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Sample records for reliability allocation strategies

  1. Asymmetric Programming: A Highly Reliable Metadata Allocation Strategy for MLC NAND Flash Memory-Based Sensor Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Min; Liu, Zhaoqing; Qiao, Liyan

    2014-01-01

    While the NAND flash memory is widely used as the storage medium in modern sensor systems, the aggressive shrinking of process geometry and an increase in the number of bits stored in each memory cell will inevitably degrade the reliability of NAND flash memory. In particular, it's critical to enhance metadata reliability, which occupies only a small portion of the storage space, but maintains the critical information of the file system and the address translations of the storage system. Metadata damage will cause the system to crash or a large amount of data to be lost. This paper presents Asymmetric Programming, a highly reliable metadata allocation strategy for MLC NAND flash memory storage systems. Our technique exploits for the first time the property of the multi-page architecture of MLC NAND flash memory to improve the reliability of metadata. The basic idea is to keep metadata in most significant bit (MSB) pages which are more reliable than least significant bit (LSB) pages. Thus, we can achieve relatively low bit error rates for metadata. Based on this idea, we propose two strategies to optimize address mapping and garbage collection. We have implemented Asymmetric Programming on a real hardware platform. The experimental results show that Asymmetric Programming can achieve a reduction in the number of page errors of up to 99.05% with the baseline error correction scheme. PMID:25310473

  2. Asymmetric Programming: A Highly Reliable Metadata Allocation Strategy for MLC NAND Flash Memory-Based Sensor Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Huang

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available While the NAND flash memory is widely used as the storage medium in modern sensor systems, the aggressive shrinking of process geometry and an increase in the number of bits stored in each memory cell will inevitably degrade the reliability of NAND flash memory. In particular, it’s critical to enhance metadata reliability, which occupies only a small portion of the storage space, but maintains the critical information of the file system and the address translations of the storage system. Metadata damage will cause the system to crash or a large amount of data to be lost. This paper presents Asymmetric Programming, a highly reliable metadata allocation strategy for MLC NAND flash memory storage systems. Our technique exploits for the first time the property of the multi-page architecture of MLC NAND flash memory to improve the reliability of metadata. The basic idea is to keep metadata in most significant bit (MSB pages which are more reliable than least significant bit (LSB pages. Thus, we can achieve relatively low bit error rates for metadata. Based on this idea, we propose two strategies to optimize address mapping and garbage collection. We have implemented Asymmetric Programming on a real hardware platform. The experimental results show that Asymmetric Programming can achieve a reduction in the number of page errors of up to 99.05% with the baseline error correction scheme.

  3. Risk and reliability allocation to risk control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vojnovic, D.; Kozuh, M.

    1992-01-01

    The risk allocation procedure is used as an analytical model to support the optimal decision making for reliability/availability improvement planning. Both levels of decision criteria, the plant risk measures and plant performance indices, are used in risk allocation procedure. Decision support system uses the multi objective decision making concept. (author) [sl

  4. Methodology for allocating reliability and risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, N.Z.; Papazoglou, I.A.; Bari, R.A.

    1986-05-01

    This report describes a methodology for reliability and risk allocation in nuclear power plants. The work investigates the technical feasibility of allocating reliability and risk, which are expressed in a set of global safety criteria and which may not necessarily be rigid, to various reactor systems, subsystems, components, operations, and structures in a consistent manner. The report also provides general discussions on the problem of reliability and risk allocation. The problem is formulated as a multiattribute decision analysis paradigm. The work mainly addresses the first two steps of a typical decision analysis, i.e., (1) identifying alternatives, and (2) generating information on outcomes of the alternatives, by performing a multiobjective optimization on a PRA model and reliability cost functions. The multiobjective optimization serves as the guiding principle to reliability and risk allocation. The concept of ''noninferiority'' is used in the multiobjective optimization problem. Finding the noninferior solution set is the main theme of the current approach. The final step of decision analysis, i.e., assessment of the decision maker's preferences could then be performed more easily on the noninferior solution set. Some results of the methodology applications to a nontrivial risk model are provided, and several outstanding issues such as generic allocation, preference assessment, and uncertainty are discussed. 29 refs., 44 figs., 39 tabs

  5. Reliability allocation in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bari, R.A.; Cho, N.Z.; Papazoglou, I.A.

    1985-01-01

    The technical feasibility of allocating reliability and risk to reactor systems, subsystems, components, operations, and structures is investigated. A methodology is discussed which identifies top level risk indices as objective functions and plant-specific performance variables as decision variables. These are related by a risk model which includes cost as a top level risk index. A multiobjective optimization procedure is used to find non-inferior solutions in terms of the objective functions and the decision variables. The approach is illustrated for a boiling water reactor plant. The use of the methodology for both operating reactors and for advanced designs is briefly discussed. 16 refs., 1 fig

  6. Optimal allocation of trend following strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grebenkov, Denis S.; Serror, Jeremy

    2015-09-01

    We consider a portfolio allocation problem for trend following (TF) strategies on multiple correlated assets. Under simplifying assumptions of a Gaussian market and linear TF strategies, we derive analytical formulas for the mean and variance of the portfolio return. We construct then the optimal portfolio that maximizes risk-adjusted return by accounting for inter-asset correlations. The dynamic allocation problem for n assets is shown to be equivalent to the classical static allocation problem for n2 virtual assets that include lead-lag corrections in positions of TF strategies. The respective roles of asset auto-correlations and inter-asset correlations are investigated in depth for the two-asset case and a sector model. In contrast to the principle of diversification suggesting to treat uncorrelated assets, we show that inter-asset correlations allow one to estimate apparent trends more reliably and to adjust the TF positions more efficiently. If properly accounted for, inter-asset correlations are not deteriorative but beneficial for portfolio management that can open new profit opportunities for trend followers. These concepts are illustrated using daily returns of three highly correlated futures markets: the E-mini S&P 500, Euro Stoxx 50 index, and the US 10-year T-note futures.

  7. Evolving Reliability and Maintainability Allocations for NASA Ground Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munoz, Gisela; Toon, T.; Toon, J.; Conner, A.; Adams, T.; Miranda, D.

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the methodology and value of modifying allocations to reliability and maintainability requirements for the NASA Ground Systems Development and Operations (GSDO) programs subsystems. As systems progressed through their design life cycle and hardware data became available, it became necessary to reexamine the previously derived allocations. This iterative process provided an opportunity for the reliability engineering team to reevaluate allocations as systems moved beyond their conceptual and preliminary design phases. These new allocations are based on updated designs and maintainability characteristics of the components. It was found that trade-offs in reliability and maintainability were essential to ensuring the integrity of the reliability and maintainability analysis. This paper discusses the results of reliability and maintainability reallocations made for the GSDO subsystems as the program nears the end of its design phase.

  8. Reliability allocation problem in a series-parallel system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yalaoui, Alice; Chu, Chengbin; Chatelet, Eric

    2005-01-01

    In order to improve system reliability, designers may introduce in a system different technologies in parallel. When each technology is composed of components in series, the configuration belongs to the series-parallel systems. This type of system has not been studied as much as the parallel-series architecture. There exist no methods dedicated to the reliability allocation in series-parallel systems with different technologies. We propose in this paper theoretical and practical results for the allocation problem in a series-parallel system. Two resolution approaches are developed. Firstly, a one stage problem is studied and the results are exploited for the multi-stages problem. A theoretical condition for obtaining the optimal allocation is developed. Since this condition is too restrictive, we secondly propose an alternative approach based on an approximated function and the results of the one-stage study. This second approach is applied to numerical examples

  9. Optimizing multiple reliable forward contracts for reservoir allocation using multitime scale streamflow forecasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Mengqian; Lall, Upmanu; Robertson, Andrew W.; Cook, Edward

    2017-03-01

    Streamflow forecasts at multiple time scales provide a new opportunity for reservoir management to address competing objectives. Market instruments such as forward contracts with specified reliability are considered as a tool that may help address the perceived risk associated with the use of such forecasts in lieu of traditional operation and allocation strategies. A water allocation process that enables multiple contracts for water supply and hydropower production with different durations, while maintaining a prescribed level of flood risk reduction, is presented. The allocation process is supported by an optimization model that considers multitime scale ensemble forecasts of monthly streamflow and flood volume over the upcoming season and year, the desired reliability and pricing of proposed contracts for hydropower and water supply. It solves for the size of contracts at each reliability level that can be allocated for each future period, while meeting target end of period reservoir storage with a prescribed reliability. The contracts may be insurable, given that their reliability is verified through retrospective modeling. The process can allow reservoir operators to overcome their concerns as to the appropriate skill of probabilistic forecasts, while providing water users with short-term and long-term guarantees as to how much water or energy they may be allocated. An application of the optimization model to the Bhakra Dam, India, provides an illustration of the process. The issues of forecast skill and contract performance are examined. A field engagement of the idea is useful to develop a real-world perspective and needs a suitable institutional environment.

  10. Transmission embedded cost allocation methodology with consideration of system reliability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hur, D.; Park, J.-K.; Yoo, C.-I.; Kim, B.H.

    2004-01-01

    In a vertically integrated utility industry, the cost of reliability, as a separate service, has not received much rigorous analysis. However, as a cornerstone of restructuring the industry, the transmission service pricing must change to be consistent with, and supportive of, competitive wholesale electricity markets. This paper focuses on the equitable allocation of transmission network embedded costs including the transmission reliability cost based on the contributions of each generator to branch flows under normal conditions as well as the line outage impact factor under a variety of load levels. A numerical example on a six-bus system is given to illustrate the applications of the proposed methodology. (author)

  11. Reliability–redundancy allocation problem considering optimal redundancy strategy using parallel genetic algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Heungseob; Kim, Pansoo

    2017-01-01

    To maximize the reliability of a system, the traditional reliability–redundancy allocation problem (RRAP) determines the component reliability and level of redundancy for each subsystem. This paper proposes an advanced RRAP that also considers the optimal redundancy strategy, either active or cold standby. In addition, new examples are presented for it. Furthermore, the exact reliability function for a cold standby redundant subsystem with an imperfect detector/switch is suggested, and is expected to replace the previous approximating model that has been used in most related studies. A parallel genetic algorithm for solving the RRAP as a mixed-integer nonlinear programming model is presented, and its performance is compared with those of previous studies by using numerical examples on three benchmark problems. - Highlights: • Optimal strategy is proposed to solve reliability redundancy allocation problem. • The redundancy strategy uses parallel genetic algorithm. • Improved reliability function for a cold standby subsystem is suggested. • Proposed redundancy strategy enhances the system reliability.

  12. A tactical asset allocation strategy that exploits variations in VIX

    OpenAIRE

    Richard Cloutier; Arsen Djatej; Dean Kiefer

    2017-01-01

    Buy and hold strategies make staying disciplined difficult for investors, especially given the variability of returns for different asset classes/strategies during divergent market conditions. Market timing strategies, on the other hand, present significant theoretical benefits, but in reality these benefits are difficult to obtain. Tactical asset allocation, where limited deviations from the strategic allocation are allowed permits the portfolio manager to take advantage of market conditions...

  13. Method of reliability allocation based on fault tree analysis and fuzzy math in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Zhaobing; Deng Jian; Cao Xuewu

    2005-01-01

    Reliability allocation is a kind of a difficult multi-objective optimization problem. It can not only be applied to determine the reliability characteristic of reactor systems, subsystem and main components but also be performed to improve the design, operation and maintenance of nuclear plants. The fuzzy math known as one of the powerful tools for fuzzy optimization and the fault analysis deemed to be one of the effective methods of reliability analysis can be applied to the reliability allocation model so as to work out the problems of fuzzy characteristic of some factors and subsystem's choice respectively in this paper. Thus we develop a failure rate allocation model on the basis of the fault tree analysis and fuzzy math. For the choice of the reliability constraint factors, we choose the six important ones according to practical need for conducting the reliability allocation. The subsystem selected by the top-level fault tree analysis is to avoid allocating reliability for all the equipment and components including the unnecessary parts. During the reliability process, some factors can be calculated or measured quantitatively while others only can be assessed qualitatively by the expert rating method. So we adopt fuzzy decision and dualistic contrast to realize the reliability allocation with the help of fault tree analysis. Finally the example of the emergency diesel generator's reliability allocation is used to illustrate reliability allocation model and improve this model simple and applicable. (authors)

  14. A hybrid Jaya algorithm for reliability-redundancy allocation problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghavidel, Sahand; Azizivahed, Ali; Li, Li

    2018-04-01

    This article proposes an efficient improved hybrid Jaya algorithm based on time-varying acceleration coefficients (TVACs) and the learning phase introduced in teaching-learning-based optimization (TLBO), named the LJaya-TVAC algorithm, for solving various types of nonlinear mixed-integer reliability-redundancy allocation problems (RRAPs) and standard real-parameter test functions. RRAPs include series, series-parallel, complex (bridge) and overspeed protection systems. The search power of the proposed LJaya-TVAC algorithm for finding the optimal solutions is first tested on the standard real-parameter unimodal and multi-modal functions with dimensions of 30-100, and then tested on various types of nonlinear mixed-integer RRAPs. The results are compared with the original Jaya algorithm and the best results reported in the recent literature. The optimal results obtained with the proposed LJaya-TVAC algorithm provide evidence for its better and acceptable optimization performance compared to the original Jaya algorithm and other reported optimal results.

  15. Designing equitable antiretroviral allocation strategies in resource-constrained countries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David P Wilson

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Recently, a global commitment has been made to expand access to antiretrovirals (ARVs in the developing world. However, in many resource-constrained countries the number of individuals infected with HIV in need of treatment will far exceed the supply of ARVs, and only a limited number of health-care facilities (HCFs will be available for ARV distribution. Deciding how to allocate the limited supply of ARVs among HCFs will be extremely difficult. Resource allocation decisions can be made on the basis of many epidemiological, ethical, or preferential treatment priority criteria.Here we use operations research techniques, and we show how to determine the optimal strategy for allocating ARVs among HCFs in order to satisfy the equitable criterion that each individual infected with HIV has an equal chance of receiving ARVs. We present a novel spatial mathematical model that includes heterogeneity in treatment accessibility. We show how to use our theoretical framework, in conjunction with an equity objective function, to determine an optimal equitable allocation strategy (OEAS for ARVs in resource-constrained regions. Our equity objective function enables us to apply the egalitarian principle of equity with respect to access to health care. We use data from the detailed ARV rollout plan designed by the government of South Africa to determine an OEAS for the province of KwaZulu-Natal. We determine the OEAS for KwaZulu-Natal, and we then compare this OEAS with two other ARV allocation strategies: (i allocating ARVs only to Durban (the largest urban city in KwaZulu-Natal province and (ii allocating ARVs equally to all available HCFs. In addition, we compare the OEAS to the current allocation plan of the South African government (which is based upon allocating ARVs to 17 HCFs. We show that our OEAS significantly improves equity in treatment accessibility in comparison with these three ARV allocation strategies. We also quantify how the size of the

  16. Application of genetic algorithm for reliability allocation in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Joon-Eon; Hwang, Mee-Jung; Sung, Tae-Yong; Jin, Youngho

    1999-01-01

    Reliability allocation is an optimization process of minimizing the total plant costs subject to the overall plant safety goal constraints. Reliability allocation was applied to determine the reliability characteristics of reactor systems, subsystems, major components and plant procedures that are consistent with a set of top-level performance goals; the core melt frequency, acute fatalities and latent fatalities. Reliability allocation can be performed to improve the design, operation and safety of new and/or existing nuclear power plants. Reliability allocation is a kind of a difficult multi-objective optimization problem as well as a global optimization problem. The genetic algorithm, known as one of the most powerful tools for most optimization problems, is applied to the reliability allocation problem of a typical pressurized water reactor in this article. One of the main problems of reliability allocation is defining realistic objective functions. Hence, in order to optimize the reliability of the system, the cost for improving and/or degrading the reliability of the system should be included in the reliability allocation process. We used techniques derived from the value impact analysis to define the realistic objective function in this article

  17. Return models and dynamic asset allocation strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Shi, Wyanet Wen

    2017-01-01

    This thesis studies the design of optimal investment strategies. A strategy is considered optimal when it minimizes the variance of terminal portfolio wealth for a given level of expected terminal portfolio wealth, or equivalently, maximizes an investor's utility. We study this issue in two particular situations: when asset returns follow a continuous-time path-independent process, and when they follow a discrete-time path-dependent process. Continuous-time path-independent return mode...

  18. Methodology for reliability allocation based on fault tree analysis and dualistic contrast

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TONG Lili; CAO Xuewu

    2008-01-01

    Reliability allocation is a difficult multi-objective optimization problem.This paper presents a methodology for reliability allocation that can be applied to determine the reliability characteristics of reactor systems or subsystems.The dualistic contrast,known as one of the most powerful tools for optimization problems,is applied to the reliability allocation model of a typical system in this article.And the fault tree analysis,deemed to be one of the effective methods of reliability analysis,is also adopted.Thus a failure rate allocation model based on the fault tree analysis and dualistic contrast is achieved.An application on the emergency diesel generator in the nuclear power plant is given to illustrate the proposed method.

  19. Success in Investing: Integrating Spending Policy into Asset Allocation Strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrell, Louis R.

    1996-01-01

    Successful college and university investments hinge on an asset allocation strategy capable of meeting the institution's needs for income and growth in principal at the lowest possible risk. Periodic adjustments must be made when there is a shift in the institution's risk tolerance, modification in need for income distribution, and changes in…

  20. Strategy for allocating the MSD magnets and vacuum chambers

    CERN Document Server

    Gyr, M; Jeanneret, Jean Bernard; Ramberger, S

    2006-01-01

    An analogous strategy as applied for the MSI septum magnets allows an optimisation of the installation of the MSD septa regarding magnet and chamber allocation. Even if the gain in aperture is small, of the order of half a millimetre, it is not negligible and- being essentially for free - should nevertheless be implemented.

  1. Transmission cost allocation based on power flow tracing considering reliability benefit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leepreechanon, N.; Singharerg, S.; Padungwech, W.; Nakawiro, W.; Eua-Arporn, B.; David, A.K.

    2007-01-01

    Power transmission networks must be able to accommodate the continuously growing demand for reliable and economical electricity. This paper presented a method to allocate transmission use and reliability cost to both generators and end-consumers. Although transmission cost allocation methods change depending on the local context of the electric power industry, there is a common principle that transmission line capacity should be properly allocated to accommodate actual power delivery with an adequate reliability margin. The method proposed in this paper allocates transmission embedded cost to both generators and loads in an equitable manner, incorporating probability indices to allocate transmission reliability margin among users in both supply and demand sides. The application of the proposed method was illustrated using Bialek's tracing method on a multiple-circuit, six-bus transmission system. Probabilistic indices known as the transmission internal reliability margin (TIRM) and transmission external reliability margin (TERM) decomposed from the transmission reliability margin (TRM) were introduced, making true cost of using overall transmission facilities. 6 refs., 11 tabs., 5 figs

  2. A new reliability allocation weight for reducing the occurrence of severe failure effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Kyungmee O.; Yang, Yoonjung; Zuo, Ming J.

    2013-01-01

    A reliability allocation weight is used during the early design stage of a system to apportion the system reliability requirement to its individual subsystems. Since some failures have serious effects on public safety, cost and environmental issues especially in a mission critical system, the failure effect must be considered as one of the important factors in determining the allocation weight. Previously, the risk priority number or the criticality number was used to consider the failure effect in the allocation weight. In this paper, we identify the limitations of the previous approach and propose a new allocation weight based on the subsystem failure severity and its relative frequency. An example is given to illustrate that the proposed method is more effective than the previous method for reducing the occurrence of the unacceptable failure effects in a newly designed system

  3. Decision-theoretic methodology for reliability and risk allocation in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, N.Z.; Papazoglou, I.A.; Bari, R.A.; El-Bassioni, A.

    1985-01-01

    This paper describes a methodology for allocating reliability and risk to various reactor systems, subsystems, components, operations, and structures in a consistent manner, based on a set of global safety criteria which are not rigid. The problem is formulated as a multiattribute decision analysis paradigm; the multiobjective optimization, which is performed on a PRA model and reliability cost functions, serves as the guiding principle for reliability and risk allocation. The concept of noninferiority is used in the multiobjective optimization problem. Finding the noninferior solution set is the main theme of the current approach. The assessment of the decision maker's preferences could then be performed more easily on the noninferior solution set. Some results of the methodology applications to a nontrivial risk model are provided and several outstanding issues such as generic allocation and preference assessment are discussed

  4. An efficient simulated annealing algorithm for the redundancy allocation problem with a choice of redundancy strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chambari, Amirhossain; Najafi, Amir Abbas; Rahmati, Seyed Habib A.; Karimi, Aida

    2013-01-01

    The redundancy allocation problem (RAP) is an important reliability optimization problem. This paper studies a specific RAP in which redundancy strategies are chosen. To do so, the choice of the redundancy strategies among active and cold standby is considered as decision variables. The goal is to select the redundancy strategy, component, and redundancy level for each subsystem such that the system reliability is maximized. Since RAP is a NP-hard problem, we propose an efficient simulated annealing algorithm (SA) to solve it. In addition, to evaluating the performance of the proposed algorithm, it is compared with well-known algorithms in the literature for different test problems. The results of the performance analysis show a relatively satisfactory efficiency of the proposed SA algorithm

  5. Power allocation strategies to minimize energy consumption in wireless body area networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kailas, Aravind

    2011-01-01

    The wide scale deployment of wireless body area networks (WBANs) hinges on designing energy efficient communication protocols to support the reliable communication as well as to prolong the network lifetime. Cooperative communications, a relatively new idea in wireless communications, offers the benefits of multi-antenna systems, thereby improving the link reliability and boosting energy efficiency. In this short paper, the advantages of resorting to cooperative communications for WBANs in terms of minimized energy consumption are investigated. Adopting an energy model that encompasses energy consumptions in the transmitter and receiver circuits, and transmitting energy per bit, it is seen that cooperative transmission can improve energy efficiency of the wireless network. In particular, the problem of optimal power allocation is studied with the constraint of targeted outage probability. Two strategies of power allocation are considered: power allocation with and without posture state information. Using analysis and simulation-based results, two key points are demonstrated: (i) allocating power to the on-body sensors making use of the posture information can reduce the total energy consumption of the WBAN; and (ii) when the channel condition is good, it is better to recruit less relays for cooperation to enhance energy efficiency.

  6. Multi-objective reliability redundancy allocation in an interval environment using particle swarm optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Enze; Chen, Qingwei

    2016-01-01

    Most of the existing works addressing reliability redundancy allocation problems are based on the assumption of fixed reliabilities of components. In real-life situations, however, the reliabilities of individual components may be imprecise, most often given as intervals, under different operating or environmental conditions. This paper deals with reliability redundancy allocation problems modeled in an interval environment. An interval multi-objective optimization problem is formulated from the original crisp one, where system reliability and cost are simultaneously considered. To render the multi-objective particle swarm optimization (MOPSO) algorithm capable of dealing with interval multi-objective optimization problems, a dominance relation for interval-valued functions is defined with the help of our newly proposed order relations of interval-valued numbers. Then, the crowding distance is extended to the multi-objective interval-valued case. Finally, the effectiveness of the proposed approach has been demonstrated through two numerical examples and a case study of supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) system in water resource management. - Highlights: • We model the reliability redundancy allocation problem in an interval environment. • We apply the particle swarm optimization directly on the interval values. • A dominance relation for interval-valued multi-objective functions is defined. • The crowding distance metric is extended to handle imprecise objective functions.

  7. Reliability-oriented multi-resource allocation in a stochastic-flow network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsieh, C.-C.; Lin, M.-H.

    2003-01-01

    A stochastic-flow network consists of a set of nodes, including source nodes which supply various resources and sink nodes at which resource demands take place, and a collection of arcs whose capacities have multiple operational states. The network reliability of such a stochastic-flow network is the probability that resources can be successfully transmitted from source nodes through multi-capacitated arcs to sink nodes. Although the evaluation schemes of network reliability in stochastic-flow networks have been extensively studied in the literature, how to allocate various resources at source nodes in a reliable means remains unanswered. In this study, a resource allocation problem in a stochastic-flow network is formulated that aims to determine the optimal resource allocation policy at source nodes subject to given resource demands at sink nodes such that the network reliability of the stochastic-flow network is maximized, and an algorithm for computing the optimal resource allocation is proposed that incorporates the principle of minimal path vectors. A numerical example is given to illustrate the proposed algorithm

  8. Reliability analysis and component functional allocations for the ESF multi-loop controller design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hur, Seop; Kim, D.H.; Choi, J.K.; Park, J.C.; Seong, S.H.; Lee, D.Y.

    2006-01-01

    This paper deals with the reliability analysis and component functional allocations to ensure the enhanced system reliability and availability. In the Engineered Safety Features, functionally dependent components are controlled by a multi-loop controller. The system reliability of the Engineered Safety Features-Component Control System, especially, the multi-loop controller which is changed comparing to the conventional controllers is an important factor for the Probability Safety Assessment in the nuclear field. To evaluate the multi-loop controller's failure rate of the k-out-of-m redundant system, the binomial process is used. In addition, the component functional allocation is performed to tolerate a single multi-loop controller failure without the loss of vital operation within the constraints of the piping and component configuration, and ensure that mechanically redundant components remain functional. (author)

  9. A New Biobjective Model to Optimize Integrated Redundancy Allocation and Reliability-Centered Maintenance Problems in a System Using Metaheuristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shima MohammadZadeh Dogahe

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel integrated model is proposed to optimize the redundancy allocation problem (RAP and the reliability-centered maintenance (RCM simultaneously. A system of both repairable and nonrepairable components has been considered. In this system, electronic components are nonrepairable while mechanical components are mostly repairable. For nonrepairable components, a redundancy allocation problem is dealt with to determine optimal redundancy strategy and number of redundant components to be implemented in each subsystem. In addition, a maintenance scheduling problem is considered for repairable components in order to identify the best maintenance policy and optimize system reliability. Both active and cold standby redundancy strategies have been taken into account for electronic components. Also, net present value of the secondary cost including operational and maintenance costs has been calculated. The problem is formulated as a biobjective mathematical programming model aiming to reach a tradeoff between system reliability and cost. Three metaheuristic algorithms are employed to solve the proposed model: Nondominated Sorting Genetic Algorithm (NSGA-II, Multiobjective Particle Swarm Optimization (MOPSO, and Multiobjective Firefly Algorithm (MOFA. Several test problems are solved using the mentioned algorithms to test efficiency and effectiveness of the solution approaches and obtained results are analyzed.

  10. A dynamic programming algorithm for the buffer allocation problem in homogeneous asymptotically reliable serial production lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diamantidis A. C.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the buffer allocation problem (BAP in homogeneous, asymptotically reliable serial production lines is considered. A known aggregation method, given by Lim, Meerkov, and Top (1990, for the performance evaluation (i.e., estimation of throughput of this type of production lines when the buffer allocation is known, is used as an evaluative method in conjunction with a newly developed dynamic programming (DP algorithm for the BAP. The proposed algorithm is applied to production lines where the number of machines is varying from four up to a hundred machines. The proposed algorithm is fast because it reduces the volume of computations by rejecting allocations that do not lead to maximization of the line's throughput. Numerical results are also given for large production lines.

  11. A Chronological Reliability Model to Assess Operating Reserve Allocation to Wind Power Plants: Preprint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milligan, M. R.

    2001-01-01

    As the use of wind power plants increases worldwide, it is important to understand the effect these power sources have on the operations of the grid. This paper focuses on the operating reserve impact of wind power plants. Many probabilistic methods have been applied to power system analysis, and some of these are the basis of reliability analysis. This paper builds on a probabilistic technique to allocate the operating reserve burden among power plants in the grid. The method was originally posed by Strbac and Kirschen[1] and uses an allocation that prorates the reserve burden based on expected energy not delivered. Extending this method to include wind power plants allows the reserve burden to be allocated among different plants using the same method, yet incorporates information about the intermittent nature of wind power plants

  12. RIO: a program to determine reliability importance and allocate optimal reliability goals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poloski, J.P.

    1978-09-01

    The designer of a nuclear plant must know the plant's associated risk limitations so that he can design the plant accordingly. To design a safety system, he must understand its importance and how it relates to the overall plant risk. The computer program RIO can aid the designer to understand a system's contribution to the plant's overall risk. The methodology developed and presented was sponsored by the Nuclear Research Applications Division of the Department of Energy for use in the Gas Cooled Fast Breeder Reactor (GCFR) Program. The principal motivation behind its development was the need to translate nuclear plants safety goals into reliability goals for systems which make up that plant. The method described herein will make use of the GCFR Accident Initiation and Progression Analyses (AIPA) event trees and other models in order to determine these reliability goals

  13. Comprehensive reliability allocation method for CNC lathes based on cubic transformed functions of failure mode and effects analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhou; Zhu, Yunpeng; Ren, Hongrui; Zhang, Yimin

    2015-03-01

    Reliability allocation of computerized numerical controlled(CNC) lathes is very important in industry. Traditional allocation methods only focus on high-failure rate components rather than moderate failure rate components, which is not applicable in some conditions. Aiming at solving the problem of CNC lathes reliability allocating, a comprehensive reliability allocation method based on cubic transformed functions of failure modes and effects analysis(FMEA) is presented. Firstly, conventional reliability allocation methods are introduced. Then the limitations of direct combination of comprehensive allocation method with the exponential transformed FMEA method are investigated. Subsequently, a cubic transformed function is established in order to overcome these limitations. Properties of the new transformed functions are discussed by considering the failure severity and the failure occurrence. Designers can choose appropriate transform amplitudes according to their requirements. Finally, a CNC lathe and a spindle system are used as an example to verify the new allocation method. Seven criteria are considered to compare the results of the new method with traditional methods. The allocation results indicate that the new method is more flexible than traditional methods. By employing the new cubic transformed function, the method covers a wider range of problems in CNC reliability allocation without losing the advantages of traditional methods.

  14. REALIZATION STRATEGY OF BUDGET ALLOCATION TO DISSEMINATING OF DEVELOPMENT INFOMATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarmidzi

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study is to know the strategy of realization for budget allocation of 2016 for disseminating of development information in news and communication Information Division, especially in Publication and Media Relation Sub Division at Public Relation and Protocol Bureau, Provincial Secretariat of West Nusa Tenggara. This study uses descriptive qualitative approach and tends to find a meaning from data obtained from the result of a research. It is intended to describe the description of existing data or theories and the resulting findings. In this case, the researchers collected data by conducting in-depth interviews and the use of information access test methods of eleven informants. The results show that there are limitations of publication budget on Sub Division of Publication and Media Relations at Public Relations Bureau and Protocol Provincial Secretariat of West Nusa Tenggara, the inappropriate use of the strategy, the lack of harmony of internal relations both within the environment of public relations officials themselves and with the media crew, the presumption that the Trip Press budget is in vain, less than the maximum use of media Internal and outdoor media.

  15. Solving the redundancy allocation problem with multiple strategy choices using a new simplified particle swarm optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kong, Xiangyong; Gao, Liqun; Ouyang, Haibin; Li, Steven

    2015-01-01

    In most research on redundancy allocation problem (RAP), the redundancy strategy for each subsystem is assumed to be predetermined and fixed. This paper focuses on a specific RAP with multiple strategy choices (RAP-MSC), in which both active redundancy and cold standby redundancy can be selected as an additional decision variable for individual subsystems. To do so, the component type, redundancy strategy and redundancy level for each subsystem should be chosen subject to the system constraints appropriately such that the system reliability is maximized. Meanwhile, imperfect switching for cold standby redundancy is considered and a k-Erlang distribution is introduced to model the time-to-failure component as well. Given the importance and complexity of RAP-MSC, we propose a new efficient simplified version of particle swarm optimization (SPSO) to solve such NP-hard problems. In this method, a new position updating scheme without velocity is presented with stochastic disturbance and a low probability. Moreover, it is compared with several well-known PSO variants and other state-of-the-art approaches in the literature to evaluate its performance. The experiment results demonstrate the superiority of SPSO as an alternative for solving the RAP-MSC. - Highlights: • A more realistic RAP form with multiple strategy choices is focused. • Redundancy strategies are to be selected rather than fixed in general RAP. • A new simplified particle swarm optimization is proposed. • Higher reliabilities are achieved than the state-of-the-art approaches.

  16. A new model for the redundancy allocation problem with component mixing and mixed redundancy strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gholinezhad, Hadi; Zeinal Hamadani, Ali

    2017-01-01

    This paper develops a new model for redundancy allocation problem. In this paper, like many recent papers, the choice of the redundancy strategy is considered as a decision variable. But, in our model each subsystem can exploit both active and cold-standby strategies simultaneously. Moreover, the model allows for component mixing such that components of different types may be used in each subsystem. The problem, therefore, boils down to determining the types of components, redundancy levels, and number of active and cold-standby units of each type for each subsystem to maximize system reliability by considering such constraints as available budget, weight, and space. Since RAP belongs to the NP-hard class of optimization problems, a genetic algorithm (GA) is developed for solving the problem. Finally, the performance of the proposed algorithm is evaluated by applying it to a well-known test problem from the literature with relatively satisfactory results. - Highlights: • A new model for the redundancy allocation problem in series–parallel systems is proposed. • The redundancy strategy of each subsystem is considered as a decision variable and can be active, cold-standby or mixed. • Component mixing is allowed, in other words components of any subsystem can be non-identical. • A genetic algorithm is developed for solving the problem. • Computational experiments demonstrate that the new model leads to interesting results.

  17. Systematic review of strategies to manage and allocate scarce resources during mass casualty events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timbie, Justin W; Ringel, Jeanne S; Fox, D Steven; Pillemer, Francesca; Waxman, Daniel A; Moore, Melinda; Hansen, Cynthia K; Knebel, Ann R; Ricciardi, Richard; Kellermann, Arthur L

    2013-06-01

    distribution. Second, as a strategy to optimize use of existing resources, commonly used field triage systems do not perform consistently during actual mass casualty events. The number of high-quality studies addressing other strategies was insufficient to support conclusions about their effectiveness because of differences in study context, comparison groups, and outcome measures. Our literature search may have missed key resource management and allocation strategies because of their extreme heterogeneity. Interrater reliability was not assessed for quality assessments or strength of evidence ratings. Publication bias is likely, given the large number of studies reporting positive findings. The current evidence base is inadequate to inform providers and policymakers about the most effective strategies for managing or allocating scarce resources during mass casualty events. Consensus on methodological standards that encompass a range of study designs is needed to guide future research and strengthen the evidence base. Evidentiary standards should be developed to promote consensus interpretations of the evidence supporting individual strategies. Copyright © 2013 American College of Emergency Physicians. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Allocation Anatomy: How District Policies That Deploy Resources Can Support (or Undermine) District Reform Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roza, Marguerite

    2008-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to explore the effects of micro-budgeting decisions and show how they might support or hamper district reform strategies. The study draws on public and private sector resource allocation literature to identify key elements of resource allocation decisions. These elements are used to highlight different allocation…

  19. The Heterogeneous Investment Horizon and Dynamic Strategies for Asset Allocation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Heping; Xu, Yiheng; Xiao, Yi

    This paper discusses the influence of the portfolio rebalancing strategy on the efficiency of long-term investment portfolios under the assumption of independent stationary distribution of returns. By comparing the efficient sets of the stochastic rebalancing strategy, the simple rebalancing strategy and the buy-and-hold strategy with specific data examples, we find that the stochastic rebalancing strategy is optimal, while the simple rebalancing strategy is of the lowest efficiency. In addition, the simple rebalancing strategy lowers the efficiency of the portfolio instead of improving it.

  20. A particle-based simplified swarm optimization algorithm for reliability redundancy allocation problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Chia-Ling

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes a new swarm intelligence method known as the Particle-based Simplified Swarm Optimization (PSSO) algorithm while undertaking a modification of the Updating Mechanism (UM), called N-UM and R-UM, and simultaneously applying an Orthogonal Array Test (OA) to solve reliability–redundancy allocation problems (RRAPs) successfully. One difficulty of RRAP is the need to maximize system reliability in cases where the number of redundant components and the reliability of corresponding components in each subsystem are simultaneously decided with nonlinear constraints. In this paper, four RRAP benchmarks are used to display the applicability of the proposed PSSO that advances the strengths of both PSO and SSO to enable optimizing the RRAP that belongs to mixed-integer nonlinear programming. When the computational results are compared with those of previously developed algorithms in existing literature, the findings indicate that the proposed PSSO is highly competitive and performs well. - Highlights: • This paper proposes a particle-based simplified swarm optimization algorithm (PSSO) to optimize RRAP. • Furthermore, the UM and an OA are adapted to advance in optimizing RRAP. • Four systems are introduced and the results demonstrate the PSSO performs particularly well

  1. A practical approach for solving multi-objective reliability redundancy allocation problems using extended bare-bones particle swarm optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Enze; Wu, Yifei; Chen, Qingwei

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes a practical approach, combining bare-bones particle swarm optimization and sensitivity-based clustering for solving multi-objective reliability redundancy allocation problems (RAPs). A two-stage process is performed to identify promising solutions. Specifically, a new bare-bones multi-objective particle swarm optimization algorithm (BBMOPSO) is developed and applied in the first stage to identify a Pareto-optimal set. This algorithm mainly differs from other multi-objective particle swarm optimization algorithms in the parameter-free particle updating strategy, which is especially suitable for handling the complexity and nonlinearity of RAPs. Moreover, by utilizing an approach based on the adaptive grid to update the global particle leaders, a mutation operator to improve the exploration ability and an effective constraint handling strategy, the integrated BBMOPSO algorithm can generate excellent approximation of the true Pareto-optimal front for RAPs. This is followed by a data clustering technique based on difference sensitivity in the second stage to prune the obtained Pareto-optimal set and obtain a small, workable sized set of promising solutions for system implementation. Two illustrative examples are presented to show the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed approach

  2. DG Allocation Based on Reliability, Losses and Voltage Sag Considerations: an expert system approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahar Abdel Moneim Moussa

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Expert System (ES as a branch of Artificial Intelligence (AI methodology can potentially help in solving complicated power system problems. This may be more appropriate methodology than conventional optimization techniques when contradiction between objectives appears in reaching the optimum solution. When this contradiction is the hindrance in reaching the required system operation through the application of traditional methods ES can give a hand in such case. In this paper, the  knowledge- based ES technique is proposed to reach near-optimum solution which is further directed to the optimum solution through particle swarm optimization (PSO technique. This idea is known as Hybrid-Expert-System (HES. The proposed idea is used in getting the optimum allocation of a number of distributed generation (DG units on Distribution System (DS busbars taking into consideration three issues; reliability, voltage sag, and line losses. Optimality is assessed on the economic basis by calculating money benefits (or losses resulting from DG addition considering the three aforementioned issues. The effectiveness of the proposed technique is ascertained through example.

  3. Optimal Bi-Objective Redundancy Allocation for Systems Reliability and Risk Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govindan, Kannan; Jafarian, Ahmad; Azbari, Mostafa E; Choi, Tsan-Ming

    2016-08-01

    In the big data era, systems reliability is critical to effective systems risk management. In this paper, a novel multiobjective approach, with hybridization of a known algorithm called NSGA-II and an adaptive population-based simulated annealing (APBSA) method is developed to solve the systems reliability optimization problems. In the first step, to create a good algorithm, we use a coevolutionary strategy. Since the proposed algorithm is very sensitive to parameter values, the response surface method is employed to estimate the appropriate parameters of the algorithm. Moreover, to examine the performance of our proposed approach, several test problems are generated, and the proposed hybrid algorithm and other commonly known approaches (i.e., MOGA, NRGA, and NSGA-II) are compared with respect to four performance measures: 1) mean ideal distance; 2) diversification metric; 3) percentage of domination; and 4) data envelopment analysis. The computational studies have shown that the proposed algorithm is an effective approach for systems reliability and risk management.

  4. TSORT - an automated tool for allocating tasks to training strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carter, R.J.; Jorgensen, C.C.

    1986-01-01

    An automated tool (TSORT) that can aid training system developers in determining which training strategy should be applied to a particular task and in grouping similar tasks into training categories has been developed. This paper describes the rationale for TSORT's development and addresses its structure, including training categories, task description dimensions, and categorization metrics. It also provides some information on TSORT's application

  5. Dynamic Asset Allocation Strategies Based on Volatility, Unexpected Volatility and Financial Turbulence

    OpenAIRE

    Grimsrud, David Borkner

    2015-01-01

    Masteroppgave økonomi og administrasjon- Universitetet i Agder, 2015 This master thesis looks at unexpected volatility- and financial turbulence’s predictive ability, and exploit these measures of financial risk, together with volatility, to create three dynamic asset allocation strategies, and test if they can outperform a passive and naively diversified buy-and-hold strategy. The idea with the dynamic strategies is to increase the portfolio return by keeping the portfolio risk at a low a...

  6. Reliability optimization of series–parallel systems with mixed redundancy strategy in subsystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abouei Ardakan, Mostafa; Zeinal Hamadani, Ali

    2014-01-01

    Traditionally in redundancy allocation problem (RAP), it is assumed that the redundant components are used based on a predefined active or standby strategies. Recently, some studies consider the situation that both active and standby strategies can be used in a specific system. However, these researches assume that the redundancy strategy for each subsystem can be either active or standby and determine the best strategy for these subsystems by using a proper mathematical model. As an extension to this assumption, a novel strategy, that is a combination of traditional active and standby strategies, is introduced. The new strategy is called mixed strategy which uses both active and cold-standby strategies in one subsystem simultaneously. Therefore, the problem is to determine the component type, redundancy level, number of active and cold-standby units for each subsystem in order to maximize the system reliability. To have a more practical model, the problem is formulated with imperfect switching of cold-standby redundant components and k-Erlang time-to-failure (TTF) distribution. As the optimization of RAP belongs to NP-hard class of problems, a genetic algorithm (GA) is developed. The new strategy and proposed GA are implemented on a well-known test problem in the literature which leads to interesting results. - Highlights: • In this paper the redundancy allocation problem (RAP) for a series–parallel system is considered. • Traditionally there are two main strategies for redundant component namely active and standby. • In this paper a new redundancy strategy which is called “Mixed” redundancy strategy is introduced. • Computational experiments demonstrate that implementing the new strategy lead to interesting results

  7. Sovereign wealth funds: Investment objectives and asset allocation strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniil Wagner

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Sovereign Wealth Funds (SWFs have steadily increased their importance in the global financial system in the last decade and especially during the financial crisis period. Although the objectives and investment strategies of SWFs are quite diverse, I propose to sort them into three main groups, depending on their sponsor countries’ endowment with resources and investment objectives. I present case studies and empirical analyses that reflect SWF investment activities and try to elaborate on the special role of each SWF group. Special emphasis is given to the recent financial crisis, where SWFs also acted as bailout investors by injecting substantial capital into global financial institutions, filling a financing gap that other institutional investors could not close

  8. Energy abatement in Chinese industry: Cost evaluation of regulation strategies and allocation alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xia, X.H.; Chen, G.Q.

    2012-01-01

    For Chinese industry, the costs of different energy consumption abatement scenarios are evaluated by the method of directional distance function. These scenarios are based on the combinations of regulation strategies and allocation alternatives—the former are sectors and provinces, and the latter include the five principles of average, intensity share, absolute share, discriminatory absolute and discriminatory intensity. For all the scenarios, the quantitative impacts in terms of output potential loss are calculated and compared. Due to less output potential loss for all the allocation alternatives, the sector regulation strategy is shown to be more effective than the province regulation strategy. It is also demonstrated that, among all the scenarios considered, the sector regulation based on the intensity share principle and the province regulation based on the absolute share principle are the two optimal. The performances of energy abatement allocation of the 11th and 12th Five Year Plans of China are assessed against the simulated scenarios. - Highlights: ► The costs of different energy consumption abatement scenarios are evaluated for Chinese industry. ► The impacts on all entities under all allocation alternatives are calculated and compared. ► The optimal scenarios for the different strategies are identified. ► The performances of the 11th and 12th Five Year Plans are assessed.

  9. Reading Time Allocation Strategies and Working Memory Using Rapid Serial Visual Presentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busler, Jessica N.; Lazarte, Alejandro A.

    2017-01-01

    Rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) is a useful method for controlling the timing of text presentations and studying how readers' characteristics, such as working memory (WM) and reading strategies for time allocation, influence text recall. In the current study, a modified version of RSVP (Moving Window RSVP [MW-RSVP]) was used to induce…

  10. Alterations in flowering strategies and sexual allocation of Caragana stenophylla along a climatic aridity gradient

    OpenAIRE

    Lina Xie; Hongyu Guo; Chengcang Ma

    2016-01-01

    Plant can alter reproductive strategies for adaptation to different environments. However, alterations in flowering strategies and sexual allocation for the same species growing in different environments still remain unclear. We examined the sexual reproduction parameters of Caragana stenophylla across four climatic zones from semi-arid, arid, very arid, to intensively arid zones in the Inner Mongolia Steppe, China. Under the relatively favorable climatic conditions of semi-arid zone, C. sten...

  11. The Retail Chain Design for Perishable Food: The Case of Price Strategy and Shelf Space Allocation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yujie Xiao

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Managing perishable food in a retail store is quite difficult because of the product’s short lifetime and deterioration. Many elements, such as price, shelf space allocation, and quality, which can affect the consumption rate, should be taken into account when the perishable food retail chain is designed. The modern tracking technologies provide good opportunities to improve the management of the perishable food retail chain. In this research, we develop a mathematical model for a single-item retail chain and determine the pricing strategy, shelf space allocation, and order quantity to maximize the retailer’s total profit with the application of tracking technologies. Then the single-item retail chain is extended into a multi-item one with a shelf space capacity and a simple algorithm is developed to find the optimal allocation of shelf space among these items. Finally, numerical experiments and real-life examples are conducted to illustrate the proposed models.

  12. A study on maintenance reliability allocation of urban transit brake system using hybrid neuro-genetic technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bae, Chul Ho; Kim, Hyun Jun; Lee, Jung Hwan; Suh, Myung Won; Chu, Yul

    2007-01-01

    For reasonable establishing of maintenance strategies, safety security and cost limitation must be considered at the same time. In this paper, the concept of system reliability introduces and optimizes as the key of reasonable maintenance strategies. This study aims at optimizing component's reliability that satisfies the target reliability of brake system in the urban transit. First of all, constructed reliability evaluation system is used to predict and analyze reliability. This data is used for the optimization. To identify component reliability in a system, a method is presented in this paper which uses hybrid neuro-genetic technique. Feed-forward multi-layer neural networks trained by back propagation are used to find out the relationship between component reliability (input) and system reliability (output) of a structural system. The inverse problem can be formulated by using neural network. Genetic algorithm is used to find the minimum square error. Finally, this paper presents reasonable maintenance cycle of urban transit brake system by using optimal system reliability

  13. Strategy for continuous improvement in IC manufacturability, yield, and reliability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreier, Dean J.; Berry, Mark; Schani, Phil; Phillips, Michael; Steinberg, Joe; DePinto, Gary

    1993-01-01

    Continual improvements in yield, reliability and manufacturability measure a fab and ultimately result in Total Customer Satisfaction. A new organizational and technical methodology for continuous defect reduction has been established in a formal feedback loop, which relies on yield and reliability, failed bit map analysis, analytical tools, inline monitoring, cross functional teams and a defect engineering group. The strategy requires the fastest detection, identification and implementation of possible corrective actions. Feedback cycle time is minimized at all points to improve yield and reliability and reduce costs, essential for competitiveness in the memory business. Payoff was a 9.4X reduction in defectivity and a 6.2X improvement in reliability of 256 K fast SRAMs over 20 months.

  14. Effect of microbial enzyme allocation strategies on stoichiometry of soil organic matter (SOM) decomposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wutzler, Thomas

    2014-05-01

    We explored different strategies of soil microbial community to invest resources into extracellular enzymes by conceptual modelling. Similar to the EEZY model by Moorhead et al. (2012), microbial community can invest into two separate pools of enzymes that depolymerize two different SOM pools. We show that with assuming that a fixed fraction of substrate uptake is allocated to enzymes, the microbial dynamics decouples from decomposition dynamics. We propose an alternative formulation where investment into enzymes is proportional to microbial biomass. Next, we show that the strategy of optimizing stoichiometry of decomposition flux according to microbial biomass stoichiometry yield less microbial growth than the strategy of optimizing revenue of the currently limiting element. However, both strategies result in better usage of the resources, i.e. less C overflow or N mineralization, than the strategy of equal allocation to both enzymes. Further, we discuss effects of those strategies on decomposition of SOM and priming at different time scales and discuss several abstractions from the detailed model dynamics for usage in larger scale models.

  15. Optimal Bi-Objective Redundancy Allocation for Systems Reliability and Risk Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Govindan, Kannan; Jafarian, Ahmad; Azbari, Mostafa E.

    2016-01-01

    In the big data era, systems reliability is critical to effective systems risk management. In this paper, a novel multiobjective approach, with hybridization of a known algorithm called NSGA-II and an adaptive population-based simulated annealing (APBSA) method is developed to solve the systems...... of domination; and 4) data envelopment analysis. The computational studies have shown that the proposed algorithm is an effective approach for systems reliability and risk management....

  16. Efficient, fair, and strategy-proof (re)allocation under network constraints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Szwagrzak, Karol

    2017-01-01

    A resource available in different types is to be distributed or redistributed among agents differing in their ability to consume these types. Preferences over consumption levels are not observable but known to be single-peaked. We identify the only strategy-proof and efficient allocation rule...... to a new class of group strategy-proof rules. Our analysis provides a unified treatment of the applications in Bochet et al. (Theor Econ 7:395–423, 2012, J Econ Theory 148:535–562, 2013)....

  17. Optimized Energy Efficiency and Spectral Efficiency Resource Allocation Strategies for Phantom Cellular Networks

    KAUST Repository

    Abdelhady, Amr, M.; Amin, Osama; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2016-01-01

    Multi-teir hetrogeneous networks have become an essential constituent for next generation cellular networks. Meanwhile, energy efficiency (EE) has been considered a critical design criterion along with the traditional spectral efficiency (SE) metric. In this context, we study power and spectrum allocation for the recently proposed two-teir architecture known as Phantom cellular networks. The optimization framework includes both EE and SE, where we propose an algorithm that computes the SE and EE resource allocation for Phantom cellular networks. Then, we compare the performance of both design strategies versus the number of users, and the ration of Phantom cellresource blocks to the total number or resource blocks. We aim to investigate the effect of some system parameters to acheive improved SE or EE performance at a non-significant loss in EE or SE performance, respectively. It was found that the system parameters can be tuned so that the EE solution does not yield a significant loss in the SE performance.

