WorldWideScience

Sample records for relevant social factors

  1. Relevant Factors in the Process of Socialization, Involvement and Belonging of Descendants in Family Businesses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melquicedec Lozano-Posso

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This research works toward the identification of the factors that comprise the process of socialization, involvement and initial belonging of descendants in family businesses and the key relationships between them. By means of a qualitative detailed study of four cases, complemented by a quantitative survey of 274 Colombian family businesses, the authors generate a new model that takes into account both factors explored in previous research as well as others identified in this study. Findings confirm the specific dependency of each stage on the subsequent ones; socialization influences involvement, which in turn influences the belonging of the descendants to the family business, with a strong presence of factors such as knowledge, leadership, mode, timing, and motivation. Those responsible for the orientation of potential successors may examine these findings in order to optimize their preparation efforts and support of family human resources for the continuity of the business.

  2. [Relevance of personal contextual factors of the ICF for use in practical social medicine and rehabilitation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grotkamp, S; Cibis, W; Bahemann, A; Baldus, A; Behrens, J; Nyffeler, I D; Echterhoff, W; Fialka-Moser, V; Fries, W; Fuchs, H; Gmünder, H P; Gutenbrunner, C; Keller, K; Nüchtern, E; Pöthig, D; Queri, S; Rentsch, H P; Rink, M; Schian, H-M; Schian, M; Schmitt, K; Schwarze, M; Ulrich, P; von Mittelstaedt, G; Seger, W

    2014-03-01

    Personal contextual factors play an essential part in the model of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF). The WHO has not yet classified personal factors for global use although they impact on the functioning of persons positively or negatively. In 2010, the ICF working group of the German Society of Social Medicine and Prevention (DGSMP) presented a proposal for the classification of personal factors into 72 categories previously arranged in 6 chapters. Now a positioning paper has been added in order to stimulate a discussion about the fourth component of the ICF, to contribute towards a broader and common understanding about the nature of personal factors and to incite a dialogue among all those involved in health care as well as those people with or with-out health problems in order to gain a comprehensive perspective about a person's condition. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  3. A teacher-centered exploration of the relevance of social factors to theory of mind development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Barlow C; Mahfoud, Janina

    2014-02-01

    Many accounts of children's Theory of Mind (ToM) development favor a cognitive explanation, for example, in terms of mental representational improvements at or before 4 years. Here, we investigated whether social factors as rated by a child's teacher, are related to ToM development. We tested 82 children of 3-6 years on each of four ToM tasks, and their class teacher completed a social questionnaire about each child's playing behavior, sharing, talkativeness, confidence, aggressiveness and outgoingness. A measure of task memory and the child's gender were also recorded. Here, children generally passed ToM tasks after 5 years-old, but no one gender performed reliably better than the other. Teacher-rated confidence and playing behavior were correlated to ToM. But in a regression analysis, these were replaced by teacher-rated talkativeness; with age and memory given primacy in both sets of analyses. It is concluded that maturation and cognitive factors may well have primacy but social factors, facilitated during early primary education, must also be given a role in ToM development. © 2013 Scandinavian Psychological Associations and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Relevant factors for the impact of social media marketing strategies: Empirical study of the internet travel agency sector

    OpenAIRE

    Lebherz, Philipp Robert

    2011-01-01

    Projecte final de carrera fet en col.laboració amb Karlsruher Institut für Technologie English: Final proyect with the topic "relevant factors for the impact of social media marketing strategies - an empirical study of the internet travel agency sector" at Faculty of Informatics and the chair of management. Supervised by Ferran Sabaté and Antonio Cañabate. Student Philipp Lebherz.

  5. Relevant Organizational Factors for Social Efficiency in the Road Transport Sector; Procesos Organizativos Clave para la Eficiencia Social en el Transporte por Carretera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silla, I; Gamero, N

    2011-12-27

    Previous research has emphasized the need to consider the social dimension featuring organizations in order to maximize organizational efficiency (Rasmussen, 1997). In the road transport sector, previous research has focused on the relationship between human factor, stress, fatigue, and other relevant issues, and professional drivers health and safety (p.e., De Croon et al, 2004). However, research on relevant organizational factors is scarce. This study aims to examine the association between leadership and supportive climate, and employees health and safety. Moreover, the impact of stress (time pressure) was also examined because previous research has stressed its importance. This study used a sample of 486 employees from 35 different Spanish companies pertaining to the road transport sector. Findings showed time pressure to be negatively associated to employees health, job satisfaction and satisfaction with safety. Additionally, leadership was positively associated employees health, job satisfaction and satisfaction with safety. Finally, co-workers and supervisors supportive climate was positively associated with job satisfaction and negatively associated to illness. These findings have relevant practical implications for the competitiveness of road transport companies. (Author) 21 refs.

  6. The Relevance of Causal Social Construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marques Teresa

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Social constructionist claims are surprising and interesting when they entail that presumably natural kinds are in fact socially constructed. The claims are interesting because of their theoretical and political importance. Authors like Díaz-León argue that constitutive social construction is more relevant for achieving social justice than causal social construction. This paper challenges this claim. Assuming there are socially salient groups that are discriminated against, the paper presents a dilemma: if there were no constitutively constructed social kinds, the causes of the discrimination of existing social groups would have to be addressed, and understanding causal social construction would be relevant to achieve social justice. On the other hand, not all possible constitutively socially constructed kinds are actual social kinds. If an existing social group is constitutively constructed as a social kind K, the fact that it actually exists as a K has social causes. Again, causal social construction is relevant. The paper argues that (i for any actual social kind X, if X is constitutively socially constructed as K, then it is also causally socially constructed; and (ii causal social construction is at least as relevant as constitutive social construction for concerns of social justice. For illustration, I draw upon two phenomena that are presumed to contribute towards the discrimination of women: (i the poor performance effects of stereotype threat, and (ii the silencing effects of gendered language use.

  7. The Personal Relevance of the Social Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanSickle, Ronald L.

    1990-01-01

    Conceptualizes a personal-relevance framework derived from Ronald L. VanSickle's five areas of life integrated with four general motivating goals from Abraham Maslow's hierarchy of needs and Richard and Patricia Schmuck's social motivation theory. Illustrates ways to apply the personal relevance framework to make social studies more relevant to…

  8. Is Enterprise Education Relevant to Social Enterprise?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridge, Simon

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Both enterprise education and social enterprise have become fashionable but what, if any, should be the connections between them? The purpose of this paper is to explore those connections and to reflect on what relevance the two concepts might have for each other. Design/methodology/approach: Both enterprise education and social…

  9. PREDICTING RELEVANT EMPTY SPOTS IN SOCIAL INTERACTION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yoshiharu MAENO; Yukio OHSAWA

    2008-01-01

    An empty spot refers to an empty hard-to-fill space which can be found in the records of the social interaction, and is the clue to the persons in the underlying social network who do not appear in the records. This contribution addresses a problem to predict relevant empty spots in social interaction. Homogeneous and inhomogeneous networks are studied as a model underlying the social interaction. A heuristic predictor function method is presented as a new method to address the problem. Simulation experiment is demonstrated over a homogeneous network. A test data set in the form of market baskets is generated from the simulated communication. Precision to predict the empty spots is calculated to demonstrate the performance of the presented method.

  10. Functional dyspepsia: Are psychosocial factors of relevance?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sandra Barry; Timothy G Dinan

    2006-01-01

    The pathogenesis of Functional Dyspepsia (FD) remains unclear, appears diverse and is thus inadequately understood. Akin to other functional gastrointestinal disorders, research has demonstrated an association between this common diagnosis and psychosocial factors and psychiatric morbidity. Conceptualising the relevance of these factors within the syndrome of FD requires application of the biopsychosocial model of disease.Using this paradigm, dysregulation of the reciprocal communication between the brain and the gut is central to symptom generation, interpretation and exacerbation.Appreciation and understanding of the neurobiological correlates of various psychological states is also relevant.The view that psychosocial factors exert their influence in FD predominantly through motivation of health care seeking also persists. This appears too one-dimensional an assertion in light of the evidence available supporting a more intrinsic aetiological link. Evolving understanding of pathogenic mechanisms and the heterogeneous nature of the syndrome will facilitate effective management.Co-morbid psychiatric illness warrants treatment with conventional therapies. Acknowledging the relevance of psychosocial variables in FD, the degree of which is subject to variation, has implications for assessment and management. Available evidence suggests psychological therapies may benefit FD patients particularly those with chronic symptoms. The rationale for use of psychotropic medications in FD is apparent but the evidence base to support the use of antidepressant pharmacotherapy is to date limited.

  11. Social Web Data Analytics : Relevance, Redundancy, Diversity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tao, K.

    2014-01-01

    In the past decade, the Social Web has evolved into both an essential channel for people to exchange information and a new type of mass media. The immense amount of data produced presents new possibilities and challenges: algorithms and technologies need to be developed to extract and infer useful

  12. A content relevance model for social media health information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prybutok, Gayle Linda; Koh, Chang; Prybutok, Victor R

    2014-04-01

    Consumer health informatics includes the development and implementation of Internet-based systems to deliver health risk management information and health intervention applications to the public. The application of consumer health informatics to educational and interventional efforts such as smoking reduction and cessation has garnered attention from both consumers and health researchers in recent years. Scientists believe that smoking avoidance or cessation before the age of 30 years can prevent more than 90% of smoking-related cancers and that individuals who stop smoking fare as well in preventing cancer as those who never start. The goal of this study was to determine factors that were most highly correlated with content relevance for health information provided on the Internet for a study group of 18- to 30-year-old college students. Data analysis showed that the opportunity for convenient entertainment, social interaction, health information-seeking behavior, time spent surfing on the Internet, the importance of available activities on the Internet (particularly e-mail), and perceived site relevance for Internet-based sources of health information were significantly correlated with content relevance for 18- to 30-year-old college students, an educated subset of this population segment.

  13. Location Criteria Relevant for Sustainability of Social Housing Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petković-Grozdanović Nataša

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Social housing models, which had began to develop during the last century, for their only objective had a need to overcome the housing problems of socially vulnerable categories. However, numerous studies have shown that these social categories, because of their low social status, are highly susceptible to various psychological and sociological problems. On the other hand a low level of quality, which was common for social housing dwellings, has further aggravated these problems by initiating trouble behaviours among tenants, affecting social exclusion and segregation. Contemporary social housing models are therefore conceptualized in a way to provide a positive psycho-sociological impact on their tenants. Therefore the planning approach in social housing should be such to: support important functions in daily life routines; promote tolerance and cooperation; influence on a sense of social order and belonging; affect the socialization of the tenant and their integration into the wider community; and improve social cohesion. Analysis of the influential location parameters of immediate and wider social housing environment strive to define the ones relevant to the life quality of social housing tenants and therefore influence on the sustainability of social housing model.

  14. Social factors of poverty in contemporary Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. G. Akchurin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The relevance of the article due to the fact that poverty and low income, along with their attendant high levels of social inequality, continued to be one of the most acute social problems of modern Russian society. The article analyses the main factors of the low level of living standards of a considerable number of Russians, specifics of Russian poverty, and suggests ways of reduction of this social phenomenon.

  15. Using Social Media as a Marketing Channel : how relevance, realness, and remarkableness influence interactivity and engagement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Boer, de

    2010-01-01

    This research explored a potential working framework for using social media as a marketing channel. Based on an extensive literature review and a multiple case study, important factors for using social media have been identified. Companies should provide relevant information, show signs of real

  16. Conditioned Subjective Responses to Socially Relevant Stimuli in Social Anxiety Disorder and Subclinical Social Anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinoco-González, Daniella; Fullana, Miquel Angel; Torrents-Rodas, David; Bonillo, Albert; Vervliet, Bram; Pailhez, Guillem; Farré, Magí; Andión, Oscar; Perez, Víctor; Torrubia, Rafael

    2015-01-01

    Although enhanced fear conditioning has been implicated in the origins of social anxiety disorder (SAD), laboratory evidence in support of this association is limited. Using a paradigm employing socially relevant unconditioned stimuli, we conducted two separate studies to asses fear conditioning in individuals with SAD and non-clinical individuals with high social anxiety (subclinical social anxiety [SSA]). They were compared with age-matched and gender-matched individuals with another anxiety disorder (panic disorder with agoraphobia) and healthy controls (Study 1) and with individuals with low social anxiety (Study 2). Contrary to our expectations, in both studies, self-report measures (ratings of anxiety, unpleasantness and arousal to the conditioned stimuli) of fear conditioning failed to discriminate between SAD or SSA and the other participant groups. Our results suggest that enhanced fear conditioning does not play a major role in pathological social anxiety. We used a social conditioning paradigm to study fear conditioning in clinical and subclinical social anxiety. We found no evidence of enhanced fear conditioning in social anxiety individuals. Enhanced fear conditioning may not be a hallmark of pathological social anxiety. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Learning tag relevance by neighbor voting for social image retrieval

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, X.; Snoek, C.G.M.; Worring, M.

    2008-01-01

    Social image retrieval is important for exploiting the increasing amounts of amateur-tagged multimedia such as Flickr images. Since amateur tagging is known to be uncontrolled, ambiguous, and personalized, a fundamental problem is how to reliably interpret the relevance of a tag with respect to the

  18. How relevant is social interaction in second language learning?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura eVerga

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Verbal language is the most widespread mode of human communication, and an intrinsically social activity. This claim is strengthen by evidence emerging from different fields, which clearly indicate that social interaction influences human communication, and more specifically, language learning. Indeed, research conducted with infants and children shows that interaction with a caregiver is necessary to acquire language. Further evidence on the influence of sociality on language comes from social and linguistic pathologies, in which deficits in social and linguistic abilities are tightly intertwined, as it is the case for Autism, for example. However, studies on adult second language learning have been mostly focused on individualistic approaches, partly because of methodological constraints especially of imaging methods. The question as to whether social interaction should be considered as a critical factor impacting upon adult language learning still remains underspecified. Here, we review evidence in support of the view that sociality plays a significant role in communication and language learning, in an attempt to emphasize factors that could facilitate this process in adult language learning. We suggest that sociality should be considered as a potentially influential factor in adult language learning and that future studies in this domain should explicitly target this factor.

  19. How relevant is social interaction in second language learning?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verga, Laura; Kotz, Sonja A

    2013-09-03

    Verbal language is the most widespread mode of human communication, and an intrinsically social activity. This claim is strengthened by evidence emerging from different fields, which clearly indicates that social interaction influences human communication, and more specifically, language learning. Indeed, research conducted with infants and children shows that interaction with a caregiver is necessary to acquire language. Further evidence on the influence of sociality on language comes from social and linguistic pathologies, in which deficits in social and linguistic abilities are tightly intertwined, as is the case for Autism, for example. However, studies on adult second language (L2) learning have been mostly focused on individualistic approaches, partly because of methodological constraints, especially of imaging methods. The question as to whether social interaction should be considered as a critical factor impacting upon adult language learning still remains underspecified. Here, we review evidence in support of the view that sociality plays a significant role in communication and language learning, in an attempt to emphasize factors that could facilitate this process in adult language learning. We suggest that sociality should be considered as a potentially influential factor in adult language learning and that future studies in this domain should explicitly target this factor.

  20. Scaffolding scientific discussion using socially relevant representations in networked multimedia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoadley, Christopher M.

    1999-11-01

    How do students make use of social cues when learning on the computer? This work examines how students in a middle-school science course learned through on-line peer discussion. Cognitive accounts of collaboration stress interacting with ideas, while socially situated accounts stress the interpersonal context. The design of electronic environments allows investigation into the interrelation of cognitive and social dimensions. I use on-line peer discussion to investigate how socially relevant representations in interfaces can aid learning. First, I identify some of the variables that affect individual participation in on-line discussion, including interface features. Individual participation is predicted by student attitudes towards learning from peers. Second, I describe the range of group outcomes for these on-line discussions. There is a large effect of discussion group on learning outcomes which is not reducible to group composition or gross measures of group process. Third, I characterize how students (individually) construct understanding from these group discussions. Learning in the on-line discussions is shown to be a result of sustained interaction over time, not merely encountering or expressing ideas. Experimental manipulations in the types of social cues available to students suggest that many students do use socially relevant representations to support their understanding of multiple viewpoints and science reasoning. Personalizing scientific disputes can afford reflection on the nature of scientific discovery and advance. While there are many individual differences in how social representations are used by students in learning, overall learning benefits for certain social representations can be shown. This work has profound implications for design of collaborative instructional methods, equitable access to science learning, design of instructional technology, and understanding of learning and cognition in social settings.

  1. Social relevance enhances memory for impressions in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassidy, Brittany S; Gutchess, Angela H

    2012-01-01

    Previous research has demonstrated that older adults have difficulty retrieving contextual material over items alone. Recent research suggests this deficit can be reduced by adding emotional context, allowing for the possibility that memory for social impressions may show less age-related decline than memory for other types of contextual information. Two studies investigated how orienting to social or self-relevant aspects of information contributed to the learning and retrieval of impressions in young and older adults. Participants encoded impressions of others in conditions varying in the use of self-reference (Experiment 1) and interpersonal meaningfulness (Experiment 2), and completed memory tasks requiring the retrieval of specific traits. For both experiments, age groups remembered similar numbers of impressions. In Experiment 1 using more self-relevant encoding contexts increased memory for impressions over orienting to stimuli in a non-social way, regardless of age. In Experiment 2 older adults had enhanced memory for impressions presented in an interpersonally meaningful relative to a personally irrelevant way, whereas young adults were unaffected by this manipulation. The results provide evidence that increasing social relevance ameliorates age differences in memory for impressions, and enhances older adults' ability to successfully retrieve contextual information.

  2. Social validation of vocabulary selection: ensuring stakeholder relevance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornman, Juan; Bryen, Diane Nelson

    2013-06-01

    The vocabulary needs of individuals who are unable to spell their messages continue to be of concern in the field of augmentative and alternative communication (AAC). Social validation of vocabulary selection has been suggested as one way to improve the effectiveness and relevance of service delivery in AAC. Despite increased emphasis on stakeholder accountability, social validation is not frequently used in AAC research. This paper describes an investigation of the social validity of a vocabulary set identified in earlier research. A previous study used stakeholder focus groups to identify vocabulary that could be used by South African adults who use AAC to disclose their experiences as victims of crime or abuse. Another study used this vocabulary to create communication boards for use by adults with complex communication needs. In this current project, 12 South African adults with complex communication needs who use AAC systems used a 5-point Likert scale to score the importance of each of the previously identified 57 vocabulary items. This two-step process of first using stakeholder focus groups to identify vocabulary, and then having literate persons who use AAC provide information on social validity of the vocabulary on behalf of their peers who are illiterate, appears to hold promise as a culturally relevant vocabulary selection approach for sensitive topics such as crime and abuse.

  3. Factors Influencing of Social Conflict

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suwandi Sumartias

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Social conflicts that occur in several areas in Indonesia lately, one of them is caused by the weakness of law certainty. This is feared to threaten the integration of the Republic of Indonesia. This study aims to determine the factors that affect social conflict in Manis Lor village in Kuningan district. The method used the explanatory quantitative methods, the statistical test Path Analysis. The study population was a formal and informal community leaders (village chief, clergy, and youth, and the people who involved in a conflict in Manis Lor village Kuningan regency. The result shows a There is no significant influence between social identity factors with social conflict anarchist. b There is significant influence between socio-economic factors with social conflict anarchists. c There is no significant influence between the credibility factor anarchist leaders with social conflict. d There is no significant influence between the motive factor with anarchist social conflict. e There is significant influence between personality factors/beliefs with anarchist social conflict. f There is significant influence of behavioral factors anarchist communication with social conflict.

  4. HIV in Harare: the role and relevance of social stigma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Stephen; Broom, Alex

    2014-01-01

    HIV is a significant social, political and economic problem in Zimbabwe. However, few researchers have explored peoples' experiences of living with HIV in that country. Drawing on 60 qualitative interviews conducted with Zimbabweans living in Harare in 2010, this paper focuses on how people from four different urban communities cope with HIV-related social stigma. To provide theoretical context to this issue, we utilised the ideas of Erving Goffman for exploring the individual experience of stigma and the concept of structural violence to understand stigma as a social phenomenon. This paper considers the relevance and role of stigma in the context of a country undergoing significant social, political and economic crisis. We investigated the strategies adopted by the Zimbabwean state and the influence of traditional and religious interpretations to appreciate the historical roots of HIV-related stigma. We took into account the ways in which the articulation of HIV with gender has caused women to experience stigma differently than men, and more intensely, and how grassroots activism and biomedical technologies have transformed the experience of stigma.

  5. A relevância do apoio social na velhice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Maria Lopes Martins

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available O debate gerado em torno do envelhecimento e das respostas sociais de apoio aos cidadãos idosos, têm adquirido nos últimos anos e particularmente nas sociedades ocidentais, crescente actualidade e relevância. A notoriedade desta questão, encontra-se na centralidade que o tema tem tido no discurso político e social e na proliferação de iniciativas mais ou menos visíveis e mediáticas que têm como preocupação central questões ligadas a velhice e ao apoio social. Apesar de só a partir dos anos 70 o apoio social constituir um quadro teórico integrado e consistente, encontram-se já anteriormente inúmeros estudos ligados à psicologia (sobretudo a comunitária cujos contributos foram decisivos para o seu desenvolvimento. Marcos fundamentais no campo do apoio social foram também as investigações levadas a cabo por Caplan (1974, Cassel (1974 e 1979, Cobb (1976, Barrón (1996, Vaux (1988, Faria (1999, Vaz Serra (1999, e Matos e Ferreira (2000. O seu interesse deriva não só do facto de terem aberto caminho ao desenvolvimento e conceptualização deste constructo, mas porque a partir delas foi possível conhecer os efeitos sobre a saúde e bem-estar de diferentes tipos de relações, (relações intimas a integração social, passando pelo estudo das redes sociais nos seus aspectos estruturais e funcionais.

  6. HIV: Social and Environmental Factors

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    Dr. Kevin Fenton, Director of CDC’s National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention, discusses how social and environmental factors may put African Americans at greater risk for HIV.

  7. Social networks and factor markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abay, Kibrom Araya; Kahsay, Goytom Abraha; Berhane, Guush

    In the absence of well-established factor markets, the role of indigenous institutions and social networks can be substantial for mobilizing factors for agricultural production. We investigate the role of an indigenous social network in Ethiopia, the iddir, in facilitating factor market...... transactions among smallholder farmers. Using detailed longitudinal household survey data and employing a difference-in-differences approach, we find that iddir membership improves households’ access to factor markets. Specifically, we find that joining an iddir network improves households’ access to land...

  8. Adolescents with anxiety and depression: is social recovery relevant?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonds, Laura M; Pons, Rebecca A; Stone, Nicola J; Warren, Fiona; John, Mary

    2014-01-01

    Social recovery has become a prominent aspect of mental health service design and delivery in the past decade. Much of the literature on social recovery is derived from first-person accounts or primary research with adult service users experiencing severe mental illness. There is a lack of both theoretical and empirical work that could inform consideration of how the concept of social recovery might apply to adolescents experiencing common (non-psychotic) mental health problems such as anxiety and depression. The current study was conducted to understand the process of experiencing anxiety and depression in young people. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with nine adolescents with anxiety and depression (seven girls and two boys aged 14-16 years) and 12 mothers who were recruited from a specialist Child and Adolescent Mental Health Service in the South of England. Thematic analysis indicated that young people do experience a process of 'recovery'; the processes participants described have some congruence with the earlier stages of adult recovery models involving biographical disruption and the development of new meanings, in this case of anxiety or depression, and changes in sense of identity. The accounts diverge with regard to later stages of adult models involving the development of hope and responsibility. The findings suggest that services should attend to social isolation and emphasise support for positive aspirations for future selves whilst also attending to young people's and parents' expectations about change. Methodological challenges face enquiry about 'recovery' given its connotations with cure in everyday language. Theoretical and empirical work on social recovery in young people and families is lacking. Using interviews, this study sought to understand the relevance of social recovery for adolescents with anxiety and depression and their mothers. Findings suggest some congruence with the earlier stages of adult recovery models involving

  9. The Relevant Factors in Promoting Reading Activities in Elementary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Han-Chen; Tsai, Yao-Hsu; Huang, Shih-Hsiang

    2015-01-01

    In order to help students absorb knowledge, schools often conduct reading activities. Thorough planning and strategies, however, are needed to insure the effect of reading promotions, and make them a deeply-rooted part of life. This study adopted the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) to discuss the relevant factors in promoting reading activities…

  10. Modulation of the mirror system by social relevance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilner, James M; Marchant, Jennifer L; Frith, Chris D

    2006-09-01

    When we observe the actions of others, certain areas of the brain are activated in a similar manner as to when we perform the same actions ourselves. This 'mirror system' includes areas in the ventral premotor cortex and the inferior parietal lobule. Experimental studies suggest that action observation automatically elicits activity in the observer, which precisely mirrors the activity observed. In this case we would expect this activity to be independent of observer's viewpoint. Here we use whole-head magnetoencephalography (MEG) to record cortical activity of human subjects whilst they watched a series of videos of an actor making a movement recorded from different viewpoints. We show that one cortical response to action observation (oscillatory activity in the 7-12 Hz frequency range) is modulated by the relationship between the observer and the actor. We suggest that this modulation reflects a mechanism that filters information into the 'mirror system', allowing only socially relevant information to pass.

  11. Social Factors and Preference Change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Campbell-Meiklejohn, Daniel; Frith, Chris D

    2012-01-01

    not be the prime force that drives human behavior. Rather, our principle motivation is to be noticed by our fellows (i.e. to have a reputation) and acquiring wealth is just one way to enhance our reputation. In this chapter we review evidence for social motivations, considering implicit social processes that alter...... our individual behavior (without our awareness) and explicit social factors that play a crucial role in enabling our collaborations with others to achieve more than the sum of the individuals involved....

  12. Organizational and social-psychological issues relevant to fallout-shelter evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wernette, D.R.

    1983-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a preliminary review of the literature on organizational and social-psychological issues relevant to fallout-shelter evaluation. Fallout-shelter options are evaluated along two dimensions: shelter size, and extent of shelteree participation in the shelter construction. Four functional criteria are used in the evaluation: decision-making, member coordination, social control, and maintaining morale. Smaller shelters requiring shelteree participation in construction appear preferable as measured in most of these criteria. Additional factors mentioned include demographic characteristics of the shelter population, degree and type of ventilation system, and availability of medical equipment and personnel. 10 references.

  13. Social aggravation: Understanding the complex role of social relationships on stress and health-relevant physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birmingham, Wendy C; Holt-Lunstad, Julianne

    2018-04-05

    There is a rich literature on social support and physical health, but research has focused primarily on the protective effects of social relationship. The stress buffering model asserts that relationships may be protective by being a source of support when coping with stress, thereby blunting health relevant physiological responses. Research also indicates relationships can be a source of stress, also influencing health. In other words, the social buffering influence may have a counterpart, a social aggravating influence that has an opposite or opposing effect. Drawing upon existing conceptual models, we expand these to delineate how social relationships may influence stress processes and ultimately health. This review summarizes the existing literature that points to the potential deleterious physiological effects of our relationships when they are sources of stress or exacerbate stress. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Dissociative absorption: An empirically unique, clinically relevant, dissociative factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soffer-Dudek, Nirit; Lassri, Dana; Soffer-Dudek, Nir; Shahar, Golan

    2015-11-01

    Research of dissociative absorption has raised two questions: (a) Is absorption a unique dissociative factor within a three-factor structure, or a part of one general dissociative factor? Even when three factors are found, the specificity of the absorption factor is questionable. (b) Is absorption implicated in psychopathology? Although commonly viewed as "non-clinical" dissociation, absorption was recently hypothesized to be specifically associated with obsessive-compulsive symptoms. To address these questions, we conducted exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses on 679 undergraduates. Analyses supported the three-factor model, and a "purified" absorption scale was extracted from the original inclusive absorption factor. The purified scale predicted several psychopathology scales. As hypothesized, absorption was a stronger predictor of obsessive-compulsive symptoms than of general psychopathology. In addition, absorption was the only dissociative scale that longitudinally predicted obsessive-compulsive symptoms. We conclude that absorption is a unique and clinically relevant dissociative tendency that is particularly meaningful to obsessive-compulsive symptoms. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. [Relevance of Personality Factors for Successful Vocational Rehabilitation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arling, V; Slavchova, V; Knispel, J; Spijkers, W

    2016-02-01

    The Main purpose of vocational rehabilitation is occupational reintegration of clients into the job market who have lost their job or whose job is threatened because of a handicap or chronicl illness. With regard to existing evidence for the relevance of personality factors for work performance and job achievement, the present study investigated the influence of participants' personality factors on a successful reintegration after a retraining program in a vocational training center over 2 years. A central research objective was to identify prognostic personality factors for successful vocational integration. In this longitudinal study 15 vocational training centers participated at 3 time points of measurement (T1, T2 and T3). Data gathering was based on rehabilitants' self-reports (standardized questionnaires: SVF, BSW, SPR, CSES) about personality aspects. First data collection started at the beginning (T1) and a second survey was conducted at the end of the training 2 years later (T2). Based on the data at measurement points T1 and T2, 4 prognostic models were computed (binary logistic regression analysis) and evaluated, examining the differenzial influence of several scales and items on direct reintegration after completing the vocational retraining and reintegration status 6 months later (T3). As expected, different variables turned out to be relevant for occupational integration at the end of the training program and 6 months later. Correspondingly other variables appeared to be relevant for occupational reintegration at T1 and at T2. At the end of the vocational training program, approximately 24% of the participants had a job. With respect to direct reintegration, regression analysis revealed that vocational self-efficacy (R(2)=0,175) and self-evaluation were relevant (R(2)=0,383). Approximately 70% of the participants had gotten a job 6 months later. Several stress coping strategies (R(2)=0,170), estimation of the own reintegration prognosis and aspects

  16. Vandalism: Environmental and Social Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Gregory; Devlin, Ann Sloan

    2003-01-01

    To explore the relationship between vandalism, college residence hall size, and a number of social factors, 688 college students completed the Core Alcohol and Drug Survey (Presley, Meilman, & Lyerla, 1994), the University Residence Environment Scale (Moos, 1988), and answered questions about their television habits and athletic participation.…

  17. The Social Construction of Transgenic Corn: Relevant Social Actors in Chihuahua

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Antonio Fernández Nava

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available According to the socio-technical perspective, the meaning of a technological artefact does not lie within the artefact itself. Analyzing transgenic corn from a socio-technical perspective means taking one’s research beyond the artefact itself. To do this, it is necessary to overcome and avoid determinist positions, be they social or technological. This work takes as it point of departure the Social Construction of Technology Focus (SCOT. In this sense, transgenic corn is an unfinished object that is affected by an onslaught of struggles, opinions, agreements, disagreements, designs and redefinitions of the relevant social actors. These groups, the Democratic Campesino Front, El Barzón, National Agro-dynamic and Regional Agricultural Union of Yellow Corn Producers (UNIPRO, demonstrate how technological development is a social process. The deconstruction of transgenic corn according to the perspectives of these different social actors is key to the process of constructivist analysis: to take the artefacts just as each social actor views them. The objective of this study then is to describe how the different social groups, through their actions, construct and deconstruct the meaning of transgenic corn in Chihuahua, Mexico.

  18. HIV: Social and Environmental Factors

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-02-01

    Dr. Kevin Fenton, Director of CDC’s National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention, discusses how social and environmental factors may put African Americans at greater risk for HIV.  Created: 2/1/2012 by National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention (NCHHSTP).   Date Released: 2/1/2012.

  19. Social networks and factor markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abay, Kibrom Araya; Kahsay, Goytom Abraha; Berhane, Guush

    2018-01-01

    We investigate the role of an indigenous social network in Ethiopia, the iddir, in facilitating factor market transactions among smallholder farmers. We use a detailed longitudinal household survey data and employ a fixed effects estimation to identify the effect of iddir membership on factor...... market transactions among farmers. We find that joining an iddir network improves households’ access to land, labour and credit transactions. Our findings also hint that iddir networks may crowd-out borrowing from local moneylenders (locally referred as ‘Arata Abedari’), a relatively expensive credit...

  20. Analysis of the Relevant Factors of Retaining Women in Judo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joško Sindik

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to determine the latent dimensions of all relevant factors about engagement of women in judo, to determine the intercorrelations among these latent dimensions, as well as the correlations with three relevant variables. Final goal was to determine the differences in revealed latent dimensions, in relation to several independent variables: educational level, marital status, impulses to engage in judo, then depending are the women athletes (competitors or not, members of the Board or not, trainers or not. A total of 50 female judokas from a larger number of Croatian clubs were examined, by specially composed the survey. The results showed that all seven questionnaires showed medium to high satisfactory reliability, together with good con¬struct validity, in 15 latent dimensions that are revealed. It can be noticed that relatively older women have more obligations and more barriers that oppose to their engagement in judo. Only small number of differences are found among women engaged in judo, mainly among participants who are members of the Board in the club or Croatian Judo Federation, as compared with those who are not. Small number of statistically significant differences (as well as the correlations can be also observed as the fact that all women partially share similar problems, while the media strategies are perceived as the most powerful to increase women’s persistence in judo, in any type of engagement.

  1. Social Entrepreneurship in South Africa: Context, Relevance and Extent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visser, Kobus

    2011-01-01

    In its broadest context, "social entrepreneurship" refers to individuals and organizations that engage in entrepreneurial activities with social objectives. Whereas this concept and its constituent elements are well-researched and acknowledged in industrialized countries (such as the USA and UK) (Thompson, Alvy and Lees, 2000, p 328) and…

  2. Social isolation induces behavioral and neuroendocrine disturbances relevant to depression in female and male prairie voles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grippo, Angela J; Gerena, Davida; Huang, Jonathan; Kumar, Narmda; Shah, Maulin; Ughreja, Raj; Carter, C Sue

    2007-01-01

    Supportive social interactions may be protective against stressors and certain mental and physical illness, while social isolation may be a powerful stressor. Prairie voles are socially monogamous rodents that model some of the behavioral and physiological traits displayed by humans, including sensitivity to social isolation. Neuroendocrine and behavioral parameters, selected for their relevance to stress and depression, were measured in adult female and male prairie voles following 4 weeks of social isolation versus paired housing. In Experiment 1, oxytocin-immunoreactive cell density was higher in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) and plasma oxytocin was elevated in isolated females, but not in males. In Experiment 2, sucrose intake, used as an operational definition of hedonia, was reduced in both sexes following 4 weeks of isolation. Animals then received a resident-intruder test, and were sacrificed either 10 min later for the analysis of circulating hormones and peptides, or 2h later to examine neural activation, indexed by c-Fos expression in PVN cells immunoreactive for oxytocin or corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF). Compared to paired animals, plasma oxytocin, ACTH and corticosterone were elevated in isolated females and plasma oxytocin was elevated in isolated males, following the resident-intruder test. The proportion of cells double-labeled for c-Fos and oxytocin or c-Fos and CRF was elevated in isolated females, and the proportion of cells double-labeled for c-Fos and oxytocin was elevated in isolated males following this test. These findings suggest that social isolation induces behavioral and neuroendocrine responses relevant to depression in male and female prairie voles, although neuroendocrine responses in females may be especially sensitive to isolation.

  3. Projecting female labor supply: The relevance of social norm change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Romme, A.G.L.

    1990-01-01

    The relevance of labor supply research for long-term labor market policy is rather low. This article is an attempt to improve on this situation in the case of female labor force participation. It focuses on labor supply decisions under fundamental uncertainty, that is, imperfect ability to cope with

  4. Brief report: Inhibitory control of socially relevant stimuli in children with high functioning autism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geurts, H.M.; Begeer, S.; Stockman, L.

    2009-01-01

    The current study explored whether inhibitory control deficits in high functioning autism (HFA) emerged when socially relevant stimuli were used and whether arousal level affected the performance. A Go/NoGo paradigm, with socially relevant stimuli and varying presentation rates, was applied in 18

  5. Fostering Scientific Literacy: Establishing Social Relevance via the Grand Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyford, M. E.; Myers, J. D.; Buss, A.

    2010-12-01

    Numerous studies and polls suggest the general public’s understanding of science and scientific literacy remain woefully inadequate despite repeated calls for improvement over the last 150 years. This inability to improve scientific literacy significantly is a complex problem likely driven by a number of factors. However, we argue that past calls and efforts for improving scientific literacy have failed to: 1) articulate a truly meaningful justification for society to foster a scientifically literate public; 2) provide a rationale that motivates individuals of diverse backgrounds to become scientifically literate; 3) consider the impact of personal perspective, e.g. values, beliefs, attitudes, etc., on learning; and 4) offer a relevant and manageable framework in which to define scientific literacy. For instance, past calls for improving scientific literacy, e.g. the U.S. is behind the Soviets in the space race, U.S students rank below country X in math and science, etc., have lacked justification, personal motivation and a comprehensive framework for defining scientific literacy. In these cases, the primary justification for improving science education and scientific literacy was to regain international dominance in the space race or to advance global standing according to test results. These types of calls also articulate short-term goals that are rendered moot once they have been achieved. At the same time, teaching practices have commonly failed to consider the perspectives students bring to the classroom. Many STEM faculty do not address issues of personal perspective through ignorance or the desire to avoid controversial subjects, e g. evolution, climate change. We propose that the ‘grand challenges’ (e.g., energy, climate change, antibacterial resistance, water, etc.) humankind currently faces provides a compelling framework for developing courses and curricula well-suited for improving scientific literacy. A grand challenge paradigm offers four

  6. Factors Enabling Information Propagation in a Social Network Site

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Magnani, Matteo; Montesi, Danilo; Rossi, Luca

    2013-01-01

    A relevant feature of Social Network Sites is their ability to propagate units of information and create large distributed conversations. This phenomenon is particularly relevant because of the speed of information propagation, which is known to be much faster than within traditional media......, and because of the very large amount of people that can potentially be exposed to information items. While many general formal models of network propagation have been developed in different research fields, in this chapter we present the result of an empirical study on a Large Social Database (LSD) aimed...... at measuring specific socio-technical factors enabling information spreading in Social Network Sites....

  7. Student learning for social relevance: the case of Melkhoutfontein ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... tourism as a vehicle for multi-faceted learning in a community setting. The article contextualises the project, highlights its aims and goals, describes its research approach and analyses its outcomes and results. Findings suggest that student contextualisation of learning tasks and their increased levels of social awareness ...

  8. Skateboarding Alone? Making Social Capital Discourse Relevant to Teenagers' Lives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weller, Susie

    2006-01-01

    Bound to the notion of teenage apathy is the concern that young people are increasingly disengaged from political and community issues and lacking in social capital. Voting is often regarded as the ultimate form of civic engagement, which implicitly excludes young teenagers from consideration through their status as non-voters. Teenagers'…

  9. Beyond arousal and valence: the importance of the biological versus social relevance of emotional stimuli

    OpenAIRE

    Sakaki, Michiko; Niki, N.; Mather, M.

    2012-01-01

    The present study addressed the hypothesis that emotional stimuli relevant to survival or reproduction (biologically emotional stimuli) automatically affect cognitive processing (e.g., attention, memory), while those relevant to social life (socially emotional stimuli) require elaborative processing to modulate attention and memory. Results of our behavioral studies showed that (1) biologically emotional images hold attention more strongly than do socially emotional images, (2) memory for bio...

  10. Relevance of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) for Latin American Entrepreneurs

    OpenAIRE

    Polte, Winfried (Prof. Dr.)

    2017-01-01

    These times are very troubled ones. Not only do wars and political unrest seem to prevail in different regions of the world, but, corruption and fraud have reached an incredible dimension, too. It seems that societies have, to a large extent, lost values in which they had formerly believed in. These issues may be the background why at the moment Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) as a voluntary commitment is discussed in public that intensively. However, one gets the impression that this r...

  11. Identifying the Relevant Factors in Newspaper Advertising Effectiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristóbal Benavides

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Este estudio explora varios factores con el fin de establecer cuáles son losmás importantes en motivar a los lectores de periódicos locales a comprar,visitar tiendas y buscar información adicional acerca de los productos oservicios promovidos en los anuncios. El comportamiento durante el pro-ceso de compra es consecuencia de una compleja interacción de dimen-siones culturales, sociales, personales y psicológicas. Este proceso –el cualse produce antes de la acción– tiene implicaciones relevantes y los depar-tamentos de mercadeo deben prestar atención a ello. Una serie de hipóte-sis basadas en la forma como la publicidad atrae a los consumidores y encómo afecta la toma de decisiones al momento de la compra fueron puestasa prueba usando una encuesta que fue administrada a una muestra de 1.333personas encuestadas en Chile. También se realizó un análisis discriminan-te para averiguar por qué algunos lectores de periódicos se ven motivadosa comprar bienes o servicios, visitar una tienda o buscar más información.Los resultados muestran que el atractivo de la oferta anunciada es el factormás importante para explicar el comportamiento posterior del consumidor.

  12. Stigma: The relevance of social contact in mental disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frías, Víctor M; Fortuny, Joan R; Guzmán, Sergio; Santamaría, Pilar; Martínez, Montserrat; Pérez, Víctor

    The stigma associated with mental illness is a health problem, discriminating and limiting the opportunities for sufferers. Social contact with people suffering a mental disorder is a strategy used to produce changes in population stereotypes. The aim of the study was to examine differences in the level of stigma in samples with social contact and the general population. The study included two experiments. The first (n=42) included players in an open football league who played in a team with players with schizophrenia. In the second included, a sample without known contact (n=62) and a sample with contact (n=100) were compared. The evaluation tool used was AQ-27, Spanish version (AQ-27-E). The mean difference between the two samples of each of the 9 subscales was analyzed. In the first experiment, all the subscales had lower scores in post-contact than in pre-contact, except for responsibility. The two subscales that showed significant differences were duress (t=6.057, p=.000) and Pity (t=3.661, p=.001). In the second experiment, seven subscales showed a significance level (p=responsibility and did not. It is observed that the social contact made in daily situations can have a positive impact on the reduction of stigma. This can help to promote equality of opportunity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  13. Social isolation induces behavioral and neuroendocrine disturbances relevant to depression in female and male prairie voles

    OpenAIRE

    Grippo, Angela J.; Gerena, Davida; Huang, Jonathan; Kumar, Narmda; Shah, Maulin; Ughreja, Raj; Carter, C. Sue

    2007-01-01

    Supportive social interactions may be protective against stressors and certain mental and physical illness, while social isolation may be a powerful stressor. Prairie voles are socially monogamous rodents that model some of the behavioral and physiological traits displayed by humans, including sensitivity to social isolation. Neuroendocrine and behavioral parameters, selected for their relevance to stress and depression, were measured in adult female and male prairie voles following 4 weeks o...

  14. Social and emotional relevance in face processing: Happy faces of future interaction partners enhance the LPP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian eBublatzky

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Human face perception is modulated by both emotional valence and social relevance, but their interaction has rarely been examined. Event-related brain potentials (ERP to happy, neutral, and angry facial expressions with different degrees of social relevance were recorded. Social relevance was manipulated by presenting pictures of two specific face actors as future interaction partners (meet condition, whereas two other face actors remained non-relevant. As a further control condition all stimuli were presented without specific task instructions (passive viewing condition. A within-subject design (Facial Expression x Relevance x Task was implemented, where randomly ordered face stimuli of four actors (2 women, from the KDEF were presented for 1s to 26 participants (16 female. Results showed an augmented N170, early posterior negativity (EPN, and late positive potential (LPP for emotional in contrast to neutral facial expressions. Of particular interest, face processing varied as a function of instructed social relevance. Whereas the meet condition was accompanied with unspecific effects regardless of relevance (P1, EPN, viewing potential interaction partners was associated with increased LPP amplitudes. The LPP was specifically enhanced for happy facial expressions of the future interaction partners. This underscores that social relevance can impact face processing already at an early stage of visual processing. These findings are discussed within the framework of motivated attention and face processing theories.

  15. Relevance of Spiritual Principles for Resolving Social Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashok Natarajan

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Society unknowingly follows the course of spiritual evolution. Spirituality is the quest for self-existent order and harmonious perfection. The evolution of society is driven by an irrepressible aspiration for the values that are the translation and embodiment of that order. The history of civilization is a record of its progressive emergence. Spirituality is the quest for a unifying reality that transcends all limitations, distinctions and differences; an inner oneness that unites rather than divides us; a faith in and quest for perfection in all its myriad forms; and a power accessible to human beings to overcome impossible obstacles and achieve the inconceivable. It is founded on the principles of absolute freedom, equality and unity. In the modern era, faith in spirit is embodied in the realization of the intrinsic value, extraordinary endowments and unmanifest potentials of the human being. We find expressions of it in the idealism and power released by revolutionary social change. We revere its power in great individuals. The aspiration for perfection in any form or field of endeavor is spiritual. So also we recognize expressions of spirit in the movements of the masses. Spirituality is not confined to pursuit of the otherworldly or unattainable. It is a living power for the transformation of human consciousness and the solution to the compelling challenges confronting humanity.

  16. Social position and health in old age. The relevance of different indicators of social position

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Avlund, Kirsten; Holstein, Bjørn Evald; Osler, Merete

    2002-01-01

    Social medicine, social position, chronic diseases, material wealth, income, tenure, oral health, functional ability, well-being, mobility......Social medicine, social position, chronic diseases, material wealth, income, tenure, oral health, functional ability, well-being, mobility...

  17. Factors that Influence the Perceived Advantages and Relevance of Facebook as a Learning Tool: An Extension of the UTAUT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escobar-Rodríguez, Tomás; Carvajal-Trujillo, Elena; Monge-Lozano, Pedro

    2014-01-01

    Social media technologies are becoming a fundamental component of education. This study extends the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT) to identify factors that influence the perceived advantages and relevance of Facebook as a learning tool. The proposed model is based on previous models of UTAUT. Constructs from previous…

  18. Housewife or working mum--each to her own? The relevance of societal factors in the association between social roles and alcohol use among mothers in 16 industrialized countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuntsche, Sandra; Knibbe, Ronald A; Kuntsche, Emmanuel; Gmel, Gerhard

    2011-11-01

    To investigate whether differences in gender-income equity at country level explain national differences in the links between alcohol use, and the combination of motherhood and paid labour. Cross-sectional data in 16 established market economies participating in the Gender, Alcohol and Culture: An International Study (GenACIS) study. Population surveys. A total of 12,454 mothers (aged 25-49 years). Alcohol use was assessed as the quantity per drinking day. Paid labour, having a partner, gender-income ratio at country level and the interaction between individual and country characteristics were regressed on alcohol consumed per drinking day using multi-level modelling. Mothers with a partner who were in paid labour reported consuming more alcohol on drinking days than partnered housewives. In countries with high gender-income equity, mothers with a partner who were in paid labour drank less alcohol per occasion, while alcohol use was higher among working partnered mothers living in countries with lower income equity. In countries which facilitate working mothers, daily alcohol use decreases as female social roles increase; in contrast, in countries where there are fewer incentives for mothers to remain in work, the protective effect of being a working mother (with partner) on alcohol use is weaker. These data suggest that a country's investment in measures to improve the compatibility of motherhood and paid labour may reduce women's alcohol use. © 2011 The Authors, Addiction © 2011 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  19. Social [and health] relevance of psychotropic substances monitoring in air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cecinato, Angelo; Balducci, Catia; Mollica, Roberto; Serpelloni, Giovanni

    2013-01-01

    Drug abuse assessment methods based on measuring illicit substances in waste waters are consolidated. The approach of ambient air monitoring looks questionable, nonetheless it can be explored if the variables determining the drug burdens are accounted for, or suitable co-contaminants are adopted to normalize concentrations to environmental and human contours. The general approach linking the airborne drug concentrations to consumption is presented and the case of cocaine is discussed according to measurements conducted in Italy. The cocaine/nicotine concentration ratio, identified as the most suitable tool, fitted well with anti-drug Police operations and people noticed for drug-related crimes, and with the abuse prevalence estimated in the cities investigated. According to that, the conversion factors of drug concentrations into prevalence estimates seem assessable, provided sufficient databases over space and time are collected. Further investigations are necessary to understand if airborne drugs cause adverse sanitary effects. -- Highlights: •The drug contents in the air were discussed to draw information about abuse prevalence. •The time and site drug modulations were compared to those of the airborne toxicants. •Nicotine looks suitable to normalize the cocaine concentrations to human and environmental contours. •The health impact of illicit and licit drugs onto non-abusers is still insufficiently understood. -- The airborne cocaine/nicotine concentration ratio looks a promising tool to estimate the cocaine abuse prevalence

  20. Beyond Getting in and Fitting in: An Examination of Social Networks and Professionally Relevant Social Capital among Latina/o University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rios-Aguilar, Cecilia; Deil-Amen, Regina

    2012-01-01

    Social network analyses, combined with qualitative analyses, are examined to understand key components of the college trajectories of 261 Latina/o students. Their social network ties reveal variation in extensity and the relevance. Most ties facilitate social capital relevant to getting into college, fewer engage social capital relevant to…

  1. THE USE OF RELEVANT FACTORS FOR CONSUMERS IN DESIGNING A COMMUNICATIONAL MESSAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olimpia OANCEA

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Today, organizations must adapt to the new realities of the environment in which they operate, and their efforts must be increasingly more oriented towards identifying the factors that influence consumer behavior, in particular economic, social and psychological aspects. When consumers are acting on incomplete information base, they assume automatically a risk for each purchasing decision. The size of the risk decreases depending on the quantity and relevance of information transmitted through communicational messages. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to highlight the factors that should be taken into account when designing a communicational message, so that this has to have the ability to change consumer attitudes and to keep constant interest to the products and / or services of a company.

  2. [Relevant factors of early puberty timing in urban primary schools in Chongqing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yan; Liu, Qin; Wen, Yi; Liu, Shudan; Lei, Xun; Wang, Hong

    2016-05-01

    To investigate the status of puberty timing and relevant factors of early puberty timing in children from grade one to four in urban primary schools of Chongqing. According to the purposive sample method, four urban primary schools in Chongqing were selected and of which 1471 children from grade one to four who have obtained informed consent were recruited. Questionnaire survey on social-demographic characteristics and family environment (e.g., age, parents' relationship, diet and lifestyle, etc), and Pubertal Development Scale (PDS) survey and physical examination (measurements of height, weight, pubertal development status, etc) were conducted. P25, P50, P75 ages of each important pubertal event were calculated by probit regression. Univariate and multivariate analysis were used to analyze relevant factors. The detection rate of early puberty timing was 17.7%, and the median ages of the onset of breast and testicular development were 10.77 and 11.48 years old, respectively. Multivariate logistic regression showed that early puberty timing occurred more likely in girls than in boys (OR = 0.561, 95% CI 0.406-0.774), and bad relationship between parents (OR = 1.320, 95% CI 1.007-1.729) and hair-products-use (OR = 1.685, 95%, CI 1.028-2.762) were risk factors of early puberty timing. Early onset of puberty in urban Chongqing is still exist. Gender, parents' relationship, and hair-products-use have an essential impact on early puberty timing.

  3. Autism-relevant social abnormalities and cognitive deficits in engrailed-2 knockout mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Brielmaier

    Full Text Available ENGRAILED 2 (En2, a homeobox transcription factor, functions as a patterning gene in the early development and connectivity of rodent hindbrain and cerebellum, and regulates neurogenesis and development of monoaminergic pathways. To further understand the neurobiological functions of En2, we conducted neuroanatomical expression profiling of En2 wildtype mice. RTQPCR assays demonstrated that En2 is expressed in adult brain structures including the somatosensory cortex, hippocampus, striatum, thalamus, hypothalamus and brainstem. Human genetic studies indicate that EN2 is associated with autism. To determine the consequences of En2 mutations on mouse behaviors, including outcomes potentially relevant to autism, we conducted comprehensive phenotyping of social, communication, repetitive, and cognitive behaviors. En2 null mutants exhibited robust deficits in reciprocal social interactions as juveniles and adults, and absence of sociability in adults, replicated in two independent cohorts. Fear conditioning and water maze learning were impaired in En2 null mutants. High immobility in the forced swim test, reduced prepulse inhibition, mild motor coordination impairments and reduced grip strength were detected in En2 null mutants. No genotype differences were found on measures of ultrasonic vocalizations in social contexts, and no stereotyped or repetitive behaviors were observed. Developmental milestones, general health, olfactory abilities, exploratory locomotor activity, anxiety-like behaviors and pain responses did not differ across genotypes, indicating that the behavioral abnormalities detected in En2 null mutants were not attributable to physical or procedural confounds. Our findings provide new insight into the role of En2 in complex behaviors and suggest that disturbances in En2 signaling may contribute to neuropsychiatric disorders marked by social and cognitive deficits, including autism spectrum disorders.

  4. [Relevant factors in medico-legal prognosis of whiplash injury].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pujol, Amadeo; Puig, Luisa; Mansilla, Joaquina; Idiaquez, Itziar

    2003-07-12

    Whiplash injury (WI) is commonly evaluated in medico-legal practice. With the aim of knowing the determining factors of WI's medico-legal prognosis, a prospective and observational study was carried out. One hundred and twenty consecutive patients who were clinically observed and evaluated in the Medico-Legal Clinic of Barcelona were studied. Socio-demographic, clinical, radiographic and evolutive factors were analyzed. We included 120 patients with a mean age of 35.6 (14) years (range, 4-74), with a homogeneous male/female distribution. An earlier cervical pathology was detected in 10% of patients; none of them had previous psychiatric pathology. 95% corresponded to road-traffic accident cases and there were 5 aggression cases. Over 50% of cases involved a rear-end collision. All patients had neck pain, almost 25% had headache and 13% had paresthesia. According to the Whiplash Association Disorders clinical classification, distribution in grades (G) was: G I 51%, G II 32% and G III 17%. Patients reported recovery within a mean time of 71.6 (46) days (range, 4-244), with 51,2 (45) no working days (range, 0-180 days). The 52% of the patients rest with complains. According to the recovery time, the following medico-legal prognostic factors were identified: age (p legal prognostic factors were age, being females, severity of initial clinical symptoms, previous cervical pathology and abnormal cervical MRI/CT.

  5. Taijin kyofusho and social anxiety and their clinical relevance in indonesia and Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vriends, N; Pfaltz, M C; Novianti, P; Hadiyono, J

    2013-01-01

    Taijin Kyofusho Scale (TKS) is an interpersonal fear to offend others and is defined by Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV) as a culturally bound syndrome that occurs in Japan and Korea. Recently, cases with TKS have also been recognized in other cultures. The present questionnaire study investigated self-report TKS symptoms and social anxiety symptoms, and their clinical relevance in an Indonesian and Swiss sample. It also investigated whether self-construal is associated with TKS and social anxiety, and if self-construal is a mediator of the expected association between cultural background and social anxiety and TKS symptoms. 311 Indonesian and 349 Swiss university students filled out the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale, the Taijin Kyofusho Scale, the Self-Construal Scale, self-report social phobia DSM-IV criteria, and rated their wish for professional help to deal with social fears. TKS and social anxiety symptoms were higher in the Indonesian than the Swiss sample. TKS symptoms were associated with clinical relevance in Indonesia, whereas in Switzerland only social anxiety symptoms were associated with clinical relevance. Independent self-construal was negatively associated and interdependent self-construal was positively associated with TKS and social anxiety symptoms. Interdependent self-construal mediated the association between cultural background and these symptoms. TKS might be a clinically relevant syndrome in all individuals or cultures with an interdependent self-construal or less independent self-construal. The proposal to include the fear of offending others in the DSM-V criteria of social phobia is supported by the present findings.

  6. Taijin Kyofusho and Social Anxiety and their clinical relevance in Indonesia and Switzerland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noortje eVriends

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Taijin Kyofusho (TKS is an interpersonal fear to offend others and is defined by DSM-IV as a culturally bound syndrome that occurs in Japan and Korea. Recently, cases with TKS have also been recognized in other cultures. The present questionnaire study investigated self-report TKS symptoms and social anxiety symptoms, and their clinical relevance in an Indonesian and Swiss sample. It also investigated if self-construal is associated with TKS and social anxiety, and if self-construal is a mediator of the expected association between cultural background and social anxiety and TKS symptoms. Method: 311 Indonesian and 349 Swiss university students filled out the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale, the Taijin Kyofusho Scale, the Self-Construal Scale, self-report social phobia DSM-IV criteria, and rated their wish for professional help to deal with social fears.Results: TKS and social anxiety symptoms were higher in the Indonesian than the Swiss sample. TKS symptoms were associated with clinical relevance in Indonesia, whereas in Switzerland only social anxiety symptoms were associated with clinical relevance. Independent self-construal was negatively associated and interdependent self-construal was positively associated with TKS and social anxiety symptoms. Interdependent self-construal mediated the association between cultural background and these symptoms.Discussion: TKS might be a clinically relevant syndrome in all individuals or cultures with an interdependent self-construal or less independent self-construal. The proposal to include the fear of offending others in the DSM-V criteria of social phobia is supported by the present findings.

  7. Social Factors Influencing Child Health in Ghana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Quansah

    Full Text Available Social factors have profound effects on health. Children are especially vulnerable to social influences, particularly in their early years. Adverse social exposures in childhood can lead to chronic disorders later in life. Here, we sought to identify and evaluate the impact of social factors on child health in Ghana. As Ghana is unlikely to achieve the Millennium Development Goals' target of reducing child mortality by two-thirds between 1990 and 2015, we deemed it necessary to identify social determinants that might have contributed to the non-realisation of this goal.ScienceDirect, PubMed, MEDLINE via EBSCO and Google Scholar were searched for published articles reporting on the influence of social factors on child health in Ghana. After screening the 98 articles identified, 34 of them that met our inclusion criteria were selected for qualitative review.Major social factors influencing child health in the country include maternal education, rural-urban disparities (place of residence, family income (wealth/poverty and high dependency (multiparousity. These factors are associated with child mortality, nutritional status of children, completion of immunisation programmes, health-seeking behaviour and hygiene practices.Several social factors influence child health outcomes in Ghana. Developing more effective responses to these social determinants would require sustainable efforts from all stakeholders including the Government, healthcare providers and families. We recommend the development of interventions that would support families through direct social support initiatives aimed at alleviating poverty and inequality, and indirect approaches targeted at eliminating the dependence of poor health outcomes on social factors. Importantly, the expansion of quality free education interventions to improve would-be-mother's health knowledge is emphasised.

