WorldWideScience

Sample records for relevant information needed

  1. Information Needs/Relevance

    OpenAIRE

    Wildemuth, Barbara M.

    2009-01-01

    A user's interaction with a DL is often initiated as the result of the user experiencing an information need of some kind. Aspects of that experience and how it might affect the user's interactions with the DL are discussed in this module. In addition, users continuously make decisions about and evaluations of the materials retrieved from a DL, relative to their information needs. Relevance judgments, and their relationship to the user's information needs, are discussed in this module. Draft

  2. Pilot information needs survey regarding climate relevant technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Berkel, R.; Van Roekel, A.

    1997-02-01

    The objective of this pilot survey was to arrive at a preliminary understanding of the initial technology and technology information needs in non-Annex II countries in order to support international efforts to facilitate the transfer of technologies and know-how conducive to mitigating and adapting to climate change. The study encompassed two main components, i.e. the development of a survey instrument and the execution of a pilot survey among selected non-Annex II countries. The survey instrument addresses the present status of enabling activities; technology and technology information needs; and issues related to information supply and accessibility. The survey was distributed to national focal points in 20 non-Annex II countries and to at least 35 other stakeholders in five of these non-Annex II countries. A total of 27 completed questionnaires were received, covering 10 non-Annex II countries. 3 refs

  3. Pilot information needs survey regarding climate relevant technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Berkel, R.; Van Roekel, A.

    1997-02-01

    The objective of this pilot survey was to arrive at a preliminary understanding of the initial technology and technology information needs in non-Annex II countries in order to support international efforts to facilitate the transfer of technologies and know-how conducive to mitigating and adapting to climate change. The study encompassed two main components, i.e. the development of a survey instrument and the execution of a pilot survey among selected non-Annex II countries. The survey instrument addresses the present status of enabling activities; technology and technology information needs; and issues related to information supply and accessibility. The survey was distributed to national focal points in 20 non-Annex II countries and to at least 35 other stakeholders in five of these non-Annex II countries. A total of 27 completed questionnaires were received, covering 10 non-Annex II countries. 3 refs.

  4. Types of Lexicographical Information Needs and their Relevance for Information Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bergenholtz, Henning

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In some situations, you need information in order to solve a problem that has occurred. In information science, user needs are often described through very specific examples rather than through a classification of situation types in which information needs occur. Furthermore, information science often describes general human needs, typically with a reference to Maslow's classification of needs (1954, instead of actual information needs. Lexicography has also focused on information needs, but has developed a more abstract classification of types of information needs, though (until more recent research into lexicographical functions with a particular interest in linguistic uncertainties and the lack of knowledge and skills in relation to one or several languages. In this article, we suggest a classification of information needs in which a tripartition has been made according to the different types of situations: communicative needs, cognitive needs, and operative needs. This is a classification that is relevant and useful in general in our modern information society and therefore also relevant for information science, including lexicography.

  5. Types of Lexicographical Information Needs and their Relevance for Information Science

    OpenAIRE

    Bergenholtz, Henning; Agerbo, Heidi

    2017-01-01

    In some situations, you need information in order to solve a problem that has occurred. In information science, user needs are often described through very specific examples rather than through a classification of situation types in which information needs occur. Furthermore, information science often describes general human needs, typically with a reference to Maslow's classification of needs (1954), instead of actual information needs. Lexicography has also focused on information needs, but...

  6. Types of lexicographical information needs and their relevance for information science

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergenholtz, Henning; Pedersen, Heidi Agerbo

    2017-01-01

    often describes general human needs, typically with a reference to Maslow’s classification of needs (1954), instead of actual information needs. Lexicography has also focused on information needs, but has developed a more abstract classification of types of information needs, though (until more recent...

  7. A Hybrid Approach to Finding Relevant Social Media Content for Complex Domain Specific Information Needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Delroy; Sheth, Amit P; Jaykumar, Nishita; Thirunarayan, Krishnaprasad; Anand, Gaurish; Smith, Gary A

    2014-12-01

    While contemporary semantic search systems offer to improve classical keyword-based search, they are not always adequate for complex domain specific information needs. The domain of prescription drug abuse, for example, requires knowledge of both ontological concepts and "intelligible constructs" not typically modeled in ontologies. These intelligible constructs convey essential information that include notions of intensity, frequency, interval, dosage and sentiments, which could be important to the holistic needs of the information seeker. In this paper, we present a hybrid approach to domain specific information retrieval that integrates ontology-driven query interpretation with synonym-based query expansion and domain specific rules, to facilitate search in social media on prescription drug abuse. Our framework is based on a context-free grammar (CFG) that defines the query language of constructs interpretable by the search system. The grammar provides two levels of semantic interpretation: 1) a top-level CFG that facilitates retrieval of diverse textual patterns, which belong to broad templates and 2) a low-level CFG that enables interpretation of specific expressions belonging to such textual patterns. These low-level expressions occur as concepts from four different categories of data: 1) ontological concepts, 2) concepts in lexicons (such as emotions and sentiments), 3) concepts in lexicons with only partial ontology representation, called lexico-ontology concepts (such as side effects and routes of administration (ROA)), and 4) domain specific expressions (such as date, time, interval, frequency and dosage) derived solely through rules. Our approach is embodied in a novel Semantic Web platform called PREDOSE, which provides search support for complex domain specific information needs in prescription drug abuse epidemiology. When applied to a corpus of over 1 million drug abuse-related web forum posts, our search framework proved effective in retrieving

  8. Perceived relevance and information needs regarding food topics and preferred information sources among Dutch adults: results of a quantitative consumer study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dillen, van S.M.E.; Hiddink, G.J.; Koelen, M.A.; Graaf, de C.; Woerkum, van C.M.J.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: For more effective nutrition communication, it is crucial to identify sources from which consumers seek information. Our purpose was to assess perceived relevance and information needs regarding food topics, and preferred information sources by means of quantitative consumer research.

  9. Is Information Still Relevant?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Lia

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: The term "information" in information science does not share the characteristics of those of a nomenclature: it does not bear a generally accepted definition and it does not serve as the bases and assumptions for research studies. As the data deluge has arrived, is the concept of information still relevant for information…

  10. Multidimensional Models of Information Need

    OpenAIRE

    Yun-jie (Calvin) Xu; Kai Huang (Joseph) Tan

    2009-01-01

    User studies in information science have recognised relevance as a multidimensional construct. An implication of multidimensional relevance is that a user's information need should be modeled by multiple data structures to represent different relevance dimensions. While the extant literature has attempted to model multiple dimensions of a user's information need, the fundamental assumption that a multidimensional model is better than a uni-dimensional model has not been addressed. This study ...

  11. Understanding mobile information needs

    OpenAIRE

    Church, Karen; Smyth, Barry

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we describe the results of a four-week diary study of mobile information needs, focusing on the intent behind mobile needs and the importance on context on such needs. We identified three key intents among diary entries: informational, geographical and personal information management (PIM). Furthermore, we found many of these information needs have high temporal and location dependencies.

  12. Personal anticipated information need

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Bruce

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The role of personal information collections is a well known feature of personal information management. The World Wide Web has introduced to such collections ideas such as filing Web pages or noting their existence in 'Bookmarks' and 'Favourites'. Argument. It is suggested that personal information collections are created in anticipation of some future need for that information-personal, anticipated information need, which also underlies the design of formal information systems. Elaboration. Examination of the literature of information needs and information seeking behaviour leads to the formulation of five propositions that elaborate the concept of personal, anticipated information need. These propositions draw upon concepts such as uncertainty, predictability, sensitivity and the valuation of information sources. Conclusion. An individual's understanding of personal, anticipated information need and how this understanding guides the acquisition and management of personal information will determine the effectiveness of that collection.

  13. Personal anticipated information need

    OpenAIRE

    H. Bruce

    2005-01-01

    Background. The role of personal information collections is a well known feature of personal information management. The World Wide Web has introduced to such collections ideas such as filing Web pages or noting their existence in 'Bookmarks' and 'Favourites'. Argument. It is suggested that personal information collections are created in anticipation of some future need for that information-personal, anticipated information need, which also underlies the design of formal information systems. ...

  14. Accident management information needs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanson, D.J.; Ward, L.W.; Nelson, W.R.; Meyer, O.R.

    1990-04-01

    The tables contained in this Appendix A describe the information needs for a pressurized water reactor (PWR) with a large, dry containment. To identify these information needs, the branch points in the safety objective trees were examined to decide what information is necessary to (a) determine the status of the safety functions in the plant, i.e., whether the safety functions are being adequately maintained within predetermined limits, (b) identify plant behavior (mechanisms) or precursors to this behavior which indicate that a challenge to plant safety is occurring or is imminent, and (c) select strategies that will prevent or mitigate this plant behavior and monitor the implementation and effectiveness of these strategies. The information needs for the challenges to the safety functions are not examined since the summation of the information needs for all mechanisms associated with a challenge comprise the information needs for the challenge itself

  15. Accident management information needs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanson, D.J.; Ward, L.W.; Nelson, W.R.; Meyer, O.R. (EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (USA))

    1990-04-01

    The tables contained in this Appendix A describe the information needs for a pressurized water reactor (PWR) with a large, dry containment. To identify these information needs, the branch points in the safety objective trees were examined to decide what information is necessary to (a) determine the status of the safety functions in the plant, i.e., whether the safety functions are being adequately maintained within predetermined limits, (b) identify plant behavior (mechanisms) or precursors to this behavior which indicate that a challenge to plant safety is occurring or is imminent, and (c) select strategies that will prevent or mitigate this plant behavior and monitor the implementation and effectiveness of these strategies. The information needs for the challenges to the safety functions are not examined since the summation of the information needs for all mechanisms associated with a challenge comprise the information needs for the challenge itself.

  16. Accident information needs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanson, D.J.; Arcieri, W.C.; Ward, L.W.

    1992-01-01

    A Five-step methodology has been developed to evaluate information needs for nuclear power plants under accident conditions and the availability of plant instrumentation during severe accidents. Step 1 examines the credible accidents and their relationships to plant safety functions. Step 2 determines the information personnel involved in accident management will need to understand plant behavior. Step 3 determines the capability of the instrumentation to function properly under severe accident conditions. Step 4 determines the conditions expected during the identified severe accidents. Step 5 compares the instrument capabilities and the severe accident conditions to evaluate the availability of the instrumentation to supply needed plant information

  17. Accident information needs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanson, D.J.; Arcieri, W.C.; Ward, L.W.

    1992-12-31

    A Five-step methodology has been developed to evaluate information needs for nuclear power plants under accident conditions and the availability of plant instrumentation during severe accidents. Step 1 examines the credible accidents and their relationships to plant safety functions. Step 2 determines the information personnel involved in accident management will need to understand plant behavior. Step 3 determines the capability of the instrumentation to function properly under severe accident conditions. Step 4 determines the conditions expected during the identified severe accidents. Step 5 compares the instrument capabilities and the severe accident conditions to evaluate the availability of the instrumentation to supply needed plant information.

  18. Accident information needs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanson, D.J.; Arcieri, W.C.; Ward, L.W.

    1992-01-01

    A Five-step methodology has been developed to evaluate information needs for nuclear power plants under accident conditions and the availability of plant instrumentation during severe accidents. Step 1 examines the credible accidents and their relationships to plant safety functions. Step 2 determines the information personnel involved in accident management will need to understand plant behavior. Step 3 determines the capability of the instrumentation to function properly under severe accident conditions. Step 4 determines the conditions expected during the identified severe accidents. Step 5 compares the instrument capabilities and the severe accident conditions to evaluate the availability of the instrumentation to supply needed plant information.

  19. College Information Needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cibik, Margaret A.

    1982-01-01

    A survey of a sampling of college-bound high school seniors in Arizona was undertaken to determine students' information needs for college choice. Items, including institutional, student, and program characteristics, are ranked in order of perceived importance. (MSE)

  20. Oxyfuels information needs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-05-01

    Questions have been raised about the benefits and risks of oxygenated gasoline and reformulatd gasoline (`oxyfuels`). This document highlights areas of information that would improve scientific understanding of the impacts of these fuels on the environment and public health. It emphasizes the importance of obtaining data to support quantitative assessments of oxyfuels in comparison to conventional fuels. In addition to providing some background information and outlining a general framework for comparative risk assessments of fuels, the document briefly summarizes currently available information and then focuses on work that is now underway or planned and on data needs that remain to be filled.

  1. Accident management information needs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanson, D.J.; Ward, L.W.; Nelson, W.R.; Meyer, O.R.

    1990-04-01

    In support of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Accident Management Research Program, a methodology has been developed for identifying the plant information needs necessary for personnel involved in the management of an accident to diagnose that an accident is in progress, select and implement strategies to prevent or mitigate the accident, and monitor the effectiveness of these strategies. This report describes the methodology and presents an application of this methodology to a Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) with a large dry containment. A risk-important severe accident sequence for a PWR is used to examine the capability of the existing measurements to supply the necessary information. The method includes an assessment of the effects of the sequence on the measurement availability including the effects of environmental conditions. The information needs and capabilities identified using this approach are also intended to form the basis for more comprehensive information needs assessment performed during the analyses and development of specific strategies for use in accident management prevention and mitigation. 3 refs., 16 figs., 7 tabs

  2. Accident management information needs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanson, D.J.; Ward, L.W.; Nelson, W.R.; Meyer, O.R. (EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (USA))

    1990-04-01

    In support of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Accident Management Research Program, a methodology has been developed for identifying the plant information needs necessary for personnel involved in the management of an accident to diagnose that an accident is in progress, select and implement strategies to prevent or mitigate the accident, and monitor the effectiveness of these strategies. This report describes the methodology and presents an application of this methodology to a Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) with a large dry containment. A risk-important severe accident sequence for a PWR is used to examine the capability of the existing measurements to supply the necessary information. The method includes an assessment of the effects of the sequence on the measurement availability including the effects of environmental conditions. The information needs and capabilities identified using this approach are also intended to form the basis for more comprehensive information needs assessment performed during the analyses and development of specific strategies for use in accident management prevention and mitigation. 3 refs., 16 figs., 7 tabs.

  3. Users’ corporate environmental information needs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Nasiema Kamala

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Most listed South African companies appear to have embarked on environmental reporting without enquiring what the users’ needs are. If users’ needs are not determined prior to reporting, it is unlikely that the resulting reports will meet those needs. Using a questionnaire, this study investigated the environmental information needs of South African users of environmental reports. The study was deemed necessary to unveil users’ preferences which, if incorporated in reports, could enhance their perceived decisionusefulness, thus increasing readership. The results of the survey revealed that users need balanced environmental information that identifies and describes key, relevant issues and that is both specific and accurate. In addition, users need future-oriented information that identifies and addresses key stakeholders’ concerns, and which demonstrates the integration of environmental issues into core business processes. Furthermore the information should be summarised in an integrated annual report and posted on a company’s website. Based on its findings, this study recommends that standard setters and regulators should recognise that both financial and non-financial users need decision-useful environmental reports. Disclosure standards and regulations should therefore be amended to accommodate this reality.

  4. Audience information needs assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nealey, S.M.; Sutthoff, A.B.

    1988-01-01

    According to the authors public involvement is absolutely indispensable to the successful implementation of waste disposal programs, and communication is absolutely indispensable for successful public involvement. Frequent, effective, and open two-way communication is the primary mechanism through which non-technical issues can be raised, discussed and eventually resolved. Public information programs developed by the agencies responsible for waste disposal are supposed to contribute to this process, but it is the authors contention that they frequently fall short for a simple reason they are insufficiently consumer oriented. They do not adequately assess the information needs of the various publics with which they are supposed to facilitate effective communication. In the language of communication models, attention is given to the messages the agency wishes to send, but not enough attention is given to feedback from the audiences the agency is addressing. A set of audience information needs assessment methods have evolved that can go a long way toward answering these questions. Seven of these methods are described and illustrated with examples from on-going radioactive waste management programs

  5. Information Need and Information Seeking Behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Nazan Özenç Uçak

    1997-01-01

    Information need is one of the cognitive needs of humankind. Information need causes information seeking behaviour and these concepts complement each other. Information need and information seeking behaviour are effected by many factors. It is necessary to know these factors in establishing the effective information centers and services.

  6. Information Need and Information Seeking Behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazan Özenç Uçak

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available Information need is one of the cognitive needs of humankind. Information need causes information seeking behaviour and these concepts complement each other. Information need and information seeking behaviour are effected by many factors. It is necessary to know these factors in establishing the effective information centers and services.

  7. Unmet needs: relevance to medical technology innovation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Avril D; Sproson, Lise; Wells, Oliver; Tindale, Wendy

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes and discusses the role of unmet needs in the innovation of new medical technologies using the National Institute for Health Research Devices for Dignity (D4D) Healthcare Technology Co-operative as a case study. It defines an unmet need, providing a spectrum of classification and discusses the benefits and the challenges of identifying unmet need and its influence on the innovation process. The process by which D4D has captured and utilized unmet needs to drive technology innovation is discussed and examples given. It concludes by arguing that, despite the challenges, defining and reviewing unmet need is a fundamental factor in the success of medical technology innovation.

  8. Personal, Anticipated Information Need

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce, Harry

    2005-01-01

    Background: The role of personal information collections is a well known feature of personal information management. The World Wide Web has introduced to such collections ideas such as filing Web pages or noting their existence in "Bookmarks" and "Favourites". Argument: It is suggested that personal information collections are…

  9. Relevance: An Interdisciplinary and Information Science Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Howard Greisdorf

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Although relevance has represented a key concept in the field of information science for evaluating information retrieval effectiveness, the broader context established by interdisciplinary frameworks could provide greater depth and breadth to on-going research in the field. This work provides an overview of the nature of relevance in the field of information science with a cursory view of how cross-disciplinary approaches to relevance could represent avenues for further investigation into the evaluative characteristics of relevance as a means for enhanced understanding of human information behavior.

  10. The Development of Relevance in Information Retrieval

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mu-hsuan Huang

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available This article attempts to investigate the notion of relevance in information retrieval. It discusses various definitions for relevance from historical viewpoints and the characteristics of relevance judgments. Also, it introduces empirical results of important related researches.[Article content in Chinese

  11. Information Needs for Water Management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmerman, J.G.

    2014-01-01

    This book provides the necessary elements to determine exactly what information should be collected to make the collected information relevant for policy makers. It highlights the dissatisfaction of information users about the information they get and the reasons for this dissatisfaction. It also

  12. Cockpit weather information needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scanlon, Charles H.

    1992-01-01

    The primary objective is to develop an advanced pilot weather interface for the flight deck and to measure its utilization and effectiveness in pilot reroute decision processes, weather situation awareness, and weather monitoring. Identical graphical weather displays for the dispatcher, air traffic control (ATC), and pilot crew should also enhance the dialogue capabilities for reroute decisions. By utilizing a broadcast data link for surface observations, forecasts, radar summaries, lightning strikes, and weather alerts, onboard weather computing facilities construct graphical displays, historical weather displays, color textual displays, and other tools to assist the pilot crew. Since the weather data is continually being received and stored by the airborne system, the pilot crew has instantaneous access to the latest information. This information is color coded to distinguish degrees of category for surface observations, ceiling and visibilities, and ground radar summaries. Automatic weather monitoring and pilot crew alerting is accomplished by the airborne computing facilities. When a new weather information is received, the displays are instantaneously changed to reflect the new information. Also, when a new surface or special observation for the intended destination is received, the pilot crew is informed so that information can be studied at the pilot's discretion. The pilot crew is also immediately alerted when a severe weather notice, AIRMET or SIGMET, is received. The cockpit weather display shares a multicolor eight inch cathode ray tube and overlaid touch panel with a pilot crew data link interface. Touch sensitive buttons and areas are used for pilot selection of graphical and data link displays. Time critical ATC messages are presented in a small window that overlays other displays so that immediate pilot alerting and action can be taken. Predeparture and reroute clearances are displayed on the graphical weather system so pilot review of weather along

  13. Information needs changing over time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bothma, Theo; Bergenholtz, Henning

    2013-01-01

    For the past twenty years phrases such as “stable information needs”, “unstable information needs” or “information needs changing over time” are found in many contributions to information science. At first view these concepts seem to be easy and clearly understandable. However, after some...... considerations different questions arise: For which types of information need do we see that these needs are changing over time – for all types, or only for certain types? How do information needs relate to changes in the world, or to changes in the human understanding of the world? We will show...

  14. Has Financial Statement Information become Less Relevant?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thinggaard, Frank; Damkier, Jesper

    This paper presents insights into the question of whether accounting information based on the EU’s Accounting Directives has become less value-relevant to investors over time. The study is based on a research design first used by Francis and Schipper (1999), where value-relevance is measured......? The sample is based on non-financial companies listed on the Copenhagen Stock Exchange in the period 1984-2002. Our analyses show that all the applied accounting measures are value-relevant as investment strategies based on the information earn positive market-adjusted returns in our sample period....... The results provide some indication of a decline in the value-relevance of earnings information in the 1984-2001 period, and mixed, but not statistically reliable, evidence for accounting measures where book value information and asset values are also extracted from financial statements. The results seem...

  15. XRAYS (eXamining Relevance of Articles to Young Survivors) Program Survey of Information Needs and Media Use by Young Breast Cancer Survivors and Young Women at High-Risk for Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Robin H Pugh; Rezende, Lisa F; Huynh, Julie; Kramer, Karen; Cranmer, Melissa; Schlager, Lisa; Dearfield, Craig T; Friedman, Susan J

    2017-09-28

    Women age 45 years or younger with breast cancer, or who are at high-risk for breast cancer due to previously having the disease or to genetic risk, have distinct health risks and needs from their older counterparts. Young women frequently seek health information through the Internet and mainstream media, but often find it does not address their particular concerns, that it is difficult to evaluate or interpret, or even misleading. To help women better understand media coverage about new research, Facing Our Risk of Cancer Empowered (FORCE) developed the CDC-funded XRAYS (eXamining Relevance of Articles to Young Survivors) program. To assure that the XRAYS program is responsive to the community's needs, FORCE launched a web-based survey to assess where young women seek information about breast cancer, and to learn their unmet information needs. A total of 1,178 eligible women responded to the survey. In general, the breast cancer survivors and high-risk women between ages 18-45 years who responded to this survey, are using multiple media sources to seek information about breast cancer risk, prevention, screening, and treatment. They place trust in several media sources and use them to inform their medical decisions. Only about one-third of respondents to this survey report discussing media sources with their health care providers. Current survey results indicate that, by providing credible information on the quality of evidence and reporting in media reports on cancer, XRAYS is addressing a key need for health information. Results suggest that it will be useful for XRAYS to offer reviews of articles on a broad range of topics that can inform decisions at each stage of risk assessment and treatment.

  16. Evolutionary relevance facilitates visual information processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Russell E; Calvillo, Dusti P

    2013-11-03

    Visual search of the environment is a fundamental human behavior that perceptual load affects powerfully. Previously investigated means for overcoming the inhibitions of high perceptual load, however, generalize poorly to real-world human behavior. We hypothesized that humans would process evolutionarily relevant stimuli more efficiently than evolutionarily novel stimuli, and evolutionary relevance would mitigate the repercussions of high perceptual load during visual search. Animacy is a significant component to evolutionary relevance of visual stimuli because perceiving animate entities is time-sensitive in ways that pose significant evolutionary consequences. Participants completing a visual search task located evolutionarily relevant and animate objects fastest and with the least impact of high perceptual load. Evolutionarily novel and inanimate objects were located slowest and with the highest impact of perceptual load. Evolutionary relevance may importantly affect everyday visual information processing.

  17. Evolutionary Relevance Facilitates Visual Information Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Russell E. Jackson

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Visual search of the environment is a fundamental human behavior that perceptual load affects powerfully. Previously investigated means for overcoming the inhibitions of high perceptual load, however, generalize poorly to real-world human behavior. We hypothesized that humans would process evolutionarily relevant stimuli more efficiently than evolutionarily novel stimuli, and evolutionary relevance would mitigate the repercussions of high perceptual load during visual search. Animacy is a significant component to evolutionary relevance of visual stimuli because perceiving animate entities is time-sensitive in ways that pose significant evolutionary consequences. Participants completing a visual search task located evolutionarily relevant and animate objects fastest and with the least impact of high perceptual load. Evolutionarily novel and inanimate objects were located slowest and with the highest impact of perceptual load. Evolutionary relevance may importantly affect everyday visual information processing.

  18. A Compositional Relevance Model for Adaptive Information Retrieval

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathe, Nathalie; Chen, James; Lu, Henry, Jr. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    There is a growing need for rapid and effective access to information in large electronic documentation systems. Access can be facilitated if information relevant in the current problem solving context can be automatically supplied to the user. This includes information relevant to particular user profiles, tasks being performed, and problems being solved. However most of this knowledge on contextual relevance is not found within the contents of documents, and current hypermedia tools do not provide any easy mechanism to let users add this knowledge to their documents. We propose a compositional relevance network to automatically acquire the context in which previous information was found relevant. The model records information on the relevance of references based on user feedback for specific queries and contexts. It also generalizes such information to derive relevant references for similar queries and contexts. This model lets users filter information by context of relevance, build personalized views of documents over time, and share their views with other users. It also applies to any type of multimedia information. Compared to other approaches, it is less costly and doesn't require any a priori statistical computation, nor an extended training period. It is currently being implemented into the Computer Integrated Documentation system which enables integration of various technical documents in a hypertext framework.

  19. Preoperative information needs of children undergoing tonsillectomy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Buckley, Aoife

    2012-02-01

    AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To identify the information needs of children undergoing tonsillectomy with reference to content of information, method of delivery, information providers and timing of information provision. BACKGROUND: Tonsillectomy can be anxiety provoking for children and preoperative preparation programmes are long recognised to reduce anxiety. However, few have been designed from the perspectives of children and to date little is known about how best to prepare children in terms of what to tell them, how to convey information to them, who can best provide information and what is the best timing for information provision. DESIGN: A qualitative descriptive study. METHOD: Data were collected from nine children (aged 6-9) using interviews supported by a write and draw technique. Data were coded and categorised into themes reflecting content, method, providers and timing of information. RESULTS: Children openly communicated their information needs especially on what to tell them to expect when facing a tonsillectomy. Their principal concerns were about operation procedures, experiencing \\'soreness\\' and discomfort postoperatively and parental presence. Mothers were viewed as best situated to provide them with information. Children were uncertain about what method of information and timing would be most helpful to them. CONCLUSION: Preoperative educational interventions need to take account of children\\'s information needs so that they are prepared for surgery in ways that are meaningful and relevant to them. Future research is needed in this area. RELEVANCE TO CLINICAL PRACTICE: Practical steps towards informing children about having a tonsillectomy include asking them what they need to know and addressing their queries accordingly. Child-centred information leaflets using a question and answer format could also be helpful to children.

  20. Health Information Needs of Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Mark; Robertson, Steve

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To understand the views of men and service providers concerning the health information needs of men. Design: A men's health programme was implemented aimed at developing new health information resources designed for use by local organizations with men in socially disadvantaged groups. Research was carried out at the scoping stage to…

  1. An Evaluation of Relevance of Computing Curricula to Industry Needs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioana Chan Mow

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The research documented in this paper attempted to answer the question of how relevant the content of the Computing courses offered within programs of the Computing Department at the National University of Samoa (NUS were to meet the needs of industry and the workforce. The RINCCII study which was conducted in 2013 to 2014, surveyed 13 institutions and 19 graduates from the Computing programs. Findings from the survey indicated that the current course offerings within the Computing department are relevant to the needs of industry and the workplace. However there are aspects or topics which need inclusion or better coverage. The study also recommended regular surveys to gauge relevance of curricula to needs of industry.

  2. Information sharing during diagnostic assessments: what is relevant for parents?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Sheryl; Wynn, Kerry; Ray, Lynne; Demeriez, Lori; LaBerge, Patricia; Pei, Jacqueline; St Pierre, Cherie

    2011-05-01

    ABSTRACT This descriptive qualitative study facilitates the application of family-centered care within a tertiary care interdisciplinary neurodevelopmental diagnostic assessment clinic by furthering an understanding of parent perceptions of the relevance of diagnostic information provision. An interdisciplinary assessment team completed an open-ended questionnaire to describe parent information provision. Parents from 9 families completed in-depth parent interviews following clinic attendance to discuss perceptions of information received. Interviews were audiotaped, transcribed, and coded by related themes. Parents did not perceive the information in the way professionals expected. Parents acknowledged receipt of comprehensive information relevant to the diagnosis but indicated that not all their needs were met. During the interviews, parents described the assessment process, preassessment information, and "steps in their journey." They noted that a strength-based approach and a focus on parental competency would support their coping efforts. Results underscore the need for professionals to be attentive to parents' individualized needs.

  3. User needs in chemical information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehmann, H.; Poetzscher, G.; Wilson, A.J.C.

    1990-05-01

    Information has become an absolutely indispensable factor in the modern industrial society. In chemistry, detailed information about all compounds known is required. Learned journals, research and conference reports, publications from universities and learned societies, and dissertations present the progress in research. It is important that all properties of compounds (stereochemistry, physical values, chemical and environmental behaviour, toxicity etc.) reported in these publications be indexed and made available to the users. There is also a need for factual and/or numerical data and reviews concerning general or specific topics. High on the list of desiderata are timeliness, accuracy and completeness of the information. Abstracting and indexing services and database producers have to take in consideration that a high degree of userfriendliness is necessary. In the future, most of the information will be offered in computer readable form (factual and numerical databases, reaction databases, information on CD-ROM etc.), a fact which will require many improvements in the flow of information in order to render possible an easy and direct access to the chemical information worldwide. (author). 15 refs

  4. User needs in chemical information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehmann, H; Poetzscher, G [FIZ Chemie GmbH, Berlin (Germany); Wilson, A J.C. [Cambridge Univ., Cambridge (United Kingdom). Crystallographic Data Centre

    1990-05-01

    Information has become an absolutely indispensable factor in the modern industrial society. In chemistry, detailed information about all compounds known is required. Learned journals, research and conference reports, publications from universities and learned societies, and dissertations present the progress in research. It is important that all properties of compounds (stereochemistry, physical values, chemical and environmental behaviour, toxicity etc.) reported in these publications be indexed and made available to the users. There is also a need for factual and/or numerical data and reviews concerning general or specific topics. High on the list of desiderata are timeliness, accuracy and completeness of the information. Abstracting and indexing services and database producers have to take in consideration that a high degree of userfriendliness is necessary. In the future, most of the information will be offered in computer readable form (factual and numerical databases, reaction databases, information on CD-ROM etc.), a fact which will require many improvements in the flow of information in order to render possible an easy and direct access to the chemical information worldwide. (author). 15 refs.

  5. Informational need of emotional stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonov, P. V.; Frolov, M. V.

    According to the informational theory of emotions[1], emotions in humans depend on the power of some need (motivation) and the estimation by the subject of the probability (possibility) of the need staisfaction (the goal achievement). Low probability of need satisfaction leads to negative emotions, actively minimized by the subject. Increased probability of satisfaction, as compared to earlier forecast, generates positive emotions, which the subject tries to maximize, i.e. to enhance, to prolong, to repeat. The informational theory of emotions encompasses their reflective function, the laws of their appearance, the regulatory significance of emotions, and their role in organization of behavior. The level of emotional stress influences the operator's performance. A decrease in the emotional tonus leads to drowsiness, lack of vigilance, missing of significant signals and to slower reactions. An extremely high stress level disorganizes the activity, complicates it with a trend toward incorrect actions and reactions to insignificant signals (false alarms). The neurophysiological mechanisms of the influence of emotions on perceptual activity and operator performance as well as the significance of individuality are discussed.

  6. 49 CFR 556.9 - Public inspection of relevant information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Public inspection of relevant information. 556.9... NONCOMPLIANCE § 556.9 Public inspection of relevant information. Information relevant to a petition under this... Administration, 400 Seventh Street, SW., Washington, DC 20590. Copies of available information may be obtained in...

  7. Relevant cost information for order acceptance decisions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wouters, M.J.F.

    1997-01-01

    Some economic considerations for order acceptance decisions are discussed. The relevant economic considerations for order acceptance are widely discussed in the literature: only those costs are relevant which would be avoidable by not accepting the order incremental costs plus opportunity costs .

  8. Needs Adapted Data Presentation in e-Information Tools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergenholtz, Henning; Bothma, Theo

    2011-01-01

    In the current debate about the status of lexicography there are at least three quite different opinions: 1. Lexicography does not have and does not need any kind of own theory but can use all relevant linguistic theories; 2. Lexicography needs a theory special for the lexicographical praxis, but...... needs in the information society partly using the function theory of lexicography. The paper will briefly address issues regarding information overload and information stress showing how commercial systems try to address this by means of relevance ranking based on system relevance....

  9. 46 CFR 560.5 - Receipt of relevant information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Receipt of relevant information. 560.5 Section 560.5... FOREIGN PORTS § 560.5 Receipt of relevant information. (a) In making its decision on matters arising under... submissions should be supported by affidavits of fact and memorandum of law. Relevant information may include...

  10. Determining The Information Needs And Resources Provision For ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It was found that the respondents major information needs has to do with information for formal course of study and practices, information for patient care, and information for research purposes. It was also found that the respondents appreciate the use and relevance of internet, textbooks/monographs and learned journals ...

  11. Cancer Patients' Informational Needs: Qualitative Content Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidari, Haydeh; Mardani-Hamooleh, Marjan

    2016-12-01

    Understanding the informational needs of cancer patients is a requirement to plan any educative care program for them. The aim of this study was to identify Iranian cancer patients' perceptions of informational needs. The study took a qualitative approach. Semi-structured interviews were held with 25 cancer patients in two teaching hospitals in Iran. Transcripts of the interviews underwent conventional content analysis, and categories were extracted. The results came under two main categories: disease-related informational needs and information needs related to daily life. Disease-related informational needs had two subcategories: obtaining information about the nature of disease and obtaining information about disease prognosis. Information needs related to daily life also had two subcategories: obtaining information about healthy lifestyle and obtaining information about regular activities of daily life. The findings provide deep understanding of cancer patients' informational needs in Iran.

  12. Signal Enhancement as Minimization of Relevant Information Loss

    OpenAIRE

    Geiger, Bernhard C.; Kubin, Gernot

    2012-01-01

    We introduce the notion of relevant information loss for the purpose of casting the signal enhancement problem in information-theoretic terms. We show that many algorithms from machine learning can be reformulated using relevant information loss, which allows their application to the aforementioned problem. As a particular example we analyze principle component analysis for dimensionality reduction, discuss its optimality, and show that the relevant information loss can indeed vanish if the r...

  13. Information needs for risk assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeRosa, C.T.; Choudhury, H.; Schoeny, R.S.

    1990-12-31

    Risk assessment can be thought of as a conceptual approach to bridge the gap between the available data and the ultimate goal of characterizing the risk or hazard associated with a particular environmental problem. To lend consistency to and to promote quality in the process, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) published Guidelines for Risk Assessment of Carcinogenicity, Developmental Toxicity, Germ Cell Mutagenicity and Exposure Assessment, and Risk Assessment of Chemical Mixtures. The guidelines provide a framework for organizing the information, evaluating data, and for carrying out the risk assessment in a scientifically plausible manner. In the absence of sufficient scientific information or when abundant data are available, the guidelines provide alternative methodologies that can be employed in the risk assessment. 4 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  14. Information needs of people with asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Ming Ley; Armour, Carol; LeMay, Kate; Smith, Lorraine

    2014-06-01

    To describe the information needs of a group of Australians with asthma and the extent to which their needs had been met. A self-administered survey was completed by people with asthma either presenting at community pharmacies or registered with a medical research institute database. The survey questions were developed based on a review of the literature, and included questions regarding participants' information needs about their asthma, their sources of asthma information and the extent to which these information needs had been met. The responses concerning information needs were analysed thematically. Responses concerning sources of asthma information and the extent to which needs were met were analysed using descriptive and correlational statistics. Seventy-one people completed the survey. Key information needs that were identified included medications, management of asthma, asthma triggers, cure, aetiology of asthma and latest research. A third of participants reported having only 'very little', 'a little' or 'some' of their information needs met. The most common source of information was from a doctor (94% respondents), followed by a pharmacist or pharmacy assistant (56%). Insights into the information needs of people with asthma have been provided. In light of the level of unmet information needs of people with asthma, and the types of information sought, pharmacists are in an ideal position to close the information gap and promote optimal asthma self-management practices. © 2013 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  15. Understanding Information Need: an fMRI Study

    OpenAIRE

    Moshfeghi, Yashar; Triantafillou, Peter; Pollick, Frank E.

    2016-01-01

    The raison d'etre of IR is to satisfy human information need. But, do we really understand information need? Despite advances in the past few decades in both the IR and relevant scientific communities, this question is largely unanswered. We do not really understand how an information need emerges and how it is physically manifested. Information need refers to a complex concept: at the very initial state of the phenomenon (i.e. at a visceral level), even the searcher may not be aware of its e...

  16. The effects of informal carers' characteristics on their information needs: The information needs state approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alzougool, Basil; Chang, Shanton; Gray, Kathleen

    2017-09-01

    There has been little research that provides a comprehensive account of the nature and aspects of information needs of informal carers. The authors have previously developed and validated a framework that accounts for major underlying states of information need. This paper aims to apply this framework to explore whether there are common demographic and socioeconomic characteristics that affect the information needs states of carers. A questionnaire about the information needs states was completed by 198 carers above 18 years old. We use statistical methods to look for similarities and differences in respondents' information needs states, in terms of the demographic and socioeconomic variables. At least one information needs state varies among carers, in terms of seven demographic and socioeconomic variables: the age of the patient(s) that they are caring for; the condition(s) of the patient(s) that they are caring for; the number of patients that they are caring for; their length of time as a carer; their gender; the country that they live in; and the population of the area that they live in. The findings demonstrate the utility of the information needs state framework. We outline some practical implications of the framework.

  17. The Power of Information: Where it's Needed, When it's Needed, To Those Who Need It

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2006-01-01

    .... Ensuring timely and trusted information is available where it is needed, when it is needed, and to those who need it is at the heart of the capability needed to conduct Net-Centric Operations (NCO...

  18. Patient-relevant needs and treatment goals in nail psoriasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blome, C; Costanzo, A; Dauden, E.

    2016-01-01

    , but not with age or disease duration. Manual dexterity and social interaction were of particular importance. Goal importance and quality of life were associated, but not redundant (r = 0.612, p ...PURPOSE: Patient-centered health care implies that medical decisions are made jointly by physician and patient, based on patient needs. Aims were to (a) identify treatment goals for a new questionnaire on patient needs and benefits in nail psoriasis treatment; (b) analyze the importance...... of treatment goals in patients with nail psoriasis in general and in defined subgroups; and (c) determine the association between overall treatment goal importance and quality of life. METHODS: The study comprised the following steps: qualitative survey on needs and burdens in 120 patients; development...

  19. Evaluating automatic attentional capture by self-relevant information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocampo, Brenda; Kahan, Todd A

    2016-01-01

    Our everyday decisions and memories are inadvertently influenced by self-relevant information. For example, we are faster and more accurate at making perceptual judgments about stimuli associated with ourselves, such as our own face or name, as compared with familiar non-self-relevant stimuli. Humphreys and Sui propose a "self-attention network" to account for these effects, wherein self-relevant stimuli automatically capture our attention and subsequently enhance the perceptual processing of self-relevant information. We propose that the masked priming paradigm and continuous flash suppression represent two ways to experimentally examine these controversial claims.

  20. From patient data to information needs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braun, Loes; Wiesman, Floris; van den Herik, Jaap; Hasman, Arie; Korsten, Erik

    2004-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to contribute to the improvement of the quality of care. For physicians, it is a problem that they are often not aware of gaps in their knowledge and the corresponding information needs. Our research aim is to resolve this problem by formulating information needs

  1. Climate Information Needs for Financial Decision Making

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Higgins, Paul [American Meteorological Society, Washington, DC (United States)

    2013-11-19

    Climate Information Needs for Financial Decision Making (Final Report) This Department of Energy workshop award (grant #DE-SC0008480) provided primary support for the American Meteorological Society’s study on climate information needs for financial decision making. The goal of this study was to help advance societal decision making by examining the implications of climate variability and change on near-term financial investments. We explored four key topics: 1) the conditions and criteria that influence returns on investment of major financial decisions, 2) the climate sensitivity of financial decisions, 3) climate information needs of financial decision makers, and 4) potential new mechanisms to promote collaboration between scientists and financial decision makers. Better understanding of these four topics will help scientists provide the most useful information and enable financial decision makers to use scientific information most effectively. As a result, this study will enable leaders in business and government to make well-informed choices that help maximize long-term economic success and social wellbeing in the United States The outcomes of the study include a workshop, which brought together leaders from the scientific and financial decision making communities, a publication of the study report, and a public briefing of the results to the policy community. In addition, we will present the results to the scientific community at the AMS Annual Meeting in February, 2014. The study results were covered well by the media including Bloomberg News and E&E News. Upon request, we also briefed the Office of Science Technology Policy (OSTP) and the Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ) on the outcomes. We presented the results to the policy community through a public briefing in December on Capitol Hill. The full report is publicly available at www.ametsoc.org/cin. Summary of Key Findings The United States invests roughly $1.5 trillion U.S. dollars (USD) in

  2. Value Relevance of Accounting Information in the United Arab Emirates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamal Barzegari Khanagha

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the value relevance of accounting information in per and post-periods of International Financial Reporting Standards implementation using the regression and portfolio approaches for sample of the UAE companies. The results obtained from a combination of regression and portfolio approaches, show accounting information is value relevant in UAE stock market. A comparison of the results for the periods before and after adoption, based on both regression and portfolio approaches, shows a decline in value relevance of accounting information after the reform in accounting standards. It could be interpreted to mean that following to IFRS in UAE didn’t improve value relevancy of accounting information. However, results based on and portfolio approach shows that cash flows’ incremental information content increased for the post-IFRS period.

  3. Alpha power gates relevant information during working memory updating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manza, Peter; Hau, Chui Luen Vera; Leung, Hoi-Chung

    2014-04-23

    Human working memory (WM) is inherently limited, so we must filter out irrelevant information in our environment or our mind while retaining limited important relevant contents. Previous work suggests that neural oscillations in the alpha band (8-14 Hz) play an important role in inhibiting incoming distracting information during attention and selective encoding tasks. However, whether alpha power is involved in inhibiting no-longer-relevant content or in representing relevant WM content is still debated. To clarify this issue, we manipulated the amount of relevant/irrelevant information using a task requiring spatial WM updating while measuring neural oscillatory activity via EEG and localized current sources across the scalp using a surface Laplacian transform. An initial memory set of two, four, or six spatial locations was to be memorized over a delay until an updating cue was presented indicating that only one or three locations remained relevant for a subsequent recognition test. Alpha amplitude varied with memory maintenance and updating demands among a cluster of left frontocentral electrodes. Greater postcue alpha power was associated with the high relevant load conditions (six and four dots cued to reduce to three relevant) relative to the lower load conditions (four and two dots reduced to one). Across subjects, this difference in alpha power was correlated with condition differences in performance accuracy. In contrast, no significant effects of irrelevant load were observed. These findings demonstrate that, during WM updating, alpha power reflects maintenance of relevant memory contents rather than suppression of no-longer-relevant memory traces.

  4. Need for and relevance of prostate cancer screening in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akinremi, To; Adeniyi, A; Olutunde, A; Oduniyi, A; Ogo, Cn

    2014-01-01

    Prostate cancer (PCa) has become the most prevalent cancer among males in Nigeria, and similar to other black populations, Nigerian men present with more advanced disease at an earlier age than in several other ethnic groups. In this unscreened, high-risk group, the reference range for early detection and diagnosis as well as risk factors need to be determined through large-scale screening. Over 4 years, 1124 previously unscreened men between 40 and 85 years of age were screened at free community health programmes for PCa, using the common parameters of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) plus digital rectal examination (DRE). We thereby assessed the practicality and importance of screening. Consent was obtained, demographic data obtained, PSA measured using qualitative laboratory kits, and DRE performed by surgeons. We found that the number of men attending and consenting to screening increases from year to year. Of 40-85-year-old men, 85.4% consented, of whom 33.3% (a third) and 60% were 51-60 years old and 51-65 years, respectively. While 11.5% of men had PSA >4 ng/ml, 31.45% showed abnormal DRE. Of the men who took the PSA test, 79.2% also consented to the DRE, of whom 5.8% had combined abnormal DRE and PSA >4 ng/ml. Our findings suggest that Nigerian men are a willing group for screening by both the PSA and DRE with the positive response to calls for health screening and interest in prostate health. The finding of PSA >4 ng/ml in 11.15% of this population reveals the need for greater awareness and measures to increase early detection. However, the value and validity of established PSA reference ranges and cutoff of 'normal' still need to be established. Screening is very important to better define the PCa prevalence and characteristics in our population; otherwise political and economic circumstances will ensure that men still present late with aggressive PCa.

  5. Current Needs for the Experimental Investigation of the CHF Phenomenon Relevant to LWR Core Conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Corre, J.M.

    2009-01-01

    The current achievements and needs toward the investigation, understanding and mechanistic prediction of the Critical Heat Flux (CHF) event, under PWR and BWR core conditions, are addressed in this paper. It is shown that, even when using advanced 3-D CFD simulation tools, the current approach to CHF mechanistic modeling has serious limitations. This is mainly due to the lack of information regarding the relevant two-phase flow pattern(s) (in particular near the heated wall) and associated mechanisms (at the meso and micro-scale) leading to the CHF event. Areas of current experimental needs are identified in order to address these shortcomings. In addition, the use of 1-D and 3-D numerical tools to mechanistically predict the CHF is discussed. It is shown that 3-D two-phase CFD codes may not be superior to 1-D codes without proper consideration of relevant constitutive relations. (author)

  6. Support Vector Machines: Relevance Feedback and Information Retrieval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drucker, Harris; Shahrary, Behzad; Gibbon, David C.