  18. Optimized Energy Efficiency and Spectral Efficiency Resource Allocation Strategies for Phantom Cellular Networks

    KAUST Repository

    Abdelhady, Amr, M.

    2016-01-06

    Multi-teir hetrogeneous networks have become an essential constituent for next generation cellular networks. Meanwhile, energy efficiency (EE) has been considered a critical design criterion along with the traditional spectral efficiency (SE) metric. In this context, we study power and spectrum allocation for the recently proposed two-teir architecture known as Phantom cellular networks. The optimization framework includes both EE and SE, where we propose an algorithm that computes the SE and EE resource allocation for Phantom cellular networks. Then, we compare the performance of both design strategies versus the number of users, and the ration of Phantom cellresource blocks to the total number or resource blocks. We aim to investigate the effect of some system parameters to acheive improved SE or EE performance at a non-significant loss in EE or SE performance, respectively. It was found that the system parameters can be tuned so that the EE solution does not yield a significant loss in the SE performance.

  19. Optimal reliability allocation for large software projects through soft computing techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Henrik; Albeanu, Grigore; Popentiu-Vladicescu, Florin

    2012-01-01

    or maximizing the system reliability subject to budget constraints. These kinds of optimization problems were considered both in deterministic and stochastic frameworks in literature. Recently, the intuitionistic-fuzzy optimization approach was considered as a soft computing successful modelling approach....... Firstly, a review on existing soft computing approaches to optimization is given. The main section extends the results considering self-organizing migrating algorithms for solving intuitionistic-fuzzy optimization problems attached to complex fault-tolerant software architectures which proved...

  20. The Impact of Short-Sale Constraints on Asset Allocation Strategies via the Backward Markov Chain Approximation Method

    OpenAIRE

    Carl Chiarella; Chih-Ying Hsiao

    2005-01-01

    This paper considers an asset allocation strategy over a finite period under investment uncertainty and short-sale constraints as a continuous time stochastic control problem. Investment uncertainty is characterised by a stochastic interest rate and inflation risk. If there are no short-sale constraints, the optimal asset allocation strategy can be solved analytically. We consider several kinds of short-sale constraints and employ the backward Markov chain approximation method to explore the ...

  1. Power Allocation Strategies for Distributed Space-Time Codes in Amplify-and-Forward Mode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Are Hjørungnes

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider a wireless relay network with Rayleigh fading channels and apply distributed space-time coding (DSTC in amplify-and-forward (AF mode. It is assumed that the relays have statistical channel state information (CSI of the local source-relay channels, while the destination has full instantaneous CSI of the channels. It turns out that, combined with the minimum SNR based power allocation in the relays, AF DSTC results in a new opportunistic relaying scheme, in which the best relay is selected to retransmit the source's signal. Furthermore, we have derived the optimum power allocation between two cooperative transmission phases by maximizing the average received SNR at the destination. Next, assuming M-PSK and M-QAM modulations, we analyze the performance of cooperative diversity wireless networks using AF opportunistic relaying. We also derive an approximate formula for the symbol error rate (SER of AF DSTC. Assuming the use of full-diversity space-time codes, we derive two power allocation strategies minimizing the approximate SER expressions, for constrained transmit power. Our analytical results have been confirmed by simulation results, using full-rate, full-diversity distributed space-time codes.

  2. Biomass and nutrient allocation strategies in a desert ecosystem in the Hexi Corridor, northwest China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ke; Su, YongZhong; Yang, Rong

    2017-07-01

    The allocation of biomass and nutrients in plants is a crucial factor in understanding the process of plant structures and dynamics to different environmental conditions. In this study, we present a comprehensive scaling analysis of data from a desert ecosystem to determine biomass and nutrient (carbon (C), nitrogen (N), and phosphorus (P)) allocation strategies of desert plants from 40 sites in the Hexi Corridor. We found that the biomass and levels of C, N, and P storage were higher in shoots than in roots. Roots biomass and nutrient storage were concentrated at a soil depth of 0-30 cm. Scaling relationships of biomass, C storage, and P storage between shoots and roots were isometric, but that of N storage was allometric. Results of a redundancy analysis (RDA) showed that soil nutrient densities were the primary factors influencing biomass and nutrient allocation, accounting for 94.5% of the explained proportion. However, mean annual precipitation was the primary factor influencing the roots biomass/shoots biomass (R/S) ratio. Furthermore, Pearson's correlations and regression analyses demonstrated that although the biomass and nutrients that associated with functional traits primarily depended on soil conditions, mean annual precipitation and mean annual temperature had greater effects on roots biomass and nutrient storage.

  3. An Adaptive Classification Strategy for Reliable Locomotion Mode Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Liu

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Algorithms for locomotion mode recognition (LMR based on surface electromyography and mechanical sensors have recently been developed and could be used for the neural control of powered prosthetic legs. However, the variations in input signals, caused by physical changes at the sensor interface and human physiological changes, may threaten the reliability of these algorithms. This study aimed to investigate the effectiveness of applying adaptive pattern classifiers for LMR. Three adaptive classifiers, i.e., entropy-based adaptation (EBA, LearnIng From Testing data (LIFT, and Transductive Support Vector Machine (TSVM, were compared and offline evaluated using data collected from two able-bodied subjects and one transfemoral amputee. The offline analysis indicated that the adaptive classifier could effectively maintain or restore the performance of the LMR algorithm when gradual signal variations occurred. EBA and LIFT were recommended because of their better performance and higher computational efficiency. Finally, the EBA was implemented for real-time human-in-the-loop prosthesis control. The online evaluation showed that the applied EBA effectively adapted to changes in input signals across sessions and yielded more reliable prosthesis control over time, compared with the LMR without adaptation. The developed novel adaptive strategy may further enhance the reliability of neurally-controlled prosthetic legs.

  4. Comparison of different reliability improving investment strategies of Finnish medium-voltage distribution systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laagland, H.

    2012-07-01

    The electricity distribution sector in Finland is highly regulated and the return on investments in distribution networks is low. Low profits don't make the electricity distribution sector attractive to outside investors. During the second regulatory period of 2008-2011 incentives are included into the Finnish regulation model which allows higher profits for the network owners for right allocated network investments leading to lower operation and interruption costs. The goal of the thesis is to find cost-effective medium-voltage distribution system investment strategies for the Finnish power distribution companies with respect to the incentives of the second regulatory period. In this work the sectionalisation concept is further developed by deriving equations for a homogeneous electricity distribution system for the economical and reliability indices as a function of the number of sectionalisation zones. The cost-effective medium-voltage distribution system investment strategies are found by studying the technical and economic interaction of feeder automation on different network structures. Ten feeder automation schemes have been applied to six urban/rural area generic feeders and two real rural area feeders of a distribution company in western Finland. The analytical approach includes modelling of the feeders and feeder functions and calculation of the economical and reliability indices. The following investment areas are included: different electricity distribution systems, new substation, new switching station, central earth-fault current compensation, cabling and feeder automation. The value of the results of this work is that they reveal the influence that feeder automation has on the reliability and economy of different distribution structures. This created transparency enables a national and/or distribution company network investment strategy to optimise the economic benefits of investments. (orig.)

  5. A global resource allocation strategy governs growth transition kinetics of Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, David W; Schink, Severin J; Patsalo, Vadim; Williamson, James R; Gerland, Ulrich; Hwa, Terence

    2017-11-02

    A grand challenge of systems biology is to predict the kinetic responses of living systems to perturbations starting from the underlying molecular interactions. Changes in the nutrient environment have long been used to study regulation and adaptation phenomena in microorganisms and they remain a topic of active investigation. Although much is known about the molecular interactions that govern the regulation of key metabolic processes in response to applied perturbations, they are insufficiently quantified for predictive bottom-up modelling. Here we develop a top-down approach, expanding the recently established coarse-grained proteome allocation models from steady-state growth into the kinetic regime. Using only qualitative knowledge of the underlying regulatory processes and imposing the condition of flux balance, we derive a quantitative model of bacterial growth transitions that is independent of inaccessible kinetic parameters. The resulting flux-controlled regulation model accurately predicts the time course of gene expression and biomass accumulation in response to carbon upshifts and downshifts (for example, diauxic shifts) without adjustable parameters. As predicted by the model and validated by quantitative proteomics, cells exhibit suboptimal recovery kinetics in response to nutrient shifts owing to a rigid strategy of protein synthesis allocation, which is not directed towards alleviating specific metabolic bottlenecks. Our approach does not rely on kinetic parameters, and therefore points to a theoretical framework for describing a broad range of such kinetic processes without detailed knowledge of the underlying biochemical reactions.

  6. Multi-objective reliability optimization of series-parallel systems with a choice of redundancy strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Safari, Jalal

    2012-01-01

    This paper proposes a variant of the Non-dominated Sorting Genetic Algorithm (NSGA-II) to solve a novel mathematical model for multi-objective redundancy allocation problems (MORAP). Most researchers about redundancy allocation problem (RAP) have focused on single objective optimization, while there has been some limited research which addresses multi-objective optimization. Also all mathematical multi-objective models of general RAP assume that the type of redundancy strategy for each subsystem is predetermined and known a priori. In general, active redundancy has traditionally received greater attention; however, in practice both active and cold-standby redundancies may be used within a particular system design. The choice of redundancy strategy then becomes an additional decision variable. Thus, the proposed model and solution method are to select the best redundancy strategy, type of components, and levels of redundancy for each subsystem that maximizes the system reliability and minimize total system cost under system-level constraints. This problem belongs to the NP-hard class. This paper presents a second-generation Multiple-Objective Evolutionary Algorithm (MOEA), named NSGA-II to find the best solution for the given problem. The proposed algorithm demonstrates the ability to identify a set of optimal solutions (Pareto front), which provides the Decision Maker (DM) with a complete picture of the optimal solution space. After finding the Pareto front, a procedure is used to select the best solution from the Pareto front. Finally, the advantages of the presented multi-objective model and of the proposed algorithm are illustrated by solving test problems taken from the literature and the robustness of the proposed NSGA-II is discussed.

  7. A GA based penalty function technique for solving constrained redundancy allocation problem of series system with interval valued reliability of components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, R. K.; Bhunia, A. K.; Roy, D.

    2009-10-01

    In this paper, we have considered the problem of constrained redundancy allocation of series system with interval valued reliability of components. For maximizing the overall system reliability under limited resource constraints, the problem is formulated as an unconstrained integer programming problem with interval coefficients by penalty function technique and solved by an advanced GA for integer variables with interval fitness function, tournament selection, uniform crossover, uniform mutation and elitism. As a special case, considering the lower and upper bounds of the interval valued reliabilities of the components to be the same, the corresponding problem has been solved. The model has been illustrated with some numerical examples and the results of the series redundancy allocation problem with fixed value of reliability of the components have been compared with the existing results available in the literature. Finally, sensitivity analyses have been shown graphically to study the stability of our developed GA with respect to the different GA parameters.

  8. Assessing the Impact of Model Parameter Uncertainty in Simulating Grass Biomass Using a Hybrid Carbon Allocation Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, J. J.; Adam, J. C.; Tague, C.

    2016-12-01

    Grasslands play an important role in agricultural production as forage for livestock; they also provide a diverse set of ecosystem services including soil carbon (C) storage. The partitioning of C between above and belowground plant compartments (i.e. allocation) is influenced by both plant characteristics and environmental conditions. The objectives of this study are to 1) develop and evaluate a hybrid C allocation strategy suitable for grasslands, and 2) apply this strategy to examine the importance of various parameters related to biogeochemical cycling, photosynthesis, allocation, and soil water drainage on above and belowground biomass. We include allocation as an important process in quantifying the model parameter uncertainty, which identifies the most influential parameters and what processes may require further refinement. For this, we use the Regional Hydro-ecologic Simulation System, a mechanistic model that simulates coupled water and biogeochemical processes. A Latin hypercube sampling scheme was used to develop parameter sets for calibration and evaluation of allocation strategies, as well as parameter uncertainty analysis. We developed the hybrid allocation strategy to integrate both growth-based and resource-limited allocation mechanisms. When evaluating the new strategy simultaneously for above and belowground biomass, it produced a larger number of less biased parameter sets: 16% more compared to resource-limited and 9% more compared to growth-based. This also demonstrates its flexible application across diverse plant types and environmental conditions. We found that higher parameter importance corresponded to sub- or supra-optimal resource availability (i.e. water, nutrients) and temperature ranges (i.e. too hot or cold). For example, photosynthesis-related parameters were more important at sites warmer than the theoretical optimal growth temperature. Therefore, larger values of parameter importance indicate greater relative sensitivity in

  9. Different resource allocation strategies result from selection for litter size at weaning in rabbit does

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Savietto, D; Cervera, C; Rodenas, L

    2014-01-01

    diet. The litter size was lower for female rabbits housed in both NF and HC environments, but the extent and timing where this reduction took place differed between generations. In challenging conditions (NF and HC), the average reduction in the reproductive performance of female rabbits from...... a greater reduction at the 3rd parturition (−3.53 kits born alive; Pdifferences between generations in digestible energy intake, milk yield and accretion, and use of body reserves throughout lactation in NC, HC and NF, which together indicate that there were...... different resource allocation strategies in the animals from the different generations. Selection to increase litter size at weaning led to increased reproductive robustness at the onset of an environmental constraint, but failure to sustain the reproductive liability when the challenge was maintained...

  10. Intelligent energy allocation strategy for PHEV charging station using gravitational search algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Imran; Vasant, Pandian M.; Singh, Balbir Singh Mahinder; Abdullah-Al-Wadud, M.

    2014-10-01

    Recent researches towards the use of green technologies to reduce pollution and increase penetration of renewable energy sources in the transportation sector are gaining popularity. The development of the smart grid environment focusing on PHEVs may also heal some of the prevailing grid problems by enabling the implementation of Vehicle-to-Grid (V2G) concept. Intelligent energy management is an important issue which has already drawn much attention to researchers. Most of these works require formulation of mathematical models which extensively use computational intelligence-based optimization techniques to solve many technical problems. Higher penetration of PHEVs require adequate charging infrastructure as well as smart charging strategies. We used Gravitational Search Algorithm (GSA) to intelligently allocate energy to the PHEVs considering constraints such as energy price, remaining battery capacity, and remaining charging time.

  11. Towards a strategy of reliable fusion first-wall design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schultz, J.H.

    1981-05-01

    Fusion first walls are subject to a large number of possible failure mechanisms, including erosion due to sputtering, arcing, blistering and vaporization and crack growth due to thermal and magnetic stresses. Each of these failure mechanisms is poorly characterized and has the potential of being severe. A strategy for designing reliably in the face of great uncertainty is discussed. Topological features beneficial to reactor availability are identified. The integration of limiter pumping with rf wave launching is discussed, as a means of simplifying reactor design. The concept of a sewer limiter is introduced, as a possible long-life limiter topology. The concept of flexible armor is discussed, as a means of extending maximum life

  12. NNSA?s Computing Strategy, Acquisition Plan, and Basis for Computing Time Allocation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nikkel, D J

    2009-07-21

    This report is in response to the Omnibus Appropriations Act, 2009 (H.R. 1105; Public Law 111-8) in its funding of the National Nuclear Security Administration's (NNSA) Advanced Simulation and Computing (ASC) Program. This bill called for a report on ASC's plans for computing and platform acquisition strategy in support of stockpile stewardship. Computer simulation is essential to the stewardship of the nation's nuclear stockpile. Annual certification of the country's stockpile systems, Significant Finding Investigations (SFIs), and execution of Life Extension Programs (LEPs) are dependent on simulations employing the advanced ASC tools developed over the past decade plus; indeed, without these tools, certification would not be possible without a return to nuclear testing. ASC is an integrated program involving investments in computer hardware (platforms and computing centers), software environments, integrated design codes and physical models for these codes, and validation methodologies. The significant progress ASC has made in the past derives from its focus on mission and from its strategy of balancing support across the key investment areas necessary for success. All these investment areas must be sustained for ASC to adequately support current stockpile stewardship mission needs and to meet ever more difficult challenges as the weapons continue to age or undergo refurbishment. The appropriations bill called for this report to address three specific issues, which are responded to briefly here but are expanded upon in the subsequent document: (1) Identify how computing capability at each of the labs will specifically contribute to stockpile stewardship goals, and on what basis computing time will be allocated to achieve the goal of a balanced program among the labs. (2) Explain the NNSA's acquisition strategy for capacity and capability of machines at each of the labs and how it will fit within the existing budget constraints. (3

  13. Zinc Concentration in Rice (Oryza sativa L.) Grains and Allocation in Plants as Affected by Different Zinc Fertilization Strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yin, Hong Juan; Gao, Xiao Peng; Stomph, Tjeerd Jan; Li, Lu Jiu; Zhang, Fu Suo; Zou, Chun Qin

    2016-01-01

    Concern over the food chain transfer of zinc (Zn) is increasing because of its importance in human health. A field experiment was conducted on a low Zn soil to determine the effect of different Zn fertilization strategies on grain Zn concentration and Zn allocation in different plant tissues of

  14. The role of metacognition in prospective memory: anticipated task demands influence attention allocation strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rummel, Jan; Meiser, Thorsten

    2013-09-01

    The present study investigates how individuals distribute their attentional resources between a prospective memory task and an ongoing task. Therefore, metacognitive expectations about the attentional demands of the prospective-memory task were manipulated while the factual demands were held constant. In Experiments 1a and 1b, we found attentional costs from a prospective-memory task with low factual demands to be significantly reduced when information about the low to-be-expected demands were provided, while prospective-memory performance remained largely unaffected. In Experiment 2, attentional monitoring in a more demanding prospective-memory task also varied with information about the to-be-expected demands (high vs. low) and again there were no equivalent changes in prospective-memory performance. These findings suggest that attention-allocation strategies of prospective memory rely on metacognitive expectations about prospective-memory task demands. Furthermore, the results suggest that attentional monitoring is only functional for prospective memory to the extent to which anticipated task demands reflect objective task demands. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Joint Subcarrier Pairing and Resource Allocation for Cognitive Network and Adaptive Relaying Strategy

    KAUST Repository

    Soury, Hamza

    2012-05-01

    Recent measurements show that the spectrum is under-utilized by licensed users in wireless communication. Cognitive radio (CR) has been proposed as a suitable solution to manage the inefficient usage of the spectrum and increase coverage area of wireless networks. The concept is based on allowing a group of secondary users (SUs) to share the unused radio spectrum originally owned by the primary user (PUs). The operation of CR should not cause harmful interference to the PUs. In the other hand, relayed transmission increases the coverage and achievable capacity of communication systems and in particular in CR systems. In fact there are many types of cooperative communications, however the two main ones are decode-and-forward (DAF) and amplify-and-forward (AAF). Adaptive relaying scheme is a relaying technique by which the benefits of the amplifying or decode and forward techniques can be achieved by switching the forwarding technique according to the quality of the signal. In this dissertation, we investigate the power allocation for an adaptive relaying protocol (ARP) scheme in cognitive system by maximizing the end-to-end rate and searching the best carriers pairing distribution. The optimization problem is under the interference and power budget constraints. The simulation results confirm the efficiency of the proposed adaptive relaying protocol in comparison to other relaying techniques, and the consequence of the choice of the pairing strategy.

  16. Reliability optimization of series-parallel systems with a choice of redundancy strategies using a genetic algorithm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tavakkoli-Moghaddam, R. [Department of Industrial Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Tehran, P.O. Box 11365/4563, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Department of Mechanical Engineering, The University of British Columbia, Vancouver (Canada)], E-mail: tavakoli@ut.ac.ir; Safari, J. [Department of Industrial Engineering, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], E-mail: jalalsafari@pideco.com; Sassani, F. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, The University of British Columbia, Vancouver (Canada)], E-mail: sassani@mech.ubc.ca

    2008-04-15

    This paper proposes a genetic algorithm (GA) for a redundancy allocation problem for the series-parallel system when the redundancy strategy can be chosen for individual subsystems. Majority of the solution methods for the general redundancy allocation problems assume that the redundancy strategy for each subsystem is predetermined and fixed. In general, active redundancy has received more attention in the past. However, in practice both active and cold-standby redundancies may be used within a particular system design and the choice of the redundancy strategy becomes an additional decision variable. Thus, the problem is to select the best redundancy strategy, component, and redundancy level for each subsystem in order to maximize the system reliability under system-level constraints. This belongs to the NP-hard class of problems. Due to its complexity, it is so difficult to optimally solve such a problem by using traditional optimization tools. It is demonstrated in this paper that GA is an efficient method for solving this type of problems. Finally, computational results for a typical scenario are presented and the robustness of the proposed algorithm is discussed.

  17. Reliability optimization of series-parallel systems with a choice of redundancy strategies using a genetic algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tavakkoli-Moghaddam, R.; Safari, J.; Sassani, F.

    2008-01-01

    This paper proposes a genetic algorithm (GA) for a redundancy allocation problem for the series-parallel system when the redundancy strategy can be chosen for individual subsystems. Majority of the solution methods for the general redundancy allocation problems assume that the redundancy strategy for each subsystem is predetermined and fixed. In general, active redundancy has received more attention in the past. However, in practice both active and cold-standby redundancies may be used within a particular system design and the choice of the redundancy strategy becomes an additional decision variable. Thus, the problem is to select the best redundancy strategy, component, and redundancy level for each subsystem in order to maximize the system reliability under system-level constraints. This belongs to the NP-hard class of problems. Due to its complexity, it is so difficult to optimally solve such a problem by using traditional optimization tools. It is demonstrated in this paper that GA is an efficient method for solving this type of problems. Finally, computational results for a typical scenario are presented and the robustness of the proposed algorithm is discussed

  18. An Integrated Hydro-Economic Modelling Framework to Evaluate Water Allocation Strategies I: Model Development.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    George, B.; Malano, H.; Davidson, B.; Hellegers, P.; Bharati, L.; Sylvain, M.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper an integrated modelling framework for water resources planning and management that can be used to carry out an analysis of alternative policy scenarios for water allocation and use is described. The modelling approach is based on integrating a network allocation model (REALM) and a

  19. Nutrient allocations and metabolism in two Collembola with contrasting reproduction and growth strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Thomas; Ventura, Marc; Damgaard, Christian

    2009-01-01

    1.  Physiological mechanisms such as allocation and release of nutrients are keys to understanding an animal's adaptation to a particular habitat. This study investigated how two detrivores with contrasting life-history traits allocated carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) to growth, reproduction and meta...

  20. Analytical procedures for determining the impacts of reliability mitigation strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Reliability of transport, especially the ability to reach a destination within a certain amount of time, is a regular concern of travelers and shippers. The definition of reliability used in this research is how travel time varies over time. The vari...

  1. The Effect of Information Access Strategy on Power Consumption and Reliability in Wireless Sensor Network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tobgay, Sonam; Olsen, Rasmus Løvenstein; Prasad, Ramjee

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the effect of different information access strategies on power consumption and information reliability, considering the wireless sensor network as the source of information. Basically, the paper explores three different access strategies, namely; reactive, periodic and hybrid...

  2. A Vision for Spaceflight Reliability: NASA's Objectives Based Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groen, Frank; Evans, John; Hall, Tony

    2015-01-01

    In defining the direction for a new Reliability and Maintainability standard, OSMA has extracted the essential objectives that our programs need, to undertake a reliable mission. These objectives have been structured to lead mission planning through construction of an objective hierarchy, which defines the critical approaches for achieving high reliability and maintainability (R M). Creating a hierarchy, as a basis for assurance implementation, is a proven approach; yet, it holds the opportunity to enable new directions, as NASA moves forward in tackling the challenges of space exploration.

  3. Evaluation of Stock Management Strategies Reliability at Dependent Demand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukinskiy Valery

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available For efficiently increasing the logistic systems, the core specialists’ attention has to be directed to reducing costs and increasing supply chains reliability. A decent attention to costs reduction has already been paid, so it can be stated that in this way there is a significant progress. But the problem of reliability evaluation is still insufficiently explored, particularly, in such an important sphere as inventory management at the dependent demand.

  4. Learning reliable manipulation strategies without initial physical models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christiansen, Alan D.; Mason, Matthew T.; Mitchell, Tom M.

    1990-01-01

    A description is given of a robot, possessing limited sensory and effectory capabilities but no initial model of the effects of its actions on the world, that acquires such a model through exploration, practice, and observation. By acquiring an increasingly correct model of its actions, it generates increasingly successful plans to achieve its goals. In an apparently nondeterministic world, achieving reliability requires the identification of reliable actions and a preference for using such actions. Furthermore, by selecting its training actions carefully, the robot can significantly improve its learning rate.

  5. System dynamics model developement for R and D budget allocation strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwack, S. M.; Kim, D. H.; Lee, Y. S.; Jung, M. T.

    2003-01-01

    A computer simulation model was developed for R and D budget allocation problems that usually contain very complex and non-linear social issues. The System Dynamics approach was employed, which is proper to complex and non-linear social problem modeling. An issue of budget allocation to each step in five research areas was analyzed for an application example. The base scenario, that assumes to allocate a large portion of budget to demonstration step, was found to have a weakness in long-term sense. To overcome this weakness, some other better alternatives were recommended through the analysis. In addition, this paper suggests the ways to utilize the updated model in the future

  6. A Multi-Objective Method to Align Human Resource Allocation with University Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouillard, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    Universities are currently under considerable pressure to reach their stakeholders' expectations. Management tools that use strategic plans, key performance indicators and quality assurance methods are increasingly deployed. This paper aims to demonstrate how resource allocation can be aligned with institutional strategic plans with a very simple…

  7. Changes in biomass allocation in species rich meadow after abandonment: Ecological strategy or allometry?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bartušková, Alena; Doležal, Jiří; Janeček, Štěpán; Lanta, V.; Klimešová, Jitka

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 17, č. 5 (2015), s. 379-387 ISSN 1433-8319 R&D Projects: GA ČR GB14-36079G Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : Biomass allocation * species-rich meadow * abandonment Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 3.578, year: 2015

  8. Optimal Power Allocation Strategy in a Joint Bistatic Radar and Communication System Based on Low Probability of Intercept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Chenguang; Wang, Fei; Salous, Sana; Zhou, Jianjiang

    2017-11-25

    In this paper, we investigate a low probability of intercept (LPI)-based optimal power allocation strategy for a joint bistatic radar and communication system, which is composed of a dedicated transmitter, a radar receiver, and a communication receiver. The joint system is capable of fulfilling the requirements of both radar and communications simultaneously. First, assuming that the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) corresponding to the target surveillance path is much weaker than that corresponding to the line of sight path at radar receiver, the analytically closed-form expression for the probability of false alarm is calculated, whereas the closed-form expression for the probability of detection is not analytically tractable and is approximated due to the fact that the received signals are not zero-mean Gaussian under target presence hypothesis. Then, an LPI-based optimal power allocation strategy is presented to minimize the total transmission power for information signal and radar waveform, which is constrained by a specified information rate for the communication receiver and the desired probabilities of detection and false alarm for the radar receiver. The well-known bisection search method is employed to solve the resulting constrained optimization problem. Finally, numerical simulations are provided to reveal the effects of several system parameters on the power allocation results. It is also demonstrated that the LPI performance of the joint bistatic radar and communication system can be markedly improved by utilizing the proposed scheme.

  9. Reliability

    OpenAIRE

    Condon, David; Revelle, William

    2017-01-01

    Separating the signal in a test from the irrelevant noise is a challenge for all measurement. Low test reliability limits test validity, attenuates important relationships, and can lead to regression artifacts. Multiple approaches to the assessment and improvement of reliability are discussed. The advantages and disadvantages of several different approaches to reliability are considered. Practical advice on how to assess reliability using open source software is provided.

  10. Food restriction alters energy allocation strategy during growth in tobacco hornworms (Manduca sexta larvae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Lihong; Amunugama, Kaushalya; Hayes, Matthew B; Jennings, Michael; Domingo, Azriel; Hou, Chen

    2015-08-01

    Growing animals must alter their energy budget in the face of environmental changes and prioritize the energy allocation to metabolism for life-sustaining requirements and energy deposition in new biomass growth. We hypothesize that when food availability is low, larvae of holometabolic insects with a short development stage (relative to the low food availability period) prioritize biomass growth at the expense of metabolism. Driven by this hypothesis, we develop a simple theoretical model, based on conservation of energy and allometric scaling laws, for understanding the dynamic energy budget of growing larvae under food restriction. We test the hypothesis by manipulative experiments on fifth instar hornworms at three temperatures. At each temperature, food restriction increases the scaling power of growth rate but decreases that of metabolic rate, as predicted by the hypothesis. During the fifth instar, the energy budgets of larvae change dynamically. The free-feeding larvae slightly decrease the energy allocated to growth as body mass increases and increase the energy allocated to life sustaining. The opposite trends were observed in food restricted larvae, indicating the predicted prioritization in the energy budget under food restriction. We compare the energy budgets of a few endothermic and ectothermic species and discuss how different life histories lead to the differences in the energy budgets under food restriction.

  11. Design Protocols and Analytical Strategies that Incorporate Structural Reliability Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, Stephen F.

    1997-01-01

    Al single crystal turbine blade material; map a simplistic failure strength envelope of the material; develop a statistically based reliability computer algorithm, verify the reliability model and computer algorithm, and model stator vanes for rig tests. Thus establishing design protocols that enable the engineer to analyze and predict the mechanical behavior of ceramic composites and intermetallics would mitigate the prototype (trial and error) approach currently used by the engineering community. The primary objective of the research effort supported by this short term grant is the continued creation of enabling technologies for the macroanalysis of components fabricated from ceramic composites and intermetallic material systems. The creation of enabling technologies aids in shortening the product development cycle of components fabricated from the new high technology materials.

  12. Electron backscatter diffraction: Strategies for reliable data acquisition and processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Randle, Valerie

    2009-01-01

    In electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) software packages there are many user choices both in data acquisition and in data processing and display. In order to extract maximum scientific value from an inquiry, it is helpful to have some guidelines for best practice in conducting an EBSD investigation. The purpose of this article therefore is to address selected topics of EBSD practice, in a tutorial manner. The topics covered are a brief summary on the principles of EBSD, specimen preparation, calibration of an EBSD system, experiment design, speed of data acquisition, data clean-up, microstructure characterisation (including grain size) and grain boundary characterisation. This list is not meant to cover exhaustively all areas where EBSD is used, but rather to provide a resource consisting of some useful strategies for novice EBSD users.

  13. Strategies for Allocation of the US Federal Budget: Military and Innovative Dimension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glukhova Darya A.

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is to define the conceptual framework and features of priority directions in redistribution of the US federal funds. This subject is very relevant because it discloses a system of financing and allocations of the most powerful state in the world in many aspects. The article describes the structure of government funding of the national military sector and directions of the modernization of the US military-industrial complex. It has been determined that in the global expansion of military actions the USA in no case remain aloof from the given events. Manufacturing the US military products plays a key role in the defense industry not only of the country itself but also the international community as a whole. For Ukraine, with the complications in its military-political situation, the cooperation with the United States and inclusion of the financial assistance to our country in its federal budget are very important. The mentioned directions for allocating the received funds in the amount of $ 300 mln by the Ukrainian government confirm the support by the American state of our military equipment and modernization of the national defense industry

  14. A Topology Control Strategy with Reliability Assurance for Satellite Cluster Networks in Earth Observation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qing; Zhang, Jinxiu; Hu, Ze

    2017-02-23

    This article investigates the dynamic topology control problemof satellite cluster networks (SCNs) in Earth observation (EO) missions by applying a novel metric of stability for inter-satellite links (ISLs). The properties of the periodicity and predictability of satellites' relative position are involved in the link cost metric which is to give a selection criterion for choosing the most reliable data routing paths. Also, a cooperative work model with reliability is proposed for the situation of emergency EO missions. Based on the link cost metric and the proposed reliability model, a reliability assurance topology control algorithm and its corresponding dynamic topology control (RAT) strategy are established to maximize the stability of data transmission in the SCNs. The SCNs scenario is tested through some numeric simulations of the topology stability of average topology lifetime and average packet loss rate. Simulation results show that the proposed reliable strategy applied in SCNs significantly improves the data transmission performance and prolongs the average topology lifetime.

  15. Reliability of the Motor Learning Strategy Rating Instrument for Children and Youth with Acquired Brain Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamath, Trishna; Pfeifer, Megan; Banerjee-Guenette, Priyanka; Hunter, Theresa; Ito, Julia; Salbach, Nancy M.; Wright, Virginia; Levac, Danielle

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate reliability and feasibility of the Motor Learning Strategy Rating Instrument (MLSRI) in children with acquired brain injury (ABI). The MLSRI quantifies the extent to which motor learning strategies (MLS) are used within physiotherapy (PT) interventions. Methods: PT sessions conducted by ABI team physiotherapists with a…

  16. Recovery and Resource Allocation Strategies to Maximize Mobile Network Survivability by Using Game Theories and Optimization Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei-Yu Chen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available With more and more mobile device users, an increasingly important and critical issue is how to efficiently evaluate mobile network survivability. In this paper, a novel metric called Average Degree of Disconnectivity (Average DOD is proposed, in which the concept of probability is calculated by the contest success function. The DOD metric is used to evaluate the damage degree of the network, where the larger the value of the Average DOD, the more the damage degree of the network. A multiround network attack-defense scenario as a mathematical model is used to support network operators to predict all the strategies both cyber attacker and network defender would likely take. In addition, the Average DOD would be used to evaluate the damage degree of the network. In each round, the attacker could use the attack resources to launch attacks on the nodes of the target network. Meanwhile, the network defender could reallocate its existing resources to recover compromised nodes and allocate defense resources to protect the survival nodes of the network. In the approach to solving this problem, the “gradient method” and “game theory” are adopted to find the optimal resource allocation strategies for both the cyber attacker and mobile network defender.

  17. On the Dual-Decomposition-Based Resource and Power Allocation with Sleeping Strategy for Heterogeneous Networks

    KAUST Repository

    Alsharoa, Ahmad M.

    2015-05-01

    In this paper, the problem of radio and power resource management in long term evolution heterogeneous networks (LTE HetNets) is investigated. The goal is to minimize the total power consumption of the network while satisfying the user quality of service determined by each target data rate. We study the model where one macrocell base station is placed in the cell center, and multiple small cell base stations and femtocell access points are distributed around it. The dual decomposition technique is adopted to jointly optimize the power and carrier allocation in the downlink direction in addition to the selection of turned off small cell base stations. Our numerical results investigate the performance of the proposed scheme versus different system parameters and show an important saving in terms of total power consumption. © 2015 IEEE.

  18. Near optimal power allocation algorithm for OFDM-based cognitive using adaptive relaying strategy

    KAUST Repository

    Soury, Hamza; Bader, Faouzi; Shaat, Musbah M R; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2012-01-01

    Relayed transmission increases the coverage and achievable capacity of communication systems. Adaptive relaying scheme is a relaying technique by which the benefits of the amplifying or decode and forward techniques can be achieved by switching the forwarding technique according to the quality of the signal. A cognitive Orthogonal Frequency-Division Multiplexing (OFDM) based adaptive relaying protocol is considered in this paper. The objective is to maximize the capacity of the cognitive radio system while ensuring that the interference introduced to the primary user is below the tolerated limit. A Near optimal power allocation in the source and the relay is presented for two pairing techniques such that the matching and random pairing. The simulation results confirm the efficiency of the proposed adaptive relaying protocol, and the consequence of choice of pairing technique. © 2012 ICST.

  19. Water consumption and allocation strategies along the river oases of Tarim River based on large-scale hydrological modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yang; Disse, Markus; Yu, Ruide

    2016-04-01

    With the mainstream of 1,321km and located in an arid area in northwest China, the Tarim River is China's longest inland river. The Tarim basin on the northern edge of the Taklamakan desert is an extremely arid region. In this region, agricultural water consumption and allocation management are crucial to address the conflicts among irrigation water users from upstream to downstream. Since 2011, the German Ministry of Science and Education BMBF established the Sino-German SuMaRiO project, for the sustainable management of river oases along the Tarim River. The project aims to contribute to a sustainable land management which explicitly takes into account ecosystem functions and ecosystem services. SuMaRiO will identify realizable management strategies, considering social, economic and ecological criteria. This will have positive effects for nearly 10 million inhabitants of different ethnic groups. The modelling of water consumption and allocation strategies is a core block in the SuMaRiO cluster. A large-scale hydrological model (MIKE HYDRO Basin) was established for the purpose of sustainable agricultural water management in the main stem Tarim River. MIKE HYDRO Basin is an integrated, multipurpose, map-based decision support tool for river basin analysis, planning and management. It provides detailed simulation results concerning water resources and land use in the catchment areas of the river. Calibration data and future predictions based on large amount of data was acquired. The results of model calibration indicated a close correlation between simulated and observed values. Scenarios with the change on irrigation strategies and land use distributions were investigated. Irrigation scenarios revealed that the available irrigation water has significant and varying effects on the yields of different crops. Irrigation water saving could reach up to 40% in the water-saving irrigation scenario. Land use scenarios illustrated that an increase of farmland area in the

  20. Resources allocation in reproductive rabbit does: a review of feeding and genetic strategies for suitable performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan José Pascual

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In the present work is analysed how frequent feeding and selection programmes could be affecting resources allocation in reproductive rabbit does, and the possible consequences resulted from these changes, as well as the central role of body condition for a suitable female performance considering genetic level, health and welfare.  Resources allocation between functions, and consequently body condition, must be genetically driven.  Traditional view of body reserves mobilisation in reproductive rabbit does as a response of feed intake must be moved to an animal view, where feed intake must be considered more as an “output” consequence of the resources allocation in the female to ensure current and future litter viability.  To a great extent, future reproductive potential of reproductive rabbit females is decided before first partum.  There seems to be enough evidence of a possible threshold for the rabbit female birth weight to reach the beginning of reproductive life in a suitable body condition to maximise their future reproductive potential.  The moment of first mating could be identified the last ‘pure’ data of the animal, sign of the animal soma and probably related to their productive potential.  The choice of an adequate feeding system during rearing and first pregnancy also seems to be relevant in the reproductive performance of rabbit females in the short and long term. This should allow young females to reach first mating and late pregnancy with a good maturity level, but over-fattening must be avoided to reduce the risk of pregnancy toxaemia and reduced reproduction.  The body condition of the females changes during the reproductive cycle and throughout their reproductive life according to their genetically determined level.  The problems appear when the animals are forced to differ from this adequate level, increasing susceptibility to disease, other stress factors and eventual failure.  The body condition of young

  1. C3 and C4 biomass allocation responses to elevated CO2 and nitrogen: contrasting resource capture strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, K.P.; Langley, J.A.; Cahoon, D.R.; Megonigal, J.P.

    2012-01-01

    Plants alter biomass allocation to optimize resource capture. Plant strategy for resource capture may have important implications in intertidal marshes, where soil nitrogen (N) levels and atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) are changing. We conducted a factorial manipulation of atmospheric CO2 (ambient and ambient + 340 ppm) and soil N (ambient and ambient + 25 g m-2 year-1) in an intertidal marsh composed of common North Atlantic C3 and C4 species. Estimation of C3 stem turnover was used to adjust aboveground C3 productivity, and fine root productivity was partitioned into C3-C4 functional groups by isotopic analysis. The results suggest that the plants follow resource capture theory. The C3 species increased aboveground productivity under the added N and elevated CO2 treatment (P 2 alone. C3 fine root production decreased with added N (P 2 (P = 0.0481). The C4 species increased growth under high N availability both above- and belowground, but that stimulation was diminished under elevated CO2. The results suggest that the marsh vegetation allocates biomass according to resource capture at the individual plant level rather than for optimal ecosystem viability in regards to biomass influence over the processes that maintain soil surface elevation in equilibrium with sea level.

  2. Life history strategies and biomass allocation : the population dynamics of perennial plants in a regional perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongejans, E.

    2004-01-01

    This study aims to contribute to the knowledge of how plants respond to adverse influences of intensified land use. In particular, attention was paid to the ways in which life history strategies change in order to buffer environmental variation, and which important parts of the life cycle are

  3. Optimal transmit power allocation for MIMO two-way cognitive relay networks with multiple relays using AF strategy

    KAUST Repository

    Alsharoa, Ahmad M.

    2014-02-01

    In this letter, we consider a multiple-input multiple-output two-way cognitive radio system under a spectrum sharing scenario, where primary and secondary users operate on the same frequency band. The secondary terminals aims to exchange different messages with each other using multiple relays where each relay employs an amplify-and-forward strategy. The main objective of our work is to maximize the secondary sum rate allowed to share the spectrum with the primary users by respecting a primary user tolerated interference threshold. In this context, we derive an analytical expression of the optimal power allocated to each antenna of the terminals. We then discuss the impact of some system parameters on the performance in the numerical result section. © 2012 IEEE.

  4. Berth Allocation Problem with Quay Crane Assignment for Container Terminals Based on Rolling-Horizon Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling Xiao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to solve the large-scale integral dynamic scheduling of continuous berths and quay cranes problem, a method based on rolling-horizon strategy is proposed. A multiobjective optimization model that is established minimizes the total penalty costs considering vessels’ deviations to their preferred berthing positions, delayed times for berthing comparing to their estimated arrival times, and delayed times for departure comparing to their estimated departure times. Then, the scheduling process was divided into a set of continual scheduling interval according to the dynamic arrival sequences. Meanwhile, rolling-horizon strategies for setting rolling and frozen windows and the parameter updating strategy are designed. The input parameters of the model in the next rolling window are updated according to the optimal results of each time window which have been obtained. The model is solved by choosing appropriate rolling and freezing window lengths that represents the numbers of adjacent vessels in the sequence of calling vessels. The holistic optimal solution is obtained by gradually rolling and combining the results of each window. Finally, a case study indicated that the rolling schedule can solve large-scale scheduling problems, and the efficiency of the proposed approach relates to the size of rolling window, freeze ship quantity, and rolling frequency.

  5. A Validity and Reliability Study of the Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erturan Ilker, Gökçe; Arslan, Yunus; Demirhan, Giyasettin

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine the validity and reliability of the Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire (MSLQ) for high school students. In total, 1605 students (829 girls, 776 boys, average age = 15.67 ± 1.19) from three different high schools in the central district of Ankara voluntarily participated in the study. The MSLQ was…

  6. A Topology Control Strategy with Reliability Assurance for Satellite Cluster Networks in Earth Observation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing Chen

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This article investigates the dynamic topology control problemof satellite cluster networks (SCNs in Earth observation (EO missions by applying a novel metric of stability for inter-satellite links (ISLs. The properties of the periodicity and predictability of satellites’ relative position are involved in the link cost metric which is to give a selection criterion for choosing the most reliable data routing paths. Also, a cooperative work model with reliability is proposed for the situation of emergency EO missions. Based on the link cost metric and the proposed reliability model, a reliability assurance topology control algorithm and its corresponding dynamic topology control (RAT strategy are established to maximize the stability of data transmission in the SCNs. The SCNs scenario is tested through some numeric simulations of the topology stability of average topology lifetime and average packet loss rate. Simulation results show that the proposed reliable strategy applied in SCNs significantly improves the data transmission performance and prolongs the average topology lifetime.

  7. Solving binary-state multi-objective reliability redundancy allocation series-parallel problem using efficient epsilon-constraint, multi-start partial bound enumeration algorithm, and DEA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalili-Damghani, Kaveh; Amiri, Maghsoud

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, a procedure based on efficient epsilon-constraint method and data envelopment analysis (DEA) is proposed for solving binary-state multi-objective reliability redundancy allocation series-parallel problem (MORAP). In first module, a set of qualified non-dominated solutions on Pareto front of binary-state MORAP is generated using an efficient epsilon-constraint method. In order to test the quality of generated non-dominated solutions in this module, a multi-start partial bound enumeration algorithm is also proposed for MORAP. The performance of both procedures is compared using different metrics on well-known benchmark instance. The statistical analysis represents that not only the proposed efficient epsilon-constraint method outperform the multi-start partial bound enumeration algorithm but also it improves the founded upper bound of benchmark instance. Then, in second module, a DEA model is supplied to prune the generated non-dominated solutions of efficient epsilon-constraint method. This helps reduction of non-dominated solutions in a systematic manner and eases the decision making process for practical implementations. - Highlights: ► A procedure based on efficient epsilon-constraint method and DEA was proposed for solving MORAP. ► The performance of proposed procedure was compared with a multi-start PBEA. ► Methods were statistically compared using multi-objective metrics.

  8. Swarm Intelligence-Based Smart Energy Allocation Strategy for Charging Stations of Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imran Rahman

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent researches towards the use of green technologies to reduce pollution and higher penetration of renewable energy sources in the transportation sector have been gaining popularity. In this wake, extensive participation of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs requires adequate charging allocation strategy using a combination of smart grid systems and smart charging infrastructures. Daytime charging stations will be needed for daily usage of PHEVs due to the limited all-electric range. Intelligent energy management is an important issue which has already drawn much attention of researchers. Most of these works require formulation of mathematical models with extensive use of computational intelligence-based optimization techniques to solve many technical problems. In this paper, gravitational search algorithm (GSA has been applied and compared with another member of swarm family, particle swarm optimization (PSO, considering constraints such as energy price, remaining battery capacity, and remaining charging time. Simulation results obtained for maximizing the highly nonlinear objective function evaluate the performance of both techniques in terms of best fitness.

  9. Power Allocation Strategies for Fixed-Gain Half-Duplex Amplify-and-Forward Relaying in Nakagami-m Fading

    KAUST Repository

    Zafar, Ammar

    2013-09-01

    In this paper, we study power allocation strategies for a fixed-gain amplify-and-forward relay network employing multiple relays. We consider two optimization problems for the relay network: 1) maximizing the end-to-end signalto- noise ratio (SNR) and 2) minimizing the total power consumption while maintaining the end-to-end SNR over a threshold value. We investigate these two problems for two relaying protocols of all-participate (AP) relaying and selective relaying and two cases of feedback to the relays, full and limited. We show that the SNR maximization problem is concave and the power minimization problem is convex for all protocols and feedback cases considered. We obtain closed-form expressions for the two problems in the case of full feedback and solve the problems through convex programming for limited feedback. Numerical results show the benefit of having full feedback at the relays for both optimization problems. However, they also show that feedback overhead can be reduced by having only limited feedback to the relays with only a small degradation in performance.

  10. Reproductive allocation strategies in desert and Mediterranean populations of annual plants grown with and without water stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aronson, J; Kigel, J; Shmida, A

    1993-03-01

    Reproductive effort (relative allocation of biomass to diaspore production) was compared in matched pairs of Mediterranean and desert populations of three unrelated annual species, Erucaria hispanica (L.) Druce, Bromus fasciculatus C. Presl. and Brachypodium distachyon (L.) Beauv., grown under high and low levels of water availability in a common-environment experiment. Desert populations in all three species showed higher reproductive effort than corresponding Mediterranean populations, as expressed by both a reproductive index (RI= reproductive biomass/vegetative biomass), and a reproductive efficiency index (REI=number of diaspores/total plant biomass). Moreover, in E. hispanica and Brachypodium distachyon, inter-populational differences in reproductive effort were greater under water stress, the main limiting factor for plant growth in the desert. These results indicate that variability in reproductive effort in response to drought is a critical and dynamic component of life history strategies in annual species in heterogeneous, unpredictable xeric environments. When subjected to water stress the Mediterranean populations of E. hispanica and B. distachyon showed greater plasticity (e.g. had a greater reduction) in reproductive effort than the desert populations, while in Bromus fasciculatus both populations showed similar amounts of plasticity.

  11. Distributed Flexibility Characterization and Resource Allocation Strategies for Multi-zone Commercial Buildings in the Smart Grid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hao, He; Lian, Jianming; Kalsi, Karanjit; Stoustrup, Jakob

    2015-12-15

    The HVAC (Heating, Ventilation, and Air- Conditioning) system of commercial buildings is a complex system with a large number of dynamically interacting components. In particular, the thermal dynamics of each zone are coupled with those of the neighboring zones. In this paper, we study a multi-agent based approach to model and control commercial building HVAC system for providing grid services. In the multi-agent system (MAS), individual zones are modeled as agents that can communicate, interact, and negotiate with one another to achieve a common objective. We first propose a distributed characterization method on the aggregated airflow (and thus fan power) flexibility that the HVAC system can provide to the ancillary service market. Then, we propose a Nash-bargaining based airflow allocation strategy to track a dispatch signal (that is within the offered flexibility limit) while respecting the preference and flexibility of individual zones. Moreover, we devise a distributed algorithm to obtain the Nash bargaining solution via dual decomposition and average consensus. Numerical simulations illustrate that the proposed distributed protocols are much more scalable than the centralized approaches especially when the system becomes larger and more complex.

  12. VALIDITY AND RELIABILITY OF THE SPIRITUAL COPING STRATEGIES SCALE ARABIC VERSION IN SAUDI PATIENTS UNDERGOING HAEMODIALYSIS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Jonas P; Baldacchino, Donia R; Alquwez, Nahed

    2016-06-01

    Patients often resort to religious and spiritual activities to cope with physical and mental challenges. The effect of spiritual coping on overall health, adaptation and health-related quality of life among patients undergoing haemodialysis (HD) is well documented. Thus, it is essential to establish a valid and reliable instrument that can assess both the religious and non-religious coping methods in patients undergoing HD. This study aimed to assess the validity and reliability of the Spiritual Coping Strategies Scale Arabic version (SCS-A) in Saudi patients undergoing HD. A convenience sample of 60 Saudi patients undergoing HD was recruited for this descriptive, cross-sectional study. Data were collected between May and June 2015. Forward-backward translation was used to formulate the SCS-A. The SCS-A, Muslim Religiosity Scale and the Quality of Life Index Dialysis Version III were used to procure the data. Internal consistency reliability, stability reliability, factor analysis and construct validity tests were performed. Analyses were set at the 0.05 level of significance. The SCS-A showed an acceptable internal consistency and strong stability reliability over time. The EFA produced two factors (non-religious and religious coping). Satisfactory construct validity was established by the convergent and divergent validity and known-groups method. The SCS-A is a reliable and valid tool that can be used to measure the religious and non-religious coping strategies of patients undergoing HD in Saudi Arabia and other Muslim and Arabic-speaking countries. © 2016 European Dialysis and Transplant Nurses Association/European Renal Care Association.