  8. Relevant Affect Factors of Smartphone Mobile Data Traffic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siniša Husnjak

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Smartphones are used to access a wide range of different information and communication services and perform functions based on data transfer. A number of subscription contracts for smartphones is rapidly increasing, and the development of mobile communications network provides higher speed of data transfer. The continuous increase in the average amount of data traffic per one subscriber contract leads to an increase in the total Mobile Data Traffic (MDT, globally. This research represents a summary of factors that affect the amount of smartphone MDT. Previous literature shows only a few of the factors individually that affect the realization of smartphone MDT. The results of the research clarify the ways which influence the amount of MDT generated by a smartphone. This paper increases the awareness of the users of the methods of generating smartphone MDT. The research also allows users to specify parameters that affect the prediction of generated MDT of a smartphone.

  9. General implications of research relevant to quality factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dennis, J.A.

    1987-01-01

    Experiments on animals and mammalian cells in vitro support RBE values for fission neutrons relative low dose rate gamma radiation of about 20-30; and a dose rate reduction factor for low dose rate gamma radiation relative to high dose rates of between 2 to 10. Taken together these suggest that the risks from neutron and gamma radiation are not grossly underestimated in radiological protection. (author)

  10. Tag-Based Social Image Search: Toward Relevant and Diverse Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Kuiyuan; Wang, Meng; Hua, Xian-Sheng; Zhang, Hong-Jiang

    Recent years have witnessed a great success of social media websites. Tag-based image search is an important approach to access the image content of interest on these websites. However, the existing ranking methods for tag-based image search frequently return results that are irrelevant or lack of diversity. This chapter presents a diverse relevance ranking scheme which simultaneously takes relevance and diversity into account by exploring the content of images and their associated tags. First, it estimates the relevance scores of images with respect to the query term based on both visual information of images and semantic information of associated tags. Then semantic similarities of social images are estimated based on their tags. Based on the relevance scores and the similarities, the ranking list is generated by a greedy ordering algorithm which optimizes Average Diverse Precision (ADP), a novel measure that is extended from the conventional Average Precision (AP). Comprehensive experiments and user studies demonstrate the effectiveness of the approach.

  11. Self-referential and anxiety-relevant information processing in subclinical social anxiety: an fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Anna; Kaufmann, Carolin; Redlich, Ronny; Hermann, Andrea; Stark, Rudolf; Stevens, Stephan; Hermann, Christiane

    2013-03-01

    The fear of negative evaluation is one of the hallmark features of social anxiety. Behavioral evidence thus far largely supports cognitive models which postulate that information processing biases in the face of socially relevant information are a key factor underlying this widespread phobia. So far only one neuroimaging study has explicitly focused on the fear of negative evaluation in social anxiety where the brain responses of social phobics were compared to healthy participants during the processing of self-referential relative to other-referential criticism, praise or neutral information. Only self-referential criticism led to stronger activations in emotion-relevant regions of the brain, such as the amygdala and medial prefrontal cortices (mPFC), in the social phobics. The objective of the current study was to determine whether these findings could be extended to subclinical social anxiety. In doing so, the specificity of this self-referential bias was also examined by including both social and non-social (physical illness-related) threat information as well as a highly health anxious control group in the experimental paradigm. The fMRI findings indicated that the processing of emotional stimuli was accompanied by activations in the amygdala and the ventral mPFC, while self-referential processing was associated with activity in regions such as the mPFC, posterior cingulate and temporal poles. Despite the validation of the paradigm, the results revealed that the previously reported behavioral and brain biases associated with social phobia could not be unequivocally extended to subclinical social anxiety. The divergence between the findings is explored in detail with reference to paradigm differences and conceptual issues.

  12. Factors relevant to the sealing of nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-05-01

    This report reviews and summaries the factors to be considered in the design, construction and surveillance of confinement structures for damaged nuclear facilities. General engineering, design and environmental considerations are included, both from the standpoint of the mitigation of near-term effects by virtue of interim confinement, and from the standpoint of the acceptability of the structure for long-term confinement. Factors which influence optimization of the design and the construction sequence are reviewed, including the nature of the accident, natural conditions of the site, and thermal and radiation effects. Safety criteria are presented from the standpoint of regulatory requirements, radiological consequences, and monitoring/surveillance requirements for both interim and long-term confinement. Methodologies related to concrete fabrication technology and other construction techniques appropriate for building confinement structures are discussed. Long-term considerations relative to the future of the site for in-place storage/disposal of the waste, and possible future reuse of the site are also included

  13. Factors Relevant to Utility Integration of Intermittent Renewable Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wan, Y.; Parsons, B.

    1993-08-24

    This study assesses factors that utilities must address when they integrate intermittent renewable technologies into their power-supply systems; it also reviews the literature in this area and has a bibliography containing more than 350 listings. Three topics are covered: (1) interface (hardware and design-related interconnection), (2) operability/stability, and (3) planning. This study finds that several commonly held perceptions regarding integration of intermittent renewable energy technologies are not valid. Among fmdings of the study are the following: (1) hardware and system design advances have eliminated most concerns about interface, (2) cost penalties have not occurred at low to moderate penetration levels (and high levels am feasible); and (3) intermittent renewable energy technologies can have capacity values. Obstacles still interfering with intermittent renewable technologies are also indentified.

  14. Factors relevant to utility integration of intermittent renewable technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wan, Yih-huei; Parsons, B.K.

    1993-08-01

    This study assesses factors that utilities must address when they integrate intermittent renewable technologies into their power-supply systems; it also reviews the literature in this area and has a bibliography containing more than 350 listings. Three topics are covered: (1) interface (hardware and design-related interconnection), (2) operability/stability, and (3) planning. This study finds that several commonly held perceptions regarding integration of intermittent renewable energy technologies are not valid. Among findings of the study are the following: (1) hardware and system design advances have eliminated most concerns about interface; (2) cost penalties have not occurred at low to moderate penetration levels (and high levels are feasible); and (3) intermittent renewable energy technologies can have capacity values. Obstacles still interfering with intermittent renewable technologies are also identified.

  15. Relevant principal factors affecting the reproducibility of insect primary culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogata, Norichika; Iwabuchi, Kikuo

    2017-06-01

    The primary culture of insect cells often suffers from problems with poor reproducibility in the quality of the final cell preparations. The cellular composition of the explants (cell number and cell types), surgical methods (surgical duration and surgical isolation), and physiological and genetic differences between donors may be critical factors affecting the reproducibility of culture. However, little is known about where biological variation (interindividual differences between donors) ends and technical variation (variance in replication of culture conditions) begins. In this study, we cultured larval fat bodies from the Japanese rhinoceros beetle, Allomyrina dichotoma, and evaluated, using linear mixed models, the effect of interindividual variation between donors on the reproducibility of the culture. We also performed transcriptome analysis of the hemocyte-like cells mainly seen in the cultures using RNA sequencing and ultrastructural analyses of hemocytes using a transmission electron microscope, revealing that the cultured cells have many characteristics of insect hemocytes.

  16. Social Factors in Aesthetics: Social Conformity Pressure and a Sense of Being Watched Affect Aesthetic Judgments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesslinger, Vera M; Carbon, Claus-Christian; Hecht, Heiko

    2017-01-01

    The present study is a first attempt to experimentally test the impact of two specific social factors, namely social conformity pressure and a sense of being watched, on participants' judgments of the artistic quality of aesthetic objects. We manipulated conformity pressure with a test form in which a photograph of each stimulus was presented together with unanimously low (downward pressure) or high quality ratings (upward pressure) of three would-be previous raters. Participants' sense of being watched was manipulated by testing each of them in two settings, one of which contained an eyespots stimulus. Both social factors significantly affected the participants' judgments-unexpectedly, however, with conformity pressure only working in the downward direction and eyespots leading to an overall downward shift in participants' judgments. Our findings indicate the relevance of including explicit and implicit social factors in aesthetics research, thus also reminding us of the limitations of overly reductionist approaches to investigating aesthetic perception and experience.

  17. Multinational Enterprises and Social Capital as Location Factor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Kurt; Svendsen, Gunnar L.H.; Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    2013-01-01

    across borders. We review the literature and identify a gap regarding social capital as a potential instrument for reducing the level of volatility. An existing stock of social capital may be advantageous not only to the host country but also to the MNE in the sense that optimal in-company resource......It is generally assumed that multinational enterprises (MNEs) are more volatile than local firms. From the viewpoint of host countries, the volatility of MNE subsidiaries is often seen as a problem. Therefore it becomes relevant to look for ways to reduce the volatility of multinational activity...... allocation and profits could be improved even further. Thus, the dominating theory of FDI (Foreign Direct Investment), the eclectic paradigm as developed by John Dunning, offers a relevant opportunity to fill a gap in the literature and include social capital in FDI decisions as a new location factor....

  18. Taijin Kyofusho and Social Anxiety and their clinical relevance in Indonesia and Switzerland

    OpenAIRE

    Vriends, Noortje; Pfaltz, Monique C.; Novianti, Peppy; Hadiyono, Johana

    2013-01-01

    Background: Taijin Kyofusho (TKS) is an interpersonal fear to offend others and is defined by DSM-IV as a culturally bound syndrome that occurs in Japan and Korea. Recently, cases with TKS have also been recognized in other cultures. The present questionnaire study investigated self-report TKS symptoms and social anxiety symptoms, and their clinical relevance in an Indonesian and Swiss sample. It also investigated if self-construal is associated with TKS and social anxiety, and if self-constr...

  19. Taijin Kyofusho and Social Anxiety and their clinical relevance in Indonesia and Switzerland

    OpenAIRE

    Noortje eVriends; Noortje eVriends; Monique C Pfaltz; Peppy eNovianti; Johana eHadiyono

    2013-01-01

    Background: Taijin Kyofusho (TKS) is an interpersonal fear to offend others and is defined by DSM-IV as a culturally bound syndrome that occurs in Japan and Korea. Recently, cases with TKS have also been recognized in other cultures. The present questionnaire study investigated self-report TKS symptoms and social anxiety symptoms, and their clinical relevance in an Indonesian and Swiss sample. It also investigated if self-construal is associated with TKS and social anxiety, and if self-const...

  20. Playable stories: Making programming and 3D role-playing game design personally and socially relevant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingram-Goble, Adam

    This is an exploratory design study of a novel system for learning programming and 3D role-playing game design as tools for social change. This study was conducted at two sites. Participants in the study were ages 9-14 and worked for up to 15 hours with the platform to learn how to program and design video games with personally or socially relevant narratives. This first study was successful in that students learned to program a narrative game, and they viewed the social problem framing for the practices as an interesting aspect of the experience. The second study provided illustrative examples of how providing less general structure up-front, afforded players the opportunity to produce the necessary structures as needed for their particular design, and therefore had a richer understanding of what those structures represented. This study demonstrates that not only were participants able to use computational thinking skills such as Boolean and conditional logic, planning, modeling, abstraction, and encapsulation, they were able to bridge these skills to social domains they cared about. In particular, participants created stories about socially relevant topics without to explicit pushes by the instructors. The findings also suggest that the rapid uptake, and successful creation of personally and socially relevant narratives may have been facilitated by close alignment between the conceptual tools represented in the platform, and the domain of 3D role-playing games.

  1. Experiencing Socially Relevant Applications in the High School Mathematics Curriculum: Students' Perspectives on Mathematics as a Tool for Social Inquiry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brelias, Anastasia

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the use of socially relevant mathematics applications in high school mathematics classrooms and students' views of mathematics in light of their experiences with these applications. Also, the study sought to determine whether inquiries afforded by these applications incorporated features that promoted…

  2. Job Search and Social Cognitive Theory: The Role of Career-Relevant Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zikic, Jelena; Saks, Alan M.

    2009-01-01

    Social cognitive theory was used to explain the relationships between career-relevant activities (environmental and self career exploration, career resources, and training), self-regulatory variables (job search self-efficacy and job search clarity), variables from the Theory of Planned Behavior (job search attitude, subjective norm, job search…

  3. Is social cohesion relevant to a city in the global South?

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    This article investigates the relevance of international framings of social cohesion and collective efficacy, which have largely ... an ethnographic study conducted in Khayelitsha township in the Western Cape, where a major internationally funded and conceptualised ... the global South? A case study of Khayelitsha township ...

  4. HIV in Harare: The role and relevance of social stigma | O'Brien ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To provide theoretical context to this issue, we utilised the ideas of Erving Goffman for exploring the individual experience of stigma and the concept of structural violence to understand stigma as a social phenomenon. This paper considers the relevance and role of stigma in the context of a country undergoing significant ...

  5. Beyond arousal and valence: the importance of the biological versus social relevance of emotional stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakaki, Michiko; Niki, Kazuhisa; Mather, Mara

    2012-03-01

    The present study addressed the hypothesis that emotional stimuli relevant to survival or reproduction (biologically emotional stimuli) automatically affect cognitive processing (e.g., attention, memory), while those relevant to social life (socially emotional stimuli) require elaborative processing to modulate attention and memory. Results of our behavioral studies showed that (1) biologically emotional images hold attention more strongly than do socially emotional images, (2) memory for biologically emotional images was enhanced even with limited cognitive resources, but (3) memory for socially emotional images was enhanced only when people had sufficient cognitive resources at encoding. Neither images' subjective arousal nor their valence modulated these patterns. A subsequent functional magnetic resonance imaging study revealed that biologically emotional images induced stronger activity in the visual cortex and greater functional connectivity between the amygdala and visual cortex than did socially emotional images. These results suggest that the interconnection between the amygdala and visual cortex supports enhanced attention allocation to biological stimuli. In contrast, socially emotional images evoked greater activity in the medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) and yielded stronger functional connectivity between the amygdala and MPFC than did biological images. Thus, it appears that emotional processing of social stimuli involves elaborative processing requiring frontal lobe activity.

  6. Factors relevant to medication non-adherence in kidney transplant: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belaiche, Stephanie; Décaudin, Bertrand; Dharancy, Sébastien; Noel, Christian; Odou, Pascal; Hazzan, Marc

    2017-06-01

    Background Medication non-adherence is a major issue after transplant that can lead to misdiagnosis, rejection, poor health affecting quality of life, graft loss or death. Several estimations of adherence and related factors have previously been described but conclusions leave doubt as to the most accurate assessment method. Aim of the review To identify the factors most relevant to medication non-adherence in kidney transplant in current clinical practice. Method This systematic review is registered in the PROSPERO data base and follows the Prisma checklist. Articles in English in three databases from January 2009 to December 2014 were analysed. A synthesis was made to target adherence assessment methods, their prevalence and significance. Results Thirty-seven studies were analysed rates of non-adherence fluctuating from 1.6 to 96%. Assessment methods varied from one study to another, although self-reports were mainly used. It appears that youth (≤50 years old), male, low social support, unemployment, low education, ≥3 months post graft, living donor, ≥6 comorbidities, ≥5 drugs/d, ≥2 intakes/d, negative beliefs, negative behavior, depression and anxiety were the factors significantly related to non-adherence. Conclusion As there are no established guidelines, consideration should be given to more than one approach to identify medication non-adherence although self-reports should remain the cornerstone of adherence assessment.

  7. Relevance and feasibility of Social Life Cycle Assessment from a Company Perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Andreas; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky; Jørgensen, Michael Søgaard

    2009-01-01

    Methodology development should reflect demands from the intended users: what are the needs of the user group and what is feasible in terms of requirements involving data and work? Mapping these questions of relevance and feasibility is thus a way to facilitate a higher degree of relevance...... of the developed methodology. For the emerging area of social life cycle assessment (SLCA), several different potential user groups may be identified. This article addresses the issues of relevance and feasibility of SLCA from a company perspective through a series of interviews among potential company users....... The empirical basis for the survey is a series of eight semi-structured interviews with larger Danish companies, all of which potentially have the capacity and will to use comprehensive social assessment methodologies. SLCA is not yet a well-defined methodology, but still it is possible to outline several...

  8. Cultural Factors relevant to Korean Americans in Health Research: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Cha-Nam; Keller, Colleen; Sim, Jeongha

    2018-04-01

    To eliminate health disparities in the United States, identifying cultural contexts salient to the target populations in an intervention study is critical; however, little research has been conducted on the identification of cultural contexts among Korean Americans who have significant risk factors for chronic diseases. This systematic review identifies critical cultural contexts central to the literature discussed in health research on Korean Americans. We examined 14 research reports of 801 potentially eligible articles published between 2000 and 2016 and analyzed their contribution to cultural contexts among Korean Americans based on the PEN-3 model. This review highlights how cultural contexts impact health and health behaviors of Korean Americans, and may contribute to health disparities in the United States. The key cultural contexts highlighted in this review include social support/social network, family, gender role expectations, and a holistic view of health and illness. These cultural contexts should be incorporated in designing culturally relevant, effective, and sustainable health interventions for Korean Americans, which will contribute to eliminating health disparities for this ethnic group who experience great obstacles to healthcare access and healthy behaviors.

  9. Perinatal risk factors and social withdrawal behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guedeney, Antoine; Marchand-Martin, Laetitia; Cote, Sylvana J; Larroque, Béatrice

    2012-04-01

    The objectives of the study were (1) to assess prevalence of social withdrawal behaviour in infants aged 12 months included in the French Perinatal Risk Factor Study Eden; (2) To study the correlation between relational withdrawal and several perinatal and parental factors assessed in the EDEN study. A longitudinal study using the ADBB scale was conducted within the Eden Cohort in the year 2008. 1,586 infants were included in the study. Fourteen percent of the children who had an ADBB assessment had a score at 5 and over on the ADBB, a scale designed to assess social withdrawal behaviour at age 0-24 months. Social withdrawal at 12 months was associated with low birth weight, low gestational age and with intra uterine growth retardation. Social withdrawal was independently associated with several maternal and paternal risk factors. The level of social withdrawal behaviour increased with a score of maternal difficulties. This study on a large longitudinally followed volunteer sample demonstrate a clear association of social withdrawal behaviour at age one with low birth weight and preterm birth, possibly mediated by parental vulnerabilities. Social withdrawal behaviour seems to be an important alarm signal to detect early on particularly in premature and small for date babies. © Springer-Verlag 2012

  10. Transgenerational Social Stress, Immune Factors, Hormones, and Social Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Anthony Murgatroyd

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A social signal transduction theory of depression has been proposed that states that exposure to social adversity alters the immune response and these changes mediate symptoms of depression such as anhedonia and impairments in social behavior. The exposure of maternal rats to the chronic social stress (CSS of a male intruder depresses maternal care and impairs social behavior in the F1 and F2 offspring of these dams. The objective of the present study was to characterize basal peripheral levels of several immune factors and related hormone levels in the adult F2 offspring of CSS exposed dams and assess whether changes in these factors are associated with previously reported deficits in allogrooming behavior. CSS decreased acid glycoprotein (α1AGP and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1 in F2 females, and increased granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF in F2 males. There were also sex dependent changes in IL-18, tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases 1 (TIMP-1, and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF. Progesterone was decreased and alpha melanocyte stimulating hormone (α-MSH was increased in F2 males, and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF was decreased in F2 females. Changes in α1AGP, GM-CSF, progesterone and α-MSH were correlated with decreased allogrooming in the F2 offspring of stressed dams. These results support the hypothesis that transgenerational social stress affects both the immune system and social behavior, and also support previous studies on the adverse effects of early life stress on immune functioning and stress associated immunological disorders, including the increasing prevalence of asthma. The immune system may represent an important transgenerational etiological factor in disorders which involve social and/or early life stress associated changes in social behavior, such as depression, anxiety, and autism, as well as comorbid immune disorders. Future studies involving immune and

  11. Factors in social interaction in cohousing communities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouma, Jantine; Voorbij, Liek

    2008-01-01

    Cohousing communities can be considered alternatives for living independently in old age. However, currently the factors that influence the success of these communities are unclear. Based on literature and case studies gathered by students a new interactionmodel was created that shows the relevant

  12. Modulations of mirroring activity by desire for social connection and relevance of movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aragón, Oriana R; Sharer, Elizabeth A; Bargh, John A; Pineda, Jaime A

    2014-11-01

    Mirroring neurons fire both when an individual moves and observes another move in kind. This simulation of others' movements is thought to effortlessly and ubiquitously support empathetic connection and social understanding. However, at times this could be maladaptive. How could a boxer mirror a losing opponent's expressions of fatigue, feeling his weariness, precisely when strength is required? Clearly, the boxer must emotionally disconnect from his opponent and those expressions of fatigue must become irrelevant and not mirrored. But, movements that inform of his opponent's intentions to deliver an incoming blow are quite relevant and still should require mirroring. We tested these dimensions of emotional connectedness and relevance of movement in an electroencephalography experiment, where participants' desires to socially connect with a confederate were manipulated. Before manipulation, all participants mirrored the confederate's purely kinematic (a hand opening and closing) and goal-directed (a hand opening and closing around a token that the participant desired) hand movements. After manipulation, unfairly treated subjects ceased to mirror the purely kinematic movements but continued to mirror goal-relevant movements. Those treated fairly continued to mirror all movements. The results suggest that social mirroring can be adaptive in order to meet the demands of a varied social environment. © The Author (2013). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. How pharmacist-patient communication determines pharmacy loyalty? Modeling relevant factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrícia Antunes, Liliana; Gomes, João José; Cavaco, Afonso Miguel

    2015-01-01

    Portuguese community pharmacies provide pharmaceutical services, such as therapeutic outcomes follow-up, supplemented by relevant point-of-care testing that require continuity of provision to be effective. To identify factors of technical and communication nature that during a patient interview contribute to patients' loyalty. A cross-sectional descriptive study, with a purposive sample of community pharmacies providing pharmaceutical care, was conducted. Patient interviews were taped and transcribed verbatim. Duration, segments and utterances were identified and time stamped, using a previously validated coding scheme. To identify predictors of loyalty, logistic regression analyses were performed. From 59 interviews, participants' average age was 65.7 years and 42 (71.2%) were female; 45 (76.3%) interviews were classified as outcomes measurements and 14 (23.7%) as pharmaceutical consultations, with 33.2% of the patients booking a following appointment. The significant items to explain loyalty were associated with lifestyle and psychosocial exchange, age of the patient, and the presence of all interview segments (i.e. a complete consultation). Contrary to common professional beliefs and practice orientation it would appear that pharmacists' technical skills are not the essential factors that promote patients' loyalty needed for continuity of care, at least in the same extent as the social and lifestyle-related content of the exchange. Pharmaceutical care education should focus on relational skills as much as on medication-related competencies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Film festival as a factor of art cinema social institutionalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Ye. Konovalov

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The increasing recently interest towards the art house cinema stipulates the relevance in the field of sociological investigations of the cinema proper as a social institution and directly the art cinema, as this area most brightly covers those pressing problems and cardinal social changes that occur nowadays. The article deals with the analysis of the film festival as a structural element when researching the art house cinema as a social institution. At the same time, carrying out the function of the mass media and social institution, the art house cinema represents a great interest for studying in the field of sociology. Acting as mass media, art cinema can originally influence its audience, forming specific models of behavior, social aims, and sometimes political views of its audience. A new judgment of factors of social institutionalization of art cinema is offered for consideration, one of which is the film festival. Basic research on the basis of modern scientific works of foreign researches of the cinema is conducted. This subject offers judgment of processes concerning social interaction in the framework of film festival acting as establishment for performing the function of mass media and a social institution on behalf of the art house cinema.

  15. Lexical Studies of Filipino Person Descriptors: Adding Personality-Relevant Social and Physical Attributes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imperio, Shellah Myra; Church, A Timothy; Katigbak, Marcia S; Reyes, Jose Alberto S

    2008-06-01

    Lexical studies have focused on traits. In the Filipino language, we investigated whether additional dimensions can be identified when personality-relevant terms for social roles, statuses, and effects, plus physical attributes, are included. Filipino students (N = 496) rated themselves on 268 such terms, plus 253 markers of trait and evaluative dimensions. We identified 10 dimensions of social and physical attributes-Prominence, Uselessness, Attractiveness, Respectability, Uniqueness, Destructiveness, Presentableness, Strength, Dangerousness, and Charisma. Most of these dimensions did not correspond in a one-to-one manner to Filipino or alternative trait models (Big Five, HEXACO, ML7). However, considerable redundancy was observed between the social and physical attribute dimensions and trait and evaluative dimensions. Thus, social and physical attributes communicate information about personality traits, and vice-versa.

  16. Lexical Studies of Filipino Person Descriptors: Adding Personality-Relevant Social and Physical Attributes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imperio, Shellah Myra; Church, A. Timothy; Katigbak, Marcia S.; Reyes, Jose Alberto S.

    2009-01-01

    Lexical studies have focused on traits. In the Filipino language, we investigated whether additional dimensions can be identified when personality-relevant terms for social roles, statuses, and effects, plus physical attributes, are included. Filipino students (N = 496) rated themselves on 268 such terms, plus 253 markers of trait and evaluative dimensions. We identified 10 dimensions of social and physical attributes—Prominence, Uselessness, Attractiveness, Respectability, Uniqueness, Destructiveness, Presentableness, Strength, Dangerousness, and Charisma. Most of these dimensions did not correspond in a one-to-one manner to Filipino or alternative trait models (Big Five, HEXACO, ML7). However, considerable redundancy was observed between the social and physical attribute dimensions and trait and evaluative dimensions. Thus, social and physical attributes communicate information about personality traits, and vice-versa. PMID:19779603

  17. Social position and health in old age: the relevance of different indicators of social position

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Avlund, Kirsten; Holstein, Bjørn E; Osler, Merete

    2003-01-01

    for men and women. In men the odds ratios of housing tenure on four health variables were strong and unaffected by education and occupation while in women the odds ratios of income on three health variables were strong and unaffected by education and occupation. CONCLUSION: This study demonstrates strong......AIMS: An analysis was undertaken to investigate social inequalities in health among old men and women in relation to five indicators of social position. METHODS: The study is based on a population-based cross-sectional survey among 748 75-year-old men and women, which was performed as clinical......, consistent associations between variables of material wealth indicators and various measures of health among 75-year-old men and women....

  18. Taijin Kyofusho and Social Anxiety and Their Clinical Relevance in Indonesia and Switzerland

    OpenAIRE

    Vriends, N.; Pfaltz, M. C.; Novianti, P.; Hadiyono, J.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Taijin Kyofusho Scale (TKS) is an interpersonal fear to offend others and is defined by Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV) as a culturally bound syndrome that occurs in Japan and Korea. Recently, cases with TKS have also been recognized in other cultures. The present questionnaire study investigated self-report TKS symptoms and social anxiety symptoms, and their clinical relevance in an Indonesian and Swiss sample. It also investigated whether self-cons...

  19. Application of factor analysis in psychological diagnostics (sample: study of students’ social safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Aleksandrovich Kislyakov

    2015-10-01

    Our recommendations for the use of factor analysis, with necessary restrictions and clear reasons of a possible ambiguity of solutions, will be useful to everyone interested in mastering an adequate mathematical tool for solving problems pertaining to the humanities, in particular, those of practical psychology. As a practical example is presented the research of the psychological factors which provide students’ social safety. With the help of the factor analysis relevant personal and professional qualities of a teacher were revealed which are the subjective factors of students’ social safety, namely: social anticipation, socio-psychological stress resistance, social tolerance, professional orientation, responsibility, communication skills.

  20. Social contact patterns relevant to the spread of respiratory infectious diseases in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Kathy; Jit, Mark; Lau, Eric H Y; Wu, Joseph T

    2017-08-11

    The spread of many respiratory infections is determined by contact patterns between infectious and susceptible individuals in the population. There are no published data for quantifying social contact patterns relevant to the spread of respiratory infectious diseases in Hong Kong which is a hotspot for emerging infectious diseases due to its high population density and connectivity in the air transportation network. We adopted a commonly used diary-based design to conduct a social contact survey in Hong Kong in 2015/16 using both paper and online questionnaires. Participants using paper questionnaires reported more contacts and longer contact duration than those using online questionnaires. Participants reported 13 person-hours of contact and 8 contacts per day on average, which decreased over age but increased with household size, years of education and income level. Prolonged and frequent contacts, and contacts at home, school and work were more likely to involve physical contacts. Strong age-assortativity was observed in all age groups. We evaluated the characteristics of social contact patterns relevant to the spread of respiratory infectious diseases in Hong Kong. Our findings could help to improve the design of future social contact surveys, parameterize transmission models of respiratory infectious diseases, and inform intervention strategies based on model outputs.

  1. The Value Relevance of Environmental, Social, and Governance Performance: The Brazilian Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Mar Miralles-Quirós

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available There is extensive literature on the value relevance of social responsibility for companies that operate in developed countries. However, little is known about the influence of these practices on the price of assets listed on emerging economies, such as Brazil. In this context, the aim of this study is to analyse whether social responsibility activities carried out by companies listed on the São Paulo Stock Exchange during the 2010–2015 period play a significant role in enhancing firm value. Unlike previous studies, we distinguish between the three modern pillars of sustainability: environmental, social, and corporate governance (ESG. Our overall results support the value enhancing theory rather than the shareholder expense theory. However, it is important to note that the results also show that the market does not significantly value the three ESG pillars. Specifically, the market positively and significantly values the environmental practices carried out by companies not related to environmentally sensitive industries. In contrast, the market positively and significantly values the social and corporate governance practices carried out by the companies belonging to these sensitive industries. These findings are relevant for both investors and the managers of these companies, policy makers, customers, and citizens concerned about ESG issues.

  2. Climate Change and the Social Factor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Lars Kjerulf; Jensen, Anne; Nielsen, Signe Svalgaard

    This poster reports from a explorative study about social aspects of climate change adaptation in Denmark. The aim of the project was to explore how people perceive and relate to climate change adaptation, what risks are associated with climate change and how are those risks balanced with other...... risks and concerns of everyday life? The project found that the distinction between climate change mitigation and adaptation is of little significance for lay people. The prospect of climate change does provoke reflections on social values and the need for saving energy, but when it comes to protecting...... ones own life and property against future damaging effects of climate change the threat seems distant and other forms of home improvement seem more relevant. People have a high level of trust in socio-technical systems and feel that adaptation measures primarily should be taken by the authorities....

  3. Overview of Macrophage Migration Inhibitory Factor (MIF as a Potential Biomarker Relevant to Adiposity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Nishihira

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The cytokine “macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF” is generally recognized as a proinflammatory cytokine, and MIF is involved in broad range of acute and chronic inflammatory states. With regard to glucose metabolism and insulin secretion, MIF is produced by pancreatic β cells and acts as a positive regulator of insulin secretion. In contrast, it is evident that MIF expressed in adipose tissues causes insulin resistance. Concerning MIF gene analysis, we found four alleles: 5-, 6-, 7-and 8-CATT at position −794 of MIF gene in a Japanese population. Genotypes without the 5-CATT allele were more common in the obese subjects than in the lean or overweight groups. It is conceivable that promoter polymorphism in the MIF gene is profoundly linked with obesity relevant to lifestyle diseases, such as diabetes. Obesity has become a serious social issue due to the inappropriate nutritional balance, and the consumption of functional foods (including functional foods to reduce fat mass is expected to overcome this issue. In this context, MIF would be a reliable quantitative biomarker to evaluate the effects of functional foods on adiposity.

  4. Social Class and the Motivational Relevance of Other Human Beings: Evidence From Visual Attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietze, Pia; Knowles, Eric D

    2016-11-01

    We theorize that people's social class affects their appraisals of others' motivational relevance-the degree to which others are seen as potentially rewarding, threatening, or otherwise worth attending to. Supporting this account, three studies indicate that social classes differ in the amount of attention their members direct toward other human beings. In Study 1, wearable technology was used to film the visual fields of pedestrians on city streets; higher-class participants looked less at other people than did lower-class participants. In Studies 2a and 2b, participants' eye movements were tracked while they viewed street scenes; higher class was associated with reduced attention to people in the images. In Study 3, a change-detection procedure assessed the degree to which human faces spontaneously attract visual attention; faces proved less effective at drawing the attention of high-class than low-class participants, which implies that class affects spontaneous relevance appraisals. The measurement and conceptualization of social class are discussed. © The Author(s) 2016.

  5. Facial emotion processing in pediatric social anxiety disorder: Relevance of situational context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwab, Daniela; Schienle, Anne

    2017-08-01

    Social anxiety disorder (SAD) typically begins in childhood. Previous research has demonstrated that adult patients respond with elevated late positivity (LP) to negative facial expressions. In the present study on pediatric SAD, we investigated responses to negative facial expressions and the role of social context information. Fifteen children with SAD and 15 non-anxious controls were first presented with images of negative facial expressions with masked backgrounds. Following this, the complete images which included context information, were shown. The negative expressions were either a result of an emotion-relevant (e.g., social exclusion) or emotion-irrelevant elicitor (e.g., weight lifting). Relative to controls, the clinical group showed elevated parietal LP during face processing with and without context information. Both groups differed in their frontal LP depending on the type of context. In SAD patients, frontal LP was lower in emotion-relevant than emotion-irrelevant contexts. We conclude that SAD patients direct more automatic attention towards negative facial expressions (parietal effect) and are less capable in integrating affective context information (frontal effect). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The Societal Impact of Extraterrestrial Life: The Relevance of History and the Social Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dick, Steven J.

    This chapter reviews past studies on the societal impact of extraterrestrial life and offers four related ways in which history is relevant to the subject: the history of impact thus far, analogical reasoning, impact studies in other areas of science and technology, and studies on the nature of discovery and exploration. We focus particularly on the promise and peril of analogical arguments, since they are by necessity widespread in the field. This chapter also summarizes the relevance of the social sciences, particularly anthropology and sociology, and concludes by taking a closer look at the possible impact of the discovery of extraterrestrial life on theology and philosophy. In undertaking this study we emphasize three bedrock principles: (1) we cannot predict the future; (2) society is not monolithic, implying many impacts depending on religion, culture and worldview; (3) the impact of any discovery of extraterrestrial life is scenario-dependent.

  7. The Continued Relevance of Reception Analysis in the Age of Social Media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathieu, David

    2015-01-01

    Far from being a remnant of the past, reception analysis must continue to set the question of meaning as a central issue in media studies, an issue that appears to be missing from current understandings of social media in which audiences are often reduced to a single reality or simply ignored...... as empirical reality. This paper argues for the continued relevance of reception analysis, inspite of the mismatch of the label, and develops this argument by applying one of its most fundamental insights, namely its investigation of the relationship between media and audience —or between text and context......—, to the study of social media audiences. In particular, the paper suggests three ways to look at the text-context relationship on Facebook with reference to its use during the “student crisis” in Quebec, Canada in 2012. It suggests three nexuses that represent as many sites of circulation of meaning in society...

  8. Is the Appropriateness of Emotions Culture-Dependent? The Relevance of Social Meaning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Welpinghus Anna

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper contributes to the question to what extent the socio-cultural context is relevant for the appropriateness of emotions, while appropriateness of an emotion means that the emotion entails a correct, or adequate, evaluation of its object. In a first step, two adequacy conditions for theories of emotions are developed: the first condition ensures that the socio-cultural context is not neglected: theories must allow for the fact that appropriateness often depends on the social meaning of the emotion’s particular object. The second condition rules out implausible forms of cultural determinism. In a second step, an account that meets both conditions is presented: the Acceptance within Social Context account.

  9. Residential Mobility and Turnout: The Relevance of Social Costs, Timing and Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jonas Hedegaard

    2016-01-01

    Residential mobility has substantial negative effects on voter turnout. However, existing studies have been unable to disentangle whether this is due to social costs, informational costs or convenience costs that are related to re-registration. This article analyzes the relevance of the different...... moved from the old neighborhood and it does not matter if citizens change municipality. Thus, the disruption of social ties is the main explanation for the negative effect of moving on turnout. Furthermore, the timing of residential mobility is important as the effect on turnout declines quickly after...... settling down. This illustrates that large events in citizens’ everyday life close to Election Day can distract them from going to the polling station. Finally, residential mobility mostly affects the turnout of less educated citizens. Consequentially, residential mobility increases inequalities in voter...

  10. Social marketing: approach to cultural and contextual relevance in a community-based physical activity intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Colleen; Vega-López, Sonia; Ainsworth, Barbara; Nagle-Williams, Allison; Records, Kathie; Permana, Paska; Coonrod, Dean

    2014-01-01

    We report the social marketing strategies used for the design, recruitment and retention of participants in a community-based physical activity (PA) intervention, Madres para la Salud (Mothers for Health). The study example used to illustrate the use of social marketing is a 48-week prescribed walking program, Madres para la Salud (Mothers for Health), which tests a social support intervention to explore the effectiveness of a culturally specific program using ‘bouts’ of PA to effect the changes in body fat, fat tissue inflammation and postpartum depression symptoms in sedentary Hispanic women. Using the guidelines from the National Benchmark Criteria, we developed intervention, recruitment and retention strategies that reflect efforts to draw on community values, traditions and customs in intervention design, through partnership with community members. Most of the women enrolled in Madres para la Salud were born in Mexico, largely never or unemployed and resided among the highest crime neighborhoods with poor access to resources. We developed recruitment and retention strategies that characterized social marketing strategies that employed a culturally relevant, consumer driven and problem-specific design. Cost and benefit of program participation, consumer-derived motivation and segmentation strategies considered the development transition of the young Latinas as well as cultural and neighborhood barriers that impacted retention are described. PMID:23002252

  11. Social marketing: approach to cultural and contextual relevance in a community-based physical activity intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Colleen; Vega-López, Sonia; Ainsworth, Barbara; Nagle-Williams, Allison; Records, Kathie; Permana, Paska; Coonrod, Dean

    2014-03-01

    We report the social marketing strategies used for the design, recruitment and retention of participants in a community-based physical activity (PA) intervention, Madres para la Salud (Mothers for Health). The study example used to illustrate the use of social marketing is a 48-week prescribed walking program, Madres para la Salud (Mothers for Health), which tests a social support intervention to explore the effectiveness of a culturally specific program using 'bouts' of PA to effect the changes in body fat, fat tissue inflammation and postpartum depression symptoms in sedentary Hispanic women. Using the guidelines from the National Benchmark Criteria, we developed intervention, recruitment and retention strategies that reflect efforts to draw on community values, traditions and customs in intervention design, through partnership with community members. Most of the women enrolled in Madres para la Salud were born in Mexico, largely never or unemployed and resided among the highest crime neighborhoods with poor access to resources. We developed recruitment and retention strategies that characterized social marketing strategies that employed a culturally relevant, consumer driven and problem-specific design. Cost and benefit of program participation, consumer-derived motivation and segmentation strategies considered the development transition of the young Latinas as well as cultural and neighborhood barriers that impacted retention are described.

  12. The relevance of social contexts and social action in reducing substance use and victimization among women participating in an HIV prevention intervention in Cape Town, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reed E

    2013-06-01

    community on issues relevant to substance use prevention or other health topics promoted within the program, as well as outside social influences within women's life contexts (eg, support from non-substance using family or male partners, leaving male partners or other peer relationships characterized by drug use, or finding employment were key factors reported by women in terms of facilitating their substance use abstinence and in reducing women's exposures to victimization. Conclusion: Findings highlight the potential for group-delivered interventions that include mobilizing women to take social action in the larger community to be effective approaches for facilitating substance use abstinence, reductions in victimization, and ultimately, to address the intersection between substance use, violence, and HIV risk among women in this high HIV prevalence setting. Keywords: HIV prevention, substance use, social context, women

  13. Clinical relevance of and risk factors associated with medication administration time errors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teunissen, R.; Bos, J.; Pot, H.; Pluim, M.; Kramers, C.

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE: The clinical relevance of and risk factors associated with errors related to medication administration time were studied. METHODS: In this explorative study, 66 medication administration rounds were studied on two wards (surgery and neurology) of a hospital. Data on medication errors were

  14. A review of potential factors relevant to coping in patients with advanced cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Thora G.; Rydahl-Hansen, Susan; Wagner, Lis

    2010-01-01

    The aim was to identify characteristics that are considered to describe coping in patients with advanced cancer, as seen from a patient perspective. Based on the identified characteristics, the second aim was to identify potential factors that are relevant to coping in patients with advanced cancer....

  15. A Factor Analysis of The Social Interest Index--Revised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarski, John J.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Factor analyzed the Social Interest Index-Revised (SII-R), which measures levels of social interest attained in each of four life task areas. Four factors (N=308) were defined, i.e., a self-significance factor, a love factor, a friendship factor, and a work factor. Results support the empirical validity of the scale. (Author/PAS)

  16. Social cure, what social cure? The propensity to underestimate the importance of social factors for health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haslam, S Alexander; McMahon, Charlotte; Cruwys, Tegan; Haslam, Catherine; Jetten, Jolanda; Steffens, Niklas K

    2018-02-01

    Recent meta-analytic research indicates that social support and social integration are highly protective against mortality, and that their importance is comparable to, or exceeds, that of many established behavioural risks such as smoking, high alcohol consumption, lack of exercise, and obesity that are the traditional focus of medical research (Holt-Lunstad et al., 2010). The present study examines perceptions of the contribution of these various factors to life expectancy within the community at large. American and British community respondents (N = 502) completed an on-line survey assessing the perceived importance of social and behavioural risk factors for mortality. As hypothesized, while respondents' perceptions of the importance of established behavioural risks was positively and highly correlated with their actual importance, social factors were seen to be far less important for health than they actually are. As a result, overall, there was a small but significant negative correlation between the perceived benefits and the actual benefits of different social and behavioural factors. Men, younger participants, and participants with a lower level of education were more likely to underestimate the importance of social factors for health. There was also evidence that underestimation was predicted by a cluster of ideological factors, the most significant of which was respondents' respect for prevailing convention and authorities as captured by Right-Wing Authoritarianism. Findings suggest that while people generally underestimate the importance of social factors for health this also varies as a function of demographic and ideological factors. They point to a range of challenges confronting those who seek to promote greater awareness of the importance of social factors for health. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Dog experts' brains distinguish socially relevant body postures similarly in dogs and humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kujala, Miiamaaria V; Kujala, Jan; Carlson, Synnöve; Hari, Riitta

    2012-01-01

    We read conspecifics' social cues effortlessly, but little is known about our abilities to understand social gestures of other species. To investigate the neural underpinnings of such skills, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging to study the brain activity of experts and non-experts of dog behavior while they observed humans or dogs either interacting with, or facing away from a conspecific. The posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS) of both subject groups dissociated humans facing toward each other from humans facing away, and in dog experts, a distinction also occurred for dogs facing toward vs. away in a bilateral area extending from the pSTS to the inferior temporo-occipital cortex: the dissociation of dog behavior was significantly stronger in expert than control group. Furthermore, the control group had stronger pSTS responses to humans than dogs facing toward a conspecific, whereas in dog experts, the responses were of similar magnitude. These findings suggest that dog experts' brains distinguish socially relevant body postures similarly in dogs and humans.

  18. Aberrant neural networks for the recognition memory of socially relevant information in patients with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Jooyoung; Chun, Ji-Won; Kim, Eunseong; Park, Hae-Jeong; Lee, Boreom; Kim, Jae-Jin

    2017-01-01

    Patients with schizophrenia exhibit several cognitive deficits, including memory impairment. Problems with recognition memory can hinder socially adaptive behavior. Previous investigations have suggested that altered activation of the frontotemporal area plays an important role in recognition memory impairment. However, the cerebral networks related to these deficits are not known. The aim of this study was to elucidate the brain networks required for recognizing socially relevant information in patients with schizophrenia performing an old-new recognition task. Sixteen patients with schizophrenia and 16 controls participated in this study. First, the subjects performed the theme-identification task during functional magnetic resonance imaging. In this task, pictures depicting social situations were presented with three words, and the subjects were asked to select the best theme word for each picture. The subjects then performed an old-new recognition task in which they were asked to discriminate whether the presented words were old or new. Task performance and neural responses in the old-new recognition task were compared between the subject groups. An independent component analysis of the functional connectivity was performed. The patients with schizophrenia exhibited decreased discriminability and increased activation of the right superior temporal gyrus compared with the controls during correct responses. Furthermore, aberrant network activities were found in the frontopolar and language comprehension networks in the patients. The functional connectivity analysis showed aberrant connectivity in the frontopolar and language comprehension networks in the patients with schizophrenia, and these aberrations possibly contribute to their low recognition performance and social dysfunction. These results suggest that the frontopolar and language comprehension networks are potential therapeutic targets in patients with schizophrenia.

  19. Solidarity with Animals: Assessing a Relevant Dimension of Social Identification with Animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amiot, Catherine E; Bastian, Brock

    2017-01-01

    Interactions with animals are pervasive in human life, a fact that is reflected in the burgeoning field of human-animal relations research. The goal of the current research was to examine the psychology of our social connection with other animals, by specifically developing a measure of solidarity with animals. In 8 studies using correlational, experimental, and longitudinal designs, solidarity with animals predicted more positive attitudes and behaviors toward animals, over and above existing scales of identification, and even when this implied a loss of resources and privileges for humans relative to animals. Solidarity with animals also displayed predicted relationships with relevant variables (anthropomorphism, empathy). Pet owners and vegetarians displayed higher levels of solidarity with animals. Correlational and experimental evidence confirmed that human-animal similarity heightens solidarity with animals. Our findings provide a useful measure that can facilitate important insights into the nature of our relationships with animals.

  20. Using person factors in social science research.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary K. Burger

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available El análisis factorial es el método utilizado frecuentemente para la identificación de las dimensiones y estructuras que constituyen la base de un conjunto de medidas, lo cual es importante para la investigación. Mientras el análisis factorial de tipo R, produce los factores presentes en las variables, es conocido por muchos investigadores que el análisis de tipo Q describe los factores presentes en las personas, y ha sido utilizado con menor frecuencia. En el presente trabajo se describe el análisis factorial de tipo Q y lo distingue del análisis factorial de tipo R. Entonces, se examinan tres usos de factores derivados del análisis factorial tipo Q: para describir el perfil de los resultados de pruebas de individuos, para dar más opciones al análisis convencional de los datos y para investigar las cualidades del individuo en los instrumentos de medición. Se propone que los factores personales resultan útiles para estos propósitos, en las investigaciones de las ciencias sociales.

  1. Social dialogue and social conflict as a topical factors of social transformations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Z. Derzhko

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The critical state of society can be measured by a system of interrelated indicators - economic, technologi­cal, political, cultural, ethnic and demographic. However, it is no exaggeration to state that they originally focused on the social aspects of life people lead to an integrated life crisis at a time of social transformations. There is no universal model of social dialogue; it is a means of improving productivity and competitiveness. Social dialogue - not only a form of crisis management, sometimes governments are turning to social part­ners only in case of economic crisis, seeking their support in taking unpopular measures. This approach is fundamentally wrong, because the dialogue is based on mutual trust and confidence, cooperation achieved over the years. That social dialogue should be used not only in adverse but also in favorable socio-economic circumstances. Opposition, competition, conflict, alternative, dissent is not only inevitable characteristics of a complex human world, but necessary factors that discourage stagnation, stagnation of society, the condi­tions of its constant renewal and development. Clarification of the nature and essence of social conflict as a specific manifestation of the contradictions of social relations requires consideration of a number of interre­© І.З. Держко, 2015 lated factors. First of all, we should take into account the fact that modern society is the very course of change in scientific thinking, social structure, is drawn into a new state, which is accompanied by adapting social transformation. That is why these problems require analysis of the conditions of its emergence, development methods and tools for forecasting and warning deviation from social norms. Social process includes ways of interaction between state and society, institutions and groups, political system and social environment, government and citizens. Social dialogue is one way of interaction between state and society

  2. Computations Underlying Social Hierarchy Learning: Distinct Neural Mechanisms for Updating and Representing Self-Relevant Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumaran, Dharshan; Banino, Andrea; Blundell, Charles; Hassabis, Demis; Dayan, Peter

    2016-12-07

    Knowledge about social hierarchies organizes human behavior, yet we understand little about the underlying computations. Here we show that a Bayesian inference scheme, which tracks the power of individuals, better captures behavioral and neural data compared with a reinforcement learning model inspired by rating systems used in games such as chess. We provide evidence that the medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) selectively mediates the updating of knowledge about one's own hierarchy, as opposed to that of another individual, a process that underpinned successful performance and involved functional interactions with the amygdala and hippocampus. In contrast, we observed domain-general coding of rank in the amygdala and hippocampus, even when the task did not require it. Our findings reveal the computations underlying a core aspect of social cognition and provide new evidence that self-relevant information may indeed be afforded a unique representational status in the brain. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Social modulation of cognition: Lessons from rhesus macaques relevant to education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monfardini, Elisabetta; Reynaud, Amélie J; Prado, Jérôme; Meunier, Martine

    2017-11-01

    Any animal, human or non-human, lives in a world where there are others like itself. Individuals' behaviors are thus inevitably influenced by others, and cognition is no exception. Long acknowledged in psychology, social modulations of cognition have been neglected in cognitive neuroscience. Yet, infusing this classic topic in psychology with brain science methodologies could yield valuable educational insights. In recent studies, we used a non-human primate model, the rhesus macaque, to identify social influences representing ancient biases rooted in evolution, and neuroimaging to shed light on underlying mechanisms. The behavioral and neural data garnered in humans and macaques are summarized, with a focus on two findings relevant to human education. First, peers' mistakes stand out as exceptional professors and seem to have devoted areas and neurons in the primates' brain. Second, peers' mere presence suffices to enhance performance in well-learned tasks, possibly by boosting activity in the brain network involved in the task at hand. These findings could be translated into concrete pedagogical interventions in the classroom. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Relevant Factors in The Post-Merger Systems Integration and Information Technology in Brazilian Banks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcel Ginotti Pires

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the factors present in post-merger integration of Systems and Information Technology (SIT that lead to positive and negative results in mergers and acquisitions (M & A. The research comprised three of the largest acquiring banks in Brazil. We adopted two methods of research, qualitative, to operationalize the theoretical concepts and quantitative, to test the hypotheses. We interviewed six executives of banks that held relevant experience in M & A processes. Subsequently, we applied questionnaires to IT professionals who were involved in the SIT integration processes. The results showed that the quality and expertise of the integration teams and managing the integration were the most relevant factors in the processes, with positive results for increased efficiency and the increased capacity of SIT. Negative results were due to failures in exploiting learning opportunities, the loss of employees and the inexpressive record of integration procedures.

  5. On the form factors of relevant operators and their cluster property

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acerbi, C.; Valleriani, A.; Mussardo, G.

    1996-09-01

    We compute the Form Factors of the relevant scaling operators in a class of integrable models without internal symmetries by exploiting their cluster properties. Their identification is established by computing the corresponding anomalous dimensions by means of Delfino-Simonetti-Cardy sum-rule and further confirmed by comparing some universal ratios of the nearby non-integrable quantum field theories with their independent numerical determination. (author). 21 refs, 5 figs, 16 tabs

  6. Relevant factors for tacit knowledge transfer within organizations: an exploratory study

    OpenAIRE

    Lemos,Bernardo; Joia,Luiz Antonio

    2012-01-01

    Knowledge and management of such knowledge have been studied for some time now in the field of Management. However, in the 1990s, with the growth in the economy based on intangible assets, companies needed more than an unstructured approach to corporate knowledge management to succeed in this new competitive environment. Therefore, this article aims to identify, in an exploratory way, the relevant factors for tacit knowledge transfer within a major Brazilian oil company trough a case study. T...

  7. Factors influencing message dissemination through social media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Zeyu; Yang, Huancheng; Fu, Yang; Fu, Dianzheng; Podobnik, Boris; Stanley, H. Eugene

    2018-06-01

    Online social networks strongly impact our daily lives. An internet user (a "Netizen") wants messages to be efficiently disseminated. The susceptible-infected-recovered (SIR) dissemination model is the traditional tool for exploring the spreading mechanism of information diffusion. We here test our SIR-based dissemination model on open and real-world data collected from Twitter. We locate and identify phase transitions in the message dissemination process. We find that message content is a stronger factor than the popularity of the sender. We also find that the probability that a message will be forwarded has a threshold that affects its ability to spread, and when the probability is above the threshold the message quickly achieves mass dissemination.

  8. Mycobacterium biofilms: factors involved in development, dispersal, and therapeutic strategies against biofilm-relevant pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Xiaohong; Deng, Wanyan; Liu, Minqiang; Xie, Jianping

    2014-01-01

    Many bacteria can develop biofilm (BF), a multicellular structure largely combining bacteria and their extracellular polymeric substances (EPS). The formation of biofilm results in an alternative existence in which microbes ensure their survival in adverse environments. Biofilm-relevant infections are more persistent, resistant to most antibiotics, and more recalcitrant to host immunity. Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the causative agent of tuberculosis, can develop biofilm, though whether M. tuberculosis can form biofilm within tuberculosis patients has yet to be determined. Here, we summarize the factors involved in the development and dispersal of mycobacterial biofilms, as well as underlying regulatory factors and inhibitors against biofilm to deepen our understanding of their development and to elucidate potential novel modes of action for future antibiotics. Key factors in biofilm formation identified as drug targets represent a novel and promising avenue for developing better antibiotics.

  9. Spaceflight-relevant stem education and outreach: Social goals and priorities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldwell, Barrett S.

    2015-07-01

    This paper is based on a presentation and conference proceedings paper given at the 65th International Astronautical Congress. The paper addresses concerns in education and public outreach (EPO) in science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM). The author serves as a Director of a US statewide NASA-funded Space Grant Consortium, with responsibilities to coordinate funding for undergraduate scholarships, graduate fellowships, and program awards. Space Grant is a national NASA network of STEM EPO programs including over 1000 higher education, outreach center, science museum, local government, and corporate partners. As a Space Grant Director, the author interacts with a variety of levels of STEM literacy and sophistication among members of the public. A number of interactions highlight the need for STEM EPO leaders to speak directly to a variety of social goals and priorities. Spaceflight is largely seen as an appealing and potentially desirable STEM application. However, members of the public are often unclear and ill-informed regarding relative expense, relative benefit, and relative breadth of domains of expertise that are relevant to the spaceflight enterprise. In response (and resulting in further disconnects between STEM specialists and the public), focused STEM professionals frequently over-emphasize their own technical specialty and its priority in general because of its importance to that professional. These potential divides in the attempt to share and connect STEM related goals and priorities are discussed as an elaboration of invitations to discuss spacefaring in "futures forum" contexts. Spaceflight can be seen as addressing a combination of "actualization" and "aspirational" goals at social and societal levels. Maslow's hierarchy of needs distinguishes between "basic needs" and "actualization" as a higher-order need. Another aspect of spaceflight is aspirational-it speaks to hopes and desires for levels of flexibility and capability at the

  10. Psychological factors of the readiness of teachers to ensure social security in the educational environment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shmeleva E.A.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The negative sociocultural transformations that are taking place in modern society and the resulting psychological transformation of personality and mode of life strongly require searching for ways of providing social safety to the next generation, with teachers being the implementers of this process. Teachers’ professionalism is determined by their willingness to solve personal and socially relevant problems, including the willingness to provide social security for other people, to thwart social risks, and to build constructive interpersonal relationships. The aim of our research was to reveal and to analyze the psychological factors affecting the readiness of teachers to ensure social security in educational environments. The environmental factors of social risk have been theoretically characterized. It has been shown that the essential factor in ensuring students’ social security is providing a safe social environment in educational institutions; such an environment provides the learners and the teachers with sociopsychological security and psychosocial well-being. The empirical part of our study was devoted to identifying negative social phenomena in the schools in the Ivanovo region (with the help of a questionnaire administered to 700 students and to identifying the personally and professionally important qualities of the teachers and the subjective psychological factors of their readiness to ensure social security in the educational environment (through interviewing 300 teachers; the administration of the questionnaires and the interviewing were followed by an assessment of their significance (with the help of a questionnaire administered to 140 teachers. Using factor analysis we identified the relevant indicators and grouped them into six factors of the readiness of teachers to ensure a safe educational environment. Relevant personal and professional qualities of teachers were revealed; these are the subjective factors of the

  11. Social Fitness and Resilience: A Review of Relevant Constructs, Measures, and Links to Well-Being

    OpenAIRE

    McGene, Juliana

    2014-01-01

    Examines social fitness, the combination of resources from social connections that influence how individuals respond to stressful circumstances, to identify methods of increasing social connectedness and support among U.S. Airmen and their families.

  12. Factor Structure of Social Cognition in Schizophrenia: Is Empathy Preserved?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Corbera

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Social cognitive impairments are core features of schizophrenia and are closely associated with poor functional outcome. This study sought to identify specific aspects of social cognition and their relationships to measures of social function, quality of life, and neurocognition. Principal component analysis was performed using social cognitive measures in patients with schizophrenia and healthy matched controls and revealed three factors: Interpersonal Discomfort, Basic Social Cognition, and Empathy. Patients had higher scores on Interpersonal Discomfort and lower scores on Basic Social Cognition than controls, but the two groups were the same on Empathy. Lower social performance was significantly correlated with poor Basic Social Cognition in patients and with high Interpersonal Discomfort in controls. While neurocognition was significantly associated with Basic Social Cognition in both groups, it was not associated with Empathy. Social cognitive interventions should emphasize improving basic social cognitive processing deficits, managing Interpersonal Discomfort, and utilizing preserved capacity for empathy as a potential strength in social interactions.

  13. Mice genetically depleted of brain serotonin display social impairments, communication deficits and repetitive behaviors: possible relevance to autism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J Kane

    Full Text Available Autism is a complex neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by impaired reciprocal social interaction, communication deficits and repetitive behaviors. A very large number of genes have been linked to autism, many of which encode proteins involved in the development and function of synaptic circuitry. However, the manner in which these mutated genes might participate, either individually or together, to cause autism is not understood. One factor known to exert extremely broad influence on brain development and network formation, and which has been linked to autism, is the neurotransmitter serotonin. Unfortunately, very little is known about how alterations in serotonin neuronal function might contribute to autism. To test the hypothesis that serotonin dysfunction can contribute to the core symptoms of autism, we analyzed mice lacking brain serotonin (via a null mutation in the gene for tryptophan hydroxylase 2 (TPH2 for behaviors that are relevant to this disorder. Mice lacking brain serotonin (TPH2-/- showed substantial deficits in numerous validated tests of social interaction and communication. These mice also display highly repetitive and compulsive behaviors. Newborn TPH2-/- mutant mice show delays in the expression of key developmental milestones and their diminished preference for maternal scents over the scent of an unrelated female is a forerunner of more severe socialization deficits that emerge in weanlings and persist into adulthood. Taken together, these results indicate that a hypo-serotonin condition can lead to behavioral traits that are highly characteristic of autism. Our findings should stimulate new studies that focus on determining how brain hyposerotonemia during critical neurodevelopmental periods can alter the maturation of synaptic circuits known to be mis-wired in autism and how prevention of such deficits might prevent this disorder.

