations of pulse-forming networks is described; gas thyratrons and magnetic switches were used as switching elements. Due to the relatively constant E/N characterisitics of this system, a stripline arrangement is shown to provide the most efficient method of energy transfer for pulse lengths approx < 50 nsec. Capacitor discharge methods are applicable to shorter pulse lengths. Construction of a closed-cycled, high-rep-rate XeCl gas-discharge laser is described. Operation of an X-ray preionized system at 1.5 kHz is also detailed; no contamination was observed in this configuration. The application of the XeCl laser as a pump source for a high-rep-rate, high-average-power dye laser is also described. A flowing-dye jet was utilized in order to avoid liquid-cell boundary-layer problems of a fast-flow stream. The optical quality of the jet stream was the limiting factor in achieving the power goals. A method of achieving high efficiency in a rare-gas-halide system is proposed via a magnetic switch and prepulse arrangement in conjunctions with a stripline PFN.

  4. Utilization of Wastes as an Alternative Energy Source for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Utilization of Wastes as an Alternative Energy Source for Sustainable Development: A REVIEW. ... for energy and to address environmental concerns, a conversion from conventional energy systems to renewable resources is essential. For the ...

  5. New renewable energy sources; Nye fornybare energikilder. Revidert utgave 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-06-01

    This publication presents a review of the technological, economical and market status in the field of new renewable energy sources. It also deals briefly with the present use of energy, external conditions for new renewable energy sources and prospects for these energy sources in a future energy system. The renewable energy sources treated here are ''new'' in the sense that hydroelectric energy technology is excluded, being fully developed commercially. This publication updates a previous version, which was published in 1996. The main sections are: (1) Introduction, (2) Solar energy, (3) Bio energy, (4) Wind power, (5) Energy from the sea, (6) Hydrogen, (7) Other new renewable energy technologies and (8) New renewables in the energy system of the future.

  6. Multi-port power electronic interface for renewable energy sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Wei

    Energy intensive products and services are penetrating people's daily life as well as different sectors of industry during recent decades. Further effort to improve efficiency, reduce green house gas and hazardous particle emission lead to the emergence of the "more electric" concept in several industries including transportation. This trend, however, burdens the aging power system and existing local power networks. To offer a remedy to the problem and a smooth transition to a more reliable, more diverse, and more efficient power grid of the future, the concept of Multi-port Power Electronic Interface (MPEI) for localized power processing is introduced in this dissertation, which interfaces and manages various sources, loads and storages. Different means of integrating multiple sources and storages into the existing power system are studied and evaluated; the six phase-leg structure is chosen to interface five sources/loads: fuel cell, wind turbine, solar cell, battery and utility grid. Partitioning of source-interface and load-interface on a system level as well as analysis and modeling on small signal level are performed. A novel control structure for source-interface is proposed in the design, which forms Controlled Quasi Current Source (CQCS) during the load sharing operation and offers several salient advantages: • Inherent average current-mode control. • Easy share of steady state current/power. • Share of load dynamics for better source protection. Local control loops for various input ports are designed based on linearized system model; controller performance is tuned to accommodate the characteristics of different sources. To maintain a sustainable operation, different modes of operation are defined for MPEI; detailed state-transition with associated events are also defined in each operation mode. Prototype of MPEI is built and control system is implemented digitally in a digital signal processor; steady state and transient performance of MPEI is

  7. Energy based reliable multicast routing protocol for packet forwarding in MANET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Gopinath

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Mobile Ad hoc Network consists of mobile nodes without any assisting infrastructure. Mobility of nodes causes network partition. This leads to heavy overhead and less packet forwarding ratio. In this research work, Residual Energy based Reliable Multicast Routing Protocol (RERMR is proposed to attain more network lifetime and increased packet delivery and forwarding rate. A multicast backbone is constructed to achieve more stability based on node familiarity and trustable loop. Reliable path criterion is estimated to choose best reliable path among all available paths. Data packets will be forwarded once the reliable path is chosen. We have also demonstrated that residual energy of paths aids to provide maximum network lifetime. Based on the simulation results, the proposed work achieves better performance than previous protocols in terms of packet reliability rate, network stability rate, end to end delay, end to end transmission and communication overhead.

  8. Potential evaluation of biomass-based energy sources for Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Ozcan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Turkey has great potential with respect to renewable energy sources (RES and, among such sources, “biomass energy” is of particular importance. The purpose of this study is to determine the primary electrical energy potential obtainable from the biomass potential, according to different biomass source types. In this study, the biomass sources of municipal solid wastes, energy crops, animal manure and urban wastewater treatment sludge are evaluated. For each source, individual biogas and biomass energy potential calculations are made. Methods for energy conversion from wastes applicable to the conditions of Turkey, and technical and economic parameters are used. As a result of the calculations made, the total primary energy value of biogas obtainable from the examined sources is 188.21 TWh/year. The total primary energy value related to the potential of the evaluated biomass sources is 278.40 TWh/year.

  9. Constructing the 'Best' Reliability Data for the Job - Developing Generic Reliability Data from Alternative Sources Early in a Product's Development Phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinhammer, Roger K.; Graber, Robert R.; DeMott, D. L.

    2016-01-01

    Reliability practitioners advocate getting reliability involved early in a product development process. However, when assigned to estimate or assess the (potential) reliability of a product or system early in the design and development phase, they are faced with lack of reasonable models or methods for useful reliability estimation. Developing specific data is costly and time consuming. Instead, analysts rely on available data to assess reliability. Finding data relevant to the specific use and environment for any project is difficult, if not impossible. Instead, analysts attempt to develop the "best" or composite analog data to support the assessments. Industries, consortia and vendors across many areas have spent decades collecting, analyzing and tabulating fielded item and component reliability performance in terms of observed failures and operational use. This data resource provides a huge compendium of information for potential use, but can also be compartmented by industry, difficult to find out about, access, or manipulate. One method used incorporates processes for reviewing these existing data sources and identifying the available information based on similar equipment, then using that generic data to derive an analog composite. Dissimilarities in equipment descriptions, environment of intended use, quality and even failure modes impact the "best" data incorporated in an analog composite. Once developed, this composite analog data provides a "better" representation of the reliability of the equipment or component. It can be used to support early risk or reliability trade studies, or analytical models to establish the predicted reliability data points. It also establishes a baseline prior that may updated based on test data or observed operational constraints and failures, i.e., using Bayesian techniques. This tutorial presents a descriptive compilation of historical data sources across numerous industries and disciplines, along with examples of contents

  10. Wind, hydro or mixed renewable energy source

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Yingkui; Solgaard, Hans Stubbe; Haider, Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    While the share of renewable energy, especially wind power, increases in the energy mix, the risk of temporary energy shortage increases as well. Thus, it is important to understand consumers' preference for the renewable energy towards the continuous growing renewable energy society. We use...

  11. Effective Land Use for Renewable Energy Sources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkman, Teunis

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this research is to determine the energy densities for different methods to produce renew-able energy. Energy density is defined here as the energy that is annually produced on a certain area. Using low, average, and high energy density scenari

  12. Trimode Power Converter optimizes PV, diesel and battery energy sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osullivan, George; Bonn, Russell; Bower, Ward

    1994-12-01

    Conservatively, there are 100,000 localities in the world waiting for the benefits that electricity can provide, and many of these are in climates where sunshine is plentiful. With these locations in mind a prototype 30 kW hybrid system has been assembled at Sandia to prove the reliability and economics of photovoltaic, diesel and battery energy sources managed by an autonomous power converter. In the Trimode Power Converter the same power parts, four IGBT's with an isolation transformer and filter components, serve as rectifier and charger to charge the battery from the diesel; as a stand-alone inverter to convert PV and battery energy to AC; and, as a parallel inverter with the diesel-generator to accommodate loads larger than the rating of the diesel. Whenever the diesel is supplying the load, an algorithm assures that the diesel is running at maximum efficiency by regulating the battery charger operating point. Given the profile of anticipated solar energy, the cost of transporting diesel fuel to a remote location and a five year projection of load demand, a method to size the PV array, battery and diesel for least cost is developed.

  13. Valuation of flexible solutions with alternative fuel cell energy sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haahtela, T.; Surakka, T.; Malinen, P. [Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Espoo (Finland). BIT Research Centre

    2009-07-01

    Fuel cells are an emerging technology with high potential, but also with significant market uncertainty. Fuel cells are currently in the transition from field trials to commercial introduction, and firms need to consider whether the technology fulfils the reliability and cost requirements of their current and upcoming products. This paper presented a framework to assist managers in finding the suitable valuation method for comparing different alternatives with emerging fuel cell technology. The dynamic valuation approaches of decision tree analysis, real options and system dynamics were discussed as they help in choosing the optimal timing and product structure over a long time period. Three examples of applications with fuel cells were briefly presented. The paper also addressed how the suggested valuation methods could be applied to them. These applications included maritime buoys; removable crisis management energy source container; and electrification of public transportation. It was concluded that the fuel cell technology has already become economically feasible in certain application areas. Improving technical reliability and cost reductions will make fuel cells even more competitive alternatives in new application areas. 9 refs., 1 tab., 1 fig.

  14. BIOMASS AS AN ALTERNATIVE SOURCE OF ENERGY IN INDIA

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    The fossil fuel is a main source of energy for generation of electricity in India. Overall, about 80% of greenhouse gas (GHS) emissions are related to the production and use of energy, and particularly, burning of fossils fuels. The environmental problems are associated with the generation of conventional sources of energy.The Kyoto protocol has established flexible mechanisms for developing countries to meet there GHG reduction commitment. Therefore, renewable source of energy is an alternat...

  15. Alternative biomass sources for thermal energy generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steensen, Torge; Müller, Sönke; Dresen, Boris; Büscher, Olaf

    2015-04-01

    Traditionally, renewable biomass energy sources comprise forests, agriculture and other large vegetation units. With the increasing demand on those landscape elements, including conflicts of interest to nature conservation and food production, the research focus should also incorporate smaller vegetation entities. In this study, we highlight the availability of small-scale features like roadside vegetation or hedges, which are rarely featured in maps. Roadside vegetation, however, is well known and regularly trimmed to allow the passing of traffic but the cut material is rarely harvested. Here, we combine a remote-sensing-based approach to quantify the seasonal biomass harvests with a GIS-based method to outline optimal transportation routes to, and the location of, storage units and power plants. Our main data source will be ESA's upcoming Sentinel-2 optical satellite. Spatial resolution of 10 meters in the visible and near infrared requires the use of spectral unmixing to derive end member spectra of the targeted biomass objects. Additional stereo-matching and LIDAR measurements allow the accompanying height estimate to derive the biomass volume and its changes over time. GIS data bases from the target areas allow the discrimination between traditional, large features (e.g. forests and agriculture) as well as previously unaccounted for, smaller vegetation units. With the mapped biomass occurrence and additional, GIS-based infrastructure information, we can outline transport routes that take into account local restrictions like nature reserve areas, height or weight limitations as well as transport costs in relation to potential gains. This information can then be processed to outline optimal places for power plants. To simulate the upcoming Sentinel-2 data sets, we use airborne data from the AISA Eagle, spatially and spectrally down-sampled to match Sentinel 2's resolution. Our test scenario is an area in western Germany, the Kirchheller Heide, close to the city

  16. The Development of Renewable Energy Sources in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atalay ÇETİN

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Especially in last two decades, most of the developed and developing countries around theworld have been supporting the researches that investigate more clean and sustainable energy sources. Renewable energy sources play more important role in today’s increasingly globalized energy market because of the environmental issues and the sources of fossil fuelare becoming scarce. According to that, as a virtue of the rapidly increase in energy demand, the supply of renewable energy sources are increasingly continue around theworld. As a matter of fact, when it is compared to the 2011 rates, the consumption rate of hydro-electricity and other renewable energy sources has increased to 4.3% and % 15.2 respectively in 2012 in the world, is verifying that view.The aim of this study is to investigate the present potential and sufficiency of the main sources of renewable energy such as solar, wind, hydropower, geothermal andbiomass at Turkey. In this regard, even Turkey has a remarkable potential especially in hydro, wind, solar and geothermal energies among Europe, renewable energy sources ratio in Turkey’s total energy consumption is not rising at desired level. Furthermore becauseTurkey hasn’t got a rich fossil fuel reserves, it needs to import fossil energy sources to meet its rapidly growing energy needs. In related to this, Turkey’s current deficit has beengrowing due to the increase in fossil fuel sources prices at international energy markets. On the other side Turkey’s Green House Gases (GHGs emission has grown more thantwo times as a result of its rapidly using of fossil fuel sources due to its growing economy, industrialization and urbanization process since 1990. Within this context, as a foreigndependent country on fossil fuel energy sources (especially on crude oil and natural gas, Turkey should rapidly change its energy policy from fossil fuels to renewable energysources which are domestic, clean and much more cheaper

  17. Development and characterization of a high-reliability, extended-lifetime H- ion source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becerra, Gabriel; Barrows, Preston; Sherman, Joseph

    2015-11-01

    Phoenix Nuclear Labs (PNL) has designed and constructed a long-lifetime, negative hydrogen (H-) ion source, in partnership with Fermilab for an ion beam injector servicing future Intensity Frontier particle accelerators. The specifications for the low-energy beam transport (LEBT) section are 5-10 mA of continuous H- ion current at 30 keV with 99% continuous uptime at PNL. Positive ions and hyperthermal neutrals drift toward a low-work-function surface, where a fraction is converted into H- hydrogen ions, which are subsequently extracted into a low-energy beam using electrostatic lenses. A magnetic filter preferentially removes high-energy electrons emitted by the source plasma, in order to mitigate H- ion destruction via electron-impact detachment. The design of the source subsystems and preliminary diagnostic results will be presented.

  18. Simulation of Swap-Out Reliability For The Advance Photon Source Upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borland, M.

    2017-06-01

    The proposed upgrade of the Advanced Photon Source (APS) to a multibend-achromat lattice relies on the use of swap-out injection to accommodate the small dynamic acceptance, allow use of unusual insertion devices, and minimize collective effects at high single-bunch charge. This, combined with the short beam lifetime, will make injector reliability even more important than it is for top-up operation. We used historical data for the APS injector complex to obtain probability distributions for injector up-time and down-time durations. Using these distributions, we simulated several years of swap-out operation for the upgraded lattice for several operatingmodes. The results indicate that obtaining very high availability of beam in the storage ring will require improvements to injector reliability.

  19. Can renewable energy sources satiate Slovakia's future energy needs?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomis, Igor; Koval, Peter; Janicek, Frantisek; Darula, Ivan

    2010-09-15

    The paper examines the options for replacing the current energy mix of non-renewable, conventional energy sources solely with renewable sources in the long term within the context of the Slovak environment, possibly combined with nuclear energy in the 50-year horizon. Vital needs are outlined in household energy consumption and energy consumption for industrial and transportation purposes to fulfil in order for Slovakia to become independent of foreign sources in energy supplies.

  20. The development of the Czech Republic electric industry - Reliable, safe and responsible source mix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vrba, Miroslav; Jez, Jiri; Ptacek, Jiri

    2010-09-15

    The paper focuses on the development of the Czech Republic electric industry in close perspective and the prediction of its expected future in period up to 2030. The goal of the paper is to specify methods and procedures applied within periodic assessment of Czech electric power sector balance outlook for the State authorities. A necessity to respect economic recession and politicization of the issue of power sector development has invoked that these items are added to commonly used procedures. A key criterion is the reliable and safe electricity supply by adequate source mix for acceptable prices and environmental aspects.

  1. Investigation of Solar and Solar-Gas Thermal Energy Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Zupa

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the investigation of solar thermal sources of electrical and heat energy as well as the investigation of hybrid solar-gas thermal sources of electrical and heat energy (so called photothermal sources. Photothermal sources presented here utilize computer-controlled injection of the conversion fluid into special capillary porous substance that is adjusted to direct temperature treatment by the concentrated thermal radiation absorption.

  2. R&D program benefits estimation: DOE Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2006-12-04

    The overall mission of the U.S. Department of Energy’s Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability (OE) is to lead national efforts to modernize the electric grid, enhance the security and reliability of the energy infrastructure, and facilitate recovery from disruptions to the energy supply. In support of this mission, OE conducts a portfolio of research and development (R&D) activities to advance technologies to enhance electric power delivery. Multiple benefits are anticipated to result from the deployment of these technologies, including higher quality and more reliable power, energy savings, and lower cost electricity. In addition, OE engages State and local government decision-makers and the private sector to address issues related to the reliability and security of the grid, including responding to national emergencies that affect energy delivery. The OE R&D activities are comprised of four R&D lines: High Temperature Superconductivity (HTS), Visualization and Controls (V&C), Energy Storage and Power Electronics (ES&PE), and Distributed Systems Integration (DSI).

  3. BIOMASS AS AN ALTERNATIVE SOURCE OF ENERGY IN INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DEEPAK PALIWAL,

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The fossil fuel is a main source of energy for generation of electricity in India. Overall, about 80% of greenhouse gas (GHS emissions are related to the production and use of energy, and particularly, burning of fossils fuels. The environmental problems are associated with the generation of conventional sources of energy.The Kyoto protocol has established flexible mechanisms for developing countries to meet there GHG reduction commitment. Therefore, renewable source of energy is an alternative to conserve the natural resources and reduce the pollution burden. At present renewable sources of energy such as solar, wind, geothermal and hydropower provide small fraction of energy need. The most prevalent source is biomass, which accounts around 12% of total energy requirement. This source of energy includes wood, logging waste, sawdust, animal dung and vegetables consisting of grass, leaves, grass residues and agricultural waste. The biomass is abundant in nature which can be trapped as source of energy for generation of electricity for the rural as well as urban population. The technology needs to be developed for use of biomass as a source of energy. This paperdiscusses about its prospects in Asia and particularly in India. The recent developments and projects in India are discussed. A note on pollution control strategies has also been added.

  4. Microworlds, Simulators, and Simulation: Framework for a Benchmark of Human Reliability Data Sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ronald Boring; Dana Kelly; Carol Smidts; Ali Mosleh; Brian Dyre

    2012-06-01

    In this paper, we propose a method to improve the data basis of human reliability analysis (HRA) by extending the data sources used to inform HRA methods. Currently, most HRA methods are based on limited empirical data, and efforts to enhance the empirical basis behind HRA methods have not yet yielded significant new data. Part of the reason behind this shortage of quality data is attributable to the data sources used. Data have been derived from unrelated industries, from infrequent risk-significant events, or from costly control room simulator studies. We propose a benchmark of four data sources: a simplified microworld simulator using unskilled student operators, a full-scope control room simulator using skilled student operators, a full-scope control room simulator using licensed commercial operators, and a human performance modeling and simulation system using virtual operators. The goal of this research is to compare findings across the data sources to determine to what extent data may be used and generalized from cost effective sources.

  5. Shock reliability enhancement for MEMS vibration energy harvesters with nonlinear air damping as a soft stopper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shao-Tuan; Du, Sijun; Arroyo, Emmanuelle; Jia, Yu; Seshia, Ashwin

    2017-10-01

    This paper presents a novel application of utilising nonlinear air damping as a soft mechanical stopper to increase the shock reliability for microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) vibration energy harvesters. The theoretical framework for nonlinear air damping is constructed for MEMS vibration energy harvesters operating in different air pressure levels, and characterisation experiments are conducted to establish the relationship between air pressure and nonlinear air damping coefficient for rectangular cantilever MEMS micro cantilevers with different proof masses. Design guidelines on choosing the optimal air pressure level for different MEMS vibration energy harvesters based on the trade-off between harvestable energy and the device robustness are presented, and random excitation experiments are performed to verify the robustness of MEMS vibration energy harvesters with nonlinear air damping as soft stoppers to limit the maximum deflection distance and increase the shock reliability of the device.

  6. On the global and regional potential of renewable energy sources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogwijk, Monique Maria

    2004-01-01

    In this thesis, the central research question is: what can be the contribution of renewable energy sources to the present and future world and regional energy supply system. The focus is on wind, solar PV and biomass energy (energy crops) for electricity generation. For the assessment of the economi

  7. On the global and regional potential of renewable energy sources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogwijk, Monique Maria

    2004-01-01

    In this thesis, the central research question is: what can be the contribution of renewable energy sources to the present and future world and regional energy supply system. The focus is on wind, solar PV and biomass energy (energy crops) for electricity generation. For the assessment of the economi

  8. Conservation – a new and efficient source of energy

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    National Building Research Institute

    1981-09-01

    Full Text Available Energy is becoming increasingly expensive. Conservation can offset the increase in energy cost and can therefore be considered a new and can fairly inexpensive source of energy. The following article looks at the ways in which energy savings in both...

  9. Development of Energy and Reserve Pre-dispatch and Re-dispatch Models for Real-time Price Risk and Reliability Assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ding, Yi; Xie, Min; Wu, Qiuwei

    2014-01-01

    of securing proper balancing between generation and demand. The high penetration of renewable energy sources will also increase the burden of system operator for maintaining system reliabilities. However the current strategy of reliability management developed for conventional power systems and existing...... electricity market design may not cope with the future challenges the power system faces. The development of smart grid will enable power system scheduling and the electricity market to operate in a shorter time horizon for better integrating renewable energy sources into power systems. This paper presents...... the real time operation, the energy re-dispatch model is used for contingency management and providing balancing services based on the results of the energy and reserve pre-dispatch model. The energy re-dispatch model is formulated as a single-period AC OPF model, which is used to determine generation re...

  10. Impact of distributed energy resources on the reliability of a critical telecommunications facility.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robinson, David; Zuffranieri, Jason V.; Atcitty, Christopher B.; Arent, Douglas (National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, CO)

    2006-03-01

    This report documents a probabilistic risk assessment of an existing power supply system at a large telecommunications office. The focus is on characterizing the increase in the reliability of power supply through the use of two alternative power configurations. Telecommunications has been identified by the Department of Homeland Security as a critical infrastructure to the United States. Failures in the power systems supporting major telecommunications service nodes are a main contributor to major telecommunications outages. A logical approach to improve the robustness of telecommunication facilities would be to increase the depth and breadth of technologies available to restore power in the face of power outages. Distributed energy resources such as fuel cells and gas turbines could provide one more onsite electric power source to provide backup power, if batteries and diesel generators fail. The analysis is based on a hierarchical Bayesian approach and focuses on the failure probability associated with each of three possible facility configurations, along with assessment of the uncertainty or confidence level in the probability of failure. A risk-based characterization of final best configuration is presented.

  11. High fidelity nuclear energy system optimization towards an environmentally benign, sustainable, and secure energy source.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsvetkov, Pavel Valeryevich (Texas A& M University, College Station, TX); Rodriguez, Salvador B.; Ames, David E., II (Texas A& M University, College Station, TX); Rochau, Gary Eugene

    2009-09-01

    The impact associated with energy generation and utilization is immeasurable due to the immense, widespread, and myriad effects it has on the world and its inhabitants. The polar extremes are demonstrated on the one hand, by the high quality of life enjoyed by individuals with access to abundant reliable energy sources, and on the other hand by the global-scale environmental degradation attributed to the affects of energy production and use. Thus, nations strive to increase their energy generation, but are faced with the challenge of doing so with a minimal impact on the environment and in a manner that is self-reliant. Consequently, a revival of interest in nuclear energy has followed, with much focus placed on technologies for transmuting nuclear spent fuel. The performed research investigates nuclear energy systems that optimize the destruction of nuclear waste. In the context of this effort, nuclear energy system is defined as a configuration of nuclear reactors and corresponding fuel cycle components. The proposed system has unique characteristics that set it apart from other systems. Most notably the dedicated High-Energy External Source Transmuter (HEST), which is envisioned as an advanced incinerator used in combination with thermal reactors. The system is configured for examining environmentally benign fuel cycle options by focusing on minimization or elimination of high level waste inventories. Detailed high-fidelity exact-geometry models were developed for representative reactor configurations. They were used in preliminary calculations with Monte Carlo N-Particle eXtented (MCNPX) and Standardized Computer Analysis for Licensing Evaluation (SCALE) code systems. The reactor models have been benchmarked against existing experimental data and design data. Simulink{reg_sign}, an extension of MATLAB{reg_sign}, is envisioned as the interface environment for constructing the nuclear energy system model by linking the individual reactor and fuel component sub

  12. Energy Efficiency and Importance of Renewable Energy Sources in Latvia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skapare, I.; Kreslins, A.

    2007-10-01

    The main goal of Latvian energy policy is to ensure safe and environmentally friendly long-term energy supply at cost-effective prices, contributing to enhance competitiveness, and to ensure safe energy transit. The Latvian Parliament approved an Energy Efficiency Strategy in 2000. Its objective is to decrease energy consumption per unit of GDP by 25% by 2010. Awareness raising, implementation of standards and economic incentives for self financing are the main instruments to increase energy efficiency, mentioned in the strategy. Latvia, as many other European Union member states, is dependent on the import of primary energy resources. The Latvian Renewable Energy strategy is still under development. The only recent study on RES was developed in the framework of a PHARE program in year 2000: "Renewable energy resource program", where three main objectives for a future RES strategy were proposed: 1. To increase the use of wood waste and low value wood and forest residues. 2. To improve efficiency of combustion technologies and to replace outdated plants. 3. To increase the use of renewables in Combined Heat and Power plants (CHP). Through the Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Partnership, partners will develop a set of new shared activities, and coordinate and strengthen existing efforts in this area.

  13. California energy approach: from conventional to alternative energy sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varanini, E.E. III

    1981-08-01

    The paper outlines the work of a State Government Agency, the California Energy Commission, which is now completing its major analytical task - forecasting California's future energy demand five, ten, and twenty years hence and formulating an optimal state strategy for energy production and conservation. The approach of the Commission was to study, in depth, the evolution of the demand of each category of end users. Supplemented by a realistic assessment of the impact of various conservation measures and by extensive discussions with different groups of concerned citizens, the Commission's approach produced much lower and quite manageable estimates of future energy demand. In devising an energy-supply strategy, the Commission postulated a mix of conventional and alternative energy technologies of proven practicability and diverse lead times. Providing such latitude in the choice of energy options increases the flexibility of the state's strategy to cope with possible unforeseen developments.

  14. A High Reliability Survey of Discrete Epoch of Reionization Foreground Sources in the MWA EoR0 Field

    CERN Document Server

    Carroll, P A; Morales, M F; Barry, N; Beardsley, A P; Hazelton, B J; Jacobs, D C; Pober, J C; Sullivan, I S; Webster, R L; Bernardi, G; Bowman, J D; Briggs, F; Cappallo, R J; Corey, B E; de Oliveira-Costa, A; Dillon, J S; Emrich, D; Ewall-Wice, A; Feng, L; Gaensler, B M; Goeke, R; Greenhill, L J; Hewitt, J N; Hurley-Walker, N; Johnston-Hollitt, M; Kaplan, D L; Kasper, J C; Kim, HS; Kratzenberg, E; Lenc, E; Loeb, A; Lonsdale, C J; Lynch, M J; McKinley, B; McWhirter, S R; Mitchell, D A; Morgan, E; Neben, A R; Oberoi, D; Offringa, A R; Ord, S M; Paul, S; Pindor, B; Prabu, T; Procopio, P; Riding, J; Rogers, A E E; Roshi, A; Shankar, N Udaya; Sethi, S K; Srivani, K S; Subrahmanyan, R; Tegmark, M; Thyagarajan, Nithyanandan; Tingay, S J; Trott, C M; Waterson, M; Wayth, R B; Whitney, A R; Williams, A; Williams, C L; Wu, C; Wyithe, J S B

    2016-01-01

    Detection of the Epoch of Reionization HI signal requires a precise understanding of the intervening galaxies and AGN, both for instrumental calibration and foreground removal. We present a catalogue of 7394 extragalactic sources at 182 MHz detected in the RA=0 field of the Murchison Widefield Array Epoch of Reionization observation programme. Motivated by unprecedented requirements for precision and reliability we develop new methods for source finding and selection. We apply machine learning methods to self-consistently classify the relative reliability of 9490 source candidates. A subset of 7466 are selected based on reliability class and signal-to-noise ratio criteria. These are statistically cross-matched to four other radio surveys using both position and flux density information. We find 7369 sources to have confident matches, including 90 partially resolved sources that split into a total of 192 sub-components. An additional 25 unmatched sources are included as new radio detections. The catalogue sour...

  15. Policy Enabling Environment for Corporate Renewable Energy Sourcing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2017-05-09

    Interest in renewable energy (RE) procurement in new markets is on the rise. Corporations are increasing their commitments to procuring RE, motivated by an interest in using clean energy sources and reducing their energy expenses. Many large companies have facilities and supply chains in multiple countries, and are interested in procuring renewable energy in the grids where they use energy. The policy environment around the world plays a key role in shaping where and how corporations will invest in renewables. This fact sheet details findings from a recent 21st Century Power Partnership report, Policies to Enable Corporate Renewable Energy Sourcing Internationally.

  16. Too Reliable to Be True? Response Bias as a Potential Source of Inflation in Paper-and-Pencil Questionnaire Reliability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eyal Peer

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available When respondents answer paper-and-pencil (PP questionnaires, they sometimes modify their responses to correspond to previously answered items. As a result, this response bias might artificially inflate the reliability of PP questionnaires. We compared the internal consistency of PP questionnaires to computerized questionnaires that presented a different number of items on a computer screen simultaneously. Study 1 showed that a PP questionnaire's internal consistency was higher than that of the same questionnaire presented on a computer screen with one, two or four questions per screen. Study 2 replicated these findings to show that internal consistency was also relatively high when all questions were shown on one screen. This suggests that the differences found in Study 1 were not due to the difference in presentation medium. Thus, this paper suggests that reliability measures of PP questionnaires might be inflated because of a response bias resulting from participants cross-checking their answers against ones given to previous questions.

  17. Influence of Wave State Uncertainties on Probabilistic Reliability Assessments of Wave Energy Devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ambühl, Simon; Kofoed, Jens Peter; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2013-01-01

    Probabilistic reliability assessments of wave energy devices (WEDs) need to consider, among others, uncertainties related to the wave states, which are often defined by the significant wave height HS and the peak period TP or the mean crossing wave period TZ or the energy period Te. Based...... on the JONSWAP spectrum and white noise filtering, wave elevation time series are generated and uncertainties related to the wave states are estimated. In this paper, uncertainties regarding the time series length used to characterize a certain wave state, uncertainties related to the JONSWAP spectrum parameters...... and the influence on wave state discretization in a scatter diagram are assessed. The estimated uncertainties are then implemented in two generic structural reliability assessments with focus on fatigue and extreme failure modes. The resulting reliability indices are compared with related industries like offshore...

  18. Energy from Waste: Reuse of Compost Heat as a Source of Renewable Energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Irvine

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available An in-vessel tunnel composting facility in Scotland was used to investigate the potential for collection and reuse of compost heat as a source of renewable energy. The amount of energy offered by the compost was calculated and seasonal variations analysed. A heat exchanger was designed in order to collect and transfer the heat. This allowed heated water of 47.3oC to be obtained. The temperature could be further increased to above 60oC by passing it through multiple tunnels in series. Estimated costs for installing and running the system were calculated. In order to analyse these costs alternative solar thermal and ground source heat pump systems were also designed. The levels of supply and economic performance were then compared. A capital cost of £11,662 and operating cost of £1,039 per year were estimated, resulting in a cost of £0.50 per kWh for domestic water and £0.10 per kWh for spatial heat. Using the heat of the compost was found to provide the most reliable level of supply at a similar price to its rivals.

  19. RENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCES IN POLAND - CONDITIONS AND POSSIBILITES OF DEVELOPMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gawlik, L.; Mokrzycki, E.; Ney, R.

    2007-07-01

    The paper describes the state of the art in renewable energy sources development. The obligation resulting from the membership of Poland in the European Union as well as from other international agreements in the scope of renewable energy sources development are described. The production of electricity, heat and biofuels in Poland is given and the perspectives of development of particular renewable energy sources in Poland are discussed in the view of potential reserves and other constrains. The economic aspects of renewable energy technologies are shown. The environmental pros and cons of biomass energy development are described. Arguments for development of renewable energy sources use are stated: the decrease of dependence from primary energy sources, the decrease the emission of green house gases and the recovery of agricultural regions of the country. In conclusion it is stated that the significance of renewable energy sources in Polish conditions is constrained to local societies. Their development should be adjusted to conditions predominating in a given region and that wider consumption of renewable energy sources should develop in conformity with sustainable development, so it is necessary to reach agreement between local societies, institutions dealing with environment protection and representatives of power sector. (auth)

  20. Analysis of Different Methods for Computing Source Energy in the Context of Zero Energy Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torcellini, Paul A.; Bonnema, Eric; Goldwasser, David; Pless, Shanti

    2016-08-26

    Building energy consumption can only be measured at the site or at the point of utility interconnection with a building. Often, to evaluate the total energy impact, this site-based energy consumption is translated into source energy, that is, the energy at the point of fuel extraction. Consistent with this approach, the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) definition of zero energy buildings uses source energy as the metric to account for energy losses from the extraction, transformation, and delivery of energy. Other organizations, as well, use source energy to characterize the energy impacts. Four methods of making the conversion from site energy to source energy were investigated in the context of the DOE definition of zero energy buildings. These methods were evaluated based on three guiding principles--improve energy efficiency, reduce and stabilize power demand, and use power from nonrenewable energy sources as efficiently as possible. This study examines relative trends between strategies as they are implemented on very low-energy buildings to achieve zero energy. A typical office building was modeled and variations to this model performed. The photovoltaic output that was required to create a zero energy building was calculated. Trends were examined with these variations to study the impacts of the calculation method on the building's ability to achieve zero energy status. The paper will highlight the different methods and give conclusions on the advantages and disadvantages of the methods studied.

  1. Optimized Planning of Power Source Capacity in Microgrid, Considering Combinations of Energy Storage Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zifa Liu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Since renewable energy resource is universally accepted as a promising method to solve the global energy problem, optimal planning and utilization of various distributed generators (DG and energy storage (ES devices deserve special concern. ES devices possess various characteristics in power density, energy density, response speed (switching speed and lifetime. Besides, as different load types have various requirements on power supply reliability according to their importance, coordinated planning with consideration of reasonable matching between power source and load can efficiently improve power supply reliability and economic efficiency via a customized power supply and compensation strategy. This paper focuses on optimization of power source capacity in microgrid and a coordinated planning strategy is proposed with integrated consideration of characteristics of DG, ES and load. An index named additional compensation ratio (ACR for balancing economic efficiency and reliability is proposed and considered in the strategy. The objective function which aims to minimize life cycle cost (LCC is established considering economic efficiency, reliability and environmental conservation. The proposed planning strategy and optimizing model is calculated and verified through case study of an autonomy microgrid.

  2. Automated Energy Distribution and Reliability System: Validation Integration - Results of Future Architecture Implementation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buche, D. L.

    2008-06-01

    This report describes Northern Indiana Public Service Co. project efforts to develop an automated energy distribution and reliability system. The purpose of this project was to implement a database-driven GIS solution that would manage all of the company's gas, electric, and landbase objects. This report is second in a series of reports detailing this effort.

  3. Intermediate energy light sources and the SSRF project

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Advances in insertion device technology, top-up operation and superconducting RF cavities make it possible to generate high brightness X-ray with intermediate energy light sources, which leads a new trend in designing and constructing third generation light sources around the world. The development status and the remarkable technical features of intermediate energy light sources are reviewed, and the main SSRF properties are described in this paper.

  4. United States and world energy sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berg, L.L.; Baird, L.M.; Varanini, E.E. III (eds.)

    1982-01-01

    This volume examines the economic, political, and social implications of the oil-dependence dilemma facing the United States. Most of the contributors are energy consultants in the public or private sector. Their analyses of the changing oil situation and its impact on other energy policies reflect either an international, national, or regional perspective with a unique combination of pragmatic insights and academic analyses of these complex issues. While examining the various aspects of the energy dependence dilemma presented here, one critical theme will probably recur to the reader. That is, given the inadequate nature of the US response to the 1973 and 1979 shortfalls in foreign oil supplies, how will we manage the projected future shortages in foreign oil supplies. The 18 papers of this volume were presented at a conference at Los Angeles in July 1980 and cosponsored by the University of Southern California and the California Energy Commission; a separate abstract was prepared for each paper. See also EAPA 7:3231 and Energy Research Abstracts (ERA) 6:18036.

  5. Using Ground Source Heat Pumps for Renewable Energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xhevat BERISHA

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides background information on the current energy supply, energy demand, and energy sources in Kosovo. Moreover, it presents the country‟s current level of applying alternative energy sources. Additionally, this paper focuses on geothermal energy as a renewable energy resource with the potential to contribute to a sustainable use of resources to meet renewable energy and energy efficiency requirements of the European Union (EU, “EU 20 20 by 2020” policy. Hence, a careful analysis is included on how to approach the aforementioned targets through investments in geothermal energy through providing an energy consumption forecast and analysing geothermal energy projects in Europe and specifically in Kosovo. This paper carefully represents the potential usage of geothermal energy in Kosovo, renewable energy source targets, and it addresses the importance of laws, regulations, and reports regarding the utilization of this type of energy. Economic and environmental implications of investing in geothermal energy - geothermal heat pumps for the case of International Village are additionally analysed. Lastly, recommendations and conclusions, for future actions, are derived and addressed to relevant stakeholders, primarily policy-makers, and government representatives.

  6. Potential Energy Sources Pose Mining Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chemical and Engineering News, 1974

    1974-01-01

    Summarizes the discussions of a Division of Industrial and Engineering Chemistry symposium on solids handling for synthetic fuels production. Included is a description of technical difficulties with the use of coal seams and deposits of oil shale and oil sand as potential sources of fuel. (CC)

  7. Carbon and Energy Sources of Mycorrhizal Fungi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuijper, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    It has been debated whether ectomycorrhizal fungi have retained saprotrophic capabilities and whether that allows them to obtain carbon, as implied by the alternate carbon source hypothesis, or to obtain nitrogen and phosphorus, as implied by the nutrient mining through priming hypothesis. This

  8. AGNs and microquasars as high energy gamma-ray sources

    CERN Document Server

    Paredes, J M

    2004-01-01

    The extragalactic analogs of the microquasars, the quasars, are strong gamma-ray emitters at GeV energies. It is expected that microquasars are also gamma-ray sources, because of the analogy with quasars and because theoretical models predict the high-energy emission. There are two microquasars that appear as the possible counterparts for two unidentified high-energy gamma-ray sources.

  9. Fuels for transportation derived from renewable energy sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schindler, J.; Weindorf, W.

    2001-07-01

    There are two main reasons for introducing renewable energy sources into the transportation sector: global warming on the one hand and the imminent end of cheap oil on the other. The future use of renewable energy sources for tranportation is the only sustainable solution that protects the climate and ensures energy supply - especially it is the only conceivable way to satisfy the demand for mobility of the people in the developing countries.

  10. Ultrasonic Surgical Aspirate is a Reliable Source For Culturing Glioblastoma Stem Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behnan, Jinan; Stangeland, Biljana; Langella, Tiziana; Finocchiaro, Gaetano; Murrell, Wayne; Brinchmann, Jan E.

    2016-01-01

    Glioma stem cells (GSCs) are thought to be the source of tumor growth and therapy resistance. To understand the biology of GSCs, and target these tumors therapeutically, we need robust strategies for in vitro expansion of primary GSCs. To date, tumor core biopsies have been the main established source of GSCs. Since these samples are used for diagnostic purposes, the available tissue for cell culture and therapeutic targeting can be limited. In addition, a core biopsy is usually taken from one part of the tumor, thus would be unlikely to represent intra-tumor heterogeneity. To overcome these problems, tissue fragments from all over the tumor can be collected using an ultrasonic aspirator during surgery, thus assembling a “global tumor biopsy”. Usually, this ultrasonic aspirate (UA) sample is considered as biological waste after operations. Here, we show that UA samples offer a large and reliable source of live cells. Similar to core biopsies, UA samples enriched for GSCs that differentiated into neural lineages, showed inter-individual variation of GSC markers, and induced tumors. Molecular profiling showed that UA samples cover tumor heterogeneity better than core biopsies. These results suggest that UA samples can be used to establish large scale cultures for therapeutic applications. PMID:27605047

  11. A new energy source originating from extra dimensions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tao Bi-Xiu; Ji Shi-Yin; Li Fang-Qiong

    2004-01-01

    In this work the Einstein gravitational field equations and the Lichnerowicz boundary formalism in the extra dimensions are used to build up our black hole model from 6-dimensional space-time. From the internal stress-energy tensor the solutions with energy levels and semiclassical space-quantization are obtained, which combines with only one metric condition outside the defect. We show a new type of energy source, which originates from extra dimensions. A part of the energy source of quasi-stellar object (QSO) maybe come from extra dimensions in that way. The theoretical arithmetic upper limit is identical to that of the output energy of QSO.