    2002-01-01

    Compares support vector machines (SVMs) to Rocchio, Ide regular and Ide dec-hi algorithms in information retrieval (IR) of text documents using relevancy feedback. If the preliminary search is so poor that one has to search through many documents to find at least one relevant document, then SVM is preferred. Includes nine tables. (Contains 24…

  7. Informational needs of gastrointestinal oncology patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadakos, Janet; Urowitz, Sara; Olmstead, Craig; Jusko Friedman, Audrey; Zhu, Jason; Catton, Pamela

    2015-12-01

    In response to the dearth of consumer health information for patients with gastrointestinal cancers, this study examined the informational needs of these patients to build a plan for future resource development. Although studies have examined informational needs of some such cancers, no published literature has investigated the comprehensive informational needs across all sites of gastrointestinal cancer. A cross-sectional needs assessment comprising a self-administered questionnaire was conducted at an ambulatory gastrointestinal oncology clinic in Toronto, Canada. Patient informational needs were measured, including importance of information, amount desired and preferred mode of delivery. Informational needs were grouped into six domains: medical, practical, physical, emotional, social and spiritual. Eighty-two surveys were analysed. The majority of the respondents were male (53.8%), over the age of 50 (77.8%), and born outside of Canada (51.9%). While many did not speak English as a child (46.3%), and do not speak English at home (22.2%), nearly all indicated comfort with receiving health information in English (97.5%). The majority of respondents were college educated (79.3%) and married (73%). Multiple cancer types were reported; the most common being colorectal (39%), followed by pancreatic (12%) and cancers of the gallbladder or bile duct (12%). Overall, respondents placed highest importance on medical information (P < 0.001). Preferred education modalities were pamphlets, websites and one-on-one discussions with health-care professionals. This study highlights the principal informational needs of patients with gastrointestinal malignancies, along with preferred modality for information delivery. This information will guide the development of educational resources for future patients. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. UNDERSTANDING FARMERS’ NEED TO CLIMATE INFORMATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rizaldi Boer

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Availability of good skill seasonal climate forecast will be very useful for farmers to assist them to tailor their cropping strategies to the forecast so that the climate risks can be minimized or avoided. This study aimed to identify type of relevant climate forecast information for potato and chili farmers of Pengalengan. The study was done through interview with 60 farmers. The study reveals that the most important climate information required by farmers is the onset of rainy season and then followed by amount of rainfall, and number of rainy days during the seasons. About 75% of farmers said that they need the information at least one month before planting to enable them to prepare better planting strategy. For potato farmers, they expect that they can get information on the onset of rainy season around August. However, the increase in farmers’ capacity to use seasonal climate forecast should be followed by supporting policies or regulations or resources to maximize the benefit of using the forecast, such as price policy, and good storage facility to accommodate surplus production resulting from changing planting strategy.   Ketersediaan prakiraan musim dengan skill tinggi sangat diperlukan bagi petani untuk menyesuaikan strategi budidaya dengan informasi prakiraan tersebut sehingga risiko iklim dapat diminimumkan atau dihindari. Kajian ini mengidentifikasi informasi prakiraan yang relevan bagi petani kentang dan cabe Pengalengan, Bandung-Jawa Barat dengan menginterview 60 petani. Hasil analisis menunjukkan bahwa informasi iklim yang dianggap paling penting bagi petani ialah awal masuk musim hujan dan kemudian diikuti oleh banyak hari hujan dalam musim. Sekitar 75% petani menyatakan bahwa mereka membutuhkan informasi tersebut minimal satu bulan sebelum tanam supaya mereka dapat mengatus strategi budidaya dengan baik. Untuk petani kentang, mereka mengharapkan dapat memperoleh informasi prakiraan awal musim hujan sekitar Agustus. Namun

  9. Informed consent needed for sterilization or research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, B

    1998-01-01

    Informed choice involves enabling family planning clients to base their decisions about contraceptive use upon adequate information. It is a process in which clients give their permission to undergo a procedure, take a medication, or participate in a study after being fully informed. Informed consent protects an individual's freedom of choice, respects his or her autonomy, is important in both family planning programs and reproductive health research, and should always be available to clients seeking health services. Although written informed consent is not needed for most reproductive health services, it should be obtained from men and women who undergo sterilization, since that involves surgery and is considered permanent. In addition, people who volunteer to participate in contraceptive studies need to be fully informed of the risks and benefits of any new drugs or devices they receive. Volunteers should understand the potential effects of methods upon their physical health and other aspects of their lives. Ethical reviews need to be conducted before research begins.

  10. Patients in need of medicine information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazaryan, I; Sevikyan, A

    2015-01-01

    Reliable medicine information is important not only for physicians and pharmacists, but also for patients [6]. However, the results of studies implemented in some countries show that patients may have slightly different needs and preferences in using sources of information [1, 4, 5, 7]. The main objective of patient medicines information is assisting consumers to achieve safe and effective use of pharmaceuticals [2, 3]. To identify patients' needs in medicine information and sources they use to receive it. We interviewed 1059 people who had visited community pharmacies in 10 regions of Armenia and Yerevan. Previously developed questionnaire was used for interviewing patients. Statistical analysis was conducted using SPSS program. We found that consumers need medicine information. 68.9% of respondents often use pharmaceuticals only if necessary medicines information is available. The majority of them believe that it is important to have information about therapeutic indications of pharmaceuticals to be used (91.8%), their dosage and method of administration (91.1%), contraindications (82.4%), adverse reactions (81.9%) and the simultaneous use of multiple medicines (76.5%). 58.9% of consumers value information about medicine's price. More than 70% of patients often seek information from health professionals and use medicines package information leaflets (PIL), and more than 75% of respondents mainly trust the same sources. 71.5% of respondents read package leaflets, while 42.0% of consumers do this several times. Only 36.7% of respondents completely understand information in a leaflet. Patients in Armenia need medicine information. They prefer to receive information from sources they trust.Many patients do not understand the content of package information leaflets (PILs) due to barriers, which can be removed by introducing appropriate regulatory provisions for their content and readability.

  11. What information do software engineering practitioners need?

    OpenAIRE

    Punter, T.

    2003-01-01

    This position paper addresses an important question for the discipline of Empirical or Evidence-based Software Engineering (SE), namely ´what information do software engineering practitioners need from the empirical studies´. The paper contributes to answering this question by presenting survey results on two sub-questions: 1) what are the topics that interest practitioners? and 2) what type of information is needed by practitioners? Answering the first question results in a set of SE topics,...

  12. Disclosure of Non-Financial Information: Relevant to Financial Analysts?

    OpenAIRE

    ORENS, Raf; LYBAERT, Nadine

    2013-01-01

    The decline in the relevance of financial statement information to value firms leads to calls from organizational stakeholders to convey non-financial information in order to be able to judge firms' financial performance and value. This literature review aims to report extant literature findings on the use of corporate non-financial information by sell-side financial analysts, the information intermediaries between corporate management and investors. Prior studies highlight that financial ana...

  13. Information needs and information seeking behaviour of small-scale ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It is thus important for the government to improve access to extension services, and equip them with necessary skills and adequate information resources. ... information needs, map communities' knowledge and information sources, create awareness of information sources, and knowledge culture, and use multiple sources ...

  14. Information Needs, Sources, and Information Seeking Behaviour of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This work which focused on the policy-makers/administrators as information users was carried out using hundred (100) questionnaire in order to ascertain the information needs, sources and information seeking behaviour of the administrators. The barrier to information flow to them was also identified. The study adopted a ...

  15. The Changing Information Needs of Users in Electronic Information Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kebede, Gashaw

    2002-01-01

    Focuses on the information needs of users that are changing as a results of changes in the availability of information content in electronic form. Highlights the trend and nature of the physical form in which information content is currently being made available for users' access and use in electronic information environments. (Author/LRW)

  16. Software Helps Retrieve Information Relevant to the User

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathe, Natalie; Chen, James

    2003-01-01

    The Adaptive Indexing and Retrieval Agent (ARNIE) is a code library, designed to be used by an application program, that assists human users in retrieving desired information in a hypertext setting. Using ARNIE, the program implements a computational model for interactively learning what information each human user considers relevant in context. The model, called a "relevance network," incrementally adapts retrieved information to users individual profiles on the basis of feedback from the users regarding specific queries. The model also generalizes such knowledge for subsequent derivation of relevant references for similar queries and profiles, thereby, assisting users in filtering information by relevance. ARNIE thus enables users to categorize and share information of interest in various contexts. ARNIE encodes the relevance and structure of information in a neural network dynamically configured with a genetic algorithm. ARNIE maintains an internal database, wherein it saves associations, and from which it returns associated items in response to a query. A C++ compiler for a platform on which ARNIE will be utilized is necessary for creating the ARNIE library but is not necessary for the execution of the software.

  17. Fuzzy Information Retrieval Using Genetic Algorithms and Relevance Feedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petry, Frederick E.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Describes an approach that combines concepts from information retrieval, fuzzy set theory, and genetic programing to improve weighted Boolean query formulation via relevance feedback. Highlights include background on information retrieval systems; genetic algorithms; subproblem formulation; and preliminary results based on a testbed. (Contains 12…

  18. Information needs analysis principles and practice in information organizations

    CERN Document Server

    Dorner, Daniel G; Calvert, Philip J

    2010-01-01

    If you want to provide an information service that truly fulfils your users' needs, this book is essential reading. The book supports practitioners in developing an information needs analysis strategy and offers the necessary professional skills and techniques to do so.

  19. HOSPITAL MANAGERS' NEED FOR INFORMATION ON HEALTH TECHNOLOGY INVESTMENTS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ølholm, Anne Mette; Kidholm, Kristian; Birk-Olsen, Mette; Christensen, Janne Buck

    2015-01-01

    There is growing interest in implementing hospital-based health technology assessment (HB-HTA) as a tool to facilitate decision making based on a systematic and multidisciplinary assessment of evidence. However, the decision-making process, including the informational needs of hospital decision makers, is not well described. The objective was to review empirical studies analysing the information that hospital decision makers need when deciding about health technology (HT) investments. A systematic review of empirical studies published in English or Danish from 2000 to 2012 was carried out. The literature was assessed by two reviewers working independently. The identified informational needs were assessed with regard to their agreement with the nine domains of EUnetHTA's Core Model. A total of 2,689 articles were identified and assessed. The review process resulted in 14 relevant studies containing 74 types of information that hospital decision makers found relevant. In addition to information covered by the Core Model, other types of information dealing with political and strategic aspects were identified. The most frequently mentioned types of information in the literature related to clinical, economic and political/strategic aspects. Legal, social, and ethical aspects were seldom considered most important. Hospital decision makers are able to describe their information needs when deciding on HT investments. The different types of information were not of equal importance to hospital decision makers, however, and full agreement between EUnetHTA's Core Model and the hospital decision-makers' informational needs was not observed. They also need information on political and strategic aspects not covered by the Core Model.

  20. Hospital managers need management information systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, S; Freeman, J R

    1976-01-01

    A new hospital director seeking to bring his institution to the brink of solvency found himself with ten pounds of data but no "information"--at least, not the kind of information he could use as a basis for management decisions. What he needed was a system that would not only present data, but the meaning of the data. Such a system is the integrated MIS.

  1. Information needs of the exploration geoscientist - proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, G.E. (ed.)

    1984-01-01

    Papers were presented describing the data bases of exploration data which have been created by the following Australian organisations: Bureau of Mineral Resources; Geological Survey of Western Australia; Northern Territory Geological Survey; South Australian Department of Mines and Energy; Tasmanian Department of Mines; Geological Survey of Queensland; South Australian Land Information System; New South Wales Department of Mineral Resources; Shell; and Western Mining Corporation. The information needs of Australian mineral and petroleum exploration companies were discussed.

  2. Capturing information need by learning user context

    OpenAIRE

    Goker, A.S.

    1999-01-01

    Learning techniques can be applied to help information retrieval systems adapt to users' specific needs. They can be used to learn from user searches to improve subsequent searches. This paper describes the approach taken to learn about particular users' contexts in order to improve document ranking produced by a probabilistic information retrieval system. The approach is based on the argument that there is a pattern in user queries in that they tend to remain within a particular context over...

  3. Information Needs in a Community of Reading Specialists: What Information Needs Say about Contextual Frameworks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Normore, Lorraine

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: The perceived information needs of teachers who specialize in reading instruction for at-risk first graders were studied and related to frameworks for the role of social context in information needs, seeking and use. The frameworks considered were: disciplinarity, role theory in work settings, small worlds and information grounds and…

  4. Task-relevant information is prioritized in spatiotemporal contextual cueing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higuchi, Yoko; Ueda, Yoshiyuki; Ogawa, Hirokazu; Saiki, Jun

    2016-11-01

    Implicit learning of visual contexts facilitates search performance-a phenomenon known as contextual cueing; however, little is known about contextual cueing under situations in which multidimensional regularities exist simultaneously. In everyday vision, different information, such as object identity and location, appears simultaneously and interacts with each other. We tested the hypothesis that, in contextual cueing, when multiple regularities are present, the regularities that are most relevant to our behavioral goals would be prioritized. Previous studies of contextual cueing have commonly used the visual search paradigm. However, this paradigm is not suitable for directing participants' attention to a particular regularity. Therefore, we developed a new paradigm, the "spatiotemporal contextual cueing paradigm," and manipulated task-relevant and task-irrelevant regularities. In four experiments, we demonstrated that task-relevant regularities were more responsible for search facilitation than task-irrelevant regularities. This finding suggests our visual behavior is focused on regularities that are relevant to our current goal.

  5. Mining and information: defining the need

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gray, J.; Peck, J. [AQUILA Mining Systems Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    1996-07-01

    Some of the current technologies at surface mining operations are discussed. The information system and communication system requirements needed to integrate these components are considered. A plan of a new mine that uses operating information, optimization through planning, monitoring, and locating systems, data processing and analysis, and integration of monitored data and information via the Total Mining System (TMS) is described. The TMS will allow integration of a network of stand-alone modules. There is an immediate requirement for setting standards in surface mining operations to prevent duplication of effort. 12 refs., 2 figs.

  6. Impartial information on nuclear waste needed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hautakangas, H.

    1997-01-01

    Biased communication and lack of information on issues that interest the public may make it more difficult for people to absorb information on nuclear waste in the localities that are currently being studied for their suitability as disposal sites of spent nuclear fuel. This was one of the findings made by interviewing residents in these localities. The majority of the 19 interviewers considered that there has not been enough of the kind of information on nuclear waste that would easily attract the residents' interest in the localities concerned. When asked about important sources of information, the interviewers only listed the nuclear power companies and the organisations opposed to the disposal, as well as the general news media. In other words, the need for an impartial source of information was apparent. In general, the interviewers hoped to receive more information about the operations that the disposal will require above the ground, i.e. about transports and conditioning of the waste. It may be that the need for such information has been overlooked, since technical experts do not usually consider transports or conditioning to be a major safety risk. (author)

  7. Army Information Operations Officer Needs Analysis Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    helping with formatting the final report iv ARMY INFORMATION OPERATIONS OFFICER NEEDS ANALYSIS REPORT EXECUTIVE SUMMARY Research...time.” One IO officer suggested the IPO try to get a access the database that has all the old APA reports archived as a way to look at assessment

  8. Information Needs of Nurse Care Managers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorr, David A.; Tran, Hanh; Gorman, Paul; Wilcox, Adam B.

    2006-01-01

    Unmet information needs of physicians and patients are common, but those of nurse care managers – defined as collaborative care planners for with chronic conditions – are less well understood. We taped and transcribed daily activities and conducted semi-structured interviews of 7 care managers, and analyzed questions elicited through this work through a variety of frameworks. PMID:17238532

  9. The Relevance of Information and Communication Technologies in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Relevance of Information and Communication Technologies in Libraries Services ... Technologies in Libraries Services and Librarianship Profession in the 21th Century ... This paper therefore, examines the importance of ICT in librarianship as a ... for Authors · for Policy Makers · about Open Access · Journal Quality.

  10. Natural brain-information interfaces: Recommending information by relevance inferred from human brain signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eugster, Manuel J. A.; Ruotsalo, Tuukka; Spapé, Michiel M.; Barral, Oswald; Ravaja, Niklas; Jacucci, Giulio; Kaski, Samuel

    2016-01-01

    Finding relevant information from large document collections such as the World Wide Web is a common task in our daily lives. Estimation of a user’s interest or search intention is necessary to recommend and retrieve relevant information from these collections. We introduce a brain-information interface used for recommending information by relevance inferred directly from brain signals. In experiments, participants were asked to read Wikipedia documents about a selection of topics while their EEG was recorded. Based on the prediction of word relevance, the individual’s search intent was modeled and successfully used for retrieving new relevant documents from the whole English Wikipedia corpus. The results show that the users’ interests toward digital content can be modeled from the brain signals evoked by reading. The introduced brain-relevance paradigm enables the recommendation of information without any explicit user interaction and may be applied across diverse information-intensive applications. PMID:27929077

  11. Risk assessment activities at NIOSH: Information resources and needs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stayner, L.T.; Meinhardt, T.; Hardin, B. [National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Cincinnati, OH (United States)

    1990-12-31

    Under the Occupational Safety and Health, and Mine Safety and Health Acts, the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) is charged with development of recommended occupational safety and health standards, and with conducting research to support the development of these standards. Thus, NIOSH has been actively involved in the analysis of risk associated with occupational exposures, and in the development of research information that is critical for the risk assessment process. NIOSH research programs and other information resources relevant to the risk assessment process are described in this paper. Future needs for information resources are also discussed.

  12. Information Needs in Competitive Technical Intelligence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Cerny

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: In this paper, the importance of CTI for the innovation management of companies will be discussed, including the barriers, the core structure of the CTI unit and a proper search process from top management to concrete research outputs. To begin with, we need to define the environment where the innovation activities are being conducted. In the second part, we put CTI in the organizational framework of the companies, and in the third part we discuss the importance of information needs focused on innovative companies.

  13. THE RELEVANCE OF ECONOMIC INFORMATION IN ANALYZING THE ECONOMIC PERFORMANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PATRUTA MIRCEA IOAN

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The performance analysis is based on an informational system, which provides financial information in various formatsand with various applicabilities.We intend to formulate a set of important caracteristics of financial information along with identifying a set of relevant financial rates and indicatorsused to appreciate the performance level of a company. Economic performance can be interpreted in different ways at each level of analysis. Generally, it refers to economic growth, increased productivity and profitability. The growth of labor productivity or increased production per worker is a measure of efficient use of resources in value creation.

  14. Information needs for risk management/communication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennett, D.A. [Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC (United States)

    1990-12-31

    The hazardous waste cleanup program under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (Superfund) is delegated to the ten Regions of the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and has, to date, identified more than 33,000 sites for consideration. The size and complexity of the program places great demands on those who would provide information to achieve national consistency in application of risk assessment while meeting site-specific needs for risk management and risk communication.

  15. The pricing relevance of insider information; Die Preiserheblichkeit von Insiderinformationen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kruse, Dominik

    2011-07-01

    The publication attempts to describe the so far discussion concerning the feature of pricing relevance and to develop it further with the aid of new research approaches. First, a theoretical outline is presented of the elementary regulation problem of insider trading, its historical development, and the regulation goals of the WpHG. This is followed by an analysis of the concrete specifications of the law. In view of the exemplarity of US law, a country with long experience in regulation of the capital market, the materiality doctrine of US insider law is gone into in some detail. The goals and development of the doctrine are reviewed in the light of court rulings. The third part outlines the requirements of German law in order to forecast the pricing relevance of insider information, while the final part presents a critical review of the current regulations on pricing relevance. (orig./RHM)

  16. A content relevance model for social media health information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prybutok, Gayle Linda; Koh, Chang; Prybutok, Victor R

    2014-04-01

    Consumer health informatics includes the development and implementation of Internet-based systems to deliver health risk management information and health intervention applications to the public. The application of consumer health informatics to educational and interventional efforts such as smoking reduction and cessation has garnered attention from both consumers and health researchers in recent years. Scientists believe that smoking avoidance or cessation before the age of 30 years can prevent more than 90% of smoking-related cancers and that individuals who stop smoking fare as well in preventing cancer as those who never start. The goal of this study was to determine factors that were most highly correlated with content relevance for health information provided on the Internet for a study group of 18- to 30-year-old college students. Data analysis showed that the opportunity for convenient entertainment, social interaction, health information-seeking behavior, time spent surfing on the Internet, the importance of available activities on the Internet (particularly e-mail), and perceived site relevance for Internet-based sources of health information were significantly correlated with content relevance for 18- to 30-year-old college students, an educated subset of this population segment.

  17. Electronic patient records in action: Transforming information into professionally relevant knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winman, Thomas; Rystedt, Hans

    2011-03-01

    The implementation of generic models for organizing information in complex institutions like those in healthcare creates a gap between standardization and the need for locally relevant knowledge. The present study addresses how this gap can be bridged by focusing on the practical work of healthcare staff in transforming information in EPRs into knowledge that is useful for everyday work. Video recording of shift handovers on a rehabilitation ward serves as the empirical case. The results show how extensive selections and reorganizations of information in EPRs are carried out in order to transform information into professionally relevant accounts. We argue that knowledge about the institutional obligations and professional ways of construing information are fundamental for these transitions. The findings point to the need to consider the role of professional knowledge inherent in unpacking information in efforts to develop information systems intended to bridge between institutional and professional boundaries in healthcare. © The Author(s) 2011.

  18. Coal transportation research and information needs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eck, R.W. (West Virginia Univ., Morgantown); Hui, C.Y.

    1978-09-01

    This paper examines some of the existing and emerging issues of interest to engineers and planners dealing with coal transportation. One conclusion is that any research or data collection efforts in this field must be of a multidisciplinary nature. Not only must transportation planners, highway engineers, maintenance engineers, and soils engineers work together but, in addition, engineers will need to work with geologists, economists, and marketing specialists for effective planning, design, and operation of the coal transportation system. Earlier sections of this paper may have given the erroneous impression that all future research should concentrate on problems of transporting coal by truck. Although the West Virginia coal conversion study documented information deficiencies relative to the highway transportation of coal, research efforts involving railroads and waterways should continue. There is a serious need for research and information relative to the interactions between modes. For example, in order to predict the impact of local coal conversions on rail and barge systems that serve retailers, it is necessary to have a knowledge of the typical volumes that would be required by retail facilities, frequency of delivery to retail yards, and transportation distances involved mine and retailer. This paper deals with relatively short-term planning, however, information is required on the long-range future of the coal industry. Decision makers involved with providing an adequate coal transportation system must have information on the future role that coal will play in United States energy policy. (MCW)

  19. Energy needs, tasks and resources in the Sahel: Relevance to woodstoves programmes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cecelski, E

    1983-01-01

    This article reviews the wood fuels situation in the Sahel and the findings of various needs assessment methodologies, especially as these are relevant to the numerous programmes to introduce improved cooking technologies in the region. Most people in West Africa, especially in poor and rural areas, rely primarily on wood fuels and crop wastes for energy needs, with devastating environmental consequences. Most wood is used in cooking. The quantity of fuel used depends on the type of fireplace, utensils used, how and when food is prepared, food preparation methods, types of fuels, how fuelwood is collected, and special customs surrounding the family fire - all of which are intimately associated with the economic, cultural and social fabric of Sahelian societies. Conventional fuel consumption and resource surveys have yielded useful information about quantitative energy needs in the Sahel, but increasingly sociocultural studies are being used to ensure that stove designs will meet the needs of the end-user. Economic analysis is also necessary to establish the dimensions of wood scarcity, to assess the financial attractiveness to consumers of alternative fuels and stoves, and in evaluating the costs and benefits to society of proposed national woodstoves programmes.

  20. Improving information access by relevance and topical feedback

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaptein, R.; Kamps, J.; Hopfgartner, F.

    2008-01-01

    One of the main bottle-necks in providing more effective information access is the poverty of the query end. With an average query length of about two terms, users provide only a highly ambiguous statement of the, often complex, underlying information need. Implicit and explicit feedback can provide

  1. Hydrate for health: listening to older adults' need for information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Mary H; Marquez, Celine S; Kline, Katherine V; Morris, Erin; Linares, Brenda; Carlson, Barbara W

    2014-10-01

    An interdisciplinary team of faculty and students developed the Hydrate for Health project to provide relevant and evidence-based information to community-dwelling older adults. Evidence-based factsheets on bladder health, nighttime urination, medication safety, and physical activity/exercise, as well as a fluid intake self-monitoring tool, were developed. Four focus groups were conducted and included older adults (N = 21) who participated in activities at two local senior centers to obtain their feedback about the relevance of the factsheets. Extensive revisions were required based on the feedback received. Older adults expressed a desire for pragmatic information (i.e., how to determine fluid sources from food, how to measure water, how to determine their own fluid needs). They also wanted information that could be easily incorporated into daily life. Nurses play a central role in listening to and incorporating older adults' voices into consumer education materials. Copyright 2014, SLACK Incorporated.

  2. System for selecting relevant information for decision support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalina, Jan; Seidl, Libor; Zvára, Karel; Grünfeldová, Hana; Slovák, Dalibor; Zvárová, Jana

    2013-01-01

    We implemented a prototype of a decision support system called SIR which has a form of a web-based classification service for diagnostic decision support. The system has the ability to select the most relevant variables and to learn a classification rule, which is guaranteed to be suitable also for high-dimensional measurements. The classification system can be useful for clinicians in primary care to support their decision-making tasks with relevant information extracted from any available clinical study. The implemented prototype was tested on a sample of patients in a cardiological study and performs an information extraction from a high-dimensional set containing both clinical and gene expression data.

  3. CIRUN: Climate Information Responding to User Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busalacchi, A. J.

    2009-12-01

    The Earth System will experience real climate change over the next 50 years, exceeding the scope of natural climate variability. A paramount question facing society is how to adapt to this certainty of climate variability and change. In response, OSTP and NOAA are considering how comprehensive climate services would best inform decisions about adaptation. Similarly, NASA is considering the optimal configuration of the next generation of Earth, environmental, and climate observations to be deployed over the coming 10-20 years. Moreover, much of the added-value information for specific climate-related decisions will be provided by private, academic and non-governmental organizations. In this context, over the past several years the University of Maryland has established the CIRUN (Climate Information: Responding to User Needs) initiative to identify the nature of national needs for climate information and services from a decision support perspective. To date, CIRUN has brought together decisionmakers in a number of sectors to help understand their perspectives on climate with the goal of improving the usefulness of climate information, observations and prediction products to specific user communities. CIRUN began with a major workshop in October 2007 that convened 430 participants in agriculture, parks and recreation, terrestrial ecosystems, insurance/investment, energy, national security, state/local/municipal, water, human health, commerce and manufacturing, transportation, and coastal/marine sectors. Plenary speakers such as Norman Augustine, R. James Woolsey, James Mahoney, and former Senator Joseph Tydings, breakout panel sessions, and participants provided input based on the following: - How would you characterize the exposure or vulnerability to climate variability or change impacting your organization? - Does climate variability and/or change currently factor into your organization's objectives or operations? - Are any of your existing plans being affected by

  4. Bootstrapping agency: How control-relevant information affects motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karsh, Noam; Eitam, Baruch; Mark, Ilya; Higgins, E Tory

    2016-10-01

    How does information about one's control over the environment (e.g., having an own-action effect) influence motivation? The control-based response selection framework was proposed to predict and explain such findings. Its key tenant is that control relevant information modulates both the frequency and speed of responses by determining whether a perceptual event is an outcome of one's actions or not. To test this framework empirically, the current study examines whether and how temporal and spatial contiguity/predictability-previously established as being important for one's sense of agency-modulate motivation from control. In 5 experiments, participants responded to a cue, potentially triggering a perceptual effect. Temporal (Experiments 1a-c) and spatial (Experiments 2a and b) contiguity/predictability between actions and their potential effects were experimentally manipulated. The influence of these control-relevant factors was measured, both indirectly (through their effect on explicit judgments of agency) and directly on response time and response frequency. The pattern of results was highly consistent with the control-based response selection framework in suggesting that control relevant information reliably modulates the impact of "having an effect" on different levels of action selection. We discuss the implications of this study for the notion of motivation from control and for the empirical work on the sense of agency. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. Assessing managerial information needs: Modification and evaluation of the Hospital Shift Leaders' Information Needs Questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltonen, Laura-Maria; Lundgrén-Laine, Heljä; Siirala, Eriikka; Löyttyniemi, Eliisa; Aantaa, Riku; Salanterä, Sanna

    2018-03-01

    The aims were (1) to evaluate the modified version of the Intensive Care Unit Information Need Questionnaire for the broader hospital setting, and (2) to describe the differences in respondents' managerial activities and information needs according to the position held by the respondent and the type of hospital unit. Information systems do not support managerial decision-making sufficiently and information needed in the day-to-day operations management in hospital units is unknown. An existing questionnaire was modified and evaluated. Shift leaders, that is, the nurses and physicians responsible for the day-to-day operations management in hospital units were reached using purposive sampling (n = 258). The questionnaire ascertained the importance of information. Cronbach's α ranged from .85-.96 for the subscales. Item - total correlations showed good explanatory power. Managerial activities and information needs differed between respondents in different positions, although all shared about one-third of important information needs. The response rate was 26% (n = 67). The validity and reliability of the questionnaire were good. Attention should be paid to the positions of shift leaders when developing information systems. The questionnaire can be used to determine important information when developing information systems to support day-to-day operations management in hospitals. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. The relevance of accounting information enclosed in performance indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela-Cristina Onica

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This research study is analyzing the relevance of accounting information reflected through the elaboration of firm performance variables and administration because of the necessity of performance to be administrated. The subject of the theme is enclosed in current development of accounting norms at national , european, (Directives and international levels (IAS/IFRS. The analyised topic is based upon the capabilty of accounting to generate information , throug synthesis calculus being settled the nature , the characteristics and the informational valences of financial performance of an organization. The accounting infromation is base for performing the decison process. The rol of accounting in insurring the relevance and comparability of information increased significantly, being already indispensable. A real solution for communication misunderstanig elimination emerged, as result of diputes in perception and interpretation of economic information, as results for the national speciffic norms.The economic communication is demanding for firm not only in its expression but in thinking and in the process of method conceptualization of organization and administration. A detailed financial situation analysis, which are employing annual financial analysis procedures, underling the performance and risks influencing factors, are considering one starting point for addressing the issue. The introduced variables are insuring a whole vision of firm activity and an appropriate strategy for results significance.

  7. Information Needs for a Purchase of Fairtrade Coffee

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Schleenbecker

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This research investigates what information German Fairtrade coffee consumers search for during pre-purchase information seeking and to what extent information is retrieved. Furthermore, the sequence of the information search as well as the degree of cognitive involvement is highlighted. The role of labeling, the importance of additional ethical information and its quality in terms of concreteness as well as the importance of product price and organic origin are addressed. A set of information relevant to Fairtrade consumers was tested by means of the Information Display Matrix (IDM method with 389 Fairtrade consumers. Results show that prior to purchase, information on product packages plays an important role and is retrieved rather extensively, but search strategies that reduce the information processing effort are applied as well. Furthermore, general information is preferred over specific information. Results of two regression analyses indicate that purchase decisions are related to search behavior variables rather than to socio-demographic variables and purchase motives. In order to match product information with consumers’ needs, marketers should offer information that is reduced to the central aspects of Fairtrade.

  8. Family information needs at childhood cancer treatment completion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakefield, Claire E; Butow, Phyllis; Fleming, Catharine A K; Daniel, Gunar; Cohn, Richard J

    2012-04-01

    Despite the recognized importance of information provision across the cancer trajectory, little research has investigated family information needs recently after childhood cancer. This mixed-methods, multiperspective, study explored the information needs of families of childhood cancer survivors in the first year post-treatment. In total, 112 semi-structured telephone interviews were conducted with 19 survivors (mean age 16.2 years, off treatment for ≤36 months), 44 mothers, 34 fathers, and 15 siblings. Interviews were analyzed inductively, line-by-line, using the framework of Miles and Huberman. Emergent themes were cross-tabulated by sample characteristics using QSR NVivo8. Participant views were mixed regarding the need for a "finishing treatment review" with their oncologist (the primary information source for most families); however, many mothers (29/44) and fathers (17/34) and most siblings (14/15) reported receiving insufficient information post-treatment. Information regarding fertility and how to prepare for likely post-treatment challenges were the most cited unmet needs. Online support was ranked highest by survivors (mean score: 7/2/10) and siblings (7.4/10), whilst parents preferred an information booklet (often due to concerns about accessing accurate and relevant information from the Internet). While many participants reported feelings of isolation/loneliness, many were reluctant to attend face-to-face support groups/seminars. Family members of survivors may experience the most acute unmet needs for information about fertility and in preparation for post-treatment challenges. However, provision of the correct amount of information at the right time for each family member during a highly stressful period remains clinically challenging. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Prioritising the relevant information for learning and decision making within orbital and ventromedial prefrontal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, Mark E; Chau, Bolton K H; Kennerley, Steven W

    2015-02-01

    Our environment and internal states are frequently complex, ambiguous and dynamic, meaning we need to have selection mechanisms to ensure we are basing our decisions on currently relevant information. Here, we review evidence that orbitofrontal (OFC) and ventromedial prefrontal cortex (VMPFC) play conserved, critical but distinct roles in this process. While OFC may use specific sensory associations to enhance task-relevant information, particularly in the context of learning, VMPFC plays a role in ensuring irrelevant information does not impinge on the decision in hand.

  10. College Students’ Information Needs and Information Seeking Behaviors regarding Personal Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Wen Liu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzed college students’ reactions toward the issues of personal information. Students’ needs and seeking behaviors for personal information were assessed. Relevant literature was reviewed for framing the research questions and designing the questionnaire items for survey. Survey subjects were students from an university at northern Taiwan. A set of questionnaire items were used to collect research data. Statistical analysis from 252 valid data reveals some items were highly rated: Students reflected highly for their need of knowledge under the security threat of personal information (M = 4.29. They reacted strongly on acquiring knowledge and resources through the Internet (M = 4.24. They preferred the use of resources clear and easy to be understood (M = 4.04. However, most students had low level faith toward either government or non-governmental organizations in securing their personal information (M < 3.0 for most items. More effort among education and government should be emphasized in the future to improve personal use and reduce uncertainty in the use of personal information.

  11. Workplace Learning - How We Keep Track of Relevant Information

    OpenAIRE

    Bischoff, Kerstin; Herder, Eelco; Nejdl, Wolfgang

    2007-01-01

    At the workplace, learning is often a by-product of working on complex projects, requiring self-steered, need-driven and goal-oriented retrieval of information just in time from documents or peers. The personal desktop provides one rich source for learning material and for adaptation of learning resources. Data within that personal information space enables learning from previous experience, sharing tacit and explicit knowledge, and allows for establishing context and context-aware delivery o...

  12. Iterative Filtering of Retrieved Information to Increase Relevance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Zeidman

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Efforts have been underway for years to find more effective ways to retrieve information from large knowledge domains. This effort is now being driven particularly by the Internet and the vast amount of information that is available to unsophisticated users. In the early days of the Internet, some effort involved allowing users to enter Boolean equations of search terms into search engines, for example, rather than just a list of keywords. More recently, effort has focused on understanding a user's desires from past search histories in order to narrow searches. Also there has been much effort to improve the ranking of results based on some measure of relevancy. This paper discusses using iterative filtering of retrieved information to focus in on useful information. This work was done for finding source code correlation and the author extends his findings to Internet searching and e-commerce. The paper presents specific information about a particular filtering application and then generalizes it to other forms of information retrieval.

  13. Workplace Learning - How We Keep Track of Relevant Information

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bischoff, Kerstin; Herder, Eelco; Nejdl, Wolfgang

    2007-01-01

    At the workplace, learning is often a by-product of working on complex projects, requiring self-steered, need-driven and goal-oriented retrieval of information just in time from documents or peers. The personal desktop provides one rich source for learning material and for adaptation of learning

  14. Collecting Safeguards Relevant Trade Information: The IAEA Procurement Outreach Programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schot, P.; El Gebaly, A.; Tarvainen, M.

    2010-01-01

    The increasing awareness of activities of transnational procurement networks to covertly acquire sensitive nuclear related dual use equipment prompted an evolution of safeguards methodologies. One of the responses to this challenge by the Department of Safeguards in the IAEA was to establish the Trade and Technology Unit (TTA) in November 2004 to analyse and report on these covert nuclear related trade activities. To obtain information relevant to this analysis, TTA is engaging States that might be willing to provide this information to the Secretariat on a voluntary basis. This paper will give an overview of current activities, sum up the results achieved and discuss suggestions to further improve this programme made by Member States. (author)

  15. The Common Body of Knowledge: A Framework to Promote Relevant Information Security Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth J. Knapp

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available This study proposes using an established common body of knowledge (CBK as one means of organizing information security literature.  Consistent with calls for more relevant information systems (IS research, this industry-developed framework can motivate future research towards topics that are important to the security practitioner.  In this review, forty-eight articles from ten IS journals from 1995 to 2004 are selected and cross-referenced to the ten domains of the information security CBK.  Further, we distinguish articles as empirical research, frameworks, or tutorials.  Generally, this study identified a need for additional empirical research in every CBK domain including topics related to legal aspects of information security.  Specifically, this study identified a need for additional IS security research relating to applications development, physical security, operations security, and business continuity.  The CBK framework is inherently practitioner oriented and using it will promote relevancy by steering IS research towards topics important to practitioners.  This is important considering the frequent calls by prominent information systems scholars for more relevant research.  Few research frameworks have emerged from the literature that specifically classify the diversity of security threats and range of problems that businesses today face.  With the recent surge of interest in security, the need for a comprehensive framework that also promotes relevant research can be of great value.

  16. Converging research needs across framework convention on tobacco control articles: making research relevant to global tobacco control practice and policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leischow, Scott J; Ayo-Yusuf, Olalekan; Backinger, Cathy L

    2013-04-01

    Much of the research used to support the ratification of the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) was conducted in high-income countries or in highly controlled environments. Therefore, for the global tobacco control community to make informed decisions that will continue to effectively inform policy implementation, it is critical that the tobacco control community, policy makers, and funders have updated information on the state of the science as it pertains to provisions of the FCTC. Following the National Cancer Institute's process model used in identifying the research needs of the U.S. Food and Drug Administration's relatively new tobacco law, a core team of scientists from the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco identified and commissioned internationally recognized scientific experts on the topics covered within the FCTC. These experts analyzed the relevant sections of the FCTC and identified critical gaps in research that is needed to inform policy and practice requirements of the FCTC. This paper summarizes the process and the common themes from the experts' recommendations about the research and related infrastructural needs. Research priorities in common across Articles include improving surveillance, fostering research communication/collaboration across organizations and across countries, and tracking tobacco industry activities. In addition, expanding research relevant to low- and middle-income countries (LMIC), was also identified as a priority, including identification of what existing research findings are transferable, what new country-specific data are needed, and the infrastructure needed to implement and disseminate research so as to inform policy in LMIC.

  17. Challenge of the new information technologies: the need to respond to citizens' information needs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, M.G.

    1983-01-01

    Initiatives have been undertaken in several sectors of society (corporations, universities, associations, government) to apply various information technologies to better meet the needs of institutions and the citizenry. Through pilot projects and modularly developed operational systems, the diverse information requirements of users are being fulfilled in ways only possible through computer and telecommunications support. Selective descriptions are provided of leading videotex, teletext, and home computer systems, including commentary on the educational and informational aspects of these services, with special attention to provisions for rural communities and other disadvantaged societal elements not well served by the existing information infrastructure. 12 references.

  18. Identification of energy information needs and existing information sources for Pennsylvania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wisch, A.; Kunzier, J.; Limaye, D.; Orlando, J.

    1976-01-01

    Through use of a comprehensive interviewing schedule designed to elicit information needs from state policymakers, this study has shown a statewide need for a workable energy information network. As a counterpoint to this needs survey, it was also demonstrated that many of the components of such an information base already are available at the state and Federal levels. In order to assure that Pennsylvania's decision makers have access to this required information in a current and useful format at a minimal cost, this study has suggested a three-pronged action program: (1) In order to construct a workable energy information network for use by the Commonwealth, a liaison should be established with the Governor's Energy Council and the various national and regional energy information sources as cited in this report. (2) An information directory on State, Federal and private sources should be maintained and distributed on a continuing basis. An assessment of each source should be included with information on ease of access and relevance of the source to Pennsylvania. (3) After an information need is unable to be met through use of (1) the state energy information network and/or (2) the state energy information directory, effort should be initiated to satisfy that specific requirement.

  19. Online drug databases: a new method to assess and compare inclusion of clinically relevant information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Cristina; Fresco, Paula; Monteiro, Joaquim; Rama, Ana Cristina Ribeiro

    2013-08-01

    better but performance was inconsistent at subsections level, within the same DB. The method developed allows quantification of the inclusion of relevant information items in DB and comparison with an "ideal database". It is necessary to consult diverse DB in order to find all the relevant information needed to support clinical drug use.

  20. Information Needs While A Disaster Is Occurring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, S. C.

    2010-12-01

    that rainfall intensity at their homes might be less than the intensity up in the mountains where the debris flows would start. Nor did they know that debris flows travel too quickly to be outrun. These and many other examples indicate need for social and natural scientists to increase awareness of what to expect when the disaster strikes. This information must be solidly understood before the event occurs - while a disaster is unfolding there are no teachable moments. Case studies indicate that even those who come into a disaster well educated about the phenomenon can struggle to apply what they know when the real situation is at hand. In addition, psychological studies confirm diminished ability to comprehend information at times of stress.

  1. Health information needs of pregnant women: information sources, motives and barriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamali, Sudabeh; Ahmadian, Leila; Khajouei, Reza; Bahaadinbeigy, Kambiz

    2018-03-01

    Pregnant women should be provided with relevant and useful information to manage this specific period of their lives. Assessing information needs of this group is a prerequisite for providing this information. The aim of this study was to assess the information needs of pregnant women during their pregnancy and childbirth. This descriptive study was conducted on the pregnant women who attended antenatal clinics and obstetricians/gynaecologists' offices in Kerman, Iran, in 2015. Data were collected using a self-administered, valid and reliable questionnaire. A total of 400 women participated in the study. Most pregnant women needed information about care of the foetus (n = 344, 86%), physical and psychological complications after delivery (n = 333, 83%), development and growth of the foetus (n = 330, 82.5%), pregnancy nutrition (n = 327, 82%) and special tests during pregnancy (n = 326, 81.5%). They mostly (n = 195, 49%) looked for information when they were suffering from a disease or pregnancy complications. As pregnant women need extensive information to be able to take care of themselves and their babies, their information needs should be identified and taken into consideration when planning educational programmes for this group of women. © 2017 Health Libraries Group.

  2. Chapter 7. Information needs: Flammulated owls

    Science.gov (United States)

    D. Archibald McCallum

    1994-01-01

    Many kinds of basic information are required to devise a comprehensive and well-informed conservation strategy for this species. It is imperative that a unified, centrally directed approach be taken to obtain this information. Central oversight will make the effort more efficient and cost effective.

  3. Divided attention selectively impairs memory for self-relevant information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turk, David J; Brady-van den Bos, Mirjam; Collard, Philip; Gillespie-Smith, Karri; Conway, Martin A; Cunningham, Sheila J

    2013-05-01

    Information that is relevant to oneself tends to be remembered more than information that relates to other people, but the role of attention in eliciting this "self-reference effect" is unclear. In the present study, we assessed the importance of attention in self-referential encoding using an ownership paradigm, which required participants to encode items under conditions of imagined ownership by themselves or by another person. Previous work has established that this paradigm elicits a robust self-reference effect, with more "self-owned" items being remembered than "other-owned" items. Access to attentional resources was manipulated using divided-attention tasks at encoding. A significant self-reference effect emerged under full-attention conditions and was related to an increase in episodic recollection for self-owned items, but dividing attention eliminated this memory advantage. These findings are discussed in relation to the nature of self-referential cognition and the importance of attentional resources at encoding in the manifestation of the self-reference effect in memory.

  4. Information Needs and Information Gathering Behavior of Medical Doctors in Maiduguri, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan A. Ocheibi

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Survey data describes the results of an investigation on the information needs and information gathering behaviour of Medical doctors in Maiduguri, Nigeria. A total of 158 Medical doctors (128 males and 30 (females were used for the study. The overall response rate was around 70.2 percent. Medical doctors need specific medical information to enhance their knowledge on a day-to-day basis, particularly with the information explosion such as e-mail and internet facilities. Medical doctors prefer the use of publishers catalogues as the most important source for new developments in their relevant fields. Many do not have access to local data bases that are supposed to have remarkable impact on their information gathering behaviour.

  5. The potential for research-based information in public health: Identifying unrecognised information needs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Forsetlund Louise

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective To explore whether there is a potential for greater use of research-based information in public health practice in a local setting. Secondly, if research-based information is relevant, to explore the extent to which this generates questioning behaviour. Design Qualitative study using focus group discussions, observation and interviews. Setting Public health practices in Norway. Participants 52 public health practitioners. Results In general, the public health practitioners had a positive attitude towards research-based information, but believed that they had few cases requiring this type of information. They did say, however, that there might be a potential for greater use. During five focus groups and six observation days we identified 28 questions/cases where it would have been appropriate to seek out research evidence according to our definition. Three of the public health practitioners identified three of these 28 cases as questions for which research-based information could have been relevant. This gap is interpreted as representing unrecognised information needs. Conclusions There is an unrealised potential in public health practice for more frequent and extensive use of research-based information. The practitioners did not appear to reflect on the need for scientific information when faced with new cases and few questions of this type were generated.

  6. Nursing textbooks need to inform about spirituality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-21

    Considering the spiritual needs of patients is an important aspect of holistic patient care. However, many nurses lack knowledge and awareness of the subject, and spirituality is not strongly featured as a key part of holistic care in core nursing textbooks. The author argues that guidance given by nursing textbooks needs to be more applicable to practice.

  7. Conflicting health information: a critical research need.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Delesha M; Geryk, Lorie L; Chen, Annie T; Nagler, Rebekah H; Dieckmann, Nathan F; Han, Paul K J

    2016-12-01

    Conflicting health information is increasing in amount and visibility, as evidenced most recently by the controversy surrounding the risks and benefits of childhood vaccinations. The mechanisms through which conflicting information affects individuals are poorly understood; thus, we are unprepared to help people process conflicting information when making important health decisions. In this viewpoint article, we describe this problem, summarize insights from the existing literature on the prevalence and effects of conflicting health information, and identify important knowledge gaps. We propose a working definition of conflicting health information and describe a conceptual typology to guide future research in this area. The typology classifies conflicting information according to four fundamental dimensions: the substantive issue under conflict, the number of conflicting sources (multiplicity), the degree of evidence heterogeneity and the degree of temporal inconsistency. © 2015 The Authors. Health Expectations Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Information needs for natural fire management planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, David; Bancroft, Larry; Nichols, Thomas; Stohlgren, Thomas

    1985-01-01

    The development and implementation of an effective natural fire management program require a clear definition of goals and objectives, an ever-expanding information base, and effective program evaluation. Examples are given from Sequoia and Kings Canyon National Parks.

  9. Information Need and Seeking Behaviour of Diploma Students of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Understanding information need and seeking behaviour of information users is very crucial. The nature of information behaviour is vigorous thus, information scientist and librarians need to embark on investigation in order to understand the need of their clientele for service provision and improvement. This paper presented ...