  14. Effectiveness and relevant factors of 2% rebamipide ophthalmic suspension treatment in dry eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueda, Kaori; Matsumiya, Wataru; Otsuka, Keiko; Maeda, Yoshifumi; Nagai, Takayuki; Nakamura, Makoto

    2015-06-06

    Rebamipide with mucin secretagogue activity was recently approved for the treatment of dry eye. The efficacy and safety in the treatment of rebamipide were shown in two pivotal clinical trials. It was the aim of this study to evaluate the effect of 2% rebamipide ophthalmic suspension in patients with dry eye and analyze relevant factors for favorable effects of rebamipide in clinical practice. This was a retrospective cohort study of 48 eyes from 24 patients with dry eye treated with 2% rebamipide ophthalmic suspension. Dry eye-related symptom score, tear film break-up time (TBUT), fluorescein ocular surface staining score (FOS) and the Schirmer test were used to collect the data from patients at baseline, and at 2, 4, 8, and 12 week visits. To determine the relevant factors, multiple regression analyses were then performed. Mean dry eye-related symptom score showed a significant improvement from the baseline (14.5 points) at 2, 4, 8 and 12 weeks (9.80, 7.04, 7.04 and 7.83 points, corrected P value treatment. For ocular symptoms, three parameters (foreign body sensation, dry eye sensation and ocular discomfort) showed significant improvements at all visits. The multiple regression analyses showed that the fluorescein conjunctiva staining score was significantly correlated with the changes of dry eye-related symptom score at 12 weeks (P value = 0.017) and dry eye-related symptom score was significantly correlated with independent variables for the changes of FOS at 12 weeks (P value = 0.0097). Two percent rebamipide ophthalmic suspension was an effective therapy for dry eye patients. Moreover the fluorescein conjunctiva staining score and dry eye-related symptom score might be good relevant factors for favorable effects of rebamipide.

  15. An analysis of contingent factors for the detection of strategic relevance in business information technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Paños Álvarez

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Information Technologies are resources able to create competitive advantages for companies. In this analysis, the Resource-based perspective have taken special relevance, because it is argued that this advantages should be identified, reached and maintained. This work is positioned in the analysis of several contingent factors in the process of pointing the possible assesment of these advantages. It is aproaching a portfolio for helping to select what Information Technologies are valuable for what companies and in what activity areas and the study of in what way the sector, the technological innovation profile, the size and the financial capacity of the companies affects this process

  16. Exploratory Factor Analysis of SCL90-R Symptoms Relevant to Psychosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javad Amini

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available "nObjective: Inconsistent results have been reported regarding the symptom dimensions relevant to psychosis in symptoms check list revised (SCL90-R, i.e., "psychoticism" and "paranoid ideation". Therefore, some studies have suggested different factor structures for questions of these two dimensions, and proposed two newly defined dimensions of "schizotypal signs" and "schizophrenia nuclear symptoms". We conducted an exploratory factor analysis on the items of these two dimensions in a general population sample in Iran. "nMethod: A total of 2158 subjects residing in Southern Tehran (capital of Iran were interviewed using the psychoticism and paranoid ideation questions in SCL90-R to assess severity of these symptom dimensions. Factor analysis was done through SAS 9.1.3 PROC FACTOR using Promax rotation (power=3 on the matrix of "polychoric correlations among variables" as the input data. "nResults: Two factors were retained by the proportion criterion. Considering loadings >= 0.5 as minimum criteria for factor loadings, 7 out of 10 questions  from psychoticism ,and 3 out of 6 questions from paranoid ideation were retained, and others were eliminated. The factor labels proposed by the questionnaire suited the extracted factors and were retained. Internal consistency for each of the dimensions was acceptable (Cronbach's alpha 0.7 and 0.74 for paranoid ideation and psychoticism respectively. Composite scores showed a half-normal distribution for both dimensions which is predictable for instruments that detect psychotic symptoms. "nConclusion: Results were in contrast with similar studies, and questioned them by suggesting a different factor structure obtained from a statistically large population. The population in a developing nation (Iran in this study and the socio-cultural differences in developed settings are the potential sources for discrepancies between this analysis and previous reports.

  17. Place-based social contact and mixing: a typology of generic meeting places of relevance for infectious disease transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strömgren, M; Holm, E; Dahlström, Ö; Ekberg, J; Eriksson, H; Spreco, A; Timpka, T

    2017-09-01

    This study aims to develop a typology of generic meeting places based on social contact and mixing of relevance for infectious disease transmission. Data were collected by means of a contact diary survey conducted on a representative sample of the Swedish population. The typology is derived from a cluster analysis accounting for four dimensions associated with transmission risk: visit propensity and its characteristics in terms of duration, number of other persons present and likelihood of physical contact. In the analysis, we also study demographic, socio-economic and geographical differences in the propensity of visiting meeting places. The typology identifies the family venue, the fixed activity site, the family vehicle, the trading plaza and the social network hub as generic meeting places. The meeting place typology represents a spatially explicit account of social contact and mixing relevant to infectious disease modelling, where the social context of the outbreak can be highlighted in light of the actual infectious disease.

  18. Factor Structure of Social Cognition in Schizophrenia: Is Empathy Preserved?

    OpenAIRE

    Corbera, Silvia; Wexler, Bruce E.; Ikezawa, Satoru; Bell, Morris D.

    2013-01-01

    Social cognitive impairments are core features of schizophrenia and are closely associated with poor functional outcome. This study sought to identify specific aspects of social cognition and their relationships to measures of social function, quality of life, and neurocognition. Principal component analysis was performed using social cognitive measures in patients with schizophrenia and healthy matched controls and revealed three factors: Interpersonal Discomfort, Basic Social Cognition, and...

  19. Upper GI endoscopy in elderly patients: predictive factors of relevant endoscopic findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buri, Luigi; Zullo, Angelo; Hassan, Cesare; Bersani, Gianluca; Anti, Marcello; Bianco, Maria A; Cipolletta, Livio; Giulio, Emilio Di; Matteo, Giovanni Di; Familiari, Luigi; Ficano, Leonardo; Loriga, Piero; Morini, Sergio; Pietropaolo, Vincenzo; Zambelli, Alessandro; Grossi, Enzo; Tessari, Francesco; Intraligi, Marco; Buscema, Massimo

    2013-03-01

    Elderly patients are at increased risk for peptic ulcer and cancer. Predictive factors of relevant endoscopic findings at upper endoscopy in the elderly are unknown. This was a post hoc analysis of a nationwide, endoscopic study. A total of 3,147 elderly patients were selected. Demographic, clinical, and endoscopic data were systematically collected. Relevant findings and new diagnoses of peptic ulcer and malignancy were computed. Both univariate and multivariate analyses were performed. A total of 1,559 (49.5%), 213 (6.8%), 93 (3%) relevant findings, peptic ulcers, and malignancies were detected. Peptic ulcers and malignancies were more frequent in >85-year-old patients (OR 3.1, 95% CI = 2.0-4.7, p = 0.001). The presence of dysphagia (OR = 5.15), weight loss (OR = 4.77), persistent vomiting (OR = 3.68), anaemia (OR = 1.83), and male gender (OR = 1.9) were significantly associated with a malignancy, whilst overt bleeding (OR = 6.66), NSAIDs use (OR = 2.23), and epigastric pain (OR = 1.90) were associated with the presence of peptic ulcer. Peptic ulcer or malignancies were detected in 10% of elderly patients, supporting the use of endoscopy in this age group. Very elderly patients appear to be at higher risk of such lesions.

  20. Relevant Factors for Establishing Inter-firm Cooperation Networks in Rio Grande do Sul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Renato Verschoore

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The cooperation among firms in a network form has been stressed as an alternative organizational configuration in response to recent economic transformation. The increased number of initiatives and the empirical research scarcity on the network formation in Brazil motivated the present study. The main objective of this paper is to comprehend the factors which effect the establishment of network cooperation in the Southern Brazilian context. In order to achieve this objective a quantitative research was carried out with 443 enterprise representatives, associated to 120 cooperation networks. The empirical data were collected by the researchers in 2005 and statistically processed through a conjoint analysis. The results confirmed the theoretical propositions built by the researchers,appointing the relevance of factors, such as learning and innovation, increased scale and market power, and access to solutions.

  1. Relevance of genetically determined host factors to the prognosis of meningococcal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domingo, P; Muñiz-Diaz, E; Baraldès, M A; Arilla, M; Barquet, N; Pericas, R; Juárez, C; Madoz, P; Vázquez, G

    2004-08-01

    To assess the relevance of genetically determined host factors for the prognosis of meningococcal disease, Fc gamma receptor IIA (FcgammaRIIA), the tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) gene promoter region, and plasminogen-activator-inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) gene polymorphisms were studied in 145 patients with meningococcal disease and in 290 healthy controls matched by sex. Distribution of FcgammaRIIA, TNF-alpha, and PAI-1 alleles was not significantly different between patients and controls. Patients with the FcgammaRIIA-R/R 131 allotype scored > or =1 point in the Barcelona prognostic system more frequently than patients with other allotypes (odds ratio, 18.6; 95% confidence interval, 7.1-49.0, PFc gamma receptor IIA polymorphism was associated with markers of disease severity, but TNF-alpha and PAI-1 polymorphisms were not.

  2. SOCIAL TOURISM- A FACTOR IN CULTURAL, SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC CHANGE

    OpenAIRE

    Nicoleta-Rossela Dumitru

    2009-01-01

    Tourism has to maintain an individual and social balance, so that as well as providing personal fulfilment, it can be development in harmony with the human, natural and cultural environment and fit into a context of sustainable development. At the threshold of the third millennium, those of us involved in social tourism are faced with the emergence of threefold revolution: a revolution of the imagination and of creation in the development of new products and new; services in response to the n...

  3. Oxytocin mediates rodent social memory within the lateral septum and the medial amygdala depending on the relevance of the social stimulus: male juvenile versus female adult conspecifics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukas, Michael; Toth, Iulia; Veenema, Alexa H; Neumann, Inga D

    2013-06-01

    Brain oxytocin (OXT) plays an important role in short-term social memory in laboratory rodents. Here we monitored local release of OXT and its functional involvement in the maintenance and retrieval of social memory during the social discrimination test. We further assessed, if the local effects of OXT within the medial amygdala (MeA) and lateral septum (LS) on social discrimination abilities were dependent on the biological relevance of the social stimulus, thus comparing male juvenile versus adult female conspecifics. OXT release was increased in the LS of male rats during the retrieval, but not during the acquisition or maintenance, of social memory for male juvenile stimuli. Blockade of OXT activity by intracerebroventricular (ICV) administration of a specific OXT receptor antagonist (OXTR-A, rats: 0.75 μg/5 μl, mice: 2 μg/2 μl) immediately after acquisition of social memory impaired the maintenance of social memory, and consequently discrimination abilities during retrieval of social memory. In contrast, ICV OXTR-A was without effect when administered 20 min prior to retrieval of social memory in both species. Non-social memory measured in the object discrimination test was not affected by ICV OXTR-A in male mice, indicating that brain OXT is mainly required for memory formation in a social context. The biological relevance of the social stimulus seems to importantly determine social memory abilities, as male rats recognized a previously encountered female adult stimulus for at least 2h (versus 60 min for male juveniles), with a region-dependent contribution of endogenous OXT; while bilateral administration of OXTR-A into the MeA (0.1 μg/1 μl) impaired social memory for adult females only, administration of OXTR-A into the LS via retrodialysis (10 μg/ml, 1.0 μl/min) impaired social memory for both male juveniles and female adults. Overall, these results indicate that brain OXT is a critical mediator of social memory in male rodents and that, depending

  4. Social Contacts and Mixing Patterns Relevant to the Spread of Infectious Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mossong, Joël; Hens, Niel; Jit, Mark; Beutels, Philippe; Auranen, Kari; Mikolajczyk, Rafael; Massari, Marco; Salmaso, Stefania; Tomba, Gianpaolo Scalia; Wallinga, Jacco; Heijne, Janneke; Sadkowska-Todys, Malgorzata; Rosinska, Magdalena; Edmunds, W. John

    2008-01-01

    Background Mathematical modelling of infectious diseases transmitted by the respiratory or close-contact route (e.g., pandemic influenza) is increasingly being used to determine the impact of possible interventions. Although mixing patterns are known to be crucial determinants for model outcome, researchers often rely on a priori contact assumptions with little or no empirical basis. We conducted a population-based prospective survey of mixing patterns in eight European countries using a common paper-diary methodology. Methods and Findings 7,290 participants recorded characteristics of 97,904 contacts with different individuals during one day, including age, sex, location, duration, frequency, and occurrence of physical contact. We found that mixing patterns and contact characteristics were remarkably similar across different European countries. Contact patterns were highly assortative with age: schoolchildren and young adults in particular tended to mix with people of the same age. Contacts lasting at least one hour or occurring on a daily basis mostly involved physical contact, while short duration and infrequent contacts tended to be nonphysical. Contacts at home, school, or leisure were more likely to be physical than contacts at the workplace or while travelling. Preliminary modelling indicates that 5- to 19-year-olds are expected to suffer the highest incidence during the initial epidemic phase of an emerging infection transmitted through social contacts measured here when the population is completely susceptible. Conclusions To our knowledge, our study provides the first large-scale quantitative approach to contact patterns relevant for infections transmitted by the respiratory or close-contact route, and the results should lead to improved parameterisation of mathematical models used to design control strategies. PMID:18366252

  5. A Hybrid Approach to Finding Relevant Social Media Content for Complex Domain Specific Information Needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Delroy; Sheth, Amit P; Jaykumar, Nishita; Thirunarayan, Krishnaprasad; Anand, Gaurish; Smith, Gary A

    2014-12-01

    While contemporary semantic search systems offer to improve classical keyword-based search, they are not always adequate for complex domain specific information needs. The domain of prescription drug abuse, for example, requires knowledge of both ontological concepts and "intelligible constructs" not typically modeled in ontologies. These intelligible constructs convey essential information that include notions of intensity, frequency, interval, dosage and sentiments, which could be important to the holistic needs of the information seeker. In this paper, we present a hybrid approach to domain specific information retrieval that integrates ontology-driven query interpretation with synonym-based query expansion and domain specific rules, to facilitate search in social media on prescription drug abuse. Our framework is based on a context-free grammar (CFG) that defines the query language of constructs interpretable by the search system. The grammar provides two levels of semantic interpretation: 1) a top-level CFG that facilitates retrieval of diverse textual patterns, which belong to broad templates and 2) a low-level CFG that enables interpretation of specific expressions belonging to such textual patterns. These low-level expressions occur as concepts from four different categories of data: 1) ontological concepts, 2) concepts in lexicons (such as emotions and sentiments), 3) concepts in lexicons with only partial ontology representation, called lexico-ontology concepts (such as side effects and routes of administration (ROA)), and 4) domain specific expressions (such as date, time, interval, frequency and dosage) derived solely through rules. Our approach is embodied in a novel Semantic Web platform called PREDOSE, which provides search support for complex domain specific information needs in prescription drug abuse epidemiology. When applied to a corpus of over 1 million drug abuse-related web forum posts, our search framework proved effective in retrieving

  6. Motivation factors for suicidal behavior and their clinical relevance in admitted psychiatric patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naoki Hayashi

    Full Text Available Suicidal behavior (SB is a major, worldwide health concern. To date there is limited understanding of the associated motivational aspects which accompany this self-initiated conduct.To develop a method for identifying motivational features associated with SB by studying admitted psychiatric patients, and to examine their clinical relevance.By performing a factor analytic study using data obtained from a patient sample exhibiting high suicidality and a variety of SB methods, Motivations for SB Scale (MSBS was constructed to measure the features. Data included assessments of DSM-IV psychiatric and personality disorders, suicide intent, depressive symptomatology, overt aggression, recent life events (RLEs and methods of SB, collated from structured interviews. Association of identified features with clinical variables was examined by correlation analyses and MANCOVA.Factor analyses elicited a 4-factor solution composed of Interpersonal-testing (IT, Interpersonal-change (IC, Self-renunciation (SR and Self-sustenance (SS. These factors were classified according to two distinctions, namely interpersonal vs. intra-personal directedness, and the level of assumed influence by SB or the relationship to prevailing emotions. Analyses revealed meaningful links between patient features and clinical variables. Interpersonal-motivations (IT and IC were associated with overt aggression, low suicidality and RLE discord or conflict, while SR was associated with depression, high suicidality and RLE separation or death. Borderline personality disorder showed association with IC and SS. When self-strangulation was set as a reference SB method, self-cutting and overdose-taking were linked to IT and SS, respectively.The factors extracted in this study largely corresponded to factors from previous studies, implying that they may be useful in a wider clinical context. The association of these features with SB-related factors suggests that they constitute an integral part

  7. Social Studies Pedagogy for Latino/a Newcomer Youth: Toward a Theory of Culturally and Linguistically Relevant Citizenship Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffee, Ashley Taylor

    2016-01-01

    This study examines how teachers in 4 urban newcomer high schools conceptualized and implemented social studies education for Latino/a newcomer youth through an emerging framework of culturally and linguistically relevant citizenship education. Through a multi-site, collective case study design, the perspectives and decision making of social…

  8. Relevant factors to consider prior to an investor-owned acquisition of a nonprofit healthcare entity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ault, Kelvin; Childs, Brad; Wainright, Charles F; Young, Marilyn

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to explore the factors that affect the negotiations for an acquisition of a nonprofit system by an investor-owned entity. The recent economic downturn, accompanying credit crisis, and healthcare reform legislation will likely encourage and accelerate the pace of merger and acquisition (M&A) transactions between investor-owned entities and nonprofit hospitals. As many nonprofits are smaller, more financially vulnerable, and more limited in their access to capital than their investor-owned counterparts, nonprofits could be prime targets for investor-owned acquirers during the healthcare reform implementation period. In M&A transactions of this type, the investor-owned acquirer typically is motivated to pursue an acquisition when the deal promises an acceptable return on investment and decreased operating costs from economies of scale. Alternatively, the nonprofit target is typically seeking funding for upgrades to facilities and information technology systems as well as a continued commitment to charity care and managed-care contracting leverage. A successful acquisition of a nonprofit hospital by an investor-owned company requires a careful analysis of relevant tax, economic, and strategic factors prior to closing the deal. This article lists the most significant factors to consider in these deals and explains how these factors should influence the purchase price and postacquisition cash flow.

  9. An Enhanced Text-Mining Framework for Extracting Disaster Relevant Data through Social Media and Remote Sensing Data Fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheele, C. J.; Huang, Q.

    2016-12-01

    In the past decade, the rise in social media has led to the development of a vast number of social media services and applications. Disaster management represents one of such applications leveraging massive data generated for event detection, response, and recovery. In order to find disaster relevant social media data, current approaches utilize natural language processing (NLP) methods based on keywords, or machine learning algorithms relying on text only. However, these approaches cannot be perfectly accurate due to the variability and uncertainty in language used on social media. To improve current methods, the enhanced text-mining framework is proposed to incorporate location information from social media and authoritative remote sensing datasets for detecting disaster relevant social media posts, which are determined by assessing the textual content using common text mining methods and how the post relates spatiotemporally to the disaster event. To assess the framework, geo-tagged Tweets were collected for three different spatial and temporal disaster events: hurricane, flood, and tornado. Remote sensing data and products for each event were then collected using RealEarthTM. Both Naive Bayes and Logistic Regression classifiers were used to compare the accuracy within the enhanced text-mining framework. Finally, the accuracies from the enhanced text-mining framework were compared to the current text-only methods for each of the case study disaster events. The results from this study address the need for more authoritative data when using social media in disaster management applications.

  10. The role of social and psychological factors in radiation protection after accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrey, M.; Allen, P.

    1996-01-01

    The inclusion of social and psychological factors in the justification and optimisation of intervention after an accident requires identification of the relevant factors and their appropriate quantification. Recent studies suggest a possible approach. Some social and psychological factors either influence the consequences of radiation protection countermeasures, or are direct consequences of those measures. Such factors can be grouped into those that alter the dose-effectiveness of a countermeasure, those that extend the need for countermeasures in time or space, and those that fall into neither of the first two categories. Factors of the first two types can be quantified in terms of changes to the anticipated averted dose and monetary cost of a countermeasure. Quantification of the third type is currently difficult, but the existence of structural models for applications in social psychology suggests that such models could be developed for radiation protection in the future. (author)

  11. Anti-smoking policy in Russia: Relevant factors and program planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kossova, Tatiana; Kossova, Elena; Sheluntcova, Maria

    2018-08-01

    In this paper, we consider anti-smoking policy in Russia and the socioeconomic factors that influence an individual's decision to smoke. Among various factors, we investigate the individual time preferences of Russians. To estimate individual time preferences, we use an experiment in which survey respondents are given hypothetical money prizes. We find that being middle-aged, being unmarried and having parents who smoke are positively correlated with both men and women's likelihood of taking up smoking in Russia. We consider the possible endogeneity of an individual's health status and find a positive relationship between smoking and the time preferences of Russians. Our findings confirm that decisionmakers should devote their efforts primarily to developing restrictive anti-smoking policy. The choice of policy measures should be guided by the individual characteristics of target population groups. Social advertising, public lectures and preventive care should be actively engaged in forming public attitudes towards smoking. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Socialization, Social Cognitive Factors and the Sibling Relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, Nina

    Two separate studies suggest that the development of positive sibling relations may be related to siblings' social-cognitive skills (Stewart & Marvin, 1984) and the nature of mothers' conversations with their children (Dunn & Kendrick, 1982). The purpose of the present study was to provide a synthesis of these two studies and to demonstrate the…

  13. Risk Factors for Social Isolation in Older Korean Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Yuri; Park, Nan Sook; Chiriboga, David A; Yoon, Hyunwoo; Ko, Jisook; Lee, Juyoung; Kim, Miyong T

    2016-02-01

    Given the importance of social ties and connectedness in the lives of older ethnic immigrants, the present study examined the prevalence of social isolation and its risk factors in older Korean Americans. Using survey data from 1,301 participants (Mage = 70.5, SD = 7.24), risk groups for marginal social ties with family and friends were identified and predictors of each type of social isolation explored. Male gender and poorer rating of health were identified as common risk factors for marginal ties to both family and friends. Findings also present specific risk factors for each type of social isolation. For example, an increased risk of having marginal ties with friends was observed among individuals with perceived financial strain, greater functional impairment, and a shorter stay in the United States. The common and specific risk factors should be incorporated in programs to reduce social isolation in older immigrant populations. © The Author(s) 2015.

  14. Social Isolation, Psychological Health, and Protective Factors in Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall-Lande, Jennifer A.; Eisenberg, Marla E.; Christenson, Sandra L.; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2007-01-01

    This study investigates the relationships among social isolation, psychological health, and protective factors in adolescents. Feelings of social isolation may influence psychological health in adolescents, but protective factors such as family connectedness, school connectedness, and academic achievement may also play a key role. The sample…

  15. Social Fitness and Resilience: A Review of Relevant Constructs, Measures, and Links to Well-Being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGene, Juliana

    2014-01-01

    This study is one of a series designed to support Air Force leadership in promoting resilience among Airmen, its civilian employees, and Air Force family members. One key component to resilience is social fitness, or the combined resources a person gets from his or her social world. This concept encompasses the availability and maintenance of social relationships, and the ability to utilize those ties to manage stressors and successfully perform tasks. Social fitness resources are the aspects of those relationships that strengthen a person's ability to withstand and rebound from challenges and even grow from them. U.S. Airmen and their families face several unique challenges that can strain the strength and accessibility of these resources, particularly geographic movement. This study identifies several scales and indexes used in social science research to measure three primary social fitness resources, emotional support, instrumental support, and informational support, and proposes that interventions aimed at increasing the quantity and quality of social support should focus on (1) sociodemographic characteristics and dispositional traits; (2) dynamics that strengthen social groups, support networks, and teams; (3) practices that improve social skills and promote more frequent and constructive interactions; and (4) activities that reduce conflict and group division. Particular attention is given to interventions that utilize cyber or virtual communities as an effective means of increasing social connectedness and social support among U.S. Airmen and their families.

  16. Analysis of the Relevant Factors for the Engaging Women in Various Sports in Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joško Sindik

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Goals of this research were to determine the correlations among the dimensions of relevant factors about engagement of women in sports, as well as to determine the differences in the dimensions of relevant factors about engagement of women in sports, according to several independent variables: type of sport, educational level, marital status and place of living. A total of 342 female athletes and other sport practitioners are examined, with the average age of 31.53±13.92 years (M±SD from several Croatian sport federations: judo, badminton, gymnastics, bowling, acrobatic rock’n roll, handball, sport fishing, Association of the deaf athletes, archery, chess and basketball. The results revealed that according to the type of sport, the differences are statistically significant for: negative environment, relaxation/fun and ambition/self-esteem motives; environmental, obligation and financial/traffic/rules barriers; indirect strategies and already present initiatives for including women in sports. According to the education level, the differences are statistically significant for: positive personal, negative environmental motives and ambition/self-esteem motives; obligations as the barriers; organization out-of-sport commitments and specific strategies for media. The differences in the marital status of participants are statistically significant for the variables: positive personal, negative environmental and ambition/self-esteem motives; environmental and obligation barriers; organization of out-of-sport commitments. At last, only two statistically significant differences are found according to the place of living: for indirect strategies for including women in sports and for the programs created only for women. The results provide the platform for developing programs and strategies for retaining and engaging women in particular sports in Croatia.

  17. Factors relevant to the recycling or reuse of components arising from the decommissioning and refurbishment of nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    The decommissioning and decontamination of nuclear facilities is a topic of great interest to many Member States of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) because of the large number of older nuclear facilities which are or soon will be retired from service. To assist in the development of the required decommissioning expertise, the IAEA is developing reports and recommendations which will eventually form an integrated information base covering in a systematic way the wide range of topics associated with decommissioning. This information is required so that Member States can decommission their nuclear facilities in a safe, timely and cost effective manner and the IAEA can effectively respond to requests for assistance. One area which warrants more detailed analyses is an assessment of the factors important to the recycling or reuse of components arising from the refurbishment or decommissioning of nuclear plants, the topic of the present report. The document provides an up to date review of the engineering, social, scientific and administrative factors relevant to the safe recycling or reuse of components arising from decommissioning or refurbishment of nuclear facilities. This report should be of interest to owners, operators, policy makers and regulators involved with nuclear facilities, especially those in developing countries. Refs, figs and tabs

  18. Social defeat protocol and relevant biomarkers, implications for stress response physiology, drug abuse, mood disorders and individual stress vulnerability: a systematic review of the last decade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasconcelos, Mailton; Stein, Dirson João; de Almeida, Rosa Maria M

    2015-01-01

    Social defeat (SD) in rats, which results from male intraspecific confrontations, is ethologically relevant and useful to understand stress effects on physiology and behavior. A systematic review of studies about biomarkers induced by the SD protocol and published from 2002 to 2013 was carried out in the electronic databases PubMed, Web of Knowledge and ScienceDirect. The search terms were: social defeat, rat, neurotrophins, neuroinflammatory markers, and transcriptional factors. Classical and recently discovered biomarkers were found to be relevant in stress-induced states. Findings were summarized in accordance to the length of exposure to stress: single, repeated, intermittent and continuous SD. This review found that the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a distinct marker of stress adaptation. Along with glucocorticoids and catecholamines, BDNF seems to be important in understanding stress physiology. The SD model provides a relevant tool to study stress response features, development of addictive behaviors, clinic depression and anxiety, as well as individual differences in vulnerability and resilience to stress.

  19. Social defeat protocol and relevant biomarkers, implications for stress response physiology, drug abuse, mood disorders and individual stress vulnerability: a systematic review of the last decade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mailton Vasconcelos

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Social defeat (SD in rats, which results from male intraspecific confrontations, is ethologically relevant and useful to understand stress effects on physiology and behavior.Methods: A systematic review of studies about biomarkers induced by the SD protocol and published from 2002 to 2013 was carried out in the electronic databases PubMed, Web of Knowledge and ScienceDirect. The search terms were: social defeat, rat, neurotrophins, neuroinflammatory markers, and transcriptional factors.Results: Classical and recently discovered biomarkers were found to be relevant in stress-induced states. Findings were summarized in accordance to the length of exposure to stress: single, repeated, intermittent and continuous SD. This review found that the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF is a distinct marker of stress adaptation. Along with glucocorticoids and catecholamines, BDNF seems to be important in understanding stress physiology.Conclusion: The SD model provides a relevant tool to study stress response features, development of addictive behaviors, clinic depression and anxiety, as well as individual differences in vulnerability and resilience to stress.

  20. Contemporary social network sites: Relevance in anesthesiology teaching, training, and research

    OpenAIRE

    Rudrashish Haldar; Ashutosh Kaushal; Sukhen Samanta; Paurush Ambesh; Shashi Srivastava; Prabhat K Singh

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The phenomenal popularity of social networking sites has been used globally by medical professionals to boost professional associations and scientific developments. They have tremendous potential to forge professional liaisons, generate employment,upgrading skills and publicizing scientific achievements. We highlight the role of social networking mediums in influencing teaching, training and research in anaesthesiology. Background: The growth of social networking sites have been pr...

  1. Aboriginal Australians' experience of social capital and its relevance to health and wellbeing in urban settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browne-Yung, Kathryn; Ziersch, Anna; Baum, Fran; Gallaher, Gilbert

    2013-11-01

    Social capital has been linked to physical and mental health. While definitions of social capital vary, all include networks of social relationships and refer to the subsequent benefits and disadvantages accrued to members. Research on social capital for Aboriginal Australians has mainly focused on discrete rural and remote Aboriginal contexts with less known about the features and health and other benefits of social capital in urban settings. This paper presents findings from in-depth interviews with 153 Aboriginal people living in urban areas on their experiences of social capital. Of particular interest was how engagement in bonding and bridging networks influenced health and wellbeing. Employing Bourdieu's relational theory of capital where resources are unequally distributed and reproduced in society we found that patterns of social capital are strongly associated with economic, social and cultural position which in turn reflects the historical experiences of dispossession and disadvantage experienced by Aboriginal Australians. Social capital was also found to both reinforce and influence Aboriginal cultural identity, and had both positive and negative impacts on health and wellbeing. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Assessment of relevant factors and relationships concerning human dermal exposure to pesticides in greenhouse applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez Vidal, Jose L; Egea González, Francisco J; Garrido Frenich, Antonia; Martínez Galera, María; Aguilera, Pedro A; López Carrique, Enrique

    2002-08-01

    Principal component analysis (PCA) was applied to the gas chromatographic data obtained from 23 different greenhouse trials. This was used to establish which factors, including application technique (very small, small, medium and large drop-size), crop characteristics (short/tall, thin/dense) and pattern application of the operator (walking towards or away from the treated area) are relevant to the dermal exposure levels of greenhouse applicators. The results showed that the highest exposure by pesticides during field applications in greenhouses, in the climatic conditions and in the crop conditions typical of a southern European country, occurs on the lower legs and front thighs of the applicators. Similar results were obtained by hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA). Drop-size seems to be very important in determining total exposure, while height and density of crops have little influence on total exposure under the conditions of the present study. No pesticide type is a major factor in total exposure. The application of multiple regression analysis (MRA) allowed assessment of the relationships between the pesticide exposure of the less affected parts of the body with the most affected parts.

  3. Engineering tolerance to industrially relevant stress factors in yeast cell factories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deparis, Quinten; Claes, Arne; Foulquié-Moreno, Maria R.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The main focus in development of yeast cell factories has generally been on establishing optimal activity of heterologous pathways and further metabolic engineering of the host strain to maximize product yield and titer. Adequate stress tolerance of the host strain has turned out to be another major challenge for obtaining economically viable performance in industrial production. Although general robustness is a universal requirement for industrial microorganisms, production of novel compounds using artificial metabolic pathways presents additional challenges. Many of the bio-based compounds desirable for production by cell factories are highly toxic to the host cells in the titers required for economic viability. Artificial metabolic pathways also turn out to be much more sensitive to stress factors than endogenous pathways, likely because regulation of the latter has been optimized in evolution in myriads of environmental conditions. We discuss different environmental and metabolic stress factors with high relevance for industrial utilization of yeast cell factories and the experimental approaches used to engineer higher stress tolerance. Improving stress tolerance in a predictable manner in yeast cell factories should facilitate their widespread utilization in the bio-based economy and extend the range of products successfully produced in large scale in a sustainable and economically profitable way. PMID:28586408

  4. Engineering tolerance to industrially relevant stress factors in yeast cell factories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deparis, Quinten; Claes, Arne; Foulquié-Moreno, Maria R; Thevelein, Johan M

    2017-06-01

    The main focus in development of yeast cell factories has generally been on establishing optimal activity of heterologous pathways and further metabolic engineering of the host strain to maximize product yield and titer. Adequate stress tolerance of the host strain has turned out to be another major challenge for obtaining economically viable performance in industrial production. Although general robustness is a universal requirement for industrial microorganisms, production of novel compounds using artificial metabolic pathways presents additional challenges. Many of the bio-based compounds desirable for production by cell factories are highly toxic to the host cells in the titers required for economic viability. Artificial metabolic pathways also turn out to be much more sensitive to stress factors than endogenous pathways, likely because regulation of the latter has been optimized in evolution in myriads of environmental conditions. We discuss different environmental and metabolic stress factors with high relevance for industrial utilization of yeast cell factories and the experimental approaches used to engineer higher stress tolerance. Improving stress tolerance in a predictable manner in yeast cell factories should facilitate their widespread utilization in the bio-based economy and extend the range of products successfully produced in large scale in a sustainable and economically profitable way. © FEMS 2017.

  5. SOCIAL FACTOR VERSUS UTILITARIAN TECHNOLOGY: SOCIAL MARKETING VERSUS UTILITARIAN MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikhilesh Dholakia

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available A expansão e a convergência tecnológica de serviços vêm ampliando e modificando a utilização de produtos e serviços no setor telecomunicações, criando um novo mercado e ampliando seu público alvo pelas diversas características de utilização. O artigo desenvolvido apresenta uma pesquisa qualitativa, pelo estudo netnográfico (uma nova estrutura de avaliação qualitativa, onde discussões temáticas são retiradas de websites de confiança para serem organizados dado às palavras chaves utilizadas, passando posteriormente por um processo de codificação e interpretação sobre os fatores pesquisados baseado no consumo e comportamento do uso do iPhone, aparelho móvel celular com diversas integrações de produtos e convergências de serviços. Nesta pesquisa, foram avaliados os fatores utilitários e sociais / hedônicos, apresentando que o mercado do setor possui uma nova gama de serviços, atraindo novos grupos de usuários ao seu contexto, deixando assim cada vez mais diversificado o tipo de marketing utilizado no setor. O fator social (imagem pessoal é apontado como fator primário na decisão de escolha e uso do dispositivo, onde a apresentação no mercado e marketing para estes produtos estimulam cada vez mais a utilidade como um valor social. Identificando o dispositivo celular como um produto utilitário dado o tipo de serviço e utilização a que este se propõe, acredita-se que este mercado utilitário muda seu sentido quando certa quantidade de integrações são hedônicas amplificando a diversificação de uso, os valores sociais e hedônicos. Os autores definem este uso de um produto tecnológico com diversas integrações hedônicas como um comportamento utilitário social, onde a utilidade do produto passa a ser social (apresentação pessoal ou diversão individual.

  6. Social inequalities in mental health in Norway: possible explanatory factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalgard Odd

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is well known that there is a social gradient in mental health, the prevalence of mental disorders stepwise increasing by lower social status. The reason for this, however, is not clear, and the purpose of the present study was to explore possible mediating factors between social status and mental health. Methods The study has a cross-sectional design, and was based on a nationwide survey in Oslo, Norway, counting 12 310 people in the age of 30–60 years. Immigrants from non-western countries were excluded. Socio-demographic data were gathered from existing registers, whereas data on health, psychosocial variables and life style were gathered by structured interview. As indicator of mental health was used a 10-items version of Hopkins Symptom Checklist, measuring psychological distress. Measures of general self-efficacy and sense of powerlessness was used as indicators of control of own life situation. Results A strong social gradient in mental health was found, the prevalence of psychological distress increasing by decreasing social status. Psychosocial factors, including self-efficacy, sense of powerlessness, control of work, social support and negative life events, in particular economic problems, as well as life style factors (physical exercise, BMI, smoking and somatic health, likewise showed a social gradient, all risk factors increasing by decreasing social status. When adjusting for the risk factors in multivariate statistical analyses, the social gradient in mental health was eliminated. Low self-efficacy and sense of powerlessness emerged as important explanatory factors, alongside with poor social support, economic problems, smoking and somatic disorder. Conclusion Both individual characteristics, supposedly linked to the personality, like low self-efficacy, and factors related to the actual life situation, like economic problems and a feeling of powerlessness, contribute to the social gradient in mental health

  7. The Relevance of the Social Information Processing Model for Understanding Relational Aggression in Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crain, Marcelle M.; Finch, Cambra L.; Foster, Sharon L.

    2005-01-01

    Two studies examined whether social information-processing variables predict relational aggression in girls. In Study 1, fourth- through sixth-grade girls reported their intent attributions, social goals, outcome expectancies for relational aggression, and the likelihood that they would choose a relationally aggressive response in response to…

  8. Reconsidering the relevance of social license pressure and government regulation for environmental performance of European SMEs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graafland, Johan; Smid, Hugo

    Whereas social license pressure is held as a strong motive for the corporate social performance (CSP) of large enterprises, it is argued in literature that it will not sufficiently motivate small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). In this view, government regulation is the most effective way to

  9. Social Science Theories on Adolescent Risk-Taking: The Relevance of Behavioral Inhibition and Activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeersch, Hans; T'Sjoen, Guy; Kaufman, Jean-Marc; Van Houtte, Mieke

    2013-01-01

    The major social science theories on adolescent risk-taking--strain, social control, and differential association theories--have received substantial empirical support. The relationships between variables central to these theories and individual differences in temperament related to risk-taking, however, have not been adequately studied. In a…

  10. Social Issues: Making Them Relevant and Appropriate to Undergraduate Student Designers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lofthouse, Vicky

    2013-01-01

    Sustainable design education is now considered a core issue for industrial/product design courses, however research has shown that the predominant focus tends to be on environmental issues, as social issues are much harder to tackle. Similarly, social issues are rarely considered in industrial practice. If student designers are to become…

  11. An Observation Tool for Monitoring Social Skill Implementation in Contextually Relevant Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Joseph John; Hsiao, Yun-Ju; Dobbins, Nicole; Brown, Nancy B.; Lyons, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    Skills related to social-emotional learning (SEL) are essential for college and career readiness. Failure to use appropriate skills for SEL in school is often linked to several negative academic outcomes, including rejection by school community members, academic deficits, and higher rates of problematic behavior. Social skills interventions are…

  12. Contemporary social network sites: Relevance in anesthesiology teaching, training, and research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haldar, Rudrashish; Kaushal, Ashutosh; Samanta, Sukhen; Ambesh, Paurush; Srivastava, Shashi; Singh, Prabhat K

    2016-01-01

    The phenomenal popularity of social networking sites has been used globally by medical professionals to boost professional associations and scientific developments. They have tremendous potential to forge professional liaisons, generate employment,upgrading skills and publicizing scientific achievements. We highlight the role of social networking mediums in influencing teaching, training and research in anaesthesiology. The growth of social networking sites have been prompted by the limitations of previous facilities in terms of ease of data and interface sharing and the amalgamation of audio visual aids on common platforms in the newer facilities. Contemporary social networking sites like Facebook, Twitter, Tumblr,Linkedn etc and their respective features based on anaesthesiology training or practice have been discussed. A host of advantages which these sites confer are also discussed. Likewise the potential pitfalls and drawbacks of these facilities have also been addressed. Social networking sites have immense potential for development of training and research in Anaesthesiology. However responsible and cautious utilization is advocated.

  13. Children's disaster reactions: the influence of family and social factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfefferbaum, Betty; Jacobs, Anne K; Houston, J Brian; Griffin, Natalie

    2015-07-01

    This review examines family (demographics, parent reactions and interactions, and parenting style) and social (remote effects, disaster media coverage, exposure to secondary adversities, and social support) factors that influence children's disaster reactions. Lower family socioeconomic status, high parental stress, poor parental coping, contact with media coverage, and exposure to secondary adversities have been associated with adverse outcomes. Social support may provide protection to children in the post-disaster environment though more research is needed to clarify the effects of certain forms of social support. The interaction of the factors described in this review with culture needs further exploration.

  14. When the Periphery Becomes the Center. Forensic Anthropology in Argentina, a Case of Socially Relevant Scientific Knowledge Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano G. Levin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Forensic anthropology has had extraordinary scientific success in Argentina. On the one hand, this discipline has developed very well in only 25 years generating scientifically relevant knowledge both locally and internationally. On the other hand, and unlike a large part of scientific knowledge generated in peripheral contexts, it has major social applications. This work describes the different dimensions of the origin and development of this discipline in Argentina, the cognitive condition of the field in 1983 and, briefly, its development until today, its institutional dimension, the existence of other research traditions and certain social dimensions which, we believe, are the basis for the success of this scientific discipline.

  15. Antisperm antibodies as a factor of male infertility. Relevance, modern methods of diagnosis and treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. A. Nikiforov

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available According to WHO statistics 40 % of childless marriage is due to factors of male infertility. One of them is the presence of antisperm antibodies in the male organism, which may be in blood serum, on the surface of spermatozoids and seminal plasma. Aim. Оn the grounds of specialized literature analysis, to show the relevance of this problem in Reproductive Medicine, to descript Basic methods of Modern treatment and diagnosis of this pathology in the body of infertile males. The most common methods of antisperm antibodies identifying are: MAR-test sample Shuvarskiy–Sims–Hyuner, Kurtsrok–Miller test, the method of latex agglutination, solid-phase immunoenzymatic blood test. Indications for antisperm antibodies determining are: modified indices, deviations in post-coital test, a negative test of sperm and cervical mucus interaction in vitro, unexplained infertility in the married couples, failure or low indices during IVF (in vitro fertilization and of course, the exclusion of other causes of infertility. When antisperm antibodies are detected, the strategy of treatment may be destined to reduction of their titer for further pregnancy. Such types of therapy can be used: contraceptive (long-term use contraception barrier to reduce antisperm antibodies titer in women, plasmapheresis, artificial insemination with pretreated from antisperm antibodies husband's sperm, methods of assisted reproductive technologies. Conclusoins. The formation of antisperm antibodies leads to infertility of immunological genesis (in 20 % of couples with unexplained infertility. To confirm their presence in the male body it is necessary to perform the MAR-test, Shuvarsky test, other tests and, of course, the exclusion of other causes of infertility. Men of reproductive age with an immunological factor of infertility provides for a comprehensive treatment, including elimination of all possible causative and contributing factors of infertility (infection of the male

  16. Proteomic Assessment of the Relevant Factors Affecting Pork Meat Quality Associated with Muscles in Duroc Pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Hyoung Cho

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Meat quality is a complex trait influenced by many factors, including genetics, nutrition, feeding environment, animal handling, and their interactions. To elucidate relevant factors affecting pork quality associated with oxidative stress and muscle development, we analyzed protein expression in high quality longissimus dorsi muscles (HQLD and low quality longissimus dorsi muscles (LQLD from Duroc pigs by liquid chromatographytandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS–based proteomic analysis. Between HQLD (n = 20 and LQLD (n = 20 Duroc pigs, 24 differentially expressed proteins were identified by LC-MS/MS. A total of 10 and 14 proteins were highly expressed in HQLD and LQLD, respectively. The 24 proteins have putative functions in the following seven categories: catalytic activity (31%, ATPase activity (19%, oxidoreductase activity (13%, cytoskeletal protein binding (13%, actin binding (12%, calcium ion binding (6%, and structural constituent of muscle (6%. Silver-stained image analysis revealed significant differential expression of lactate dehydrogenase A (LDHA between HQLD and LQLD Duroc pigs. LDHA was subjected to in vitro study of myogenesis under oxidative stress conditions and LDH activity assay to verification its role in oxidative stress. No significant difference of mRNA expression level of LDHA was found between normal and oxidative stress condition. However, LDH activity was significantly higher under oxidative stress condition than at normal condition using in vitro model of myogenesis. The highly expressed LDHA was positively correlated with LQLD. Moreover, LDHA activity increased by oxidative stress was reduced by antioxidant resveratrol. This paper emphasizes the importance of differential expression patterns of proteins and their interaction for the development of meat quality traits. Our proteome data provides valuable information on important factors which might aid in the regulation of muscle development and the improvement of

  17. Global Social Challenges: insights from the physical sciences and their relevance to the evolution of social science

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2014-01-01

    The complex challenges confronting humanity today point to the need for new thinking and new theory in the social sciences which overcomes the limitations of compartmentalized, sectoral concepts, strategies and policies and mechanistic approaches to living social systems. The World Academy of Art & Science is convening a consortium of leading institutions and thinkers from different sectors to contribute ideas for formulation of a cohesive framework capable of addressing global social challenges in their totality and complex interrelationships. The objective of my presentation will be to explore the potential for collaboration between the physical and social sciences to arrive at a more cohesive and effective framework by exploring a series of questions, including - - Is an integrated science of society possible that transcends disciplinary boundaries based on common underlying principles as we find in the natural sciences? - To what extent can principles of natural science serve as valid models and a...

  18. Mental Health Status and Relevant Factors of the Patients with Hepatitis B%乙肝患者心理健康状况及有关因素的调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁秀娥; 任秋芸

    2001-01-01

    Objective:To study the the mental health and relevant factors of patients with hepatitis B. Methods: 58 cases of patients with hepatitis B were assessed with the Social Support Scale, Symptom Checklist-90 (SCL-90), Trait Coping Questionnaire and compared with healthy person. Results: All patients had obvious psychosomatic symptoms. The mental health level was negatively correlated with postive coping style and social support. Conclusion: Several psychosocial factors played an important role in the onset and trealment of Hepatitis B disease.

  19. Legal Origin and Social Solidarity: The Continued Relevance of Durkheim to Comparative Institutional Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Phil; Brookes, Michael; Wood, Geoffrey; Brewster, Chris

    2017-06-01

    By using the classic works of Durkheim as a theoretical platform, this research explores the relationship between legal systems and social solidarity. We found that certain types of civil law system, most notably those of Scandinavia, are associated with higher levels of social capital and better welfare state provision. However, we found the relationship between legal system and societal outcomes is considerably more complex than suggested by currently fashionable economistic legal origin approaches, and more in line with the later writings of Durkheim, and, indeed, the literature on comparative capitalisms. Relative communitarianism was strongly affected by relative development, reflecting the complex relationship between institutions, state capabilities and informal social ties and networks.

  20. Risk factors for mobility limitation in community-dwelling older adults: a social ecological perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeom, Hye A; Fleury, Julie; Keller, Colleen

    2008-01-01

    Although a variety of risk factors for mobility limitation in older adults have been examined, a collective review of relevant literature has not been reported. The purposes of this review are to report the intrapersonal, interpersonal, environmental, and organizational risk factors related to mobility limitation using a social ecological perspective and to discuss the direction of future clinical practice consistent with current literature on mobility limitation of community-dwelling older adults. Intrapersonal risk factors related to mobility limitation include advanced age, female gender, low socioeconomic status, comorbidity, lack of motivation (i.e., dependent personality, decreased self-efficacy), lifestyle factors (i.e., sedentary lifestyle, smoking, obesity), and physiological factors (i.e., vitamin D deficiency, inflammation, poor nutritional status). Interpersonal risk factors related to mobility limitation include weak social networks and limited social activities. Geriatric clients may also experience a decline in mobility when they encounter environmental challenges such as an inconvenient home environment and lack of availability of services in their community, as well as lack of organizational resources stemming from social policy. Potential intervention strategies focused on modifiable risk factors may include lifestyle modifications, social networking programs, and enhancing awareness of environmental and organizational resources in the community for older adults at risk for mobility limitation.

  1. The impact of psychosis on social inclusion and associated factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killaspy, Helen; White, Sarah; Lalvani, Nabeela; Berg, Rachel; Thachil, Ajoy; Kallumpuram, Sen; Nasiruddin, Omar; Wright, Christine; Mezey, Gill

    2014-03-01

    People with mental health problems are known to be socially excluded but the contribution of pre-morbid characteristics, symptoms and needs, and the impact on quality of life is unknown. To investigate change in social inclusion after the development of a psychotic Illness and factors associated with this. A cross-sectional community survey of people with psychosis was carried out in three areas of London. Five domains of social inclusion (social integration, consumption, access to services, productivity, political engagement) were assessed prior to the onset of illness and currently using the Social Inclusion Questionnaire User Experience. Quality of life, symptoms and needs were also assessed using standardized measures. Factors associated with change in social inclusion were investigated using multiple regression. Productivity and social integration among the 67 participants reduced after the onset of psychosis. Older age at onset and longer duration of illness were associated with greater reduction in productivity. Less reduction in social integration was associated with greater quality of life. Participants reported barriers to social inclusion that were directly related to symptoms of their illness, low confidence and poor self-esteem. A greater focus on interventions that can facilitate the occupation and the social networks of people with psychosis is required. Interventions that tackle 'self-stigma' may also prove useful in mitigating the social exclusion experienced by people with psychosis.

  2. Role Enactment as a Socially Relevant Explanation of Self-Persuasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodaken, Edward M.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Reports on four tests of Charles R. Berger's role enactment model of persuasion, which is addressed to generalizing counterattitudinal communication to social situations when persons find themselves encoding belief-discrepant messages. (JMF)

  3. Social factors matter in cancer risk and survivorship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Lorraine T; Gehlert, Sarah; Neuhouser, Marian L; Oh, April; Zanetti, Krista; Goodman, Melody; Thompson, Beti; Visvanathan, Kala; Schmitz, Kathryn H

    2018-07-01

    Greater attention to social factors, such as race/ethnicity, socioeconomic position, and others, are needed across the cancer continuum, including breast cancer, given differences in tumor biology and genetic variants have not completely explained the persistent Black/White breast cancer mortality disparity. In this commentary, we use examples in breast cancer risk assessment and survivorship to demonstrate how the failure to appropriately incorporate social factors into the design, recruitment, and analysis of research studies has resulted in missed opportunities to reduce persistent cancer disparities. The conclusion offers recommendations for how to better document and use information on social factors in cancer research and care by (1) increasing education and awareness about the importance of inclusion of social factors in clinical research; (2) improving testing and documentation of social factors by incorporating them into journal guidelines and reporting stratified results; and (3) including social factors to refine extant tools that assess cancer risk and assign cancer care. Implementing the recommended changes would enable more effective design and implementation of interventions and work toward eliminating cancer disparities by accounting for the social and environmental contexts in which cancer patients live and are treated.

  4. The relevance of the social context for media coverage of victims

    OpenAIRE

    Pavićević Olivera; Bulatović Aleksandra

    2017-01-01

    Media coverage of human suffering caused by trauma, illness, poverty and disasters worldwide takes up a significant part of media coverage and affects the identity of all actors, both active and passive. Media presentation shapes our thinking and reasoning at the group level, and has far reached impact. The social context of media reporting on victims is shaped by the capacity of the social system to recognize, acknowledge, strengthen and protect the victim...

  5. Social relevance drives viewing behavior independent of low-level salience in rhesus macaques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Andrew Solyst

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Quantifying attention to social stimuli during the viewing of complex social scenes with eye tracking has proven to be a sensitive method in the diagnosis of autism spectrum disorders years before average clinical diagnosis. Rhesus macaques provide an ideal model for understanding the mechanisms underlying social viewing behavior, but to date no comparable behavioral task has been developed for use in monkeys. Using a novel scene-viewing task, we monitored the gaze of three rhesus macaques while they freely viewed well-controlled composed social scenes and analyzed the time spent viewing objects and monkeys. In each of six behavioral sessions, monkeys viewed a set of 90 images (540 unique scenes with each image presented twice. In two-thirds of the repeated scenes, either a monkey or an object was replaced with a novel item (manipulated scenes. When viewing a repeated scene, monkeys made longer fixations and shorter saccades, shifting from a rapid orienting to global scene contents to a more local analysis of fewer items. In addition to this repetition effect, in manipulated scenes, monkeys demonstrated robust memory by spending more time viewing the replaced items. By analyzing attention to specific scene content, we found that monkeys strongly preferred to view conspecifics and that this was not related to their salience in terms of low-level image features. A model-free analysis of viewing statistics found that monkeys that were viewed earlier and longer had direct gaze and redder sex skin around their face and rump, two important visual social cues. These data provide a quantification of viewing strategy, memory and social preferences in rhesus macaques viewing complex social scenes, and they provide an important baseline with which to compare to the effects of therapeutics aimed at enhancing social cognition.

  6. Dog Experts' Brains Distinguish Socially Relevant Body Postures Similarly in Dogs and Humans

    OpenAIRE

    Kujala, Miiamaaria; Kujala, Jan; Carlson, Synnove; Hari, Riitta

    2012-01-01

    We read conspecifics' social cues effortlessly, but little is known about our abilities to understand social gestures of other species. To investigate the neural underpinnings of such skills, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging to study the brain activity of experts and non-experts of dog behavior while they observed humans or dogs either interacting with, or facing away from a conspecific. The posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS) of both subject groups dissociated humans facin...

  7. Adolescent Narcissism, Aggression, and Prosocial Behavior: The Relevance of Socially Desirable Responding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, Christopher T; Lui, Joyce H L; Anderson, Alexandra C

    2017-01-01

    An important threat to validity in personality research pertains to an individual's motivation to respond in a socially desirable manner on self-report inventories. This issue was examined in this study in the context of narcissism, aggression, and prosocial behavior in a sample of at-risk adolescents. Participants were 161 adolescents (128 males, 29 females, 4 not reported) ranging in age from 16 to 19 years who were attending a residential program for youth who have dropped out of school. Overall, socially desirable response tendencies were negatively correlated with vulnerable narcissism and self-reported aggression. Moreover, low socially desirable responses strengthened the relation between narcissism and self-reported aggression. Socially desirable responding was not associated with self- or peer-reported prosocial behavior and did not moderate the relation between narcissism and prosocial behavior. These findings indicate that the relation between narcissism and aggression is attenuated by concerns with social desirability. However, further work is needed in broader samples of adolescents to more closely examine whether social desirability concerns actually mitigate aggression among some youth or signify underreporting of one's problem behaviors.

  8. Social Networks in the Classroom: Personality Factors as Antecedents of Student Social Capital

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seevers, Matthew T.; Johnson, Bryan R.; Darnold, Todd C.

    2015-01-01

    This study examines personality factors as antecedents of student social capital. We hypothesize relationships between two constructs taken from the five-factor model of personality (agreeableness and extraversion) and two variables that reflect a student's social capital (quantity of ties and strength of ties) in an academic setting. Analysis of…

  9. FTO is a relevant factor for the development of the metabolic syndrome in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathrin Ikels

    Full Text Available The metabolic syndrome is a worldwide problem mainly caused by obesity. FTO was found to be a obesity-risk gene in humans and FTO deficiency in mice led to reduction in adipose tissue. Thus, FTO is an important factor for the development of obesity. Leptin-deficient mice are a well characterized model for analysing the metabolic syndrome. To determine the relevance of FTO for the development of the metabolic syndrome we analysed different parameters in combined homozygous deficient mice (Lep(ob/ob;Fto(-/-. Lep(ob/ob;Fto(-/- mice showed an improvement in analysed hallmarks of the metabolic syndrome in comparison to leptin-deficient mice wild type or heterozygous for Fto. Lep(ob/ob;Fto(-/- mice did not develop hyperglycaemia and showed an improved glucose tolerance. Furthermore, extension of beta-cell mass was prevented in Lep(ob/ob;Fto(-/-mice and accumulation of ectopic fat in the liver was reduced. In conclusion this study demonstrates that FTO deficiency has a protective effect not only on the development of obesity but also on the metabolic syndrome. Thus, FTO plays an important role in the development of metabolic disorders and is an interesting target for therapeutic agents.

  10. Rating the Relevant Factors of Business Conditions for Entrepreneurs in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanka Popovic

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper were processed and analyzed the attitudes and opinions of potential entrepreneurs regarding to starting their own businesses, in order to scan favorable conditions for development of entrepreneurship in Serbia. As a basic research instrument, a questionnaire with questions about the possibilities and limitations of entrepreneurial business was designed, with the task of identification and assessment of relevant factors that condition the operations of entrepreneurs in Serbia. Throughout the conducted research, it was concluded there are numerous obstacles to business start-ups and successful growth and development of entrepreneurship in Serbia. Participants of the survey believe they have competencies for starting their own business, but due to the unfavorable market conditions and the lack of financial resources, do not see themselves as employers. Analyzing of efforts and time, as well as the risks they take, it is concluded that most of them are not motivated to engage in entrepreneurship and does not plan a professional career in that field.

  11. Factors Influencing Social Media Marketing In Different Culture Context.

    OpenAIRE

    Omar, Juwayria

    2014-01-01

    Masteroppgave økonomi og administrasjon- Universitetet i Agder, 2014 Social media has gained precedence in today‟s business environment, and consumers themselves are more receptive to this marketing media. This study aims to identify the factors affecting users‟ attitudes towards social media marketing. From the literature review, a conceptual model was proposed, and five hypotheses were developed. The model studies the effect of several independent variables on attitude towards social med...