  12. Prospective energy sources and their comparison with current supplies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voitsekhovskii, B. V.

    1980-10-01

    The comparative physical-technical and economic characteristics of renewable energy sources are analyzed. The significant advantages of wind energy for future use over oil, gas, and coal are demonstrated. Costs of wind electrical energy are compared in the U.S., Denmark, and the U.S.S.R.

  13. Comparison of prospective energy sources with those in use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voitsekhovskii, B. V.

    1981-03-01

    The comparative physical-technical and economic characteristics of renewable energy sources are analyzed. The significant advantages of wind energy for future use over oil, gas, and coal are demonstrated. Costs of wind electrical energy are compared in the U.S., Denmark, and the U.S.S.R.

  14. An Energy-Efficient Link Layer Protocol for Reliable Transmission over Wireless Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iqbal Adnan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In multihop wireless networks, hop-by-hop reliability is generally achieved through positive acknowledgments at the MAC layer. However, positive acknowledgments introduce significant energy inefficiencies on battery-constrained devices. This inefficiency becomes particularly significant on high error rate channels. We propose to reduce the energy consumption during retransmissions using a novel protocol that localizes bit-errors at the MAC layer. The proposed protocol, referred to as Selective Retransmission using Virtual Fragmentation (SRVF, requires simple modifications to the positive-ACK-based reliability mechanism but provides substantial improvements in energy efficiency. The main premise of the protocol is to localize bit-errors by performing partial checksums on disjoint parts or virtual fragments of a packet. In case of error, only the corrupted virtual fragments are retransmitted. We develop stochastic models of the Simple Positive-ACK-based reliability, the previously-proposed Packet Length Optimization (PLO protocol, and the SRVF protocol operating over an arbitrary-order Markov wireless channel. Our analytical models show that SRVF provides significant theoretical improvements in energy efficiency over existing protocols. We then use bit-error traces collected over different real networks to empirically compare the proposed and existing protocols. These experimental results further substantiate that SRVF provides considerably better energy efficiency than Simple Positive-ACK and Packet Length Optimization protocols.

  15. Energy Balanced Dynamic Deployment Optimization to Enhance Reliable Lifetime of Wireless Sensor Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.Roselin

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs, the available energy of sensor nodes is limited and hard to renew. The energy supervision is also very critical. In Mission Critical Surveillance application, due tonode’s battery depletion, coverage hole may be created. Hole at Critical Point (CP leads to performance degradation of overall network. It is merely impossible, to redeploy sensor nodes or to recharge the battery in middle run during monitoring. The proposed Energy Balanced-Dynamic Deployment (EB-DD Optimization approach, positions the self deployable mobile sensors towards CP according to its Energy Density. This balances the Energy Density of the network thereby increasing the Reliable Lifetime. The simulation results show the effectiveness of the approach in terms of balanced Energy Density around CPs with less mobility.

  16. Primary outgrowth cultures are a reliable source of human pancreatic stellate cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Song; Delitto, Daniel; Zhang, Dongyu; Sorenson, Heather L; Sarosi, George A; Thomas, Ryan M; Behrns, Kevin E; Wallet, Shannon M; Trevino, Jose G; Hughes, Steven J

    2015-11-01

    Recent advances demonstrate a critical yet poorly understood role for the pancreatic stellate cell (PSC) in the pathogenesis of chronic pancreatitis (CP) and pancreatic cancer (PC). Progress in this area has been hampered by the availability, fidelity, and/or reliability of in vitro models of PSCs. We examined whether outgrowth cultures from human surgical specimens exhibited reproducible phenotypic and functional characteristics of PSCs. PSCs were cultured from surgical specimens of healthy pancreas, CP and PC. Growth dynamics, phenotypic characteristics, soluble mediator secretion profiles and co-culture with PC cells both in vitro and in vivo were assessed. Forty-seven primary cultures were established from 52 attempts, demonstrating universal α-smooth muscle actin and glial fibrillary acidic protein but negligible epithelial surface antigen expression. Modification of culture conditions consistently led to cytoplasmic lipid accumulation, suggesting induction of a quiescent phenotype. Secretion of growth factors, chemokines and cytokines did not significantly differ between donor pathologies, but did evolve over time in culture. Co-culture of PSCs with established PC cell lines resulted in significant changes in levels of multiple secreted mediators. Primary PSCs co-inoculated with PC cells in a xenograft model led to augmented tumor growth and metastasis. Therefore, regardless of donor pathology, outgrowth cultures produce PSCs that demonstrate consistent growth and protein secretion properties. Primary cultures from pancreatic surgical specimens, including malignancies, may represent a reliable source of human PSCs.

  17. Essentials of energy technology sources, transport, storage, conservation

    CERN Document Server

    Fricke, Jochen

    2013-01-01

    An in-depth understanding of energy technology, sources, conversion, storage, transport and conservation is crucial for developing a sustainable and economically viable energy infrastructure. This need, for example, is addressed in university courses with a special focus on the energy mix of renewable and depletable energy resources. Energy makes our lives comfortable, and the existence of amenities such as heaters, cars, warm water, household appliances and electrical light is characteristic for a developed economy. Supplying the industrial or individual energy consumer with energy 24 hours

  18. An approach for evaluating the impact of an intermittent renewable energy source on transmission expansion planning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rongrit CHATTHAWORN; Surachai CHAITUSANEY

    2015-01-01

    We propose a new robust optimization approach to evaluate the impact of an intermittent renewable energy source on transmission expansion planning (TEP). The objective function of TEP is composed of the investment cost of the transmission line and the operating cost of conventional generators. A method to select suitable scenarios representing the intermittent renewable energy generation and loads is proposed to obtain robust expansion planning for all possible scenarios. A meta-heuristic algorithm called adaptive tabu search (ATS) is employed in the proposed TEP. ATS iterates between the main problem, which minimizes the investment and operating costs, and the subproblem, which minimizes the cost of power generation from conventional generators and curtailments of renewable energy generation and loads. The subproblem is solved by nonlinear programming (NLP) based on an interior point method. Moreover, the impact of an intermittent renewable energy source on TEP was evaluated by comparing expansion planning with and without consideration of a renewable energy source. The IEEE Reliability Test System 79 (RTS 79) was used for testing the proposed method and evaluating the impact of an intermittent renewable energy source on TEP. The results show that the proposed robust optimization approach provides a more robust solution than other methods and that the impact of an intermittent renewable energy source on TEP should be considered.

  19. Ultra High Energy Cosmic Rays from Compact Sources

    CERN Document Server

    Fodor, Z

    2001-01-01

    The clustering of ultra high energy (above 10^20 eV) cosmic rays (UHECR) suggests that they might be emitted by compact sources. Statistical analysis of Dubovsky et al. (astro-ph/0001317) estimated the source density. We extend their analysis to give also the confidence intervals for the number of sources using a.) no assumptions on the relationship between clustered and unclustered events; b.) nontrivial distributions for the source intensities and energies; c.) the energy dependence of the propagation. We determine the probability that a proton created at a distance r with energy E arrives at earth above a threshold E_c. The observed 14 UHECR events above 10^20 eV with one doublet gives for the source densities 6.43_-6.05^+136*10^-3 Mpc^-3 (on the 68% confidence level). We present detailed results for future experiments with larger UHECRs statistics.

  20. Propagation of ultrahigh energy cosmic rays and compact sources

    CERN Document Server

    Fodor, Z

    2001-01-01

    The clustering of ultrahigh energy (>10^{20} eV) cosmic rays (UHECR) suggests that they might be emitted by compact sources. Statistical analysis (Dubovsky et al., 2000) estimated the source density. We extend their analysis to give also the confidence intervals (CI) for the source density using a.) no assumptions on the relationship between clustered and unclustered events; b.) nontrivial distributions for the source luminosities and energies; c.) the energy dependence of the propagation. We also determine the probability that a proton created at a distance r with energy E arrives at earth above a threshold E_c. Using this function one can determine the observed spectrum just by one numerical integration for any injection spectrum. The observed 14 UHECR events above 10^{20} eV with one doublet gives for the source densities 180_{-165}^{+2730}\\cdot 10^{-3} Mpc^{-3} (on the 68% confidence level).

  1. Isomer Energy Source for Space Propulsion Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-03-01

    Nuclear Thermal Rocket PBR Particle-Bed Reactor SNTP Space Nuclear Thermal Propulsion TIC Triggered Isomer Core TIHE Triggered Isomer Heat...energy in a nuclear thermal rocket (NTR) configuration. This includes study of the current state of triggered isomer research, an investigation of 4... thermal rocket this means that heat from the reactive core must be prevented from raising the temperature of the propellant prior to its release from

  2. A high reliability survey of discrete Epoch of Reionization foreground sources in the MWA EoR0 field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, P. A.; Line, J.; Morales, M. F.; Barry, N.; Beardsley, A. P.; Hazelton, B. J.; Jacobs, D. C.; Pober, J. C.; Sullivan, I. S.; Webster, R. L.; Bernardi, G.; Bowman, J. D.; Briggs, F.; Cappallo, R. J.; Corey, B. E.; de Oliveira-Costa, A.; Dillon, J. S.; Emrich, D.; Ewall-Wice, A.; Feng, L.; Gaensler, B. M.; Goeke, R.; Greenhill, L. J.; Hewitt, J. N.; Hurley-Walker, N.; Johnston-Hollitt, M.; Kaplan, D. L.; Kasper, J. C.; Kim, HS.; Kratzenberg, E.; Lenc, E.; Loeb, A.; Lonsdale, C. J.; Lynch, M. J.; McKinley, B.; McWhirter, S. R.; Mitchell, D. A.; Morgan, E.; Neben, A. R.; Oberoi, D.; Offringa, A. R.; Ord, S. M.; Paul, S.; Pindor, B.; Prabu, T.; Procopio, P.; Riding, J.; Rogers, A. E. E.; Roshi, A.; Shankar, N. Udaya; Sethi, S. K.; Srivani, K. S.; Subrahmanyan, R.; Tegmark, M.; Thyagarajan, Nithyanandan; Tingay, S. J.; Trott, C. M.; Waterson, M.; Wayth, R. B.; Whitney, A. R.; Williams, A.; Williams, C. L.; Wu, C.; Wyithe, J. S. B.

    2016-10-01

    Detection of the epoch of reionization H I signal requires a precise understanding of the intervening galaxies and AGN, both for instrumental calibration and foreground removal. We present a catalogue of 7394 extragalactic sources at 182 MHz detected in the RA = 0 field of the Murchison Widefield Array Epoch of Reionization observation programme. Motivated by unprecedented requirements for precision and reliability we develop new methods for source finding and selection. We apply machine learning methods to self-consistently classify the relative reliability of 9490 source candidates. A subset of 7466 are selected based on reliability class and signal-to-noise ratio criteria. These are statistically cross-matched to four other radio surveys using both position and flux density information. We find 7369 sources to have confident matches, including 90 partially resolved sources that split into a total of 192 sub-components. An additional 25 unmatched sources are included as new radio detections. The catalogue sources have a median spectral index of -0.85. Spectral flattening is seen towards lower frequencies with a median of -0.71 predicted at 182 MHz. The astrometric error is 7 arcsec compared to a 2.3 arcmin beam FWHM. The resulting catalogue covers ˜1400 deg2 and is complete to approximately 80 mJy within half beam power. This provides the most reliable discrete source sky model available to date in the MWA EoR0 field for precision foreground subtraction.

  3. Energy-Efficient Sensing and Communication of Parallel Gaussian Sources

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Xi; Erkip, Elza

    2012-01-01

    Energy efficiency is a key requirement in the design of wireless sensor networks. While most theoretical studies only account for the energy requirements of communication, the sensing process, which includes measurements and compression, can also consume comparable energy. In this paper, the problem of sensing and communicating parallel sources is studied by accounting for the cost of both communication and sensing. In the first formulation of the problem, the sensor has a separate energy budget for sensing and a rate budget for communication, while, in the second, it has a single energy budget for both tasks. Assuming that sources with larger variances have lower sensing costs, the optimal allocation of sensing energy and rate that minimizes the overall distortion is derived for the first problem. Moreover, structural results on the solution of the second problem are derived under the assumption that the sources with larger variances are transmitted on channels with lower noise. Closed-form solutions are als...

  4. Comparative study of energy saving light sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khan, N.; Abas, N. [Department of Electrical Engineering, Comsats Institute of Information technology, Park Road, Islamabad (Pakistan)

    2011-01-15

    Techno-economic performance comparison of compact fluorescent lamps (CFL) with light emitting diodes (LED), electrode less fluorescent lamps (EEFL), fluorescent tubes, incandescent bulbs, photovoltaic (PV) and fiber optic lighting systems was carried out in view of worsening power and energy crisis in Pakistan. Literature survey showed 23 W CFL, 21 W EEFL, 18 W fluorescent tube or 15 W LED lamps emit almost same quantity of luminous flux (lumens) as a standard 100 W incandescent lamp. All inclusive, operational costs of LED lamps were found 1.21, 1.62. 1.69, 6.46, 19.90 and 21.04 times lesser than fluorescent tubes, CFL, EEFL, incandescent bulbs, fiber optic solar lighting and PV systems, respectively. However, tubes, LED, CFL and EEFL lamps worsen electric power quality of low voltage networks due to high current harmonic distortions (THD) and poor power factors (PF). Fluorescent lamps emit UV and pollute environment by mercury and phosphors when broken or at end of their life cycle. Energy consumption, bio-effects, and environmental concerns prefer LED lamps over phosphor based lamps but power quality considerations prefer EEFL. CFL and EEFL manufacturers claim operating temperatures in range of -20 C < T{sub CFL} < 60 C and -30 C < T{sub CFL} < 50 C but CFL frequently damage in wet and damp locations. Costs of low THD and high PF CFL, EEFL and LED lamps may be five to ten times higher that high THD and low PF lamps. Choice of a lamp depends upon its current THD, PF, life span, energy consumption, efficiency, efficacy, color rendering index (CRI) and associated physical effects. This work proposes manufacturing and user level innovations to get rid of low PF problems. Keeping in view downside of phosphor based lamps our research concludes widespread adoption of LED lamps. Government and commercial buildings may consider full spectrum hybrid thermal photovoltaic and solar fiber optic illumination systems. (author)

  5. Analysis of Energy Efficiency in Dynamic Optical Networks Employing Solar Energy Sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Jiayuan; Fagertun, Anna Manolova; Ruepp, Sarah Renée

    2013-01-01

    The paper presents energy efficient routing in dynamic optical networks, where solar energy sources are employed for the network nodes. Different parameters are evaluated, including the number of nodes that have access to solar energy sources, the different maximum solar output power, traffic type...

  6. SWOT analysis of the renewable energy sources in Romania - case study: solar energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupu, A. G.; Dumencu, A.; Atanasiu, M. V.; Panaite, C. E.; Dumitrașcu, Gh; Popescu, A.

    2016-08-01

    The evolution of energy sector worldwide triggered intense preoccupation on both finding alternative renewable energy sources and environmental issues. Romania is considered to have technological potential and geographical location suitable to renewable energy usage for electricity generation. But this high potential is not fully exploited in the context of policies and regulations adopted globally, and more specific, European Union (EU) environmental and energy strategies and legislation related to renewable energy sources. This SWOT analysis of solar energy source presents the state of the art, potential and future prospects for development of renewable energy in Romania. The analysis concluded that the development of solar energy sector in Romania depends largely on: viability of legislative framework on renewable energy sources, increased subsidies for solar R&D, simplified methodology of green certificates, and educating the public, investors, developers and decision-makers.

  7. Renewable energy made easy free energy from solar, wind, hydropower, and other alternative energy sources

    CERN Document Server

    Craddock, David

    2008-01-01

    Studies have shown that the average North American family will spend more than a quarter of a million dollars on energy in a lifetime. What many other countries, including Germany, Spain, France, Denmark, China, Brazil, and even Iceland, have realized is that there is a better way to power our homes, businesses, and cars by using renewable energy sources. Recently, the United States has begun to understand the importance of reducing its reliance on coal, natural gas, nuclear power, and hydropower plants, which comprise the majority of the nation's electricity, due to increasing oil prices.

  8. Energy sources and power plants; Energiequellen und Kraftwerke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulz, Detlef [Helmut-Schmidt-Univ. / Univ. der Bundeswehr, Hamburg (Germany). Professur fuer Elektrische Energiesysteme; Schulz, Karen

    2013-07-01

    Energy is obtained from various energy sources (coal, petroleum, natural gas, nuclear fuels, wind energy, solar energy, hydro power, biomass, geothermal energy). These differ in each case with respect to their availability, methods of their production and the required power plant technologies. As technologies of the future fuel cells and nuclear fusion are traded. [German] Energie wird aus verschiedenen Energietraegern gewonnen (Kohle, Erdoel, Erdgas, Kernbrennstoffe, Windenergie, Solarenergie, Wasserkraft, Biomasse, Geothermie). Diese unterscheiden sich jeweils hinsichtlich ihrer Verfuegbarkeit, der Methoden ihrer Gewinnung und der benoetigten Kraftwerkstechnologien. Als Zukunftstechnologien werden Brennstoffzellen und Kernfusion gehandelt.

  9. Development of Electricity Generation from Renewable Energy Sources in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kentel, E.

    2011-12-01

    Electricity is mainly produced from coal, natural gas and hydropower in Turkey. However, almost all the natural gas and high quality coal are imported. Thus, increasing the shares of both hydro and other renewables in energy supply is necessary to decrease dependency of the country on foreign sources. In 2008, the total installed capacity of Turkey was around 42000 MW and 66 % of this was from thermal sources. The remaining 33 % was from hydro, which leaves only one percent for the other renewable energy sources. The share of renewable energy in the energy budget of Turkey has increased in the last two decades; however, in 2008, only 17 % of the total electricity generation was realized from renewable sources most of which was hydro. According to State Hydraulic Works (SHW) which is the primary executive state agency responsible for the planning, operating and managing of Turkey's water resources, Turkey utilizes only around 35% of its economically viable hydro potential. The current situation clearly demonstrates the need for increasing the share of renewables in the energy budget. New laws, such as the Electricity Market Law, have been enacted and the following items were identified by the Ministry of Energy and Natural Resources of Turkey among primary energy policies and priorities: (i) decreasing dependency on foreign resources by prioritizing utilization of natural resources, (ii) increasing the share of renewable energy resources in the energy budget of Turkey; (iii) minimization of adverse environmental impacts of production and utilization of natural resources. The government's energy policy increased investments in renewable energy resources; however lack of a needed legal framework brought various environmental and social problems with this fast development. The development of the share of renewable resources in the energy budget, current government policy, and environmental concerns related with renewables, and ideas to improve the overall benefits of

  10. [Applications of GIS in biomass energy source research].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Xian-Ming; Wang, Wu-Kui; Li, Yi-Wei; Sun, Wen-Xiang; Shi, Hai; Zhang, Da-Hong

    2010-03-01

    Biomass resources have the characteristics of widespread and dispersed distribution, which have close relations to the environment, climate, soil, and land use, etc. Geographic information system (GIS) has the functions of spatial analysis and the flexibility of integrating with other application models and algorithms, being of predominance to the biomass energy source research. This paper summarized the researches on the GIS applications in biomass energy source research, with the focus in the feasibility study of bioenergy development, assessment of biomass resources amount and distribution, layout of biomass exploitation and utilization, evaluation of gaseous emission from biomass burning, and biomass energy information system. Three perspectives of GIS applications in biomass energy source research were proposed, i. e., to enrich the data source, to improve the capacity on data processing and decision-support, and to generate the online proposal.

  11. Panchromatic spectral energy distributions of Herschel sources

    CERN Document Server

    Berta, S; Santini, P; Wuyts, S; Rosario, D; Brisbin, D; Cooray, A; Franceschini, A; Gruppioni, C; Hatziminaoglou, E; Hwang, H S; Floc'h, E Le; Magnelli, B; Nordon, R; Oliver, S; Page, M J; Popesso, P; Pozzetti, L; Pozzi, F; Riguccini, L; Rodighiero, G; Roseboom, I; Scott, Douglas; Symeonidis, M; Valtchanov, I; Viero, M; Wang, L

    2013-01-01

    (abridged) Far-infrared Herschel photometry from the PEP and HerMES programs is combined with ancillary datasets in the GOODS-N, GOODS-S, and COSMOS fields. Based on this rich dataset, we reproduce the restframe UV to FIR ten-colors distribution of galaxies using a superposition of multi-variate Gaussian modes. The median SED of each mode is then fitted with a modified version of the MAGPHYS code that combines stellar light, emission from dust heated by stars and a possible warm dust contribution heated by an AGN. The defined Gaussian grouping is also used to identify rare sources. The zoology of outliers includes Herschel-detected ellipticals, very blue z~1 Ly-break galaxies, quiescent spirals, and torus-dominated AGN with star formation. Out of these groups and outliers, a new template library is assembled, consisting of 32 SEDs describing the intrinsic scatter in the restframe UV-to-submm colors of infrared galaxies. This library is tested against L(IR) estimates with and without Herschel data included, an...

  12. Perspectives of Use of Alternative Energy Sources in Air Transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luboš Socha

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem of environmental load is also reflected in air transport. Usage of fossil fuels, which are dominant nowadays, has a negative impact on the environment and also its resources are limited. Therefore, the article focuses on the prospective of use of other energy sources in aviation, such as alternative fuels (synthetic fuels, biofuels, alcohol, methane, hydrogen, solar energy and the use of fuel cells. Also, the paper briefly summarizes the approach of aircraft manufacturers to the use alternative sources.

  13. The importance of the different kinds of energy sources for energy future of Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Yusuf Alper; Aladağ, Canan

    2016-11-01

    Nowadays, the need of energy has been increasing day by day with the population growth and the advancements of technology. In this study, the current state of nuclear, wind and solar energy on the worldwide has been generally investigated. The general assessments have been made based on Turkey's energy potential and the evaluation situation of this potential. The current political structures of countries are generally assessed and under this policy, the last situation and the latest implemented innovations are given. Turkey's energy demand is constantly increasing and Turkey is a country that needs to energy imports. This is a need for new energy sources to meet the growing need for energy. Nuclear, wind and solar energy are the new sources of energy to the fore in our country recently. In this study is given general information on the usage of energy sources of making and some deficiencies were been emphasized by political considerations in this regard.

  14. Opportunities for renewable energy sources in Central Asia countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Obozov, A.J. [Project KUN (Kyrgyzstan); Loscutoff, W.V. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)

    1998-07-01

    This report presents an overview of the state of conventional energy sources and the potential for development of renewable energy sources in the Central Asia countries of Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Kyrgyzstan, Turkmenistan, and Tajikistan. The region has a population of about 50 million in an area of more than four million square kilometers. The per capita gross internal product is more than $2,500, although the economy has been declining the past five years. The area has substantial coal, oil, uranium, and natural gas reserves, although they are not distributed equally among the five countries. Energy production is such that the countries do not have to rely heavily on imports. One of the problems in Central Asia is that the energy prices are substantially below the world prices. This is a factor in development of renewable energy sources. The primary renewable energy resources available are wind in Kazakhstan, solar in the entire region, biomass in Kyrgyzstan, and micro-hydropower stations in Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan. All of these have the potential to provide a significant amount of the required energy for the region. However, all of the countries have an abundance of various renewable energy resources. To effectively use these resources, however, a number of barriers to their development and commercialization must be overcome. These include low prices of conventional energy sources, absence of legislative support, lack of financing for new technologies, and lack of awareness of renewable energy sources by the population. A number of specific actions are proposed to overcome these barriers. These include establishment of a Central Asia coordinating council for renewable energy, development of a regional renewable energy program, and setting up a number of large demonstration projects. 16 figs.

  15. Power Electronics as Efficient Interface of Renewable Energy Sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaabjerg, Frede; Chen, Zhe; Kjær, Søren Bækhøj

    2004-01-01

    The global electrical energy consumption is steadily rising and consequently there is a demand to increase the power generation capacity. A significant percentage of the required capacity increase can be based on renewable energy sources. Wind turbine technology, as the most cost effective...... renewable energy conversion system, will play an important part in our future energy supply. But other sources like microturbines, photovoltaics and fuel cell systems may also be serious contributor to the power supply. Characteristically, power electronics will be an efficient and important interface...... to the grid and this paper will first briefly discuss three different alternative/ renewable energy sources. Next, various configurations of the wind turbine technology are presented, as this technology seems to be most developed and cost-effective. Finally, the developments and requirements from the grid...

  16. Renewable energy sources offering flexibility through electricity markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soares, Tiago

    All over the world, penetration of renewable energy sources in power systems has been increasing, creating new challenges in electricity markets and for operation and management of power systems, since power production from these resources is by nature uncertain and variable. New methods and tools...... governments. Renewable energy sources are characterized by their uncertain and variable production that limits the current operation and management tools of the power system. Nevertheless, recent developments of renewable energy technologies enable these resources to provide, to some extent, ancillary...... of future energy and reserve markets. Towards a power system based on distributed energy resources, mainly comprising renewable sources, new operation and management of distribution systems needs to be thought of. In fact, the existing passive distribution grid management does not provide the flexibility...

  17. High-energy neutrinos from sources in clusters of galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Fang, Ke

    2016-01-01

    High-energy cosmic rays can be accelerated in clusters of galaxies, by mega-parsec scale shocks induced by accretion of gas during the formation of large-scale structure, or by powerful sources harbored in clusters. Once accelerated, the highest energy particles leave the cluster via almost rectilinear trajectories, while lower energy ones can be confined by the cluster magnetic field up to cosmological time and interact with the intracluster gas. Using a realistic model of the baryon distribution and the turbulent magnetic field in clusters, we studied the propagation and hadronic interaction of high-energy protons in the intracluster medium. We report the cumulative cosmic ray and neutrino spectra generated by galaxy clusters including embedded sources, and demonstrate that clusters can contribute a significant fraction of the observed IceCube neutrinos above 30 TeV while remaining undetected in high-energy cosmic rays and $\\gamma$ rays for reasonable choices of parameters and source scenarios.

  18. Field biomass as global energy source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. HAKALA

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Current (1997–2006 and future (2050 global field biomass bioenergy potential was estimated based on FAO (2009 production statistics and estimations of climate change impacts on agriculture according to emission scenario B1 of IPCC. The annual energy potential of raw biomass obtained from crop residues and bioenergy crops cultivated in fields set aside from food production is at present 122–133 EJ, 86–93 EJ or 47–50 EJ, when a vegetarian, moderate or affluent diet is followed, respectively. In 2050, with changes in climate and increases in population, field bioenergy production potential could be 101–110 EJ, 57–61 EJ and 44–47 EJ, following equivalent diets. Of the potential field bioenergy production, 39–42 EJ now and 38–41 EJ in 2050 would derive from crop residues. The residue potential depends, however, on local climate, and may be considerably lower than the technically harvestable potential, when soil quality and sustainable development are considered. Arable land could be used for bioenergy crops, particularly in Australia, South and Central America and the USA. If crop production technology was improved in areas where environmental conditions allow more efficient food production, such as the former Soviet Union, large areas in Europe could also produce bioenergy in set aside fields. The realistic potential and sustainability of field bioenergy production are discussed.;

  19. Study and Analysis of an Intelligent Microgrid Energy Management Solution with Distributed Energy Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swaminathan Ganesan

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a robust energy management solution which will facilitate the optimum and economic control of energy flows throughout a microgrid network is proposed. The increased penetration of renewable energy sources is highly intermittent in nature; the proposed solution demonstrates highly efficient energy management. This study enables precise management of power flows by forecasting of renewable energy generation, estimating the availability of energy at storage batteries, and invoking the appropriate mode of operation, based on the load demand to achieve efficient and economic operation. The predefined mode of operation is derived out of an expert rule set and schedules the load and distributed energy sources along with utility grid.

  20. CONCEPT OF THE MINIMUM ENERGY PASSENGER CAR WITH USE OF UNCONVENTIONAL ENERGY SOURCES

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    V. A. Gabrinets; I. V. Tytarenko

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. The paper is aimed to consider the concept of creation of the minimum energy passenger car with use of nonconventional energy sources and the walls that have enhanced thermal insulation properties. Мethodology...

  1. Evaluation of Energy Use in Public Housing in Lagos, Nigeria: Prospects for Renewable Energy Sources

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Isidore Chukwunweike Ezema; Abiodun O Olotuah; Olabosipo I Fagbenle

    2016-01-01

      Even though domestic energy can be from either renewable or non-renewable sources, the former is preferred because of its role in reducing both the operational energy intensity and carbon footprint...

  2. A Correlated Model for Evaluating Performance and Energy of Cloud System Given System Reliability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongli Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The serious issue of energy consumption for high performance computing systems has attracted much attention. Performance and energy-saving have become important measures of a computing system. In the cloud computing environment, the systems usually allocate various resources (such as CPU, Memory, Storage, etc. on multiple virtual machines (VMs for executing tasks. Therefore, the problem of resource allocation for running VMs should have significant influence on both system performance and energy consumption. For different processor utilizations assigned to the VM, there exists the tradeoff between energy consumption and task completion time when a given task is executed by the VMs. Moreover, the hardware failure, software failure and restoration characteristics also have obvious influences on overall performance and energy. In this paper, a correlated model is built to analyze both performance and energy in the VM execution environment given the reliability restriction, and an optimization model is presented to derive the most effective solution of processor utilization for the VM. Then, the tradeoff between energy-saving and task completion time is studied and balanced when the VMs execute given tasks. Numerical examples are illustrated to build the performance-energy correlated model and evaluate the expected values of task completion time and consumed energy.

  3. Renewable energy sources in Europe; Erneuerbare Energien in Europa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, Thorsten; Kahl, Hartmut (eds.)

    2015-07-01

    The book on renewable energy sources in Europe includes contributions on the following issues: Europe's energy and climate policy on the crossroad; possible promotion of renewable energy in Europe; regulation and innovations in a multi-level system - European energy and climate protection legislation - freedom of action for the member states; lessons learned - in the implementation of the European renewable energy guideline; Options for the development of the renewable energy guideline; status and development of the legal system of the energy domestic market; actual developments in the legislation of the EuGH on the compatibility of green electricity promotion systems with free movement on goods; Europe without critical power situations; prerequisites and consequences of a European electricity market coupling; selected grants of the EU commission for green energy promotion; assistance guidelines of the EU commission for energy and environment purposes.

  4. Reliability measures for indexed semi-Markov chains applied to wind energy production

    CERN Document Server

    D'Amico, Guglielmo; Prattico, Flavio

    2013-01-01

    The computation of the dependability measures is a crucial point in the planning and development of a wind farm. In this paper we address the issue of energy production by wind turbine by using an indexed semi-Markov chain as a model of wind speed. We present the mathematical model, we describe the data and technical characteristics of a commercial wind turbine (Aircon HAWT-10kW). We show how to compute some of the main dependability measures such as reliability, availability and maintainability functions. We compare the results of the model with real energy production obtained from data available in the Lastem station (Italy) and sampled every 10 minutes.

  5. Voltage sag source location based on instantaneous energy detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Zhe; Xinzhou, Dong; Wei, Kong

    2007-01-01

    Voltage sag is the major power quality problem, which could disrupt the operation of sensitive equipment. This paper presents the applications of instantaneous energy direction for voltage sag source detection. Simulations have been performed to provide the analysis for system with distributed ge...... generation units. The studies show that the presented method can effectively detect the location of the voltage sag source....

  6. Biogas as a source of rural energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalia, A.K.

    2000-01-01

    The hilly state of Himachal Pradesh, with nearly 2.15 million cattle and 0.7 million buffalo, has the potential to install 0.64 million biogas plants of 1 m{sup 3} size. These plants could generate nearly 4.90 x 105 m{sup 3} of biogas, equivalent to 3.07 x 10{sup 5} L kerosene per day to meet domestic energy needs of nearly one-fourth of its rural population. During 1982--1998, only 12.8% of this potential was achieved. The percent of possible potential achieved in plant installations in 12 districts of this state, namely, Bilaspur, Chamba, Hamirpur, Kangra, Kinnaur, Kullu, Lahul-Spiti, Mandi, Shimla, Sirmour, Solan, and Una, are 35.35, 1.70, 20.96, 8.67, 1.54, 6.96, 0.00, 18.49, 3.84, 8.521, 18.29, and 13.23%, respectively. There is a need to strengthen biogas promotion, particularly in the districts of Kangra, Mandi, Solan, and Una, which range from mid-hill to low-hill terrain and which have large potential due to high concentration of bovine population. Increased costs and comparatively low rate of subsidies has resulted in a decreasing rate of plant installation annually, from 3,500 during 1987--1992 to fewer than 1,200 during 1995--1998. The percentage of functioning plants was 82% in 1987--1988 but has decreased to 63%. To ensure proper installation and functionality of plants, the authors discuss the needed improvements in the biogas promotion program.

  7. New, more effective methods of exploiting energy sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pallares Huici, E.

    1986-01-01

    The energy crisis has made it necessary both to rationalise and improve old technology and to seek new sources of energy. This article reviews new, more efficient methods of using conventional fuels, new combustion technology, fluidised beds, use of heat produced by residual water processing plant, etc.

  8. Power Electronics as Efficient Interface of Renewable Energy Sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaabjerg, Frede; Chen, Zhe; Kjær, Søren Bækhøj

    2004-01-01

    renewable energy conversion system, will play an important part in our future energy supply. But other sources like microturbines, photovoltaics and fuel cell systems may also be serious contributor to the power supply. Characteristically, power electronics will be an efficient and important interface...

  9. Pion linac as an energy-tagged ν source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Goldman

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The energy spectrum and flux of neutrinos from a linear pion accelerator are calculated analytically under the assumption of a uniform accelerating gradient. The energy of a neutrino from this source reacting in a detector can be determined from timing and event position information.

  10. Writable electrochemical energy source based on graphene oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Di

    2015-10-01

    Graphene oxide (GO) was mainly used as raw material for various types of reduced graphene oxide (rGO) as a cost effective method to make graphene like materials. However, applications of its own unique properties such as extraordinary proton conductivity and super-permeability to water were overlooked. Here GO based battery-like planar energy source was demonstrated on arbitrary insulating substrate (e.g. polymer sheet/paper) by coating PEDOT, GO ink and rGO on Ag charge collectors. Energy from such GO battery depends on its length and one unit cell with length of 0.5 cm can generate energy capacity of 30 Ah/L with voltage up to 0.7 V when room temperature ionic liquid (RTIL) is added. With power density up to 0.4 W/cm3 and energy density of 4 Wh/L, GO battery was demonstrated to drive an electrochromic device. This work is the first attempt to generate decent energy using the fast transported water molecules inside GO. It provides very safe energy source that enables new applications otherwise traditional battery technology can not make including building a foldable energy source on paper and platform for futuristic wearable electronics. A disposable energy source made of GO was also written on a plastic glove to demonstrate wearability.

  11. High-energy diffraction microscopy at the advanced photon source

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lienert, U.; Li, S. F.; Hefferan, C. M.

    2011-01-01

    The status of the High Energy Diffraction Microscopy (HEDM) program at the 1-ID beam line of the Advanced Photon Source is reported. HEDM applies high energy synchrotron radiation for the grain and sub-grain scale structural and mechanical characterization of polycrystalline bulk materials in situ...

  12. Modeling of an autonomous microgrid for renewable energy sources integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Serban, I.; Teodorescu, Remus; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2009-01-01

    The frequency stability analysis in an autonomous microgrid (MG) with renewable energy sources (RES) is a continuously studied issue. This paper presents an original method for modeling an autonomous MG with a battery energy storage system (BESS) and a wind power plant (WPP), with the purpose...

  13. Energy sources, self-organization, and the origin of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boiteau, Laurent; Pascal, Robert

    2011-02-01

    The emergence and early developments of life are considered from the point of view that contingent events that inevitably marked evolution were accompanied by deterministic driving forces governing the selection between different alternatives. Accordingly, potential energy sources are considered for their propensity to induce self-organization within the scope of the chemical approach to the origin of life. Requirements in terms of quality of energy locate thermal or photochemical activation in the atmosphere as highly likely processes for the formation of activated low-molecular weight organic compounds prone to induce biomolecular self-organization through their ability to deliver quanta of energy matching the needs of early biochemical pathways or the reproduction of self-replicating entities. These lines of reasoning suggest the existence of a direct connection between the free energy content of intermediates of early pathways and the quanta of energy delivered by available sources of energy.

  14. Waste-to-energy: A way from renewable energy sources to sustainable development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kothari, Richa [Babasaheb BhimRao Ambedkar University, Lucknow, U.P. (India); Tyagi, V.V.; Pathak, Ashish [Centre for Energy Studies, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, 110016 (India)

    2010-12-15

    Nowadays, energy is key consideration in discussions of sustainable development. So, sustainable development requires a sustainable supply of clean and affordable renewable energy sources that do not cause negative societal impacts. Energy sources such as solar radiation, the winds, waves and tides are generally considered renewable and, therefore, sustainable over the relatively long term. Wastes and biomass fuels are usually viewed as sustainable energy sources. Wastes are convertible to useful energy forms like hydrogen (biohydrogen), biogas, bioalcohol, etc., through waste-to-energy technologies. In this article, possible future energy utilization patterns and related environmental impacts, potential solutions to current environmental problems and renewable energy technologies and their relation to sustainable development are discussed with great emphasis on waste-to-energy routes (WTERs). (author)

  15. Optimal portfolio selection between different kinds of Renewable energy sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zakerinia, MohammadSaleh; Piltan, Mehdi; Ghaderi, Farid

    2010-09-15

    In this paper, selection of the optimal energy supply system in an industrial unit is taken into consideration. This study takes environmental, economical and social parameters into consideration in modeling along with technical factors. Several alternatives which include renewable energy sources, micro-CHP systems and conventional system has been compared by means of an integrated model of linear programming and three multi-criteria approaches (AHP, TOPSIS and ELECTRE III). New parameters like availability of sources, fuels' price volatility, besides traditional factors are considered in different scenarios. Results show with environmental preferences, renewable sources and micro-CHP are good alternatives for conventional systems.

  16. Hard X-Ray Flare Source Sizes Measured with the Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennis, Brian R.; Pernak, Rick L.

    2009-01-01

    Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager (RHESSI) observations of 18 double hard X-ray sources seen at energies above 25 keV are analyzed to determine the spatial extent of the most compact structures evident in each case. The following four image reconstruction algorithms were used: Clean, Pixon, and two routines using visibilities maximum entropy and forward fit (VFF). All have been adapted for this study to optimize their ability to provide reliable estimates of the sizes of the more compact sources. The source fluxes, sizes, and morphologies obtained with each method are cross-correlated and the similarities and disagreements are discussed. The full width at half-maximum (FWHM) of the major axes of the sources with assumed elliptical Gaussian shapes are generally well correlated between the four image reconstruction routines and vary between the RHESSI resolution limit of approximately 2" up to approximately 20" with most below 10". The FWHM of the minor axes are generally at or just above the RHESSI limit and hence should be considered as unresolved in most cases. The orientation angles of the elliptical sources are also well correlated. These results suggest that the elongated sources are generally aligned along a flare ribbon with the minor axis perpendicular to the ribbon. This is verified for the one flare in our list with coincident Transition Region and Coronal Explorer (TRACE) images. There is evidence for significant extra flux in many of the flares in addition to the two identified compact sources, thus rendering the VFF assumption of just two Gaussians inadequate. A more realistic approximation in many cases would be of two line sources with unresolved widths. Recommendations are given for optimizing the RHESSI imaging reconstruction process to ensure that the finest possible details of the source morphology become evident and that reliable estimates can be made of the source dimensions.

  17. New renewable source of energy from municipal solid waste plastics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarker, Moinuddin; Zaman, Ashiquz; Mamunor Rashid, Mohammad

    2010-09-15

    Renewable energy plays an important role in the supply of energy. When energy sources are used, the demand for fossil fuels is reduced. Emissions from the evaporation and combustion of these traditional fossil fuels contributing to a range of environmental and health problems, causing poor air quality, and emitting greenhouse gases that contribute to global warming. Alternative fuel created from domestic sources has been proposed as a solution to these problems and many alternative fuels are being developed based on solar, wind and biomass. Natural State Research has developed different alternative hydrocarbon fuel produced from abundant waste plastic materials.

  18. International Requirements for Large Integration of Renewable Energy Sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Molina-Garcia, Angel; Hansen, Anca Daniela; Muljadi, Ed

    2017-01-01

    Most European countries have concerns about the integration of large amounts of renewable energy sources (RES) into electric power systems, and this is currently a topic of growing interest. In January 2008, the European Commission published the 2020 package, which proposes committing the European...... Union to a 20% reduction in greenhouse gas emissions, to achieve a target of deriving 20% of the European Union's final energy consumption from renewable sources, and to achieve 20% improvement in energy efficiency both by the year 2020 [1]. Member states have different individual goals to meet...