  13. Design for a Crane Metallic Structure Based on Imperialist Competitive Algorithm and Inverse Reliability Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Xiao-Ning; Zhi, Bo

    2017-07-01

    Uncertainties in parameters such as materials, loading, and geometry are inevitable in designing metallic structures for cranes. When considering these uncertainty factors, reliability-based design optimization (RBDO) offers a more reasonable design approach. However, existing RBDO methods for crane metallic structures are prone to low convergence speed and high computational cost. A unilevel RBDO method, combining a discrete imperialist competitive algorithm with an inverse reliability strategy based on the performance measure approach, is developed. Application of the imperialist competitive algorithm at the optimization level significantly improves the convergence speed of this RBDO method. At the reliability analysis level, the inverse reliability strategy is used to determine the feasibility of each probabilistic constraint at each design point by calculating its α-percentile performance, thereby avoiding convergence failure, calculation error, and disproportionate computational effort encountered using conventional moment and simulation methods. Application of the RBDO method to an actual crane structure shows that the developed RBDO realizes a design with the best tradeoff between economy and safety together with about one-third of the convergence speed and the computational cost of the existing method. This paper provides a scientific and effective design approach for the design of metallic structures of cranes.

  14. Evaluating system reliability and targeted hardening strategies of power distribution systems subjected to hurricanes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salman, Abdullahi M.; Li, Yue; Stewart, Mark G.

    2015-01-01

    Over the years, power distribution systems have been vulnerable to extensive damage from hurricanes which can cause power outage resulting in millions of dollars of economic losses and restoration costs. Most of the outage is as a result of failure of distribution support structures. Over the years, various methods of strengthening distribution systems have been proposed and studied. Some of these methods, such as undergrounding of the system, have been shown to be unjustified from an economic point of view. A potential cost-effective strategy is targeted hardening of the system. This, however, requires a method of determining critical parts of a system that when strengthened, will have greater impact on reliability. This paper presents a framework for studying the effectiveness of targeted hardening strategies on power distribution systems subjected to hurricanes. The framework includes a methodology for evaluating system reliability that relates failure of poles and power delivery, determination of critical parts of a system, hurricane hazard analysis, and consideration of decay of distribution poles. The framework also incorporates cost analysis that considers economic losses due to power outage. A notional power distribution system is used to demonstrate the framework by evaluating and comparing the effectiveness of three hardening measures. - Highlight: • Risk assessment of power distribution systems subjected to hurricanes is carried out. • Framework for studying effectiveness of targeted hardening strategies is presented. • A system reliability method is proposed. • Targeted hardening is cost effective for existing systems. • Economic losses due to power outage should be considered for cost analysis.

  15. Allocation matters. So what can we do about it? Strategies for the electricity sector 2008-2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sijm, J.P.M.; Neuhoff, K.; Keats, K.; Matthes, F.; Johnston, A.

    2005-11-01

    Power generation accounts for circa 2/3 of EU ETS emissions and the response of the power sector is central to both Kyoto compliance and to the price of EU ETS allowances.This study aims to Explain current allowance prices and impact on electricity price; Look at how allocation affects prices, operation and investment; Draw out implications for policy in Phase II and beyond. The executive summary will discuss Price impacts; Distortions from allocation; Recommendations; Higher-level conclusions on allocations approaches for longer term. The contents of the presentation are: Key drivers for CO2 price; Pass through to electricity price; Effect of allocation to existing facilities: Perfect grandfathering, Contingent on availability, Uniform benchmarking using moving base, Fuel specific benchmarking using moving base, Real life grandfathering; Effect of allocation to new facilities: Uniform benchmark, Fuel specific benchmarking; and Legal considerations

  16. Strategy for establishing integrated l and c reliability of operating nuclear power plants in korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, H. T.; Chung, H. Y.; Lee, Y. H.

    2008-01-01

    Korea hydro and nuclear power co. (KHNP) are in progress of developing a integrated I and C reliability establishing strategy for managing l and C obsolescence and phasing in new technology that both meets the needs of the fleet and captures the benefits of applying proven solutions to multiple plants, with reduced incremental costs. In view of this, we are developing I and C component management which covers major failure mode, symptom of performance degradation, condition-based or time-based preventive management (PM), monitoring, and failure finding and correction based on equipment reliability (ER). Furthermore, for the l and C system replacement management, we are in progress of 3-year-long I and C systems upgrade fundamental designing in developing the long-term major l and C systems implementation plan to improve plant operations, eliminate operator challenges, reduce maintenance costs, and cope with the challenges of component obsolescence. For accomplishing I and C digital upgrade in near future, we chose demonstration plant, Younggwang (YGN) unit 3 and 4 which are Korean Standard Nuclear Power Plant (KSNP). In this paper, we established the long term reliability strategy of I and C system based on ER in component replacement and furthermore I and C systems digital upgrade in system replacement. (authors)

  17. Rigor or Reliability and Validity in Qualitative Research: Perspectives, Strategies, Reconceptualization, and Recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cypress, Brigitte S

    Issues are still raised even now in the 21st century by the persistent concern with achieving rigor in qualitative research. There is also a continuing debate about the analogous terms reliability and validity in naturalistic inquiries as opposed to quantitative investigations. This article presents the concept of rigor in qualitative research using a phenomenological study as an exemplar to further illustrate the process. Elaborating on epistemological and theoretical conceptualizations by Lincoln and Guba, strategies congruent with qualitative perspective for ensuring validity to establish the credibility of the study are described. A synthesis of the historical development of validity criteria evident in the literature during the years is explored. Recommendations are made for use of the term rigor instead of trustworthiness and the reconceptualization and renewed use of the concept of reliability and validity in qualitative research, that strategies for ensuring rigor must be built into the qualitative research process rather than evaluated only after the inquiry, and that qualitative researchers and students alike must be proactive and take responsibility in ensuring the rigor of a research study. The insights garnered here will move novice researchers and doctoral students to a better conceptual grasp of the complexity of reliability and validity and its ramifications for qualitative inquiry.

  18. Maintenance strategy based on reliability functions for an oil centrifugal pump

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denis Carlos Mengue

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article was to define the most appropriate maintenance strategy for a centrifugal pump (preventive, predictive, corrective or emergency, based on reliability calculation. The research method was the quantitative modeling, applied in a petroleum plant. The study may contribute to the development of a strategic model for the management of the industrial plant maintenance. In the company's information system, records of eleven years have been gathered on times between failures and times for repair of the equipment. These times were modeled by probability distributions. From the results obtained were calculated Reliability and Maintainability functions R(t and M(t. By combining their expected values (MTBF and MTTR, Av availability was calculated. The figures for MTBF, MTTR and Av were respectively 3,936 hours, 133 hours and 96.73%. The most likely shape factor of the Weibull distribution which modeled the time between failures was 0.69. So, it was possible to affirm that the pump is in the infant mortality phase. The theoretical framework of RCM indicated corrective  maintenance as the strategy for the item. This strategy aims to eliminate the defects of equipment design, reinforce items that usually break and remove the causes of the failures.

  19. Measuring strategies for learning regulation in medical education: scale reliability and dimensionality in a Swedish sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edelbring, Samuel

    2012-08-15

    The degree of learners' self-regulated learning and dependence on external regulation influence learning processes in higher education. These regulation strategies are commonly measured by questionnaires developed in other settings than in which they are being used, thereby requiring renewed validation. The aim of this study was to psychometrically evaluate the learning regulation strategy scales from the Inventory of Learning Styles with Swedish medical students (N = 206). The regulation scales were evaluated regarding their reliability, scale dimensionality and interrelations. The primary evaluation focused on dimensionality and was performed with Mokken scale analysis. To assist future scale refinement, additional item analysis, such as item-to-scale correlations, was performed. Scale scores in the Swedish sample displayed good reliability in relation to published results: Cronbach's alpha: 0.82, 0.72, and 0.65 for self-regulation, external regulation and lack of regulation scales respectively. The dimensionalities in scales were adequate for self-regulation and its subscales, whereas external regulation and lack of regulation displayed less unidimensionality. The established theoretical scales were largely replicated in the exploratory analysis. The item analysis identified two items that contributed little to their respective scales. The results indicate that these scales have an adequate capacity for detecting the three theoretically proposed learning regulation strategies in the medical education sample. Further construct validity should be sought by interpreting scale scores in relation to specific learning activities. Using established scales for measuring students' regulation strategies enables a broad empirical base for increasing knowledge on regulation strategies in relation to different disciplinary settings and contributes to theoretical development.

  20. Measuring strategies for learning regulation in medical education: Scale reliability and dimensionality in a Swedish sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edelbring Samuel

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The degree of learners’ self-regulated learning and dependence on external regulation influence learning processes in higher education. These regulation strategies are commonly measured by questionnaires developed in other settings than in which they are being used, thereby requiring renewed validation. The aim of this study was to psychometrically evaluate the learning regulation strategy scales from the Inventory of Learning Styles with Swedish medical students (N = 206. Methods The regulation scales were evaluated regarding their reliability, scale dimensionality and interrelations. The primary evaluation focused on dimensionality and was performed with Mokken scale analysis. To assist future scale refinement, additional item analysis, such as item-to-scale correlations, was performed. Results Scale scores in the Swedish sample displayed good reliability in relation to published results: Cronbach’s alpha: 0.82, 0.72, and 0.65 for self-regulation, external regulation and lack of regulation scales respectively. The dimensionalities in scales were adequate for self-regulation and its subscales, whereas external regulation and lack of regulation displayed less unidimensionality. The established theoretical scales were largely replicated in the exploratory analysis. The item analysis identified two items that contributed little to their respective scales. Discussion The results indicate that these scales have an adequate capacity for detecting the three theoretically proposed learning regulation strategies in the medical education sample. Further construct validity should be sought by interpreting scale scores in relation to specific learning activities. Using established scales for measuring students’ regulation strategies enables a broad empirical base for increasing knowledge on regulation strategies in relation to different disciplinary settings and contributes to theoretical development.

  1. Carotenoid accumulation in the tissues of zebra finches: predictors of integumentary pigmentation and implications for carotenoid allocation strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGraw, Kevin J; Toomey, Matthew B

    2010-01-01

    Carotenoid pigments produce the bright yellow to red ornamental colors of many animals, especially birds, and must ultimately be derived from the diet. However, they are also valuable for many physiological functions (e.g., antioxidants, immunostimulants, photoprotection, visual tuning, yolk nourishment to embryos), and as a result they are present in numerous internal body tissues (e.g., liver, adipose tissue, retina) whose carotenoid types and amounts are rarely studied in the context of color acquisition. Because male and female animals typically place different priorities on fitness-enhancing activities (e.g., gametic investment in females, sexual attraction in males), carotenoid allocation may track such investment patterns in the two sexes, and we can test for such sex-specific priorities of carotenoids by assessing body-tissue distributions of these pigments. We used high-performance liquid chromatography to identify and quantify carotenoid pigments from the plasma, liver, adipose tissue, and retina as well as the beak and legs of male and female zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata), a species in which males display sexually attractive, red, carotenoid-based beak coloration and females also display some (albeit a less rich orange) beak color. To our knowledge, this is the first study of the predictors of carotenoid-based leg coloration-another potentially important visual signal-in this species. The same suite of dietary (e.g., lutein, zeaxanthin, beta-cryptoxanthin) and metabolically derived (e.g., dehydrolutein, anhydrolutein) yellow and orange carotenoids was present in plasma, liver, and adipose tissue of both sexes. Retina contained two different metabolites (astaxanthin and galloxanthin) that serve specific functions in association with unique photoreceptor types in the eye. Beaks were enriched with four red ketocarotenoid derivatives in both sexes (alpha-doradexanthin, adonirubin, astaxanthin, and canthaxanthin), while the carotenoid profile of legs

  2. King eiders use an income strategy for egg production: a case study for incorporating individual dietary variation into nutrient allocation research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oppel, Steffen; Powell, Abby N; O'Brien, Diane M

    2010-09-01

    The use of stored nutrients for reproduction represents an important component of life-history variation. Recent studies from several species have used stable isotopes to estimate the reliance on stored body reserves in reproduction. Such approaches rely on population-level dietary endpoints to characterize stored reserves ("capital") and current diet ("income"). Individual variation in diet choice has so far not been incorporated in such approaches, but is crucial for assessing variation in nutrient allocation strategies. We investigated nutrient allocation to egg production in a large-bodied sea duck in northern Alaska, the king eider (Somateria spectabilis). We first used Bayesian isotopic mixing models to quantify at the population level the amount of endogenous carbon and nitrogen invested into egg proteins based on carbon and nitrogen isotope ratios. We then defined the isotopic signature of the current diet of every nesting female based on isotope ratios of eggshell membranes, because diets varied isotopically among individual king eiders on breeding grounds. We used these individual-based dietary isotope signals to characterize nutrient allocation for each female in the study population. At the population level, the Bayesian and the individual-based approaches yielded identical results, and showed that king eiders used an income strategy for the synthesis of egg proteins. The majority of the carbon and nitrogen in albumen (C: 86 +/- 18%, N: 99 +/- 1%) and the nitrogen in lipid-free yolk (90 +/- 15%) were derived from food consumed on breeding grounds. Carbon in lipid-free yolk derived evenly from endogenous sources and current diet (exogenous C: 54 +/- 24%), but source contribution was highly variable among individual females. These results suggest that even large-bodied birds traditionally viewed as capital breeders use exogenous nutrients for reproduction. We recommend that investigations of nutrient allocation should incorporate individual variation into

  3. King eider use an income strategy for egg production: a case study for incorporating individual dietary variation into nutrient allocation research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oppel, Steffen; Powell, Abby N.; O'Brien, Diane M.

    2010-01-01

    The use of stored nutrients for reproduction represents an important component of life-history variation. Recent studies from several species have used stable isotopes to estimate the reliance on stored body reserves in reproduction. Such approaches rely on population-level dietary endpoints to characterize stored reserves (“capital”) and current diet (“income”). Individual variation in diet choice has so far not been incorporated in such approaches, but is crucial for assessing variation in nutrient allocation strategies. We investigated nutrient allocation to egg production in a large-bodied sea duck in northern Alaska, the king eider (Somateria spectabilis). We first used Bayesian isotopic mixing models to quantify at the population level the amount of endogenous carbon and nitrogen invested into egg proteins based on carbon and nitrogen isotope ratios. We then defined the isotopic signature of the current diet of every nesting female based on isotope ratios of eggshell membranes, because diets varied isotopically among individual king eiders on breeding grounds. We used these individual-based dietary isotope signals to characterize nutrient allocation for each female in the study population. At the population level, the Bayesian and the individual-based approaches yielded identical results, and showed that king eiders used an income strategy for the synthesis of egg proteins. The majority of the carbon and nitrogen in albumen (C: 86 ± 18%, N: 99 ± 1%) and the nitrogen in lipid-free yolk (90 ± 15%) were derived from food consumed on breeding grounds. Carbon in lipid-free yolk derived evenly from endogenous sources and current diet (exogenous C: 54 ± 24%), but source contribution was highly variable among individual females. These results suggest that even large-bodied birds traditionally viewed as capital breeders use exogenous nutrients for reproduction. We recommend that investigations of nutrient allocation should incorporate individual

  4. Power allocation for target detection in radar networks based on low probability of intercept: A cooperative game theoretical strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Chenguang; Salous, Sana; Wang, Fei; Zhou, Jianjiang

    2017-08-01

    Distributed radar network systems have been shown to have many unique features. Due to their advantage of signal and spatial diversities, radar networks are attractive for target detection. In practice, the netted radars in radar networks are supposed to maximize their transmit power to achieve better detection performance, which may be in contradiction with low probability of intercept (LPI). Therefore, this paper investigates the problem of adaptive power allocation for radar networks in a cooperative game-theoretic framework such that the LPI performance can be improved. Taking into consideration both the transmit power constraints and the minimum signal to interference plus noise ratio (SINR) requirement of each radar, a cooperative Nash bargaining power allocation game based on LPI is formulated, whose objective is to minimize the total transmit power by optimizing the power allocation in radar networks. First, a novel SINR-based network utility function is defined and utilized as a metric to evaluate power allocation. Then, with the well-designed network utility function, the existence and uniqueness of the Nash bargaining solution are proved analytically. Finally, an iterative Nash bargaining algorithm is developed that converges quickly to a Pareto optimal equilibrium for the cooperative game. Numerical simulations and theoretic analysis are provided to evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm.

  5. Maximizing growth rate at low temperatures: RNA:DNA allocation strategies and life history traits of Arctic and temperate Daphnia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Geest, G.J.; Sachse, R.; Brehm, Michaela; Van Donk, E.; Hessen, D.O.

    2010-01-01

    Many short-lived or univoltine organisms at high latitudes and altitudes face the challenge to complete their life-cycle within a brief growing season. This means that they need to maintain a high growth rate at low temperatures, and one way of doing this is to allocate limiting resources like

  6. Strategies for Building a Reliable, Diverse Pipeline of Earth Data Scientists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, R.; Robinson, E.

    2015-12-01

    The grand challenges facing the geosciences are increasingly data-driven and require large-scale collaboration. Today's geoscience community is primarily self-taught or peer-taught as neither data science nor collaborative skills are traditionally part of the geoscience curriculum. This is not a sustainable model. By increasing understanding of the role of data science and collaboration in the geosciences, and Earth and space science informatics, an increased number of students pursuing STEM degrees may choose careers in these fields. Efforts to build a reliable pipeline of future Earth data scientists must incorporate the following: (1) improved communication: covering not only what data science is, but what a data scientist working in the geosciences does and the impact their work has; (2) effective identification and promotion of the skills and knowledge needed, including possible academic and career paths, the availability and types of jobs in the geosciences, and how to develop the necessary skills for these careers; (3) the employment of recruitment and engagement strategies that result in a diverse data science workforce, especially the recruitment and inclusion of underrepresented minority students; and (4) changing organizational cultures to better retain and advance women and other minority groups in data science. In this presentation we'll discuss strategies to increase the number of women and underrepresented minority students pursuing careers in data science, with an emphasis on effective strategies for recruiting and mentoring these groups, as well as challenges faced and lessons learned.

  7. Functional components for a design strategy: Hot cell shielding in the high reliability safeguards methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borrelli, R.A., E-mail: rborrelli@uidaho.edu

    2016-08-15

    The high reliability safeguards (HRS) methodology has been established for the safeguardability of advanced nuclear energy systems (NESs). HRS is being developed in order to integrate safety, security, and safeguards concerns, while also optimizing these with operational goals for facilities that handle special nuclear material (SNM). Currently, a commercial pyroprocessing facility is used as an example system. One of the goals in the HRS methodology is to apply intrinsic features of the system to a design strategy. This current study investigates the thickness of the hot cell walls that could adequately shield processed materials. This is an important design consideration that carries implications regarding the formation of material balance areas, the location of key measurement points, and material flow in the facility.

  8. Reliability and Validity of the Turkish Language Version of the Test of Performance Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miçooğulları Bülent Okan

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to examine the psychometric properties of the Test of Performance Strategies (TOPS; Thomas et al., 1999 on the Turkish population. The TOPS was designed to assess eight psychological skills and strategies used by athletes in competition (activation, automaticity, emotional control, goal-setting, imagery, relaxation, self-talk, and negative thinking and the same strategies, except negative thinking is replaced by attentional control used in training. The sample of the study included athletes who were training and competing in a wide variety of sports across a broad range of performance standards. The final sample consisted of 433 males (mean ± s: age 22.47 ± 5.30 years and 187 females (mean ± s: age 20.97 ± 4.78 years, 620 athletes in total (mean ± s: age 21.25 ± 4.87 years who voluntarily participated; TOPS was administered to all participants. Afterward, Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA was conducted by Analysis Moments of Structures (AMOS 18. Comparative fit index (CFI, non-normed fit index (NNFI and root mean square error of approximation (RMSEA were used to verify whether the model fit the data. Goodness-of-fit statistics were CFI= .91, NNFI= .92 and RMSEA= .056. These values showed that the tested model is coherent at a satisfactory level. Moreover, results of confirmatory factor analyses revealed that a total of four items (two items from competition and two from practice within the subscale of automaticity have been removed. The 28 items within the remaining seven subscales have been validated. In conclusion, Turkish version of TOPS is a valid and reliable instrument to assess the psychological skills and strategies used by athletes in competition and practices.

  9. Research on strategy and optimization method of PRT empty vehicles resource allocation based on traffic demand forecast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Yu; Tao, Cheng

    2018-05-01

    During the operation of the personal rapid transit system(PRT), the empty vehicle resources is distributed unevenly because of different passenger demand. In order to maintain the balance between supply and demand, and to meet the passenger needs of the ride, PRT empty vehicle resource allocation model is constructed based on the future demand forecasted by historical demand in this paper. The improved genetic algorithm is implied in distribution of the empty vehicle which can reduce the customers waiting time and improve the operation efficiency of the PRT system so that all passengers can take the PRT vehicles in the shortest time. The experimental result shows that the improved genetic algorithm can allocate the empty vehicle from the system level optimally, and realize the distribution of the empty vehicle resources reasonably in the system.

  10. EXTENDED WARRANTY STRATEGIES FOR ONLINE SHOPPING SUPPLY CHAIN WITH COMPETING SUPPLIERS CONSIDERING COMPONENT RELIABILITY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xinghong Qin; Qiang Su; Samuel H.Huang

    2017-01-01

    This article presents the issue of extended warranty and management strategies in a three-echelon competing online shopping supply chain with price-and base warranty period-dependent demand.We employ game theory to develop decision models to explore the interactions between component suppliers and the manufacturer,as well as competition between two component suppliers.Products and extended warranty are sold by an online store,which is the leader in the Stackelberg game.Two scenarios are considered:either the manufacturer offers a prepaid extended warranty to customers or doses not.In each scenario,base warranties are assumed to be bundled with products.Our results show that when the manufacturer's repair costs change in a proper range,providing extended warranty can benefit both the manufacturer and the online store;otherwise,the manufacturer has no incentive to offer the extended warranty.Reducing repair costs,improving component reliability,or shortening the base warranty period allows the manufacturer to realize significantly better value of the extended warranty.High component reliability benefits both the manufacturer and the online store,with the manufacturer reaping more benefit.Extending the length of the base warranty adversely affects profit of the manufacturer and the value of the extended warranty.

  11. Establishment of calculated panel reactive antibody and its potential benefits in improving the kidney allocation strategy in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ssu-Wen Shen

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background/Purpose: Renal transplant candidates who are highly sensitized to human leukocyte antigens (HLAs tend to wait longer to find a matched donor and have poor outcomes. Most organ-sharing programs prioritize highly sensitized patients in the allocation scoring system. The HLA sensitization status is traditionally evaluated by the panel-reactive antibody (PRA assay. However, this assay is method dependent and does not consider the ethnic differences in HLA frequencies. A calculated PRA (cPRA, based on a population's HLA frequency and patients' unacceptable antigens (UAs, correctly estimates the percentage of donors suitable for candidates. The Taiwan Organ Registry and Sharing Center does not prioritize sensitized patients. We propose that the incorporation of the cPRA and UAs into the renal allocation program will improve the local kidney allocation policy. Methods: We established a cPRA calculator using 6146 Taiwanese HLA-A, -B, -C, -DR, and -DQ phenotypes. We performed simulated allocation based on the concept of acceptable mismatch for 76 candidates with cPRA values exceeding 80%. Results: We analyzed 138 waitlisted renal transplant candidates at our hospital, and we determined that the concordance rate of the cPRA and PRA for highly sensitized (%PRA > 80% candidates was 92.5%, which decreased to 20% for those with %PRA < 80%. We matched 76 highly sensitized patients based on acceptable mismatch with the HLA phenotypes of 93 cadaver donors. Forty-six patients (61% found at least one suitable donor. Conclusion: The application of the cPRA and acceptable mismatch can benefit highly sensitized patients and reduce positive lymphocyte cytotoxicity crossmatch. Keywords: Kidney transplantation, Human leukocyte antigen, CPRA

  12. Spot market natural gas strategies and reliability dealing with changing industry conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McClure, D.C.

    1992-01-01

    Many in the energy industry thought the natural gas buying game had finally settled down to a predictable pattern in the 90's. After a tumultuous decade in the 80's they are ready to turn their attention to new challenges such as electricity wheeling and cogeneration. They were wrong. There is plenty of change left in the natural gas industry for the rest of the century. This growth will dramatically increase the number of options available to Energy Buyers, giving them new flexibility to design programs that meet goals for cost reduction, supply reliability, and administrative effort. However, with new options also come the responsibility for choices. Energy Managers of well designed gas programs will make these choices after careful consideration of the pro's and con's of each option. In short, the effective Buyer will develop a natural gas strategy. This report will begin by reviewing the basic types of change occurring in the industry, and then discuss some of the varied strategy options available to the Energy Buyer

  13. reliability reliability

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    Corresponding author, Tel: +234-703. RELIABILITY .... V , , given by the code of practice. However, checks must .... an optimization procedure over the failure domain F corresponding .... of Concrete Members based on Utility Theory,. Technical ...

  14. Automation strategies in five domains - A comparison of levels of automation, function allocation and visualisation of automatic functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, J.

    2011-01-01

    This study was conducted as a field study where control room operators and engineers from the refinery, heat and power, aviation, shipping and nuclear domain were interviewed regarding use of automation and the visualisation of automatic functions. The purpose of the study was to collect experiences and best practices from the five studied domains on levels of automation, function allocation and visualisation of automatic functions. In total, nine different control room settings were visited. The studied settings were compared using a systemic approach based on a human-machine systems model. The results show that the 'left over principle' is still the most common applied approach for function allocation but in high risk settings the decision whether to automate or not is more carefully considered. Regarding the visualisation of automatic functions, it was found that as long as each display type (process based, functional oriented, situation oriented and task based) are applied so that they correspond to the same level of abstraction as the technical system the operators mental model will be supported. No single display type can however readily match all levels of abstraction at the same time - all display types are still needed and serve different purposes. (Author)

  15. Automation strategies in five domains - A comparison of levels of automation, function allocation and visualisation of automatic functions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, J. (Chalmers Univ. of Technology. Division Design and Human factors. Dept. of Product and Production Development, Goeteborg (Sweden))

    2011-01-15

    This study was conducted as a field study where control room operators and engineers from the refinery, heat and power, aviation, shipping and nuclear domain were interviewed regarding use of automation and the visualisation of automatic functions. The purpose of the study was to collect experiences and best practices from the five studied domains on levels of automation, function allocation and visualisation of automatic functions. In total, nine different control room settings were visited. The studied settings were compared using a systemic approach based on a human-machine systems model. The results show that the 'left over principle' is still the most common applied approach for function allocation but in high risk settings the decision whether to automate or not is more carefully considered. Regarding the visualisation of automatic functions, it was found that as long as each display type (process based, functional oriented, situation oriented and task based) are applied so that they correspond to the same level of abstraction as the technical system the operator's mental model will be supported. No single display type can however readily match all levels of abstraction at the same time - all display types are still needed and serve different purposes. (Author)

  16. ESG Allocations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — This report displays the Emergency Solutions Grants (ESG), formerly Emergency Shelter Grants, allocation by jurisdiction. The website allows users to look at...

  17. Reliability engineering theory and practice

    CERN Document Server

    Birolini, Alessandro

    2014-01-01

    This book shows how to build in, evaluate, and demonstrate reliability and availability of components, equipment, systems. It presents the state-of-theart of reliability engineering, both in theory and practice, and is based on the author's more than 30 years experience in this field, half in industry and half as Professor of Reliability Engineering at the ETH, Zurich. The structure of the book allows rapid access to practical results. This final edition extend and replace all previous editions. New are, in particular, a strategy to mitigate incomplete coverage, a comprehensive introduction to human reliability with design guidelines and new models, and a refinement of reliability allocation, design guidelines for maintainability, and concepts related to regenerative stochastic processes. The set of problems for homework has been extended. Methods & tools are given in a way that they can be tailored to cover different reliability requirement levels and be used for safety analysis. Because of the Appendice...

  18. Towards high-reliability organising in healthcare: a strategy for building organisational capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aboumatar, Hanan J; Weaver, Sallie J; Rees, Dianne; Rosen, Michael A; Sawyer, Melinda D; Pronovost, Peter J

    2017-08-01

    In a high-reliability organisation (HRO), safety and quality (SQ) is an organisational priority, and all workforce members are engaged, continuously learning and improving their work. To build organisational capacity for SQ work, we have developed a role-tailored capacity-building framework that we are currently employing at the Johns Hopkins Armstrong Institute for Patient Safety and Quality as part of an organisational strategy towards HRO. This framework considers organisation-wide competencies for SQ that includes all staff and faculty and is integrated into a broader organisation-wide operating management system for improving quality. In this framework, achieving safe, high-quality care is connected to healthcare workforce preparedness. Capacity-building efforts are tailored to the needs of distinct groups within the workforce that fall within three categories: (1) front-line providers and staff, (2) managers and local improvement personnel and (3) SQ leaders and experts. In this paper we describe this framework, our implementation efforts to date, challenges met and lessons learnt. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  19. Evaluation of design, leak monitoring, dnd NDEA strategies to assure PBMR Helium pressure boundary reliability - HTR2008-58037

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fleming, K. N.; Smit, K.

    2008-01-01

    This paper discusses the reliability and integrity management (RIM) strategies that have been applied in the design of the PBMR passive metallic components for the helium pressure boundary (HPB) to meet reliability targets and to evaluate what combination of strategies are needed to meet the targets. The strategies considered include deterministic design strategies to reduce or eliminate the potential for specific damage mechanisms, use of an on-line leak monitoring system and associated design provisions that provide a high degree of leak detection reliability, and periodic nondestructive examinations combined with repair and replacement strategies to reduce the probability that degradation would lead to pipe ruptures. The PBMR RIM program for passive metallic piping components uses a leak-before-break philosophy. A Markov model developed for use in LWR risk-informed in-service inspection evaluations was applied to investigate the impact of alternative RIM strategies and plant age assumptions on the pipe rupture frequencies as a function of rupture size. Some key results of this investigation are presented in this paper. (authors)

  20. A decision support system to find the best water allocation strategies in a Mediterranean river basin in future scenarios of global change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Vasto-Terrientes, L.; Kumar, V.; Chao, T.-C.; Valls, A.

    2016-03-01

    Global change refers to climate changes, but also demographic, technological and economic changes. Predicted water scarcity will be critical in the coastal Mediterranean region, especially for provision to mid-sized and large-sized cities. This paper studies the case of the city of Tarragona, located at the Mediterranean area of north-eastern Spain (Catalonia). Several scenarios have been constructed to evaluate different sectorial water allocation policies to mitigate the water scarcity induced by global change. Future water supply and demand predictions have been made for three time spans. The decision support system presented is based on the outranking model, which constructs a partial pre-order based on pairwise preference relations among all the possible actions. The system analyses a hierarchical structure of criteria, including environmental and economic criteria. We compare several adaptation measures including alternative water sources, inter-basin water transfer and sectorial demand management coming from industry, agriculture and domestic sectors. Results indicate that the most appropriate water allocation strategies depend on the severity of the global change effects.

  1. Maintainability allocation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guyot, Christian.

    1980-06-01

    The author gives the general lines of a method for the allocation and for the evaluation of maintainability of complex systems which is to be developed during the conference. The maintainability objective is supposed to be formulated under the form of a mean time to repair (M.T.T.R.) [fr

  2. Cellular scanning strategy for selective laser melting: Generating reliable, optimized scanning paths and processing parameters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mohanty, Sankhya; Hattel, Jesper Henri

    2015-01-01

    method based uncertainty and reliability analysis. The reliability of the scanning paths are established using cumulative probability distribution functions for process output criteria such as sample density, thermal homogeneity, etc. A customized genetic algorithm is used along with the simulation model...

  3. Students' Evaluation Strategies in a Web Research Task: Are They Sensitive to Relevance and Reliability?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodicio, Héctor García

    2015-01-01

    When searching and using resources on the Web, students have to evaluate Web pages in terms of relevance and reliability. This evaluation can be done in a more or less systematic way, by either considering deep or superficial cues of relevance and reliability. The goal of this study was to examine how systematic students are when evaluating Web…

  4. Effect of RF Interference on the Security-Reliability Trade-off Analysis of Multiuser Mixed RF/FSO Relay Networks with Power Allocation

    KAUST Repository

    Abd El-Malek, Ahmed

    2017-03-27

    In this paper, the impact of radio frequency (RF) cochannel interference (CCI) on the performance of multiuser mixed RF/free-space optical (FSO) relay network with opportunistic user scheduling under eavesdropping attack is studied. The considered system includes multiple users, one decode-and-forward relay, one destination, and an eavesdropper. In the analysis, the RF/FSO channels follow Nakagami-m/Gamma-Gamma fading models, respectively, with pointing errors on the FSO link. Exact closed-form expression for the system outage probability is derived. Then, an asymptotic expression for the outage probability is obtained at the high signal-to-interference-plus-noise ratio regime to get more insights on the system performance. Moreover, the obtained results are used to find the optimal transmission power in different turbulence conditions. The secrecy performance is studied in the presence of CCI at both the authorized relay and eavesdropper, where closed-form expressions are derived for the intercept probability. The physical layer security performance is enhanced using cooperative jamming models, where new closed-form expressions are derived for the intercept probability. Another power allocation optimization problem is formulated to find the optimal transmission and jamming powers. The derived analytical formulas are supported by numerical results to clarify the main contributions of this paper.

  5. A comparison of individual cow versus group concentrate allocation strategies on dry matter intake, milk production, tissue changes, and fertility of Holstein-Friesian cows offered a grass silage diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, M W; O'Connell, N E; Ferris, C P

    2016-06-01

    A diverse range of concentrate allocation strategies are adopted on dairy farms. The objectives of this study were to examine the effects on cow performance [dry matter (DM) intake (DMI), milk yield and composition, body tissue changes, and fertility] of adopting 2 contrasting concentrate allocation strategies over the first 140 d of lactation. Seventy-seven Holstein-Friesian dairy cows were allocated to 1 of 2 concentrate allocation strategies at calving, namely group or individual cow. Cows on the group strategy were offered a mixed ration comprising grass silage and concentrates in a 50:50 ratio on a DM basis. Cows on the individual cow strategy were offered a basal mixed ration comprising grass silage and concentrates (the latter included in the mix to achieve a mean intake of 6kg/cow per day), which was formulated to meet the cow's energy requirements for maintenance plus 24kg of milk/cow per day. Additional concentrates were offered via an out-of-parlor feeding system, with the amount offered adjusted weekly based on each individual cow's milk yield during the previous week. In addition, all cows received a small quantity of straw in the mixed ration part of the diet (approximately 0.3kg/cow per day), plus 0.5kg of concentrate twice daily in the milking parlor. Mean concentrate intakes over the study period were similar with each of the 2 allocation strategies (11.5 and 11.7kg of DM/cow per day for group and individual cow, respectively), although the pattern of intake with each treatment differed over time. Concentrate allocation strategy had no effect on either milk yield (39.3 and 38.0kg/d for group and individual cow, respectively), milk composition, or milk constituent yield. The milk yield response curves with each treatment were largely aligned with the concentrate DMI curves. Cows on the individual cow treatment had a greater range of concentrate DMI and milk yields than those on the group treatment. With the exception of a tendency for cows on the

  6. Adapting to a Changing Colorado River: Making Future Water Deliveries More Reliable Through Robust Management Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groves, D.; Bloom, E.; Fischbach, J. R.; Knopman, D.

    2013-12-01

    The U.S. Bureau of Reclamation and water management agencies representing the seven Colorado River Basin States initiated the Colorado River Basin Study in January 2010 to evaluate the resiliency of the Colorado River system over the next 50 years and compare different options for ensuring successful management of the river's resources. RAND was asked to join this Basin Study Team in January 2012 to help develop an analytic approach to identify key vulnerabilities in managing the Colorado River basin over the coming decades and to evaluate different options that could reduce this vulnerability. Using a quantitative approach for planning under uncertainty called Robust Decision Making (RDM), the RAND team assisted the Basin Study by: identifying future vulnerable conditions that could lead to imbalances that could cause the basin to be unable to meet its water delivery objectives; developing a computer-based tool to define 'portfolios' of management options reflecting different strategies for reducing basin imbalances; evaluating these portfolios across thousands of future scenarios to determine how much they could improve basin outcomes; and analyzing the results from the system simulations to identify key tradeoffs among the portfolios. This talk will describe RAND's contribution to the Basin Study, focusing on the methodologies used to to identify vulnerabilities for Upper Basin and Lower Basin water supply reliability and to compare portfolios of options. Several key findings emerged from the study. Future Streamflow and Climate Conditions Are Key: - Vulnerable conditions arise in a majority of scenarios where streamflows are lower than historical averages and where drought conditions persist for eight years or more. - Depending where the shortages occur, problems will arise for delivery obligations for the upper river basin and the lower river basin. The lower river basin is vulnerable to a broader range of plausible future conditions. Additional Investments in

  7. Mum, why do you keep on growing? Impacts of environmental variability on optimal growth and reproduction allocation strategies of annual plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Lara, Michel

    2006-05-01

    In their 1990 paper Optimal reproductive efforts and the timing of reproduction of annual plants in randomly varying environments, Amir and Cohen considered stochastic environments consisting of i.i.d. sequences in an optimal allocation discrete-time model. We suppose here that the sequence of environmental factors is more generally described by a Markov chain. Moreover, we discuss the connection between the time interval of the discrete-time dynamic model and the ability of the plant to rebuild completely its vegetative body (from reserves). We formulate a stochastic optimization problem covering the so-called linear and logarithmic fitness (corresponding to variation within and between years), which yields optimal strategies. For "linear maximizers'', we analyse how optimal strategies depend upon the environmental variability type: constant, random stationary, random i.i.d., random monotonous. We provide general patterns in terms of targets and thresholds, including both determinate and indeterminate growth. We also provide a partial result on the comparison between ;"linear maximizers'' and "log maximizers''. Numerical simulations are provided, allowing to give a hint at the effect of different mathematical assumptions.

  8. Measuring teacher self-report on classroom practices: Construct validity and reliability of the Classroom Strategies Scale-Teacher Form.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Linda A; Dudek, Christopher M; Fabiano, Gregory A; Peters, Stephanie

    2015-12-01

    This article presents information about the construct validity and reliability of a new teacher self-report measure of classroom instructional and behavioral practices (the Classroom Strategies Scales-Teacher Form; CSS-T). The theoretical underpinnings and empirical basis for the instructional and behavioral management scales are presented. Information is provided about the construct validity, internal consistency, test-retest reliability, and freedom from item-bias of the scales. Given previous investigations with the CSS Observer Form, it was hypothesized that internal consistency would be adequate and that confirmatory factor analyses (CFA) of CSS-T data from 293 classrooms would offer empirical support for the CSS-T's Total, Composite and subscales, and yield a similar factor structure to that of the CSS Observer Form. Goodness-of-fit indices of χ2/df, Root Mean Square Error of Approximation, Goodness of Fit Index, and Adjusted Goodness of Fit Index suggested satisfactory fit of proposed CFA models whereas the Comparative Fit Index did not. Internal consistency estimates of .93 and .94 were obtained for the Instructional Strategies and Behavioral Strategies Total scales respectively. Adequate test-retest reliability was found for instructional and behavioral total scales (r = .79, r = .84, percent agreement 93% and 93%). The CSS-T evidences freedom from item bias on important teacher demographics (age, educational degree, and years of teaching experience). Implications of results are discussed. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  9. Plant lifetime reliability and risk: Addressing today's strategies for making tomorrow's decisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boccio, J.L.

    1986-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of some of the research projects, conducted for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) that deal with the question: How can an acceptable level of risk of a nuclear power plant be maintained throughout its design life? With a viewpoint that life extension planning for a plant can be viewed as a long-range, strategic maintenance program, the products of this research are discussed from the perspective of being elements that can tie day-to-day, plant operational tactical decisions on component/system reliability with long-range strategic maintenance goals. A common factor in addressing issues associated with design life and life extension is the issue of component aging and the reliability implications of aging. A time-dependent reliability model is described which contains some of the requisite ingredients and is built on a framework from which the component aging/component reliability issue can be addressed. By way of select examples, the additional work needed to further address plant lifetime reliability and risk is indicated

  10. Research on allocation efficiency of the daisy chain allocation algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jingping; Zhang, Weiguo

    2013-03-01

    With the improvement of the aircraft performance in reliability, maneuverability and survivability, the number of the control effectors increases a lot. How to distribute the three-axis moments into the control surfaces reasonably becomes an important problem. Daisy chain method is simple and easy to be carried out in the design of the allocation system. But it can not solve the allocation problem for entire attainable moment subset. For the lateral-directional allocation problem, the allocation efficiency of the daisy chain can be directly measured by the area of its subset of attainable moments. Because of the non-linear allocation characteristic, the subset of attainable moments of daisy-chain method is a complex non-convex polygon, and it is difficult to solve directly. By analyzing the two-dimensional allocation problems with a "micro-element" idea, a numerical calculation algorithm is proposed to compute the area of the non-convex polygon. In order to improve the allocation efficiency of the algorithm, a genetic algorithm with the allocation efficiency chosen as the fitness function is proposed to find the best pseudo-inverse matrix.

  11. Risk allocation approach to reactor safety design and evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gokcek, O.; Temme, M.I.; Derby, S.L.

    1978-01-01

    This paper describes a risk allocation technique used for determining nuclear power plant design reliability requirements. The concept of risk allocation-optimum choice of safety function reliabilities under a maximum risk constraint - is described. An example of risk allocation is presented to demonstrate the application of the methodology

  12. Proposed reliability cost model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delionback, L. M.

    1973-01-01

    The research investigations which were involved in the study include: cost analysis/allocation, reliability and product assurance, forecasting methodology, systems analysis, and model-building. This is a classic example of an interdisciplinary problem, since the model-building requirements include the need for understanding and communication between technical disciplines on one hand, and the financial/accounting skill categories on the other. The systems approach is utilized within this context to establish a clearer and more objective relationship between reliability assurance and the subcategories (or subelements) that provide, or reenforce, the reliability assurance for a system. Subcategories are further subdivided as illustrated by a tree diagram. The reliability assurance elements can be seen to be potential alternative strategies, or approaches, depending on the specific goals/objectives of the trade studies. The scope was limited to the establishment of a proposed reliability cost-model format. The model format/approach is dependent upon the use of a series of subsystem-oriented CER's and sometimes possible CTR's, in devising a suitable cost-effective policy.

  13. Port-of-entry safety via the reliability optimization of container inspection strategy through an evolutionary approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramirez-Marquez, Jose Emmanuel

    2008-01-01

    Up to now, of all the containers received in USA ports, roughly between 2% and 5% are scrutinized to determine if they could cause some type of danger or contain suspicious goods. Recently, concerns have been raised regarding the type of attack that could happen via container cargo leading to devastating economic, psychological and sociological effects. Overall, this paper is concerned with developing an inspection strategy that minimizes the total cost of inspection while maintaining a user-specified detection rate for 'suspicious' containers. In this respect, a general model for describing an inspection strategy is proposed. The strategy is regarded as an (n+1)-echelon decision tree where at each of these echelons, a decision has to be taken, regarding which sensor to be used, if at all. Second, based on the general decision-tree model, this paper presents a minimum cost container inspection strategy that conforms to a pre-specified user detection rate under the assumption that different sensors with different reliability and cost characteristics can be used. To generate an optimal inspection strategy, an evolutionary optimization approach known as probabilistic solution discovery algorithm has been used

  14. Overview of the NKS/RAK-1 project 'Strategies for reactor safety' and linkages to piping reliability studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, Kjell

    1997-01-01

    The NKS/RAK-1 project forms part of a four-year research program (1994-97) in the Nordic countries. The general objective of NKS/RAK-1 project is to explore strategies for reactor safety: to investigate and evaluate the safety work, to increase realism and reliability of safety analysis; and to increase the safety of nuclear installations in selected areas. The project has done extensive interview work at utilities and authorities, and analysed a number of case studies. Brief highlights and overviews of the sub-projects are presented in this paper

  15. IAM strategy to keep our water services clean and fresh and reliable

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Manus, N

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the steady progress that the South African department of Water Affairs and Forestry (DWAF) has been making with formulating a national water services infrastructure asset management (IAM) strategy. A "scan" of the state of water...

  16. Control Strategies for Improving Energy Efficiency and Reliability in Autonomous Microgrids with Communication Constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Martins Portelinha Júnior

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Microgrids are a feasible path to deploy smart grids, an intelligent and highly automated power system. Their operation demands a dedicated communication infrastructure to manage, control and monitor the intermittent sources of energy and loads. Therefore, smart devices will be connected to support the growth of grid smartness increasing the dependency on communication networks, which consumes a high amount of power. In an energy-limited scenario, one of the main issues is to enhance the power supply time. Therefore, this paper proposes a hybrid methodology for microgrid energy management, integrated with a communication infrastructure to improve and to optimize islanded microgrid operation at maximum energy efficiency. The hybrid methodology applies some control management rules, such as intentional load shedding, priority load management, and communication energy saving. These energy saving rules establish a trade-off between increasing microgrid energy availability and communication system reliability. To achieve a compromised solution, a continuous time Markov chain model describes the impact of energy saving policies into system reliability. The proposed methodology is simulated and tested with the help of the modified IEEE 34 node test-system.

  17. Cooperative Strategies for Maximum-Flow Problem in Uncertain Decentralized Systems Using Reliability Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadi Heidari Gharehbolagh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates a multiowner maximum-flow network problem, which suffers from risky events. Uncertain conditions effect on proper estimation and ignoring them may mislead decision makers by overestimation. A key question is how self-governing owners in the network can cooperate with each other to maintain a reliable flow. Hence, the question is answered by providing a mathematical programming model based on applying the triangular reliability function in the decentralized networks. The proposed method concentrates on multiowner networks which suffer from risky time, cost, and capacity parameters for each network’s arcs. Some cooperative game methods such as τ-value, Shapley, and core center are presented to fairly distribute extra profit of cooperation. A numerical example including sensitivity analysis and the results of comparisons are presented. Indeed, the proposed method provides more reality in decision-making for risky systems, hence leading to significant profits in terms of real cost estimation when compared with unforeseen effects.

  18. A probabilistic capacity spectrum strategy for the reliability analysis of bridge pile shafts considering soil structure interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dookie Kim

    Full Text Available This paper presents a probabilistic capacity spectrum strategy for the reliability analysis of a bridge pile shaft, accounting for uncertainties in design factors in the analysis and the soil-structure interaction (SSI. Monte Carlo simulation method (MCS is adopted to determine the probabilities of failure by comparing the responses with defined limit states. The analysis considers the soil structure interaction together with the probabilistic application of the capacity spectrum method for different types of limit states. A cast-in-drilledhole (CIDH extended reinforced concrete pile shaft of a bridge is analysed using the proposed strategy. The results of the analysis show that the SSI can lead to increase or decrease of the structure's probability of failure depending on the definition of the limit states.

  19. Human Reliability and the Current Dilemma in Human-Machine Interface Design Strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Passalacqua, Roberto; Yamada, Fumiaki

    2002-01-01

    Since human error dominates the probability of failures of still-existing human-requiring systems (as the Monju reactor), the human-machine interface needs to be improved. Several rationales may lead to the conclusion that 'humans' should limit themselves to monitor the 'machine'. For example, this is the trend in the aviation industry: newest aircrafts are designed to be able to return to a safe state by the use of control systems, which do not need human intervention. Thus, the dilemma whether we really need operators (for example in the nuclear industry) might arise. However, social-technical approaches in recent human error analyses are pointing out the so-called 'organizational errors' and the importance of a human-machine interface harmonization. Typically plant's operators are a 'redundant' safety system with a much lower reliability (than the machine): organizational factors and harmonization requirements suggest designing the human-machine interface in a way that allows improvement of operator's reliability. In addition, taxonomy studies of accident databases have also proved that operators' training should promote processes of decision-making. This is accomplished in the latest trends of PSA technology by introducing the concept of a 'Safety Monitor' that is a computer-based tool that uses a level 1 PSA model of the plant. Operators and maintenance schedulers of the Monju FBR will be able to perform real-time estimations of the plant risk level. The main benefits are risk awareness and improvements in decision-making by operators. Also scheduled maintenance can be approached in a more rational (safe and economic) way. (authors)

  20. Reliable Adaptive Data Aggregation Route Strategy for a Trade-off between Energy and Lifetime in WSNs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenzhong Guo

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Mobile security is one of the most fundamental problems in Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs. The data transmission path will be compromised for some disabled nodes. To construct a secure and reliable network, designing an adaptive route strategy which optimizes energy consumption and network lifetime of the aggregation cost is of great importance. In this paper, we address the reliable data aggregation route problem for WSNs. Firstly, to ensure nodes work properly, we propose a data aggregation route algorithm which improves the energy efficiency in the WSN. The construction process achieved through discrete particle swarm optimization (DPSO saves node energy costs. Then, to balance the network load and establish a reliable network, an adaptive route algorithm with the minimal energy and the maximum lifetime is proposed. Since it is a non-linear constrained multi-objective optimization problem, in this paper we propose a DPSO with the multi-objective fitness function combined with the phenotype sharing function and penalty function to find available routes. Experimental results show that compared with other tree routing algorithms our algorithm can effectively reduce energy consumption and trade off energy consumption and network lifetime.