  12. The Role of Cognitive Factors in Childhood Social Anxiety: Social Threat Thoughts and Social Skills Perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Niekerk, Rianne E; Klein, Anke M; Allart-van Dam, Esther; Hudson, Jennifer L; Rinck, Mike; Hutschemaekers, Giel J M; Becker, Eni S

    2017-01-01

    Models of cognitive processing in anxiety disorders state that socially anxious children display several distorted cognitive processes that maintain their anxiety. The present study investigated the role of social threat thoughts and social skills perception in relation to childhood trait and state social anxiety. In total, 141 children varying in their levels of social anxiety performed a short speech task in front of a camera and filled out self-reports about their trait social anxiety, state anxiety, social skills perception and social threat thoughts. Results showed that social threat thoughts mediated the relationship between trait social anxiety and state anxiety after the speech task, even when controlling for baseline state anxiety. Furthermore, we found that children with higher trait anxiety and more social threat thoughts had a lower perception of their social skills, but did not display a social skills deficit. These results provide evidence for the applicability of the cognitive social anxiety model to children.

  13. Cyberbullismo, bullismo y factores de riesgo social

    OpenAIRE

    Spadaro, Rita

    2017-01-01

    El acoso cibernético es un fenómeno de creciente preocupación que afecta a un número cada vez mayor de niños y adolescentes. A veces puede ser una extensión de la intimidación tradicional, pero algunas características en particular sugieren que puede haber una ralidad causal distinta debida a la naturaleza virtual del contexto social en el que se desarrollan los procesos de interacción con los compañeros. Aunque hay una gran investigación en la literatura cientifica sobre las relaciones entre...

  14. Comparing social factors affecting recommender decisions in online and educational social network

    Science.gov (United States)

    MartÍn, Estefanía; Hernán-Losada, Isidoro; Haya, Pablo A.

    2016-01-01

    In the educational context, there is an increasing interest in learning networks. Recommender systems (RSs) can play an important role in achieving educational objectives. Although we can find many papers focused on recommendation techniques and algorithms, in general, less attention has been dedicated to social factors that influence the recommendation process. This process could be improved if we had a deeper understanding of the social factors that influence the quality or validity of a suggestion made by the RS. This work elucidates and analyses the social factors that influence the design and decision-making process of RSs. We conducted a survey in which 126 undergraduate students were asked to extract which are the main factors for improving suggestions when they are interacting with an Online Social Network (OSN) or in an Educational Social Network (ESN). The results show that different factors have to be considered depending on the type of network.

  15. Social Factor and Victim-Offender Differences in Courtship Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makepeace, James M.

    1987-01-01

    Explored social factor differences between respondents with and without courtship violence experience and between male offenders and female victims. Data from the Seven College Survey revealed that those with courtship violence experience exhibited relatively "problematic" social profiles. Especially significant were race; religion;…

  16. Donation to disaster relief campaigns: underlying social cognitive factors exposed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosterhof, Liesbeth; Heuvelman, A.; Peters, O.

    2009-01-01

    number of very serious natural disasters have put an enormous pressure on relief organizations in the last few years. The present study exposes underlying social cognitive factors for donation to relief campaigns. A causal model was constructed, based on social cognitive theory, research on

  17. SOCIAL POLICY AS FACTOR OF STATE INSTITUTIONAL STATUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larysa Zhukova

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the article is the research of theoretical and methodological aspects of social policy as the factor of institutional state statuses. Methodology. The researching in institutional providing of state social policy which may be considered as the base for performance of correspond reforms which are directed to the life level increasing, is enough popular task in scientific, theoretical and practical aspects. The scientific search of social policy as the factor of institutional status of state is carried out at the base of classical, neoclassical and institutional methodology. At the base of classical methodology it were defined the general approaches with help of dialectical analysis tools and synthesis of social relations array as historical action. With the help of system, structurally-functional analysis of social policy tasks, it’s opened its internal nature and ways of institutional providing. Institutional and neoclassical approaches allowed the specials analysing tools in modelling of dynamics and institute of social policy institute results in the conditions of market transformations. Also in the research process it were used the economic articles about the question of analysis in state social policy and given the statistic data about the analytical report to the annual President’s of Ukraine message to Verkhovna Rada of Ukraine „About internal and external condition of Ukraine in year 2015”. Research results showed what in the conditions of socially-economic and political instability, the social sphere Ukraine became the hostage of common crisis in economic, catastrophic decreasing of life level, increasing of social confrontation and rough system mistakes in the process of social institution formation. All of this neutralizes the methods efficiency about improvement of socially-economic condition of population and prevents to the implementation of necessary reforms. Practical value lays in the clear definition of

  18. Social Cultural Factors Influencing Women's Participation in Sports ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Social Cultural Factors Influencing Women's Participation in Sports as Perceived by Female Students of the University of Ilorin. ... sports competition while mass media should organize enlightenment programmes that will mitigate the ...

  19. Social factors associated with pulmonary hydatid cyst in Aegean ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Social factors associated with pulmonary hydatid cyst in Aegean, Turkey. ... where there are insufficient environmental health and preventive medicine services. ... The offices of the public administration have a responsibility to inform citizens ...

  20. Stress-relevant social behaviors of middle-class male cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Ding; Zhou, Yuan

    2015-11-18

    Stress from dominance ranks in human societies, or that of other social animals, especially nonhuman primates, can have negative influences on health. Individuals holding different social status may be burdened with various stress levels. The middle class experiences a special stress situation within the dominance hierarchy due to its position between the higher and lower classes. Behaviorally, questions about where middle-class stress comes from and how individuals adapt to middle-class stress remain poorly understood in nonhuman primates. In the present study, social interactions, including aggression, avoidance, grooming and mounting behaviors, between beta males, as well as among group members holding higher or lower social status, were analyzed in captive male-only cynomolgus monkey groups. We found that aggressive tension from the higher hierarchy members was the main origin of stress for middle-class individuals. However, behaviors such as attacking lower hierarchy members immediately after being the recipient of aggression, as well as increased avoidance, grooming and mounting toward both higher and lower hierarchy members helped alleviate middle-class stress and were particular adaptations to middle-class social status.

  1. Integrated and Early Childhood Education: Preparation for Social Development. Theme A: Relevant Provision for Early Childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axton, J. H. M.

    Factors which influence child development are listed and briefly discussed. These factors are (1) mother's childhood, (2) mother's age, (3) care during pregnancy and delivery, (4) early neonatal factors, (5) birth interval, (6) effect of repeated infection and malnutrition on brain growth and intellectual development, and (7) home environment. The…

  2. Legal Origin and Social Solidarity: The Continued Relevance of Durkheim to Comparative Institutional Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Phil; Brookes, Michael; Wood, Geoffrey; Brewster, Chris

    2017-01-01

    By using the classic works of Durkheim as a theoretical platform, this research explores the relationship between legal systems and social solidarity. We found that certain types of civil law system, most notably those of Scandinavia, are associated with higher levels of social capital and better welfare state provision. However, we found the relationship between legal system and societal outcomes is considerably more complex than suggested by currently fashionable economistic legal origin approaches, and more in line with the later writings of Durkheim, and, indeed, the literature on comparative capitalisms. Relative communitarianism was strongly affected by relative development, reflecting the complex relationship between institutions, state capabilities and informal social ties and networks. PMID:28502999

  3. Relevance of Piagetian cross-cultural psychology to the humanities and social sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oesterdiekhoff, Georg W

    2013-01-01

    Jean Piaget held views according to which there are parallels between ontogeny and the historical development of culture, sciences, and reason. His books are full of remarks and considerations about these parallels, with reference to many logical, physical, social, and moral phenomena.This article explains that Piagetian cross-cultural psychology has delivered the decisive data needed to extend the research interests of Piaget. These data provide a basis for reconstructing not only the history of sciences but also the history of religion, politics, morals, culture, philosophy, and social change and the emergence of industrial society. Thus, it is possible to develop Piagetian theory as a historical anthropology in order to provide a basis for the humanities and social sciences.

  4. Inhibited attachment behaviour and disinhibited social engagement behaviour as relevant concepts in referred home reared children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheper, F Y; Abrahamse, M E; Jonkman, C S; Schuengel, C; Lindauer, R J L; de Vries, A L C; Doreleijers, T A H; Jansen, L M C

    2016-07-01

    Disorders of attachment and social engagement have mainly been studied in children, reared in institutions and foster care. There are few studies amongst home reared children living with biological parents. The aim of this study was to test the clinical significance of inhibited attachment behaviour and disinhibited social engagement behaviour in young home reared children, referred for treatment of emotional and behavioural problems, compared with young children in treatment foster care. The Disturbances of Attachment Interview, Maltreatment Classification System, the Child Behaviour Checklist and Parenting Stress Index were used in 141 referred home reared children and 59 referred foster children, aged 2.0-7.9 years (M = 4.7, SE = 1.3), 71% boys. Inhibited attachment behaviour was less prevalent in the referred home reared group (9%) than in the foster care group (27%). Disinhibited social engagement behaviour was found in 42% of the home reared group, similar to the foster care group. Inhibited attachment behaviour and disinhibited social engagement behaviour were not associated with child maltreatment. More inhibited attachment behaviour was associated with clinical levels of child internalizing and externalizing behaviour in the home reared group, not in the foster care group. In both groups, more disinhibited social engagement behaviour was associated with clinical levels of externalizing behaviour and with more parenting stress. Even without evident links to maltreatment, results of this study suggest clinical significance of inhibited attachment behaviour and disinhibited social engagement behaviour in young home reared children referred for treatment of emotional and behavioural problems. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Increasing Brand Awareness Trough Utilization Of Social Media And Expansion Of Relevant Market Channels

    OpenAIRE

    Nummelin, Aura

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis is to suggest ways to increase and develop the brand image of A. Ahlström Real Estate Ltd. The plan involves more effort put on B2B events, adding new service concepts, highlighting social media as a marketing tool and creating a new sales strategy for foreign customers. The goal is not to create a brand, but rather enhance and develop the already existing one. By implementing a variety of social media channels into their marketing strategy A. Ahlström Real...

  6. interrogating the relevance of the extended family as a social safety

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mugumbate

    by Central Statistics Office (CSO), Government of. Zimbabwe ... In a study of 570 households in Manicaland by Foster,. Shakespeare ... fields including management, politics, social work and .... In some cases, biological parents would ..... Concerns about the rising orphan crisis in southern and ... Lund, Sweden: University.

  7. Innovations in meta-analysis and social impact analysis relevant for tech mining

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Becker, Henk A.; Sanders, Karin

    2006-01-01

    In the social sciences, non-utilization of knowledge is a major problem. Many publications stored in libraries or available on the Internet should be used more than they are now. Conventional approaches like providing abstracts and lists of keywords have proven to be insufficient. For more than

  8. From friendfunding to crowdfunding: Relevance of relationships, social media, and platform activities to crowdfunding performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borst, W.A.M.; Moser, C.; Ferguson, J.E.

    2018-01-01

    Crowdfunding involves raising small amounts of money from a large number of people, typically via the Internet and social networks, to fund a project. Crowdfunding projects are mainly funded by the project creator’s relatively small network of family and friends. We argue that mobilizing funders

  9. Brain response during the M170 time interval is sensitive to socially relevant information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arviv, Oshrit; Goldstein, Abraham; Weeting, Janine C; Becker, Eni S; Lange, Wolf-Gero; Gilboa-Schechtman, Eva

    2015-11-01

    Deciphering the social meaning of facial displays is a highly complex neurological process. The M170, an event related field component of MEG recording, like its EEG counterpart N170, was repeatedly shown to be associated with structural encoding of faces. However, the scope of information encoded during the M170 time window is still being debated. We investigated the neuronal origin of facial processing of integrated social rank cues (SRCs) and emotional facial expressions (EFEs) during the M170 time interval. Participants viewed integrated facial displays of emotion (happy, angry, neutral) and SRCs (indicated by upward, downward, or straight head tilts). We found that the activity during the M170 time window is sensitive to both EFEs and SRCs. Specifically, highly prominent activation was observed in response to SRC connoting dominance as compared to submissive or egalitarian head cues. Interestingly, the processing of EFEs and SRCs appeared to rely on different circuitry. Our findings suggest that vertical head tilts are processed not only for their sheer structural variance, but as social information. Exploring the temporal unfolding and brain localization of non-verbal cues processing may assist in understanding the functioning of the social rank biobehavioral system. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Millennials, Technology and Perceived Relevance of Community Service Organizations: Is Social Media Replacing Community Service Activities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, August John

    2017-01-01

    This mixed-methods qualitative study examined the relationship between perceptions of the importance of social media (i.e., Facebook, Twitter) with community service projects and volunteerism. Participants (n = 80) were interviewed and surveyed regarding their experiences in participating in a variety of community service work (CSW) projects…

  11. Social and psychological consequences of not crying : Possible associations with psychopathology and therapeutic relevance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hesdorffer, D.C.; Vingerhoets, A.J.J.M.; Trimble, M.R.

    2017-01-01

    Emotional crying is hypothesized to serve intra- and interpersonal functions. Intrapersonal functions are assumed to facilitate the capacity to recover from emotional distress, thus promoting well-being. Interpersonal functions are postulated to have a major impact on social functioning. We

  12. Parental Values and Practices Relevant to Young Children's Social Development in Taiwan and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jose, Paul E.; Huntsinger, Carol S.; Huntsinger, Phillip R.; Liaw, Fong-Ruey

    2000-01-01

    Compared self-reported parental values and child-rearing practices and teacher-reported and observed children's social skills among families of young children who were first-generation Chinese Americans, European Americans, or Taiwanese Chinese. All Chinese parents more strongly endorsed traditional Chinese values and exerted more parental control…

  13. Economic and Social Satisfaction : Measurement and Relevance to Marketing Channel Relationships

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geyskens, I.; Steenkamp, J.E.B.M.

    2000-01-01

    We demonstrate the critical need to recognize the presence of two different types of satisfaction for effective channel governance—economic satisfaction, that is, a channel member’s evaluation of the economic outcomes that flow from the relationship with its partner, and social satisfaction, a

  14. The Construction of Neighbourhoods and its Relevance for the Measurement of Social and Ethnic Segregation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damm, Anna Piil; Schultz-Nielsen, Marie Louise

    . To illustrate the importance of detailed neighbourhood information we compare social and ethnic segregation measured by Isolation and Dissimilation indices on the levels of municipalities and of small neighbourhoods. Our findings demonstrate substantial variation in the residential mix in neighbourhoods within...... a given municipality, and thus show the importance of having information on a more detailed geographical level than that of the municipality....

  15. The Construction of Neighbourhoods and its Relevance for the Measurement of Social and Ethnic Segregation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damm, Anna Piil; Schultz-Nielsen, Marie Louise

    . To illustrate the importance of detailed neighbourhood information we compare social and ethnic segregation measured by Isolation and Dissimilation indices on the levels of municipalities and of small neighbourhoods. Our findings demonstrate substantial variation in the residential mix in neighbourhoods within...

  16. We Feel, Therefore We Learn: The Relevance of Affective and Social Neuroscience to Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Immordino-Yang, Mary Helen; Damasio, Antonio

    2007-01-01

    Recent advances in neuroscience are highlighting connections between emotion, social functioning, and decision making that have the potential to revolutionize our understanding of the role of affect in education. In particular, the neurobiological evidence suggests that the aspects of cognition that we recruit most heavily in schools, namely…

  17. The ambiguous utility of psychometrics for the interpretative foundation of socially relevant avatars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vautier, S.; Veldhuis, M.; Lacot, E.; Matton, N.

    2012-01-01

    The persisting debates that measurement in psychology elicits can be explained by the conflict between two aspiration types. One, the epistemologic aspiration, resting on the search for scientific truth, and two, the social aspiration, resting on the demonstration of a capacity to contribute to

  18. interrogating the relevance of the extended family as a social safety ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mugumbate

    in supporting the extended family to augment formal social welfare services as these are not always readily available or ... in the number of orphans and subsequently vulnerable children in need of care and this has been closely linked ... The education and health sectors, amongst the worst affected, have seen a decline in.

  19. Rapid and collaborative development of socially relevant computing solutions for developing communities

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mtsweni, J

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available stakeholders, including communities to work on common social challenges over a short period of time are emerging to address the technological gaps in ICT4D projects. This research expands on the extensive work that has been done over the years in ICT4D projects...

  20. Relevance of behavioral and social models to the study of consumer energy decision making and behavior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burns, B.A.

    1980-11-01

    This report reviews social and behavioral science models and techniques for their possible use in understanding and predicting consumer energy decision making and behaviors. A number of models and techniques have been developed that address different aspects of the decision process, use different theoretical bases and approaches, and have been aimed at different audiences. Three major areas of discussion were selected: (1) models of adaptation to social change, (2) decision making and choice, and (3) diffusion of innovation. Within these three areas, the contributions of psychologists, sociologists, economists, marketing researchers, and others were reviewed. Five primary components of the models were identified and compared. The components are: (1) situational characteristics, (2) product characteristics, (3) individual characteristics, (4) social influences, and (5) the interaction or decision rules. The explicit use of behavioral and social science models in energy decision-making and behavior studies has been limited. Examples are given of a small number of energy studies which applied and tested existing models in studying the adoption of energy conservation behaviors and technologies, and solar technology.

  1. From friendfunding to crowdfunding: Relevance of relationships, social media, and platform activities to crowdfunding performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borst, W.A.M.; Moser, C.; Ferguson, J.E.

    2017-01-01

    Crowdfunding involves raising small amounts of money from a large number of people, typically via the Internet and social networks, to fund a project. Crowdfunding projects are mainly funded by the project creator’s relatively small network of family and friends. We argue that mobilizing funders

  2. Exploring the relevance of social justice within a relational nursing ethic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Martin

    2012-01-01

    In the last few decades, a growing number of commentators have questioned the appropriateness of the 'justice view' of ethics as a suitable approach in health care ethics, and most certainly in nursing. Essentially, in their ethical deliberations, it is argued that nurses do not readily adopt the high degree of impartiality and objectivity that is associated with a justice view; instead their moral practices are more accurately reflected through the use of alternative approaches such as relational or care-based ethics. Yet, it has also been argued that this viewpoint does not necessarily 'do justice' to the broader moral responsibilities of nurses towards humanity in general, i.e. to the wider socio-cultural and socio-political issues in society, and to the concept of social justice in particular. This criticism has triggered a much closer examination of relational and care-based ethics in nursing at levels beyond individual responsiveness within relationships and brought into the spotlight the need for a more ethically refined nursing response to an increasingly complex set of socio-cultural inequalities. This article explores a relational ethic within nursing practices with contemporary ideas regarding social justice. In particular, it is argued that the synergy between the two actually produces an ethic that is capable of not only challenging the continuing predominance of justice-based ethics within health care, but of replacing it. Subsequently, in the discussion that follows, it is suggested that a combined social justice and relational care-based approach, as a social ethic, should guide the moral deliberations and actions of nurses. It is maintained that such an approach is not only possible, but crucial if nurses are to realize their full potential as ethical agents for individual and social good. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  3. The contribution from psychological, social, and organizational work factors to risk of disability retirement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knardahl, Stein; Johannessen, Håkon A.; Sterud, Tom

    2017-01-01

    Background: Previous studies indicate that psychological, social, and organizational factors at work contribute to health, motivation, absence from work, and functional ability. The objective of the study was to assess the current state of knowledge of the contribution of psychological, social, a...... social support from ones superior. Conclusions: Psychological and organizational factors at work contribute to disability retirement with the most robust evidence for the role of work control. We recommend the measurement of specific exposure factors in future studies.......Background: Previous studies indicate that psychological, social, and organizational factors at work contribute to health, motivation, absence from work, and functional ability. The objective of the study was to assess the current state of knowledge of the contribution of psychological, social......, and organizational factors to disability retirement by a systematic review and meta-analyses. Methods: Data sources: A systematic literature search for studies of retirement due to disability in Medline, Embase, and PsychINFO was performed. Reference lists of relevant articles were hand-searched for additional...

  4. Social relevance: toward understanding the impact of the individual in an information cascade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Robert T.; White, Joshua S.; Fields, Jeremy

    2016-05-01

    Information Cascades (IC) through a social network occur due to the decision of users to disseminate content. We define this decision process as User Diffusion (UD). IC models typically describe an information cascade by treating a user as a node within a social graph, where a node's reception of an idea is represented by some activation state. The probability of activation then becomes a function of a node's connectedness to other activated nodes as well as, potentially, the history of activation attempts. We enrich this Coarse-Grained User Diffusion (CGUD) model by applying actor type logics to the nodes of the graph. The resulting Fine-Grained User Diffusion (FGUD) model utilizes prior research in actor typing to generate a predictive model regarding the future influence a user will have on an Information Cascade. Furthermore, we introduce a measure of Information Resonance that is used to aid in predictions regarding user behavior.

  5. Playable Stories: Making Programming and 3D Role-Playing Game Design Personally and Socially Relevant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingram-Goble, Adam

    2013-01-01

    This is an exploratory design study of a novel system for learning programming and 3D role-playing game design as tools for social change. This study was conducted at two sites. Participants in the study were ages 9-14 and worked for up to 15 hours with the platform to learn how to program and design video games with personally or socially…

  6. The Role of Relevancy and Social Suffering in "Generativity" Among Older Post-Soviet Women Immigrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Medeiros, Kate; Rubinstein, Robert; Ermoshkina, Polina

    2015-08-01

    This paper examines generativity, social suffering, and culture change in a sample of 16 women aged 65 years or older who emigrated from the former Soviet Union. Key concerns with generativity are identity, which can be strongly rooted in one's original cultural formation, and a stable life course, which is what ideally enables generative impulses to be cultivated in later life. To better understand how early social suffering may affect later life generativity, we conducted two 90-min interviews with each of our participants on their past experiences and current views of generativity. The trauma of World War II, poor quality of life in the Soviet Union, scarcity of shelter and supplies, and fear of arrest emerged as common components in social suffering, which affected their identity. Overall, the theme of broken links to the future--the sense that their current lives were irrelevant to future generations--was strong among informants in their interviews, pointing to the importance of life course stability in relation to certain forms of generativity. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. The relevance of the ISO26000 social responsibility issues to the Hong Kong construction industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Robyn Barnes

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available CorporateSocial Responsibility (CSR, the responsibility of a corporation for theimpacts of its decisions on society and the environment, originated as a termin the 1950’s (Carroll 1999. However, ISO 26000 (ISO 2010“Guidance on Social Responsibility” published in November 2010, redefines “SocialResponsibility” (“SR” broadly, by reference to SR principles, core subjectsand issues. The Hong Kong Construction Industry (“HKCI” sector is critical to Hong Kong’s economy, accounting for5.6% of the GDP and 9.2% of employment in 1999 (Tang 2001. In 2011, the gross value of constructionwork by main contractors amounted to HK$128.53 billion and contributed HK$65.4 billion (HKGov 2013to the total GDP of HK$1,823.2 billion (3.6% (HKTDC 2013.The aim of this research is toinvestigate which ISO 26000 CSR issues are relevantto HKCI firms. Theprinciple findings are that: the reported level of HKCI CSR activity relativeto the 7 core subject of ISO 26000 is a function of company size; many SME’sconsider that many of the ISO 26000 SR issues are irrelevant to them; but forthe large construction contractors, reputation, legislation and or regulation andcorporate culture are drivers of improvements in CSR in the HKCI.

  8. Relevance of workplace social mixing during influenza pandemics: an experimental modelling study of workplace cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timpka, T; Eriksson, H; Holm, E; Strömgren, M; Ekberg, J; Spreco, A; Dahlström, Ö

    2016-07-01

    Workplaces are one of the most important regular meeting places in society. The aim of this study was to use simulation experiments to examine the impact of different workplace cultures on influenza dissemination during pandemics. The impact is investigated by experiments with defined social-mixing patterns at workplaces using semi-virtual models based on authentic sociodemographic and geographical data from a North European community (population 136 000). A simulated pandemic outbreak was found to affect 33% of the total population in the community with the reference academic-creative workplace culture; virus transmission at the workplace accounted for 10·6% of the cases. A model with a prevailing industrial-administrative workplace culture generated 11% lower incidence than the reference model, while the model with a self-employed workplace culture (also corresponding to a hypothetical scenario with all workplaces closed) produced 20% fewer cases. The model representing an academic-creative workplace culture with restricted workplace interaction generated 12% lower cumulative incidence compared to the reference model. The results display important theoretical associations between workplace social-mixing cultures and community-level incidence rates during influenza pandemics. Social interaction patterns at workplaces should be taken into consideration when analysing virus transmission patterns during influenza pandemics.

  9. The Social Costs of Electricity Generation—Categorising Different Types of Costs and Evaluating Their Respective Relevance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sascha Samadi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Various electricity generation technologies using different primary energy sources are available. Many published studies compare the costs of these technologies. However, most of those studies only consider plant-level costs and do not fully take into account additional costs that societies may face in using these technologies. This article reviews the literature on the costs of electricity generation technologies, aiming to determine which types of costs are relevant from a societal point of view when comparing generation technologies. The paper categorises the relevant types of costs, differentiating between plant-level, system and external costs as the main categories. It discusses the relevance of each type of cost for each generation technology. The findings suggest that several low-carbon electricity generation technologies exhibit lower social costs per kWh than the currently dominant technologies using fossil fuels. More generally, the findings emphasise the importance of taking not only plant-level costs, but also system and external costs, into account when comparing electricity generation technologies from a societal point of view. The article intends to inform both policymakers and energy system modellers, the latter who may strive to include all relevant types of costs in their models.

  10. Sources of Data and Expertise for Environmental Factors Relevant to Amphibious Operations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Andrew, Colin

    2000-01-01

    .... Before embarking on a research program it seemed worthwhile to survey the institutions and personnel who already have expertise in the gathering and analysis of relevant environmental data types...

  11. E-Learning and Social Media Motivation Factor Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosli, Mohd Shafie; Saleh, Nor Shela; Aris, Baharuddin; Ahmad, Maizah Hura; Sejzi, Abbas Abjoli; Shamsudin, Nur Amalina

    2016-01-01

    The aims of this study are to probe into the motivational factors toward the usage of e-learning and social media among educational technology postgraduate students in the Faculty of Education, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia. This study had involved 70 respondents via the means of a questionnaire. Four factors have been studied, named, the factor…

  12. Alternative Administrative Certification: Socializing Factors Influencing Program Choice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bickmore, Dana L.; Bickmore, Steven T.; Raines, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    This study used an organizational socialization lens to examine factors influencing participants' decision to pursue the principalship and choice to engage in an alternate administration certification program. Through an analysis of participant focus groups and interviews, factors emerged from the codes that were compared with dimensions of…

  13. Path dependence in social and psychological risk factors for dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroko Matsuoka

    Full Text Available Abstract This article focuses on social and psychological risk factors for Alzheimer's disease, dementia, and cognitive impairment and presents some key points for prevention in developing countries based on previous studies, a social science theory, and our preliminary survey. Previous population-based studies found that educational and occupational attainment, income, participation in social and mental activities, and psychological distress were associated with dementia risk. According to the theory of path dependence, earlier factors largely determine successive ones, where education is one of these early experiences in life. Our preliminary survey suggested that education sets a path that several psychosocial risk factors are dependent on. The expansion of basic education is indispensable. Resources for prevention should be concentrated on individuals with a low level of education. In order to break from a path creating self-reinforcement of risk factors, it is necessary to implement early and active interventions.

  14. Using Confidence Interval-Based Estimation of Relevance to Select Social-Cognitive Determinants for Behavior Change Interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rik Crutzen

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available When developing an intervention aimed at behavior change, one of the crucial steps in the development process is to select the most relevant social-cognitive determinants. These determinants can be seen as the buttons one needs to push to establish behavior change. Insight into these determinants is needed to select behavior change methods (i.e., general behavior change techniques that are applied in an intervention in the development process. Therefore, a study on determinants is often conducted as formative research in the intervention development process. Ideally, all relevant determinants identified in such a study are addressed by an intervention. However, when developing a behavior change intervention, there are limits in terms of, for example, resources available for intervention development and the amount of content that participants of an intervention can be exposed to. Hence, it is important to select those determinants that are most relevant to the target behavior as these determinants should be addressed in an intervention. The aim of the current paper is to introduce a novel approach to select the most relevant social-cognitive determinants and use them in intervention development. This approach is based on visualization of confidence intervals for the means and correlation coefficients for all determinants simultaneously. This visualization facilitates comparison, which is necessary when making selections. By means of a case study on the determinants of using a high dose of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (commonly known as ecstasy, we illustrate this approach. We provide a freely available tool to facilitate the analyses needed in this approach.

  15. Using Confidence Interval-Based Estimation of Relevance to Select Social-Cognitive Determinants for Behavior Change Interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crutzen, Rik; Peters, Gjalt-Jorn Ygram; Noijen, Judith

    2017-01-01

    When developing an intervention aimed at behavior change, one of the crucial steps in the development process is to select the most relevant social-cognitive determinants. These determinants can be seen as the buttons one needs to push to establish behavior change. Insight into these determinants is needed to select behavior change methods (i.e., general behavior change techniques that are applied in an intervention) in the development process. Therefore, a study on determinants is often conducted as formative research in the intervention development process. Ideally, all relevant determinants identified in such a study are addressed by an intervention. However, when developing a behavior change intervention, there are limits in terms of, for example, resources available for intervention development and the amount of content that participants of an intervention can be exposed to. Hence, it is important to select those determinants that are most relevant to the target behavior as these determinants should be addressed in an intervention. The aim of the current paper is to introduce a novel approach to select the most relevant social-cognitive determinants and use them in intervention development. This approach is based on visualization of confidence intervals for the means and correlation coefficients for all determinants simultaneously. This visualization facilitates comparison, which is necessary when making selections. By means of a case study on the determinants of using a high dose of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (commonly known as ecstasy), we illustrate this approach. We provide a freely available tool to facilitate the analyses needed in this approach.

  16. Factors influencing social distance toward people with mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauber, Christoph; Nordt, Carlos; Falcato, Luis; Rössler, Wulf

    2004-06-01

    When identifying ways to reduce stigmatization because of mental illness it is crucial to understand contributing factors. Social distance-the willingness to engage in relationships of varying intimacy with a person--is an indicator of public attitudes toward persons with mental illness. Multiple linear regression analysis of the results of a vignette-based opinion survey conducted on a representative population sample in Switzerland (n = 594). The level of social distance increases if situations imply 'social closeness.' The vignette describing a person with schizophrenia, attitudes to general aspects of mental health (lay helping, community psychiatry), emotions toward those affected, and the attitude toward consequences of mental illness (medical treatment, medication side effects, negative sanctions, e.g. withdrawal of the driver license) were found to predict social distance. Demographic factors such as age, gender, and the cultural background influence social distance. The explained variance (R2) is 44.8%. Social distance is a multifaceted concept influenced by, e.g., socio-economic and cultural factors, but also by the respondent's general attitude toward (mental) health issues. These results suggest that more knowledge about mental illnesses, especially schizophrenia, may increase social distance. The findings presented here may help to focus anti-stigma campaigns not only on transmission of knowledge, but on integrating different approaches.

  17. Factors associated with social interaction anxiety among Chinese adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Z W; Lam, L T; Jin, J

    2011-12-01

    To investigate potential risk factors for social anxiety, particularly social interaction anxiety among the Chinese adolescents. A cross-sectional health survey was conducted in Guangzhou city of the Guangdong Province where high school students aged 13 to 18 years were recruited. The sample was selected from all high schools in the city using a 2-stage random cluster sampling technique. Social interaction anxiety was assessed using the Social Interaction Anxiety Scale. Information collected in the survey included: demographics, self-perception on school performance, relationship with teachers and peers, satisfaction with self-image, achievements, and parenting style of the mother. The parent-child relationship, specifically the relationship between respondents and their mothers, was assessed using the mother attachment subscale of the Inventory of Parent and Peer Attachment. Self-esteem was assessed using the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale. The multiple linear regression technique was applied to investigate associations between selected potential risk factors and social interaction anxiety, with adjustments for cluster sampling. Lower family income, lower self-esteem, and hostility were significantly associated with social interaction anxiety among adolescents. Variables identified as risk factors of anxiety disorder in the literature, such as gender, were not associated with social interaction anxiety in this sample. These results were consistent with those of other studies conducted mainly in the United States and Europe. Regarding non-significant results related to gender, they need viewing in the context of parenting styles of Chinese mothers.

  18. Critical discussion of social-cognitive factors in smoking initiation among adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bidstrup, Pernille Envold; Tjørnhøj-Thomsen, Tine; Mortensen, Erik Lykke

    2011-01-01

    Social-cognitive models have often been used in research on prevention in adolescent populations, even though the models were designed to describe adult behavior. The aim of the study reported here was to examine critically and constructively the five social-cognitive factors in the 'attitude......, social influence, self-efficacy' (ASE) model. Methods. The examination draws on the results of a qualitative follow-up study of smoking initiation based on semi-structured interviews and observations of 12 adolescents in two Danish school classes, grades 7 and 8. The qualitative study was conducted...... and if relevant discussed these aspects using other theoretical frameworks. Results. The results showed that aspects other than those in the ASE model are also important. Smoking initiation was often situational and unplanned and was sometimes used in negotiating social relationships and identity. Furthermore...

  19. Barrier-relevant crash modification factors and average costs of crashes on arterial roads in Indiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Yaotian; Tarko, Andrew P

    2018-02-01

    The objective of this study was to develop crash modification factors (CMFs) and estimate the average crash costs applicable to a wide range of road-barrier scenarios that involved three types of road barriers (concrete barriers, W-beam guardrails, and high-tension cable barriers) to produce a suitable basis for comparing barrier-oriented design alternatives and road improvements. The intention was to perform the most comprehensive and in-depth analysis allowed by the cross-sectional method and the crash data available in Indiana. To accomplish this objective and to use the available data efficiently, the effects of barrier were estimated on the frequency of barrier-relevant (BR) crashes, the types of harmful events and their occurrence during a BR crash, and the severity of BR crash outcomes. The harmful events component added depth to the analysis by connecting the crash onset with its outcome. Further improvement of the analysis was accomplished by considering the crash outcome severity of all the individuals involved in a crash and not just drivers, utilizing hospital data, and pairing the observations with and without road barriers along same or similar road segments to better control the unobserved heterogeneity. This study confirmed that the total number of BR crashes tended to be higher where medians had installed barriers, mainly due to collisions with barriers and, in some cases, with other vehicles after redirecting vehicles back to traffic. These undesirable effects of barriers were surpassed by the positive results of reducing cross-median crashes, rollover events, and collisions with roadside hazards. The average cost of a crash (unit cost) was reduced by 50% with cable barriers installed in medians wider than 50ft. A similar effect was concluded for concrete barriers and guardrails installed in medians narrower than 50ft. The studied roadside guardrails also reduced the unit cost by 20%-30%. Median cable barriers were found to be the most effective

  20. The relevance of the social context for media coverage of victims

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavićević Olivera

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Media coverage of human suffering caused by trauma, illness, poverty and disasters worldwide takes up a significant part of media coverage and affects the identity of all actors, both active and passive. Media presentation shapes our thinking and reasoning at the group level, and has far reached impact. The social context of media reporting on victims is shaped by the capacity of the social system to recognize, acknowledge, strengthen and protect the victim. As an aspect of this capacity, media coverage of victims is indicator of victimization visibility. This paper discusses nature of media reporting as a phenomenon appearing in various forms as per given sources of victimization, and the ethical aspects of media presentation of victims. The aim of the paper is to contribute to the critical analysis of the media coverage of victims, by reconsidering an increased visibility of victims and their suffering, which is generated by media reporting, and whose dominant characteristic is presenting victims in the interpretative and performing manner.

  1. Clinically Relevant Pharmacological Strategies That Reverse MDMA-Induced Brain Hyperthermia Potentiated by Social Interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiyatkin, Eugene A; Ren, Suelynn; Wakabayashi, Ken T; Baumann, Michael H; Shaham, Yavin

    2016-01-01

    MDMA-induced hyperthermia is highly variable, unpredictable, and greatly potentiated by the social and environmental conditions of recreational drug use. Current strategies to treat pathological MDMA-induced hyperthermia in humans are palliative and marginally effective, and there are no specific pharmacological treatments to counteract this potentially life-threatening condition. Here, we tested the efficacy of mixed adrenoceptor blockers carvedilol and labetalol, and the atypical antipsychotic clozapine, in reversing MDMA-induced brain and body hyperthermia. We injected rats with a moderate non-toxic dose of MDMA (9 mg/kg) during social interaction, and we administered potential treatment drugs after the development of robust hyperthermia (>2.5 °C), thus mimicking the clinical situation of acute MDMA intoxication. Brain temperature was our primary focus, but we also simultaneously recorded temperatures from the deep temporal muscle and skin, allowing us to determine the basic physiological mechanisms of the treatment drug action. Carvedilol was modestly effective in attenuating MDMA-induced hyperthermia by moderately inhibiting skin vasoconstriction, and labetalol was ineffective. In contrast, clozapine induced a marked and immediate reversal of MDMA-induced hyperthermia via inhibition of brain metabolic activation and blockade of skin vasoconstriction. Our findings suggest that clozapine, and related centrally acting drugs, might be highly effective for reversing MDMA-induced brain and body hyperthermia in emergency clinical situations, with possible life-saving results.

  2. The Relevance of Social Theory in the Practice of Environmental Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meissner, Richard

    2016-10-01

    In this paper I argue that the dominance of certain paradigms and theories on policies can have an influence on the value added by impact assessments. A link exists between paradigms and theories and policies and consequently the practices humans develop to tackle real world problems. I also argue that different types of thinking (contained in paradigms and theories) need to be integrated, at least at the scientific level, to enhance our understanding of social phenomena. This in turn can have a positive influence on policy processes that follow impact assessment recommendations. I am not arguing for the adoption of theoretical positions by practitioners, Instead, I contend that if impact assessments are informed by a variety of paradigms and theories, the policy practitioner might have a better understanding of the issue and the moral choices he or she needs to make. I will highlight the connection between theory and policies with practical examples from the social impact assessment of the De Hoop Dam, which was constructed on the Steelpoort River. I also argue for an integration of different theories to give a deeper understanding of real world problems.

  3. Survivorship and Inheritance Rights for Same-Gender Couples: Relevance to Social Workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Cordero

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Californians voted in November 2008 to ban the right to same-gender marriage in California. This paper summarizes data on changes in societal attitudes relative to homosexuals, same-gender couples, and their civil rights as reflected in Gallup and Princeton Survey Research Associates International poll data over the years through 2011. These findings report deeply entrenched and enduring divisions in American attitudes toward the rights and status of same-gender couples. Although historically a majority of Americans has consistently opposed same-gender marriage, Americans increasingly recognize the need to extend equality to same-gender couples in the form of employment rights, inheritance rights, Social Security, and health insurance benefits. This article explores existing and proposed policies regarding the rights of same-gender couples. In addition, it examines the implications and opportunities for advocacy by social workers who face the challenge of navigating the legal and personal obstacles that arise when their client’s same-gender relationships are not sanctioned by law.

  4. Influence of social factors on patient-reported late symptoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjaer, Trille Kristina; Johansen, Christoffer; Andersen, Elo

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The incidence of head and neck cancer and morbidity and mortality after treatment are associated with social factors. Whether social factors also play a role in the prevalence of late-onset symptoms after treatment for head and neck cancer is not clear. METHODS: Three hundred sixty...... ratio [OR] = 3.20; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.18-8.63). For survivors who lived alone, the adjusted ORs were significantly increased for physical functioning (2.17; 95% CI = 1.01-4.68) and trouble with social eating (OR = 2.26; 95% CI = 1.14-4.47). CONCLUSION: Self-reported severe late symptoms...... were more prevalent in survivors with short education and in those living alone, suggesting differences in perception of late symptoms between social groups. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Head Neck, 2015....

  5. Factors influencing intentions to use social recommender systems: a social exchange perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Tsung-Sheng; Hsiao, Wei-Hung

    2013-05-01

    This study employs the perspective of social exchange theory and seeks to understand users' intentions to use social recommender systems (SRS) through three psychological factors: trust, shared values, and reputation. We use structural equation modeling to analyze 221 valid questionnaires. The results show that trust has a direct positive influence on the intention to use SRS, followed by shared values, whereas reputation has an indirect influence on SRS use. We further discuss specific recommendations concerning these factors for developing SRS.

  6. Social factors modulate restraint stress induced hyperthermia in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Shigeru

    2015-10-22

    Stress-induced hyperthermia (SIH) was examined in three different social conditions in mice by thermographic measurement of the body surface temperature. Placing animals in cylindrical holders induced restraint stress. I examined the effect of the social factors in SIH using the thermograph (body surface temperature). Mice restrained in the holders alone showed SIH. Mice restrained in the holders at the same time as other similarly restrained cage mates (social equality condition) showed less hyperthermia. Interestingly, restrained mice with free moving cage mates (social inequality condition) showed the highest hyperthermia. These results are consistent with a previous experiment measuring the memory-enhancing effects of stress and the stress-induced elevation of corticosterone, and suggest that social inequality enhances stress. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Social and environmental factors modulate leucocyte profiles in free-living Greylag geese (Anser anser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Didone Frigerio

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Blood parameters such as haematocrit or leucocyte counts are indicators of immune status and health, which can be affected, in a complex way, by exogenous as well as endogenous factors. Additionally, social context is known to be among the most potent stressors in group living individuals, therefore potentially influencing haematological parameters. However, with few exceptions, this potential causal relationship received only moderate scientific attention. Methods In a free-living and individually marked population of the highly social and long-lived Greylag goose, Anser anser, we relate variation in haematocrit (HCT, heterophils to lymphocytes ratio (H/L and blood leucocyte counts to the following factors: intrinsic (sex, age, raising condition, i.e. goose- or hand-raised, social (pair-bond status, pair-bond duration and parental experience and environmental (biologically relevant periods, ambient temperature factors. Blood samples were collected repeatedly from a total of 105 focal birds during three biologically relevant seasons (winter flock, mating season, summer. Results We found significant relationships between haematological parameters and social as well as environmental factors. During the mating season, unpaired individuals had higher HCT compared to paired and family individuals and this pattern reversed in fall. Similarly, H/L ratio was positively related to pair-bond status in a seasonally dependent way, with highest values during mating and successful pairs had higher H/L ratio than unsuccessful ones. Also, absolute number of leucocytes tended to vary depending on raising condition in a seasonally dependent way. Discussion Haematology bears a great potential in ecological and behavioural studies on wild vertebrates. In sum, we found that HTC, H/L ratio and absolute number of leucocytes are modulated by social factors and conclude that they may be considered valid indicators of individual stress load.

  8. FACTORS PREDICTING CONSUMERS' ASSESSMENT OF ADVERTISEMENTS ON SOCIAL NETWORKING SITES

    OpenAIRE

    Hossam Deraz; Gabriel Baffour Awuah; Desalegn Abraha Gebrekidan

    2015-01-01

    Marketers act on social networking sites (SNSs) in order to be more efficient in merchandising their products and/or services. Even so, the scope of the published studies regarding the assessment of advertisements on social networking sites (SNAs) is limited. Consequently, the present study aimed to consider credibility and interactivity, in addition to information, entertainment and irritation values, as main factors for consumers’ assessment of SNAs, as perceived by SNSs’ users. An analysis...

  9. Effects of cognitive factors on social anxiousness among undergraduate students

    OpenAIRE

    Kouno, Yoshihiro; Nakanishi, Daisuke

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between cognitive factors and social anxiousness. Preliminary survey was administrated to 104 undergraduates to construct the responsibility scale. Twelve items were selected on the basis of item-total correlation analyses, and reliability and validity of the scale were examined. The main survey was conducted to 159 undergraduates using the responsibility scale to find out the correlation between social anxiousness and cognitive variables such as public se...

  10. More reasons to be straightforward: findings and norms for two scales relevant to social anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodebaugh, Thomas L; Heimberg, Richard G; Brown, Patrick J; Fernandez, Katya C; Blanco, Carlos; Schneier, Franklin R; Liebowitz, Michael R

    2011-06-01

    The validity of both the Social Interaction Anxiety Scale and Brief Fear of Negative Evaluation scale has been well-supported, yet the scales have a small number of reverse-scored items that may detract from the validity of their total scores. The current study investigates two characteristics of participants that may be associated with compromised validity of these items: higher age and lower levels of education. In community and clinical samples, the validity of each scale's reverse-scored items was moderated by age, years of education, or both. The straightforward items did not show this pattern. To encourage the use of the straightforward items of these scales, we provide normative data from the same samples as well as two large student samples. We contend that although response bias can be a substantial problem, the reverse-scored questions of these scales do not solve that problem and instead decrease overall validity. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Cultural, behavioral, social, and psychological perceptions of saliva: relevance to clinical diagnostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Sean; Wong, David T

    2006-04-01

    The search for a resource that can be used to detect a broad range of diseases easily and reliably is akin to a search for the diagnostic Holy Grail. Yet, each of us may have inside our mouths, a key to the pathological and disease biomarker library hidden inside our bodies. Saliva--the source of all this information--is the secretory product of glands located in or around the oral cavity. If one could read the stories of diagnostic information present within saliva, then the abundance of information waiting to be found could be comparable to a vast vault of information, such as the Internet. Upon dissection of this data, it would be seen that the source of this information is from saliva's origin as a filtrate of blood, and that the validity of both mediums should be equal. Although one day this may be the view, most people's hold of saliva, current and past cultures, have fared much more diverse meanings to the secretion. Ivan Pavlov's experiments has shown how closely tied salivation is with the thought of food, one of life's primary indulgences. The relationship between salivation and behaviors within our daily lives is undeniable. Yet most people never appreciate the uniqueness of saliva. Throughout the world, saliva carries definite positive and negative connotations, based upon its social, psychological, behavioral, and cultural settings. The thought of saliva may be viewed as grotesque in one population, yet may be the vehicle of blessing in other cultures. Saliva's double nature brings up some interesting cultural, social, behavioral, and psychological points about how saliva is perceived in the world, some of which are subsequently stated in order to present saliva as the spirited fluid it is.

  12. Quality of life in people with Parkinson's disease: the relevance of social relationships and communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Kayoko; Kamide, Naoto; Suzuki, Makoto; Fukuda, Michinari

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] Maintaining high quality of life is crucial for the rehabilitation of patients with Parkinson's disease. The quality of life scales currently in use do not assess all quality of life domains or their importance for each individual. Therefore, a new quality of life measure, the Schedule for the Evaluation of Individual Quality of Life-Direct Weighting, was used to investigate quality of life in people with Parkinson's disease. [Subjects and Methods] Fifteen people with idiopathic Parkinson's disaese (average age = 80.0 years, standard deviation = 10.3 years, Hoehn & Yahr stages 1-4) were interviewed using the Schedule for the Evaluation of Individual Quality of Life-Direct Weighting. Its quality of life constructs were tested by comparing them against disease-specific quality of life (39-items Parkinson's Disease Questionnaire), motor functioning (Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale Part III), and activities of daily living (Barthel Index). [Results] Social connections such as "family" and "friends" were revealed as important constructs of life satisfaction. The Schedule for the Evaluation of Individual Quality of Life-Direct Weighting was not significantly correlated with the 39-items Parkinson's Disease Questionnaire, Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale Part III, or Barthel Index but was significantly correlated with the "communication" dimension of the 39-items Parkinson's Disease Questionnaire. [Conclusion] The Schedule for the Evaluation of Individual Quality of Life-Direct Weighting detected various domains of quality of life, especially social relationships with family and friends. "Being heard" was also revealed as an essential component of life satisfaction, as it provides patients with a feeling of acceptance and assurance, possibly resulting in better quality of life.

  13. Reflections on Theories of Social Optimization and Their Relevance for Future City Management in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshiro Higano

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The paradigm of laissez-faire economy presumes that economic agents know efficient loci for input-output combinations and rationally act in the market by following their subjective values. Economy is efficiently organized and given dynamic forces to grow at its own risk. As a result, the greatest happiness for a great number is attained. It is difficult to correctly answer the question, why should we consider city management? Of course, the paradigm will not work in a city due to congestion and agglomeration as well as specificity of location. However, it is not sufficient to consider only subsidiary taxes and subsidy systems like Pigouvian prescriptions that lead the market equilibrium to a Pareto Optimum.In a mature economy such as the Japanese economy that faces a long depression under pressure of aging and decreasing population, there are few investable targets as long as it is taken for granted that the paradigm should be maintained. Moreover, in a globalized economy, cities must compete against their rivals. This means not only efficiency of activities in the Pareto sense in the city but a higher absolute level of activity must be realized.In this study, we focused on external costs and benefits that accrue through the activities of economic agents in a city. We argue that activities should be managed and controlled so external benefits are generated to a maximum extent and the activity level of the city is also maximized. KEYWORDS: Theories of social benefits, socially optimum optimorum, city management, urban future Japan

  14. Social factors affecting education quality of Iranian medical & dental students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zafarmand, A Hamid; Sabour, Siamak

    2014-09-01

    Positive social behavior of student is an important factor in the integrity of educational quality. Unbalanced behavior can disrupt the progress of students in learning. The present study evaluates the effect of social factors on education quality of dental and medical students. This descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted on 227 randomly selected students (109 dental and 118 medical). The questionnaire contained three domains of cultural collectivism, self-concept, and social adjustment adapted from California Test of Personality. It also included demographic questions like; field of study, gender and home city of residence. Data was analyzed using SPSS (version#19) software. Pearsons' correlation coefficient and independent t-test were used at the P-value of 0.05. Generally, girl students showed higher cultural collectivism (P=0.028) and social adjustment (P=0.04). On the contrary, boys were better in self-concept behavior (P=0.34). Home city of residence evidenced with no significant effect on any aspects of social attitudes of subjects. Pearsons' correlation coefficient test showed a weak correlation between cultural collectivism and self-concept (r=0.134, P=0.04) and between cultural collectivism and social adjustment, as well. (r=0.252, P=0.001) Independent t-test showed a significant difference between male and female students concerning cultural collectivism and social adjustment. Reliability of cultural collectivism, self-concept and social adjustment scales ranged from very good to moderate, α=0.83, α=0.63, and α=0.54 respectively. The results of this study indicated that female students show better cultural collectivism and social adjustment skills. It also proved that home city of residence has no significant effect upon social behavior of either medical or dental students.

  15. Human and social factors in the transportation of nuclear wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freudenburg, W.R.

    1991-01-01

    The main body of this report is a broad-based examination of human and social factors in the transportation of nuclear wastes. It deals with pair interested problems that, while familiar to the social science community, appear to have received little attention from the risk assessment community to data: The human and social attenuation of risk estimates, and the organizational amplification of risks. Second, given the special opportunities for learning that are presented by the recent Alaska oil spill, in particular, the Appendix to this report examines the issue of organizational foresight in the context of the Exxon oil spill

  16. The Relevance of Cultural Factors in Predicting Condom-Use Intentions among Immigrants from the Netherlands Antilles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocken, P. L.; van Dorst, A. G.; Schaalma, H.

    2006-01-01

    A study into the relevance of cultural factors in predicting condom-use intentions among Antillean migrants in the Netherlands is described in this article. The association between the intention to use condoms with a new sexual partner and a perceived taboo on discussing sex, beliefs about sex education and machismo beliefs on gender and power…

  17. The relevance of cultural factors in predicting condom-use intentions among immigrants from the Netherlands Antilles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kocken, P.L.; Dorst, A.G. van; Schaalma, H.

    2006-01-01

    A study into the relevance of cultural factors in predicting condom-use intentions among Antillean migrants in the Netherlands is described in this article. The association between the intention to use condoms with a new sexual partner and a perceived taboo on discussing sex, beliefs about sex

  18. Social anxiety disorder: A review of environmental risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina A Brook

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Christina A Brook, Louis A SchmidtDepartment of Psychology, Neuroscience and Behaviour, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, CanadaAbstract: Social anxiety disorder (SAD is a debilitating and chronic illness characterized by persistent fear of one or more social or performance situations, with a relatively high lifetime prevalence of 7% to 13% in the general population. Although the last two decades have witnessed enormous growth in the study of biological and dispositional factors underlying SAD, comparatively little attention has been directed towards environmental factors in SAD, even though there has been much ongoing work in the area. In this paper, we provide a recent review and critique of proposed environmental risk factors for SAD, focusing on traditional as well as some understudied and overlooked environmental risk factors: parenting and family environment, adverse life events, cultural and societal factors, and gender roles. We also discuss the need for research design improvements and considerations for future directions.

  19. Risk factors for psychosis: impaired social and role functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornblatt, Barbara A; Carrión, Ricardo E; Addington, Jean; Seidman, Larry; Walker, Elaine F; Cannon, Tyronne D; Cadenhead, Kristin S; McGlashan, Thomas H; Perkins, Diana O; Tsuang, Ming T; Woods, Scott W; Heinssen, Robert; Lencz, Todd

    2012-11-01

    Risk for psychosis is currently defined primarily on the basis of attenuated positive symptoms (APS), with no inclusion of the functional deficits characteristic of schizophrenia. Impaired social and role functioning have been of interest for reflecting poor outcome but far less is known about the developmental impact of these deficits as vulnerability or risk factors. Age-appropriate social and role functioning were prospectively assessed in 100 individuals at clinical high risk (CHR) for psychosis included in the 8-site North American Prodromal Longitudinal Study database. A nested case-control design was used to compare changes in social and role functioning in 26 individuals converting to psychosis shortly after baseline assessment and 24 converting over a year later. Individuals in each converter subgroup were directly matched to a non-converter at the same site, controlling for time to conversion, age, gender, and severity of baseline symptoms. At baseline, CHR subjects who later became psychotic were significantly more likely to be impaired socially than matched non-converters. Onset of psychosis did not further disrupt social difficulties. Role functioning showed some of the same trends, but the overall pattern was not as consistent as for the social domain. Controlling for neurocognition did not change the pattern of group differences. Early impaired social functioning appears to be a risk factor for psychosis and, added to APS, could potentially contribute to accurate identification of CHR individuals and provide a new direction for early intervention to reduce long-term disability.

  20. Emotional and Social Factors influence Poker Decision Making Accuracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laakasuo, Michael; Palomäki, Jussi; Salmela, Mikko

    2015-09-01

    Poker is a social game, where success depends on both game strategic knowledge and emotion regulation abilities. Thus, poker provides a productive environment for studying the effects of emotional and social factors on micro-economic decision making. Previous research indicates that experiencing negative emotions, such as moral anger, reduces mathematical accuracy in poker decision making. Furthermore, various social aspects of the game—such as losing against "bad players" due to "bad luck"—seem to fuel these emotional states. We designed an Internet-based experiment, where participants' (N = 459) mathematical accuracy in five different poker decision making tasks were assessed. In addition, we manipulated the emotional and social conditions under which the tasks were presented, in a 2 × 2 experimental setup: (1) Anger versus neutral emotional state—participants were primed either with an anger-inducing, or emotionally neutral story, and (2) Social cue versus non-social cue—during the tasks, either an image of a pair of human eyes was "following" the mouse cursor, or an image of a black moving box was presented. The results showed that anger reduced mathematical accuracy of decision making only when participants were "being watched" by a pair of moving eyes. Experienced poker players made mathematically more accurate decisions than inexperienced ones. The results contribute to current understanding on how emotional and social factors influence decision making accuracy in economic games.

  1. Factors Related to Social Support in Neurological and Mental Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamenov, Kaloyan; Cabello, Maria; Caballero, Francisco Félix; Cieza, Alarcos; Sabariego, Carla; Raggi, Alberto; Anczewska, Marta; Pitkänen, Tuuli; Ayuso-Mateos, Jose Luis

    2016-01-01

    Despite the huge body of research on social support, literature has been primarily focused on its beneficial role for both physical and mental health. It is still unclear why people with mental and neurological disorders experience low levels of social support. The main objective of this study was to explore what are the strongest factors related to social support and how do they interact with each other in neuropsychiatric disorders. The study used cross-sectional data from 722 persons suffering from dementia, depression, epilepsy, migraine, multiple sclerosis, Parkinson's disease, schizophrenia, stroke, and substance use disorders. Multiple linear regressions showed that disability was the strongest factor for social support. Extraversion and agreeableness were significant personality variables, but when the interaction terms between personality traits and disability were included, disability remained the only significant variable. Moreover, level of disability mediated the relationship between personality (extraversion and agreeableness) and level of social support. Moderation analysis revealed that people that had mental disorders experienced lower levels of support when being highly disabled compared to people with neurological disorders. Unlike previous literature, focused on increasing social support as the origin of improving disability, this study suggested that interventions improving day-to-day functioning or maladaptive personality styles might also have an effect on the way people perceive social support. Future longitudinal research, however, is warranted to explore causality. PMID:26900847

  2. Factors Related to Social Support in Neurological and Mental Disorders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaloyan Kamenov

    Full Text Available Despite the huge body of research on social support, literature has been primarily focused on its beneficial role for both physical and mental health. It is still unclear why people with mental and neurological disorders experience low levels of social support. The main objective of this study was to explore what are the strongest factors related to social support and how do they interact with each other in neuropsychiatric disorders. The study used cross-sectional data from 722 persons suffering from dementia, depression, epilepsy, migraine, multiple sclerosis, Parkinson's disease, schizophrenia, stroke, and substance use disorders. Multiple linear regressions showed that disability was the strongest factor for social support. Extraversion and agreeableness were significant personality variables, but when the interaction terms between personality traits and disability were included, disability remained the only significant variable. Moreover, level of disability mediated the relationship between personality (extraversion and agreeableness and level of social support. Moderation analysis revealed that people that had mental disorders experienced lower levels of support when being highly disabled compared to people with neurological disorders. Unlike previous literature, focused on increasing social support as the origin of improving disability, this study suggested that interventions improving day-to-day functioning or maladaptive personality styles might also have an effect on the way people perceive social support. Future longitudinal research, however, is warranted to explore causality.

  3. [Perception of health risks: psychological and social factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurzenhäuser, S; Epp, A

    2009-12-01

    This article reviews central findings and current developments of psychological and sociological research on the perception of health risks. Risk perception is influenced by numerous psychological, social, political, and cultural factors. These factors can be categorized into (a) risk characteristics, (b) characteristics of the risk perceiving person and his/her situation, and (c) characteristics of risk communication. Thus, besides individual cognitive and affective processing of risk information, social processes of risk amplification (e.g., media effects) are also involved in the construction of individual risk perceptions. We discuss the recommendations for health risk communication that follow from these findings with regard to different communication goals.