  19. Electrochemical energy storage for renewable sources and grid balancing

    CERN Document Server

    Moseley, Patrick T

    2015-01-01

    Electricity from renewable sources of energy is plagued by fluctuations (due to variations in wind strength or the intensity of insolation) resulting in a lack of stability if the energy supplied from such sources is used in 'real time'. An important solution to this problem is to store the energy electrochemically (in a secondary battery or in hydrogen and its derivatives) and to make use of it in a controlled fashion at some time after it has been initially gathered and stored. Electrochemical battery storage systems are the major technologies for decentralized storage systems and hydrogen

  20. ENEGY FORESTRY A SOURCE OF ENERGY FOR THE ROMANIAN ECONOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margareta RUSU

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Using "grown fuels", as opposed to "fossil fuels" such as coal, natural gas and oil can be a possible solution to the global energy crisis by creating a decentralized power generation network. Wood is among the most efficient sources of bioenergy in terms of quantity of energy released by unit of carbon emitted compared with other energy crops. Research, development and innovation create new opportunities for the process of gathering and transforming the raw material into energy. Innovation should be targeted to deliver sustainability, biodiversity and economic growth. Romanian has a high potential and can develop energy forestry in order to reduce CO2 emissions and ensure an alternative energy solution and an energy reserve. This paper aims to analize the challenges and opportunities the biomass energy industry creates in the context of climate change mitigation which must be seen from an entrepreneurial perspective in Romania.

  1. Phase 1 report: investigation of geothermal energy information sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-07-14

    A subject screening list was developed which would be used by acquisitions specialists as a guide to the orientation of pertinent literature. The subject screening list was derived primarily from the geothermal subset of the ERDA Energy Thesaurus and from the ERDA Energy Information Data Base Subject Categories (TID-4584). The subject screening list is included. Subsequent to preparation of the subject screening list, a core list of serial publications containing geothermal energy information was generated by SIS library scientists. This list was corelated with the ERDA-TIC serial publications list. Included in both lists is an estimate of the annual geothermal information yield of the serial sources. A listing of sources of geothermal energy information other than serial publications and the conclusions, including methods of acquisitioning to be utilized and the estimated annual volume of information from all sources are presented.

  2. A Stochastic Calculus for Network Systems with Renewable Energy Sources

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Kui; Marinakis, Dimitri

    2011-01-01

    We consider the performance modeling and evaluation of network systems powered with renewable energy sources such as solar and wind energy. Such energy sources largely depend on environmental conditions, which are hard to predict accurately. As such, it may only make sense to require the network systems to support a soft quality of service (QoS) guarantee, i.e., to guarantee a service requirement with a certain high probability. In this paper, we intend to build a solid mathematical foundation to help better understand the stochastic energy constraint and the inherent correlation between QoS and the uncertain energy supply. We utilize a calculus approach to model the cumulative amount of charged energy and the cumulative amount of consumed energy. We derive upper and lower bounds on the remaining energy level based on a stochastic energy charging rate and a stochastic energy discharging rate. By building the bridge between energy consumption and task execution (i.e., service), we study the QoS guarantee under...

  3. Accurate, robust, and reliable calculations of Poisson-Boltzmann binding energies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Duc D; Wang, Bao; Wei, Guo-Wei

    2017-05-15

    Poisson-Boltzmann (PB) model is one of the most popular implicit solvent models in biophysical modeling and computation. The ability of providing accurate and reliable PB estimation of electrostatic solvation free energy, ΔGel, and binding free energy, ΔΔGel, is important to computational biophysics and biochemistry. In this work, we investigate the grid dependence of our PB solver (MIBPB) with solvent excluded surfaces for estimating both electrostatic solvation free energies and electrostatic binding free energies. It is found that the relative absolute error of ΔGel obtained at the grid spacing of 1.0 Å compared to ΔGel at 0.2 Å averaged over 153 molecules is less than 0.2%. Our results indicate that the use of grid spacing 0.6 Å ensures accuracy and reliability in ΔΔGel calculation. In fact, the grid spacing of 1.1 Å appears to deliver adequate accuracy for high throughput screening. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Energy-Efficient Modulation Design for Reliable Communication in Wireless Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Qing

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we have considered the optimization of the $M$-ary quadrature amplitude modulation (MQAM) constellation size to minimize the bit energy consumption under average bit error rate (BER) constraints. In the computation of the energy expenditure, the circuit, transmission, and retransmission energies are taken into account. A combined log-normal shadowing and Rayleigh fading model is employed to model the wireless channel. The link reliabilities and retransmission probabilities are determined through the outage probabilities under log-normal shadowing effects. Both single-hop and multi-hop transmissions are considered. Through numerical results, the optimal constellation sizes are identified. Several interesting observations with practical implications are made. It is seen that while large constellations are preferred at small transmission distances, constellation size should be decreased as the distance increases. Similar trends are observed in both fixed and variable transmit power scenarios. We h...

  5. The fractal nature materials microstructure influence on electrochemical energy sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitić V.V.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available With increasing of the world energy crisis, research for new, renewable and alternative energy sources are in growth. The focus is on research areas, sometimes of minor importance and applications, where the different synthesis methods and microstructure properties optimization, performed significant improvement of output materials’ and components’ electro-physical properties, which is important for higher energy efficiency and in the electricity production (batteries and battery systems, fuel cells and hydrogen energy contribution. Also, the storage tanks capacity improvement, for the energy produced on such way, which is one of the most important development issues in the energy sphere, represents a very promising research and application area. Having in mind, the results achieved in the electrochemical energy sources field, especially electrolyte development, these energy sources, materials fractal nature optimization analysis contribution, have been investigated. Based on materials fractal structure research field, particularly electronic materials, we have performed microstructure influence parameters research in electrochemistry area. We have investigated the Ho2O3 concentration influence (from 0.01wt% to 1wt% and sintering temperature (from 1320°C to 1380°C, as consolidation parameters, and thus, also open the electrochemical function fractalization door and in the basic thermodynamic parameters the fractal correction introduced. The fractal dimension dependence on additive concentration is also investigated. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 172057: Directed synthesis, structure and properties of multifunctional materials

  6. Energy Efficiency of Biogas Produced from Different Biomass Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begum, Shahida; Nazri, A. H.

    2013-06-01

    Malaysia has different sources of biomass like palm oil waste, agricultural waste, cow dung, sewage waste and landfill sites, which can be used to produce biogas and as a source of energy. Depending on the type of biomass, the biogas produced can have different calorific value. At the same time the energy, being used to produce biogas is dependent on transportation distance, means of transportation, conversion techniques and for handling of raw materials and digested residues. An energy systems analysis approach based on literature is applied to calculate the energy efficiency of biogas produced from biomass. Basically, the methodology is comprised of collecting data, proposing locations and estimating the energy input needed to produce biogas and output obtained from the generated biogas. The study showed that palm oil and municipal solid waste is two potential sources of biomass. The energy efficiency of biogas produced from palm oil residues and municipal solid wastes is 1.70 and 3.33 respectively. Municipal solid wastes have the higher energy efficiency due to less transportation distance and electricity consumption. Despite the inherent uncertainties in the calculations, it can be concluded that the energy potential to use biomass for biogas production is a promising alternative.

  7. Fatigue reliability and calibration of fatigue design factors of wave energy converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ambühl, Simon; Ferri, Francesco; Kofoed, Jens Peter

    2015-01-01

    Target reliability levels, which are chosen dependent on the consequences in case of structural collapse, are used in this paper to calibrate partial safety factors for structural details of wave energy converters (WECs). The consequences in case of structural failure are similar for WECs...... and offshore wind turbines (no fatalities, low environmental pollution). Therefore, it can be assumed that the target reliability levels for WEC applications can be overtaken from offshore wind turbine studies. The partial safety factors cannot be directly overtaken from offshore wind turbines because the load...... is considered in order to extend and maintain a certain target safety level. This paper uses the Wavestar prototype located at Hanstholm (DK) as case study in order to calibrate FDFs for welded and bolted details in steel structures of an offshore bottom-fixed WEC with hydraulic floaters....

  8. General reliability and safety methodology and its application to wind energy conversion systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edesess, M.; McConnell, R. D.

    1979-09-01

    In conventional system reliability calculations, each component may be in the Operable state or the Under Repair state. These calculations derive system unavailability, or the probability of the system's being down for repairs. By introducing a third component state between Operable and Under Repair - namely, Defective, But Defect Undetected - the methods developed in this report enable system safety projections to be made in addition to availability projections. Also provided is a mechanism for computing the effect of inspection schedules on both safety and availability. A Reliability and Safety Program (RASP) is detailed which performs these computations and also calculates costs for system inspections and repairs. RASP is applied to a simplified wind energy conversion system example.

  9. Reliability study of Piezoelectric Structures Dedicated to Energy Harvesting by the Way of Blocking Force Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maaroufi, S.; Parrain, F.; Lefeuvre, E.; Boutaud, B.; Dal Molin, R.

    2015-12-01

    In this paper we propose an approach to study the reliability of piezoelectric structures and more precisely energy harvesting micro-devices dedicated to autonomous active medical implants (new generation pacemakers). The structure under test is designed as a bimorph piezoelectric cantilever with a seismic mass at its tip. Good understanding of material aging and mechanical failure is critical for this kind of system. To study the reliability and durability of the piezoelectric part we propose to establish a new accelerated methodology and an associated test bench where the environment and stimuli can be precisely controlled over a wide period of time. This will allow the identification of potential failure modes and the study of their impacts by the way of direct mechanical investigation based on stiffness and blocking force measurements performed periodically.

  10. Solid waste as an energy source for the Northeast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meier, P.M.; McCoy, T.H.

    1976-06-01

    This report, one of a series prepared for the BNL study of the Energy Future of the Northeastern United States, presents an assessment of the potential contribution of energy recovery from municipal refuse to energy supply in the region. A brief review of the present and likely future quantity and composition of municipal refuse and the technologies available for energy recovery (Chapters II and III) is followed by a comparison of the potential contributions to energy supply of the various recovery options including direct firing in utility boilers, pyrolysis to oil or gas, and steam generation for industrial process heat or district space heating (Chapter IV). The relationship of refuse energy recovery to market conditions for alternative energy sources is considered in Chapter V, which also includes an analysis of the impact of haul costs, interest rates, and delivered prices of the major fuels. Institutional barriers to implementation of energy recovery are reviewed in Chapter VI, and the environmental implications of the concept are addressed in Chapter VII. In the concluding chapters, scenarios of energy recovery are developed for 1985 and 2000, and the sensitivity of overall energy yield to projections and assumptions is examined. Although even under the most optimistic assumptions, refuse energy recovery is found to contribute only some 5 percent of total regional consumption, the economic and environmental benefits, coupled with the increasing difficulty of finding other refuse disposal alternatives, make energy recovery a very attractive policy choice for helping to relieve future energy supply difficulties in the Northeast. (auth)

  11. Development of a high-energy distributed energy source electromagnetic railgun with improved energy conversion efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tower, M. M.; Haight, C. H.

    1984-03-01

    The development status of a single-pulse distributed-energy-source electromagnetic railgun (ER) based on the design of Tower (1982) is reviewed. The five-stage ER is 3.65 m long, with energy inputs every 30 cm starting at the breech and a 12.7-mm-square bore cross section, and is powered by a 660-kJ 6-kV modular capacitor bank. Lexan cubes weighing 2.5 grams have been accelerated to velocities up to 8.5 km/sec at 500 kA and conversion efficiency up to 20 percent. Design goal for a 20-mm-sq-cross-section ER is acceleration of a 60-g projectile to 3-4 km/sec at 35-percent efficiency. Drawings, photographs, and graphs of performance are provided.

  12. An open source approach to Sweden's energy system : A review of future energy pathways

    OpenAIRE

    Nawfal, Saadi Failali

    2013-01-01

    This paper discusses the development of an energy systems model for Swedenconsidering electricity, heat and direct fossil fuel consumption in the residential,industrial and transport sectors as well as the energy interaction with the other Nordiccountries and its impact on the Swedish energy system. The model is developed in theOpen source energy modelling system (OSeMOSYS) (Mark Howells 2011) andshowcases potential energy investment options for Sweden in the next four decades(2010-2050). It ...

  13. Working Group summary reports from the Advanced Photon Source reliability workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-05-01

    A workshop was held at APS to address reliability goals for accelerator systems. Seventy-one individuals participated in the workshop, including 30 from other institutions. The goals of the workshop were to: (1) Give attendees an introduction to the basic concepts of reliability analysis. (2) Exchange information on operating experience at existing accelerator facilities and strategies for achieving reliability at facilities under design or in construction. (3) Discuss reliability goals for APS and the means of their achievement. This report contains the working group summary report an APS's following systems: RF Systems; Power Supplies; Magnet Systems; Interlock and Diagnostics; and Vacuum Systems.

  14. Working Group summary reports from the Advanced Photon Source reliability workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-05-01

    A workshop was held at APS to address reliability goals for accelerator systems. Seventy-one individuals participated in the workshop, including 30 from other institutions. The goals of the workshop were to: (1) Give attendees an introduction to the basic concepts of reliability analysis. (2) Exchange information on operating experience at existing accelerator facilities and strategies for achieving reliability at facilities under design or in construction. (3) Discuss reliability goals for APS and the means of their achievement. This report contains the working group summary report an APS`s following systems: RF Systems; Power Supplies; Magnet Systems; Interlock and Diagnostics; and Vacuum Systems.

  15. Test-retest reliability and construct validity of the ENERGY-child questionnaire on energy balance-related behaviours and their potential determinants: the ENERGY-project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Amika S

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Insight in children's energy balance-related behaviours (EBRBs and their determinants is important to inform obesity prevention research. Therefore, reliable and valid tools to measure these variables in large-scale population research are needed. Objective To examine the test-retest reliability and construct validity of the child questionnaire used in the ENERGY-project, measuring EBRBs and their potential determinants among 10-12 year old children. Methods We collected data among 10-12 year old children (n = 730 in the test-retest reliability study; n = 96 in the construct validity study in six European countries, i.e. Belgium, Greece, Hungary, the Netherlands, Norway, and Spain. Test-retest reliability was assessed using the intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC and percentage agreement comparing scores from two measurements, administered one week apart. To assess construct validity, the agreement between questionnaire responses and a subsequent face-to-face interview was assessed using ICC and percentage agreement. Results Of the 150 questionnaire items, 115 (77% showed good to excellent test-retest reliability as indicated by ICCs > .60 or percentage agreement ≥ 75%. Test-retest reliability was moderate for 34 items (23% and poor for one item. Construct validity appeared to be good to excellent for 70 (47% of the 150 items, as indicated by ICCs > .60 or percentage agreement ≥ 75%. From the other 80 items, construct validity was moderate for 39 (26% and poor for 41 items (27%. Conclusions Our results demonstrate that the ENERGY-child questionnaire, assessing EBRBs of the child as well as personal, family, and school-environmental determinants related to these EBRBs, has good test-retest reliability and moderate to good construct validity for the large majority of items.

  16. Low-energy point source searches with IceCube

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Euler Sebastian

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the overwhelming background of atmospheric muons, the traditional IceCube point source search in the Southern Hemisphere is mainly sensitive to neutrinos with energies above 100TeV. A new approach focuses on events starting inside the instrumented volume. By utilizing different veto techniques we are able to significantly reduce the energy threshold and can now for the first time explore the entire Southern Hemisphere at neutrino energies as low as 100GeV. We present the results of two analyses targeting slightly different energy ranges. Both use one year of data taken with the completed IceCube detector in 2011/12.

  17. Final Scientific/ Technical Report. Playas Grid Reliability and Distributed Energy Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romero, Van [New Mexico Institute Of Mining And Technology, Socorro, NM (United States); Weinkauf, Don [New Mexico Institute Of Mining And Technology, Socorro, NM (United States); Khan, Mushtaq [New Mexico Institute Of Mining And Technology, Socorro, NM (United States); Helgeson, Wes [New Mexico Institute Of Mining And Technology, Socorro, NM (United States); Weedeward, Kevin [New Mexico Institute Of Mining And Technology, Socorro, NM (United States); LeClerc, Corey [New Mexico Institute Of Mining And Technology, Socorro, NM (United States); Fuierer, Paul [New Mexico Institute Of Mining And Technology, Socorro, NM (United States)

    2012-06-30

    The future looks bright for solar and renewable energies in the United States. Recent studies claim that by 2050, solar power could supply a third of all electricity demand in the country’s western states. Technology advances, soft policy changes, and increased energy consciousness will all have to happen to achieve this goal. But the larger question is, what would it take to do more throughout the United States? The studies tie future solar and renewable growth in the United States to programs that aim to lower the soft costs of solar adoption, streamline utility interconnections, and increase technology advances through research and development. At the state and local levels, the most important steps are; Net metering: Net metering policies lets customers offset their electric bills with onsite solar and receive reliable and fair compensation for the excess electricity they provide to the grid. Not surprisingly, what utilities consider fair is not necessarily a rate that’s favorable to solar customers; Renewable portfolio standards (RPS): RPS policies require utilities to provide a certain amount of their power from renewable sources; some set specific targets for solar and other renewables. California’s aggressive RPS of 33% renewable energy by 2020 is not bankrupting the state, or its residents; Strong statewide interconnection policies: Solar projects can experience significant delays and hassles just to get connected to the grid. Streamlined feasibility and impact analysis are needed. Good interconnection policies are crucial to the success of solar or renewable energy development; Financing options: Financing is often the biggest obstacle to solar adoption. Those obstacles can be surmounted with policies that support creative financing options like third-party ownership (TPO) and property assessed clean energy (PACE). Attesting to the significance of TPO is the fact that in Arizona, it accounted for 86% of all residential photovoltaic (PV

  18. Final Scientific/ Technical Report. Playas Grid Reliability and Distributed Energy Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romero, Van [New Mexico Institute Of Mining And Technology, Socorro, NM (United States); Weinkauf, Don [New Mexico Institute Of Mining And Technology, Socorro, NM (United States); Khan, Mushtaq [New Mexico Institute Of Mining And Technology, Socorro, NM (United States); Helgeson, Wes [New Mexico Institute Of Mining And Technology, Socorro, NM (United States); Weedeward, Kevin [New Mexico Institute Of Mining And Technology, Socorro, NM (United States); LeClerc, Corey [New Mexico Institute Of Mining And Technology, Socorro, NM (United States); Fuierer, Paul [New Mexico Institute Of Mining And Technology, Socorro, NM (United States)

    2012-06-30

    The future looks bright for solar and renewable energies in the United States. Recent studies claim that by 2050, solar power could supply a third of all electricity demand in the country’s western states. Technology advances, soft policy changes, and increased energy consciousness will all have to happen to achieve this goal. But the larger question is, what would it take to do more throughout the United States? The studies tie future solar and renewable growth in the United States to programs that aim to lower the soft costs of solar adoption, streamline utility interconnections, and increase technology advances through research and development. At the state and local levels, the most important steps are; Net metering: Net metering policies lets customers offset their electric bills with onsite solar and receive reliable and fair compensation for the excess electricity they provide to the grid. Not surprisingly, what utilities consider fair is not necessarily a rate that’s favorable to solar customers; Renewable portfolio standards (RPS): RPS policies require utilities to provide a certain amount of their power from renewable sources; some set specific targets for solar and other renewables. California’s aggressive RPS of 33% renewable energy by 2020 is not bankrupting the state, or its residents; Strong statewide interconnection policies: Solar projects can experience significant delays and hassles just to get connected to the grid. Streamlined feasibility and impact analysis are needed. Good interconnection policies are crucial to the success of solar or renewable energy development; Financing options: Financing is often the biggest obstacle to solar adoption. Those obstacles can be surmounted with policies that support creative financing options like third-party ownership (TPO) and property assessed clean energy (PACE). Attesting to the significance of TPO is the fact that in Arizona, it accounted for 86% of all residential photovoltaic (PV

  19. Hydrogen Production Costs of Various Primary Energy Sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Jae Hyuk; Tak, Nam Il; Kim, Yong Hee; Park, Won Seok

    2005-11-15

    Many studies on the economical aspects of hydrogen energy technologies have been conducted with the increase of the technical and socioeconomic importance of the hydrogen energy. However, there is still no research which evaluates the economy of hydrogen production from the primary energy sources in consideration of Korean situations. In this study, the hydrogen production costs of major primary energy sources are compared in consideration of the Korean situations such as feedstock price, electricity rate, and load factor. The evaluation methodology is based on the report of the National Academy of Science (NAS) of U.S. The present study focuses on the possible future technology scenario defined by NAS. The scenario assumes technological improvement that may be achieved if present research and development (R and D) programs are successful. The production costs by the coal and natural gas are 1.1 $/kgH{sub 2} and 1.36 $/kgH{sub 2}, respectively. However, the fossil fuels are susceptible to the price variation depending on the oil and the raw material prices, and the hydrogen production cost also depends on the carbon tax. The economic competitiveness of the renewable energy sources such as the wind, solar, and biomass are relatively low when compared with that of the other energy sources. The estimated hydrogen production costs from the renewable energy sources range from 2.35 $/kgH{sub 2} to 6.03 $/kgH{sub 2}. On the other hand, the production cost by nuclear energy is lower than that of natural gas or coal when the prices of the oil and soft coal are above $50/barrel and 138 $/ton, respectively. Taking into consideration the recent rapid increase of the oil and soft coal prices and the limited fossil resource, the nuclear-hydrogen option appears to be the most economical way in the future.

  20. Toward reliable automated estimates of earthquake source properties from body wave spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Zachary E.; Ben-Zion, Yehuda

    2016-06-01

    We develop a two-stage methodology for automated estimation of earthquake source properties from body wave spectra. An automated picking algorithm is used to window and calculate spectra for both P and S phases. Empirical Green's functions are stacked to minimize nongeneric source effects such as directivity and are used to deconvolve the spectra of target earthquakes for analysis. In the first stage, window lengths and frequency ranges are defined automatically from the event magnitude and used to get preliminary estimates of the P and S corner frequencies of the target event. In the second stage, the preliminary corner frequencies are used to update various parameters to increase the amount of data and overall quality of the deconvolved spectral ratios (target event over stacked Empirical Green's function). The obtained spectral ratios are used to estimate the corner frequencies, strain/stress drops, radiated seismic energy, apparent stress, and the extent of directivity for both P and S waves. The technique is applied to data generated by five small to moderate earthquakes in southern California at hundreds of stations. Four of the five earthquakes are found to have significant directivity. The developed automated procedure is suitable for systematic processing of large seismic waveform data sets with no user involvement.

  1. Operation algorithm of the information system of improving organizational and technological reliability of construction projects using energy efficient technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ginzburg Aleksandr Vital’evich

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The main source for the development of construction projects with energy-efficient technologies in use is investments. The traditional approaches of risk management: insurance, diversification and redundancy only raise the cost of the construction project, which has a negative impact on the investor’s decision to invest. In order to solve this problem an information system has been developed, which is based on the principle of insightful analysis of the potential “pure” risks and a list of recommendations of risk management. This tool allows identifying all the weaknesses of a construction project, improving the organizational and technological reliability, and imparting an understanding to the investor / a customer of the resources required for the project implementation.

  2. Constraining High-Energy Cosmic Neutrino Sources: Implications and Prospects

    CERN Document Server

    Murase, Kohta

    2016-01-01

    We consider limits on the local ($z=0$) density ($n_0$) of extragalactic neutrino sources set by the nondetection of steady high-energy neutrino sources producing $\\gtrsim30$ TeV muon multiplets in the present IceCube data, taking into account the redshift evolution, luminosity function and neutrino spectrum of the sources. We show that the lower limit depends weakly on source spectra and strongly on redshift evolution. We find $n_0\\gtrsim{10}^{-7}~{\\rm Mpc}^{-3}$ for standard candle sources evolving rapidly, $n_s\\propto{(1+z)}^3$, and $n_0\\gtrsim{10}^{-5}~{\\rm Mpc}^{-3}$ for nonevolving sources. The corresponding upper limits on their neutrino luminosity are $L_{{\

  3. Direct load control for electricity supply and demand matching : increasing reliability of wind energy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoeve ten, Marieke

    2009-01-01

    In Sweden as well as in The Netherlands energy policy is increasingly aiming at extending the use of renew-able sources. In accordance with the targets of the European Union, both countries have formulated national targets for the year 2020. For wind ener

  4. A Reliable Energy-Efficient Multi-Level Routing Algorithm for Wireless Sensor Networks Using Fuzzy Petri Nets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Zhenhua; Fu, Xiao; Cai, Yuanli; Vuran, Mehmet C.

    2011-01-01

    A reliable energy-efficient multi-level routing algorithm in wireless sensor networks is proposed. The proposed algorithm considers the residual energy, number of the neighbors and centrality of each node for cluster formation, which is critical for well-balanced energy dissipation of the network. In the algorithm, a knowledge-based inference approach using fuzzy Petri nets is employed to select cluster heads, and then the fuzzy reasoning mechanism is used to compute the degree of reliability in the route sprouting tree from cluster heads to the base station. Finally, the most reliable route among the cluster heads can be constructed. The algorithm not only balances the energy load of each node but also provides global reliability for the whole network. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed algorithm effectively prolongs the network lifetime and reduces the energy consumption. PMID:22163802

  5. New energy ramping control system in the Pohang Light Source Storage Ring

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, E S; Seo, J H; Nam, S H

    2003-01-01

    A new energy ramping control system is developed to increase electron beam energy from 2.0 GeV to 2.5 GeV in the Pohang Light Source storage ring. The control system shows faster energy ramping and more stable beam characteristics than the previous energy ramping control system that consists of an operator interface workstation, subsystem control computer and machine interface units. The previous system controls current settings of the magnet power supplies in multiple steps with different energy increment rate during the energy ramping. In order to improve synchronization of the magnet power supply systems and beam stabilities during the energy ramping, we developed the energy ramping controller hardware that is controlled using a network of optical fibers. Thus, the new ramping system is able to control more synchronously the magnet power supplies with a constant energy increment rate during the energy ramping. With this reliable synchronization, it is also possible to perform the energy de-ramping step fro...

  6. Understanding and accepting fusion as an alternative energy source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goerz, D.A.

    1987-12-10

    Fusion, the process that powers our sun, has long promised to be a virtually inexhaustible source of energy for mankind. No other alternative energy source holds such bright promise, and none has ever presentd such formidable scientific and engineering challenges. Serious research efforts have continued for over 30 years in an attempt to harness and control fusion here on earth. Scientists have made considerable progress in the last decade toward achieving the conditions required for fusion power, and recent experimental results and technological progress have made the scientific feasibility of fusion a virtual certainty. With this knowledge and confidence, the emphasis can now shift toward developing power plants that are practical and economical. Although the necessary technology is not in hand today, the extension to an energy producing system in 20 years is just as attainable as was putting a man on the moon. In the next few decades, the world's population will likely double while the demand for energy will nearly quadruple. Realistic projections show that within the next generation a significant fraction of our electric power must come from alternative energy sources. Increasing environmental concerns may further accelerate this timetable in which new energy sources must be introduced. The continued development of fusion systems to help meet the energy needs of the future will require greater public understanding and support of this technology. The fusion community must do more to make the public aware of the fact that energy is a critical international issue and that fusion is a viable and necessary energy technology that will be safe and economical. 12 refs., 8 figs.

  7. Note: Localization based on estimated source energy homogeneity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turkaya, Semih; Toussaint, Renaud; Eriksen, Fredrik Kvalheim; Lengliné, Olivier; Daniel, Guillaume; Flekkøy, Eirik G.; Mâløy, Knut Jørgen

    2016-09-01

    Acoustic signal localization is a complex problem with a wide range of industrial and academic applications. Herein, we propose a localization method based on energy attenuation and inverted source amplitude comparison (termed estimated source energy homogeneity, or ESEH). This inversion is tested on both synthetic (numerical) data using a Lamb wave propagation model and experimental 2D plate data (recorded with 4 accelerometers sensitive up to 26 kHz). We compare the performance of this technique with classic source localization algorithms: arrival time localization, time reversal localization, and localization based on energy amplitude. Our technique is highly versatile and out-performs the conventional techniques in terms of error minimization and cost (both computational and financial).

  8. Active Galactic Nuclei: Sources for ultra high energy cosmic rays?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biermann, Peter L. [MPI for Radioastronomy, Bonn (Germany); Dept. of Phys. and Astron., Univ. of Bonn (Germany); Dept. of Phys. and Astr., Univ. of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL (United States); Dept. of Phys., Univ. of Alabama at Huntsville, AL (United States); Inst. Nucl. Phys. FZ, Karlsruhe Inst. of Techn. (KIT) (Germany); Becker, Julia K. [Institution foer Fysik, Goeteborgs Univ. (Sweden); Dept. of Phys., Univ. Dortmund, Dortmund (Germany); Caramete, Laurentiu [MPI for Radioastronomy, Bonn (Germany); Institute for Space Studies, Bucharest (Romania); Curutiu, Alex [MPI for Radioastronomy, Bonn (Germany); Engel, Ralph [Inst. Nucl. Phys. FZ, Karlsruhe Inst. of Techn. (KIT) (Germany); Falcke, Heino [Dept. of Astrophys., IMAP, Radboud Univ., Nijmegen (Netherlands); ASTRON, Dwingeloo (Netherlands); Gergely, Laszlo A. [Dept. Appl. Sci., London South Bank University (United Kingdom); Dept. of Theoret. and Exp. Phys., Univ. of Szeged, Szeged (Hungary); Isar, P. Gina [Inst. Nucl. Phys. FZ, Karlsruhe Inst. of Techn. (KIT) (Germany); Institute for Space Studies, Bucharest (Romania); Maris, Ioana C. [Inst. Nucl. Phys. FZ, Karlsruhe Inst. of Techn. (KIT) (Germany); Meli, Athina [Physik. Inst. Univ. Erlangen-Nuernberg (Germany); Kampert, Karl-Heinz [Phys. Dept., Univ. Wuppertal (Germany); Stanev, Todor [Bartol Research Inst., Univ. of Delaware, Newark, DE (United States); Tascau, Oana [Phys. Dept., Univ. Wuppertal (Germany); Zier, Christian [MPI for Radioastronomy, Bonn (Germany); Raman Res. Inst., Bangalore (India)

    2009-05-15

    The origin of ultra high energy cosmic rays promises to lead us to a deeper understanding of the structure of matter. This is possible through the study of particle collisions at center-of-mass energies in interactions far larger than anything possible with the Large Hadron Collider, albeit at the substantial cost of no control over the sources and interaction sites. For the extreme energies we have to identify and understand the sources first, before trying to use them as physics laboratories. Here we describe the current stage of this exploration. The most promising contenders as sources are radio galaxies and gamma ray bursts. The sky distribution of observed events yields a hint favoring radio galaxies. Key in this quest are the intergalactic and galactic magnetic fields, whose strength and structure are not yet fully understood. Current data and statistics do not yet allow a final judgement. We outline how we may progress in the near future.

  9. Dynamic energy management employing renewable energy sources in IP over DWDM networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Xin; Phillips, Chris; Wang, Jiayuan

    2013-01-01

    The continued growth of energy consumption has been one of the main constraints for the development of the Internet. The increasing emissions of greenhouse gases associated with electricity generation also raise public concern for the environment. In this paper, we propose a dynamic energy...... management framework employing renewable energy sources in IP over DWDM core networks. The main concept is to combine infrastructure sleeping and virtual router migration to improve the network energy efficiency. By using the energy source information provided by the smart grid, the nodes that are powered...

  10. Convergence among Data Sources, Response Bias, and Reliability and Validity of a Structured Job Analysis Questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jack E.; Hakel, Milton D.

    1979-01-01

    Examined are questions pertinent to the use of the Position Analysis Questionnaire: Who can use the PAQ reliably and validly? Must one rely on trained job analysts? Can people having no direct contact with the job use the PAQ reliably and validly? Do response biases influence PAQ responses? (Author/KC)

  11. Prices and costs of energy sources; Les prix et les couts des sources d'energie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin-Amouroux, J.M. [Institut d' Economie et de Politique de l' Energie (CNRS- UPMF), 38 - Grenoble (France)

    2005-07-01

    An evaluation of the complete social energy cost should result from the sum of the production marginal cost, of the external marginal cost and of the marginal cost of substitution of non-renewable energy sources. This last parameter is difficult to estimate because of theoretical and methodological obstacles. The two others are evaluated for different energy sources, in the present day situation, and in the perspective of a probable evolution. Today, fossil fuels have the lowest internal costs whatever their use. Thus, in 'business as usual' energy scenarios, fossil fuels represent more than 80% of the energy supply at the 2050 prospects. However, several uncertainties can affect the future evolution of these costs, some are of geopolitical origin (political fragility of some exporting countries), and some are of environmental origin (internalized costs of CO{sub 2} emissions). Finally, the depletion of some resources should be anticipated. (J.S.)

  12. Negative ions as a source of low energy neutral beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fink, J.H.

    1980-01-01

    Little consideration has been given to the impact of recent developments in negative ion source technology on the design of low energy neutral beam injectors. However, negative ion sources of improved operating efficiency, higher gas efficiency, and smaller beam divergence will lead to neutral deuterium injectors, operating at less than 100 keV, with better operating efficiencies and more compact layouts than can be obtained from positive ion systems.

  13. Voltage Sag Source Location Based on Instantaneous Energy Detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Zhe; Kong, Wei; Dong, Xinzhou

    2008-01-01

    Voltage sag is a major power quality problem, which could disrupt the operation of voltage-sensitive equipment. This paper presents the method based on variation components-based instantaneous energy for voltage sag source detection. Simulations have been performed to provide the thorough analysi...... for system with distributed generation units. The studies show that the presented method can effectively detect the location of voltage sag source....

  14. Production of chemical energy carriers by non-expendable energy sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nitsch, J.

    1976-01-01

    The different forms of energy (radiation, high-temperature heat and electricity) arising from non-expendable energy sources like solar energy can be used for the production of chemical energy-carriers. Possible methods are the splitting of water by means of photolysis, thermochemical cycles and electrolysis, as well as the storage of energy in closed loop chemical systems. These methods are described and efficiencies and costs of the production of these energy carriers are specified. Special problems of the long-distance transportation of hydrogen produced by solar energy are described and the resulting costs are estimated.

  15. International Requirements for Large Integration of Renewable Energy Sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Molina-Garcia, Angel; Hansen, Anca Daniela; Muljadi, Ed

    2017-01-01

    Most European countries have concerns about the integration of large amounts of renewable energy sources (RES) into electric power systems, and this is currently a topic of growing interest. In January 2008, the European Commission published the 2020 package, which proposes committing the European...... Union to a 20% reduction in greenhouse gas emissions, to achieve a target of deriving 20% of the European Union's final energy consumption from renewable sources, and to achieve 20% improvement in energy efficiency both by the year 2020 [1]. Member states have different individual goals to meet...... these overall objectives, and they each need to provide a detailed roadmap describing how they will meet these legally binding targets [2]. At this time, RES are an indispensable part of the global energy mix, which has been partially motivated by the continuous increases in hydropower as well as the rapid...

  16. The source of multi spectral energy of solar energetic electron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herdiwijaya, Dhani [Astronomy Division and Bosscha Observatory, Faculty Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Intitute Technology of Bandung, Ganesha 10, Bandung, Indonesia 40132 dhani@as.itb.ac.id (Indonesia)

    2015-04-16

    We study the solar energetic electron distribution obtained from ACE and GOES satellites which have different altitudes and electron spectral energy during the year 1997 to 2011. The electron spectral energies were 0.038–0.315 MeV from EPAM instrument onboard ACE satellite and >2 MeV from GOES satellite. We found that the low electron energy has no correlation with high energy. In spite of we have corrected to the altitude differences. It implied that they originated from time dependent events with different sources and physical processes at the solar atmosphere. The sources of multi spectral energetic electron were related to flare and CME phenomena. However, we also found that high energetic electron comes from coronal hole.

  17. A source of energy : sustainable architecture and urbanism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roestvik, Harald N.

    2011-07-01

    An update on the environmental challenges. Meant to inspire and be a source of energy.Tearing down myths and floodlighting paradoxes. Particularly relevant for students of architecture, architects and concerned citizens. Training tasks, recommendations for further source books and web sites, are included. From the content: Climate change and consensus, Population growth, Food production, The sustainable city, Transportation myths and facts, A mini history of environmental architecture, Architects' approach to sustainable design, The failure of western architects; a case study; China, The passive, zeb and plus energy building, Natural ventilation, Sustainable materials, Plastics in building, Nuclear energy, Solar energy, The grid of the future, Indoor climate and health. The sick building syndrome, Radon, Universal design, Paradoxes, Bullying techniques, Trust yourself, Timing, Which gateway will you choose?, On transience. (au)

  18. Biogas, as a renewable energy source, produced during the anaerobic digestion of organic waste

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Greben, H

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Identifying alternative sources of energy is a matter of urgency, since conventional energy sources are becoming exhausted. Renewable energy sources, such as biogas, can be generated from organic waste, through the anaerobic digestion (AD...

  19. Renewable energy sources for sustainable tourism in the Carpathian region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandryk, O. M.; Arkhypova, L. M.; Pobigun, O. V.; Maniuk, O. R.

    2016-08-01

    The use of renewable energy in sustainable tourism development of the region is grounded in the paper. There are three stages of selecting areas for projects of renewable energy sources: selection of potentially suitable area; consideration of exclusion criteria, detailed assessment of potential sites or areas. The factors of impact on spatial constraints and opportunities for building wind, solar and small hydro power plants on the parameters of sustainable tourism development in the Carpathian region were determined.

  20. Deployable Acoustic Projector System (DAPS) Energy Source Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-12-01

    System (DAPS) Energy C:N62190-88-M-0754 Source Study - Final Report 6. AUTHOR(S) 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADORESS(ES) S. PERFORMING...is assumed to be unlimited. Standard Form 298 Back (Rev 2-89) DeAOyable AoUstic Projector Sy8tm (APS) uNrrED &•rg Source Study - Fina Report...tPHTED Enegy Source Study - F1 nal Peport TECHNOLOGMContract No. N819-88-M-0754 0 C~pability of Sustaining Nigh Pz’eM=O El ’.ffaWtala A~crss the M

  1. Towards Reliable and Energy-Efficient Incremental Cooperative Communication for Wireless Body Area Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousaf, Sidrah; Javaid, Nadeem; Qasim, Umar; Alrajeh, Nabil; Khan, Zahoor Ali; Ahmed, Mansoor

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we analyse incremental cooperative communication for wireless body area networks (WBANs) with different numbers of relays. Energy efficiency (EE) and the packet error rate (PER) are investigated for different schemes. We propose a new cooperative communication scheme with three-stage relaying and compare it to existing schemes. Our proposed scheme provides reliable communication with less PER at the cost of surplus energy consumption. Analytical expressions for the EE of the proposed three-stage cooperative communication scheme are also derived, taking into account the effect of PER. Later on, the proposed three-stage incremental cooperation is implemented in a network layer protocol; enhanced incremental cooperative critical data transmission in emergencies for static WBANs (EInCo-CEStat). Extensive simulations are conducted to validate the proposed scheme. Results of incremental relay-based cooperative communication protocols are compared to two existing cooperative routing protocols: cooperative critical data transmission in emergencies for static WBANs (Co-CEStat) and InCo-CEStat. It is observed from the simulation results that incremental relay-based cooperation is more energy efficient than the existing conventional cooperation protocol, Co-CEStat. The results also reveal that EInCo-CEStat proves to be more reliable with less PER and higher throughput than both of the counterpart protocols. However, InCo-CEStat has less throughput with a greater stability period and network lifetime. Due to the availability of more redundant links, EInCo-CEStat achieves a reduced packet drop rate at the cost of increased energy consumption.

  2. Testing Special Relativity at High Energies with Astrophysical Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stecker, F. W.

    2007-01-01

    Since the group of Lorentz boosts is unbounded, there is a question as to whether Lorentz invariance (LI) holds to infinitely short distances. However, special and general relativity may break down at the Planck scale. Various quantum gravity scenarios such as loop quantum gravity, as well as some forms of string theory and extra dimension models may imply Lorentz violation (LV) at ultrahigh energies. The Gamma-Ray Large Area Space Telescope (GLAST), to be launched in mid-December, will measure the spectra of distant extragalactic sources of high energy gamma-rays, particularly active galactic nuclei and gamma-ray bursts. GLAST can look for energy-dependent gamma-ray propagation effects from such sources as a signal of Lorentz invariance violation. These sources may also exhibit the high energy cutoffs predicted to be the result of intergalactic annihilation interactions with low energy photons having a flux level as determined by various astronomical observations. With LV the threshold for such interactions can be significantly raised, changing the predicted absorption turnover in the observed spectrum of the sources. Stecker and Glashow have shown that the existence such absorption features in the spectra of extragalactic sources puts constraints on LV. Such constraints have important implications for some quantum gravity and large extra dimension models. Future spaceborne detectors dedicated to measuring gamma-ray polarization can look for birefringence effects as a possible signal of loop quantum gravity. A very small LV may also result in the modification or elimination of the GZK effect, thus modifying the spectrum of ultrahigh energy cosmic rays. This possibility can be explored with ground-based arrays such as Auger or with a space based detector system such as the proposed OWL satellite mission.