  10. Perceived Relevance of an Introductory Information Systems Course to Prospective Business Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Govender

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The study is designed to examine students’ perceptions of the introductory Information Systems (IS course. It was an exploratory study in which 67 students participated. A quantitative approach was followed making use of questionnaires for the collection of data. Using the theory of reasoned action as a framework, the study explores the factors that influence non-IS major students’ perceived relevance of the IS introductory course. The analysis of collected data included descriptive and inferential statistics. Using multiple regression analysis, the results suggest that overall, the independent variables, relevance of the content, previous IT knowledge, relevance for professional practice, IT preference in courses and peers’ influence may account for 72% of the explanatory power for the dependent variable, perceived relevance of the IS course. In addition, the results have shown some strong predictors (IT preference and peers’ influence that influence students’ perceived relevance of the IS course. Practical work was found to be a strong mediating variable toward positive perceptions of IS. The results of this study suggest that students do indeed perceive the introductory IS course to be relevant and match their professional needs, but more practical work would enhance their learning. Implications for theory and practice are discussed as a result of the behavioural intention to perceive the IS course to be relevant and eventually to recruit more IS students.

  11. Impact of Non Accounting Information on The Value Relevance of Accounting Information: The Case of Jordan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DHIAA SHAMKI

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents empirical evidence about the impact of firm’s shareholders number as non accounting information on the value relevance of its earnings and book value of equity as accounting information for Jordanian industrial firms for the period from 1993 to 2002. Employing the return regression analysis and using shareholders number in two proxies namely local and foreign shareholders number, the findings of the study are fourfold. First, Individual earnings are value relevant while book value is irrelevant. Second, combining earnings with book value leads both of them to be irrelevant. Third, extending local shareholders number has significant impact on the value relevance of individual and combined earnings. Forth, extending foreign shareholders number has significant impact on the value relevance of individual book value and combined earnings. Since studies on the value relevance of these variables have neglected Jordan (and the Middle Eastern region, the study is the first especially in Jordan that tries to fill this gap by examiningthe impact of shareholders numbers on the value relevance of earnings and book valueto indicate firm value.

  12. Chapter 12. Information needs: Boreal owls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory D. Hayward

    1994-01-01

    Most humans are reluctant to make decisions without thorough knowledge of the consequences of those decisions. Therefore, a desire for further research is almost universal in any complex management arena. The value of further study is determined, in part, by the cost in time and resources to obtain new information and the cost of making incorrect decisions without the...

  13. Methods of determining information needs for control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borkowski, Z.

    1980-01-01

    Work has begun in the Main Data Center in the field of mining (Poland) on estimation in improvement of methods of determining information requirements necessary for control. Existing methods are briefly surveyed. Their imperfection is shown. The complexity of characteristics for this problem is pointed out.

  14. Information needs for increasing log transport efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timothy P. McDonald; Steven E. Taylor; Robert B. Rummer; Jorge Valenzuela

    2001-01-01

    Three methods of dispatching trucks to loggers were tested using a log transport simulation model: random allocation, fixed assignment of trucks to loggers, and dispatch based on knowledge of the current status of trucks and loggers within the system. This 'informed' dispatch algorithm attempted to minimize the difference in time between when a logger would...

  15. Chapter 17. Information needs: Great gray owls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory D. Hayward

    1994-01-01

    Current understanding of great gray owl biology and ecology is based on studies of less than five populations. In an ideal world, a strong conservation strategy would require significant new information. However, current knowledge suggests that conservation of this forest owl should involve fewer conflicts than either the boreal or flammulated owl. The mix of forest...

  16. Information Needs and Characteritics of the Users of Rural Libraries ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    FIRST LADY

    1996-10-01

    Oct 1, 1996 ... They therefore argue the need for rural library services to .... the need for them to review their information delivery strategies. ... Market news. 40. 14 ... Sturges, P & Chimseu, G (1996) The claim of information provision in the.

  17. Persona Development and Educational Needs to Support Informal Caregivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Awar, Zeina; Kuziemsky, Craig

    2017-01-01

    Informal caregivers are playing an increasing role in community based care delivery. Research is needed that looks at the educational needs of informal caregivers as a precursor to HIT design to support community care delivery. A challenge is informal caregivers have very diverse educational needs. Personas are an approach to describe user characteristics as part of systems design and this approach could be used to understand and categorize the various educational needs of informal caregivers. This paper addresses this research need and provides a method for persona development and the identification of educational needs for informal caregivers.

  18. Information technology skills and training needs of health information management professionals in Nigeria: a nationwide study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taiwo Adeleke, Ibrahim; Hakeem Lawal, Adedeji; Adetona Adio, Razzaq; Adisa Adebisi, AbdulLateef

    There is a lack of effective health information management systems in Nigeria due to the prevalence of cumbersome paper-based and disjointed health data management systems. This can make informed healthcare decision making difficult. This study examined the information technology (IT) skills, utilisation and training needs of Nigerian health information management professionals. We deployed a cross-sectional structured questionnaire to determine the IT skills and training needs of health information management professionals who have leadership roles in the nation's healthcare information systems (n=374). It was found that ownership of a computer, level of education and age were associated with knowledge and perception of IT. The vast majority of participants (98.8%) acknowledged the importance and relevance of IT in healthcare information systems and many expressed a desire for further IT training, especially in statistical analysis. Despite this, few (8.1 %) worked in settings where such systems operate and there exists an IT skill gap among these professionals which is not compatible with their roles in healthcare information systems. To rectify this anomaly they require continuing professional development education, especially in the areas of health IT. Government intervention in the provision of IT infrastructure in order to put into practice a computerised healthcare information system would therefore be a worthwhile undertaking.

  19. 250 Information Needs and Information Seeking Behaviour and Use ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    constitute a user group of library services distinct from the faculty model. .... Also, very vital to note is the quality of information sources that are available to the ... libraries online resources play substantial role in students information seeking.

  20. 76 FR 34075 - Request for Information (RFI) To Identify and Obtain Relevant Information From Public or Private...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-10

    ... Relevant Information From Public or Private Entities With an Interest in Biovigilance; Extension AGENCY... and obtain relevant information regarding the possible development of a public-private partnership... Identify and Obtain Relevant Information from Public or Private Entities with an Interest in Biovigilance...

  1. Needs-adapted Data Presentation in e-Information Tools ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    (iii) Lexicography is a genuine part of information science and can use theories and learn from practice in the information society, but it also needs special theories for lexicography. It is the third opinion we will maintain in this paper by discussing the information needs in the information society and partly using the function ...

  2. Retirees and their Information Needs: A Survey Oluremi A. Abiolu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Information Impact Vol. 6 (2) 2015 ... retirees and their new social status necessitated the study of their information needs. ... gives up one's work, position or business ... media to computer-based information ..... of women in small business in.

  3. Perceived need for information of patients with haematological malignancies: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rood, Janneke A J; Eeltink, Corien M; van Zuuren, Florence J; Verdonck-de Leeuw, Irma M; Huijgens, Peter C

    2015-02-01

    To provide insight into the perceived need for information of patients with haematological malignancies. Providing timely and accurate information to patients diagnosed with a haematological malignancy is a challenge in clinical practice; treatment often has to start promptly, with little time to inform patients. Literature review. A comprehensive literature search was conducted from all available literature to May 2013 in the databases: Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, PsycINFO and PubMed (Medline). Relevant studies were reviewed regarding the perceived need for information on various topics, sources of information and satisfaction with information provided. The initial search revealed 215 articles, fourteen of which were relevant. Patients need basic information on the disease (diagnosis and diagnostics), treatment (various treatment options, side effects and duration), prognosis (curability and prolonging life) and all other topics (recovery, self-care and psychosocial functioning). Need for detailed information varied between studies. Patients expressed a higher need for medical than for psychosocial information. Patients preferred to receive information from their doctors the most, followed by nurses. Most studies described patients' satisfaction with the information provided. Based on the limited number of data available, medical information is for patients of higher priority compared to psychosocial information. Patients need basic information on diagnosis, treatment, prognosis and all other topics. Need for detailed information varied between studies. Patients were satisfied with the provided information, preferably offered by doctors and nurses. The perceived need for information and satisfaction with the information provided differs strongly between patients. In clinical practice, more attention is needed for information tailored to the patient, taking into account important moderating factors such as age, type of cancer, time

  4. Health information technology workforce needs of rural primary care practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skillman, Susan M; Andrilla, C Holly A; Patterson, Davis G; Fenton, Susan H; Ostergard, Stefanie J

    2015-01-01

    This study assessed electronic health record (EHR) and health information technology (HIT) workforce resources needed by rural primary care practices, and their workforce-related barriers to implementing and using EHRs and HIT. Rural primary care practices (1,772) in 13 states (34.2% response) were surveyed in 2012 using mailed and Web-based questionnaires. EHRs or HIT were used by 70% of respondents. Among practices using or intending to use the technology, most did not plan to hire new employees to obtain EHR/HIT skills and even fewer planned to hire consultants or vendors to fill gaps. Many practices had staff with some basic/entry, intermediate and/or advanced-level skills, but nearly two-thirds (61.4%) needed more staff training. Affordable access to vendors/consultants who understand their needs and availability of community college and baccalaureate-level training were the workforce-related barriers cited by the highest percentages of respondents. Accessing the Web/Internet challenged nearly a quarter of practices in isolated rural areas, and nearly a fifth in small rural areas. Finding relevant vendors/consultants and qualified staff were greater barriers in small and isolated rural areas than in large rural areas. Rural primary care practices mainly will rely on existing staff for continued implementation and use of EHR/HIT systems. Infrastructure and workforce-related barriers remain and must be overcome before practices can fully manage patient populations and exchange patient information among care system partners. Efforts to monitor adoption of these skills and ongoing support for continuing education will likely benefit rural populations. © 2014 National Rural Health Association.

  5. Climate Local Information over the Mediterranean to Respond User Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruti, P.

    2012-12-01

    CLIM-RUN aims at developing a protocol for applying new methodologies and improved modeling and downscaling tools for the provision of adequate climate information at regional to local scale that is relevant to and usable by different sectors of society (policymakers, industry, cities, etc.). Differently from current approaches, CLIM-RUN will develop a bottom-up protocol directly involving stakeholders early in the process with the aim of identifying well defined needs at the regional to local scale. The improved modeling and downscaling tools will then be used to optimally respond to these specific needs. The protocol is assessed by application to relevant case studies involving interdependent sectors, primarily tourism and energy, and natural hazards (wild fires) for representative target areas (mountainous regions, coastal areas, islands). The region of interest for the project is the Greater Mediterranean area, which is particularly important for two reasons. First, the Mediterranean is a recognized climate change hot-spot, i.e. a region particularly sensitive and vulnerable to global warming. Second, while a number of countries in Central and Northern Europe have already in place well developed climate service networks (e.g. the United Kingdom and Germany), no such network is available in the Mediterranean. CLIM-RUN is thus also intended to provide the seed for the formation of a Mediterranean basin-side climate service network which would eventually converge into a pan-European network. The general time horizon of interest for the project is the future period 2010-2050, a time horizon that encompasses the contributions of both inter-decadal variability and greenhouse-forced climate change. In particular, this time horizon places CLIM-RUN within the context of a new emerging area of research, that of decadal prediction, which will provide a strong potential for novel research.

  6. Communicating stereotype-relevant information: is factual information subject to the same communication biases as fictional information?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Ruth L; Webb, Thomas L; Stewart, Andrew J

    2009-07-01

    Factual information is more frequently read and discussed than fictional information. However, research on the role of communication in shaping stereotypes has focused almost exclusively on fictional narratives. In Experiments 1 and 2 a newspaper article containing information about heroin users was communicated along chains of 4 people. No stereotype-consistency bias was observed. Instead, a greater proportion of stereotype-inconsistent information was communicated than was stereotype-consistent or -neutral information. Three further experiments investigated explanations for the difference between the communication of fictional and factual information. Experiment 3 ruled out the possibility that participants' beliefs about the validity of the information could influence the way that it is communicated. Experiments 4 and 5 divided information into concrete (a specific event or fact) or abstract (opinion). A stereotype-consistency bias emerged only for abstract information. In summary, linguistic abstraction moderates whether stereotype-consistency biases emerge in the communication of stereotype-relevant factual information.

  7. User-oriented information access by information need recontextualisation and articulation. Application in nuclear criticality safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medini, Lionel

    2001-01-01

    This research thesis addresses the design methodology of a system of access to information which is based on an access to relevant information with respect to user needs. In a first part, the author addresses the various issues related to access to information and to information understanding. The next part addresses the involved methods and tools and presents the operational approach adopted for this research regarding access to information. Different disciplines are addressed (knowledge management, ergonomics and information science) and different technologies are used (W3 and XML, DVP, ActiveX, pdf format and the Adobe suite). In the core chapter, the author reports the design of a LMCE (a multi-user book of electronic knowledge) which allows both hypermedia navigation in knowledge diagrams and a construction of a document query. This design is based on a knowledge-management modelling to define diagrams, on ergonomics modelling for user profile identification, and on information science for a specific indexing of the information system. The prototype can be visualized with a web browser such as Internet Explorer 5. The author reports a first assessment and discusses the contribution of his approach to the problematic of access to information which is to be applied to nuclear criticality safety [fr

  8. 76 FR 63308 - Data and Data Needs To Advance Risk Assessment for Emerging Infectious Diseases Relevant to Blood...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-12

    ...] Data and Data Needs To Advance Risk Assessment for Emerging Infectious Diseases Relevant to Blood and... Needs to Advance Risk Assessment for Emerging Infectious Diseases Relevant to Blood and Blood Products... an important tool for evaluating the risks associated with new emerging infectious diseases (EIDs...

  9. Information Needs of Media Practitioners in Karachi, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Munira Nasreen Ansari

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This study explores the kind of information generally needed by media practitioners (MPs in Karachi, Pakistan to perform the duties. 185 MPs from three types of media (TV, radio and newspaper were surveyed. Reports of various organizations are the most used source of information. MPs need selective, rather than exhaustive, information on a daily basis. The findings of this study could help design library services and need-based collection development in media libraries.

  10. the relevance of libraries and information communicaton technology

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GRACE

    Information and Communications Technology (ICT) could be used to improve .... accountable, efficient and effective interaction between the public, business and ... agencies, research institutions and private organizations, such as print and ...

  11. The need to know: The information needs of parents of infants with an intellectual disability-a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, Tracy; Redley, Bernice; Ottmann, Goetz

    2017-11-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the information needs of parents of infants with an intellectual disability in the first year of life. Parents whose infant has an intellectual disability need access to information if they are to facilitate optimal care for their child. A lack of timely, accurate information provision by health professionals, particularly nurses and midwives, can increase parental stress and hinder access to the supports they and their infant require. A qualitative descriptive methodology was used for the study. Qualitative interviews were undertaken with parents of 11 children with intellectual disabilities in Victoria, Australia in 2014. Data were analysed using descriptive thematic analysis. Parents experienced challenges accessing quality information during the first year of their child's life. Parents required incremental information provision to build a strong knowledge base to facilitate optimal care for their infants. Three types of knowledge were identified as crucial for parents: knowledge about (1) the infant's condition; (2) the infant's specific needs and (3) available supports and services. Health professionals were the key resource to access this information. Health professionals' responsibilities include providing relevant, timely information to parents of infants with intellectual disabilities. This study conceptualises three types of information parents need to develop a strong knowledge base to guide their infant's care and provides guidance concerning the optimal timing for the delivery of information. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Meeting the Information Needs of Remote Library Users: The Case ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Many higher educational institutions now offer distance academic programmes through ... Keywords: information needs, distance learning, remote library users, distance education .... younger counterparts because of their higher motivation.

  13. Do information systems meet the needs of primary care trusts?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diane Jones

    2003-06-01

    The paper concludes that although PCG/Ts and general practices have made substantial progress, there is a long way to go before information providers generate high-quality information to support the needs of PCTs.

  14. Climate information needs in southern Africa: A review

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Lötter, Johanna M

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available User needs assessments, the co-production of climate information, and the creation of tailored climate services are critical factors in providing increasing useful and accessible products for the management of climate risks and informing climate...

  15. Needs-adapted Data Presentation in e-Information Tools

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    of Business, Aarhus, Denmark (hb@asb.dk) and extraordinary professor,. Department of ... Lexicography is a genuine part of information science and can use theories and learn from practice in the .... Different information needs over time.

  16. People and Decisions: Meeting the Information Needs of Managers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blake, J.I.; LeMaster, E.

    2000-10-01

    The information needs of managers with respect to avian species at the SRS are identified. The process by which information is integrated into decision making are discussed. Numerous studies of upland bird species at SRS were conducted as part of the DOE Biodiversity Program. This information is being incorporated into biological assessments and plan through modeling and geographic information systems.

  17. Relevant Information and Informed Consent in Research: In Defense of the Subjective Standard of Disclosure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dranseika, Vilius; Piasecki, Jan; Waligora, Marcin

    2017-02-01

    In this article, we seek to contribute to the debate on the requirement of disclosure in the context of informed consent for research. We defend the subjective standard of disclosure and describe ways to implement this standard in research practice. We claim that the researcher should make an effort to find out what kinds of information are likely to be relevant for those consenting to research. This invites researchers to take empirical survey information seriously, attempt to understand the cultural context, talk to patients to be better able to understand what can be potentially different concerns and interests prevalent in the target population. The subjective standard of disclosure should be seen as a moral ideal that perhaps can never be perfectly implemented but still can and should be used as a normative ideal guiding research practice. In the light of these discussions, we call for more empirical research on what considerations are likely to be perceived as relevant by potential research participants recruited from different socio-economic and cultural groups.

  18. Information needs in people with diabetes mellitus: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biernatzki, Lisa; Kuske, Silke; Genz, Jutta; Ritschel, Michaela; Stephan, Astrid; Bächle, Christina; Droste, Sigrid; Grobosch, Sandra; Ernstmann, Nicole; Chernyak, Nadja; Icks, Andrea

    2018-02-14

    The purpose of this study was to identify and analyse currently available knowledge on information needs of people with diabetes mellitus, also considering possible differences between subgroups and associated factors. Twelve databases including MEDLINE, EMBASE and the Cochrane Library were searched up until June 2015. Publications that addressed self-reported information needs of people with diabetes mellitus were included. Each study was assessed by using critical appraisal tools, e.g. from the UK National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Extraction and content analysis were performed systematically. In total, 1993 publications were identified and 26 were finally included. Nine main categories of information needs were identified, including 'treatment-process', 'course of disease', 'abnormalities of glucose metabolism' and 'diabetes through the life cycle'. Differences between patient subgroups, such as type of diabetes or age, were sparsely analysed. Some studies analysed associations between information needs and factors such as participation preferences or information seeking. They found, for example, that information needs on social support or life tasks were associated with information seeking in Internet forums. Information needs in people with diabetes mellitus, appear to be high, yet poorly investigated. Research is needed regarding differences between diverse diabetes populations, including gender aspects or changes in information needs during the disease course. The review protocol has been registered at Prospero ( CRD42015029610 ).

  19. Information needs of the 'frontline' public health workforce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutland, J D; Smith, A M

    2010-11-01

    To explore the information needs of the 'frontline' public health workforce, whether needs are being met and barriers to meeting needs. A qualitative research study using in-depth semi-structured interviews. A qualitative study, comprising eight semi-structured interviews, was conducted with one representative of each of eight categories of frontline public health professional (children's centre manager, community development worker, community midwife, district nurse, health visitor, community pharmacist, practice nurse and school nurse) to determine their public health role, information needs and barriers to meeting needs. Interviews were tape-recorded and data were analysed to identify themes for each category and common themes. Respondents expressed similar needs, some of which could be met by a dedicated library and knowledge service, given adequate funding, and some of which need input from management. The library could supply: news bulletins and up-to-date information, especially local information; targeted local websites and databases; training in literature-searching skills, basic information technology (IT) skills and critical appraisal; course and work support, with access to local library facilities; a literature search support service; signposting, with a named library contact; and access to information for patients. Management input is required to remedy basic structural barriers, including: lack of IT equipment and training; lack of time to access information; lack of funding for courses and professional development; and lack of communication of information from higher levels. Some information needs can be met by improvements and widening of access to library services, which may need increased funding. However, some barriers to meeting information needs require action elsewhere in the public health management structure. Changes need to be made in communication of public health strategy, and engagement needs to be improved between higher managerial

  20. relevance of information warfare models to critical infrastructure

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ismith

    Critical infrastructure models, strategies and policies should take information ... gain an advantage over a competitor or adversary through the use of one's own .... digital communications system, where the vehicles are analogous to bits or packets, ..... performance degraded, causing an increase in traffic finding a new route.

  1. The relevance of visual information on learning sounds in infancy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ter Schure, S.M.M.

    2016-01-01

    Newborn infants are sensitive to combinations of visual and auditory speech. Does this ability to match sounds and sights affect how infants learn the sounds of their native language? And are visual articulations the only type of visual information that can influence sound learning? This

  2. System for Selection of Relevant Information for Decision Support

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kalina, Jan; Seidl, L.; Zvára, K.; Grünfeldová, H.; Slovák, Dalibor; Zvárová, Jana

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 1, č. 1 (2013), s. 46-46 ISSN 1805-8698. [EFMI 2013 Special Topic Conference. 17.04.2013-19.04.2013, Prague] Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : decision support system * web-service * information extraction * high-dimension * gene expressions Subject RIV: IN - Informatics, Computer Science

  3. 50 CFR 424.13 - Sources of information and relevant data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Sources of information and relevant data... Sources of information and relevant data. When considering any revision of the lists, the Secretary shall..., administrative reports, maps or other graphic materials, information received from experts on the subject, and...

  4. Automated Classification of Consumer Health Information Needs in Patient Portal Messages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronin, Robert M.; Fabbri, Daniel; Denny, Joshua C.; Jackson, Gretchen Purcell

    2015-01-01

    Patients have diverse health information needs, and secure messaging through patient portals is an emerging means by which such needs are expressed and met. As patient portal adoption increases, growing volumes of secure messages may burden healthcare providers. Automated classification could expedite portal message triage and answering. We created four automated classifiers based on word content and natural language processing techniques to identify health information needs in 1000 patient-generated portal messages. Logistic regression and random forest classifiers detected single information needs well, with area under the curves of 0.804–0.914. A logistic regression classifier accurately found the set of needs within a message, with a Jaccard index of 0.859 (95% Confidence Interval: (0.847, 0.871)). Automated classification of consumer health information needs expressed in patient portal messages is feasible and may allow direct linking to relevant resources or creation of institutional resources for commonly expressed needs. PMID:26958285

  5. Automated Classification of Consumer Health Information Needs in Patient Portal Messages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronin, Robert M; Fabbri, Daniel; Denny, Joshua C; Jackson, Gretchen Purcell

    2015-01-01

    Patients have diverse health information needs, and secure messaging through patient portals is an emerging means by which such needs are expressed and met. As patient portal adoption increases, growing volumes of secure messages may burden healthcare providers. Automated classification could expedite portal message triage and answering. We created four automated classifiers based on word content and natural language processing techniques to identify health information needs in 1000 patient-generated portal messages. Logistic regression and random forest classifiers detected single information needs well, with area under the curves of 0.804-0.914. A logistic regression classifier accurately found the set of needs within a message, with a Jaccard index of 0.859 (95% Confidence Interval: (0.847, 0.871)). Automated classification of consumer health information needs expressed in patient portal messages is feasible and may allow direct linking to relevant resources or creation of institutional resources for commonly expressed needs.

  6. Revealing Relationships among Relevant Climate Variables with Information Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knuth, Kevin H.; Golera, Anthony; Curry, Charles T.; Huyser, Karen A.; Kevin R. Wheeler; Rossow, William B.

    2005-01-01

    The primary objective of the NASA Earth-Sun Exploration Technology Office is to understand the observed Earth climate variability, thus enabling the determination and prediction of the climate's response to both natural and human-induced forcing. We are currently developing a suite of computational tools that will allow researchers to calculate, from data, a variety of information-theoretic quantities such as mutual information, which can be used to identify relationships among climate variables, and transfer entropy, which indicates the possibility of causal interactions. Our tools estimate these quantities along with their associated error bars, the latter of which is critical for describing the degree of uncertainty in the estimates. This work is based upon optimal binning techniques that we have developed for piecewise-constant, histogram-style models of the underlying density functions. Two useful side benefits have already been discovered. The first allows a researcher to determine whether there exist sufficient data to estimate the underlying probability density. The second permits one to determine an acceptable degree of round-off when compressing data for efficient transfer and storage. We also demonstrate how mutual information and transfer entropy can be applied so as to allow researchers not only to identify relations among climate variables, but also to characterize and quantify their possible causal interactions.

  7. Licensing information needs for a high-level waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wright, R.J.; Greeves, J.T.; Logsdon, M.J.

    1985-01-01

    The information needs for licensing findings during the development of a repository for high-level waste (HLW) are described. In particular, attention is given to the information and needs to demonstrate, for construction authorization purposes: repository constructibility, waste retrievability, waste containment, and waste isolation

  8. Information needs and seeking behaviour of Tanzanian forestry ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examined information needs and seeking behaviour of Tanzanian forestry researchers in the growing global electronic environment. A questionnaire based survey was conducted in three forestry research institutions. The findings indicated a wide range of information needs among forestry researchers in the ...

  9. Information needs and seeking behaviour of distance learning ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Information need is a universally widespread essential feature of production, consumption and exchange of human mental creativity across the globe. The objective of the study was to assess the information needs, seeking behavior and sources used by the Distance Leaning Students of University of Lagos. The survey ...

  10. Postoperative information needs and communication barriers of esophageal cancer patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henselmans, Inge; Jacobs, Marc; van Berge Henegouwen, Mark I.; de Haes, Hanneke C. J. M.; Sprangers, Mirjam A. G.; Smets, Ellen M. A.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Given the poor prognosis of esophageal cancer and the impact of surgery on health-related quality of life (HRQL), addressing patients' postoperative information needs is important. This study aimed to examine (1) the content and type of patients' information needs and (2) patient

  11. Meeting The Information Needs Of The Rural Dwellers Through ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Meeting The Information Needs Of The Rural Dwellers Through Public Library Services. ... majority of the population who are rural dwellers. And suggested that, the public library should repackage its services in order to reach this group of users in the future. Key words: information need, rural dwellers, public library services ...

  12. Do patients' information needs decrease over the course of radiotherapy?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Douma, Kirsten F. L.; Koning, Caro C. E.; Zandbelt, Linda C.; de Haes, Hanneke C. J. M.; Smets, Ellen M. A.

    2012-01-01

    We aimed to investigate if cancer patients' information needs decrease during radiotherapy and if so, which patient, consultation and radiation oncologist characteristics are associated with a decrease in information needs over time. In this longitudinal study, patients (n = 104) completed a

  13. A Theoretical Approach to Information Needs Across Different Healthcare Stakeholders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raitoharju, Reetta; Aarnio, Eeva

    Increased access to medical information can lead to information overload among both the employees in the healthcare sector as well as among healthcare consumers. Moreover, medical information can be hard to understand for consumers who have no prerequisites for interpreting and understanding it. Information systems (e.g. electronic patient records) are normally designed to meet the demands of one professional group, for instance those of physicians. Therefore, the same information in the same form is presented to all the users of the systems regardless of the actual need or prerequisites. The purpose of this article is to illustrate the differences in information needs across different stakeholders in healthcare. A literature review was conducted to collect examples of these different information needs. Based on the findings the role of more user specific information systems is discussed.

  14. A Planetary Defense Gateway for Smart Discovery of relevant Information for Decision Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bambacus, Myra; Yang, Chaowei Phil; Leung, Ronald Y.; Barbee, Brent; Nuth, Joseph A.; Seery, Bernard; Jiang, Yongyao; Qin, Han; Li, Yun; Yu, Manzhu; hide

    2017-01-01

    A Planetary Defense Gateway for Smart Discovery of relevant Information for Decision Support presentation discussing background, framework architecture, current results, ongoing research, conclusions.

  15. 77 FR 42339 - Improving Contracting Officers' Access to Relevant Integrity Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-18

    ... contracting officers' access to relevant information about contractor business ethics in the Federal Awardee... ability to evaluate the business ethics of prospective contractors and protect the Government from...

  16. Information needs and risk perception as predictors of risk information seeking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ter Huurne, E.F.J.; Gutteling, Jan M.

    2008-01-01

    This paper introduces a theoretical framework that describes the importance of public's information sufficiency, risk perception, and self-efficacy as predictors of intended risk information seeking behaviour. Based on theoretical assumptions, measurement instruments for relevant concepts were

  17. Investors in need of social, ethical, and environmental information

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hummels, H.G.J.A.; Timmer, D.

    2004-01-01

    In this contribution we will briefly discuss the shareholders' need for social, ethical and environmental information and the efforts of corporations to address this need. Looking at three cases, we will raise some doubt with regard to the adequacy of corporate SEE reporting to meet the needs of

  18. National healthcare systems and the need for health information governance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hovenga, Evelyn J S

    2013-01-01

    This chapter gives an overview of health data, information and knowledge governance needs and associated generic principles so that information systems are able to automate such data collections from point-of-care operational systems. Also covered are health information systems' dimensions and known barriers to the delivery of quality health services, including environmental, technology and governance influences of any population's health status within the context of national health systems. This is where health information managers and health informaticians need to resolve the many challenges associated with eHealth implementations where data are assets, efficient information flow is essential, the ability to acquire new knowledge desirable, and where the use of data and information needs to be viewed from a governance perspective to ensure reliable and quality information is obtained to enhance decision making.

  19. Identifying Employer Needs from Accounting Information Systems Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillon, Thomas W.; Kruck, S. E.

    2008-01-01

    As the need for new hires with accounting and information technology knowledge increases, a new major in accounting information systems (AIS) has emerged. This new AIS degree is a hybrid of accounting concepts and common business subjects combined with key information technology issues. Employers were presented with 56 core content areas found in…

  20. Information needs of lecturers in the Faculty of Business ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Information Impact: Journal of Information and Knowledge Management ... Benjamin U. Ugwoke, George E. Asogwa ... The information needs of 30 lecturers in the faculty of Business Administration, University of Nigeria Enugu Campus ... support for book production; general knowledge; current affairs and health matters.

  1. Interventions before consultations for helping patients address their information needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinnersley, P; Edwards, A; Hood, K; Cadbury, N; Ryan, R; Prout, H; Owen, D; Macbeth, F; Butow, P; Butler, C

    2007-07-18

    Patients often do not get the information they require from doctors and nurses. To address this problem, interventions directed at patients to help them gather information in their healthcare consultations have been proposed and tested. To assess the effects on patients, clinicians and the healthcare system of interventions which are delivered before consultations, and which have been designed to help patients (and/or their representatives) address their information needs within consultations. We searched: the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL, The Cochrane Library (issue 3 2006); MEDLINE (1966 to September 2006); EMBASE (1980 to September 2006); PsycINFO (1985 to September 2006); and other databases, with no language restriction. We also searched reference lists of articles and related reviews, and handsearched Patient Education and Counseling (1986 to September 2006). Randomised controlled trials of interventions before consultations designed to encourage question asking and information gathering by the patient. Two researchers assessed the search output independently to identify potentially-relevant studies, selected studies for inclusion, and extracted data. We conducted a narrative synthesis of the included trials, and meta-analyses of five outcomes. We identified 33 randomised controlled trials, from 6 countries and in a range of settings. A total of 8244 patients was randomised and entered into studies. The most common interventions were question checklists and patient coaching. Most interventions were delivered immediately before the consultations.Commonly-occurring outcomes were: question asking, patient participation, patient anxiety, knowledge, satisfaction and consultation length. A minority of studies showed positive effects for these outcomes. Meta-analyses, however, showed small and statistically significant increases for question asking (standardised mean difference (SMD) 0.27 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.19 to 0.36)) and

  2. Health information technology knowledge and skills needed by HIT employers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenton, S H; Gongora-Ferraez, M J; Joost, E

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate the health information technology (HIT) workforce knowledge and skills needed by HIT employers. Statewide face-to-face and online focus groups of identified HIT employer groups in Austin, Brownsville, College Station, Dallas, El Paso, Houston, Lubbock, San Antonio, and webinars for rural health and nursing informatics. HIT employers reported needing an HIT workforce with diverse knowledge and skills ranging from basic to advanced, while covering information technology, privacy and security, clinical practice, needs assessment, contract negotiation, and many other areas. Consistent themes were that employees needed to be able to learn on the job and must possess the ability to think critically and problem solve. Many employers wanted persons with technical skills, yet also the knowledge and understanding of healthcare operations. The HIT employer focus groups provided valuable insight into employee skills needed in this fast-growing field. Additionally, this information will be utilized to develop a statewide HIT workforce needs assessment survey.

  3. Postoperative information needs and communication barriers of esophageal cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henselmans, Inge; Jacobs, Marc; van Berge Henegouwen, Mark I; de Haes, Hanneke C J M; Sprangers, Mirjam A G; Smets, Ellen M A

    2012-07-01

    Given the poor prognosis of esophageal cancer and the impact of surgery on health-related quality of life (HRQL), addressing patients' postoperative information needs is important. This study aimed to examine (1) the content and type of patients' information needs and (2) patient perceived facilitators and barriers to patient participation. Interviews were conducted with 20 purposefully selected esophageal cancer patients. Open and structured questions were alternated. The transcribed interviews were analysed inductively and deductively, using MAXqda. Patients' post-operative information needs concerned HRQL, medical care and prognosis, covering several sub-domains. Different types of needs were identified, e.g., requests for information about cause, course and self-management. Barriers to patient participation mostly reflected beliefs and skills, and could be categorized into agenda and communication barriers. Facilitators of patient participation reflected physician, patient and interaction characteristics, companion support and pre-visit preparation. Many patients saw merit in pre-visit preparation interventions; few endorsed skill-building interventions. This study listed the postoperative information needs of esophageal cancer patients. Moreover, it gained insight into patient-perceived barriers and facilitators of patient participation. The findings demonstrate what information physicians should have available and informs interventions to support patients in meeting their information needs. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Information seeking research needs extension towards tasks and technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalervo Järvelin

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the research into information seeking and its directions at a general level. We approach this topic by analysis and argumentation based on past research in the domain. We begin by presenting a general model of information seeking and retrieval (IS&R which is used to derive nine broad dimensions that are needed to analyze IS&R. Past research is then contrasted with the dimensions and shown not to cover the dimensions sufficiently. Based on an analysis of the goals of information seeking research, and a view on human task performance augmentation, it is then shown that information seeking is intimately associated with, and dependent on, other aspects of work; tasks and technology included. This leads to a discussion on design and evaluation frameworks for IS&R, based on which two action lines are proposed: information retrieval research needs extension towards more context and information seeking research needs extension towards tasks and technology.

  5. Testing the idea of privileged awareness of self-relevant information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Timo; Siebold, Alisha; van Zoest, Wieske

    2016-03-01

    Self-relevant information is prioritized in processing. Some have suggested the mechanism driving this advantage is akin to the automatic prioritization of physically salient stimuli in information processing (Humphreys & Sui, 2015). Here we investigate whether self-relevant information is prioritized for awareness under continuous flash suppression (CFS), as has been found for physical salience. Gabor patches with different orientations were first associated with the labels You or Other. Participants were more accurate in matching the self-relevant association, replicating previous findings of self-prioritization. However, breakthrough into awareness from CFS did not differ between self- and other-associated Gabors. These findings demonstrate that self-relevant information has no privileged access to awareness. Rather than modulating the initial visual processes that precede and lead to awareness, the advantage of self-relevant information may better be characterized as prioritization at later processing stages. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  6. The information needs of adult cancer survivors across the cancer continuum: A scoping review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Chloe; Flight, Ingrid; Chapman, Janine; Fennell, Kate; Wilson, Carlene

    2017-03-01

    To provide an updated synthesis of the literature that investigates the self-reported information needs of people diagnosed with cancer across the cancer continuum. We conducted a scoping review of the literature published from August 2003 to June 2015 and expanded an existing typology summarizing the information needs of people diagnosed with cancer. The majority of the included studies (n=104) focused on questions relevant to the diagnosis/active treatment phase of the cancer continuum (52.9%) and thus the most frequently identified information needs related to this phase (33.4%). Information needs varied across the continuum and the results highlight the importance of recognising this fact. People diagnosed with cancer experience discrete information needs at different points from diagnosis to survival. Much of the research conducted in this area has focused on their information needs during the diagnosis and treatment of cancer, and literature relating to information needs following completion of treatment is sparse. Further research is needed to discern the specific nature of the treatment concerns and identify the information needs that survivors experience during recurrence of cancer, metastasis or changes in diagnosis, and the end of life phase of the cancer continuum. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. The Informing Needs of Procurement Officers in Israel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yahel Giat

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim/Purpose: To develop and introduce a questionnaire that investigates the informing needs, information-seeking behavior, and supplier selection of procurement officers in Israel. The questionnaire’s internal consistency reliability is given. Additionally, we describe the demographic description of the procurement officers in Israel. Background: Procurement science is an important field that affects firms’ profits in the private sector and is significant to growth, innovation, sustainability, and welfare in the public sector. There is little research about the informing needs of procurement officers in general and particularly in Israel. Methodology: A quantitative questionnaire that is sent to all the procurement officers in Israel’s procuring association. Contribution: The questionnaire that is developed in this paper may be used by other researchers and practitioners to evaluate the information needs of procurement officers. Findings: The typical procurement officer is male, with a bachelor degree and is digitally proficient. Recommendations for Practitioners: The procuring side can use the questionnaire to develop better tools for obtaining information efficiently. The supplying side can use this knowledge to improve its exposure to potential customers and address its customer’s needs better. Recommendation for Researchers: The questionnaire can address theoretical questions such as how digital literacy affects the procuring process and provide empirical findings about active research areas such as supplier selection and information-seeking behavior. Future Research: Future research will examine the relationship between the various variables and demographic features to understand why specific information needs and information-seeking behaviors arise.

  8. Farmers' Information Needs in Soap Opera Utilisation for Agricultural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    schedule on farmers' enterprise characteristics, information needs and perceived ... Like diffusion theory, soap opera uses a typical EE model to have appropriate entertainment and ... process, the narrative does eventually close (Allen, 2014).

  9. Information Needs of Lecturers in the Faculty of Business ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    University Library, Enugu State University of Science and Technology, Nigeria. Abstract. The degree of ... Keywords: Information needs; Lecturers; Business Administration; University,. Nigeria, libraries .... Advancement of knowledge through ...

  10. A User-Centered Approach to Adaptive Hypertext Based on an Information Relevance Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathe, Nathalie; Chen, James

    1994-01-01

    Rapid and effective to information in large electronic documentation systems can be facilitated if information relevant in an individual user's content can be automatically supplied to this user. However most of this knowledge on contextual relevance is not found within the contents of documents, it is rather established incrementally by users during information access. We propose a new model for interactively learning contextual relevance during information retrieval, and incrementally adapting retrieved information to individual user profiles. The model, called a relevance network, records the relevance of references based on user feedback for specific queries and user profiles. It also generalizes such knowledge to later derive relevant references for similar queries and profiles. The relevance network lets users filter information by context of relevance. Compared to other approaches, it does not require any prior knowledge nor training. More importantly, our approach to adaptivity is user-centered. It facilitates acceptance and understanding by users by giving them shared control over the adaptation without disturbing their primary task. Users easily control when to adapt and when to use the adapted system. Lastly, the model is independent of the particular application used to access information, and supports sharing of adaptations among users.

  11. Serving the Needs of the Latina Community for Health Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. A. Yaros

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Latinos remain the largest US population with limited health literacy (Andrulis D.P. & Brach, 2007. Concerned with how local media can meet the information needs of underserved audiences, we interviewed Latinas who were pregnant or mothers of young children living in a Spanish speaking community, and surveyed 33 local health professionals. Findings are that Latina women’s most common source of health information was family and friends. They said they tune to Spanish television and radio programs, but gave low grades to news media for health information. Medical professionals agreed that Latinas generally get their health information through friends and family, and rated the media poorly in terms of serving Latinas’ needs. Since the data indicate that the local news media are not serving Latinas’ health information needs as much as they could, we offer recommendations to potentially exploit new technological affordances and suggest expansion of conventional definitions of health literacy.

  12. Always Connected at Work? : The Role of Information Novelty and Individual Needs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Jonge, Kiki M.M.; Rietzschel, Eric F.; Van Yperen, Nico W.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: As a result of new ICT developments, many workers are almost constantly connected to job-relevant information and co-workers, regardless of when or where they are working. Depending on workers’ psychological needs, constantly being connected may be perceived as favorable (e.g., when it

  13. Historical maintenance relevant information road-map for a self-learning maintenance prediction procedural approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Francisco J.; Reyes, Antonio; Cáceres, Noelia; Romero, Luis M.; Benitez, Francisco G.; Morgado, Joao; Duarte, Emanuel; Martins, Teresa

    2017-09-01

    A large percentage of transport infrastructures are composed of linear assets, such as roads and rail tracks. The large social and economic relevance of these constructions force the stakeholders to ensure a prolonged health/durability. Even though, inevitable malfunctioning, breaking down, and out-of-service periods arise randomly during the life cycle of the infrastructure. Predictive maintenance techniques tend to diminish the appearance of unpredicted failures and the execution of needed corrective interventions, envisaging the adequate interventions to be conducted before failures show up. This communication presents: i) A procedural approach, to be conducted, in order to collect the relevant information regarding the evolving state condition of the assets involved in all maintenance interventions; this reported and stored information constitutes a rich historical data base to train Machine Learning algorithms in order to generate reliable predictions of the interventions to be carried out in further time scenarios. ii) A schematic flow chart of the automatic learning procedure. iii) Self-learning rules from automatic learning from false positive/negatives. The description, testing, automatic learning approach and the outcomes of a pilot case are presented; finally some conclusions are outlined regarding the methodology proposed for improving the self-learning predictive capability.

  14. Research and information needs for management of oil shale development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-05-01

    This report presents information and analysis to assist BLM in clarifying oil shale research needs. It provides technical guidance on research needs in support of their regulatory responsibilities for onshore mineral activities involving oil shale. It provides an assessment of research needed to support the regulatory and managerial role of the BLM as well as others involved in the development of oil shale resources on public and Indian lands in the western United States.

  15. Speaking up: Teens Voice Their Health Information Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smart, Kathryn A.; Parker, Randy Spreen; Lampert, Joan; Sulo, Suela

    2012-01-01

    School nurses provide an important role in the continuity of health care especially for adolescents who are at high risk for significant health concerns. The purpose of this study was to assess adolescents' health information needs and identify their preferences for accessing health information. Using an inductive qualitative research design, 11…

  16. Study of information needs of juveniles in Asero remand home ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study examines the information needs of juveniles in Asero remand home, Abeokuta, Ogun State, Nigeria. A structured questionnaire was used to obtain data for the study. Interviews were also conducted with the staff of the home to supplement the data. Of the respondents 100% revealed that their major information ...

  17. Library and information services: the need for their promotion in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Library and information services: the need for their promotion in Ogun state, Nigeria. WO Lawal, OI Amusa. Abstract. No Abstract. Lagos Journal of Library and Information Science Vol. 3(1) 2005: 32-42. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT.

  18. The information needs of occupational therapy students: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan-Daniel, Jane; Preston, Hugh

    2017-06-01

    This article summarises a case study on the information needs of Masters level Occupational Therapy 5 (OT) students at one English university. A mixed methods questionnaire was used to explore motivators for information-seeking, preferred information resources and barriers inhibiting the satisfaction of information needs. Thirteen recommendations for practice were formulated, focusing on how information professionals can best facilitate OT students' learning and evidence-based research skills in preparation for clinical practice. The study was completed by Jane Morgan-Daniel, who received a Distinction for her work from Aberystwyth University, where she graduated with an MSC in Information and Library Studies in December 2016. She has written this article together with her dissertation supervisor, Hugh Preston. A. M. © 2017 Health Libraries Group.

  19. User study: information needs of contracting companies of market research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederico Cesar Mafra Pereira

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper has as main objective to understand why companies use market research as a source of information for their business, with a comparison between what they want to apply for a research and the effective use of the information received. The main methodological approach was based on the 'Model for identifying needs, seeking and use of information' (MAFRA PEREIRA, 2010, and from this approach has drawn up a script for conducting interviews with clients of research institute located in Belo Horizonte (MG. The results showed the applicability of the model, identifying information needs, gaps of information and the effective use of information in their respective organizational contexts; besides the methodological procedures for conducting and analyzing the results.

  20. REGARDING THE USERS OF FINANCIAL STATEMENTS AND THEIR INFORMATION NEEDS

    OpenAIRE

    Mihaela Luca

    2008-01-01

    In order to satisfy the information needs of users from inside and outside the organizations, accounting elaborated a proper method of generalization and synthesizing of information it produces, which involved the development of some appropriate tools, known as financial statements. For users outside the company, these are often the only source of information available directly from the organization. The knowledge of the interests of different categories of users has an important role in tryi...

  1. HOSPITAL MANAGERS' NEED FOR INFORMATION ON HEALTH TECHNOLOGY INVESTMENTS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ølholm, Anne Mette; Kidholm, Kristian; Birk-Olsen, Mette

    2015-01-01

    decision makers, is not well described. The objective was to review empirical studies analysing the information that hospital decision makers need when deciding about health technology (HT) investments. METHODS: A systematic review of empirical studies published in English or Danish from 2000 to 2012...... in the literature related to clinical, economic and political/strategic aspects. Legal, social, and ethical aspects were seldom considered most important. CONCLUSIONS: Hospital decision makers are able to describe their information needs when deciding on HT investments. The different types of information were...

  2. Characterizing Health-Related Information Needs of Domain Experts

    OpenAIRE

    Znaidi , Eya; Tamine , Lynda; Chouquet , Cécile; Latiri , Chira

    2013-01-01

    International audience; In information retrieval literature, understanding the users’ intents behind the queries is critically important to gain a better insight of how to select relevant results. While many studies investigated how users in general carry out exploratory health searches in digital environments, a few focused on how are the queries formulated, specifically by domain expert users. This study intends to fill this gap by studying 173 health expert queries issued from 3 medical in...