  4. Assumptions of Corporate Social Responsibility as Competitiveness Factor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaneta Simanaviciene

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine the assumptions of corporate social responsibility (CSR as competitiveness factor in economic downturn. Findings indicate that factors affecting the quality of the micro-economic business environment, i.e., the sophistication of enterprise’s strategy and management processes, the quality of the human capital resources, the increase of product / service demand, the development of related and supporting sectors and the efficiency of natural resources, and competitive capacities of enterprise impact competitiveness at a micro-level. The outcomes suggest that the implementation of CSR elements, i.e., economic, environmental and social responsibilities, gives good opportunities to increase business competitiveness.

  5. Relevant teaching in higher education: an exercise from complexity theory in the social work profession

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maribel Molina Correa

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The requirements of our globalized world and the advancement of the teaching science show didactics as a fundamental category defined as the scientific discipline with principles, laws, theoretical and methodological frameworks, creatively modeling the pedagogical intervention in the academic environment.The implementation of the research "Teaching focused on the development of superior thinking and meaningful learning in students of first semester of Social Work Program", set the goal: Qualify the personal life and student projects from the acknowledgement of potentials of the subjects, for the development of competences meaningful to life. This is a research experience that has been developed since 2009 at Simon Bolivar University in the District of Barranquilla.The didactics was based on the development of superior thinking cognitive-process-centered, for the processing of information, creativity, readings of the reality of contexts, expounded/voiced subjectivities of life projects of students, the incorporation of TIC, in order to approach a humanizing and contextualized pedagogical practice. The critical theory was used in this research as a part of its epistemological basis for understanding and building a new academic scenario.The methodology used is the action with techniques such as mind mapping, dialogues, and stories of life, field works, and contents analysis, among others. The data analysis was guided by the hermeneutics as a possibility for the understanding and interpretation of the events that occurred in the classroom.

  6. MAIN FACTORS DRIVING SOCIAL PUBLIC SERVICES IN INTERNATIONAL CONTEXT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela, GHENTA

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Literature and the latest reports point out that not only in Europe, but all over the world there is a growing demand for social services. As social needs have diversified, the number of potential users of social services has increased and this has generated increased complexity of social services. This paper highlights some of the results of a study conducted by the author in the doctoral studies program. One of the aims of this study was to identify the main factors that cause the current configuration of social services at global level. The research analysed the demographic changes and the impact of the crisis in social services for Europe, the United States of America (USA and Japan based on statistical data provided by the national statistics institutes for the regions considered. The results highlight the necessity of continuous development and reconfiguration of social services in order to meet the social and economic demands and to ensure a better organisation of these type of services.

  7. How social factors and behavioural strategies affect feeding and social interaction patterns in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boumans, Iris J M M; de Boer, Imke J M; Hofstede, Gert Jan; Bokkers, Eddie A M

    2018-04-26

    Animals living in groups compete for food resources and face food conflicts. These conflicts are affected by social factors (e.g. competition level) and behavioural strategies (e.g. avoidance). This study aimed to deepen our understanding of the complex interactions between social factors and behavioural strategies affecting feeding and social interaction patterns in animals. We focused on group-housed growing pigs, Sus scrofa, which typically face conflicts around the feeder, and of which patterns in various competitive environments (i.e. pig:feeder ratio) have been documented soundly. An agent-based model was developed to explore how interactions among social factors and behavioural strategies can affect various feeding and social interaction patterns differently under competitive situations. Model results show that pig and diet characteristics interact with group size and affect daily feeding patterns (e.g. feed intake and feeding time) and conflicts around the feeder. The level of competition can cause a turning point in feeding and social interaction patterns. Beyond a certain point of competition, meal-based (e.g. meal frequency) and social interaction patterns (e.g. displacements) are determined mainly by behavioural strategies. The average daily feeding time can be used to predict the group size at which this turning point occurs. Under the model's assumptions, social facilitation was relatively unimportant in the causation of behavioural patterns in pigs. To validate our model, simulated patterns were compared with empirical patterns in conventionally housed pigs. Similarities between empirical and model patterns support the model results. Our model can be used as a tool in further research for studying the effects of social factors and group dynamics on individual variation in feeding and social interaction patterns in pigs, as well as in other animal species. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Social Factors of the Evolution of State Institutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhukova Larysa M.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is a comprehensive study of social factors in the evolution of state institutions. By analyzing, systematizing and summarizing the scientific works of many scientists, the process of transformation of state institutions is considered in view of the features of Ukraine’s social and economic development and the impact of institutional changes on the social needs of society. As a result of the research, it is revealed that one of the main factors of social evolution is the culture of relations between the state, business and society. The logical and contradictory interaction of these subjects is analyzed, since based on them there formed an economy aimed at reviving social resources and ensuring both the stability of the social system and the dynamism of its development. It is determined that Ukraine requires urgent development of an integrated socio-economic development strategy that would include specific measures that can ensure improvement of the living standards of citizens, creation of a competitive economy, successful integration into the world and European space. It is substantiated that the system of relations “state – business – society” should be revised from the position of strengthening the importance of both social values and the business community facing the challenges of globalization. Prospects for further research in this area are justification of the strategic goals of the state social policy as a multi-level and multifunctional system that can ensure the country’s social and economic development by activating human capital and maximizing its innovative potential.

  9. THE MAIN SOCIAL RISK FACTORS IN THE FEMININ DELINQUENT BEHAVIOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirela Cristiana NILĂ STRATONE

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The feminine criminality is a social phenomenon of defining importance in trying to draw the portrait of contemporary human society. What is the basic mechanism of this dimension of human behavior remains a continuing challenge for criminology researchers and beyond. The feminine offenses segment dresses a form of atypical aggressivity. This is the main reason who determine the identification, analization and explanation of the factors that influence and shapes the behavior of the woman, bringing it to the form of criminal behavior. The contradiction between femininity and criminality is outlined as an intrigue of gender stereotypes, which the researcher can not bypass. That is why patterns, items, everything on the background of social change are considered. The social change comes, in turn, with challenges both from the domestic area and from the outside of the family. In this paper we will review the main social nature factors that trigger the deviant behavior leading this to delinquency and even determining its identification with forms of delinquency. Women's evolution in time, in terms of age and social modernization, results in changes in the feminine attitude, the typical female actions, woman's personality as a mother, married couple, daughter, girlfriend, etc. The purpose of this study is to present risk factors with criminogen potential on women's behavior in society. Behavioral deviance, as a result of the multitude of bio-psychological, econ- omic, socio-cultural, political, natural factors, turns into violence, and violence tends to become an increasingly strong component of female temper. Last but not least, it is observed that the femininity itself, under the pressure of social factors, takes on new forms, dominated by aggressiveness.

  10. Psychological factors of social anxiety in Russian adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana S. Pavlova

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background. Social anxiety is one of the most common and disturbing conditions of childhood and adolescence. It is defined as an excessive fear of embarrassment or humiliation in social performance situations. Recent studies have identified a number of psychological factors that could explain the maintenance of the condition. Objective. The objective of this study was to investigate psychological factors of social anxiety in adolescents with a multifactor psychosocial model. Design: The study population comprised 183 Russian-speaking adolescents from Moscow secondary schools, ranging in age from 12 to 16 years. Self-report measures were used to access social anxiety, symptoms of depression, gender role identification, perfectionism, hostility, family emotional communications, and social support. Results. The results indicate that social anxiety was positively correlated with symptoms of depression and suicidal thoughts. No quantitative differences in social anxiety between girls and boys were found, while masculinity and undifferentiated gender identification had a strong association with social anxiety. A positive correlation was found between “concern over mistakes” (fear of making a mistake and being negatively compared with peers and “overdoing” (spending too much time doing homework and too little or none communicating with peers, using the Child Perfectionism Questionnaire (CPQ subscales and Social Anxiety and Distress Scale (SADS total score. Positive correlations were found between social anxiety and suppression of emotions and outward well-being subscales, as well in as the Family Emotional Communication (FEC total score. It is not common to discuss emotions and feelings; it is difficult to share negative experiences; and it is important for the families of socially anxious adolescents to put up a good front. Analysis revealed significant negative correlations between the SADS total score (as well its subscales and the Social

  11. Of 'disgrace' and 'pain'--corticolimbic interaction patterns for disorder-relevant and emotional words in social phobia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laeger, Inga; Dobel, Christian; Radenz, Britta; Kugel, Harald; Keuper, Kati; Eden, Annuschka; Arolt, Volker; Zwitserlood, Pienie; Dannlowski, Udo; Zwanzger, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Limbic hyperactivation and an impaired functional interplay between the amygdala and the prefrontal cortex are discussed to go along with, or even cause, pathological anxiety. Within the multi-faceted group of anxiety disorders, the highly prevalent social phobia (SP) is characterized by excessive fear of being negatively evaluated. Although there is widespread evidence for amygdala hypersensitivity to emotional faces in SP, verbal material has rarely been used in imaging studies, in particular with an eye on disorder-specificity. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and a block design consisting of (1) overall negative, (2) social-phobia related, (3) positive, and (4) neutral words, we studied 25 female patients with social phobia and 25 healthy female control subjects (HC). Results demonstrated amygdala hyperactivation to disorder-relevant but not to generally negative words in SP patients, with a positive correlation to symptom severity. A functional connectivity analysis revealed a weaker coupling between the amygdala and the left middle frontal gyrus in patients. Symptom severity was negatively related to connectivity strength between the amygdala and the ventromedial prefrontal and orbitofrontal cortex (Brodmann Area 10 and 11). The findings clearly support the view of a hypersensitive threat-detection system, combined with disorder-related alterations in amygdala-prefrontal cortex connectivity in pathological anxiety.

  12. Discussion on the Relevant Factors of General Surgery Incision Infection and Prevention Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Baotao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available There are many reasons that can lead to incision infection of general surgical patients. The main reasons include weight, age, body albumin level, surgical time, observation ward, etc. This paper analyzes the clinic data of patients with incision infection after general surgery based on clinic practice and study on the reasons that have impact on general surgical incision infection and gives relevant prevention countermeasures.

  13. Factors associated with social anxiety disorder in a group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özşahin, Akatlı Kürşad; Altıntaş, Ebru

    2018-04-30

    Background/aim: Mental disorders may accompany obesity. This study aims to evaluate the association between social anxiety disorder (SAD) and obesity and the risk factors for SAD in obese female patients. Materials and methods: A total of 114 obese patients and 110 healthy controls were included. The Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), State and Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI I-II), and Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale (LSAS) were administered to assess anxiety, depression, and social anxiety levels. Scale scores were analyzed statistically. Results: The rate of SAD in obese female patients was found to be 8.8%. Anxiety, depression, and social anxiety levels were significantly higher in the obesity group compared to the control group (P < 0.05). According to linear regression analyses, a significant association between LSAS anxiety level and age, prior surgery, social support, history of being teased, BDI, and BAI was found. Conclusion: The present study shows that many factors are related to obesity and SAD in obese female patients. The clinical implications of these findings should be considered. Interventions for these factors may help prevent SAD in obese female patients.

  14. The relationship between passibility, agency and social interaction and its relevance for research and pedagogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirch, Susan A.; Ma, Jasmine Y.

    2016-12-01

    The interaction analysis presented by Kim and Roth examines nine students, their teachers, the learning task and materials in a mixed second and third grade science classroom during the school day. In the research narrative readers are introduced to two resourceful and creative groups of students as they work on a task assigned by their teacher—to cantilever a pizza box over the edge of a student desk. Readers are given glimpses (through images and transcripts) of the inventive ways each group solved the cantilever problem. Sometimes the children disregarded the design constraints, but even after compliance they managed to successfully solve the problem. The point of the learning task was not clearly stated, but readers are told the unit focused on investigating forces, forces in equilibrium, and structures as well as different forces (push, pull, etc.), properties of materials, and the relations between weight and balance while building structures. Kim and Roth were specifically interested in using this session to investigate and resolve the problem of learning as described by socio-cultural theorists as, how does a learner orient toward a learning outcome when they cannot do that until they have learned it? To answer this question Kim and Roth argued that learners (in engineering design) learn when and because: (1) they are open to be affected by the responses of materials to student action (i.e. student and material agency and physical touch) (2) their bodies are endowed with the capacity to be affected (i.e. passibility), and (3) knowledge and understanding emerge as and in social relations first. In their analysis, Kim and Roth argued that knowledge and knowing-how depend on these three universal processes. The authors further theorized the concept of passibility. Included in their theory of passibility was the claim that passibility is necessary for agency. After reading this paper we found we had many questions about Kim and Roth's analysis, context, and

  15. Validity of a scale of neighbourhood informal social control relevant to pre-schoolers’ physical activity: A cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ester Cerin

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Childhood physical activity (PA is important for health across the lifespan. Time pre-schoolers spend outdoors, which has been associated with more PA, is likely influenced by parents’ perception of neighbourhood informal social control relevant to pre-schoolers' PA, defined as the willingness of neighbours to intervene to ensure social order and a safe community environment for young children's active play. To advance measurement of this construct, we assessed factorial and construct validities of the PA-related neighbourhood informal social control scale for parents of pre-schoolers (PANISC-PP. In 2013–2014, Hong Kong primary caregivers (n=394 of 3–5 year-old children completed a socio-demographic questionnaire, the preliminary version of the PANISC-PP, and self-report measures of theoretical neighbourhood correlates of PA-related neighbourhood informal social control (perceived signs of physical and social disorder, community cohesion, perceived stranger danger, risk of unintentional injury and traffic safety. The fit of the data to an a priori measurement model of the PANISC-PP was examined using confirmatory factor analyses. As the a priori model showed inadequate fit to the data, the factor structure was re-specified based on theoretical considerations. The final measurement models of the PANISC-PP showed acceptable fit to the data and consisted of three correlated latent factors: “General informal supervision”, “Civic engagement for the creation of a better neighbourhood environment” and “Educating and assisting neighbourhood children”. The internal reliability of the subscales was good (Cronbach's α values 0.82–0.89. Generalised additive mixed models indicated that all subscales were positively associated with community cohesion and scores on the subscale “Educating and assisting neighbourhood children” were related in the expected direction to all indicators of traffic and personal safety, supporting construct

  16. Social Network Factors and Addictive Behaviors among College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinker, Dipali Venkataraman; Krieger, Heather; Neighbors, Clayton

    2016-01-01

    Purpose of the review To provide an overview of studies within the past five years examining the impact of social network factors on addictive behaviors among college students, to discuss gaps, limitations, and controversies in the field, and to summarize with a discussion of future directions and implications for interventions. Recent findings A review of 13 studies indicated that greater network exposure, centrality, reciprocated ties, and more tightly interconnected networks were associated with greater alcohol use and other addictive behaviors among college students. Summary Greater research is needed that expands beyond alcohol use to other addictive behaviors among college students. Additionally, more studies are needed that longitudinally study the impact of changes in social networks on addictive behaviors and vice versa, as well as studies examining sociocentric (whole) networks. Social network approaches offer innovative perspectives in understanding social influences on addictive behaviors and novel intervention strategies for potentially reducing addictive behaviors among college students. PMID:28580226

  17. DEPENDENCE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE CRITICAL QUALITY FACTORS AND SOCIAL IMPACT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Álvarez García

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper shows the results of the empirical study conducted in 186 tourist accommodation businesses in Spain certified under the “Q for Tourist Quality”, own System Quality Management. It was raised with the purpose of analyzing the structure of the relationship between critical quality factors and results-social impact, how they operate and the level of their influence on obtaining these results within the company. Starting from a deep theoretical revision we propose a theoretical model together with the hypotheses to be tested, and we proceed to validation using the technique of Structural Equation Models. The results obtained show that companies wishing to improve their social impact should take into account that leadership is the most important factor to achieve it. Leadership indirectly affects the social impact through its influence on alliances and resources, quality policy/planning, personnel management and learning.

  18. Factors which motivate the use of social networks by students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González Sanmamed, Mercedes; Muñoz Carril, Pablo C; Dans Álvarez de Sotomayor, Isabel

    2017-05-01

    The aim of this research was to identify those factors which motivate the use of social networks by 4th year students in Secondary Education between the ages of 15 and 18. 1,144 students from 29 public and private schools took part. The data were analysed using Partial Least Squares Structural Equation Modelling technique. Versatility was confirmed to be the variable which most influences the motivation of students in their use of social networks. The positive relationship between versatility in the use of social networks and educational uses was also significant. The characteristics of social networks are analysed according to their versatility and how this aspect makes them attractive to students. The positive effects of social networks are discussed in terms of educational uses and their contribution to school learning. There is also a warning about the risks associated with misuse of social networks, and finally, the characteristics and conditions for the development of good educational practice through social networks are identified.

  19. Key factors driving corporate social responsibility of Vietnamese firms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kabir, Mohammed Rezaul; Thai Minh, H.

    2016-01-01

    We examine the impact of firm, corporate governance and managerial characteristics on the corporate social responsibility (CSR) activities of Vietnamese listed firms. Our results show that export-oriented firms engage in more CSR activities. As for corporate governance factors, we observe that

  20. Do Social and Cultural Factors Perpetuate Gender Based Violence ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Gender based violence in Malawi exist at a level that requires special acknowledgement. A survey was conducted to assess how social and cultural factors affect gender-based violence in Malawi. The study revealed that both men and women are victims of gender based violence although women bare the brunt of the ...

  1. Teacher Governance Factors and Social Cohesion: Insights from Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halai, Anjum; Durrani, Naureen

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores teacher governance factors, particularly recruitment and deployment of teachers, in relation to inequalities and social cohesion. Pakistan introduced major reforms in education in the post 9/11 context of escalating conflict. These include a merit and needs-based policy on teacher recruitment to eliminate corruption in…

  2. Social factors in HIV and AIDS transmission in Nigeria | Akinwale ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper examines social factors in HIV and AIDS transmission in Nigeria through content analysis of archival materials. Efforts deployed to stop the disastrous consequences of HIV and AIDS remain relatively unsuccessful in Nigeria. The number of persons infected with HIV has escalated despite the high rates of ...

  3. Familial and Temperamental Risk Factors for Social Anxiety Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirshfeld-Becker, Dina R.

    2010-01-01

    Social anxiety disorder (SAD) is a common disorder that can lead to significant impairment. In this chapter, the author provides background on the disorder and reviews hypothesized familial and temperamental risk factors. In particular, it highlights the Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH) Longitudinal Study of Children at Risk for Anxiety, now…

  4. Implicit vs. Explicit Trust in Social Matrix Factorization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fazeli, Soude; Loni, Babak; Bellogin, Alejandro; Drachsler, Hendrik; Sloep, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Incorporating social trust in Matrix Factorization (MF) methods demonstrably improves accuracy of rating prediction. Such approaches mainly use the trust scores explicitly expressed by users. However, it is often challenging to have users provide explicit trust scores of each other. There exist

  5. Patient and social work factors related to successful placement of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Patient and social work factors related to successful placement of long-term psychiatric in-patients from a specialist psychiatric hospital in South Africa. ... away; a low frequency of behavioural problems (especially of cannabis abuse, verbal or physical aggression, uncontrolled sexual activity), and agitation or restlessness.

  6. Qualitative evaluation of selected social factors that impact sexual ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: This study was designed to explore the sexual behaviour of students in a metropolitan Durban University of Technology in KwaZulu-Natal to understand the social factors underlying their risk of HIV infection. Methods: This is a qualitative study that used cluster sampling where the population was stratified by ...

  7. Clinical Relevance of Environmental Factors in the Pathogenesis of Autoimmune Thyroid Disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiersinga, Wilmar M.

    2016-01-01

    Genetic factors contribute for about 70% to 80% and environmental factors for about 20% to 30% to the pathogenesis of autoimmune thyroid disease (AITD). Relatives of AITD patients carry a risk to contract AITD themselves. The 5-year risk can be quantified by the so-called Thyroid Events

  8. Intraspecific variation in social organization by genetic variation, developmental plasticity, social flexibility or entirely extrinsic factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schradin, Carsten

    2013-05-19

    Previously, it was widely believed that each species has a specific social organization, but we know now that many species show intraspecific variation in their social organization. Four different processes can lead to intraspecific variation in social organization: (i) genetic variation between individuals owing to local adaptation (between populations) or evolutionarily stable strategies within populations; (ii) developmental plasticity evolved in long-term (more than one generation) unpredictable and short-term (one generation) predictable environments, which is mediated by organizational physiological effects during early ontogeny; (iii) social flexibility evolved in highly unpredictable environments, which is mediated by activational physiological effects in adults; (iv) entirely extrinsic factors such as the death of a dominant breeder. Variation in social behaviour occurs between individuals in the case of genetic variation and developmental plasticity, but within individuals in the case of social flexibility. It is important to study intraspecific variation in social organization to understand the social systems of species because it reveals the mechanisms by which species can adapt to changing environments, offers a useful tool to study the ultimate and proximate causes of sociality, and is an interesting phenomenon by itself that needs scientific explanation.

  9. Factors relevant to control of out-of-core radiation fields in BWRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comley, G.C.W.

    1983-08-01

    Based on operating experience of BWRs around the world this report reviews major factors which appear to govern the problem of growth and intensity of radiation fields on out-of-core surfaces. While no one factor is dominant there is considerable evidence which links system chemistry, crud input and cobalt-rich sources to this problem. The report provides advice to BWR operators and system designers aimed at minimising doserates due to activity retention on coolant circuitry. (author)

  10. Review of the social and environmental factors affecting the behavior and welfare of turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchewka, J; Watanabe, T T N; Ferrante, V; Estevez, I

    2013-06-01

    In modern rearing systems, turkey producers often face economic losses due to increased aggression, feather pecking, cannibalism, leg disorders, or injuries among birds, which are also significant welfare issues. The main underlying causes appear to relate to rapid growth, flock size, density, poor environmental complexity, or lighting, which may be deficient in providing the birds with an adequate physical or social environment. To date, there is little information regarding the effect of these factors on turkey welfare. This knowledge is, however, essential to ensure the welfare of turkeys and to improve their quality of life, but may also be beneficial to industry, allowing better bird performance, improved carcass quality, and reduced mortality and condemnations. This paper reviews the available scientific literature related to the behavior of turkeys as influenced by the physical and social environment that may be relevant to advances toward turkey production systems that take welfare into consideration. We addressed the effects that factors such as density, group size, space availability, maturation, lightning, feeding, and transport may have over parameters that may be relevant to ensure welfare of turkeys. Available scientific studies were based in experimental environments and identified individual factors corresponding to particular welfare problems. Most of the studies aimed at finding optimal levels of rearing conditions that allow avoiding or decreasing most severe welfare issues. This paper discusses the importance of these factors for development of production environments that would be better suited from a welfare and economic point of view.

  11. SHMF: Interest Prediction Model with Social Hub Matrix Factorization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaoyuan Cui

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available With the development of social networks, microblog has become the major social communication tool. There is a lot of valuable information such as personal preference, public opinion, and marketing in microblog. Consequently, research on user interest prediction in microblog has a positive practical significance. In fact, how to extract information associated with user interest orientation from the constantly updated blog posts is not so easy. Existing prediction approaches based on probabilistic factor analysis use blog posts published by user to predict user interest. However, these methods are not very effective for the users who post less but browse more. In this paper, we propose a new prediction model, which is called SHMF, using social hub matrix factorization. SHMF constructs the interest prediction model by combining the information of blogs posts published by both user and direct neighbors in user’s social hub. Our proposed model predicts user interest by integrating user’s historical behavior and temporal factor as well as user’s friendships, thus achieving accurate forecasts of user’s future interests. The experimental results on Sina Weibo show the efficiency and effectiveness of our proposed model.

  12. Ethical Factors of Social Capital Increasing in Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nureev Rustem, M.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Authors’ definition of social capital as an institutional and ethical category, determined by the structure of moral and ethical features of economic agents is considered. It is shown that the level of social capital directly depends on the prevalence of such features of economic agents as honesty, fairness, responsibility, humanity, patriotism. Despite the fact that the level of social capital is currently evaluated through qualitative (personal, expert methods, it is possible to identify its impact on specific economic indicators. For the analysis based on the elements of social capital and other indicators of socio-economic development the authors used Russian official statistics, international organizations data and sociological surveys results. Considering the advantages and disadvantages of correlation and regression analysis and mathematical methods in Economics in general, the authors set the task not to construct a multifactor model of economic and non-economic indicators interrelation, but to confirm their close ties according to the purpose to substantiate the necessity of the government social and economic policy improvement by taking into account the influence of institutional and ethical factors that have long been investigated outside the pure economic science. Key factors of social capital increasing include honesty, trust, fairness, but their level in Russia remains extremely low due to cultural and historical peculiarities of national development, that can be proven by economic crimes and the shadow economy statistics. Great attention is also paid to social responsibility and patriotism, which are of particular importance in the current geopolitical environment and can be combined in the sense of national economic responsibility.

  13. Factors affecting social workers' inclusion of animals in practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risley-Curtiss, Christina; Rogge, Mary E; Kawam, Elisa

    2013-04-01

    Experts suggest that social work practitioners can improve their client service with a more thorough understanding of the impact of other animals on individuals and families. Studies indicate that some social work practitioners are including animals in their practices through assessment and interventions. Little is known about what factors contribute to this inclusion, especially because there is a lack of attention in social work education and research to animal-human relationships. This study used logistical regression to examine the impact of certain demographic, knowledge, and practice variables on the inclusion of animals in social work practice. Findings include that knowing other social workers who include animals in practice and primary client population served were significant for inclusion of animals in assessment, animal-assisted intervention, and treating clients for animal abuse or loss of an animal. Although practitioners' having a companion animal was positively related to including animals in interventions and treating clients for loss of an animal, contributing to animal welfare through volunteering at shelters or financially contributing to animal groups did not have an effect on inclusion of animals in practice. Implications for these and other findings are discussed, and recommendations for social work research, education, and practice are offered.

  14. Success Factors of Sustainable Social Enterprises Through Circular Economy Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stratan Dumitru

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The scope of the research is to find out how social entrepreneurship operations can be modelled within existing business methods using circular economy principles. A literature review was undertaken in order to clarify and find out different opinions regarding circularity and social businesses models. Moreover, the author interviewed managers of different social mission organizations in order to find out the critical factors that determine the sustainability and performances of the organizations. Using the results of the field and desk research, the author suggests the following business model elements to be considered by social enterprises aiming to implement circular economy principles: Desired social and environment vision; Value proposition; Alignment of organizations to the strategy and acceleration of change through executive leadership implication; Financial sustainable perspective: a to increase financial resources and b to manage costs; Stakeholders perspective: a customers segments, b users, c employees, d community beneficiaries, e channels, f customer relationships, g Key partnerships; Internal process perspective: a processes necessary to use circular economy principles; b impact measurement and key activities; c internal and external communication; Resources perspective: a networks; b skills on circular principles and social impact; c information and technologies.`

  15. Election process as a factor of youth socialization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matveeva E. A.

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available the analysis of the process of political socialization of youth and its factors is given in the article. The article covers urgent issues of political organizations influence on the process of adoption of values, standards and attitudes by an individual. It was formed in youth attitudes and behavior patterns that determine the strategy for the development of national and humanistic traditions, political culture and tolerance. And the role of political socialization of the younger generation in this connection it is important.

  16. Psychodynamic Factors Behind Online Social Networking and its Excessive Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Thomas Cheuk Wing

    2016-03-01

    This article discusses the psychodynamic factors behind the popularity of one form of Internet activity, online social networking (SN). It views online SN as an extension of the social self, organized in a way that is more controllable than real life relating. The SN platforms reward its users with reassuring surfaces and novel self-object experiences while at the same time induces much anxiety. The addictive quality of online SN is understood in the context of collapse of dialectical space and the defensive use of this technology.

  17. Use of International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) to describe patient-reported disability in multiple sclerosis and identification of relevant environmental factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Fary; Pallant, Julie F

    2007-01-01

    To use the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) to describe patient-reported disability in multiple sclerosis and identify relevant environmental factors. Cross-sectional survey of 101 participants in the community. Their multiple sclerosis-related problems were linked with ICF categories (second level) using a checklist, consensus between health professionals and the "linking rules". The impact of multiple sclerosis on health areas corresponding to 48 ICF categories was also assessed. A total of 170 ICF categories were identified (mean age 49 years, 72 were female). Average number of problems reported was 18. The categories include 48 (42%) for body function, 16 (34%) body structure, 68 (58%) activities and participation and 38 (51%) for environmental factors. Extreme impact in health areas corresponding to ICF categories for activities and participation were reported for mobility, work, everyday home activities, community and social activities. While those for the environmental factors (barriers) included products for mobility, attitudes of extended family, restriction accessing social security and health resources. This study is a first step in the use of the ICF in persons with multiple sclerosis and towards development of the ICF Core set for multiple sclerosis from a broader international perspective.

  18. The factor structure of the Social Interaction Anxiety Scale and the Social Phobia Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidenreich, Thomas; Schermelleh-Engel, Karin; Schramm, Elisabeth; Hofmann, Stefan G; Stangier, Ulrich

    2011-05-01

    The Social Interaction Anxiety Scale (SIAS) and the Social Phobia Scale (SPS) are two compendium measures that have become some of the most popular self-report scales of social anxiety. Despite their popularity, it remains unclear whether it is necessary to maintain two separate scales of social anxiety. The primary objective of the present study was to examine the factor analytic structure of both measures to determine the factorial validity of each scale. For this purpose, we administered both scales to 577 patients at the beginning of outpatient treatment. Analyzing both scales simultaneously, a CFA with two correlated factors showed a better fit to the data than a single factor model. An additional EFA with an oblique rotation on all 40 items using the WLSMV estimator further supported the two factor solution. These results suggest that the SIAS and SPS measure similar, but not identical facets of social anxiety. Thus, our findings provide support to retain the SIAS and SPS as two separate scales. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. [Adoption of new technologies by health services: the challenge of analyzing relevant factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trindade, Evelinda

    2008-05-01

    The exponential increase in the incorporation of health technologies has been considered a key factor in increased expenditures by the health sector. Such decisions involve multiple levels and stakeholders. Decentralization has multiplied the decision-making levels, with numerous difficult choices and limited resources. The interrelationship between stakeholders is complex, in creative systems with multiple determinants and confounders. The current review discusses the interaction between the factors influencing the decisions to incorporate technologies by health services, and proposes a structure for their analysis. The application and intensity of these factors in decision-making and the incorporation of products and programs by health services shapes the installed capacity of local and regional networks and modifies the health system. Empirical observation of decision-making and technology incorporation in Brazilian health services poses an important challenge. The structured recognition and measurement of these variables can assist proactive planning of health services.

  20. Clinical Relevance of Environmental Factors in the Pathogenesis of Autoimmune Thyroid Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Wiersinga, Wilmar M.

    2016-01-01

    Genetic factors contribute for about 70% to 80% and environmental factors for about 20% to 30% to the pathogenesis of autoimmune thyroid disease (AITD). Relatives of AITD patients carry a risk to contract AITD themselves. The 5-year risk can be quantified by the so-called Thyroid Events Amsterdam-score, based on serum thyroid-stimulating hormone, thyroid peroxidase (TPO)-antibodies and family history. Subjects at risk may ask what they can do to prevent development of AITD. This review summar...

  1. The relevance of the social networking media in Ebola virus disease prevention and control in Southwestern Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adebimpe, Wasiu Olalekan; Adeyemi, Damilare Hakeem; Faremi, Ayodeji; Ojo, John Olujide; Efuntoye, Adeola Ebun

    2015-01-01

    The Social Media (SM) is fast becoming a huge avenue to create and spread health awareness amongst youths. Meanwhile news surrounding the on-going Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) outbreak in West Africa are frightening. This study assessed the relevance of the social networking media in spreading awareness about EVD prevention and control in Southwestern Nigeria. Descriptive cross sectional study among 400 youths selected using multistage sampling method. Research instruments used were semi structured self administered questionnaires that were analyzed using the SPSS software version 17.0. Three hundred and eighty (95.0%) of respondents were members of a social network. Several misconceptions trailed the spread of information about EVD. Though only 21(7.3%) bothered to ascertain the reliability of such information before use, 332 (83.0%) believed that SM can also be used to dispel rumours on health information, 337(84.3%) said they would like the use of SM regulated, while 206 (51.6%) still believed that SM is effective in disseminating health information among youths. Only 79.4% had good knowledge of EVD, and 30.7% of respondents had misinformation about EVD. Determinants of good level of knowledge about EVD through SM contacts include being a male, having SM as the first source of information on EVD and believing that SM could assist to disseminate and improve health information. Misconceptions spread through the SM fuelled the ongoing EVD outbreak in West Africa. There is a need for the concerned authority to create awareness through SM contacts as well as regulate its use.

  2. Transfer of Patients in a Telestroke Network: What Are the Relevant Factors for Making This Decision?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klingner, Carsten M; Brodoehl, Stefan; Funck, Laura; Klingner, Caroline C; Berrouschot, Jörg; Witte, Otto W; Günther, Albrecht

    2018-02-01

    Background/Introduction: Current telestroke network consultations are focused on decision-making in the hyperacute stage of stroke management. The two main questions in telestroke consultations are whether thrombolysis should be initiated and whether the patient should be transferred to a hub hospital. Although guidelines exist for initiating intravenous thrombolytic therapy, the question of whether patients should be transferred is far more elusive. In this study, we investigated the factors involved in the decision to transfer stroke patients to a hub hospital. We were particularly interested in identifying factors that promote or impede the transfer of patients. We enrolled 1,615 cases of telestroke consultation of the University Hospital Jena. The two main factors that independently influenced the probability of transferring a patient were the patient's age and the identification of a proximal vessel occlusion. Interestingly, factors such as the severity of symptoms and the time elapsed from symptom onset were not found to have an independent influence on the decision to transfer a patient. The transfer of most patients was justified by the possibility of performing interventional reperfusion therapy. We discuss the effectiveness of the current decision-making process and possible ways to improve decision-making for a more effective selection of patients who would benefit from transfer. The decision-making process to a transfer patient is not standardized and constitutes a trade-off between the intention to treat all possible patients while avoiding the transfer of patients without treatment options.

  3. META-ANALYSIS OF THE LIFE STYLE FACTORS RELEVANT TO ENVIRONMENTAL HAZARDS FOR THE AGING POPULATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    The goal of this U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) study is to characterize activity patterns, physiological changes, and environmental exposures for the aging population. Meta analysis was performed on more than 2000 reviewed articles to evaluate the lifestyle factors ...

  4. Corporate Image of Public Higher Education Institutions: Relevant Factors to Distance Learning Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Costa, Fabio R.; Pelissari, Anderson S.; Gonzalez, Inayara V. D. P.

    2018-01-01

    Technological advances are generating a significant increase in the supply of distance learning (DL) courses via the Internet, increasing the importance of this type of education for the university's structure. This article identifies factors associated with perceptions of the public higher education institutions' image from the perspective of DL…

  5. Physical interactions among plant MADS-box transcription factors and their biological relevance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nougalli Tonaco, I.A.

    2008-01-01

    The biological interpretation of the genome starts from transcription, and many different signaling pathways are integrated at this level. Transcription factors play a central role in the transcription process, because they select the down-stream genes and determine their spatial and temporal

  6. Factors Affecting Green Residential Building Development: Social Network Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaodong Yang

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Green residential buildings (GRBs are one of the effective practices of energy saving and emission reduction in the construction industry. However, many real estate developers in China are less willing to develop GRBs, because of the factors affecting green residential building development (GRBD. In order to promote the sustainable development of GRBs in China, this paper, based on the perspective of real estate developers, identifies the influential and critical factors affecting GRBD, using the method of social network analysis (SNA. Firstly, 14 factors affecting GRBD are determined from 64 preliminary factors of three main elements, and the framework is established. Secondly, the relationships between the 14 factors are analyzed by SNA. Finally, four critical factors for GRBD, which are on the local economy development level, development strategy and innovation orientation, developer’s acknowledgement and positioning for GRBD, and experience and ability for GRBD, are identified by the social network centrality test. The findings illustrate the key issues that affect the development of GRBs, and provide references for policy making by the government and strategy formulation by real estate developers.

  7. Social factors in marijuana use for medical and recreational purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szaflarski, Magdalena; Sirven, Joseph I

    2017-05-01

    Of all the various treatment options for epilepsy, no other therapy comes close to the polarity that cannabis engenders. The rationale for this reaction is firmly rooted in the social factors that enshroud the use of marijuana for both medical and recreational purposes. In order to best understand how to approach this controversial treatment, it is essential to explore the social, demographic, and historical variables that have led to the current opinions on cannabis therapy and how this has converged on epilepsy treatment. Utilizing a sociological conceptual framework, this review discusses in depth the social, cultural, and historical dimensions of cannabis use in the US for medical purposes and its impact on epilepsy treatment. Moreover, it posits that cannabis therapy and the opinions surrounding its use are products of history and assesses this treatment option through the lens of our current times. This article is part of a Special Issue titled Cannabinoids and Epilepsy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Social cognition in schizophrenia: cognitive and affective factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziv, Ido; Leiser, David; Levine, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    Social cognition refers to how people conceive, perceive, and draw inferences about mental and emotional states of others in the social world. Previous studies suggest that the concept of social cognition involves several abilities, including those related to affect and cognition. The present study analyses the deficits of individuals with schizophrenia in two areas of social cognition: Theory of Mind (ToM) and emotion recognition and processing. Examining the impairment of these abilities in patients with schizophrenia has the potential to elucidate the neurophysiological regions involved in social cognition and may also have the potential to aid rehabilitation. Two experiments were conducted. Both included the same five tasks: first- and second-level false-belief ToM tasks, emotion inferencing, understanding of irony, and matrix reasoning (a WAIS-R subtest). The matrix reasoning task was administered to evaluate and control for the association of the other tasks with analytic reasoning skills. Experiment 1 involved factor analysis of the task performance of 75 healthy participants. Experiment 2 compared 30 patients with schizophrenia to an equal number of matched controls. Results. (1) The five tasks were clearly divided into two factors corresponding to the two areas of social cognition, ToM and emotion recognition and processing. (2) Schizophrenics' performance was impaired on all tasks, particularly on those loading heavily on the analytic component (matrix reasoning and second-order ToM). (3) Matrix reasoning, second-level ToM (ToM2), and irony were found to distinguish patients from controls, even when all other tasks that revealed significant impairment in the patients' performance were taken into account. The two areas of social cognition examined are related to distinct factors. The mechanism for answering ToM questions (especially ToM2) depends on analytic reasoning capabilities, but the difficulties they present to individuals with schizophrenia are due

  9. Psychosocial work factors and social inequalities in psychological distress: a population-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline S. Duchaine

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mental health problems (MHP are the leading cause of disability worldwide. The inverse association between socioeconomic position (SEP and MHP has been well documented. There is prospective evidence that factors from the work environment, including adverse psychosocial work factors, could contribute to the development of MHP including psychological distress. However, the contribution of psychosocial work factors to social inequalities in MHP remains unclear. This study evaluates the contribution of psychosocial work factors from two highly supported models, the Demand-Control-Support (DCS and the Effort-Reward Imbalance (ERI models to SEP inequalities of psychological distress in men and women from a population-based sample of Quebec workers. Methods Data were collected during a survey on working conditions, health and safety at work. SEP was evaluated using education, occupation and household income. Psychosocial work factors and psychological distress were assessed using validated instruments. Mean differences (MD in the score of psychological distress were estimated separately for men and women. Results Low education level and low household income were associated with psychological distress among men (MD, 0.56 (95% CI 0.06; 1.05 and 1.26 (95% CI 0.79; 1.73 respectively. In men, the contribution of psychosocial work factors from the DCS and the ERI models to the association between household income and psychological distress ranged from 9% to 24%. No clear inequalities were observed among women. Conclusions These results suggest that psychosocial work factors from the DCS and the ERI models contribute to explain a part of social inequalities in psychological distress among men. Psychosocial factors at work are frequent and modifiable. The present study supports the relevance of targeting these factors for the primary prevention of MHP and for health policies aiming to reduce social inequalities in mental health.

  10. Psychosocial work factors and social inequalities in psychological distress: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duchaine, Caroline S; Ndjaboué, Ruth; Levesque, Manon; Vézina, Michel; Trudel, Xavier; Gilbert-Ouimet, Mahée; Dionne, Clermont E; Mâsse, Benoît; Pearce, Neil; Brisson, Chantal

    2017-01-18

    Mental health problems (MHP) are the leading cause of disability worldwide. The inverse association between socioeconomic position (SEP) and MHP has been well documented. There is prospective evidence that factors from the work environment, including adverse psychosocial work factors, could contribute to the development of MHP including psychological distress. However, the contribution of psychosocial work factors to social inequalities in MHP remains unclear. This study evaluates the contribution of psychosocial work factors from two highly supported models, the Demand-Control-Support (DCS) and the Effort-Reward Imbalance (ERI) models to SEP inequalities of psychological distress in men and women from a population-based sample of Quebec workers. Data were collected during a survey on working conditions, health and safety at work. SEP was evaluated using education, occupation and household income. Psychosocial work factors and psychological distress were assessed using validated instruments. Mean differences (MD) in the score of psychological distress were estimated separately for men and women. Low education level and low household income were associated with psychological distress among men (MD, 0.56 (95% CI 0.06; 1.05) and 1.26 (95% CI 0.79; 1.73) respectively). In men, the contribution of psychosocial work factors from the DCS and the ERI models to the association between household income and psychological distress ranged from 9% to 24%. No clear inequalities were observed among women. These results suggest that psychosocial work factors from the DCS and the ERI models contribute to explain a part of social inequalities in psychological distress among men. Psychosocial factors at work are frequent and modifiable. The present study supports the relevance of targeting these factors for the primary prevention of MHP and for health policies aiming to reduce social inequalities in mental health.

  11. The factor structure of the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale for Children and Adolescents: development of a brief version.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shachar, Iris; Aderka, Idan M; Gilboa-Schechtman, Eva

    2014-06-01

    The Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale for Children and Adolescents (LSAS-CA-SR) is a validated instrument for the assessment of social anxiety in youth. The three main objectives of the present study were to (a) examine the factor structure of the LSAS-CA-SR; (b) to validate the factors against relevant personality measures, and (c) to create a brief and reliable version of the questionnaire. A total of 1,362 adolescents completed self-report measures of social anxiety, temperament, character and personality traits. The factor structure was examined using a combination of confirmatory and exploratory factor analysis. The analysis was conducted on both the anxiety and avoidance sub-scales, and identical items for both sub-scales were maintained. Two factors emerged: social interaction and school performance. These factors demonstrated high internal consistency and a significant correlation with relevant self-report measures. A brief version comprised of 14 items was highly correlated (0.96) with the full version. The new factor structure represents advancement over the previous efforts, and holds promise for efficient utilization of the LSAS-CA.

  12. The prognostic relevance of psychological factors with regard to participation and success in table-tennis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinent, Guillaume; Cece, Valérian; Elferink-Gemser, Marije Titia; Faber, Irene Renate; Decret, Jean-Claude

    2018-05-15

    This study examined the prognostic relevance of self-determined motivation, coping, burnout, perceived stress and recovery experienced by 159 youth table-tennis players involved in intensive training centers with regard to their participation and success six years later. Results of ANCOVAs showed that players who still practiced at time 2 (T2; six years later; n = 130) reported lower time 1 (T1; while they were involved in intensive training centers) amotivation (large effect), disengagement-oriented coping, sport devaluation and reduced accomplishment (moderate effects) than their counterparts who dropped out at T2 (n = 29). Results of ANCOVAs also showed that international (n = 18) and/or national players (n = 86) at T2 reported significantly lower T1 amotivation (large effect), disengagement-oriented coping and sport devaluation (moderate effects) in comparison to regional (n = 26) players at T2. Finally results of correlational analyses showed that T2 performance and/or six-year performance progress were significantly and weakly correlated with introjected and external regulations, perceived stress and perceived recovery, and significantly and moderately correlated with amotivation, disengagement-oriented coping, sport devaluation, and reduced accomplishment. Overall, this study provided insights into the role played by self-determined motivation, coping, burnout, perceived stress and recovery in the table-tennis players' dropout and performance level six years later.

  13. Socializing the human factors analysis and classification system: incorporating social psychological phenomena into a human factors error classification system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paletz, Susannah B F; Bearman, Christopher; Orasanu, Judith; Holbrook, Jon

    2009-08-01

    The presence of social psychological pressures on pilot decision making was assessed using qualitative analyses of critical incident interviews. Social psychological phenomena have long been known to influence attitudes and behavior but have not been highlighted in accident investigation models. Using a critical incident method, 28 pilots who flew in Alaska were interviewed. The participants were asked to describe a situation involving weather when they were pilot in command and found their skills challenged. They were asked to describe the incident in detail but were not explicitly asked to identify social pressures. Pressures were extracted from transcripts in a bottom-up manner and then clustered into themes. Of the 28 pilots, 16 described social psychological pressures on their decision making, specifically, informational social influence, the foot-in-the-door persuasion technique, normalization of deviance, and impression management and self-consistency motives. We believe accident and incident investigations can benefit from explicit inclusion of common social psychological pressures. We recommend specific ways of incorporating these pressures into theHuman Factors Analysis and Classification System.

  14. [Hereditary heterozygous factor VII deficiency in patients undergoing surgery : Clinical relevance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woehrle, D; Martinez, M; Bolliger, D

    2016-10-01

    A hereditary deficiency in coagulation factor VII (FVII) may affect the international normalized ratio (INR) value. However, FVII deficiency is occasionally associated with a tendency to bleed spontaneously. We hypothesized that perioperative substitution with coagulation factor concentrates might not be indicated in most patients. In this retrospective data analysis, we included all patients with hereditary heterozygous FVII deficiency who underwent surgical procedures at the University Hospital Basel between December 2010 and November 2015. In addition, by searching the literature, we identified publications reporting patients with FVII deficiency undergoing surgical procedures without perioperative substitution. We identified 22 patients undergoing 46 surgical procedures, resulting in a prevalence of 1:1500-2000. Coagulation factor concentrates were administered during the perioperative period in 15 procedures (33 %), whereas in the other 31 procedures (66 %), FVII deficiency was not substituted. No postoperative bleeding or thromboembolic events were reported. In addition, we found no differences in pre- and postoperative hemoglobin and coagulation parameters, with the exception of an improved postoperative INR value in the substituted group. In the literature review, we identified five publications, including 125 patients with FVII deficiency, undergoing 213 surgical procedures with no perioperative substitution. Preoperative substitution using coagulation factor concentrates does not seem to be mandatory in patients with an FVII level ≥15 %. For decision-making on preoperative substitution, patient history of an increased tendency to bleed may be more important than the FVII level or increased INR value.

  15. Expatriate vs locals: career management processes and relevant factors in multinationals

    OpenAIRE

    Veríssimo, Tiago Manuel Gaspar

    2011-01-01

    Mestrado em Gestão The aim of this investigation is to determine in what extent the individual and organizational factors are liable for the motivation intensity and for the expected success of an international assignment. Therefore, we also cleared the variables that can influence these behaviours and create a higher perception of success in which concerns employees on an international assignment. Survey data were collected from 130 non-expatriates and from 32 expatriates (from which o...

  16. Clinical Relevance of Environmental Factors in the Pathogenesis of Autoimmune Thyroid Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilmar M. Wiersinga

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Genetic factors contribute for about 70% to 80% and environmental factors for about 20% to 30% to the pathogenesis of autoimmune thyroid disease (AITD. Relatives of AITD patients carry a risk to contract AITD themselves. The 5-year risk can be quantified by the so-called Thyroid Events Amsterdam-score, based on serum thyroid-stimulating hormone, thyroid peroxidase (TPO-antibodies and family history. Subjects at risk may ask what they can do to prevent development of AITD. This review summarizes what is known about modulation of exposure to environmental factors in terms of AITD prevention. To stop smoking decreases the risk on Graves disease but increases the risk on Hashimoto disease. Moderate alcohol intake provides some protection against both Graves and Hashimoto disease. Low selenium intake is associated with a higher prevalence of thyroid autoimmunity, but evidence that selenium supplementation may lower TPO antibodies and prevent subclinical hypothyroidism remains inconclusive. Low serum vitamin D levels are associated with a higher prevalence of TPO antibodies, but intervention studies with extra vitamin D have not been done yet. Stress may provoke Graves hyperthyroidism but not Hashimoto thyroiditis. Estrogen use have been linked to a lower prevalence of Graves disease. The postpartum period is associated with an increased risk of AITD. Taking together, preventive interventions to diminish the risk of AITD are few, not always feasible, and probably of limited efficacy.

  17. Empirical Analysis on Factors Affecting User Behavior in Social Commerce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Jiayi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available [Purpose/significance] This paper aims to discover the factors affecting user behavior in the derivative situation of e-commerce, social commerce, and explore the sustainable development and related marketing advice of it. [Method/process]This paper put forward a theoretical model of factors affecting user behavior in social commerce by integrating emotional state impact into the Stimulus-Organism-Response (S-O-R framework. 277 valid samples were collected by questionnaires and PLS. [Result/conclusion]The results show that information quality and tie strength significantly affect user emotional states, while emotional states positively affect user behavior. In addition, graphic features of business information have indirect effects on user emotional states, while it has direct effect on purchase intention.

  18. [Therapeutic education of total laryngectomy patients: Influence of social factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woisard, V; Galtier, A; Baumann, L; Delpierre, C; Puech, M; Balaguer, M

    Current health policies promote patient education, parti­cu­lar­ly in oncology. Therapeutic education program must be tailo­red to the characteristics, needs and expectations of the population. In the ENT Department of Head and Neck Surgery, Larrey Hospital in Toulouse, a therapeutic education program for patient with total laryngectomy has been experienced since 2011. But its propagation remains difficult. The aim of this study is to determine if social factors are nfluencing the parti­cipation of the laryngectomized population in the program. The brochure explaining this program and a registration form coupled with a survey questionnaire were distributed to the regio­nal population of patient with total laryngectomy. After two months of investigation we collected 42 responses. It is clear from their analysis that social factors underlie partici­pa­tion, particularly educational level, available financial resources level and the socio-professional group.

  19. Social factors outside of family and school related to student dropout

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stepanović-Ilić Ivana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a systematisation of broader social factors affecting student dropout in Serbia from the framework of Bronfenbrenner’s approach. Although recognised by authors and commonly related to community and education as a system, these factors are rarely investigated. Starting from our previous research into dropout, focused primarily on family and school, this study is aimed at investigating community and systemic factors. The data were compiled by semi-structured interviews with respondents from the following groups (including relevant public statistical data: students who dropped out/are at risk and their parents; school principals and counsellors from schools with high and low attrition rates; teachers’, parents’ and students’ representatives from schools with high dropout rates; social workers in charge of schools with a low attrition rate; representatives of national educational institutions. The findings reveal that factors with a negative impact on children’s education dominate over supportive ones which could have a preventive effect on attrition. Negative influences exist in all social niches: in microsystems (peers prone to risky behaviour, poor neighbourhoods, in weak mesosystem connections of school and family with local institutions, in exosystems (undeveloped regions, up to the macrosystem level (legislative inefficiency, lack of cooperation within educational institutions and between governmental departments. Productive features were observed in mesosystem connections of schools as examples of good practice, as well as at macrosystem level in the form of recognising the dropout problem at the national level. Although preliminary, the obtained results provide useful guidelines for future investigations.

  20. Factors affecting quality of social interaction park in Jakarta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangunsong, N. I.

    2018-01-01

    The existence of social interactions park in Jakarta is an oasis in the middle of a concrete jungle. Parks is a response to the need for open space as a place of recreation and community interaction. Often the social interaction parks built by the government does not function as expected, but other functions such as a place to sell, trash, unsafe so be rarely visited by visitors. The purpose of this study was to analyze the factors that affect the quality of social interaction parks in Jakarta by conducting descriptive analysis and correlation analysis of the variables assessment. The results of the analysis can give an idea of social interactions park based on community needs and propose the development of social interactioncity park. The object of study are 25 social interaction parks in 5 municipalities of Jakarta. The method used is descriptive analysis method, correlation analysis using SPSS 19 and using crosstab, chi-square tests. The variables are 5 aspects of Design, Plants composition: Selection type of plant (D); the beauty and harmony (Ind); Maintenance and fertility (P); Cleanliness and Environmental Health (BS); Specificity (Drainage, Multi Function garden, Means, Concern/Mutual cooperation, in dense settlements) (K). The results of analysis show that beauty is the most significant correlation with the value of the park followed by specificity, cleanliness and maintenance. Design was not the most significant variable affecting the quality of the park. The results of this study can be used by the Department of Parks and Cemeteries as input in managing park existing or to be developed and to improve the quality of social interaction park in Jakarta.

  1. Polypharmacy as a Risk Factor for Clinically Relevant Sarcopenia: Results From the Berlin Aging Study II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    König, Maximilian; Spira, Dominik; Demuth, Ilja; Steinhagen-Thiessen, Elisabeth; Norman, Kristina

    2017-12-12

    Sarcopenia affects more than 10% of older adults. Next to age-associated physiologic changes, diseases like diabetes or inflammatory, neurological, malignant and endocrine disorders may contribute to the development of sarcopenia. Likewise, polypharmacy, i.e., multiple drug use, is common among older adults. Although the two conditions frequently co-occur, the association of polypharmacy with sarcopenia has not yet been examined. We investigated the association of polypharmacy and sarcopenia in a large cohort of community-dwelling older adults (60-84 years). Thousand five hundred and two participants from the Berlin Aging Study II were included. Polypharmacy was defined as concurrent use of 5 or more drugs (prescription and nonprescription). Body composition was assessed with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and appendicular lean mass (ALM) was calculated as sum of the four limbs' lean mass. Sarcopenia was defined as low ALM-to-body mass index (BMI)-ratio using validated sex-specific cutoffs. Mean age was 68.7 ± 3.7 years, 50.7% were female. The median (interquartile range) number of drugs was 2 (1-4); 21.1% of subjects reported regular use of ≥5 drugs. Subjects with polypharmacy were more often sarcopenic according to the applied ALM/BMI-cutoffs (16.3% vs 6.9%, p sarcopenia (odds ratio = 2.24, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.33-3.75). Polypharmacy is associated with clinically relevant sarcopenia, as assessed by a low ALM/BMI. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Relevance of Financial Performance and Good Corporate Governance Determinant of Sustainaibility Corporate Social Responsibility Disclousure in Islamic Bank in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fitriyah Fitriyah

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the paper is to investigate role of the financial performance, ownership structure and number of syari'a supervisory board of Islamic banks in Indonesia on the sustainability of corporate social responsibilities (CSR disclosure. Ownership structure and number of syari'a supervisory board of Islamic banks as proxy of implementation good corporate governance (GCG. There are seven (7 fully fledge Islamic banks in Indonesia. This study uses logic regression to test empirically whether the CSR is highly influenced by the factors identified earlier. Evidence was found that size, ROA and leverage do not have significant role in corporate social responsibilities (CSR disclosure. Specifically, the results infer the fact that the CSR disclosures are significant and positively associated to bank size and ownership structure only. The result of the study has confirms the hypothesis that bank size and ROA has positive associated with CSR disclosure. This suggested that large and profitable banks have more resources to devote to social activities. Leverage negatively influences the disclosure of CSR. Thus, lowly leveraged banks will tend to make larger donations than highly leveraged banks. Ownership structure and number of syari'a supervisory board of Islamic banks have positive associated to CSR disclosure. These results also confirm the predictions that good corporate governance mechanism lead to the greater monitoring and thereby greater CSR disclosure.

  3. [Vaginal disbacteriosis--social and sexual risk factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovachev, S

    2013-01-01

    The vaginal microbe equilibrium could be impaired by different agents. Many of the risk factors can change the preventive mechanisms of the vagina and can lead to inflammation and disease. We even do not suppose about the role of most of them in impairing of vaginal microbe equilibrium. The exact understanding of those risk factors and mechanisms by which they disturb the vaginal microbe balance could reduce female morbidity of vaginal disbacteriosis and vaginal inflammations. The aim of this literature synopsis is to review some of the most frequent risk factors for vaginal disbacteriosis and about how they change vaginal micro-flora with dominant lactobacillus within it. The most informative and detailed articles on the theme which were found in the resent literature as well as in Medline for the period between 1990 and 2012 were selected. The risk agents for vaginal disbacteriosis are: endogenetic, social, sexual, infectious and iatrogenic. The social and sexual factors are the most frequent in our daily round. The intensity and the kind of sexual life, smoking, homosexual connections, vaginal douching and contraception methods are included in them. All these factors depend on us. Thus we hope that through their popularization and discussion will help to prevent the females' health.

  4. Safety factor profile dependence of turbulent structure formation in relevant to internal transport barrier relaxation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokunaga, S.; Yagi, M.; Itoh, S.-I.; Itoh, K.