  3. Energy Management Policies for Energy-Neutral Source-Channel Coding

    CERN Document Server

    Castiglione, Paolo; Erkip, Elza; Zemen, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    In cyber-physical systems where sensors measure the temporal evolution of a given phenomenon of interest and radio communication takes place over short distances, the energy spent for source acquisition and compression may be comparable with that used for transmission. Additionally, in order to avoid limited lifetime issues, sensors may be powered via energy harvesting and thus collect all the energy they need from the environment. This work addresses the problem of energy allocation over source acquisition/compression and transmission for energy-harvesting sensors. At first, focusing on a single-sensor, energy management policies are identified that guarantee a maximal average distortion while at the same time ensuring the stability of the queue connecting source and channel encoders. It is shown that the identified class of policies is optimal in the sense that it stabilizes the queue whenever this is feasible by any other technique that satisfies the same average distortion constraint. Moreover, this class...

  4. European Union's renewable energy sources and energy efficiency policy review. The Spanish perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Alegria Mancisidor, Itziar Martinez; Diaz de Basurto Uraga, Pablo; Ruiz de Arbulo Lopez, Patxi [Departamento de Organizacion de Empresas, Escuela Tecnica Superior de Ingenieria de Bilbao, Universidad del Pais Vasco (Spain); Martinez de Alegria Mancisidor, Inigo [Departamento de Electronica y Telecomunicaciones, Escuela Tecnica Superior de Ingenieria de Bilbao, Universidad del Pais Vasco (Spain)

    2009-01-15

    The European Union's (EU) energy objectives, legislation and programmes are determinant for the current strategy for the promotion of renewable energy sources (RES) and energy efficiency (EE) in Spain, which is becoming a key element for its international competitiveness. Firstly, this article explores the evolution of the EU's energy strategy, focusing on the adopted legislations and programmes to promote RES and EE. It concludes with an analysis of the impact of those measures in Spain. (author)

  5. Production of low energy spread ion beams with multicusp sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Y. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States); Perkins, L.T. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States); Gough, R.A. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States); Hoffmann, M. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States); Kunkel, W.B. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States); Leung, K.N. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States); Sarstedt, M. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States); Vujic, J. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States); Weber, M. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States); Williams, M.D. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States)

    1996-05-11

    The use of multicusp sources to generate ion beams with narrow energy spread has been investigated. It is found that the presence of a magnetic filter can reduce the longitudinal energy spread significantly. This is achieved by creating a uniform plasma potential distribution in the discharge chamber region, eliminating ion production in the extraction chamber and in the sheath of the exit aperture and by minimizing the probability of charge exchange processes in the extraction chamber. An energy spread as low as 1 eV has been measured. (orig.).

  6. Production of low energy spread ion beams with multicusp sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Y., Lee; Perkins, L. T.; Gough, R. A.; Hoffmann, M.; Kunkel, W. B.; N. Leung, K.; Sarstedt, M.; Vujic, J.; Weber, M.; Williams, M. D.

    1996-02-01

    The use of multicusp sources to generate ion beams with narrow energy spread has been investigated. It is found that the presence of a magnetic filter can reduce the longitudinal energy spread significantly. This is achieved by creating a uniform plasma potential distribution in the discharge chamber region, eliminating ion production in the extraction chamber and in the sheath of the exit aperture and by minimizing the probability of charge exchange processes in the extraction chamber. An energy spread as low as 1 eV has been measured.

  7. In Theory: Dark Energy as a Power Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemiroff, Robert J.; Russell, David; Tangmatitham, Matipon

    2017-01-01

    In theory, it is possible to use the dark energy of the universe as a power source. In practice, the amount of energy that could be liberated in a local setting is many orders of magnitude too small to be useful or even detectable. Nevertheless, in the interests of education and amusement, simple machines that could, in theory, extract local power from the gravitationally repulsive cosmological constant are discussed. The gravitational neutral buoyancy distance -- the distance where local Newtonian gravity balances cosmological dark energy in a concordance cosmology -- is computed between two point objects of low mass.

  8. Fusion Based Neutron Sources for Security Applications: Energy Optimisation

    OpenAIRE

    Albright, S.; Seviour, Rebecca

    2014-01-01

    There is a growing interest in the use of neutrons for na- tional security. The majority of work on security focuses on the use of either sealed tube DT fusors or fission sources, e.g. Cf-252. Fusion reactions enable the energy of the neu- tron beam to be chosen to suit the application, rather than the application being chosen based on the available neu- tron beam energy. In this paper we discuss simulations of fusion reactions demonstrating the broad range of energies available and methods f...

  9. Error Sources in the ETA Energy Analyzer Measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nexsen, W E

    2004-12-13

    At present the ETA beam energy as measured by the ETA energy analyzer and the DARHT spectrometer differ by {approx}12%. This discrepancy is due to two sources, an overestimate of the effective length of the ETA energy analyzer bending-field, and data reduction methods that are not valid. The discrepancy can be eliminated if we return to the original process of measuring the angular deflection of the beam and use a value of 43.2cm for the effective length of the axial field profile.

  10. Piezoelectric Energy Harvesting Devices: An Alternative Energy Source for Wireless Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Action Nechibvute

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The recent advances in ultralow power device integration, communication electronics, and microelectromechanical systems (MEMS technology have fuelled the emerging technology of wireless sensor networks (WSNs. The spatial distributed nature of WSNs often requires that batteries power the individual sensor nodes. One of the major limitations on performance and lifetime of WSNs is the limited capacity of these finite power sources, which must be manually replaced when they are depleted. Moreover, the embedded nature of some of the sensors and hazardous sensing environment make battery replacement very difficult and costly. The process of harnessing and converting ambient energy sources into usable electrical energy is called energy harvesting. Energy harvesting raises the possibility of self-powered systems which are ubiquitous and truly autonomous, and without human intervention for energy replenishment. Among the ambient energy sources such as solar energy, heat, and wind, mechanical vibrations are an attractive ambient source mainly because they are widely available and are ideal for the use of piezoelectric materials, which have the ability to convert mechanical strain energy into electrical energy. This paper presents a concise review of piezoelectric microgenerators and nanogenerators as a renewable energy resource to power wireless sensors.

  11. PROSPECTS OF ENERGY EFFICIENCY IMPROVEMENT AND DEVELOPMENT OF THE RENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCES IN PROVINCE OF VOJVODINA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gvozdenac, D.; Ciric, R.; Tesic, M.

    2007-07-01

    The paper presents the outcome of the research in the field of energy efficiency improvement and development of the renewable energy sources in province of Vojvodina (Serbia). The summarized results of the paper are: - Potentials for energy efficiency improvement in Vojvodina, - Potentials for development of renewable energy sources in Vojvodina, - Proposal of measures of the energy policy for the promotion of research and development (R and D) which will use local scientific and technical potentials in the field of renewable energy sources and energy efficiency and improve the sustainability on the long run. - Proposal of measures for the energy policy in the domain of renewable energy sources development and energy efficiency and estimation of potentials for improvements by applying proposed measures in order to accomplish established tasks. - Synthesizing findings and proposals in the Action Plan of the Executive Council of the Autonomous Province of Vojvodina for the realization of the medium term program as well as the establishment of the monitoring plan for the assessment of program objectives progress. (auth)

  12. THE NEED FOR THE USE OF RENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grigorash O. V.

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The article reveals main reasons for developing tendencies to the using of new types of energy, which are limited supply of traditional fuels and environmental problems associated with its processing. It is shown that new forms of energy plays an important role in the energy supply of many countries of the world, and in the future they can become the main sources of energy to meet the growing needs of the global economy. We reveal main reasons of the increasing interest in renewable energy, and we show the obvious prospects of their use, due to two factors. First, according to experts, the global reserves of traditional fuels are limited, and secondly, this was evidenced by the investments of leading countries in this promising industry. The article lists reasons for the need for the use of renewable energy sources in Russia. Increased consumption of natural resources has become a real threat to the security of the life of human society. The basis of solving modern social and environmental problems is a transition to a regulated process of safe use of natural energy potential to meet the vital needs of people not only in the coming decades, but in the long run. It is concluded, that the determining condition for the development of the human civilization at present and in the future would be the level of natural resources which ensures the needs of the population without making harm to the environment

  13. High energy pulsewidth tunable CPA free picosecond source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pouysegur, Julien; Guichard, Florent; Zaouter, Yoann; Hanna, Marc; Druon, Frédéric; Hönninger, Clemens; Mottay, Eric; Georges, Patrick

    2016-03-01

    A hybrid ytterbium-doped fiber - bulk laser source generating up to 116MW peak power for 3ps pulse duration at 50kHz repetition rate and 1030nm wavelength is presented. Tunability of the pulse duration is made by spectral compression occurring into the seeder. Divided Pulse Amplification scheme is investigated to study energy capabilities of the setup.

  14. EnergyPlus Air Source Integrated Heat Pump Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Bo [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Energy and Transportation Science Division; Adams, Mark B. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Energy and Transportation Science Division; New, Joshua Ryan [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Energy and Transportation Science Division

    2016-03-30

    This report summarizes the development of the EnergyPlus air-source integrated heat pump model. It introduces its physics, sub-models, working modes, and control logic. In addition, inputs and outputs of the new model are described, and input data file (IDF) examples are given.

  15. Compact, energy EFFICIENT neutron source: enabling technology for various applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hershcovitch, A.; Roser, T.

    2009-12-01

    A novel neutron source comprising of a deuterium beam (energy of about 100 KeV) injected into a tube filled with tritium gas and/or tritium plasma that generates D-T fusion reactions, whose products are 14.06 MeV neutrons and 3.52 MeV alpha particles, is described. At the opposite end of the tube, the energy of deuterium ions that did not interact is recovered. Beryllium walls of proper thickness can be utilized to absorb 14 MeV neutrons and release 2-3 low energy neutrons. Each ion source and tube forms a module. Larger systems can be formed from multiple units. Unlike currently proposed methods, where accelerator-based neutron sources are very expensive, large, and require large amounts of power for operation, this neutron source is compact, inexpensive, easy to test and to scale up. Among possible applications for this neutron source concept are sub-critical nuclear breeder reactors and transmutation of radioactive waste.

  16. Source Energy and Emission Factors for Energy Use in Buildings (Revised)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deru, M.; Torcellini, P.

    2007-06-01

    This document supports the other measurement procedures and all building energy-monitoring projects by providing methods to calculate the source energy and emissions from the energy measured at the building. Energy and emission factors typically account for the conversion inefficiencies at the power plant and the transmission and distribution losses from the power plant to the building. The energy and emission factors provided here also include the precombustion effects, which are the energy and emissions associated with extracting, processing, and delivering the primary fuels to the point of conversion in the electrical power plants or directly in the buildings.

  17. Optical arc sensor using energy harvesting power source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Kyoo Nam; Rho, Hee Hyuk

    2016-06-01

    Wireless sensors without external power supply gained considerable attention due to convenience both in installation and operation. Optical arc detecting sensor equipping with self sustaining power supply using energy harvesting method was investigated. Continuous energy harvesting method was attempted using thermoelectric generator to supply standby power in micro ampere scale and operating power in mA scale. Peltier module with heat-sink was used for high efficiency electricity generator. Optical arc detecting sensor with hybrid filter showed insensitivity to fluorescent and incandescent lamps under simulated distribution panel condition. Signal processing using integrating function showed selective arc discharge detection capability to different arc energy levels, with a resolution below 17J energy difference, unaffected by bursting arc waveform. The sensor showed possibility for application to arc discharge detecting sensor in power distribution panel. Also experiment with proposed continuous energy harvesting method using thermoelectric power showed possibility as a self sustainable power source of remote sensor.

  18. Optical arc sensor using energy harvesting power source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Kyoo Nam, E-mail: knchoi@inu.ac.kr; Rho, Hee Hyuk, E-mail: rdoubleh0902@inu.ac.kr [Dept. of Information and Telecommunication Engineering Incheon National University Incheon 22012 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-06-03

    Wireless sensors without external power supply gained considerable attention due to convenience both in installation and operation. Optical arc detecting sensor equipping with self sustaining power supply using energy harvesting method was investigated. Continuous energy harvesting method was attempted using thermoelectric generator to supply standby power in micro ampere scale and operating power in mA scale. Peltier module with heat-sink was used for high efficiency electricity generator. Optical arc detecting sensor with hybrid filter showed insensitivity to fluorescent and incandescent lamps under simulated distribution panel condition. Signal processing using integrating function showed selective arc discharge detection capability to different arc energy levels, with a resolution below 17 J energy difference, unaffected by bursting arc waveform. The sensor showed possibility for application to arc discharge detecting sensor in power distribution panel. Also experiment with proposed continuous energy harvesting method using thermoelectric power showed possibility as a self sustainable power source of remote sensor.

  19. ACCELERATING THE ADOPTION PROCESS OF RENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCES AMONG SMES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirjam Leloux

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available By 2020, intermittent renewable small scale energy sources (e.g. wind and solar energy are expected to represent about 17% of the EU’s total electricity consumption. All national overriding energy policy objectives are to ensure competitive, secure and sustainable energy for the economy and for society. Renewable energy, allied with energy efficiency, is often found crucial to meet these goals of secure sustainable and competitive energy supplies reducing dependency on expensive fossil imports and underpinning the move towards a low carbon economy while delivering green jobs to the economy. This all contributes to national competitiveness and the jobs and economic growth agenda. However, a straight forward implementation of renewable energy options is not easy, due to various barriers and obstacles. For most SMEs, the concept of generating their own renewable energy is still more of academic than genuine interest. In general, several barriers are experienced, such as high capital investments, slow return on investment, and the lack of knowledge of the benefits. There is a need for education on the benefits and drawbacks of sustainable energy, as well as a greater contribution to costs for this to work. In this paper we describe the intermediate outcomes of a European Partnership under the name of GREAT (Growing Renewable Energy Applications and Technologies, funded under the INTERREG IVB NWE Programme. GREAT aims to encourage communities and small to medium size enterprises (SMEs in Ireland, the United Kingdon, Belgium and The Netherlands to develop technological solutions for Smart Grid, Renewable Energy and Distributive Generation; research and develop policy issues for regulatory authorities and provide structured co-operation opportunities between SMEs and research institutes / technology developers. We developed GREAT spreadsheets to facilitate SMEs in each country to calculate the return-on-investment of renewable energy sources, such as

  20. Eddy energy sources and flux in the Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Zhan, Peng

    2015-04-01

    In the Red Sea, eddies are reported to be one of the key features of hydrodynamics in the basin. They play a significant role in converting the energy among the large-scale circulation, the available potential energy (APE) and the eddy kinetic energy (EKE). Not only do eddies affect the horizontal circulation, deep-water formation and overturning circulation in the basin, but they also have a strong impact on the marine ecosystem by efficiently transporting heat, nutrients and carbon across the basin and by pumping the nutrient-enriched subsurface water to sustain the primary production. Previous observations and modeling work suggest that the Red Sea is rich of eddy activities. In this study, the eddy energy sources and sinks have been studied based on a high-resolution MITgcm. We have also investigated the possible mechanisms of eddy generation in the Red Sea. Eddies with high EKE are found more likely to appear in the central and northern Red Sea, with a significant seasonal variability. They are more inclined to occur during winter when they acquire their energy mainly from the conversion of APE. In winter, the central and especially the northern Red Sea are subject to important heat loss and extensive evaporation. The resultant densified upper-layer water tends to sink and release the APE through baroclinic instability, which is about one order larger than the barotropic instability contribution and is the largest source term for the EKE in the Red Sea. As a consequence, the eddy energy is confined to the upper layer but with a slope deepening from south to north. In summer, the positive surface heat flux helps maintain the stratification and impedes the gain of APE. The EKE is, therefore, much lower than that in winter despite a higher wind power input. Unlike many other seas, the wind energy is not the main source of energy to the eddies in the Red Sea.

  1. Energy spread of ion beams generated in multicusp ion sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarstedt, M.; Herz, P.; Kunkel, W.B. [and others

    1995-04-01

    For the production of future microelectronics devices, various alternate methods are currently being considered to replace the presently used method of lithography with ion beam lithography. One of these methods is the Ion Projection Lithography (IPL), which aims at the possibility of projecting sub-0.25 {mu}m patterns of a stencil mask onto a wafer substrate. In order to keep the chromatic aberrations below 25 nm, an ion source which delivers a beam with energy spread of less than 3 eV is desired. For this application, multicusp ion sources are being considered. We measure the longitudinal energy spread of the plasma ions by using a two-grid electrostatic energy analyzer. The energy spread of the extracted beam is measured by a high-voltage retarding-field energy analyzer. In order to obtain the transverse ion temperature, a parallel-plate scanner is being set up to study the beam emittance. In this paper, comparisons are made for different ion source configurations.

  2. Electrical energy sources for organic synthesis on the early earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chyba, Christopher; Sagan, Carl

    1991-01-01

    In 1959, Miller and Urey (Science 130, 245) published their classic compilation of energy sources for indigenous prebiotic organic synthesis on the early Earth. Much contemporary origins of life research continues to employ their original estimates for terrestrial energy dissipation by lightning and coronal discharges, 2 × 1019 J yr-1 and 6 × 1019 J yr-1, respectively. However, more recent work in terrestrial lightning and point discharge research suggests that these values are overestimates by factors of about 20 and 120, respectively. Calculated concentrations of amino acids (or other prebiotic organic products) in the early terrestrial oceans due to electrical discharge sources may therefore have been equally overestimated. A review of efficiencies for those experiments that provide good analogues to naturally-occurring lightning and coronal discharges suggests that lightning energy yields for organic synthesis (nmole J-1) are about one order of magnitude higher than those for coronal discharge. Therefore organic production by lightning may be expected to have dominated that due to coronae on early Earth. Limited data available for production of nitric oxide in clouds suggests that coronal emission within clouds, a source of energy heretofore too uncertain to be included in the total coronal energy inventory, is insufficient to change this conclusion. Our recommended valves for lightning and coronal discharge dissipation rates on the early Earth are, respectively, 1 × 1018 J yr-1 and 5 × 1017 J yr-1.

  3. A quest for sources of ultrahigh energy cosmic rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotera, Kumiko

    2012-03-01

    The origin of ultrahigh energy cosmic rays (UHECRs, particles arriving on the Earth with energy 10^17- 10^21 eV) is still a mystery. I will review the experimental and theoretical efforts that are being deployed by the community to solve this long-standing enigma, including the recent results from the Auger Observatory. I will discuss the observable signatures that help narrow down the list of possible candidate sources, namely the distribution of the arrival directions of UHECRs in the sky, their energy spectrum, their chemical composition, and their multi-messenger signatures (in neutrinos, gamma-rays and gravitational waves). I will focus in particular on one candidate source that has been little discussed in the literature: young rotation-powered pulsars. The production of UHECRs in these objects could give a picture that is surprisingly consistent with the latest data measured with the Auger Observatory.

  4. Energy Sources Management and Future Automotive Technologies: Environmental Impact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florin Mariasiu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the environmental impact created through the introduction of introducing new technologies in transportation domain. New electric vehicles are considered zero-emission vehicles (ZEV. However, electricity produced in power plants is still predominantly based on fossil fuel usage (required for recharge electric vehicle batteries and thus directly affects the quantity of pollutant emissions and greenhouse gases (CO2, NOx and SOx. Given the structure of EU-wide energy sources used for electricity generation, the potential pollutant emissions stemming from these energy sources, related to energy consumption of an electric vehicle, was determined under the projected environmental impact of specific market penetration of electric vehicles. In addition to the overall impact at the EU level, were identified the countries for which the use of electric vehicles is (or not feasible in terms of reaching the lower values ​​of future emissions compared to the present and future European standards.

  5. International Standards to Develop and Promote Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    International Standards are a powerful tool for disseminating new technologies and good practices, developing global markets and supporting the harmonization of government policies on energy efficiency and renewable sources on a global scale.

  6. Consumption dynamics of primary-energy sources: The century of alternative energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira Matias, Joao Carlos de; Devezas, Tessaleno Campos [Department of Electromechanical Engineering, University of Beira Interior, P-6201-001 Covilha (Portugal)

    2007-07-15

    The present article characterizes economically and socially the two past centuries, focusing the consumption development of several primary-energy sources, linking it with this century's reality. The main objective is to demonstrate the relationship between the substitution process of primary-energy sources and the socio-economic development. Our analysis focuses on four technological transformations that have already occurred, emphasizing some aspects of present technological transformations. Thus, the role of primary-energy sources in the development of each long economic wave is analysed, as well as its geopolitical, commercial and social importance. Finally, bearing in mind the past dynamics associated with long structural waves, and making use of technological forecasting tools (Logistic Substitution and Delphi Technique), a future perspective is presented in which the substitution process points toward alternative-energy sources. (author)

  7. Consumption dynamics of the primary energy sources. The Century of the alternative energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matias, Joao Carlos de Oliveira; Devezas, Tessaleno Campos [Dept. of Electromechanical Engineering, University of Beira Interior, Covilha (Portugal)

    2002-07-01

    The present article characterizes the two past centuries economically and socially, focusing on the development of the several energy sources' consumption and linking it with this century's reality. The central aim is to demonstrate the relation between substitution of primary energy sources and socio-economic development. Our analysis focuses four technological transformations already occurred in the past, emphasising some aspects of the present technological transformation. Thus, the role of primary energy sources on the development of each long wave is emphasized as well as their geopolitical, commercial and social importance. Finally, and keeping in mind this past dynamics associated with long structural waves, and making use of technological forecasting tools (Logistic Substitution and Delphi Technique), it is presented a future perspective in which the substitution process points towards alternative energy sources.

  8. Optimization Design and Simulation of a Multi-Source Energy Harvester Based on Solar and Radioisotope Energy Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Li

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available A novel multi-source energy harvester based on solar and radioisotope energy sources is designed and simulated in this work. We established the calculation formulas for the short-circuit current and open-circuit voltage, and then studied and analyzed the optimization thickness of the semiconductor, doping concentration, and junction depth with simulation of the transport process of β particles in a semiconductor material using the Monte Carlo simulation program MCNP (version 5, Radiation Safety Information Computational Center, Oak Ridge, TN, USA. In order to improve the efficiency of converting solar light energy into electric power, we adopted PC1D (version 5.9, University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia to optimize the parameters, and selected the best parameters for converting both the radioisotope energy and solar energy into electricity. The results concluded that the best parameters for the multi-source energy harvester are as follows: Na is 1 × 1019 cm−3, Nd is 3.8 × 1016 cm−3, a PN junction depth of 0.5 μm (using the 147Pm radioisotope source, and so on. Under these parameters, the proposed harvester can achieve a conversion efficiency of 5.05% for the 147Pm radioisotope source (with the activity of 9.25 × 108 Bq and 20.8% for solar light radiation (AM1.5. Such a design and parameters are valuable for some unique micro-power fields, such as applications in space, isolated terrestrial applications, and smart dust in battlefields.

  9. On the physics of power, energy and economics of renewable electric energy sources - Part I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leijon, Mats; Waters, Rafael [Div. of Electricity, Swedish Centre for Renewable Electric Energy Conversion, Uppsala University, Angstroem 751 21 Uppsala (Sweden); Skoglund, Annika [Dep. of Industrial Economics, Royal Institute of Technology Lindstedts vaeg 30, 100 44 Stockholm (Sweden); Rehn, Alf [Dep. of Business Administration, Abo Akademi University, Henriksgatan 7 FIN-20500 Abo (Finland); Lindahl, Marcus [Div. of Industrial Management, Uppsala University, Box 534, Angstroem 751 21 Uppsala (Sweden)

    2010-08-15

    Environmental concerns have increasingly led to the installation of Renewable Energy Technologies (RETs) despite the fact that they are recognized as expensive. Innovative efforts within the area are beset with difficulties, and they are at risk of producing misdirected or insignificant improvements in terms of the cost effectiveness of total energy conversion systems. This paper investigates how RETs can be evaluated, in terms of economy and engineering solutions, by studying the fundamental physics of renewable energy sources and how it matches with the RETs. This match is described by the ''Degree of Utilization''. The findings indicate that new innovations should focus on the possible number of full loading hours. RETs that are correctly matched to their energy source generate a higher amount of electric energy and have a higher potential of becoming more competitive. In cases where this aspect has been ignored, leading to relatively small degrees of utilization, it can be understood as an engineering mismatch between installed power, converted energy, and the fundamental physics of the renewable energy sources. Since there is a strong and possibly biased support for so-called mature RETs and already existing solutions, a clarification of how fundamental physical laws affect the cost of investments and payback of investments is needed. The present paper is part I out of II and it focuses on the difference between power and energy and the physics of different energy sources and their utilization. (author)

  10. Legislative and policy in energy efficient designing and renewable energy sources: Application in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pucar Mila

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses political and legislative frames in the field of energy efficient building and renewable energy sources in planning and implementation in Serbia. „Development strategy until 2015.“ is reviewed in concise portrait. This strategy maps a way for the application of energy services of much higher quality than ones offered at a present day. It reviews relevant laws concerning the subject, as well as institutions, programs and their implementation. Basic principles of energy policy in Serbia and their achievement are also given by that strategy. Serbia's energy policies are designed to allow new legislative, structural, organizational, institutional, and economic frames and visions of unification of Serbian energetics into regional and Pan-European integrations. One of the key factors is the inclusion of sustainable development and energy efficient design concerned policies. Application of these, almost completely neglected, energy sources, for which there is high potential in Serbia, would allow preservation of primary energy sources and local environment. This potential hasn't seen significant research, and therefore, neither the technical improvement. Apart from that, one of the goals of wider application of renewable energy sources is lowering the poverty level. This helps avoiding the already used “dirty development” method. .

  11. A Source of Energy for Any Kind of Star

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rabounski D.

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available We discuss a recently predicted mechanism whereby energy is produced by the background space non-holonomic field (the global space rotation in Thomson dispersion of light in free electrons. We compare the mechanism to the relations of observational astrophysics — the mass-luminosity relation and the stellar energy relation. We show that by such a mechanism generating energy in a star, the luminosity of a star L is proportional to its volume, with a progression associated with increasing radius. The obtained relation L ≈ R^3.4 explains why there are no stars of a size close to that of the bulky planets. This also explains the extremely high thermal flow from within Jupiter, which most probably has the same energy sources as those within a star, but with a power much less than that required to radiate like a star. The theory, being applied to a laboratory condition, suggests new energy sources, working much more effectively and safely than nuclear energy.

  12. IMPROVEMENT OF ENERGY EFFICIENCY, RELIABILITY AND ENVIRONMENTAL SAFETY OF POWER PLANTS BASED ON ASSOCIATED PETROLEUM GAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleg Borisovich Shonin

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with one of the important ecological problems – utilization of associated petroleum gas (APG at oil fields. An example of APG usage as a fuel for gas turbine power plants is examined. Among possible topologies of power plants the focus is put on the structure based on turbines with combined diesel-gas supplying for increasing in reliability of power generation in case of failures in the system of preparation of APG. In order to ensure correct transition of turbines from gas to diesel supplying it is important to know responds of the system to the interruption of gas supplying. Based on the fundamental principles of thermodynamics and fluid dynamics gas-turbine power plant simulation model has been developed utilizing MATLAB/Simulink environment. Using the model has allowed revealing the influence of load-sharing among the turbines of different types on the transition to an additional source of turbine fuel. Based on simulation results, recommendations have been worked out for the improvement of the reliability of gas turbine power plant.

  13. Effect of Islanding and Telecontrolled Switches on Distribution System Reliability Considering Load and Green-Energy Fluctuations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefania Conti

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available To improve electrical distribution network reliability, some portions of the network could operate in autonomous mode, provided that the related technical issues are addressed. More specifically, when there is not a path from those portions to the primary substation due to a fault in the network, such portions could be disconnected from the main network and supplied by local generation only. Such a mode of operation is known as “intentional islanding” and its effectiveness, in terms of adequacy, depends on the ability of the local generation to meet the island’s load. In fact, the ratio between the available local generation and load demand can frequently change during islanding due to load variations and, especially, due to the strongly irregular behavior of the primary energy sources of renewable generators. This paper proposes an analytical formulation to assess local generation adequacy during intentional islanding, accounting for the aforementioned variations. More specifically, the fluctuations of load and green-energy generators during islanding are modeled by means of Markov chains, whose output quantities are encompassed in the proposed analytical formulation. Such a formulation is used by the analytical equations of load points’ outage rate and duration. The evaluation of the reliability indices accounts for a protection scheme based on an appropriate communication infrastructure. Therefore, a brief overview on the telecommunications technologies has been presented with reference to their suitability for the specific application. In particular, distribution network safety issues have been considered as the main concern. The results show that neglecting load and generation fluctuations leads to a strong overestimation of the ability of distributed generators to meet the island load. Through a case study it is observed that the error on the load point outage rate is greater than the one affecting the outage duration.

  14. A Flexible Power Electronics Configuration for Coupling Renewable Energy Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mattia Filippini

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available A combination of series, parallel and multilevel power electronics has been investigated as a potential interface for two different types of renewable energy sources and in order to reach higher power levels. Renewable energy sources are typically dispersed in a territory, and sources, like wind and solar, allow small to medium-scale generation of electricity. The configuration investigated in this article aims at adapting the coupling solution to the specific generation characteristics of the renewable energy source to make it fit the electrical network. The configuration consists of a combination of three-phase multilevel converters and single-phase inverters, which are designed to provide flexibility, high power quality and high efficiency. A detailed analysis and simulation is performed to identify the properties in conjunction with the electrical grid requirements and the potential challenges encountered during operation. An optimized operation example of wind generation combined with solar PV generation is presented to exemplify the flexibility and benefits of the proposed configuration.

  15. XI Multifrequency Behaviour of High Energy Cosmic Sources Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    This was the eleventh edition of the series of Frascati Workshops on "Multifrequency Behaviour of High Energy Cosmic Sources" undoubtedly a largely accepted biennial meeting in which an updated experimental and theoretical panorama is depicted. This edition took place on the 31st anniversary of the first historical "multifrequency" workshop about "Multifrequency Behaviour of Galactic Accreting Sources", held in Vulcano in September 1984. This surely renders the Frascati Workshop Series the oldest among the many devoted to "Multifrequency Studies of Cosmic Sources". The study of the physics governing the cosmic sources was the main goal of the workshop. A session devoted to the ongoing and next generation ground- and space-based experiments gave the actual prospects for the first decades of this millennium. The following items have been reviewed: Cosmology: Cosmic Background, Clusters of Galaxies Extragalactic Sources: Active Galaxies, Normal Galaxies Gamma-Rays Burst: Experiments versus Theories Galactic Sources: Pre-Main-Sequence and Main-Sequence Stars, Cataclysmic Variables and Novae, Supernovae and SNRs, X-Ray Binary Systems, Pulsars, Black Holes, Gamma-Ray Sources,Nucleosynthesis. The Astrophysics with the Ongoing and Future Experiments: Space-Based Experiments, Ground-Based Experiments. The workshop included a few 30-minute general review talks to introduce the current problems, and typically 20-minute talks discussing new experimental and theoretical results. A series of 20-minute talks discussed the ongoing and planned ground- and space-based experiments. The cadence of the workshop is biennial. The participation is only by invitation.

  16. Validity and reliability of Nike + Fuelband for estimating physical activity energy expenditure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Wesley J; Bhammar, Dharini M; Sawyer, Brandon J; Buman, Matthew P; Gaesser, Glenn A

    2015-01-01

    The Nike + Fuelband is a commercially available, wrist-worn accelerometer used to track physical activity energy expenditure (PAEE) during exercise. However, validation studies assessing the accuracy of this device for estimating PAEE are lacking. Therefore, this study examined the validity and reliability of the Nike + Fuelband for estimating PAEE during physical activity in young adults. Secondarily, we compared PAEE estimation of the Nike + Fuelband with the previously validated SenseWear Armband (SWA). Twenty-four participants (n = 24) completed two, 60-min semi-structured routines consisting of sedentary/light-intensity, moderate-intensity, and vigorous-intensity physical activity. Participants wore a Nike + Fuelband and SWA, while oxygen uptake was measured continuously with an Oxycon Mobile (OM) metabolic measurement system (criterion). The Nike + Fuelband (ICC = 0.77) and SWA (ICC = 0.61) both demonstrated moderate to good validity. PAEE estimates provided by the Nike + Fuelband (246 ± 67 kcal) and SWA (238 ± 57 kcal) were not statistically different than OM (243 ± 67 kcal). Both devices also displayed similar mean absolute percent errors for PAEE estimates (Nike + Fuelband = 16 ± 13 %; SWA = 18 ± 18 %). Test-retest reliability for PAEE indicated good stability for Nike + Fuelband (ICC = 0.96) and SWA (ICC = 0.90). The Nike + Fuelband provided valid and reliable estimates of PAEE, that are similar to the previously validated SWA, during a routine that included approximately equal amounts of sedentary/light-, moderate- and vigorous-intensity physical activity.

  17. Energy sources and energy generation in the future; Fuentes de energia y la generacion del futuro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarez Pelegry, E.

    2001-07-01

    With this article, that gathers the conference imparted inside of the cycle Technologies and Power Supply Development: Gas or Coal, complementary alternatives, organized by the Spanish Club of the Energy (ENERCLUB), the author plants a series of questions over the sources of energy and the its generation in the future, in order to wake the reflections over the theme. (Author)

  18. Optimization of sources for focusing wave energy in targeted formations

    KAUST Repository

    Jeong, C

    2010-06-08

    We discuss a numerical approach for identifying the surface excitation that is necessary to maximize the response of a targeted subsurface formation. The motivation stems from observations in the aftermath of earthquakes, and from limited field experiments, whereby increased oil production rates were recorded and were solely attributable to the induced reservoir shaking. The observations suggest that focusing wave energy to the reservoir could serve as an effective low-cost enhanced oil recovery method. In this paper, we report on a general method that allows the determination of the source excitation, when provided with a desired maximization outcome at the targeted formation. We discuss, for example, how to construct the excitation that will maximize the kinetic energy in the target zone, while keeping silent the neighbouring zones. To this end, we cast the problem as an inverse-source problem, and use a partial-differential- equation-constrained optimization approach to arrive at an optimized source signal. We seek to satisfy stationarity of an augmented functional, which formally leads to a triplet of state, adjoint and control problems. We use finite elements to resolve the state and adjoint problems, and an iterative scheme to satisfy the control problem to converge to the sought source signal. We report on one-dimensional numerical experiments in the time domain involving a layered medium of semi-infinite extent. The numerical results show that the targeted formation\\'s kinetic energy resulting from an optimized wave source could be several times greater than the one resulting from a blind source choice, and could overcome the mobility threshold of entrapped reservoir oil. © 2010 Nanjing Geophysical Research Institute.

  19. Can single-phase dual-energy CT reliably identify adrenal adenomas?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helck, A.; Hummel, N.; Meinel, F.G.; Johnson, T.; Nikolaou, K.; Graser, A. [University of Munich, Institute for Clinical Radiology, Munich (Germany)

    2014-07-15

    To evaluate whether single-phase dual-energy-CT-based attenuation measurements can reliably differentiate lipid-rich adrenal adenomas from malignant adrenal lesions. We retrospectively identified 51 patients with adrenal masses who had undergone contrast-enhanced dual-energy-CT (140/100 or 140/80 kVp). Virtual non-contrast and colour-coded iodine images were generated, allowing for measurement of pre- and post-contrast density on a single-phase acquisition. Adrenal adenoma was diagnosed if density on virtual non-contrast images was ≤10 HU. Clinical follow-up, true non-contrast CT, PET/CT, in- and opposed-phase MRI, and histopathology served as the standard of reference. Based on the standard of reference, 46/57 (80.7 %) adrenal masses were characterised as adenomas or other benign lesions; 9 malignant lesions were detected. Based on a cutoff value of 10 HU, virtual non-contrast images allowed for correct identification of adrenal adenomas in 33 of 46 (71 %), whereas 13/46 (28 %) adrenal adenomas were lipid poor with a density ≥10 HU. Based on the threshold of 10 HU on the virtual non-contrast images, the sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy for detection of benign adrenal lesions was 73 %, 100 %, and 81 % respectively. Virtual non-contrast images derived from dual-energy-CT allow for accurate characterisation of lipid-rich adrenal adenomas and can help to avoid additional follow-up imaging. (orig.)

  20. Assessment of practices and technologies of energy saving and renewable energy sources in hotels in Crete

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zografakis, Nikolaos [Regional Energy Agency of Crete, Region of Crete, 71202 Heraklion (Greece); Gillas, Konstantinos; Pollaki, Antrianna; Profylienou, Maroulitsa; Bounialetou, Fanouria [Department of Economics, University of Crete, University Campus, 74100 Rethymno (Greece); Tsagarakis, Konstantinos P. [Department of Environmental Engineering, Democritus University of Thrace, 67100 Xanthi (Greece)

    2011-05-15

    This study aims to assess the state of the art of practices and technologies of energy saving and renewable energy sources in hotels. This will contribute to determining the potential of efficient and sustainable energy technologies integration. Hotel managers were interviewed face to face and information sessions were provided. Special energy and environmental awareness campaigns, sectoral tourism programs for climate change mitigation and adaptation, supportive policies and hotel energy investments and renovation programs are some recommendations elicited from the results of this study. (author)

  1. Energy Planning in Selected European Regions - Methods for Evaluating the Potential of Renewable Energy Sources

    OpenAIRE

    Sliz-Szkliniarz, Beata

    2013-01-01

    Given their potentially positive impact on climate protection and the preservation of fossil resources, alternative energy sources have become increasingly important for the energy supply over the past years. However, the questions arises what economic and ecological impacts and potential conflicts over land use resources are associated with the promotion of renewable energy production. Using the examples of three selected European Regions in Poland, France and German, the dissertation discus...

  2. New insights on tsunami genesis and energy source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Y. Tony; Mohtat, Ali; Yim, Solomon C.

    2017-05-01

    Conventional tsunami theories suggest that earthquakes with significant vertical motions are more likely to generate tsunamis. In tsunami models, the vertical seafloor elevation is directly transferred to the sea-surface as the only initial condition. However, evidence from the 2011 Tohoku earthquake indicates otherwise; the vertical seafloor uplift was only 3-5 m, too small to account for the resultant tsunami. Surprisingly, the horizontal displacement was undeniably larger than anyone's expectation; about 60 m at the frontal wedge of the fault plate, the largest slip ever recorded by in situ instruments. The question is whether the horizontal motion of seafloor slopes had enhanced the tsunami to become as destructive as observed. In this study, we provide proof: (1) combining various measurements from the 2011 Tohoku event, we show that the earthquake transferred a total energy of 3.1e + 15 joule to the ocean, in which the potential energy (PE) due to the vertical seafloor elevation (including seafloor uplift/subsidence plus the contribution from the horizontal displacement) was less than a half, while the kinetic energy (KE) due to the horizontal displacement velocity of the continental slope contributed a majority portion; (2) using two modern state-of-the-art wave flumes and a three-dimensional tsunami model, we have reproduced the source energy and tsunamis consistent with observations, including the 2004 Sumatra event. Based on the unified source energy formulation, we offer a competing theory to explain why some earthquakes generate destructive tsunamis, while others do not.

  3. Sustainability of hydropower as source of renewable and clean energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luis, J.; Sidek, L. M.; Desa, M. N. M.; Julien, P. Y.

    2013-06-01

    Hydroelectric energy has been in recent times placed as an important future source of renewable and clean energy. The advantage of hydropower as a renewable energy is that it produces negligible amounts of greenhouse gases, it stores large amounts of electricity at low cost and it can be adjusted to meet consumer demand. This noble vision however is becoming more challenging due to rapid urbanization development and increasing human activities surrounding the catchment area. Numerous studies have shown that there are several contributing factors that lead towards the loss of live storage in reservoir, namely geology, ground slopes, climate, drainage density and human activities. Sediment deposition in the reservoir particularly for hydroelectric purposes has several major concerns due to the reduced water storage volume which includes increase in the risk of flooding downstream which directly effects the safety of human population and properties, contributes to economic losses not only in revenue for power generation but also large capital and maintenance cost for reservoir restorations works. In the event of functional loss of capabilities of a hydropower reservoir as a result of sedimentation or siltation could lead to both economical and environmental impact. The objective of this paper is aimed present the importance of hydropower as a source of renewable and clean energy in the national energy mix and the increasing challenges of sustainability.