  3. Department of Energy security program needs effective information systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-10-01

    Although security is an important, nearly billion-dollar-a-year function in the Department of Energy (DOE), key information systems that hold important data about security weaknesses and incidents have limited analytical capabilities and contain unreliable information. The resultant difficulty in identifying patterns and trends reduces managers' ability to ensure the effectiveness of the security program. Resources are also wasted because DOE has deployed incompatible systems that are unable to electronically share or transfer data, often forcing employees to manually re-enter data that are already stored in computers elsewhere. Finally, continuing data problems with other important security information systems, such as those used to track security clearances and classified documents, indicate that information system deficiencies are extensive. A major reason for these problems is that DOE has not done a comprehensive, strategic assessment of its information and information technology needs of the security program. DOE's efforts are fragmented because it has not assigned to any organization the leadership responsibility to determine security information needs and to plan and manage security information resources Department-wide. This paper reports that a number of changes are needed to correct these problems and take advantage of information technology to help strengthen the security program

  4. Automated selection of relevant information for notification of incident cancer cases within a multisource cancer registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jouhet, V; Defossez, G; Ingrand, P

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop and evaluate a selection algorithm of relevant records for the notification of incident cases of cancer on the basis of the individual data available in a multi-source information system. This work was conducted on data for the year 2008 in the general cancer registry of Poitou-Charentes region (France). The selection algorithm hierarchizes information according to its level of relevance for tumoral topography and tumoral morphology independently. The selected data are combined to form composite records. These records are then grouped in respect with the notification rules of the International Agency for Research on Cancer for multiple primary cancers. The evaluation, based on recall, precision and F-measure confronted cases validated manually by the registry's physicians with tumours notified with and without records selection. The analysis involved 12,346 tumours validated among 11,971 individuals. The data used were hospital discharge data (104,474 records), pathology data (21,851 records), healthcare insurance data (7508 records) and cancer care centre's data (686 records). The selection algorithm permitted performances improvement for notification of tumour topography (F-measure 0.926 with vs. 0.857 without selection) and tumour morphology (F-measure 0.805 with vs. 0.750 without selection). These results show that selection of information according to its origin is efficient in reducing noise generated by imprecise coding. Further research is needed for solving the semantic problems relating to the integration of heterogeneous data and the use of non-structured information.

  5. Survivorship Challenges and Information Needs after Radiotherapy for Oral Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badr, Hoda; Lipnick, Daniella; Gupta, Vishal; Miles, Brett

    2017-12-01

    Oral cancer (OC) treatment can lead to considerable functional impairment, psychological distress, and decrements in quality of life. Given that limited information and support services are available for cancer survivors, many are turning to the Internet. However, little is known about the specific information and service needs of OC survivors. We conducted a descriptive study to (1) characterize the associations between OC survivor functional problems and distress and (2) describe the Internet use of OC survivors, their satisfaction with existing sources of information/support, and their unmet information and service needs. Ninety-three oral cancer survivors completed cross-sectional surveys within 1-year of completing radiotherapy. Clinical levels of distress were 10 % for depression and 16 % for anxiety. Dental health, smell, and range of motion problems were significant (p < .05) determinants of both depression and anxiety symptoms. Eighty-three percent of survivors used the Internet; most used it to obtain health-related information or support. Unmet information needs included how to live a healthy lifestyle after treatment (87 %), strategies for dealing with eating and speaking problems (81 %), and information about what to expect in terms of side effects after treatment (76 %). Findings suggest that interventions that teach survivors coping and problem-solving skills to manage and cope with functional impairments may help to alleviate distress. Results of this study support the need for psychoeducational interventions for this population and showcase the potential of the Internet as a feasible mode for future dissemination.

  6. Use and perceptions of information among family physicians: sources considered accessible, relevant, and reliable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosteniuk, Julie G; Morgan, Debra G; D'Arcy, Carl K

    2013-01-01

    The research determined (1) the information sources that family physicians (FPs) most commonly use to update their general medical knowledge and to make specific clinical decisions, and (2) the information sources FPs found to be most physically accessible, intellectually accessible (easy to understand), reliable (trustworthy), and relevant to their needs. A cross-sectional postal survey of 792 FPs and locum tenens, in full-time or part-time medical practice, currently practicing or on leave of absence in the Canadian province of Saskatchewan was conducted during the period of January to April 2008. Of 666 eligible physicians, 331 completed and returned surveys, resulting in a response rate of 49.7% (331/666). Medical textbooks and colleagues in the main patient care setting were the top 2 sources for the purpose of making specific clinical decisions. Medical textbooks were most frequently considered by FPs to be reliable (trustworthy), and colleagues in the main patient care setting were most physically accessible (easy to access). When making specific clinical decisions, FPs were most likely to use information from sources that they considered to be reliable and generally physically accessible, suggesting that FPs can best be supported by facilitating easy and convenient access to high-quality information.

  7. Information Needs of Hepato-Pancreato-Biliary Surgical Oncology Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillespie, Jacqueline; Kacikanis, Anna; Nyhof-Young, Joyce; Gallinger, Steven; Ruthig, Elke

    2017-09-01

    A marked knowledge gap exists concerning the information needs of hepato-pancreato-biliary (HPB) surgical oncology patients. We investigated the comprehensive information needs of this patient population, including the type and amount of information desired, as well as the preferred method of receiving information. A questionnaire was administered to patients being treated surgically for cancers of the liver, pancreas, gallbladder, or bile ducts at Toronto General Hospital, part of the University Health Network, in Toronto, Canada. The questionnaire examined patients' information needs across six domains of information: medical, practical, physical, emotional, social, and spiritual. Among 36 respondents, the importance of information and amount of information desired differed significantly by domain (both p < 0.001). This group of patients rated information in the medical and physical domains as most important, though they also desired specific items of information from the emotional, practical, and social domains. Patients' overwhelming preference was to receive information via a one-on-one consultation with a healthcare provider. It is important for healthcare providers working with HPB surgical oncology patients to be comprehensive when providing information related to patients' cancer diagnosis, prognosis, associated symptoms, and side effects of treatment. Certain emotional, practical, and social issues (e.g., fears of cancer recurrence, drug coverage options, relationship changes) should be addressed as well. Face-to-face interactions should be the primary mode of delivering information to patients. Our findings are being used to guide the training of healthcare providers and the development of educational resources specific to HPB surgical oncology patients.

  8. [The information about discharge medication: what do general practitioners need?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, Henning; Niebling, Wilhelm-Bernhard; Schott, Gisela

    2015-04-01

    The information about the patient's discharge medication (DM) in the discharge letter guarantees the subsequent pharmacotherapy at the interface between tertiary to primary care. International data however shows that general practitioners (GPs) receive discharge letters with a delay and relevant information about DM is lacking. The aim of this study was to assess the point of view of German GPs concerning the information about DM, since no recent data about this topic is available. In a postal survey 516 GPs in the city of Berlin were contacted and asked about the transit of discharge letters and the information about DM. Results | 117 GPs answered the questionnaire (23 %). Most frequently, the patient himself handed over the information about DM to the GP on the day of his first visit in the practice after discharge. However, more than two third of GPs wished to receive the information before the patient's first consultation (73 %). Therefore, the majority preferred the electronic communication via fax (46 %) or email (9 %). Almost half of the GPs stated that discharge letters were lacking information about changes in medication and reasons for these changes. At the same time, nearly all GPs thought that these informational aspects were important. GPs wish an early and electronic transit of the DM with information concerning changes in medication and reasons. If these wishes were considered, a continuous and thus safer pharmacotherapy at the interface could be guaranteed. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  9. Identifying climate risk perceptions, information needs, and barriers to information exchange among public land managers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Casey B; Schwartz, Mark W; Lubell, Mark N

    2018-03-01

    Meeting ecosystem management challenges posed by climate change requires building effective communication channels among researchers, planners and practitioners to focus research on management issues requiring new knowledge. We surveyed resource managers within two regions of the western United States regions to better understand perceived risks and vulnerabilities associated with climate change and barriers to obtaining and using relevant climate science information in making ecosystem management decisions. We sought to understand what types of climate science information resource managers find most valuable, and the formats in which they prefer to receive climate science information. We found broad concern among natural resource managers in federal agencies that climate change will make it more difficult for them to achieve their management goals. Primary barriers to incorporating climate science into planning are distributed among challenges identifying, receiving, and interpreting appropriate science and a lack of direction provided by agency leadership needed to meaningfully use this emerging science in resource planning. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Information management needs for Fort Calhoun's design basis reconstitution project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beach, D.R.; Erickson, E.A.; Gambhir, S.K.; Parsons, R.D.

    1989-01-01

    While the need for information management is not new to the nuclear industry or Omaha Public Power District (OPPD), the interrelationship among design information, multiple systems, and design basis issues has necessitated the management of this information in new ways. The project team involved in the reconstitution of the design basis for OPPD's Fort Calhoun nuclear station has experienced the need for the developed effective methods for managing the vast amount of interrelated information associated with this effort. This management of information has been necessary to ensure that design basis documents (DBDs) adequately reflect the interrelated nature of component, system, and plant design; are complete and accurate; and are produced and maintained in a cost-effective manner. Fort Calhoun's aggressive design basis reconstitution project began in early 1987. The present scope of the project includes the production of 52 system and plant level DBDs; currently the project is ∼50% complete with DBDs in various stages of completion, from pilot DBDs through DBDs with approved formats, which have been issued for use. The experience in producing these documents has lead to a growing understanding of the special need for information management in each stage of the project. The development of the information tracking and management processes for the various stages of DBD development has proven to be cost-effective and gives a level of assurance that information has been included in the DBDs consistently and accurately

  11. Healthcare Services Managers: What Information do They Need and Use?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Booth

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives – The purpose of this research project was to gain insight into the information behaviour of healthcare services managers as they use information while engaged in decision-making unrelated to individual patient care. Methods – This small-scale, exploratory, multiple case study used the critical incident technique in nineteen semi-structured interviews. Responses were analyzed using ‘Framework,’ a matrix-based content analysis system. Results – This paper presents findings related to the internal information that healthcare services managers need and use. Their decisions are influenced by a wide variety of factors. They must often make decisions without all of the information they would prefer to have. Internal information and practical experience set the context for new research-based information, so they are generally considered first.Conclusions – Healthcare services managers support decisions with both facts and value-based information. These results may inform both delivery of health library services delivery and strategic health information management planning. They may also support librarians who extend their skills beyond managing library collections and teaching published information retrieval skills, to managing internal and external information, teaching information literacy, and supporting information sharing.

  12. Identification of the operating crew's information needs for accident management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, W.R.; Hanson, D.J.; Ward, L.W.; Solberg, D.E.

    1988-01-01

    While it would be very difficult to predetermine all of the actions required to mitigate the consequences of every potential severe accident for a nuclear power plant, development of additional guidance and training could improve the likelihood that the operating crew would implement effective sever-accident management measures. The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is conducting an Accident Management Research Program that emphasizes the application of severe-accident research results to enhance the capability of the plant operating crew to effectively manage severe accidents. One element of this program includes identification of the information needed by the operating crew in severe-accident situations. This paper discusses a method developed for identifying these information needs and its application. The methodology has been applied to a generic reactor design representing a PWR with a large dry containment. The information needs were identified by systematically determining what information is needed to assess the health of the critical functions, identify the presence of challenges, select strategies, and assess the effectiveness of these strategies. This method allows the systematic identification of information needs for a broad range of severe-accident scenarios and can be validated by exercising the functional models for any specific event sequence

  13. The public's needs drive the public's receptivity to information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cramer, E.N.

    1999-01-01

    Customers want high-quality products at low prices, and they want them now. The message is clear: The Public compares perceived alternatives. The communication problem of the nuclear industry is the same as any other nonmonopoly provider of products or services, i.e., to show the public that nuclear electricity is superior even though nuclear electricity itself is indistinguishable from any other electricity. The following topics are discussed in this paper: (1) What the public needs in general; (2) what the public wants of information delivered; (3) the nuclear information that the public wants; (4) the ANS public information web page; and (5) wider use of issues information

  14. Defining information need in health - assimilating complex theories derived from information science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ormandy, Paula

    2011-03-01

    Key policy drivers worldwide include optimizing patients' roles in managing their care; focusing services around patients' needs and preferences; and providing information to support patients' contributions and choices. The term information need penetrates many policy documents. Information need is espoused as the foundation from which to develop patient-centred or patient-led services. Yet there is no clear definition as to what the term means or how patients' information needs inform and shape information provision and patient care. The assimilation of complex theories originating from information science has much to offer considerations of patient information need within the context of health care. Health-related research often focuses on the content of information patients prefer, not why they need information. This paper extends and applies knowledge of information behaviour to considerations of information need in health, exposing a working definition for patient information need that reiterates the importance of considering the patient's goals and understanding the patient's context/situation. A patient information need is defined as 'recognition that their knowledge is inadequate to satisfy a goal, within the context/situation that they find themselves at a specific point in the time'. This typifies the key concepts of national/international health policy, the centrality and importance of the patient. The proposed definition of patient information need provides a conceptual framework to guide health-care practitioners on what to consider and why when meeting the information needs of patients in practice. This creates a solid foundation from which to inform future research. © 2010 The Author. Health Expectations © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  15. The information needs and behaviour of clinical researchers: a user-needs analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korjonen-Close, Helena

    2005-06-01

    As part of the strategy to set up a new information service, including a physical Resource Centre, the analysis of information needs of clinical research professionals involved with clinical research and development in the UK and Europe was required. It also aimed to identify differences in requirements between the various roles of professionals and establish what information resources are currently used. A user-needs survey online of the members of The Institute. Group discussions with specialist subcommittees of members. Two hundred and ninety members responded to the online survey of 20 questions. This makes it a response rate of 7.9%. Members expressed a lack of information in their particular professional area, and lack the skills to retrieve and appraise information. The results of the survey are discussed in more detail, giving indications of what the information service should collect, what types of materials should be provided to members and what services should be on offer. These were developed from the results of the needs analysis and submitted to management for approval. Issues of concern, such as financial constraint and staff constraints are also discussed. There is an opportunity to build a unique collection of clinical research material, which will promote The Institute not only to members, but also to the wider health sector. Members stated that the most physical medical libraries don't provide what they need, but the main finding through the survey and discussions is that it's pointless to set up 'yet another medical library'.

  16. Behavioral and Event-Related-Potential Correlates of Processing Congruent and Incongruent Self-Relevant Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Sheri L.

    2013-01-01

    People want to be viewed by others as they view themselves. Being confronted with self-relevant information that is either congruent or incongruent with one's self-view has been shown to differentially affect subsequent behavior, memory for the information, and evaluation of the source of the information. However, no research has examined…

  17. Health information technology needs help from primary care researchers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krist, Alex H; Green, Lee A; Phillips, Robert L; Beasley, John W; DeVoe, Jennifer E; Klinkman, Michael S; Hughes, John; Puro, Jon; Fox, Chester H; Burdick, Tim

    2015-01-01

    While health information technology (HIT) efforts are beginning to yield measurable clinical benefits, more is needed to meet the needs of patients and clinicians. Primary care researchers are uniquely positioned to inform the evidence-based design and use of technology. Research strategies to ensure success include engaging patient and clinician stakeholders, working with existing practice-based research networks, and using established methods from other fields such as human factors engineering and implementation science. Policies are needed to help support primary care researchers in evaluating and implementing HIT into everyday practice, including expanded research funding, strengthened partnerships with vendors, open access to information systems, and support for the Primary Care Extension Program. Through these efforts, the goal of improved outcomes through HIT can be achieved. © Copyright 2015 by the American Board of Family Medicine.

  18. The investment community's need for information on nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prior, C.B. Jr.

    1982-01-01

    The needs of the investment community for information on nuclear waste derive very simply from the fact that investor-owned utilities in the United States had invested $198 billion in nuclear electric generating stations at the end of 1980. The continuing nature of this need for information is also illustrated, very dramatically, by the fact that in 1981 an additional $8.6 billion of financing was effected in the public market by electric utilities with nuclear construction programs. When investors have this much money at stake and are continuing to receive offerings of securities from utilities building nuclear facilities, it is obvious that investors need adequate information on all phases of the nuclear power cycle in order to evaluate the risks involved

  19. INFO ANAV, a channel that is consolidated in the communication of information relevant to plant safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopera Broto, A. J.; Balbas Gomez, S.

    2012-01-01

    This weekly publication intended to make it to all the people who work at the sites of Asco and Vandellos relevant information for security since we are all responsible for the safe and reliable operation of our plants.

  20. Fuzzy Mutual Information Based min-Redundancy and Max-Relevance Heterogeneous Feature Selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daren Yu

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Feature selection is an important preprocessing step in pattern classification and machine learning, and mutual information is widely used to measure relevance between features and decision. However, it is difficult to directly calculate relevance between continuous or fuzzy features using mutual information. In this paper we introduce the fuzzy information entropy and fuzzy mutual information for computing relevance between numerical or fuzzy features and decision. The relationship between fuzzy information entropy and differential entropy is also discussed. Moreover, we combine fuzzy mutual information with qmin-Redundancy-Max-Relevanceq, qMax-Dependencyq and min-Redundancy-Max-Dependencyq algorithms. The performance and stability of the proposed algorithms are tested on benchmark data sets. Experimental results show the proposed algorithms are effective and stable.

  1. Meeting the reactor operator's information needs using functional analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, W.R.; Clark, M.T.

    1980-01-01

    Since the accident at Three Mile Island, many ideas have been proposed for assisting the reactor operator during emergency situations. However, some of the suggested remedies do not alleviate an important shortcoming of the TMI control room: the operators were not presented with the information they needed in a manner which would allow prompt diagnosis of the problem. To address this problem, functional analysis is being applied at the LOFT facility to ensure that the operator's information needs are being met in his procedures and graphic displays. This paper summarizes the current applications of functional analysis at LOFT

  2. Critical Success Factors and information needs in Estonian industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aiki Tibar

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The article reports the results of the study on the critical success factors and related information needs in Estonian industry conducted in 1999. Data were collected by interviews with 27 managers and engineers from 16 manufacturing companies in various industries. Most of the critical success factors taken up were related to marketing, information management, quality management, product development and technological innovations. The information needs of managers and engineers were related to competitors, customers, markets, technology, regulations, etc. Some identified CSFs expressed also priorities for development by Estonian economic authorities: to support the implementation of new technologies and introduction of quality management methods. The finding that information management was perceived as a very critical area supports the result of the recent Finnish study on CSFs.

  3. Information needs for water resources decision-making

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sellers, J.

    1993-01-01

    Water and related resources planning and decision-making have developed to the state of multiple objective and/or multiple criteria analysis using complicated systems analysis. The objective of this paper is to indicate the major components of information needed to facilitate the planning process for resource utilization, and to provide desirable outputs from management schemes. The process could best be described as the proper development of Management Information Systems (MIS) or Decision Support Systems (DDS). Data and information systems are never completed and must be continually updated and modified. The exact composition of any system depends also upon the general type of decision techniques being used. A brief outline of the decision process is given with the remainder of the paper dealing with the types of information needed to support the decision system. (author). 34 refs

  4. Informal milk sharing: what nurses need to know.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martino, Kimberly; Spatz, Diane

    2014-01-01

    Human milk is the ideal food for human infants. However, some infants will be in situations wherein there is insufficient human milk to meet their needs. This article addresses formal breast milk donation (donor milk) and informal sharing of breast milk. Healthcare providers are likely to encounter families who access milk by informal breast milk sharing or cross-nursing. Both practices rely heavily on receiving human milk from women who are potentially unscreened for disease, medication, and illicit substances. Therefore, it is important for perinatal nurses to have adequate information to be able to inform these families of the risks and benefits of breast milk sharing. Two case exemplars are provided to illustrate the nuances of informal milk sharing. Implications for practice include providing families with information on health history and laboratory screening as well as safe milk-handling practices.

  5. Making sense of science: Meeting the public's information needs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abalkina, I.

    2005-01-01

    The study aimed at better understanding of specific information needs as well as of how the public perceives the issue of radioactive contamination. Main conclusions of the study:1. Information is lacking 2. Great concern for health effects of radiation 3. Poverty is a worry. Study results are very much consistent with the ideas of 2002 UN Report: Human Consequences of the Chernobyl Accident: A Strategy for Recovery

  6. Determining organizational information needs: the Critical Success Factors approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Reports on a series of investigations in the UK and Finland, in both academic and business institutions. The Critical Success Factors approach is defined and explored as a means of determining the information needs of organizations, rather than of individuals. Concludes that such use is appropriate and productive, enabling the identification of types of information that may aid the organization in its strategic policy making to achieve competitive advantage.

  7. Systems approach to chemical spill response information needs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parnarouskis, M.C.; Flessner, M.F.; Potts, R.G.

    1980-01-01

    The Chemical Hazards Response Information System (CHRIS) has been specifically designed to meet the emergency needs of US Coast Guard field personnel, currently providing them with information on 900 hazardous chemicals, with methods of predicting hazards resulting from accidental discharges, and with procedures for selecting and implementing response to accident discharges. The major components of CHRIS and the computerized hazard assessment models within the Hazard Assessment Computer System are described in detail.

  8. The information needs of patients receiving procedural sedation in a hospital emergency department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revell, Sue; Searle, Judy; Thompson, Shona

    2017-07-01

    This research investigated the information needs of patients receiving ED procedural sedation to determine the best format to consistently deliver key information in a way acceptable to all involved. Of particular interest was the question concerning patients' need for receiving written information. A descriptive exploratory study gathered qualitative data through face-to-face interviews and focus groups involving patients, nurses and medical staff. Individual interviews were conducted with eight adult patients following procedural sedation. They identified very few gaps in terms of specific information they needed pertaining to procedural sedation and rejected the need for receiving information in a written format. Their information needs related to a central concern for safety and trust. Focus groups, reflecting on the findings from patients, were conducted with five ED nurses and four emergency medicine consultants/registrars who regularly provided procedural sedation. Themes that emerged from the analysis of data from all three groups identified the issues concerning patient information needs as being: competence and efficiency of staff; explanations of procedures and progress; support person presence; and medico-legal issues. The research confirms that the quality of the patient's ED experience, specifically related to procedural sedation, is enhanced by ED staff, especially nurses, providing them with ongoing and repeated verbal information relevant to their circumstances. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Phase synchronization of delta and theta oscillations increase during the detection of relevant lexical information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enzo eBrunetti

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available During monitoring of the discourse, the detection of the relevance of incoming lexical information could be critical for its incorporation to update mental representations in memory. Because, in these situations, the relevance for lexical information is defined by abstract rules that are maintained in memory, results critical to understand how an abstract level of knowledge maintained in mind mediates the detection of the lower-level semantic information. In the present study, we propose that neuronal oscillations participate in the detection of relevant lexical information, based on ‘kept in mind’ rules deriving from more abstract semantic information. We tested our hypothesis using an experimental paradigm that restricted the detection of relevance to inferences based on explicit information, thus controlling for ambiguities derived from implicit aspects. We used a categorization task, in which the semantic relevance was previously defined based on the congruency between a kept in mind category (abstract knowledge, and the lexical-semantic information presented. Our results show that during the detection of the relevant lexical information, phase synchronization of neuronal oscillations selectively increases in delta and theta frequency bands during the interval of semantic analysis. These increments were independent of the semantic category maintained in memory, had a temporal profile specific for each subject, and were mainly induced, as they had no effect on the evoked mean global field power. Also, recruitment of an increased number of pairs of electrodes was a robust observation during the detection of semantic contingent words. These results are consistent with the notion that the detection of relevant lexical information based on a particular semantic rule, could be mediated by increasing the global phase synchronization of neuronal oscillations, which may contribute to the recruitment of an extended number of cortical regions.

  10. Phase synchronization of delta and theta oscillations increase during the detection of relevant lexical information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunetti, Enzo; Maldonado, Pedro E; Aboitiz, Francisco

    2013-01-01

    During monitoring of the discourse, the detection of the relevance of incoming lexical information could be critical for its incorporation to update mental representations in memory. Because, in these situations, the relevance for lexical information is defined by abstract rules that are maintained in memory, a central aspect to elucidate is how an abstract level of knowledge maintained in mind mediates the detection of the lower-level semantic information. In the present study, we propose that neuronal oscillations participate in the detection of relevant lexical information, based on "kept in mind" rules deriving from more abstract semantic information. We tested our hypothesis using an experimental paradigm that restricted the detection of relevance to inferences based on explicit information, thus controlling for ambiguities derived from implicit aspects. We used a categorization task, in which the semantic relevance was previously defined based on the congruency between a kept in mind category (abstract knowledge), and the lexical semantic information presented. Our results show that during the detection of the relevant lexical information, phase synchronization of neuronal oscillations selectively increases in delta and theta frequency bands during the interval of semantic analysis. These increments occurred irrespective of the semantic category maintained in memory, had a temporal profile specific for each subject, and were mainly induced, as they had no effect on the evoked mean global field power. Also, recruitment of an increased number of pairs of electrodes was a robust observation during the detection of semantic contingent words. These results are consistent with the notion that the detection of relevant lexical information based on a particular semantic rule, could be mediated by increasing the global phase synchronization of neuronal oscillations, which may contribute to the recruitment of an extended number of cortical regions.

  11. REGARDING THE USERS OF FINANCIAL STATEMENTS AND THEIR INFORMATION NEEDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela Luca

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to satisfy the information needs of users from inside and outside the organizations, accounting elaborated a proper method of generalization and synthesizing of information it produces, which involved the development of some appropriate tools, known as financial statements. For users outside the company, these are often the only source of information available directly from the organization. The knowledge of the interests of different categories of users has an important role in trying to improve the quality of financial statements, which should allow taking correct decisions based on the financial position, the results of economic and financial activity and the changes in the financial position of the company.

  12. Relevance between the degree of industrial competition and fair value information: Study on the listed companies in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuemin Zhuang

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this article is to study whether there exists natural relationship between fair value and corporate external market. A series of special phenomenon in the application of fair value arouses our research interests, which present evidences on how competition affects the correlation of fair value information. Design/methodology/approach: this thesis chooses fair value changes gains and losses and calculate the ratio of DFVPSit as the alternative variable of the fair value. In order to effectively inspect the mutual influence between the degree of industry competition and the value relevance of fair value, and reduce the impact of multi-collinearity, we built a regression model on the hypothesis, which supposes that if other conditions are the same, the fair value information has greater value relevance if the degree of the industry competition is greater. To test the hypothesis, we use the comparison of the DFVPSit coefficient absolute value to judge the value relevance of fair value information, and the greater the absolute value is, the higher relevance between the changes in fair value per share profits and losses with the stock prices. Findings: The higher the degree of competition in the industry is, the more fair value information relevance is. Also, there are evidences representing that fair value information often presents negative correlation with the stock price. Originality/value: The main contribution of the article is to show that not only need we make the formulation and implementation of the high quality of fair value accounting standards to suit for both the national conditions and international practice, but also need we further to improve the company's external governance mechanism to promote fair value’s information correlation.

  13. A rapid review of consumer health information needs and preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsey, Imogen; Corsini, Nadia; Peters, Micah D J; Eckert, Marion

    2017-09-01

    This rapid review summarizes best available evidence on consumers' needs and preferences for information about healthcare, with a focus on the Australian context. Three questions are addressed: 1) Where do consumers find and what platform do they use to access information about healthcare? 2) How do consumers use the healthcare information that they find? 3) About which topics or subjects do consumers need healthcare information? A hierarchical approach was adopted with evidence first sought from reviews then high quality studies using Medline (via PubMed), CINAHL, Embase, the JBI Database of Systematic Reviews and Implementation Reports, the Campbell Collaboration Library of Systematic Reviews, EPPI-Centre, and Epistemonikos. Twenty-eight articles were included; four systematic reviews, three literature reviews, thirteen quantitative studies, six qualitative studies, and two mixed methods studies. Consumers seek health information at varying times along the healthcare journey and through various modes of delivery. Complacency with historical health information modes is no longer appropriate and flexibility is essential to suit growing consumer demands. Health information should be readily available in different formats and not exclusive to any single medium. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Expected information needs of parents for pervasive awareness systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khan, V.J.; Markopoulos, P.; Ruyter, de B.E.R.; IJsselsteijn, W.A.; Schiele, B.; Dey, A.K.; Gellersen, H.; Ruyter, de B.E.R.; Aarts, E.

    2007-01-01

    This paper examines the communication needs of busy parents that can be served by awareness systems: systems supporting a continuous and semi-automated flow of information about the activities of communicating individuals. We report an online survey involving 69 participants. This survey focused on

  15. The diverse educational needs and challenges of Information ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article reflects on the first phase of a research project aimed at the empowerment of Information Technology (IT) teachers in black rural schools in the North-West province of South Africa. In order to empower these IT teachers, the first phase aimed at understanding their unique challenges and needs. Qualitative ...

  16. The Need for Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The world today is technology driven which has brought about development in all spheres of human endeavour. Based on this, there is urgent need to use Information and Communication Technology (ICT) which can be seen in computers, satellite, global system of mobile communication etc. and its application to the ...

  17. Climate Change Information Needs of Rural Farmers in Enugu State ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study assessed the information needs of rural farmers on climate change issues in Enugu State, Nigeria. Using the multistage sampling procedure, 152 respondents were selected and data were collected through the use of a structured interview schedule. Descriptive statistics, factor analysis and multiple linear ...

  18. Information Needs Research in Russia and Lithuania, 1965-2003

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maceviciute, Elena

    2006-01-01

    Introduction: The invisibility of research on information needs from the East and Central Europe in the West suggested an exploration of the published research output from Lithuania and Russia from 1965 to 2003. Method: The data were collected from the abstracting journal Informatika-59. The publications were retrieved from Lithuanian and Russian…

  19. Information and research needs of acute-care clinical nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spath, M; Buttlar, L

    1996-01-01

    The majority of nurses surveyed used the library on a regular but limited basis to obtain information needed in caring for or making decisions about their patients. A minority indicated that the libraries in their own institutions totally met their information needs. In fact, only 4% depended on the library to stay abreast of new information and developments in the field. Many of the nurses had their own journal subscriptions, which could account in part for the limited use of libraries and the popularity of the professional journal as the key information source. This finding correlates with the research of Binger and Huntsman, who found that 95% of staff development educators relied on professional journal literature to keep up with current information in the field, and only 45% regularly monitored indexing-and-abstracting services. The present study also revealed that nurses seek information from colleagues more than from any other source, supporting the findings of Corcoran-Perry and Graves. Further research is necessary to clarify why nurses use libraries on a limited basis. It appears, as Bunyan and Lutz contend, that a more aggressive approach to marketing the library to nurses is needed. Further research should include an assessment of how the library can meet the information needs of nurses for both research and patient care. Options to be considered include offering library orientation sessions for new staff nurses, providing current-awareness services by circulating photocopied table-of-contents pages, sending out reviews of new monographs, inviting nurses to submit search requests on a topic, scheduling seminars and workshops that teach CD-ROM and online search strategies, and providing information about electronic databases covering topics related to nursing. Information on databases may be particularly important in light of the present study's finding that databases available in CD-ROM format are consulted very little. Nursing education programs should

  20. Informing Adaptation Decisions: What Do We Need to Know and What Do We Need to Do?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulwarty, R. S.; Webb, R. S.

    2014-12-01

    The demand for improved climate knowledge and information is well documented. As noted in the IPCC Reports (SREX, AR5) and other assessments, this demand has increased pressure for better information to support planning under changing rates of extremes event occurrence. This demand has focused on mechanisms used to respond to past variability and change, including, integrated resource management (watersheds, coasts), infrastructure design, information systems, technological optimization, financial risk management, and behavioral and institutional change. Climate inputs range from static site design statistics (return periods) to dynamic, emergent thresholds and transitions preceded by steep response curves and punctuated equilibria. Tradeoffs are evident in the use of risk-based anticipatory strategies vs. resilience measures. In such settings, annual decision calendars for operational requirements can confound adaptation expectations. Key knowledge assessment questions include: (1) How predictable are potential impacts of events in the context of other stressors, (2) how is action to anticipate such impacts informed, and (3) How often should criteria for "robustness" be reconsidered? To illustrate, we will discuss the climate information needs and uses for two areas of concern for both short and long-term risks (i) climate and disaster risk financing, and (ii) watershed management. The presentation will focus on the climate information needed for (1) improved monitoring, modeling and methods for understanding and analyzing exposure risks, (2) generating risk profiles, (3) developing information systems and scenarios for critical thresholds across climate time and space scales, (4) embedding annual decision calendars in the context of longer-term risk management, (5) gaming experiments to show the net benefits of new information. We will conclude with a discussion of the essential climate variables needed to implement services-delivery and development efforts such

  1. Sexual health-related information delivery - are patient information leaflets still relevant?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varma, Rick; Chung, Charles; Townsend, Amanda; Power, Melissa

    2016-06-01

    Background Patient information leaflets (PILs) are widely utilised within publically funded sexual health clinics to deliver sexual health-related information (SHRI); however, their continued value to clients in the era of social media is unclear. This study aimed to evaluate clients' opinions on three newly developed PILs and examine client views on other forms of SHRI delivery. An anonymous self-administered questionnaire was completed by clients attending the Western Sydney Sexual Health Centre (WSSHC) in 2012. High-risk population (HRP) vs non-high-risk population (non-HRP) views on PILs vs alternative methods of SHRI delivery were analysed by using Mann-Whitney U, Wilcoxon, McNemar and χ(2) tests. Over half (210/315; (67%)) of the consecutive clients from a culturally diverse population completed the survey. Sex workers (SW) and young people (YP) were significantly likely to have a high school education than non-HRP (PInformation Link (SHIL), a state-wide website and telephone line, were ranked significantly higher as a means of SHRI delivery on a Likert scale than newer technologies including Facebook (P<0.001), email (P<0.001), mobile phone applications (P<0.001), TVs in waiting rooms (P<0.001) and business cards (P<0.001). There was no significant difference in opinion between HRP and non-HRP. This study provides evidence for the ongoing use of PILs to deliver SHRI to clinic attendees, in conjunction with other forms of SHRI delivery such as websites and SHIL. Novel methods may require additional consumer engagement and a greater understanding of specific population's needs.

  2. Protection of safety-relevant information in distributed energy information systems; Schutz sicherheitsrelevanter Informationen in verteilten Energieinformationssystemen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beenken, Petra

    2010-07-01

    encryption systems and a corresponding separated and decentralized key management. The ENERTRUST security model allows people to identify their security relevant data and the need of protection of this data by reasoning. Moreover it allows people to make a definition of a suitable - that means a conflict free - protection measurement as an encryption system. Furthermore the security model mentions authentification operations for a secure key exchange and the model gives an opportunity to find out which subjects need an access to which energy data.

  3. APPRAISAL OF INFORMATION NEEDS OF ENGINEERS IN INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Utari Budihardjo

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses reports of the surveys on information needs of engineers which have been conducted in Indonesia in the last ten years. It also covers technological transformation in Indonesia, such as micro level technology indicator within 10 strategic industries. Various data centers! iriformation centres of different subjects are included in this paper. Based on the above mention surveys, it is concluded that: 1. Communication among information providers and engineers, especially those who are dealing with research and development is still weak. 2. Most engineers in Indonesia are lacking ofiriformation about the availability of S&T information sources in the country.3. Information/data centers are seattered diverse in various subjects and they haven't been linked each other yet. 4. So far, the qualitiy of S&T data/information provided has not met with the industrial development needs in the country. 5 Promotion on information sources haven't reached all engineers especially those who are dealing with R&D activities.

  4. Information needs among adolescent bariatric surgery patients and their caregivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Nicole M; Tully, Carrie B; Washington, Gia A; Price, Karin L

    2016-05-01

    Bariatric surgery is an invasive medical treatment for morbid obesity that requires behavioral maintenance for physical success. Patient knowledge, motivation, and adherence are important factors in optimizing results. The purpose of the present study was to identify perceived informational gaps of adolescent and young adult bariatric surgery patients with morbid obesity (body mass index≥40 kg/m(2)). This study took place in a pediatric tertiary care academic medical center. Thirty-one adolescents/young adults who had undergone Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery at the authors' institution were recruited to complete questionnaires at their postsurgical visits (≥3 months postsurgery). Seventeen caregivers also participated in this study. The questionnaire used in the present study prompted patients and caregivers to reflect on information they wish they had known before surgery; questionnaire items included multiple choice and open-ended questions. Participants indicated that their informational needs were generally well met before surgery, although there were more needs noted by patients than by caregivers. Adolescent/young adult participants expressed a desire to have had more information about the necessity of taking vitamins daily and about having more gas. An association between informational needs and satisfaction was also found. Qualitative data revealed the importance of conveying cognitive-behavioral aspects of surgery to families (e.g., adherence, motivation). Despite most patients and caregivers being satisfied with the adolescent bariatric surgery program at the authors' institution, informational gaps exist. Teen-friendly ways to disseminate information would be helpful in influencing patients' satisfaction. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Bariatric Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. INFORMATION ARCHITECTURE ANALYSIS USING BUSINESS INTELLIGENCE TOOLS BASED ON THE INFORMATION NEEDS OF EXECUTIVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabricio Sobrosa Affeldt

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Devising an information architecture system that enables an organization to centralize information regarding its operational, managerial and strategic performance is one of the challenges currently facing information technology. The present study aimed to analyze an information architecture system developed using Business Intelligence (BI technology. The analysis was performed based on a questionnaire enquiring as to whether the information needs of executives were met during the process. A theoretical framework was applied consisting of information architecture and BI technology, using a case study methodology. Results indicated that the transaction processing systems studied did not meet the information needs of company executives. Information architecture using data warehousing, online analytical processing (OLAP tools and data mining may provide a more agile means of meeting these needs. However, some items must be included and others modified, in addition to improving the culture of information use by company executives.

  6. A Parallel Relational Database Management System Approach to Relevance Feedback in Information Retrieval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundquist, Carol; Frieder, Ophir; Holmes, David O.; Grossman, David

    1999-01-01

    Describes a scalable, parallel, relational database-drive information retrieval engine. To support portability across a wide range of execution environments, all algorithms adhere to the SQL-92 standard. By incorporating relevance feedback algorithms, accuracy is enhanced over prior database-driven information retrieval efforts. Presents…

  7. the effect of current and relevant information sources on the use

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Admin

    reported similar findings at Yaba College of. Technology, Lagos. However, in a ... values. In other words, current information sources resulted in the use of the library. Jam (1992) identified lack of relevant information sources to be one of the problems facing library users and has ... Bachelor's degree holders. That those with.

  8. Swedish approach to information needs in severe accident situations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soederman, E. (ES-Konsult AB, Stockholm (Sweden)); Karnik, P. (ES-Konsult AB, Stockholm (Sweden))

    1992-07-01

    In Sweden, systems for mitigating severe accidents have been installed at all plants and procedures have been implemented for accident management. This work has included the assessment of needs of information and the survivability of existing instrumentation during the various phases of an accident scenario. The approach has been pragmatic and based on existing knowledge of accident phenomenology and MAAP code calculations together with plant staff experience of detailed plant design and installation. During the early phases of accidents, which is defined to remain up to maximum fuel temperatures in the order of 800 C, the ordinary instrumentation is to a great extent useful. The reactor vessel level measurement is however identified to be weak in BWRs as soon as the core is partly uncovered. This has lead to the development of a Core Cooling Monitor. In later phases of accident scenarios, the general basis has been that no intrumentation inside the containment can survive. It has been analysed what information is strictly needed. It has been found that detailed information of the status inside the pressure vessel is of little importance after vessel penetration. Certain important information needs have been identified, that was not safely accessible from existing instrumentation. This had lead to complementary installations, using instruments inserted into the containment through protected guide tubes. Also for sampling of gas and water complementary installations have been made. (orig.)

  9. Swedish approach to information needs in severe accident situations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soederman, E.; Karnik, P.

    1992-01-01

    In Sweden, systems for mitigating severe accidents have been installed at all plants and procedures have been implemented for accident management. This work has included the assessment of needs of information and the survivability of existing instrumentation during the various phases of an accident scenario. The approach has been pragmatic and based on existing knowledge of accident phenomenology and MAAP code calculations together with plant staff experience of detailed plant design and installation. During the early phases of accidents, which is defined to remain up to maximum fuel temperatures in the order of 800 C, the ordinary instrumentation is to a great extent useful. The reactor vessel level measurement is however identified to be weak in BWRs as soon as the core is partly uncovered. This has lead to the development of a Core Cooling Monitor. In later phases of accident scenarios, the general basis has been that no intrumentation inside the containment can survive. It has been analysed what information is strictly needed. It has been found that detailed information of the status inside the pressure vessel is of little importance after vessel penetration. Certain important information needs have been identified, that was not safely accessible from existing instrumentation. This had lead to complementary installations, using instruments inserted into the containment through protected guide tubes. Also for sampling of gas and water complementary installations have been made. (orig.)

  10. Information age organization: No new ethics need apply

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zucker, A.

    1994-12-31

    Customer oriented decisions will be made by those closest to the customer, not by those at a distance. Information needed for customer oriented decisions will be readily available to the decider. Levels of hierarchy will be reduced but there will still be command accountability; if only for who hired that guy? Goals will be customer oriented - not level or job oriented. That is, protecting one`s ass or furthering one`s position will not be as easy as it is now; nor, for that matter, needed.

  11. Information needs related to extension service and community outreach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottcher, Robert W

    2003-06-01

    Air quality affects everyone. Some people are affected by air quality impacts, regulations, and technological developments in several ways. Stakeholders include the medical community, ecologists, government regulators, industries, technology providers, academic professionals, concerned citizens, the news media, and elected officials. Each of these groups may perceive problems and opportunities differently, but all need access to information as it is developed. The diversity and complexity of air quality problems contribute to the challenges faced by extension and outreach professionals who must communicate with stakeholders having diverse backgrounds. Gases, particulates, biological aerosols, pathogens, and odors all require expensive and relatively complex technology to measure and control. Economic constraints affect the ability of regulators and others to measure air quality, and industry and others to control it. To address these challenges, while communicating air quality research results and concepts to stakeholders, three areas of information needs are evident. (1) A basic understanding of the fundamental concepts regarding air pollutants and their measurement and control is needed by all stakeholders; the Extension Specialist, to be effective, must help people move some distance up the learning curve. (2) Each problem or set of problems must be reasonably well defined since comprehensive solution of all problems simultaneously may not be feasible; for instance, the solution of an odor problem associated with animal production may not address atmospheric effects due to ammonia emissions. (3) The integrity of the communication process must be preserved by avoiding prejudice and protectionism; although stakeholders may seek to modify information to enhance their interests, extension and outreach professionals must be willing to present unwelcome information or admit to a lack of information. A solid grounding in fundamental concepts, careful and fair problem

  12. Creation of reliable relevance judgments in information retrieval systems evaluation experimentation through crowdsourcing: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samimi, Parnia; Ravana, Sri Devi

    2014-01-01

    Test collection is used to evaluate the information retrieval systems in laboratory-based evaluation experimentation. In a classic setting, generating relevance judgments involves human assessors and is a costly and time consuming task. Researchers and practitioners are still being challenged in performing reliable and low-cost evaluation of retrieval systems. Crowdsourcing as a novel method of data acquisition is broadly used in many research fields. It has been proven that crowdsourcing is an inexpensive and quick solution as well as a reliable alternative for creating relevance judgments. One of the crowdsourcing applications in IR is to judge relevancy of query document pair. In order to have a successful crowdsourcing experiment, the relevance judgment tasks should be designed precisely to emphasize quality control. This paper is intended to explore different factors that have an influence on the accuracy of relevance judgments accomplished by workers and how to intensify the reliability of judgments in crowdsourcing experiment.

  13. Cogito ergo video: Task-relevant information is involuntarily boosted into awareness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gayet, Surya; Brascamp, Jan W; Van der Stigchel, Stefan; Paffen, Chris L E

    2015-01-01

    Only part of the visual information that impinges on our retinae reaches visual awareness. In a series of three experiments, we investigated how the task relevance of incoming visual information affects its access to visual awareness. On each trial, participants were instructed to memorize one of two presented hues, drawn from different color categories (e.g., red and green), for later recall. During the retention interval, participants were presented with a differently colored grating in each eye such as to elicit binocular rivalry. A grating matched either the task-relevant (memorized) color category or the task-irrelevant (nonmemorized) color category. We found that the rivalrous stimulus that matched the task-relevant color category tended to dominate awareness over the rivalrous stimulus that matched the task-irrelevant color category. This effect of task relevance persisted when participants reported the orientation of the rivalrous stimuli, even though in this case color information was completely irrelevant for the task of reporting perceptual dominance during rivalry. When participants memorized the shape of a colored stimulus, however, its color category did not affect predominance of rivalrous stimuli during retention. Taken together, these results indicate that the selection of task-relevant information is under volitional control but that visual input that matches this information is boosted into awareness irrespective of whether this is useful for the observer.

  14. Hydrologic information needs for evaluating waste disposal options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huff, D.D.

    1983-01-01

    Before waste disposal options can be assessed, an objective or set of criteria for evaluation must be established. For hydrologists, the objective is to ensure that ground water and surface water do not become contaminated beyond acceptable limits as a result of waste disposal operations. The focus here is on the information required to quantify hydrologic transport of potential contaminants from the disposal site. It is important to recognize that the composition of the waste, its physical and chemical form, and the intended disposal methods (e.g., surface spreading, incineration, shallow land burial, or interment in a deep geologic repository) must either be specified a priori or set forth as specific options for evaluation, because these factors influence the nature of the hydrologic data needs. The hydrologic information needs of major importance are given together with specific measurable variables to be determined.

  15. Climate Change Information Needs of Rural Farmers in Enugu State ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    E M IGBOKWE

    agents by government to teach farmers climate change adaptation and mitigation ... Keywords: Adaptation strategy, climate change, information needs, rural farmers, ..... 0.059 -0.035 0.059. Bad road network. 0.757. 0.294 -0.117 0.138. Poor electricity. 0.750. 0.231 -0.020 0.135. Poor use of local dialect. 0.191 -0.116 0.304.

  16. Unifying Librarian Skills with Students’ Need for Information Literacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helle Brink

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The presentation will focus on the challenge of unifying the librarians’ skills, knowledge, and eagerness to communicate these, with the students’ need for information literacy (IL. We propose that this is done best by departing from the view of IL as a normative concept where the meeting between librarian and the students focusses on teaching the students tools and techniques for future use. We perceive it as far more beneficial to view IL from a Limberg perspective, where focus is on the students’ learning and needs in his/her current situation and context. Based on teaching experiences at Aalborg University Library, we will explore the shift in approach to IL through two cases. The teaching activities at Aalborg University are founded on problem-based learning (PBL. PBL entails among other things that students are responsible for their own learning and work with real problems in groups. PBL is therefore a highly significant element in our perception of IL and a corner stone in the teaching activities at Aalborg University Library. Our new approach to IL specifically means that we more gradually than before instill the students with the knowledge and skills needed. In our teaching activities, we focus on showing the complexity of the academic world of information, and at the same time provide the students with basic navigation skills. Hopefully, this enables them to discover what it is they need to know in order to become information literate in the given situation, and if necessary ask us for assistance to achieve this. Based on their motivation to learn, we can support our teaching with a guidance session where we unfold the tools and knowledge required for them to become information literate in their given situation.