  1. Integrated Life Cycle Management: A Strategy for Plants to Extend Operating Lifetimes Safely with High Operational Reliability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esselman, Thomas; Bruck, Paul; Mengers, Charles

    2012-01-01

    Nuclear plant operators are studying the possibility of extending their existing generating facilities operating lifetime to 60 years and beyond. Many nuclear plants have been granted licenses to operate their facilities beyond the original 40 year term; however, in order to optimize the long term operating strategies, plant decision-makers need a consistent approach to support their options. This paper proposes a standard methodology to support effective decision-making for the long-term management of selected station assets. Methods detailed are intended to be used by nuclear plant site management, equipment reliability personnel, long term planners, capital asset planners, license renewal staff, and others that intend to look at operation between the current time and the end of operation. This methodology, named Integrated Life Cycle Management (ILCM), will provide a technical basis to assist decision makers regarding the timing of large capital investments required to get to the end of operation safely and with high plant reliability. ILCM seeks to identify end of life cycle failure probabilities for individual plant large capital assets and attendant costs associated with their refurbishment or replacement. It will provide a standard basis for evaluation of replacement and refurbishment options for these components. ILCM will also develop methods to integrate the individual assets over the entire plant thus assisting nuclear plant decision-makers in their facility long term operating strategies. (author)

  2. Materials Reliability Program: Implementation Strategy for Master Curve Reference Temperature, To (MRP-101)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    EricksonKirk, M.

    2004-01-01

    The report provides a framework for a basis to significantly reduce the degree of conservatism in RPV safety assessments according to NRC Regulation 10CFR50.61 and 10CFR50, Appendix G. Procedures and rationale are proposed to address regulatory concerns with the application of the Master-Curve based fracture toughness characterization methodologies. This report address the continued development of strategies for using direct characterization of fracture toughness of a reactor pressure vessel (RPV) for integrity assessments. The development of a fracture toughness-based integrity assessment framework will allow for a more realistic assessment of vessel integrity that provides greater operating flexibility while maintaining appropriate safety margins

  3. Strategy of Trade-Reliable Featured Product Supporting Regional Innovation Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riskiawan, H. Y.; Purnomo, B. H.; Abdurahman, A.; Hariono, B.; Puspitasari, T. D.

    2018-01-01

    Pacitan, Ponorogo, and Magetan had planned the development of featured products as contained in the Medium Term Development Plan (MTDP) until 2020. The focus of development is almost similar to featured products derived from agribusiness, food processing, handycrafts, and tourism. The geographical proximity results characteristics of natural resources and social culture have similarities, including the type of featured products, constraints, problems, and opportunities for development. Given the characteristics and the support system of some featured products contained in these three regions have a lot in common and their functional interactions involving actors from across the region, it is necessary to develop cross-jurisdictional policy. The resulting strategy should be able to support the development of Regional Innovation System (RIS). The purpose of this research is 1) Determining featured product cross-regional between Pacitan regency; Ponorogo and Magetan districts in support of RIS development; and 2) Designing a featured product development strategy using supply chain management in order to drive the local economy. Based on the results of research conducted, featured products across the region that have potentiality to be developed are: processed products of “janggelan” leather products, and woven bamboo.

  4. Reliability of unstable periodic orbit based control strategies in biological systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishra, Nagender; Singh, Harinder P.; Hasse, Maria; Biswal, B.

    2015-01-01

    Presence of recurrent and statistically significant unstable periodic orbits (UPOs) in time series obtained from biological systems is now routinely used as evidence for low dimensional chaos. Extracting accurate dynamical information from the detected UPO trajectories is vital for successful control strategies that either aim to stabilize the system near the fixed point or steer the system away from the periodic orbits. A hybrid UPO detection method from return maps that combines topological recurrence criterion, matrix fit algorithm, and stringent criterion for fixed point location gives accurate and statistically significant UPOs even in the presence of significant noise. Geometry of the return map, frequency of UPOs visiting the same trajectory, length of the data set, strength of the noise, and degree of nonstationarity affect the efficacy of the proposed method. Results suggest that establishing determinism from unambiguous UPO detection is often possible in short data sets with significant noise, but derived dynamical properties are rarely accurate and adequate for controlling the dynamics around these UPOs. A repeat chaos control experiment on epileptic hippocampal slices through more stringent control strategy and adaptive UPO tracking is reinterpreted in this context through simulation of similar control experiments on an analogous but stochastic computer model of epileptic brain slices. Reproduction of equivalent results suggests that far more stringent criteria are needed for linking apparent success of control in such experiments with possible determinism in the underlying dynamics

  5. Reliability of unstable periodic orbit based control strategies in biological systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mishra, Nagender; Singh, Harinder P. [Department of Physics and Astrophysics, University of Delhi, Delhi 110007 (India); Hasse, Maria [Institut für Höchstleistungsrechnen, Universität Stuttgart, D-70569 Stuttgart (Germany); Biswal, B. [Cluster Innovation Center, University of Delhi, Delhi 110007 (India); Sri Venkateswara College, University of Delhi, Delhi 110021 (India)

    2015-04-15

    Presence of recurrent and statistically significant unstable periodic orbits (UPOs) in time series obtained from biological systems is now routinely used as evidence for low dimensional chaos. Extracting accurate dynamical information from the detected UPO trajectories is vital for successful control strategies that either aim to stabilize the system near the fixed point or steer the system away from the periodic orbits. A hybrid UPO detection method from return maps that combines topological recurrence criterion, matrix fit algorithm, and stringent criterion for fixed point location gives accurate and statistically significant UPOs even in the presence of significant noise. Geometry of the return map, frequency of UPOs visiting the same trajectory, length of the data set, strength of the noise, and degree of nonstationarity affect the efficacy of the proposed method. Results suggest that establishing determinism from unambiguous UPO detection is often possible in short data sets with significant noise, but derived dynamical properties are rarely accurate and adequate for controlling the dynamics around these UPOs. A repeat chaos control experiment on epileptic hippocampal slices through more stringent control strategy and adaptive UPO tracking is reinterpreted in this context through simulation of similar control experiments on an analogous but stochastic computer model of epileptic brain slices. Reproduction of equivalent results suggests that far more stringent criteria are needed for linking apparent success of control in such experiments with possible determinism in the underlying dynamics.

  6. Designing airport checked-baggage-screening strategies considering system capability and reliability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Qianmei; Sahin, Hande; Kapur, Kailash C.

    2009-01-01

    Emerging image-based technologies are critical components of airport security for screening checked baggage. Since these new technologies differ widely in cost and accuracy, a comprehensive mathematical framework should be developed for selecting technology or combination of technologies for efficient 100% baggage screening. This paper addresses the problem of setting threshold values of these screening technologies and determining the optimal combination of technologies in a two-level screening system by considering system capability and human reliability. Probability and optimization techniques are used to quantify and evaluate the cost- and risk-effectiveness of various deployment configurations, which is captured by using a system life-cycle cost model that incorporates the deployment cost, operating cost, and costs associated with system decisions. Two system decision rules are studied for a two-level screening system. For each decision rule, two different optimization approaches are formulated and investigated from practitioner's perspective. Numerical examples for different decision rules, optimization approaches and system arrangements are demonstrated

  7. Maintenance strategy for tilting table of rolling mill based on reliability considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deshpande, V.S.; Modak, J.P.

    2003-01-01

    Reliability centred maintenance (RCM) is a new strategic framework for ensuring that any asset continues to perform, as its users want it to perform. RCM is a process used to determine the maintenance requirement of any physical asset in its operating context. RCM process entails asking seven questions about each of the selected assets. It makes use of two documents namely, RCM information worksheet and RCM decision worksheet. RCM decision diagram integrates all the decision processes into a single strategic framework. RCM concept developed by US commercial airlines industry has been successfully implemented by Military, Navy, Nuclear power plants, electric power generation and distribution undertakings and several other sectors. These projects have been carried out in the United Kingdom, The Republic of Ireland, the United States, Hong Kong, Australia, Spain and Singapore. The fact that people has enthusiastically received RCM at all levels and has enabled users to achieve some remarkable successes in all of these countries, suggests that it can be universally employed. Literature review indicates that RCM approach is not conventionally applied in process industries in India. Presently, predictive maintenance (PDM) approach along with conventional preventive maintenance is used in continuous/process industries. This approach if implemented in totality will increase the production cost to a large degree and make the production uneconomical. Similarly breakdown maintenance (BDM) approach cannot be applied in such industries as each breakdown involves huge costs. RCM approach is a compromise between PDM and BDM approach for optimising the cost and ensuring the availability of machine. The RCM approach has been applied to the tilting table system of rolling mill for the research work reported in this paper. In the present study, preventive maintenance tasks suggested for power transmission subsystem, guiding and transportation subsystem and hydraulic subsystem in

  8. Near-misses are an opportunity to improve patient safety: adapting strategies of high reliability organizations to healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Spall, Harriette; Kassam, Alisha; Tollefson, Travis T

    2015-08-01

    Near-miss investigations in high reliability organizations (HROs) aim to mitigate risk and improve system safety. Healthcare settings have a higher rate of near-misses and subsequent adverse events than most high-risk industries, but near-misses are not systematically reported or analyzed. In this review, we will describe the strategies for near-miss analysis that have facilitated a culture of safety and continuous quality improvement in HROs. Near-miss analysis is routine and systematic in HROs such as aviation. Strategies implemented in aviation include the Commercial Aviation Safety Team, which undertakes systematic analyses of near-misses, so that findings can be incorporated into Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs). Other strategies resulting from incident analyses include Crew Resource Management (CRM) for enhanced communication, situational awareness training, adoption of checklists during operations, and built-in redundancy within systems. Health care organizations should consider near-misses as opportunities for quality improvement. The systematic reporting and analysis of near-misses, commonplace in HROs, can be adapted to health care settings to prevent adverse events and improve clinical outcomes.

  9. Survey of Transmission Cost Allocation Methodologies for Regional Transmission Organizations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fink, S.; Porter, K.; Mudd, C.; Rogers, J.

    2011-02-01

    The report presents transmission cost allocation methodologies for reliability transmission projects, generation interconnection, and economic transmission projects for all Regional Transmission Organizations.

  10. A reliable and feasible qPCR strategy for titrating AAV vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Feng; Cui, Xiuling; Wang, Mingxi; Xiao, Weidong; Xu, Ruian

    2013-07-05

    Previous studies have revealed that traditional real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) underestimates adeno-associated virus (AAV) titer. Because the inverted terminal repeat (ITR) exists in all AAV vectors, the only remaining element from the wild genome could form special configurations to interfere with qPCR titration. To solve this problem, a modified and universal qPCR method was tested and established. In this work, there was a great variation in titration of ssAAV2-EGFP (Enhanced Green Fluorescence Protein) and scAAV2-EGFP genome by traditional qPCR. For ssAAV2-EGFP, the highest titer was found by using the targeting EGFP primers and the lowest titer was measured by those targeting bovine growth hormone polyA element (pBGH) primers. Experimental data were reverse for ssAAV2-EGFP and scAAV2-EGFP. Here we report an improved and universal SmaI qPCR method, based on cleaving all ITRs in AAV2 genome by SmaI with several advantages: (1) impact of all ITRs in ssAAV2 and scAAV2 was dismissed; (2) titers increased remarkably, up to 7-fold, especially for scAAV2; (3) the variation of titers was reduced when different primers were applied. A similar phenomenon was also observed in other ssAAV2 and scAAV2 products when the range of titration was at 3×107 to 7×109 V.G/µl in this study. This modified qPCR strategy can increase rAAV' titer and reduce titration variance, possibly become a universal method for titrating AAV vectors.

  11. Residency Allocation Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The Residency Allocation Database is used to determine allocation of funds for residency programs offered by Veterans Affairs Medical Centers (VAMCs). Information...

  12. USING A TOTAL QUALITY STRATEGY IN A NEW PRACTICAL APPROACH FOR IMPROVING THE PRODUCT RELIABILITY IN AUTOMOTIVE INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiano Fragassa

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a Total Quality Management strategy is proposed, refined and used with the aim at improving the quality of large-mass industrial products far beyond the technical specifications demanded at the end-customer level. This approach combines standard and non-standard tools used for Reliability, Availability and Maintainability analysis. The procedure also realizes a stricter correlation between theoretical evaluation methods and experimental evidences as part of a modern integrated method for strengthening quality in design and process. A commercial Intake Manifold, largely spread in the market, is used as test-case for the validation of the methodology. As general additional result, the research underlines the impact of Total Quality Management and its tools on the development of innovation.

  13. BECCS Market Launch Strategy Aiming to Help Ensure Reliable Grid Power at High Penetrations of IRE (Intermittent Renewable Electricity)

    Science.gov (United States)

    WIlliams, R. H.

    2017-12-01

    Despite its recognized importance for carbon (C)-mitigation, progress in advancing biomass energy with CO2 capture and sequestration (BECCS) has been slow. A BECCS market launch strategy based on technologies ready for commercial-scale demonstration is discussed—based on co-gasification of coal and biomass to make H2 with CCS. H2 so produced would be a key element of a H2 balancing capacity (H2-BC) strategy for ensuring reliable grid power at high IRE penetrations. High grid penetrations of IRE must be complemented by fast-ramping balancing (backup and/or storage) capacity (BC) to ensure reliable grid power. BC provided now by natural gas-fired gas turbine combined cycle and combustion turbine units would eventually have to be decarbonized to realize C-mitigation goals, via CCS or other means. Capital-intensive CCS energy systems require baseload operation to realize favourable economics, but at high IRE penetrations, BC plants must be operated at low capacity factors. A H2-BC strategy is a promising way to address this challenge. The elements of a H2-BC system are: (a) H2 production from carbonaceous feedstocks in baseload plants with CCS; (b) H2 consumption in fast-ramping BC units that operate at low capacity factors; (c) Buffer underground H2 storage to enable decoupling baseload H2 production from highly variable H2 consumption by BC units. The concept is likely to "work" because underground H2 storage is expected to be inexpensive. A H2 production analysis is presented for a negative GHG-emitting H2-BC system based on cogasification of corn stover and coal, with captured CO2 used for enhanced oil recovery. The technical readiness of each system component is discussed, and preliminary insights are offered as to the conditions under which the corresponding H2-BC system might compete with natural gas in providing backup for IRE on US electric grids. Public policy to help advance this strategy might be forthcoming, because 2 US Senate bills with broad

  14. SSC accelerator availability allocation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dixon, K.T.; Franciscovich, J.

    1991-03-01

    Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) operational availability is an area of major concern, judged by the Central Design Group to present such risk that use of modern engineering tools would be essential to program success. Experience has shown that as accelerator beam availability falls below about 80%, efficiency of physics experiments degrades rapidly due to inability to maintain adequate coincident accelerator and detector operation. For this reason, the SSC availability goal has been set at 80%, even though the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory accelerator, with a fraction of the SSC's complexity, has only recently approached that level. This paper describes the allocation of the top-level goal to part-level reliability and maintainability requirements, and it gives the results of parameter sensitivity studies designed to help identify the best approach to achieve the needed system availability within funding and schedule constraints. 1 ref., 12 figs., 4 tabs

  15. Transport Infrastructure Slot Allocation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koolstra, K.

    2005-01-01

    In this thesis, transport infrastructure slot allocation has been studied, focusing on selection slot allocation, i.e. on longer-term slot allocation decisions determining the traffic patterns served by infrastructure bottlenecks, rather than timetable-related slot allocation problems. The

  16. Luxury consumption of soil nutrients: a possible competitive strategy in above-ground and below-ground biomass allocation and root morphology for slow-growing arctic vegetation?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijk, van M.T.; Williams, M.; Gough, L.; Hobbie, S.E.; Shaver, G.R.

    2003-01-01

    1 A field-experiment was used to determine how plant species might retain dominance in an arctic ecosystem receiving added nutrients. We both measured and modelled the above-ground and below-ground biomass allocation and root morphology of non-acidic tussock tundra near Toolik Lake, Alaska, after 4

  17. The male reproductive strategy of a deep-sea squid : sperm allocation, continuous production, and long-term storage of spermatophores in Histioteuthis miranda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoving, Hendrik Jan T.; Lipinski, Marek R.; Dam, Lammertjan

    2010-01-01

    Squid are semelparous organisms. Much of what we know about squid reproduction relates to females, because few studies have addressed males and, although males are similarly challenged by semelparity, it remains virtually unknown what tactics squid have evolved to allocate sperm to spermatophores.

  18. Centralized Allocation in Multiple Markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Monte, Daniel; Tumennasan, Norovsambuu

    The problem of allocating indivisible objects to different agents, where each indi vidual is assigned at most one object, has been widely studied. Pápai (2000) shows that the set of strategy-proof, nonbossy, Pareto optimal and reallocation-proof rules are hierarchical exchange rules | generalizat...... and nonbossy rules are sequential dictatorships, a special case of Pápai's hierarchical exchange rules....

  19. On the jamming power allocation for secure amplify-and-forward relaying via cooperative jamming

    KAUST Repository

    Park, Kihong

    2013-09-01

    In this paper, we investigate secure communications in two-hop wireless relaying networks with one eavesdropper. To prevent the eavesdropper from intercepting the source message, the destination sends an intended jamming noise to the relay, which is referred to as cooperative jamming. This jamming noise helps protecting the source message from being captured reliably at the eavesdropper, while the destination cancels its self-intended noise. According to the channel information available at the destination, we derive three jamming power allocation strategies to minimize the outage probability of the secrecy rate. In addition, we derive analytic results quantifying the jamming power consumption of the proposed allocation methods. © 1983-2012 IEEE.

  20. Optimal Allocation of Smart Substations in a Distribution System Considering Interruption Costs of Customers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, Lei; You, Shi; Hu, Junjie

    2016-01-01

    number and allocation of smart substations in a given distribution system is presented, with the upgrade costs of substations and the interruption costs of customers taken into account. Besides, the reliability criterion is also properly considered in the model. By linearization strategies, the SSAM......One of the major functions of a smart substation (SS) is to restore power supply to interrupted customers as quickly as possible after an outage. The high cost of a smart substation limits its widespread utilization. In this paper, a smart substation allocation model (SSAM) to determine the optimal...

  1. New Interview and Observation Measures of the Broader Autism Phenotype: Description of Strategy and Reliability Findings for the Interview Measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parr, Jeremy R; De Jonge, Maretha V; Wallace, Simon; Pickles, Andrew; Rutter, Michael L; Le Couteur, Ann S; van Engeland, Herman; Wittemeyer, Kerstin; McConachie, Helen; Roge, Bernadette; Mantoulan, Carine; Pedersen, Lennart; Isager, Torben; Poustka, Fritz; Bolte, Sven; Bolton, Patrick; Weisblatt, Emma; Green, Jonathan; Papanikolaou, Katerina; Baird, Gillian; Bailey, Anthony J

    2015-10-01

    Clinical genetic studies confirm the broader autism phenotype (BAP) in some relatives of individuals with autism, but there are few standardized assessment measures. We developed three BAP measures (informant interview, self-report interview, and impression of interviewee observational scale) and describe the development strategy and findings from the interviews. International Molecular Genetic Study of Autism Consortium data were collected from families containing at least two individuals with autism. Comparison of the informant and self-report interviews was restricted to samples in which the interviews were undertaken by different researchers from that site (251 UK informants, 119 from the Netherlands). Researchers produced vignettes that were rated blind by others. Retest reliability was assessed in 45 participants. Agreement between live scoring and vignette ratings was very high. Retest stability for the interviews was high. Factor analysis indicated a first factor comprising social-communication items and rigidity (but not other repetitive domain items), and a second factor comprised mainly of reading and spelling impairments. Whole scale Cronbach's alphas were high for both interviews. The correlation between interviews for factor 1 was moderate (adult items 0.50; childhood items 0.43); Kappa values for between-interview agreement on individual items were mainly low. The correlations between individual items and total score were moderate. The inclusion of several factor 2 items lowered the overall Cronbach's alpha for the total set. Both interview measures showed good reliability and substantial stability over time, but the findings were better for factor 1 than factor 2. We recommend factor 1 scores be used for characterising the BAP. © 2015 The Authors Autism Research published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of International Society for Autism Research.

  2. Value of travel-time reliability, part II : a study of tradeoffs between travel reliability, congestion-mitigation strategies and emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-01

    Capacity, demand, and vehicle based emissions reduction strategies are compared for several pollutants employing aggregate US : congestion and vehicle fleet condition data. We find that congestion mitigation does not inevitably lead to reduced emissi...

  3. Monte Carlo simulations on the Black-Litterman model with absolute views: a comparison with the Markowitz model and an equal weight asset allocation strategy

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández Pibrall, Eric

    2015-01-01

    The focus of this degree thesis is on the Black-Litterman asset allocation model applied to recent popular investment vehicles such as Exchange Traded Funds (ETFs) simulating absolute views generated by Monte Carlo simulations that allow the inclusion of correlations. The sensibility of the scalar (which is a measure of the investor’s confidence in the prior estimates) contained in the Black-Litterman model will be analyzed over several periods of time and the results obtained compared with t...

  4. regional grain allocation and transportation in China

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    use

    2011-12-14

    Dec 14, 2011 ... China was partitioned into eight regions, and the virtual water flow due to regional grain allocation and ... strategy can be choices which can realize Chinese food security and ..... Globalization of water: Sharing the planet's ...

  5. Optimal allocation of resources in systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Derman, C.; Lieberman, G.J.; Ross, S.M.

    1975-01-01

    In the design of a new system, or the maintenance of an old system, allocation of resources is of prime consideration. In allocating resources it is often beneficial to develop a solution that yields an optimal value of the system measure of desirability. In the context of the problems considered in this paper the resources to be allocated are components already produced (assembly problems) and money (allocation in the construction or repair of systems). The measure of desirability for system assembly will usually be maximizing the expected number of systems that perform satisfactorily and the measure in the allocation context will be maximizing the system reliability. Results are presented for these two types of general problems in both a sequential (when appropriate) and non-sequential context

  6. Improving the Reliability of Network Metrics in Structural Brain Networks by Integrating Different Network Weighting Strategies into a Single Graph

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stavros I. Dimitriadis

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Structural brain networks estimated from diffusion MRI (dMRI via tractography have been widely studied in healthy controls and patients with neurological and psychiatric diseases. However, few studies have addressed the reliability of derived network metrics both node-specific and network-wide. Different network weighting strategies (NWS can be adopted to weight the strength of connection between two nodes yielding structural brain networks that are almost fully-weighted. Here, we scanned five healthy participants five times each, using a diffusion-weighted MRI protocol and computed edges between 90 regions of interest (ROI from the Automated Anatomical Labeling (AAL template. The edges were weighted according to nine different methods. We propose a linear combination of these nine NWS into a single graph using an appropriate diffusion distance metric. We refer to the resulting weighted graph as an Integrated Weighted Structural Brain Network (ISWBN. Additionally, we consider a topological filtering scheme that maximizes the information flow in the brain network under the constraint of the overall cost of the surviving connections. We compared each of the nine NWS and the ISWBN based on the improvement of: (a intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC of well-known network metrics, both node-wise and per network level; and (b the recognition accuracy of each subject compared to the remainder of the cohort, as an attempt to access the uniqueness of the structural brain network for each subject, after first applying our proposed topological filtering scheme. Based on a threshold where the network level ICC should be >0.90, our findings revealed that six out of nine NWS lead to unreliable results at the network level, while all nine NWS were unreliable at the node level. In comparison, our proposed ISWBN performed as well as the best performing individual NWS at the network level, and the ICC was higher compared to all individual NWS at the node

  7. A Hierarchical Reliability Control Method for a Space Manipulator Based on the Strategy of Autonomous Decision-Making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Gao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to maintain and enhance the operational reliability of a robotic manipulator deployed in space, an operational reliability system control method is presented in this paper. First, a method to divide factors affecting the operational reliability is proposed, which divides the operational reliability factors into task-related factors and cost-related factors. Then the models describing the relationships between the two kinds of factors and control variables are established. Based on this, a multivariable and multiconstraint optimization model is constructed. Second, a hierarchical system control model which incorporates the operational reliability factors is constructed. The control process of the space manipulator is divided into three layers: task planning, path planning, and motion control. Operational reliability related performance parameters are measured and used as the system’s feedback. Taking the factors affecting the operational reliability into consideration, the system can autonomously decide which control layer of the system should be optimized and how to optimize it using a control level adjustment decision module. The operational reliability factors affect these three control levels in the form of control variable constraints. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed method can achieve a greater probability of meeting the task accuracy requirements, while extending the expected lifetime of the space manipulator.

  8. Improvement of Matrix Converter Drive Reliability by Online Fault Detection and a Fault-Tolerant Switching Strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen-Duy, Khiem; Liu, Tian-Hua; Chen, Der-Fa

    2011-01-01

    The matrix converter system is becoming a very promising candidate to replace the conventional two-stage ac/dc/ac converter, but system reliability remains an open issue. The most common reliability problem is that a bidirectional switch has an open-switch fault during operation. In this paper, a...

  9. Spatial dependence in wind and optimal wind power allocation: A copula-based analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grothe, Oliver; Schnieders, Julius

    2011-01-01

    The investment decision on the placement of wind turbines is, neglecting legal formalities, mainly driven by the aim to maximize the expected annual energy production of single turbines. The result is a concentration of wind farms at locations with high average wind speed. While this strategy may be optimal for single investors maximizing their own return on investment, the resulting overall allocation of wind turbines may be unfavorable for energy suppliers and the economy because of large fluctuations in the overall wind power output. This paper investigates to what extent optimal allocation of wind farms in Germany can reduce these fluctuations. We analyze stochastic dependencies of wind speed for a large data set of German on- and offshore weather stations and find that these dependencies turn out to be highly nonlinear but constant over time. Using copula theory we determine the value at risk of energy production for given allocation sets of wind farms and derive optimal allocation plans. We find that the optimized allocation of wind farms may substantially stabilize the overall wind energy supply on daily as well as hourly frequency. - Highlights: → Spatial modeling of wind forces in Germany. → A novel way to assess nonlinear dependencies of wind forces by copulas. → Wind turbine allocation by maximizing lower quantiles of energy production. → Optimal results show major increase in reliable part of wind energy.

  10. Dynamic Asset Allocation and the Informational Efficiency of Markets.

    OpenAIRE

    Grossman, Sanford J

    1995-01-01

    Markets have an allocational role; even in the absence of news about payoffs, prices change to facilitate trade and allocate resources to their best use. Allocational price changes create noise in the signal extraction process, and markets where such trading is important are markets in which we may expect to find a failure of informational efficiency. An important source of allocational trading is the use of dynamic trading strategies caused by the incomplete equitization of risks. Incomplete...

  11. Alocação de ativos no mercado acionário brasileiro segundo o conceito de downside risk Asset allocation in the Brazilian stock market according to the downside risk strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Wendling Muniz de Andrade

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available O artigo compara a abordagem tradicional de média-variância na determinação de portfólios eficientes com a abordagem de risco assimétrico (downside risk, que substitui a variância pela semivariância ou outro LPM (Lower Partial Moment. Um estudo empírico é realizado para obter as fronteiras eficientes usando-se ambas as abordagens, e estratégias de alocação de ativos são simuladas e comparadas. Resultados demonstram que, se os investidores possuem preferências assimétricas em relação ao risco, a abordagem de média-semivariância é superior em termos de eficiência. Adicionalmente, verifica-se que a minimização do risco assimétrico fornece efetivamente maior proteção contra perdas quando comparada com a minimização da variância na alocação de ativos.The traditional mean-variance approach for building efficient portfolios was compared to the downside risk approach that substitutes variance of returns by semi-variance or another lower partial momentum of returns. Empirical investigation searched for efficient frontiers using both approaches and strategies for asset allocation which were simulated for comparison. The downside risk approach was shown to be superior in terms of efficiency when investors had asymmetric preferences related to risk. Further the strategy of minimizing downside risk effectively provided greater protection against losses when compared to the strategy of variance minimization, for asset allocation.

  12. Reliability engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Chi Woo; Kim, Sun Jin; Lee, Seung Woo; Jeong, Sang Yeong

    1993-08-01

    This book start what is reliability? such as origin of reliability problems, definition of reliability and reliability and use of reliability. It also deals with probability and calculation of reliability, reliability function and failure rate, probability distribution of reliability, assumption of MTBF, process of probability distribution, down time, maintainability and availability, break down maintenance and preventive maintenance design of reliability, design of reliability for prediction and statistics, reliability test, reliability data and design and management of reliability.

  13. Resource allocation based on cost efficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dehnokhalaji, Akram; Ghiyasi, Mojtaba; Korhonen, Pekka

    2017-01-01

    -objective linear programming problem using two different strategies. First, we propose an RA model which keeps the cost efficiencies of units unchanged. This is done assuming fixed technical and allocative efficiencies. The approach is based on the assumption that the decision maker (DM) may not have big changes......In this paper, we consider a resource allocation (RA) problem and develop an approach based on cost (overall) efficiency. The aim is to allocate some inputs among decision making units (DMUs) in such way that their cost efficiencies improve or stay unchanged after RA. We formulate a multi...... in the structure of DMUs within a short term. The second strategy does not impose any restrictions on technical and allocative efficiencies. It guarantees that none of the cost efficiencies of DMUs get worse after RA, and the improvement for units is possible if it is feasible and beneficial. Two numerical...

  14. Working Memory Capacity and Recall from Long-Term Memory: Examining the Influences of Encoding Strategies, Study Time Allocation, Search Efficiency, and Monitoring Abilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unsworth, Nash

    2016-01-01

    The relation between working memory capacity (WMC) and recall from long-term memory (LTM) was examined in the current study. Participants performed multiple measures of delayed free recall varying in presentation duration and self-reported their strategy usage after each task. Participants also performed multiple measures of WMC. The results…

  15. Macroeconomic influences on optimal asset allocation

    OpenAIRE

    Flavin, Thomas; Wickens, M.R.

    2003-01-01

    We develop a tactical asset allocation strategy that incorporates the effects of macroeconomic variables. The joint distribution of financial asset returns and the macroeconomic variables is modelled using a VAR with a multivariate GARCH (M-GARCH) error structure. As a result, the portfolio frontier is time varying and subject to contagion from the macroeconomic variable. Optimal asset allocation requires that this be taken into account. We illustrate how to do this using three ri...

  16. Identification of critical parameters for PEMFC stack performance characterization and control strategies for reliable and comparable stack benchmarking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mitzel, Jens; Gülzow, Erich; Kabza, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    This paper is focused on the identification of critical parameters and on the development of reliable methodologies to achieve comparable benchmark results. Possibilities for control sensor positioning and for parameter variation in sensitivity tests are discussed and recommended options for the ...

  17. Assessing the reliability and validity of anti-tobacco attitudes/beliefs in the context of a campaign strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arheart, Kristopher L; Sly, David F; Trapido, Edward J; Rodriguez, Richard D; Ellestad, Amy J

    2004-11-01

    To identify multi-item attitude/belief scales associated with the theoretical foundations of an anti-tobacco counter-marketing campaign and assess their reliability and validity. The data analyzed are from two state-wide, random, cross-sectional telephone surveys [n(S1)=1,079, n(S2)=1,150]. Items forming attitude/belief scales are identified using factor analysis. Reliability is assessed with Chronbach's alpha. Relationships among scales are explored using Pearson correlation. Validity is assessed by testing associations derived from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's (CDC) logic model for tobacco control program development and evaluation linking media exposure to attitudes/beliefs, and attitudes/beliefs to smoking-related behaviors. Adjusted odds ratios are employed for these analyses. Three factors emerged: traditional attitudes/beliefs about tobacco and tobacco use, tobacco industry manipulation and anti-tobacco empowerment. Reliability coefficients are in the range of 0.70 and vary little between age groups. The factors are correlated with one-another as hypothesized. Associations between media exposure and the attitude/belief scales and between these scales and behaviors are consistent with the CDC logic model. Using reliable, valid multi-item scales is theoretically and methodologically more sound than employing single-item measures of attitudes/beliefs. Methodological, theoretical and practical implications are discussed.

  18. Energy Efficient Resource Allocation for Phantom Cellular Networks

    KAUST Repository

    Abdelhady, Amr Mohamed Abdelaziz

    2016-01-01

    experiencing negligible interference and assume perfect channel state information (CSI). For this setting, we propose an algorithm that finds the SE and EE resource allocation strategies. Then, we compare the performance of both design strategies versus number

  19. Strategies and Decision Support Systems for Integrating Variable Energy Resources in Control Centers for Reliable Grid Operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, Lawrence E. [Alstom Grid Inc., Washington, DC (United States)

    2011-11-01

    This report provides findings from the field regarding the best ways in which to guide operational strategies, business processes and control room tools to support the integration of renewable energy into electrical grids.

  20. Strategies and Decision Support Systems for Integrating Variable Energy Resources in Control Centers for Reliable Grid Operations. Executive Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, Lawrence E. [Alstom Grid, Inc., Washington, DC (United States)

    2011-11-01

    This is the executive summary for a report that provides findings from the field regarding the best ways in which to guide operational strategies, business processes and control room tools to support the integration of renewable energy into electrical grids.

  1. Comparing methodologies for the allocation of overhead and capital costs to hospital services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Siok Swan; van Ineveld, Bastianus Martinus; Redekop, William Ken; Hakkaart-van Roijen, Leona

    2009-06-01

    Typically, little consideration is given to the allocation of indirect costs (overheads and capital) to hospital services, compared to the allocation of direct costs. Weighted service allocation is believed to provide the most accurate indirect cost estimation, but the method is time consuming. To determine whether hourly rate, inpatient day, and marginal mark-up allocation are reliable alternatives for weighted service allocation. The cost approaches were compared independently for appendectomy, hip replacement, cataract, and stroke in representative general hospitals in The Netherlands for 2005. Hourly rate allocation and inpatient day allocation produce estimates that are not significantly different from weighted service allocation. Hourly rate allocation may be a strong alternative to weighted service allocation for hospital services with a relatively short inpatient stay. The use of inpatient day allocation would likely most closely reflect the indirect cost estimates obtained by the weighted service method.

  2. Risk capital allocation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Jens Leth; Smilgins, Aleksandrs

    Risk capital allocation problems have been widely discussed in the academic literature. We consider a company with multiple subunits having individual portfolios. Hence, when portfolios of subunits are merged, a diversification benefit arises: the risk of the company as a whole is smaller than...... the sum of the risks of the individual sub-units. The question is how to allocate the risk capital of the company among the subunits in a fair way. In this paper we propose to use the Lorenz set as an allocation method. We show that the Lorenz set is operational and coherent. Moreover, we propose a set...... of new axioms related directly to the problem of risk capital allocation and show that the Lorenz set satisfies these new axioms in contrast to other well-known coherent methods. Finally, we discuss how to deal with non-uniqueness of the Lorenz set....

  3. CPD Allocations and Awards

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — The CPD Allocation and Award database provides filterable on-screen and exportable reports on select programs, such as the Community Development Block Grant Program,...

  4. An optimized approach for simultaneous horizontal data fragmentation and allocation in Distributed Database Systems (DDBSs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amer, Ali A; Sewisy, Adel A; Elgendy, Taha M A

    2017-12-01

    With the substantial ever-upgrading advancement in data and information management field, Distributed Database System (DDBS) is still proven to be the most growingly-demanded tool to handle the accompanied constantly-piled volumes of data. However, the efficiency and adequacy of DDBS is profoundly correlated with the reliability and precision of the process in which DDBS is set to be designed. As for DDBS design, thus, several strategies have been developed, in literature, to be used in purpose of promoting DDBS performance. Off these strategies, data fragmentation, data allocation and replication, and sites clustering are the most immensely-used efficacious techniques that otherwise DDBS design and rendering would be prohibitively expensive. On one hand, an accurate well-architected data fragmentation and allocation is bound to incredibly increase data locality and promote the overall DDBS throughputs. On the other hand, finding a practical sites clustering process is set to contribute remarkably in reducing the overall Transmission Costs (TC). Consequently, consolidating all these strategies into one single work is going to undoubtedly satisfy a massive growth in DDBS influence. In this paper, therefore, an optimized heuristic horizontal fragmentation and allocation approach is meticulously developed. All the drawn-above strategies are elegantly combined into a single effective approach so as to an influential solution for DDBS productivity promotion is set to be markedly fulfilled. Most importantly, an internal and external evaluations are extensively illustrated. Obviously, findings of conducted experiments have maximally been recorded to be in favor of DDBS performance betterment.

  5. Energy supplies in the Federal Republic of Germany. The reliability of supplies and strategies to provide for it. Die Energieversorgung der Bundesrepublik. Sicherungsbedarf und Sicherungsstrategien

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matthies, K

    1985-06-01

    The IEA crisis management has so far not been required to demonstrate its full capacity and power. In spite of a number of crises in the Middle East oil has always been sufficiently available in the Western world. Even with the Gulf at war there have been abundant oil supplies and once again slackening petroleum prices on the world market for several years. This very situation did not fail to affect the different opinions on the reliability of supplies. While the Western German petroleum industry is being suffocated by accumulating idle refinery stocks and therefore protests against excessive provision making with the help of restrictive policies, the mining industry still meets with political support for a policy of stockpiling for the sake of reliable energy supplies. In view of the inflationary use of the reliability and safety concepts in political discussion the publication abstracted is trying to throw light on the meaning per se, the development of the supply situation in the Federal Republic of Germany since 1973 and on the applicability and costs of possible precautionary strategies taking effect in the case of suspended energy imports.

  6. Task mapping for non-contiguous allocations.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leung, Vitus Joseph; Bunde, David P.; Ebbers, Johnathan; Price, Nicholas W.; Swank, Matthew.; Feer, Stefan P.; Rhodes, Zachary D.

    2013-02-01

    This paper examines task mapping algorithms for non-contiguously allocated parallel jobs. Several studies have shown that task placement affects job running time for both contiguously and non-contiguously allocated jobs. Traditionally, work on task mapping either uses a very general model where the job has an arbitrary communication pattern or assumes that jobs are allocated contiguously, making them completely isolated from each other. A middle ground between these two cases is the mapping problem for non-contiguous jobs having a specific communication pattern. We propose several task mapping algorithms for jobs with a stencil communication pattern and evaluate them using experiments and simulations. Our strategies improve the running time of a MiniApp by as much as 30% over a baseline strategy. Furthermore, this improvement increases markedly with the job size, demonstrating the importance of task mapping as systems grow toward exascale.

  7. Optimal defense resource allocation in scale-free networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xuejun; Xu, Guoqiang; Xia, Yongxiang

    2018-02-01

    The robustness research of networked systems has drawn widespread attention in the past decade, and one of the central topics is to protect the network from external attacks through allocating appropriate defense resource to different nodes. In this paper, we apply a specific particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm to optimize the defense resource allocation in scale-free networks. Results reveal that PSO based resource allocation shows a higher robustness than other resource allocation strategies such as uniform, degree-proportional, and betweenness-proportional allocation strategies. Furthermore, we find that assigning less resource to middle-degree nodes under small-scale attack while more resource to low-degree nodes under large-scale attack is conductive to improving the network robustness. Our work provides an insight into the optimal defense resource allocation pattern in scale-free networks and is helpful for designing a more robust network.

  8. Surface-to-surface biofilm transfer: a quick and reliable startup strategy for mixed culture microbial fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogl, Andreas; Bischof, Franz; Wichern, Marc

    2016-01-01

    The startup of microbial fuel cells (MFCs) is known to be prone to failure or result in erratic performance impeding the research. The aim of this study was to advise a quick launch strategy for laboratory-scale MFCs that ensures steady operation performance in a short period of time. Different startup strategies were investigated and compared with membraneless single chamber MFCs. A direct surface-to-surface biofilm transfer (BFT) in an operating MFC proved to be the most efficient method. It provided steady power densities of 163 ± 13 mWm(-2) 4 days after inoculation compared to 58 ± 15 mWm(-2) after 30 days following a conventional inoculation approach. The in situ BFT eliminates the need for microbial acclimation during startup and reduces performance fluctuations caused by shifts in microbial biodiversity. Anaerobic pretreatment of the substrate and addition of suspended enzymes from an operating MFC into the new MFC proved to have a beneficial effect on startup and subsequent operation. Polarization methods were applied to characterize the startup phase and the steady state operation in terms of power densities, internal resistance and power overshoot during biofilm maturation. Applying this method a well-working MFC can be multiplied into an array of identically performing MFCs.

  9. Issues in organ procurement, allocation, and transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nierste, Deborah

    2013-01-01

    Organ transplantation extends lives and improves health but presents complex ethical dilemmas for nurses caring for donors, recipients, and their families. This article overviews organ procurement and allocation, discusses ethical dilemmas in transplantation, and offers strategies from professional and biblical perspectives for coping with moral distress and maintaining compassionate care.

  10. Reliability Engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sang Yong

    1992-07-01

    This book is about reliability engineering, which describes definition and importance of reliability, development of reliability engineering, failure rate and failure probability density function about types of it, CFR and index distribution, IFR and normal distribution and Weibull distribution, maintainability and movability, reliability test and reliability assumption in index distribution type, normal distribution type and Weibull distribution type, reliability sampling test, reliability of system, design of reliability and functionality failure analysis by FTA.

  11. Suncor maintenance and reliability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Little, S. [Suncor Energy, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2006-07-01

    Fleet maintenance and reliability at Suncor Energy was discussed in this presentation, with reference to Suncor Energy's primary and support equipment fleets. This paper also discussed Suncor Energy's maintenance and reliability standard involving people, processes and technology. An organizational maturity chart that graphed organizational learning against organizational performance was illustrated. The presentation also reviewed the maintenance and reliability framework; maintenance reliability model; the process overview of the maintenance and reliability standard; a process flow chart of maintenance strategies and programs; and an asset reliability improvement process flow chart. An example of an improvement initiative was included, with reference to a shovel reliability review; a dipper trip reliability investigation; bucket related failures by type and frequency; root cause analysis of the reliability process; and additional actions taken. Last, the presentation provided a graph of the results of the improvement initiative and presented the key lessons learned. tabs., figs.

  12. Allocating multiple units

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tranæs, Torben; Krishna, Kala

    2002-01-01

    This paper studies the allocation and rent distribution in multi-unit, combinatorial-bid auctions under complete information. We focus on the natural multi-unit analogue of the first-price auction, where buyers bid total payments, pay their bids, and where the seller allocates goods to maximize his...... auction, which is the multi unit analogue of a second-price auction. Furthermore, we characterize these equilibria when valuations take a number of different forms: diminishing marginal valuations, increasing average valuations, and marginal valuations with single turning points...

  13. Cognitive allocation and the control room

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paradies, M.W.

    1985-01-01

    One of the weakest links in the design of nuclear power plants is the inattention to the needs and capabilities of the operators. This flaw causes decreased plant reliability and reduced plant safety. To solve this problem the designer must, in the earliest stages of the design process, consider the operator's abilities. After the system requirements have been established, the designer must consider what functions to allocate to each part of the system. The human must be considered as part of this system. The allocation of functions needs to consider not only the mechanical tasks to be performed, but also the control requirements and the overall control philosophy. In order for the designers to consider the control philosophy, they need to know what control decisions should be automated and what decisions should be made by an operator. They also need to know how these decisions will be implemented: by an operator or by automation. ''Cognitive Allocation'' is the allocation of the decision making process between operators and machines. It defines the operator's role in the system. When designing a power plant, a cognitive allocation starts the process of considering the operator's abilities. This is the first step to correcting the weakest link in the current plant design

  14. 76 FR 78703 - American Century Strategic Asset Allocations, Inc., et al.;

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-19

    ...] American Century Strategic Asset Allocations, Inc., et al.; Notice of Application December 13, 2011. AGENCY... Century Strategic Asset Allocations, Inc. (``ACSAA''), American Century Investment Management, Inc... with its investment objectives, policies, strategies and limitations, in financial instruments that may...

  15. Sophisticated Online Learning Scheme for Green Resource Allocation in 5G Heterogeneous Cloud Radio Access Networks

    KAUST Repository

    Alqerm, Ismail; Shihada, Basem

    2018-01-01

    is implemented using two approaches: centralized, where the resource allocation is processed at a controller integrated with the baseband processing unit and decentralized, where macro BSs cooperate to achieve optimal resource allocation strategy. To foster

  16. How to reliably deliver narrow individual-patient error bars for optimization of pacemaker AV or VV delay using a "pick-the-highest" strategy with haemodynamic measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Darrel P

    2013-03-10

    Intuitive and easily-described, "pick-the-highest" is often recommended for quantitative optimization of AV and especially VV delay settings of biventricular pacemakers (BVP; cardiac resynchronization therapy, CRT). But reliable selection of the optimum setting is challenged by beat-to-beat physiological variation, which "pick-the-highest" combats by averaging multiple heartbeats. Optimization is not optimization unless the optimum is identified confidently. This document shows how to calculate how many heartbeats must be averaged to optimize reliably by pick-the-highest. Any reader, by conducting a few measurements, can calculate for locally-available methods (i) biological scatter between replicate measurements, and (ii) curvature of the biological response. With these, for any clinically-desired precision of optimization, the necessary number of heartbeats can be calculated. To achieve 95% confidence of getting within ±∆x of the true optimum, the number of heartbeats needed is 2(scatter/curvature)(2)/∆x(4) per setting. Applying published scatter/curvature values (which readers should re-evaluate locally) indicates that optimizing AV, even coarsely with a 40ms-wide band of precision, requires many thousand beats. For VV delay, the number approaches a million. Moreover, identifying the optimum twice as precisely requires 30-fold more beats. "Pick the highest" is quick to say but slow to do. We must not expect staff to do the impossible; nor criticise them for not doing so. Nor should we assume recommendations and published protocols are well-designed. Reliable AV or VV optimization, using "pick-the-highest" on commonly-recommended manual measurements, is unrealistic. Improving time-efficiency of the optimization process to become clinically realistic may need a curve-fitting strategy instead, with all acquired data marshalled conjointly. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Task Allocation and Path Planning for Collaborative Autonomous Underwater Vehicles Operating through an Underwater Acoustic Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yueyue Deng

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Dynamic and unstructured multiple cooperative autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV missions are highly complex operations, and task allocation and path planning are made significantly more challenging under realistic underwater acoustic communication constraints. This paper presents a solution for the task allocation and path planning for multiple AUVs under marginal acoustic communication conditions: a location-aided task allocation framework (LAAF algorithm for multitarget task assignment and the grid-based multiobjective optimal programming (GMOOP mathematical model for finding an optimal vehicle command decision given a set of objectives and constraints. Both the LAAF and GMOOP algorithms are well suited in poor acoustic network condition and dynamic environment. Our research is based on an existing mobile ad hoc network underwater acoustic simulator and blind flooding routing protocol. Simulation results demonstrate that the location-aided auction strategy performs significantly better than the well-accepted auction algorithm developed by Bertsekas in terms of task-allocation time and network bandwidth consumption. We also demonstrate that the GMOOP path-planning technique provides an efficient method for executing multiobjective tasks by cooperative agents with limited communication capabilities. This is in contrast to existing multiobjective action selection methods that are limited to networks where constant, reliable communication is assumed to be available.

  18. Availability Allocation of Networked Systems Using Markov Model and Heuristics Algorithm

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Ruiying; Liu, Xiaoxi; Huang, Ning

    2014-01-01

    It is a common practice to allocate the system availability goal to reliability and maintainability goals of components in the early design phase. However, the networked system availability is difficult to be allocated due to its complex topology and multiple down states. To solve these problems, a practical availability allocation method is proposed. Network reliability algebraic methods are used to derive the availability expression of the networked topology on the system level, and Markov ...

  19. Accelerated reliability demonstration under competing failure modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo, Wei; Zhang, Chun-hua; Chen, Xun; Tan, Yuan-yuan

    2015-01-01

    The conventional reliability demonstration tests are difficult to apply to products with competing failure modes due to the complexity of the lifetime models. This paper develops a testing methodology based on the reliability target allocation for reliability demonstration under competing failure modes at accelerated conditions. The specified reliability at mission time and the risk caused by sampling of the reliability target for products are allocated for each failure mode. The risk caused by degradation measurement fitting of the target for a product involving performance degradation is equally allocated to each degradation failure mode. According to the allocated targets, the accelerated life reliability demonstration test (ALRDT) plans for the failure modes are designed. The accelerated degradation reliability demonstration test plans and the associated ALRDT plans for the degradation failure modes are also designed. Next, the test plan and the decision rules for the products are designed. Additionally, the effects of the discreteness of sample size and accepted number of failures for failure modes on the actual risks caused by sampling for the products are investigated. - Highlights: • Accelerated reliability demonstration under competing failure modes is studied. • The method is based on the reliability target allocation involving the risks. • The test plan for the products is based on the plans for all the failure modes. • Both failure mode and degradation failure modes are considered. • The error of actual risks caused by sampling for the products is small enough

  20. Reliability-based performance simulation for optimized pavement maintenance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chou, Jui-Sheng; Le, Thanh-Son

    2011-01-01

    Roadway pavement maintenance is essential for driver safety and highway infrastructure efficiency. However, regular preventive maintenance and rehabilitation (M and R) activities are extremely costly. Unfortunately, the funds available for the M and R of highway pavement are often given lower priority compared to other national development policies, therefore, available funds must be allocated wisely. Maintenance strategies are typically implemented by optimizing only the cost whilst the reliability of facility performance is neglected. This study proposes a novel algorithm using multi-objective particle swarm optimization (MOPSO) technique to evaluate the cost-reliability tradeoff in a flexible maintenance strategy based on non-dominant solutions. Moreover, a probabilistic model for regression parameters is employed to assess reliability-based performance. A numerical example of a highway pavement project is illustrated to demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed MOPSO algorithms. The analytical results show that the proposed approach can help decision makers to optimize roadway maintenance plans. - Highlights: →A novel algorithm using multi-objective particle swarm optimization technique. → Evaluation of the cost-reliability tradeoff in a flexible maintenance strategy. → A probabilistic model for regression parameters is employed to assess reliability-based performance. → The proposed approach can help decision makers to optimize roadway maintenance plans.