  4. Biogas : Animal Waste That Can be Alternative Energy Source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuti Haryati

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Biogas is a renewable energy which can be used as alternative fuel to replace fossil fuel such as oil and natural gas . Recently, diversification on the use of energy has increasingly become an important issue because the oil sources are depleting . Utilization of agricultural wastes for biogas production can minimize the consumption of commercial energy source such as kerosene as well as the use of firewood . Biogas is generated by the process of organic material digestion by certain anaerobe bacteria activity in aerobic digester . Anaerobic digestion process is basically carried out in three steps i.e. hydrolysis, acidogenic and metanogenic . Digestion process needs certain condition such as C : N ratio, temperature, acidity and also digester design . Most anaerobic digestions perform best at 32 - 35°C or at 50 - 55°C, and pH 6 .8 - 8 . At these temperatures, the digestion process essentially converts organic matter in the present of water into gaseous energy . Generally, biogas consists of methane about 60 - 70% and yield about 1,000 British Thermal Unit/ft 3 or 252 Kcal/0.028 m3 when burned . In several developing countries, as well as in Europe and the United States, biogas has been commonly used as a subtitute environmental friendly energy . Meanwhile, potentially Indonesia has abundant potential of biomass waste, however biogas has not been used maximally .

  5. Renewable energy sources. European Commission papers; Energies renouvelables. Documents de la Commission Europeenne

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-05-01

    The ''Directive on the Promotion of Electricity from Renewable Sources of Energy in the Internal Electricity Market'' was adopted in September 2001. Its purpose is to promote an increase in the contribution of renewable energy sources to electricity production in the internal market for electricity and to create a basis for a future Community framework. Energie-Cites provides in this document a summary of its opinion on the Green Paper and on Alterner II and gives a proposal for an Action Plan concerning the White Paper. (A.L.B.)

  6. Virtual Generation (Energy Efficiency) The Cheapest Source For Power Generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasnie, Sohail

    2010-09-15

    Energy efficiency is the cheapest source of energy that has escaped the minds of the politicians in the developing countries. This paper argues for large scale utility led end use efficiency programs in a new paradigm, where 1 million efficient light bulbs is synonymous to a 50 MW power station that costs only 2% of the traditional fossil fuel power station and zero maintenance. Bulk procurement, setting up new standards and generation of certified emissions reduction is part of this strategy. It discusses implementation of a $20 million pilot in the Philippines supported by the Asian Development Bank.

  7. Microalgae as a Renewable Source of Energy: A Niche Opportunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Jegan Porphy Jegathese

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Algae are believed to be a good source of renewable energy because of its rapid growth rate and its ability to be cultivated in waste water or waste land. Several companies and government agencies are making efforts to reduce capital cost and operating costs and make algae fuel production commercially viable. Algae are the fastest growing plant and theoretically have the potential to produce more oil or biomass per acre when compared to other crops and plants. However, the energy efficiency ratio and carbon and water footprint for algal based biofuels still need to be evaluated in order to fully understand the environmental impact of algal derived biofuels.

  8. Consideration on a Low Power Solar Energy Renewable Source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei Marusca

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the contribution of theauthors regarding the implementation of a low powersolar energy renewable source. To optimize theconversion efficiency of the solar irradiance intoelectrical energy an embedded system was designed. Theembedded system can accomplish the maximum powerpoint tracking by evaluation the output voltage andcurrent of the photovoltaic panels and calculate a propercommand for the DC-DC converter of the renewablesource. The key device in this system is a midrange 8 bitmicrocontroller that consists of acquisition, commandand control integrated hardware resources.

  9. Meeting China's electricity needs through clean energy sources: A 2030 low-carbon energy roadmap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Zheng

    China is undergoing rapid economic development that generates significant increase in energy demand, primarily for electricity. Energy supply in China is heavily relying on coal, which leads to high carbon emissions. This dissertation explores opportunities for meeting China's growing power demand through clean energy sources. The utilization of China's clean energy sources as well as demand-side management is still at the initial phase. Therefore, development of clean energy sources would require substantial government support in order to be competitive in the market. One of the widely used means to consider clean energy in power sector supplying is Integrated Resource Strategic Planning, which aims to minimize the long term electricity costs while screening various power supply options for the power supply and demand analysis. The IRSP tool tackles the energy problem from the perspective of power sector regulators, and provides different policy scenarios to quantify the impacts of combined incentives. Through three scenario studies, Business as Usual, High Renewable, and Renewable and Demand Side Management, this dissertation identifies the optimized scenario for China to achieve the clean energy target of 2030. The scenarios are assessed through energy, economics, environment, and equity dimensions.

  10. CONCEPT OF THE MINIMUM ENERGY PASSENGER CAR WITH USE OF UNCONVENTIONAL ENERGY SOURCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Gabrinets

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The paper is aimed to consider the concept of creation of the minimum energy passenger car with use of nonconventional energy sources and the walls that have enhanced thermal insulation properties. Мethodology. The types of heat losses, as well as their value were analyzed. The alternative sources of energy are considered for heating. Their potential contribution to the overall energy balance of the passenger car is analyzed. Impact on the car design of the enhanced wall thermal insulation, solar energy inflow through the transparent windows and energy release of passengers are quantitatively evaluated. Findings. With the maximum possible use of all unconventional energy sources and the rational scheme solutions of conditioning and heating systems energy the costs for these needs for a passenger car can be reduced by 40-50%. Originality. New types of energy to maintain the heat balance of the car in the winter period is proposed to use firstly. New schematics solutions for environmental control system of the car both in winter and in summer periods were offered. Practical value. Introduction of the proposed scheme solutions and approaches to ensure the comfortable conditions for passengers may be implemented on an existing park of passenger cars and do not require a major re-equipment of systems that have already been installed.

  11. Ways to improve the efficiency and reliability of radio frequency driven negative ion sources for fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kraus, W., E-mail: kraus@ipp.mpg.de [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik (IPP), Boltzmannstr. 2, 85748 Garching (Germany); Briefi, S.; Fantz, U. [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik (IPP), Boltzmannstr. 2, 85748 Garching (Germany); AG Experimentelle Plasmaphysik, Universität Augsburg, 86135 Augsburg (Germany); Gutmann, P.; Doerfler, J. [AG Experimentelle Plasmaphysik, Universität Augsburg, 86135 Augsburg (Germany)

    2014-02-15

    Large RF driven negative hydrogen ion sources are being developed at IPP Garching for the future neutral beam injection system of ITER. The overall power efficiency of these sources is low, because for the RF power supply self-excited generators are utilized and the plasma is generated in small cylindrical sources (“drivers”) and expands into the source main volume. At IPP experiments to reduce the primary power and the RF power required for the plasma production are performed in two ways: The oscillator generator of the prototype source has been replaced by a transistorized RF transmitter and two alternative driver concepts, a spiral coil, in which the field is concentrated by ferrites, which omits the losses by plasma expansion and a helicon source are being tested.

  12. Overcoming High Energy Backgrounds at Pulsed Spallation Sources

    CERN Document Server

    Cherkashyna, Nataliia; DiJulio, Douglas D.; Khaplanov, Anton; Pfeiffer, Dorothea; Scherzinger, Julius; Cooper-Jensen, Carsten P.; Fissum, Kevin G.; Ansell, Stuart; Iverson, Erik B.; Ehlers, Georg; Gallmeier, Franz X.; Panzner, Tobias; Rantsiou, Emmanouela; Kanaki, Kalliopi; Filges, Uwe; Kittelmann, Thomas; Extegarai, Maddi; Santoro, Valentina; Kirstein, Oliver; Bentley, Phillip M.

    2015-01-01

    Instrument backgrounds at neutron scattering facilities directly affect the quality and the efficiency of the scientific measurements that users perform. Part of the background at pulsed spallation neutron sources is caused by, and time-correlated with, the emission of high energy particles when the proton beam strikes the spallation target. This prompt pulse ultimately produces a signal, which can be highly problematic for a subset of instruments and measurements due to the time-correlated properties, and different to that from reactor sources. Measurements of this background have been made at both SNS (ORNL, Oak Ridge, TN, USA) and SINQ (PSI, Villigen, Switzerland). The background levels were generally found to be low compared to natural background. However, very low intensities of high-energy particles have been found to be detrimental to instrument performance in some conditions. Given that instrument performance is typically characterised by S/N, improvements in backgrounds can both improve instrument pe...

  13. A narrow-band, variable energy ion source derived from a wire plasma source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gueroult, R; Elias, P Q; Packan, D [ONERA Palaiseau, 91761 Palaiseau (France); Rax, J M, E-mail: renaud.gueroult@polytechnique.edu [LPP, Ecole Polytechnique, 91128 Palaiseau Cedex (France)

    2011-08-15

    A low pressure wire-induced plasma source (WIPS) operated in its high-pressure mode ({approx}10{sup -2} mbar) exhibits a narrow ion energy distribution function peaked at an energy corresponding to the discharge voltage. In order to take advantage of this peculiar feature, we design an electrode geometry enabling the acceleration of ions extracted from a WIPS. Probing of the obtained ion plume by means of a retarding potential analyser (RPA) demonstrates the capability of such an ion source to generate narrow-band (full width at half maximum of about 20 eV), variable energy (1 to 5 keV) ion beams. Comparison with particle-in-cell simulations of the WIPS shows that the energy spread of these ion beams is actually about 10 eV, the slight broadening being mainly the effect of the limited planar RPA energy resolution. The ion beam spot size measured at 6 cm of the ion source exit is about 3 mm for a 10 {mu}A He{sup +} beam at 2 keV, with a divergence of about one degree. Operating the WIPS in argon and xenon leads to similar properties for Ar{sup +} and Xe{sup +} beams, and in principle other species could also be used.

  14. Directory of financing sources for foreign energy projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    La Ferla, L. [La Ferla Associates, Washington, DC (United States)

    1995-09-01

    The Office of National Security Policy has produced this Directory of Financing Sources for Foreign Energy Projects. The Directory reviews programs that offer financing from US government agencies, multilateral organizations, public, private, and quasi-private investment funds, and local commercial and state development banks. The main US government agencies covered are the US Agency for International Development (USAID), the Export-Import Bank of the US (EXIM Bank), Overseas Private Investment Corporation (OPIC), US Department of Energy, US Department of Defense, and the US Trade and Development Agency (TDA). Other US Government Sources includes market funds that have been in part capitalized using US government agency funds. Multilateral organizations include the World Bank, International Finance Corporation (IFC), Asian Development Bank (ADB), European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD), and various organizations of the United Nations. The Directory lists available public, private, and quasi-private sources of financing in key emerging markets in the Newly Independent States and other developing countries of strategic interest to the US Department of Energy. The sources of financing listed in this directory should be considered indicative rather than inclusive of all potential sources of financing. Initial focus is on the Russian Federation, Ukraine, india, China, and Pakistan. Separate self-contained sections have been developed for each of the countries to enable the user to readily access market-specific information and to support country-specific Departmental initiatives. For each country, the directory is organized to follow the project life cycle--from prefeasibility, feasibility, project finance, cofinancing, and trade finance, through to technical assistance and training. Programs on investment and export insurance are excluded.

  15. Did high energy astrophysical sources contribute to Martian atmospheric loss?

    CERN Document Server

    Atri, Dimitra

    2016-01-01

    Mars is believed to have had a substantial atmosphere in the past. Atmospheric loss led to depressurization and cooling, and is thought to be the primary driving force responsible for the loss of liquid water from its surface. Recently, MAVEN observations have provided new insight into the physics of atmospheric loss induced by ICMEs and solar wind interacting with the Martian atmosphere. In addition to solar radiation, it is likely that its atmosphere has been exposed to radiation bursts from high-energy astrophysical sources which become highly probable on timescales of ~Gy and beyond. These sources are capable of significantly enhancing the rates of photoionization and charged particle-induced ionization in the upper atmosphere. Here, we explore the possibility of damage from Galactic Gamma Ray Bursts, nearby supernovae, encounter with dense interstellar clouds and extreme solar events. We use Monte Carlo simulations to model the interaction of charged particles and photons from astrophysical sources in th...

  16. ION SOURCES FOR ENERGY EXTREMES OF ION IMPLANTATION.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HERSCHCOVITCH,A.; JOHNSON, B.M.; BATALIN, V.A.; KROPACHEV, G.N.; KUIBEDA, R.P.; KULEVOY, T.V.; KOLOMIETS, A.A.; PERSHIN, V.I.; PETRENKO, S.V.; RUDSKOY, I.; SELEZNEV, D.N.; BUGAEV, A.S.; GUSHENETS, V.I.; LITOVKO, I.V.; OKS, E.M.; YUSHKOV, G. YU.; MASEUNOV, E.S.; POLOZOV, S.M.; POOLE, H.J.; STOROZHENKO, P.A.; SVAROVSKI, YA.

    2007-08-26

    For the past four years a joint research and development effort designed to develop steady state, intense ion sources has been in progress with the ultimate goal to develop ion sources and techniques, which meet the two energy extreme range needs of mega-electron-volt and 100's of electron-volt ion implanters. This endeavor has already resulted in record steady state output currents of high charge state of Antimony and Phosphorous ions: P{sup 2+} (8.6 pmA), P{sup 3+} (1.9 pmA), and P{sup 4+} (0.12 pmA) and 16.2, 7.6, 3.3, and 2.2 pmA of Sb{sup 3+} Sb{sup 4+}, Sb{sup 5+}, and Sb{sup 6+} respectively. For low energy ion implantation our efforts involve molecular ions and a novel plasmaless/gasless deceleration method. To date, 1 emA of positive Decaborane ions were extracted at 10 keV and smaller currents of negative Decaborane ions were also extracted. Additionally, Boron current fraction of over 70% was extracted from a Bemas-Calutron ion source, which represents a factor of 3.5 improvement over currently employed ion sources.

  17. Ion sources for energy extremes of ion implantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hershcovitch, A; Johnson, B M; Batalin, V A; Kropachev, G N; Kuibeda, R P; Kulevoy, T V; Kolomiets, A A; Pershin, V I; Petrenko, S V; Rudskoy, I; Seleznev, D N; Bugaev, A S; Gushenets, V I; Litovko, I V; Oks, E M; Yushkov, G Yu; Masunov, E S; Polozov, S M; Poole, H J; Storozhenko, P A; Svarovski, A Ya

    2008-02-01

    For the past four years a joint research and development effort designed to develop steady state, intense ion sources has been in progress with the ultimate goal to develop ion sources and techniques that meet the two energy extreme range needs of meV and hundreads of eV ion implanters. This endeavor has already resulted in record steady state output currents of high charge state of antimony and phosphorus ions: P(2+) [8.6 pmA (particle milliampere)], P(3+) (1.9 pmA), and P(4+) (0.12 pmA) and 16.2, 7.6, 3.3, and 2.2 pmA of Sb(3+)Sb(4+), Sb(5+), and Sb(6+) respectively. For low energy ion implantation, our efforts involve molecular ions and a novel plasmaless/gasless deceleration method. To date, 1 emA (electrical milliampere) of positive decaborane ions was extracted at 10 keV and smaller currents of negative decaborane ions were also extracted. Additionally, boron current fraction of over 70% was extracted from a Bernas-Calutron ion source, which represents a factor of 3.5 improvement over currently employed ion sources.

  18. Evaluating the sustainability of an energy supply system using renewable energy sources: An energy demand assessment of South Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Cedric Fitzgerald

    Sustainable energy is defined as a dynamic harmony between the equitable availability of energy-intensive goods and services to all people and the preservation of the earth for future generations. Sustainable energy development continues to be a major focus within the government and regulatory governing bodies in the electric utility industry. This is as a result of continued demand for electricity and the impact of greenhouse gas emissions from electricity generating plants on the environment by way of the greenhouse effect. A culmination of increasing concerns about climate change, the nuclear incident in Fukushima four years ago, and discussions on energy security in a world with growing energy demand have led to a movement for increasing the share of power generation from renewable energy sources. This work studies demand for electricity from primarily residential, commercial, agricultural, and industrial customers in South Carolina (SC) and its effect on the environment from coal-fired electricity generating plants. Moreover, this work studies sustainable renewable energy source-options based on the renewable resources available in the state of SC, as viable options to supplement generation from coal-fired electricity generating plants. In addition, greenhouse gas emissions and other pollutants from primarily coal-fired plants will be defined and quantified. Fundamental renewable energy source options will be defined and quantified based on availability and sustainability of SC's natural resources. This work studies the environmental, economic, and technical aspects of each renewable energy source as a sustainable energy option to replace power generation from coal-fired plants. Additionally, social aspect implications will be incorporated into each of the three aspects listed above, as these aspects are explored during the research and analysis. Electricity demand data and alternative energy source-supply data in SC are carried out and are used to develop and

  19. Dietary sources of energy and macronutrient intakes among Flemish preschoolers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Keyzer, Willem; Lin, Yi; Vereecken, Carine; Maes, Lea; Van Oyen, Herman; Vanhauwaert, Erika; De Backer, Guy; De Henauw, Stefaan; Huybrechts, Inge

    2011-11-01

    This study aims to identify major food sources of energy and macronutrients among Flemish preschoolers as a basis for evaluating dietary guidelines. Three-day estimated diet records were collected from a representative sample of 696 Flemish preschoolers (2.5-6.5 years old; participation response rate: 50%). For 11 dietary constituents, the contribution of 57 food groups was computed by summing the amount provided by the food group for all individuals divided by the total intake of the respective nutrient for all individuals. Bread (12%), sweet snacks (12%), milk (6%), flavoured milk drinks (9%), and meat products (6%) were the top five energy contributors. Sweet snacks were among the top contributors to energy, total fat, all fatty acids, cholesterol, and complex and simple carbohydrates. Fruit juices and flavoured milk drinks are the main contributors to simple carbohydrates (respectively 14% and 18%). All principal food groups like water, bread and cereals, vegetables, fruit, milk and spreadable fats were under-consumed by more than 30% of the population, while the food groups that were over-consumed consisted only of low nutritious and high energy dense foods (sweet snacks, sugared drinks, fried potatoes, sauces and sweet spreads). From the major food sources and gaps in nutrient and food intakes, some recommendations to pursue the nutritional goals could be drawn: the intake of sweet snacks and sugar-rich drinks (incl. fruit juices) should be discouraged, while consumption of fruits, vegetables, water, bread and margarine on bread should be encouraged.

  20. Promotion of Renewable Energy Sources in the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roland Menges

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available One of the important goals of European energy policy is to increase the share of renewable energy resources in the energy supply. The instruments used in the member states are not fully compatible with the rules of the European internal market. In a theoretical section, this paper analyses possible different instruments for promoting renewable energy. Some countries use feed in tariffs - using fixed prices to increase incentives for producers to invest into renewable energy, other countries use quantity-based systems like quotas that lead to a premium above the market price. In an institutional analysis we show that on the basis of effectiveness and efficiency considerations for the European Union, in the long-term quantity oriented systems of promotion are preferable if combined with elements of a capacity market. The main reason for this conclusion is that price-based systems cannot give enough incentives for backup capacities necessary to cope with intermittent production of renewable sources. In addition price-based systems violate the basic rules of the open internal European market because feed in tariffs are a considerable barrier for trade of renewable energy products.

  1. Alternate Energy Sources for Thermalplastic Binding Agent Consolidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frame, B.J.

    1999-01-01

    A study was conducted to investigate microwave and electron beam technologies as alternate energy sources to consolidate fiber coated with a thermoplastic binding agent into preforms for composite molding applications. Bench experiments showed that both microwave and electron beam energy can produce heat sufficient to melt and consolidate a thermoplastic binding agent applied to fiberglass mat, and several two- and three-dimensional fiberglass preforms were produced with each method. In both cases, it is postulated that the heating was accomplished by the effective interaction of the microwave or electron beam energy with the combination of the mat preform and the tooling used to shape the preform. Both methods contrast with conventional thermal energy applied via infrared heaters or from a heated tool in which the heat to melt the thermoplastic binding agent must diffuse over time from the outer surface of the preform toward its center under a thermal gradient. For these reasons, the microwave and electron beam energy techniques have the potential to rapidly consolidate thick fiber preforms more efficiently than the thermal process. With further development, both technologies have the potential to make preform production more cost effective by decreasing cycle time in the preform tool, reducing energy costs, and by enabling the use of less expensive tooling materials. Descriptions of the microwave and electron beam consolidation experiments and a summary of the results are presented in this report.

  2. Shock reliability analysis and improvement of MEMS electret-based vibration energy harvesters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renaud, M.; Fujita, T.; Goedbloed, M.; de Nooijer, C.; van Schaijk, R.

    2015-10-01

    Vibration energy harvesters can serve as a replacement solution to batteries for powering tire pressure monitoring systems (TPMS). Autonomous wireless TPMS powered by microelectromechanical system (MEMS) electret-based vibration energy harvester have been demonstrated. The mechanical reliability of the MEMS harvester still has to be assessed in order to bring the harvester to the requirements of the consumer market. It should survive the mechanical shocks occurring in the tire environment. A testing procedure to quantify the shock resilience of harvesters is described in this article. Our first generation of harvesters has a shock resilience of 400 g, which is far from being sufficient for the targeted application. In order to improve this aspect, the first important aspect is to understand the failure mechanism. Failure is found to occur in the form of fracture of the device’s springs. It results from impacts between the anchors of the springs when the harvester undergoes a shock. The shock resilience of the harvesters can be improved by redirecting these impacts to nonvital parts of the device. With this philosophy in mind, we design three types of shock absorbing structures and test their effect on the shock resilience of our MEMS harvesters. The solution leading to the best results consists of rigid silicon stoppers covered by a layer of Parylene. The shock resilience of the harvesters is brought above 2500 g. Results in the same range are also obtained with flexible silicon bumpers, which are simpler to manufacture.

  3. Reliability Measures of Second-Order Semi-Markov Chain Applied to Wind Energy Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guglielmo D'Amico

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider the problem of wind energy production by using a second-order semi-Markov chain in state and duration as a model of wind speed. The model used in this paper is based on our previous work where we have shown the ability of second-order semi-Markov process in reproducing statistical features of wind speed. Here we briefly present the mathematical model and describe the data and technical characteristics of a commercial wind turbine (Aircon HAWT-10 kW. We show how, by using our model, it is possible to compute some of the main dependability measures such as reliability, availability, and maintainability functions. We compare, by means of Monte Carlo simulations, the results of the model with real energy production obtained from data available in the Lastem station (Italy and sampled every 10 minutes. The computation of the dependability measures is a crucial point in the planning and development of a wind farm. Through our model, we show how the values of this quantity can be obtained both analytically and computationally.

  4. Renewable energy sources in the Mexican electrical sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez, V. [Univ. Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Div. de Estudios de Postrado, Facultad de Ingenieria, Coyoacan (Mexico); Martinez, J.H. [Univ. Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Posgrado en Estudios Latinoamericanos, Facultad de Filosofia y Letras, Div. de Estudios de Posgrado, Coyoacan (Mexico); Ruiz, B.J.

    2008-07-01

    This paper analyzes the role of the renewable energy sources (RES) in the Mexican electrical sector in the context of the proposed renewable energy bill currently under consideration in the Mexican Congress. This paper was divided in three parts. The first part consists of a chronology of institutional background related to RES. The second part is an analysis of the coordination and management system of the Mexican electrical sector, which can facilitate the promotion of RES without significant structural changes. Finally, the pros and cons of the renewable energy bill are analyzed in order to demonstrate the need for greater coherence between the bill and the coordination system. It is concluded that when inconsistency is eliminated, RES would strongly be promoted in Mexico. (orig.)

  5. The Potential of Renewable Energy Sources in Latvia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakipova, S.; Jakovics, A.; Gendelis, S.

    2016-02-01

    The article discusses some aspects of the use of renewable energy sources in the climatic conditions prevailing in most of the territory of Latvia, with relatively low wind speeds and a small number of sunny days a year. The paper gives a brief description of the measurement equipment and technology to determine the parameters of the outer air; the results of the measurements are also analysed. On the basis of the data obtained during the last two years at the meteorological station at the Botanical Garden of the University of Latvia, the energy potential of solar radiation and wind was estimated. The values of the possible and the actual amount of produced energy were determined.

  6. Renewable energy sources in the Mexican electricity sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruiz, B.J.; Rodriguez-Padilla, V. [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, DEPFI, Edificio A 1 piso Bernardo Quintana, Circuito Exterior, C.U., Coyoacan, C.P. (Mexico); Martinez, J.H. [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Posgrado en Estudios Latinoamericanos, Facultad de Filosofia y Letras, Division de Estudios de Posgrado, Circuito Exterior, C.U., Coyoacan (Mexico)

    2008-06-15

    This paper analyzes the role of renewable energy sources (RES) in the Mexican electricity sector in the context of the proposed renewable energy bill currently under consideration in the Mexican Congress. This paper was divided into three parts. The first part presents a chronology of institutional background related to the RES. This is followed by an analysis of the coordination and management system of the Mexican electricity sector, which can facilitate the promotion and integration of the RES without significant structural changes. Finally, the pros and cons of the renewable energy bill are analyzed in order to demonstrate the need for greater coherence between the bill and the coordination system of the sector. It is concluded that when inconsistency is eliminated, RES would strongly be promoted in Mexico. (author)

  7. The Use of Energy in Malaysia: Tracing Energy Flows from Primary Source to End Use

    OpenAIRE

    Chinhao Chong; Weidou Ni; Linwei Ma; Pei Liu; Zheng Li

    2015-01-01

    Malaysia is a rapidly developing country in Southeast Asia that aims to achieve high-income country status by 2020; its economic growth is highly dependent on its abundant energy resources, especially natural gas and crude oil. In this paper, a complete picture of Malaysia’s energy use from primary source to end use is presented by mapping a Sankey diagram of Malaysia’s energy flows, together with ongoing trends analysis of the main factors influencing the energy flows. The results indicate t...

  8. Energy and health: the health impacts of present and alternative energy sources and policies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamilton, L.D.

    1975-01-01

    The total emissions to the atmosphere in the United States in 1971 for carbon dioxide, particulates, 1971 are shown for caron monoxide, sulfur dioxide, hydrocarbons, and nitrogen oxides are shown. The Reference Energy System (RES) developed at BNL diagrams the methodological approach used to study the health and environmental impacts of energy. The RES takes each energy source--nuclear, hydropower, coal, oil, and natural gas--and traces it through each of the stages in the fuel cycle to its conversion at the electric power stations to its end use. In calculating the health/environmental costs of any given energy source, the entire range of production and use of that source are included. Comparative statements are given about many energy sources regarding their risks to health. An example is described of an effects module of sulfur oxides in air. Sulfur emission released into air ultimately affects biota and materials in buildings and other structures via several different pathways; it operates directly or after various chemical transformations in the smokestack, and then in the atmosphere. An effects module is provided for suspended solids into water. The use of this design for a new technology may be applied to minimize its potential environmental impact. It is designed to help the regulatory agencies, the EPA, and the NRC to set standards for new and existing technologies that have some relationship to actual risk. The author then discusses some assessments of energy problems, with emphasis on nuclear power impacts. (MCW)

  9. AC Motor Drive Fed by Renewable Energy Sources with PWM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Pavalam

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this fast aproaching nature of technology the ned of Electricity becomes a mandatory in developing technology. The ned of Electricity increases the power demand where the power demand met by the conventional sources of energy has some disadvantage of polution, this disadvantage can be decreased by the use of the Renewable energy sources like Fuel Cel and available solar energy. When a FUEL cel produces AC power, basicaly two stages are required for conversion first a bosting stage and second is inversion stage. In this paper the Bost inverter topology is achieved where in the conventional methods the normal DC - AC power conversion method is used where as in this paper the PWM based DC - AC inverter has ben used which is useful in reducing the harmonics in the output of the Inverter. The voltage controled output is produced in the bost inverter the curent controled output is taken from dc-dc bidirectional converter. The Fuel cel canot be relied as a whole so a Solar PV module is conected acros the Load so while the Sunlight days the PV arays generate power and in the night time the Fuel cel is used to generate power for the load. Since, the Fuel cel and PV arays can generate power in Partial load they are prefered than any other sources. When the output from the Solar PV aray is low or when the sunlight available is not eficient in generating the power a automatic switch over is provided in the junction betwen the Solar PV aray and Fuel cel so that whenever it hapens the switch automaticaly switch over to another source. The simulation results are presented to confirm the operational feature of the proposed system.

  10. OSeMOSYS: The Open Source Energy Modeling System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howells, Mark, E-mail: mark.i.howells@gmail.com [Royal Institute of Technology (KTH) (Sweden); Rogner, Holger [Planning and Economic Studies Section, International Atomic Energy Agency (Austria); Strachan, Neil [Energy Institute, University College London (United Kingdom); Heaps, Charles [Stockholm Environmental Institute (SEI) (United States); Huntington, Hillard [Stanford University (United States); Kypreos, Socrates [Paul Scherrer Institute (Switzerland); Hughes, Alison [Energy Research Centre, University of Cape Town (South Africa); Silveira, Semida [Royal Institute of Technology (KTH) (Sweden); DeCarolis, Joe [North Carolina State University (United States); Bazillian, Morgan [United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO) (Austria); Roehrl, Alexander [United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs (UNDESA) (United States)

    2011-10-15

    This paper discusses the design and development of the Open Source Energy Modeling System (OSeMOSYS). It describes the model's formulation in terms of a 'plain English' description, algebraic formulation, implementation-in terms of its full source code, as well as a detailed description of the model inputs, parameters, and outputs. A key feature of the OSeMOSYS implementation is that it is contained in less than five pages of documented, easily accessible code. Other existing energy system models that do not have this emphasis on compactness and openness makes the barrier to entry by new users much higher, as well as making the addition of innovative new functionality very difficult. The paper begins by describing the rationale for the development of OSeMOSYS and its structure. The current preliminary implementation of the model is then demonstrated for a discrete example. Next, we explain how new development efforts will build on the existing OSeMOSYS codebase. The paper closes with thoughts regarding the organization of the OSeMOSYS community, associated capacity development efforts, and linkages to other open source efforts including adding functionality to the LEAP model. - Highlights: > OSeMOSYS is a new free and open source energy systems. > This model is written in a simple, open, flexible and transparent manner to support teaching. > OSeMOSYS is based on free software and optimizes using a free solver. > This model replicates the results of many popular tools, such as MARKAL. > A link between OSeMOSYS and LEAP has been developed.

  11. Cyanate - An overlooked energy and nitrogen source in soils?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mooshammer, Maria; Palatinszky, Márton; Herbold, Craig; Han, Ping; Daims, Holger; Richter, Andreas; Wagner, Michael

    2016-04-01

    Cyanate (NCO-) is a reduced nitrogen compound that is toxic to organisms due to its reactivity with nucleophilic groups in proteins. To lower cyanate concentrations within cells, a wide range of microorganisms possess a cyanase, which catalyzes the conversion of cyanate to ammonium and carbon dioxide. However, cyanate can also be useful for microbes by serving as a nitrogen source for cyanase-encoding microorganism, such as marine cyanobacteria (Kamennaya et al., 2008). Unexpectedly, we could recently demonstrate that at least one ammonia-oxidizing thaumarchaeote as well as nitrite-oxidizers thriving in consortia with ammonia-oxidizers can grow aerobically on cyanate as only energy and nitrogen source (Palatinszky et al., 2015). Furthermore, published metagenomes revealed that cyanase-encoding genes closely related to those of nitrifiers (ammonia- and nitrite-oxidizers) are widespread in the environment and encompass also cyanases affiliated with anammox organisms. Therefore, cyanate presumably presents an alternative nitrogen and also energy source for many microorganisms in aquatic and terrestrial environments. Surprisingly, cyanate concentrations and fluxes in natural environments are largely unknown, and environmental cyanate concentrations have only been studied in seawater so far, where it occurs in the nanomolar-range (Widner et al. 2013). No information about the importance of cyanate in soils is available, although urea that spontaneously decomposes to cyanate is the most used agricultural fertilizer on a global scale. Cyanate can have many fates in soils - it can be (1) used as nitrogen and/or energy source by cyanase-encoding microorganisms, (2) abiotically hydrolysed to ammonium and carbon dioxide, (3) adsorbed to soil particles, or (4) complexed with other compounds. Here we present the first measurements of cyanate concentrations in natural soils and results of experiments designed to differentiate between biotic and abiotic degradation of cyanate in

  12. Biomass - alternative renewable energy source to the fossil fuels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koruba Dorota

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the fossil fuels combustion effects in terms of the dangers of increasing CO2 concentration in the atmosphere. Based on the bibliography review the negative impact of increased carbon dioxide concentration on the human population is shown in the area of the external environment, particularly in terms of the air pollution and especially the impact on human health. The paper presents biomass as the renewable energy alternative source to fossil fuels which combustion gives a neutral CO2 emissions and therefore should be the main carrier of primary energy in Poland. The paper presents the combustion heat results and humidity of selected dry wood pellets (pellets straw, energy-crop willow pellets, sawdust pellets, dried sewage sludge from two sewage treatment plants of the Holly Cross province pointing their energy potential. In connection with the results analysis of these studies the standard requirements were discussed (EN 14918:2010 “Solid bio-fuels-determination of calorific value” regarding the basic parameters determining the biomass energy value (combustion heat, humidity.

  13. A low-energy linear oxygen plasma source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anders, Andre; Yushkov, Georgy Yu.

    2007-01-08

    A new version of a Constricted Plasma Source is described,characterized by all metal-ceramic construction, a linear slit exit of180 mm length, and cw-operation (typically 50 kHz) at an average power of1.5 kW. The plasma source is here operated with oxygen gas, producingstreaming plasma that contains mainly positive molecular and atomic ions,and to a much lesser degree, negative ions. The maximum total ion currentobtained was about 0.5 A. The fraction of atomic ions reached more than10 percent of all ions when the flow rate was less then 10 sccm O2,corresponding to a chamber pressure of about 0.5 Pa for the selectedpumping speed. The energy distribution functions of the different ionspecies were measured with a combinedmass spectrometer and energyanalyzer. The time-averaged distribution functions were broad and rangedfrom about 30eV to 90 eV at 200 kHz and higher frequencies, while theywere only several eV broad at 50 kHz and lower frequencies, with themaximum located at about 40 eV for the grounded anode case. This maximumwas shifted down to about 7 eV when the anode was floating, indicatingthe important role of the plasma potential for the ion energy for a givensubstrate potential. The source could be scaled to greater length and maybe useful for functionalization of surfaces and plasma-assisteddeposition of compound films.

  14. Towards fusion energy as a sustainable energy source: Activities at DTU Physics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jesper; Christensen, Alexander Simon; Dam, Magnus

    2014-01-01

    Nuclear fusion – the process from which the Sun derives its energy – holds the potential to become a clean,safe, highly efficient, and virtually inexhaustible energy source for the future. To mimic this process on earth, experimental fusion devices seek to heat gas to millions of degrees (creating...... a fusion plasma) and to confine it within magnetic fields. Learning how such plasmas behave and can be controlled is a crucial step towards realizing fusion as a sustainable energy source.At the Plasma Physics and Fusion Energy (PPFE) section at DTU Physics, we are exploring these issues,focusing on areas...... of high priority on the way towards a working fusion power plant. On the theoreticalfront, we are simulating plasma turbulence and transport of heat and particles in fusion plasmas (Fig. 1a). These issues play a key role in determining how the plasma behaves globally and how well it remains confined...

  15. ECR ion source based low energy ion beam facility

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    P Kumar; G Rodrigues; U K Rao; C P Safvan; D Kanjilal; A Roy

    2002-11-01

    Mass analyzed highly charged ion beams of energy ranging from a few keV to a few MeV plays an important role in various aspects of research in modern physics. In this paper a unique low energy ion beam facility (LEIBF) set up at Nuclear Science Centre (NSC) for providing low and medium energy multiply charged ion beams ranging from a few keV to a few MeV for research in materials sciences, atomic and molecular physics is described. One of the important features of this facility is the availability of relatively large currents of multiply charged positive ions from an electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) source placed entirely on a high voltage platform. All the electronic and vacuum systems related to the ECR source including 10 GHz ultra high frequency (UHF) transmitter, high voltage power supplies for extractor and Einzel lens are placed on a high voltage platform. All the equipments are controlled using a personal computer at ground potential through optical fibers for high voltage isolation. Some of the experimental facilities available are also described.

  16. Gridless, very low energy, high-current, gaseous ion source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vizir, A. V.; Oks, E. M. [High Current Electronics Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Tomsk 634055 (Russian Federation); State University of Control Systems and Radioelectronics, Tomsk 634050 (Russian Federation); Shandrikov, M. V.; Yushkov, G. Yu. [High Current Electronics Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Tomsk 634055 (Russian Federation)

    2010-02-15

    We have made and tested a very low energy gaseous ion source in which the plasma is established by a gaseous discharge with electron injection in an axially diverging magnetic field. A constricted arc with hidden cathode spot is used as the electron emitter (first stage of the discharge). The electron flux so formed is filtered by a judiciously shaped electrode to remove macroparticles (cathode debris from the cathode spot) from the cathode material as well as atoms and ions. The anode of the emitter discharge is a mesh, which also serves as cathode of the second stage of the discharge, providing a high electron current that is injected into the magnetic field region where the operating gas is efficiently ionized. In this discharge configuration, an electric field is formed in the ion generation region, accelerating gas ions to energy of several eV in a direction away from the source, without the use of a gridded acceleration system. Our measurements indicate that an argon ion beam is formed with an energy of several eV and current up to 2.5 A. The discharge voltage is kept at less than 20 V, to keep below ion sputtering threshold for cathode material, a feature which along with filtering of the injected electron flow, results in extremely low contamination of the generated ion flow.

  17. Energy Reliability Related to Water Availability under Climate Extremes in Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reedy, R. C.; Scanlon, B. R.; Duncan, I.; Young, M.; Wolaver, B. D.

    2012-12-01

    Understanding linkages between water and energy is critical during climate extremes, particularly droughts. With 40% reduction in per capita water storage since the 1980s, Texas is much more vulnerable to droughts now than in the past. Texas experienced the most extreme one year drought on record in 2011, with 60% reduction in precipitation and 40% reduction in reservoir storage relative to the long term mean. Power plants in Texas rely almost entirely on surface water for cooling. We evaluated water requirements for power plants based on fuel types and cooling technologies to assess their vulnerability to future droughts. Water demand was estimated for electricity generation using multiple sources, including Energy Information Agency, Texas Commission on Environmental Quality, and Texas Water Development Board. The following analysis reflects 2010 data; however, 2011 data will be analyzed as soon as they are made available. Analysis of 2010 data showed that Texas generated 411 million MWHr of electricity, mostly from natural gas (46%), coal (37%), nuclear (10%), and renewables (7%). Approximately 70% of net electricity generation in 2010 required water for cooling. Water consumption for electricity generation totaled 0.6 km3, which represents 3% of the states total water consumption in 2010 (22 km3). Water withdrawals totaled 28 km3; however, 97% of this water is returned to the system. Water consumption varies with fuel source (coal, natural gas, nuclear, renewables) and cooling system technology (once-through, pond, and recirculating tower). Coal plants accounted for the majority of water consumption in 2010, followed by natural gas, nuclear, and other. Water consumption varied by cooling system technology, with ponds accounting for most water consumption, followed by recirculating towers, and once-through cooling systems. The vulnerability of the different systems to drought was examined with water requirements for withdrawal and consumption relative to water

  18. Reliability Assessment Of Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2014-01-01

    Reduction of cost of energy for wind turbines are very important in order to make wind energy competitive compared to other energy sources. Therefore the turbine components should be designed to have sufficient reliability but also not be too costly (and safe). This paper presents models...... for uncertainty modeling and reliability assessment of especially the structural components such as tower, blades, substructure and foundation. But since the function of a wind turbine is highly dependent on many electrical and mechanical components as well as a control system also reliability aspects...... of these components are discussed and it is described how there reliability influences the reliability of the structural components. Two illustrative examples are presented considering uncertainty modeling, reliability assessment and calibration of partial safety factors for structural wind turbine components exposed...