  17. Information Access Challenges: Data Fission Needs of the Field Expert

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    military doctrine demonstrate a growing appreciation of the need to leverage more nonmilitary instruments of national power, reposed in the interagency...connectivity, cost and information technology capabilities. The notion of “sharing” can be seen from emails to social media and web applications. The sheer...of power and gaps in organizations, phases, and processes.  The use of social media for recent disasters highlights the vital role of nonmilitary

  18. Toward a patient-centered ambulatory after-visit summary: Identifying primary care patients' information needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Martina A; Moore, Joi L; Steege, Linsey M; Koopman, Richelle J; Belden, Jeffery L; Canfield, Shannon M; Kim, Min S

    2018-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the information needs of primary care patients as they review clinic visit notes to inform information that should be contained in an after-visit summary (AVS). We collected data from 15 patients with an acute illness and 14 patients with a chronic disease using semi-structured interviews. The acute patients reviewed seven major sections, and chronic patients reviewed eight major sections of a simulated, but realistic visit note to identify relevant information needs for their AVS. Patients in the acute illness group identified the Plan, Assessment and History of Present Illness the most as important note sections, while patients in the chronic care group identified Significant Lab Data, Plan, and Assessment the most as important note sections. This study was able to identify primary care patients' information needs after clinic visit. Primary care patients have information needs pertaining to diagnosis and treatment, which may be the reason why both patient groups identified Plan and Assessment as important note sections. Future research should also develop and assess an AVS based on the information gathered in this study and evaluate its usefulness among primary care patients. The results of this study can be used to inform the development of an after-visit summary that assists patients to fully understand their treatment plan, which may improve treatment adherence.

  19. Pediatric acute gastroenteritis: understanding caregivers' experiences and information needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albrecht, Lauren; Hartling, Lisa; Scott, Shannon D

    2017-05-01

    Pediatric acute gastroenteritis (AGE) is a common condition with high health care utilization, persistent practice variation, and substantial family burden. An initial approach to resolve these issues is to understand the patient/caregiver experience of this illness. The objective of this study was to describe caregivers' experiences of pediatric AGE and identify their information needs, preferences, and priorities. A qualitative, descriptive study was conducted. Caregivers of a child with AGE were recruited for this study in the pediatric emergency department (ED) at a tertiary hospital in a major urban centre. Individual interviews were conducted (n=15), and a thematic analysis of interview transcripts was completed using a hybrid inductive/deductive approach. Five major themes were identified and described: 1) caregiver management strategies; 2) reasons for going to the ED; 3) treatment and management of AGE in the ED; 4) caregivers' information needs; and 5) additional factors influencing caregivers' experiences and decision-making. A number of subthemes within each major theme were identified and described. This qualitative descriptive study has identified caregiver information needs, preferences, and priorities regarding pediatric AGE. This study also identified inconsistencies in the treatment and management of pediatric AGE at home and in the ED that influence health care utilization and patient outcomes related to pediatric AGE.

  20. Information Need and Information Seeking Behaviour Bilgi Gereksinimi ve Bilgi Arama Davranışı

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazan Özenç Uçak

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available Information need is one of the cognitive needs of humankind. Information need causes information seeking behaviour and these concepts complement each other. Information need and information seeking behaviour are effected by many factors. It is necessary to know these factors in establishing the effective information centers and services. Bilgi gereksinimi insanın zihinsel gereksinimlerinden birisidir. Bilgi gereksinimi sonuçta bilgi arama davranışını ortaya çıkarmakta ve bu iki kavram birbirini tamamlamaktadır. Bilgi gereksinimi ve bilgi arama davranışı pek çok faktörden etkilenmektedir. Etkili bilgi merkezlen ve hizmetleri kurabilmek için bu faktörlerin bilinmesi gerekmektedir.

  1. A Systematic Review of Unmet Information and Psychosocial Support Needs of Adults Diagnosed with Thyroid Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyun, Yong Gyu; Alhashemi, Ahmad; Fazelzad, Rouhi; Goldberg, Alyse S; Goldstein, David P; Sawka, Anna M

    2016-09-01

    Patient education and psychosocial support to patients are important elements of comprehensive cancer care, but the needs of thyroid cancer survivors are not well understood. The published English-language quantitative literature on (i) unmet medical information and (ii) psychosocial support needs of thyroid cancer survivors was systematically reviewed. A librarian information specialist searched seven electronic databases and a hand search was conducted. Two reviewers independently screened citations from the electronic search and reviewed relevant full-text papers. There was consensus between reviewers on the included papers, and duplicate independent abstraction was performed. The results were summarized descriptively. A total of 1984 unique electronic citations were screened, and 51 full-text studies were reviewed (three from the hand search). Seven cross-sectional, single-arm, survey studies were included, containing data from 6215 thyroid cancer survivor respondents. The respective study sizes ranged from 57 to 2398 subjects. All of the studies had some methodological limitations. Unmet information needs were variable relating to the disease, diagnostic tests, treatments, and co-ordination of medical care. There were relatively high unmet information needs related to aftercare (especially long-term effects of the disease or its treatment and its management) and psychosocial concerns (including practical and financial matters). Psychosocial support needs were incompletely met. Patient information on complementary and alternative medicine was very limited. In conclusion, thyroid cancer survivors perceive many unmet information needs, and these needs extend to aftercare. Psychosocial information and supportive care needs may be insufficiently met in this population. More work is needed to improve knowledge translation and psychosocial support for thyroid cancer survivors.

  2. Surveying managers to inform a regionally relevant invasive Phragmites australis control research program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohal, C B; Kettenring, K M; Sims, K; Hazelton, E L G; Ma, Z

    2018-01-15

    more pertinent to manager needs and trusted by managers. Such an approach that integrates manager surveys to inform management experiments could be adapted to any developing research program seeking to be relevant to management audiences. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The relevance of music information representation metadata from the perspective of expert users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Monteiro de Barros

    Full Text Available The general goal of this research was to verify which metadata elements of music information representation are relevant for its retrieval from the perspective of expert music users. Based on a bibliographical research, a comprehensive metadata set of music information representation was developed and transformed into a questionnaire for data collection, which was applied to students and professors of the Graduate Program in Music at the Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul. The results show that the most relevant information for expert music users is related to identification and authorship responsibilities. The respondents from Composition and Interpretative Practice areas agree with these results, while the respondents from Musicology/Ethnomusicology and Music Education areas also consider the metadata related to the historical context of composition relevant.

  4. Earlier saccades to task-relevant targets irrespective of relative gain between peripheral and foveal information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Christian; Schütz, Alexander C

    2017-06-01

    Saccades bring objects of interest onto the fovea for high-acuity processing. Saccades to rewarded targets show shorter latencies that correlate negatively with expected motivational value. Shorter latencies are also observed when the saccade target is relevant for a perceptual discrimination task. Here we tested whether saccade preparation is equally influenced by informational value as it is by motivational value. We defined informational value as the probability that information is task-relevant times the ratio between postsaccadic foveal and presaccadic peripheral discriminability. Using a gaze-contingent display, we independently manipulated peripheral and foveal discriminability of the saccade target. Latencies of saccades with perceptual task were reduced by 36 ms in general, but they were not modulated by the information saccades provide (Experiments 1 and 2). However, latencies showed a clear negative linear correlation with the probability that the target is task-relevant (Experiment 3). We replicated that the facilitation by a perceptual task is spatially specific and not due to generally heightened arousal (Experiment 4). Finally, the facilitation only emerged when the perceptual task is in the visual but not in the auditory modality (Experiment 5). Taken together, these results suggest that saccade latencies are not equally modulated by informational value as by motivational value. The facilitation by a perceptual task only arises when task-relevant visual information is foveated, irrespective of whether the foveation is useful or not.

  5. Information needs and instrumentation for hydrogen control and management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Gun Chul; Suh, Kune Y.; Lee, Seung Dong; Lee, Jin Yong; Jae, Moo Sung

    2000-03-01

    In this study we examined instrument information, which is related to the severe accident management, guidance. We also examined the hydrogen control and management strategy. Hydrogen control occupies and important part in severe accident management and adequate hydrogen control strategy i needed to maintain the plant integrity. Reducing containment hydrogen during a severe accident will mitigate a potential containment failure mechanism. One of the hydrogen control strategies os intentional burning by the hydrogen igniter. Though intentional hydrogen burn strategy may cause pressure and temperature spikes, which are adverse effects, it si the fastest way of reducing the containment hydrogen concentration. From the Ulchin 3 and 4 plant information we developed a simple hydrogen ignition decision tree. And from the information of decision tree, hydrogen ignition decision can be determined in Containment Event Tree (CET). The end branch values in the CET are hydrogen concentrations, which will be used to assess the accident management measure

  6. Information needs and instrumentation for hydrogen control and management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Gun Chul; Suh, Kune Y.; Lee, Seung Dong; Lee, Jin Yong [Seoul National Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Jae, Moo Sung [Hanyang Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-03-15

    In this study we examined instrument information, which is related to the severe accident management, guidance. We also examined the hydrogen control and management strategy. Hydrogen control occupies and important part in severe accident management and adequate hydrogen control strategy i needed to maintain the plant integrity. Reducing containment hydrogen during a severe accident will mitigate a potential containment failure mechanism. One of the hydrogen control strategies os intentional burning by the hydrogen igniter. Though intentional hydrogen burn strategy may cause pressure and temperature spikes, which are adverse effects, it si the fastest way of reducing the containment hydrogen concentration. From the Ulchin 3 and 4 plant information we developed a simple hydrogen ignition decision tree. And from the information of decision tree, hydrogen ignition decision can be determined in Containment Event Tree (CET). The end branch values in the CET are hydrogen concentrations, which will be used to assess the accident management measure.

  7. Developing decision-relevant data and information systems for California water through listening and collaboration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bales, R. C.; Bernacchi, L.; Conklin, M. H.; Viers, J. H.; Fogg, G. E.; Fisher, A. T.; Kiparsky, M.

    2017-12-01

    California's historic drought of 2011-2015 provided excellent conditions for researchers to listen to water-management challenges from decision makers, particularly with regard to data and information needs for improved decision making. Through the UC Water Security and Sustainability Research Initiative (http://ucwater.org/) we began a multi-year dialog with water-resources decision makers and state agencies that provide data and technical support for water management. Near-term products of that collaboration will be both a vision for a 21st-century water data and information system, and near-term steps to meet immediate legislative deadlines in a way that is consistent with the longer-term vision. While many university-based water researchers engage with state and local agencies on both science and policy challenges, UC Water's focus was on: i) integrated system management, from headwaters through groundwater and agriculture, and on ii) improved decision making through better water information systems. This focus aligned with the recognition by water leaders that fundamental changes in the way the state manages water were overdue. UC Water is focused on three "I"s: improved water information, empowering Institutions to use and to create new information, and enabling decision makers to make smart investments in both green and grey Infrastructure. Effective communication with water decision makers has led to engagement on high-priority programs where large knowledge gaps remain, including more-widespread groundwater recharge of storm flows, restoration of mountain forests in important source-water areas, governance structures for groundwater sustainability, and filling information gaps by bringing new technology to bear on measurement and data programs. Continuing engagement of UC Water researchers in public dialog around water resources, through opinion pieces, feature articles, blogs, white papers, social media, video clips and a feature documentary film have

  8. Information needs of patients with spondyloarthritis about their disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almodóvar, Raquel; Gratacós, Jordi; Zarco, Pedro

    2017-06-02

    1. To describe the information provided to, or inquired about, by patients with axial spondyloarthritis and psoriatic arthritis. 2. To analyze improvements. Analysis of the discourse of focus groups (with patients, some of them from patient associations, and rheumatologists). The discussion included the identification of elements that shape the reality being studied, describing the relationship among them and summarizing the results by: 1)thematic segmentation; 2)categorization according to situations, relationships, opinions, feelings or others; 3)coding of the various categories, and 4)interpretation of results. Representativeness was ensured by using a typological framework. Rheumatologists are the main source of information. Patient associations have a fundamental role and are well-regarded. Internet is used with caution due to its limited reliability. Patients are interested in: disease characteristics and treatments, the course and prognosis, and social, administrative and other kinds of support. More information is needed (objective and constructive, avoiding a catastrophic tone); it should be provided progressively, adjusted to patients features and needs. There are areas for improvement including: the standardization and updating of contents (based on scientific evidence), the optimization of informative materials (written, electronic), and other resources such as nursing and primary care. Rheumatologists are the main and most reliable source of information for patients with spondyloarthritis and psoriatic arthritis. Patient associations have an important role and are well-regarded. Changes in the content, format and sources of information are required. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Reumatología y Colegio Mexicano de Reumatología. All rights reserved.

  9. Dimensions of Air Traffic Control Tower Information Needs: From Information Requests to Display Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durso, Francis T.; Johnson, Brian R.; Crutchfield, Jerry M.

    2010-01-01

    In an effort to determine the information needs of tower air traffic controllers, instructors from the Federal Aviation Administration's Academy in Oklahoma City were asked to control traffic in a high-fidelity tower cab simulator. Information requests were made apparent by eliminating access to standard tower information sources. Instead,…

  10. Making Basic Science Studies in Glaucoma More Clinically Relevant: The Need for a Consensus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toris, Carol B; Gelfman, Claire; Whitlock, Andy; Sponsel, William E; Rowe-Rendleman, Cheryl L

    2017-09-01

    Glaucoma is a chronic, progressive, and debilitating optic neuropathy that causes retinal damage and visual defects. The pathophysiologic mechanisms of glaucoma remain ill-defined, and there is an indisputable need for contributions from basic science researchers in defining pathways for translational research. However, glaucoma researchers today face significant challenges due to the lack of a map of integrated pathways from bench to bedside and the lack of consensus statements to guide in choosing the right research questions, techniques, and model systems. Here, we present the case for the development of such maps and consensus statements, which are critical for faster development of the most efficacious glaucoma therapy. We underscore that interrogating the preclinical path of both successful and unsuccessful clinical programs is essential to defining future research. One aspect of this is evaluation of available preclinical research tools. To begin this process, we highlight the utility of currently available animal models for glaucoma and emphasize that there is a particular need for models of glaucoma with normal intraocular pressure. In addition, we outline a series of discoveries from cell-based, animal, and translational research that begin to reveal a map of glaucoma from cell biology to physiology to disease pathology. Completion of these maps requires input and consensus from the global glaucoma research community. This article sets the stage by outlining various approaches to such a consensus. Together, these efforts will help accelerate basic science research, leading to discoveries with significant clinical impact for people with glaucoma.

  11. Reading interest and information needs of persons with visual impairment in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ’Niran Adetoro

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Information materials can only become usable to persons with visual impairment when they are transcribed into alternative formats. Over time, the transcription and provision of alternative formats in Nigeria by libraries has not been based on users’ reading interest and information needs. This study delves into the reading interests and information needs of persons with visual impairment in Nigeria. Survey research design was adopted and the study purposively focused on southwestern Nigeria. Using stratified proportionate random sampling techniques, data was gathered by questionnaires namely the Visually Impaired Adult Questionnaire VIAQ (= 0.75 and Visually Impaired Student Questionnaire VISQ (= 0.78 from fourteen selected libraries stratified into non-governmental, public, tertiary institutions and secondary schools. Of the 563 copies of the questionnaire that were administered, 401 (71.3% were successfully completed and used for the study. The study found that adults with visual impairment had high reading interests in religious, business, and entertainment materials, among others. Secondary school respondents had high reading interest in art subjects, reference materials, manuals and animal story materials. Both respondents showed high information needs in expected and relevant areas. Braille materials (58.3% are the most preferred source of information generally. Adult respondents preferred Braille (72.4%, while the secondary school respondents preferred Talking books/audio recordings (55%. Transcription and provision of information materials for the visually impaired through libraries should be based on knowledge of their reading interest and information needs.

  12. Projecting social support needs of informal caregivers in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu Bakar, Siti Hajar; Weatherley, Richard; Omar, Noralina; Abdullah, Fatimah; Mohamad Aun, Nur Saadah

    2014-03-01

    This article presents the findings of a self-report study of the consequences of being an informal caregiver in Malaysia. The aim of this exploratory study was to examine Malaysian efforts in assisting informal caregivers, based on an analysis of the issues and concerns raised by the caregivers themselves. Data were obtained from a cross-sectional survey of informal caregivers in 2009. This sample comprised parents, spouses and/or adult siblings, and adult children, caring for their children, spouses or siblings and parents who were chronically ill and/or had a disability. Of 300 prospective participants, only 175 could be located (58%), but all those contacted agreed to participate. Respondents were randomly selected and interviewed using a structured questionnaire to identify the emotional, financial, social and physical issues consequent upon being a caregiver. Most respondents reported that their care-giving responsibilities had impacted their emotional, financial, social and/or physical well-being. Inadequate and/or uncertain income was by far the greatest concern followed in descending order by social, physical and emotional consequences. The one-way analysis of variance showed significant differences among the three categories of caregivers with respect to physical and emotional consequences. The findings show that care-giving has detrimental effects on the lives of informal caregivers, and that they are in significant need of social support to help them deal with care-giving tasks and responsibilities. Based on the findings, an integrated social support programme is proposed, tailored to the needs of informal caregivers. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Information bias in contingent valuation: effects of personal relevance, quality of information, and motivational orientation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Icek Ajzen; Thomas C. Brown; Lori H. Rosenthal

    1996-01-01

    A laboratory experiment examined the potential for information bias in contingent valuation (CV). Consistent with the view that information about a public or private good can function as a persuasive communication, willingness to pay (WTP) was found to increase with the quality of arguments used to describe the good, especially under conditions of high personal...

  14. African Americans' and Hispanics' information needs about cancer care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Antonia, Teresita; Ung, Danielle; Montiel-Ishino, F Alejandro; Nelson, Alison; Canales, Jorge; Quinn, Gwendolyn P

    2015-06-01

    Few studies have reported on African American and Hispanic (AA and H) populations' informational needs when seeking cancer care at an institution that offers clinical trials. Moffitt Cancer Center (MCC) sought to identify and examine the decision making process, the perceptions, and the preferred channels of communication about cancer care services for AA and H communities in order to develop a list of marketing recommendations. Five focus groups (N = 45) consisting of two AA and three H were conducted in four counties of the MCC catchment area in Tampa, FL. Participants were asked about their perceptions, knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs about cancer care and MCC. Focus groups were audio-recorded and verbatim transcripts were analyzed using content analysis. Similarities in responses were found between AA and H participants. Participants received general health and cancer information from media sources and word of mouth and preferred to hear patient testimonials. There were concerns about costs, insurance coverage, and the actual geographic location of the cancer center. In general, H participants were not opposed to participating in cancer clinical trials/research, whereas, AA participants were more hesitant. A majority of participants highly favored an institution that offered standard care and clinical trials. AA and H participants shared similar concerns and preferences in communication channels, but each group had specific informational needs. The perceptions and preferences of AA and H must be explored in order to successfully and efficiently increase cancer clinical trial participation.

  15. Effect of the Adoption of IFRS on the Information Relevance of Accounting Profits in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mateus Alexandre Costa dos Santos

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to assess the effect of adopting the International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS in Brazil on the information relevance of accounting profits of publicly traded companies. International studies have shown that the adoption of IFRS improves the quality of accounting information compared with domestic accounting standards. Concurrent evidence is sparse in Brazil. Information relevance is understood herein as a multidimensional attribute that is closely related to the quality and usefulness of the information conveyed by accounting profits. The associative capacity and information timeliness of accounting profits in relation to share prices were examined. Furthermore, the level of conditional conservatism present in accounting profits was also analyzed because according to Basu (1997, this aspect is related to timeliness. The study used pooled regressions and panel data models to analyze the quarterly accounting profits of 246 companies between the first quarter of 1999 and the first quarter of 2013, resulting in 9,558 quarter-company observations. The results indicated that the adoption of IFRS in Brazil (1 increased the associative capacity of accounting profits; (2 reduced information timeliness to non-significant levels; and (3 had no effect on conditional conservatism. The joint analysis of the empirical evidence from the present study conclusively precludes stating that the adoption of IFRS in Brazil contributed to an increase the information relevance of accounting profits of publicly traded companies.

  16. The impact of intangibles on the value relevance of accounting information: Evidence from French companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilal Kimouche

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The paper aims to explore whether intangible items that recognised in financial statements are value-relevant to investors in the French context, and whether these items affect the value relevance of accounting information. Design/methodology/approach: Empirical data were collected from a sample of French listed companies, over the nine-year period of 2005 to 2013. Starting of Ohlson’s (1995 model, the correlation analysis and the linear multiple regressions have been applied. Findings: We find that intangibles and traditional accounting measures as a whole are value relevant. However, the amortization and impairment charges of intangibles and cash flows do not affect the market values of French companies, unlike other variables, which affect positively and substantially the market values. Also goodwill and book values are more associated with market values than intangible assets and earnings respectively. Finally, we find that intangibles have improved the value relevance of accounting information. Practical implications: French legislators must give more interest for intangibles, in order to enrich the financial statements content and increasing the pertinence of accounting information. Auditors must give more attention for intangibles’ examination process, in order to certify the amounts related to intangibles in financial statements, and hence enrich their reliability, what provides adequacy guarantees for investors to use them in decision making. Originality/value: The paper used recently available financial data, and proposed an improvement concerning the measure of incremental value relevance of intangibles items.

  17. Proactive Support of Internet Browsing when Searching for Relevant Health Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rurik, Clas; Zowalla, Richard; Wiesner, Martin; Pfeifer, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Many people use the Internet as one of the primary sources of health information. This is due to the high volume and easy access of freely available information regarding diseases, diagnoses and treatments. However, users may find it difficult to retrieve information which is easily understandable and does not require a deep medical background. In this paper, we present a new kind of Web browser add-on, in order to proactively support users when searching for relevant health information. Our add-on not only visualizes the understandability of displayed medical text but also provides further recommendations of Web pages which hold similar content but are potentially easier to comprehend.

  18. Disseminating relevant health information to underserved audiences: implications of the Digital Divide Pilot Projects*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreps, Gary L.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: This paper examines the influence of the digital divide on disparities in health outcomes for vulnerable populations, identifying implications for medical and public libraries. Method: The paper describes the results of the Digital Divide Pilot Projects demonstration research programs funded by the National Cancer Institute to test new strategies for disseminating relevant health information to underserved and at-risk audiences. Results: The Digital Divide Pilot Projects field-tested innovative systemic strategies for helping underserved populations access and utilize relevant health information to make informed health-related decisions about seeking appropriate health care and support, resisting avoidable and significant health risks, and promoting their own health. Implications: The paper builds on the Digital Divide Pilot Projects by identifying implications for developing health communication strategies that libraries can adopt to provide digital health information to vulnerable populations. PMID:16239960

  19. Disseminating relevant health information to underserved audiences: implications of the Digital Divide Pilot Projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreps, Gary L

    2005-10-01

    This paper examines the influence of the digital divide on disparities in health outcomes for vulnerable populations, identifying implications for medical and public libraries. The paper describes the results of the Digital Divide Pilot Projects demonstration research programs funded by the National Cancer Institute to test new strategies for disseminating relevant health information to underserved and at-risk audiences. The Digital Divide Pilot Projects field-tested innovative systemic strategies for helping underserved populations access and utilize relevant health information to make informed health-related decisions about seeking appropriate health care and support, resisting avoidable and significant health risks, and promoting their own health. The paper builds on the Digital Divide Pilot Projects by identifying implications for developing health communication strategies that libraries can adopt to provide digital health information to vulnerable populations.

  20. Spatially Compact Neural Clusters in the Dorsal Striatum Encode Locomotion Relevant Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbera, Giovanni; Liang, Bo; Zhang, Lifeng; Gerfen, Charles R; Culurciello, Eugenio; Chen, Rong; Li, Yun; Lin, Da-Ting

    2016-10-05

    An influential striatal model postulates that neural activities in the striatal direct and indirect pathways promote and inhibit movement, respectively. Normal behavior requires coordinated activity in the direct pathway to facilitate intended locomotion and indirect pathway to inhibit unwanted locomotion. In this striatal model, neuronal population activity is assumed to encode locomotion relevant information. Here, we propose a novel encoding mechanism for the dorsal striatum. We identified spatially compact neural clusters in both the direct and indirect pathways. Detailed characterization revealed similar cluster organization between the direct and indirect pathways, and cluster activities from both pathways were correlated with mouse locomotion velocities. Using machine-learning algorithms, cluster activities could be used to decode locomotion relevant behavioral states and locomotion velocity. We propose that neural clusters in the dorsal striatum encode locomotion relevant information and that coordinated activities of direct and indirect pathway neural clusters are required for normal striatal controlled behavior. VIDEO ABSTRACT. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. Needs and availability of snake antivenoms: relevance and application of international guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheske, Laura; Ruitenberg, Joost; Bissumbhar, Balram

    2015-04-04

    Snakebite has recently been declared a global public health emergency. Empirical data showing the true burden of snakebite is lacking. Treatment with specific antivenoms is considered the only cure. However, several factors have led to an ongoing antivenom crisis. This study offers recommendations concerning the improvement of antivenom access and control, by providing an overview of the factors limiting the successful implementation of international guidelines within the international industry and state institutions. It further investigates the reasons for the epidemiological knowledge gap regarding snakebites. Data for this study was collected using surveys with closed- and open-ended questions, which allowed for descriptive and thematic analysis, respectively. Participants for this study were selected as follows: 46 manufacturers were contacted from the open-access World Health Organization (WHO) Database for antivenom producers; 23 National Health Authorities (NHAs) of high-burden countries were contacted; and 11 poison centers or experts were randomly contacted. In total, responses from 6/46 (13%) manufacturers, 10/23 (43%) NHAs, and 3/11 (27%) poison centers were received. The low response rates had a limiting effect on the coverage of this study, allowing only exploratory conclusions to be drawn. Based on the gathered information, a probable reason for the epidemiological knowledge gap is the low priority given to snakebites on public health agendas, driving interest and funding away from research in this field. As a consequence, the ensuing lack in funding is preventing state institutions and manufacturers from implementing international guidelines to the highest standards. Furthermore, manufacturers indicated that international guidelines were often not applicable in the field, lacking technical information and protocols. Snakebite ranks low on international public health agendas, and partially due to this low priority, NHAs have shown limited efforts in

  2. Needs and Availability of Snake Antivenoms: Relevance and Application of International Guidelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Scheske

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background Snakebite has recently been declared a global public health emergency. Empirical data showing the true burden of snakebite is lacking. Treatment with specific antivenoms is considered the only cure. However, several factors have led to an ongoing antivenom crisis. This study offers recommendations concerning the improvement of antivenom access and control, by providing an overview of the factors limiting the successful implementation of international guidelines within the international industry and state institutions. It further investigates the reasons for the epidemiological knowledge gap regarding snakebites. Methods Data for this study was collected using surveys with closed- and open-ended questions, which allowed for descriptive and thematic analysis, respectively. Participants for this study were selected as follows: 46 manufacturers were contacted from the open-access World Health Organization (WHO Database for antivenom producers; 23 National Health Authorities (NHAs of high-burden countries were contacted; and 11 poison centers or experts were randomly contacted. Results In total, responses from 6/46 (13% manufacturers, 10/23 (43% NHAs, and 3/11 (27% poison centers were received. The low response rates had a limiting effect on the coverage of this study, allowing only exploratory conclusions to be drawn. Based on the gathered information, a probable reason for the epidemiological knowledge gap is the low priority given to snakebites on public health agendas, driving interest and funding away from research in this field. As a consequence, the ensuing lack in funding is preventing state institutions and manufacturers from implementing international guidelines to the highest standards. Furthermore, manufacturers indicated that international guidelines were often not applicable in the field, lacking technical information and protocols. Conclusion Snakebite ranks low on international public health agendas, and partially due to

  3. Assessing Information Needs for a Personal Multiple Sclerosis Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonheim, Aleksander Nygård; Babic, Ankica

    2018-01-01

    This paper presents a prototype of a mobile application for patient self-management within the field of Multiple Sclerosis (MS). Five study subjects provided information needs by suggesting functionalities and evaluating three existing MS applications. Prominent functionalities were to collect data about symptoms, physical activities, mood and goals in a form of a mobile diary. Collected data would be visually presented in a graph to support self-management and motivation. A low-fidelity prototype relies in first hand on four selected modules, two Diary modules, one Visualisation module and a Physical activity module. A high-fidelity prototype is being implemented and will be further evaluated by the experts.

  4. Automated transmission system operation and management : meeting stakeholder information needs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peelo, D.F.; Toom, P.O. [British Columbia Hydro, Vancouver, BC (Canada)

    1998-12-01

    Information monitoring is considered to be the fundamental basis for moving beyond substation automation and into automated transmission system operation and management. Information monitoring was defined as the acquisition of data and processing the data into decision making. Advances in digital technology and cheaper, more powerful computing capability has made it possible to capture all transmission stakeholder needs in a shared and automated operation and management system. Recognizing that the key to success in the development of transmission systems is automation, BC Hydro has initiated a long-term research and development project to develop the structure and detail of transmission system automation. The involvement of partners, be they utility or equipment suppliers, is essential in order to deal with protocol and similar issues. 3 refs., 1 tab., 3 figs.

  5. Procedural Pain: Systematic Review of Parent Experiences and Information Needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gates, Allison; Shave, Kassi; Featherstone, Robin; Buckreus, Kelli; Ali, Samina; Scott, Shannon D; Hartling, Lisa

    2018-06-01

    Parents wish to reduce their child's pain during medical procedures but may not know how to do so. We systematically reviewed the literature on parents' experiences and information needs related to managing their child's pain for common medical procedures. Of 2678 records retrieved through database searching, 5 were included. Three additional records were identified by scanning reference lists. Five studies were qualitative, and 3 were quantitative. Most took place in North America or Europe (n = 7) and described neonatal intensive care unit experiences (n = 5). Procedures included needle-related medical procedures (eg, venipuncture, phlebotomy, intravenous insertion), sutures, and wound repair and treatment, among others. Generally, parents desired being present during procedures, wanted to remain stoic for their child, and thought that information would be empowering and relieve stress but felt unsupported in taking an active role. Supporting and educating parents may empower them to lessen pain for their children while undergoing medical procedures.

  6. The Need for the Dissemination of Statistical Data and Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna-Alexandra Frunza

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available There is an emphasis nowadays on knowledge, so the access to information has increased inrelevance in the modern economies which have developed their competitive advantage thoroughtheir dynamic response to the market changes. The effort for transparency has increasedtremendously within the last decades which have been also influenced by the weight that the digitalsupport has provided. The need for the dissemination of statistical data and information has metnew challenges in terms of aggregating the practices that both private and public organizations usein order to ensure the optimum access to the end users. The article stresses some key questions thatcan be introduced which ease the process of collection and presentation of the results subject todissemination.

  7. Needs for Risk Informing Environmental Cleanup Decision Making - 13613

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Ming; Moorer, Richard [U.S. Department of Energy, Washington, DC 20585 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    This paper discusses the needs for risk informing decision making by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Environmental Management (EM). The mission of the DOE EM is to complete the safe cleanup of the environmental legacy brought about from the nation's five decades of nuclear weapons development and production and nuclear energy research. This work represents some of the most technically challenging and complex cleanup efforts in the world and is projected to require the investment of billions of dollars and several decades to complete. Quantitative assessments of health and environmental risks play an important role in work prioritization and cleanup decisions of these challenging environmental cleanup and closure projects. The risk assessments often involve evaluation of performance of integrated engineered barriers and natural systems over a period of hundreds to thousands of years, when subject to complex geo-environmental transformation processes resulting from remediation and disposal actions. The requirement of resource investments for the cleanup efforts and the associated technical challenges have subjected the EM program to continuous scrutiny by oversight entities. Recent DOE reviews recommended application of a risk-informed approach throughout the EM complex for improved targeting of resources. The idea behind this recommendation is that by using risk-informed approaches to prioritize work scope, the available resources can be best utilized to reduce environmental and health risks across the EM complex, while maintaining the momentum of the overall EM cleanup program at a sustainable level. In response to these recommendations, EM is re-examining its work portfolio and key decision making with risk insights for the major sites. This paper summarizes the review findings and recommendations from the DOE internal reviews, discusses the needs for risk informing the EM portfolio and makes an attempt to identify topics for R and D in

  8. Needs for Risk Informing Environmental Cleanup Decision Making - 13613

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Ming; Moorer, Richard

    2013-01-01

    This paper discusses the needs for risk informing decision making by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Environmental Management (EM). The mission of the DOE EM is to complete the safe cleanup of the environmental legacy brought about from the nation's five decades of nuclear weapons development and production and nuclear energy research. This work represents some of the most technically challenging and complex cleanup efforts in the world and is projected to require the investment of billions of dollars and several decades to complete. Quantitative assessments of health and environmental risks play an important role in work prioritization and cleanup decisions of these challenging environmental cleanup and closure projects. The risk assessments often involve evaluation of performance of integrated engineered barriers and natural systems over a period of hundreds to thousands of years, when subject to complex geo-environmental transformation processes resulting from remediation and disposal actions. The requirement of resource investments for the cleanup efforts and the associated technical challenges have subjected the EM program to continuous scrutiny by oversight entities. Recent DOE reviews recommended application of a risk-informed approach throughout the EM complex for improved targeting of resources. The idea behind this recommendation is that by using risk-informed approaches to prioritize work scope, the available resources can be best utilized to reduce environmental and health risks across the EM complex, while maintaining the momentum of the overall EM cleanup program at a sustainable level. In response to these recommendations, EM is re-examining its work portfolio and key decision making with risk insights for the major sites. This paper summarizes the review findings and recommendations from the DOE internal reviews, discusses the needs for risk informing the EM portfolio and makes an attempt to identify topics for R and D in integrated

  9. Video coding and decoding devices and methods preserving PPG relevant information

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2015-01-01

    The present invention relates to a video encoding device (10, 10', 10") and method for encoding video data and to a corresponding video decoding device (60, 60') and method. To preserve PPG relevant information after encoding without requiring a large amount of additional data for the video encoder

  10. Video coding and decoding devices and methods preserving ppg relevant information

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2013-01-01

    The present invention relates to a video encoding device (10) for encoding video data and a corresponding video decoding device, wherein during decoding PPG relevant information shall be preserved. For this purpose the video coding device (10) comprises a first encoder (20) for encoding input video

  11. Video coding and decoding devices and methods preserving ppg relevant information

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2013-01-01

    The present invention relates to a video encoding device (10, 10', 10'') and method for encoding video data and to a corresponding video decoding device (60, 60') and method. To preserve PPG relevant information after encoding without requiring a large amount of additional data for the video encoder

  12. 76 FR 44337 - Comments and Information Relevant to Mid Decade Review of NORA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-25

    ... NIOSH-244] Comments and Information Relevant to Mid Decade Review of NORA AGENCY: Department of Health...) is conducting a review of the processes of the National Occupational Research Agenda (NORA). In 2006, NORA entered its second decade with an industry sector-based structure. In 2011, as NORA reaches the...

  13. Motivated memory: memory for attitude-relevant information as a function of self-esteem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiersema, D.V.; van der Pligt, J.; van Harreveld, F.

    2010-01-01

    In this article we offer a new perspective on the contradictory findings in the literature on memory for attitude-relevant information. We propose that biases in memory are most likely to occur when the attitude involved is connected to personally important values and the self; i.e., if the attitude

  14. Age Differences in Attention toward Decision-Relevant Information: Education Matters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Cai; Isaacowitz, Derek

    2011-01-01

    Previous studies suggested that older adults are more likely to engage in heuristic decision-making than young adults. This study used eye tracking technique to examine young adults' and highly educated older adults' attention toward two types of decision-relevant information: heuristic cue vs. factual cues. Surprisingly, highly educated older…

  15. Information Needs and Information Seeking Behavior of Foreign Students in University of Delhi: A Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K P Singh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to investigate the information needs and information seeking behavior of foreign students. A survey method was used for the undertaken study. The data were collected using a structured questionnaire, self-administered to 120 foreign students (60 males & 60 females with 88 (47 males & 41 females returns. The research is limited to post-graduate, M.Phil. and Ph.D. foreign students in University of Delhi. It was found that post-graduate students need information regarding their program of study while research scholars need information for writing research articles and for doing their research work. Most of them seek information through the internet. Research scholars used electronic resources such as databases, e-journals and e-theses and dissertations. 88.6% of the respondents also use books for seeking information. Their use of the library is limited with complaints about library staff and too few computer terminals. The present study will be helpful in designing new systems and services for the foreign students so that their information needs can be fulfilled easily. Further, findings of the study indicate that how the library professionals should assist foreign students to accomplish their information needs.

  16. The closed-mindedness that wasn’t: Need for structure and expectancy-inconsistent information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus eKemmelmeier

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Social-cognitive researchers have typically assumed that individuals high in need for structure or need for closure tend to be closed-minded: they are motivated to resist or ignore information that is inconsistent with existing beliefs but instead they rely on category-based expectancies. The present paper argues that this conclusion is not necessarily warranted because previous studies did not allow individual differences in categorical processing to emerge and did not consider different distributions of category-relevant information. Using a person memory paradigm, Experiments 1 and 2 show that, when categorical processing is optional, high need-for-structure individuals are especially likely to use this type processing to reduce uncertainty, which results in superior recall for expectancy-inconsistent information. Experiment 2 demonstrates that such information is also more likely to be used in judgment making, leading to judgmental moderation among high need-for-structure individuals. Experiments 3 and 4 used a person memory paradigm which requires categorical processing regardless of levels of need for structure. Experiment 3 and 4 demonstrate that, whether expectancy-consistent or -inconsistent information is recalled better is a function of whether the majority of available information is compatible or incompatible with an initial category-based expectancy. Experiment 4 confirmed that the extent to which high need-for-structure individuals attend to different types of information varies with their distribution. The discussion highlights that task affordances have a critical influences on the consequences of categorical processing for memory and social judgment. Thus, high need for structure does not necessarily equate closed-mindedness.

  17. The closed-mindedness that wasn't: need for structure and expectancy-inconsistent information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemmelmeier, Markus

    2015-01-01

    Social-cognitive researchers have typically assumed that individuals high in need for structure or need for closure tend to be closed-minded: they are motivated to resist or ignore information that is inconsistent with existing beliefs but instead they rely on category-based expectancies. The present paper argues that this conclusion is not necessarily warranted because previous studies did not allow individual differences in categorical processing to emerge and did not consider different distributions of category-relevant information. Using a person memory paradigm, Experiments 1 and 2 shows that, when categorical processing is optional, high need-for-structure individuals are especially likely to use this type processing to reduce uncertainty, which results in superior recall for expectancy-inconsistent information. Experiment 2 demonstrates that such information is also more likely to be used in judgment making, leading to judgmental moderation among high need-for-structure individuals. Experiments 3 and 4 used a person memory paradigm which requires categorical processing regardless of levels of need for structure. Experiments 3 and 4 demonstrate that, whether expectancy-consistent or -inconsistent information is recalled better is a function of whether the majority of available information is compatible or incompatible with an initial category-based expectancy. Experiment 4 confirmed that the extent to which high need-for-structure individuals attend to different types of information varies with their distribution. The discussion highlights that task affordances have a critical influence on the consequences of categorical processing for memory and social judgment. Thus, high need for structure does not necessarily equate closed-mindedness.

  18. Information preferences of people living with fibromyalgia – a survey of their information needs and preferences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lubna Daraz

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available A lack of understanding about fibromyalgia and how to live with it may undermine the foundations of self-management and may compromise quality of life. The purpose of this study was to determine the information needs and preferences pertinent to people living with fibromyalgia. A cross-sectional web-based survey was developed based on conceptual and qualitative work informing information needs. Recruitment took place through hospitals, clinics, physicians and fibromyalgia support groups across Canada. Descriptive statistics using SPSS and graphical representations were employed to summarize and represent data. A total of 442 respondents (93% female, mode age 51-65 participated in the survey. No statistical differences in information needs were found between males and females or education level. Respondents (74% frequently searched for information about fibromyalgia using a variety of resources including Internet (91%, doctors (75%, support groups (76%, and people with same condition (87%. Respondents expressed a strong need for information about symptoms (81%, implications (79%, treatments (87%, resources (85% and coping (79%. However, concerns were expressed about the reliability of information and majority (93% wanted information to be available online that is provided by healthcare providers or from reputable sources. Internet (48%, people with similar condition (35% and support groups (35% were perceived as useful resources for people living with fibromyalgia. Information resources need to be developed on the basis of both content and knowledge of the information needs of the target end-user. Healthcare providers and the Internet are expected to be reliable resources of information.

  19. Health information needs of professional nurses required at the point of care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricks, Esmeralda; ten Ham, Wilma

    2015-06-11

    Professional nurses work in dynamic environments and need to keep up to date with relevant information for practice in nursing to render quality patient care. Keeping up to date with current information is often challenging because of heavy workload, diverse information needs and the accessibility of the required information at the point of care. The aim of the study was to explore and describe the information needs of professional nurses at the point of care in order to make recommendations to stakeholders to develop a mobile library accessible by means of smart phones when needed. The researcher utilised a quantitative, descriptive survey design to conduct this study. The target population comprised 757 professional nurses employed at a state hospital. Simple random sampling was used to select a sample of the wards, units and departments for inclusion in the study. A convenience sample of 250 participants was selected. Two hundred and fifty structured self-administered questionnaires were distributed amongst the participants. Descriptive statistics were used to analyse the data. A total of 136 completed questionnaires were returned. The findings highlighted the types and accessible sources of information. Information needs of professional nurses were identified such as: extremely drug-resistant tuberculosis, multi-drug-resistant tuberculosis, HIV, antiretrovirals and all chronic lifestyle diseases. This study has enabled the researcher to identify the information needs required by professional nurses at the point of care to enhance the delivery of patient care. The research results were used to develop a mobile library that could be accessed by professional nurses.

  20. Improving irrigation efficiency : the need for a relevant sequence of the management tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fayolle, Y.

    2009-04-01

    With 70 % of worldwide withdrawals, irrigation efficiency is a key issue in the overall problem of water resources. Management of water dedicated to agriculture should be improved to secure food production and save water to deal with increasing domestic and industrial demands. This paper is based on the results of a collaborative research project conducted in India with a local NGO (the Aga Khan Rural Support Programme, AKRSP(I)) during which GIS were tested. It is aimed at analyzing the efficiency of water usage in a water development programme conducted by the partner NGO in the semi-arid margins of Gujarat state. The analysis raises the question of the articulation of legal, institutional, economical, and technical tools to improve water efficiency. The NGO supervises the construction of surface water harvesting structures for irrigation purposes. Following a participatory approach, it creates and trains user groups to which the management of dams would then be devolved. User group membership depends on financial contribution to the building costs. A legal vacuum regarding surface water management combined with unequal investment capacities favor the concentration of water resources in the hands of a limited number of farmers. This causes low water use efficiency, irrigation choices being mostly oriented to high water consumptive crops and recipient farmers showing no interest in investing in water saving techniques. Our observations favor equality of access and paying more attention to the sequence in which management tools are articulated. On a national scale, as a prerequisite, water user rights as well as NGO's intervention legal framework should be clarified. On a project scale, before construction, information systems could help to identify all potential beneficiaries and optimize equality of access. It aims at reducing the volume of water per farmer to encourage them to irrigate low water consumptive crops and invest in water saving techniques. Depending

  1. The need for monetary information within corporate water accounting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burritt, Roger L; Christ, Katherine L

    2017-10-01

    A conceptual discussion is provided about the need to add monetary data to water accounting initiatives and how best to achieve this if companies are to become aware of the water crisis and to take actions to improve water management. Analysis of current water accounting initiatives reveals the monetary business case for companies to improve water management is rarely considered, there being a focus on physical information about water use. Three possibilities emerge for mainstreaming the integration of monetization into water accounting: add-on to existing water accounting frameworks and tools, develop new tools which include physical and monetary information from the start, and develop environmental management accounting (EMA) into a water-specific application and set of tools. The paper appraises these three alternatives and concludes that development of EMA would be the best way forward. Suggestions for further research include the need to examine the use of a transdisciplinary method to address the complexities of water accounting. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Capturing information needs of care providers to support knowledge sharing and distributed decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, M; Zach, L; An, Y; Dalrymple, P

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports on work carried out to elicit information needs at a trans-disciplinary, nurse-managed health care clinic that serves a medically disadvantaged urban population. The trans-disciplinary model provides a "one-stop shop" for patients who can receive a wide range of services beyond traditional primary care. However, this model of health care presents knowledge sharing challenges because little is known about how data collected from the non-traditional services can be integrated into the traditional electronic medical record (EMR) and shared with other care providers. There is also little known about how health information technology (HIT) can be used to support the workflow in such a practice. The objective of this case study was to identify the information needs of care providers in order to inform the design of HIT to support knowledge sharing and distributed decision making. A participatory design approach is presented as a successful technique to specify requirements for HIT applications that can support a trans-disciplinary model of care. Using this design approach, the researchers identified the information needs of care providers working at the clinic and suggested HIT improvements to integrate non-traditional information into the EMR. These modifications allow knowledge sharing among care providers and support better health decisions. We have identified information needs of care providers as they are relevant to the design of health information systems. As new technology is designed and integrated into various workflows it is clear that understanding information needs is crucial to acceptance of that technology.

  3. Suppression of no-longer relevant information in Working Memory: An alpha-power related mechanism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poch, Claudia; Valdivia, María; Capilla, Almudena; Hinojosa, José Antonio; Campo, Pablo

    2018-03-27

    Selective attention can enhance Working Memory (WM) performance by selecting relevant information, while preventing distracting items from encoding or from further maintenance. Alpha oscillatory modulations are a correlate of visuospatial attention. Specifically, an enhancement of alpha power is observed in the ipsilateral posterior cortex to the locus of attention, along with a suppression in the contralateral hemisphere. An influential model proposes that the alpha enhancement is functionally related to the suppression of information. However, whether ipsilateral alpha power represents a mechanism through which no longer relevant WM representations are inhibited has yet not been explored. Here we examined whether the amount of distractors to be suppressed during WM maintenance is functionally related to alpha power lateralized activity. We measure EEG activity while participants (N = 36) performed a retro-cue task in which the WM load was varied across the relevant/irrelevant post-cue hemifield. We found that alpha activity was lateralized respect to the locus of attention, but did not track post-cue irrelevant load. Additionally, non-lateralized alpha activity increased with post-cue relevant load. We propose that alpha lateralization associated to retro-cuing might be related to a general orienting mechanism toward relevant representation. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Latinos’ Informational Needs in Attaining Accredited Theological Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filomena Saxton

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores published articles that report on theological education in the Hispanic/Latino community. It looks at U.S. demographic changes and the needs of the Latino community to provide civic and church leadership within their communities. The article reports on past efforts, and challenges, to increase Latino enrollment in graduate theological education. It looks at current strategies by Asociación para la Educación Teológica Hispana (AETH to collaborate with American Theological Schools (ATS and the American Theological Library Association (ATLA to certify unaccredited Bible Institutes so that the educational standards will be strengthened and create a clearer pathway for Latinas/os to enter ATS accredited member schools. The purpose of the paper is to present the AETH commission report and discuss ways to help strengthen ways to meet the informational needs of students in Bible Institutes as well as provide more resources that will meet the needs of the Latino community.