    2009-01-01

    Full text: It is widely understood that the improved confinement mode with transport barrier is necessary to achieve the self-ignition condition in ITER. The negative magnetic shear, mean ExB flow shear, and zonal flow are considered to play important roles for ITB formation. In our previous study, it is found that the non-linear interaction between the meso-scale modes produces non-local energy transfer to the off-resonant mode in the vicinity of q min surface and brings global relaxation of the temperature profile involving ITB collapse. Experimental studies indicate that a relationship exists between the ITB formation and safety factor q-profile, with a reversed magnetic shear (RS) configuration. Transitional ITB events occur on the low-order rational resonant surface. The ITB shape and location depend on the q-profile and q min position. These observations indicate that the q-profile might play an essential role in determining the turbulent structure. In this study, the effect of safety factor profile on the ion temperature gradient driven drift wave (ITG) turbulence is investigated using a global non-linear simulation code based on the gyro-fluid model. A heat source and toroidal momentum source are introduced. Dependence of safety factor profiles on ITB formation and its stability is examined to clarify the influence of the radial distribution of the rational surfaces and the q min value. It is found that the nonlinearly excited meso-scale mode in the vicinity of q min depends on the value of q min . A detailed analysis of the structure selection rule is in progress. (author)

  5. Social fear and social phobia types among community youth: differential clinical features and vulnerability factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knappe, Susanne; Beesdo-Baum, Katja; Fehm, Lydia; Stein, Murray B; Lieb, Roselind; Wittchen, Hans-Ulrich

    2011-01-01

    To compare different social fears and social phobia subtypes with regard to clinical (age of onset, avoidance, impairment, comorbidities) and vulnerability factors (behavioural inhibition (BI), parental psychopathology and parental rearing) among community youth. Fears of 6 social situations and Social Phobia (SP), along with their clinical features, were assessed using the Munich-Composite International Diagnostic Interview (DIA-X/M-CIDI) in a population-based sample of N = 3021 14-24 year olds that were followed up for 10 years. BI and parental rearing were assessed using self-report questionnaires. Parental psychopathology was assessed directly in parents via DIA-X/M-CIDI, supplemented by offsprings' family history reports. In the total sample, 20.0%, 11.6%, 11.7% reported fear of 1, 2, 3 or more social situations, respectively; rates were 24.2%, 18.7%, and 57.1% in SP-cases (6.6% of the total sample). Exploring the factorial structure indicated rather unidimensionality of social fears than mutual distinction of social fears by interaction vs. performance situations. Except for fear of taking tests and public speaking, social fears rarely occurred in isolation. Social fears of both interaction and performance situations were associated with severe avoidance (vs. fear of either situation; Odds Ratios, OR = 1.5, 95%CI: 1.1-1.9) and impairment (OR = 3.6, 95%CI: 2.6-4.9), and more comorbid anxiety and depressive disorders (OR range 3.2-5.8, p > .001). Fear of interaction situations was associated with higher BI (vs. performance-related fears, OR range 1.2-2.1, p social fears differ in their clinical and vulnerability factors from performance-related social fears. The current DSM-IV specifier of "generalized" SP may fall short of adequately denoting these differences. Fear of taking tests appears to be conceptually and, possibly, etiologically distinct from other social fears, and may be better placed in another category (e.g., as a type of specific phobia

  6. Recognition of the mycobacterial cord factor by Mincle: relevance for granuloma formation and resistance to tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roland eLang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The world’s most successful intracellular bacterial pathogen, Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB, survives inside macrophages by blocking phagosome maturation and establishes chronic infection characterized by the formation of granulomas. Trehalose-6,6-dimycolate (TDM, the mycobacterial cord factor, is the most abundant cell wall lipid of virulent mycobacteria, is sufficient to cause granuloma formation, and has long been known to be a major virulence factor of MTB. Recently, TDM has been shown to activate the Syk-Card9 signaling pathway in macrophages through binding to the C-type lectin receptor Mincle. The Mincle-Card9 pathway is required for activation of macrophages by TDM in vitro and for granuloma formation in vivo following injection of TDM. Whether this pathway is also exploited by MTB to reprogram the macrophage into a comfortable niche has not been explored yet. Several recent studies have investigated the phenotype of Mincle-deficient mice in mycobacterial infection, yielding divergent results in terms of a role for Mincle in host resistance. Here, we review these studies, discuss possible reasons for discrepant results and highlight open questions in the role of Mincle and other C-type lectin receptors in the infection biology of MTB.

  7. Distinctive Risk Factors and Phenotype of Younger Patients With Resistant Hypertension: Age Is Relevant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghazi, Lama; Oparil, Suzanne; Calhoun, David A; Lin, Chee Paul; Dudenbostel, Tanja

    2017-05-01

    Resistant hypertension, defined as blood pressure >140/90 mm Hg despite using ≥3 antihypertensive medications, is a well-recognized clinical entity. Patients with resistant hypertension are at an increased risk of cardiovascular disease compared with those with more easily controlled hypertension. Coronary heart disease mortality rates of younger adults are stagnating or on the rise. The purpose of our study was to characterize the phenotype and risk factors of younger patients with resistant hypertension, given the dearth of data on cardiovascular risk profile in this cohort. We conducted a cross-sectional analysis with predefined age groups of a large, ethnically diverse cohort of 2170 patients referred to the Hypertension Clinic at the University of Alabama at Birmingham. Patients (n=2068) met the inclusion criteria and were classified by age groups, that is, ≤40 years (12.7% of total cohort), 41 to 55 years (32.1%), 56 to 70 years (36.1%), and ≥71 years (19.1%). Patients aged ≤40 years compared with those aged ≥71 years had significantly earlier onset of hypertension (24.7±7.4 versus 55.0±14.1 years; P hypertension, younger individuals have a distinct phenotype characterized by overlapping risk factors and comorbidities, including obesity, high aldosterone, and high dietary sodium intake compared with elderly. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  8. Evolutionary changes of Hox genes and relevant regulatory factors provide novel insights into mammalian morphological modifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kui; Sun, Xiaohui; Chen, Meixiu; Sun, Yingying; Tian, Ran; Wang, Zhengfei; Xu, Shixia; Yang, Guang

    2018-01-01

    The diversity of body plans of mammals accelerates the innovation of lifestyles and the extensive adaptation to different habitats, including terrestrial, aerial and aquatic habitats. However, the genetic basis of those phenotypic modifications, which have occurred during mammalian evolution, remains poorly explored. In the present study, we synthetically surveyed the evolutionary pattern of Hox clusters that played a powerful role in the morphogenesis along the head-tail axis of animal embryos and the main regulatory factors (Mll, Bmi1 and E2f6) that control the expression of Hox genes. A deflected density of repetitive elements and lineage-specific radical mutations of Mll have been determined in marine mammals with morphological changes, suggesting that evolutionary changes may alter Hox gene expression in these lineages, leading to the morphological modification of these lineages. Although no positive selection was detected at certain ancestor nodes of lineages, the increased ω values of Hox genes implied the relaxation of functional constraints of these genes during the mammalian evolutionary process. More importantly, 49 positively-selected sites were identified in mammalian lineages with phenotypic modifications, indicating adaptive evolution acting on Hox genes and regulatory factors. In addition, 3 parallel amino acid substitutions in some Hox genes were examined in marine mammals, which might be responsible for their streamlined body. © 2017 The Authors. Integrative Zoology published by International Society of Zoological Sciences, Institute of Zoology/Chinese Academy of Sciences and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  9. Animal Ownership and Touching Enrich the Context of Social Contacts Relevant to the Spread of Human Infectious Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kifle, Yimer Wasihun; Goeyvaerts, Nele; Van Kerckhove, Kim; Willem, Lander; Kucharski, Adam; Faes, Christel; Leirs, Herwig; Hens, Niel; Beutels, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    Many human infectious diseases originate from animals or are transmitted through animal vectors. We aimed to identify factors that are predictive of ownership and touching of animals, assess whether animal ownership influences social contact behavior, and estimate the probability of a major zoonotic outbreak should a transmissible influenza-like pathogen be present in animals, all in the setting of a densely populated European country. A diary-based social contact survey (n = 1768) was conducted in Flanders, Belgium, from September 2010 until February 2011. Many participants touched pets (46%), poultry (2%) or livestock (2%) on a randomly assigned day, and a large proportion of participants owned such animals (51%, 15% and 5%, respectively). Logistic regression models indicated that larger households are more likely to own an animal and, unsurprisingly, that animal owners are more likely to touch animals. We observed a significant effect of age on animal ownership and touching. The total number of social contacts during a randomly assigned day was modeled using weighted-negative binomial regression. Apart from age, household size and day type (weekend versus weekday and regular versus holiday period), animal ownership was positively associated with the total number of social contacts during the weekend. Assuming that animal ownership and/or touching are at-risk events, we demonstrate a method to estimate the outbreak potential of zoonoses. We show that in Belgium animal-human interactions involving young children (0-9 years) and adults (25-54 years) have the highest potential to cause a major zoonotic outbreak.

  10. A Comparison of Smokers' and Nonsmokers' Fruit and Vegetable Intake and Relevant Psychosocial Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClure, Jennifer B.; Divine, George; Alexander, Gwen; Tolsma, Dennis; Rolnick, Sharon J.; Stopponi, Melanie; Richards, Julie; Johnson, Christine C.

    2009-01-01

    The authors examined the relation between smoking status and fruit and vegetable (FV) consumption among a population-based sample and examined differences in psychosocial factors that may influence diet and inform intervention efforts. The authors recruited adults (N = 2,540) from 5 US health plans to participate in a Web-based dietary intervention trial. At baseline, smokers ate fewer FV servings per day (p motivation, and intrinsic motivation for meeting daily FV recommendations. Fewer smokers expected that eating 5 FV servings a day would reduce their risk for diabetes (p = .02) or obesity (p = .008). Smokers are an important target group for dietary intervention. Intervention efforts should attempt to increase smokers' motivation and confidence in their abilities to change their eating patterns and educate them about the health benefits of eating FV. PMID:19297300

  11. Corticotropin-releasing factor peptide antagonists: design, characterization and potential clinical relevance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivier, Jean E; Rivier, Catherine L

    2014-04-01

    Elusive for more than half a century, corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) was finally isolated and characterized in 1981 from ovine hypothalami and shortly thereafter, from rat brains. Thirty years later, much has been learned about the function and localization of CRF and related family members (Urocortins 1, 2 and 3) and their 2 receptors, CRF receptor type 1 (CRFR1) and CRF receptor type 2 (CRFR2). Here, we report the stepwise development of peptide CRF agonists and antagonists, which led to the CRFR1 agonist Stressin1; the long-acting antagonists Astressin2-B which is specific for CRFR2; and Astressin B, which binds to both CRFR1 and CRFR2.This analog has potential for the treatment of CRF-dependent diseases in the periphery, such as irritable bowel syndrome. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Allergic contact dermatitis in childrenwhich factors are relevant? (review of the literature)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Waard-van der Spek, Flora B; Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Darsow, Ulf

    2013-01-01

    defined dermatitis on the lower legs. Clinical polymorphism of contact dermatitis to clothing may cause difficulties in diagnosing textile dermatitis. Toys are another potentially source of hapten exposure in children, especially from toy-cosmetic products such as perfumes, lipstick and eye shadow......Allergic Contact Dermatitis (ACD) in children is increasing. Sensitization to contact allergens can start in early infancy. The epidermal barrier is crucial for the development of sensitization and elicitation of ACD. Factors that may influence the onset of sensitization in children are atopic...... dermatitis, skin barrier defects and intense or repetitive contact with allergens. Topical treatment of ACD is associated with cutaneous sensitization, although the prevalence is not high. ACD because of haptens in shoes or shin guards should be considered in cases of persistent foot eruptions or sharply...

  13. Retrieving relevant factors with exploratory SEM and principal-covariate regression: A comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vervloet, Marlies; Van den Noortgate, Wim; Ceulemans, Eva

    2018-02-12

    Behavioral researchers often linearly regress a criterion on multiple predictors, aiming to gain insight into the relations between the criterion and predictors. Obtaining this insight from the ordinary least squares (OLS) regression solution may be troublesome, because OLS regression weights show only the effect of a predictor on top of the effects of other predictors. Moreover, when the number of predictors grows larger, it becomes likely that the predictors will be highly collinear, which makes the regression weights' estimates unstable (i.e., the "bouncing beta" problem). Among other procedures, dimension-reduction-based methods have been proposed for dealing with these problems. These methods yield insight into the data by reducing the predictors to a smaller number of summarizing variables and regressing the criterion on these summarizing variables. Two promising methods are principal-covariate regression (PCovR) and exploratory structural equation modeling (ESEM). Both simultaneously optimize reduction and prediction, but they are based on different frameworks. The resulting solutions have not yet been compared; it is thus unclear what the strengths and weaknesses are of both methods. In this article, we focus on the extents to which PCovR and ESEM are able to extract the factors that truly underlie the predictor scores and can predict a single criterion. The results of two simulation studies showed that for a typical behavioral dataset, ESEM (using the BIC for model selection) in this regard is successful more often than PCovR. Yet, in 93% of the datasets PCovR performed equally well, and in the case of 48 predictors, 100 observations, and large differences in the strengths of the factors, PCovR even outperformed ESEM.

  14. Factors Affecting Mobile Tagging Awareness; A Research on Social Media Consumers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kübra DALDAL

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study is to identify the factors affecting awareness of mobile tagging on social media. The study assumes that the mobile tagging awareness levels of social media consumers are high. As a result of the literature review made in the scope of the purpose and assumption of the study, it was identified that the variables used in the measurement of brand awareness levels are recognition, remembering, being first in remembering, brand dominance, brand knowledge and brand opinion. A conceptual model showing the relation between these variables and mobile tagging awareness levels of social media consumers and hypotheses connected to this model were developed and a survey form, loyal to the relevant literature, was prepared in order to obtain the data necessary for the analyses. The universe of the study covers the consumers who are members of social media sites Facebook, Twitter and Linked In. For the analysis of the data obtained as a result of the survey conducted, descriptive statistics containing percentages and frequencies, factor analysis and Pearson’s Correlation Coefficient was used in the analysis of the hypotheses.

  15. [Analysis of the relevant factors for recurrent sudden sensorineural hearing loss].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, H; Zhong, S X

    2016-09-07

    Objective: To investigate the possible factors related to recurrence and prognosis of sudden sensorineural hearing loss(SSNHL). Methods: Four hundred and ninety-five patients with unilateral sudden sensorineural hearing loss between January 2013 to April 2014 were analyzed retrospectively(34 patients lost to follow-up with a dropout rate of 6.87%). Twenty of the 495 patients were diagnosed as recurrent SSNHL and treated again in the same hospital. The data of the patients were summarized to analyze the related factors which might influence the recurrence and prognosis of SSNHL. Results: In the 20 patients with recurrent SSNHL, 19 had the second attack in same ear as the first attack, and the other one had in both ears. There were seven male patients, and thirteen female patients. Patients ranged in age from 24 to 77years, with a median age of 39.5 years. Types of hearing loss: low frequency in eight patients, high frequency in two patients, flat frequency in eight patients, total deafness in two patients, the types of the second attack in 17 patients were same as the first attack, only one patient was changed from total deafness to flat frequency, one case was changed from flat frequency to high frequency, one case changed from flat frequency to total deafness. The intervals between of the first attack time and the second attack time were 1-36 months with the median time of 3.5 months. After systemic oral and (or) transtympanic steroid treatment, recovered in three cases, effective in three cases and 14 cases invalid, the cure rate was 15%, and the total effective rate was 30%. There were statistically significant differences in the recovery rate(χ 2 =8.640, P vertigo and/or dizziness, with a history more than seven days, with hypertension or diabetes mellitus, and with a type of hearing loss except low frequency type, the treatment effect was invalid. The patients with hearing loss at low frequency had the best outcomes. The total effective rates were significant

  16. Prevalence of Disability and Relevant Risk Factors In Elderly Dwellers in Isfahan Province-2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zamane Vafaei

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Due to the increasing elderly population in the country, this study was conducted to determine the level of disability and associated factors, in order to plan for the prevention of disability and reduce the effects of aging. Methods & Materials: This study was conducted through cross-sectional, descriptive analysis and cluster sampling method among 300 patients aged 60 years and older in 8 districts of 14 urban areas of Esfahan. The Data was collected through face to face interviews at elderly people's home. The data collection tool was a questionnaire consisted of two parts: The first section contained demographic, socioeconomic, disease and the needs of the studied population and the second part WHODAS (World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule standard questionnaire, from the World Health Organization resources. The data were analysed through descriptive and analytic statistics. Results: The mean age of the total study population were 71.4 years old, and the median age was 70 years. Among the studied population 15.7 had no disability and most of them (33.3% were suffering from low levels of disability. The highest rate of people without disabilities - regardless of employed people - reffered to cope and live with other people (63.3%. However, the highest rate of severe disability was related to the mobility and doing the daily duties (25.3%. Disability scores increased with age (r=0.4 and decreased significantly with income enhancement (r=-0.3. Moreover, women, widows, those who were living with people other than family, illiteracy and workers had a significantly more disability. Considering disorders and diseases, musculoskeletal disorders, urinary and faecal incontinence, speech disorder, brain stroke, ataxia, Alzheimer's, Parkinson's disease, cognitive and memory disorders were more severe disabilities. So that the mean disability score (out of 100 in patients with the musculoskeletal diseases was approximately

  17. Drought Risk Assessment based on Natural and Social Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jing; Wang, Huimin; Han, Dawei

    2015-04-01

    In many parts of the world, drought hazard is becoming more frequent and severe due to climate change and human activities. It is crucial to monitor and assess drought conditions, especially for decision making support in agriculture sector. The vegetation index (VI) decreases, and the land surface temperature (LST) increases when the vegetation is under drought stress. Therefore both of these remotely sensed indices are widely used in drought monitoring and assessment. Temperature-Vegetation Dryness Index (TVDI) is obtained by establishing the feature space of the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and LST, which reflects agriculture dry situation by inverting soil moisture. However, these indices only concern the natural hazard-causing factors. Our society is a complex large-scale system with various natural and social elements. The drought risk is the joint consequence of hazard-causing factors and hazard-affected bodies. For example, as the population increases, the exposure of the hazard-affected bodies also tends to increase. The high GDP enhances the response ability of government, and the irrigation and water conservancy reduces the vulnerability. Such characteristics of hazard-affected bodies should be coupled with natural factors. In this study, the 16-day moderate-resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) NDVI and LST data are combined to establish NDVI-Ts space according to different land use types in Yunnan Province, China. And then, TVDIs are calculated through dry and wet edges modeled as a linear fit to data for each land cover type. Next, the efforts are turned to establish an integrated drought assessment index of social factors and TVDI through ascertaining attribute weight based on rough sets theory. Thus, the new CDI (comprehensive drought index) recorded during spring of 2010 and the spatial variations in drought are analyzed and compared with TVDI dataset. Moreover, actual drought risk situation in the study area is given to

  18. Key success factors in enterprises practicing social marketing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin, Mong-Mei

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Enterprises could create multi-service values of customer satisfaction, enterprise profit, and social benefit through Social Marketing. Constructing a positive Social Service Value Chain to achieve mind management in marketing would reinforce the core competitive advantages of an enterprise, enhance high-quality services, and lead the enterprise to sustainable management. With the Delphi Method, a questionnaire is applied to assess the key success factors in enterprises practicing Social Marketing. The superiors and the employees in Formosa Plastics Group were selected as the research participants for 200 questionnaires. A total of 133 valid copies are retrieved, with a retrieval rate of 67%. According to the overall weights of the key success factors in enterprises practicing Social Marketing, the following summary is concluded. 1. The evaluation criteria in Organizational Characteristics are ordered in the following way: Intrinsic Structure, Internal Environment, Cost Effectiveness, Organizational Advantage, Organizational Weakness, and Inspiration. 2. The evaluation criteria in the External Environment are ordered this way: Information Resources, Environmental Opportunities, and Environmental Threats. 3. The order of the evaluation criteria in Marketing Strategy is Appropriate Media, Targeted Objects, Market Selection, Market Response, and Behavioral Change. 4. The evaluation criteria in Process Orientation are ordered in the following way: Tracking Adjustment, Feedback Systems, Operation Performance, and Operation Processes.A través del márquetin social, las empresas podrían crear valores de multiservicio para la satisfacción del cliente, para incrementar los beneficios de la empresa y para beneficiar a la sociedad. La construcción de una Cadena de Valor de Servicio Social positiva para conseguir una gestión mental en el márquetin reforzaría las principales ventajas competitivas de una empresa, realzaría servicios de alta calidad y

  19. Age factor relevant to the development of radiation pneumonitis in radiotherapy of lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koga, K.; Kusumoto, S.; Watanabe, K.; Nishikawa, K.; Harada, K.; Ebihara, H.

    1988-01-01

    The significance of age factor for the development of radiation pneumonitis is evaluated in 62 patients with lung cancer between 1977 and 1985. The younger group consists of those less than 70 years old and the elderly group of those 70 years old or more. Radiation doses ranged from 1.5 to 2 Gy, 3 to 5 times per week, therefore the delivered doses were converted to nominal single doses (rets dose). Severe radiation pneumonitis was more often observed in the elderly than in the younger regardless of radiation field size and chemotherapy (n.s.). The onset of radiation pneumonitis occurred earlier in a field size of 90 sq cm or more than in that of less than 90 sq cm in both age groups; there was no significant difference between the two age groups in each field size. The pneumonitis was more frequently noted with increasing rets dose in both age groups (n.s.) regardless of field size and chemotherapy. It is concluded that there is no significant difference in the development of radiation pneumonitis between the younger group and the elderly group, but the pneumonitis is inclined to be more severe in the latter

  20. Violence in adolescents: social and behavioural factors Violencia en los adolescentes: factores sociales y conductas asociadas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Sousa

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To estimate the prevalence of young people's involvement in violence measured as participation in physical fights or being physically, sexually or emotionally abused. We also aimed to understand the role of social, demographic and other behavioural characteristics in violence. Methods: We evaluated 7511 adolescents (4243 girls and 3268 boys aged 15 to 19 years old, enrolled in public schools. Information was obtained using an anonymous, self-administrated questionnaire. Results: The most frequently reported type of violence was emotional abuse (15.6%. Boys reported greater involvement in fights (3.6 vs. 13.6%, pObjetivo: Estimar la prevalencia de la participación de los jóvenes en peleas, y de ser físicamente, sexualmente o emocionalmente maltratados. Analizar la función de las características sociales, demográficas y de comportamiento sobre la violencia. Métodos: Se evaluaron 7.511 adolescentes (4.243 chicas y 3.268 chicos de 15 a 19 años de edad, matriculados en escuelas públicas. La información se obtuvo por cuestionario anónimo auto-administrado. Resultados: La violencia emocional fue la más notificada (15,6%. Los chicos indicaron más peleas (3,6 frente a 13,6%, p<0,001 y maltrato físico (7,5 frente a 19.5%, p<0,001. La prevalencia de maltrato emocional (16,2% frente a 14,8%, p=0,082 y abuso sexual (2,0 frente a 1.8%, p=0,435 fue similar en chicos y chicas. Después del ajuste, en ambos sexos, la edad disminuye las probabilidades de participar en peleas, y aumenta las probabilidades de abuso emocional. Vivir en una casa alquilada se asoció con el abuso físico (odds ratio [OR]: 1,4 intervalo de confianza del 95% [IC95%]: 1,0-1,9 en las chicas y OR: 1,6; IC95%: 1,2-2,0 en los chicos. En las chicas la probabilidad de abuso emocional aumenta con la educación de sus padres. El tabaquismo y el consumo de cannabis se asociaron con todos los tipos de violencia, en ambos sexos. Conclusiones: La violencia con mayor

  1. Relevant factors affecting the outcome of ultrasound guided foam sclerotherapy of the great saphenous vein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giorgio Falaschi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Ultrasound guided foam sclerotherapy (UGFS constitutes a valid ablative treatment for superficial vein diseases for the great saphenous vein (GSV, but no standardized protocol for its execution has yet been defined. Different variable factors involved in this procedure influence the final outcome and clinical results. The aim of our study was to analyze the respective influence on efficacy and side effects of three variable factors (foam volume, foam concentration, and contact time between the foam and the endothelium for UGFS procedures for GSV insufficiency in order to select the best protocol for treatment. A retrospective analysis was made of UGFS procedures (190 patients, 201 legs performed for GSV insufficiency in our institute from January 2007 to January 2010. All great saphenous veins included in our study exhibited a trans-ostial reflux and caliber range was 7-11 mm. In all cases, foam was prepared according to the Tessari method, using polidocanol (POL and a gas mixture of CO2 (70% and filtered room air (30%, in a proportion of 1:4. A single injection procedure in the GSV was performed under Doppler ultrasound guidance at mid to lower third of the thigh. Legs were randomly assigned to one of three different treatment protocols: - Group A (71 legs: POL 3%, mean foam volume 4.5 cc, intermittent groin pressure 5 min, supine bed rest 10 min; - Group B (61 legs: POL 2%, mean foam volume 9 cc, intermittent groin pressure 5 min, supine bed rest 10 min; - Group C (69 legs: POL 2%, mean foam volume 9 cc, continuous groin pressure 5 min followed by intermittent groin pressure 5 min, continuous leg compression 5 min, supine bed rest 10 min. Efficacy of treatment and occurrence of side effects were evaluated in each group at two weeks and again at two years after the procedure and the cumulative results compared. Analysis of outcomes did not show any significant difference between the complete obliteration rate (P=0.825 or occurrence of local

  2. The Potential Risk Factors Relevant to Lateral Epicondylitis by Wrist Coupling Posture.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su-Ya Lee

    Full Text Available The use of awkward wrist postures and unskilled techniques might induce lateral epicondylitis. This study thus investigated the effects of wrist deviation combined with extension and movement velocity on the dynamic performances of the wrist muscles during the coupling posture via a custom-made bi-planar isokinetic dynamometer. Thirty subjects were recruited to perform the isokinetic testing. We measured the muscle strengths and activities for the wrist extensors and flexors during concentric and eccentric contractions at three movement velocities, 30°s-1, 90°s-1, and 180°s-1, combined with three wrist postures, neutral position (NP, radial deviation (RD, and ulnar deviation (UD. The root mean square (RMS of the electromyographic signal in the extensor digitorum communis (EDC, normalized peak torque of extensors, and ratio of normalized peak torque between wrist extensors and flexors, were all greater in the NP than RD and UD in both contractions. The ratio of RMS between EDC and flexor digitorum superficialis (FDS had a significantly greater value in RD than UD during the concentric contraction. The EDC showed significantly higher activity at the fast velocity in both contractions. Nevertheless, a significantly higher RMS of the electromyographic signal between EDC and FDS and the ratio of strength between wrist extensors and flexors were found at slow velocity in both contractions. The wrist deviation combined with extension and movement velocity of the wrist joint should thus be considered as influential factors which might alter the dynamic performances, and may result in further injury of the elbow joint.

  3. Imaging-Based Screen Identifies Laminin 411 as a Physiologically Relevant Niche Factor with Importance for i-Hep Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Ong

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Use of hepatocytes derived from induced pluripotent stem cells (i-Heps is limited by their functional differences in comparison with primary cells. Extracellular niche factors likely play a critical role in bridging this gap. Using image-based characterization (high content analysis; HCA of freshly isolated hepatocytes from 17 human donors, we devised and validated an algorithm (Hepatocyte Likeness Index; HLI for comparing the hepatic properties of cells against a physiological gold standard. The HLI was then applied in a targeted screen of extracellular niche factors to identify substrates driving i-Heps closer to the standard. Laminin 411, the top hit, was validated in two additional induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC lines, primary tissue, and an in vitro model of α1-antitrypsin deficiency. Cumulatively, these data provide a reference method to control and screen for i-Hep differentiation, identify Laminin 411 as a key niche protein, and underscore the importance of combining substrates, soluble factors, and HCA when developing iPSC applications. : Rashid and colleagues demonstrate the utility of a high-throughput imaging platform for identification of physiologically relevant extracellular niche factors to advance i-Heps closer to their primary tissue counterparts. The extracellular matrix (ECM protein screen identified Laminin 411 as an important niche factor facilitating i-Hep-based disease modeling in vitro. Keywords: iPS hepatocytes, extracellular niche, image-based screening, disease modeling, laminin

  4. The importance of psychological and social factors in influencing the uptake and maintenance of physical activity after stroke: a structured review of the empirical literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Jacqui; Oliver, Tracey; Kroll, Thilo; Macgillivray, Steve

    2012-01-01

    Background. People with stroke are not maintaining adequate engagement in physical activity (PA) for health and functional benefit. This paper sought to describe any psychological and social factors that may influence physical activity engagement after stroke. Methods. A structured literature review of studies indexed in MEDLINE, CinAHL, P&BSC, and PsycINFO using search terms relevant to stroke, physical disabilities, and PA. Publications reporting empirical findings (quantitative or qualitative) regarding psychological and/or social factors were included. Results. Twenty studies from 19 publications (9 surveys, 1 RCT, and 10 qualitative studies) were included. Seventeen studies reported findings pertinent to psychological factors and fourteen findings pertinent to social factors. Conclusion. Self-efficacy, physical activity beliefs, and social support appear particularly relevant to physical activity behaviour after stroke and should be included in theoretically based physical interventions. The Transtheoretical Model and the Theory of Planned Behaviour are candidate behavioural models that may support intervention development.

  5. GENDER FACTORS OF SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT OF A COUNTRY

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    N. Kochkina

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the impact of gender asymmetry on the socio-economic development of the country. Authors detected factors that determine with high level of the probability social development of the society. Econometric relationship between the level of GDP per capita in comparative prices and the socio-cultural and gender factors are developed and estimated. The analysis showed that the level of individualism, indulgence, economic participation, and political empowerment of women in the society have direct linear correlation with GDP per capita. Power distance has opposite inverse correlation with the level of GDP. Application of regression analysis gave the possibility to divide all countries into 9 clusters with similar features. Two-dimensional matrix included GDP per capita and coefficient of implementation of a country gender and sociocultural potential. The recommendations for stimulating economic growth by smoothing gender gaps are proposed.

  6. Assessing the relevance of indicators in tracking social determinants and progress toward equitable population health in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davide Rasella

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: The importance of the social determinants of health (SDH and barriers to the access and utilization of healthcare have been widely recognized but not previously studied in the context of universal healthcare coverage (UHC in Brazil and other developing countries. Objective: To evaluate a set of proposed indicators of SDH and barriers to the access and utilization of healthcare – proposed by the SDH unit of the World Health Organization – with respect to their relevance in tracking progress in moving toward equitable population health and UHC in Brazil. Design: This study had a mixed methodology, combining a quantitative analysis of secondary data from governmental sources with a qualitative study comprising two focus group discussions and six key informant interviews. The set of indicators tested covered a broad range of dimensions classified by three different domains: environment quality; accountability and inclusion; and livelihood and skills. Indicators were stratified according to income quintiles, urbanization, race, and geographical region. Results: Overall, the indicators were adequate for tracking progress in terms of the SDH, equity, gender, and human rights in Brazil. Stratifications showed inequalities. The qualitative analysis revealed that many of the indicators were well known and already used by policymakers and health sector managers, whereas others were considered less useful in the Brazilian context. Conclusions: Monitoring and evaluation practices have been developed in Brazil, and the set of indicators assessed in this study could further improve these practices, especially from a health equity perspective. Socioeconomic inequalities have been reduced in Brazil in the last decade, but there is still much work to be done in relation to addressing the SDH.

  7. Social Factors Determine the Emergency Medical Admission Workload

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    Seán Cournane

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available We related social factors with the annual rate of emergency medical admissions using census small area statistics. All emergency medical admissions (70,543 episodes in 33,343 patients within the catchment area of St. James’s Hospital, Dublin, were examined between 2002 and 2016. Deprivation Index, Single-Parent status, Educational level and Unemployment rates were regressed against admission rates. High deprivation areas had an approximately fourfold (Incidence Rate Ratio (IRR 4.0 (3.96, 4.12 increase in annual admission rate incidence/1000 population from Quintile 1(Q1, from 9.2/1000 (95% Confidence Interval (CI: 9.0, 9.4 to Q5 37.3 (37.0, 37.5. Single-Parent families comprised 40.6% of households (95% CI: 32.4, 49.7; small areas with more Single Parents had a higher admission rate-IRR (Q1 vs. for Q5 of 2.92 (95% CI: 2.83, 3.01. The admission incidence rate was higher for Single-Parent status (IRR 1.50 (95% CI: 1.46, 1.52 where the educational completion level was limited to primary level (Incidence Rate Ratio 1.45 (95% CI: 1.43, 1.47. Small areas with higher educational quintiles predicted lower Admission Rates (IRR 0.85 (95% CI: 0.84, 0.86. Social factors strongly predict the annual incidence rate of emergency medical admissions.

  8. Change management in Iranian hospitals: social factors model

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    B. Delgoshaei

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Continuous change in the complex health care environments is a major challenge for administrative managers. This study aimed to design a change model to facilitate change implementation in the Iranian hospitals. Methods: This is a descriptive and comparative study. The data were collected through library search and in-depth interview with 15 hospital managers. Nine well-established change theories developed by Lewin, Action Research, Kotter, Ackerman- Anderson and Anderson, Prosci , Kilman, Beer, Continuum, and Gelicher were compared. Common denominators of the theories were identified and tabulated. Experienced hospital managers’ suggestions about social factors were acquired. The initial model was designed and validated using the Delphi Technique. Results: The majority of the selected change models emphasize the significance of social factors in change implementation such as effective communication, organizational climate and culture, and leadership. The results from the interviews indicate that low readiness to change, lack of confidence (or trust for change, and autocratic leadership style ,and poor communication could hinder the change process. Conclusion: Based on the model developed in the study, effective communication, readiness of employees, and a contingency leadership/management combined could lead to successful implementation of change in the hospital.

  9. Social and psychologic factors related to falls among the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mossey, J M

    1985-08-01

    Studies on falls are reviewed. Little information exists on which social or psychologic factors predispose an older person to fall or to sustain a fall-related injury. Risk of falling appears to be greater among females, the cognitively impaired, and those who use hypnotics, tranquilizers, and diuretics. The potential significance of depression and senile dementia of the Alzheimer's type on the risk of falling is explored. It is suggested that because of the associated impaired judgment, distraction, and psychomotor retardation, the presence of either clinical condition may increase an individual's risk of falling. In the final section of the article, directions for future research are discussed. Development of a systematic research program is suggested including epidemiologic studies of all falls and of medically treated falls. Such studies should be multidisciplinary and include assessment of social and psychologic factors as well as physical and functional health status, ambulatory function, perceptual acuity, and the circumstances surrounding the fall. The psychologic consequences of falling, particularly in the absence of a serious fall-related injury, is identified as an important research area.

  10. Relevance of psychosocial factors to quality of life in oral cancer and oral lichen planus: a prospective comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rana, Madiha; Kanatas, Anastasios; Herzberg, Philipp Y; Gellrich, Nils-Claudius; Rana, Majeed

    2015-09-01

    We can improve our understanding of how patients cope with oral squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) by making a comparison with their processes of coping and those used in other conditions. We have therefore compared quality of life (QoL), severity of symptoms, coping strategies, and factors that influence coping between patients with oral SCC and those with oral lichen planus. We asked 104 patients with oral SCC and 51 with oral lichen planus to complete questionnaires about their coping strategies, social support, locus of control, spirituality, QoL, and severity of symptoms. The outcome was that patients with oral SCC were far more likely to resort to coping strategies such as depressive coping, distraction, and self-motivation. The groups also differed regarding QoL and severity of symptoms. Patients with oral SCC had a poorer QoL and higher depression scores, whereas patients with oral lichen planus had better scores in the social support and spirituality categories. Patients with oral SCC generally had more distress than those with oral lichen planus. Not only did the former resort to depressive coping strategies, but they also had poorer QoL and higher values for depression. For the patients with oral lichen planus, social support and spirituality were protective, whereas they were associated with distress by patients with oral SCC. Copyright © 2015 The British Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Educación universitaria como factor de movilidad social

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Guadalupe Vélez Vázquez

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available El decidir entrar o no a estudiar una carrera universitaria aún es visto como una posibilidad de mantenerse o mejorar las condiciones de vida de una buena parte de la población. A mediados de los noventas las Instituciones de Educación Superior (IES de la Región del Évora, mostraron un fenómeno socio educativo,mayor participación de las mujeres en estos niveles, provenientes de diferentes municipios y localidades rurales. Esta investigación describe la dinámica y elementos o factores de movilidad social de egresadas universitarias, las categorías de estudio fueron el nivel educativo de la familia de origen (abuelos y padres, in-corporación de las egresadas a estudios pre universitarios y universitarios, situación laboral, su posición socio económica y los elementos de la movilidad o inmovilidad social. La investigación se abordó desde una perspectiva fenomenológica, con enfoque cualitativo, en la recopilación de datos se utilizaron las técnicas de investigación: entrevista estructurada y documental, se aplicaron 68 entrevistas y fichas de caracterización socio económica. De los aspectos sociales, casi en su totalidad, las familias de origen son de escasos recursos, sin estudios y residen o habitaron en contexto con características de vida rural; la mayoría de las egresadas son la primera generación que logra un nivel superior educativo, se encuentran desarrollando una actividad laboral, sin embargo, reproducen el nivel socio económico de su familia de origen, principalmente la de los padres y el elemento de movilidad social, no es sólo la educación sino es familia-educación.

  12. Singaporean Adolescents' Perceptions of Online Social Communication: An Exploratory Factor Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Robert Z.; Cheok, Angeline; Khoo, Eng

    2011-01-01

    The current study investigated adolescents' perceptions in online social communication. Three factors were perceived by adolescents as critical to online social communication. These included self-identity, self-confidence, and self-social factors. Results showed significant differences between the factors derived from the current study and those…

  13. The Relation of Smart Phone Addiction to Social Media Usage and Five Factor Personality Trait: A Research on University Students

    OpenAIRE

    IŞIK, Metin; KAPTANGİL, İrem

    2018-01-01

    In today’s society, social media usage through smartphones has becomean indispensable part of everyday life, especially among university students.This situation brings up the smartphone addiction problem with it and it isthought that it can be explained by associating the case with personalitytraits. Therefore, in this research; smartphone dependency levels and socialmedia usage in students' relation to the Five Factor Personality traits havebeen reviewed. To acquire the relevant researc...

  14. Relevant factors for the voting decision in the 2002 presidential election: An analysis of the ESEB (Brazilian Electoral Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Carreirão

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The article investigates some of the most relevant factors for the voting de- cision in the 2002 presidential election by testing some of the main hypotheses about electoral behaviour in the country by means of logistic regression analyses based on data from the ESEB (Brazilian Electoral Study, a post-electoral survey conducted on a national sample of voters. In the models, taken as a whole, politi- cal opinions did not have much weight in the voting decision. Furthermore, they are unable to “explain” a very large share of voters’ positioning on a left-right scale or on a scale of voters’ “party sentiments”. All these “political” variables taken as a whole, in turn, “explain” only part of the evaluations that voters make of the government’s performance. The analysis shows that Brazilian voters’ voting deci- sion seems rather varied, since some variables were shown to be relevant to “ex- plain” the vote for a candidate, but not for the others. The variables shown to be more frequent (for all four candidates analysed and with more considerable weight were: voters’ religion, their “party sentiments”, their positioning on a left-right scale, the evaluations made of the then current government (in actual fact impor- tant only for the vote for Serra, the government’s candidate and the candidates’ attributes (especially “reliability” and “preparedness/competence”.

  15. Educación universitaria como factor de movilidad social

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Guadalupe Vélez Vázquez

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available El decidir entrar o no a estudiar una carrera universitaria aún es visto como una posibilidad de mantenerse o mejorar las condiciones de vida de una buena parte de la población. A mediados de los noventas las Instituciones de Educación Superior (IES de la Región del Évora, mostraron un fenómeno socioeducativo, mayor participación de las mujeres en estos niveles, provenientes de diferentes municipios y localidades rurales. Esta investigación describe la dinámica y elementos o factores de movilidad social de egresadas universitarias, las categorías de estudio fueron el nivel educativo de la familia de origen (abuelos y padres, incorporación de las egresadas a estudios preuniversitarios y universitarios, situación laboral, su posición socioeconómica y los elementos de la movilidad o inmovilidad social. La investigación se abordó desde una perspectiva fenomenológica, con enfoque cualitativo, en la recopilación de datos se utilizaron las técnicas de investigación: entrevista estructurada y documental, se aplicaron 68 entrevistas y fichas de caracterización socioeconómica. De los aspectos sociales, casi en su totalidad, las familias de origen son de escasos recursos, sin estudios y residen o habitaron en contexto con características de vida rural; la mayoría de las egresadas son la primera generación que logra un nivel superior educativo, se encuentran desarrollando una actividad laboral, sin embargo, reproducen el nivel socioeconómico de su familia de origen, principalmente la de los padres y el elemento de movilidad social, no es sólo la educación sino es familia-educación. Palabras clave: Movilidad social, posición socioeconómica, egresadas universitarias.

  16. SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC FACTORS AFECTING POPULATION IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toader Valentin

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available As a result of the fact that at the end of 2011, in Romania, was conducted the Population and Houses Census, many studies were focused on the demographic evolution from our country. Our paper is focused on the factors that are influencing the evolution of population in Romania, in order to explain the evolution of demographics. The study was conducted on a 20 years timespan, using statistical data that are characterizing the macroeconomic and demographic environment between 1990 and 2010. To achieve our goals, we will use the statistical methods to analyze the data released (time series and cross section data by the National Institute of Statistics. We will try to find some correlations between the evolution of population and social (natural increase of population, net migration and economic factors (employment, average net wage, GDP. We conclude sustaining that the increase of emigrants and the ageing phenomenon in last 20 years decreased the number of population, while the increase of employment and GDP are two factors that have a positive influence on the population evolution. The average net wage may have two types of effects: an increase of the wage may represent an opportunity for some families to cover easily the cost of having a child, while for others, the opportunity of gaining higher wages may change their working behavior determining them to focus on career and postponing the birth of a child.

  17. [Social factors associated with use of prenatal care in Ecuador].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Gómez, Amaya; Cevallos, William; Grijalva, Mario J; Silva-Ayçaguer, Luis C; Tamayo, Susana; Jacobson, Jerry O; Costales, Jaime A; Jiménez-Garcia, Rodrigo; Hernández-Barrera, Valentín; Serruya, Suzanne; Riera, Celia

    2016-11-01

    Prenatal care is a pillar of public health, enabling access to interventions including prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV and congenital syphilis. This paper describes social factors related to use of prenatal care in Ecuador. In 2011 and 2012, participant clinical history and interview information was analyzed from a national probability sample of 5 998 women presenting for delivery or miscarriage services in 15 healthcare facilities in Ecuador, to estimate prevalence of HIV, syphilis, and Chagas disease, and prenatal care coverage. The study found that 94.1% of women had attended at least one prenatal visit, but that attendance at no less than four visits was 73.1%. Furthermore, lower educational level, greater number of pregnancies, occupation in the agriculture or livestock sector, and membership in ethnic indigenous, Afro-Ecuadorian, or other minority groups were factors associated with lack of use (no prenatal visits) or insufficient use of prenatal care (fewer than four visits or first visit at >20 weeks gestation) in Ecuador. These results point to persistence of marked inequalities in access to and use of prenatal health services attributable to socioeconomic factors and to the need to strengthen strategies to address them, to reach the goal of universal prenatal care coverage.

  18. Climate change adaptation and the social factor; Klimatilpasning og den sociale faktor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kjerulf Petersen, L.; Jensen, Anne; Svalgaard Nielsen, S.

    2009-06-15

    This report addresses the social aspects of climate change adaptation. How do people perceive and relate to climate change adaptation; what risks are associated with climate change, and how are these risks balanced with other risks and concerns of everyday life and long-range choices? The report is based on an explorative study about social aspects of climate change adaptation in Denmark. The issue was investigated through literature studies and interviews with respondents with residence in different parts of Denmark. The study was based on a distinction between climate change mitigation and adaptation and further on an assumption in adaptation policies that some adaptation measures - for economic or practical reasons - will have to be carried out by private citizens and households. This study showed, however, that the distinction between climate change mitigation and adaptation is of little significance for lay people. Moreover, the prospect of climate change does provoke reflections on social values and the need for saving energy, but when it comes to protecting ones own life and property against future damaging effects of climate change the threat seems distant and other forms of home improvement seem more relevant. Nevertheless, some adaptation measures are carried out by single households and local communities. When households experience weather related damages - of a kind that are expected to occur more frequently and with greater force as a result of climate changes - they take action to repair damages and prevent similar damages in the future; at least the kind of action that is easily carried out such as moving valuable goods from the basement or felling a tree. Such measures are, however, not necessarily understood in a context of climate change adaptation; they are rather specific reactions to acute problems. To the extent that a more thorough precautionary adaptation effort is required, also by private citizens, it will have to be performed in

  19. Autism-relevant traits interact with temporoparietal junction stimulation effects on social cognition: a high-definition transcranial direct current stimulation and electroencephalography study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donaldson, Peter H; Kirkovski, Melissa; Rinehart, Nicole J; Enticott, Peter G

    2018-03-01

    The temporoparietal junction (TPJ) is implicated in mental and emotional state attribution, processes associated with autism-relevant traits. Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) to the TPJ can influence social-cognitive performance. However, associations with electrophysiology and autism-relevant traits remain relatively unexamined. This study had two aims: first, exploring links between Autism-Spectrum Quotient (AQ) scores and social-cognitive performance; second, examining interactions between AQ scores and high-definition-tDCS (HD-tDCS) applied to the right TPJ in terms of mental/emotional state attribution and neurophysiological outcomes. Fifty-three participants completed mental/emotional state attribution tasks before and after HD-tDCS. Pre-stimulation mental state attribution accuracy was reduced in participants with higher AQ Switching scores. Cathodal stimulation was associated with reduced emotion attribution performance in participants with higher AQ Switching and AQ Social scores (the latter at trend-level). Anodal stimulation more frequently interacted with AQ Social scores in terms of neurophysiology, in particular regarding reduced delta power in the left compared to right TPJ, and trend-level positive interactions with P100 and P300 latencies during the emotion recognition task. Elements of attention/switching (AQ Switching) may subserve or underpin elements of social cognition (AQ Social), and cathodal and anodal stimulation may have differing effects depending on trait levels in these domains. This study makes an important and original contribution in terms of increasing understanding of how such trait-level variation might interact with the effects of tDCS and also extending previous studies with regard to understanding potential roles of the rTPJ in both attention and social cognition and how autism-relevant traits might influence TPJ function. © 2017 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. On the reasons of radical forms of social protest: Reflections about principles of ‘Malthusian trap’ and demographic factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E E Shults

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The article considers reasons for radical mass forms of social protest in the context of the ‘Malthusian trap’ and structural-demographic theory of Jack Goldstone, which have become popular in the last two decades. The author critically evaluates these two conceptions and comes to the conclusion that the principles they underline are just concomitant factors, i.e. additional risk factors for political systems and regimes, rather than causes of radical mass forms of social protest. The author suggests a method of analysis that consists of studying the circumstances, i.e. the wide historical context, in which mass forms of social protest usually emerge, and provides a large number of illustrative examples. The scientific approach to the identification of social-historical determinants of radical forms of social protest implies that if something is a reason/cause of an event, then this reason/cause must be present whenever there is such an event both alone or within a complex of concomitant factors. The ‘Malthusian trap’ and demographic factors cannot be traced in all manifestations of radical mass forms of social protest in modern and contemporary history. Moreover, the ‘Malthusian trap’ and demographic pressure on the economy and social system do not always lead to mass forms of social protest. The wave of radical forms of social protest in the last decade, i.e. the so-called ‘color revolutions’, ‘Arab spring’, protest actions in France, England and the USA, once again confirms the relevance of the author’s approach and the importance of critical study of the traditional conceptions.

  1. Personal and social factors influencing age at first sexual intercourse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenthal, D A; Smith, A M; de Visser, R

    1999-08-01

    Early initiation of sexual activity is a concern, in part because of increased risk of sexually transmitted diseases, including HIV, and unwanted pregnancies among young people. In this study, 241 high schoolers were administered a questionnaire to establish the relationships between age at first sexual intercourse and personal qualities (sexual style, attractiveness, physical maturity, restraint, autonomy expectations, and attitudes to gender roles), smoking and drug use, and aspects of the social context (social activities, media impact, peer norms). There were few effects of sex of respondent and none in which respondents' sex impacted on age of initiation. Overall (and among the male sample), perceptions of greater physical maturity, greater use of uncommon (mostly illicit) drugs, and expectations of earlier autonomy significantly differentiated between early and later initiators. This group of factors tends to confirm the view that early experience of sexual intercourse is correlated with problem behaviors and a press toward "adult" behaviors. For girls, this pattern was even clearer, with use of uncommon drugs being replaced as a significant contributor to early sexual experience by relative lack of restraint. We conclude that the desire to achieve the transition to adulthood at an earlier age than their peers constitutes a powerful incentive for young people to become sexually active.

  2. Impact of social factors on labour discrimination of disabled women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondéjar-Jiménez, José; Vargas-Vargas, Manuel; Meseguer-Santamaría, María-Leticia; Mondéjar-Jiménez, Juan-Antonio

    2009-01-01

    Disabled women suffer from a double labour discrimination due to their gender and their disability. In rural areas, in addition, they also suffer from a lack of specific services, the isolation of the disabled associations, problems with public transport, the dispersion of population centres, and a limited access to information that could improve their chances of entering the labour market. The current work adopts a constructivist perspective on disability and offers a preliminary examination of the influence of social factors, such as the rural or urban nature of the disabled women's place of residence, the assistance they receive from their family or outside the family, the quantity of information they receive about the labour market, and their educational level, on the activity and employment status of this group of people.

  3. Exploring factors relevant in the assessment of the return-to-work process of employees on long-term sickness absence due to a depressive disorder: a focus group study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muijzer Anna

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Efforts undertaken during the Return-to-Work (RTW process need to be sufficient in order to optimize the quality of the RTW process. The purpose of this study was to explore factors relevant to Return-to-Work Effort Sufficiency (RTW-ES in cases of sick-listed employees with a Depressive Disorder (DD. Method A case of a long-term sick-listed employee with a DD applying for disability benefits was used to gather arguments and grounds relevant to the assessment of RTW-ES. Two focus group meetings were held, consisting of Labor Experts working at the Dutch Social Insurance Institute. Factors were collected and categorized using the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF model. Results Sixteen factors relevant to RTW-ES assessment in a case of DD were found, categorized in the ICF-model under activities (e.g. functional capacity, personal (e.g. competencies, attitude and environmental domain (e.g. employer-employee relationship, or categorized under interventions, job accommodations and measures. Conclusions This study shows that 16 factors are relevant in the assessment of RTW-ES in employees sick-listed due to DD. Further research is necessary to expand this knowledge to other health conditions, and to investigate the impact of these results on the quality of the RTW-ES assessment.

  4. Principle of an operational complexity index for the characterization of the human factor relevance of future reactors concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papin, Bernard

    2004-01-01

    With the increasing reliability of the modern technological systems, the human contribution to the global risk in the operation of industrial systems is becoming more and more significant : in the nuclear reactor operation for example, a recent PSA estimation of this contribution is about 25% of the risk of core melting, all situations considered. This urges the designers of future nuclear reactors to consider the minimisation of this Human Factor (HF) contribution, at the very early stage of their design : the experience feedback shows that this is indeed at this stage that the fundamental design options, impacting the most the human reliability in operation, are fixed. The problem is that at these early design stages, it is also quite impossible to apply formal human reliability methods to support this HF optimisation, while the precise operating conditions of the reactor are not yet known in enough details. In this paper, another approach of the HF evaluation during the design, based on the functional and operational complexity assessment, is proposed. As an illustration, this approach is used to compare various concepts of Pressurized Water Reactors from the point of view of the Human Factor relevance. (Author)

  5. The impact of social and family-related factors on women's stress experience in household and family work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sperlich, Stefanie; Geyer, Siegfried

    2015-03-01

    This study explores the contribution of social and family-related factors to women's experience of an effort-reward imbalance (ERI) in household and family work. Using a population-based sample of German mothers (n = 3,129), we performed stepwise logistic regression analysis in order to determine the relative impact of social and family-related factors on ERI. All factors investigated showed a significant association with at least one ERI component. Considering all predictors simultaneously in the multivariate analysis resulted in a decrease in significance of socioeconomic status in explaining the effort-reward ratio while the impact on low reward partly remained significant. In addition, age of youngest child, number of children, lower levels of perceived social support, domestic work inequity and negative work-to-family spillover, irrespective of being half- or full-time employed, revealed to be important in predicting ERI. The experience of ERI in domestic work is influenced by the social and family environment. Particularly among socially disadvantaged mothers, lack of social recognition for household and family work proved to be a relevant source of psychosocial stress.

  6. Factors involved in social mobilization and empowerment of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Many community mobilizers in Uganda do not recognize that psychological empowerment is central in social mobilization, and that social mobilization involves an interplay among several social psychological variables including; social capital, psychological sense of community and group member satisfaction to produce ...

  7. Social and occupational factors associated with psychological wellbeing among occupational groups affected by disaster: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Samantha K; Dunn, Rebecca; Amlôt, Richard; Rubin, G James; Greenberg, Neil

    2017-08-01

    The psychological impact of disasters has been well-documented; less attention has been paid to factors affecting the wellbeing of those exposed to disasters as occupational groups. To conduct a systematic literature review identifying social and occupational factors affecting the wellbeing of disaster-exposed employees; to use these factors to identify recommendations for potential interventions. Four electronic literature databases were searched; reference lists of relevant papers were hand-searched. A total of 18 005 papers were found, 571 full texts were read and 36 included in the review. The psychological impact of disasters on employees was associated with pre-disaster factors (experience/training; income; life events/health; job satisfaction), peri-disaster factors (exposure; peri-traumatic experiences; perceptions of safety; injury), social factors (organisational support; social support generally) and post-disaster factors (impact on life). It is important to build a resilient workforce outside of a crisis. Pre-disaster training in recognising signs of distress, understanding vulnerability factors such as those described above, which may put certain employees at greater risk of distress and how to support colleagues may be useful. Further research into the effectiveness of post-disaster interventions is needed.

  8. Developing the Social Empathy Index: An Exploratory Factor Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Elizabeth A. Segal; M. Alex Wagaman; Karen E. Gerdes

    2012-01-01

    Social empathy, the ability to understand people from different socioeconomic classes and racial/ethnic backgrounds, with insight into the context of institutionalized inequalities and disparities, can inspire positive societal change and promote social well-being. The value of teaching social empathy and creating interventions that promote social empathy is enhanced by the ability to measure and assess it. This article provides a validation of the Social Empathy Index, a tool that practition...

  9. Virtual Human Role Players for Studying Social Factors in Organizational Decision Making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khooshabeh, Peter; Lucas, Gale

    2018-01-01

    The cyber domain of military operations presents many challenges. A unique element is the social dynamic between cyber operators and their leadership because of the novel subject matter expertise involved in conducting technical cyber tasks, so there will be situations where senior leaders might have much less domain knowledge or no experience at all relative to the warfighters who report to them. Nonetheless, it will be important for junior cyber operators to convey convincing information relevant to a mission in order to persuade or influence a leader to make informed decisions. The power dynamic will make it difficult for the junior cyber operator to successfully influence a higher ranking leader. Here we present a perspective with a sketch for research paradigm(s) to study how different factors (normative vs. informational social influence, degree of transparency, and perceived appropriateness of making suggestions) might interact with differential social power dynamics of individuals in cyber decision-making contexts. Finally, we contextualize this theoretical perspective for the research paradigms in viable training technologies.

  10. Virtual Human Role Players for Studying Social Factors in Organizational Decision Making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Khooshabeh

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The cyber domain of military operations presents many challenges. A unique element is the social dynamic between cyber operators and their leadership because of the novel subject matter expertise involved in conducting technical cyber tasks, so there will be situations where senior leaders might have much less domain knowledge or no experience at all relative to the warfighters who report to them. Nonetheless, it will be important for junior cyber operators to convey convincing information relevant to a mission in order to persuade or influence a leader to make informed decisions. The power dynamic will make it difficult for the junior cyber operator to successfully influence a higher ranking leader. Here we present a perspective with a sketch for research paradigm(s to study how different factors (normative vs. informational social influence, degree of transparency, and perceived appropriateness of making suggestions might interact with differential social power dynamics of individuals in cyber decision-making contexts. Finally, we contextualize this theoretical perspective for the research paradigms in viable training technologies.

  11. Social behavior in deer mice as a novel interactive paradigm of relevance for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolmarans, De Wet; Stein, Dan J; Harvey, Brian H

    2017-04-01

    Greater obsessive-compulsive (OC) symptom severity may be associated with poor social adjustment. Rather than possessing deficits in social skill per se, OCD patients may be more socially isolative in the presence of normal controls. We aimed to apply a novel social interaction challenge (SIC) to an established animal model of OCD, viz., the deer mouse, to assess complex social behavior in animals by investigating group sociability and its response to chronic escitalopram treatment (50 mg/kg/day × 28 days), both within and between non (N)- (viz., normal) and high (H)- (viz., OCD-like) stereotypical cohorts. Using automated screening, we scored approach behavior, episodes of proximity, duration of proximity, and relative net weighted movement. H animals socialized more with one another within cohort in all of the above parameters compared to the within-cohort behavior of N animals. Furthermore, the social behavior of H animals toward one another, both within and between cohort demonstrated significant improvements following chronic escitalopram treatment. However, the study also demonstrates that the social interaction between H and N animals remain poor even after chronic escitalopram treatment. To conclude, findings from the current investigation support clinical data demonstrating altered sociability in patients with OCD.

  12. The differential impact of subjective and objective aspects of social engagement on cardiovascular risk factors.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kamiya, Yumiko

    2010-01-01

    This article provides new insights into the impact of social engagement on CVD risk factors in older adults. We hypothesized that objective (social participation, social ties and marital status) and subjective (emotional support) aspects of social engagement are independently associated with objective measures of cardiovascular risk.