  19. Evaluation of Energy Use in Public Housing in Lagos, Nigeria: Prospects for Renewable Energy Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isidore Chukwunweike Ezema

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Even though domestic energy can be from either renewable or non-renewable sources, the former is preferred because of its role in reducing both the operational energy intensity and carbon footprint. Given the positive role renewable energy plays in the energy mix, this paper examined the pattern of operational energy use with particular reference to the renewable and non-renewable energy content in medium and high density public residential buildings in Lagos, Nigeria. A survey research method was adopted for primary data collection while data analysis was by descriptive statistics. The study found that renewable energy use in the residential units is very low. In contrast, there was high dependence of the occupants on non-renewable direct fuel combustion through the use of fossil fuel-driven privately-owned electricity generators for electricity supply as a result of the inadequate supply from the national grid. In addition to the relatively high operational energy intensity observed in the studied buildings, the findings have implications for the safety, health and wellbeing of the building occupants as well as for carbon emissions from the buildings and for overall environmental sustainability. Recommendations to increase renewable energy use in new buildings and as retrofits in existing buildings were made. Article History: Received Oct 18, 2015; Received in revised form January 14, 2016; Accepted January 30, 2016; Available online How to Cite This Article: Ezema, I.C., Olotuah, A.O., and Fagbenle, O.I, S. (2016 Evaluation of Energy Use in Public Housing in Lagos, Nigeria: Prospects for Renewable Energy Sources. Int. Journal of Renewable Energy Development, 5(1,15-24. http://dx.doi.org/10.14710/ijred.5.1.15-24 

  20. Particle accelerators and nuclear energy: the challenge of reliability; Acceleradores de particulas y energia nuclear: el desafio de la fiabilidad

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brucker, R.; Fernandez Ramos, P.

    2011-07-01

    High energy particle accelerators, that used to serve a purpose only in fundamental research, will soon be used in industrial applications of nuclear energy. In this context, they will be submitted to unprecedented (as far as such machines are concerned) reliability requirements. In order to meet them, reliability studies need to be carried out. This article describes the experience gained by Empresarios Agrupados in that field (with the Eurotrans and Ifmif projects) and presents their future activities in the framework of the Myrrha project, that is aimed at building the first ADS reactor in the world. (Author)

  1. Propagation and Source Energy Spectra of Cosmic-Ray Nuclei at High Energies

    CERN Document Server

    Ave, M; Hoeppner, C; Marshall, J; Müller, D

    2008-01-01

    A recent measurement of the TRACER instrument on long-duration balloon has determined the individual energy spectra of the major primary cosmic-ray nuclei from oxygen (Z=8) to iron (Z=26). The measurements cover a large range of energies and extend to energies beyond 10^14 eV. We investigate if the data set can be described by a simple but plausible model for acceleration and propagation of cosmic rays. The model assumes a power-law energy spectrum at the source with a common spectral index alpha for all nuclear species, and an energy dependent propagation pathlength (Lambda proportional to E^-0.6) combined with an energy-independent residual pathlength Lambda_0. We find that the data can be fit with a fairly soft source spectrum alpha=2.3-2.4), and with a residual pathlength Lambda_0 as high as 0.3 g cm^-2. We discuss this model in the context of other pertinent information, and we determine the relative abundances of the elements at the cosmic-ray source.

  2. Status report on the Low Energy Neutron Source for 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxter, D. V.; Rinckel, T.

    2016-11-01

    The Low Energy Neutron Source at Indiana University first produced cold neutrons in April of 2005. Ten years after first reaching this milestone, the facility has three instruments in operation on its cold target station, and a second target station is devoted to thermal and fast neutron physics offers capabilities in radiation effects research (single-event effects in electronics) and radiography. Key elements in our success over these last ten years have been the diversity of activities we have been able maintain (which often involves using each of our instruments for multiple different activities), the close relationship we have developed with a number of major sources, and the focus we have had on innovation in neutron instrumentation. In this presentation, we will introduce some of the highlights from our most recent activities, provide an update on some of our technical challenges, and describe some of our ideas for the future.

  3. Drinking water quality and source reliability in rural Ashanti region, Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Meghan; VanDerslice, James A; Taylor, Brooke; Benson, Scott; Allen, Sam; Johnson, Mark; Kiefer, Joe; Boakye, Isaac; Arhinn, Bernard; Crookston, Benjamin T; Ansong, Daniel

    2013-03-01

    Site-specific information about local water sources is an important part of a community-driven effort to improve environmental conditions. The purpose of this assessment was to gather this information for residents of rural villages in Ghana. Sanitary surveys and bacteriological testing for total coliforms and Escherichia coli (EC) using Colilert(®) were conducted at nearly 80 water sources serving eight villages. A focus group was carried out to assess the desirability and perceived quality of water sources. Standpipes accounted for almost half of the available water sources; however, a third of them were not functioning at the time of the survey. EC bacteria were found in the majority of shallow wells (80%), rivers (67%), and standpipes (61%), as well as 28% of dug wells. Boreholes were free of EC. Residents felt that the standpipes and boreholes produced safe drinking water. Intermittent service and poor water quality from the piped supply has led to limited access to drinking water. The perception of residents, that the water from standpipes is clean and does not need to be treated at home, is particularly troubling in light of the poor bacteriological quality of water from the standpipes.

  4. Dispatchability Maximization for Co-Optimized Energy and Reserve Dispatch With Explicit Reliability Guarantee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei, Wei; Wang, Jianhui; Mei, Shengwei

    2016-09-23

    In this paper, we consider dispatchability as the set of all admissible nodal wind power injections that will not cause infeasibility in real-time dispatch (RTD). Our work reveals that the dispatchability of the affine policy based RTD (AF-RTD) is a polytope whose coefficients are linear functions of the generation schedule and the gain matrix of affine policy. Two mathematical formulations of the dispatchability maximized energy and reserve dispatch (DM-ERD) are proposed. The first one maximizes the distance from the forecast to the boundaries of the dispatchability polytope subject to the available production cost or reserve cost. Provided the forecast value and variance of wind power, the generalized Gauss inequality (GGI) is adopted to evaluate the probability of infeasible RTD without the exact probability distribution of wind power. Combining the first formulation and the GGI approach, the second one minimizes the total cost subject to a desired reliability level through dispatchability maximization. Efficient convex optimization based algorithms are developed to solve these two models. Different from the conventional robust optimization method, our model does not rely on the specific uncertainty set of wind generation and directly optimizes the uncertainty accommodation capability of the power system. The proposed method is also compared with the affine policy based robust energy and reserve dispatch (AR-ERD). Case studies on the PJM 5-bus system illustrate the proposed concept and method. Experiments on the IEEE 118-bus system demonstrate the applicability of our method on moderate sized systems and its scalability to large dimensional uncertainty.

  5. Designing and Testing Energy Harvesters Suitable for Renewable Power Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Synkiewicz, B.; Guzdek, P.; Piekarski, J.; Zaraska, K.

    2016-01-01

    Energy harvesters convert waste power (heat, light and vibration) directly to electric power . Fast progress in their technology, design and areas of application (e.g. “Internet of Things”) has been observed recently. Their effectiveness is steadily growing which makes their application to powering sensor networks with wireless data transfer reasonable. The main advantage is the independence from wired power sources, which is especially important for monitoring state of environmental parameters. In this paper we describe the design and realization of a gas sensor monitoring CO level (powered by TEG) and two, designed an constructed in ITE, autonomous power supply modules powered by modern photovoltaic cells.

  6. Polyolephine waste recycling as source of power energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tisovski Štefan

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Polyolephine waste (polyetilene, polypropilene is the main source of environmental pollution. Depolymerization of waste in reactor under atmospheric pressure yields hydrocarbon mixture C1-C34. In turn, combustion of C1-C7 fraction provides reactor temperature regime. The plant is automated and energetically highly efficient. Small electric power is required for operating the plant. The waste originating from depolymerazation does not pollute the environment. Fraction C7-C34 not only serves for commercial purposes but also as a power energy provider within the waste deploymerization plant.

  7. Radiant Energy Power Source for Jet Aircraft. Final performance report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doellner, O.L.

    1992-02-01

    This report beings with a historical overview on the origin and early beginnings of Radiant Energy Power Source for Jet Aircraft. The report reviews the work done in Phase I (Grant DE-FG01-82CE-15144) and then gives a discussion of Phase II (Grant DE-FG01-86CE-15301). Included is a reasonably detailed discussion of photovoltaic cells and the research and development needed in this area. The report closes with a historical perspective and summary related to situations historically encountered on projects of this nature. 15 refs.

  8. Fiscal Policy for Renewable Energy Sources and Its Economic Impact

    OpenAIRE

    Rita Helbra Tenrini; Sidiq Suryo Nugroho

    2014-01-01

    Indonesia is the largest producers of palm oil. Along with the increasing demand for renewable energy source, palm oil will turn to be a very important commodity in the future. The palm oil industry will gain more value-added if they export the commodities in processed materials rather than raw materials. On the other hands palm oil industry more likely to export raw material, because there’s no incentives for them to export processed materials. Therefore, to give an incentive to palm oil ind...

  9. On the physics of power, energy and economics of renewable electric energy sources - Part II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skoglund, Annika [Dep. of Industrial Economics, Royal Institute of Technology, Lindstedts vaeg 30, 100 44 Stockholm (Sweden); Leijon, Mats; Waters, Rafael [Div. of Electricity, Swedish Centre for Renewable Electric Energy Conversion, Uppsala University, Aangstroem 751 21 Uppsala (Sweden); Rehn, Alf [Dep. of Business Administration, Aabo Akademi University, Henriksgatan 7FIN-20500 Aabo (Finland); Lindahl, Marcus [Div. of Industrial Management, Uppsala University, Aangstroem 751 21 Uppsala (Sweden)

    2010-08-15

    Renewable Energy Technologies (RETs) are often recognized as less competitive than traditional electric energy conversion systems. Obstacles with renewable electric energy conversion systems are often referred to the intermittency of the energy sources and the relatively high maintenance cost. However, due to an intensified discourse on climate change and its effects, it has from a societal point of view, become more desirable to adopt and install CO{sub 2} neutral power plants. Even if this has increased the competitiveness of RETs in a political sense, the new goals for RET installations must also be met with economical viability. We propose that the direction of technical development, as well as the chosen technology in new installations, should not primarily be determined by policies, but by the basic physical properties of the energy source and the associated potential for inexpensive energy production. This potential is the basic entity that drives the payback of the investment of a specific RET power plant. With regard to this, we argue that the total electric energy conversion system must be considered if effective power production is to be achieved, with focus on the possible number of full loading hours and the Degree of Utilization. This will increase the cost efficiency and economical competitiveness of RET investments, and could enhance faster diffusion of new innovations and installations without over-optimistic subsidies. This paper elaborates on the overall problem of the economy of renewable electric energy conversion systems by studying the interface between physics, engineering and economy reported for RET power plants in different scientific publications. The core objective is to show the practical use of the Degree of Utilization and how the concept is crucial for the design and economical optimization disregarding subsidies. The results clearly indicate that the future political regulative frameworks should consider the choice of renewable

  10. Electrochemical Energy Storage and Power Sources for NASA Exploration Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Richard S.

    2007-01-01

    An overview of NASA s electrochemical energy storage programs for NASA Exploration missions is being presented at the 10th Electrochemical Power Sources R&D Symposium, which is being held in Williamsburg, VA on August 20-23, 2007. This public domain venue, which is sponsored by the U.S. Navy and held every two years, serves as a forum for the dissemination of research and development results related to electrochemical energy storage technology programs that are currently being supported and managed within governmental agencies. Technology areas of primary interest include batteries, fuel cells, and both overview and focused presentations on such are given by both governmental and contractual researchers. The forum also provides an opportunity to assess technology areas of mutual interest with respect to establishing collaborative and/or complementary programmatic interactions.

  11. Stochastic Optimal Scheduling of Residential Appliances with Renewable Energy Sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Hongyu; Pratt, Annabelle; Chakraborty, Sudipta

    2015-07-03

    This paper proposes a stochastic, multi-objective optimization model within a Model Predictive Control (MPC) framework, to determine the optimal operational schedules of residential appliances operating in the presence of renewable energy source (RES). The objective function minimizes the weighted sum of discomfort, energy cost, total and peak electricity consumption, and carbon footprint. A heuristic method is developed for combining different objective components. The proposed stochastic model utilizes Monte Carlo simulation (MCS) for representing uncertainties in electricity price, outdoor temperature, RES generation, water usage, and non-controllable loads. The proposed model is solved using a mixed integer linear programming (MILP) solver and numerical results show the validity of the model. Case studies show the benefit of using the proposed optimization model.

  12. Cogenerational sources of energies and their allocating problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Badida Miroslav

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available Energy production in industrial communities consume a main part of primary raw materials and it is one of the sources of ecologicall impact. Electric power plants and warm produce plants are mostly important investment – consuming establishments with a long time of return, what stress along with the economical, predictional, logistical and environmental decision making aspect of their allocating. Already input of the mentioned aspects along with the price movement after the energy depression motivate a formation of new conception of combinated so-called items, which are able to use the energetic potential of fuels with a higher concurrent efficiency and, on the other hand, can reduce ecologic impacts of fossil combustion.

  13. Vision for cross-layer optimization to address the dual challenges of energy and reliability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quinn, Heather M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Dehon, Andre [U. PENN; Carter, Nicholas P [INTEL

    2009-01-01

    We are rapidly approaching an inflection point where the conventional target of producing perfect, identical transistors that operate without upset can no longer be maintained while continuing to reduce the energy per operation. With power requirements already limiting chip performance, continuing to demand perfect, upset-free transistors would mean the end of scaling benefits. The big challenges in device variability and reliability are driven by uncommon tails in distributions, infrequent upsets, one-size-fits-all technology requirements, and a lack of information about the context of each operation. Solutions co-designed across traditional layer boundaries in our system stack can change the game, allowing architecture and software (a) to compensate for uncommon variation, environments, and events, (b) to pass down invariants and requirements for the computation, and (c) to monitor the health of collections of deVices. Cross-layer codesign provides a path to continue extracting benefits from further scaled technologies despite the fact that they may be less predictable and more variable. While some limited multi-layer mitigation strategies do exist, to move forward redefining traditional layer abstractions and developing a framework that facilitates cross-layer collaboration is necessary.

  14. Energy Constrained Reliable Routing Optimized Cluster Head Protocol for Multihop under Water Acoustic Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Padmavathy.T.V

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Underwater acoustic sensor network is an emerging technique consisting of sensor nodes, and AUVs all working together to sense various phenomenon, converts the sensed information into digital data, storethe digital data and communicate to the base stations through the intermediate nodes. Also UnderwaterAcoustic Sensor Networks are playing a main role in ocean applications. Unfortunately the efficiency of underwater Acoustic Sensor Networks is inferior to that of terrestrial sensor networks due to the longpropagation delay, narrow bandwidth and high error rates. Also battery life and storage capacity of node is limited. Many routing protocols are proposed to improve the efficiency of Under Water Acoustic Sensor Networks. However their improvement is not enough, so there is a need of suitable routing protocol that consider all these limitations and makes communication in underwater network viable. In this paper, we propose a protocol called Reliable Routing Optimized Cluster Head (RROCH protocol, a network coding approach for multihop topologies. We used performance metrics like packet delivery ratio, energy consumption, end-to-end delay and throughput of sensor nodes. LEACH, HMR-LEACH, LEACH-M are compared for their performance at different traffic conditions, number of nodes and depth. By analyzing our simulation results we found that RROCH protocol may be used for denser network with low traffic and HMR- LEACH protocol is suitable for higher traffic with less number of nodes.

  15. Optimization of Automatic Train Control for Energy Management and Service Reliability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Susanna P. Gordon; Richard M. Wheeler; Timothy J. Sa; Donald A. Sheaffer

    1999-11-01

    A new generation of automatic train control systems is currently under development in the commuter-rail transit industry. These systems will utilize radio communication between wayside control computers and trains in order to provide high precision train control beyond the capability of today's automatic systems. The Bay Area Rapid Transit (BART) system is developing such a modern control system in collaboration with Harmon Industries. This system, called the Advanced Automatic Train Control (AATC) system, will allow for precision train locating and control, and will facilitate coordination of the trajectories of multiple trains. This system will be capable of running trains more closely together and decreasing the time a train requires to traverse the system, while simultaneously operating with a more modest traction power infrastructure, and providing a smoother, more comfortable ride to commuters. The authors have collaborated with BART to develop a simulator of the AATC system and the traction power system, and they have utilized this simulator as a testbed for the development of advanced train control techniques. Several train control algorithms, including one employing a neural network for train voltage prediction, have been developed and tested in the simulator. Smoother train trajectories, reduced power infrastructure requirements, and reduced energy consumption have been demonstrated. Improved service reliability is also expected to result.

  16. Reliability of vibration energy harvesters of metal-based PZT thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsujiura, Y.; Suwa, E.; Kurokawa, F.; Hida, H.; Kanno, I.

    2014-11-01

    This paper describes the reliability of piezoelectric vibration energy harvesters (PVEHs) of Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 (PZT) thin films on metal foil cantilevers. The PZT thin films were directly deposited onto the Pt-coated stainless-steel (SS430) cantilevers by rf-magnetron sputtering, and we observed their aging behavior of power generation characteristics under the resonance vibration condition for three days. During the aging measurement, there was neither fatigue failure nor degradation of dielectric properties in our PVEHs (length: 13 mm, width: 5.0 mm, thickness: 104 μm) even under a large excitation acceleration of 25 m/s2. However, we observed clear degradation of the generated electric voltage depending on excitation acceleration. The decay rate of the output voltage was 5% from the start of the measurement at 25 m/s2. The transverse piezoelectric coefficient (e31,f) also degraded with almost the same decay rate as that of the output voltage; this indicates that the degradation of output voltage was mainly caused by that of piezoelectric properties. From the decay curves, the output powers are estimated to degrade 7% at 15 m/s2 and 36% at 25 m/s2 if we continue to excite the PVEHs for 30 years.

  17. BIOMASS UTILIZATION AS A RENEVABLE ENERGY SOURCE IN POLISH POWER INDUSTRY – CURRENT STATUS AND PERSPECTIVES

    OpenAIRE

    Beata Gołuchowska; Jarosław Sławiński; Grzegorz Markowski

    2015-01-01

    The depletion of the conventional energy sources, as well as the degradation and pollution of the environment by the exploitation of fossil fuels caused the development of renewable energy sources (RES), including biomass. In Poland, biomass is the most popular renewable energy source, which is closely related to the obligations associated with the membership in the EU. Biomass is the oldest renewable energy source, and its potential, diversity and polymorphism place it over other sources. Be...

  18. Energy scaling of terahertz-wave parametric sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Guanqi; Cong, Zhenhua; Qin, Zengguang; Zhang, Xingyu; Wang, Weitao; Wu, Dong; Li, Ning; Fu, Qiang; Lu, Qingming; Zhang, Shaojun

    2015-02-23

    Terahertz-wave parametric oscillators (TPOs) have advantages of room temperature operation, wide tunable range, narrow line-width, good coherence. They have also disadvantage of small pulse energy. In this paper, several factors preventing TPOs from generating high-energy THz pulses and the corresponding solutions are analyzed. A scheme to generate high-energy THz pulses by using the combination of a TPO and a Stokes-pulse-injected terahertz-wave parametric generator (spi-TPG) is proposed and demonstrated. A TPO is used as a source to generate a seed pulse for the surface-emitted spi-TPG. The time delay between the pump and Stokes pulses is adjusted to guarantee they have good temporal overlap. The pump pulses have a large pulse energy and a large beam size. The Stokes beam is enlarged to make its size be larger than the pump beam size to have a large effective interaction volume. The experimental results show that the generated THz pulse energy from the spi-TPG is 1.8 times as large as that obtained from the TPO for the same pumping pulse energy density of 0.90 J/cm(2) and the same pumping beam size of 3.0 mm. When the pumping beam sizes are 5.0 and 7.0 mm, the enhancement times are 3.7 and 7.5, respectively. The spi-TPG here is similar to a difference frequency generator; it can also be used as a Stokes pulse amplifier.

  19. The Optimal Use of Renewable Energy Sources-The Case of Lemnos Island

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koroneos, C.; Xydis, George; Polyzakis, A.

    2012-01-01

    energy needs from Renewable Energy Sources taking into consideration a multiplicity of criteria such as environmental impacts, energy demand, energy cost, and resources availability. A series of solutions have resulted, based on deterministic model runs, providing decision makers the flexibility...

  20. Wind energy Computerized Maintenance Management System (CMMS) : data collection recommendations for reliability analysis.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, Valerie A.; Ogilvie, Alistair; Veers, Paul S.

    2009-09-01

    This report addresses the general data requirements for reliability analysis of fielded wind turbines and other wind plant equipment. The report provides a list of the data needed to support reliability and availability analysis, and gives specific recommendations for a Computerized Maintenance Management System (CMMS) to support automated analysis. This data collection recommendations report was written by Sandia National Laboratories to address the general data requirements for reliability analysis of fielded wind turbines. This report is intended to help the reader develop a basic understanding of what data are needed from a Computerized Maintenance Management System (CMMS) and other data systems, for reliability analysis. The report provides: (1) a list of the data needed to support reliability and availability analysis; and (2) specific recommendations for a CMMS to support automated analysis. Though written for reliability analysis of wind turbines, much of the information is applicable to a wider variety of equipment and a wider variety of analysis and reporting needs.

  1. Renewable energy sources at decisive turning; Le energie rinnovabili a una svolta decisiva

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riboldi, S.

    2000-11-01

    The renewable energy sources will be very important for planetary environmental emergency and for technological evolution. [Italian] Marginali da molti anni, le rinnovabili diverranno di primaria importanza grazie all'emergenza ambientale planetaria e all'evoluzione tecnologica. Siamo giunti finalmente a una vera svolta epocale?.

  2. Representation of variable renewable energy sources in TIMER, an aggregated energy system simulation model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, Harmen Sytze (H S.).; van Vuuren, Detlef (D P.).|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/11522016X

    2017-01-01

    The power system is expected to play an important role in climate change mitigation. Variable renewable energy (VRE) sources, such as wind and solar power, are currently showing rapid growth rates in power systems worldwide, and could also be important in future mitigation strategies. It is

  3. DILEMMAS OF FINANCIAL REPORTING AS THE RELIABLE INFORMATION SOURCE OF AN ENTITY PERFORMANCE RESULTS

    OpenAIRE

    Joanna Zuchewicz

    2012-01-01

    The objective of the hereby paper is to indicate, on the one hand, the need for transformations in financial reporting as the basic source of information about the financial situation of an economic entity indispensable in the decision making process by its users, and on the other to provide the analysis of the adopted report-ing reconstruction directions validity, as suggested by international financial community. On the basis of comments and reservations presented by practitioners and the a...

  4. Renewable energy sources: resistance to change; Energies renouvelables: les resistances au changement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dubreuil, Th.; Audrain-Demey, G.; Attal, J.Ph.; Lormeteau, B. [Nantes Univ., Droit de l' Environnement et du Developpement Durable, 44 (France)

    2011-10-15

    This paper is the summary of a conference day organised by the students of the 'environment and sustainable development law' Master of Nantes university (France). This interdisciplinary meeting brought together professionals of renewable energy industries who could testify about the resistance of both politicians and the public opinion against the energy transition towards renewable sources. Legal, political, sociological and cultural considerations are put forward to explain this resistance. The French specificity, with an over-representation of nuclear energy, a constraining legal framework for renewable energies, a regional opposition to renewable energy projects (NIMBY syndrome), and a lack of trust in the political class and in its representatives are as many factors that have contributed to build this French 'cultural exception'. (J.S.)

  5. Experimental investigation of jojoba as a renewable energy source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Widyan, Mohamad I. [Mechanical Engineering Department, Jordan University of Science and Technology, PO Box 3030, Irbid 22110 (Jordan); Al-Muhtaseb, Mu' taz A. [Mechanical Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, University of Jordan, PO Box 961060, Amman 11196 (Jordan)

    2010-08-15

    This work examined jojoba (oil and cake) as possible alternative fuel sources. Jojoba is a shrub that grows very well in deserts and its cake is the solid part produced upon processing of the jojoba seeds for oil extraction. In this study, pure jojoba oil and 50/50 blends with diesel fuel were tested as fuels in a single cylinder diesel engine. The diesel fuel was the baseline of comparison throughout the runs. The cake was tested for both direct combustion (pellets) and as a substrate for biogas production. The pellets were formed by compacting the cake in cylindrical dies using a hydraulic press while the biogasification was conducted in an anaerobic digester model Bioflo 110 from Brunswick. The findings indicate that the optimum injection pressure for jojoba oil in the engine is 210 bars at which engine speed was maximum (2700 rpm), NO{sub x} and CO emissions as well as exhaust temperature were minimum. Using jojoba cake for biogasification resulted in a yield of about 600 ml biogas per 400 g of jojoba cake. Burning jojoba compacted cake (pellets) for direct combustion in a stove indicated that jojoba cake sustained a temperature in excess of 300 C for a reasonable amount of time and that the cake was very competitive to wood and has energy content more than most types of wood. Overall, it may be stated that both jojoba oil and cake hold real promise as alternative energy sources. (author)

  6. Reliability and Energy Loss in Full-scale Wind Power Converter Considering Grid Codes and Wind Classes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Dao; Blaabjerg, Frede; Franke, Toke

    2014-01-01

    power converter is studied considering the grid code with reactive power production as well as the annual wind profile. Regarding the reliability, it is found that either the Over-Excited (OE) or the Under-Excited (UE) reactive power injection threatens the lifespan under all wind classes. Meanwhile......, if the specific designed wind turbine system operates at different wind classes, it can be seen that higher wind class level results in lower lifetime of the power converter. In respect to the cost of the reactive power, either the OE or the UE reactive power increases the energy loss per year significantly......With the increasing penetration of the wind power, reliable operation and cost-effective wind energy production are of more and more importance. As one of the promising configurations, the cost on reliability and production losses of permanent-magnet synchronous generator based full-scale wind...

  7. The Use of Energy in Malaysia: Tracing Energy Flows from Primary Source to End Use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chinhao Chong

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Malaysia is a rapidly developing country in Southeast Asia that aims to achieve high-income country status by 2020; its economic growth is highly dependent on its abundant energy resources, especially natural gas and crude oil. In this paper, a complete picture of Malaysia’s energy use from primary source to end use is presented by mapping a Sankey diagram of Malaysia’s energy flows, together with ongoing trends analysis of the main factors influencing the energy flows. The results indicate that Malaysia’s energy use depends heavily on fossil fuels, including oil, gas and coal. In the past 30 years, Malaysia has successfully diversified its energy structure by introducing more natural gas and coal into its power generation. To sustainably feed the rapidly growing energy demand in end-use sectors with the challenge of global climate change, Malaysia must pay more attention to the development of renewable energy, green technology and energy conservation in the future.

  8. Deep coal seams as a greener energy source: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranathunga, A. S.; Perera, M. S. A.; Ranjith, P. G.

    2014-12-01

    Today, coal and oil are the main energy sources used in the world. However, these sources will last for only a few decades. Hence, the investigation of possible energy sources to meet this crisis has become a crucial task. Coal bed methane (CBM) is a potential energy source which can be used to fulfil the energy demand. Since the amount of carbon dioxide (CO2) emitted to the atmosphere from the use of CBM is comparatively very low compared to conventional energy sources, it is also a potential mitigation option for global warming. This paper reviews CBM recovery techniques with particular emphasis on CO2-enhanced coal bed methane (CO2-ECBM) recovery. The paper reviews (1) conventional CBM recovery techniques and problems associated with them, (2) CBM production-enhancement methods, including hydro-fracturing and enhanced CBM recovery techniques, such as N2-ECBM and CO2-ECBM, (3) the importance of the CO2-ECBM technique compared to other methods and problems with it, (4) the effect of CO2 injection during the CO2-ECBM process on coal seam permeability and strength and (5) current CO2-ECBM field projects and their progress. Although conventional CBM recovery methods are simple (basically related to the drawdown of the reservoir pressure to release methane from it), they are inefficient for the recovery of a commercially viable amount of methane from coal seams. Therefore, to enhance methane production, several methods are used, such as hydro-fracturing and ECBM (N2-ECBM and CO2-ECBM). The CO2-ECBM process has a number of advantages compared to other methane recovery techniques, as it contributes to the mitigation of the atmospheric CO2 level, is safer and more economical. However, as a result of CO2 injection into the coal seam during the CO2-ECBM process, coal mass permeability and strength may be crucially changed, due to the coal matrix swelling associated with CO2 adsorption into the coal matrix. Both injecting CO2 properties (gas type, CO2 phase and pressure

  9. MESMER: an open-source master equation solver for multi-energy well reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glowacki, David R; Liang, Chi-Hsiu; Morley, Christopher; Pilling, Michael J; Robertson, Struan H

    2012-09-27

    The most commonly used theoretical models for describing chemical kinetics are accurate in two limits. When relaxation is fast with respect to reaction time scales, thermal transition state theory (TST) is the theoretical tool of choice. In the limit of slow relaxation, an energy resolved description like RRKM theory is more appropriate. For intermediate relaxation regimes, where much of the chemistry in nature occurs, theoretical approaches are somewhat less well established. However, in recent years master equation approaches have been successfully used to analyze and predict nonequilibrium chemical kinetics across a range of intermediate relaxation regimes spanning atmospheric, combustion, and (very recently) solution phase organic chemistry. In this article, we describe a Master Equation Solver for Multi-Energy Well Reactions (MESMER), a user-friendly, object-oriented, open-source code designed to facilitate kinetic simulations over multi-well molecular energy topologies where energy transfer with an external bath impacts phenomenological kinetics. MESMER offers users a range of user options specified via keywords and also includes some unique statistical mechanics approaches like contracted basis set methods and nonadiabatic RRKM theory for modeling spin-hopping. It is our hope that the design principles implemented in MESMER will facilitate its development and usage by workers across a range of fields concerned with chemical kinetics. As accurate thermodynamics data become more widely available, electronic structure theory is increasingly reliable, and as our fundamental understanding of energy transfer improves, we envision that tools like MESMER will eventually enable routine and reliable prediction of nonequilibrium kinetics in arbitrary systems.

  10. Accounting Methodology for Source Energy of Non-Combustible Renewable Electricity Generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donohoo-Vallett, Paul [US Department of Energy, Washington, DC (United States)

    2016-10-01

    As non-combustible sources of renewable power (wind, solar, hydro, and geothermal) do not consume fuel, the “source” (or “primary”) energy from these sources cannot be accounted for in the same manner as it is for fossil fuel sources. The methodology chosen for these technologies is important as it affects the perception of the relative size of renewable source energy to fossil energy, affects estimates of source-based building energy use, and overall source energy based metrics such as energy productivity. This memo reviews the methodological choices, outlines implications of each choice, summarizes responses to a request for information on this topic, and presents guiding principles for the U.S. Department of Energy, (DOE) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) to use to determine where modifying the current renewable source energy accounting method used in EERE products and analyses would be appropriate to address the issues raised above.

  11. Development of a low energy ion source with multicapillary anode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Soichi; Okamoto, Akio; Takiguchi, Katsumi; Yoshitake, Masaaki; Nosaka, Toshikazu; Fukui, Shigeo; Ueno, Tsutomu

    1989-02-01

    A new type of hot cathode ion source which has a multicapillary anode and a discharge stabilizer electrode has been developed. There are two special features in this ion source. The gaseous flow is intense and of the collimated beam type, because it is introduced through the multicapillary anode. A high ion current density ( > 5 mA/cm 2) can be obtained because discharge in high vacuum can continue with the help of the stabilizer electrode. At a stabilizer voltage ( Vs) of 50 V, ion current densities of 2.2 and 6.1 mA/cm 2 were obtained at acceleration voltages ( Vacc) of 20 and 200 V, respectively. The ion energy was dependent on Vd, and the full width at half maximum (FWHM) of its distribution was less than 15 eV. Cu films were etched by this ion source. The etching rate ( Er) was 150 Å/min at Vacc = 100 V. The relationship between the etching rate and Vacc was represented by Er ∝ ( Vacc) α. The values of α were 2.0 in the region of Vacc ≤ 100 V and 1.0 for Vacc ≥ 100 V.

  12. Biologically Produced Methane as a Renewable Energy Source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, D E; Smith, J A

    2016-01-01

    Methanogens are a unique group of strictly anaerobic archaea that are more metabolically diverse than previously thought. Traditionally, it was thought that methanogens could only generate methane by coupling the oxidation of products formed by fermentative bacteria with the reduction of CO2. However, it has recently been observed that many methanogens can also use electrons extruded from metal-respiring bacteria, biocathodes, or insoluble electron shuttles as energy sources. Methanogens are found in both human-made and natural environments and are responsible for the production of ∼71% of the global atmospheric methane. Their habitats range from the human digestive tract to hydrothermal vents. Although biologically produced methane can negatively impact the environment if released into the atmosphere, when captured, it can serve as a potent fuel source. The anaerobic digestion of wastes such as animal manure, human sewage, or food waste produces biogas which is composed of ∼60% methane. Methane from biogas can be cleaned to yield purified methane (biomethane) that can be readily incorporated into natural gas pipelines making it a promising renewable energy source. Conventional anaerobic digestion is limited by long retention times, low organics removal efficiencies, and low biogas production rates. Therefore, many studies are being conducted to improve the anaerobic digestion process. Researchers have found that addition of conductive materials and/or electrically active cathodes to anaerobic digesters can stimulate the digestion process and increase methane content of biogas. It is hoped that optimization of anaerobic digesters will make biogas more readily accessible to the average person. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Validity and reliability of measuring activities, movement intensity and energy expenditure with the DynaPort MoveMonitor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Groot, Sonja; Nieuwenhuizen, Mieke G.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the validity and reliability of assessing activities, movement intensity (MI) and energy expenditure (EE) measured by accelerometry. 28 Able-bodied participants performed standardized tasks while an accelerometer was worn and oxygen uptake was measured. Afte

  14. Reliable Adaptive Data Aggregation Route Strategy for a Trade-off between Energy and Lifetime in WSNs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenzhong Guo

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Mobile security is one of the most fundamental problems in Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs. The data transmission path will be compromised for some disabled nodes. To construct a secure and reliable network, designing an adaptive route strategy which optimizes energy consumption and network lifetime of the aggregation cost is of great importance. In this paper, we address the reliable data aggregation route problem for WSNs. Firstly, to ensure nodes work properly, we propose a data aggregation route algorithm which improves the energy efficiency in the WSN. The construction process achieved through discrete particle swarm optimization (DPSO saves node energy costs. Then, to balance the network load and establish a reliable network, an adaptive route algorithm with the minimal energy and the maximum lifetime is proposed. Since it is a non-linear constrained multi-objective optimization problem, in this paper we propose a DPSO with the multi-objective fitness function combined with the phenotype sharing function and penalty function to find available routes. Experimental results show that compared with other tree routing algorithms our algorithm can effectively reduce energy consumption and trade off energy consumption and network lifetime.

  15. BPS, energy efficiency and renewable energy sources for buildings greening and zero energy cities planning harmony and ethics of sustainability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Todorovic, Marija S. [University of Belgrade, Serbia and Southeast University (China)

    2011-07-01

    Traditional village houses now use renewable materials and energy sources and this paper presents the intrinsic harmony of these buildings' greening and their sustainability. The paper covers building technical systems, sustainable energy supply, and the importance of renewable raw materials (RMS) for sustainable development. This study investigated the role of building dynamic behavior and optimized energy efficiency in reducing thermal loads significantly. A preliminary design for sustainable energy efficient settlements with net zero energy buildings is proposed and a comprehensive multidisciplinary engineering study was done which identified the technical feasibility of sustainable village energy and water supplies using solar or wind technologies. Overall, through analysis of sustainability definitions and possible ways to achieve sustainability, the study demonstrated that this can only be brought about by interdisciplinary interaction and finding the right balance between materiality and spirituality, science and art, and between technological development and concern for cultural and other human values.

  16. Low energy ion beam dynamics of NANOGAN ECR ion source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Sarvesh, E-mail: sarvesh@iuac.res.in; Mandal, A.

    2016-04-01

    A new low energy ion beam facility (LEIBF) has been developed for providing the mass analyzed highly charged intense ion beams of energy ranging from a few tens of keV to a few MeV for atomic, molecular and materials sciences research. The new facility consists of an all permanent magnet 10 GHz electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source (NANOGAN) installed on a high voltage platform (400 kV) which provides large currents of multiply charged ion beams. Higher emittance at low energy of intense ion beam puts a tremendous challenge to the beam optical design of this facility. The beam line consists of mainly the electrostatic quadrupoles, an accelerating section, analyzing cum switching magnet and suitable beam diagnostics including vacuum components. The accelerated ion beam is analyzed for a particular mass to charge (m/q) ratio as well as guided to three different lines along 75°, 90° and 105° using a large acceptance analyzing cum switching magnet. The details of transverse beam optics to all the beam lines with TRANSPORT and GICOSY beam optics codes are being described. Field computation code, OPERA 3D has been utilized to design the magnets and electrostatic quadrupoles. A theoretical estimation of emittance for optimized geometry of ion source is given so as to form the basis of beam optics calculations. The method of quadrupole scan of the beam is used to characterize the emittance of the final beam on the target. The measured beam emittance increases with m/q ratios of various ion beams similar to the trend observed theoretically.

  17. Cerebral artery evaluation of dual energy CT angiography with dual source CT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Rui; LIU Cheng; DENG Kai; SONG Shao-juan; WANG Dao-ping; HUANG Ling

    2010-01-01

    Background Conventional computed tomography angiography (CTA) is time consuming, user-dependent and has poor image quality in skull base region. This study assessed the feasibility of a new method, dual energy CTA for depicting the cerebral artery.Methods Phantom scan was done with head CTA sequences on dual source CT and 64 spiral CT for radiation dose calculation. Dual energy CTA was done with dual source CT on 36 patients who were suspected of having cerebral vascular disease. Three series axial images in 0.75 mm thick, 0.4 mm increment were acquired, which were named with 80 kV, 140 kV and merged images; 80 kV and 140 kV images were transferred into dual energy software, and maximum intensity projection (MIP) image was generated quickly by dual energy bone remove (DEBR group); merged images were transferred into In Space software to acquire MIP image through manual conventional bone remove (CoBR group). Post processing time and reading time were compared. Image qualities of the two groups were compared, mainly focusing on skull base segments of internal carotid artery and bone subtraction. ANOVA and SNK tests were applied for radiation dose comparison. Student's t test and Wilcoxon rank sum test were applied for assessing differences between data for significance. Cohen's kappa was used for interobserver agreement. Results Radiation dose of phantom scan showed dual energy CTA was between digital bone subtraction and conventional CTA. The post processing time and reading time were much shorter in DEBR than CoBR, and image quality in skull base was much higher in DEBR than CoBR (P0.5). Interobserver agreement for all vessel segments was excellent (kappa=0.97). Conclusions Dual energy CTA is a reliable, new modality for depicting cerebral artery, overcoming the limitation of conventional CTA in the skull base region. It can save much time in post processing and reading than conventional CTA.

  18. The reliability of dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry measurements of bone mineral density in the metatarsals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuller, Joel T.; Buckley, Jonathan D.; Tsiros, Margarita D.; Thewlis, Dominic [University of South Australia, Alliance for Research in Exercise, Nutrition and Activity (ARENA), Sansom Institute for Health Research, GPO Box 2471, Adelaide, South Australia (Australia); Archer, Jane [University of South Australia, Medical Radiation, School of Health Sciences, Adelaide (Australia)

    2016-01-15

    To investigate the reliability of a simple, efficient technique for measuring bone mineral density (BMD) in the metatarsals using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). BMD of the right foot of 32 trained male distance runners was measured using a DXA scanner with the foot in the plantar position. Separate regions of interest (ROI) were used to assess the BMD of each metatarsal shaft (1st-5th) for each participant. ROI analysis was repeated by the same investigator to determine within-scan intra-rater reliability and by a different investigator to determine within-scan inter-rater reliability. Repeat DXA scans were undertaken for ten participants to assess between-scan intra-rater reliability. Assessment of BMD was consistently most reliable for the first metatarsal across all domains of reliability assessed (intra-class correlation coefficient [ICC] ≥0.97; coefficient of variation [CV] ≤1.5 %; limits of agreement [LOA] ≤4.2 %). Reasonable levels of intra-rater reliability were also achieved for the second and fifth metatarsals (ICC ≥0.90; CV ≤4.2 %; LOA ≤11.9 %). Poorer levels of reliability were demonstrated for the third (ICC ≥0.64; CV ≤8.2 %; LOA ≤23.6 %) and fourth metatarsals (ICC ≥0.67; CV ≤9.6 %; LOA ≤27.5 %). BMD was greatest in the first and second metatarsals (P < 0.01). Reliable measurements of BMD were achieved for the first, second and fifth metatarsals. (orig.)

  19. Quantification of Wave Model Uncertainties Used for Probabilistic Reliability Assessments of Wave Energy Converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ambühl, Simon; Kofoed, Jens Peter; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2015-01-01

    Wave models used for site assessments are subjected to model uncertainties, which need to be quantified when using wave model results for probabilistic reliability assessments. This paper focuses on determination of wave model uncertainties. Four different wave models are considered, and validation...... uncertainties can be implemented in probabilistic reliability assessments....

  20. Grass-cellulose as energy source for biological sulphate removal from acid mine effluents

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Greben, HA

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The biological sulphate removal technology requires carbon and energy sources to reduce sulphate to sulphide. Plant biomass, e.g. grass, is a sustainable source of energy when cellulose is utilised during anaerobic degradation, producing volatile...