  5. Information needs critical to implementing the Federal Facility Compliance Act

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rasch, D.N. [Department of Energy-Idaho Operations Office, Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Kristofferson, K. [WINCO/INEL, Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Eaton, D.L. [EG& G Idaho/INEL, Idaho Falls, ID (United States)] [and others

    1994-12-31

    The presented paper summarizes the current status of data collection completed to support the Federal Facility Compliance Act (FFCA) Interim Mixed Waste Inventory Report (IMWIR), current needs, and related lessons learned. The Department of Energy (DOE), as required in Section 3021 of Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), is required to prepare waste inventory reports, treatment reports and treatment plans. With this extensive effort, formulation of these requirements has required extensive data collection, validation and revision efforts. The framework for supporting these data needs has been enhanced by establishing a core database capable of supporting the required IMWIR, and has provided the basis for development of the Conceptual Site Treatment Plan (CSTP). The development of the CSTP has shown a need for complex wide standardized information that will ultimately become the basis for major land disposal restriction (LDR) activities such as; site treatment, equity resolution, consent agreement and continued capability to respond to stakeholder requests. DOE is in a position to dramatically demonstrate to the public and the states that mixed waste treatment can be cost effectively realized. To accomplish this program successfully will require use of existing data and expertise. This effort will be enhanced by implementation of basic system management processes which focus on completion of a mutually agreed to goal.

  6. Feature-selective Attention in Frontoparietal Cortex: Multivoxel Codes Adjust to Prioritize Task-relevant Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Jade; Rich, Anina N; Williams, Mark A; Woolgar, Alexandra

    2017-02-01

    Human cognition is characterized by astounding flexibility, enabling us to select appropriate information according to the objectives of our current task. A circuit of frontal and parietal brain regions, often referred to as the frontoparietal attention network or multiple-demand (MD) regions, are believed to play a fundamental role in this flexibility. There is evidence that these regions dynamically adjust their responses to selectively process information that is currently relevant for behavior, as proposed by the "adaptive coding hypothesis" [Duncan, J. An adaptive coding model of neural function in prefrontal cortex. Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 2, 820-829, 2001]. Could this provide a neural mechanism for feature-selective attention, the process by which we preferentially process one feature of a stimulus over another? We used multivariate pattern analysis of fMRI data during a perceptually challenging categorization task to investigate whether the representation of visual object features in the MD regions flexibly adjusts according to task relevance. Participants were trained to categorize visually similar novel objects along two orthogonal stimulus dimensions (length/orientation) and performed short alternating blocks in which only one of these dimensions was relevant. We found that multivoxel patterns of activation in the MD regions encoded the task-relevant distinctions more strongly than the task-irrelevant distinctions: The MD regions discriminated between stimuli of different lengths when length was relevant and between the same objects according to orientation when orientation was relevant. The data suggest a flexible neural system that adjusts its representation of visual objects to preferentially encode stimulus features that are currently relevant for behavior, providing a neural mechanism for feature-selective attention.

  7. Everyday Information Needs and Information Seeking Habits in the Countryside: a Study of a Local Community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gorazd Vodeb

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTPurpose: The research attempts to provide an insight into the information world of the Slovenian countryside. It presents the first results of an exploratory study of information needs, information seeking habits and types of information sources.Methodology/approach: Brenda Dervin's Sense-Making Methodology was used as the theoretical basis for this research. 25 open structured interviews with inhabitants of a local community were conducted based on purposive sampling. Interview recordings were transcribed, summarised and analysed using the qualitative content analysis approach.Results: The analysis results in recognizing the types of gaps in the context of an individual, economic activities and in the context of a local community. Gap categories are described with regard to questions or problems and the ways of solving them. There are 20 categories describing gaps in the context of an individual, 17 categories which present economic activities – and 6 categories which pertain to a local community. Findings about information needs and the ways of seeking information stress the key role of information sources in farming and prevalence of interpersonal exchange of information and experts' opinion in the context of individual problem solving.Research limitation: The generalisation of results is not possible due to the sample size.Originality/practical implications: The findings contribute to understanding of information needs and ways of information seeking in the Slovenian countryside.

  8. Why relevance theory is relevant for lexicography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bothma, Theo; Tarp, Sven

    2014-01-01

    This article starts by providing a brief summary of relevance theory in information science in relation to the function theory of lexicography, explaining the different types of relevance, viz. objective system relevance and the subjective types of relevance, i.e. topical, cognitive, situational...... that is very important for lexicography as well as for information science, viz. functional relevance. Since all lexicographic work is ultimately aimed at satisfying users’ information needs, the article then discusses why the lexicographer should take note of all these types of relevance when planning a new...... dictionary project, identifying new tasks and responsibilities of the modern lexicographer. The article furthermore discusses how relevance theory impacts on teaching dictionary culture and reference skills. By integrating insights from lexicography and information science, the article contributes to new...

  9. Information needs for the rapid response team electronic clinical tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barwise, Amelia; Caples, Sean; Jensen, Jeffrey; Pickering, Brian; Herasevich, Vitaly

    2017-10-02

    Information overload in healthcare is dangerous. It can lead to critical errors and delays. During Rapid Response Team (RRT) activations providers must make decisions quickly to rescue patients from physiological deterioration. In order to understand the clinical data required and how best to present that information in electronic systems we aimed to better assess the data needs of providers on the RRT when they respond to an event. A web based survey to evaluate clinical data requirements was created and distributed to all RRT providers at our institution. Participants were asked to rate the importance of each data item in guiding clinical decisions during a RRT event response. There were 96 surveys completed (24.5% response rate) with fairly even distribution throughout all clinical roles on the RRT. Physiological data including heart rate, respiratory rate, and blood pressure were ranked by more than 80% of responders as being critical information. Resuscitation status was also considered critically useful by more than 85% of providers. There is a limited dataset that is considered important during an RRT. The data is widely available in EMR. The findings from this study could be used to improve user-centered EMR interfaces.

  10. Symptoms Experienced and Information Needs of Women Receiving Chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uysal, Neşe; Toprak, Filiz Ünal; Kutlutsürkan, Sevinç; Erenel, Ayten Şentürk

    2018-01-01

    This study is carried out to determine the symptoms and information necessity on chemotherapy (CT) treatment of the women with breast cancer. A total of 170 women older than 18 years old, who receive CT with breast cancer diagnosis, are volunteered to participate in the study. Mixed method was used in the study. Data are collected using Descriptive Data Form, Interview Form and Memorial Symptom Assessment Scale. As a result of the cluster analysis, four clusters and the symptoms within have been obtained. These are: pain, lack of energy, feeling drowsy, sweat, swelling of hands, and feet in the first cluster; feeling nervous, difficulty sleeping, feeling sad, worrying in the second cluster; nausea, feeling bloating, change in the way food tastes, hair loss, constipation in the third cluster; vomiting, diarrhea, problems with sexual interest, lack of appetite, dizziness, and weight loss in the forth cluster. Women's information necessity related to the CT are follows: the effects of CT, other treatment options beyond CT, complementary methods, the effect of the CT treatment on reproductive health and sexuality, nutrition, and symptom control. The results of this study will enable determination of symptom clusters, which health professionals are easier to focus on these symptoms. An understanding information need of patients can help to ensure that individual's coping strategies and self-management.

  11. An analysis of contextual information relevant to medical care unexpectedly volunteered to researchers by asthma patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Heather L; Priolo, Chantel; Gonzalez, Rodalyn; Geer, Sabrina; Adam, Bariituu; Apter, Andrea J

    2012-09-01

    To describe and categorize contextual information relevant to patients' medical care unexpectedly volunteered to research personnel as part of a patient advocate (PA) intervention to facilitate access health care, communication with medical personnel, and self-management of a chronic disease such as asthma. We adapted a patient navigator intervention, to overcome barriers to access and communication for adults with moderate or severe asthma. Informed by focus groups of patients and providers, our PAs facilitated preparation for a visit with an asthma provider, attended the visit, confirmed understanding, and assisted with post-visit activities. During meetings with researchers, either for PA activities or for data collection, participants frequently volunteered personal and medical information relevant for achieving successful self-management that was not routinely shared with medical personnel. For this project, researchers journaled information not captured by the structured questionnaires and protocol. Using a qualitative analysis, we describe (1) researchers' journals of these unique communications; (2) their relevance for accomplishing self-management; (3) PAs' formal activities including teach-back, advocacy, and facilitating appointment making; and (4) observations of patients' interactions with the clinical practices. In 83 journals, patients' social support (83%), health (68%), and deportment (69%) were described. PA assistance with navigating the medical system (59%), teach-back (46%), and observed interactions with patient and medical staff (76%) were also journaled. Implicit were ways patients and practices could overcome barriers to access and communication. These journals describe the importance of seeking contextual and medically relevant information from all patients and, especially, those with significant morbidities, prompting patients for barriers to access to health care, and confirming understanding of medical information.

  12. Detecting clinically relevant new information in clinical notes across specialties and settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Rui; Pakhomov, Serguei V S; Arsoniadis, Elliot G; Lee, Janet T; Wang, Yan; Melton, Genevieve B

    2017-07-05

    Automated methods for identifying clinically relevant new versus redundant information in electronic health record (EHR) clinical notes is useful for clinicians and researchers involved in patient care and clinical research, respectively. We evaluated methods to automatically identify clinically relevant new information in clinical notes, and compared the quantity of redundant information across specialties and clinical settings. Statistical language models augmented with semantic similarity measures were evaluated as a means to detect and quantify clinically relevant new and redundant information over longitudinal clinical notes for a given patient. A corpus of 591 progress notes over 40 inpatient admissions was annotated for new information longitudinally by physicians to generate a reference standard. Note redundancy between various specialties was evaluated on 71,021 outpatient notes and 64,695 inpatient notes from 500 solid organ transplant patients (April 2015 through August 2015). Our best method achieved at best performance of 0.87 recall, 0.62 precision, and 0.72 F-measure. Addition of semantic similarity metrics compared to baseline improved recall but otherwise resulted in similar performance. While outpatient and inpatient notes had relatively similar levels of high redundancy (61% and 68%, respectively), redundancy differed by author specialty with mean redundancy of 75%, 66%, 57%, and 55% observed in pediatric, internal medicine, psychiatry and surgical notes, respectively. Automated techniques with statistical language models for detecting redundant versus clinically relevant new information in clinical notes do not improve with the addition of semantic similarity measures. While levels of redundancy seem relatively similar in the inpatient and ambulatory settings in the Fairview Health Services, clinical note redundancy appears to vary significantly with different medical specialties.

  13. Information Needs and Source Information of Agricultural Extension Workers in DIY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Retno Wulandari

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available One of the important factors that contribute to agricultural development is information. As such agricultural extension workers that link agricultural agencies to the farmers must have adequate and up-to-date information about agricultural practices before they could inform, educate and train the farmers in method and techniques of farming. This study aims to determine the types of information needed by agricultural extension workers; to determine the sources of information used by the agricultural extension workers; and to determine the comparison between types of information with information sources used by agricultural extension workers. The present study was a descriptive study using a survey design and conducted at Daerah Istimewa Yogyakarta (DIY Province. The populations of the study consists 181 agricultural extension workers divisible in the district level, namely Sleman, Kulon Progo, Gunung Kidul dan Bantul. Sampling procedure in this study used cluster sampling. The method for gathering data from the respondents is based on a structured questionnaire. Descriptive statistics was to describe the characteristics of the respondents and the dependent variables of the study. As a result, most of agricultural extension workers strongly needed the innovation information in seeking information followed by extension service information and extension role information. The result of information sources used by agricultural extension worker for extension service information, innovation information and extension role information indicates that agricultural extension workers used interpersonal source. Most of them never sought information use Internet, they use radio more frequently than television and video, agricultural extension worker also used mass media as information source.

  14. Looking for information a survey of research on information seeking, needs, and behavior

    CERN Document Server

    Case, Donald O

    2016-01-01

    The 4th edition of this popular and well-cited text is now co-authored, and includes significant changes from earlier texts. Presenting a comprehensive review of over a century of research on information behavior (IB), this book is intended for students in information studies and disciplines interested in research on information activities. The initial two chapters introduce IB as a multi-disciplinary topic, the 3rd provides a brief history of research on information seeking. Chapter four discusses what is meant by the terms 'information' and 'knowledge.' Chapter five discusses 'information needs,' and how they are addressed. The 6th chapter identifies many related concepts. Twelve models of information behavior (expanded from earlier editions) are illustrated in chapter seven. Chapter eight reviews various paradigms and theories informing IB research. Chapter nine examines research methods invoked in IB studies and a discussion of qualitative and mixed approaches. The 10th chapter gives examples of IB studie...

  15. Towards brain-activity-controlled information retrieval: Decoding image relevance from MEG signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauppi, Jukka-Pekka; Kandemir, Melih; Saarinen, Veli-Matti; Hirvenkari, Lotta; Parkkonen, Lauri; Klami, Arto; Hari, Riitta; Kaski, Samuel

    2015-05-15

    We hypothesize that brain activity can be used to control future information retrieval systems. To this end, we conducted a feasibility study on predicting the relevance of visual objects from brain activity. We analyze both magnetoencephalographic (MEG) and gaze signals from nine subjects who were viewing image collages, a subset of which was relevant to a predetermined task. We report three findings: i) the relevance of an image a subject looks at can be decoded from MEG signals with performance significantly better than chance, ii) fusion of gaze-based and MEG-based classifiers significantly improves the prediction performance compared to using either signal alone, and iii) non-linear classification of the MEG signals using Gaussian process classifiers outperforms linear classification. These findings break new ground for building brain-activity-based interactive image retrieval systems, as well as for systems utilizing feedback both from brain activity and eye movements. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Vulnerability, impacts and adaptation : climate information needs for energy managers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mirza, M. [Environment Canada, Fredericton, NB (Canada). Adaptation and Impacts Research Division

    2007-07-01

    The future potential of hydropower and the vulnerability of the energy sector in Canada and North America was discussed with particular reference to climate information needs for managers regarding vulnerability, impacts and adaptation. The presentation discussed power line climate design criteria as well as a case study of the 1998 ice storm. Power output at Niagara Falls and on the St. Lawrence River were presented. Fossil fuels, electricity, renewable energy, transmission and transportation, and extreme climate and energy were discussed. Charts were provided to depict the 2001 heat wave and power demand; a summary of climate scenario requirements; the mean electricity demand and mean temperature during 1994 to 2000 in Ontario; runoff sensitivity; and accumulated freezing rain and transmission lines during the January ice storm of 1998. A chart on sources of uncertainty was also provided with reference to measurement error; variability; model structure; and scaling and aggregation. tabs., figs.

  17. Vulnerability, impacts and adaptation : climate information needs for energy managers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirza, M.

    2007-01-01

    The future potential of hydropower and the vulnerability of the energy sector in Canada and North America was discussed with particular reference to climate information needs for managers regarding vulnerability, impacts and adaptation. The presentation discussed power line climate design criteria as well as a case study of the 1998 ice storm. Power output at Niagara Falls and on the St. Lawrence River were presented. Fossil fuels, electricity, renewable energy, transmission and transportation, and extreme climate and energy were discussed. Charts were provided to depict the 2001 heat wave and power demand; a summary of climate scenario requirements; the mean electricity demand and mean temperature during 1994 to 2000 in Ontario; runoff sensitivity; and accumulated freezing rain and transmission lines during the January ice storm of 1998. A chart on sources of uncertainty was also provided with reference to measurement error; variability; model structure; and scaling and aggregation. tabs., figs

  18. Darlington annunciation: User information needs, current experience and improvement priorities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Long, T [Ontario Hydro, Toronto, ON (Canada); Davey, E C [Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd., Chalk River, ON (Canada)

    1997-09-01

    The Darlington Nuclear Generating Station (DNGS) is located approximately 40 kilometers east of Toronto, Ontario on the coast of Lake Ontario. The station consists of four 935 MW(e) pressurized heavy water CANDU type units with a nominal power output of 850 MW(e) per unit. The station was designed and is operated by Ontario Hydro and provides electricity to meet the commercial, industrial and residential needs for 3 million people. Units 1 and 2 began commercial operation in 1990, followed by Unit 3 in 1991 and Unit 4 in 1992. Since commissioning in 1991, the station has continually achieved annual production of greater than 80% of capacity. At Darlington, as in most other industrial enterprises, the plant annunciation systems play a key role in supporting operations staff in supervising and controlling plant operations to achieve both safety and production objectives. This paper will summarize the information needs of operations staff for annunciation of changing plant conditions, describe the operational experience with current plant annunciation systems, discuss areas for annunciation improvement, and outline some of the initiatives being taken to improve plant annunciation in the future. (author). 8 refs, 2 figs, 1 tab.

  19. Darlington annunciation: User information needs, current experience and improvement priorities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long, T.; Davey, E.C.

    1997-01-01

    The Darlington Nuclear Generating Station (DNGS) is located approximately 40 kilometers east of Toronto, Ontario on the coast of Lake Ontario. The station consists of four 935 MW(e) pressurized heavy water CANDU type units with a nominal power output of 850 MW(e) per unit. The station was designed and is operated by Ontario Hydro and provides electricity to meet the commercial, industrial and residential needs for 3 million people. Units 1 and 2 began commercial operation in 1990, followed by Unit 3 in 1991 and Unit 4 in 1992. Since commissioning in 1991, the station has continually achieved annual production of greater than 80% of capacity. At Darlington, as in most other industrial enterprises, the plant annunciation systems play a key role in supporting operations staff in supervising and controlling plant operations to achieve both safety and production objectives. This paper will summarize the information needs of operations staff for annunciation of changing plant conditions, describe the operational experience with current plant annunciation systems, discuss areas for annunciation improvement, and outline some of the initiatives being taken to improve plant annunciation in the future. (author). 8 refs, 2 figs, 1 tab

  20. A Web-based patient information system--identification of patients' information needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassling, Linda; Babic, Ankica; Lönn, Urban; Casimir-Ahn, Henrik

    2003-06-01

    Research described here was carried out to explore possibilities of creating a web-based patient information system within the areas of thoracic surgery. Data were collected to distinguish and assess the actual information needs of patients (1) prior to surgical treatment, (2) before discharge, and (3) 8 months after the hospitalization using a follow-up questionnaire. Interviews were performed with patients undergoing heart surgery. The study included material of 19 consecutive patients undergoing coronary artery bypass surgery (12) and valve replacement (7), age 35-74, 13 males and 6 females with nonacademic background. Patient satisfaction with given information was high. Analysis of the interviews held at the hospital resulted in seven different categories describing and giving a picture of the patients' information needs and apprehension of received care. The results found in this study can be used as guidance for developers in their design and development process of a health information system.

  1. Task relevance of emotional information affects anxiety-linked attention bias in visual search.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodd, Helen F; Vogt, Julia; Turkileri, Nilgun; Notebaert, Lies

    2017-01-01

    Task relevance affects emotional attention in healthy individuals. Here, we investigate whether the association between anxiety and attention bias is affected by the task relevance of emotion during an attention task. Participants completed two visual search tasks. In the emotion-irrelevant task, participants were asked to indicate whether a discrepant face in a crowd of neutral, middle-aged faces was old or young. Irrelevant to the task, target faces displayed angry, happy, or neutral expressions. In the emotion-relevant task, participants were asked to indicate whether a discrepant face in a crowd of middle-aged neutral faces was happy or angry (target faces also varied in age). Trait anxiety was not associated with attention in the emotion-relevant task. However, in the emotion-irrelevant task, trait anxiety was associated with a bias for angry over happy faces. These findings demonstrate that the task relevance of emotional information affects conclusions about the presence of an anxiety-linked attention bias. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Needs of frail elderly people in informal settlements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P du Rand

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available The frail elderly in informal settlements find themselves in an extremely vulnerable position due to a number of factors, namely, their increasing dependency status, limited resources and adverse physical environment. Various aspects that influence the aged in their present environment will be highlighted. A survey method was used to explore and to describe the world in which they live in informal areas. The attitude, expectation and needs of the elderly in respect of their care was also determined. A random cluster sample was taken. Data was collected by means of interviews in terms of a semi-structured questionnaire. It appears that the frail elderly were happy in the environment in which they received care in spite of their unfavourable physical environment and limited resources. The communities where the frail elderly lived were largely unaware of the valuable inputs they can make regarding the care of the aged. This necessitates the development of programs in the heart of communities, owned by communities, where all role players in the care of the aged participate.

  3. The Need for an Informational Systems Approach to Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José María Díaz Nafría

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Different senses of security and its related assumptions, methodologies and contexts are analyzed by first reviewing the liberalistic notions of security and trust, unveiling, on the one hand, the contradictions exhibited between discourse and practice; on the other hand, the historical strategy of concentration of power behind the liberalistic doctrines. The weakness, limits and implications of the liberalistic notions and methods on security and trust are inquired, and subsequently a genuine horizon of security as sustainable and general procurement of positive freedom is advocated. The CyberSyn project successfully implemented in Chile, but tragically and prematurely ending under the hard power in the 9/11 of 1973, serves as model of the posed system approach to security. However, the system model is actualized and completed with elements of the general theory of information in virtue of: the increased complexity of societal systems, its ultimate global dimension, its biospherical closure, the increase of information assets and processes, and some epistemological boundaries. These reasons also set the need of keeping – beside the system approach – a critical and ethical stance.

  4. We need more information about the U. S. EEZ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-09-01

    In 1983, the United States extended its soverign rights and jurisdiction over the natural resources of the ocean out to 200 nautical miles through a presidential proclamation of a US Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ). This proclamation brought to the nation's attention the enormous potential of the waters and seabed surrounding the United States. Present and possible future uses of the EEZ seabed are as varied as the region itself. In addition to the recovery of hydrocarbon and hard mineral resources, it is the site of extensive commercial fisheries, communication cables, and military activities. Potential uses include ocean energy resources, deep ocean water for agriculture and cooling, pharmaceutical research, archaeology, transport, and recreation, as well as consideration for disposal of various classes of wastes and sediments. If we expect to manage these uses and protect the environment, then we must have much more information about the characteristics and behavior of the EEZ waters and seafloor. Since 1983, the USGS and the NOAA have carried out a program to characterize the seafloor of the US EEZ. A stable, long-term national program for gathering information about seabed resources, hazards, and processes will require a partnership of data users and providers in order to target limited resources towards priority activities that will meet user needs and lead to timely attainment of national goals for the ocean. This article reports on the progress made thus far and plans for the future.

  5. User Needs and Strategies in Structured Information Retrieval

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G. Ramirez Camps (Georgina)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractStructured information retrieval studies the combination of the content and the structure information of documents to perform different IR tasks. Different approaches make use of the structural information of documents to improve information retrieval effectiveness. However, most of

  6. Age differences in attention toward decision-relevant information: education matters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Cai; Isaacowitz, Derek

    2011-01-01

    Previous studies suggested that older adults are more likely to engage in heuristic decision-making than young adults. This study used eye tracking technique to examine young adults' and highly educated older adults' attention toward two types of decision-relevant information: heuristic cue vs. factual cues. Surprisingly, highly educated older adults showed the reversed age pattern-they looked more toward factual cues than did young adults. This age difference disappeared after controlling for educational level. Additionally, education correlated with attentional pattern to decision-relevant information. We interpret this finding as an indication of the power of education: education may modify what are thought to be "typical" age differences in decision-making, and education may influence young and older people's decision-making via different paths.

  7. Acoustic fine structure may encode biologically relevant information for zebra finches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prior, Nora H; Smith, Edward; Lawson, Shelby; Ball, Gregory F; Dooling, Robert J

    2018-04-18

    The ability to discriminate changes in the fine structure of complex sounds is well developed in birds. However, the precise limit of this discrimination ability and how it is used in the context of natural communication remains unclear. Here we describe natural variability in acoustic fine structure of male and female zebra finch calls. Results from psychoacoustic experiments demonstrate that zebra finches are able to discriminate extremely small differences in fine structure, which are on the order of the variation in acoustic fine structure that is present in their vocal signals. Results from signal analysis methods also suggest that acoustic fine structure may carry information that distinguishes between biologically relevant categories including sex, call type and individual identity. Combined, our results are consistent with the hypothesis that zebra finches can encode biologically relevant information within the fine structure of their calls. This study provides a foundation for our understanding of how acoustic fine structure may be involved in animal communication.

  8. Providing policy-relevant information for greenhouse gas management: Perspectives from science and technology policy research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dilling, L.

    2009-12-01

    In the 12 years since the Kyoto Protocol was signed setting forth targets for greenhouse gas emissions from several nations, the number of policies, voluntary programs and commercial enterprises that have developed to manage carbon has grown exponentially. Many of these programs have occurred in a voluntary context, such as carbon trading, carbon offset programs, and climate registries . To date, no single, common system for accrediting, verifying and recording carbon credits has developed. Moreover, as the international community continues to negotiate the dimensions of an international agreement for the post-Kyoto time period, discussions still center on targets for fossil fuel emissions, biospheric carbon protection, and appropriate distribution of the burden of compliance globally. If carbon still remains the currency for discussion in a climate agreement, some type of effective measurement and verification system will be needed to ensure that commitments are being met. While entire volumes over the past decade have been written on what it is possible to observe about the carbon cycle and how to do so-- these tend to describe observations from the perspective of studying the carbon cycle to discover fundamental new knowledge. I will argue, however, that for the application under consideration in this session, i.e. a global greenhouse gas information system, it is essential to bring in the perspective of the policy and regulatory community. The needs of the scientific community for measuring the uncertainties in the global carbon cycle are not necessarily the same as those for the policy community. To ensure that such a system can serve a policy-relevant function, the scientific community must engage with policy makers, entrepreneurs, those who must comply, and others involved in constructing the policy framework. This paper will examine some of the key fundamentals that the policy community may be considering in designing a greenhouse gas monitoring system. I

  9. Changing Zaire to Congo: the fate of no-longer relevant mnemonic information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksson, Johan; Stiernstedt, Mikael; Öhlund, Maria; Nyberg, Lars

    2014-11-01

    In an ever-changing world there is constant pressure on revising long-term memory, such when people or countries change name. What happens to the old, pre-existing information? One possibility is that old associations gradually are weakened and eventually lost. Alternatively, old and no longer relevant information may still be an integral part of memory traces. To test the hypothesis that old mnemonic information still becomes activated when people correctly retrieve new, currently relevant information, brain activity was measured with fMRI while participants performed a cued-retrieval task. Paired associates (symbol-sound and symbol-face pairs) were first learned during two days. Half of the associations were then updated during the next two days, followed by fMRI scanning on day 5 and also 18 months later. As expected, retrieval reactivated sensory cortex related to the most recently learned association (visual cortex for symbol-face pairs, auditory cortex for symbol-sound pairs). Critically, retrieval also reactivated sensory cortex related to the no-longer relevant associate. Eighteen months later, only non-updated symbol-face associations were intact. Intriguingly, a subset of the updated associations was now treated as though the original association had taken over, in that memory performance was significantly worse than chance and that activity in sensory cortex for the original but not the updated associate correlated (negatively) with performance. Moreover, the degree of "residual" reactivation during day 5 inversely predicted memory performance 18 months later. Thus, updating of long-term memory involves adding new information to already existing networks, in which old information can stay resilient for a long time. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. Task-Relevant Information Modulates Primary Motor Cortex Activity Before Movement Onset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderon, Cristian B; Van Opstal, Filip; Peigneux, Philippe; Verguts, Tom; Gevers, Wim

    2018-01-01

    Monkey neurophysiology research supports the affordance competition hypothesis (ACH) proposing that cognitive information useful for action selection is integrated in sensorimotor areas. In this view, action selection would emerge from the simultaneous representation of competing action plans, in parallel biased by relevant task factors. This biased competition would take place up to primary motor cortex (M1). Although ACH is plausible in environments affording choices between actions, its relevance for human decision making is less clear. To address this issue, we designed an functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) experiment modeled after monkey neurophysiology studies in which human participants processed cues conveying predictive information about upcoming button presses. Our results demonstrate that, as predicted by the ACH, predictive information (i.e., the relevant task factor) biases activity of primary motor regions. Specifically, first, activity before movement onset in contralateral M1 increases as the competition is biased in favor of a specific button press relative to activity in ipsilateral M1. Second, motor regions were more tightly coupled with fronto-parietal regions when competition between potential actions was high, again suggesting that motor regions are also part of the biased competition network. Our findings support the idea that action planning dynamics as proposed in the ACH are valid both in human and non-human primates.

  11. How Long Should Routine EEG Be Recorded to Get Relevant Information?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doudoux, Hannah; Skaare, Kristina; Geay, Thomas; Kahane, Philippe; Bosson, Jean L; Sabourdy, Cécile; Vercueil, Laurent

    2017-03-01

    The optimal duration of routine EEG (rEEG) has not been determined on a clinical basis. This study aims to determine the time required to obtain relevant information during rEEG with respect to the clinical request. All rEEGs performed over 3 months in unselected patients older than 14 years in an academic hospital were analyzed retrospectively. The latency required to obtain relevant information was determined for each rEEG by 2 independent readers blinded to the clinical data. EEG final diagnoses and latencies were analyzed with respect to the main clinical requests: subacute cognitive impairment, spells, transient focal neurologic manifestation or patients referred by epileptologists. From 430 rEEGs performed in the targeted period, 364 were analyzed: 92% of the pathological rEEGs were provided within the first 10 minutes of recording. Slowing background activity was diagnosed from the beginning, whereas interictal epileptiform discharges were recorded over time. Moreover, the time elapsed to demonstrate a pattern differed significantly in the clinical groups: in patients with subacute cognitive impairment, EEG abnormalities appeared within the first 10 minutes, whereas in the other groups, data could be provided over time. Patients with subacute cognitive impairment differed from those in the other groups significantly in the elapsed time required to obtain relevant information during rEEG, suggesting that 10-minute EEG recordings could be sufficient, arguing in favor of individualized rEEG. However, this conclusion does not apply to intensive care unit patients.

  12. An analysis of contingent factors for the detection of strategic relevance in business information technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Paños Álvarez

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Information Technologies are resources able to create competitive advantages for companies. In this analysis, the Resource-based perspective have taken special relevance, because it is argued that this advantages should be identified, reached and maintained. This work is positioned in the analysis of several contingent factors in the process of pointing the possible assesment of these advantages. It is aproaching a portfolio for helping to select what Information Technologies are valuable for what companies and in what activity areas and the study of in what way the sector, the technological innovation profile, the size and the financial capacity of the companies affects this process

  13. 40 CFR 86.1862-04 - Maintenance of records and submittal of information relevant to compliance with fleet average NOX...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... of information relevant to compliance with fleet average NOX standards. 86.1862-04 Section 86.1862-04...-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1862-04 Maintenance of records and submittal of information relevant to..., maintain, and retain the following information in adequately organized and indexed records for each model...

  14. ERP investigation of attentional disengagement from suicide-relevant information in patients with major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baik, Seung Yeon; Jeong, Minkyung; Kim, Hyang Sook; Lee, Seung-Hwan

    2018-01-01

    Previous studies suggest the presence of attentional bias towards suicide-relevant information in suicidal individuals. However, the findings are limited by their reliance on behavioral measures. This study investigates the role of difficulty in disengaging attention from suicide-relevant stimuli using the P300 component of event-related potentials (ERPs). Forty-four adults with Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) were administered the spatial cueing task using suicide-relevant and negatively-valenced words as cue stimuli. Disengagement difficulty was measured using reaction time and P300 during invalid trials. P300 amplitudes at Pz were higher in suicide-relevant compared to negatively-valenced word condition on invalid trials for participants with low rates of suicidal behavior. However, no such difference was found among participants with high rates of suicidal behavior. P300 amplitudes for suicide-relevant word condition were negatively correlated with "lifetime suicide ideation and attempt" at Pz. No significant results were found for the reaction time data, indicating that the ERP may be more sensitive in capturing the attentional disengagement effect. The groups were divided according to Suicidal Behaviors Questionnaire-Revised (SBQ-R) total score. Neutral stimulus was not included as cue stimuli. Most participants were under medication during the experiment. Our results indicate that patients with MDD and low rates of suicidal behavior show difficulty in disengaging attention from suicide-relevant stimuli. We suggest that suicide-specific disengagement difficulties may be related to recentness of suicide attempt and that acquired capability for suicide may contribute to reduced disengagement difficulties. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Current information technology needs of small to medium sized apparel manufacturers and contractors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wimple, C., LLNL

    1998-04-01

    This report documents recent efforts of the American Textile Partnership (AMTEX{sup TM}) Demand Activated Manufacturing Architecture (DAMA) Project to identify opportunities for cost effective enhanced information technology use by small to medium sized apparel manufacturers and contractors. Background on the AMTEX/DAMA project and objectives for the specific DAMA Small and Medium Enterprise (SME) effort are discussed in this section. The approach used to gather information about current opportunities or needs is outlined in Section 2 Approach, and relevant findings are identified and a brief analysis of the information gathered is presented in Section 3 Findings. Recommendations based on the analysis, are offered in Section 4 Recommendations, and plans are suggested for DAMA follow-on in Section 5 Future Plans. Trip reports for each of the companies visited are contained in Appendix E - Company Trip Reports. These individual reports contain the data upon which the analysis presented in Section 3 Findings is based.

  16. Identifying relevant group of miRNAs in cancer using fuzzy mutual information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Jayanta Kumar; Ray, Shubhra Sankar; Pal, Sankar K

    2016-04-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) act as a major biomarker of cancer. All miRNAs in human body are not equally important for cancer identification. We propose a methodology, called FMIMS, which automatically selects the most relevant miRNAs for a particular type of cancer. In FMIMS, miRNAs are initially grouped by using a SVM-based algorithm; then the group with highest relevance is determined and the miRNAs in that group are finally ranked for selection according to their redundancy. Fuzzy mutual information is used in computing the relevance of a group and the redundancy of miRNAs within it. Superiority of the most relevant group to all others, in deciding normal or cancer, is demonstrated on breast, renal, colorectal, lung, melanoma and prostate data. The merit of FMIMS as compared to several existing methods is established. While 12 out of 15 selected miRNAs by FMIMS corroborate with those of biological investigations, three of them viz., "hsa-miR-519," "hsa-miR-431" and "hsa-miR-320c" are possible novel predictions for renal cancer, lung cancer and melanoma, respectively. The selected miRNAs are found to be involved in disease-specific pathways by targeting various genes. The method is also able to detect the responsible miRNAs even at the primary stage of cancer. The related code is available at http://www.jayanta.droppages.com/FMIMS.html .

  17. Effects of self-schema elaboration on affective and cognitive reactions to self-relevant information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, L E; Stahlberg, D; Dauenheimer, D

    2000-02-01

    The basic assumption of the integrative self-schema model (ISSM; L.-E. Petersen, 1994; L.-E. Petersen, D. Stahlberg, & D. Dauenheimer, 1996; D. Stahlberg, L.-E. Petersen, & D. Dauenheimer, 1994, 1999) is that self-schema elaboration (schematic vs. aschematic) affects reactions to self-relevant information. This assumption is based on the idea that schematic dimensions occupy a more central position in the cognitive system than aschematic dimensions. In the first study, this basic prediction could be clearly confirmed: The results showed that schematic dimensions possessed stronger cognitive associations with other self-relevant cognitions as well as a higher resistance to change than aschematic dimensions did. In the second study, the main assumptions of the ISSM concerning the affective and cognitive reactions to self-relevant feedback were tested: The ISSM proposes that, on schematic dimensions, reactions to self-relevant feedback will most likely follow principles of self-consistency theory, whereas on aschematic dimensions positive feedback should elicit the most positive reactions that self-enhancement theory would predict. The experimental results clearly confirmed the hypotheses derived from the ISSM for affective reactions. Cognitive reactions, however, were in line with self-consistency principles and were not modified by the elaboration of the self-schema dimension involved.

  18. A user needs assessment to inform health information exchange design and implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauss, Alexandra T; Martinez, Diego A; Garcia-Arce, Andres; Taylor, Stephanie; Mateja, Candice; Fabri, Peter J; Zayas-Castro, Jose L

    2015-10-12

    Important barriers for widespread use of health information exchange (HIE) are usability and interface issues. However, most HIEs are implemented without performing a needs assessment with the end users, healthcare providers. We performed a user needs assessment for the process of obtaining clinical information from other health care organizations about a hospitalized patient and identified the types of information most valued for medical decision-making. Quantitative and qualitative analysis were used to evaluate the process to obtain and use outside clinical information (OI) using semi-structured interviews (16 internists), direct observation (750 h), and operational data from the electronic medical records (30,461 hospitalizations) of an internal medicine department in a public, teaching hospital in Tampa, Florida. 13.7 % of hospitalizations generate at least one request for OI. On average, the process comprised 13 steps, 6 decisions points, and 4 different participants. Physicians estimate that the average time to receive OI is 18 h. Physicians perceived that OI received is not useful 33-66 % of the time because information received is irrelevant or not timely. Technical barriers to OI use included poor accessibility and ineffective information visualization. Common problems with the process were receiving extraneous notes and the need to re-request the information. Drivers for OI use were to trend lab or imaging abnormalities, understand medical history of critically ill or hospital-to-hospital transferred patients, and assess previous echocardiograms and bacterial cultures. About 85 % of the physicians believe HIE would have a positive effect on improving healthcare delivery. Although hospitalists are challenged by a complex process to obtain OI, they recognize the value of specific information for enhancing medical decision-making. HIE systems are likely to have increased utilization and effectiveness if specific patient-level clinical information is

  19. Information needs for making clinical recommendations about potential drug-drug interactions: a synthesis of literature review and interviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romagnoli, Katrina M; Nelson, Scott D; Hines, Lisa; Empey, Philip; Boyce, Richard D; Hochheiser, Harry

    2017-02-22

    Drug information compendia and drug-drug interaction information databases are critical resources for clinicians and pharmacists working to avoid adverse events due to exposure to potential drug-drug interactions (PDDIs). Our goal is to develop information models, annotated data, and search tools that will facilitate the interpretation of PDDI information. To better understand the information needs and work practices of specialists who search and synthesize PDDI evidence for drug information resources, we conducted an inquiry that combined a thematic analysis of published literature with unstructured interviews. Starting from an initial set of relevant articles, we developed search terms and conducted a literature search. Two reviewers conducted a thematic analysis of included articles. Unstructured interviews with drug information experts were conducted and similarly coded. Information needs, work processes, and indicators of potential strengths and weaknesses of information systems were identified. Review of 92 papers and 10 interviews identified 56 categories of information needs related to the interpretation of PDDI information including drug and interaction information; study design; evidence including clinical details, quality and content of reports, and consequences; and potential recommendations. We also identified strengths/weaknesses of PDDI information systems. We identified the kinds of information that might be most effective for summarizing PDDIs. The drug information experts we interviewed had differing goals, suggesting a need for detailed information models and flexible presentations. Several information needs not discussed in previous work were identified, including temporal overlaps in drug administration, biological plausibility of interactions, and assessment of the quality and content of reports. Richly structured depictions of PDDI information may help drug information experts more effectively interpret data and develop recommendations

  20. Security of electronic medical information and patient privacy: what you need to know.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andriole, Katherine P

    2014-12-01

    The responsibility that physicians have to protect their patients from harm extends to protecting the privacy and confidentiality of patient health information including that contained within radiological images. The intent of HIPAA and subsequent HIPAA Privacy and Security Rules is to keep patients' private information confidential while allowing providers access to and maintaining the integrity of relevant information needed to provide care. Failure to comply with electronic protected health information (ePHI) regulations could result in financial or criminal penalties or both. Protected health information refers to anything that can reasonably be used to identify a patient (eg, name, age, date of birth, social security number, radiology examination accession number). The basic tools and techniques used to maintain medical information security and patient privacy described in this article include physical safeguards such as computer device isolation and data backup, technical safeguards such as firewalls and secure transmission modes, and administrative safeguards including documentation of security policies, training of staff, and audit tracking through system logs. Other important concepts related to privacy and security are explained, including user authentication, authorization, availability, confidentiality, data integrity, and nonrepudiation. Patient privacy and security of medical information are critical elements in today's electronic health care environment. Radiology has led the way in adopting digital systems to make possible the availability of medical information anywhere anytime, and in identifying and working to eliminate any risks to patients. Copyright © 2014 American College of Radiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Columbia River Coordinated Information System (CIS); Information Needs, 1992 Technical Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petrosky, Charlie (Idaho Department of Fish and Game, Boise, ID); Kinney, William J. (Washington Department of Fishereis, Olympia, WA); Rowe, Mike (Shoshone-Bannock Tribes, Fort Hall, ID)

    1993-05-01

    Successful application of adaptive management to rebuilding the Columbia Basin`s anadromous fish resources requires that available information and experience be organized and shared between numerous organizations and individuals. Much of this knowledge exists only in unpublished form in agency and individual files. Even that information which is published in the form of technical and contract reports receives only limited distribution and is often out of print and unavailable after a few years. Only a small fraction of the basin`s collective knowledge is captured in permanent and readily available databases and recognized journals. State, tribal, and federal fishery managers have recognize these information management problems and have committed to a program, the Coordinated Information System Project, to capture and share more easily the core data and other information upon which management decisions are based. That project is now completing the process of scoping and identification of information needs. Construction of prototype systems will begin in 1992. This report is one in a series of seven describing the results of the Coordinated Information on System scoping and needs identification phase.

  2. Commissions as information organizations: Meeting the information needs of an electronic society

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sevel, F.

    1997-11-01

    This paper describes how commission-sponsored web sites can effectively meet electronic information needs. Demographics of internet users are presented and analyzed. Online activities and user access data are also described. The implications of the characteristics of internet users for commission-sponsored web sites are discussed, and guidelines for determining marketing objectives are presented.

  3. Hospital managers' need for information in decision-making--An interview study in nine European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidholm, Kristian; Ølholm, Anne Mette; Birk-Olsen, Mette; Cicchetti, Americo; Fure, Brynjar; Halmesmäki, Esa; Kahveci, Rabia; Kiivet, Raul-Allan; Wasserfallen, Jean-Blaise; Wild, Claudia; Sampietro-Colom, Laura

    2015-11-01

    Assessments of new health technologies in Europe are often made at the hospital level. However, the guidelines for health technology assessment (HTA), e.g. the EUnetHTA Core Model, are produced by national HTA organizations and focus on decision-making at the national level. This paper describes the results of an interview study with European hospital managers about their need for information when deciding about investments in new treatments. The study is part of the AdHopHTA project. Face-to-face, structured interviews were conducted with 53 hospital managers from nine European countries. The hospital managers identified the clinical, economic, safety and organizational aspects of new treatments as being the most relevant for decision-making. With regard to economic aspects, the hospital managers typically had a narrower focus on budget impact and reimbursement. In addition to the information included in traditional HTAs, hospital managers sometimes needed information on the political and strategic aspects of new treatments, in particular the relationship between the treatment and the strategic goals of the hospital. If further studies are able to verify our results, guidelines for hospital-based HTA should be altered to reflect the information needs of hospital managers when deciding about investments in new treatments. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  4. Elaboration of a guide including relevant project and logistic information: a case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Tchaikowisky M. [Faculdade de Tecnologia e Ciencias (FTC), Itabuna, BA (Brazil); Bresci, Claudio T.; Franca, Carlos M.M. [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    For every mobilization of a new enterprise it is necessary to quickly obtain the greatest amount of relative information in regards to location and availability of infra-structure, logistics, and work site amenities. Among this information are reports elaborated for management of the enterprise, (organizational chart, work schedule, objectives, contacts, etc.) as well as geographic anomalies, social-economic and culture of the area to be developed such as territorial extension, land aspects, local population, roads and amenities (fuel stations ,restaurants and hotels), infra-structure of the cities (health, education, entertainment, housing, transport, etc.) and logistically the distance between cities the estimated travel time, ROW access maps and notable points, among other relevant information. With the idea of making this information available for everyone involved in the enterprise, it was elaborated for GASCAC Spread 2A a rapid guide containing all the information mentioned above and made it available for all the vehicles used to transport employees and visitors to the spread. With this, everyone quickly received the majority of information necessary in one place, in a practical, quick, and precise manner, since the information is always used and controlled by the same person. This study includes the model used in the gas pipeline GASCAC Spread 2A project and the methodology used to draft and update the information. Besides the above, a file in the GIS format was prepared containing all necessary planning, execution and tracking information for enterprise activities, from social communication to the execution of the works previously mentioned. Part of the GIS file information was uploaded to Google Earth so as to disclose the information to a greater group of people, bearing in mind that this program is free of charge and easy to use. (author)

  5. Potential miscanthus' adoption in Illinois: Information needs and preferred information channels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villamil, Maria B. [Department of Human and Community Development, Laboratory for Community and Economic Development, 222 Bevier Hall, 905 South Goodwin Ave., Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Department of Crop Sciences, University of Illinois, AW-101 Turner Hall, 1102 South Goodwin Ave., Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Silvis, Anne Heinze [Department of Human and Community Development, Laboratory for Community and Economic Development, 222 Bevier Hall, 905 South Goodwin Ave., Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Bollero, German A. [Department of Crop Sciences, University of Illinois, AW-101 Turner Hall, 1102 South Goodwin Ave., Urbana, IL 61801 (United States)

    2008-12-15

    This study examined farmers' information needs and concerns and preferred information channels regarding the introduction of miscanthus in their current production systems in the state of Illinois, USA. Surveys and focus groups targeted farming populations from Northern, Central, and Southern regions of the state to evidence regional differences. A secondary objective was to identify potential adopters of miscanthus and to asses the level of awareness regarding miscanthus and the associated possibility of receiving carbon credits. Factor analysis, multivariate ANOVA, and categorical data analysis were the selected statistical tools. Only two out of 313 respondents knew about the existence of the crop before completing the survey. Thirty percent of the respondents were identified as potential adopters of miscanthus with the highest proportion of potential adopters found among farmers in the Northern Illinois region. There are clear differences among the information needs of farmers in each region in Illinois as well as in the preferred channels. Information campaigns aimed to increase awareness and education regarding the use of miscanthus as an energy crop in Illinois, should specifically address these regional information needs and channel them through preferred media. (author)

  6. Relevant Factors in The Post-Merger Systems Integration and Information Technology in Brazilian Banks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcel Ginotti Pires

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the factors present in post-merger integration of Systems and Information Technology (SIT that lead to positive and negative results in mergers and acquisitions (M & A. The research comprised three of the largest acquiring banks in Brazil. We adopted two methods of research, qualitative, to operationalize the theoretical concepts and quantitative, to test the hypotheses. We interviewed six executives of banks that held relevant experience in M & A processes. Subsequently, we applied questionnaires to IT professionals who were involved in the SIT integration processes. The results showed that the quality and expertise of the integration teams and managing the integration were the most relevant factors in the processes, with positive results for increased efficiency and the increased capacity of SIT. Negative results were due to failures in exploiting learning opportunities, the loss of employees and the inexpressive record of integration procedures.