  1. Reliability-based performance simulation for optimized pavement maintenance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chou, Jui-Sheng, E-mail: jschou@mail.ntust.edu.tw [Department of Construction Engineering, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology (Taiwan Tech), 43 Sec. 4, Keelung Rd., Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Le, Thanh-Son [Department of Construction Engineering, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology (Taiwan Tech), 43 Sec. 4, Keelung Rd., Taipei 106, Taiwan (China)

    2011-10-15

    Roadway pavement maintenance is essential for driver safety and highway infrastructure efficiency. However, regular preventive maintenance and rehabilitation (M and R) activities are extremely costly. Unfortunately, the funds available for the M and R of highway pavement are often given lower priority compared to other national development policies, therefore, available funds must be allocated wisely. Maintenance strategies are typically implemented by optimizing only the cost whilst the reliability of facility performance is neglected. This study proposes a novel algorithm using multi-objective particle swarm optimization (MOPSO) technique to evaluate the cost-reliability tradeoff in a flexible maintenance strategy based on non-dominant solutions. Moreover, a probabilistic model for regression parameters is employed to assess reliability-based performance. A numerical example of a highway pavement project is illustrated to demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed MOPSO algorithms. The analytical results show that the proposed approach can help decision makers to optimize roadway maintenance plans. - Highlights: > A novel algorithm using multi-objective particle swarm optimization technique. > Evaluation of the cost-reliability tradeoff in a flexible maintenance strategy. > A probabilistic model for regression parameters is employed to assess reliability-based performance. > The proposed approach can help decision makers to optimize roadway maintenance plans.

  2. Applied cost allocation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bogetoft, Peter; Hougaard, Jens Leth; Smilgins, Aleksandrs

    2016-01-01

    This paper deals with empirical computation of Aumann–Shapley cost shares for joint production. We show that if one uses a mathematical programing approach with its non-parametric estimation of the cost function there may be observations in the data set for which we have multiple Aumann–Shapley p...... of assumptions concerning firm behavior. These assumptions enable us to connect inefficient with efficient production and thereby provide consistent ways of allocating the costs arising from inefficiency....

  3. SOME NOTES ON COST ALLOCATION IN MULTICASTING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darko Skorin-Kapov

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available We analyze the cost allocation strategies with the problef of broadcasting information from some source to a number of communication network users. A multicast routing chooses a minimum cost tree network that spans the source and all the receivers. The cost of such a network is distributed among its receivers who may be individuals or organizations with possibly conflicting interests. Providing network developers, users and owners with practical computable 'fair' cost allocation solution procedures is of great importance for network mamagement. Consequently, this multidisciplinary problem was extensively studied by Operational Researchers, Economists, Mathematicians and Computer Scientists. The fairness of various proposed solutions was even argued in US courts. This presentation overviews some previously published, as well as some recent results, in the development of algorithmic mechanisms to efficiently compute 'attractive' cost allocation solutions for multicast networks. Specifically, we will analyze cooperative game theory based cost allocation models that avoid cross subsidies and/or are distance and population monotonic. We will also present some related open cost allocation problems and the potential contribution that such models might make to this problem in the future.

  4. Optimal static allocation decisions in the presence of portfolio insurance

    OpenAIRE

    Goltz, Felix; Martellini, Lionel; Şimşek, Koray Deniz; Simsek, Koray Deniz

    2008-01-01

    The focus of this paper is to determine what fraction a myopic risk-averse investor should allocate to investment strategies with convex exposure to stock market returns in a general economy with stochastically time-varying interest rates and equity risk premium. Our conclusion is that typical investors should optimally allocate a sizable fraction of their portfolio to such portfolio insurance strategies, and the associated utility gains are significant. While the fact that static investors w...

  5. Function allocation in distributed safeguards and security systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barlich, G.L.

    1991-01-01

    Computerized distributed systems are being used to collect and manage data for activities such as nuclear materials accounting, process control, laboratory coordination, and security. Poor choices made in allocating functions to individual processors can make a system unusable by burdening machines with excessive network retrievals and updates. During system design phases, data allocation algorithms based on operation frequencies, field sizes, security information, and reliability requirements can be applied in sensitivity studies to mathematically ensure processor efficiency. The Los Alamos Network Design System (NDS) implements such an allocation algorithm. The authors analyzed a large, existing distributed system to test the cost functions and to compare actual network problems with NDS results. Several common configurations were also designed and studied using the software. From these studies, some basic principles for allocating functions emerged. In this paper recommendations for function allocation in generic systems and related design options are discussed

  6. Emissions allocation in transportation routes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leenders, B.P.J.; Velázquez Martínez, J.; Fransoo, J.C.

    2017-01-01

    This article studies the allocation of CO2 emissions to a specific shipment in routing transportation. The authors show that this problem differs from a cost allocation problem specifically because the concavity condition does not hold necessarily in the CO2 allocation problem. This implies that a

  7. Cost allocation with limited information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Jens Leth; Tind, Jørgen

    This article investigates progressive development of Aumann-Shapley cost allocation in a multilevel organizational or production structure. In particular, we study a linear parametric programming setup utilizing the Dantzig-Wolfe decomposition procedure. Typically cost allocation takes place after...... all activities have been performed, for example by finishing all outputs. Here the allocation is made progressively with suggestions for activities. I other words cost allocation is performed in parallel for example with a production planning process. This development does not require detailed...... information about some technical constraints in order to make the cost allocation....

  8. Availability Allocation of Networked Systems Using Markov Model and Heuristics Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruiying Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available It is a common practice to allocate the system availability goal to reliability and maintainability goals of components in the early design phase. However, the networked system availability is difficult to be allocated due to its complex topology and multiple down states. To solve these problems, a practical availability allocation method is proposed. Network reliability algebraic methods are used to derive the availability expression of the networked topology on the system level, and Markov model is introduced to determine that on the component level. A heuristic algorithm is proposed to obtain the reliability and maintainability allocation values of components. The principles applied in the AGREE reliability allocation method, proposed by the Advisory Group on Reliability of Electronic Equipment, and failure rate-based maintainability allocation method persist in our allocation method. A series system is used to verify the new algorithm, and the result shows that the allocation based on the heuristic algorithm is quite accurate compared to the traditional one. Moreover, our case study of a signaling system number 7 shows that the proposed allocation method is quite efficient for networked systems.

  9. Characterizing contract-based multiagent resource allocation in networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Bo; Lesser, Victor

    2010-06-01

    We consider a multiagent resource allocation problem where individual users intend to route traffic by requesting the help of entities across a network, and a cost is incurred at each network node that depends on the amount of traffic to be routed. We propose to study contract-based network resource allocation. In our model, users and nodes in the network make contracts before nodes route traffic for the users. The problem is an interesting self-interested negotiation problem because it requires the complete assembly of a set of distinct resources, and there are multiple combinations of distinct resources that could satisfy the goal of negotiation. First, we characterize the network allocation problem and show that finding optimal allocations is NP-complete and is inapproximable. We take both Nash equilibrium and pairwise Nash equilibrium as the solution concepts to characterize the equilibrium allocations. We find that, for any resource allocation game, Nash equilibrium and pairwise Nash equilibrium always exist. In addition, socially optimal allocations are always supported by Nash equilibrium and pairwise Nash equilibrium. We introduce best-response dynamics in which each agent takes a myopic best-response strategy and interacts with each other to dynamically form contracts. We analyze the convergence of the dynamics in some special cases. We also experimentally study the convergence rate of the dynamics and how efficient the evolved allocation is as compared with the optimal allocation in a variety of environments.

  10. Resource allocation on computational grids using a utility model and the knapsack problem

    CERN Document Server

    Van der ster, Daniel C; Parra-Hernandez, Rafael; Sobie, Randall J

    2009-01-01

    This work introduces a utility model (UM) for resource allocation on computational grids and formulates the allocation problem as a variant of the 0–1 multichoice multidimensional knapsack problem. The notion of task-option utility is introduced, and it is used to effect allocation policies. We present a variety of allocation policies, which are expressed as functions of metrics that are both intrinsic and external to the task and resources. An external user-defined credit-value metric is shown to allow users to intervene in the allocation of urgent or low priority tasks. The strategies are evaluated in simulation against random workloads as well as those drawn from real systems. We measure the sensitivity of the UM-derived schedules to variations in the allocation policies and their corresponding utility functions. The UM allocation strategy is shown to optimally allocate resources congruent with the chosen policies.

  11. Theory of stable allocations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pantelić Svetlana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Swedish Royal Academy awarded the 2012 Nobel Prize in Economics to Lloyd Shapley and Alvin Roth, for the theory of stable allocations and the practice of market design. These two American researchers worked independently from each other, combining basic theory and empirical investigations. Through their experiments and practical design they generated a flourishing field of research and improved the performance of many markets. Born in 1923 in Cambridge, Massachusetts, Shapley defended his doctoral thesis at Princeton University in 1953. For many years he worked at RAND, and for more than thirty years he was a professor at UCLA University. He published numerous scientific papers, either by himself or in cooperation with other economists.

  12. Patient flow based allocation of hospital resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vissers, J M

    1995-01-01

    The current practice of allocating resources within a hospital introduces peaks and troughs in the workloads of departments and leads therefore to loss of capacity. This happens when requirements for capacity coordination are not adequately taken into account in the decision making process of allocating resources to specialties. The first part of this research involved an analysis of the hospital's production system on dependencies between resources, resulting in a number of capacity coordination requirements that need to be fulfilled for optimized resource utilization. The second, modelling, part of the study involved the development of a framework for resource management decision making, of a set of computer models to support hospital managerial decision making on resource allocation issues in various parts of the hospital, and of an implementation strategy for the application of the models to concrete hospital settings. The third part of the study was devoted to a number of case-studies, illustrating the use of the models when applied in various resource management projects, such as a reorganization of an operating theatre timetable, or the development of a master plan for activities of a group of general surgeons serving two locations of a merged hospital system. The paper summarizes the main findings of the study and concludes with a discussion of results obtained with the new allocation procedure and with recommendations for future research.

  13. Importance measures and resource allocation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guey, C.N.; Morgan, T.; Hughes, E.A.

    1987-01-01

    This paper discusses various importance measures and their practical relevance to allocating resources. The characteristics of importance measures are illustrated through simple examples. Important factors associated with effectively allocating resources to improve plant system performance or to prevent system degradation are discussed. It is concluded that importance measures are only indicative of and not equal to the risk significance of a component, system, or event. A decision framework is suggested to provide a comprehensive basis for resource allocation

  14. IPO Allocations: Discriminatory or Discretionary?

    OpenAIRE

    William Wilhelm; Alexander Ljungqvist

    2001-01-01

    We estimate the structural links between IPO allocations, pre-market information production, and initial underpricing returns, within the context of theories of bookbuilding. Using a sample of both US and international IPOs we find evidence of the following: ? IPO allocation policies favour institutional investors, both in the US and worldwide. ? Increasing institutional allocations results in offer prices that deviate more from the indicative price range established prior to bankers’ efforts...

  15. Software reliability

    CERN Document Server

    Bendell, A

    1986-01-01

    Software Reliability reviews some fundamental issues of software reliability as well as the techniques, models, and metrics used to predict the reliability of software. Topics covered include fault avoidance, fault removal, and fault tolerance, along with statistical methods for the objective assessment of predictive accuracy. Development cost models and life-cycle cost models are also discussed. This book is divided into eight sections and begins with a chapter on adaptive modeling used to predict software reliability, followed by a discussion on failure rate in software reliability growth mo

  16. Zinc allocation and re-allocation in rice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stomph, T.J.; Jiang, W.; Putten, van der P.E.L.; Struik, P.C.

    2014-01-01

    Aims: Agronomy and breeding actively search for options to enhance cereal grain Zn density. Quantifying internal (re-)allocation of Zn as affected by soil and crop management or genotype is crucial. We present experiments supporting the development of a conceptual model of whole plant Zn allocation

  17. Effect of individual thinking styles on item selection during study time allocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Xiaoyu; Li, Weijian; Cao, Liren; Li, Ping; Shi, Meiling; Wang, Jingjing; Cao, Wei; Li, Xinyu

    2018-04-01

    The influence of individual differences on learners' study time allocation has been emphasised in recent studies; however, little is known about the role of individual thinking styles (analytical versus intuitive). In the present study, we explored the influence of individual thinking styles on learners' application of agenda-based and habitual processes when selecting the first item during a study-time allocation task. A 3-item cognitive reflection test (CRT) was used to determine individuals' degree of cognitive reliance on intuitive versus analytical cognitive processing. Significant correlations between CRT scores and the choices of first item selection were observed in both Experiment 1a (study time was 5 seconds per triplet) and Experiment 1b (study time was 20 seconds per triplet). Furthermore, analytical decision makers constructed a value-based agenda (prioritised high-reward items), whereas intuitive decision makers relied more upon habitual responding (selected items from the leftmost of the array). The findings of Experiment 1a were replicated in Experiment 2 notwithstanding ruling out the possible effects from individual intelligence and working memory capacity. Overall, the individual thinking style plays an important role on learners' study time allocation and the predictive ability of CRT is reliable in learners' item selection strategy. © 2016 International Union of Psychological Science.

  18. The strategic labor allocation proces : a model of strategic HRM

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bax, Erik H.

    2002-01-01

    In this article the Strategic Labor Allocation Process model (SLAP) is described. The model relates HR-strategies to structure, culture and task technology to HR-policies like recruitment, appraisal and rewarding, to business strategy and to socio-cultural, economic, institutional and technological

  19. Alternatives Reality: What to Expect from Future Allocations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedlacek, Verne O.

    2014-01-01

    For well more than a decade, the "endowment model" of investing has been synonymous with increasing allocations to alternative investment strategies, defined largely as hedge funds, private real estate, private equity and venture capital and other, generally less liquid or illiquid strategies compared to public markets. This trend…

  20. Efficient Metropolitan Resource Allocation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Arnott

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Over the past 30 years Calgary has doubled in size, from a population of 640,645 in 1985 to 1,230,915 in 2015. During that time the City has had five different mayors, hosted the Winter Olympics, and expanded the C-Train from 25 platforms to 45. Calgary’s Metropolitan Area has grown too, with Airdrie, Chestermere, Okotoks and Cochrane growing into full-fledged cities, ripe with inter-urban commuters.* And with changes to provincial legislation in the mid-’90s, rural Rocky View County and the Municipal District of Foothills are now real competitors for residential, commercial and industrial development that in the past would have been considered urban. In this metropolitan system, where people live, their household structure, and their place of work informs the services they need to conduct their daily lives, and directly impacts the spatial character of the City and the broader region. In sum, Metropolitan Calgary is increasingly complex. Calgary and the broader metropolitan area will continue to grow, even with the current economic slowdown. Frictions within Calgary, between the various municipalities in the metropolitan area, and the priorities of other local authorities (such as the School Boards and Alberta Health Services will continue to impact the agendas of local politicians and their ability to answer to the needs of their residents. How resources – whether it is hard infrastructure, affordable housing, classrooms, or hospital beds – are allocated over space and how these resources are funded, directly impacts these relationships. This technical paper provides my perspective as an urban economist on the efficient allocation of resources within a metropolitan system in general, with reference to Calgary where appropriate, and serves as a companion to the previously released “Reflections on Calgary’s Spatial Structure: An Urban Economists Critique of Municipal Planning in Calgary.” It is hoped that the concepts reviewed

  1. Dynamic asset allocation for bank under stochastic interest rates.

    OpenAIRE

    Chakroun, Fatma; Abid, Fathi

    2014-01-01

    This paper considers the optimal asset allocation strategy for bank with stochastic interest rates when there are three types of asset: Bank account, loans and securities. The asset allocation problem is to maximize the expected utility from terminal wealth of a bank's shareholders over a finite time horizon. As a consequence, we apply a dynamic programming principle to solve the Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman (HJB) equation explicitly in the case of the CRRA utility function. A case study is given ...

  2. Risk allocation in independent power supply contracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willrich, M.; Campbell, W.L.

    1992-01-01

    Congress has made significant progress in recent months toward amending the Public Utility Holding Company Act of 1935 (PUHCA). The purposes of such amendment are to broaden power supply options for electric utilities and expand competition in whole-sale power generation markets. PUHCA reform is an integral part of President Bush's National Energy Strategy and has been included in legislation pending in both Houses of Congress. Congress will, hopefully, approve energy legislation that includes PUHCA reform before it adjourns this year. PUHCA reform has, however, stimulated heated debate within the power industry itself as well as among various consumer interest groups. One important issue in the public debate concerns risk allocation. If PUHCA is reformed, will risk be allocated efficiently and equitably between independent power producers and electric utility buyers? This article addresses that important question

  3. Endogeneously arising network allocation rules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slikker, M.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we study endogenously arising network allocation rules. We focus on three allocation rules: the Myerson value, the position value and the component-wise egalitarian solution. For any of these three rules we provide a characterization based on component efficiency and some balanced

  4. Carbon allocation in forest ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creighton M. Litton; James W. Raich; Michael G. Ryan

    2007-01-01

    Carbon allocation plays a critical role in forest ecosystem carbon cycling. We reviewed existing literature and compiled annual carbon budgets for forest ecosystems to test a series of hypotheses addressing the patterns, plasticity, and limits of three components of allocation: biomass, the amount of material present; flux, the flow of carbon to a component per unit...

  5. Risk allocation under liquidity constraints

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Csóka, P.; Herings, P.J.J.

    2013-01-01

    Risk allocation games are cooperative games that are used to attribute the risk of a financial entity to its divisions. In this paper, we extend the literature on risk allocation games by incorporating liquidity considerations. A liquidity policy specifies state-dependent liquidity requirements that

  6. Human reliability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Embrey, D.E.

    1987-01-01

    Concepts and techniques of human reliability have been developed and are used mostly in probabilistic risk assessment. For this, the major application of human reliability assessment has been to identify the human errors which have a significant effect on the overall safety of the system and to quantify the probability of their occurrence. Some of the major issues within human reliability studies are reviewed and it is shown how these are applied to the assessment of human failures in systems. This is done under the following headings; models of human performance used in human reliability assessment, the nature of human error, classification of errors in man-machine systems, practical aspects, human reliability modelling in complex situations, quantification and examination of human reliability, judgement based approaches, holistic techniques and decision analytic approaches. (UK)

  7. Reliability Calculations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Kurt Erling

    1986-01-01

    Risk and reliability analysis is increasingly being used in evaluations of plant safety and plant reliability. The analysis can be performed either during the design process or during the operation time, with the purpose to improve the safety or the reliability. Due to plant complexity and safety...... and availability requirements, sophisticated tools, which are flexible and efficient, are needed. Such tools have been developed in the last 20 years and they have to be continuously refined to meet the growing requirements. Two different areas of application were analysed. In structural reliability probabilistic...... approaches have been introduced in some cases for the calculation of the reliability of structures or components. A new computer program has been developed based upon numerical integration in several variables. In systems reliability Monte Carlo simulation programs are used especially in analysis of very...

  8. Reliability Assessment and Reliability-Based Inspection and Maintenance of Offshore Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramirez, José Rangel

    actions are the most relevant and effective means of control of deterioration. The risk-based inspection planning methodology, based on Bayesian decision theory, represents an important tool to identify the suitable strategy to inspect and control the deterioration in structures such as offshore wind...... performance during the life cycle. The deterioration processes, such as fatigue and corrosion, are typically affecting offshore structural systems. This damage decreases the system performance and increases the risk of failure, thus not fulfilling the established safety criteria. Inspection and maintenance...... to their offshore location, no pollution risks and low human risks since they are unmanned. This allows the allocation of lower reliability level compared to e.g. oil & gas installations. With the incursion to water depths between 20 and 50 meters, the use of jacket and tripod structures represents a feasible...

  9. Zinc allocation and re-allocation in rice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stomph, Tjeerd Jan; Jiang, Wen; Van Der Putten, Peter E. L.; Struik, Paul C.

    2014-01-01

    Aims: Agronomy and breeding actively search for options to enhance cereal grain Zn density. Quantifying internal (re-)allocation of Zn as affected by soil and crop management or genotype is crucial. We present experiments supporting the development of a conceptual model of whole plant Zn allocation and re-allocation in rice. Methods: Two solution culture experiments using 70Zn applications at different times during crop development and an experiment on within-grain distribution of Zn are reported. In addition, results from two earlier published experiments are re-analyzed and re-interpreted. Results: A budget analysis showed that plant zinc accumulation during grain filling was larger than zinc allocation to the grains. Isotope data showed that zinc taken up during grain filling was only partly transported directly to the grains and partly allocated to the leaves. Zinc taken up during grain filling and allocated to the leaves replaced zinc re-allocated from leaves to grains. Within the grains, no major transport barrier was observed between vascular tissue and endosperm. At low tissue Zn concentrations, rice plants maintained concentrations of about 20 mg Zn kg−1 dry matter in leaf blades and reproductive tissues, but let Zn concentrations in stems, sheath, and roots drop below this level. When plant zinc concentrations increased, Zn levels in leaf blades and reproductive tissues only showed a moderate increase while Zn levels in stems, roots, and sheaths increased much more and in that order. Conclusions: In rice, the major barrier to enhanced zinc allocation towards grains is between stem and reproductive tissues. Enhancing root to shoot transfer will not contribute proportionally to grain zinc enhancement. PMID:24478788

  10. Tactical Asset Allocation mit Genetischen Algorithmen

    OpenAIRE

    Manuel Ammann; Christian Zenkner

    2003-01-01

    In this study of tactical asset allocation, we use a genetic algorithm to implement a market timing strategy. The algorithm makes a daily decision whether to invest in the market index or in a riskless asset. The market index is represented by the S&P500 Composite Index, the riskless asset by a 3-month T-Bill. The decision of the genetic algorithm is based on fundamental macroeconomic variables. The association of fundamental variables with a set of operators creates a space of possible strat...

  11. Reliability Engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Lazzaroni, Massimo

    2012-01-01

    This book gives a practical guide for designers and users in Information and Communication Technology context. In particular, in the first Section, the definition of the fundamental terms according to the international standards are given. Then, some theoretical concepts and reliability models are presented in Chapters 2 and 3: the aim is to evaluate performance for components and systems and reliability growth. Chapter 4, by introducing the laboratory tests, puts in evidence the reliability concept from the experimental point of view. In ICT context, the failure rate for a given system can be

  12. Reliability training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalli, Vincent R. (Editor); Malec, Henry A. (Editor); Dillard, Richard B.; Wong, Kam L.; Barber, Frank J.; Barina, Frank J.

    1992-01-01

    Discussed here is failure physics, the study of how products, hardware, software, and systems fail and what can be done about it. The intent is to impart useful information, to extend the limits of production capability, and to assist in achieving low cost reliable products. A review of reliability for the years 1940 to 2000 is given. Next, a review of mathematics is given as well as a description of what elements contribute to product failures. Basic reliability theory and the disciplines that allow us to control and eliminate failures are elucidated.

  13. Optimal treatment cost allocation methods in pollution control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Wenying; Fang Dong; Xue Dazhi

    1999-01-01

    Total emission control is an effective pollution control strategy. However, Chinese application of total emission control lacks reasonable and fair methods for optimal treatment cost allocation, a critical issue in total emission control. The author considers four approaches to allocate treatment costs. The first approach is to set up a multiple-objective planning model and to solve the model using the shortest distance ideal point method. The second approach is to define degree of satisfaction for cost allocation results for each polluter and to establish a method based on this concept. The third is to apply bargaining and arbitration theory to develop a model. The fourth is to establish a cooperative N-person game model which can be solved using the Shapley value method, the core method, the Cost Gap Allocation method or the Minimum Costs-Remaining Savings method. These approaches are compared using a practicable case study

  14. International Development Aid Allocation Determinants

    OpenAIRE

    Tapas Mishra; Bazoumana Ouattara; Mamata Parhi

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates the factors explaining aid allocation by bilateral and multilateral donors. We use data for 146 aid recipient countries over the period 1990-2007 and employ Bayesian Averaging of Classical Estimates Approach (BACE) approach and find that both the recipient need and donor interest motives are `significant' determinants of bilateral and multilateral aid allocation process. Our results also indicate that the measures for recipient need and donor interests vary from bilate...

  15. Application of an allocation methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Youngblood, R.

    1989-01-01

    This paper presents a method for allocating resources to elements of a system for the purpose of achieving prescribed levels of defense-in-depth at minimal cost. The method makes extensive use of logic modelling. An analysis of a simplified high-level waste repository is used as an illustrative application of the method. It is shown that it is possible to allocate quality control costs (or demonstrate performance) in an optimal way over elements of a conceptual design

  16. How should INGOs allocate resources?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Wisor

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available International Non-governmental Organizations (INGOs face difficult choices when choosing to allocate resources. Given that the resources made available to INGOs fall far short of what is needed to reduce massive human rights deficits, any chosen scheme of resource allocation requires failing to reach other individuals in great need. Facing these moral opportunity costs, what moral reasons should guide INGO resource allocation? Two reasons that clearly matter, and are recognized by philosophers and development practitioners, are the consequences (or benefit or harm reduction of any given resource allocation and the need (or priority of individual beneficiaries. If accepted, these reasons should lead INGOs to allocate resources to a limited number of countries where the most prioritarian weighted harm reduction will be achieved. I make three critiques against this view. First, on grounds the consequentialist accepts, I argue that INGOs ought to maintain a reasonably wide distribution of resources. Second, I argue that even if one is a consequentialist, consequentialism ought not act as an action guiding principle for INGOs. Third, I argue that additional moral reasons should influence decision making about INGO resource allocation. Namely, INGO decision making should attend to relational reasons, desert, respect for agency, concern for equity, and the importance of expressing a view of moral wrongs.

  17. Allocation of scarce resources during mass casualty events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timbie, Justin W; Ringel, Jeanne S; Fox, D Steven; Waxman, Daniel A; Pillemer, Francesca; Carey, Christine; Moore, Melinda; Karir, Veena; Johnson, Tiffani J; Iyer, Neema; Hu, Jianhui; Shanman, Roberta; Larkin, Jody Wozar; Timmer, Martha; Motala, Aneesa; Perry, Tanja R; Newberry, Sydne; Kellermann, Arthur L

    2012-06-01

    This systematic review sought to identify the best available evidence regarding strategies for allocating scarce resources during mass casualty events (MCEs). Specifically, the review addresses the following questions: (1) What strategies are available to policymakers to optimize the allocation of scarce resources during MCEs? (2) What strategies are available to providers to optimize the allocation of scarce resources during MCEs? (3) What are the public's key perceptions and concerns regarding the implementation of strategies to allocate scarce resources during MCEs? (4) What methods are available to engage providers in discussions regarding the development and implementation of strategies to allocate scarce resources during MCEs? We searched Medline, Scopus, Embase, CINAHL (Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature), Global Health, Web of Science®, and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews from 1990 through 2011. To identify relevant non-peer-reviewed reports, we searched the New York Academy of Medicine's Grey Literature Report. We also reviewed relevant State and Federal plans, peer-reviewed reports and papers by nongovernmental organizations, and consensus statements published by professional societies. We included both English- and foreign-language studies. Our review included studies that evaluated tested strategies in real-world MCEs as well as strategies tested in drills, exercises, or computer simulations, all of which included a comparison group. We reviewed separately studies that lacked a comparison group but nonetheless evaluated promising strategies. We also identified consensus recommendations developed by professional societies or government panels. We reviewed existing State plans to examine the current state of planning for scarce resource allocation during MCEs. Two investigators independently reviewed each article, abstracted data, and assessed study quality. We considered 5,716 reports for this comparative effectiveness

  18. Optimal and Fair Resource Allocation for Multiuser Wireless Multimedia Transmissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhangyu Guan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an optimal and fair strategy for multiuser multimedia radio resource allocation (RRA based on coopetition, which suggests a judicious mixture of competition and cooperation. We formulate the co-opetition strategy as sum utility maximization at constraints from both Physical (PHY and Application (APP layers. We show that the maximization can be solved efficiently employing the well-defined Layering as Optimization Decomposition (LOD method. Moreover, the coopetition strategy is applied to power allocation among multiple video users, and evaluated through comparing with existing- competition based strategy. Numerical results indicate that, the co-opetition strategy adapts the best to the changes of network conditions, participating users, and so forth. It is also shown that the coopetition can lead to an improved number of satisfied users, and in the meanwhile provide more flexible tradeoff between system efficiency and fairness among users.

  19. Reliability calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petersen, K.E.

    1986-03-01

    Risk and reliability analysis is increasingly being used in evaluations of plant safety and plant reliability. The analysis can be performed either during the design process or during the operation time, with the purpose to improve the safety or the reliability. Due to plant complexity and safety and availability requirements, sophisticated tools, which are flexible and efficient, are needed. Such tools have been developed in the last 20 years and they have to be continuously refined to meet the growing requirements. Two different areas of application were analysed. In structural reliability probabilistic approaches have been introduced in some cases for the calculation of the reliability of structures or components. A new computer program has been developed based upon numerical integration in several variables. In systems reliability Monte Carlo simulation programs are used especially in analysis of very complex systems. In order to increase the applicability of the programs variance reduction techniques can be applied to speed up the calculation process. Variance reduction techniques have been studied and procedures for implementation of importance sampling are suggested. (author)

  20. Systems reliability/structural reliability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, A.E.

    1980-01-01

    The question of reliability technology using quantified techniques is considered for systems and structures. Systems reliability analysis has progressed to a viable and proven methodology whereas this has yet to be fully achieved for large scale structures. Structural loading variants over the half-time of the plant are considered to be more difficult to analyse than for systems, even though a relatively crude model may be a necessary starting point. Various reliability characteristics and environmental conditions are considered which enter this problem. The rare event situation is briefly mentioned together with aspects of proof testing and normal and upset loading conditions. (orig.)

  1. Congestion Pricing for Aircraft Pushback Slot Allocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lihua; Zhang, Yaping; Liu, Lan; Xing, Zhiwei

    2017-01-01

    In order to optimize aircraft pushback management during rush hour, aircraft pushback slot allocation based on congestion pricing is explored while considering monetary compensation based on the quality of the surface operations. First, the concept of the "external cost of surface congestion" is proposed, and a quantitative study on the external cost is performed. Then, an aircraft pushback slot allocation model for minimizing the total surface cost is established. An improved discrete differential evolution algorithm is also designed. Finally, a simulation is performed on Xinzheng International Airport using the proposed model. By comparing the pushback slot control strategy based on congestion pricing with other strategies, the advantages of the proposed model and algorithm are highlighted. In addition to reducing delays and optimizing the delay distribution, the model and algorithm are better suited for use for actual aircraft pushback management during rush hour. Further, it is also observed they do not result in significant increases in the surface cost. These results confirm the effectiveness and suitability of the proposed model and algorithm.

  2. Congestion Pricing for Aircraft Pushback Slot Allocation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lihua Liu

    Full Text Available In order to optimize aircraft pushback management during rush hour, aircraft pushback slot allocation based on congestion pricing is explored while considering monetary compensation based on the quality of the surface operations. First, the concept of the "external cost of surface congestion" is proposed, and a quantitative study on the external cost is performed. Then, an aircraft pushback slot allocation model for minimizing the total surface cost is established. An improved discrete differential evolution algorithm is also designed. Finally, a simulation is performed on Xinzheng International Airport using the proposed model. By comparing the pushback slot control strategy based on congestion pricing with other strategies, the advantages of the proposed model and algorithm are highlighted. In addition to reducing delays and optimizing the delay distribution, the model and algorithm are better suited for use for actual aircraft pushback management during rush hour. Further, it is also observed they do not result in significant increases in the surface cost. These results confirm the effectiveness and suitability of the proposed model and algorithm.

  3. Congestion Pricing for Aircraft Pushback Slot Allocation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yaping

    2017-01-01

    In order to optimize aircraft pushback management during rush hour, aircraft pushback slot allocation based on congestion pricing is explored while considering monetary compensation based on the quality of the surface operations. First, the concept of the “external cost of surface congestion” is proposed, and a quantitative study on the external cost is performed. Then, an aircraft pushback slot allocation model for minimizing the total surface cost is established. An improved discrete differential evolution algorithm is also designed. Finally, a simulation is performed on Xinzheng International Airport using the proposed model. By comparing the pushback slot control strategy based on congestion pricing with other strategies, the advantages of the proposed model and algorithm are highlighted. In addition to reducing delays and optimizing the delay distribution, the model and algorithm are better suited for use for actual aircraft pushback management during rush hour. Further, it is also observed they do not result in significant increases in the surface cost. These results confirm the effectiveness and suitability of the proposed model and algorithm. PMID:28114429

  4. Cost allocation in distribution planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engevall, S

    1997-12-31

    This thesis concerns cost allocation problems in distribution planning. The cost allocation problems we study are illustrated using the distribution planning situation at the Logistics department of Norsk Hydro Olje AB. The planning situation is modeled as a Traveling Salesman Problem and a Vehicle Routing Problem with an inhomogeneous fleet. The cost allocation problems are the problems of how to divide the transportation costs among the customers served in each problem. The cost allocation problems are formulated as cooperative games, in characteristic function form, where the customers are defined to be the players. The games contain five and 21 players respectively. Game theoretical solution concepts such as the core, the nucleolus, the Shapley value and the {tau}-value are discussed. From the empirical results we can, among other things, conclude that the core of the Traveling Salesman Game is large, and that the core of the Vehicle Routing Game is empty. In the accounting of Norsk Hydro the cost per m{sup 3} can be found for each tour. We conclude that for a certain definition of the characteristic function, a cost allocation according to this principle will not be included in the core of the Traveling Salesman Game. The models and methods presented in this thesis can be applied to transportation problems similar to that of Norsk Hydro, independent of the type of products that are delivered. 96 refs, 11 figs, 26 tabs

  5. Cost allocation in distribution planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engevall, S.

    1996-12-31

    This thesis concerns cost allocation problems in distribution planning. The cost allocation problems we study are illustrated using the distribution planning situation at the Logistics department of Norsk Hydro Olje AB. The planning situation is modeled as a Traveling Salesman Problem and a Vehicle Routing Problem with an inhomogeneous fleet. The cost allocation problems are the problems of how to divide the transportation costs among the customers served in each problem. The cost allocation problems are formulated as cooperative games, in characteristic function form, where the customers are defined to be the players. The games contain five and 21 players respectively. Game theoretical solution concepts such as the core, the nucleolus, the Shapley value and the {tau}-value are discussed. From the empirical results we can, among other things, conclude that the core of the Traveling Salesman Game is large, and that the core of the Vehicle Routing Game is empty. In the accounting of Norsk Hydro the cost per m{sup 3} can be found for each tour. We conclude that for a certain definition of the characteristic function, a cost allocation according to this principle will not be included in the core of the Traveling Salesman Game. The models and methods presented in this thesis can be applied to transportation problems similar to that of Norsk Hydro, independent of the type of products that are delivered. 96 refs, 11 figs, 26 tabs

  6. Cost allocation in distribution planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engevall, S.

    1996-01-01

    This thesis concerns cost allocation problems in distribution planning. The cost allocation problems we study are illustrated using the distribution planning situation at the Logistics department of Norsk Hydro Olje AB. The planning situation is modeled as a Traveling Salesman Problem and a Vehicle Routing Problem with an inhomogeneous fleet. The cost allocation problems are the problems of how to divide the transportation costs among the customers served in each problem. The cost allocation problems are formulated as cooperative games, in characteristic function form, where the customers are defined to be the players. The games contain five and 21 players respectively. Game theoretical solution concepts such as the core, the nucleolus, the Shapley value and the τ-value are discussed. From the empirical results we can, among other things, conclude that the core of the Traveling Salesman Game is large, and that the core of the Vehicle Routing Game is empty. In the accounting of Norsk Hydro the cost per m 3 can be found for each tour. We conclude that for a certain definition of the characteristic function, a cost allocation according to this principle will not be included in the core of the Traveling Salesman Game. The models and methods presented in this thesis can be applied to transportation problems similar to that of Norsk Hydro, independent of the type of products that are delivered. 96 refs, 11 figs, 26 tabs

  7. Human reliability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bubb, H.

    1992-01-01

    This book resulted from the activity of Task Force 4.2 - 'Human Reliability'. This group was established on February 27th, 1986, at the plenary meeting of the Technical Reliability Committee of VDI, within the framework of the joint committee of VDI on industrial systems technology - GIS. It is composed of representatives of industry, representatives of research institutes, of technical control boards and universities, whose job it is to study how man fits into the technical side of the world of work and to optimize this interaction. In a total of 17 sessions, information from the part of ergonomy dealing with human reliability in using technical systems at work was exchanged, and different methods for its evaluation were examined and analyzed. The outcome of this work was systematized and compiled in this book. (orig.) [de

  8. Microelectronics Reliability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-17

    inverters  connected in a chain. ................................................. 5  Figure 3  Typical graph showing frequency versus square root of...developing an experimental  reliability estimating methodology that could both illuminate the  lifetime  reliability of advanced devices,  circuits and...or  FIT of the device. In other words an accurate estimate of the device  lifetime  was found and thus the  reliability  that  can  be  conveniently

  9. Prediction of Commuter’s Daily Time Allocation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Zong

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a model system to predict the time allocation in commuters’ daily activity-travel pattern. The departure time and the arrival time are estimated with Ordered Probit model and Support Vector Regression is introduced for travel time and activity duration prediction. Applied in a real-world time allocation prediction experiment, the model system shows a satisfactory level of prediction accuracy. This study provides useful insights into commuters’ activity-travel time allocation decision by identifying the important influences, and the results are readily applied to a wide range of transportation practice, such as travel information system, by providing reliable forecast for variations in travel demand over time. By introducing the Support Vector Regression, it also makes a methodological contribution in enhancing prediction accuracy of travel time and activity duration prediction.

  10. Reliability of Wireless Sensor Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dâmaso, Antônio; Rosa, Nelson; Maciel, Paulo

    2014-01-01

    Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) consist of hundreds or thousands of sensor nodes with limited processing, storage, and battery capabilities. There are several strategies to reduce the power consumption of WSN nodes (by increasing the network lifetime) and increase the reliability of the network (by improving the WSN Quality of Service). However, there is an inherent conflict between power consumption and reliability: an increase in reliability usually leads to an increase in power consumption. For example, routing algorithms can send the same packet though different paths (multipath strategy), which it is important for reliability, but they significantly increase the WSN power consumption. In this context, this paper proposes a model for evaluating the reliability of WSNs considering the battery level as a key factor. Moreover, this model is based on routing algorithms used by WSNs. In order to evaluate the proposed models, three scenarios were considered to show the impact of the power consumption on the reliability of WSNs. PMID:25157553

  11. Cost-effective solutions to maintaining smart grid reliability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Qiu

    As the aging power systems are increasingly working closer to the capacity and thermal limits, maintaining an sufficient reliability has been of great concern to the government agency, utility companies and users. This dissertation focuses on improving the reliability of transmission and distribution systems. Based on the wide area measurements, multiple model algorithms are developed to diagnose transmission line three-phase short to ground faults in the presence of protection misoperations. The multiple model algorithms utilize the electric network dynamics to provide prompt and reliable diagnosis outcomes. Computational complexity of the diagnosis algorithm is reduced by using a two-step heuristic. The multiple model algorithm is incorporated into a hybrid simulation framework, which consist of both continuous state simulation and discrete event simulation, to study the operation of transmission systems. With hybrid simulation, line switching strategy for enhancing the tolerance to protection misoperations is studied based on the concept of security index, which involves the faulted mode probability and stability coverage. Local measurements are used to track the generator state and faulty mode probabilities are calculated in the multiple model algorithms. FACTS devices are considered as controllers for the transmission system. The placement of FACTS devices into power systems is investigated with a criterion of maintaining a prescribed level of control reconfigurability. Control reconfigurability measures the small signal combined controllability and observability of a power system with an additional requirement on fault tolerance. For the distribution systems, a hierarchical framework, including a high level recloser allocation scheme and a low level recloser placement scheme, is presented. The impacts of recloser placement on the reliability indices is analyzed. Evaluation of reliability indices in the placement process is carried out via discrete event

  12. Reliability models for a nonrepairable system with heterogeneous components having a phase-type time-to-failure distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Heungseob; Kim, Pansoo

    2017-01-01

    This research paper presents practical stochastic models for designing and analyzing the time-dependent reliability of nonrepairable systems. The models are formulated for nonrepairable systems with heterogeneous components having phase-type time-to-failure distributions by a structured continuous time Markov chain (CTMC). The versatility of the phase-type distributions enhances the flexibility and practicality of the systems. By virtue of these benefits, studies in reliability engineering can be more advanced than the previous studies. This study attempts to solve a redundancy allocation problem (RAP) by using these new models. The implications of mixing components, redundancy levels, and redundancy strategies are simultaneously considered to maximize the reliability of a system. An imperfect switching case in a standby redundant system is also considered. Furthermore, the experimental results for a well-known RAP benchmark problem are presented to demonstrate the approximating error of the previous reliability function for a standby redundant system and the usefulness of the current research. - Highlights: • Phase-type time-to-failure distribution is used for components. • Reliability model for nonrepairable system is developed using Markov chain. • System is composed of heterogeneous components. • Model provides the real value of standby system reliability not an approximation. • Redundancy allocation problem is used to show usefulness of this model.

  13. Asset Allocation:diversification dan Rebalancing sebagai Bagian dari Proses Perencanaan Keuangan (suatu Kajian Pustaka)

    OpenAIRE

    Dewi, Vera Intanie

    2013-01-01

    Financial planning is the process of designing an investmentstrategy that can helps an individual to achieve financial goals. Asset allocation, diversification and rebalancing is a particularly important steps of investment strategy process. By doing asset allocation and diversification among a variety of different asset categories such as bonds,stocks,mutual funds and saving can helps minimize risk and maximize return. And the goal of rebalancing is to move the current asset allocation back ...

  14. Optimal conservation resource allocation under variable economic and ecological time discounting rates in boreal forest

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mazziotta, Adriano; Montesino Pouzols, Federico; Mönkkönen, Mikko

    2016-01-01

    Resource allocation to multiple alternative conservation actions is a complex task. A common trade-off occurs between protection of smaller, expensive, high-quality areas versus larger, cheaper, partially degraded areas. We investigate optimal allocation into three actions in boreal forest: current......, and accounting for present revenues from timber harvesting. The present analysis assesses the cost-effective conditions to allocate resources into an inexpensive conservation strategy that nevertheless has potential to produce high ecological values in the future....

  15. Delegated Portfolio Management and Optimal Allocation of Portfolio Managers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Michael; Vangsgaard Christensen, Michael; Gamskjaer, Ken

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we investigate whether the application of the mean-variance framework on portfolio manager allocation offers any out-of-sample benefits compared to a naïve strategy of equal weighting. Based on an exclusive data-set of high-net-worth (HNW) investors, we utilize a wide variety of ...

  16. Momentum and mean-reversion in strategic asset allocation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koijen, R.S.J.; Rodriguez, J.C.; Sbuelz, A.

    2009-01-01

    We study a dynamic asset allocation problem in which stock returns exhibit short-run momentum and long-run mean reversion. We develop a tractable continuous-time model that captures these two predictability features and derive the optimal investment strategy in closed form. The model predicts

  17. Resource allocation in smart homes based on Banker's algorithm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Virag, A.; Bogdan, S.

    2011-01-01

    This paper proposes a method for improved energy management in smart homes by means of resource allocation. For this purpose, a Banker's algorithm based strategy has been developed. It is used to control the system and decide which of the given processes should be provided with resources at the

  18. Application of an allocation methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Youngblood, R.; de Oliveira, L.F.S.

    1989-01-01

    This paper presents a method for allocating resources to elements of a system for the purpose of achieving prescribed levels of defense-in-depth at minimal cost. The method makes extensive use of logic modelling. An analysis of a simplified high-level waste repository is used as an illustrative application of the method. It is shown that it is possible to allocate quality control costs (or demonstrated performance) in an optimal way over elements of a conceptual design. 6 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs

  19. Allocation Problems and Market Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smilgins, Aleksandrs

    The thesis contains six independent papers with a common theme: Allocation problems and market design. The first paper is concerned with fair allocation of risk capital where independent autonomous subunits have risky activities and together constitute the entity's total risk, whose associated risk...... at a certain point in time involves countries that have excess demand and countries that have surplus of green energy. The problem addressed here is how the gains from trade ought to influence the way that members of the grid share common costs. The fifth paper extends the classical two-sided one...

  20. Innovative Approach for Developing Spacecraft Interior Acoustic Requirement Allocation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, S. Reynold; Dandaroy, Indranil; Allen, Christopher S.

    2016-01-01

    The Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) is an American spacecraft for carrying four astronauts during deep space missions. This paper describes an innovative application of Power Injection Method (PIM) for allocating Orion cabin continuous noise Sound Pressure Level (SPL) limits to the sound power level (PWL) limits of major noise sources in the Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) during all mission phases. PIM is simulated using both Statistical Energy Analysis (SEA) and Hybrid Statistical Energy Analysis-Finite Element (SEA-FE) models of the Orion MPCV to obtain the transfer matrix from the PWL of the noise sources to the acoustic energies of the receivers, i.e., the cavities associated with the cabin habitable volume. The goal of the allocation strategy is to control the total energy of cabin habitable volume for maintaining the required SPL limits. Simulations are used to demonstrate that applying the allocated PWLs to the noise sources in the models indeed reproduces the SPL limits in the habitable volume. The effects of Noise Control Treatment (NCT) on allocated noise source PWLs are investigated. The measurement of source PWLs of involved fan and pump development units are also discussed as it is related to some case-specific details of the allocation strategy discussed here.

  1. Identifying factors influencing reliability of professional systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balasubramanian, A.; Kevrekidis, K.; Sonnemans, P.J.M.; Newby, M.J.

    2008-01-01

    Modern product development strategies call for a more proactive approach to fight intense global competition in terms of technological innovation, shorter time to market, quality and reliability and accommodative price. From a reliability engineering perspective, development managers would like to

  2. Regulating nutrient allocation in plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udvardi, Michael; Yang, Jiading; Worley, Eric

    2014-12-09

    The invention provides coding and promoter sequences for a VS-1 and AP-2 gene, which affects the developmental process of senescence in plants. Vectors, transgenic plants, seeds, and host cells comprising heterologous VS-1 and AP-2 genes are also provided. Additionally provided are methods of altering nutrient allocation and composition in a plant using the VS-1 and AP-2 genes.

  3. Designing for dynamic task allocation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dongen, van K.; Maanen, van P.P.

    2005-01-01

    Future platforms are envisioned in which human-machine teams are able to share and trade tasks as demands in situations change. It seems that human-machine coordination has not received the attention it deserves by past and present approaches to task allocation. In this paper a simple way to make

  4. Planning and Resource Allocation Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Jack W.

    1986-01-01

    Modern scientific management techniques provide college administrators with valuable planning and resource allocation insights and enhances the decision process. The planning model should incorporate assessment, strategic planning, dynamic and long-term budgeting, operational planning, and feedback and control for actual operations. (MSE)

  5. Redefining reliability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paulson, S.L.

    1995-01-01

    Want to buy some reliability? The question would have been unthinkable in some markets served by the natural gas business even a few years ago, but in the new gas marketplace, industrial, commercial and even some residential customers have the opportunity to choose from among an array of options about the kind of natural gas service they need--and are willing to pay for. The complexities of this brave new world of restructuring and competition have sent the industry scrambling to find ways to educate and inform its customers about the increased responsibility they will have in determining the level of gas reliability they choose. This article discusses the new options and the new responsibilities of customers, the needed for continuous education, and MidAmerican Energy Company's experiment in direct marketing of natural gas

  6. Sperm competition and sex allocation in simultaneous hermaphrodites : A new look at Charnov's invariance principle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pen, I.R.; Weissing, F.J.

    Recently, Charnov (1996) investigated the consequences of sperm competition for optimal sex allocation in simultaneous hermaphrodites. Charnov argued that the optimal sex allocation strategy can be derived on the basis of the 'sperm displacement rule'; that is, the function describing the

  7. Global Tactical Cross-Asset Allocation: Applying Value and Momentum Across Asset Classes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.C. Blitz (David); P. van Vliet (Pim)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper we examine global tactical asset allocation (GTAA) strategies across a broad range of asset classes. Contrary to market timing for single asset classes and tactical allocation across similar assets, this topic has received little attention in the existing literature. Our

  8. Many-objective robust decision making for water allocation under climate change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yan, Dan; Ludwig, Fulco; Huang, He Qing; Werners, Saskia E.

    2017-01-01

    Water allocation is facing profound challenges due to climate change uncertainties. To identify adaptive water allocation strategies that are robust to climate change uncertainties, a model framework combining many-objective robust decision making and biophysical modeling is developed for large

  9. Assessing the Reliability of Merging Chickering & Gamson's Seven Principles for Good Practice with Merrill's Different Levels of Instructional Strategy (DLISt7)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabar, Syaril Izwann; Albion, Peter R.

    2016-01-01

    Based on Chickering and Gamson's (1987) Seven Principles for Good Practice, this research project attempted to revitalize the principles by merging them with Merrill's (2006) Different Levels of Instructional Strategy. The aim was to develop, validate, and standardize a measurement instrument (DLISt7) using a pretest-posttest Internet…

  10. Influence of heat cost allocation on occupants' control of indoor environment in 56 apartments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Søren; Andersen, Rune Korsholm; Olesen, Bjarne W.

    2016-01-01

    -structured interviews showed a strong influence of the heat cost allocation plan on the occupants' control strategies. Occupants whose heating bills were based on floor area focused on a healthy and comfortable indoor environment. Occupants whose heating bills were based on meter readings focused on energy conservation...... of this paper was to study the indoor environment in buildings with collective and individual heat cost allocation plans, to investigate how the heat cost allocation influenced occupant behaviour and how occupants controlled the indoor environment. The effects of the heat cost allocation type were studied...

  11. Mercury emissions from flooded soils and sediments in Germany are an underestimated problem: challenges for reliable risk assessments and management strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rinklebe J.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Environmental pollution by mercury is a world-wide problem. Particularly floodplain ecosystems are frequently affected. One example is the Elbe River in Germany and its catchment areas; large amounts of Hg from a range of anthropogenic and geogenic sources have been accumulated in the soils of these floodplains. They serve as sink for Hg originating from the surface water of adjacent river. Today, the vastly elevated Hg contents of the floodplain soils at the Elbe River often exceed even the action values of the German Soil Conservation Law. This is especially important as Hg polluted areas at the Elbe River achieve several hundred square kilometres. Thus, authorities are coerced by law to conduct an appropriate risk assessment and to implement practical actions to eliminate or reduce environmental problems. A reliable risk assessment particularly with view to organisms (vegetation as green fodder and hay production, grazing and wild animals to avoid the transfer of Hg into the human food chain, requires an authentic determination of Hg fluxes and their dynamics since gaseous emissions from soil to atmosphere are an important pathway of Hg. However, reliable estimates of Hg fluxes from the highly polluted floodplain soils at the Elbe River and its tributaries, and its influencing factors are scarce. For this purpose, we have developed a new method to determine mercury emissions from soils at various sites. Our objectives were i to quantify seasonal variations of total gaseous mercury (TGM fluxes for floodplain soils at the Elbe River, ii to provide insights into physico-chemical processes regulating these TGM fluxes, and iii to quantify the impacts of the controlling factors soil temperature and soil water content on Hg volatilization from a typical contaminated floodplain soil within soil microcosm experiments under various controlled temperature and moisture conditions. Our study provides insight into TGM emissions from highly Hg

  12. Systems reliability analysis for the national ignition facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majumdar, K.C.; Annese, C.E.; MacIntyre, A.T.; Sicherman, A.