  13. Analyzing the impact of social factors on homelessness: a fuzzy cognitive map approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mago, Vijay K; Morden, Hilary K; Fritz, Charles; Wu, Tiankuang; Namazi, Sara; Geranmayeh, Parastoo; Chattopadhyay, Rakhi; Dabbaghian, Vahid

    2013-08-23

    The forces which affect homelessness are complex and often interactive in nature. Social forces such as addictions, family breakdown, and mental illness are compounded by structural forces such as lack of available low-cost housing, poor economic conditions, and insufficient mental health services. Together these factors impact levels of homelessness through their dynamic relations. Historic models, which are static in nature, have only been marginally successful in capturing these relationships. Fuzzy Logic (FL) and fuzzy cognitive maps (FCMs) are particularly suited to the modeling of complex social problems, such as homelessness, due to their inherent ability to model intricate, interactive systems often described in vague conceptual terms and then organize them into a specific, concrete form (i.e., the FCM) which can be readily understood by social scientists and others. Using FL we converted information, taken from recently published, peer reviewed articles, for a select group of factors related to homelessness and then calculated the strength of influence (weights) for pairs of factors. We then used these weighted relationships in a FCM to test the effects of increasing or decreasing individual or groups of factors. Results of these trials were explainable according to current empirical knowledge related to homelessness. Prior graphic maps of homelessness have been of limited use due to the dynamic nature of the concepts related to homelessness. The FCM technique captures greater degrees of dynamism and complexity than static models, allowing relevant concepts to be manipulated and interacted. This, in turn, allows for a much more realistic picture of homelessness. Through network analysis of the FCM we determined that Education exerts the greatest force in the model and hence impacts the dynamism and complexity of a social problem such as homelessness. The FCM built to model the complex social system of homelessness reasonably represented reality for the

  14. The renaissance of a local wine industry: The relevance of social capital for business innovation in DOQ El Priorat, Catalonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María José Fernández Aldecua

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of a case study that aims to investigate whether the presence of both bridging and bonding social capital, acting together, can stimulate entrepreneurial innovation within the wine industry at a regional level. The study also investigates the manner in which both types of social capital interact to motivate such innovation. This is done through the analysis of the Catalan region of Priorat, and more specifically the entrepreneurial innovations that the region’s wine sector experienced over a twenty year period at the turn of the current millennium. The results indicate that both forms of social capital do not act in isolation, but on the contrary are jointly responsible for stimulating innovation within the wine-producing network. Keywords: Social capital, Social networks, Regional innovation, Entrepreneurs, Catalonia

  15. Factores sociales y salud infantil asociados con la vejez Childhood health and social factors associated to elderly morbidity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresita Elisa Ruiz-Pantoja

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Determinar si el estado de salud de la vejez en México al inicio del siglo XXI está asociado con las condiciones sociales y de salud vividas en la infancia, diferenciando por sexo. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Se seleccionaron personas que sobrevivieron a condiciones adversas durante la infancia y en los siguientes años, originarias de medios rurales donde los servicios básicos eran escasos, lo que provocó elevadas tasas de mortalidad infantil a causa de enfermedades infecciosas o parasitarias. Se utilizó como fuente de información el Estudio Nacional sobre Salud y Envejecimiento en México 2001, y el modelo de regresión logística. RESULTADOS: Los estilos de vida de la infancia y la etapa adulta no son independientes, sino que interactúan y definen conjuntamente la morbilidad adquirida en las edades mayores. CONCLUSIÓN: La escolaridad de los padres y las características de la vivienda de la infancia aparecen como factores protectores importantes, aunque estas conclusiones no pueden generalizarse.OBJECTIVE: The aim was to determinate if health status of the elderly in Mexico at the beginning of the 21st. Century is associated to earlier social and health conditions during child-hood, including sex differences. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The research was conducted using survey data from the Mexican Health and Aging Study (MHAS 2001. RESULTS: Linear regression models point out that life styles during childhood and adulthood are not independent, both influencing morbidity in elderly years. CONCLUSION: Parents' education and household characteristics through childhood represent main protection factors; however, this finding cannot be generalized.

  16. Prevalence, risk factors and social context of active pulmonary tuberculosis among prison inmates in Tajikistan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel E Winetsky

    Full Text Available SETTING: Tuberculosis (TB is highly prevalent in prisons of the former Soviet Union. OBJECTIVE: To understand the behavioral, demographic and biological factors placing inmates in Tajikistan at risk for active TB. DESIGN: We administered a behavioral and demographic survey to 1317 inmates in two prison facilities in Sughd province, Tajikistan along with radiographic screening for pulmonary TB. Suspected cases were confirmed bacteriologically. Inmates undergoing TB treatment were also surveyed. In-depth interviews were conducted with former prisoners to elicit relevant social and behavioral characteristics. RESULTS: We identified 59 cases of active pulmonary TB (prevalence 4.5%. Factors independently associated with increased prevalence of active TB were: HIV-infection by self-report (PR 7.88; 95%CI 3.40-18.28, history of previous TB (PR 10.21; 95%CI 6.27-16.63 and infrequent supplemental nutrition beyond scheduled meals (PR 3.00; 95%CI 1.67-5.62. Access to supplemental nutrition was associated with frequency of visits from friends and family and ability to rely on other inmates for help. CONCLUSION: In prison facilities of Tajikistan, HIV-infection, injection drug use and low access to supplemental nutrition were associated with prevalent cases of active pulmonary TB. Policies that reduce HIV transmission among injection drug users and improve the nutritional status of socially isolated inmates may alleviate the TB burden in Tajikistan's prisons.

  17. Factors affecting public prejudice and social distance on mental illness: analysis of contextual effect by multi-level analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Hyeongap; Lim, Jun-Tae; Oh, Juhwan; Lee, Seon-Young; Kim, Yong-Ik; Lee, Jin-Seok

    2012-03-01

    While there have been many quantitative studies on the public's attitude towards mental illnesses, it is hard to find quantitative study which focused on the contextual effect on the public's attitude. The purpose of this study was to identify factors that affect the public's beliefs and attitudes including contextual effects. We analyzed survey on the public's beliefs and attitudes towards mental illness in Korea with multi-level analysis. We analyzed the public's beliefs and attitudes in terms of prejudice as an intermediate outcome and social distance as a final outcome. Then, we focused on the associations of factors, which were individual and regional socio-economic factors, familiarity, and knowledge based on the comparison of the intermediate and final outcomes. Prejudice was not explained by regional variables but was only correlated with individual factors. Prejudice increased with age and decreased by high education level. However, social distance controlling for prejudice increased in females, in people with a high education level, and in regions with a high education level and a high proportion of the old. Therefore, social distance without controlling for prejudice increased in females, in the elderly, in highly educated people, and in regions with a high education and aged community. The result of the multi-level analysis for the regional variables suggests that social distance for mental illness are not only determined by individual factors but also influenced by the surroundings so that it could be tackled sufficiently with appropriate considering of the relevant regional context with individual characteristics.

  18. Identifying factors relevant in the assessment of return-to-work efforts in employees on long-term sickness absence due to chronic low back pain: a focus group study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muijzer Anna

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Efforts undertaken during the return to work (RTW process need to be sufficient to prevent unnecessary applications for disability benefits. The purpose of this study was to identify factors relevant to RTW Effort Sufficiency (RTW-ES in cases of sick-listed employees with chronic low back pain (CLBP. Methods Using focus groups consisting of Labor Experts (LE's working at the Dutch Social Insurance Institute, arguments and underlying grounds relevant to the assessment of RTW-ES were investigated. Factors were collected and categorized using the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF model. Results Two focus groups yielded 19 factors, of which 12 are categorized in the ICF model under activities (e.g. functional capacity and in the personal (e.g. age, tenure and environmental domain (e.g. employer-employee relationship. The remaining 7 factors are categorized under intervention, job accommodation and measures. Conclusions This focus group study shows that 19 factors may be relevant to RTW-ES in sick-listed employees with CLBP. Providing these results to professionals assessing RTW-ES might contribute to a more transparent and systematic approach. Considering the importance of the quality of the RTW process, optimizing the RTW-ES assessment is essential.

  19. Development of Social Infrastructure in the Management Practices of Local Authorities: Trends and Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frolova, Elena V.; Vinichenko, Mikhail V.; Kirillov, Andrey V.; Rogach, Olga V.; Kabanova, Elena E.

    2016-01-01

    The relevance of the article is conditioned by the exceptional importance of the social infrastructure for the development of the state, society and each individual. Social infrastructure ensures the development of the municipal unit, satisfaction of the basic needs and interests of the population, creation of the conditions for its subsistence…

  20. Effectiveness and relevant factors of platelet-rich plasma treatment in managing plantar fasciitis:A systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seet Khing Chiew

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Plantar fasciitis (PF is a common foot complaint, affects both active sportsmen and physically inactive middle age group. It is believed that PF results from degenerative changes rather than inflammation. Platelet-rich plasma (PRP therapy has been introduced as an alternative therapy for PF. This study is aimed to systematically review to the effectiveness and relevant factors of PRP treatment in managing PF. Materials and Methods: A search was conducted in electronic databases, including PubMed, Scopus, and Google Scholar using different keywords. Publications in English-language from 2010 to 2015 were included. Two reviewers extracted data from selected articles after the quality assessment was done. Results: A total of 1126 articles were retrieved, but only 12 articles met inclusion and exclusion criteria. With a total of 455 patients, a number of potentially influencing factors on the effectiveness of PRP for PF was identified. In all these studies, PRP had been injected directly into the plantar fascia, with or without ultrasound guidance. Steps from preparation to injection were found equally crucial. Amount of collected blood, types of blood anti-coagulant, methods in preparing PRP, speed, and numbers of time the blood samples were centrifuged, activating agent added to the PRP and techniques of injection, were varied between different studies. Regardless of these variations, superiority of PRP treatment compared to steroid was reported in all studies. Conclusion: In conclusion, PRP therapy might provide an effective alternative to conservative management of PF with no obvious side effect or complication. The onset of action after PRP injection also greatly depended on the degree of degeneration.

  1. Soluble ST2 associates with diabetes but not established cardiovascular risk factors: a new inflammatory pathway of relevance to diabetes?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashley M Miller

    Full Text Available Preliminary data mostly from animal models suggest the sST2/IL-33 pathway may have causal relevance for vascular disease and diabetes and thus point to a potential novel inflammatory link to cardiometabolic disease. However, the characterisation of sST2 levels in terms of metabolic or vascular risk in man is completely lacking. We sought to address this gap via a comprehensive analysis of risk factor and vascular correlates of sST2 in a cross-sectional study (pSoBid. We measured sST2 in plasma in 639 subjects and comprehensively related it to cardiovascular and diabetes risk factors and imaged atherosclerosis measures. Circulating sST2 levels increased with age, were lower in women and in highest earners. After adjusting for age and gender, sST2 levels associated strongly with markers of diabetes, including triglycerides [effect estimate (EE per 1 standard deviation increase in sST2:1.05 [95%CI 1.01,1.10], liver function (alanine aminotransaminase [ALT] and γ-glutamyl transferase [GGT]: EE 1.05 [1.01,1.09] and 1.13 [1.07,1.19] respectively, glucose (1.02 [1.00,1.03] and sICAM-1 (1.05 [1.02,1.07]. However, sST2 levels were not related to smoking, cholesterol, blood pressure, or atheroma (carotid intima media thickness, plaque presence. These results suggest that sST2 levels, in individuals largely without vascular disease, are related principally to markers associated with diabetes and ectopic fat and add support for a role of sST2 in diabetes. Further mechanistic studies determining how sST2 is linked to diabetes pathways may offer new insights into the inflammatory paradigm for type 2 diabetes.

  2. Research on the nutrition and cognition of high-risk stroke groups in community and the relevant factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, N-N; Zeng, K-X; Wang, Y-L; Sheng, P-J; Tang, C-Z; Xiao, P; Liu, X-W

    2017-12-01

    To investigate the prevalence rate of nutritional risk in high-risk stroke groups in community, analyze its influencing factors, and analyze and compare the relationship between nutritional risk or malnutrition assessed by different nutritional evaluation methods and cognitive function, so as to provide the basis and guidance for clinical nutritional assessment and support. A cross-sectional survey was performed for 1196 cases in high-risk stroke groups in community from December 2015 to January 2017. At the same time, the nutritional status of patients was evaluated using the mini nutritional assessment (MNA) and MNA-short form (MNA-SF), and the cognitive status of patients was evaluated using the mini-mental state examination (MMSE). Moreover, the relevant influencing factors of nutritional risk and MMSE score were analyzed and compared. High-risk stroke groups in community suffered from a high risk of malnutrition. MNA-SF had a higher specificity and lower false positive rate than MNA. Nutritional risk occurred more easily in high-risk stroke groups in community with a history of diabetes mellitus, less physical exercise or light manual labor, daily use of multiple drugs, and higher age. Those with a higher nutritional risk were more prone to cognitive impairment. High-risk stroke groups in community, complicated with hyperhomocysteinemia, daily use of three or more kinds of prescription drugs, and a previous history of stroke, were accompanied by cognitive impairment easily. MNA-SF can be used for the nutritional screening of high-risk stroke groups in community. For the high-risk stroke groups in community, the rational nutritional diet should be publicized, blood sugar should be controlled in a scientific manner and physical exercise should be moderately increased.

  3. Factors determining social participation in the first year after kidney transplantation : A prospective study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Mei, Siirike F.; van Son, Willem J.; van Sonderen, Eric L. P.; de Jong, Paul E.; Groothoff, Johan W.; van den Heuvel, Wim J. A.

    2007-01-01

    Background. This study describes changes in social participation in the first year after kidney transplantation and examines the influence of clinical factors, health status, transplantation-related symptoms, and psychological characteristics on change in social participation. Methods. A prospective

  4. Social media impact factor: the top ten dermatology journals on facebook and twitter

    OpenAIRE

    Karimkhani, Chante; Gamble, Ryan; Dellavalle, Robert P

    2014-01-01

    Academic journals are mainly rated according to their impact factors. However, considering the enormous worldwide impact of social media, journals and potential authors may want to take social media impact into account.

  5. Social media impact factor: the top ten dermatology journals on Facebook and Twitter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimkhani, Chante; Gamble, Ryan; Dellavalle, Robert P

    2014-04-16

    Academic journals are mainly rated according to their impact factors. However, considering the enormous worldwide impact of social media, journals and potential authors may want to take social media impact into account.

  6. Factor solutions of the Social Phobia Scale (SPS) and the Social Interaction Anxiety Scale (SIAS) in a Swedish population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mörtberg, Ewa; Reuterskiöld, Lena; Tillfors, Maria; Furmark, Tomas; Öst, Lars-Göran

    2017-06-01

    Culturally validated rating scales for social anxiety disorder (SAD) are of significant importance when screening for the disorder, as well as for evaluating treatment efficacy. This study examined construct validity and additional psychometric properties of two commonly used scales, the Social Phobia Scale and the Social Interaction Anxiety Scale, in a clinical SAD population (n = 180) and in a normal population (n = 614) in Sweden. Confirmatory factor analyses of previously reported factor solutions were tested but did not reveal acceptable fit. Exploratory factor analyses (EFA) of the joint structure of the scales in the total population yielded a two-factor model (performance anxiety and social interaction anxiety), whereas EFA in the clinical sample revealed a three-factor solution, a social interaction anxiety factor and two performance anxiety factors. The SPS and SIAS showed good to excellent internal consistency, and discriminated well between patients with SAD and a normal population sample. Both scales showed good convergent validity with an established measure of SAD, whereas the discriminant validity of symptoms of social anxiety and depression could not be confirmed. The optimal cut-off score for SPS and SIAS were 18 and 22 points, respectively. It is concluded that the factor structure and the additional psychometric properties of SPS and SIAS support the use of the scales for assessment in a Swedish population.

  7. Toward a Two-Dimensional Model of Social Cognition in Clinical Neuropsychology: A Systematic Review of Factor Structure Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etchepare, Aurore; Prouteau, Antoinette

    2018-04-01

    Social cognition has received growing interest in many conditions in recent years. However, this construct still suffers from a considerable lack of consensus, especially regarding the dimensions to be studied and the resulting methodology of clinical assessment. Our review aims to clarify the distinctiveness of the dimensions of social cognition. Based on Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) statements, a systematic review was conducted to explore the factor structure of social cognition in the adult general and clinical populations. The initial search provided 441 articles published between January 1982 and March 2017. Eleven studies were included, all conducted in psychiatric populations and/or healthy participants. Most studies were in favor of a two-factor solution. Four studies drew a distinction between low-level (e.g., facial emotion/prosody recognition) and high-level (e.g., theory of mind) information processing. Four others reported a distinction between affective (e.g., facial emotion/prosody recognition) and cognitive (e.g., false beliefs) information processing. Interestingly, attributional style was frequently reported as an additional separate factor of social cognition. Results of factor analyses add further support for the relevance of models differentiating level of information processing (low- vs. high-level) from nature of processed information (affective vs. cognitive). These results add to a significant body of empirical evidence from developmental, clinical research and neuroimaging studies. We argue the relevance of integrating low- versus high-level processing with affective and cognitive processing in a two-dimensional model of social cognition that would be useful for future research and clinical practice. (JINS, 2018, 24, 391-404).

  8. FACTORS THAT AFFECT SOCIAL WORKERS’ JOB SATISFACTION, STRESS AND BURNOUT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calitz, Taetske

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Social work was classified as a scare skill and the retention of social workers is an important aspect that needs urgent attention. The research goal of this study was to determine what degree of work engagement and job satisfaction South African social workers experience in their current positions and how this influences job turnover, burnout and the intention to leave the profession. The purpose was to determine the needs social workers experience that will affect turnover in the profession. The needs/problems social workers experienced were stress, burnout, lower job satisfaction and work engagement.

  9. Determinant Factors of Corporate Social Disclosures in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juniati Gunawan

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Indonesia as one of the big developing countries has been responding rapidly to the issue of Corporate Social Disclosure (CSD. This can be seen from the CSD section in the listed companies’ annual reports which keep increasing throughout the years. However, there are still inconclusive findings in factors that determine the extent of CSD. Based on a comprehensive research, therefore, this paper examines some selected factors in their relations to the extent of CSD, both quantitatively and qualitatively. Corporate annual reports for the year 2003 to 2006 were examined to verify the CSD practices by applying a content analysis method and multiple regression analysis. Then, firm’s characteristics (category, size, financial performances, age, and group influential (creditors, auditors, owners were analysed to seek their significant relationships to the extent of CSD. The findings show that (1 there was no significant influence of ‘company type’ to the extent of CSD; but ‘company status’ was significantl y influence CSD (2 ‘company size’, ‘financial performances’, ‘age’, and ‘auditors’ influences’ were found to have significant positi ve influences to the extent of CSD; (3 ‘Owners’ influence’ correlated positivel y rather than negati vely to CSD; and (4 Mixed results were provided by the ‘creditors’ influence’ throughout the years. The overall correlations between predictor and criterion variables are considered to be low to moderate, varied from 0.463 to 0.607 for correlation coefficients (R and 0.215 to 0.368 for determinant coefficients (R2 in the regression model.

  10. Investigation of critical inter-related factors affecting the efficacy of pulsed light for inactivating clinically relevant bacterial pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, H P; Garvey, M; Cormican, M; Laffey, J G; Rowan, N J

    2010-05-01

    To investigate critical electrical and biological factors governing the efficacy of pulsed light (PL) for the in vitro inactivation of bacteria isolated from the clinical environment. Development of this alternative PL decontamination approach is timely, as the incidence of health care-related infections remains unacceptably high. Predetermined cell numbers of clinically relevant Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria were inoculated separately on agar plates and were flashed with lamp discharge energy (range 3.2-20 J per pulse), the amount of pulsing applied (range 0-60 pulses) and the distance between light source and treatment surface (range 8-20 cm) used. Greater decontamination levels were achieved using a combination of higher lamp discharge energies, increased number of pulses and shorter distances between treatment surface and the xenon light source. Levels of microbial sensitivity also varied depending on the population type, size and age of cultures treated. Production of pigment pyocynanin and alginate slime in mucoid strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa afforded some protection against lethal action of PL; however, this was evident only by using a combination of reduced amount of pulsing at the lower lamp discharge energies tested. A clear pattern was observed where Gram-positive bacterial pathogens were more resistant to cidal effects of PL compared to Gram negatives. While negligible photoreactivation of PL-treated bacterial strains occurred after full pulsing regimes at the different lamp discharge energies tested, some repair was evident when using a combination of reduced pulsing at the lower lamp discharge energies. Strains harbouring genes for multiple resistances to antibiotics were not significantly more resistant to PL treatments. Slight temperature rises (lamp discharge energies. Presence of organic matter on treatment surface did not significantly affect PL decontamination efficacy, nor did growth of PL-treated bacteria on selective agar

  11. Gas-phase organics in environmental tobacco smoke: 2. Exposure-relevant emission factors and indirect exposures from habitual smoking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, Brett C.; Hodgson, Alfred T.; Nazaroff, William W.

    Sorption of emitted gas-phase organic compounds onto material surfaces affects environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) composition and exposures indoors. We have introduced a new metric, the exposure relevant emission factor (EREF) that accounts for sorptive uptake and reemission to give the mass of individual ETS constituents available for exposure over a day in which smoking occurs. This paper describes month-long experiments to investigate sorption effects on EREFs and potential ETS exposures under habitual smoking conditions. Cigarettes were smoked in a 50-m 3 furnished room over a 3-h period 6-7 days per week, with continuous ventilation at 0.3, 0.6, or 2.1 h -1. Organic gas concentrations were measured every few days over 4-h "smoking", 10-h "post-smoking" and 10-h "background" periods. Concentration patterns of volatile ETS components including 1,3-butadiene, benzene and acrolein were similar to those calculated for a theoretical non-sorbing tracer, indicating limited sorption. Concentrations of ETS tracers, e.g. 3-ethenylpyridine (3-EP) and nicotine, and lower volatility toxic air contaminants including phenol, cresols, and naphthalene increased as experiments progressed, indicating mass accumulation on surfaces and higher desorption rates. Daily patterns stabilized after week 2, yielding a steady daily cycle of ETS concentrations associated with habitual smoking. EREFs for sorbing compounds were higher under steady cycle versus single-day smoking conditions by ˜50% for 3-EP, and by 2-3 times for nicotine, phenol, cresols, naphthalene, and methylnaphthalenes. Our results provide relevant information about potential indirect exposures from residual ETS (non-smoker enters room shortly after smoker finishes) and from reemission, and their importance relative to direct exposures (non-smoker present during smoking). Under the conditions examined, indirect exposures accounted for a larger fraction of total potential exposures for sorbing versus non-sorbing compounds

  12. Disentangling the Factors Driving Users' Continuance Intention towards Social Media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Hongxiu; Li, Lirui; Gan, Chunmei

    2018-01-01

    dimensions to be gained from social media usage, namely hedonic value (enjoyment), information value (information documentation and information sharing), media value (media appeal), and social value (social interaction), which are measured via a survey questionnaire. Our findings reveal seven distinct...... configurations of causal conditions for inducing continuance intention towards social media among Chinese users. Particularly, the frequency of social media usage combined with perceptions of enjoyment were found to be core conditions reinforcing users' continuance intention towards social media. In turn......Building on perceived value theory, this study employs fuzzy set Qualitative Comparative Analysis (fsQCA) to derive configurational models that embody causal conditions for predicting users' continuance intention towards social media. From reviewing extant literature, we advanced four value...

  13. Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the Combined Social Phobia Scale and Social Interaction Anxiety Scale: Support for a Bifactor Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Rapson; Watson, Shaun D.

    2017-01-01

    For the Social Phobia Scale (SPS) and the Social Interaction Anxiety Scale (SIAS) together, this study examined support for a bifactor model, and also the internal consistency reliability and external validity of the factors in this model. Participants (N = 526) were adults from the general community who completed the SPS and SIAS. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) of their ratings indicated good support for the bifactor model. For this model, the loadings for all but six items were higher on the general factor than the specific factors. The three positively worded items had negligible loadings on the general factor. The general factor explained most of the common variance in the SPS and SIAS, and demonstrated good model-based internal consistency reliability (omega hierarchical) and a strong association with fear of negative evaluation and extraversion. The practical implications of the findings for the utilization of the SPS and SIAS, and the theoretical and clinical implications for social anxiety are discussed. PMID:28210232

  14. Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the Combined Social Phobia Scale and Social Interaction Anxiety Scale: Support for a Bifactor Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Rapson; Watson, Shaun D

    2017-01-01

    For the Social Phobia Scale (SPS) and the Social Interaction Anxiety Scale (SIAS) together, this study examined support for a bifactor model, and also the internal consistency reliability and external validity of the factors in this model. Participants ( N = 526) were adults from the general community who completed the SPS and SIAS. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) of their ratings indicated good support for the bifactor model. For this model, the loadings for all but six items were higher on the general factor than the specific factors. The three positively worded items had negligible loadings on the general factor. The general factor explained most of the common variance in the SPS and SIAS, and demonstrated good model-based internal consistency reliability (omega hierarchical) and a strong association with fear of negative evaluation and extraversion. The practical implications of the findings for the utilization of the SPS and SIAS, and the theoretical and clinical implications for social anxiety are discussed.

  15. The main but not the accessory olfactory system is involved in the processing of socially relevant chemosignals in ungulates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthieu eKELLER

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Ungulates like sheep and goats have, like many other mammalian species, two complementary olfactory systems. The relative role played by these two systems has long been of interest regarding the sensory control of social behavior. The study of ungulate social behavior could represent a complimentary alternative to rodent studies because they live in a more natural environment and their social behaviors depend heavily on olfaction. In addition, the relative size of the main olfactory bulb (in comparison to the accessory olfactory bulb is more developped than in many other lissencephalic species like rodents. In this review, we present data showing a clear involvement of the main olfactory system in two well-characterized social situations under olfactory control in ungulates, namely maternal behavior and offspring recognition at birth and the reactivation of the gonadotropic axis of females exposed to males during the anestrous season. In conclusion, we discuss the apparent discrepancy between the absence of evidence for a role of the vomeronasal system in ungulate social behavior and the existence of a developed accessory olfactory system in these species.

  16. An examination of social interaction profiles based on the factors measured by the screen for social interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahoney, Emery B; Breitborde, Nicholas J K; Leone, Sarah L; Ghuman, Jaswinder Kaur

    2014-10-01

    Deficits in the capacity to engage in social interactions are a core deficit associated with Autistic Disorder (AD) and Pervasive Developmental Disorder-Not Otherwise Specified (PDD-NOS). These deficits emerge at a young age, making screening for social interaction deficits and interventions targeted at improving capacity in this area important for early identification and intervention. Screening and early intervention efforts are particularly important given the poor short and long term outcomes for children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs) who experience social interaction deficits. The Screen for Social Interaction (SSI) is a well-validated screening measure that examines a child's capacity for social interaction using a developmental approach. The present study identified four underlying factors measured by the SSI, namely, Connection with Caregiver, Interaction/Imagination, Social Approach/Interest, and Agreeable Nature. The resulting factors were utilized to compare social interaction profiles across groups of children with AD, PDD-NOS, children with non-ASD developmental and/or psychiatric conditions and typically developing children. The results indicate that children with AD and those with PDD-NOS had similar social interaction profiles, but were able to be distinguished from typically developing children on every factor and were able to be distinguished from children with non-ASD psychiatric conditions on every factor except the Connection with Caregiver factor. In addition, children with non-ASD developmental and/or psychiatric conditions could be distinguished from typically developing children on the Connection with Caregiver factor and the Social Approach/Interest factor. These findings have implications for screening and intervention for children with ASDs and non-ASD psychiatric conditions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. [Birth weight distribution among premature infants and related social factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Li-jun; Ye, Rong-wei; Wang, Gui-xia; Wang, Juan; Li, Zhi-wen; Ren, Ai-guo

    2009-12-01

    To understand the distribution of birth weight among premature infants and the associated social factors. The study population consisted of 97 537 women who delivered singleton live birth of 20 to 41 gestational weeks in 4 counties/cities, Jiangsu and Zhejiang provinces, China from 1995 to 2000. Chi-square test was employed to test the difference of proportions between respective groups. One- way ANOVA was used to test the differences regarding the mean of gestational weeks at the first prenatal visit and the mean of prenatal visits between the two groups. Multivariate logistic regression was conducted to examine the factors associated with premature birth. Women aged 35 years had higher (8.8%) premature incidence than those aged less than 24 years (5.6%), 25 - 29 years (4.6%), or 30 - 34 years (4.5%, P premature incidence than those with height taller than 150 cm (5.0%). Women whose BMI were at least 28 and 24 - 28 had higher (5.5%, 5.5%) premature incidences than those whose BMI were 18.5 - 24.0 (5.0%), premature birth was 6.0% among women without previous pregnancy, higher than that among those women with 4 times of pregnancies (5.7%), 2 times of pregnancies (4.3%), and 3 times of pregnancies (4.0%). Parous women with at least two deliveries had higher (9.3%) premature incidence than the primiparous women (5.2%) and whose women with only one delivery (4.5%, P premature incidence than those who did not receive the service (6.1%). The mean times of prenatal visits among women with premature births was 8.53, less than that of those with full term delivery (10.97). Women with less than four times of prenatal visit had higher (18.9%) premature incidence than those with at least five prenatal visits (4.9%). Multivariate logistic regression showed that premature delivery risk was associated with age, height, BMI, gravidity, parity, early prenatal care, the mean of gestational weeks at first prenatal visit and the mean number of prenatal visits etc. Premature delivery

  18. Relationship between continuous state factors and sustainability factors in the economic, social and environmental dimensions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Moreira Campos

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to explain the relationship of the main factors of the continuous state and sustainability of companies operating in Brazil, in its economic, social and environmental, and test the strength of this relationship. Accordingly, we performed an extensive literature review in works for national and international basis, the procedures adopted in order to answer the research question posed. Among the aspects that form the sustainable development and sustainability issues, there is the demand by developing metrics that allow accurate measurement of the degree of sustainable development and sustainability of the planet, nations and other organizations, such as companies. Were cited works that address issues related to the companies’ continuous state, studies that dealt with corporate sustainability and empirical research on key factors of sustainability of the sample companies. Also, quantified the strength of the relationship between the main factors of the continuous state and sustainability of a sample of 49 companies operating in Brazil, by employing the technique of Canonical Correlation for the period 2006 to 2010. The results confirmed the existence of a relationship between the main factors of the continuous state and sustainability of businesses as well as the intensity of this relationship.

  19. The Role of Social Norms in the Portion Size Effect: Reducing normative relevance reduces the effect of portion size on consumption decisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iris eVersluis

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available People typically eat more from large portions of food than from small portions. An explanation that has often been given for this so-called portion size effect is that the portion size acts as a social norm and as such communicates how much is appropriate to eat. In this paper, we tested this explanation by examining whether manipulating the relevance of the portion size as a social norm changes the portion size effect, as assessed by prospective consumption decisions. We conducted one pilot experiment and one full experiment in which participants respectively indicated how much they would eat or serve themselves from a given amount of different foods. In the pilot (N = 63, we manipulated normative relevance by allegedly basing the portion size on the behavior of either students of the own university (in-group or of another university (out-group. In the main experiment (N = 321, we told participants that either a minority or majority of people similar to them approved of the portion size. Results show that in both experiments, participants expected to serve themselves and to eat more from larger than from smaller portions. As expected, however, the portion size effect was less pronounced when the reference portions were allegedly based on the behavior of an out-group (pilot or approved only by a minority (main experiment. These findings suggest that the portion size indeed provides normative information, because participants were less influenced by it if it communicated the behaviors or values of a less relevant social group. In addition, in the main experiment, the relation between portion size and the expected amount served was partially mediated by the amount that was considered appropriate, suggesting that concerns about eating an appropriate amount indeed play a role in the portion size effect. However, since the portion size effect was weakened but not eliminated by the normative relevance manipulations and since mediation was only partial

  20. Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the Combined Social Phobia Scale and Social Interaction Anxiety Scale: Support for a Bifactor Model

    OpenAIRE

    Gomez, Rapson; Watson, Shaun D.

    2017-01-01

    For the Social Phobia Scale (SPS) and the Social Interaction Anxiety Scale (SIAS) together, this study examined support for a bifactor model, and also the internal consistency reliability and external validity of the factors in this model. Participants (N = 526) were adults from the general community who completed the SPS and SIAS. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) of their ratings indicated good support for the bifactor model. For this model, the loadings for all but six items were higher o...

  1. Ubuntu and Social Capital factors in Family Businesses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Venter

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The current study is an investigation of social capital, and more particularly the support of the concept of ubuntu in large family businesses in South Africa. Insights into the social responsibility activities of some of the largest family businesses in South Africa, obtained through semi-structured interviews, clearly indicate the important role which the social responsibility ubuntu activities of these businesses play in caring for the community. As South Africa has a mainly “individualistic economic community”, it is interesting to observe how the collectivistic notion of ubuntu is practised in the social responsibility activities of family business groups. Key words and phrases: ubuntu, social responsibility, social capital, family business, conditional matrix

  2. What factors are most relevant to the assessment of work ability of employees on long-term sick leave? The physicians' perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekkers-Sánchez, Patricia M; Wind, Haije; Sluiter, Judith K; Frings-Dresen, Monique H W

    2013-07-01

    To reach insurance physician (IPs) consensus on factors that must be taken into account in the assessment of the work ability of employees who are sick-listed for 2 years. A Delphi study using online questionnaires was conducted from October 2010 to March 2011. One hundred and two insurance physicians reached a consensus on important factors for return to work (RTW) of employees on long-term sick leave; from those factors, the most relevant for the assessment of work ability was determined. From a total of 22 relevant factors considered for the return to work of long-term sick-listed employees, consensus was reached on nine relevant factors that need to be taken into account in the assessment of the work ability of employees on long-term sick leave. Relevant factors that support return to work are motivation, attitude towards RTW, assessment of cognitions and behaviour, vocational rehabilitation in an early stage and instruction for the sick-listed employee to cope with his disabilities. Relevant factors that hinder RTW are secondary gain from illness, negative perceptions of illness, inefficient coping style and incorrect advice of treating physicians regarding RTW. Non-medical personal and environmental factors may either hinder or promote RTW and must be considered in the assessment of the work ability of long-term sick-listed employees. Assessment of work ability should start early during the sick leave period. These factors may be used by IPs to improve the quality of the assessment of the work ability of employees on long-term sick leave.

  3. Distance and E-Learning, Social Justice, and Development: The Relevance of Capability Approaches to the Mission of Open Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tait, Alan

    2013-01-01

    This article reviews the discourse of mission in large distance teaching and open universities, in order to analyse the theories of development and social justice that are claimed or may be inherent in them. It is suggested that in a number of cases the claims are unsupported or naive. The article goes on to set out the nature of Amartya…

  4. Factor Structure of the Social Appearance Anxiety Scale in Turkish Early Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin, Ertugrul; Topkaya, Nursel

    2015-01-01

    Although the Social Appearance Anxiety Scale (SAAS) is most often validated with the use of confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) on undergraduate students, exploratory factor analysis and multiple factor retention decision criteria necessitate the analysis of underlying factor structure to prevent over and under factoring as well as to reveal…

  5. Demographic and Social Factors Influencing Public Opinion on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    macuser

    the pressing need for empirical research into these opinions, to inform and make .... understanding public opinion on the issue of prostitution has critical relevance. For ..... prostitution and presented three options for legal reform in South Africa: ...

  6. Avoidant personality disorder as a social anxiety phenotype: risk factors, associations and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampe, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    This article identifies research trends and synthesizes information from recent studies of avoidant personality disorder (AVPD). AVPD and social anxiety disorder (SAD) share genetic vulnerability, but may have distinct environmental risk factors that shape qualitative differences. Negative self-concept, shame proneness, and interpersonal hypersensitivity are characteristic of AVPD and may be predisposed to by heritable traits of high negative affectivity and low positive affectivity, and experiences of neglectful or emotionless parents. The interpersonal difficulties of AVPD may be associated with both anxious and avoidant attachment. Most individuals with AVPD do not also meet criteria for SAD. Integrative treatments incorporating cognitive behavioral strategies effective in SAD but also targeting shame aversion and avoidance may be most helpful for AVPD. Therapy adapted to both anxious attachment, associated with heightened interpersonal sensitivity and distress, and avoidant attachment, associated with experiential avoidance, may be optimal, though this is yet to be tested. Effective treatment of AVPD may enhance the outcome of comorbid conditions. More research is needed which compares three social anxiety groups (SAD alone, AVPD alone, and SAD plus AVPD) to further explore these disorders which are highly related, but which may have differences that are clinically relevant for individuals.

  7. Legal culture as a factor of social stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M M Akulich

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article examines legal culture as a factor of stability in developing societies referring to the concepts of culture proposed by P.A. Sorokin, L.N. Kogan, M.T. Iovchuk and other famous sociologists. The authors state that in the modern sociological literature legal culture is studied mainly from the theoretical rather than empirical standpoint: the sociology has accumulated a lot of data on the legal culture, although its study in the context of agreements and conflicts, stability and destructiveness is not enough. Legal culture should be regarded as a regulator and stabilizer of social interactions and relationships in both specific countries and the global space. Thus, identifying regional and global aspects of legal culture has become an important theoretical problem of the sociological studies nowadays as well as considering legal culture in relation to moral, economic and political values and priorities. The authors argue that it is not possible to build a state of law and civil society without raising the level of legal culture, and present the results of the sociological study of the legal culture in the south of the Tyumen region conducted in 2013. This survey revealed an average level of following the law in 55% of the local population, although 90% consider themselves law-abiding citizens. At the same time, 46% believe in the possibility to manipulate the law, and 60% approve the principle of equity of the law. The authors conclude that the identified average level of legal culture among the local population is an indicator of a quite stable and successful development of the region under study.

  8. Factors Affecting Social Workers' Inclusion of Animals in Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risley-Curtiss, Christina; Rogge, Mary E.; Kawam, Elisa

    2013-01-01

    Experts suggest that social work practitioners can improve their client service with a more thorough understanding of the impact of other animals on individuals and families. Studies indicate that some social work practitioners are including animals in their practices through assessment and interventions. Little is known about what factors…

  9. Psychological, social, and environmental factors to meeting physical activity recommendations among Japanese adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harada Kazuhiro

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although the benefits of the recommended level of physical activity on reducing chronic diseases are well-established, most of the Japanese population is not sufficiently active. Thus, examining correlates is an important prerequisite for designing relevant polices and effective programs. The present study investigated psychological, social, and environmental factors associated with meeting physical activity recommendations among Japanese adults. Methods Data were analyzed for 1,932 men and women (43.6 ± 13.0 years, who responded to an Internet-based cross-sectional survey. Self-reported measure of physical activity, psychological (self-efficacy, pros, and cons, social (social support, health professional advice, environmental (home fitness equipment, access to facilities, neighborhood safety, enjoyable scenery, frequently observing others exercising, residential area, and demographic (gender, age, marital status, educational level, household income level, employment status variables were obtained. Based on the current national guidelines for exercise in Japan (23 METs·hour per week, respondents were divided into two categories–recommended and not recommended (insufficient and inactive–according to their estimated weekly physical activity level. An adjusted logistic regression model was utilized. Results When adjusting for all other variables, self-efficacy (men: OR = 2.13; 95% CI: 1.55–2.94, women: OR = 2.72; 95% CI: 1.82–4.08 and possessing home fitness equipment (men: OR = 1.55; 95% CI: 1.14–2.10, women: OR = 1.41; 95% CI: 1.01–1.99 for both genders, social support (OR = 1.44; 95% CI: 1.06–1.97 for men, and enjoyable scenery (OR = 1.60; 95% CI: 1.09–2.36 for women were positively associated with attaining the recommended level of physical activity. In women, cons (OR = 0.47; 95% CI: 0.33–0.67 and living in rural areas (OR = 0.50; 95% CI: 0.25–0.97 were negatively associated with meeting the physical

  10. Psychological, social, and environmental factors to meeting physical activity recommendations among Japanese adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibata, Ai; Oka, Koichiro; Harada, Kazuhiro; Nakamura, Yoshio; Muraoka, Isao

    2009-08-28

    Although the benefits of the recommended level of physical activity on reducing chronic diseases are well-established, most of the Japanese population is not sufficiently active. Thus, examining correlates is an important prerequisite for designing relevant polices and effective programs. The present study investigated psychological, social, and environmental factors associated with meeting physical activity recommendations among Japanese adults. Data were analyzed for 1,932 men and women (43.6 +/- 13.0 years), who responded to an Internet-based cross-sectional survey. Self-reported measure of physical activity, psychological (self-efficacy, pros, and cons), social (social support, health professional advice), environmental (home fitness equipment, access to facilities, neighborhood safety, enjoyable scenery, frequently observing others exercising, residential area), and demographic (gender, age, marital status, educational level, household income level, employment status) variables were obtained. Based on the current national guidelines for exercise in Japan (23 METs.hour per week), respondents were divided into two categories-recommended and not recommended (insufficient and inactive)-according to their estimated weekly physical activity level. An adjusted logistic regression model was utilized. When adjusting for all other variables, self-efficacy (men: OR = 2.13; 95% CI: 1.55-2.94, women: OR = 2.72; 95% CI: 1.82-4.08) and possessing home fitness equipment (men: OR = 1.55; 95% CI: 1.14-2.10, women: OR = 1.41; 95% CI: 1.01-1.99) for both genders, social support (OR = 1.44; 95% CI: 1.06-1.97) for men, and enjoyable scenery (OR = 1.60; 95% CI: 1.09-2.36) for women were positively associated with attaining the recommended level of physical activity. In women, cons (OR = 0.47; 95% CI: 0.33-0.67) and living in rural areas (OR = 0.50; 95% CI: 0.25-0.97) were negatively associated with meeting the physical activity recommendations. In the psychological, social, and

  11. Factors influencing the intention to use social media for work-related purposes at a South African higher education institution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liezel Cilliers

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: The rapid development of information communication technology (ICT has changed much of contemporary society. ICT’s influence extends to the working context with ramifications not only for employees but also for the entire organisation. Research purpose: The primary purpose of this research was to investigate the behavioural intention of a sample of employees at a traditional higher education institution to make use of social media within the workplace. Motivation for the study: Social media has become a common tool within society for communication and networking purposes. An understanding of the factors that influence behavioural intention to use social media within the workplace can assist the organisation to better manage social media usage within the workplace. Research design, approach and method: The research adopted the positivism paradigm with a quantitative research approach. The data were analysed making use of exploratory factor analysis and multiple regression analysis. A traditional higher education institution was chosen as the research site for the study, relying on a convenience sample (n = 134 and data gathered using the work-related social media scale and behavioural intention to use scale. Main findings: Although most employees make use of social media for problem-solving and communication purposes already in the workplace, organisations should allow their employees to help manage their reputation on social media. Practical and managerial implications: An understanding of the factors that influence behavioural intention to use social media within the workplace can serve as a useful precursor for both employee and organisational-specific interventions. This study has specific relevance to the use of ICT platforms, such as social media, in traditional higher education institutions in South Africa. The study’s results are therefore useful to both employees as end-users and managers as drivers of such interventions

  12. The association between social network factors and mental health at different life stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levula, Andrew; Wilson, Andrew; Harré, Michael

    2016-07-01

    Psychosocial factors are important determinants of an individual's health. This study examines the association between health scores and social network factors on mental health across different life stages. Data were drawn from the Household Income and Labour Dynamics in Australia survey for adolescents (n = 1739), adults (n = 10,309) and seniors (n = 2287). Hierarchical regression modelling was applied to examine effects within and across age groups. All the variables were derived from the self-completion questionnaire. The social network factors were statistically significant predictors of mental health outcomes for all three life stages. For adolescents, the three social network factors were statistically significant with social isolation having the largest impact (β = -.284, p social connection (β = .084, p social trust having a similar effect (β = .073, p social isolation had the highest impact (β = -.203, p social connection (β = .110, p social trust (β = .087, p social isolation (β = -.188, p social connection (β = .147, p social trust (β = .032, p social network factors, the models improved significantly with social isolation playing the most significant role across all life stages, whereas the other social network factors played a differentiated role depending upon the life stage. These findings have practical implications in the design of mental health interventions across different life stages.

  13. Camphor burns of the palm and non-suicidal self-injury: An uncommonly reported, but socially relevant issue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravi Kumar Chittoria

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Camphor is a waxy white sublimating chemical derived from natural as well as synthetic sources and widely used in various communities worldwide for a number of medicinal, culinary, and religious reasons. Camphor is burnt as an offering to God in many religious communities. We report three incidences of self inflicted injury from burning camphor on the palm resulting in full thickness burns. Non-suicidal self-injury is socially unacceptable destruction or alteration of body tissue when there is no suicidal intent or pervasive developmental disorder and we have explored an association between this and burn injury. This report also highlights the unique social and cultural pattern of this burn injury and the importance of psycho-therapeautic help for these victims.

  14. The differential impact of subjective and objective aspects of social engagement on cardiovascular risk factors

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kamiya, Yumiko

    2010-11-02

    Abstract Background This article provides new insights into the impact of social engagement on CVD risk factors in older adults. We hypothesized that objective (social participation, social ties and marital status) and subjective (emotional support) aspects of social engagement are independently associated with objective measures of cardiovascular risk. Methods Data from the English Longitudinal Study on Ageing (ELSA) were analyzed. The effects of social participation, social ties, marital status, and emotional support on hypertension, obesity, high sensitivity C-reactive protein, and fibrinogen were estimated by logistic regression controlling for age, sex, education, physical function, depression, cardiovascular disease, other chronic diseases, physical activity, and smoking. Results Social participation is a consistent predictor of low risk for four risk factors, even after controlling for a wide range of covariates. Being married is associated with lower risk for hypertension. Social ties and emotional support are not significantly associated with any of the cardiovascular risk factors. Conclusion Our analysis suggests that participation in social activities has a stronger association with CV risk factors than marital status, social ties or emotional support. Different forms of social engagement may therefore have different implications for the biological risk factors involved.

  15. Performance Anxiety among African-American College Students: Racial Bias as a Factor in Social Phobia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Aleta Bok

    2006-01-01

    This article examines the etiology of social phobia, and proposes that the sensitivity to self-scrutiny common to social phobics can be exacerbated by the effects of longstanding racial bias. The impact of racism on identity and the importance of context are explored as salient factors in the onset of a case of social phobia for an…

  16. Basic Social-Economic Factors Modelling Customer’s Psychological Behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Krastev

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with some social and economic factors influencing on customer’s behaviour – such as social class, social-economic status,occupation, education, income, referent groups, family, gender roles and marketing. Some comparisons are made between some factorsinfluencing on customer’s behaviour in the U.S. and in Bulgaria.

  17. The Role of Relevancy and Social Suffering in “Generativity” Among Older Post-Soviet Women Immigrants

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Medeiros, Kate; Rubinstein, Robert; Ermoshkina, Polina

    2015-01-01

    Purpose of the Study: This paper examines generativity, social suffering, and culture change in a sample of 16 women aged 65 years or older who emigrated from the former Soviet Union. Key concerns with generativity are identity, which can be strongly rooted in one’s original cultural formation, and a stable life course, which is what ideally enables generative impulses to be cultivated in later life. Design and Methods: To better understand how early social suffering may affect later life generativity, we conducted two 90-min interviews with each of our participants on their past experiences and current views of generativity. Results: The trauma of World War II, poor quality of life in the Soviet Union, scarcity of shelter and supplies, and fear of arrest emerged as common components in social suffering, which affected their identity. Implications: Overall, the theme of broken links to the future—the sense that their current lives were irrelevant to future generations—was strong among informants in their interviews, pointing to the importance of life course stability in relation to certain forms of generativity. PMID:24184859

  18. [Academic discussion of adverse reaction of clinical trials of new traditional Chinese medicines and relevant influencing factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wen-ping; Yu, Ming; Wang, Li; Jiang, Xi-ren; Li, Xiao-bin; Wang, Hua-wei; Cao, Ying; Liu, Kai; Huang, Lu-qi

    2015-01-01

    Data of clinical trial projects involved by clinical trial institutions certified by the State Food and Drug Administration from 2002 to November 2012 were collected to summarize adverse reactions in project summary/statistical reports, analyze the rate of adverse reactions of clinical trials of new traditional Chinese medicines and relevant influencing factors, and increase the awareness of the safety of new traditional Chinese medicines. A total of 73 050 cases in 209 projects of 14 specialties were collected, including 49 689 cases in the new traditional Chinese medicine group and 271 adverse reaction cases, with an incidence rate of adverse reactions at 0.55%. The adverse reaction rate in 3 months 0.63% for injection > 0.50% for oral. In the administration of only the test drug, the adverse reaction rate of patches was the highest (2.68%), whereas that of aerosols and suppositories was lowest (0). In the combined administration of the test drug and the simulation agent, the adverse reaction rate of external test patch + capsule was the highest (3.38%), whereas that of capsule + oral liquid, pills + granules, tablets + oral liquid, tablets + pills, tablet + capsule was the lowest (0). In the administration of only the test drug, the adverse reaction rate was 0.47%; In the combined administration with simulation agent (drug volume increase), the adverse reaction rate was 0.74%. Different doses caused adverse reaction different rates; The adverse reaction rate of drugs with whole-course dose between 1 100-1 200 g was the highest (3.36%), that for whole-course doses of 500-600, 900-1 000, 1 400-1 500, 1 600-1 700, 1 800-1 900 g was the lowest (0). In conclusion, the adverse reaction rate of new traditional Chinese medicines was still up to 0.55%, with the adverse reaction rate between 0.47% and 0.72% over the 11 years, without significant difference in each year. The adverse reaction rate was closely related to course of treatment, approach of administration

  19. Evaluation and comparison of benchmark QSAR models to predict a relevant REACH endpoint: The bioconcentration factor (BCF).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gissi, Andrea; Lombardo, Anna; Roncaglioni, Alessandra; Gadaleta, Domenico; Mangiatordi, Giuseppe Felice; Nicolotti, Orazio; Benfenati, Emilio

    2015-02-01

    The bioconcentration factor (BCF) is an important bioaccumulation hazard assessment metric in many regulatory contexts. Its assessment is required by the REACH regulation (Registration, Evaluation, Authorization and Restriction of Chemicals) and by CLP (Classification, Labeling and Packaging). We challenged nine well-known and widely used BCF QSAR models against 851 compounds stored in an ad-hoc created database. The goodness of the regression analysis was assessed by considering the determination coefficient (R(2)) and the Root Mean Square Error (RMSE); Cooper's statistics and Matthew's Correlation Coefficient (MCC) were calculated for all the thresholds relevant for regulatory purposes (i.e. 100L/kg for Chemical Safety Assessment; 500L/kg for Classification and Labeling; 2000 and 5000L/kg for Persistent, Bioaccumulative and Toxic (PBT) and very Persistent, very Bioaccumulative (vPvB) assessment) to assess the classification, with particular attention to the models' ability to control the occurrence of false negatives. As a first step, statistical analysis was performed for the predictions of the entire dataset; R(2)>0.70 was obtained using CORAL, T.E.S.T. and EPISuite Arnot-Gobas models. As classifiers, ACD and logP-based equations were the best in terms of sensitivity, ranging from 0.75 to 0.94. External compound predictions were carried out for the models that had their own training sets. CORAL model returned the best performance (R(2)ext=0.59), followed by the EPISuite Meylan model (R(2)ext=0.58). The latter gave also the highest sensitivity on external compounds with values from 0.55 to 0.85, depending on the thresholds. Statistics were also compiled for compounds falling into the models Applicability Domain (AD), giving better performances. In this respect, VEGA CAESAR was the best model in terms of regression (R(2)=0.94) and classification (average sensitivity>0.80). This model also showed the best regression (R(2)=0.85) and sensitivity (average>0.70) for

  20. Social inequality as a factor of social tensions in Russian society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Oseev

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on this study the author concludes that “the latent and open social tensions... in Russian society today is quite high”, “clearly defined trend towards further improving it”, and to the deterioration of the social situation in the country and rising social tensions it “could lead to a sharp (abrupt increase in overt signs of social tensions and the development of its pre-crisis aside, and then the crisis situation”.

  1. Factors influencing the planning of social activities : empirical analysis of social interaction diary data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, van den P.E.W.; Arentze, T.A.; Timmermans, H.J.P.

    2010-01-01

    Results of a study on the planning of social activities are reported. Data collected in the Netherlands from social interaction diaries were used to estimate a multinomial logistic regression model to analyze whether a social activity is prearranged, routine, or spontaneous as a function of personal

  2. Social-cognitive and school factors in initiation of smoking among adolescents: a prospective cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bidstrup, Pernille Envold; Frederiksen, Kirsten; Siersma, Volkert

    2009-01-01

    AIMS: The aim of the present study was to examine the association between social-cognitive factors, school factors, and smoking initiation among adolescents who had never smoked. METHODS: The study was based on longitudinal data on Danish adolescents attending randomly selected public schools....... Adolescents enrolled in grade 7 (mean age, 13 years) who had never smoked (n = 912) were followed up for 6 months after baseline. Those who had still never smoked were followed up again 18 months after baseline, in grade 8 (n = 442). Social-cognitive factors were examined with five measures: self......-efficacy, social influence (norms), social influence (behavior), social influence (pressure), and attitude. We used multilevel analyses to estimate the associations between social-cognitive factors at baseline and smoking initiation as well as the random effects of school, school class, and gender group...

  3. Introductory analysis of sustainable consumption and production : Factors of corporate social responsibility management in Japan

    OpenAIRE

    八木, 迪幸; 國部, 克彦

    2017-01-01

    As an introductory analysis of sustainable consumption and production, this paper examines what factors influence corporate social responsibility management in Japan. Following some underlying theories (management control system; the neo-institutional theory; performance measurement systems; the stakeholder theory; the resource dependence theory), this paper conducts empirical studies using firm-level data. The first three studies examine what factors encourage corporate social responsibility...

  4. How social structure changes in Chinese global cities: Synthesizing globalization, migration and institutional factors in Beijing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shi, Q.; Liu, T.; Musterd, S.; Cao, G.

    2017-01-01

    Recent studies on the social structural change in global cities have recognized globalization, migration, and institutional factors as three main forces underlying this process. However, effects of these factors have rarely been synthetically examined and the social structure of emerging Chinese

  5. Factors in the Decision to Leave: Retaining Social Workers with MSWs in Public Child Welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samantrai, Krishna

    1992-01-01

    Surveyed 7 social workers with master's in social work (MSW) degrees who had left public child welfare and 20 who decided to stay. Found two factors that distinguished groups: inflexibility in job assignment and poor relationship with immediate supervisor. Academic preparation for this type of practice was not decisive factor. (Author/NB)

  6. Individual Characteristics, Family Factors, and Classroom Experiences as Predictors of Low-Income Kindergarteners’ Social Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, Shayl; Arnold, David; Voegler-Lee, Mary-Ellen; Kupersmidt, Janis

    2017-01-01

    There has been increasing awareness of the need for research and theory to take into account the intersection of individual characteristics and environmental contexts when examining predictors of child outcomes. The present longitudinal, multi-informant study examined the cumulative and interacting contributions of child characteristics (language skills, inattention/hyperactivity, and aggression) and preschool and family contextual factors in predicting kindergarten social skills in 389 low-income preschool children. Child characteristics and classroom factors, but not family factors, predicted teacher-rated kindergarten social skills, while child characteristics alone predicted change in teacher-rated social skills from preschool to kindergarten. Child characteristics and family factors, but not classroom factors, predicted parent-rated kindergarten social skills. Family factors alone predicted change in parent-rated social skills from preschool to kindergarten. Individual child characteristics did not interact with family or classroom factors in predicting parent- or teacher-rated social skills, and support was therefore found for an incremental, rather than an interactive, predictive model of social skills. The findings underscore the importance of assessing outcomes in more than one context, and of considering the impact of both individual and environmental contextual factors on children’s developing social skills when designing targeted intervention programs to prepare children for kindergarten. PMID:28804528

  7. Individual Characteristics, Family Factors, and Classroom Experiences as Predictors of Low-Income Kindergarteners' Social Skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, Shayl; Arnold, David; Voegler-Lee, Mary-Ellen; Kupersmidt, Janis

    2016-01-01

    There has been increasing awareness of the need for research and theory to take into account the intersection of individual characteristics and environmental contexts when examining predictors of child outcomes. The present longitudinal, multi-informant study examined the cumulative and interacting contributions of child characteristics (language skills, inattention/hyperactivity, and aggression) and preschool and family contextual factors in predicting kindergarten social skills in 389 low-income preschool children. Child characteristics and classroom factors, but not family factors, predicted teacher-rated kindergarten social skills, while child characteristics alone predicted change in teacher-rated social skills from preschool to kindergarten. Child characteristics and family factors, but not classroom factors, predicted parent-rated kindergarten social skills. Family factors alone predicted change in parent-rated social skills from preschool to kindergarten. Individual child characteristics did not interact with family or classroom factors in predicting parent- or teacher-rated social skills, and support was therefore found for an incremental, rather than an interactive, predictive model of social skills. The findings underscore the importance of assessing outcomes in more than one context, and of considering the impact of both individual and environmental contextual factors on children's developing social skills when designing targeted intervention programs to prepare children for kindergarten.

  8. Social Factors and Performance of Elite which Hinder Organizational Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Boguslavski

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Despite possible differences in official ideology the drawbacks of social organization and the absence of sound approach to social and personal conflicts cause constant demolition of existing formal institutions for the sake of the survival of the system. The neglect of these drawbacks brings about old problems to be transferred to the “new” state. The level of social and human capital and its proper utilization guarantees progressive development. The shifts in organizational policy is also reflected by the consequent shift in the theoretical paradigm, from treatment of a participant of the structure as an object, then as the user and finally as the client. The lack of social capital generates a vicious cycle, which brings about the necessity of object-based relations and the spread of all-pervasive protecting informality to compensate for object-based relations.

  9. Factors affecting the frequency and amount of social networking site use: Motivations, perceptions, and privacy concerns

    OpenAIRE

    Cha, Jiyoung

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore the factors that affect the use of social networking Web sites. In doing so, this investigation focuses on two dimensions of social networking site use frequency (i.e., how often people use social networking sites) and amount (i.e., how much time people spend on social networks). Integrating the technology acceptance model with uses and gratification and other consumer characteristics, this study found that interpersonal utility, perceived ease of use, ...

  10. Factors influencing social self-disclosure among adolescents living with HIV in Eastern Africa

    OpenAIRE

    N?stlinger, Christiana; Bakeera-Kitaka, Sabrina; Buyze, Jozefien; Loos, Jasna; Buv?, Anne

    2015-01-01

    Adolescents living with HIV (ALHIV) face many psychosocial challenges, including HIV disclosure to others. Given the importance of socialization during the adolescent transition process, this study investigated the psychological and social factors influencing self-disclosure of own HIV status to peers. We examined social HIV self-disclosure to peers, and its relationship to perceived HIV-related stigma, self-efficacy to disclose, self-esteem, and social support among a sample of n = 582 ALHIV...

  11. Factors Influencing And Alternative Policies Offered Of Social Conflicts Indigenous Peoples Rights

    OpenAIRE

    Saiful Deni

    2017-01-01

    This paper is a review of the social conflicts of indigenous peoples especially in North Maluku. The purpose of this review is to find out some factors causing indigenous peoples social conflicts in North Maluku and to produce alternative solutions as a policy to develop indigenous peoples livelihoods. The review resulted in several factors causing social conflicts of indigenous peoples such as the unclear boundary between the two parties the customary violations by the forest businessmen the...