  7. Human papillomavirus (HPV) information needs: a theoretical framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marlow, Laura A V; Wardle, Jane; Waller, Jo; Grant, Nina

    2009-01-01

    Background With the introduction of human papillomavirus (HPV) testing and vaccination in the UK, health professionals will start to receive questions about the virus from their patients. This study aimed to identify the key questions about HPV that British women will ask when considering having an HPV test or vaccination. Methods Face-to-face interviews were carried out with 21 women to discover what they wanted to know about HPV. A thematic framework approach was used to analyse the data and identify key themes in women's HPV knowledge requirements. Results Women's questions about HPV fell into six areas: identity (e.g. What are the symptoms?), cause (e.g. How do you get HPV?), timeline (e.g. How long does it last?), consequences (e.g. Does it always cause cervical cancer?) and control-cure (e.g. Can you prevent infection?). In addition, they asked procedural questions about testing and vaccination (e.g. Where do I get an HPV test?). These mapped well onto the dimensions identified in Leventhal's description of lay models of illness, called the 'Common Sense Model' (CSM). Discussion and conclusions These results indicated that the majority of the questions women asked about HPV fitted well into the CSM, which therefore provides a structure for women's information needs. The findings could help health professionals understand what questions they may be expected to answer. Framing educational materials using the CSM themes may also help health educators achieve a good fit with what the public want to know. PMID:19126314

  8. Pediatric information seeking behaviour, information needs, and information preferences of health care professionals in general emergency departments: Results from the Translating Emergency Knowledge for Kids (TREKK) Needs Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Shannon D; Albrecht, Lauren; Given, Lisa M; Hartling, Lisa; Johnson, David W; Jabbour, Mona; Klassen, Terry P

    2018-01-01

    The majority of children requiring emergency care are treated in general emergency departments (EDs) with variable levels of pediatric care expertise. The goal of the Translating Emergency Knowledge for Kids (TREKK) initiative is to implement the latest research in pediatric emergency medicine in general EDs to reduce clinical variation. To determine national pediatric information needs, seeking behaviours, and preferences of health care professionals working in general EDs. An electronic cross-sectional survey was conducted with health care professionals in 32 Canadian general EDs. Data were collected in the EDs using the iPad and in-person data collectors. Total of 1,471 surveys were completed (57.1% response rate). Health care professionals sought information on children's health care by talking to colleagues (n=1,208, 82.1%), visiting specific medical/health websites (n=994, 67.7%), and professional development opportunities (n=941, 64.4%). Preferred child health resources included protocols and accepted treatments for common conditions (n=969, 68%), clinical pathways and practice guidelines (n=951, 66%), and evidence-based information on new diagnoses and treatments (n=866, 61%). Additional pediatric clinical information is needed about multisystem trauma (n=693, 49%), severe head injury (n=615, 43%), and meningitis (n=559, 39%). Health care professionals preferred to receive child health information through professional development opportunities (n=1,131, 80%) and printed summaries (n=885, 63%). By understanding health care professionals' information seeking behaviour, information needs, and information preferences, knowledge synthesis and knowledge translation initiatives can be targeted to improve pediatric emergency care. The findings from this study will inform the following two phases of the TREKK initiative to bridge the research-practice gap in Canadian general EDs.

  9. Enriching news for supporting users’ information needs using schema-­driven classification of entities and relations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    V. Pinzi (Viola)

    2014-01-01

    htmlabstractThe LinkedTV project News scenario aims at improving the experience of watching news on TV. It envisages that potential users of the system watch news broadcasts, express a need for additional information and that the system provides resources from the web that are potentially relevant

  10. From Management Information Systems to Business Intelligence: The Development of Management Information Needs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gėlytė Kazakevičienė

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Despite the advances in IT, information systems intended for management informing did not uniformly fulfil the increased expectations of users; this can be said mostly about complex information needs. Although some of the technologies for supporting complicated insights, like management decision support systems and technologies, experienced reduction in interest both from researchers and practitioners, this did not reduce the importance of well-supported business informing and decision making. Being attributed to the group of intelligent systems and technologies, decision support (DS technologies have been largely supplemented by business intelligence (BI technologies. Both types of technologies are supported by respective information technologies, which often appear to be quite closely related. The objective of this paper is to define relations between simple and complex informing intended to satisfy different sets of needs and provided by different sets of support tools. The paper attempts to put together decision support and business intelligence technologies, based on common goals of sense-making and use of advanced analytical tools. A model of two interconnected cycles has been developed to relate the activities of decision support and business intelligence. Empirical data from earlier research is used to direct possible further insights into this area.

  11. Tailoring climate information to user needs | CRDI - Centre de ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    29 mars 2011 ... This brief summarizes lessons from the CCAA learning forum on improving access to and use of seasonal forecasts in Africa, which took place in Nairobi, Kenya in March 2010. It is of particular relevance to decision makers concerned with the production and use of seasonal climate forecasts in the ...

  12. Information Needs and Behaviours of Theology Students at the International Baptist Theological Seminary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharina Penner

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The study analyses information needs and behaviours of master’s and doctoral theology students currently studying at the International Baptist Theological Seminary (IBTS in Prague, Czech Republic. The aim is two-fold: first, to extend understanding of the information behaviour of theologians working as distance learners in a cross cultural setting; and secondly, to provide guidance for the development of library information services for this group. The study follows a quantitative research approach with a survey design and attempts to replicate in a modified way studies by Gorman (1990 and Stieg Dalton and Charnigo (2004. The findings suggest that theology students at IBTS use many and varied types of materials in their interdisciplinary studies while giving clear preference to books, periodicals and theses. Most of the participants have, partly successfully, embraced information technology as a tool and use it extensively. To satisfy their research needs they employ a variety of methods to find relevant information and fall back on “typical” humanists’ research behaviours when “usual” channels do not work: engage their networks, expand their personal library, and browse. While the humanist profile is evident throughout the diverse group, there are also notable differences. Theologians increasingly work interdisciplinary and integrate approaches considered typical for other disciplines. Partly differences are caused by the fact that the group under consideration are students who still experiment with research approaches. Many differences are caused by technological developments and contextual aspects.

  13. Information needs of people with low back pain for an online resource: a qualitative study of consumer views.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Mandy; Jull, Gwendolen; Hodges, Paul W

    2014-01-01

    To identify the information needs of people with low back pain (LBP) in Australia, and the preferred methods to present this information online, as a basis for development of a patient-centred website. Available online LBP resources are limited in quality and content and it is not clear if they are meeting the needs of sufferers. Focus groups and semi-structured telephone interviews, involving 28 people with LBP. Seven categories of information were identified: reasons for LBP, treatment and management options, self-help information, psychological and social dimensions, lay stories, quality assurance of information and roles of different healthcare professionals and locally available services. Identified preferences for online presentation included: multimodality, emphasis on visual media, readability and interactivity. Participants had been unable to obtain desired LBP information using existing resources. This study provides important guidance for development of a patient-centred website grounded in the expressed needs and preferences of people with LBP. Understanding the breadth of patients' questions and concerns is essential for provision of patient-centred information and interventions. Incorporating these with the current evidence base would provide an accessible and relevant LBP patient education referral point, which is currently lacking. Implications for Rehabilitation Use of the internet to obtain health information is increasing, although there is little evidence that existing low back pain websites are meeting the expressed needs of health consumers. Our research suggests that people with low back pain have difficulty finding relevant and trustworthy information about the condition on the internet. Taking patient information needs and presentation preferences into account when designing online information material will provide people with low back pain an accessible and relevant educational resource that is currently lacking.

  14. Human-Computer Interaction and Information Management Research Needs

    Data.gov (United States)

    Networking and Information Technology Research and Development, Executive Office of the President — In a visionary future, Human-Computer Interaction HCI and Information Management IM have the potential to enable humans to better manage their lives through the use...

  15. Strategic relevance and accountability expectations: new perspectives for health care information technology design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, J K; Modrow, R E

    1999-05-01

    In this article, we discuss the traditional systems analysis perspective on end-user information requirements analysis and extend it to merge with the new accountability expectations perspective to guide the future planning and design of health organization information systems. Underlying the strategic relevance of health care information technology (HCIT) are three critical questions: (1) What is the ideal HCIT model for the health organization in terms of achieving strategic expertise and competitive advantage? Specifically, how does this model link industry performance standards with organizational performance and accountability expectations? (2) How should the limitations of past HCIT models be reconciled to the benefits presented by the superior arrangement of the ideal model in the context of changing accountability expectations? (3) How should alternative HCIT solutions be evaluated in light of evidence-based accountability and organizational performance benchmarking? Insights into these questions will ensure that health care managers, HCIT practitioners and researchers can continue to focus on the most critical issues in harnessing today's fast-paced changing technologies for evolving strategically relevant, performance-based health organization systems.

  16. Using language models to identify relevant new information in inpatient clinical notes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Rui; Pakhomov, Serguei V; Lee, Janet T; Melton, Genevieve B

    2014-01-01

    Redundant information in clinical notes within electronic health record (EHR) systems is ubiquitous and may negatively impact the use of these notes by clinicians, and, potentially, the efficiency of patient care delivery. Automated methods to identify redundant versus relevant new information may provide a valuable tool for clinicians to better synthesize patient information and navigate to clinically important details. In this study, we investigated the use of language models for identification of new information in inpatient notes, and evaluated our methods using expert-derived reference standards. The best method achieved precision of 0.743, recall of 0.832 and F1-measure of 0.784. The average proportion of redundant information was similar between inpatient and outpatient progress notes (76.6% (SD=17.3%) and 76.7% (SD=14.0%), respectively). Advanced practice providers tended to have higher rates of redundancy in their notes compared to physicians. Future investigation includes the addition of semantic components and visualization of new information.

  17. The Need for Integration of Information and Communication ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Information and Communication Technology (ICT) is a major factor in shaping a new global economy and producing rapid changes in society. In order to function in this new world economy, students and their teachers have to learn to deal with large amount of information. This entails the analysis of such information and ...

  18. Information Society Needs of Managers in a Large Governmental Organisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broos, Elizabeth; Cronje, Johannes C.

    2009-01-01

    Dealing effectively with information and communication technology in the information society is a complex task and the human dimension is often under-estimated. This paper tries to give a voice to some managers about their experiences with information, communication and technology in their working environment, which involves participating in a…

  19. Information resource use and need in risk assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turturro, A. [National Center for Toxicological Research, Jefferson, AR (United States)

    1990-12-31

    The manner in which the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) uses information resources comprises an interesting illustration of federal agency information use. A description of the context in which risk assessment occurs within the FDA is followed by a discussion of information access and use, as well as a practical example.

  20. Patient information and emotional needs across the hip osteoarthritis continuum: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brembo, Espen Andreas; Kapstad, Heidi; Eide, Tom; Månsson, Lukas; Van Dulmen, Sandra; Eide, Hilde

    2016-03-12

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common form of arthritis worldwide, affecting a growing number of people in the ageing populations. Currently, it affects about 50 % of all people over 65 years of age. There are no disease-modifying treatments for OA; hence preference-sensitive treatment options include symptom reduction, self-management and surgical joint replacement for suitable individuals. People have both ethical and legal rights to be informed about treatment choices and to actively participate in decision-making. Individuals have different needs; they differ in their ability to understand and make use of the provided information and to sustain behaviour change-dependent treatments over time. As a part of a larger research project that aims to develop and test a web-based support tool for patients with hip OA, this paper is a qualitative in-depth study to investigate patients' need for information and their personal emotional needs. We invited 13 patients to participate in individual interviews, which were audiotaped. The audio-tapes were transcribed verbatim and analysed using an inductive thematic analysis approach. The thematic analysis revealed a pattern of patients' information and emotional needs, captured in several key questions relevant to the different stages of the disease experience. Based on these results and research literature, we developed a model illustrating the patients' disease experience and treatment continuum. Six phases with accompanying key questions were identified, displaying how patients information and emotional needs arise and change in line with the progression of the disease experience, the clinical encounters and the decision-making process. We also identified and included in the model an alternative route that bypasses the surgical treatment option. Patients with hip OA are in great need of information both at the time of diagnosis and further throughout the disease development and care continuum. Lack of information may

  1. An Information System for Brownfield Regeneration: providing customised information according to stakeholders' characteristics and needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzo, Erika; Pizzol, Lisa; Zabeo, Alex; Giubilato, Elisa; Critto, Andrea; Cosmo, Luca; Marcomini, Antonio

    2018-07-01

    In the EU brownfield presence is still considered a widespread problem. Even though, in the last decades, many research projects and initiatives developed a wealth of methods, guidelines, tools and technologies aimed at supporting brownfield regeneration. However, this variety of products had and still has a limited practical impact on brownfield revitalisation success, because they are not used in their entire potential due to their scarce visibility. Also, another problem that stakeholders face is finding customised information. To overcome this non-visibility and not-sufficient customisation of information, the Information System for Brownfield Regeneration (ISBR) has been developed, based on Artificial Neural Networks, which allows understanding stakeholders' information needs by providing tailored information. The ISBR has been tested by stakeholders from the EU project TIMBRE case studies, located in the Czech Republic, Germany, Poland and Romania. Data gained during tests allowed to understand stakeholders' information needs. Overall, stakeholders showed to be concerned first on remediation aspects, then on benchmarking information, which are valuable to improve practices in the complex field of brownfield regeneration, and then on the relatively new issue of sustainability applied to brownfield regeneration and remediation. Mature markets confirmed their interest for remediation-related aspects, highlighting the central role that risk assessment plays in the process. Emerging markets showed to seek information and tools for strategic and planning issues, like brownfield inventories and georeferenced data sets. Results led to conclude that a new improved platform, combining the ISBR functionalities with geo-referenced ones, would be useful and could represent a further research application. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Current systematic carbon-cycle observations and the need for implementing a policy-relevant carbon observing system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciais, P.; Peregon, A.; Chevallier, F.; Bopp, L.; Breon, F.M.; Broquet, G.; Luyssaert, S.; Moulin, C.; Paris, J.D.; Poulter, B.; Rivier, L.; Wang, R.

    2014-01-01

    A globally integrated carbon observation and analysis system is needed to improve the fundamental understanding of the global carbon cycle, to improve our ability to project future changes, and to verify the effectiveness of policies aiming to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and increase carbon sequestration. Building an integrated carbon observation system requires transformational advances from the existing sparse, exploratory framework towards a dense, robust, and sustained system in all components: anthropogenic emissions, the atmosphere, the ocean, and the terrestrial biosphere. The paper is addressed to scientists, policy makers, and funding agencies who need to have a global picture of the current state of the (diverse) carbon observations. We identify the current state of carbon observations, and the needs and notional requirements for a global integrated carbon observation system that can be built in the next decade. A key conclusion is the substantial expansion of the ground-based observation networks required to reach the high spatial resolution for CO 2 and CH 4 fluxes, and for carbon stocks for addressing policy-relevant objectives, and attributing flux changes to underlying processes in each region. In order to establish flux and stock diagnostics over areas such as the southern oceans, tropical forests, and the Arctic, in situ observations will have to be complemented with remote-sensing measurements. Remote sensing offers the advantage of dense spatial coverage and frequent revisit. A key challenge is to bring remote-sensing measurements to a level of long-term consistency and accuracy so that they can be efficiently combined in models to reduce uncertainties, in synergy with ground based data. Bringing tight observational constraints on fossil fuel and land use change emissions will be the biggest challenge for deployment of a policy-relevant integrated carbon observation system. This will require in situ and remotely sensed data at much higher

  3. The Society of the 21st Century – A Need for Information in Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walancik Marek

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The author in this article points to the need for information as a fundamental human need in the information society. The realization of this need is a part of the process of communication which is a kind of social phenomenon. The author seeks to entice the reader to satisfy the information needs related to the problem. He notes that satisfying the information needs and the provision of specific information is an ongoing continuing process of education.

  4. In the Dark: Young Men's Stories of Sexual Initiation in the Absence of Relevant Sexual Health Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubicek, Katrina; Beyer, William J.; Weiss, George; Iverson, Ellen; Kipke, Michele D.

    2010-01-01

    A growing body of research has investigated the effectiveness of abstinence-only sexual education. There remains a dearth of research on the relevant sexual health information available to young men who have sex with men (YMSM). Drawing on a mixed-methods study with 526 YMSM, this study explores how and where YMSM receive relevant information on…

  5. In the Information Age, do dementia caregivers get the information they need? Semi-structured interviews to determine informal caregivers' education needs, barriers, and preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Kendra; Hahn, Howard; Lee, Amber J; Madison, Catherine A; Atri, Alireza

    2016-09-23

    Most patients with dementia or cognitive impairment receive care from family members, often untrained for this challenging role. Caregivers may not access publicly available caregiving information, and caregiver education programs are not widely implemented clinically. Prior large surveys yielded broad quantitative understanding of caregiver information needs, but do not illuminate the in-depth, rich, and nuanced caregiver perspectives that can be gleaned using qualitative methodology. We aimed to understand perspectives about information sources, barriers and preferences, through semi-structured interviews with 27 caregivers. Content analysis identified important themes. We interviewed 19 women, 8 men; mean age 58.5 years; most adult children (15) or spouses (8) of the care recipient. Dementia symptoms often developed insidiously, with delayed disease acknowledgement and caregiver self-identification. While memory loss was common, behavioral symptoms were most troublesome, often initially unrecognized as disease indicators. Emerging themes: 1.) Barriers to seeking information often result from knowledge gaps, rather than reluctance to assume the caregiver role; 2.) Most caregivers currently receive insufficient information. Caregivers are open to many information sources, settings, and technologies, including referrals to other healthcare professionals, print material, and community and internet resources, but expect the primary care provider (PCP) to recommend, endorse, and guide them to specific sources. These findings replicated and expanded on results from previous quantitative surveys and, importantly, revealed a previously unrecognized essential factor: despite receiving insufficient information, caregivers place critical value on their relationship with care recipient PCPs to receive recommendations, guidance and endorsement to sources of caregiving information. Implications include: 1.) Greater public education is needed to help caregivers identify and

  6. A case study in information needs of ISTIC users

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tao Jin

    1990-05-01

    This paper is based on the investigation of users in a practical information service, the Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China, and it analysed users' document utilization in the year 1989. Its major contents include: the basic situation of document utilization of Chinese S and T personnel; the barriers encountered; the patterns that the documents are used. The author pointed out the existing problems and offered some suggestions in information work. (author). 4 refs, 3 figs, 2 tabs

  7. A case study in information needs of ISTIC users

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, Tao [The Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China, Beijing (China)

    1990-05-01

    This paper is based on the investigation of users in a practical information service, the Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China, and it analysed users` document utilization in the year 1989. Its major contents include: the basic situation of document utilization of Chinese S and T personnel; the barriers encountered; the patterns that the documents are used. The author pointed out the existing problems and offered some suggestions in information work. (author). 4 refs, 3 figs, 2 tabs.

  8. Age differences in default and reward networks during processing of personally relevant information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grady, Cheryl L; Grigg, Omer; Ng, Charisa

    2012-06-01

    We recently found activity in default mode and reward-related regions during self-relevant tasks in young adults. Here we examine the effect of aging on engagement of the default network (DN) and reward network (RN) during these tasks. Previous studies have shown reduced engagement of the DN and reward areas in older adults, but the influence of age on these circuits during self-relevant tasks has not been examined. The tasks involved judging personality traits about one's self or a well known other person. There were no age differences in reaction time on the tasks but older adults had more positive Self and Other judgments, whereas younger adults had more negative judgments. Both groups had increased DN and RN activity during the self-relevant tasks, relative to non-self tasks, but this increase was reduced in older compared to young adults. Functional connectivity of both networks during the tasks was weaker in the older relative to younger adults. Intrinsic functional connectivity, measured at rest, also was weaker in the older adults in the DN, but not in the RN. These results suggest that, in younger adults, the processing of personally relevant information involves robust activation of and functional connectivity within these two networks, in line with current models that emphasize strong links between the self and reward. The finding that older adults had more positive judgments, but weaker engagement and less consistent functional connectivity in these networks, suggests potential brain mechanisms for the "positivity bias" with aging. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Geospatial Information Relevant to the Flood Protection Available on The Mainstream Web

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kliment Tomáš

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Flood protection is one of several disciplines where geospatial data is very important and is a crucial component. Its management, processing and sharing form the foundation for their efficient use; therefore, special attention is required in the development of effective, precise, standardized, and interoperable models for the discovery and publishing of data on the Web. This paper describes the design of a methodology to discover Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC services on the Web and collect descriptive information, i.e., metadata in a geocatalogue. A pilot implementation of the proposed methodology - Geocatalogue of geospatial information provided by OGC services discovered on Google (hereinafter “Geocatalogue” - was used to search for available resources relevant to the area of flood protection. The result is an analysis of the availability of resources discovered through their metadata collected from the OGC services (WMS, WFS, etc. and the resources they provide (WMS layers, WFS objects, etc. within the domain of flood protection.

  10. Autism Spectrum Disorder Updates – Relevant Information for Early Interventionists to Consider

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen-Meares, Paula; MacDonald, Megan; McGee, Kristin

    2016-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a pervasive developmental disorder characterized by deficits in social communication skills as well as repetitive, restricted or stereotyped behaviors (1). Early interventionists are often found at the forefront of assessment, evaluation, and early intervention services for children with ASD. The role of an early intervention specialist may include assessing developmental history, providing group and individual counseling, working in partnership with families on home, school, and community environments, mobilizing school and community resources, and assisting in the development of positive early intervention strategies (2, 3). The commonality among these roles resides in the importance of providing up-to-date, relevant information to families and children. The purpose of this review is to provide pertinent up-to-date knowledge for early interventionists to help inform practice in working with individuals with ASD, including common behavioral models of intervention. PMID:27840812

  11. Autism Spectrum Disorder Updates - Relevant Information for Early Interventionists to Consider.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen-Meares, Paula; MacDonald, Megan; McGee, Kristin

    2016-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a pervasive developmental disorder characterized by deficits in social communication skills as well as repetitive, restricted or stereotyped behaviors (1). Early interventionists are often found at the forefront of assessment, evaluation, and early intervention services for children with ASD. The role of an early intervention specialist may include assessing developmental history, providing group and individual counseling, working in partnership with families on home, school, and community environments, mobilizing school and community resources, and assisting in the development of positive early intervention strategies (2, 3). The commonality among these roles resides in the importance of providing up-to-date, relevant information to families and children. The purpose of this review is to provide pertinent up-to-date knowledge for early interventionists to help inform practice in working with individuals with ASD, including common behavioral models of intervention.

  12. Autism spectrum disorder updates – relevant information for early interventionists to consider

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Allen-Meares

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Autism spectrum disorder (ASD is a pervasive developmental disorder characterized by deficits in social communication skills as well as repetitive, restricted or stereotyped behaviors (1. Early interventionists are often found at the forefront of assessment, evaluation and early intervention services for children with ASD. The role of an early intervention specialist may include, assessing developmental history, providing group and individual counseling, working in partnership with families on home, school, and community environments, mobilizing school and community resources and assisting in the development of positive early intervention strategies (2, 3. The commonality amongst these roles resides in the importance of providing up-to-date, relevant information to families and children. The purpose of this review is to provide pertinent up-to-date knowledge for early interventionists to help inform practice in working with individuals with ASD, including common behavioral models of intervention.

  13. Operationalizing Semantic Medline for meeting the information needs at point of care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rastegar-Mojarad, Majid; Li, Dingcheng; Liu, Hongfang

    2015-01-01

    Scientific literature is one of the popular resources for providing decision support at point of care. It is highly desirable to bring the most relevant literature to support the evidence-based clinical decision making process. Motivated by the recent advance in semantically enhanced information retrieval, we have developed a system, which aims to bring semantically enriched literature, Semantic Medline, to meet the information needs at point of care. This study reports our work towards operationalizing the system for real time use. We demonstrate that the migration of a relational database implementation to a NoSQL (Not only SQL) implementation significantly improves the performance and makes the use of Semantic Medline at point of care decision support possible. PMID:26306259

  14. Chemicals in marine and coastal environments: the need for toxicological information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, A.R.

    1982-04-01

    The tremendous increase in the number and amount of chemicals produced and transported in past years has resulted in increasing problems with accidental spills and uncontrolled waste sites involving these chemicals. The United States government has accordingly developed a mechanism for responding to such incidents. As part of that mechanism, the Hazardous Materials Response Project serves to coordinate scientific activities and facilitate in the gathering of scientific information needed for response to chemical spill or waste site emergencies involving coastal waters. Inevitably, much information of a toxicological nature is required to adequately evaluate potential hazards and appropriate responses. The Hazardous Materials Response Project is also able to provide a framework for significant progress in scientific understanding because it can bring together and encourage collaboration among experts in the various disciplines which are relevant to the environmental toxicological problems encountered.

  15. Operationalizing Semantic Medline for meeting the information needs at point of care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rastegar-Mojarad, Majid; Li, Dingcheng; Liu, Hongfang

    2015-01-01

    Scientific literature is one of the popular resources for providing decision support at point of care. It is highly desirable to bring the most relevant literature to support the evidence-based clinical decision making process. Motivated by the recent advance in semantically enhanced information retrieval, we have developed a system, which aims to bring semantically enriched literature, Semantic Medline, to meet the information needs at point of care. This study reports our work towards operationalizing the system for real time use. We demonstrate that the migration of a relational database implementation to a NoSQL (Not only SQL) implementation significantly improves the performance and makes the use of Semantic Medline at point of care decision support possible.

  16. Comparing human peritoneal fluid and phosphate-buffered saline for drug delivery: do we need bio-relevant media?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhusal, Prabhat; Rahiri, Jamie Lee; Sua, Bruce; McDonald, Jessica E; Bansal, Mahima; Hanning, Sara; Sharma, Manisha; Chandramouli, Kaushik; Harrison, Jeff; Procter, Georgina; Andrews, Gavin; Jones, David S; Hill, Andrew G; Svirskis, Darren

    2018-06-01

    An understanding of biological fluids at the site of administration is important to predict the fate of drug delivery systems in vivo. Little is known about peritoneal fluid; therefore, we have investigated this biological fluid and compared it to phosphate-buffered saline, a synthetic media commonly used for in vitro evaluation of intraperitoneal drug delivery systems. Human peritoneal fluid samples were analysed for electrolyte, protein and lipid levels. In addition, physicochemical properties were measured alongside rheological parameters. Significant inter-patient variations were observed with regard to pH (p < 0.001), buffer capacity (p < 0.05), osmolality (p < 0.001) and surface tension (p < 0.05). All the investigated physicochemical properties of peritoneal fluid differed from phosphate-buffered saline (p < 0.001). Rheological examination of peritoneal fluid demonstrated non-Newtonian shear thinning behaviour and predominantly exhibited the characteristics of an entangled network. Inter-patient and inter-day variability in the viscosity of peritoneal fluid was observed. The solubility of the local anaesthetic lidocaine in peritoneal fluid was significantly higher (p < 0.05) when compared to phosphate-buffered saline. Interestingly, the dissolution rate of lidocaine was not significantly different between the synthetic and biological media. Importantly, and with relevance to intraperitoneal drug delivery systems, the sustained release of lidocaine from a thermosensitive gel formulation occurred at a significantly faster rate into peritoneal fluid. Collectively, these data demonstrate the variation between commonly used synthetic media and human peritoneal fluid. The differences in drug release rates observed illustrate the need for bio-relevant media, which ultimately would improve in vitro-in vivo correlation.

  17. Needs-adapted Data Presentation in e-Information Tools

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lexicography needs a special theory for the lexicographical praxis, but this discipline is still a part of linguistics. (iii) .... In this quotation, 'dictionary' can equally well ..... functions distinguishes between four main groups of situations of use. Com ...

  18. Autocracy bias in informal groups under need for closure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierro, Antonio; Mannetti, Lucia; De Grada, Eraldo; Livi, Stefano; Kruglanski, Arie W

    2003-03-01

    Two experiments investigated the tendency of groups with members under high (vs. low) need for cognitive closure to develop an autocratic leadership structure in which some members dominate the discussion, constitute the "hubs" of communication, and influence the group more than other members. The first experiment found that high (vs. low) need for closure groups, as assessed via dispositional measure of the need for closure, manifested greater asymmetry of conversational floor control, such that members with autocratic interactional style were more conversationally dominant and influential than less autocratic members. The second experiment manipulated the need for closure via time pressure and utilized a social network analysis. Consistent with expectation, groups under time pressure (vs. no pressure) showed a greater asymmetry of participation, of centrality, and of prestige among the group members, such that the more focal members were perceived to exert the greater influence over the groups' decisions.

  19. Getting what they need when they need it. Identifying barriers to information needs of family caregivers to manage dementia-related behavioral symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Nicole E; Stanislawski, Barbara; Marx, Katherine A; Watkins, Daphne C; Kobayashi, Marissa; Kales, Helen; Gitlin, Laura N

    2017-02-22

    Consumer health informatics (CHI) such as web-based applications may provide the platform for enabling the over 15 million family caregivers of patients with Alzheimer's Disease or related dementias the information they need when they need it to support behavioral symptom management. However, for CHI to be successful, it is necessary that it be designed to meet the specific information needs of family caregivers in the context in which caregiving occurs. A sociotechnical systems approach to CHI design can help to understand the contextual complexities of family caregiving and account for those complexities in the design of CHI for family caregivers. This study used a sociotechnical systems approach to identify barriers to meeting caregivers' information needs related to the management of dementia-related behavioral symptoms, and to derive design implications that overcome barriers for caregiver-focused web-based platforms. We have subsequently used these design implications to inform the development of a web-based platform, WeCareAdvisor,TM which provides caregivers with information and an algorithm by which to identify and manage behavioral symptoms for which they seek management strategies. We conducted 4 focus groups with family caregivers (N=26) in a Midwestern state. Qualitative content analysis of the data was guided by a sociotechnical systems framework. We identified nine categories of barriers that family caregivers confront in obtaining needed information about behavioral symptom management from which we extrapolated design implications for a web-based platform. Based on interactions within the sociotechnical system, three critical information needs were identified: 1) timely access to information, 2) access to information that is tailored or specific to caregiver's needs and contexts, and 3) usable information that can directly inform how caregivers' manage behaviors. The sociotechnical system framework is a useful approach for identifying information

  20. Distributed Data Networks That Support Public Health Information Needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabano, David C; Cole, Elizabeth; Holve, Erin; Davidson, Arthur J

    Data networks, consisting of pooled electronic health data assets from health care providers serving different patient populations, promote data sharing, population and disease monitoring, and methods to assess interventions. Better understanding of data networks, and their capacity to support public health objectives, will help foster partnerships, expand resources, and grow learning health systems. We conducted semistructured interviews with 16 key informants across the United States, identified as network stakeholders based on their respective experience in advancing health information technology and network functionality. Key informants were asked about their experience with and infrastructure used to develop data networks, including each network's utility to identify and characterize populations, usage, and sustainability. Among 11 identified data networks representing hundreds of thousands of patients, key informants described aggregated health care clinical data contributing to population health measures. Key informant interview responses were thematically grouped to illustrate how networks support public health, including (1) infrastructure and information sharing; (2) population health measures; and (3) network sustainability. Collaboration between clinical data networks and public health entities presents an opportunity to leverage infrastructure investments to support public health. Data networks can provide resources to enhance population health information and infrastructure.

  1. Non use of health information kiosks examined in an information needs context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Peter; Nicholas, David; Huntington, Paul

    2003-06-01

    Whilst great emphasis has rightly been placed on the increased availability and use of health information, little research has been undertaken into the non use of such material, particularly with regard to electronic sources. Computer transactional log data from health information touch screen kiosks, collected as part of an ongoing Department of Health-funded study being carried out by City University, showed that females in the 55-74 age group were particularly under-represented as users. To explore reasons for this, in-depth interviews were carried out with 13 non-kiosk-using, primary-care out-patients fitting this profile, at a surgery which had a kiosk that was being monitored. Subjects were interviewed at length about their information needs and information-seeking behaviour, to determine reasons (if any) they might have had for non-kiosk use. The study utilized an interview schedule and technique loosely based on the 'Sense-Making' methodology of Brenda Dervin (Talk Presented at the International Communication Association Annual Meeting, May 1983, Dallas, Texas, USA. Available from: http://communicationsbsohio-stateedu/sense-making/art/artdervin83html.). Findings elicited many factors accounting for non use of the system. The first and major source of information remained the doctor, with written or other sources only being consulted where recommended or provided. There was evidence that patients wanted little more than the minimum information or instructions required to deal with their condition. Many appeared unaware of the presence of the kiosk and others assumed either that it was not for patient use or that it would not serve their needs. The methodology proved itself, with certain caveats, to be an appropriate vehicle for this kind of exploratory work.

  2. Evaluation of relevant information for optimal reflector modeling through data assimilation procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Argaud, J.P.; Bouriquet, B.; Clerc, T.; Lucet-Sanchez, F.; Poncot, A.

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this study is to look after the amount of information that is mandatory to get a relevant parameters optimisation by data assimilation for physical models in neutronic diffusion calculations, and to determine what is the best information to reach the optimum of accuracy at the cheapest cost. To evaluate the quality of the optimisation, we study the covariance matrix that represents the accuracy of the optimised parameter. This matrix is a classical output of the data assimilation procedure, and it is the main information about accuracy and sensitivity of the parameter optimal determination. We present some results collected in the field of neutronic simulation for PWR type reactor. We seek to optimise the reflector parameters that characterise the neutronic reflector surrounding the whole reactive core. On the basis of the configuration studies, it has been shown that with data assimilation we can determine a global strategy to optimise the quality of the result with respect to the amount of information provided. The consequence of this is a cost reduction in terms of measurement and/or computing time with respect to the basic approach. Another result is that using multi-campaign data rather data from a unique campaign significantly improves the efficiency of parameters optimisation

  3. Effects of informed consent for individual genome sequencing on relevant knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaphingst, K A; Facio, F M; Cheng, M-R; Brooks, S; Eidem, H; Linn, A; Biesecker, B B; Biesecker, L G

    2012-11-01

    Increasing availability of individual genomic information suggests that patients will need knowledge about genome sequencing to make informed decisions, but prior research is limited. In this study, we examined genome sequencing knowledge before and after informed consent among 311 participants enrolled in the ClinSeq™ sequencing study. An exploratory factor analysis of knowledge items yielded two factors (sequencing limitations knowledge; sequencing benefits knowledge). In multivariable analysis, high pre-consent sequencing limitations knowledge scores were significantly related to education [odds ratio (OR): 8.7, 95% confidence interval (CI): 2.45-31.10 for post-graduate education, and OR: 3.9; 95% CI: 1.05, 14.61 for college degree compared with less than college degree] and race/ethnicity (OR: 2.4, 95% CI: 1.09, 5.38 for non-Hispanic Whites compared with other racial/ethnic groups). Mean values increased significantly between pre- and post-consent for the sequencing limitations knowledge subscale (6.9-7.7, p benefits knowledge subscale (7.0-7.5, p < 0.0001); increase in knowledge did not differ by sociodemographic characteristics. This study highlights gaps in genome sequencing knowledge and underscores the need to target educational efforts toward participants with less education or from minority racial/ethnic groups. The informed consent process improved genome sequencing knowledge. Future studies could examine how genome sequencing knowledge influences informed decision making. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  4. University digital libraries in Spain and TIC as paradigms of the information needs for teachers and students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Oliva Marañón

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The university digital libraries have experienced an improvement in recent years, allowing easy retrieval of information in different media. The objectives of this research are to verify the suitability of online catalogs to meet the information needs of teachers and students in the area of Library and Information by evaluating a sample of 23 University digital libraries, and raise the necessary improvements. The results verify the suitability of online catalogs to solve the information needs of teachers, researchers and students, being the University libraries of Barcelona, Granada and Sevilla the most relevant in the area of documentation, as well as the professionalism of librarians to heed the needs of users. Among other improvements, raised teacher education and students in using electronic resources and the creation of online help to improve user interfaces-Web in order to retrieve information quickly and efficiently.

  5. Report: Improvements Needed in Key EPA Information System Security Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Report #10-P-0146, June 15, 2010. Williams Adley found that EPA program offices lacked evidence that they planned and executed tests of information system security controls as required by federal requirements.

  6. Farmers' Information Needs in Soap Opera Utilisation for Agricultural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH ... to cover crop planting procedure (95.3%), marketing strategies (91.3%), rural ... Keywords: Soap Opera, Agricultural Enterprise, Agricultural Information Dissemination, Agro-processors ...

  7. Mission Need Statement for the Theater Medical Information Program (TMIP)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1995-01-01

    ...) Memorandum, 31 Mar 1995, Medical Program Guidance, FY 1997-2001; ASD(HA) DoD Corporate Information Management Strategic Plan and Enterprise Integration Implementing Strategy, Goals 2, 3, and 4...

  8. Need an Information Security in Access Control System?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. R. Petrov

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is the general problems of information security in access control system. The field of using is the in project of reconstruction Physical protection system.

  9. Federal Information Security: Actions Needed to Address Widespread Weaknesses

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Brock, Jack

    2000-01-01

    I am pleased to be here today to discuss federal information security. Our recent audit findings in this area present a disturbing picture of the state of computer security practices at individual agencies...

  10. Public Library Services and the Information Needs of Women in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Samaru Journal of Information Studies. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 9, No 2 (2009) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  11. Bridging the care continuum: patient information needs for specialist referrals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steltenkamp Carol L

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Information transfer is critical in the primary care to specialist referral process and has been examined extensively in the US and other countries, yet there has been little attention to the patient's perspective of the information transfer process. This cross-sectional study examined the quality of the information received by patients with a chronic condition from the referring and specialist physician in the specialist referral process and the relationship of the quality of information received to trust in the physicians. Methods Structured telephone interviews were conducted with a random sample of 250 patients who had experienced a referral to a specialist for the first visit for a chronic condition within the prior six months. The sample was selected from the patients who visited specialist physicians at any of the 500 hospitals from the National Research Corporation client base. Results Most patients (85% received a good explanation about the reason for the specialist visit from the referring physician yet 26% felt unprepared about what to expect. Trust in the referring physician was highly associated with the preparatory information patients received. Specialists gave good explanations about diagnosis and treatment, but 26% of patients got no information about follow-up. Trust in the specialist correlated highly with good explanations of diagnosis, treatment, and self-management. Conclusion Preparatory information from referring physicians influences the quality of the referral process, the subsequent coordination of care, and trust in the physician. Changes in the health care system can improve the information transfer process and improve coordination of care for patients.

  12. Online information and support needs of women with advanced breast cancer: a qualitative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemp, Emma; Koczwara, Bogda; Butow, Phyllis; Turner, Jane; Girgis, Afaf; Schofield, Penelope; Hulbert-Williams, Nicholas; Levesque, Janelle; Spence, Danielle; Vatandoust, Sina; Kichenadasse, Ganessan; Roy, Amitesh; Sukumaran, Shawgi; Karapetis, Christos S; Richards, Caroline; Fitzgerald, Michael; Beatty, Lisa

    2018-04-24

    Women with advanced breast cancer (ABC) face significant adjustment challenges, yet few resources provide them with information and support, and attendance barriers can preclude access to face-to-face psychosocial support. This paper reports on two qualitative studies examining (i) whether information and support-seeking preferences of women with ABC could be addressed in an online intervention, and (ii) how an existing intervention for patients with early stage cancer could be adapted for women with ABC. Women with ABC participated in telephone interviews about their information and support-seeking preferences (N = 21) and evaluated an online intervention focused on early-stage cancer (N = 15). Interviews were transcribed and underwent thematic analysis using the framework method to identify salient themes. Participants most commonly sought medical, lifestyle-related, and practical information/support; however, when presented with an online intervention, participants most commonly gave positive feedback on content on coping with emotional distress. Difficulty finding information and barriers to using common sources of information/support including health professionals, family and friends, and peers were reported; however, some women also reported not wanting information or support. All participants evaluating the existing intervention gave positive feedback on various components, with results suggesting an online intervention could be an effective means of providing information/support to women with ABC, given improved specificity/relevance to ABC and increased tailoring to individual circumstances and preferences. Adaptation of an existing online intervention for early stage cancer appears to be a promising avenue to address the information and support needs of women with ABC.

  13. Pengaruh Participation Budgeting, Information Asimetry dan Job Relevant Information terhadap Budget Slack pada Institusi Pendidikan (Studi pada Institusi Pendidikan Universitas Kristen Maranatha)

    OpenAIRE

    K. S., Christine Dwi; Agustina, Lidya

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to analyze and examine the hyphothesis effect of participation budgeting on job relevant information and  information asimetry as a moderating variable , and effect of participation budgeting and information asimetry on budget slack and job relevant information as mediating varible. The respondent of this research are 30 structural staf of program and ministry in Maranatha Christian University who have participated to make  budgeting. This method that...

  14. New Partnerships for Learning: Meeting Professional Information Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gannon-Leary, Pat; Carr, James

    2010-01-01

    This paper has been prompted by the challenges created by recent proposed reforms to social care services in the UK services which are being "modernised", a term ubiquitous in policy documents but difficult to define with confidence. Government modernisation and e-government programmes highlight with renewed urgency the need for social…

  15. Perceived barriers, resources, and training needs of rural primary care providers relevant to the management of childhood obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Findholt, Nancy E; Davis, Melinda M; Michael, Yvonne L

    2013-08-01

    To explore the perceived barriers, resources, and training needs of rural primary care providers in relation to implementing the American Medical Association Expert Committee recommendations for assessment, treatment, and prevention of childhood obesity. In-depth interviews were conducted with 13 rural primary care providers in Oregon. Transcribed interviews were thematically coded. Barriers to addressing childhood obesity fell into 5 categories: barriers related to the practice (time constraints, lack of reimbursement, few opportunities to detect obesity), the clinician (limited knowledge), the family/patient (family lifestyle and lack of parent motivation to change, low family income and lack of health insurance, sensitivity of the issue), the community (lack of pediatric subspecialists and multidisciplinary/tertiary care services, few community resources), and the broader sociocultural environment (sociocultural influences, high prevalence of childhood obesity). There were very few clinic and community resources to assist clinicians in addressing weight issues. Clinicians had received little previous training relevant to childhood obesity, and they expressed an interest in several topics. Rural primary care providers face extensive barriers in relation to implementing recommended practices for assessment, treatment, and prevention of childhood obesity. Particularly problematic is the lack of local and regional resources. Employing nurses to provide case management and behavior counseling, group visits, and telehealth and other technological communications are strategies that could improve the management of childhood obesity in rural primary care settings. © 2013 National Rural Health Association.

  16. End user needs for enhanced IAEA Safeguards Information Management Capabilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Badalamente, R. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Anzelon, G. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Deland, S. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Whiteson, R. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1994-07-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency is undertaking a program for strengthening its safeguards on the recognition that safeguards must give assurance not only of the non-diversion of declared material or that declared facilities are not being misused, but also of the absence of any undeclared nuclear activities in States which have signed comprehensive safeguards agreements with the Agency. The IAEA has determined that the detection of undeclared nuclear activities and the creation of confidence in the continuing peaceful use of declared material and facilities is largely dependent on more information being made available to the Agency and on the capability of the Agency to make more effective use of this additional information, as well as existing information.

  17. End user needs for enhanced IAEA Safeguards Information Management Capabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badalamente, R.; Anzelon, G.; Deland, S.; Whiteson, R.

    1994-07-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency is undertaking a program for strengthening its safeguards on the recognition that safeguards must give assurance not only of the non-diversion of declared material or that declared facilities are not being misused, but also of the absence of any undeclared nuclear activities in States which have signed comprehensive safeguards agreements with the Agency. The IAEA has determined that the detection of undeclared nuclear activities and the creation of confidence in the continuing peaceful use of declared material and facilities is largely dependent on more information being made available to the Agency and on the capability of the Agency to make more effective use of this additional information, as well as existing information

  18. Information Needs and Information Competencies: A Case Study of the Off-Site Supervision of Financial Institutions in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Silvania V.; Tarapanoff, Kira M. A.

    2008-01-01

    Introduction: The paper deals with the identification of the information needs and information competencies of a professional group. Theoretical basis: A theoretical relationship between information needs and information competencies as subjects is proposed. Three dimensions are examine: cognitive, affective and situational. The recognition of an…

  19. A Study of the Archival Information Needs and Use Behavior of Historians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiao-Min Lin

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This study attempts to investigate the information needs and use behavior of historians in archives. The questionnaires and depth interview methods are pursued for a systematic investigation and realization of opinions from the faculty of history school. Interviews are taken for analyzing the information needs of historians and the difficulties of access archival collection. The results are summarized as follows: (1 The gateways of historians to access research information are library databases, catalogs and archival finding aids. (2 The material types of often use by historians are monograph, periodical and archives. (3 The strategy to find relevant archives is to search by specific person name or designated event name. (4 Browsing the architecture of categories and fonds are helpful to realize the overview of research topics. (5 The difficulties of using archives are the unfriendly retrieval system, digitization quality, integrity of the content, unclarity of classification and description, and the access restrictions. Finally, the suggestions of archival collection development and public service policies are proposed to be reference [Article content in Chinese

  20. Age and self-relevance effects on information search during decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Thomas M; Queen, Tara L; Ennis, Gilda E

    2013-09-01

    We investigated how information search strategies used to support decision making were influenced by self-related implications of the task to the individual. Consistent with the notion of selective engagement, we hypothesized that increased self-relevance would result in more adaptive search behaviors and that this effect would be stronger in older adults than in younger adults. We examined search behaviors in 79 younger and 81 older adults using a process-tracing procedure with 2 different decision tasks. The impact of motivation (i.e., self-related task implications) was examined by manipulating social accountability and the age-related relevance of the task. Although age differences in search strategies were not great, older adults were more likely than younger adults to use simpler strategies in contexts with minimal self-implications. Contrary to expectations, young and old alike were more likely to use noncompensatory than compensatory strategies, even when engaged in systematic search, with education being the most important determinant of search behavior. The results support the notion that older adults are adaptive decision makers and that factors other than age may be more important determinants of performance in situations where knowledge can be used to support performance.

  1. Mission informed needed information: discoverable, available sensing sources (MINI-DASS): the operators and process flows the magic rabbits must negotiate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolodny, Michael A.

    2017-05-01

    Today's battlefield space is extremely complex, dealing with an enemy that is neither well-defined nor well-understood. Adversaries are comprised of widely-distributed, loosely-networked groups engaging in nefarious activities. Situational understanding is needed by decision makers; understanding of adversarial capabilities and intent is essential. Information needed at any time is dependent on the mission/task at hand. Information sources potentially providing mission-relevant information are disparate and numerous; they include sensors, social networks, fusion engines, internet, etc. Management of these multi-dimensional informational sources is critical. This paper will present a new approach being undertaken to answer the challenge of enhancing battlefield understanding by optimizing the utilization of available informational sources (means) to required missions/tasks as well as determining the "goodness'" of the information acquired in meeting the capabilities needed. Requirements are usually expressed in terms of a presumed technology solution (e.g., imagery). A metaphor of the "magic rabbits" was conceived to remove presumed technology solutions from requirements by claiming the "required" technology is obsolete. Instead, intelligent "magic rabbits" are used to provide needed information. The question then becomes: "WHAT INFORMATION DO YOU NEED THE RABBITS TO PROVIDE YOU?" This paper will describe a new approach called Mission-Informed Needed Information - Discoverable, Available Sensing Sources (MINI-DASS) that designs a process that builds information acquisition missions and determines what the "magic rabbits" need to provide in a manner that is machine understandable. Also described is the Missions and Means Framework (MMF) model used, the process flow utilized, the approach to developing an ontology of information source means and the approach for determining the value of the information acquired.