    1996-01-01

    A Reliability, Availability and Maintainability (RAM) analysis was initiated for the National Ignition Facility (NIF). The NIF is an inertial confinement fusion research facility designed to achieve controlled thermonuclear reaction; the preferred site for the NIF is the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The NIF RAM analysis has three purposes: (1) to allocate top level reliability and availability goals for the systems, (2) to develop an operability model for optimum maintainability, and (3) to determine the achievability of the allocated goals of the RAM parameters for the NIF systems and the facility operation as a whole. An allocation model assigns the reliability and availability goals for front line and support systems by a top-down approach; reliability analysis uses a bottom-up approach to determine the system reliability and availability from component level to system level

  13. Proceedings of the Canadian Institute's 3. annual conference on generation adequacy in Ontario : strategies to increase capacity to ensure a reliable electricity supply in Ontario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    This conference provided a forum for the discussion of issues related to generation adequacy in Ontario. Members of the electricity industry as well as members from governmental and non-governmental agencies discussed a variety of recommendations for cost-effective reliable energy in Ontario. Issues related to the overhaul or replacement of nuclear power reactors and coal-fired generators in the province were reviewed. The status of various wind power projects in the province was examined along with issues related to interconnected power systems. Best practices for the planning and execution of electricity infrastructure projects were also reviewed, and issues related to stakeholder involvement in electricity generation projects were discussed. The discussions also described recent developments in electricity generation in various jurisdictions in Canada and the United States. The conference featured 19 presentations, of which 7 have been catalogued separately for inclusion in this database. tabs., figs

  14. Implementation of PATREC nuclear reliability program in PROLOG

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koen, B.V.; Koen, D.B.

    1987-01-01

    PROLOG, the de facto computer language for research in artificial intelligence in Japan, is a logical choice for research in the pattern recognition strategy for evaluating the reliability of complex systems expressed as fault trees. PROLOG's basic data type is the tree, and its basic control construct is pattern matching. It is also based on recursive programming and allows dynamic allocation of memory, both of which are essential for an efficient reduction of the input tree. Since the inference engine of PROLOG automatically examines the user-defined data base in a systematic order, an additional advantage of this language is that the largest known pattern will always be found first without coding complex tree searches of the pattern library as was required in other computer languages such as PL/1 and LISP

  15. The Role of Intrinsic Motivations in Attention Allocation and Shifting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dario edi Nocera

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The concepts of attention and intrinsic motivations are of great interest within adaptive robotic systems, and can be exploited in order to guide, activate, and coordinate multiple concurrent behaviors. Attention allocation strategies represent key capabilities of human beings, which are strictly connected with action selection and execution mechanisms, while intrinsic motivations directly affect the allocation of attentional resources. In this paper we propose a model of Reinforcement Learning (RL, where both these capabilities are involved. RL is deployed to learn how to allocate attentional resources in a behavior-based robotic system, while action selection is obtained as a side effect of the resulting motivated attentional behaviors. Moreover, the influence of intrinsic motivations in attention orientation is obtained by introducing rewards associated with curiosity drives. In this way, the learning process is affected not only by goal-specific rewards, but also by intrinsic motivations.

  16. Twelve fundamental life histories evolving through allocation-dependent fecundity and survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Jacob; Brännström, Åke; Metz, Johan A J; Dieckmann, Ulf

    2018-03-01

    An organism's life history is closely interlinked with its allocation of energy between growth and reproduction at different life stages. Theoretical models have established that diminishing returns from reproductive investment promote strategies with simultaneous investment into growth and reproduction (indeterminate growth) over strategies with distinct phases of growth and reproduction (determinate growth). We extend this traditional, binary classification by showing that allocation-dependent fecundity and mortality rates allow for a large diversity of optimal allocation schedules. By analyzing a model of organisms that allocate energy between growth and reproduction, we find twelve types of optimal allocation schedules, differing qualitatively in how reproductive allocation increases with body mass. These twelve optimal allocation schedules include types with different combinations of continuous and discontinuous increase in reproduction allocation, in which phases of continuous increase can be decelerating or accelerating. We furthermore investigate how this variation influences growth curves and the expected maximum life span and body size. Our study thus reveals new links between eco-physiological constraints and life-history evolution and underscores how allocation-dependent fitness components may underlie biological diversity.

  17. Energy-Aware Sensor Networks via Sensor Selection and Power Allocation

    KAUST Repository

    Niyazi, Lama B.; Chaaban, Anas; Dahrouj, Hayssam; Al-Naffouri, Tareq Y.; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2018-01-01

    sensor selection and power allocation algorithms of low complexity. Simulation results show an appreciable improvement in their performance over a system in which no selection strategy is applied, with a slight gap from derived lower bounds. The results

  18. Energy Efficient Power Allocation in Multi-tier 5G Networks Using Enhanced Online Learning

    KAUST Repository

    Alqerm, Ismail; Shihada, Basem

    2017-01-01

    of the 5G systems, where each transmitter surmises other transmitters power allocation strategies without information exchange. The proposed learning model exploits a brief state representation to account for the problem of dimensionality in online learning

  19. Learning and strategic asset allocation

    OpenAIRE

    Kearns, Michael

    2016-01-01

    This thesis investigates whether or not models that portray the relationship between what an investor learns and how he allocates his portfolio can explain phenomena related to household behaviour in the stock market. Endogenous modelling of household learning is utilised, which builds on a growing literature called bounded rationality with increasing explanatory power, offering an alternative to the classical rational expectations theory. Such phenomena include firstly why households often h...

  20. Security cost allocation under combined bilateral-pool market dispatch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdullah, M.P.; Hassan, M.Y.; Hussin, F.

    2008-01-01

    Most electricity markets around the world are a combination of bilateral and pool markets, such as NordPool and NYPOOL. In these models, market participants bid into the pool and also make bilateral contracts with each other. This paper addressed the issue of congestion management and security cost allocation in a power pool market model. The basic idea of security cost allocation is to divide the incurred security cost due to congestion relief into pool and bilateral market based on their flow contribution to the congested line. A newly proposed security cost allocation strategy of the combined bilateral-pool market was also presented along with case studies using IEEE-14 bus system that tested the proposed method. Using the proposed method, it was shown that security costs are allocated to market participants at different prices which reflect the load contribution to the security problem. This solves the problem of the uniform security cost allocation in a pure pool market system having uniform pricing, and provides a proper security signal to market participants. 11 refs., 3 tabs., 4 figs

  1. Global Tactical Cross-Asset Allocation: Applying Value and Momentum Across Asset Classes

    OpenAIRE

    Blitz, D.C.; van Vliet, P.

    2008-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper we examine global tactical asset allocation (GTAA) strategies across a broad range of asset classes. Contrary to market timing for single asset classes and tactical allocation across similar assets, this topic has received little attention in the existing literature. Our main finding is that momentum and value strategies applied to GTAA across twelve asset classes deliver statistically and economically significant abnormal returns. For a long top-quartile and short b...

  2. Resource allocation in networks via coalitional games

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shams, F.

    2016-01-01

    The main goal of this dissertation is to manage resource allocation in network engineering problems and to introduce efficient cooperative algorithms to obtain high performance, ensuring fairness and stability. Specifically, this dissertation introduces new approaches for resource allocation in

  3. Limited Sampling Strategy for the Prediction of Area Under the Curve (AUC) of Statins: Reliability of a Single Time Point for AUC Prediction for Pravastatin and Simvastatin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivas, N R

    2016-02-01

    Statins are widely prescribed medicines and are also available in fixed dose combinations with other drugs to treat several chronic ailments. Given the safety issues associated with statins it may be important to assess feasibility of a single time concentration strategy for prediction of exposure (area under the curve; AUC). The peak concentration (Cmax) was used to establish relationship with AUC separately for pravastatin and simvastatin using published pharmacokinetic data. The regression equations generated for statins were used to predict the AUC values from various literature references. The fold difference of the observed divided by predicted values along with correlation coefficient (r) were used to judge the feasibility of the single time point approach. Both pravastatin and simvastatin showed excellent correlation of Cmax vs. AUC values with r value ≥ 0.9638 (pAUC predictions and >81% of the predicted values were in a narrower range of >0.75-fold but AUC values showed excellent correlation for pravastatin (r=0.9708, n=115; pAUC predictions. On the basis of the present work, it is feasible to develop a single concentration time point strategy that coincides with Cmax occurrence for both pravastatin and simvastatin from a therapeutic drug monitoring perspective. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  4. Asset Allocation of Mutual Fund Investors

    OpenAIRE

    Dengpan Luo

    2003-01-01

    This paper studies mutual fund investors' asset allocation decisions using monthly flow data of U.S mutual fund industry from 1984 to 1998. We find that mutual fund investors change their asset allocations between stocks and bonds in reaction to business conditions tracked by changes in expected stock market returns. They tend to allocate less into stock funds during the trough of a business cycle when expected stock market returns are higher and to allocate more into stock funds during the p...

  5. Optimal resource allocation for distributed video communication

    CERN Document Server

    He, Yifeng

    2013-01-01

    While most books on the subject focus on resource allocation in just one type of network, this book is the first to examine the common characteristics of multiple distributed video communication systems. Comprehensive and systematic, Optimal Resource Allocation for Distributed Video Communication presents a unified optimization framework for resource allocation across these systems. The book examines the techniques required for optimal resource allocation over Internet, wireless cellular networks, wireless ad hoc networks, and wireless sensor networks. It provides you with the required foundat

  6. Measuring health indicators and allocating health resources: a DEA-based approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chih-Ching

    2016-02-03

    This paper suggests new empirical DEA models for the measurement of health indicators and the allocation of health resources. The proposed models were developed by first suggesting a population-based health indicator. By introducing the suggested indicator into DEA models, a new approach that solves the problem of health resource allocation has been developed. The proposed models are applied to an empirical study of Taiwan's health system. Empirical findings show that the suggested indicator can successfully accommodate the differences in health resource demands between populations, providing more reliable performance information than traditional indicators such as physician density. Using our models and a commonly used allocation mechanism, capitation, to allocate medical expenditures, it is found that the proposed model always obtains higher performance than those derived from capitation, and the superiority increases as allocated expenditures rise.

  7. Intelligent tactical asset allocation support system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hiemstra, Y.

    1995-01-01

    This paper presents an advanced support system for Tactical Asset Allocation. Asset allocation explains over 90% of portfolio performance (Brinson, Hood and Beebower, 1988). Tactical asset allocation adjusts a strategic portfolio on the basis of short term market outlooks. The system includes

  8. A penalty guided stochastic fractal search approach for system reliability optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mellal, Mohamed Arezki; Zio, Enrico

    2016-01-01

    Modern industry requires components and systems with high reliability levels. In this paper, we address the system reliability optimization problem. A penalty guided stochastic fractal search approach is developed for solving reliability allocation, redundancy allocation, and reliability–redundancy allocation problems. Numerical results of ten case studies are presented as benchmark problems for highlighting the superiority of the proposed approach compared to others from literature. - Highlights: • System reliability optimization is investigated. • A penalty guided stochastic fractal search approach is developed. • Results of ten case studies are compared with previously published methods. • Performance of the approach is demonstrated.

  9. An Introduction To Reliability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Kyoung Su

    1993-08-01

    This book introduces reliability with definition of reliability, requirement of reliability, system of life cycle and reliability, reliability and failure rate such as summary, reliability characteristic, chance failure, failure rate which changes over time, failure mode, replacement, reliability in engineering design, reliability test over assumption of failure rate, and drawing of reliability data, prediction of system reliability, conservation of system, failure such as summary and failure relay and analysis of system safety.

  10. Tradable permit allocations and sequential choice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacKenzie, Ian A. [Centre for Economic Research, ETH Zuerich, Zurichbergstrasse 18, 8092 Zuerich (Switzerland)

    2011-01-15

    This paper investigates initial allocation choices in an international tradable pollution permit market. For two sovereign governments, we compare allocation choices that are either simultaneously or sequentially announced. We show sequential allocation announcements result in higher (lower) aggregate emissions when announcements are strategic substitutes (complements). Whether allocation announcements are strategic substitutes or complements depends on the relationship between the follower's damage function and governments' abatement costs. When the marginal damage function is relatively steep (flat), allocation announcements are strategic substitutes (complements). For quadratic abatement costs and damages, sequential announcements provide a higher level of aggregate emissions. (author)

  11. Reliability analysis in intelligent machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcinroy, John E.; Saridis, George N.

    1990-01-01

    Given an explicit task to be executed, an intelligent machine must be able to find the probability of success, or reliability, of alternative control and sensing strategies. By using concepts for information theory and reliability theory, new techniques for finding the reliability corresponding to alternative subsets of control and sensing strategies are proposed such that a desired set of specifications can be satisfied. The analysis is straightforward, provided that a set of Gaussian random state variables is available. An example problem illustrates the technique, and general reliability results are presented for visual servoing with a computed torque-control algorithm. Moreover, the example illustrates the principle of increasing precision with decreasing intelligence at the execution level of an intelligent machine.

  12. Cost allocation review : staff discussion paper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-09-01

    This report addressed the need for updated cost allocation studies filed by local electricity distribution companies because they ensure that distribution rates for each customer class remain just and reasonable. According to the 2001 Electricity Distribution Rate Handbook, the Ontario Energy Board requires new cost allocation studies before implementing any future incentive regulation plans. A review of cost allocations allows the Board to consider the need for adjustments to the current share of distribution costs paid by different classes of ratepayers. This report included 14 sections to facilitate consultations with stakeholders on financial information requirements for cost allocation; directly assignable costs; functionalization; categorization; allocation methods; allocation of other costs; load data requirements; cost allocation implementation issues; addition of new rate class and rate design for scattered unmetered loads; addition of new rate class for larger users; rates to charge embedded distributors; treatment of the rate sub-classification identified as time-of-use; and, rate design implementation issues. 1 fig., 7 appendices

  13. A Parallel Workload Model and its Implications for Processor Allocation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-11-01

    with SEV or AVG, both of which can tolerate c = 0.4 { 0.6 before their performance deteriorates signi cantly. On the other hand, Setia [10] has...Sanjeev. K Setia . The interaction between memory allocation and adaptive partitioning in message-passing multicomputers. In IPPS 󈨣 Workshop on Job...Scheduling Strategies for Parallel Processing, pages 89{99, 1995. [11] Sanjeev K. Setia and Satish K. Tripathi. An analysis of several processor

  14. A Risk Management Approach to Optimal Asset Allocation

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas J. Flavin; Michael R. Wickens

    2001-01-01

    This paper extends the tactical asset allocation strategy of Flavin and Wickens(1998) to incorporate the effects of macroeconomic variables in the analysis. Using a VAR in mean with a M-GARCH error structure, we can jointly model financial asset returns and macroeconomic variables, thereby exploiting any predictability in either the first- or second-order moments. Taking a set of UK\\ financial assets and the change in domestic inflation as an illustration, we find a much stronger impact on th...

  15. Allocation decisions in network industries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolle, Friedel [Europa-Universitaet Viadrina Frankfurt, Lehrstuhl Volkswirtschaftslehre, insbesondere Wirtschaftstheorie (Mikrooekonomie), Postfach 1786 15207 Frankfurt (Germany)

    2008-01-15

    In this paper, I want to propagate a new analytical tool: The usage of Menu Auctions for modelling complicated auctions, negotiations, rent seeking, etc. is advocated, because, contrary to 'normal' auctions and bargaining models, an arbitrary number of additional aspects can be taken into account. After concentrating on 'Truthful Equilibria' [Bernheim, B.D., Whinston, M.D., 1986. Menu auctions, resource allocation, and economic influence, Quarterly Journal of Economics, 1-31.] a certain broad class of Menu Auctions show unique and efficient allocations. Under an additional concavity condition even the equilibrium bids are unique. Two examples are discussed: the privatisation of a state-owned industry and the buying of wholesale electricity (concluding contracts with a number of producers) by a utility. These examples also serve to trace the sources of 'non-concavities' which can prevent the uniqueness of bids and can provide the auctioneer with incentives to exclude bidders from the competition. (author)

  16. Allocation - the Howe measurement challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tierney, Jim; Moksnes, Paul Ove

    2005-07-01

    The Howe Field is located in the Central North Sea Block 22/12a approximately 160 km east of Aberdeen in a water depth of 85 m. The reservoir lies some 12 km east of the Shell operated Nelson Platform, which is situated in adjacent Block 22/11. The Howe project was initiated by Shell Exploration and Production to augment the operating life and production capacity of the Nelson platform, involving the development of an additional subset infrastructure and the installation of topside facilities. The owners of the Howe Field are Enterprise Oil PLC , Intrepid Energy and OMV. The Howe well fluids are commingled with Nelson fluids. Therefore, it is required to measure the Howe well fluids to differentiate between the fields and to determine how much money each partner is allocated. The commercial agreements have stipulated that the measurements of Howe fluids are required to be measured within an accuracy of +- 5% of reading. In addition to accuracy constraints, it was important to minimise capex to ensure the development was economically viable. Given this, multiphase metering was considered to be a solution for allocation between the different ownerships, as opposed to traditional separator metering. This paper will present the journey of the project activity through the selection criteria, flow loop test, installation, commissioning and the first 3 months of operation of the MPFM including verification with the Nelson test separator. Detailing with careful management and engineering support how to succeed with this type of application. (author) (tk)

  17. Calculation and application of energy transaction allocation factors in electric power transmission systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fradi, Aniss

    The ability to allocate the active power (MW) loading on transmission lines and transformers, is the basis of the "flow based" transmission allocation system developed by the North American Electric Reliability Council. In such a system, the active power flows must be allocated to each line or transformer in proportion to the active power being transmitted by each transaction imposed on the system. Currently, this is accomplished through the use of the linear Power Transfer Distribution Factors (PTDFs). Unfortunately, no linear allocation models exist for other energy transmission quantities, such as MW and MVAR losses, MVAR and MVA flows, etc. Early allocation schemes were developed to allocate MW losses due to transactions to branches in a transmission system, however they exhibited diminished accuracy, since most of them are based on linear power flow modeling of the transmission system. This thesis presents a new methodology to calculate Energy Transaction Allocation factors (ETA factors, or eta factors), using the well-known process of integration of a first derivative function, as well as consistent and well-established mathematical and AC power flow models. The factors give a highly accurate allocation of any non-linear system quantity to transactions placed on the transmission system. The thesis also extends the new ETA factors calculation procedure to restructure a new economic dispatch scheme where multiple sets of generators are economically dispatched to meet their corresponding load and their share of the losses.

  18. Smart LED allocation scheme for efficient multiuser visible light communication networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sewaiwar, Atul; Tiwari, Samrat Vikramaditya; Chung, Yeon Ho

    2015-05-18

    In a multiuser bidirectional visible light communication (VLC), a large number of LEDs or an LED array needs to be allocated in an efficient manner to ensure sustainable data rate and link quality. Moreover, in order to support an increasing or decreasing number of users in the network, the LED allocation is required to be performed dynamically. In this paper, a novel smart LED allocation scheme for efficient multiuser VLC networks is presented. The proposed scheme allocates RGB LEDs to multiple users in a dynamic and efficient fashion, while satisfying illumination requirements in an indoor environment. The smart LED array comprised of RGB LEDs is divided into sectors according to the location of the users. The allocated sectors then provide optical power concentration toward the users for efficient and reliable data transmission. An algorithm for the dynamic allocation of the LEDs is also presented. To verify its effective resource allocation feature of the proposed scheme, simulations were performed. It is found that the proposed smart LED allocation scheme provides the effect of optical beamforming toward individual users, thereby increasing the collective power concentration of the optical signals on the desirable users and resulting in significantly increased data rate, while ensuring sufficient illumination in a multiuser VLC environment.

  19. Environmental control of reproductive phenology and the effect of pollen supplementation on resource allocation in the cleistogamous weed, Ruellia nudiflora (Acanthaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munguía-Rosas, Miguel A; Parra-Tabla, Victor; Ollerton, Jeff; Cervera, J Carlos

    2012-02-01

    Mixed reproductive strategies may have evolved as a response of plants to cope with environmental variation. One example of a mixed reproductive strategy is dimorphic cleistogamy, where a single plant produces closed, obligately self-pollinated (CL) flowers and open, potentially outcrossed (CH) flowers. Frequently, optimal environmental conditions favour production of more costly CH structures whilst economical and reliable CL structures are produced under less favourable conditions. In this study we explore (1) the effect of light and water on the reproductive phenology and (2) the effect of pollen supplementation on resource allocation to seeds in the cleistogamous weed Ruellia nudiflora. Split-plot field experiments were carried out to assess the effect of shade (two levels: ambient light vs. a reduction of 50 %) and watering (two levels: non-watered vs. watered) on the onset, end and duration of the production of three reproductive structures: CH flowers, CH fruit and CL fruit. We also looked at the effect of these environmental factors on biomass allocation to seeds (seed weight) from obligately self-pollinated flowers (CL), open-pollinated CH flowers and pollen-supplemented CH flowers. CH structures were produced for a briefer period and ended earlier under shaded conditions. These conditions also resulted in an earlier production of CL fruit. Shaded conditions also produced greater biomass allocation to CH seeds receiving extra pollen. Sub-optimal (shaded) conditions resulted in a briefer production period of CH structures whilst these same conditions resulted in an earlier production of CL structures. However, under sub-optimal conditions, plants also allocated more resources to seeds sired from CH flowers receiving large pollen loads. Earlier production of reproductive structures and relatively larger seed might improve subsequent success of CL and pollen-supplemented CH seeds, respectively.

  20. Transmission usage cost allocation schemes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abou El Ela, A.A.; El-Sehiemy, R.A.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents different suggested transmission usage cost allocation (TCA) schemes to the system individuals. Different independent system operator (ISO) visions are presented using the proportional rata and flow-based TCA methods. There are two proposed flow-based TCA schemes (FTCA). The first FTCA scheme generalizes the equivalent bilateral exchanges (EBE) concepts for lossy networks through two-stage procedure. The second FTCA scheme is based on the modified sensitivity factors (MSF). These factors are developed from the actual measurements of power flows in transmission lines and the power injections at different buses. The proposed schemes exhibit desirable apportioning properties and are easy to implement and understand. Case studies for different loading conditions are carried out to show the capability of the proposed schemes for solving the TCA problem. (author)

  1. Factors of Selection of the Stock Allocation Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohov Heorhii K.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The article describes results of the author’s study of factors of making strategic decisions on selection of methods of stock allocation by public joint stock companies in Ukraine. The author used the Random forest mathematical apparatus of classification trees building and also informal methods. The article analyses the reasons that restrain public allocation of stock. It shows significant influence upon selection of a method of stock allocation of such factors as capital concentration, balance rate of corporate rights, sector of economy and significant participation of the institutes of common investment or the state in the authorised capital. The built hierarchical model of classification of factors of the issuing policy of joint stock companies finds logical justification in specific features of the institutional environment, however, it does not fit into the framework of the classical concept of the market economy. The model could be used both for formation of goals of corporate financial strategies and in the process of improvement of state regulation of activity of securities issuers. The prospect of further studies in this direction is identification of transformation of factors of selection of the stock allocation method under conditions of revival of the stock market.

  2. Econophysics of a ranked demand and supply resource allocation problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priel, Avner; Tamir, Boaz

    2018-01-01

    We present a two sided resource allocation problem, between demands and supplies, where both parties are ranked. For example, in Big Data problems where a set of different computational tasks is divided between a set of computers each with its own resources, or between employees and employers where both parties are ranked, the employees by their fitness and the employers by their package benefits. The allocation process can be viewed as a repeated game where in each iteration the strategy is decided by a meta-rule, based on the ranks of both parties and the results of the previous games. We show the existence of a phase transition between an absorbing state, where all demands are satisfied, and an active one where part of the demands are always left unsatisfied. The phase transition is governed by the ratio between supplies and demand. In a job allocation problem we find positive correlation between the rank of the workers and the rank of the factories; higher rank workers are usually allocated to higher ranked factories. These all suggest global emergent properties stemming from local variables. To demonstrate the global versus local relations, we introduce a local inertial force that increases the rank of employees in proportion to their persistence time in the same factory. We show that such a local force induces non trivial global effects, mostly to benefit the lower ranked employees.

  3. Frontiers of reliability

    CERN Document Server

    Basu, Asit P; Basu, Sujit K

    1998-01-01

    This volume presents recent results in reliability theory by leading experts in the world. It will prove valuable for researchers, and users of reliability theory. It consists of refereed invited papers on a broad spectrum of topics in reliability. The subjects covered include Bayesian reliability, Bayesian reliability modeling, confounding in a series system, DF tests, Edgeworth approximation to reliability, estimation under random censoring, fault tree reduction for reliability, inference about changes in hazard rates, information theory and reliability, mixture experiment, mixture of Weibul

  4. Intelligent tactical asset allocation support system

    OpenAIRE

    Hiemstra, Y.

    1995-01-01

    This paper presents an advanced support system for Tactical Asset Allocation. Asset allocation explains over 90% of portfolio performance (Brinson, Hood and Beebower, 1988). Tactical asset allocation adjusts a strategic portfolio on the basis of short term market outlooks. The system includes aprediction model that forecasts quarterly excess returns on the S and PSOO, an optimization model that adjusts a user-specified strategic portfolio on thebasis of the excess return forecast, and a compo...

  5. Efficient exact optimization of multi-objective redundancy allocation problems in series-parallel systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao, Dingzhou; Murat, Alper; Chinnam, Ratna Babu

    2013-01-01

    This paper proposes a decomposition-based approach to exactly solve the multi-objective Redundancy Allocation Problem for series-parallel systems. Redundancy allocation problem is a form of reliability optimization and has been the subject of many prior studies. The majority of these earlier studies treat redundancy allocation problem as a single objective problem maximizing the system reliability or minimizing the cost given certain constraints. The few studies that treated redundancy allocation problem as a multi-objective optimization problem relied on meta-heuristic solution approaches. However, meta-heuristic approaches have significant limitations: they do not guarantee that Pareto points are optimal and, more importantly, they may not identify all the Pareto-optimal points. In this paper, we treat redundancy allocation problem as a multi-objective problem, as is typical in practice. We decompose the original problem into several multi-objective sub-problems, efficiently and exactly solve sub-problems, and then systematically combine the solutions. The decomposition-based approach can efficiently generate all the Pareto-optimal solutions for redundancy allocation problems. Experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness and efficiency of the proposed method over meta-heuristic methods on a numerical example taken from the literature.

  6. A novel artificial fish swarm algorithm for solving large-scale reliability-redundancy application problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Qiang; Hu, Xiangtao; Ren, Hong; Zhang, Hongqi

    2015-11-01

    A novel artificial fish swarm algorithm (NAFSA) is proposed for solving large-scale reliability-redundancy allocation problem (RAP). In NAFSA, the social behaviors of fish swarm are classified in three ways: foraging behavior, reproductive behavior, and random behavior. The foraging behavior designs two position-updating strategies. And, the selection and crossover operators are applied to define the reproductive ability of an artificial fish. For the random behavior, which is essentially a mutation strategy, the basic cloud generator is used as the mutation operator. Finally, numerical results of four benchmark problems and a large-scale RAP are reported and compared. NAFSA shows good performance in terms of computational accuracy and computational efficiency for large scale RAP. Copyright © 2015 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. An intelligent allocation algorithm for parallel processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Chester C.; Homaifar, Abdollah; Ananthram, Kishan G.

    1988-01-01

    The problem of allocating nodes of a program graph to processors in a parallel processing architecture is considered. The algorithm is based on critical path analysis, some allocation heuristics, and the execution granularity of nodes in a program graph. These factors, and the structure of interprocessor communication network, influence the allocation. To achieve realistic estimations of the executive durations of allocations, the algorithm considers the fact that nodes in a program graph have to communicate through varying numbers of tokens. Coarse and fine granularities have been implemented, with interprocessor token-communication duration, varying from zero up to values comparable to the execution durations of individual nodes. The effect on allocation of communication network structures is demonstrated by performing allocations for crossbar (non-blocking) and star (blocking) networks. The algorithm assumes the availability of as many processors as it needs for the optimal allocation of any program graph. Hence, the focus of allocation has been on varying token-communication durations rather than varying the number of processors. The algorithm always utilizes as many processors as necessary for the optimal allocation of any program graph, depending upon granularity and characteristics of the interprocessor communication network.

  8. Cognitive radio networks dynamic resource allocation schemes

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Shaowei

    2014-01-01

    This SpringerBrief presents a survey of dynamic resource allocation schemes in Cognitive Radio (CR) Systems, focusing on the spectral-efficiency and energy-efficiency in wireless networks. It also introduces a variety of dynamic resource allocation schemes for CR networks and provides a concise introduction of the landscape of CR technology. The author covers in detail the dynamic resource allocation problem for the motivations and challenges in CR systems. The Spectral- and Energy-Efficient resource allocation schemes are comprehensively investigated, including new insights into the trade-off

  9. A new way to improve the robustness of complex communication networks by allocating redundancy links

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi Chunhui; Zhuo Yue; Tang Jieying; Long Keping; Peng Yunfeng

    2012-01-01

    We investigate the robustness of complex communication networks on allocating redundancy links. The protecting key nodes (PKN) strategy is proposed to improve the robustness of complex communication networks against intentional attack. Our numerical simulations show that allocating a few redundant links among key nodes using the PKN strategy will significantly increase the robustness of scale-free complex networks. We have also theoretically proved and demonstrated the effectiveness of the PKN strategy. We expect that our work will help achieve a better understanding of communication networks. (paper)

  10. Forecasting reliability of transformer populations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schijndel, van A.; Wetzer, J.; Wouters, P.A.A.F.

    2007-01-01

    The expected replacement wave in the current power grid faces asset managers with challenging questions. Setting up a replacement strategy and planning calls for a forecast of the long term component reliability. For transformers the future failure probability can be predicted based on the ongoing

  11. Inverse Statistics and Asset Allocation Efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolgorian, Meysam

    In this paper using inverse statistics analysis, the effect of investment horizon on the efficiency of portfolio selection is examined. Inverse statistics analysis is a general tool also known as probability distribution of exit time that is used for detecting the distribution of the time in which a stochastic process exits from a zone. This analysis was used in Refs. 1 and 2 for studying the financial returns time series. This distribution provides an optimal investment horizon which determines the most likely horizon for gaining a specific return. Using samples of stocks from Tehran Stock Exchange (TSE) as an emerging market and S&P 500 as a developed market, effect of optimal investment horizon in asset allocation is assessed. It is found that taking into account the optimal investment horizon in TSE leads to more efficiency for large size portfolios while for stocks selected from S&P 500, regardless of portfolio size, this strategy does not only not produce more efficient portfolios, but also longer investment horizons provides more efficiency.

  12. Peer-Allocated Instant Response (PAIR): Computional allocation of peer tutors in learning communities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westera, Wim

    2009-01-01

    Westera, W. (2007). Peer-Allocated Instant Response (PAIR): Computational allocation of peer tutors in learning communities. Journal of Artificial Societies and Social Simulation, http://jasss.soc.surrey.ac.uk/10/2/5.html

  13. Methodology to Support Dynamic Function Allocation Policies Between Humans and Flight Deck Automation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Eric N.

    2012-01-01

    Function allocation assigns work functions to all agents in a team, both human and automation. Efforts to guide function allocation systematically have been studied in many fields such as engineering, human factors, team and organization design, management science, cognitive systems engineering. Each field focuses on certain aspects of function allocation, but not all; thus, an independent discussion of each does not address all necessary aspects of function allocation. Four distinctive perspectives have emerged from this comprehensive review of literature on those fields: the technology-centered, human-centered, team-oriented, and work-oriented perspectives. Each perspective focuses on different aspects of function allocation: capabilities and characteristics of agents (automation or human), structure and strategy of a team, and work structure and environment. This report offers eight issues with function allocation that can be used to assess the extent to which each of issues exist on a given function allocation. A modeling framework using formal models and simulation was developed to model work as described by the environment, agents, their inherent dynamics, and relationships among them. Finally, to validate the framework and metrics, a case study modeled four different function allocations between a pilot and flight deck automation during the arrival and approach phases of flight.

  14. TASK ALLOCATION IN GEO-DISTRIBUTATED CYBER-PHYSICAL SYSTEMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aggarwal, Rachel; Smidts, Carol

    2017-03-01

    This paper studies the task allocation algorithm for a distributed test facility (DTF), which aims to assemble geo-distributed cyber (software) and physical (hardware in the loop components into a prototype cyber-physical system (CPS). This allows low cost testing on an early conceptual prototype (ECP) of the ultimate CPS (UCPS) to be developed. The DTF provides an instrumentation interface for carrying out reliability experiments remotely such as fault propagation analysis and in-situ testing of hardware and software components in a simulated environment. Unfortunately, the geo-distribution introduces an overhead that is not inherent to the UCPS, i.e. a significant time delay in communication that threatens the stability of the ECP and is not an appropriate representation of the behavior of the UCPS. This can be mitigated by implementing a task allocation algorithm to find a suitable configuration and assign the software components to appropriate computational locations, dynamically. This would allow the ECP to operate more efficiently with less probability of being unstable due to the delays introduced by geo-distribution. The task allocation algorithm proposed in this work uses a Monte Carlo approach along with Dynamic Programming to identify the optimal network configuration to keep the time delays to a minimum.

  15. Application research of power allocation based on Buck circuit in DC microgrid

    OpenAIRE

    Wang Zihao; Zhou Mingyu

    2017-01-01

    In a traditional DC microgrid, the power sharing control strategy has been always used in the distributed power converters, resulting in not making outer power allocation arbitrarily. In order to solve the power output allocation problem of wind power in DC microgrid, the intelligent Buck circuit based on PI algorithm and the load current feed-forward method was used to realize the arbitrary regulation of the output power of the wind power in the DC microgrid system. Compared with traditional...

  16. Spectrum Allocation for Decentralized Transmission Strategies: Properties of Nash Equilibria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter von Wrycza

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The interaction of two transmit-receive pairs coexisting in the same area and communicating using the same portion of the spectrum is analyzed from a game theoretic perspective. Each pair utilizes a decentralized iterative water-filling scheme to greedily maximize the individual rate. We study the dynamics of such a game and find properties of the resulting Nash equilibria. The region of achievable operating points is characterized for both low- and high-interference systems, and the dependence on the various system parameters is explicitly shown. We derive the region of possible signal space partitioning for the iterative water-filling scheme and show how the individual utility functions can be modified to alter its range. Utilizing global system knowledge, we design a modified game encouraging better operating points in terms of sum rate compared to those obtained using the iterative water-filling algorithm and show how such a game can be imitated in a decentralized noncooperative setting. Although we restrict the analysis to a two player game, analogous concepts can be used to design decentralized algorithms for scenarios with more players. The performance of the modified decentralized game is evaluated and compared to the iterative water-filling algorithm by numerical simulations.

  17. System Reliability Engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Tae Jin

    2005-02-01

    This book tells of reliability engineering, which includes quality and reliability, reliability data, importance of reliability engineering, reliability and measure, the poisson process like goodness of fit test and the poisson arrival model, reliability estimation like exponential distribution, reliability of systems, availability, preventive maintenance such as replacement policies, minimal repair policy, shock models, spares, group maintenance and periodic inspection, analysis of common cause failure, and analysis model of repair effect.

  18. Cross-layer shared protection strategy towards data plane in software defined optical networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Yu; Li, Zhiqiang; Zhou, Bin; Dong, Xiancun

    2018-04-01

    In order to ensure reliable data transmission on the data plane and minimize resource consumption, a novel protection strategy towards data plane is proposed in software defined optical networks (SDON). Firstly, we establish a SDON architecture with hierarchical structure of data plane, which divides the data plane into four layers for getting fine-grained bandwidth resource. Then, we design the cross-layer routing and resource allocation based on this network architecture. Through jointly considering the bandwidth resource on all the layers, the SDN controller could allocate bandwidth resource to working path and backup path in an economical manner. Next, we construct auxiliary graphs and transform the shared protection problem into the graph vertex coloring problem. Therefore, the resource consumption on backup paths can be reduced further. The simulation results demonstrate that the proposed protection strategy can achieve lower protection overhead and higher resource utilization ratio.

  19. Storage Space Allocation of Inbound Container in Railway Container Terminal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Efficient storage strategy of railway container terminals is important in balancing resource utilization, reducing waiting time, and improving handling efficiency. In this paper, we consider the formulation and solution algorithm for storage space allocation problem of inbound containers in railway container terminal. The problem is formulated as two-stage optimization models, whose objectives are balancing the workload of inbound containers and reducing the overlapping amounts. An algorithm implement process based on rolling horizon approach is designed to solve the proposed models. Computational experiments on an actual railway container terminal show that the proposed approach is effective to solve space allocation problem of inbound container and is significant for the operation and organization of railway container terminals.

  20. Addressing congestion on single allocation hub-and-spoke networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Saraiva de Camargo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available When considering hub-and-spoke networks with single allocation, the absence of alternative routes makes this kind of systems specially vulnerable to congestion effects. In order to improve the design of such networks, congestion costs must be addressed. This article deploys two different techniques for addressing congestion on single allocation hub-and-spoke networks: the Generalized Benders Decomposition and the Outer Approximation method. Both methods are able to solve large scale instances. Computational experiments show how the adoption of advanced solution strategies, such as Pareto-optimal cut generation on the Master Problem branch-and-bound tree, may be decisive. They also demonstrate that the solution effort is not only associated with the size of the instances, but also with their combination of the installation and congestion costs.

  1. Adaptive sex allocation in birds : The complexities of linking theory and practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Komdeur, Jan; Pen, Ido

    2002-01-01

    We review some recent theoretical and empirical developments in the study of sex allocation in birds. The advent of reliable molecular sexing techniques has led to a sharp increase in the number of studies that report biased offspring sex ratios in birds. However, compelling evidence for adaptive

  2. Time allocation of disabled individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagán, Ricardo

    2013-05-01

    Although some studies have analysed the disability phenomenon and its effect on, for example, labour force participation, wages, job satisfaction, or the use of disability pension, the empirical evidence on how disability steals time (e.g. hours of work) from individuals is very scarce. This article examines how disabled individuals allocate their time to daily activities as compared to their non-disabled counterparts. Using time diary information from the Spanish Time Use Survey (last quarter of 2002 and the first three quarters of 2003), we estimate the determinants of time (minutes per day) spent on four aggregate categories (market work, household production, tertiary activities and leisure) for a sample of 27,687 non-disabled and 5250 disabled individuals and decompose the observed time differential by using the Oaxaca-Blinder methodology. The results show that disabled individuals devote less time to market work (especially females), and more time to household production (e.g. cooking, cleaning, child care), tertiary activities (e.g., sleeping, personal care, medical treatment) and leisure activities. We also find a significant effect of age on the time spent on daily activities and important differences by gender and disability status. The results are consistent with the hypothesis that disability steals time, and reiterate the fact that more public policies are needed to balance working life and health concerns among disabled individuals. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Multiobjective optimal allocation problem with probabilistic non ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    In multivariate stratified sampling where more than one characteristic are to be estimated, an allocation which is optimum for one characteristic may not be optimum for other characteristics also. In such situations a compromise criterion is needed to work out a usable allocation which is optimum for all characteristics in some ...

  4. Bounds in the location-allocation problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juel, Henrik

    1981-01-01

    Develops a family of stronger lower bounds on the objective function value of the location-allocation problem. Solution methods proposed to solve problems in location-allocation; Efforts to develop a more efficient bound solution procedure; Determination of the locations of the sources....

  5. A Time Allocation Study of University Faculty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Link, Albert N.; Swann, Christopher A.; Bozeman, Barry

    2008-01-01

    Many previous time allocation studies treat work as a single activity and examine trade-offs between work and other activities. This paper investigates the at-work allocation of time among teaching, research, grant writing and service by science and engineering faculty at top US research universities. We focus on the relationship between tenure…

  6. Obtaining a Proportional Allocation by Deleting Items

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dorn, B.; de Haan, R.; Schlotter, I.; Röthe, J.

    2017-01-01

    We consider the following control problem on fair allocation of indivisible goods. Given a set I of items and a set of agents, each having strict linear preference over the items, we ask for a minimum subset of the items whose deletion guarantees the existence of a proportional allocation in the

  7. Directed networks, allocation properties and hierarchy formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slikker, M.; Gilles, R.P.; Norde, H.W.; Tijs, S.H.

    2005-01-01

    We investigate properties for allocation rules on directed communication networks and the formation of such networks under these payoff properties. We study allocation rules satisfying two appealing properties, Component Efficiency (CE) and the Hierarchical Payoff Property (HPP). We show that such

  8. Nash social welfare in multiagent resource allocation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ramezani, S.; Endriss, U.; David, E.; Gerding, E.; Sarne, D.; Shehory, O.

    2010-01-01

    We study different aspects of the multiagent resource allocation problem when the objective is to find an allocation that maximizes Nash social welfare, the product of the utilities of the individual agents. The Nash solution is an important welfare criterion that combines efficiency and fairness

  9. Bidding for surplus in network allocation problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slikker, M.

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we study non-cooperative foundations of network allocation rules. We focus on three allocation rules: the Myerson value, the position value and the component-wise egalitarian solution. For any of these three rules we provide a characterization based on component efficiency and some

  10. Cost Allocation and Convex Data Envelopment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Jens Leth; Tind, Jørgen

    such as Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA). The convexity constraint of the BCC model introduces a non-zero slack in the objective function of the multiplier problem and we show that the cost allocation rules discussed in this paper can be used as candidates to allocate this slack value on to the input (or output...

  11. Identifying Memory Allocation Patterns in HEP Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kama, S.; Rauschmayr, N.

    2017-10-01

    HEP applications perform an excessive amount of allocations/deallocations within short time intervals which results in memory churn, poor locality and performance degradation. These issues are already known for a decade, but due to the complexity of software frameworks and billions of allocations for a single job, up until recently no efficient mechanism has been available to correlate these issues with source code lines. However, with the advent of the Big Data era, many tools and platforms are now available to do large scale memory profiling. This paper presents, a prototype program developed to track and identify each single (de-)allocation. The CERN IT Hadoop cluster is used to compute memory key metrics, like locality, variation, lifetime and density of allocations. The prototype further provides a web based visualization back-end that allows the user to explore the results generated on the Hadoop cluster. Plotting these metrics for every single allocation over time gives a new insight into application’s memory handling. For instance, it shows which algorithms cause which kind of memory allocation patterns, which function flow causes how many short-lived objects, what are the most commonly allocated sizes etc. The paper will give an insight into the prototype and will show profiling examples for the LHC reconstruction, digitization and simulation jobs.

  12. Profit Allocation of Hybrid Power System Planning in Energy Internet: A Cooperative Game Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jicheng Liu

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The rapid development of Energy Internet (EI has prompted numbers of generators to participate, leading to a hybrid power system. Hence, how to plan the hybrid power system and allocate its profit becomes necessary. In this paper, the cooperative game theory is introduced to discuss this problem. We first design the basic structure of EI, and point out the object of this study—coal power plant-wind farm-photovoltaic power station-energy storage provider (CWPE alliance. Subsequently, average allocation strategy (AAS, capacity-based allocation strategy (CAS and Shapley value allocation strategy (SAS are proposed, and then the modified disruption propensity (MDP index is constructed to judge the advantages and disadvantages of the three schemes. Thirdly, taking a certain area of A Province as an example, the profits of CWPE under three strategies are calculated respectively. Finally, by analyzing individual rationality and collective rationality of cooperative game and the MDP index of the three profit allocation schemes, we find that SAS is the most stable.

  13. AMSAA Reliability Growth Guide

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Broemm, William

    2000-01-01

    ... has developed reliability growth methodology for all phases of the process, from planning to tracking to projection. The report presents this methodology and associated reliability growth concepts.

  14. Worst-case analysis of heap allocations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Puffitsch, Wolfgang; Huber, Benedikt; Schoeberl, Martin

    2010-01-01

    the worst-case heap allocations of tasks. The analysis builds upon techniques that are well established for worst-case execution time analysis. The difference is that the cost function is not the execution time of instructions in clock cycles, but the allocation in bytes. In contrast to worst-case execution...... time analysis, worst-case heap allocation analysis is not processor dependent. However, the cost function depends on the object layout of the runtime system. The analysis is evaluated with several real-time benchmarks to establish the usefulness of the analysis, and to compare the memory consumption...

  15. Dynamic Allocation of Sugars in Barley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cumberbatch, L. C.; Crowell, A. S.; Fallin, B. A.; Howell, C. R.; Reid, C. D.; Weisenberger, A. G.; Lee, S. J.; McKisson, J. E.

    2014-03-01

    Allocation of carbon and nitrogen is a key factor for plant productivity. Measurements are carried out by tracing 11C-tagged sugars using positron emission tomography and coincidence counting. We study the mechanisms of carbon allocation and transport from carbohydrate sources (leaves) to sinks (stem, shoot, roots) under various environmental conditions such as soil nutrient levels and atmospheric CO2 concentration. The data are analyzed using a transfer function analysis technique to model transport and allocation in barley plants. The experimental technique will be described and preliminary results presented. This work was supported in part by USDOE Grant No. DE-FG02-97-ER41033 and DE-SC0005057.

  16. Developing MESA : an accelerated reliability test

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baskoro, G.; Rouvroye, J.L.; Bacher, W.; Brombacher, A.C.

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes the on-going research on an accelerated reliability test strategy called MESA (Multiple Environment Stress Analysis) intended to find in a fast and efficient manner (potential) reliability problems during the design phase of high volume consumer products. This test has shown

  17. Operational reliability management; Gestao da confiabilidade operacional

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bressan, Edemir [Refinaria Alberto Pasqualini (REFAP), Canoas, RS (Brazil). Setor de Tecnologia de Equipamentos

    2000-07-01

    It is described the PETROBRAS Alberto Pasqualini Refinery process plant reliability management, strategies, maintenance organizational structure, management processes, predictive and preventive maintenance, condition monitoring techniques, reliability metrics, pointing out a need for close work relationship between production, maintenance and project engineering functions with highly qualified and committed proper teams, in order to reach one of the highest mechanical availability among Latin America refineries. (author)

  18. Offspring Size and Reproductive Allocation in Harvester Ants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiernasz, Diane C; Cole, Blaine J

    2018-01-01

    A fundamental decision that an organism must make is how to allocate resources to offspring, with respect to both size and number. The two major theoretical approaches to this problem, optimal offspring size and optimistic brood size models, make different predictions that may be reconciled by including how offspring fitness is related to size. We extended the reasoning of Trivers and Willard (1973) to derive a general model of how parents should allocate additional resources with respect to the number of males and females produced, and among individuals of each sex, based on the fitness payoffs of each. We then predicted how harvester ant colonies should invest additional resources and tested three hypotheses derived from our model, using data from 3 years of food supplementation bracketed by 6 years without food addition. All major results were predicted by our model: food supplementation increased the number of reproductives produced. Male, but not female, size increased with food addition; the greatest increases in male size occurred in colonies that made small females. We discuss how use of a fitness landscape improves quantitative predictions about allocation decisions. When parents can invest differentially in offspring of different types, the best strategy will depend on parental state as well as the effect of investment on offspring fitness.

  19. Dynamic Resource Allocation in Hybrid Access Femtocell Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afaz Uddin Ahmed

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Intercell interference is one of the most challenging issues in femtocell deployment under the coverage of existing macrocell. Allocation of resources between femtocell and macrocell is essential to counter the effects of interference in dense femtocell networks. Advances in resource management strategies have improved the control mechanism for interference reduction at lower node density, but most of them are ineffective at higher node density. In this paper, a dynamic resource allocation management algorithm (DRAMA for spectrum shared hybrid access OFDMA femtocell network is proposed. To reduce the macro-femto-tier interference and to improve the quality of service, the proposed algorithm features a dynamic resource allocation scheme by controlling them both centrally and locally. The proposed scheme focuses on Femtocell Access Point (FAP owners’ satisfaction and allows maximum utilization of available resources based on congestion in the network. A simulation environment is developed to study the quantitative performance of DRAMA in hybrid access-control femtocell network and compare it to closed and open access mechanisms. The performance analysis shows that higher number of random users gets connected to the FAP without compromising FAP owners’ satisfaction allowing the macrocell to offload a large number of users in a dense heterogeneous network.

  20. NASH BARGAINING BASED BANDWIDTH ALLOCATION IN COGNITIVE RADIO FOR DELAY CRITICAL APPLICATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalyani Kulkarni

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In order to effectively regulate the existing resources, dynamic spectrum access in cognitive radio needs to adopt the effective resource allocation strategies. Multimedia applications require large bandwidth and have to meet the delay constraints while maintaining the data quality. Game theory is emerging as an effective analytical tool for the analysis of available resources and its allocation. This paper addresses resource allocation schemes employing bargaining game model for Multi-carrier CDMA based Cognitive Radio. Resource allocation scheme is designed for transmission of video over cognitive radio networks and aim to perform bandwidth allocation for different cognitive users. Utility function based on bargaining model is proposed. Primary user utility function includes the pricing factor and an upbeat factor that can be adjusted by observing the delay constraints of the video. Allocated bandwidth to the secondary user can be adjusted by changing the upbeat factor. Throughput in the proposed scheme is increased by 2% as compared to other reported pricing based resource allocation schemes. The edge PSNR of reconstructed video obtained as 32.6dB resulting to optimum decoding of the video at the receiver. The study also shows upbeat factor can be used to enhanced capacity of the network.