  1. Improved design of proton source and low energy beam transport line for European Spallation Source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neri, L., E-mail: neri@lns.infn.it; Celona, L.; Gammino, S.; Mascali, D.; Castro, G.; Ciavola, G. [Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Via S. Sofia 62, 95123 Catania (Italy); Torrisi, G. [Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Via S. Sofia 62, 95123 Catania (Italy); Dipartimento di Ingegneria dell’Informazione, delle Infrastrutture e dell’Energia Sostenibile, Università Mediterranea di Reggio Calabria, Via Graziella, 89122 Reggio Calabria (Italy); Cheymol, B.; Ponton, A. [European Spallation Source ESS AB, Lund (Sweden); Galatà, A. [Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Viale dell' università 2, 35020 Legnaro (Italy); Patti, G. [Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Via S. Sofia 62, 95123 Catania (Italy); Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Viale dell' università 2, 35020 Legnaro (Italy); Gozzo, A.; Lega, L. [Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Via S. Sofia 62, 95123 Catania (Italy); Dipartimento di Ingegneria Informatica e delle Telecomunicazioni, Università degli Studi di Catania, Viale Andrea Doria 6, 95123 Catania (Italy)

    2014-02-15

    The design update of the European Spallation Source (ESS) accelerator is almost complete and the construction of the prototype of the microwave discharge ion source able to provide a proton beam current larger than 70 mA to the 3.6 MeV Radio Frequency Quadrupole (RFQ) started. The source named PS-ESS (Proton Source for ESS) was designed with a flexible magnetic system and an extraction system able to merge conservative solutions with significant advances. The ESS injector has taken advantage of recent theoretical updates and new plasma diagnostics tools developed at INFN-LNS (Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare). The design strategy considers the PS-ESS and the low energy beam transport line as a whole, where the proton beam behaves like an almost neutralized non-thermalized plasma. Innovative solutions have been used as hereinafter described. Thermo-mechanical optimization has been performed to withstand the chopped beam and the misaligned focused beam over the RFQ input collimator; the results are reported here.

  2. Improved design of proton source and low energy beam transport line for European Spallation Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neri, L.; Celona, L.; Gammino, S.; Mascali, D.; Castro, G.; Torrisi, G.; Cheymol, B.; Ponton, A.; Galatà, A.; Patti, G.; Gozzo, A.; Lega, L.; Ciavola, G.

    2014-02-01

    The design update of the European Spallation Source (ESS) accelerator is almost complete and the construction of the prototype of the microwave discharge ion source able to provide a proton beam current larger than 70 mA to the 3.6 MeV Radio Frequency Quadrupole (RFQ) started. The source named PS-ESS (Proton Source for ESS) was designed with a flexible magnetic system and an extraction system able to merge conservative solutions with significant advances. The ESS injector has taken advantage of recent theoretical updates and new plasma diagnostics tools developed at INFN-LNS (Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare). The design strategy considers the PS-ESS and the low energy beam transport line as a whole, where the proton beam behaves like an almost neutralized non-thermalized plasma. Innovative solutions have been used as hereinafter described. Thermo-mechanical optimization has been performed to withstand the chopped beam and the misaligned focused beam over the RFQ input collimator; the results are reported here.

  3. Detecting Tsunami Source Energy and Scales from GNSS & Laboratory Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Y. T.; Yim, S. C.; Mohtat, A.

    2016-12-01

    Historically, tsunami warnings based on the earthquake magnitude have not been very accurate. According to the 2006 U.S. Government Accountability Office report, an unacceptable 75% false alarm rate has prevailed in the Pacific Ocean (GAO-06-519). One of the main reasons for those inaccurate warnings is that an earthquake's magnitude is not the scale or power of the resulting tsunami. For the last 10 years, we have been developing both theories and algorithms to detect tsunami source energy and scales, instead of earthquake magnitudes per se, directly from real-time Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) stations along coastlines for early warnings [Song 2007; Song et al., 2008; Song et al., 2012; Xu and Song 2013; Titov et al, 2016]. Here we will report recent progress on two fronts: 1) Examples of using GNSS in detecting the tsunami energy scales for the 2004 Sumatra M9.1 earthquake, the 2005 Nias M8.7 earthquake, the 2010 M8.8 Chilean earthquake, the 2011 M9.0 Tohoku-Oki earthquake, and the 2015 M8.3 Illapel earthquake. 2) New results from recent state-of-the-art wave-maker experiments and comparisons with GNSS data will also be presented. Related reference: Titov, V., Y. T. Song, L. Tang, E. N. Bernard, Y. Bar-Sever, and Y. Wei (2016), Consistent estimates of tsunami energy show promise for improved early warning, Pur Appl. Geophs., DOI: 10.1007/s00024-016-1312-1. Xu, Z. and Y. T. Song (2013), Combining the all-source Green's functions and the GPS-derived source for fast tsunami prediction - illustrated by the March 2011 Japan tsunami, J. Atmos. Oceanic Tech., jtechD1200201. Song, Y. T., I. Fukumori, C. K. Shum, and Y. Yi (2012), Merging tsunamis of the 2011 Tohoku-Oki earthquake detected over the open ocean, Geophys. Res. Lett., doi:10.1029/2011GL050767. Song, Y. T., L.-L. Fu, V. Zlotnicki, C. Ji, V. Hjorleifsdottir, C.K. Shum, and Y. Yi, 2008: The role of horizontal impulses of the faulting continental slope in generating the 26 December 2004 Tsunami (2007

  4. High Energy Density Science at the Linac Coherent Light Source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, R W

    2007-10-19

    High energy density science (HEDS), as a discipline that has developed in the United States from National Nuclear Security Agency (NNSA)-sponsored laboratory research programs, is, and will remain, a major component of the NNSA science and technology strategy. Its scientific borders are not restricted to NNSA. 'Frontiers in High Energy Density Physics: The X-Games of Contemporary Science' identified numerous exciting scientific opportunities in this field, while pointing to the need for a overarching interagency plan for its evolution. Meanwhile, construction of the first x-ray free-electron laser, the Office-of-Science-funded Linear Coherent Light Source-LCLS: the world's first free electron x-ray laser, with 100-fsec time resolution, tunable x-ray energies, a high rep rate, and a 10 order-of-magnitude increase in brightness over any other x-ray source--led to the realization that the scientific needs of NNSA and the broader scientific community could be well served by an LCLS HEDS endstation employing both short-pulse and high-energy optical lasers. Development of this concept has been well received in the community. NNSA requested a workshop on the applicability of LCLS to its needs. 'High Energy Density Science at the LCLS: NNSA Defense Programs Mission Need' was held in December 2006. The workshop provided strong support for the relevance of the endstation to NNSA strategic requirements. The range of science that was addressed covered a wide swath of the vast HEDS phase space. The unique possibilities provided by the LCLS in areas of intense interest to NNSA Defense Programs were discussed. The areas of focus included warm dense matter and equations of state, hot dense matter, and behavior of high-pressure materials under conditions of high strain-rate and extreme dynamic loading. Development of new and advanced diagnostic techniques was also addressed. This report lays out the relevant science, as brief summaries (Ch. II), expanded

  5. Investigation the Annual Inflation Rate of Each Energy Source on Optimal Sizing of Distributed Energy Resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahram Fathi

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available This study presents an investigation of Inflation Rate of each Energy Source on the optimized design of Hybrid Power System (HPS in a distribution system including sources like, photovoltaic array, fuel cell and battery bank.In this research, an algorithm has been developed for evaluation and cost optimization HPS. The costs include capital cost, replacement cost, operation and maintenance cost, fuel cost and production cost for HPS and DG power during different load profile. Then an objective function with aim to minimizing of total costs has been considered. A genetic algorithm approach is employed to obtain the best cost value of HPS construction.

  6. Thorium as an energy source. Opportunities for Norway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2008-01-15

    Final Recommendations of the Thorium Report Committee: 1) No technology should be idolized or demonized. All carbon-dioxide (Co2) emission-free energy production technologies should be considered. The potential contribution of nuclear energy to a sustainable energy future should be recognized. 2) An investigation into the resources in the Fen Complex and other sites in Norway should be performed. It is essential to assess whether thorium in Norwegian rocks can be defined as an economical asset for the benefit of future generations. Furthermore, the application of new technologies for the extraction of thorium from the available mineral sources should be studied. 3) Testing of thorium fuel in the Halden Reactor should be encouraged, taking benefit of the well recognized nuclear fuel competence in Halden. 4) Norway should strengthen its participation in international collaborations by joining the EURATOM fission program and the GIF program on Generation IV reactors suitable for the use of thorium. 5) The development of an Accelerator Driven System (ADS) using thorium is not within the capability of Norway working alone. Joining the European effort in this field should be considered. Norwegian research groups should be encouraged to participate in relevant international projects, although these are currently focused on waste management. 6) Norway should bring its competence in waste management up to an international standard and collaboration with Sweden and Finland could be beneficial. 7) Norway should bring its competence with respect to dose assessment related to the thorium cycle up to an international standard. 8) Since the proliferation resistance of uranium-233 depends on the reactor and reprocessing technologies, this aspect will be of key concern should any thorium reactor be built in Norway. 9) Any new nuclear activities in Norway, e.g. thorium fuel cycles, would need strong international pooling of human resources, and in the case of thorium, a strong long

  7. Active Power Deficit Estimation in Presence of Renewable Energy Sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoseinzadeh, Bakhtyar; Silva, Filipe Miguel Faria da; Bak, Claus Leth

    2015-01-01

    following outage of SMs during cascading events. Therefore, the active power deficit following the disturbance/s may not be properly estimated by existing conventional System Frequency Response (SFR) methods in which the total inertia of the power system is required to be known. In this paper, the actual......The inertia of the power system is reduced in the presence of Renewable Energy Sources (RESs) due to their low or even no contribution in the inertial response as it is inherently available in the Synchronous Machines (SMs). The total inertia of the grid becomes unknown or at least uncertain...... active power deficit is estimated independent of grid inertia, type and number of occurred cascading events after each Load Shedding (LS) stage using shed load amount, pre-shed and post-shed Rate of Change of Frequency (ROCOF). Numerical simulations conducted on IEEE 39 bus standard test system in Dig...

  8. High-energy gamma-ray sources of cosmological origin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brun, Pierre; Cohen-Tanugi, Johann

    2016-06-01

    The current generation of instruments in gamma-ray astrophysics launched a new era in the search for a dark matter signal in the high-energy sky. Such searches are said indirect, in the sense that the presence of a dark matter particle is inferred from the detection of products of its pair-annihilation or decay. They have recently started to probe the natural domain of existence for weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs), the favorite dark matter candidates today. In this article, we review the basic framework for indirect searches and we present a status of current limits obtained with gamma-ray observations. We also devote a section to another possible class of cosmological gamma-ray sources, primordial black holes, also considered as a potential constituent of dark matter. xml:lang="fr"

  9. Hybrid Design of Electric Power Generation Systems Including Renewable Sources of Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lingfeng; Singh, Chanan

    2008-01-01

    With the stricter environmental regulations and diminishing fossil-fuel reserves, there is now higher emphasis on exploiting various renewable sources of energy. These alternative sources of energy are usually environmentally friendly and emit no pollutants. However, the capital investments for those renewable sources of energy are normally high,…

  10. 48 CFR 217.175 - Multiyear contracts for electricity from renewable energy sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... electricity from renewable energy sources. 217.175 Section 217.175 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... renewable energy sources. (a) The head of the contracting activity may enter into a contract for a period not to exceed 10 years for the purchase of electricity from sources of renewable energy, as that...

  11. Supplementation of grazing suckling beef calves receiving different energy sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josilaine Aparecida da Costa Lima

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of different energy sources - corn, sorghum, and wheat bran - on performance, intake, digestibility, and nitrogen utilization efficiency of beef calves subjected to creep feeding. Thirty-four calves (12 males and 22 females with initial age and weight of four months and 108±3.9 kg, respectively, were used in a randomized-block experimental design with four treatments and two blocks (males and females. Treatments were control (MM, a mineral mixture ad libitum; corn (C; corn + sorghum (C+S; and corn + sorghum + wheat bran (C+S+WB. Supplements contained approximately 20% crude protein (CP, and were fed in the amount of 0.5% of body weight. Supplemented animals had higher performance (P < 0.05 when compared with those on treatment MM. Supplementation increased (P < 0.05 the intakes of dry matter (DM, organic matter (OM, crude protein (CP, neutral detergent fiber corrected for ash and protein (NDFap, non-fibrous carbohydrates (NFC, digestible neutral detergent fiber (dNDF, and digestible organic matter (dOM. The digestibility of NFC was higher (P < 0.05 in the supplemented treatments. The C+S and C+S+WB treatments provided increased digestibility (P < 0.05 of OM, CP, and NDFap. The synthesis of nitrogen compounds was higher (P < 0.05 in animals on treatment C as compared with those on the other supplemented treatments. Animals on treatments C+S and C+S+WB had higher (P < 0.05 nitrogen utilization efficiency compared with those on the other treatments. Concentrate supplementation improved the animal performance. The use of other energy sources (sorghum or wheat bran in association with corn is recommended for suckling calves.

  12. Molecular ion sources for low energy semiconductor ion implantation (invited)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hershcovitch, A., E-mail: hershcovitch@bnl.gov [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973 (United States); Gushenets, V. I.; Bugaev, A. S.; Oks, E. M.; Vizir, A.; Yushkov, G. Yu. [High Current Electronics Institute, Siberian Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences, Tomsk 634055 (Russian Federation); Seleznev, D. N.; Kulevoy, T. V.; Kozlov, A.; Kropachev, G. N.; Kuibeda, R. P.; Minaev, S. [Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Moscow 117218 (Russian Federation); Dugin, S.; Alexeyenko, O. [State Scientific Center of the Russian Federation State Research Institute for Chemistry and Technology of Organoelement Compounds, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2016-02-15

    Smaller semiconductors require shallow, low energy ion implantation, resulting space charge effects, which reduced beam currents and production rates. To increase production rates, molecular ions are used. Boron and phosphorous (or arsenic) implantation is needed for P-type and N-type semiconductors, respectively. Carborane, which is the most stable molecular boron ion leaves unacceptable carbon residue on extraction grids. A self-cleaning carborane acid compound (C{sub 4}H{sub 12}B{sub 10}O{sub 4}) was synthesized and utilized in the ITEP Bernas ion source resulting in large carborane ion output, without carbon residue. Pure gaseous processes are desired to enable rapid switch among ion species. Molecular phosphorous was generated by introducing phosphine in dissociators via 4PH{sub 3} = P{sub 4} + 6H{sub 2}; generated molecular phosphorous in a pure gaseous process was then injected into the HCEI Calutron-Bernas ion source, from which P{sub 4}{sup +} ion beams were extracted. Results from devices and some additional concepts are described.

  13. Axion-Like particles from extragalactic High Energy sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrad, J.; Meyer, M.; Montanino, D.

    2016-05-01

    Background radiation fields (such as Extragalactic Background Light, EBL, or Cosmic Microwave Background, CMB) pervade the Universe. Above a certain energy any gamma ray flux emitted by an extragalactic source should be attenuated by the process γ+ γ(bgk) → e + + e - pair production. We have considered a scenario in which the photons are partly converted into light Axion Like Particles (ALPs) in the local magnetic field of an (extragalactic) source. Then, while the unconverted fraction of photons undergo absorption, the ALP component travel to our galaxy where is converted back to photons by the galactic magnetic field resulting in a sort of cosmic light shining through wall effect. In particular, we have considered two scenarios: 1) conversion in the turbulent magnetic field inside a galaxy cluster; and 2) conversion of photons in the coherent magnetic field at parsec scales in a Blazar jet. Afterwards, we have also analyzed mock data coming from a hypothetical Imaging Air Cherenkov Telescopes (IACT) array with characteristics similar to the Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) and we have investigated the dependence of the sensitivity to detect a gamma ray excess on the magnetic field parameters.

  14. Large Extent Volunteer Roadkill and Wildlife Observation Systems as Sources of Reliable Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David P. Waetjen

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Large-extent wildlife-reporting systems have sets of goals and methods to facilitate standardized data collection, statistical analysis, informative visualizations, and use in decision-making within the system area. Many systems employ “crowds” of volunteers to collect these data at large spatial extents (e.g., US state or small country scale, especially along roadways. This raises the important question of how these systems could be standardized and the data made broadly useful in ecological and transportation studies, i.e., beyond the system area or goals. We describe two of the first and longest-running systems for volunteer observation of road-associated wildlife (live and dead at the US state scale. The California Roadkill Observation System (CROS, http://wildlifecrossing.net/california uses a form-based data entry system to report carcasses resulting from wildlife-vehicle collisions (WVC. Operating since 2009, it currently (June, 2017 contains 1,338 users and >54,000 observations of 424 species of ground-dwelling vertebrates and birds, making it one of the most successful examples of crowd-sourced, roadkill and wildlife reporting. Its sister system, the Maine Audubon Wildlife Road Watch (http://wildlifecrossing.net/maine has a similar structure, and can accept data from transect surveys, animal tracks and scat observations, and reports of “no animal observed.” Both systems can operate as web-applications on a smart-phone (using a web browser, providing the ability to enter observations in the field. Locational accuracy for California observations was estimated to be ±14 m (n = 552 records. Species identification accuracy rate for observations with photographs was 97% (n = 3,700 records. We propose that large extent, volunteer systems can be used to monitor wildlife occurrences along or away from roads and that these observations can be used to inform ecological studies and transportation mitigation planning.

  15. Information systems and technology transfer programs on geothermal energy and other renewable sources of energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lippmann, M.J.; Antunez, E.

    1996-01-01

    In order to remain competitive, it is necessary to stay informed and use the most advanced technologies available. Recent developments in communication, like the Internet and the World Wide Web, enormously facilitate worldwide data and technology transfer. A compilation of the most important sources of data on renewable energies, especially geothermal, as well as lists of relevant technology transfer programs are presented. Information on how to gain access to, and learn more about them, is also given.

  16. Low energy electron point source microscopy: beyond imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, André; Gölzhäuser, Armin

    2010-09-01

    Low energy electron point source (LEEPS) microscopy has the capability to record in-line holograms at very high magnifications with a fairly simple set-up. After the holograms are numerically reconstructed, structural features with the size of about 2 nm can be resolved. The achievement of an even higher resolution has been predicted. However, a number of obstacles are known to impede the realization of this goal, for example the presence of electric fields around the imaged object, electrostatic charging or radiation induced processes. This topical review gives an overview of the achievements as well as the difficulties in the efforts to shift the resolution limit of LEEPS microscopy towards the atomic level. A special emphasis is laid on the high sensitivity of low energy electrons to electrical fields, which limits the structural determination of the imaged objects. On the other hand, the investigation of the electrical field around objects of known structure is very useful for other tasks and LEEPS microscopy can be extended beyond the task of imaging. The determination of the electrical resistance of individual nanowires can be achieved by a proper analysis of the corresponding LEEPS micrographs. This conductivity imaging may be a very useful application for LEEPS microscopes.

  17. Macroscopic Thermal Energy Balance on Montane Valley Aquifers and Groundwater Recharge Source Identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trask, J. C.; Fogg, G. E.

    2010-12-01

    conductive heat flux at depth (available for most regions) (ii) Temperature (T) data from one or more wells in the valley aquifer (iii) data or estimates of mean annual surface T (Ts) at areal scales, and estimates of recharge T for different recharge sources. We emphasize the importance of accurate determination of Ts and recharge T for reliable modeling of subsurface heat flow. Data and models are presented showing that accurate estimates of Ts are achievable, and that subsurface T of recharge water can be substantially different from Ts near sites of intensive focused seasonal or episodic recharge. For any particular montane valley aquifer study site, we propose that a macroscopic energy balance approach to heat and groundwater flow modeling can complement and aid in development and validation of conventional grid-based numerical models. This conceptually simple approach is particularly valuable in determining the rate of aquifer recharge from cool mountain-front sources.

  18. Technologies for Improved Reliability of Shielded Power Cable and Characterization of Capacitor Film Energy Density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Wen

    Partial Discharge (PD), a partial breakdown of insulation between high voltage electrodes, reduces cable reliability. Understanding electromagnetic propagation of PD-induced pulses in shielded power cable, including attenuation and dispersion, is essential to the application of PD diagnostics and, especially, PD location. Dispersion is caused by the transition of cable semicon-ducting layers (between the cable conductors and dielectric) from "resistive" at low frequency to "capacitive" at high frequency. Methods are presented to compute dispersion as a function of semiconducting material properties and evaluate the effect of dispersion on pulse characteristics (amplitude, shape, and width, etc.) as a function of distance propagated, the results of which are applied to investigate the effects of dispersion for PD detection and location. The location error induced by dispersion can be compensated from calibration. Electrochemical degradation of cable dielectrics, known as "water treeing", is one of the leading cause of premature failures in underground shielded power cable. Silane-based fluid has been used successfully for decades to rejuvenate HMWPE and XLPE dielectric cables to "cure" existing water trees and extend cable life. However the ability of the treatment to inhibit future water tree initiation is not known. A method for silane fluid treatment of un-aged cable insulation and semicon was developed based on the use of GC/MS to determine curing of the fluid within the dielectric. A wet electrical aging test at 5 kV/mm (127 V/mil) based on a sample which includes semicon electrodes on both sides of the XLPE insulation with a water electrode in contact with one semicon layer was used to age untreated samples, samples treated prior to the test, and samples treated at the mid-time of the test (3500 hrs). The result of aging is analyzed by microscopic examination to determine the number, length and types of water trees. The mechanism by which the silane

  19. Fine-Grained Energy Modeling for the Source Code of a Mobile Application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Xueliang; Gallagher, John Patrick

    2016-01-01

    The goal of an energy model for source code is to lay a foundation for the application of energy-aware programming techniques. State of the art solutions are based on source-line energy information. In this paper, we present an approach to constructing a fine-grained energy model which is able...

  20. The renewable energies sources in France 1970-2000; Les energies renouvelables en France 1970-2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    The objective of this report is to describe the energy production from renewable sources in France since 1970. In France the rate of using renewable energy sources is unequal. Some of them as hydro energy show a confirmed industrial and commercial interest when other techniques have not still reach the same level of maturity. The renewable energy sources chosen to calculate the electric and thermal production of France are: for electric power, hydro energy, wind energy, solar energy, geothermal energy, the urban wastes, the wood wastes, the harvesting residues, the biogas. For the thermal production, the thermal solar energy, the geothermal energy, the urban wastes, the wood and wood wastes, the harvesting residues, the biogas and bio fuels. The figures are marked in thirty tables. (N.C.)

  1. The ocean as the eternal energy source; De oceaan als eeuwige energiebron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laban, C.; Speelman, H. [Nederlands Instituut voor Toegepaste Geowetenschappen TNO NITG-TNO, Delft (Netherlands)

    1998-06-01

    The oceans contain enormous reserves of fossil fuels. Also use can be made of sustainable energy in the form of wave energy, tidal power and heat. The options to use the oceans as an energy source are outlined. 4 refs.

  2. Spatiotemporal Modeling for Assessing Complementarity of Renewable Energy Sources in Distributed Energy Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez Camargo, L.; Zink, R.; Dorner, W.

    2015-07-01

    Spatial assessments of the potential of renewable energy sources (RES) have become a valuable information basis for policy and decision-making. These studies, however, do not explicitly consider the variability in time of RES such as solar energy or wind. Until now, the focus is usually given to economic profitability based on yearly balances, which do not allow a comprehensive examination of RES-technologies complementarity. Incrementing temporal resolution of energy output estimation will permit to plan the aggregation of a diverse pool of RES plants i.e., to conceive a system as a virtual power plant (VPP). This paper presents a spatiotemporal analysis methodology to estimate RES potential of municipalities. The methodology relies on a combination of open source geographic information systems (GIS) processing tools and the in-memory array processing environment of Python and NumPy. Beyond the typical identification of suitable locations to build power plants, it is possible to define which of them are the best for a balanced local energy supply. A case study of a municipality, using spatial data with one square meter resolution and one hour temporal resolution, shows strong complementarity of photovoltaic and wind power. Furthermore, it is shown that a detailed deployment strategy of potential suitable locations for RES, calculated with modest computational requirements, can support municipalities to develop VPPs and improve security of supply.

  3. Optimization of energy consumption and cost effectiveness of modular buildings by using renewable energy sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Tauš

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Problems of the temporary structures are generally dealt with by the use of modular buildings. These actually meet the terms of low costs, as appose to the terms of convenience of use, or energy efficiency in operation. Using the latest technologies in the production of the modular buildings has improved the operation sufficiently; it is now possible to use them entirely for purposes associated with the use of the buildings. Office buildings, warehouses, and conference rooms have become common standard. In Slovakia, we can already see it as a normal part of cities and municipalities: social housing, schools, and kindergartens, which were all built using this technology. During the assessment phase of these buildings, energy efficiency is always the priority. This article is aimed at establishing the economic potential of modular buildings in the field of use of renewable energy sources. For the formulation of the problem and the definition of borders of studied parameters, we proposed a four-dimensional competency decision-making space. This determines the examination process that should identify areas in which it is appropriate to consider and assess the use of renewable energy sources.

  4. Study of energy recovery and power generation from alternative energy source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulhakim Amer A. Agll

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The energy requirement pattern of world is growing up and developing technology. The available sources, while exhausting and not friendly to the environment, are highly used. Looking at partial supply and different options of environment problems associated with usage, renewable energy sources are getting attention. MSW (Municipal solid waste composition data had been collected from 1997 to 2009, in Benghazi Libya, to evaluate the waste enthalpy. An incinerator with capacity of 47,250 kg/h was confirmed to burn all the quantity of waste generated by the city through the next 15 years. Initial study was performed to investigate energy flow and resource availability to insure sustainable MSW required by the incinerator to work at its maximum capacity during the designated period. The primary purpose of the paper is to discuss the design of Rankin steam cycle for the generation of both power (PG and combined heat power (CHP. In the power generation case, the system was found to be able to generate electrical power of 13.1 MW. Including the combined heat power case, the results showed that the system was able to produce 6.8 million m3/year of desalinated water and generate 11.33 MW of electricity. In conclusion, the CHP designed system has the greatest potential to maximize energy saving, due to the optimal combination of heat production and electricity generation.

  5. SPATIOTEMPORAL MODELING FOR ASSESSING COMPLEMENTARITY OF RENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCES IN DISTRIBUTED ENERGY SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Ramirez Camargo

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Spatial assessments of the potential of renewable energy sources (RES have become a valuable information basis for policy and decision-making. These studies, however, do not explicitly consider the variability in time of RES such as solar energy or wind. Until now, the focus is usually given to economic profitability based on yearly balances, which do not allow a comprehensive examination of RES-technologies complementarity. Incrementing temporal resolution of energy output estimation will permit to plan the aggregation of a diverse pool of RES plants i.e., to conceive a system as a virtual power plant (VPP. This paper presents a spatiotemporal analysis methodology to estimate RES potential of municipalities. The methodology relies on a combination of open source geographic information systems (GIS processing tools and the in-memory array processing environment of Python and NumPy. Beyond the typical identification of suitable locations to build power plants, it is possible to define which of them are the best for a balanced local energy supply. A case study of a municipality, using spatial data with one square meter resolution and one hour temporal resolution, shows strong complementarity of photovoltaic and wind power. Furthermore, it is shown that a detailed deployment strategy of potential suitable locations for RES, calculated with modest computational requirements, can support municipalities to develop VPPs and improve security of supply.

  6. Health Information Needs and Reliability of Sources Among Nondegree Health Sciences Students: A Prerequisite for Designing eHealth Literacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haruna, Hussein; Tshuma, Ndumiso; Hu, Xiao

    Understanding health information needs and health-seeking behavior is a prerequisite for developing an electronic health information literacy (EHIL) or eHealth literacy program for nondegree health sciences students. At present, interest in researching health information needs and reliable sources paradigms has gained momentum in many countries. However, most studies focus on health professionals and students in higher education institutions. The present study was aimed at providing new insight and filling the existing gap by examining health information needs and reliability of sources among nondegree health sciences students in Tanzania. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 15 conveniently selected health training institutions, where 403 health sciences students were participated. Thirty health sciences students were both purposely and conveniently chosen from each health-training institution. The selected students were pursuing nursing and midwifery, clinical medicine, dentistry, environmental health sciences, pharmacy, and medical laboratory sciences courses. Involved students were either in their first year, second year, or third year of study. Health sciences students' health information needs focus on their educational requirements, clinical practice, and personal information. They use print, human, and electronic health information. They lack eHealth research skills in navigating health information resources and have insufficient facilities for accessing eHealth information, a lack of specialists in health information, high costs for subscription electronic information, and unawareness of the availability of free Internet and other online health-related databases. This study found that nondegree health sciences students have limited skills in EHIL. Thus, designing and incorporating EHIL skills programs into the curriculum of nondegree health sciences students is vital. EHIL is a requirement common to all health settings, learning environments, and

  7. Solar energy as an alternate energy source to mixed oxide fuels in light-water cooled reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertini, H.W.

    1977-06-30

    Supplemental information pertaining to the generic environmental impact statement on the Pu recycling process for mixed oxide light-water cooled reactors (GESMO) was requested from several sources. In particular, the role of alternate sources of energy was to be explored and the implications of these alternate sources to the question of Pu recycle in LWRs were to be investigated. In this vein, solar energy as an alternate source is the main subject of this report, along with other information related to solar energy. The general conclusion is that solar energy should have little effect on the decisions concerning GESMO.

  8. 3rd Miami international conference on alternative energy sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nejat Veziroglu, T.

    1980-01-01

    The conference includes sessions on solar energy, ocean thermal energy, wind energy, hydro power, nuclear breeders and nuclear fusion, synthetic fuels from coal or wastes, hydrogen production and uses, formulation of workable policies on energy use and energy conservation, heat and energy storage, and energy education. The volume of the proceedings presents the papers and lectures in condensed format grouped by subject under forty-two sessions for 319 presentations.

  9. Energy resources of the 21st century: problems and forecasts. Can renewable energy sources replace fossil fuels?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arutyunov, V. S.; Lisichkin, G. V.

    2017-08-01

    The state of the art and the major trends of development of world energy engineering are analyzed. It is concluded that throughout the 21st century the role of alternative sources will remain rather modest. Fossil fuel will still be the major source of energy until the end of the century. Because of depletion of accessible oil resources, the proportion of crude oil in the world energy balance will constantly decline, while the proportion of natural gas will grow. It is shown that energy production from any source, including alternative sources, cannot be environmentally benign if the scale of production is large. In the long term, humanity has no sources other than fusion energy, but transition to this source would not solve the problem of the planet's heat balance. The bibliography includes 70 references.

  10. Energetic and Economic Assessment of Pipe Network Effects on Unused Energy Source System Performance in Large-Scale Horticulture Facilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae Ho Lee

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available As the use of fossil fuel has increased, not only in construction, but also in agriculture due to the drastic industrial development in recent times, the problems of heating costs and global warming are getting worse. Therefore, the introduction of more reliable and environmentally-friendly alternative energy sources has become urgent and the same trend is found in large-scale horticulture facilities. In this study, among many alternative energy sources, we investigated the reserves and the potential of various different unused energy sources which have infinite potential, but are nowadays wasted due to limitations in their utilization. This study investigated the effects of the distance between the greenhouse and the actual heat source by taking into account the heat transfer taking place inside the pipe network. This study considered CO2 emissions and economic aspects to determine the optimal heat source. Payback period analysis against initial investment cost shows that a heat pump based on a power plant’s waste heat has the shortest payback period of 7.69 years at a distance of 0 km. On the other hand, the payback period of a heat pump based on geothermal heat showed the shortest payback period of 10.17 year at the distance of 5 km, indicating that heat pumps utilizing geothermal heat were the most effective model if the heat transfer inside the pipe network between the greenhouse and the actual heat source is taken into account.

  11. Wind, hydro or mixed renewable energy source: Preference for electricity products when the share of renewable energy increases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Yingkui; Solgaard, Hans Stubbe; Haider, Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    While the share of renewable energy, especially wind power, increases in the energy mix, the risk of temporary energy shortage increases as well. Thus, it is important to understand consumers' preference for the renewable energy towards the continuous growing renewable energy society. We use...... a discrete choice experiment to infer consumers' preferences when the share of renewable energy increases. The study results indicate that consumers are generally willing to pay extra for an increasing share of renewable energy, but the renewable energy should come from a mixture of renewable energy sources...

  12. Estimating Evapotranspiration from an Improved Two-Source Energy Balance Model Using ASTER Satellite Imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qifeng Zhuang

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Reliably estimating the turbulent fluxes of latent and sensible heat at the Earth’s surface by remote sensing is important for research on the terrestrial hydrological cycle. This paper presents a practical approach for mapping surface energy fluxes using Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER images from an improved two-source energy balance (TSEB model. The original TSEB approach may overestimate latent heat flux under vegetative stress conditions, as has also been reported in recent research. We replaced the Priestley-Taylor equation used in the original TSEB model with one that uses plant moisture and temperature constraints based on the PT-JPL model to obtain a more accurate canopy latent heat flux for model solving. The collected ASTER data and field observations employed in this study are over corn fields in arid regions of the Heihe Watershed Allied Telemetry Experimental Research (HiWATER area, China. The results were validated by measurements from eddy covariance (EC systems, and the surface energy flux estimates of the improved TSEB model are similar to the ground truth. A comparison of the results from the original and improved TSEB models indicates that the improved method more accurately estimates the sensible and latent heat fluxes, generating more precise daily evapotranspiration (ET estimate under vegetative stress conditions.

  13. Interaction Entropy: A New Paradigm for Highly Efficient and Reliable Computation of Protein-Ligand Binding Free Energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Lili; Liu, Xiao; Zhang, John Z H

    2016-05-04

    Efficient and reliable calculation of protein-ligand binding free energy is a grand challenge in computational biology and is of critical importance in drug design and many other molecular recognition problems. The main challenge lies in the calculation of entropic contribution to protein-ligand binding or interaction systems. In this report, we present a new interaction entropy method which is theoretically rigorous, computationally efficient, and numerically reliable for calculating entropic contribution to free energy in protein-ligand binding and other interaction processes. Drastically different from the widely employed but extremely expensive normal mode method for calculating entropy change in protein-ligand binding, the new method calculates the entropic component (interaction entropy or -TΔS) of the binding free energy directly from molecular dynamics simulation without any extra computational cost. Extensive study of over a dozen randomly selected protein-ligand binding systems demonstrated that this interaction entropy method is both computationally efficient and numerically reliable and is vastly superior to the standard normal mode approach. This interaction entropy paradigm introduces a novel and intuitive conceptual understanding of the entropic effect in protein-ligand binding and other general interaction systems as well as a practical method for highly efficient calculation of this effect.

  14. Scheduling and Voltage Scaling for Energy/Reliability Trade-offs in Fault-Tolerant Time-Triggered Embedded Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pop, Paul; Poulsen, Kåre Harbo; Izosimov, Viacheslav;

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we present an approach to the scheduling and voltage scaling of low-power fault-tolerant hard real-time applications mapped on distributed heterogeneous embedded systems. Processes and messages are statically scheduled, and we use process re-execution for recovering from multiple tr...... are satisfied and the energy is minimized. We present a constraint logic programming- based approach which is able to find reliable and schedulable implementations within limited energy and hardware resources. The developed algorithms have been evaluated using extensive experiments....

  15. Final Report for Clean, Reliable, Affordable Energy that Reflects the Values of the Pinoleville Pomo Nation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steele, Lenora [Self-Governance Director; Sampsel, Zachary N [Program Director

    2014-07-21

    This report aims to present and analyze information on the potential of renewable energy power systems and electric vehicle charging near the Pinoleville Pomo Nation in Ukiah, California to provide an environmentally-friendly, cost-effective energy and transportation options for development. For each renewable energy option we examine, solar, wind, microhydro, and biogas in this case, we compiled technology and cost information for construction, estimates of energy capacity, and data on electricity exports rates.

  16. Fatigue study and improve reliability of cantilever type micro piezoelectric energy harvesters reinforced with flexible adhesive conductive tape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, T. K.; Hsieh, Y. C.; Chen, C. T.; Chen, J. J.; Wu, W. J.

    2016-04-01

    Cantilever type piezoelectric energy harvester (PEH) is widely adopted in the design of vibration energy harvesters because of simple, effective and easy to fabricate. When the PEH is working under excitation of continuous vibration sources, like mounting on motors, reliability and durability is a major concern. The failure mode and fatigue issues will be important design considerations in field applications. Since the largest strain of a cantilever structure is located in the clamping position of fixed end, the location is therefore the weakest point of the structure and the hot zone of mechanical cracks. The failure mode due to fatigue under long time excitation of vibration sources is typically continuously developing small cracks on the piezoelectric PZT films till tearing the surface electrodes and caused open circuit to the output circuitry. Therefore, extending the lifetime with minimize the surface electrodes cracking becomes a key point for field applications. Previously, we focused on the output performance of PEH. At PowerMEMS 2014 [1], we presented a high performance PEH based on PZT thin films fabricated with a homemade PZT deposition equipment on stainless steel substrates. We confirmed that the stainless steel based PEH can generate better output power than silicon based devices under the same vibration excitation levels, and also the stainless based PEH can have longer lifetime when excited at higher vibration levels due to better mechanical strength. In this study, we tried to further reinforce the PEH with a conductive adhesive tape sticking on the surface electrode near the clamping position. We investigated the change of failure mode and mechanical behaviors, including the frequency bandwidth and non-linearity of the piezoelectric energy harvester. The PEH devices was mounted on a shaker for long time testing with vibration frequency set around 120Hz at 0.5g, 0.6g, and 0.7g acceleration vibration levels. The electrodes of the PEH device were

  17. Alternative Sources of Energy - An Introduction to Fuel Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merewether, E.A.

    2003-01-01

    Fuel cells are important future sources of electrical power and could contribute to a reduction in the amount of petroleum imported by the United States. They are electrochemical devices similar to a battery and consist of a container, an anode, a cathode, catalysts, an intervening electrolyte, and an attached electrical circuit. In most fuel cell systems, hydrogen is supplied to the anode and oxygen to the cathode which results in the production of electricity, water, and heat. Fuel cells are comparatively efficient and reliable, have no moving parts, operate without combustion, and are modular and scale-able. Their size and shape are flexible and adaptable. In operation, they are nearly silent, are relatively safe, and generally do not pollute the environment. During recent years, scientists and engineers have developed and refined technologies relevant to a variety of fuel cells. Types of fuel cells are commonly identified by the composition of their electrolyte, which could be either phosphoric acid, an alkaline solution, a molten carbonate, a solid metal oxide, or a solid polymer membrane. The electrolyte in stationary power plants could be phosphoric acid, molten carbonates, or solid metal oxides. For vehicles and smaller devices, the electrolyte could be an alkaline solution or a solid polymer membrane. For most fuel cell systems, the fuel is hydrogen, which can be extracted by several procedures from many hydrogen-bearing substances, including alcohols, natural gas (mainly methane), gasoline, and water. There are important and perhaps unresolved technical problems associated with using fuel cells to power vehicles. The catalysts required in several systems are expensive metals of the platinum group. Moreover, fuel cells can freeze and not work in cold weather and can be damaged by impacts. Storage tanks for the fuels, particularly hydrogen, must be safe, inexpensive, of a reasonable size, and contain a supply sufficient for a trip of several hundred miles

  18. ARC technology turns animal manure into new source of energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Golka, V.

    2003-09-30

    Bio-based fertilizers, reusable water and reduced greenhouse gas emissions are the results of the Integrated Manure Utilization System (IMUS) began some five years ago at the Alberta Research Council. The process incorporates anaerobic digestion that produces biogas, which is then used to generate electricity, while the nutrient byproducts of the process are used to produce bio-based fertilizer and water, which is reusable for applications like irrigation. A pilot-scale IMUS plant was constructed at Highland Feeders in Vegreville, which will produce one MW of electricity from the manure produced by 7,500 head of cattle. Commercialization of the technology is underway as a joint venture involving the Alberta Research Council, industry, the federal and provincial governments and non-governmental agencies. Because IMUS is designed to overcome the challenges associated with high-solid manure typical of most outdoor feedlots in North America, the technology is adaptable to other biomass sources, including liquid manure, food processing waste and municipal waste; a significant development in the field of renewable energy technologies. The demonstration project is expected to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by 740,000 tonnes annually based on cattle manure only; more when other livestock, such as poultry and dairy are included.