  12. Social workers and unemployment: Factors associated with using employment-promoting practices in Israeli Municipal Departments of Social Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Lia; Sefati, Noga

    2018-04-23

    Unemployment is a harsh social phenomenon with far reaching negative implications. Unemployed individuals often seek assistance from social workers working in Municipal Departments of Social Services around the world. However, little to no research exists on the factors involved in social workers' choice to engage in employment-promoting practices (EPP). The current study aimed to tackle this gap of knowledge, providing initial conclusions about the relationship between social workers' attitudes towards unemployment, their knowledge regarding EPP, the extent to which they perceive their organisations as endorsing EPP and their actual implementation. The main research question dealt with the extent to which each of the examined factors, in itself or in combination with others, would be the best predictor of social workers' utilisation of EPP. The study sample consisted of 163 social workers in Israel with varied experience in working with the unemployed, all working in public sector social services. Structural equation modelling performed on the attained data revealed that knowledge, skills and perceived organisational endorsement of EPP were positively associated with implementation of EPP. Contrary to the hypothesised, attitudes towards unemployment were not associated with the implementation of such practices. At the same time, professional training and seniority were associated with EPP only through the mediation of perceived organisational endorsement. Ultimately, perceived organisational endorsement of EPP emerged as the most influential factor involved in social workers' decision to carry out EPP with their service-users. Consequences of these findings for social work education, supervision, research and policy making are discussed, referring to the local Israeli context as well as its possible international inferences. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Factors modulating social influence on spatial choice in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisbing, Teagan A; Saxon, Marie; Sayde, Justin M; Brown, Michael F

    2015-07-01

    Three experiments examined the conditions under which the spatial choices of rats searching for food are influenced by the choices made by other rats. Model rats learned a consistent set of baited locations in a 5 × 5 matrix of locations, some of which contained food. In Experiment 1, subject rats could determine the baited locations after choosing 1 location because all of the baited locations were on the same side of the matrix during each trial (the baited side varied over trials). Under these conditions, the social cues provided by the model rats had little or no effect on the choices made by the subject rats. The lack of social influence on choices occurred despite a simultaneous social influence on rats' location in the testing arena (Experiment 2). When the outcome of the subject rats' own choices provided no information about the positions of other baited locations, on the other hand, social cues strongly controlled spatial choices (Experiment 3). These results indicate that social information about the location of food influences spatial choices only when those cues provide valid information that is not redundant with the information provided by other cues. This suggests that social information is learned about, processed, and controls behavior via the same mechanisms as other kinds of stimuli. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. All for one: Contributions of age, socioeconomic factors, executive functioning and social cognition to moral reasoning in childhood.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelyn eVera-Estay

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Moral reasoning (MR is a sociocognitive skill essential to appropriate social functioning in childhood, and evolves in quality and complexity during ontogenetic development. Whereas past research suggests that MR is related to age, socioeconomic factors, as well as some social and cognitive skills, such as executive functioning, theory of mind, empathy, and affect recognition, their contributions have been studied in silos rather than comprehensively, with little integration of the relative and combined contribution of these skills to MR. Furthermore, few studies have addressed the putative links between these factors in childhood, a period during which these skills are in maturation. The aim of this study was to explore what factors predict moral maturity in typically developing children (n=76, 47.4% males, M = 9.2, SD = 1.67 years, explore the potential moderating and mediating role of executive functions and social cognition in the relationship between age and MR maturity, and identify the specific contributions of age, socioeconomic factors, executive functioning and social cognition, using an innovative visual MR assessment tool (So-Moral. The results indicate that MR maturity was correlated with age, executive functioning (inhibition, verbal fluency, and attentional control and social cognition (theory of mind and affect recognition. Neither EF nor social cognition moderated the effect of age on MR maturity. However, verbal fluency and third-order false beliefs had a moderating role in this link. MR maturity in children was predicted by three variables from each of the three domains: age, verbal fluency and third order theory of mind. These results contribute to a better understanding of the underpinnings of MR during childhood, suggesting that MR is not reducible to general developmental factors such as age, but that higher order skills such executive functioning and social cognition also contribute to moral maturity. The findings have

  15. How fear-relevant illusory correlations might develop and persist in anxiety disorders: A model of contributing factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiemer, Julian; Pauli, Paul

    2016-12-01

    Fear-relevant illusory correlations (ICs) are defined as the overestimation of the relationship between a fear-relevant stimulus and aversive consequences. ICs reflect biased cognitions affecting the learning and unlearning of fear in anxiety disorders, and a deeper understanding might help to improve treatment. A model for the maintenance of ICs is proposed that highlights the importance of amplified aversiveness and salience of fear-relevant outcomes, impaired executive contingency monitoring and an availability heuristic. The model explains why ICs are enhanced in high fearful individuals and allows for some implications that might be applied to augment the effectiveness of cognitive behavior therapy, such as emotion regulation and the direction of attention to non-aversive experiences. Finally, we suggest possible future research directions and an alternative measure of ICs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Factores psicosociales en alcohólicos dependientes Psychological and social factors in dependent alcoholic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurora Revilla Cervantes

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Se presentan 4 casos clínicos de pacientes alcohólicos dependientes no complicados pertenecientes al Consultorio Médico de Familia No. 5 del Policlínico Docente "Frank País García", con vistas a identificar los factores psicosociales que influían en estos. Como principales condicionantes de la conducta adictiva en el grupo estudiado se observaron: la influencia del medio, las tradiciones culturales y la participación de eventos vitales de prevalencia negativa. Además, los afectados mostraron un fuerte arraigo a la conducta alcohólica y el deseo de continuarla.Four case reports of uncomplicated dependent alcoholic patients belonging to the Family Doctor's Office No. 5 from «Frank País García Teaching Polyclinic are presented with the aim of identifying the psychological and social factors influencing on them. As main conditions of the addictive behavior in the studied group there were: the influence of the environment, the cultural traditions and the participation in vital events of negative prevalence. Also, those affected showed a strong dependence on the alcoholic behavior and the desire of continuing it.

  17. A Critical Investigation of the Relevance and Potential of IDPS as a Local Governance Instrument for Pursuing Social Justice in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver Njuh Fuo

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Unlike the situation in the past, when local government’s role was limited to service delivery, local government is now constitutionally mandated to play an expanded developmental role. As a “co-responsible” sphere of government, local government is obliged to contribute towards realising the transformative constitutional mandate aimed at social justice. South African scholars and jurists share the view that social justice is primarily concerned with the eradication of poverty and extreme inequalities in access to basic services, and aims to ensure that poor people command sufficient material resources to facilitate their equal participation in socio-political life. In order to enable municipalities to fulfil their broad constitutional mandate, the system of integrated development planning (IDPs came into effect in South Africa in 2000. Each municipality is obliged to design, adopt and implement an integrated development plan in order to achieve its expanded constitutional mandate. The IDP is considered to be the chief legally prescribed governance instrument for South African municipalities. The purpose of this article is to explore and critically investigate the relevance and potential of IDPs in contributing towards the achievement of social justice in South Africa. This article argues inter alia that the multitude of sectors that converge in an IDP makes it directly relevant and gives it enormous potential to contribute towards social justice because, depending on the context, municipalities could include and implement strategies that specifically respond to diverse areas of human need. In this regard, the legal and policy frameworks for IDPs provide a structured scheme that could be used by municipalities to prioritise and meet the basic needs of especially the poor. Despite its potential, it is argued that the ability of IDPs to respond to the basic needs of the poor is largely constrained by a series of implementation challenges

  18. Factor structure of the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale for Children and Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storch, Eric A; Masia-Warner, Carrie; Heidgerken, Amanda D; Fisher, Paige H; Pincus, Donna B; Liebowitz, Michael R

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the factor structure of the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale for Children and Adolescents (LSAS-CA). The LSAS-CA was administered to 225 children and adolescents as a component of various clinical studies. In addition, other measures of psychopathology and impairment were administered to a subgroup of the sample. Confirmatory factor analyses of the social interaction and performance subscales for the anxiety and avoidance ratings yielded poor fit indices. Exploratory factor analysis supported a two-factor solution with a higher order factor for the LSAS-CA anxiety and avoidance ratings. Based on item content, factors were named Social and School Performance. The internal consistency of the factors was high and the convergent and divergent validity was supported vis-à-vis correlations with measures of depression and social anxiety, and clinician ratings of impairment and functioning. Findings suggest that the anxiety and avoidance ratings are best explained by a two-factor solution that measures social anxiety and avoidance in social and school performance interactions. This factor structure appears to be a reliable and valid framework for assessing childhood social phobia.

  19. Integrating social factors into cross-cultural medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Alexander R; Betancourt, Joseph R; Carrillo, J Emilio

    2002-03-01

    The field of cross-cultural medical education has blossomed in an environment of increasing diversity and increasing awareness of the effect of race and ethnicity on health outcomes. However, there is still no standardized approach to teaching doctors in training how best to care for diverse patient populations. As standards are developed, it is crucial to realize that medical educators cannot teach about culture in a vacuum. Caring for patients of diverse cultural backgrounds is inextricably linked to caring for patients of diverse social backgrounds. In this article, the authors discuss the importance of social issues in caring for patients of all cultures, and propose a practical, patient-based approach to social analysis covering four major domains--(1) social stress and support networks, (2) change in environment, (3) life control, and (4) literacy. By emphasizing and expanding the role of the social history in cross-cultural medical education, faculty can better train medical students, residents, and other health care providers to care for socioculturally diverse patient populations.

  20. Student Mobility and Transnational Social Ties as Factors of Reflexivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tea Golob

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The article seeks to develop and apply new quantitative measurement instruments capable of significantly improving understanding of the relationship between the transnational mobility and transnational social ties of students, along with their reflexive capacities. With a focus on students building their personal networks, educational and professional activities that extend beyond the nation’s borders and organising their day-to-day routines in transnational social spaces, we analyse the role of mobility in their reflexive capacities. Applying a tool that is line with Archer’s theory and indicators to measure reflexivity, and transnational social ties as proposed by Molina et al., we analyse data collected via an on-line survey questionnaire administered to Slovenian students. In addition, students from the Middle East (Lebanon and the USA (Hawai’i are added for comparative purposes. The results of path analysis show the Slovenian students’ mobility as such implies higher scores for meta reflexivity, combined with lower scores for communicative and fractured reflexivity. Further, social transactions reaching beyond one’s physical localities in terms of transnational social ties implies they have higher levels of reflexivity in general.

  1. Bacterial cooperation in the wild and in the clinic: are pathogen social behaviours relevant outside the laboratory?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Freya

    2013-02-01

    Individual bacterial cells can communicate via quorum sensing, cooperate to harvest nutrients from their environment, form multicellular biofilms, compete over resources and even kill one another. When the environment that bacteria inhabit is an animal host, these social behaviours mediate virulence. Over the last decade, much attention has focussed on the ecology, evolution and pathology of bacterial cooperation, and the possibility that it could be exploited or destabilised to treat infections. But how far can we really extrapolate from theoretical predictions and laboratory experiments to make inferences about 'cooperative' behaviours in hosts and reservoirs? To determine the likely importance and evolution of cooperation 'in the wild', several questions must be addressed. A recent paper that reports the dynamics of bacterial cooperation and virulence in a field experiment provides an excellent nucleus for bringing together key empirical and theoretical results which help us to frame - if not completely to answer - these questions. Copyright © 2013 WILEY Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Evaluation and comparison of benchmark QSAR models to predict a relevant REACH endpoint: The bioconcentration factor (BCF)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gissi, Andrea [Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Toxicology, IRCCS – Istituto di Ricerche Farmacologiche Mario Negri, Via La Masa 19, 20156 Milano (Italy); Dipartimento di Farmacia – Scienze del Farmaco, Università degli Studi di Bari “Aldo Moro”, Via E. Orabona 4, 70125 Bari (Italy); Lombardo, Anna; Roncaglioni, Alessandra [Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Toxicology, IRCCS – Istituto di Ricerche Farmacologiche Mario Negri, Via La Masa 19, 20156 Milano (Italy); Gadaleta, Domenico [Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Toxicology, IRCCS – Istituto di Ricerche Farmacologiche Mario Negri, Via La Masa 19, 20156 Milano (Italy); Dipartimento di Farmacia – Scienze del Farmaco, Università degli Studi di Bari “Aldo Moro”, Via E. Orabona 4, 70125 Bari (Italy); Mangiatordi, Giuseppe Felice; Nicolotti, Orazio [Dipartimento di Farmacia – Scienze del Farmaco, Università degli Studi di Bari “Aldo Moro”, Via E. Orabona 4, 70125 Bari (Italy); Benfenati, Emilio, E-mail: emilio.benfenati@marionegri.it [Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Toxicology, IRCCS – Istituto di Ricerche Farmacologiche Mario Negri, Via La Masa 19, 20156 Milano (Italy)

    2015-02-15

    The bioconcentration factor (BCF) is an important bioaccumulation hazard assessment metric in many regulatory contexts. Its assessment is required by the REACH regulation (Registration, Evaluation, Authorization and Restriction of Chemicals) and by CLP (Classification, Labeling and Packaging). We challenged nine well-known and widely used BCF QSAR models against 851 compounds stored in an ad-hoc created database. The goodness of the regression analysis was assessed by considering the determination coefficient (R{sup 2}) and the Root Mean Square Error (RMSE); Cooper's statistics and Matthew's Correlation Coefficient (MCC) were calculated for all the thresholds relevant for regulatory purposes (i.e. 100 L/kg for Chemical Safety Assessment; 500 L/kg for Classification and Labeling; 2000 and 5000 L/kg for Persistent, Bioaccumulative and Toxic (PBT) and very Persistent, very Bioaccumulative (vPvB) assessment) to assess the classification, with particular attention to the models' ability to control the occurrence of false negatives. As a first step, statistical analysis was performed for the predictions of the entire dataset; R{sup 2}>0.70 was obtained using CORAL, T.E.S.T. and EPISuite Arnot–Gobas models. As classifiers, ACD and log P-based equations were the best in terms of sensitivity, ranging from 0.75 to 0.94. External compound predictions were carried out for the models that had their own training sets. CORAL model returned the best performance (R{sup 2}{sub ext}=0.59), followed by the EPISuite Meylan model (R{sup 2}{sub ext}=0.58). The latter gave also the highest sensitivity on external compounds with values from 0.55 to 0.85, depending on the thresholds. Statistics were also compiled for compounds falling into the models Applicability Domain (AD), giving better performances. In this respect, VEGA CAESAR was the best model in terms of regression (R{sup 2}=0.94) and classification (average sensitivity>0.80). This model also showed the best

  3. Evaluation and comparison of benchmark QSAR models to predict a relevant REACH endpoint: The bioconcentration factor (BCF)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gissi, Andrea; Lombardo, Anna; Roncaglioni, Alessandra; Gadaleta, Domenico; Mangiatordi, Giuseppe Felice; Nicolotti, Orazio; Benfenati, Emilio

    2015-01-01

    The bioconcentration factor (BCF) is an important bioaccumulation hazard assessment metric in many regulatory contexts. Its assessment is required by the REACH regulation (Registration, Evaluation, Authorization and Restriction of Chemicals) and by CLP (Classification, Labeling and Packaging). We challenged nine well-known and widely used BCF QSAR models against 851 compounds stored in an ad-hoc created database. The goodness of the regression analysis was assessed by considering the determination coefficient (R 2 ) and the Root Mean Square Error (RMSE); Cooper's statistics and Matthew's Correlation Coefficient (MCC) were calculated for all the thresholds relevant for regulatory purposes (i.e. 100 L/kg for Chemical Safety Assessment; 500 L/kg for Classification and Labeling; 2000 and 5000 L/kg for Persistent, Bioaccumulative and Toxic (PBT) and very Persistent, very Bioaccumulative (vPvB) assessment) to assess the classification, with particular attention to the models' ability to control the occurrence of false negatives. As a first step, statistical analysis was performed for the predictions of the entire dataset; R 2 >0.70 was obtained using CORAL, T.E.S.T. and EPISuite Arnot–Gobas models. As classifiers, ACD and log P-based equations were the best in terms of sensitivity, ranging from 0.75 to 0.94. External compound predictions were carried out for the models that had their own training sets. CORAL model returned the best performance (R 2 ext =0.59), followed by the EPISuite Meylan model (R 2 ext =0.58). The latter gave also the highest sensitivity on external compounds with values from 0.55 to 0.85, depending on the thresholds. Statistics were also compiled for compounds falling into the models Applicability Domain (AD), giving better performances. In this respect, VEGA CAESAR was the best model in terms of regression (R 2 =0.94) and classification (average sensitivity>0.80). This model also showed the best regression (R 2 =0.85) and

  4. Modeling the assessment of the economic factors impact on the development of social entrepreneurship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Absalyamov, T.; Kundakchyan, R.; Zulfakarova, L.; Zapparova, Z.

    2017-12-01

    The article deals with the research of modern trends in the development of social entrepreneurship in Russia. The results of the research allow the authors to identify a system of factors that affect the development of entrepreneurship in the modern Russian economy. Moreover, the authors argue the regional specificity of the development of social entrepreneurship. The paper considers specific features and formulates the main limitations of the development of entrepreneurship and the competitive environment in the social sphere. The authors suggest an econometric model for assessing the influence of economic factors on the development of socially-oriented entrepreneurship and present an algorithm for calculating its components. The results of the econometric analysis identify the main factors of the change in the performance indicators of entrepreneurial activity and determine the degree of their impact on social entrepreneurship. The results and conclusions can serve as an estimation of the socioeconomic consequences of the sustainability disruption of the entrepreneurial potential realization in the social sphere.

  5. Do social factors matter for innovation, and do they influence innovation in Aeronautics Industry?

    OpenAIRE

    Yazan, Abdurrahman Mete

    2013-01-01

    Based on the report for the course on “Social Factors of Innovation” of the PhD Program on Technology Assessment, supervised by Prof. António Brandão Moniz, Monte de Caparica, University NOVA Lisbon, Faculty of Sciences and Technology, July 2013 As innovation plays an important role in economic growth and development, it is necessary to understand the factors, especially the social factors, which determine the differences in innovation intensity across countries and regions. However, sinc...

  6. Factors for Successful Use of Social Networking Sites in Higher Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L Schlenkrich

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Social networking sites are extremely popular online destinations that offer users easy ways to build and maintain relationships with each other, and to disseminate information in an activity referred to as social networking. Students, lecturers, teachers, parents and businesses, in increasing numbers, use tools available on social networking sites to communicate with each other in a fast and cost-effective manner. The use of social networking sites to support educational initiatives has received much attention. However, the full potential of social network sites has yet to be achieved as users continue to strive for optimal ways of using these sites, as well as battle to overcome the negative characteristics (for example, privacy, security, governance, user behaviour, information quality of these sites. This paper proposes factors for successful use of social networking sites in higher educational institutions. These success factors need to be adopted by users in order to develop the positive aspects of social networking, while at the same time mitigating the negative characteristics. An initial set of factors for successful use of social networking sites, as well as measures to test successful use of social networking sites were derived from the literature. These factors were tested by means of an online survey of students at a university, the results of which informed the final factors for successful use of social networking sites. The factors enable users to overcome the negative characteristics associated with social networking sites. If used successfully, social networking sites can offer lecturers and students a useful tool with which to develop their relationship and contribute to their learning experience.

  7. Neural Mechanisms of Early-Life Social Stress as a Developmental Risk Factor for Severe Psychiatric Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinwald, Jonathan Rochus; Becker, Robert; Mallien, Anne Stephanie; Falfan-Melgoza, Claudia; Sack, Markus; Clemm von Hohenberg, Christian; Braun, Urs; Cosa Linan, Alejandro; Gass, Natalia; Vasilescu, Andrei-Nicolae; Tollens, Fabian; Lebhardt, Philipp; Pfeiffer, Natascha; Inta, Dragos; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas; Gass, Peter; Sartorius, Alexander; Weber-Fahr, Wolfgang

    2017-12-28

    To explore the domain-general risk factor of early-life social stress in mental illness, rearing rodents in persistent postweaning social isolation has been established as a widely used animal model with translational relevance for neurodevelopmental psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia. Although changes in resting-state brain connectivity are a transdiagnostic key finding in neurodevelopmental diseases, a characterization of imaging correlates elicited by early-life social stress is lacking. We performed resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging of postweaning social isolation rats (N = 23) 9 weeks after isolation. Addressing well-established transdiagnostic connectivity changes of psychiatric disorders, we focused on altered frontal and posterior connectivity using a seed-based approach. Then, we examined changes in regional network architecture and global topology using graph theoretical analysis. Seed-based analyses demonstrated reduced functional connectivity in frontal brain regions and increased functional connectivity in posterior brain regions of postweaning social isolation rats. Graph analyses revealed a shift of the regional architecture, characterized by loss of dominance of frontal regions and emergence of nonfrontal regions, correlating to our behavioral results, and a reduced modularity in isolation-reared rats. Our result of functional connectivity alterations in the frontal brain supports previous investigations postulating social neural circuits, including prefrontal brain regions, as key pathways for risk for mental disorders arising through social stressors. We extend this knowledge by demonstrating more widespread changes of brain network organization elicited by early-life social stress, namely a shift of hubness and dysmodularity. Our results highly resemble core alterations in neurodevelopmental psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia, autism, and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in humans. Copyright © 2017

  8. Protective Factors, Coping Appraisals, and Social Barriers Predict Mental Health Following Community Violence: A Prospective Test of Social Cognitive Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Andrew J; Felix, Erika D; Benight, Charles C; Jones, Russell T

    2017-06-01

    This study tested social cognitive theory of posttraumatic adaptation in the context of mass violence, hypothesizing that pre-event protective factors (general self-efficacy and perceived social support) would reduce posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) and depression severity through boosting post-event coping self-efficacy appraisals (mediator). We qualified hypotheses by predicting that post-event social support barriers would disrupt (moderate) the health-promoting indirect effects of pre-event protective factors. With a prospective longitudinal sample, we employed path models with bootstrapping resampling to test hypotheses. Participants included 70 university students (71.4% female; 40.0% White; 34.3% Asian; 14.3% Hispanic) enrolled during a mass violence event who completed surveys one year pre-event and 5-6 months post-event. Results revealed significant large effects in predicting coping self-efficacy (mastery model, R 2 = .34; enabling model, R 2 = .36), PTSS (mastery model, R 2 = .35; enabling model, R 2 = .41), and depression severity (mastery model, R 2 = .43; enabling model, R 2 = .46). Overall findings supported study hypotheses, showing that at low levels of post-event social support barriers, pre-event protective factors reduced distress severity through boosting coping self-efficacy. However, as post-event social support barriers increased, the indirect, distress-reducing effects of pre-event protective factors were reduced to nonsignificance. Study implications focus on preventative and responsive intervention. Copyright © 2017 International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies.

  9. The Role of Individual and Social Factors in Classroom Loneliness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoeckli, Georg

    2009-01-01

    The author investigated the role of individual characteristics (self-esteem, social anxiety, and self-reported classroom participation) and peer reactions (peer-perceived shyness, peer nominations) in classroom loneliness in a sample of 704 preadolescent boys (360) and girls (344). It was hypothesized that classroom participation functions as a…

  10. Social Capital, a Critical Factor in Strengthening Democratic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Social capital has for centuries been used by traditional communities as a resource on which they relied in dealing with challenges and problems confronting them. Colonialism and imperialism undermined African norms and values on decision making processes and relationship building mechanisms. The advent of ...

  11. Social Factors in the Workplace and Mental Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Repetti, Rena L.

    Previous research has suggested that satisfying interpersonal relationships help promote psychological well-being. This study examined the influence that social relations at work have on the individual's mental health. Data were collected in two phases. In phase 1, a volunteer sample of nonmanagerial employees (N=302) from 37 bank branches rated…

  12. Social and Cultural Factors That Effect University Women Managers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arslan, Hasan; Sabo, Helena Maria; Siyli, Nese Aysin

    2012-01-01

    In this study, social and cultural effects of the low rate of woman managers at universities are tried to be identified. Women have been increasingly appearing in every field of business; on the other hand, although women compared to men constitute majority in educational organisations, they appear in the positions other than management. We will…

  13. The association of maternal social factors and antenatal care with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Zinc is a crucial micronutrient in early childhood survival and the development of innate and acquired immunity. The objective is to determine the relationship between of maternal social class and antenatal care to serum zinc level in newborns in a tertiary and a rural hospital. It is prospective study using questionnaires on ...

  14. Considering the context: social factors in responses to drugs in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Wit, Harriet; Sayette, Michael

    2018-04-01

    Drugs are typically used in social settings. Here, we consider two factors that may contribute to this observation: (i) the presence of other people may enhance the positive mood effects of a drug, and conversely, (ii) drugs may enhance the value of social stimuli. We review evidence from controlled laboratory studies with human volunteers, which investigated either of these interactions between social factors and responses to drugs. We examine the bidirectional effects of social stimuli and single doses of alcohol, stimulants, opioids, and cannabis. All four classes of drugs interact with social contexts, but the nature of these interactions varies across drugs, and depends on whether the context is positive or negative. Alcohol and stimulant drugs enhance the attractiveness of social stimuli and the desire to socialize, and social contexts, in turn, enhance these drugs' effects. In contrast, opioids and cannabis have subtler effects on social interactions and their effects are less influenced by the presence of others. Overall, there is stronger evidence that drugs enhance positive social contexts than that they dampen the negativity of unpleasant social settings. Controlled research is needed to understand the interactions between drugs of abuse and social contexts, to model and understand the determinants of drug use outside the laboratory.

  15. Perceived parenting dimensions and identity styles: exploring the socialization of adolescents' processing of identity-relevant information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smits, Ilse; Soenens, Bart; Luyckx, Koen; Duriez, Bart; Berzonsky, Michael; Goossens, Luc

    2008-04-01

    This study examined the relationships between crucial dimensions of perceived parenting (support, behavioral control, and psychological control) and the three identity styles defined by Berzonsky [Berzonsky, M. D. (1990). Self-construction over the life span: A process perspective on identity formation. Advances in Personal Construct Psychology, 1, 155-186.]. Each identity style was hypothesized to relate to a specific pattern of perceived parenting dimensions. Hypotheses were examined in a sample of middle and late adolescents (n=674). An information-oriented style was positively predicted by parental support. Contrary to expectations, however, an information-oriented style was also positively predicted by psychological control. A normative identity style was positively predicted by support and behavioral control. In line with expectations, a diffuse-avoidant identity style was positively predicted by psychological control and negatively by maternal (but not paternal) behavioral control. Findings are discussed in light of the literature on the socialization of identity formation and directions for future research are outlined.

  16. Social, familial and psychological risk factors for psychosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shevlin, Mark; McElroy, Eoin; Christoffersen, Mogens Nygaard

    2016-01-01

    psychosis and a broad range of familial (advanced paternal age, family dissolution, parental psychosis), environmental (urbanicity,deprivation) and psychological factors (childhood adversity). Findings indicated that all types of risk factors were significantly associated with psychosis. In conclusion......, large scale cohort studies using the Danish registry system is a powerful way of assessing the relative impact ofdifferent risk factors for psychosis.......A broad range of biological, genetic, environmental, and psychological riskfactors for psychosis have been reported. However most research studies have tended to focus on one explanatory factor. The aim of this study wasto use data from a large Danish birth cohort to examine the associationsbetween...

  17. Rethinking the Factors of Success: Social Support and Community Coalitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haithcox-Dennis, Melissa; DeWeese, Amanda; Goodman, Jessica

    2013-01-01

    Background: Coalitions are often the strategy of choice when needs are great, resources are few, and individual efforts have proven unsuccessful in addressing serious health issues. Despite the widespread use of coalitions and extensive research, no definitive list of factors predicting coalition success has been identified. One factor, social…

  18. Fear of crime in Belgrade: Testing a socio-demographic and social-psychological factors model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popović-Ćitić Branislava

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite a wealth of research practice, the conceptualization of fear of crime and the ways in which this fear is measured remain the subject of intense theoretical debate in criminological and sociological disciplines. Taking as a starting point the need for a theoretical explanation of fear of crime and the existing research which has confirmed the relevance of the model which integrates socio-demographic and social-psychological factors, a study was conducted in order to examine the predictive capabilities of these factors and compare the results with those of similar studies in the region. The analysis was based on the data obtained in the course of the regional research project 'Fear of Crime in Large Cities', carried out in 2009 in the capital cities of former Yugoslav republics on a multistage random sample using the method of in-home interview. A hierarchical multiple regression analysis was applied on a sample of 397 adult respondents residing in urban parts of Belgrade in order to draw conclusions on how the variables of the integrated model can help explain the differences in the level of fear of crime. Fear of crime, as a dependent variable, was measured using six vignettes after the reliability and unidimensionality of the construct was confirmed. The results of the regression analysis showed that the proposed model was able to account for 42% of the differences in fear of crime. With regard to the socio-demographic variables (introduced in the first step and accounting for 31% of the variance, it was determined that women express the greatest fear of crime as they avoid being alone in their neighbourhoods at night, visit nearby friends less frequently and believe that the streets, shops, and woods in their immediate surroundings are not safe. Regarding the social-psychological variables (which accounted for the additional 11% of the variance, a higher level of fear was found in persons who believe that other people pose a threat to

  19. ENTREPRENEURSHIP, THE MAIN FACTOR OF ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BUȘAN GABRIELA

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The economic and social development depends on general business activity in any region. The public policies targeting the development of entrepreneurship in Romania must be addressed, as well as the European Union in the context of an ecosystem whose pillars are: entrepreneurship education at all levels, streamlined and predictable regulatory framework and access to finance oriented to the competitiveness. The entrepreneurial education is useful both for those who set up a start-up or already have a business and develop it and for individual unrelated businesses: the social entrepreneurs who leading nongovernmental organizations, the entrepreneurs who leading research laboratories or research projects, the political entrepreneurs, the cultural entrepreneurs, and others.

  20. Specialists in Multisector Economy: Factors of Social Behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z T Golenkova

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the behaviour and values of «specialists» as a particular quantitatively representative group of modern Russian society. It gives a detailed description of their status and disposition dimensions such as wealth, income, living conditions, labour motivation as well as attitudes to economic and social institutions. The authors base their conclusions on the latest statistics and empiric sociological research.

  1. Autopoiesis of the techno-social systems as a factor of social risks proliferation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D E Orlov

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the problem of the unpredictable proliferation and complication of techno-social systems (such as Internet and financial markets. The authors try to explicate the social risks generated by these systems with the theoretical resources of the system theory of communication (N. Luhmann, which is based on the concepts of ‘recursion’, ‘process’ (‘operation’, ‘operationally closed system’, ‘autopoiesis’, etc. The authors believe that the autopoietic system response to external stimuli cannot be predicted by classical means of sociology and cybernetics. Turbulence and continuous complication of techno-social objects let the authors suggest that the dynamics of the systems under consideration contains some features of autopoiesis. Thus, the analysis of the financial market as a complex techno-social object based on the ideas of G. Akerlof (theory of irrational economic behavior and K. Knorr Cetina (object-centric sociology allows to better understand the phenomenon of unpredictable market dynamics (the risk of proliferation of market expectations, inability to capture the control level by any of the participants, etc. The authors believe that such a conceptualization helps to bring together sociological practices of the techno-social objects research and perspective methods of applied mathematics (fractal geometry, theory of reflexive relations, ‘soft’ models, etc., as well as contributes to the search of effective tools for modeling complex techno-social objects, and, thus, social risks accompanying them.

  2. Authoritarianism as an element of social character and a factor of gendered social interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovančević Saša

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The immediacy of daily encounters with gender roles, as well as the specific features of authoritarian mediation in their social shaping, make an analysis of gendered social interaction indispensable. In this paper the analysis is centered on the concept of social character, with special emphasis on authoritarianism as a continuous determinant of the transformation of natural sex into social construct of gender. It is precisely the authoritarian personality type that is the basis for alienated gender, dominated by sexism, a “natural” belonging to the private or the public sphere of social life, suppression of individual human capacities, and reduction of choice. After a review of the theoretical conceptions of social character and authoritarianism, a historical-comparative analysis of authoritarianism is offered, where the latter is seen as an element of the social character within the perspective of the typology traditional - modern - postmodern society. It is argued in conclusion that, in spite of certain emancipatory achievements, men and women still tend to escape into the security of authoritarian alienation. Feminist theory remains a basic source for reflecting on these processes; therefore the author pleads for a wider acceptance of feminist insights as contributions to establishing a postmodern, interpretive “sociology in a new key”.

  3. Technical Note: Display window setting: An important factor for detecting subtle but clinically relevant artifacts in daily CT quality control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Zaiyang; Bruesewitz, Michael R; Sheedy, Emily N; Powell, Michele A; Kramer, Jacqualynn C; Supalla, Randall R; Colvin, Chance M; Bechel, Jessica R; Favazza, Christopher P; Kofler, James M; Leng, Shuai; McCollough, Cynthia H; Yu, Lifeng

    2016-12-01

    This study aimed to investigate the influence of display window setting on technologist performance detecting subtle but clinically relevant artifacts in daily computed tomography (CT) quality control (dQC) images. Fifty three sets of dQC images were retrospectively selected, including 30 sets without artifacts, and 23 with subtle but clinically relevant artifacts. They were randomized and shown to six CT technologists (two new and four experienced). Each technologist reviewed all images in each of two sessions, one with a display window width (WW) of 100 HU, which is currently recommended by the American College of Radiology, and the other with a narrow WW of 40 HU, both at a window level of 0 HU. For each case, technologists rated the presence of image artifacts based on a five point scale. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) was used to evaluate the artifact detection performance. At a WW of 100 HU, the AUC (95% confidence interval) was 0.658 (0.576, 0.740), 0.532 (0.429, 0.635), and 0.616 (0.543, 0.619) for the experienced, new, and all technologists, respectively. At a WW of 40 HU, the AUC was 0.768 (0.687, 0.850), 0.546 (0.433, 0.658), and 0.694 (0.619, 0.769), respectively. The performance significantly improved at WW of 40 HU for experienced technologists (p = 0.009) and for all technologists (p = 0.040). Use of a narrow display WW significantly improved technologists' performance in dQC for detecting subtle but clinically relevant artifacts as compared to that using a 100 HU display WW.

  4. The Relationship between Social Factors and the Poverty ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ada Global

    market charges, and to storage charges. While return ... are: inadequate storage facilities, poor transportation network and ... information and other human inherent factors, the two components ... physical quantities of commodities into 7cm cup.

  5. Social and economic factors influencing the patronage and use of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    economic factors such as cost, effectiveness, availability, safety of the product, educational level, average monthly income, age and sex affect the patronage and use of traditional medicine. Keywords: Complementary and alternative medicine, ...

  6. Absence of prognostic value of nuclear shape factor analysis in colorectal carcinoma: relevance of interobserver and intraobserver variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Fabio, Francesco; Shrier, Ian; Bégin, Louis R; Gordon, Philip H

    2008-12-01

    Several retrospective studies, including our previous investigation, have shown a prognostic value of nuclear shape factor in colorectal carcinomas. This prospective study was designed to assess the reliability of nuclear shape factor determined by nuclear morphometry and to confirm its prognostic value. Ninety-eight patients who underwent colorectal carcinoma resection were prospectively enrolled. Measurement of nuclear shape factor was performed by using a computer-based image analysis system. Nuclear shape factor was defined as the degree of circularity of the nucleus (1.0 for a perfect circle and values by American Joint Committee on Cancer stage were: 0.73 (0.07) in Stage I, 0.74 (0.06) in Stage II, and 0.75 (0.05) in Stage III carcinomas (P = 0.78, ANOVA). The intraobserver agreement was poor for observer A (r = 0.28) and practically nonexistent for observer B (r = -0.004, Pearson correlation). The intraclass coefficient for interobserver agreement was practically nonexistent. No significant association between nuclear shape factor and ten-year survival was found. Our prospective results, as opposed to our previous retrospective results, suggest that the reliability for nuclear shape factor morphometric analysis is very poor. We failed to confirm a prognostic value for nuclear shape factor in colorectal carcinoma.

  7. Social Well-Being and Related Factors in Students of School of Nursing and Midwifery

    OpenAIRE

    Salehi, Alireza; Marzban, Maryam; Sourosh, Maryam; Sharif, Farkhondeh; Nejabat, Mahmoud; Imanieh, Mohammad Hadi

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: According to the World Health Organization viewpoint, social well-being is an important dimension of health along with physical and mental aspects. Evaluation of social well-being is necessary in students, especially in medical sciences students due to future responsibility as health care professionals. The present study attempted to investigate the level of social well-being, five domains of it (like actualization, integration, contribution), and some related factors in ...

  8. Las redes sociales y sus factores de riesgos

    OpenAIRE

    Veloz Aguilar, Andrea Paola

    2017-01-01

    La red de Internet crece cada día más, a medida que las personas van conociendo este recurso tecnológico, va despertando principalmente en los jóvenes una gran  curiosidad por conocer páginas que muestren contenido no apto para menores, lo que ha ocasionado un gran problema en el uso indebido de las redes sociales, tales como la adicción principalmente de jóvenes, el abandono de otras formas de entretenimiento, la pérdida de oportunidades de realizarse en otros ámbitos. Sin embargo, a pa...

  9. Determining the Factors of Social Phobia Levels of University Students: A Logistic Regression Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozen, Hamit

    2016-01-01

    Experiencing social phobia is an important factor which can hinder academic success during university years. In this study, research of social phobia with several variables is conducted among university students. The research group of the study consists of total 736 students studying at various departments at universities in Turkey. Students are…

  10. Why Do You Adopt Social Networking Sites? Investigating the Driving Factors through Structural Equation Modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jan, Muhammad Tahir

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate those factors that are associated with the adoption of social networking sites from the perspective of Muslim users residing in Malaysia. Design/methodology/approach: A complete self-administered questionnaire was collected from 223 Muslim users of social networking sites in Malaysia. Both…

  11. Influence of Parenting Factors on Childhood Social Anxiety: Direct Observation of Parental Warmth and Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rork, Kristine E.; Morris, Tracy L.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is to determine the association of parenting behaviors and social anxiety in children. Three parental factors--including parental socialization, control, and warmth--were investigated in a sample of 31 two-parent families. Rather than solely relying upon retrospective questionnaires, this study incorporated direct…

  12. Factors Associated with Social Interactions between Deaf Children and Their Hearing Peers: A Systematic Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batten, Georgina; Oakes, Peter M.; Alexander, Tim

    2014-01-01

    Research indicates that deaf children can have marked social difficulties compared with their hearing peers. Factors that influence these social interactions need to be reviewed to inform interventions. A systematic search of 5 key databases and 3 specialized journals identified 14 papers that met the inclusion criteria. Methodological quality of…

  13. Identifying Academic & Social Risk Factors of Baccalaureate Nursing Students Using the College Persistence Questionnaire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betts, Kelly J.; Shirley, Janet A.; Kennedy, Robert

    2017-01-01

    Background: Student success in a baccalaureate nursing program is of utmost importance at a southern College of Nursing (CON).CON faculty wanted to understand better what academic/ social risk factors attributed to attrition in the first year of the nursing program. The purpose of this study was to determine academic and social risk factors…

  14. Jordanian Mothers' Perceptions of Their Children's Social Competence: An Examination of Family Factors and Demographic Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu Taleb, Tagreed Fathi; AlZoubi, Rifa Rafe

    2015-01-01

    Children's social competence is an area of research that receives minimal attention from Jordanian researchers. It is important to investigate this area of development so as to provide parents with information about the nature of social competence and possible factors affecting its development. This research study examined Jordanian mothers'…

  15. Confirmatory Factor Analysis on the Professional Suitability Scale for Social Work Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tam, Dora M. Y.; Twigg, Robert C.; Boey, Kam-Wing; Kwok, Siu-Ming

    2013-01-01

    Objective: This article presents a validation study to examine the factor structure of an instrument designed to measure professional suitability for social work practice. Method: Data were collected from registered social workers in a provincial mailed survey. The response rate was 23.2%. After eliminating five cases with multivariate outliers,…

  16. The Factor Structure and Screening Utility of the Social Interaction Anxiety Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodebaugh, Thomas L.; Woods, Carol M.; Heimberg, Richard G.; Liebowitz, Michael R.; Schneier, Franklin R.

    2006-01-01

    The widely used Social Interaction Anxiety Scale (SIAS; R. P. Mattick & J. C. Clarke, 1998) possesses favorable psychometric properties, but questions remain concerning its factor structure and item properties. Analyses included 445 people with social anxiety disorder and 1,689 undergraduates. Simple unifactorial models fit poorly, and models that…

  17. Analysis of Factors Influencing Undergraduates' Occupation Choices: An Investigation of Both Social and Human Capital

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liming, Li; Shunguo, Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Based on 2006 survey data on students from three universities in western China, this study analyzes the effect of the students' family background and academic achievements on their occupation choices. Both social capital and human capital were found to be significant factors influencing their employment decisions. The more abundant the social and…

  18. The Influential Factors for the Variation of Data Sensitivity in Ubiquitous Social Networking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sapuppo, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    Ubiquitous social networking services offer new opportunities for developing advantageous relationships by uncovering hidden connections that people share with others nearby. As sharing of personal information is an intrinsic part of ubiquitous social networking, these services are subject......, mood, location familiarity, number of previous encounters and mutual friends, were also discovered to influence participants' data disclosure, but as factors of secondary importance....

  19. Assessment of factors affecting social media use for HIV andAIDS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study evaluated factors that affect use of social media for HIV and AIDS ... Structured questionnaire copies were administered to 355 undergraduate students. ... media sites for HIV and AIDS information communication was influenced by ...

  20. Parental Socialization of Emotion

    OpenAIRE

    Eisenberg, Nancy; Cumberland, Amanda; Spinrad, Tracy L.

    1998-01-01

    Recently, there has been a resurgence of research on emotion, including the socialization of emotion. In this article, a heuristic model of factors contributing to the socialization of emotion is presented. Then literature relevant to the socialization of children’s emotion and emotion-related behavior by parents is reviewed, including (a) parental reactions to children’s emotions, (b) socializers’ discussion of emotion, and (c) socializers’ expression of emotion. The relevant literature is n...

  1. The Study of Factors Relevant to Skin Cancer Preventive Behavior in Female High School Students in Yazd Based on Protection Motivation Theory

    OpenAIRE

    mohammad hosein baghiyanimoghadam; soheila mohammadi; mohammad taghi norbala; seed saeed mazlomi

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: Skin cancer is the most prevalent type of cancer in Yazd, and childhood and adolescence are particularly important time for preventing later skin cancer risk. The goal of this study is to assess the factors relevant to skin cancer preventive behavior in female high school students in Yazd based on protection motivation theory. Methods: Participants in this cross- sectional study were 360 female students from 4 high schools in Yazd. Data were gathered through a self- report quest...

  2. Clinically relevant risk factors for suicide: Comparison between clinical group with passive suicidal ideation, active suicidal ideation and without suicidal ideation

    OpenAIRE

    Miloseva, Lence; Cuijpers, Pim; Stojcev, Saso; Niklewski, Gunter; Richter, Kneginja; Jovevska, Svetlana; Arsova, Roza; Serafimov, Aleksandar

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: In recent years, researchers and clinicians do not treat passive suicidal ideation as a clinically relevant risk factor for suicide, while underestimating the strength of this desire to die, compared with making a plan for suicide in individuals having active suicidal ideation. This research study is clinically prospective, cross-sequential, but also partly retrospective because it involves also variables from the past, such as patients’ history data (number of suicidal attempts...

  3. Urban social stress – Risk factor for mental disorders. The case of schizophrenia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lederbogen, Florian; Haddad, Leila; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    Living in an urban environment is associated with an increased prevalence of specific mental health disorders, particularly schizophrenia. While many factors have been discussed as possible mediators of this association, most researchers favour the hypothesis that urban living stands as a proxy for an increased exposure to social stress. This factor has been recognized as one of the most powerful causes for the development of mental disorders, and appears to correlate with the markedly increased incidence of schizophrenia in urban minority groups. However, the hypothesis that the general urban population is exposed to increased levels of social stress has to be validated. Pursuing the goal of understanding how social stress acts as a risk factor for mental disorder in urban populations must include factors like social conditions, environmental pollutants, infrastructure and economic issues. -- Highlights: • City living is associated with an increased prevalence of mental health disorders, particularly schizophrenia. • Possible mediators of this association include exposure to social stress. • This mechanism seems plausible in urban minority groups. • However, it is unclear whether social stress exposure is increased in the general urban population. -- New data support the hypothesis that increased exposure to social stressors is a key factor mediating the increased prevalence of specific mental disorders in urban populations

  4. Differential impairment of social cognition factors in bipolar disorder with and without psychotic features and schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thaler, Nicholas S; Allen, Daniel N; Sutton, Griffin P; Vertinski, Mary; Ringdahl, Erik N

    2013-12-01

    While it is well-established that patients with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder exhibit deficits in social cognition, few studies have separately examined bipolar disorder with and without psychotic features. The current study addressed this gap by comparing patients with bipolar disorder with (BD+) and without (BD-) psychotic features, patients with schizophrenia (SZ), and healthy controls (NC) across social cognitive measures. Principal factor analysis on five social cognition tasks extracted a two-factor structure comprised of social/emotional processing and theory of mind. Factor scores were compared among the four groups. Results identified differential patterns of impairment between the BD+ and BD- group on the social/emotional processing factor while all clinical groups performed poorer than controls on the theory of mind factor. This provides evidence that a history of psychosis should be taken into account while evaluating social cognition in patients with bipolar disorder and also raises hypotheses about the relationship between social cognition and psychosis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Social factors and coping status in asymptomatic middle-aged Danes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mols, Rikke Elmose; Sand, Niels Peter; Jensen, Jesper Møller

    2013-01-01

    by the general self-efficacy (GES) scale. Coronary artery calcification (CAC) was assessed by computed tomography using the Agatston score (AS). Conventional clinical risk factors included sex, family history of CAD, BMI > 25, smoking, hypercholesterolaemia and hypertension. Results: In 568 individuals......Aims: Understanding the determinants of social and coping inequalities in subclinical cardiovascular disease is an important prerequisite in developing and implementing preventive strategies. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between social factors and coping status...

  6. Social, institutional, and psychological factors affecting wildfire incident decision making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthew P. Thompson

    2014-01-01

    Managing wildland fire incidents can be fraught with complexity and uncertainty. Myriad human factors can exert significant influence on incident decision making, and can contribute additional uncertainty regarding programmatic evaluations of wildfire management and attainment of policy goals. This article develops a framework within which human sources of uncertainty...

  7. Social and psychological factors under realization of radiation risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sushko, S.N.; Malenchenko, S.A.

    2001-01-01

    In the experiments with mice of Af line, irradiated by gamma-radiation with doses of up to 1.0 Gy and subjected to psycho-emotional effect (the model of 'the provoked aggression') have been investigated the processes of tumour formation. The index of cariogenic efficiency of effects is the number of the induced adenomas in lungs. It has been shown that under separate effect of these factors the frequency of adenomas increases. Under the combined effect the additional number of adenomas per mouse is registered, which exceeds theoretically the expected value assuming additivity of effects, the synergism coefficient was 1.57 (for females). It has been marked that the character of tumour reaction on separate and the combined effect of radiation, as well as the stress-factor has sex distinctions. It has been shown that that real assessment of the radiation risk and the development of the measures system on minimization of medical and biological consequences of the accident should take into account not only the radiation factor, but also a psychological one, especially in those cases when realization of the risk of combined effect of radiation and non-radiation factors can manifest synergism

  8. Social class, psychosocial factors and disease : from deception towards explanation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ranchor, Adelita Vijaynti

    1994-01-01

    This thesis deals with the question of the extent to which socioeconomic status (sas) is related to disease. The main focus is the explanation of this relation, applying a muitifactor approach aimed at the integration of socioeconomic, psychosocial factors and health-related behavior. ... Zie:

  9. Contextual factors and social consequences of incident disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Ulla; Kriegbaum, Margit; Hougaard, Charlotte Ørsted

    2008-01-01

    practice modify the employment effect of disease. We have studied risk of labour market exclusion following incident hospitalization for ischaemic heart disease (IHD), and whether this risk may be modified by contextual factors on the municipal level. Methods: A cohort design on a 10% random sample...

  10. Energy absorption buildup factors of human organs and tissues at energies and penetration depths relevant for radiotherapy and diagnostics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manohara, S. R.; Hanagodimath, S. M.; Gerward, Leif

    2011-01-01

    Energy absorption geometric progression (GP) fitting parameters and the corresponding buildup factors have been computed for human organs and tissues, such as adipose tissue, blood (whole), cortical bone, brain (grey/white matter), breast tissue, eye lens, lung tissue, skeletal muscle, ovary......, testis, soft tissue, and soft tissue (4-component), for the photon energy range 0.015-15 MeV and for penetration depths up to 40 mfp (mean free path). The chemical composition of human organs and tissues is seen to influence the energy absorption buildup factors. It is also found that the buildup factor...... of human organs and tissues changes significantly with the change of incident photon energy and effective atomic number, Zeff. These changes are due to the dominance of different photon interaction processes in different energy regions and different chemical compositions of human organs and tissues...

  11. The role of social factors in explaining crime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Nur Zahara HAMZAH

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Utilizing Malaysia data from 1973 to 2008, the study reveals that crime can be influenced by population, fertility, unemployment, and GDP in either the long-run or short-run period. This study also further analysed beyond sample estimations of the variables involved and found that although violent crime can be explained in the short-run only from the VECM analysis, it is found to be explained by other explanatory variables in the long-run of beyond sample for at least 50 years ahead. It is important for policy makers to focus in both social structure and economic conditions to help prevent crime in the long-run.

  12. Local connectome phenotypes predict social, health, and cognitive factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael A. Powell

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The unique architecture of the human connectome is defined initially by genetics and subsequently sculpted over time with experience. Thus, similarities in predisposition and experience that lead to similarities in social, biological, and cognitive attributes should also be reflected in the local architecture of white matter fascicles. Here we employ a method known as local connectome fingerprinting that uses diffusion MRI to measure the fiber-wise characteristics of macroscopic white matter pathways throughout the brain. This fingerprinting approach was applied to a large sample (N = 841 of subjects from the Human Connectome Project, revealing a reliable degree of between-subject correlation in the local connectome fingerprints, with a relatively complex, low-dimensional substructure. Using a cross-validated, high-dimensional regression analysis approach, we derived local connectome phenotype (LCP maps that could reliably predict a subset of subject attributes measured, including demographic, health, and cognitive measures. These LCP maps were highly specific to the attribute being predicted but also sensitive to correlations between attributes. Collectively, these results indicate that the local architecture of white matter fascicles reflects a meaningful portion of the variability shared between subjects along several dimensions. The local connectome is the pattern of fiber systems (i.e., number of fibers, orientation, and size within a voxel, and it reflects the proximal characteristics of white matter fascicles distributed throughout the brain. Here we show how variability in the local connectome is correlated in a principled way across individuals. This intersubject correlation is reliable enough that unique phenotype maps can be learned to predict between-subject variability in a range of social, health, and cognitive attributes. This work shows, for the first time, how the local connectome has both the sensitivity and the specificity to

  13. The Provision of Psychological Therapy to People with Intellectual Disabilities: An Investigation into Some of the Relevant Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, J.

    2007-01-01

    Background: Five factors are proposed as important in influencing the provision of psychological therapy to people with intellectual disabilities (IDs): the perceived effectiveness of psychological therapy, individual clinician competence, service resources (number of trained clinicians), the level of the clients disability and the diagnostic…

  14. Intrinsic and extrinsic factors influencing the clinical course of B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia: prognostic markers with pathogenetic relevance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaidano Gianluca

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL, the most frequent leukemia in the Western world, is characterized by extremely variable clinical courses with survivals ranging from 1 to more than 15 years. The pathogenetic factors playing a key role in defining the biological features of CLL cells, hence eventually influencing the clinical aggressiveness of the disease, are here divided into "intrinsic factors", mainly genomic alterations of CLL cells, and "extrinsic factors", responsible for direct microenvironmental interactions of CLL cells; the latter group includes interactions of CLL cells occurring via the surface B cell receptor (BCR and dependent to specific molecular features of the BCR itself and/or to the presence of the BCR-associated molecule ZAP-70, or via other non-BCR-dependent interactions, e.g. specific receptor/ligand interactions, such as CD38/CD31 or CD49d/VCAM-1. A putative final model, discussing the pathogenesis and the clinicobiological features of CLL in relationship of these factors, is also provided.

  15. The relevance of uniform reporting in oral leukoplakia: Definition, certainty factor and staging based on experience with 275 patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouns, E.R.E.A.; Baart, J.A.; Bloemena, E.; Karagozoglu, H.; van der Waal, I.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the definition of oral leukoplakia, proposed by the WHO in 2005 and taking into account a previously reported classification and staging system, including the use of a Certainty factor of four levels with which the diagnosis of leukoplakia can be

  16. Esprit de corps. On the relevance of Peirce's notion of 'person' in the study of the notion of 'Identity' in social media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuele Fadda

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This contribution is the first survey on the relevance and the possible fertility of the notion of "person(ality" as emerging from Peirce's cosmologic and metaphysical essays published on The Monist in the 1890s (see CP 6.268 ff. and set in the frame of some semiotic and socio-psychologic questions connected to the New Media. The article is preceded by a short reflection on the peculiar way some Peircean terms can be set in the semiotic debate. My proposal consists in the application to the study of identity management in today's social networks (in particularly Facebook. Both the pars destruens (radical devaluation of individuality and the pars construens (the idea of person as "coordination and connection of ideas", together with their intersections, help us draw a perspective (based on the notion of continuity that may support us in focusing on the most recent trends of the social networks as, for instance, the progressive shrinking of the "private" dimension, and in particular the irruption - up to sheer invasion - of corporeality in the digital universe, though the body seemed, at the outset, to be banned or at least concealed. The Peircean devaluation of individuality implies, indeed, that the body is not more individual than the mind (as Rossella Fabbrichesi has recently and brilliantly shown, becoming at any time potentially available to public existence and fruition.

  17. Deriving amplification factors from simple site parameters using generalized regression neural networks: implications for relevant site proxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudghene Stambouli, Ahmed; Zendagui, Djawad; Bard, Pierre-Yves; Derras, Boumédiène

    2017-07-01

    Most modern seismic codes account for site effects using an amplification factor (AF) that modifies the rock acceleration response spectra in relation to a "site condition proxy," i.e., a parameter related to the velocity profile at the site under consideration. Therefore, for practical purposes, it is interesting to identify the site parameters that best control the frequency-dependent shape of the AF. The goal of the present study is to provide a quantitative assessment of the performance of various site condition proxies to predict the main AF features, including the often used short- and mid-period amplification factors, Fa and Fv, proposed by Borcherdt (in Earthq Spectra 10:617-653, 1994). In this context, the linear, viscoelastic responses of a set of 858 actual soil columns from Japan, the USA, and Europe are computed for a set of 14 real accelerograms with varying frequency contents. The correlation between the corresponding site-specific average amplification factors and several site proxies (considered alone or as multiple combinations) is analyzed using the generalized regression neural network (GRNN). The performance of each site proxy combination is assessed through the variance reduction with respect to the initial amplification factor variability of the 858 profiles. Both the whole period range and specific short- and mid-period ranges associated with the Borcherdt factors Fa and Fv are considered. The actual amplification factor of an arbitrary soil profile is found to be satisfactorily approximated with a limited number of site proxies (4-6). As the usual code practice implies a lower number of site proxies (generally one, sometimes two), a sensitivity analysis is conducted to identify the "best performing" site parameters. The best one is the overall velocity contrast between underlying bedrock and minimum velocity in the soil column. Because these are the most difficult and expensive parameters to measure, especially for thick deposits, other

  18. Autonomy and social norms in a three factor grief model predicting perinatal grief in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Lisa R; Lee, Jerry W

    2014-01-01

    Perinatal grief following stillbirth is a significant social and mental health burden. We examined associations among the following latent variables: autonomy, social norms, self-despair, strained coping, and acute grief-among poor, rural women in India who experienced stillbirth. A structural equation model was built and tested using quantitative data from 347 women of reproductive age in Chhattisgarh. Maternal acceptance of traditional social norms worsens self-despair and strained coping, and increases the autonomy granted to women. Greater autonomy increases acute grief. Greater despair and acute grief increase strained coping. Social and cultural factors were found to predict perinatal grief in India.

  19. CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AS A FACTOR INFLUENCING THE DEVELOPMENT OF SOCIAL ACCOUNTING AND ASSESSMENT OF EMPLOYERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Krasodomska

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The idea of corporate social responsibility (CSR is based on voluntary responsibility of companies for their operations in economic, social and environmental spheres as well as for ethical behavior. In accounting, it is reflected in the form of social accounting which deals with disclosing information on the organization’s achievements in respect of the CSR concept implementation. During the current economic crisis, company relationships with employees have become the most important of all the issues related to CSR. Additional challenges in this respect are posed by Generation Y comprising the people born after 1980 who enter the labor market. For them, the socially responsible employer is even more important than high earnings. The main aim of this paper is to present the results of the research carried out at the end of 2010 among a group of external students at Cracow University of Economics. The research was conducted one month before the students obtained their Bachelor’s degrees. The survey focused on determining how much knowledge the prospective graduates had about CSR, how important CSR was to them as a criterion for selection of their workplace and how they regarded the inclusion of information on CSR in the framework of the company’s accounting system

  20. Understanding the Role of Social Factors in Farmworker Housing and Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, Ben; Milofsky, Carl; Kissam, Edward; Arcury, Thomas A

    2015-11-01

    Differences in social advantage significantly influence health conditions and life expectancy within any population. Such factors reproduce historic class, race, and ethnic disparities in community success. Few populations in the United States face more social and economic disadvantage than farmworkers, and farmworker housing has significant potential to ameliorate or amplify the health impact of those disadvantages. Drawing on the limited direct research on farmworkers, and on additional research about poor, isolated, and immigrant societies, we propose four mechanisms through which housing can be expected to affect farmworker health: quality of social capital within farmworker communities, stress effects of poor housing situations, effects of housing on social support for healthy behaviors, and interactions among these factors, especially effects on children that can last for generations. Policy and planning definitions of "adequate" farmworker housing should take a more holistic view of housing needs to support specific social and community benefits in design decisions. © The Author(s) 2015.