  1. New accounting rules: asset allocation and portfolio management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew, B K

    1997-01-01

    New accounting rules went into effect at the end of 1995 that are now starting to affect how medical practices must report income from equity and fixed income investments. This article explores the new accounting rules and considers the other factors that help practices determine investment strategies, including desired investment return, comfort with level of risk, appropriate time horizons, liquidity needs and legal restrictions. The author also presents an example that examines the different considerations that may affect an asset allocation decision, including endowments and operating reserve funds.

  2. Energy Efficient Resource Allocation for Phantom Cellular Networks

    KAUST Repository

    Abdelhady, Amr

    2016-04-01

    Multi-tier heterogeneous networks have become an essential constituent for next generation cellular networks. Meanwhile, energy efficiency (EE) has been considered a critical design criterion along with the traditional spectral efficiency (SE) metric. In this context, we study power and spectrum allocation for the recently proposed two-tier network architecture known as phantom cellular networks. The optimization framework includes both EE and SE. First, we consider sparsely deployed cells experiencing negligible interference and assume perfect channel state information (CSI). For this setting, we propose an algorithm that finds the SE and EE resource allocation strategies. Then, we compare the performance of both design strategies versus number of users, and phantom cells share of the total available resource units (RUs). We aim to investigate the effect of some system parameters to achieve improved SE performance at a non-significant loss in EE performance, or vice versa. It is found that increasing phantom cells share of RUs decreases the SE performance loss due to EE optimization when compared with the optimized SE performance. Second, we consider the densely deployed phantom cellular networks and model the EE optimization problem having into consideration the inevitable interference and imperfect channel estimation. To this end, we propose three resource allocation strategies aiming at optimizing the EE performance metric of this network. Furthermore, we investigate the effect of changing some of the system parameters on the performance of the proposed strategies, such as phantom cells share of RUs, number of deployed phantom cells within a macro cell coverage, number of pilots and the maximum power available for transmission by the phantom cells BSs. It is found that increasing the number of pilots deteriorates the EE performance of the whole setup, while increasing maximum power available for phantom cells transmissions reduces the EE of the whole setup in a

  3. Gender Discrimination in the Allocation of Migrant Household Resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antman, Francisca M

    2015-07-01

    This paper considers the relationship between international migration and gender discrimination through the lens of decision-making power over intrahousehold resource allocation. The endogeneity of migration is addressed with a difference-in-differences style identification strategy and a model with household fixed effects. The results suggest that while a migrant household head is away, a greater share of resources is spent on girls relative to boys and his spouse commands greater decision-making power. Once the head returns home, however, a greater share of resources goes to boys and there is suggestive evidence of greater authority for the head of household.

  4. Gender Discrimination in the Allocation of Migrant Household Resources*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antman, Francisca M.

    2016-01-01

    This paper considers the relationship between international migration and gender discrimination through the lens of decision-making power over intrahousehold resource allocation. The endogeneity of migration is addressed with a difference-in-differences style identification strategy and a model with household fixed effects. The results suggest that while a migrant household head is away, a greater share of resources is spent on girls relative to boys and his spouse commands greater decision-making power. Once the head returns home, however, a greater share of resources goes to boys and there is suggestive evidence of greater authority for the head of household. PMID:27546986

  5. A reliability simulation language for reliability analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deans, N.D.; Miller, A.J.; Mann, D.P.

    1986-01-01

    The results of work being undertaken to develop a Reliability Description Language (RDL) which will enable reliability analysts to describe complex reliability problems in a simple, clear and unambiguous way are described. Component and system features can be stated in a formal manner and subsequently used, along with control statements to form a structured program. The program can be compiled and executed on a general-purpose computer or special-purpose simulator. (DG)

  6. Assessing Climate Change Impacts on Water Allocation in Karkheh River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davtalabsabet, R.; Madani, K.; Massah, A.; Farajzadeh, M.

    2013-12-01

    Rahman Davtalab1, 2, Kaveh Madani2, Alireza Massah3, Manouchehr Farajzadeh1 1Department of Geography, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran 2Department of Civil, Environmental and Construction Engineering, University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL 32816, USA 3Department of Irrigation and Drainage Engineering, College of Abureyhan , University of Tehran, Iran Abstract Karkheh river basin, with an area of 50,000 km2 is located, in southwest Iran. This basin supplies water for major agricultural activities and large hydropower production in five Iranian provinces with the total population of four million people. Due to development and population growth, this large trans-boundary basin is incapable of meeting the water demands of the five riparian provinces, causing water allocation conflicts in the region. The situation has been exacerbated by the frequent droughts and is expected to worsen further by climate change. This study evaluates the impacts of climate change on water supply reliability and allocation in this basin. First, outputs of several General Circulation Models (GCMs) under different emission scenarios for different future time horizons are statistically downscaled. Then multiple river flow time series (RFTS) are generated by feeding GCM outputs into a HEC-HMS model, using the Soil Moisture Accounting (SMA). Given a wide range of variations in GCM outputs and the resulting RFTS, the Ward's method is used to identity different RFTS clusters. Clustering helps with increasing the ability of the modeler to test a range of possible future conditions while reducing the redundancies in input data. Karkheh river basin's ability to meet the growing demand under decreasing flows is evaluated for each RFTS cluster representative. Results indicate that Karkheh river flow might decrease by 50% toward the end of the century. This would decrease the reliability of agricultural water deliveries from 78-95% to less than 50%. While currently hydropower dams can only

  7. Optimizing 4DCBCT projection allocation to respiratory bins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O’Brien, Ricky T; Kipritidis, John; Shieh, Chun-Chien; Keall, Paul J

    2014-01-01

    4D cone beam computed tomography (4DCBCT) is an emerging image guidance strategy used in radiotherapy where projections acquired during a scan are sorted into respiratory bins based on the respiratory phase or displacement. 4DCBCT reduces the motion blur caused by respiratory motion but increases streaking artefacts due to projection under-sampling as a result of the irregular nature of patient breathing and the binning algorithms used. For displacement binning the streak artefacts are so severe that displacement binning is rarely used clinically. The purpose of this study is to investigate if sharing projections between respiratory bins and adjusting the location of respiratory bins in an optimal manner can reduce or eliminate streak artefacts in 4DCBCT images. We introduce a mathematical optimization framework and a heuristic solution method, which we will call the optimized projection allocation algorithm, to determine where to position the respiratory bins and which projections to source from neighbouring respiratory bins. Five 4DCBCT datasets from three patients were used to reconstruct 4DCBCT images. Projections were sorted into respiratory bins using equispaced, equal density and optimized projection allocation. The standard deviation of the angular separation between projections was used to assess streaking and the consistency of the segmented volume of a fiducial gold marker was used to assess motion blur. The standard deviation of the angular separation between projections using displacement binning and optimized projection allocation was 30%–50% smaller than conventional phase based binning and 59%–76% smaller than conventional displacement binning indicating more uniformly spaced projections and fewer streaking artefacts. The standard deviation in the marker volume was 20%–90% smaller when using optimized projection allocation than using conventional phase based binning suggesting more uniform marker segmentation and less motion blur. Images

  8. Dynamic versus static allocation policies in multipurpose multireservoir systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilmant, A.; Goor, Q.; Pinte, D.; van der Zaag, P.

    2007-12-01

    As the competition for water is likely to increase in the near future due to socioeconomic development and population growth, water resources managers will face hard choices when allocating water between competing users. Because water is a vital resource used in multiple sectors, including the environment, the allocation is inherently a political and social process, which is likely to become increasingly scrutinized as the competition grows between the different sectors. Since markets are usually absent or ineffective, the allocation of water between competing demands is achieved administratively taking into account key objectives such as economic efficiency, equity and maintaining the ecological integrity. When crop irrigation is involved, water is usually allocated by a system of annual rights to use a fixed, static, volume of water. In a fully-allocated basin, moving from a static to a dynamic allocation process, whereby the policies are regularly updated according to the hydrologic status of the river basin, is the first step towards the development of river basin management strategies that increase the productivity of water. More specifically, in a multipurpose multireservoir system, continuously adjusting release and withdrawal decisions based on the latest hydrologic information will increase the benefits derived from the system. However, the extent to which such an adjustment can be achieved results from complex spatial and temporal interactions between the physical characteristics of the water resources system (storage, natural flows), the economic and social consequences of rationing and the impacts on natural ecosystems. The complexity of the decision-making process, which requires the continuous evaluation of numerous trade-offs, calls for the use of integrated hydrologic-economic models. This paper compares static and dynamic management approaches for a cascade of hydropower-irrigation reservoirs using stochastic dual dynamic programming (SDDP

  9. Reliability of Power Electronic Converter Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    -link capacitance in power electronic converter systems; wind turbine systems; smart control strategies for improved reliability of power electronics system; lifetime modelling; power module lifetime test and state monitoring; tools for performance and reliability analysis of power electronics systems; fault...... for advancing the reliability, availability, system robustness, and maintainability of PECS at different levels of complexity. Drawing on the experience of an international team of experts, this book explores the reliability of PECS covering topics including an introduction to reliability engineering in power...... electronic converter systems; anomaly detection and remaining-life prediction for power electronics; reliability of DC-link capacitors in power electronic converters; reliability of power electronics packaging; modeling for life-time prediction of power semiconductor modules; minimization of DC...

  10. ALLOCATION OF FINANCIAL RESOURCE TO ENHANCE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GRACE

    This study examines the allocation of financial resource to the education industry and ..... This should check all books of account at least once a month to reconcile ... All cash advance request must be supported with relevant documents vii.

  11. Fund allocation using capacitated vehicle routing problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamat, Nur Jumaadzan Zaleha; Jaaman, Saiful Hafizah; Ahmad, Rokiah Rozita; Darus, Maslina

    2014-09-01

    In investment fund allocation, it is unwise for an investor to distribute his fund into several assets simultaneously due to economic reasons. One solution is to allocate the fund into a particular asset at a time in a sequence that will either maximize returns or minimize risks depending on the investor's objective. The vehicle routing problem (VRP) provides an avenue to this issue. VRP answers the question on how to efficiently use the available fleet of vehicles to meet a given service demand, subjected to a set of operational requirements. This paper proposes an idea of using capacitated vehicle routing problem (CVRP) to optimize investment fund allocation by employing data of selected stocks in the FTSE Bursa Malaysia. Results suggest that CRVP can be applied to solve the issue of investment fund allocation and increase the investor's profit.

  12. U.S. Army Recruiter Allocation Model

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Brence, John

    2004-01-01

    .... Our methodology will build on both the new and old schools of recruiting by conducting stakeholder interviews that will lead us to a model that is an efficient starting point for the Recruiter Mission Allocation (RMA...

  13. Optimal Resource Allocation in Library Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouse, William B.

    1975-01-01

    Queueing theory is used to model processes as either waiting or balking processes. The optimal allocation of resources to these processes is defined as that which maximizes the expected value of the decision-maker's utility function. (Author)

  14. Telecommunications Circuit Allocation Programs - Kansas City Area

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Thomas, William

    1994-01-01

    The overall objective of the audit was to determine whether DoD circuit allocation programs identified and used the most effective configurations for leased long-haul, special-purpose telecommunications circuits...

  15. A CR Spectrum Allocation Algorithm in Smart Grid Wireless Sensor Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei He

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive radio (CR method was introduced in smart grid communication systems to resolve potential maladies such as the coexistence of heterogeneous networks, overloaded data flow, diversity in data structures, and unstable quality of service (QOS. In this paper, a cognitive spectrum allocation algorithm based on non-cooperative game theory is proposed. The CR spectrum allocation model was developed by modifying the traditional game model via the insertion of a time variable and a critical function. The computing simulation result shows that the improved spectrum allocation algorithm can achieve stable spectrum allocation strategies and avoid the appearance of multi-Nash equilibrium at the expense of certain sacrifices in the system utility. It is suitable for application in distributed cognitive networks in power grids, thus contributing to the improvement of the isomerism and data capacity of power communication systems.

  16. Human Capital and Risky Asset Allocation

    OpenAIRE

    Lu, Wenjie; Yu, Qun

    2011-01-01

    Much research has been done to examine the relation between investors' human capital and their financial asset allocation. While some showed that the value of human capital should be taken into consideration to make financial asset allocation decisions on the composition of investing portfolios, most argued not. In this paper, we selected the monthly return of 9 industrial ETFs from June of 2007 to July 2011, used the present value of total future income as estimate of human capital, and reli...

  17. Cost Allocation and Overpricing of Spare Parts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-09-01

    traditional cost allocation process as reported in accounting literature. Horngren reported there are essen- tially three facets of cost allocation as...is for more than one unit of a product. Horngren reports cost accounting systems commonly have two major cost objectives: departments and products (8...Standards Board: Standards, Rules, and Regulations. Washington: Government Printing Office, 1985. 8. Horngren , Charles T. Cost Accounting : A Managerial

  18. Cost allocation. Combined heat and power production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sidzikauskas, V.

    2002-01-01

    The benefits of Combined Heat and Power (CHP) generation are discussed. The include improvement in energy intensity of 1% by 2010, 85-90% efficiency versus 40-50% of condensation power and others. Share of CHP electricity production in ERRA countries is presented.Solutions for a development CHP cost allocation are considered. Conclusion are presented for CHP production cost allocation. (R.P.)

  19. A woman's place: household labour allocation in rural Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neitzert, M

    1994-01-01

    This article synthesizes the literature on household labor allocation. The review reveals that development policies impacting on the labor market favor men over women. Male favoritism also occurs in household decision-making. Data from the 1988 Rural Labor Force Survey were used to examine rural household labor allocation in 1988 and the extent of female and male participation in home and market production and the degree of labor market discrimination against women. It is argued that the standard neoclassical model of economics does not recognize the unequal bargaining power of each member of the household in arriving at a solution to the joint welfare maximization problem. Women's position is expected to worsen during economic development. Women will have less than full participation in the labor market. Women's distinct role in household welfare provision is often disregarded. Development policy mainly focuses on market activities where women hold few positions. Labor allocation in the empirical analysis pertains to the mean hours per week in farm activities, household activities, schooling, and paid or unpaid non-farm work. Findings indicate that average earnings were lower for females than males and that returns to education and training were higher for males than females. Wage discrimination accounted for 30-66% of the earnings gap between rural men and women. Women faced discrimination on their returns to human capital and occupational choices. The concentration of women in low-paying jobs accounted for 21% of the wage gap. Women's lower education accounted for over 10%. Findings suggest that Kenyan households respond to market incentives. Women worked longer hours than men and contributed more to household welfare. Policy should focus on models of household provisioning and not on a joint utility function. Policy should encourage households to revise labor allocation strategies.

  20. Allocation of authority in European health policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adolph, Christopher; Greer, Scott L; Massard da Fonseca, Elize

    2012-11-01

    Although many study the effects of different allocations of health policy authority, few ask why countries assign responsibility over different policies as they do. We test two broad theories: fiscal federalism, which predicts rational governments will concentrate information-intensive operations at lower levels, and redistributive and regulatory functions at higher levels; and "politicized federalism", which suggests a combination of systematic and historically idiosyncratic political variables interfere with efficient allocation of authority. Drawing on the WHO Health in Transition country profiles, we present new data on the allocation of responsibility for key health care policy tasks (implementation, provision, finance, regulation, and framework legislation) and policy areas (primary, secondary and tertiary care, public health and pharmaceuticals) in the 27 EU member states and Switzerland. We use a Bayesian multinomial mixed logit model to analyze how different countries arrive at different allocations of authority over each task and area of health policy, and find the allocation of powers broadly follows fiscal federalism. Responsibility for pharmaceuticals, framework legislation, and most finance lodges at the highest levels of government, acute and primary care in the regions, and provision at the local and regional levels. Where allocation does not follow fiscal federalism, it appears to reflect ethnic divisions, the population of states and regions, the presence of mountainous terrain, and the timing of region creation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Software engineering practices for control system reliability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    S. K. Schaffner; K. S White

    1999-01-01

    This paper will discuss software engineering practices used to improve Control System reliability. The authors begin with a brief discussion of the Software Engineering Institute's Capability Maturity Model (CMM) which is a framework for evaluating and improving key practices used to enhance software development and maintenance capabilities. The software engineering processes developed and used by the Controls Group at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (Jefferson Lab), using the Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS) for accelerator control, are described. Examples are given of how their procedures have been used to minimized control system downtime and improve reliability. While their examples are primarily drawn from their experience with EPICS, these practices are equally applicable to any control system. Specific issues addressed include resource allocation, developing reliable software lifecycle processes and risk management

  2. The fair value of operational reliability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patino-Echeverri, Dalia; Morel, Benoit

    2005-01-01

    Information about the uncertainties that surround the operation of the power system can be used to enlighten the debate of how much reliability should be pursued and how resources should be allocated to pursue it. In this paper we present a method to determine the value of having flexible generators to react to load fluctuations. This value can be seen as the value of hedging against the uncertainty on the load due to the volatility of the demand and the possibility of congestion. Because having this flexibility can be related to a financial option, we will use an extension of options theory and in particular the risk-neutral valuation method, to find a risk neutral quantification of its value. We illustrate our point valuing the flexibility that leads to ''operational reliability'' in the PJM market. Our formula for that value is what we call ''the fair value'' of operational reliability. (Author)

  3. Online Job Allocation with Hard Allocation Ratio Requirement (Author’s Manuscript)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-14

    server divided by its capacity. Specifically , let nj be the number of jobs that have already been allocated to server j. When job i arrives, it is...decisions solely based on current system state is needed. The problem of online job allocation has attracted much attention . Most current studies study...closed-form expressions for their performance. Specifically , we prove that, in order to allocate at least 1− 1θ of jobs , the two policies only need to

  4. Optimal allocation of the limited oral cholera vaccine supply between endemic and epidemic settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Sean M; Lessler, Justin

    2015-10-06

    The World Health Organization (WHO) recently established a global stockpile of oral cholera vaccine (OCV) to be preferentially used in epidemic response (reactive campaigns) with any vaccine remaining after 1 year allocated to endemic settings. Hence, the number of cholera cases or deaths prevented in an endemic setting represents the minimum utility of these doses, and the optimal risk-averse response to any reactive vaccination request (i.e. the minimax strategy) is one that allocates the remaining doses between the requested epidemic response and endemic use in order to ensure that at least this minimum utility is achieved. Using mathematical models, we find that the best minimax strategy is to allocate the majority of doses to reactive campaigns, unless the request came late in the targeted epidemic. As vaccine supplies dwindle, the case for reactive use of the remaining doses grows stronger. Our analysis provides a lower bound for the amount of OCV to keep in reserve when responding to any request. These results provide a strategic context for the fulfilment of requests to the stockpile, and define allocation strategies that minimize the number of OCV doses that are allocated to suboptimal situations. © 2015 The Authors.

  5. Simulating Water Allocation and Cropping Decisions in Yemen’s Abyan Delta Spate Irrigation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derek Jin-Uk Marchant

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Agriculture employs more Yemenis than any other sector and spate irrigation is the largest source of irrigation water. Spate irrigation however is growing increasingly difficult to sustain in many areas due to water scarcity and unclear sharing of water amongst users. In some areas of Yemen, there are no institutionalised water allocation rules which can lead to water related disputes. Here, we propose a proof-of-concept model to evaluate the impacts of different water allocation patterns to assist in devising allocation rules. The integrated model links simple wadi flow, diversion, and soil moisture-yield simulators to a crop decision model to evaluate impacts of different water allocation rules and their possible implications on local agriculture using preliminary literature data. The crop choice model is an agricultural production model of irrigation command areas where the timing, irrigated area and crop mix is decided each month based on current conditions and expected allocations. The model is applied to Yemen’s Abyan Delta, which has the potential to be the most agriculturally productive region in the country. The water allocation scenarios analysed include upstream priority, downstream priority, equal priority (equal sharing of water shortages, and a user-defined mixed priority that gives precedence to different locations based on the season. Once water is distributed according to one of these allocation patterns, the model determines the profit-maximising plant date and crop selection for 18 irrigated command areas. This aims to estimate the impacts different water allocation strategies could have on livelihoods. Initial results show an equal priority allocation is the most equitable and efficient, with 8% more net benefits than an upstream scenario, 10% more net benefits than a downstream scenario, and 25% more net benefits than a mixed priority.

  6. Analyzing Sustainable Competitive Advantage: Strategically Managing Resource Allocations to Achieve Operational Competitiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Malek Nurul Aida

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In today’s dynamic business environment, a key challenge for all companies is to make adaptive adjustments to their manufacturing strategy. This study demonstrates the competitive priorities of manufacturing strategy in hydro-power case company to evaluate the level of sustainable competitive advantage and also to further analyze how business strategies are aligned with manufacturing strategies. This research is based on new holistic analytical evaluation of manufacturing strategy index, sense and respond, and sustainable competitive advantage models. These models help to describe, evaluate, and optimize resource allocation to meet the performance requirements in dynamic decision making. Furthermore, these models evaluate operational competitiveness for manufacturing strategies according to the multi-criteria priority. The results show that the adjustments of competitive priorities in manufacturing strategies by implementing the proposed holistic analytical models are helpful in strategically managing business operations. The discussion derives the most critical attributes in business operations while alignment of resource allocation with competitive priorities help to strategically focus those attributes. In conclusion, we argue that resource allocation and manufacturing strategies have become the most important capabilities in a business environment where companies focus to get a sustainable competitive advantage.

  7. Reliability data banks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cannon, A.G.; Bendell, A.

    1991-01-01

    Following an introductory chapter on Reliability, what is it, why it is needed, how it is achieved and measured, the principles of reliability data bases and analysis methodologies are the subject of the next two chapters. Achievements due to the development of data banks are mentioned for different industries in the next chapter, FACTS, a comprehensive information system for industrial safety and reliability data collection in process plants are covered next. CREDO, the Central Reliability Data Organization is described in the next chapter and is indexed separately, as is the chapter on DANTE, the fabrication reliability Data analysis system. Reliability data banks at Electricite de France and IAEA's experience in compiling a generic component reliability data base are also separately indexed. The European reliability data system, ERDS, and the development of a large data bank come next. The last three chapters look at 'Reliability data banks, - friend foe or a waste of time'? and future developments. (UK)

  8. Reliability analysis under epistemic uncertainty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nannapaneni, Saideep; Mahadevan, Sankaran

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposes a probabilistic framework to include both aleatory and epistemic uncertainty within model-based reliability estimation of engineering systems for individual limit states. Epistemic uncertainty is considered due to both data and model sources. Sparse point and/or interval data regarding the input random variables leads to uncertainty regarding their distribution types, distribution parameters, and correlations; this statistical uncertainty is included in the reliability analysis through a combination of likelihood-based representation, Bayesian hypothesis testing, and Bayesian model averaging techniques. Model errors, which include numerical solution errors and model form errors, are quantified through Gaussian process models and included in the reliability analysis. The probability integral transform is used to develop an auxiliary variable approach that facilitates a single-level representation of both aleatory and epistemic uncertainty. This strategy results in an efficient single-loop implementation of Monte Carlo simulation (MCS) and FORM/SORM techniques for reliability estimation under both aleatory and epistemic uncertainty. Two engineering examples are used to demonstrate the proposed methodology. - Highlights: • Epistemic uncertainty due to data and model included in reliability analysis. • A novel FORM-based approach proposed to include aleatory and epistemic uncertainty. • A single-loop Monte Carlo approach proposed to include both types of uncertainties. • Two engineering examples used for illustration.

  9. Charting the evolution of approaches employed by the Global Alliance for Vaccines and Immunizations (GAVI) to address inequities in access to immunization: a systematic qualitative review of GAVI policies, strategies and resource allocation mechanisms through an equity lens (1999-2014).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandhi, Gian

    2015-11-30

    GAVI's focus on reducing inequities in access to vaccines, immunization, and GAVI funds, - both between and within countries - has changed over time. This paper charts that evolution. A systematic qualitative review was conducted by searching PubMed, Google Scholar and direct review of available GAVI Board papers, policies, and program guidelines. Documents were included if they described or evaluated GAVI policies, strategies, or programs and discussed equity of access to vaccines, utilization of immunization services, or GAVI funds in countries currently or previously eligible for GAVI support. Findings were grouped thematically, categorized into time periods covering GAVI's phases of operations, and assessed depending on whether the approaches mediated equity of opportunity or equity of outcomes between or within countries. Serches yielded 2816 documents for assessment. After pre-screening and removal of duplicates, 552 documents underwent detailed evaluation and pertinent information was extracted from 188 unique documents. As a global funding mechanism, GAVI responded rationally to a semi-fixed funding constraint by focusing on between-country equity in allocation of resources. GAVI's predominant focus and documented successes have been in addressing between-country inequities in access to vaccines comparing lower income (GAVI-eligible) countries with higher income (ineligible) countries. GAVI has had mixed results at addressing between-country inequities in utilization of immunization services, and has only more recently put greater emphasis and resources towards addressing within-country inequities in utilization to immunization services. Over time, GAVI has progressively added vaccines to its portfolio. This expansion should have addressed inter-country, inter-regional, inter-generational and gender inequities in disease burden, however, evidence is scant with respect to final outcomes. In its next phase of operations, the Alliance can continue to

  10. The Accelerator Reliability Forum

    CERN Document Server

    Lüdeke, Andreas; Giachino, R

    2014-01-01

    A high reliability is a very important goal for most particle accelerators. The biennial Accelerator Reliability Workshop covers topics related to the design and operation of particle accelerators with a high reliability. In order to optimize the over-all reliability of an accelerator one needs to gather information on the reliability of many different subsystems. While a biennial workshop can serve as a platform for the exchange of such information, the authors aimed to provide a further channel to allow for a more timely communication: the Particle Accelerator Reliability Forum [1]. This contribution will describe the forum and advertise it’s usage in the community.

  11. An Analysis and Allocation System for Library Collections Budgets: The Comprehensive Allocation Process (CAP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Lucy Eleonore; Blosser, John

    2012-01-01

    The "Comprehensive Allocation Process" (CAP) is a reproducible decision-making structure for the allocation of new collections funds, for the reallocation of funds within stagnant budgets, and for budget cuts in the face of reduced funding levels. This system was designed to overcome common shortcomings of current methods. Its philosophical…

  12. Human Reliability Program Overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bodin, Michael

    2012-09-25

    This presentation covers the high points of the Human Reliability Program, including certification/decertification, critical positions, due process, organizational structure, program components, personnel security, an overview of the US DOE reliability program, retirees and academia, and security program integration.

  13. Power electronics reliability analysis.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Mark A.; Atcitty, Stanley

    2009-12-01

    This report provides the DOE and industry with a general process for analyzing power electronics reliability. The analysis can help with understanding the main causes of failures, downtime, and cost and how to reduce them. One approach is to collect field maintenance data and use it directly to calculate reliability metrics related to each cause. Another approach is to model the functional structure of the equipment using a fault tree to derive system reliability from component reliability. Analysis of a fictitious device demonstrates the latter process. Optimization can use the resulting baseline model to decide how to improve reliability and/or lower costs. It is recommended that both electric utilities and equipment manufacturers make provisions to collect and share data in order to lay the groundwork for improving reliability into the future. Reliability analysis helps guide reliability improvements in hardware and software technology including condition monitoring and prognostics and health management.

  14. Reliability of software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kopetz, H.

    1980-01-01

    Common factors and differences in the reliability of hardware and software; reliability increase by means of methods of software redundancy. Maintenance of software for long term operating behavior. (HP) [de

  15. 24 CFR 791.404 - Field Office allocation planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Field Office allocation planning... Allocation of Budget Authority for Housing Assistance § 791.404 Field Office allocation planning. (a) General objective. The allocation planning process should provide for the equitable distribution of available budget...

  16. 18 CFR 367.28 - Methods of allocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Methods of allocation... Instructions § 367.28 Methods of allocation. Indirect costs and compensation for use of capital must be... allocation. Both direct and allocated indirect costs on projects must be assigned among those companies in...

  17. 17 CFR 256.01-11 - Methods of allocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... applicable and currently effective methods of allocation filed with the Commission. Both direct and allocated... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Methods of allocation. 256.01... HOLDING COMPANY ACT OF 1935 General Instructions § 256.01-11 Methods of allocation. Indirect costs and...

  18. 40 CFR 60.4142 - Hg allowance allocations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hg allowance allocations. 60.4142... Coal-Fired Electric Steam Generating Units Hg Allowance Allocations § 60.4142 Hg allowance allocations. (a)(1) The baseline heat input (in MMBtu) used with respect to Hg allowance allocations under...

  19. Participation behavior and social welfare in repeated task allocations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ye, Q.C.; Zhang, Y.

    2016-01-01

    Task allocation problems have focused on achieving one-shot optimality. In practice, many task allocation problems are of repeated nature, where the allocation outcome of previous rounds may influence the participation of agents in subsequent rounds, and consequently, the quality of the allocations

  20. Railway Track Allocation: Models and Methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lusby, Richard Martin; Larsen, Jesper; Ehrgott, Matthias

    2011-01-01

    Efficiently coordinating the movement of trains on a railway network is a central part of the planning process for a railway company. This paper reviews models and methods that have been proposed in the literature to assist planners in finding train routes. Since the problem of routing trains......, and train routing problems, group them by railway network type, and discuss track allocation from a strategic, tactical, and operational level....... on a railway network entails allocating the track capacity of the network (or part thereof) over time in a conflict-free manner, all studies that model railway track allocation in some capacity are considered relevant. We hence survey work on the train timetabling, train dispatching, train platforming...

  1. Railway Track Allocation: Models and Methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lusby, Richard Martin; Larsen, Jesper; Ehrgott, Matthias

    Eciently coordinating the movement of trains on a railway network is a central part of the planning process for a railway company. This paper reviews models and methods that have been proposed in the literature to assist planners in nding train routes. Since the problem of routing trains......, and train routing problems, group them by railway network type, and discuss track allocation from a strategic, tactical, and operational level....... on a railway network entails allocating the track capacity of the network (or part thereof) over time in a con ict-free manner, all studies that model railway track allocation in some capacity are considered relevant. We hence survey work on the train timetabling, train dispatching, train platforming...

  2. Optimal allocation of reviewers for peer feedback

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wind, David Kofoed; Jensen, Ulf Aslak; Jørgensen, Rasmus Malthe

    2017-01-01

    feedback to be effective students should give and receive useful feedback. A key challenge in peer feedback is allocating the feedback givers in a good way. It is important that reviewers are allocated to submissions such that the feedback distribution is fair - meaning that all students receive good......Peer feedback is the act of letting students give feedback to each other on submitted work. There are multiple reasons to use peer feedback, including students getting more feedback, time saving for teachers and increased learning by letting students reflect on work by others. In order for peer...... indicated the quality of the feedback. Using this model together with historical data we calculate the feedback-giving skill of each student and uses that as input to an allocation algorithm that assigns submissions to reviewers, in order to optimize the feedback quality for all students. We test...

  3. Reliable Design Versus Trust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Melanie; LaBel, Kenneth A.

    2016-01-01

    This presentation focuses on reliability and trust for the users portion of the FPGA design flow. It is assumed that the manufacturer prior to hand-off to the user tests FPGA internal components. The objective is to present the challenges of creating reliable and trusted designs. The following will be addressed: What makes a design vulnerable to functional flaws (reliability) or attackers (trust)? What are the challenges for verifying a reliable design versus a trusted design?

  4. Pocket Handbook on Reliability

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-09-01

    exponencial distributions Weibull distribution, -xtimating reliability, confidence intervals, relia- bility growth, 0. P- curves, Bayesian analysis. 20 A S...introduction for those not familiar with reliability and a good refresher for those who are currently working in the area. LEWIS NERI, CHIEF...includes one or both of the following objectives: a) prediction of the current system reliability, b) projection on the system reliability for someI future

  5. Dynamic berth and quay crane allocation for multiple berth positions and quay cranes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tri Cahyono, Rully; Flonk, E.J.; Jayawardhana, Bayu

    2015-01-01

    We study in this paper a dynamic berth and quay cranes allocation strategy in general seaport container terminals. We develop a dynamical model that describes the operation of berthing process with multiple discrete berthing positions and multiple quay cranes. Based on the proposed model, we develop

  6. Resource Allocation with the Use of the Balanced Scorecard and the Triple Bottom Line in Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Chi Hong

    2007-01-01

    In terms of the economic bottom line, effective school leaders are now supposed to pay close attention to two central tasks which involve managing resources and devising operational strategies in their action plans. Taking a postmodern viewpoint, the first part of this paper aims to discuss the significance of resource allocation in education and…

  7. Optimal Allocation of Pandemic Influenza Vaccine Depends on Age, Risk and Timing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mylius, S.D.; Hagenaars, T.H.J.; Lugner, A.K.; Wallinga, J.

    2008-01-01

    The limited production capacity for vaccines raises the question what the best strategy is for allocating the vaccine to mitigate an influenza pandemic. We developed an age-structured model for spread of an influenza pandemic and validated it against observations from the Asian flu pandemic. Two

  8. A Thrust Allocation Method for Efficient Dynamic Positioning of a Semisubmersible Drilling Rig Based on the Hybrid Optimization Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luman Zhao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A thrust allocation method was proposed based on a hybrid optimization algorithm to efficiently and dynamically position a semisubmersible drilling rig. That is, the thrust allocation was optimized to produce the generalized forces and moment required while at the same time minimizing the total power consumption under the premise that forbidden zones should be taken into account. An optimization problem was mathematically formulated to provide the optimal thrust allocation by introducing the corresponding design variables, objective function, and constraints. A hybrid optimization algorithm consisting of a genetic algorithm and a sequential quadratic programming (SQP algorithm was selected and used to solve this problem. The proposed method was evaluated by applying it to a thrust allocation problem for a semisubmersible drilling rig. The results indicate that the proposed method can be used as part of a cost-effective strategy for thrust allocation of the rig.

  9. Robust Power Allocation for Multi-Carrier Amplify-and-Forward Relaying Systems

    KAUST Repository

    Rao, Anlei

    2012-09-08

    It has been shown that adaptive power allocation can provide a substantial performance gain in wireless communication systems when perfect channel state information (CSI) is available at the transmitter. However when only imperfect CSI is available, the performance may degrade significantly, and as such robust power allocation schemes have been developed to minimize the effects of this degradation. In this paper, we investigate power allocation strategies for multicarrier systems, in which each subcarrier employs single amplify-and-forward (AF) relaying scheme. Optimal power allocation schemes are proposed by maximizing the approximated channel capacity under aggregate power constraint (APC) and separate power constraint (SPC). By comparison with the uniform power allocation scheme and the best channel power allocation scheme, we confirm that both the APC and SPC schemes achieve a performance gain over benchmark schemes. In addition, the impact of channel uncertainty is also considered in this paper by modeling the uncertainty regions as bounded sets, and results show that the uncertainty can degrade the worst-case performance significantly.

  10. Strategy-Proof Assignment Of Multiple Resources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erlanson, Albin; Szwagrzak, Karol

    2015-01-01

    We examine the strategy-proof allocation of multiple resources; an application is the assignment of packages of tasks, workloads, and compensations among the members of an organization. In the domain of multidimensional single-peaked preferences, we find that any allocation mechanism obtained by ...

  11. Prospect theory reflects selective allocation of attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pachur, Thorsten; Schulte-Mecklenbeck, Michael; Murphy, Ryan O; Hertwig, Ralph

    2018-02-01

    There is a disconnect in the literature between analyses of risky choice based on cumulative prospect theory (CPT) and work on predecisional information processing. One likely reason is that for expectation models (e.g., CPT), it is often assumed that people behaved only as if they conducted the computations leading to the predicted choice and that the models are thus mute regarding information processing. We suggest that key psychological constructs in CPT, such as loss aversion and outcome and probability sensitivity, can be interpreted in terms of attention allocation. In two experiments, we tested hypotheses about specific links between CPT parameters and attentional regularities. Experiment 1 used process tracing to monitor participants' predecisional attention allocation to outcome and probability information. As hypothesized, individual differences in CPT's loss-aversion, outcome-sensitivity, and probability-sensitivity parameters (estimated from participants' choices) were systematically associated with individual differences in attention allocation to outcome and probability information. For instance, loss aversion was associated with the relative attention allocated to loss and gain outcomes, and a more strongly curved weighting function was associated with less attention allocated to probabilities. Experiment 2 manipulated participants' attention to losses or gains, causing systematic differences in CPT's loss-aversion parameter. This result indicates that attention allocation can to some extent cause choice regularities that are captured by CPT. Our findings demonstrate an as-if model's capacity to reflect characteristics of information processing. We suggest that the observed CPT-attention links can be harnessed to inform the development of process models of risky choice. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  12. Principles of Bridge Reliability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thoft-Christensen, Palle; Nowak, Andrzej S.

    The paper gives a brief introduction to the basic principles of structural reliability theory and its application to bridge engineering. Fundamental concepts like failure probability and reliability index are introduced. Ultimate as well as serviceability limit states for bridges are formulated......, and as an example the reliability profile and a sensitivity analyses for a corroded reinforced concrete bridge is shown....

  13. Reliability in engineering '87

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuma, M.

    1987-01-01

    The participants heard 51 papers dealing with the reliability of engineering products. Two of the papers were incorporated in INIS, namely ''Reliability comparison of two designs of low pressure regeneration of the 1000 MW unit at the Temelin nuclear power plant'' and ''Use of probability analysis of reliability in designing nuclear power facilities.''(J.B.)

  14. Allocation of Decommissioning and Waste Liabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varley, Geoff

    2011-11-01

    The work demonstrates that there are a number of methods available for cost allocation, the pros and cons of which are examined. The study investigates potential proportional and incremental methods in some depth. A recommendation in principle to use the latter methodology is given. It is concluded that a 'fair assumption' is that the potential allocation of costs for 'the RMA Leaching Hall' probably is small, in relation to the total costs, and estimated to be not more than about 175 kSEK, plus any costs associated with decommissioning/ disposal of a number of small pieces of equipment added by the current operator

  15. Vascularized Composite Allografts: Procurement, Allocation, and Implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmel, Axel

    Vascularized composite allotransplantation is a continuously evolving area of modern transplant medicine. Recently, vascularized composite allografts (VCAs) have been formally classified as 'organs'. In this review, key aspects of VCA procurement are discussed, with a special focus on interaction with the procurement of classical solid organs. In addition, options for a matching and allocation system that ensures VCA donor organs are allocated to the best-suited recipients are looked at. Finally, the different steps needed to promote VCA transplantation in society in general and in the medical community in particular are highlighted.

  16. Resource allocation using ANN in LTE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yigit, Tuncay; Ersoy, Mevlut

    2017-07-01

    LTE is the 4th generation wireless network technology, which provides flexible bandwidth, higher data speeds and lower delay. Difficulties may be experienced upon an increase in the number of users in LTE. The objective of this study is to ensure a faster solution to any such resource allocation problems which might arise upon an increase in the number of users. A fast and effective solution has been obtained by making use of Artificial Neural Network. As a result, fast working artificial intelligence methods may be used in resource allocation problems during operation.

  17. Composite reliability evaluation for transmission network planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiashen Teh

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available As the penetration of wind power into the power system increases, the ability to assess the reliability impact of such interaction becomes more important. The composite reliability evaluations involving wind energy provide ample opportunities for assessing the benefits of different wind farm connection points. A connection to the weak area of the transmission network will require network reinforcement for absorbing the additional wind energy. Traditionally, the reinforcements are performed by constructing new transmission corridors. However, a new state-of-art technology such as the dynamic thermal rating (DTR system, provides new reinforcement strategy and this requires new reliability assessment method. This paper demonstrates a methodology for assessing the cost and the reliability of network reinforcement strategies by considering the DTR systems when large scale wind farms are connected to the existing power network. Sequential Monte Carlo simulations were performed and all DTRs and wind speed were simulated using the auto-regressive moving average (ARMA model. Various reinforcement strategies were assessed from their cost and reliability aspects. Practical industrial standards are used as guidelines when assessing costs. Due to this, the proposed methodology in this paper is able to determine the optimal reinforcement strategies when both the cost and reliability requirements are considered.

  18. Optimized Power Allocation and Relay Location Selection in Cooperative Relay Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianrong Bao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available An incremental selection hybrid decode-amplify forward (ISHDAF scheme for the two-hop single relay systems and a relay selection strategy based on the hybrid decode-amplify-and-forward (HDAF scheme for the multirelay systems are proposed along with an optimized power allocation for the Internet of Thing (IoT. Given total power as the constraint and outage probability as an objective function, the proposed scheme possesses good power efficiency better than the equal power allocation. By the ISHDAF scheme and HDAF relay selection strategy, an optimized power allocation for both the source and relay nodes is obtained, as well as an effective reduction of outage probability. In addition, the optimal relay location for maximizing the gain of the proposed algorithm is also investigated and designed. Simulation results show that, in both single relay and multirelay selection systems, some outage probability gains by the proposed scheme can be obtained. In the comparison of the optimized power allocation scheme with the equal power allocation one, nearly 0.1695 gains are obtained in the ISHDAF single relay network at a total power of 2 dB, and about 0.083 gains are obtained in the HDAF relay selection system with 2 relays at a total power of 2 dB.

  19. Type monotonic allocation schemes for multi-glove games

    OpenAIRE

    Brânzei, R.; Solymosi, T.; Tijs, S.H.

    2007-01-01

    Multiglove markets and corresponding games are considered.For this class of games we introduce the notion of type monotonic allocation scheme.Allocation rules for multiglove markets based on weight systems are introduced and characterized.These allocation rules generate type monotonic allocation schemes for multiglove games and are also helpful in proving that each core element of the corresponding game is extendable to a type monotonic allocation scheme.The T-value turns out to generate a ty...

  20. Reliable computer systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wear, L L; Pinkert, J R

    1993-11-01

    In this article, we looked at some decisions that apply to the design of reliable computer systems. We began with a discussion of several terms such as testability, then described some systems that call for highly reliable hardware and software. The article concluded with a discussion of methods that can be used to achieve higher reliability in computer systems. Reliability and fault tolerance in computers probably will continue to grow in importance. As more and more systems are computerized, people will want assurances about the reliability of these systems, and their ability to work properly even when sub-systems fail.

  1. Human factor reliability program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knoblochova, L.

    2017-01-01

    The human factor's reliability program was at Slovenske elektrarne, a.s. (SE) nuclear power plants. introduced as one of the components Initiatives of Excellent Performance in 2011. The initiative's goal was to increase the reliability of both people and facilities, in response to 3 major areas of improvement - Need for improvement of the results, Troubleshooting support, Supporting the achievement of the company's goals. The human agent's reliability program is in practice included: - Tools to prevent human error; - Managerial observation and coaching; - Human factor analysis; -Quick information about the event with a human agent; -Human reliability timeline and performance indicators; - Basic, periodic and extraordinary training in human factor reliability(authors)

  2. Multiarea Transmission Cost Allocation in Large Power Systems Using the Nodal Pricing Control Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ghayeni

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes an algorithm for transmission cost allocation (TCA in a large power system based on nodal pricing approach using the multi-area scheme. The nodal pricing approach is introduced to allocate the transmission costs by the control of nodal prices in a single area network. As the number of equations is dependent on the number of buses and generators, this method will be very time consuming for large power systems. To solve this problem, the present paper proposes a new algorithm based on multi-area approach for regulating the nodal prices, so that the simulation time is greatly reduced and therefore the TCA problem with nodal pricing approach will be applicable for large power systems. In addition, in this method the transmission costs are allocated to users more equitable. Since the higher transmission costs in an area having a higher reliability are paid only by users of that area in contrast with the single area method, in which these costs are allocated to all users regardless of their locations. The proposed method is implemented on the IEEE 118 bus test system which comprises three areas. Results show that with application of multi-area approach, the simulation time is greatly reduced and the transmission costs are also allocated to users with less variation in new nodal prices with respect to the single area approach.

  3. Are Validity and Reliability "Relevant" in Qualitative Evaluation Research?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, Laura D.; Goodwin, William L.

    1984-01-01

    The views of prominant qualitative methodologists on the appropriateness of validity and reliability estimation for the measurement strategies employed in qualitative evaluations are summarized. A case is made for the relevance of validity and reliability estimation. Definitions of validity and reliability for qualitative measurement are presented…

  4. Trajectories of goods in distributed allocation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chevaleyre, Y.; Endriss, U.; Maudet, N.; Padgham, L.; Parkes, D.; Müller, J.; Parsons, S.

    2008-01-01

    Distributed allocation mechanisms rely on the agents' autonomous (and supposedly rational) behaviour: states evolve as a result of agents contracting deals and exchanging resources. It is no surprise that restrictions on potential deals also restrict the reachability of some desirable states, for

  5. Multiobjective optimal allocation problem with probabilistic non ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper considers the optimum compromise allocation in multivariate stratified sampling with non-linear objective function and probabilistic non-linear cost constraint. The probabilistic non-linear cost constraint is converted into equivalent deterministic one by using Chance Constrained programming. A numerical ...

  6. Human Resource Subjects Allocation and Students' Academic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated human resource subjects' allocation and students' academic performance in Secondary Schools in Obudu, Nigeria. The relevant variables of teachers subject was used as independent variable while the dependent variables were students' academic performance. Six hundred teachers from 20 ...

  7. FARM RESOURCE ALLOCATION AND PROFITABILITY OF ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Unique cropping systems have emerged in Nigeria to suit limited farmer resources and production objectives in humid forest inland valley ecosystems. But the basis for farm resource allocation and profitability of different crop enterprises are not properly understood. This study is based on a survey of 48 randomly selected ...

  8. Administrative Decision Making and Resource Allocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sardy, Susan; Sardy, Hyman

    This paper considers selected aspects of the systems analysis of administrative decisionmaking regarding resource allocations in an educational system. A model of the instructional materials purchase system is presented. The major components of this model are: environment, input, decision process, conversion structure, conversion process, output,…

  9. Dynamic resource allocation using performance forecasting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moura, Paulo; Kon, Fabio; Voulgaris, Spyros; Van Steen, Maarten

    2016-01-01

    To benefit from the performance gains and cost savings enabled by elasticity in cloud IaaS environments, effective automated mechanisms for scaling are essential. This automation requires monitoring system status and defining criteria to trigger allocation and deallocation of resources. While these

  10. Resource Allocation Patterns and Student Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Lori; Pate, James; Leech, Donald; Martin, Ellice; Brockmeier, Lantry; Dees, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    This quantitative research study was designed to examine the relationship between system resource allocation patterns and student achievement, as measured by eighth grade Criterion-Referenced Competency Test (CRCT) mathematics, eighth grade CRCT reading, eleventh grade Georgia High School Graduation Test (GHSGT) mathematics, eleventh grade and…

  11. 42 CFR 24.2 - Allocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allocation. 24.2 Section 24.2 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES PERSONNEL SENIOR BIOMEDICAL RESEARCH SERVICE § 24... talent. (e) The Secretary will ensure that SBRS slots are used in support of high priority programs...

  12. Biased Allocation of Faces to Social Categories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dotsch, R.; Wigboldus, D.H.J.; Knippenberg, A.F.M. van

    2011-01-01

    Three studies show that social categorization is biased at the level of category allocation. In all studies, participants categorized faces. In Studies 1 and 2, participants overallocated faces with criminal features-a stereotypical negative trait-to the stigmatized Moroccan category, especially if

  13. Cooperation and profit allocation in distribution chains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guardiola, L.A.; Meca, A.; Timmer, Judith B.

    2005-01-01

    We study the coordination of actions and the allocation of profit in distribution chains under decentralized control. We consider distribution chains in which a single supplier supplies goods for replenishment of stocks of several retailers who, in turn, sell these goods to their own separate

  14. Cooperation and profit allocation in distribution chains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guardiola, Luis A.; Meca, Ana; Timmer, Judith B.

    2007-01-01

    We study the coordination of actions and the allocation of profit in supply chains under decentralized control in which a single supplier supplies several retailers with goods for replenishment of stocks. The goal of the supplier and the retailers is to maximize their individual profits. Since the

  15. Analysts' earnings forecasts and international asset allocation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huijgen, Carel; Plantinga, Auke

    1999-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to investigate whether financial analysts’ earnings forecasts are informative from the viewpoint of allocating investments across different stock markets. Therefore we develop a country forecast indicator reflecting the analysts’ prospects for specific stock markets. The

  16. Adaptive resource allocation for efficient patient scheduling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeulen, Ivan B.; Bohte, Sander M.; Elkhuizen, Sylvia G.; Lameris, Han; Bakker, Piet J. M.; La Poutré, Han

    2009-01-01

    Efficient scheduling of patient appointments on expensive resources is a complex and dynamic task. A resource is typically used by several patient groups. To service these groups, resource capacity is often allocated per group, explicitly or implicitly. Importantly, due to fluctuations in demand,

  17. 15 CFR 923.110 - Allocation formula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... and comment. (f) Calculation of financial assistance award levels. Actual financial assistance award... matches any such grant according to the following ratios of Federal-to-state contributions for the...) Allocation formula factors and weighting. Each State eligible to receive a financial assistance award shall...

  18. Allocation of Cognitive Resources in Translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvelplund, Kristian Tangsgaard

    The present study is an empirical investigation of translators' allocation of cognitive resources during the translation process, and it aims at investigating how translators' mental processing resources are put to use during translation. The study bases ts analyses on quantitative eye...

  19. Axioms for health care resource allocation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østerdal, Lars Peter

    2005-01-01

    This paper examines principles of health care resource allocation based on axioms for individual preferences and distributive justice. We establish axioms for representing individual preferences by quality-adjusted life years (QALYs), as well as axioms for existence of a social welfare function...

  20. Financial Resource Allocation in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ušpuriene, Ana; Sakalauskas, Leonidas; Dumskis, Valerijonas

    2017-01-01

    The paper considers a problem of financial resource allocation in a higher education institution. The basic financial management instruments and the multi-stage cost minimization model created are described involving financial instruments to constraints. Both societal and institutional factors that determine the costs of educating students are…

  1. Spatial allocation of forest recreation value

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenneth A. Baerenklau; Armando Gonzalez-Caban; Catrina Paez; Edgard Chavez

    2009-01-01

    Non-market valuation methods and geographic information systems are useful planning and management tools for public land managers. Recent attention has been given to investigation and demonstration of methods for combining these tools to provide spatially-explicit representations of non-market value. Most of these efforts have focused on spatial allocation of...