  19. Fiscal Policy for Renewable Energy Sources and Its Economic Impact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Helbra Tenrini

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Indonesia is the largest producers of palm oil. Along with the increasing demand for renewable energy source, palm oil will turn to be a very important commodity in the future. The palm oil industry will gain more value-added if they export the commodities in processed materials rather than raw materials. On the other hands palm oil industry more likely to export raw material, because there’s no incentives for them to export processed materials. Therefore, to give an incentive to palm oil industry, the government of Indonesia should give fiscal incentives to encourage palm oil industry to produce processed materials. The purpose of this study is to identify the appropriate fiscal policy to palm oil industry and to estimate the economic impact due to the implementation of fiscal incentives policy. The methodology used in this research is analysis using Social Accounting Matrix (SAM that can give an overview the impact of policy implementation to factors of production, an institution such as government and household, and other sectors including palm oil sectors itself. The result of this study that is the proposed fiscal policy in palm oil industry was fiscal incentives in the form of VAT exemption. Economic impact analysis that came from SAM indicates that implementation of the policy has an overall positive impact to factors of production, institution and sector.

  20. Could Shale Gas Become a Reliable Energy Source for Europe and Romania?

    OpenAIRE

    MARIANA PAPATULICĂ; PETRE PRISECARU

    2015-01-01

    While shale gas and oil is a success story in USA and Canada where production has considerably increased in the last five years the situation is quite different in Europe where exploration and production activities are quite low and prospects are not encouraging. Even in the Eastern Europe the first results of exploration are disappointing for the American companies, which have the technical expertise for exploring and extraction shale gas. Due to global warming there is now at the world sc...

  1. Space-time dependence between energy sources and climate related energy production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engeland, Kolbjorn; Borga, Marco; Creutin, Jean-Dominique; Ramos, Maria-Helena; Tøfte, Lena; Warland, Geir

    2014-05-01

    The European Renewable Energy Directive adopted in 2009 focuses on achieving a 20% share of renewable energy in the EU overall energy mix by 2020. A major part of renewable energy production is related to climate, called "climate related energy" (CRE) production. CRE production systems (wind, solar, and hydropower) are characterized by a large degree of intermittency and variability on both short and long time scales due to the natural variability of climate variables. The main strategies to handle the variability of CRE production include energy-storage, -transport, -diversity and -information (smart grids). The three first strategies aim to smooth out the intermittency and variability of CRE production in time and space whereas the last strategy aims to provide a more optimal interaction between energy production and demand, i.e. to smooth out the residual load (the difference between demand and production). In order to increase the CRE share in the electricity system, it is essential to understand the space-time co-variability between the weather variables and CRE production under both current and future climates. This study presents a review of the literature that searches to tackle these problems. It reveals that the majority of studies deals with either a single CRE source or with the combination of two CREs, mostly wind and solar. This may be due to the fact that the most advanced countries in terms of wind equipment have also very little hydropower potential (Denmark, Ireland or UK, for instance). Hydropower is characterized by both a large storage capacity and flexibility in electricity production, and has therefore a large potential for both balancing and storing energy from wind- and solar-power. Several studies look at how to better connect regions with large share of hydropower (e.g., Scandinavia and the Alps) to regions with high shares of wind- and solar-power (e.g., green battery North-Sea net). Considering time scales, various studies consider wind

  2. Investigation the Interest Rate of Each Energy Source on Optimal Sizing of Distributed Energy Resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahram Fathi

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available In this research the effect of variation of interest rate of each energy source on optimal results are investigated. This study presents an optimized design of Hybrid Power System in a distribution system including sources like, photovoltaic array, fuel cell and battery bank. In this study, an algorithm has been developed for evaluation and cost optimization Hybrid Power System. The costs include capital cost, replacement cost, operation and maintenance cost, fuel cost and production cost for Hybrid Power System and DG power during different load profile. Then an objective function with aim to minimizing of total costs has been considered. A genetic algorithm approach is employed to obtain the best cost value of Hybrid Power System construction.

  3. Maximizing Energy Savings Reliability in BC Hydro Industrial Demand-side Management Programs: An Assessment of Performance Incentive Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosman, Nathaniel

    For energy utilities faced with expanded jurisdictional energy efficiency requirements and pursuing demand-side management (DSM) incentive programs in the large industrial sector, performance incentive programs can be an effective means to maximize the reliability of planned energy savings. Performance incentive programs balance the objectives of high participation rates with persistent energy savings by: (1) providing financial incentives and resources to minimize constraints to investment in energy efficiency, and (2) requiring that incentive payments be dependent on measured energy savings over time. As BC Hydro increases its DSM initiatives to meet the Clean Energy Act objective to reduce at least 66 per cent of new electricity demand with DSM by 2020, the utility is faced with a higher level of DSM risk, or uncertainties that impact the costeffective acquisition of planned energy savings. For industrial DSM incentive programs, DSM risk can be broken down into project development and project performance risks. Development risk represents the project ramp-up phase and is the risk that planned energy savings do not materialize due to low customer response to program incentives. Performance risk represents the operational phase and is the risk that planned energy savings do not persist over the effective measure life. DSM project development and performance risks are, in turn, a result of industrial economic, technological and organizational conditions, or DSM risk factors. In the BC large industrial sector, and characteristic of large industrial sectors in general, these DSM risk factors include: (1) capital constraints to investment in energy efficiency, (2) commodity price volatility, (3) limited internal staffing resources to deploy towards energy efficiency, (4) variable load, process-based energy saving potential, and (5) a lack of organizational awareness of an operation's energy efficiency over time (energy performance). This research assessed the capacity

  4. The reliability of suicide rates: an analysis of railway suicides from two sources in fifteen European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynders, Alexandre; Scheerder, Gert; Van Audenhove, Chantal

    2011-06-01

    National suicide data are an underestimation of the actual number of suicides but are often assumed to be reliable and useful for scientific research. The aim of this study is to contribute to the discussion of the reliability of suicide mortality data by comparing railway suicides from two data sources. Data for the railway suicides and the concurrent causes of death of fifteen European countries were collected from the European Detailed Mortality Database and the European Railway Agency (ERA). Suicide rates, odds ratios and confidence intervals were calculated. The suicide data from the ERA were significantly higher than the national data for six out of fifteen countries. In three countries, the ERA registered significantly more railway suicides compared to the sum of the national suicides and undetermined deaths. In Italy and France, the ERA statistics recorded significantly more railway related fatalities than the national statistical offices. In total the ERA statistics registered 34% more suicides and 9% more railway fatalities compared with the national statistics. The findings of this study concern railway suicides and they cannot be extrapolated to all types of suicides. Further, the national suicide statistics and the ERA data are not perfectly comparable, due to the different categorisations of the causes of death. Based on the data for railway suicides, it seems that the underestimation of suicide rates is significant for some countries, and that the degree of underestimation differs substantially among countries. Caution is needed when comparing national suicide rates. There is a need for standardisation of national death registration procedures at the European level. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Potential Ambient Energy-Harvesting Sources and Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildiz, Faruk

    2009-01-01

    Ambient energy harvesting is also known as energy scavenging or power harvesting, and it is the process where energy is obtained from the environment. A variety of techniques are available for energy scavenging, including solar and wind powers, ocean waves, piezoelectricity, thermoelectricity, and physical motions. For example, some systems…

  6. Limited electricity access in health facilities of sub-Saharan Africa: a systematic review of data on electricity access, sources, and reliability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adair-Rohani, Heather; Zukor, Karen; Bonjour, Sophie; Wilburn, Susan; Kuesel, Annette C; Hebert, Ryan; Fletcher, Elaine R

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Access to electricity is critical to health care delivery and to the overarching goal of universal health coverage. Data on electricity access in health care facilities are rarely collected and have never been reported systematically in a multi-country study. We conducted a systematic review of available national data on electricity access in health care facilities in sub-Saharan Africa. Methods: We identified publicly-available data from nationally representative facility surveys through a systematic review of articles in PubMed, as well as through websites of development agencies, ministries of health, and national statistics bureaus. To be included in our analysis, data sets had to be collected in or after 2000, be nationally representative of a sub-Saharan African country, cover both public and private health facilities, and include a clear definition of electricity access. Results: We identified 13 health facility surveys from 11 sub-Saharan African countries that met our inclusion criteria. On average, 26% of health facilities in the surveyed countries reported no access to electricity. Only 28% of health care facilities, on average, had reliable electricity among the 8 countries reporting data. Among 9 countries, an average of 7% of facilities relied solely on a generator. Electricity access in health care facilities increased by 1.5% annually in Kenya between 2004 and 2010, and by 4% annually in Rwanda between 2001 and 2007. Conclusions: Energy access for health care facilities in sub-Saharan African countries varies considerably. An urgent need exists to improve the geographic coverage, quality, and frequency of data collection on energy access in health care facilities. Standardized tools should be used to collect data on all sources of power and supply reliability. The United Nations Secretary-General's “Sustainable Energy for All” initiative provides an opportunity to comprehensively monitor energy access in health care

  7. Renewable energy sources in the French national plan for improved energy efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    The French National Plan for Improved Energy Efficiency (PNAEE, Programme National d'Amelioration de l'Efficacite Energetique) whose aim is to ensure the conformity of national energy policy with the climate change mitigation policy was designed to be in line with France's national plan to combat climatic change and with the French national targets in the European directive for electricity from renewable energy sources (RES). According to this directive, by 2010, RES electricity should account for 21% percent of electricity consumed in France as opposed 15% today. To pave the way for this increase, the mains tools that have been set up by the French authorities in the framework of the PNAEE are as follows: ADEME's programmes; the RES electricity purchase obligation with feed-in tariffs; the pluri-annual investment programme in the electricity sector. The Law no. 2000-108, dated 10 February 2000, on the modernization and development of the public service in the electricity field, includes two articles, which directly relate to RESs. Two years after the PNAEE's implementation, the first achievements are the followings: more than 63.000 square meters of solar thermal panels installed due to a rapidly increasing demand; a new contribution of 47.000 toe to the national energy production coming from wood energy and geothermal; a new contribution of 208 GWh/year to the national electricity production coming from RES electricity, mainly from wind energy. These first results are not yet in line with the final objectives but the budgetary, regulatory and fiscal framework is in place and the market is in a quickly growing phase. (author)

  8. Water Sources and Quantity for Energy Development in Colorado's Denver-Julesburg Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waskom, R.; Kallenberger, J.; Boone, K.; Plombon, B.; Ryan, J. N.

    2014-12-01

    Over the past decade, Colorado has experienced a significant rise in oil and gas development with the greatest concentration of activity occurring in the Denver-Julesburg Basin (DJB) in the Northeast corner of the state. According to the Colorado Oil and Gas Association, as of June 2014, there are approximately 52,200 active oil and gas wells statewide, with over 21,300 located in Weld County, the epicenter of the DJB. In this water-scarce region, much attention is paid to the source and quantity of water being used to produce energy. This information is not readily accessible, but is of great importance to many. In response, our research team is undertaking an evaluation of water quantity impacts and tradeoffs associated with oil and gas development. Technological advancements in horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing require additional sources of water - about 2.8 million gallons of per well (Goodwin et al.). The statewide water use for hydraulic fracturing is estimated to be less than 0.1%; however, on a local scale, when water is transferred from agricultural and municipal uses to industrial use, there are economic, environmental and social tradeoffs. Unfortunately, the pathway of a particular water transfer and its associated tradeoffs can be difficult to predict and quantify, further complicating the ability of local and state stakeholders to make sound and informative decisions about energy development. Energy companies are implementing new strategies to ensure reliable water supplies for their operations. These include tapping into non-tributary aquifers to help reduce competition for fully appropriated surface and tributary groundwater sources and recycling and reusing wastewater that results from the drilling and extraction practices. Many conflicting perspectives shape the water-energy discussion in the DJB so non-biased scientific data plays an important role in addressing the questions surrounding water use for energy development. This

  9. Opportunities of energy supply of farm holdings on the basis of small-scale renewable energy sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efendiev, A. M.; Nikolaev, Yu. E.; Evstaf'ev, D. P.

    2016-02-01

    One of the major national economic problems of Russia is raising of agricultural production, which will provide strategic security and sustainable supply of the population with provisions. Creation of subsidiary small holdings, farm holdings, and peasant farm holdings will require addressing issues of energy supply. At considerable distance of small farms from centralized energy systems (by fuel, electricity and thermal energy) it is proposed to create a system of local energy networks on the basis of low-powered power plants using renewable energy sources (RES). There is economic unreasonableness of use of imported components of small power plants. Creation of new combined small power plants on renewable energy sources produced by domestic manufacturers is recommended. Schemes of arrangements of small power plants based on renewable energy sources are proposed, variants and characteristics of a basic source are provided—biogas plants developed by the authors. Calculations revealed that heat and power supply of self-contained farms distant from small power plants based on renewable energy sources is 2.5-2.6 times cheaper than from centralized networks. Production of biogas through anaerobic fermentation of organic waste of cattle complexes is considered as the basis. The analysis of biowaste output in various cattle farms is carried out, and the volume of biogas is determined to meet the requirements of these farms in electrical and thermal energy. The objective of the present article is to study the possibility of creating small combined power plants in Russia based on renewable sources of energy for independent consumers.

  10. 16 CFR Table 4 to Part 1512 - Relative Energy Distribution of Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Relative Energy Distribution of Sources 4... SUBSTANCES ACT REGULATIONS REQUIREMENTS FOR BICYCLES Pt. 1512, Table 4 Table 4 to Part 1512—Relative Energy Distribution of Sources Wave length (nanometers) Relative energy 380 9.79 390 12.09 400 14.71 410 17.68 420...

  11. Data sources and methods for industrial energy analysis. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-08-01

    Following an introductory and overview section of industrial energy-use patterns, Section II of this report describes a number of the major industrial-energy-use data bases often used to analyze industrial energy use. Section III gives the results of an analysis which used a number of energy and industrial-location data bases to estimate plant-specific energy use in ten of the largest energy-using industries. The section summarizes the results of the analysis and discusses the implications of the energy use per plant distributions for the industrial market for high- and low-Btu coal gasification and coal liquefaction. Section IV outlines a methodology for segmenting the industrial energy market and evaluating the competitiveness of low- and medium-Btu gas relative to other alternatives. The methodology demonstrates the uses of the industrial energy data bases in performing market penetration analysis.

  12. Preparation, thermal properties and thermal reliability of microencapsulated n-eicosane as novel phase change material for thermal energy storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alkan, Cemil; Sari, Ahmet; Karaipekli, Ali [Department of Chemistry, Gaziosmanpasa University, 60240 Tokat (Turkey)

    2011-01-15

    This study deals with preparation, characterization, thermal properties and thermal reliability of n-eicosane microcapsules as novel phase change material (PCM) for thermal energy storage. The microcapsulated PCMs were prepared by coating n-eicosane with polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) shell. Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and particle size distribution (PSD) analysis were used to characterize the PMMA/eicosane microcapsules as microcapsulated PCMs. The PSD analysis indicated that the average diameter of microcapsules was found to be 0.70 {mu}m under the stirring speed of 2000 rpm. Thermal properties and thermal reliability of the microcapsules were determined using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA) methods. From DSC analysis, the melting and freezing temperatures and the latent heats of the microcapsules were measured as 35.2 C and 34.9 C, 84.2 and -87.5 J/g, respectively. TGA analysis indicated that PMMA/eicosane microcapsules degrade in three steps at considerably high temperatures. Accelerated thermal cycling tests have been also applied to show the thermal reliability of the microcapsules. All results showed that thermal properties make the PMMA/eicosane microcapsules potential PCM for thermal energy storage. (author)

  13. Thermoelectricity without absorbing energy from the heat sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitney, Robert S.; Sánchez, Rafael; Haupt, Federica; Splettstoesser, Janine

    2016-01-01

    We analyze the power output of a quantum dot machine coupled to two electronic reservoirs via thermoelectric contacts, and to two thermal reservoirs - one hot and one cold. This machine is a nanoscale analogue of a conventional thermocouple heat-engine, in which the active region being heated is unavoidably also exchanging heat with its cold environment. Heat exchange between the dot and the thermal reservoirs is treated as a capacitive coupling to electronic fluctuations in localized levels, modeled as two additional quantum dots. The resulting multiple-dot setup is described using a master equation approach. We observe an "exotic" power generation, which remains finite even when the heat absorbed from the thermal reservoirs is zero (in other words the heat coming from the hot reservoir all escapes into the cold environment). This effect can be understood in terms of a non-local effect in which the heat flow from heat source to the cold environment generates power via a mechanism which we refer to as Coulomb heat drag. It relies on the fact that there is no relaxation in the quantum dot system, so electrons within it have a non-thermal energy distribution. More poetically, one can say that we find a spatial separation of the first-law of thermodynamics (heat to work conversion) from the second-law of thermodynamics (generation of entropy). We present circumstances in which this non-thermal system can generate more power than any conventional macroscopic thermocouple (with local thermalization), even when the latter works with Carnot efficiency.

  14. Reprint of : Thermoelectricity without absorbing energy from the heat sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitney, Robert S.; Sánchez, Rafael; Haupt, Federica; Splettstoesser, Janine

    2016-08-01

    We analyze the power output of a quantum dot machine coupled to two electronic reservoirs via thermoelectric contacts, and to two thermal reservoirs - one hot and one cold. This machine is a nanoscale analogue of a conventional thermocouple heat-engine, in which the active region being heated is unavoidably also exchanging heat with its cold environment. Heat exchange between the dot and the thermal reservoirs is treated as a capacitive coupling to electronic fluctuations in localized levels, modeled as two additional quantum dots. The resulting multiple-dot setup is described using a master equation approach. We observe an "exotic" power generation, which remains finite even when the heat absorbed from the thermal reservoirs is zero (in other words the heat coming from the hot reservoir all escapes into the cold environment). This effect can be understood in terms of a non-local effect in which the heat flow from heat source to the cold environment generates power via a mechanism which we refer to as Coulomb heat drag. It relies on the fact that there is no relaxation in the quantum dot system, so electrons within it have a non-thermal energy distribution. More poetically, one can say that we find a spatial separation of the first-law of thermodynamics (heat to work conversion) from the second-law of thermodynamics (generation of entropy). We present circumstances in which this non-thermal system can generate more power than any conventional macroscopic thermocouple (with local thermalization), even when the latter works with Carnot efficiency.

  15. Optimal combination of energy storages for prospective power supply systems based on Renewable Energy Sources

    CERN Document Server

    Weitemeyer, Stefan; Siemer, Lars; Agert, Carsten

    2016-01-01

    Prospective power supply systems based on Renewable Energy Sources require measures to balance power generation and load at all times. The utilisation of storage devices and backup power plants is widely suggested for this purpose, whereas the best combination is still to be found. In this work, we present a modelling approach to systematically study scenarios of future power supply systems with a high share of electricity originating from wind and solar resources. By considering backup as a subordinate source of electricity with energy-only costs, the approach is independent of the actual full-load hours of the backup power plants. Applying the approach to multi-year meteorological data for Germany, cost-optimised combinations of storage devices and backup power are identified. We find that even in scenarios with significant excess generation capacities there is a need for storage devices or backup power plants with discharging power on the same order as the average load to balance the system at all times. F...

  16. The Evaluation and Testing of Various Bladeless Wind Turbine Designs for use as an alternative renewable energy source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agnew, Ian; Ray, Taylor

    2014-03-01

    Over the last two decades wind turbines have proven themselves globally as a reliable, renewable, and clean energy source. Even though wind turbines are simpler in design and do not pollute during operation as compared to conventional energy sources, many improvements can still be made. The design of a bladeless wind turbine offers potential improvements such as cost savings, reduction of operating noise level, simplification of the manufacturing process, reduction of maintenance costs, and incorporation of eco-friendly features. In order to analyze various turbine designs, a wind tunnel with a 30.3 cm x 29.1 cm test section was constructed at Georgia College. Several different wing sections are being evaluated in order to determine the turbine design and engineered for optimal aerodynamic efficiency over a Range of Reynolds numbers. Other factors like Pressure coefficients and overall drag profile of the designs will also be analyzed as well.

  17. Reliability Assessment of Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2015-01-01

    (and safe). In probabilistic design the single components are designed to a level of reliability, which accounts for an optimal balance between failure consequences, cost of operation & maintenance, material costs and the probability of failure. Furthermore, using a probabilistic design basis...... but manufactured in series production based on many component tests, some prototype tests and zeroseries wind turbines. These characteristics influence the reliability assessment where focus in this paper is on the structural components. Levelized Cost Of Energy is very important for wind energy, especially when...... comparing to other energy sources. Therefore much focus is on cost reductions and improved reliability both for offshore and onshore wind turbines. The wind turbine components should be designed to have sufficient reliability level with respect to both extreme and fatigue loads but also not be too costly...

  18. Selecting sustainable renewable energy source for energy assistance to North Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yi, Sul-Ki [Korea Electrical Engineering and Science Research Institute, Bldg 130, Seoul National University, 599 Gwanangno, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Sin, Hwa-Young; Heo, Eunnyeong [Department of Energy Systems Engineering, Seoul National University, 599, Gwanang-no, Gwanak-Gu, Seoul 157-742 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-01-15

    Renewable energy (RE) is the best sustainable energy solution South Korea can provide to assist North Korea in overcoming its chronic energy shortage. Designed as a follow-on research to Sin et al., a survey was conducted with a panel of experts consisting of various disciplines and affiliations using the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) with benefit, opportunity, cost, and risk (BOCR). The results showed the panel viewed security as the most important factor among the strategic criteria. For the level 1 attributes, the panel showed no significant differences of opinion among the different alternatives; however, cost showed to be the most important factor for the panel. The panel chose wind power as the best alternative source of energy for North Korea; however, there were some differences in opinion among the sub-groups of the panel depending on the composition and the expertise of the sub-group. Compared to other studies on the similar topic, this research stands out in that the research results were derived using AHP and BOCR and that the panel was composed of both Korean and foreign experts on North Korea affiliated with state-run research organizations, armed forces, non-governmental organizations, academic research organizations, private consulting firms, and journalism. The research arrived at the conclusion that the following factors must be considered as South Korea designs its future North Korean energy assistance policy: (1) RE assistance for North Korea can take on various forms; hence, experts consulted during the design, writing, and implementation phases of the policy in question must possess knowledge and expertise in the appropriate technology and methodology being considered; (2) possibility of a sudden destabilization of the Northeast Asian security paradigm due to the collapse of North Korea; and (3) continued nuclearization of North Korea. (author)

  19. Alternate Funding Sources for the International Atomic Energy Agency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toomey, Christopher; Wyse, Evan T.; Kurzrok, Andrew J.; Swarthout, Jordan M.

    2012-09-04

    Since 1957, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has worked to ensure the safe and responsible promotion of nuclear technology throughout the world. The IAEA operates at the intersection of the Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty’s (NPT) fourth and third articles, which guarantee Parties to the Treaty the right to peaceful uses of nuclear technology, provided those activities are placed under safeguards verified by the IAEA. However, while the IAEA has enjoyed substantial success and prestige in the international community, there is a concern that its resources are being stretched to a point where it may no longer be possible to execute its multifaceted mission in its entirety. As noted by the Director General (DG) in 2008, demographics suggest that every aspect of the IAEA’s operations will be in higher demand due to increasing reliance on non-carbon-based energy and the concomitant nonproliferation, safety, and security risks that growth entails. In addition to these nuclear energy concerns, the demand for technical developmental assistance in the fields of food security, resource conservation, and human health is also predicted to increase as the rest of the world develops. Even with a 100% value-for-money rating by the U.S. Office of Management and Budget (OMB) and being described as an “extraordinary bargain” by the United Nations Secretary-General’s High-level Panel on Threats, Challenges and Change, real budget growth at the Agency has been limited to zero-real growth for a better part of the last two decades. Although the 2012 regular budget (RB) received a small increase for most programs, the 2013 RB has been set at zero-real growth. As a result, the IAEA has had to defer infrastructure investments, which has hindered its ability to provide the public goods its Members seek, decreased global security and development opportunities, and functionally transformed the IAEA into a charity, dependent on extrabudgetary (EB) contributions to sustain

  20. Switching off or switching source : energy consumption and household

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gassmann, F.; Tsukada, R.

    2013-01-01

    "Access to energy is fundamental to improving quality of life and is a key imper- ative for economic development" (Energy Poverty Action). This is particularly true in Central Asia where winters are harsh and long. Changes in energy prices affect the purchasing power of households, hitting the poor

  1. Faeces is a reliable source of body water for measuring tritium in reindeer in summer and in winter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geir Gotaas

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Rates of equilibration and subsequent wash-out of tritium were measured in parallel samples of blood, rumen fluid and faeces collected from two adult female Norwegian reindeer in summer and in winter. The tritium-concentration was the same in all three body water compartments after no more than 9 h following both intravenous and intra-ruminal injection of isotope in summer and following intravenous injection of isotope in winter. The biological half-life of the tritium increased from approximately 3 days in summer to approximately 10 days in winter, probably as a consequence of a decrease in water intake. There were no significant differences in disappearance rates of tritium from blood, rumen fluid and faeces within any of the six experiments. Fresh faeces is therefore a reliable source of body water that can be used in place of blood in studies of body water kinetics in reindeer, thus making it potentially possible to conduct such studies on truly free-living and undisturbed animals.

  2. Energy loss caused by shielding effect of steel cage outside source tube

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The energy loss, produced by shielding effect of steel cage outside the source tube, is quite considerable.With PENELOPE software package, MC results have been obtained based on the simulation of different source conformations. The result illustrates that the naked source tubes can improve the utilization ratio of the cobalt facilities. It demonstrates the applied value of the naked source tube in engineering.

  3. Galactic sources of high energy neutrinos: Expectation from gamma-ray data

    CERN Document Server

    Sahakyan, N

    2015-01-01

    The recent results from ground based $\\gamma$-ray detectors (HESS, MAGIC, VERITAS) provide a population of TeV galactic $\\gamma$-ray sources which are potential sources of High Energy (HE) neutrinos. Since the $\\gamma$-rays and $\

  4. A multi-agent system for energy management of distributed power sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lagorse, Jeremy; Paire, Damien; Miraoui, Abdellatif [Systems and Transport Laboratory (SeT), University of Technology of Belfort-Montbeliard (UTBM), Rue Thierry Mieg, 90010 Belfort, Cedex (France)

    2010-01-15

    The field of energy management is an area increasingly studied. However, most solutions are based on centralized systems and barely fulfil criterion like fault tolerance or adaptability. Also, these systems are often difficult to design because of the 'top-down' approach used: the designer generally knows how each component has to respond separately, but a centralized management system focuses his attention solely on the overall reaction of the system. That is why a distributed management solution based on the paradigm of Multi-Agent Systems (MASs) is proposed in this paper. In addition to a more natural conception, based on a 'bottom-up' approach, this solution ensures better system reliability. After reviewing the previous works, an application of MAS to power management in a hybrid power source is presented. Then, the system is tested using a simulation model. The results show that this approach is perfectly valid and can respond to most problems of centralized energy management systems (EMSs). (author)

  5. Determination of Wave Model Uncertainties used for Probabilistic Reliability Assessments of Wave Energy Devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ambühl, Simon; Kofoed, Jens Peter; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2014-01-01

    Wave models used for site assessments are subject to model uncertainties, which need to be quantified when using wave model results for probabilistic reliability assessments. This paper focuses on determination of wave model uncertainties. Considered are four different wave models and validation...... data is collected from published scientific research. The bias, the root-mean-square error as well as the scatter index are considered for the significant wave height as well as the mean zero-crossing wave period. Based on an illustrative generic example it is shown how the estimated uncertainties can...

  6. High fidelity nuclear energy system optimization towards an environmentally benign, sustainable, and secure energy source.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsvetkov, Pavel Valeryevich (Texas A& M University, College Station, TX); Rodriguez, Salvador B.; Ames, David E., II (Texas A& M University, College Station, TX); Rochau, Gary Eugene

    2010-10-01

    A new high-fidelity integrated system method and analysis approach was developed and implemented for consistent and comprehensive evaluations of advanced fuel cycles leading to minimized Transuranic (TRU) inventories. The method has been implemented in a developed code system integrating capabilities of Monte Carlo N - Particle Extended (MCNPX) for high-fidelity fuel cycle component simulations. In this report, a Nuclear Energy System (NES) configuration was developed to take advantage of used fuel recycling and transmutation capabilities in waste management scenarios leading to minimized TRU waste inventories, long-term activities, and radiotoxicities. The reactor systems and fuel cycle components that make up the NES were selected for their ability to perform in tandem to produce clean, safe, and dependable energy in an environmentally conscious manner. The diversity in performance and spectral characteristics were used to enhance TRU waste elimination while efficiently utilizing uranium resources and providing an abundant energy source. A computational modeling approach was developed for integrating the individual models of the NES. A general approach was utilized allowing for the Integrated System Model (ISM) to be modified in order to provide simulation for other systems with similar attributes. By utilizing this approach, the ISM is capable of performing system evaluations under many different design parameter options. Additionally, the predictive capabilities of the ISM and its computational time efficiency allow for system sensitivity/uncertainty analysis and the implementation of optimization techniques.

  7. Reliability assessment of high energy particle induced radioactivity calculation code DCHAIN-SP 2001 by analysis of integral activation experiments with 14 MeV neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kai, Tetsuya; Maekawa, Fujio; Kasugai, Yoshimi; Takada, Hiroshi; Ikeda, Yujiro [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Kosako, Kazuaki [Sumitomo Atomic Energy Industries, Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    2002-03-01

    Reliability assessment for the high energy particle induced radioactivity calculation code DCHAIN-SP 2001 was carried out through analysis of integral activation experiments with 14-MeV neutrons aiming at validating the cross section and decay data revised from previous version. The following three kinds of experiments conducted at the D-T neutron source facility, FNS, in JAERI were employed: (1) the decay gamma-ray measurement experiment for fusion reactor materials, (2) the decay heat measurement experiment for 32 fusion reactor materials, and (3) the integral activation experiment on mercury. It was found that the calculations with DCHAIN-SP 2001 predicted the experimental data for (1) - (3) within several tens of percent. It was concluded that the cross section data below 20 MeV and the associated decay data as well as the calculation algorithm for solving the Beteman equation that was the master equation of DCHAIN-SP were adequate. (author)

  8. Third-party brachytherapy source calibrations and physicist responsibilities: report of the AAPM Low Energy Brachytherapy Source Calibration Working Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Wayne M; Bice, William S; DeWerd, Larry A; Hevezi, James M; Huq, M Saiful; Ibbott, Geoffrey S; Palta, Jatinder R; Rivard, Mark J; Seuntjens, Jan P; Thomadsen, Bruce R

    2008-09-01

    The AAPM Low Energy Brachytherapy Source Calibration Working Group was formed to investigate and recommend quality control and quality assurance procedures for brachytherapy sources prior to clinical use. Compiling and clarifying recommendations established by previous AAPM Task Groups 40, 56, and 64 were among the working group's charges, which also included the role of third-party handlers to perform loading and assay of sources. This document presents the findings of the working group on the responsibilities of the institutional medical physicist and a clarification of the existing AAPM recommendations in the assay of brachytherapy sources. Responsibility for the performance and attestation of source assays rests with the institutional medical physicist, who must use calibration equipment appropriate for each source type used at the institution. Such equipment and calibration procedures shall ensure secondary traceability to a national standard. For each multi-source implant, 10% of the sources or ten sources, whichever is greater, are to be assayed. Procedures for presterilized source packaging are outlined. The mean source strength of the assayed sources must agree with the manufacturer's stated strength to within 3%, or action must be taken to resolve the difference. Third party assays do not absolve the institutional physicist from the responsibility to perform the institutional measurement and attest to the strength of the implanted sources. The AAPM leaves it to the discretion of the institutional medical physicist whether the manufacturer's or institutional physicist's measured value should be used in performing dosimetry calculations.

  9. Dual energy with dual source CT and kVp switching with single source CT: a comparison of dual energy performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grasruck, M.; Kappler, S.; Reinwand, M.; Stierstorfer, K.

    2009-02-01

    Stimulated by the introduction of clinical dual source CT, the interest in dual energy methods has been increasing in the past years. Whereas the potential of material decomposition by dual energy methods is known since the early 1980ies, the realization of dual energy methods is a wide field of today's research. Energy separation can be achieved with energy selective detectors or by varying X-ray source spectra. This paper focuses on dual energy techniques with varying X-ray spectra. These can be provided by dual source CT devices, operated with different kVp settings on each tube. Excellent spectral separation is the key property for use in clinical routine. The drawback of higher cost for two tubes and two detectors leads to an alternative realization, where a single source CT yields different spectra by fast kVp switching from reading to reading. This provides access to dual-energy methods in single source CT. However, this technique comes with some intrinsic limitations. The maximum X-ray flux is reduced in comparison to the dual source system. The kVp rise and fall time between each reading reduces the spectral separation. In comparison to dual source CT, for a constant number of projections per energy spectrum the temporal resolution is reduced; a reasonable trade of between reduced numbers of projection and limited temporal resolution has to be found. The overall dual energy performance is the guiding line for our investigations. We present simulations and measurements which benchmark both solutions in terms of spectral behavior, especially of spectral separation.

  10. SIMULATION OF THE SYSTEMS WITH RENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCES USING HOMER SOFTWARE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FIRINCĂ S.D.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper simulates by using the Homer software, a distributed energy system with capacity below 1 MW. Among the renewable energy sources are used wind and solar energy. For photovoltaic panels, we are considering two situations: fixed panels, oriented at 45° and panels with tracking system with two axis. Simulation results contain information regarding operation hours of the system throughout the year, energy produced from the renewable energy sources, energy consumption for the load, and excess of electrical energy. The Homer software also allows an economic analysis of these systems.

  11. SIMULATION OF THE SYSTEMS WITH RENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCES USING HOMER SOFTWARE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FIRINCĂ S.D.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper simulates by using the Homer software, distributed energy systems with capacity below 1 MW. Among the renewable energy sources are used wind and solar energy. For photovoltaic panels, we are considering two situations: fixed panels, oriented at 45 ° and panels with tracking system with two axis. Simulation results contain information regarding operation hours of the system throughout the year, energy produced from the renewable energy sources, energy consumption for the load, and excess of electrical energy. The Homer software also allows an economic analysis of these systems.

  12. Renewable energy source use in Brazil; Utilizacao de energia renovavel no Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newman, Joseph; Rosa, Fabio, e-mails: jnewman@winrock.org.br, e-mail: fabrosa@terra.com.br

    2003-08-15

    This article evaluates the programs (PROINFA and CCC) developed by the State to deploy a policy of using renewable energy sources in Brazil, highlighting the biodiesel, which should be inserted in its energy matrix.

  13. ENERGY STAR Certified Non-AHRI Central Air Conditioner Equipment and Air Source Heat Pump

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 5.0 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Air Source Heat Pump and Central Air Conditioner...

  14. CAS institute, US national lab ink MOU on renewable energy sources

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    @@ Amemorandum of understanding (MOU) for cooperation on renewable energy sources was signed between the CAS Institute of Electrical Engineering (IEE) and the US National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) on 11 November,2008, in Beijing.

  15. The calorimetric measurement of low energy brachytherapy sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aus, Robert John

    Historically, the dose rate to tissue from 125I and 103Pd sources was based on a source's apparent activity in free space. The American Association of Physicists in Medicine Task Group 43 (TG43) established a protocol that clarified this formalism for the dose rate determination that was universally accepted in the Medical Physics community. The TG43 protocol is based on air kerma strength and a different set of conversion factors for determining the dose rate. However, there are still many uncertainties associated with this methodology. These uncertainties are predominantly the result of the unknown effects of variations in the source encapsulation and internal source structure on the dose distribution surrounding a source. Currently, there is no method of nondestructively determining the contained radioactivity of brachytherapy sources. Without the knowledge of the contained activity, the effects of source construction variations cannot be evaluated accurately. The goal of this work was to develop a calorimeter that measures the total power generated by a source. This information could then be used to nondestructively determine the contained radioactivity activity of a source. The power generated by three different, well characterized source designs of 125I brachytherapy seeds was measured with the calorimeter. A theoretical model of the calorimeter was also developed to demonstrate that the calorimeter operated as expected. The measured and theoretical temperature results for the three different source models were consistent within the uncertainty of the measurements. The consistency between the calorimetric measurements and the theoretical expected results demonstrates proof of principle of the calorimeter. The information determined from the model can also be useful for future calorimetric research by identifying required calorimeter design features, potential design improvements and potential difficulties.

  16. Elevated energy expenditure and reduced energy intake in obese prepubertal children: paradox of poor dietary reliability in obesity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maffeis, C; Schutz, Y; Zaffanello, M; Piccoli, R; Pinelli, L

    1994-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the validity of two common methods used to assess energy intake. A 3-day weighed dietary record and a dietary history were collected and compared with the total daily energy expenditure (TEE) assessed by the heart rate method in a group of 12 obese and 12 nonobese prepubertal children (mean age 9.3 +/- 1.1 years vs 9.3 +/- 0.4 years). The TEE value was higher in obese than in nonobese children (9.89 +/- 1.08 vs 8.13 +/- 1.39 MJ/day; p obese children (7.06 +/- 0.98 MJ/day; p obese children (8.37 +/- 1.35 MJ/day, p obese children underreport food intake and that the dietary record and the diet history are not valid means of assessing energy intake in obese prepubertal children.

  17. Green cooperative communication network using solar energy sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay kumar

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Solar energy has experienced phenomenal growth in recent years due to both technological improvements resulting in cost reductions and government policies supportive of renewable energy development and utilization. This study analyzes the technical, economic and policy aspects of solar energy development and deployment. While the cost of solar energy has declined rapidly in the recent past, it still remains much higher than the cost of conventional energy technologies. Like other renewable energy technologies, solar energy benefits from fiscal and regulatory incentives and mandates, including tax credits and exemptions, feed-in-tariff, preferential interest rates, renewable portfolio standards and voluntary green power programs in many countries. Potential expansion of carbon credit markets also would provide additional incentives to solar energy deployment; however, the scale of incentives provided by the existing carbon market instruments, such as the Clean Development Mechanism of the Kyoto Protocol, is limited. Despite the huge technical potential, development and large-scale, market-driven deployment of solar energy technologies worldwide still has to overcome a number of technical and financial barriers. Unless these barriers are overcome, maintaining and increasing electricity supplies from solar energy will require continuation of potentially costly policy support. Indexing terms/

  18. Energy use in Kenya: advancement of alternative energy sources to mitigate climate change through Activities Implemented Jointly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogola, J.S.; Omulo, M.A. [Climate Network Africa, Nairobi (Cayman Islands)

    1998-08-01

    The main energy sources in Kenya are biomass, hydropower and geothermal. The source of biomass fuel includes fuelwood, crop residues and animal waste; woodfuel processed through carbonization; biogas from animal waste processed through fermentation; power alcohol and waste-wood from industries. Woodfuel in 1992 provided about 70% of Kenya`s total energy supply. The annual energy consumption in Kenya is about 7 million tonnes of oil equivalent. The main consumers of energy are domestic household, 60%; transport and manufacturing, 13% each, agriculture, 10%; and commercial sector, 6%. Petroleum fuels account for about 20% of the net energy and meets about 86% of the industrial energy demand. The ability to produce hydropower is sensitive to climate-induced water supply changes as power generation turbines operates within a small range of water level variability. Global warming is likely to increase precipitation in the highlands of Kenya. This is bound to affect the five hydropower generating plants along Tana River which contribute about 78% to the national electricity grid. However, increased exploitation of the geothermal resources at Olkaria, Eburru and Lake Bogoria could alleviate the situation once the targeted output of 1000 MW is achieved. The paper carries out a review of the potential energy sources in the country and proposes a country study on the use of renewable sources of energy particularly among the rural population who currently rely heavily on fuelwood as a source of energy. The paper finally proposes specific projects for the AIJ undertaking. (author)

  19. Reliability and Energy Loss in Full-scale Wind Power Converter Considering Grid Codes and Wind Classes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Dao; Blaabjerg, Frede; Franke, Toke

    2014-01-01

    power converter is studied considering the grid code with reactive power production as well as the annual wind profile. Regarding the reliability, it is found that either the Over-Excited (OE) or the Under-Excited (UE) reactive power injection threatens the lifespan under all wind classes. Meanwhile...... if they are provided all year around, in which the OE reactive power injection even has a worse scenario. Moreover, it is also concluded that in order to realize an energy loss saving of the wind turbine system, the constant power factor control strategy is more preferred compared to an extreme reactive power...... injection....

  20. Structural Testing at the NWTC Helps Improve Blade Design and Increase System Reliability; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-08-01

    Since 1990, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory’s (NREL's) National Wind Technology Center (NWTC) has tested more than 150 wind turbine blades. NWTC researchers can test full-scale and subcomponent articles, conduct data analyses, and provide engineering expertise on best design practices. Structural testing of wind turbine blades enables designers, manufacturers, and owners to validate designs and assess structural performance to specific load conditions. Rigorous structural testing can reveal design and manufacturing problems at an early stage of development that can lead to overall improvements in design and increase system reliability.