  2. Capital Allocation Effects of Financial Reporting Regulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koenigsgruber, R.

    2012-01-01

    This paper analyses the effects of stricter financial reporting enforcement on capital allocation and reporting quality in a game-theoretic model and derives conclusions about optimal enforcement strictness. Analysis of the model shows that reporting quality strictly increases with tighter

  3. The Health Resources Allocation Model (HRAM) for the 21st century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maire, Nicolas; Hegnauer, Michael; Nguyen, Dana; Godelmann, Lucas; Hoffmann, Axel; de Savigny, Don; Tanner, Marcel

    2012-05-01

    The Health Resources Allocation Model (HRAM) is an eLearning tool for health cadres and scientists introducing basic concepts of sub-national, rational district-based health planning and systems thinking under resources constraint. HRAM allows the evaluation of resource allocation strategies in relation to key outcome measures such as coverage, equity of services achieved and number of deaths and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) prevented. In addition, the model takes into account geographical and demographic characteristics and populations' health seeking behaviour. It can be adapted to different socio-ecological and health system settings.

  4. The Health Resources Allocation Model (HRAM for the 21st century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Maire

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The Health Resources Allocation Model (HRAM is an eLearning tool for health cadres and scientists introducing basic concepts of sub-national, rational district-based health planning and systems thinking under resources constraint. HRAM allows the evaluation of resource allocation strategies in relation to key outcome measures such as coverage, equity of services achieved and number of deaths and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs prevented. In addition, the model takes into account geographical and demographic characteristics and populations’ health seeking behaviour. It can be adapted to different socio-ecological and health system settings.

  5. Allocation plasticity and plant-metal partitioning: Meta-analytical perspectives in phytoremediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Audet, Patrick [Ottawa-Carleton Institute of Biology, Department of Biology, University of Ottawa, 30 Marie-Curie Street, Ottawa, ON K1N 6N5 (Canada)], E-mail: paude086@uottawa.ca; Charest, Christiane [Ottawa-Carleton Institute of Biology, Department of Biology, University of Ottawa, 30 Marie-Curie Street, Ottawa, ON K1N 6N5 (Canada)], E-mail: ccharest@uottawa.ca

    2008-11-15

    In this meta-analysis of plant growth and metal uptake parameters, we selected 19 studies of heavy metal (HM) phytoremediation to evaluate trends of allocation plasticity and plant-metal partitioning in roots relative to shoots. We calculated indexes of biomass allocation and metal distribution for numerous metals and plant species among four families of interest for phytoremediation purposes (e.g. Brassicaceae, Fabaceae, Poaceae, and Solanaceae). We determined that plants shift their biomass and distribute metals more to roots than shoots possibly to circumvent the challenges of increasing soil-HM conditions. Although this shift is viewed as a stress-avoidance strategy complementing intrinsic stress-tolerance, our findings indicate that plants express different levels of allocation plasticity and metal partitioning depending on their overall growth strategy and status as 'fast-grower' or 'slow-grower' species. Accordingly, we propose a conceptual model of allocation plasticity and plant-metal partitioning comparing 'fast-grower' and 'slow-grower' strategies and outlining applications for remediation practices. - This meta-analysis has revealed a shift in plant biomass and metal distribution from shoots to roots possibly to protect vital functions when subjected to metal stress.

  6. Allocation plasticity and plant-metal partitioning: Meta-analytical perspectives in phytoremediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Audet, Patrick; Charest, Christiane

    2008-01-01

    In this meta-analysis of plant growth and metal uptake parameters, we selected 19 studies of heavy metal (HM) phytoremediation to evaluate trends of allocation plasticity and plant-metal partitioning in roots relative to shoots. We calculated indexes of biomass allocation and metal distribution for numerous metals and plant species among four families of interest for phytoremediation purposes (e.g. Brassicaceae, Fabaceae, Poaceae, and Solanaceae). We determined that plants shift their biomass and distribute metals more to roots than shoots possibly to circumvent the challenges of increasing soil-HM conditions. Although this shift is viewed as a stress-avoidance strategy complementing intrinsic stress-tolerance, our findings indicate that plants express different levels of allocation plasticity and metal partitioning depending on their overall growth strategy and status as 'fast-grower' or 'slow-grower' species. Accordingly, we propose a conceptual model of allocation plasticity and plant-metal partitioning comparing 'fast-grower' and 'slow-grower' strategies and outlining applications for remediation practices. - This meta-analysis has revealed a shift in plant biomass and metal distribution from shoots to roots possibly to protect vital functions when subjected to metal stress

  7. Reliability and safety engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Verma, Ajit Kumar; Karanki, Durga Rao

    2016-01-01

    Reliability and safety are core issues that must be addressed throughout the life cycle of engineering systems. Reliability and Safety Engineering presents an overview of the basic concepts, together with simple and practical illustrations. The authors present reliability terminology in various engineering fields, viz.,electronics engineering, software engineering, mechanical engineering, structural engineering and power systems engineering. The book describes the latest applications in the area of probabilistic safety assessment, such as technical specification optimization, risk monitoring and risk informed in-service inspection. Reliability and safety studies must, inevitably, deal with uncertainty, so the book includes uncertainty propagation methods: Monte Carlo simulation, fuzzy arithmetic, Dempster-Shafer theory and probability bounds. Reliability and Safety Engineering also highlights advances in system reliability and safety assessment including dynamic system modeling and uncertainty management. Cas...

  8. Human reliability analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dougherty, E.M.; Fragola, J.R.

    1988-01-01

    The authors present a treatment of human reliability analysis incorporating an introduction to probabilistic risk assessment for nuclear power generating stations. They treat the subject according to the framework established for general systems theory. Draws upon reliability analysis, psychology, human factors engineering, and statistics, integrating elements of these fields within a systems framework. Provides a history of human reliability analysis, and includes examples of the application of the systems approach

  9. Reliability of electronic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roca, Jose L.

    2001-01-01

    Reliability techniques have been developed subsequently as a need of the diverse engineering disciplines, nevertheless they are not few those that think they have been work a lot on reliability before the same word was used in the current context. Military, space and nuclear industries were the first ones that have been involved in this topic, however not only in these environments it is that it has been carried out this small great revolution in benefit of the increase of the reliability figures of the products of those industries, but rather it has extended to the whole industry. The fact of the massive production, characteristic of the current industries, drove four decades ago, to the fall of the reliability of its products, on one hand, because the massively itself and, for other, to the recently discovered and even not stabilized industrial techniques. Industry should be changed according to those two new requirements, creating products of medium complexity and assuring an enough reliability appropriated to production costs and controls. Reliability began to be integral part of the manufactured product. Facing this philosophy, the book describes reliability techniques applied to electronics systems and provides a coherent and rigorous framework for these diverse activities providing a unifying scientific basis for the entire subject. It consists of eight chapters plus a lot of statistical tables and an extensive annotated bibliography. Chapters embrace the following topics: 1- Introduction to Reliability; 2- Basic Mathematical Concepts; 3- Catastrophic Failure Models; 4-Parametric Failure Models; 5- Systems Reliability; 6- Reliability in Design and Project; 7- Reliability Tests; 8- Software Reliability. This book is in Spanish language and has a potentially diverse audience as a text book from academic to industrial courses. (author)

  10. Operational safety reliability research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, R.E.; Boccio, J.L.

    1986-01-01

    Operating reactor events such as the TMI accident and the Salem automatic-trip failures raised the concern that during a plant's operating lifetime the reliability of systems could degrade from the design level that was considered in the licensing process. To address this concern, NRC is sponsoring the Operational Safety Reliability Research project. The objectives of this project are to identify the essential tasks of a reliability program and to evaluate the effectiveness and attributes of such a reliability program applicable to maintaining an acceptable level of safety during the operating lifetime at the plant

  11. Circuit design for reliability

    CERN Document Server

    Cao, Yu; Wirth, Gilson

    2015-01-01

    This book presents physical understanding, modeling and simulation, on-chip characterization, layout solutions, and design techniques that are effective to enhance the reliability of various circuit units.  The authors provide readers with techniques for state of the art and future technologies, ranging from technology modeling, fault detection and analysis, circuit hardening, and reliability management. Provides comprehensive review on various reliability mechanisms at sub-45nm nodes; Describes practical modeling and characterization techniques for reliability; Includes thorough presentation of robust design techniques for major VLSI design units; Promotes physical understanding with first-principle simulations.

  12. Distributed Power Allocation for Wireless Sensor Network Localization: A Potential Game Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ke, Mingxing; Li, Ding; Tian, Shiwei; Zhang, Yuli; Tong, Kaixiang; Xu, Yuhua

    2018-05-08

    The problem of distributed power allocation in wireless sensor network (WSN) localization systems is investigated in this paper, using the game theoretic approach. Existing research focuses on the minimization of the localization errors of individual agent nodes over all anchor nodes subject to power budgets. When the service area and the distribution of target nodes are considered, finding the optimal trade-off between localization accuracy and power consumption is a new critical task. To cope with this issue, we propose a power allocation game where each anchor node minimizes the square position error bound (SPEB) of the service area penalized by its individual power. Meanwhile, it is proven that the power allocation game is an exact potential game which has one pure Nash equilibrium (NE) at least. In addition, we also prove the existence of an ϵ -equilibrium point, which is a refinement of NE and the better response dynamic approach can reach the end solution. Analytical and simulation results demonstrate that: (i) when prior distribution information is available, the proposed strategies have better localization accuracy than the uniform strategies; (ii) when prior distribution information is unknown, the performance of the proposed strategies outperforms power management strategies based on the second-order cone program (SOCP) for particular agent nodes after obtaining the estimated distribution of agent nodes. In addition, proposed strategies also provide an instructional trade-off between power consumption and localization accuracy.

  13. Classifier Fusion With Contextual Reliability Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhunga; Pan, Quan; Dezert, Jean; Han, Jun-Wei; He, You

    2018-05-01

    Classifier fusion is an efficient strategy to improve the classification performance for the complex pattern recognition problem. In practice, the multiple classifiers to combine can have different reliabilities and the proper reliability evaluation plays an important role in the fusion process for getting the best classification performance. We propose a new method for classifier fusion with contextual reliability evaluation (CF-CRE) based on inner reliability and relative reliability concepts. The inner reliability, represented by a matrix, characterizes the probability of the object belonging to one class when it is classified to another class. The elements of this matrix are estimated from the -nearest neighbors of the object. A cautious discounting rule is developed under belief functions framework to revise the classification result according to the inner reliability. The relative reliability is evaluated based on a new incompatibility measure which allows to reduce the level of conflict between the classifiers by applying the classical evidence discounting rule to each classifier before their combination. The inner reliability and relative reliability capture different aspects of the classification reliability. The discounted classification results are combined with Dempster-Shafer's rule for the final class decision making support. The performance of CF-CRE have been evaluated and compared with those of main classical fusion methods using real data sets. The experimental results show that CF-CRE can produce substantially higher accuracy than other fusion methods in general. Moreover, CF-CRE is robust to the changes of the number of nearest neighbors chosen for estimating the reliability matrix, which is appealing for the applications.

  14. Efficient power allocation for fixed-gain amplify-and-forward relaying in rayleigh fading

    KAUST Repository

    Zafar, Ammar

    2013-06-01

    In this paper, we study power allocation strategies for a fixed-gain amplify-and-forward relay network employing multiple relays. We consider two optimization problems for the relay network: 1) optimal power allocation to maximize the end-to-end signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and 2) minimizing the total consumed power while maintaining the end-to-end SNR over a threshold value. We assume that the relays have knowledge of only the channel statistics of all the links. We show that the SNR maximization problem is concave and the power minimization problem is convex. Hence, we solve the problems through convex programming. Numerical results show the benefit of allocating power optimally rather than uniformly. © 2013 IEEE.

  15. Using an inflation-augmented price-earnings ratio to guide tactical asset allocation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Saville

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Asset allocation plays a central role in determining investment outcomes, and available evidence shows that portfolio results can be enhanced through tactical asset allocation if managers use the simple price-earnings ratio as a predictor of equity returns. Recently, some international evidence has emerged which shows that, by augmenting the price-earnings metric with information about consumer price inflation, further enhancements can be achieved in tactical asset allocation.  This study reviews these arguments  as they apply to South Africa, and finds that an inflation-augmented price-earnings ratio is more successful in forecasting equity returns than is the simple price-earnings ratio.  Moreover, the metric is found to be significant in explaining relative asset class returns. On a risk-adjusted basis, however, the tool fails to improve the portfolio results when compared to a buy-and-hold strategy.

  16. Using an inflation-augmented price-earnings ratio to guide tactical asset allocation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Saville

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Asset allocation plays a central role in determining investment outcomes, and available evidence shows that portfolio results can be enhanced through tactical asset allocation if managers use the simple price-earnings ratio as a predictor of equity returns. Recently, some international evidence has emerged which shows that, by augmenting the price-earnings metric with information about consumer price inflation, further enhancements can be achieved in tactical asset allocation.  This study reviews these arguments  as they apply to South Africa, and finds that an inflation-augmented price-earnings ratio is more successful in forecasting equity returns than is the simple price-earnings ratio.  Moreover, the metric is found to be significant in explaining relative asset class returns. On a risk-adjusted basis, however, the tool fails to improve the portfolio results when compared to a buy-and-hold strategy.

  17. Research on Multirobot Pursuit Task Allocation Algorithm Based on Emotional Cooperation Factor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baofu Fang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Multirobot task allocation is a hot issue in the field of robot research. A new emotional model is used with the self-interested robot, which gives a new way to measure self-interested robots’ individual cooperative willingness in the problem of multirobot task allocation. Emotional cooperation factor is introduced into self-interested robot; it is updated based on emotional attenuation and external stimuli. Then a multirobot pursuit task allocation algorithm is proposed, which is based on emotional cooperation factor. Combined with the two-step auction algorithm recruiting team leaders and team collaborators, set up pursuit teams, and finally use certain strategies to complete the pursuit task. In order to verify the effectiveness of this algorithm, some comparing experiments have been done with the instantaneous greedy optimal auction algorithm; the results of experiments show that the total pursuit time and total team revenue can be optimized by using this algorithm.

  18. Research on multirobot pursuit task allocation algorithm based on emotional cooperation factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Baofu; Chen, Lu; Wang, Hao; Dai, Shuanglu; Zhong, Qiubo

    2014-01-01

    Multirobot task allocation is a hot issue in the field of robot research. A new emotional model is used with the self-interested robot, which gives a new way to measure self-interested robots' individual cooperative willingness in the problem of multirobot task allocation. Emotional cooperation factor is introduced into self-interested robot; it is updated based on emotional attenuation and external stimuli. Then a multirobot pursuit task allocation algorithm is proposed, which is based on emotional cooperation factor. Combined with the two-step auction algorithm recruiting team leaders and team collaborators, set up pursuit teams, and finally use certain strategies to complete the pursuit task. In order to verify the effectiveness of this algorithm, some comparing experiments have been done with the instantaneous greedy optimal auction algorithm; the results of experiments show that the total pursuit time and total team revenue can be optimized by using this algorithm.

  19. Efficient Radio Resource Allocation in a GSM and GPRS Cellular Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Vannucci

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the effect of various radio resource allocation strategies in a GSM/GPRS cellular network. The most efficient resource allocation is analysed as a function of the proportion of circuit switched voice and packet switched data load. The Grade of Service and average packet delay is investigated as a function of the load, packet size and call duration. Additionally, the feasibility of using voice over Internet Protocol as opposed to circuit switched voice is investigated as a means to increase subscriber capacity per base station. The work is motivated firstly by the complexity of having both circuit switched and packet switched connectivity on GSM/GPRS mobile cellular system and secondly that an exclusively packet based access on GSM/GPRS has the potential to increase the efficiency of resource utilisation by suitably varying the channel allocation to exploit the characteristics of voice and data traffic.

  20. Using contests to allocate pollution rights

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacKenzie, Ian A.; Hanley, Nick; Kornienko, Tatiana

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we advocate a new initial allocation mechanism for a tradable pollution permit market. We outline a Permit Allocation Contest (PAC) that distributes permits to firms based on their rank relative to other firms. This ranking is achieved by ordering firms based on an observable 'external action' where the external action is an activity or characteristic of the firm that is independent of their choice of emissions in the tradable permit market. We argue that this mechanism has a number of benefits over auctioning and grandfathering. Using this mechanism efficiently distributes permits, allows for the attainment of a secondary policy objective and has the potential to be more politically appealing than existing alternatives.

  1. The dynamics of farm land allocation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arnberg, Søren; Hansen, Lars Gårn

    This study develops a dynamic multi-output model of farmers’ crop allocation decisions that allows estimation of both short-run and long-run adjustments to a wide array of economic incentives. The method can be used to inform decision-makers about a number of issues including agricultural policy...... reform and environmental regulation. The model allows estimation of dynamic effects relating to price expectations adjustment, investment lags and crop rotation constraints. Estimation is based on micro-panel data from Danish farmers that includes acreage, output and variable input utilisation...... at the crop level. Results indicate that there are substantial differences between the shortrun and long-run land allocation behaviour of Danish farmers and that there are substantial differences in the time lags associated with different crops. Since similar farming conditions are found in northern Europe...

  2. Fund Allocation in Complex Rehabilitation Programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarek Hegazy

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Civil Infrastructure assets require continuous renewal actions to sustain their operability and safety. Allocating limited renewal funds amongst numerous building components, however, represents a large-scale optimization problem and earlier efforts utilized genetic algorithms (GAs to optimize medium size problems yet exhibit steep performance degradation as problem size increases. In this research, after experimenting with various approaches of segmenting a large problem into multiple smaller sub-problems, clustered segmentation proved to be the most promising. The paper discusses the underlying life cycle analysis model, the various segmentation methods, and the optimization results using the improved GAs + clustered segmentation, which proved to be able to optimize asset renewals for 50,000 components with no noticeable performance degradation. The proposed method is simple and logical, and can be used on variety of asset types to improve infrastructure fund allocation. Future extension of this research is then highlighted.

  3. Optimal allocation and adaptive VAR control of PV-DG in distribution networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu, Xueqian; Chen, Haoyong; Cai, Runqing; Yang, Ping

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A methodology for optimal PV-DG allocation based on a combination of algorithms. • Dealing with the randomicity of solar power energy using CCSP. • Presenting a VAR control strategy to balance the technical demands. • Finding the Pareto solutions using MOPSO and SVM. • Evaluating the Pareto solutions using WRSR. - Abstract: The development of distributed generation (DG) has brought new challenges to power networks. One of them that catches extensive attention is the voltage regulation problem of distribution networks caused by DG. Optimal allocation of DG in distribution networks is another well-known problem being widely investigated. This paper proposes a new method for the optimal allocation of photovoltaic distributed generation (PV-DG) considering the non-dispatchable characteristics of PV units. An adaptive reactive power control model is introduced in PV-DG allocation as to balance the trade-off between the improvement of voltage quality and the minimization of power loss in a distribution network integrated with PV-DG units. The optimal allocation problem is formulated as a chance-constrained stochastic programming (CCSP) model for dealing with the randomness of solar power energy. A novel algorithm combining the multi-objective particle swarm optimization (MOPSO) with support vector machines (SVM) is proposed to find the Pareto front consisting of a set of possible solutions. The Pareto solutions are further evaluated using the weighted rank sum ratio (WRSR) method to help the decision-maker obtain the desired solution. Simulation results on a 33-bus radial distribution system show that the optimal allocation method can fully take into account the time-variant characteristics and probability distribution of PV-DG, and obtain the best allocation scheme

  4. Many-objective robust decision making for water allocation under climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Dan; Ludwig, Fulco; Huang, He Qing; Werners, Saskia E

    2017-12-31

    Water allocation is facing profound challenges due to climate change uncertainties. To identify adaptive water allocation strategies that are robust to climate change uncertainties, a model framework combining many-objective robust decision making and biophysical modeling is developed for large rivers. The framework was applied to the Pearl River basin (PRB), China where sufficient flow to the delta is required to reduce saltwater intrusion in the dry season. Before identifying and assessing robust water allocation plans for the future, the performance of ten state-of-the-art MOEAs (multi-objective evolutionary algorithms) is evaluated for the water allocation problem in the PRB. The Borg multi-objective evolutionary algorithm (Borg MOEA), which is a self-adaptive optimization algorithm, has the best performance during the historical periods. Therefore it is selected to generate new water allocation plans for the future (2079-2099). This study shows that robust decision making using carefully selected MOEAs can help limit saltwater intrusion in the Pearl River Delta. However, the framework could perform poorly due to larger than expected climate change impacts on water availability. Results also show that subjective design choices from the researchers and/or water managers could potentially affect the ability of the model framework, and cause the most robust water allocation plans to fail under future climate change. Developing robust allocation plans in a river basin suffering from increasing water shortage requires the researchers and water managers to well characterize future climate change of the study regions and vulnerabilities of their tools. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Sophisticated Online Learning Scheme for Green Resource Allocation in 5G Heterogeneous Cloud Radio Access Networks

    KAUST Repository

    Alqerm, Ismail

    2018-01-23

    5G is the upcoming evolution for the current cellular networks that aims at satisfying the future demand for data services. Heterogeneous cloud radio access networks (H-CRANs) are envisioned as a new trend of 5G that exploits the advantages of heterogeneous and cloud radio access networks to enhance spectral and energy efficiency. Remote radio heads (RRHs) are small cells utilized to provide high data rates for users with high quality of service (QoS) requirements, while high power macro base station (BS) is deployed for coverage maintenance and low QoS users service. Inter-tier interference between macro BSs and RRHs and energy efficiency are critical challenges that accompany resource allocation in H-CRANs. Therefore, we propose an efficient resource allocation scheme using online learning, which mitigates interference and maximizes energy efficiency while maintaining QoS requirements for all users. The resource allocation includes resource blocks (RBs) and power. The proposed scheme is implemented using two approaches: centralized, where the resource allocation is processed at a controller integrated with the baseband processing unit and decentralized, where macro BSs cooperate to achieve optimal resource allocation strategy. To foster the performance of such sophisticated scheme with a model free learning, we consider users\\' priority in RB allocation and compact state representation learning methodology to improve the speed of convergence and account for the curse of dimensionality during the learning process. The proposed scheme including both approaches is implemented using software defined radios testbed. The obtained results and simulation results confirm that the proposed resource allocation solution in H-CRANs increases the energy efficiency significantly and maintains users\\' QoS.

  6. Adolescence, Attention Allocation, and Driving Safety

    OpenAIRE

    Romer, Daniel; Lee, Yi-Ching; McDonald, Catherine C.; Winston, Flaura K.

    2014-01-01

    Motor vehicle crashes are the leading source of morbidity and mortality in adolescents in the United States and the developed world. Inadequate allocation of attention to the driving task and to driving hazards are important sources of adolescent crashes. We review major explanations for these attention failures with particular focus on the roles that brain immaturity and lack of driving experience play in causing attention problems. The review suggests that the potential for overcoming inexp...

  7. Nonparametric correlation models for portfolio allocation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aslanidis, Nektarios; Casas, Isabel

    2013-01-01

    This article proposes time-varying nonparametric and semiparametric estimators of the conditional cross-correlation matrix in the context of portfolio allocation. Simulations results show that the nonparametric and semiparametric models are best in DGPs with substantial variability or structural ...... currencies. Results show the nonparametric model generally dominates the others when evaluating in-sample. However, the semiparametric model is best for out-of-sample analysis....

  8. Rethinking Reinforcement: Allocation, Induction, and Contingency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baum, William M

    2012-01-01

    The concept of reinforcement is at least incomplete and almost certainly incorrect. An alternative way of organizing our understanding of behavior may be built around three concepts: allocation, induction, and correlation. Allocation is the measure of behavior and captures the centrality of choice: All behavior entails choice and consists of choice. Allocation changes as a result of induction and correlation. The term induction covers phenomena such as adjunctive, interim, and terminal behavior—behavior induced in a situation by occurrence of food or another Phylogenetically Important Event (PIE) in that situation. Induction resembles stimulus control in that no one-to-one relation exists between induced behavior and the inducing event. If one allowed that some stimulus control were the result of phylogeny, then induction and stimulus control would be identical, and a PIE would resemble a discriminative stimulus. Much evidence supports the idea that a PIE induces all PIE-related activities. Research also supports the idea that stimuli correlated with PIEs become PIE-related conditional inducers. Contingencies create correlations between “operant” activity (e.g., lever pressing) and PIEs (e.g., food). Once an activity has become PIE-related, the PIE induces it along with other PIE-related activities. Contingencies also constrain possible performances. These constraints specify feedback functions, which explain phenomena such as the higher response rates on ratio schedules in comparison with interval schedules. Allocations that include a lot of operant activity are “selected” only in the sense that they generate more frequent occurrence of the PIE within the constraints of the situation; contingency and induction do the “selecting.” PMID:22287807

  9. Allocating nuclear power plant costs: an extension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bierman, H. Jr.

    1984-01-01

    The author modifies and extends the argument presented in the September 22, 1983 issue by Richard E. Nellis for using economic depreciation to allocate nuclear power plant costs. The two goals of his model are to charge constant real costs to consumers and to provide a fair return of .125 to investors in each period. The addition of other objectives requires further modification of the model since the schedule of revenues that are deemed to be optimum defines the depreciation schedule. 1 table

  10. Hawaii Electric System Reliability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loose, Verne William [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Silva Monroy, Cesar Augusto [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2012-08-01

    This report addresses Hawaii electric system reliability issues; greater emphasis is placed on short-term reliability but resource adequacy is reviewed in reference to electric consumers’ views of reliability “worth” and the reserve capacity required to deliver that value. The report begins with a description of the Hawaii electric system to the extent permitted by publicly available data. Electrical engineering literature in the area of electric reliability is researched and briefly reviewed. North American Electric Reliability Corporation standards and measures for generation and transmission are reviewed and identified as to their appropriateness for various portions of the electric grid and for application in Hawaii. Analysis of frequency data supplied by the State of Hawaii Public Utilities Commission is presented together with comparison and contrast of performance of each of the systems for two years, 2010 and 2011. Literature tracing the development of reliability economics is reviewed and referenced. A method is explained for integrating system cost with outage cost to determine the optimal resource adequacy given customers’ views of the value contributed by reliable electric supply. The report concludes with findings and recommendations for reliability in the State of Hawaii.

  11. Hawaii electric system reliability.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva Monroy, Cesar Augusto; Loose, Verne William

    2012-09-01

    This report addresses Hawaii electric system reliability issues; greater emphasis is placed on short-term reliability but resource adequacy is reviewed in reference to electric consumers' views of reliability %E2%80%9Cworth%E2%80%9D and the reserve capacity required to deliver that value. The report begins with a description of the Hawaii electric system to the extent permitted by publicly available data. Electrical engineering literature in the area of electric reliability is researched and briefly reviewed. North American Electric Reliability Corporation standards and measures for generation and transmission are reviewed and identified as to their appropriateness for various portions of the electric grid and for application in Hawaii. Analysis of frequency data supplied by the State of Hawaii Public Utilities Commission is presented together with comparison and contrast of performance of each of the systems for two years, 2010 and 2011. Literature tracing the development of reliability economics is reviewed and referenced. A method is explained for integrating system cost with outage cost to determine the optimal resource adequacy given customers' views of the value contributed by reliable electric supply. The report concludes with findings and recommendations for reliability in the State of Hawaii.

  12. Improving machinery reliability

    CERN Document Server

    Bloch, Heinz P

    1998-01-01

    This totally revised, updated and expanded edition provides proven techniques and procedures that extend machinery life, reduce maintenance costs, and achieve optimum machinery reliability. This essential text clearly describes the reliability improvement and failure avoidance steps practiced by best-of-class process plants in the U.S. and Europe.

  13. LED system reliability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Driel, W.D. van; Yuan, C.A.; Koh, S.; Zhang, G.Q.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents our effort to predict the system reliability of Solid State Lighting (SSL) applications. A SSL system is composed of a LED engine with micro-electronic driver(s) that supplies power to the optic design. Knowledge of system level reliability is not only a challenging scientific

  14. Integrated system reliability analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gintautas, Tomas; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    Specific targets: 1) The report shall describe the state of the art of reliability and risk-based assessment of wind turbine components. 2) Development of methodology for reliability and risk-based assessment of the wind turbine at system level. 3) Describe quantitative and qualitative measures...

  15. Reliability of neural encoding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alstrøm, Preben; Beierholm, Ulrik; Nielsen, Carsten Dahl

    2002-01-01

    The reliability with which a neuron is able to create the same firing pattern when presented with the same stimulus is of critical importance to the understanding of neuronal information processing. We show that reliability is closely related to the process of phaselocking. Experimental results f...

  16. A Channel Allocation Mechanism for Cellular Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Hua Chen

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In cellular networks, call blocking causes lower customer satisfaction and economic loss. Therefore, the channel allocation for call block avoidance is an important issue. This study proposes a mechanism that considers the real-time traffic information (e.g., traffic flow and vehicle speed and the user behavior (e.g., call inter-arrival time and call holding time to analyze the adaptable number of communication calls in the specific cell for channel allocation. In experiments about call block probabilities (CBP, this study simulated two cases that are the situations of the whole day and traffic accident. The simulation results show that all CBPs in the scenario of whole day are less than 21.5% by using the proposed mechanism, which is better than using the static channel allocation (SCA mechanism. Moreover, all CBPs in the scenario of traffic accidents are less than 16.5% by using the proposed mechanism, which is better than using the SCA mechanism. Therefore, the proposed mechanism can decrease the number of CBPs effectively.

  17. Irrational time allocation in decision-making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oud, Bastiaan; Krajbich, Ian; Miller, Kevin; Cheong, Jin Hyun; Botvinick, Matthew; Fehr, Ernst

    2016-01-13

    Time is an extremely valuable resource but little is known about the efficiency of time allocation in decision-making. Empirical evidence suggests that in many ecologically relevant situations, decision difficulty and the relative reward from making a correct choice, compared to an incorrect one, are inversely linked, implying that it is optimal to use relatively less time for difficult choice problems. This applies, in particular, to value-based choices, in which the relative reward from choosing the higher valued item shrinks as the values of the other options get closer to the best option and are thus more difficult to discriminate. Here, we experimentally show that people behave sub-optimally in such contexts. They do not respond to incentives that favour the allocation of time to choice problems in which the relative reward for choosing the best option is high; instead they spend too much time on problems in which the reward difference between the options is low. We demonstrate this by showing that it is possible to improve subjects' time allocation with a simple intervention that cuts them off when their decisions take too long. Thus, we provide a novel form of evidence that organisms systematically spend their valuable time in an inefficient way, and simultaneously offer a potential solution to the problem. © 2016 The Author(s).

  18. Biomass Resource Allocation among Competing End Uses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newes, E.; Bush, B.; Inman, D.; Lin, Y.; Mai, T.; Martinez, A.; Mulcahy, D.; Short, W.; Simpkins, T.; Uriarte, C.; Peck, C.

    2012-05-01

    The Biomass Scenario Model (BSM) is a system dynamics model developed by the U.S. Department of Energy as a tool to better understand the interaction of complex policies and their potential effects on the biofuels industry in the United States. However, it does not currently have the capability to account for allocation of biomass resources among the various end uses, which limits its utilization in analysis of policies that target biomass uses outside the biofuels industry. This report provides a more holistic understanding of the dynamics surrounding the allocation of biomass among uses that include traditional use, wood pellet exports, bio-based products and bioproducts, biopower, and biofuels by (1) highlighting the methods used in existing models' treatments of competition for biomass resources; (2) identifying coverage and gaps in industry data regarding the competing end uses; and (3) exploring options for developing models of biomass allocation that could be integrated with the BSM to actively exchange and incorporate relevant information.

  19. Resource allocation models of auditory working memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Sabine; Teki, Sundeep; Kumar, Sukhbinder; Husain, Masud; Griffiths, Timothy D

    2016-06-01

    Auditory working memory (WM) is the cognitive faculty that allows us to actively hold and manipulate sounds in mind over short periods of time. We develop here a particular perspective on WM for non-verbal, auditory objects as well as for time based on the consideration of possible parallels to visual WM. In vision, there has been a vigorous debate on whether WM capacity is limited to a fixed number of items or whether it represents a limited resource that can be allocated flexibly across items. Resource allocation models predict that the precision with which an item is represented decreases as a function of total number of items maintained in WM because a limited resource is shared among stored objects. We consider here auditory work on sequentially presented objects of different pitch as well as time intervals from the perspective of dynamic resource allocation. We consider whether the working memory resource might be determined by perceptual features such as pitch or timbre, or bound objects comprising multiple features, and we speculate on brain substrates for these behavioural models. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled SI: Auditory working memory. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Transnational Energy Companies' Investment Allocation Decisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osmundsen, Petter; Emhjellen, Magne; Halleraker, Morten

    2001-10-01

    When making international capital budgeting decisions, energy companies are often faced with capital and organisational constraints. The constraints may be real or management imposed. In addition, when entering into a new country or region the companies will incur fixed new area costs that must be considered before investment approval. The decision problem is therefore not a linear problem where the standard net present value rule applies, but a non-linear problem of selecting the combination of projects with the maximum aggregate net present value. New project investments will therefore be selected based on the size of the net present value (often referred to as financial volume or materiality) compared to the projects' use of capital and scarce personnel and organisational capacity. Consequently, projects with a positive net present value, but with low materiality, may not be approved. The portfolio choice has a parallel to the company's choice of core areas. Instead of complex portfolio models, the companies often apply simpler allocation mechanisms, e.g., combinations of fixed investment budgets and materiality requirements. Analysing petroleum cases, we compare the allocations decisions generated by portfolio models and simpler mechanisms. We also discuss the implications of this capital allocation pattern for governments' design of tax systems and license conditions. (author)

  1. Adapting water allocation management to drought scenarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Giacomelli

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Climate change dynamics have significant consequences on water resources on a watershed scale. With water becoming scarcer and susceptible to variation, the planning and reallocation decisions in watershed management need to be reviewed. This research focuses on an in-depth understanding of the current allocation balance of water resources among competitors, placed along the course of the Adda River. In particular, during the summer period, the demand for water dramatically increases. This is due to the increase in irrigation activities in the lower part of the basin and to the highest peaks of tourist inflow, in the Como Lake and Valtellina areas. Moreover, during these months, the hydroelectric reservoirs in the upper part of the Adda River basin (the Valtellina retain most of the volume of water coming from the snow and glacier melt. The existing allocation problem among these different competing users is exacerbated by the decreasing water supplies. The summer of 2003 testified the rise in a number of allocation problems and situations of water scarcity that brought about environmental and economical consequences. The RICLIC project is committed to the understanding of water dynamics on a regional scale, to quantify the volumes involved and offer local communities an instrument to improve a sustainable water management system, within uncertain climate change scenarios.

  2. An Optimization Algorithm for Multipath Parallel Allocation for Service Resource in the Simulation Task Workflow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiteng Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Service oriented modeling and simulation are hot issues in the field of modeling and simulation, and there is need to call service resources when simulation task workflow is running. How to optimize the service resource allocation to ensure that the task is complete effectively is an important issue in this area. In military modeling and simulation field, it is important to improve the probability of success and timeliness in simulation task workflow. Therefore, this paper proposes an optimization algorithm for multipath service resource parallel allocation, in which multipath service resource parallel allocation model is built and multiple chains coding scheme quantum optimization algorithm is used for optimization and solution. The multiple chains coding scheme quantum optimization algorithm is to extend parallel search space to improve search efficiency. Through the simulation experiment, this paper investigates the effect for the probability of success in simulation task workflow from different optimization algorithm, service allocation strategy, and path number, and the simulation result shows that the optimization algorithm for multipath service resource parallel allocation is an effective method to improve the probability of success and timeliness in simulation task workflow.

  3. Forecasting the Allocation Ratio of Carbon Emission Allowance Currency for 2020 and 2030 in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shihong Zeng

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Many countries and scholars have used various strategies to improve and optimize the allocation ratios for carbon emission allowances. This issue is more urgent for China due to the uneven development across the country. This paper proposes a new method that divides low-carbon economy development processes into two separate periods: from 2020 to 2029 and from 2030 to 2050. These two periods have unique requirements and emissions reduction potential; therefore, they must involve different allocation methods, so that reduction behaviors do not stall the development of regional low-carbon economies. During the first period, a more deterministic economic development approach for the carbon emission allowance allocation ratio should be used. During the second period, more adaptive and optimized policy guidance should be employed. We developed a low-carbon economy index evaluation system using the entropy weight method to measure information filtering levels. We conducted vector autoregressive correlation tests, consulted 60 experts for the fuzzy analytic hierarchy process, and we conducted max-min standardized data processing tests. This article presents first- and second-period carbon emission allowance models in combination with a low-carbon economy index evaluation system. Finally, we forecast reasonable carbon emission allowance allocation ratios for China for the periods starting in 2020 and 2030. A good allocation ratio for the carbon emission allowance can help boost China’s economic development and help the country reach its energy conservation and emissions reduction goals.

  4. Joint slot allocation and dynamic pricing of container sea–rail multimodal transportation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Di Liu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The container sea–rail multimodal transport system faces complex challenges with demand uncertainties for joint slot allocation and dynamic pricing. The challenge is formulated as a two-stage optimal model based on revenue management (RM as actual slots sale of multi-node container sea–rail multimodal transport usually includes contract sale to large shippers and free sale to scattered shippers. First stage in the model utilizes an origin-destination control approach, formulated as a stochastic integer programming equation, to settle long-term slot allocation in the contract market and empty container allocation. Second stage in the model is formulated as a stochastic nonlinear programming equation to solve a multiproduct joint dynamic pricing and inventory control problem for price settling and slot allocation in each period of free market. Considering the random nature of demand, the methods of chance constrained programming and robust optimization are utilized to transform stochastic models into deterministic models. A numerical experiment is presented to verify the availability of models and solving methods. Results of considering uncertain/certain demand are compared, which show that the two-stage optimal strategy integrating slot allocation with dynamic pricing considering random demand is revealed to increase the revenue for multimodal transport operators (MTO while concurrently satisfying shippers' demand. Research resulting from this paper will contribute to the theory and practice of container sea–rail multimodal transport revenue management and provide a scientific decision-making tool for MTO.

  5. Design reliability engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buden, D.; Hunt, R.N.M.

    1989-01-01

    Improved design techniques are needed to achieve high reliability at minimum cost. This is especially true of space systems where lifetimes of many years without maintenance are needed and severe mass limitations exist. Reliability must be designed into these systems from the start. Techniques are now being explored to structure a formal design process that will be more complete and less expensive. The intent is to integrate the best features of design, reliability analysis, and expert systems to design highly reliable systems to meet stressing needs. Taken into account are the large uncertainties that exist in materials, design models, and fabrication techniques. Expert systems are a convenient method to integrate into the design process a complete definition of all elements that should be considered and an opportunity to integrate the design process with reliability, safety, test engineering, maintenance and operator training. 1 fig

  6. Bayesian methods in reliability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sander, P.; Badoux, R.

    1991-11-01

    The present proceedings from a course on Bayesian methods in reliability encompasses Bayesian statistical methods and their computational implementation, models for analyzing censored data from nonrepairable systems, the traits of repairable systems and growth models, the use of expert judgment, and a review of the problem of forecasting software reliability. Specific issues addressed include the use of Bayesian methods to estimate the leak rate of a gas pipeline, approximate analyses under great prior uncertainty, reliability estimation techniques, and a nonhomogeneous Poisson process. Also addressed are the calibration sets and seed variables of expert judgment systems for risk assessment, experimental illustrations of the use of expert judgment for reliability testing, and analyses of the predictive quality of software-reliability growth models such as the Weibull order statistics.

  7. Initial Provincial Allocation and Equity Evaluation of China’s Carbon Emission Rights—Based on the Improved TOPSIS Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Wang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available As the world’s largest carbon emitter, China considers carbon emissions trading to be an important measure in its national strategy for energy conservation and emissions reduction. The initial allocation of China’s carbon emissions rights at the provincial level is a core issue of carbon emissions trading. A scientific and reasonable distinction between the carbon emission rights of provinces is crucial for China to achieve emissions reduction targets. Based on the idea of multi-objective decision-making, this paper uses the improved Technique for Order Preference by Similarity to an Ideal Solution (TOPSIS method to allocate China’s initial carbon emission rights to the provinces and uses the Gini coefficient sub-group decomposition method to evaluate the fairness of the allocation results. First, the results of a theoretical distribution show that in the initial allocation of carbon emission rights, a large proportion of China’s provinces have large populations and high energy use, such as Shandong Province, Jiangsu Province, Hebei Province and Henan Province; the provinces with a small proportion of the initial allocation of carbon emissions consist of two municipalities, Beijing and Shanghai, as well as Hainan Province, which is dominated by tourism. Overall, the initial allocation of carbon emission rights in the northern and eastern regions constituted the largest proportion, with the south-central region and the northwest region being the second largest and the southwest region being the smallest. Second, the difference between the theoretical allocation and the actual allocation of carbon emission rights in China was clear. The energy consumption of large provinces and provinces dominated by industry generally had a negative difference (the theoretical allocation of carbon emissions was less than the actual value, while Qinghai, dominated by agriculture and animal husbandry, showed a positive balance (the theoretical allocation of

  8. Efficient Power Allocation for Video over Superposition Coding

    KAUST Repository

    Lau, Chun Pong; Jamshaid, K.; Shihada, Basem

    2013-01-01

    are conducted to gain a better understanding of its efficiency, specifically, the impact of the received signal due to different power allocation ratios. Our experimental results show that to maintain high video quality, the power allocated to the base layer

  9. Constrained control allocation for systems with redundant control effectors

    OpenAIRE

    Bordignon, Kenneth A

    1996-01-01

    Control allocation is examined for linear time-invariant problems that have more controls than degrees of freedom. The controls are part of a physical system and are subject to limits on their maximum positions. A control allocation scheme commands control deflections in response to some desired output. The ability of a control allocation scheme to produce the desired output without violating the physical position constraints is used to compare allocation schemes. Methods are develop...

  10. Fundamental-driven and Tactical Asset Allocation: what really matters?

    OpenAIRE

    Hartpence, Maria; Boulier, Jean-François

    2004-01-01

    Asset allocation contribution to ex-post performance is of primary importance. Nobody denies its role, yet the subject of allocating assets remains controversial. To some contenders, the added value stems only from strategic asset allocation which aims at providing the long-term average exposure to the selected asset classes. On the other hand, proponents of active management have introduced several forms of tactical asset allocation. In this paper, we will go a step further by distinguishing...

  11. Provincial Water Resource Allocation in Agricultural Sector Using Conflict Resolution Methods in Atrak Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parvaneh KazemiMeresht

    2017-03-01

    monotonic solution in water allocation between beneficiary's provinces in Atrak basin. The performances of these methods are compared with each other and also with the common water allocation model. Materials and Methods: In the last decades, Atrak river basin located at the eastern north of Iran, shared between three provinces; Razavi Khorasan, northern Khorasan and Golestan, has a tense conflict between upstream and downstream beneficiaries. It is predictable that this conflict will be more tense in the near future due to development of upstream and increasing the water withdrawal. Because of the venial role of the Razavi Khorasan province in the Atrak basin, this province is considered as a coalition with northern Khorasan. Related data for 41 years time series and other information were gathered. Due to Hydrology studies, wet and dry periods in the two regions have not differences. As a fact that the main problem of water allocation belongs to the agricultural sector and it is the biggest consumer in the region, supply of the municipal, industrial and environmental requirement is assumed.To begin, a linear programming model is developed to optimize the agricultural water resource allocation using the LINGO® which is a comprehensive tool designed to make building and solving Linear, Nonlinear (convex &nonconvex/Global, Quadratic, Quadratically Constrained, Second Order Cone, Stochastic, and Integer optimization models faster, easier and more efficient. In the second place, conflict resolution methods such as symmetric Nash, non symmetric Nash, Kalai-Smorodinsky, equal loss, uniform area solutions are applied as an object function of water allocation models one by one. In all of these methods the stakeholder preferences should be defined with their weights in the object function. Moreover, the mentioned models are assessed with performance criteria such as reliability in time and in volume and also the resiliency. Results and Discussion: Comparison of the results of 4

  12. Matching today's allocation of LDC expenses with cost causation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yankel, A.J.

    1990-01-01

    This article discusses the costs of natural gas distribution and how to integrate these costs into the allocation of local distribution companies expenses for the purpose of establishing rate structures. The author's contention is that costs related to throughput are a larger share than historically used allocation factors suggest. Topics include the historical allocation factors, a case study and the conclusions drawn from it

  13. Resource Allocation for A Mobile Application Oriented Architecture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guo, Y.; Smit, Gerardus Johannes Maria; Lu, W.W.; Xie, X.

    2005-01-01

    A Montium is a coarse-grained reconfigurable architecture designed by the CADTES group of the University of Twente for mobile applications. This paper presents a resource allocation method to allocate variables to storage places and to schedule data movements for the Montium. The resource allocation

  14. Reward-allocation judgments in Romania : A factorial survey approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buzea, C.; Meseşan-Schmitz, L.; van de Vijver, F.J.R.

    2013-01-01

    We investigated reward-allocation judgments when positive outcomes (monetary rewards) were distributed and the allocator was not a co-recipient, in a sample of 200 Romanian students. Within a full factorial survey design, seven factors, selected to affect the allocation decision, were orthogonally

  15. 30 CFR 206.459 - Allocation of washed coal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Allocation of washed coal. 206.459 Section 206... MANAGEMENT PRODUCT VALUATION Indian Coal § 206.459 Allocation of washed coal. (a) When coal is subjected to washing, the washed coal must be allocated to the leases from which it was extracted. (b) When the net...

  16. 30 CFR 206.260 - Allocation of washed coal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Allocation of washed coal. 206.260 Section 206... MANAGEMENT PRODUCT VALUATION Federal Coal § 206.260 Allocation of washed coal. (a) When coal is subjected to washing, the washed coal must be allocated to the leases from which it was extracted. (b) When the net...

  17. Optimal conservation resource allocation under variable economic and ecological time discounting rates in boreal forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazziotta, Adriano; Pouzols, Federico Montesino; Mönkkönen, Mikko; Kotiaho, Janne S; Strandman, Harri; Moilanen, Atte

    2016-09-15

    Resource allocation to multiple alternative conservation actions is a complex task. A common trade-off occurs between protection of smaller, expensive, high-quality areas versus larger, cheaper, partially degraded areas. We investigate optimal allocation into three actions in boreal forest: current standard forest management rules, setting aside of mature stands, or setting aside of clear-cuts. We first estimated how habitat availability for focal indicator species and economic returns from timber harvesting develop through time as a function of forest type and action chosen. We then developed an optimal resource allocation by accounting for budget size and habitat availability of indicator species in different forest types. We also accounted for the perspective adopted towards sustainability, modeled via temporal preference and economic and ecological time discounting. Controversially, we found that in boreal forest set-aside followed by protection of clear-cuts can become a winning cost-effective strategy when accounting for habitat requirements of multiple species, long planning horizon, and limited budget. It is particularly effective when adopting a long-term sustainability perspective, and accounting for present revenues from timber harvesting. The present analysis assesses the cost-effective conditions to allocate resources into an inexpensive conservation strategy that nevertheless has potential to produce high ecological values in the future. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Two-way DF relaying assisted D2D communication: ergodic rate and power allocation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Yiyang; Wang, Yuxi; Jin, Shi; Wong, Kai-Kit; Zhu, Hongbo

    2017-12-01

    In this paper, we investigate the ergodic rate for a device-to-device (D2D) communication system aided by a two-way decode-and-forward (DF) relay node. We first derive closed-form expressions for the ergodic rate of the D2D link under asymmetric and symmetric cases, respectively. We subsequently discuss two special scenarios including weak interference case and high signal-to-noise ratio case. Then we derive the tight approximations for each of the considered scenarios. Assuming that each transmitter only has access to its own statistical channel state information (CSI), we further derive closed-form power allocation strategy to improve the system performance according to the analytical results of the ergodic rate. Furthermore, some insights are provided for the power allocation strategy based on the analytical results. The strategies are easy to compute and require to know only the channel statistics. Numerical results show the accuracy of the analysis results under various conditions and test the availability of the power allocation strategy.

  19. Optimal Waste Load Allocation Using Multi-Objective Optimization and Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Saberi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Increasing demand for water, depletion of resources of acceptable quality, and excessive water pollution due to agricultural and industrial developments has caused intensive social and environmental problems all over the world. Given the environmental importance of rivers, complexity and extent of pollution factors and physical, chemical and biological processes in these systems, optimal waste-load allocation in river systems has been given considerable attention in the literature in the past decades. The overall objective of planning and quality management of river systems is to develop and implement a coordinated set of strategies and policies to reduce or allocate of pollution entering the rivers so that the water quality matches by proposing environmental standards with an acceptable reliability. In such matters, often there are several different decision makers with different utilities which lead to conflicts. Methods/Materials: In this research, a conflict resolution framework for optimal waste load allocation in river systems is proposed, considering the total treatment cost and the Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD violation characteristics. There are two decision-makers inclusive waste load discharges coalition and environmentalists who have conflicting objectives. This framework consists of an embedded river water quality simulator, which simulates the transport process including reaction kinetics. The trade-off curve between objectives is obtained using the Multi-objective Particle Swarm Optimization Algorithm which these objectives are minimization of the total cost of treatment and penalties that must be paid by discharges and a violation of water quality standards considering BOD parameter which is controlled by environmentalists. Thus, the basic policy of river’s water quality management is formulated in such a way that the decision-makers are ensured their benefits will be provided as far as possible. By using MOPSO

  20. Reliability of construction materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merz, H.

    1976-01-01

    One can also speak of reliability with respect to materials. While for reliability of components the MTBF (mean time between failures) is regarded as the main criterium, this is replaced with regard to materials by possible failure mechanisms like physical/chemical reaction mechanisms, disturbances of physical or chemical equilibrium, or other interactions or changes of system. The main tasks of the reliability analysis of materials therefore is the prediction of the various failure reasons, the identification of interactions, and the development of nondestructive testing methods. (RW) [de