  2. Information needs of health care workers in developing countries: a literature review with a focus on Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bukachi Frederick

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Health care workers in developing countries continue to lack access to basic, practical information to enable them to deliver safe, effective care. This paper provides the first phase of a broader literature review of the information and learning needs of health care providers in developing countries. A Medline search revealed 1762 papers, of which 149 were identified as potentially relevant to the review. Thirty-five of these were found to be highly relevant. Eight of the 35 studies looked at information needs as perceived by health workers, patients and family/community members; 14 studies assessed the knowledge of health workers; and 8 looked at health care practice. The studies suggest a gross lack of knowledge about the basics on how to diagnose and manage common diseases, going right across the health workforce and often associated with suboptimal, ineffective and dangerous health care practices. If this level of knowledge and practice is representative, as it appears to be, it indicates that modern medicine, even at a basic level, has largely failed the majority of the world's population. The information and learning needs of family caregivers and primary and district health workers have been ignored for too long. Improving the availability and use of relevant, reliable health care information has enormous potential to radically improve health care worldwide.

  3. Agricultural Information Needs of Small Holder Farmers in Central ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was conducted in the Central agricultural zone of Nasarawa State to investigate the level of farmers' access and use of agricultural information. Data for the study were collected from 120 respondents with the aid of a structured questionnaire. Data analysis was done using descriptive statistics (frequency, ...

  4. The Professional Translator and Information Literacy: Perceptions and Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sales, Dora; Pinto, Maria

    2011-01-01

    This paper is part of a broader research project, the main goal of which is to provide translators with solid instruction in information literacy (IL). For this, it is important to know the views of the community of professional translators. The results of the ongoing research which we analyse in this paper provide this view, by means of a…

  5. Information needs: Perceived and real for state decisionmakers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, A. R.; Spirou, C.; Kier, W.; Tetley, M.

    1975-01-01

    Remote sensing techniques provide important information for land and water use planning organizations in order to assess coastal developments and their impact on water resources, sediment transport, erosion, and marine biology. Political expediency requires pertinent data acquisition and data dissemination to local populations for coastal zone management decision making.

  6. Information Needs and Seeking Behaviour of Distance Learning ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    knowing how, how to learn, how to secure information, use it, and how to relate to a ..... 7. 2.3. Government politics and programmes. 20. 6.7. Entertainment. 9. 3.0 ..... Trends in digital library service in academic libraries in South Africa:.

  7. Developing Information Skills for Special Needs Learners Through ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... the school librarian will use assistive devices like listenaiders and telephone relay system, as well as visual display facilities. In developing information skills for the gifted learner, the teacher librarian will teach and demonstrate in such a way that as fast learners, their learning programmes are not boring and uninteresting.

  8. Consumer needs and requirements for food and ingredient traceability information

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijswijk, van W.; Frewer, L.J.

    2012-01-01

    The introduction of improved food traceability systems has aimed to restore consumer confidence in food safety and quality, in part by being able to provide consumers with more information about the origins of foods and food ingredients. However, little is known about consumers’ opinions and beliefs

  9. Coulomb disintegration as an information source for relevant processes in nuclear astrophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertulani, C.A.

    1989-01-01

    The possibility of obtaining the photodisintegration cross section using the equivalent-photon number method first deduced and employed for the Coulomb disintegration processes has been suggested. This is very interesting because there exist radioactive capture processes, related to the photodisintegration through time reversal, that are relevant in astrophysics. In this paper, the recent results of the Karlsruhe and the Texas A and M groups on the Coulomb disintegration of 6 Li and 7 Li and the problems of the method are discussed. The ideas developed in a previous paper (Nucl. Phys. A458 (1986) 188) are confirmed qualitatively. To understand the process quantitatively it is necessary to use a quantum treatment that would imply the introduction of Coulomb excitation effects of higher orders. The Coulomb disintegration of exotic secondary beams is also studied. It is particularly interesting the question about what kind of nuclear structure information, as binding energies of momentum distributions, may be obtained. (Author) [es

  10. Assessing Hospital Physicians' Acceptance of Clinical Information Systems: A Review of the Relevant Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bram Pynoo

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In view of the tremendous potential benefits of clinical information systems (CIS for the quality of patient care; it is hard to understand why not every CIS is embraced by its targeted users, the physicians. The aim of this study is to propose a framework for assessing hospital physicians' CIS-acceptance that can serve as a guidance for future research into this area. Hereto, a review of the relevant literature was performed in the ISI Web-of-Science database. Eleven studies were withheld from an initial dataset of 797 articles. Results show that just as in business settings, there are four core groups of variables that influence physicians' acceptance of a CIS: its usefulness and ease of use, social norms, and factors in the working environment that facilitate use of the CIS (such as providing computers/workstations, compatibility between the new and existing system.... We also identified some additional variables as predictors of CIS-acceptance.

  11. A Study of MX Environmental Management Information System (MXEMIS) Needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-12-01

    resolution of conflicts between a given military pro- gram (or project) and other Federal, State, and local 19. Transportation Planning plans. policies...economic and related other use where a paper copy is needed, social impacts associated with DOD actions. The approach to be selected must be efficient...Preliminary field evaluation of potential aggregate area of emphasis, and most of the data are in hard- sources and associated enviromental

  12. Meeting the regulatory information needs of users of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacDurmon, G.W.

    1996-01-01

    The use of radioactive materials is one of the most regulated areas of research. Researchers face ever increasing regulatory requirements and issues involving the disposal of radioactive material, while meeting the demands of higher productivity. Radiation safety programs must maximize regulatory compliance, minimize barriers, provide services and solutions, and effectively communicate with users of radioactive materials. This talk will discuss methods by which a radiation safety program can meet the needs of both the research staff and regulatory compliance staff

  13. Meeting the regulatory information needs of users of radioactive materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacDurmon, G.W. [American Cyanamid Company, Princeton, NJ (United States)

    1996-10-01

    The use of radioactive materials is one of the most regulated areas of research. Researchers face ever increasing regulatory requirements and issues involving the disposal of radioactive material, while meeting the demands of higher productivity. Radiation safety programs must maximize regulatory compliance, minimize barriers, provide services and solutions, and effectively communicate with users of radioactive materials. This talk will discuss methods by which a radiation safety program can meet the needs of both the research staff and regulatory compliance staff.

  14. Systems for the management of information in a university context: an investigation of user need. Information systems, Universities, Information strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcella R.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The accessibility, reliability, consistency, and relevance of data underpinning information systems are crucial to its use and effectiveness in a university setting. This article reports on the findings of a research project carried out at a new university, which highlighted the role information plays in the success of the operation and in allowing the institution to evolve and meet the challenges posed by the government, students and other stakeholders. Data were gathered from the academic and administrative staff of the university through interviews with senior managers, and a Web-based questionnaire completed by 863 respondents (a 47.9% response rate. The project aimed to explore data and information activities supporting management and strategic decision making in a new university. Project results indicate that there are real deficiencies in the realization of the case institution's information strategy and that these deficiencies must be addressed in developments focusing on improving strategic effectiveness in the future. Particular issues identified included the lack of clarity in responsibility regarding information and concerns about the validity of much of the internally created and maintained data.

  15. Information-seeking behaviour and information needs of LGBTQ health professionals: a follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Martin; Roberto, K R

    2016-09-01

    Except for one study in 2004, the literature has no data on the information-seeking behaviour of lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender and queer/questioning (LGBTQ) health professionals. After a decade of change for LGBTQ people, and the growth of electronic information sources and social networks, it is appropriate to revisit this subject. To gain an updated understanding of the information-seeking behaviour of LGBTQ health professionals and of how medical libraries can provide a culturally competent service to such users. A mixed-methods approach was adopted combining a Web-based questionnaire with email follow-up discussions. One hundred and twenty-three complete responses were received, mostly from the USA and Canada, between November 2012 and October 2013. LGBTQ health professionals remain more comfortable seeking LGBTQ health information from a medical librarian whom they know to be LGBTQ because they perceive LGBTQ librarians as more likely to have specialist knowledge, or through concern that non-LGBTQ librarians may be more likely to react in a stigmatising or discriminatory way. The study also provides evidence suggesting that online chat has marginal appeal for respondents seeking LGBTQ health information, despite its anonymity. Medical libraries seeking to demonstrate their cultural competency should provide visible evidence of this, such as through the creation of dedicated resource lists, promotion of LGBTQ literature on the library's website, and display of other symbols or statements supporting diversity. Opportunities exist for LGBTQ health professionals and medical librarians to work together to ensure that medical libraries are culturally competent and welcoming spaces for LGBTQ patrons, that library collections match their needs, and in the creation of guides to ensure maximum access to the results of LGBTQ health research. Medical libraries should also consider nominating and, if necessary, training a specialist in LGBTQ health information. Such

  16. Overview of climate information needs for ecological effects models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peer, R.L.

    1990-01-01

    Atmospheric scientists engaged in climate change research require a basic understanding of how ecological effects models incorporate climate. The report provides an overview of existing ecological models that might be used to model climate change effects on vegetation. Some agricultural models and statistical methods are also discussed. The weather input data requirements, weather simulation methods, and other model characteristics relevant to climate change research are described for a selected number of models. The ecological models are classified as biome, ecosystem, or tree models; the ecosystem models are further subdivided into species dynamics or process models. In general, ecological modelers have had to rely on readily available meteorological data such as temperature and rainfall. Although models are becoming more sophisticated in their treatment of weather and require more kinds of data (such as wind, solar radiation, or potential evapotranspiration), modelers are still hampered by a lack of data for many applications. Future directions of ecological effects models and the climate variables that will be required by the models are discussed.

  17. Infectious Disease and National Security: Strategic Information Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    to the National Security Council. Most current federal employees we interviewed offered one or more specific sugges- tions for a centralized, time...and preparedness information for health professionals Open 156 Ministry of Health Malaysia Government of Malaysia http://dph.gov.my/ddc/index. html...Open 206 Asian Network for Surveillance of Resistant Pathogens (ANSORP) Various (primary: Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University, Seoul

  18. Research Trends on Information Needs and Use of Internet Users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shan-Ju L. Chang

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the literature on Internet user studies and analyzed the empirical findings from Internet surveys, user studies of digital libraries, search behavior on search engines, usability studies of websites, etc. Based on the analysis, the author points out the trends of user studies in Library and Information Science and suggests the directions for future research.[Article content in Chinese

  19. Understanding the information needs of people with haematological cancers. A meta-ethnography of quantitative and qualitative research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atherton, K; Young, B; Salmon, P

    2017-11-01

    Clinical practice in haematological oncology often involves difficult diagnostic and treatment decisions. In this context, understanding patients' information needs and the functions that information serves for them is particularly important. We systematically reviewed qualitative and quantitative evidence on haematological oncology patients' information needs to inform how these needs can best be addressed in clinical practice. PsycINFO, Medline and CINAHL Plus electronic databases were searched for relevant empirical papers published from January 2003 to July 2016. Synthesis of the findings drew on meta-ethnography and meta-study. Most quantitative studies used a survey design and indicated that patients are largely content with the information they receive from physicians, however much or little they actually receive, although a minority of patients are not content with information. Qualitative studies suggest that a sense of being in a caring relationship with a physician allows patients to feel content with the information they have been given, whereas patients who lack such a relationship want more information. The qualitative evidence can help explain the lack of association between the amount of information received and contentment with it in the quantitative research. Trusting relationships are integral to helping patients feel that their information needs have been met. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Research needs for risk-informed, performance-based regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cloninger, T.H.

    1997-01-01

    This presentation was made by an executive in the utility which operates the South Texas Project reactors, and summarizes their perspective on probabilistic safety analysis, risk-based operation, and risk-based regulation. They view it as a tool to help them better apply their resources to maintain the level of safety necessary to protect the public health and safety. South Texas served as one of the pilot plants for the application of risk-based regulation to the maintenance rule. The author feels that the process presents opportunities as well as challenges. Among the opportunities is the involvement of more people in the process, and the sense of investment they take in the decisions, in addition to the insight they can offer. In the area of challenges there is the need for better understanding of how to apply what already is known on problems, rather than essentially reinventing the wheel to address problems. Research is needed to better understand when some events are not truly of a significant safety concern. The demarcation between deterministic decisions and the appropriate application of risk-based decisions must be better defined, for the sake of the operator as well as the public observing plant operation

  1. Information needs of rural health professionals: a review of the literature

    OpenAIRE

    Dorsch, Josephine L.

    2000-01-01

    This review analyzes the existing research on the information needs of rural health professionals and relates it to the broader information-needs literature to establish whether the information needs of rural health professionals differ from those of other health professionals. The analysis of these studies indicates that rural health practitioners appear to have the same basic needs for patient-care information as their urban counterparts, and that both groups rely on colleagues and personal...

  2. Energy emergency information needs. Adequacy of data dissemination: state, industry, and government views

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1985-12-01

    This briefing report discusses the extent to which the energy Information Agency (EIA) and the Department of Energy (DOE) are meeting the energy emergency statistical data and information needs of states and industry. Objectives were to obtain information on (1) what data and information are needed by states and industry to allow them to properly meet an oil shortage, whether EIA and DOE are meeting those needs, and what effective steps might be taken to better serve those needs.

  3. Using an information system to meet Hazardous Waste Management needs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stewart, J.J. Jr.; Howe, R.E.; Townsend, S.L.; Maloy, D.T.; Kochhar, R.K.

    1995-02-01

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is a large quantity RCRA hazardous waste generator. LLNL also generates low level and transuranic radioactive waste that is managed in accordance with the Department of Energy (DOE) orders. The mixed low level and mixed transuranic waste generated must be managed to comply with both RCRA regulations and DOE orders. LLNL's hazardous and radioactive waste generation is comprised of 900 generators who contribute to nearly two hundred waste streams. LLNL has a permitted EPA treatment and storage (TSD) facility for handling RCRA hazardous waste that is operated by LLNL's Hazardous Waste Management (HWM) division. In HWM we have developed an information system, the Total Waste Management System (TWMS), to replace an inadequate ''cradle to grave'' tracking of all the waste types described above. The goals of this system are to facilitate the safe handling and storage of these hazardous wastes, provide compliance with the regulations and serve as an informational tool to help HWM manage and dispose of these wastes in a cost effective manner

  4. Operator Informational Needs for Multiple Autonomous Small Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trujillo, Anna C.; Fan, Henry; Cross, Charles D.; Hempley, Lucas E.; Cichella, Venanzio; Puig-Navarro, Javier; Mehdi, Syed Bilal

    2015-01-01

    With the anticipated explosion of small unmanned aerial vehicles, it is highly likely that operators will be controlling fleets of autonomous vehicles. To fulfill the promise of autonomy, vehicle operators will not be concerned with manual control of the vehicle; instead, they will deal with the overall mission. Furthermore, the one operator to many vehicles is becoming a constant meme with various industries including package delivery, search and rescue, and utility companies. In order for an operator to concurrently control several vehicles, his station must look and behave very differently than the current ground control station instantiations. Furthermore, the vehicle will have to be much more autonomous, especially during non-normal operations, in order to accommodate the knowledge deficit or the information overload of the operator in charge of several vehicles. The expected usage increase of small drones requires presenting the operational information generated by a fleet of heterogeneous autonomous agents to an operator. NASA Langley Research Center's Autonomy Incubator has brought together researchers in various disciplines including controls, trajectory planning, systems engineering, and human factors to develop an integrated system to study autonomy issues. The initial human factors effort is focusing on mission displays that would give an operator the overall status of all autonomous agents involved in the current mission. This paper will discuss the specifics of the mission displays for operators controlling several vehicles.

  5. Nuclear information needs for the astrophysical s-process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mathews, G.J.; Howard, W.M.; Takahashi, K.; Ward, R.A.

    1986-01-01

    The astrophysical s-process is a sequence of neutron-capture and beta-decay reactions on a slow time scale compared to beta-decay lifetimes near the line of stability. This detailed sequence of neutron capture, continuum and bound-state beta decay, positron decay, and electron-capture reactions that comprise the s-process has been studied for a broad range of astrophysical environments. The results are then compared with the solar-system abundancies of heavy elements to determine the range of physical conditions responsible for their nucleosynthesis. The nuclear data needs are extensive but have begun to be precise enough to allow for a consistent interpretation of the astrophysical site for the s-process.

  6. Nuclear information needs for the astrophysical s-process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mathews, G.J.; Howard, W.M.; Takahashi, K.; Ward, R.A.

    1985-05-01

    The astrophysical s-process is a sequence of neutron-capture and beta-decay reactions on a slow time scale compared to beta-decay lifetimes near the line of stability. We systematically study this detailed sequence of neutron capture, continuum and bound-state beta decay, positron decay, and electron-capture reactions that comprise the s-process for a broad range of astrophysical environments. Our results are then compared with the solar-system abundances of heavy elements to determine the range of physical conditions responsible for their nucleosynthesis. The nuclear data needs are extensive but have begun to be precise enough to allow for a consistent interpretation of the astrophysical site for the s-process.

  7. Information needs related to teaching about air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, William P; Stubbs, Harriett S

    2003-06-01

    Translating knowledge of air quality into a form that can be understood by students and the general public is a major challenge for scientists, public officials, and teachers. Social science studies have shown that both educators and the general public are relatively uninformed about recent findings in environmental research. It is especially difficult to get students of today excited about environmental issues because environmental education has become institutionalized. Students believe they know about major environmental problems even when their knowledge is rudimentary or even wrong. One problem in getting public attention is the general level of hyperbole and hysteria common in most media. Thus, do we try to be even more shrill and apocalyptic than other advocates clamoring for public notice, or should we refuse to participate in this competition for attention?A model is presented to bring K-12 teachers, scientists, and students together to develop innovative, inquiry-based, active learning materials for environmental education. Curricular materials utilizing the discovery process can be created and tested in an iterative process that incorporates the results of current science research into highly effective teaching materials for schools. Following extensive evaluative procedures and review, exemplary materials are prepared for publication. This collaborative method also gives teachers and students a more realistic understanding of how science works by giving them access to active scientists and practical scientific experience.Finally, we argue that scientists need to reveal why they care about environmental issues. It is not enough to remain aloof and objective. If we are going to motivate students and the public to make changes in their lives, we need to make a convincing case for the importance of air quality and what it means in practical terms to our common environment.

  8. Information needs of cancer patients: Validation of the Greek Cassileth's Information Styles Questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alamanou, G Despoina; Balokas, A Sotirios; Fotos, V Nikolaos; Patiraki, Elisabeth; Brokalaki, Hero

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to validate the translated in Greek Cassileth's Information Styles Questionnaire (ISQ). It was a cross-sectional study. The sample consisted of one hundred and nine adult patients diagnosed with cancer, attending the oncology outpatient department (outpatients) or being hospitalized (inpatients), from January 2013 to September 2013, in one general hospital in Athens. Two instruments were used: The Control Preference Scale (CPS), an assessment tool to measure decision-making preferences of cancer patients and ISQ to assess the information needs of patients. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) was carried out to evaluate construct validity of the ISQ. The internal consistency of subscales was analyzed with Cronbach's alpha and the association of demographics and clinical variables with the ISQ was explored using linear regression analysis. Sixty one (56%) patients were males. The mean age was 65.5 (SD = 11.9) years. Two dimensions of the ISQ were revealed. Cronbach's alpha was 0.92 for "Disease and treatment" dimension (12 of 17 items of the questionnaire) and 0.89 for "Psychological" dimension (5 of 17 items of the questionnaire). Statistical analysis showed that the patients' preferred decision making roles were associated with the ISQ dimensions. Also, age, sex, diagnosis, educational level and the existence of metastasis were associated with the score of "Disease and treatment" dimension. All the scales of ISQ, exceeded the minimum reliability standard of 0.70. The results showed that the Greek ISQ is a reliable and valid tool for identifying the information needs of cancer patients. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Studying Information Needs as Question-Negotiations in an Educational Context: A Methodological Comment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundh, Anna

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: The concept of information needs is significant within the field of Information Needs Seeking and Use. "How" information needs can be studied empirically is however something that has been called into question. The main aim of this paper is to explore the methodological consequences of discursively oriented theories when…

  10. The Information Needs of Women Who Have Undergone Breast Cancer Surgery in the West of Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Findik, Ummu Yildiz

    2017-09-01

    This descriptive study aimed to evaluate the information needs of breast cancer patients who have undergone surgery, and the level to which those information needs are met in the west of Turkey. It was conducted in 55 women who had undergone surgical intervention between March 2013 and March 2014 in a university hospital in the west of Turkey. A personal information form and the Patient Information Needs Scale were used to gather data. Descriptive statistics, the Chi-square test, and the Wilcoxon signed-rank test were used to analyze the data. It was found that the information need of the patients (3.9 +/- 0.6) was near the "very important" level, and that this need was "somewhat met" (2.4 +/- 0.9). When the information needs of the patients and the level to which those needs were fulfilled were compared, the level of fulfillment was statistically significantly lower (p < 0.001). Among the different subscales evaluated, information relating to medication was the most needed, and the information needs pertaining to this subscale were met to a greater degree (p < 0.05) than the remaining subscales. The results showed that the information needs, primarily the medication-related information needs, of the patients were high, but that the level of meeting these needs was low. It should be considered important for patients who have undergone breast cancer surgery to be kept informed and provided with information regarding their medication.

  11. Intelligent Information Retrieval: Diagnosing Information Need. Part II. Uncertainty Expansion in a Prototype of a Diagnostic IR Tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Charles; Cantero, Pablo; Sauve, Diane

    1998-01-01

    Outlines a prototype of an intelligent information-retrieval tool to facilitate information access for an undergraduate seeking information for a term paper. Topics include diagnosing the information need, Kuhlthau's information-search-process model, Shannon's mathematical theory of communication, and principles of uncertainty expansion and…

  12. Information needs and instrumentation availability for hydrogen control and management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jae Hong [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Park, Gun Chul; Suh, Kune Y.; Lee, Seung Dong; Lee, Jin Yong [Seoul National Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Jae, Moo Sung [Hansung Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-03-15

    This study is concerned with development of comprehensive hydrogen management strategies based on identification of a severe accident condition and formulation of hydrogen models. Reducing containment hydrogen during a severe accident will mitigate a potential containment failure mechanism. One of the hydrogen control strategies is intentional burning by the hydrogen igniter. Though intentional hydrogen burn strategy will cause pressure and temperature spikes, it is the fastest way of reducing the containment hydrogen concentration. Based on the Westinghouse owners group Severe Accident Management Guidance (SAMG) hydrogen ignition decision tree was developed. From the information of decision tree, hydrogen ignition decision can be determined in Containment Event Tree (CET). We have examined previous hydrogen generation related models in fuel coolant interaction (FCI) and developed transient model for it. Using this model, we have simulated the Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) tests which are single droplet experiments, and Fully Instrumented Test Site (FITS) tests which contain dynamic fragmentation.

  13. Enhancing Public Access to Relevant and Valued Medical Information: Fresh Directions for RadiologyInfo.org.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, Geoffrey D; Krishnaraj, Arun; Mahesh, Mahadevappa; Rajendran, Ramji R; Fishman, Elliot K

    2017-05-01

    RadiologyInfo.org is a public information portal designed to support patient care and broaden public awareness of the essential role radiology plays in overall patient health care. Over the past 14 years, RadiologyInfo.org has evolved considerably to provide access to more than 220 mixed-media descriptions of tests, treatments, and diseases through a spectrum of mobile and desktop platforms, social media, and downloadable documents in both English and Spanish. In 2014, the RSNA-ACR Public Information Website Committee, which stewards RadiologyInfo.org, developed 3- to 5-year strategic and implementation plans for the website. The process was informed by RadiologyInfo.org user surveys, formal stakeholder interviews, focus groups, and usability testing. Metrics were established as key performance indicators to assess progress toward the stated goals of (1) optimizing content to enhance patient-centeredness, (2) enhancing reach and engagement, and (3) maintaining sustainability. Major changes resulting from this process include a complete redesign of the website, the replacement of text-rich PowerPoint presentations with conversational videos, and the development of an affiliate network. Over the past year, visits to RadiologyInfo.org have increased by 60.27% to 1,424,523 in August 2016 from 235 countries and territories. Twenty-two organizations have affiliated with RadiologyInfo.org with new organizations being added on a monthly basis. RadiologyInfo provides a tangible demonstration of how radiologists can engage directly with the global public to educate them on the value of radiology in their health care and to allay concerns and dispel misconceptions. Regular self-assessment and responsive planning will ensure its continued growth and relevance. Copyright © 2016 American College of Radiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Climate science information needs among natural resource decision-makers in the Northwest US

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Allen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Managing water resources, air quality, forests, rangelands and agricultural systems in the context of climate change requires a new level of integrated knowledge. In order to articulate a role for university-based research teams as providers of climate services, this paper analyzes environmental change concerns and expectations about climate models among natural resources decision-makers in the Northwest US. Data were collected during a series of workshops organized by researchers from BioEarth, a regional earth systems modeling initiative. Eighty-three stakeholders from industry, government agencies and non-governmental organizations engaged with a team of academic researchers developing integrated biophysical and economic climate modeling tools. Analysis of transcripts of workshop discussions, surveys, and questionnaires reveals diverse attitudes among stakeholders about: 1 preferred modes of engaging in climate science research, 2 specific concerns and questions about climate change impacts, and 3 the most relevant and usable scope and scale of climate change impacts projections. Diverse concerns and information needs among natural resource decision-makers highlight the need for research teams to define clear and precise goals for stakeholder engagement. Utilizing the skills of research team members who have communication and extension expertise is pivotally important. We suggest impactful opportunities for research teams and natural resource decision-makers to interface and learn from one another. Effective approaches include structuring group discussions to identify gaps in existing climate change impacts information, explicitly considering changing policies, technologies and management practices, and exploring possible unintended consequences of decisions.

  15. Research needs for risk-informed, performance-based regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bailey, J.A.

    1997-01-01

    Palo Verde Nuclear Generating Station has used PRA-derived risk insights for about 10 years now. The plant originally started applying PRA modeling to an auxiliary feedwater system during the initial licensing phases of the plant, and as a result of that, they were able to work with the NRC and apply some graded quality requirements to that particular system. There was a third redundant auxiliary feedwater pump, and they now can treat that system as partially safety related and partially non-safety related. So it was an advance for Palo Verde at that time to be able to make decisions with a PRA and they began learning how to use those techniques. After completing the IPE it became natural for the plant to make a transition into other areas at the plant to look for areas where the insights gained from PRA could be applied into their decision-making processes. Those that the plant embarked upon initially were areas where they could gain operational risk assessment insights. The author goes on to discuss experiences gained in using these techniques to better assess the safety of operations within the plant. In addition he offers comments on areas which need further development and research to make them more applicable to a plant by plant basis

  16. Research needs for risk-informed, performance-based regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thadani, A.C.

    1997-01-01

    This article summarizes the activities of the Office of Research of the NRC, both from a historical aspect as well as it applies to the application of risk-based decision making. The office has been actively involved in problems related to understanding risks related to core accidents, to understanding the problem of aging of reactor components and materials from years of service, and toward the understanding and analysis of severe accidents. In addition new policy statements regarding the role of risk assessment in regulatory applications has given focus for the need of further work. The NRC has used risk assessment in regulatory questions in the past but in a fairly ad hoc sort of manner. The new policies will clearly require a better defined application of risk assessment, and help for people evaluating applications in judging the applicability of such applications when a component of them is based on risk-based decision making. To address this, standard review plans are being prepared to serve as guides for such questions. In addition, with regulatory decisions being allowed to be based upon risk-based decisions, it is necessary to have an adequate data base prepared, and made publically available, to support such a position

  17. Information needs of case managers caring for persons living with HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnall, Rebecca; Cimino, James J; Currie, Leanne M; Bakken, Suzanne

    2011-05-01

    The goals of this study were to explore the information needs of case managers who provide services to persons living with HIV (PLWH) and to assess the applicability of the Information Needs Event Taxonomy in a new population. The study design was observational with data collection via an online survey. Responses to open-ended survey questions about the information needs of case managers (n=94) related to PLWH of three levels of care complexity were categorized using the Information Needs Event Taxonomy. The most frequently identified needs were related to patient education resources (33%), patient data (23%), and referral resources (22%) accounting for 79% of all (N=282) information needs. Study limitations include selection bias, recall bias, and a relatively narrow focus of the study on case-manager information needs in the context of caring for PLWH. The study findings contribute to the evidence base regarding information needs in the context of patient interactions by: (1) supporting the applicability of the Information Needs Event Taxonomy and extending it through addition of a new generic question; (2) providing a foundation for the addition of context-specific links to external information resources within information systems; (3) applying a new approach for elicitation of information needs; and (4) expanding the literature regarding addressing information needs in community-based settings for HIV services.

  18. Web-based surveillance of public information needs for informing preconception interventions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelo D'Ambrosio

    Full Text Available The risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes can be minimized through the adoption of healthy lifestyles before pregnancy by women of childbearing age. Initiatives for promotion of preconception health may be difficult to implement. Internet can be used to build tailored health interventions through identification of the public's information needs. To this aim, we developed a semi-automatic web-based system for monitoring Google searches, web pages and activity on social networks, regarding preconception health.Based on the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists guidelines and on the actual search behaviors of Italian Internet users, we defined a set of keywords targeting preconception care topics. Using these keywords, we analyzed the usage of Google search engine and identified web pages containing preconception care recommendations. We also monitored how the selected web pages were shared on social networks. We analyzed discrepancies between searched and published information and the sharing pattern of the topics.We identified 1,807 Google search queries which generated a total of 1,995,030 searches during the study period. Less than 10% of the reviewed pages contained preconception care information and in 42.8% information was consistent with ACOG guidelines. Facebook was the most used social network for sharing. Nutrition, Chronic Diseases and Infectious Diseases were the most published and searched topics. Regarding Genetic Risk and Folic Acid, a high search volume was not associated to a high web page production, while Medication pages were more frequently published than searched. Vaccinations elicited high sharing although web page production was low; this effect was quite variable in time.Our study represent a resource to prioritize communication on specific topics on the web, to address misconceptions, and to tailor interventions to specific populations.

  19. Need for closure and heuristic information processing: the moderating role of the ability to achieve the need for closure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kossowska, Małgorzata; Bar-Tal, Yoram

    2013-11-01

    In contrast to the ample research that shows a positive relationship between the need for closure (NFC) and heuristic information processing, this research examines the hypothesis that this relationship is moderated by the ability to achieve closure (AAC), that is, the ability to use information-processing strategies consistent with the level of NFC. Three different operationalizations of heuristic information processing were used: recall of information consistent with the impression (Study 1); pre-decisional information search (Study 2); and stereotypic impression formation (Study 3). The results of the studies showed that there were positive relationships between NFC and heuristic information processing when participants assessed themselves as being able to use cognitive strategies consistent with their level of NFC (high AAC). For individuals with low AAC, the relationships were negative. Our data show that motivation-cognition interactions influence the information-processing style. © 2012 The British Psychological Society.

  20. Data and information needs for WPP testing and component modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuhn, W.L.

    1987-01-01

    The modeling task of the Waste Package Program (WPP) is to develop conceptual models that describe the interactions of waste package components with their environment and the interactions among waste package components. The task includes development and maintenance of a database of experimental data, and statistical analyses to fit model coefficients, test the significance of the fits, and propose experimental designs. The modeling task collaborates with experimentalists to apply physicochemical principles to develop the conceptual models, with emphasis on the subsequent mathematical development. The reason for including the modeling task in the predominantly experimental WPP is to keep the modeling of component behavior closely associated with the experimentation. Whenever possible, waste package degradation processes are described in terms of chemical reactions or transport processes. The integration of equations for assumed or calculated repository conditions predicts variations with time in the repository. Within the context of the waste package program, the composition and rate of arrival of brine to the waste package are environmental variables. These define the environment to be simulated or explored during waste package component and interactions testing. The containment period is characterized by rapid changes in temperature, pressure, oxygen fugacity, and salt porosity. Brine migration is expected to be most rapid during this period. The release period is characterized by modest and slowly changing temperatures, high pressure, low oxygen fugacity, and low porosity. The need is to define the scenario within which waste package degradation calculations are to be made and to quantify the rate of arrival and composition of the brine. Appendix contains 4 vugraphs

  1. Perceived need for information among patients with a haematological malignancy: associations with information satisfaction and treatment decision-making preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rood, Janneke A J; van Zuuren, Florence J; Stam, Frank; van der Ploeg, Tjeerd; Eeltink, Corien; Verdonck-de Leeuw, Irma M; Huijgens, Peter C

    2015-06-01

    For patients with haematological malignancies, information on disease, prognosis, treatment and impact on quality of life is of the utmost importance. To gain insight into the perceived need for information in relation to sociodemographic and clinical parameters, comorbidity, quality of life (QoL) and information satisfaction, we compiled a questionnaire based on existing validated questionnaires. A total of 458 patients diagnosed with a haematological malignancy participated. The perceived need for information was moderate to high (40-70%). Multivariate regression analyses showed that a higher need for information was related to younger age, worse QoL, being member of a patient society and moderate comorbidity. The need for disease and treatment-related information was higher than the need for psychosocial information. A higher need for disease and treatment-related information was associated to being diagnosed with multiple myeloma. A higher need for psychosocial information was related to a lower educational level. The information provision could be improved according to 41% of the patients. Higher satisfaction with provided information was associated with better QoL. Most patients (62%) reported that they wanted to be fully informed about their illness and actively involved in treatment decision-making. The results contribute to improving patient-tailored information provision and shared decision-making in clinical practice. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Cognitive coping style (monitoring and blunting) and the need for information, information satisfaction and shared decision making among patients with haematological malignancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rood, Janneke A J; Van Zuuren, Florence J; Stam, Frank; van der Ploeg, Tjeerd; Huijgens, Peter C; Verdonck-de Leeuw, Irma M

    2015-05-01

    A haematological malignancy is a serious, life-altering disease and may be characterised as an uncontrollable and unpredictable stress situation. In dealing with potentially threatening information, individuals generally utilise two main cognitive coping styles: monitoring (the tendency to seek threat-relevant information) and blunting (avoiding threatening information and seeking distraction). The aim of this study was to obtain insight into the association between cognitive coping style and (a) need for information, (b) satisfaction with information, (c) involvement in decision making, and (d) quality of life (QoL). In this cross-sectional study, coping style was assessed among adult patients diagnosed with a haematological malignancy, using an adapted version of the Threatening Medical Situations Inventory. Information need, information satisfaction, decision-making preference and QoL were measured with validated questionnaires. In total, 458 patients returned the questionnaire (66%). A monitoring coping style was positively related to need for both general and specific information. Blunting was positively and QoL was negatively related to need for information. Monitoring was positively related to involvement in decision-making and negatively to information satisfaction. Using multivariate analysis, this relation between monitoring and information satisfaction disappeared, and for blunting, we found a negatively significant relation. QoL was not related to coping style. Among patients with haematological malignancies, coping style is related to a need for information, information satisfaction, and involvement in treatment decision-making. Therefore, it is important for health care professionals to be aware of individual differences in cognitive coping style. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Cyber-Informed Engineering: The Need for a New Risk Informed and Design Methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Price, Joseph Daniel [Idaho National Laboratory; Anderson, Robert Stephen [Idaho National Laboratory

    2015-06-01

    Current engineering and risk management methodologies do not contain the foundational assumptions required to address the intelligent adversary’s capabilities in malevolent cyber attacks. Current methodologies focus on equipment failures or human error as initiating events for a hazard, while cyber attacks use the functionality of a trusted system to perform operations outside of the intended design and without the operator’s knowledge. These threats can by-pass or manipulate traditionally engineered safety barriers and present false information, invalidating the fundamental basis of a safety analysis. Cyber threats must be fundamentally analyzed from a completely new perspective where neither equipment nor human operation can be fully trusted. A new risk analysis and design methodology needs to be developed to address this rapidly evolving threatscape.

  4. How information systems should support the information needs of general dentists in clinical settings: suggestions from a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wali Teena

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A major challenge in designing useful clinical information systems in dentistry is to incorporate clinical evidence based on dentists' information needs and then integrate the system seamlessly into the complex clinical workflow. However, little is known about the actual information needs of dentists during treatment sessions. The purpose of this study is to identify general dentists' information needs and the information sources they use to meet those needs in clinical settings so as to inform the design of dental information systems. Methods A semi-structured interview was conducted with a convenience sample of 18 general dentists in the Pittsburgh area during clinical hours. One hundred and five patient cases were reported by these dentists. Interview transcripts were coded and analyzed using thematic analysis with a constant comparative method to identify categories and themes regarding information needs and information source use patterns. Results Two top-level categories of information needs were identified: foreground and background information needs. To meet these needs, dentists used four types of information sources: clinical information/tasks, administrative tasks, patient education and professional development. Major themes of dentists' unmet information needs include: (1 timely access to information on various subjects; (2 better visual representations of dental problems; (3 access to patient-specific evidence-based information; and (4 accurate, complete and consistent documentation of patient records. Resource use patterns include: (1 dentists' information needs matched information source use; (2 little use of electronic sources took place during treatment; (3 source use depended on the nature and complexity of the dental problems; and (4 dentists routinely practiced cross-referencing to verify patient information. Conclusions Dentists have various information needs at the point of care. Among them, the needs

  5. Using small-area variations to inform health care service planning: what do we 'need' to know?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercuri, Mathew; Birch, Stephen; Gafni, Amiram

    2013-12-01

    Allocating resources on the basis of population need is a health care policy goal in many countries. Thus, resources must be allocated in accordance with need if stakeholders are to achieve policy goals. Small area methods have been presented as a means for revealing important information that can assist stakeholders in meeting policy goals. The purpose of this review is to examine the extent to which small area methods provide information relevant to meeting the goals of a needs-based health care policy. We present a conceptual framework explaining the terms 'demand', 'need', 'use' and 'supply', as commonly used in the literature. We critically review the literature on small area methods through the lens of this framework. 'Use' cannot be used as a proxy or surrogate of 'need'. Thus, if the goal of health care policy is to provide equal access for equal need, then traditional small area methods are inadequate because they measure small area variations in use of services in different populations, independent of the levels of need in those populations. Small area methods can be modified by incorporating direct measures of relative population need from population health surveys or by adjusting population size for levels of health risks in populations such as the prevalence of smoking and low birth weight. This might improve what can be learned from studies employing small area methods if they are to inform needs-based health care policies. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. An investigation of the search behaviour associated with Ingwersen’s three types of information needs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borlund, Pia; Dreier, Sabine

    2014-01-01

    We report a naturalistic interactive information retrieval (IIR) study of 18 ordinary users in the age of 20–25 who carry out everyday-life information seeking (ELIS) on the Internet with respect to the three types of information needs identified by Ingwersen (1986): the verificative information...... need (VIN), the conscious topical information need (CIN), and the muddled topical information need (MIN). The searches took place in the private homes of the users in order to ensure as realistic searching as possible. Ingwersen (1996) associates a given search behaviour to each of the three types...... of information needs, which are analytically deduced, but not yet empirically tested. Thus the objective of the study is to investigate whether empirical data does, or does not, conform to the predictions derived from the three types of information needs. The main conclusion is that the analytically deduced...

  7. Have Maryland local health departments effectively put in place the information technology relevant to emergency preparedness?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguh, Jonas

    2013-01-01

    Ever since the terrorist attacks of 9/11, the federal government has increased funding for emergency preparedness. However, the literature continues to document several areas of weaknesses in public health emergency management by local health departments (LHD). This lack of preparedness affects the entire public. The purpose of this study was to determine whether or not Maryland LHDs have effectively put in place the information technology (IT) that is relevant for emergency preparedness. Base Firm-wide IT Infrastructure Services and the Feeny/Willcocks Framework for Core IS Capabilities are the two conceptual frameworks used in this study. This qualitative study used the survey method and the data were analyzed through content analysis. The results revealed that utilization, practice, and performance of IT by Maryland LHDs are not efficient or effective. Recommendations included the development of "best practices," increased funding for IT infrastructure and the establishment of strategic management framework for IT initiatives. Implications for positive social change include the development of recommendations to enhance emergency preparedness practice, and advancement of knowledge so as to facilitate the functions, and duties of health departments in emergency preparedness operations.

  8. Routine conventional karyotyping of lymphoma staging bone marrow samples does not contribute clinically relevant information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nardi, Valentina; Pulluqi, Olja; Abramson, Jeremy S; Dal Cin, Paola; Hasserjian, Robert P

    2015-06-01

    Bone marrow (BM) evaluation is an important part of lymphoma staging, which guides patient management. Although positive staging marrow is defined as morphologically identifiable disease, such samples often also include flow cytometric analysis and conventional karyotyping. Cytogenetic analysis is a labor-intensive and costly procedure and its utility in this setting is uncertain. We retrospectively reviewed pathological reports of 526 staging marrow specimens in which conventional karyotyping had been performed. All samples originated from a single institution from patients with previously untreated Hodgkin and non-Hodgkin lymphomas presenting in an extramedullary site. Cytogenetic analysis revealed clonal abnormalities in only eight marrow samples (1.5%), all of which were positive for lymphoma by morphologic evaluation. Flow cytometry showed a small clonal lymphoid population in three of the 443 morphologically negative marrow samples (0.7%). Conventional karyotyping is rarely positive in lymphoma staging marrow samples and, in our cohort, the BM karyotype did not contribute clinically relevant information in the vast majority of cases. Our findings suggest that karyotyping should not be performed routinely on BM samples taken to stage previously diagnosed extramedullary lymphomas unless there is pathological evidence of BM involvement by lymphoma. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Conditional net survival: Relevant prognostic information for colorectal cancer survivors. A French population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drouillard, Antoine; Bouvier, Anne-Marie; Rollot, Fabien; Faivre, Jean; Jooste, Valérie; Lepage, Côme

    2015-07-01

    Traditionally, survival estimates have been reported as survival from the time of diagnosis. A patient's probability of survival changes according to time elapsed since the diagnosis and this is known as conditional survival. The aim was to estimate 5-year net conditional survival in patients with colorectal cancer in a well-defined French population at yearly intervals up to 5 years. Our study included 18,300 colorectal cancers diagnosed between 1976 and 2008 and registered in the population-based digestive cancer registry of Burgundy (France). We calculated conditional 5-year net survival, using the Pohar Perme estimator, for every additional year survived after diagnosis from 1 to 5 years. The initial 5-year net survival estimates varied between 89% for stage I and 9% for advanced stage cancer. The corresponding 5-year net survival for patients alive after 5 years was 95% and 75%. Stage II and III patients who survived 5 years had a similar probability of surviving 5 more years, respectively 87% and 84%. For survivors after the first year following diagnosis, five-year conditional net survival was similar regardless of age class and period of diagnosis. For colorectal cancer survivors, conditional net survival provides relevant and complementary prognostic information for patients and clinicians. Copyright © 2015 Editrice Gastroenterologica Italiana S.r.l. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Computations Underlying Social Hierarchy Learning: Distinct Neural Mechanisms for Updating and Representing Self-Relevant Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumaran, Dharshan; Banino, Andrea; Blundell, Charles; Hassabis, Demis; Dayan, Peter

    2016-12-07

    Knowledge about social hierarchies organizes human behavior, yet we understand little about the underlying computations. Here we show that a Bayesian inference scheme, which tracks the power of individuals, better captures behavioral and neural data compared with a reinforcement learning model inspired by rating systems used in games such as chess. We provide evidence that the medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) selectively mediates the updating of knowledge about one's own hierarchy, as opposed to that of another individual, a process that underpinned successful performance and involved functional interactions with the amygdala and hippocampus. In contrast, we observed domain-general coding of rank in the amygdala and hippocampus, even when the task did not require it. Our findings reveal the computations underlying a core aspect of social cognition and provide new evidence that self-relevant information may indeed be afforded a unique representational status in the brain. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. The effects of lossy compression on diagnostically relevant seizure information in EEG signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, G; McGinley, B; Faul, S; McEvoy, R P; Glavin, M; Marnane, W P; Jones, E

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the effects of compression on EEG signals, in the context of automated detection of epileptic seizures. Specifically, it examines the use of lossy compression on EEG signals in order to reduce the amount of data which has to be transmitted or stored, while having as little impact as possible on the information in the signal relevant to diagnosing epileptic seizures. Two popular compression methods, JPEG2000 and SPIHT, were used. A range of compression levels was selected for both algorithms in order to compress the signals with varying degrees of loss. This compression was applied to the database of epileptiform data provided by the University of Freiburg, Germany. The real-time EEG analysis for event detection automated seizure detection system was used in place of a trained clinician for scoring the reconstructed data. Results demonstrate that compression by a factor of up to 120:1 can be achieved, with minimal loss in seizure detection performance as measured by the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of the seizure detection system.

  12. Information Resource Needs and Preference of Queensland General Practitioners on Complementary Medicines: Result of a Needs Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tina Janamian

    2011-01-01

    Participants. 463 completed surveys were returned, representing a 58% response rate. Results. The majority of GPs had a positive attitude about incorporating CMs in their clinical practice; however, only 12% perceived they had adequate knowledge to be able to advise patients about CMs. GPs most preferred evidence-based resources for receiving information on CMs (fact sheets, booklets, and journals that contain clinical, pharmacological, and toxicological information. Most GPs perceived a need for an information resource on herbal medicines, vitamins, minerals, and trace elements, and nutritional supplements. Conclusion. GPs are open to integrating CMs into their clinical practice. They identify a current lack of knowledge coupled with a substantive level of interest to learn more. GPs perceive a high level of need for information resources on CMs. These resources should be developed and readily available to GPs to increase their knowledge about CMs and better equip them in communicating with patients about CMs use.

  13. Correction to: Communication between deep sea container terminals and hinterland stakeholders: information needs and the relevance of information exchange

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiegmans, Bart; Menger, Ilse; Behdani, Behzad; Arem, van Bart

    2017-01-01

    We regret that one of the author’s names (Ilse Menger) was misspelt in the article. The original article stated the authors as follows: Bart Wiegmans, Isle Menger, Behzad Behdani and Bart van Arem. In fact, the authors should have been listed as follows: Bart Wiegmans, Ilse Menger, Behzad Behdani

  14. Nutritional Information Provision to Cancer Patients and Their Relatives Can Promote Dietary Behavior Changes Independent of Nutritional Information Needs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veen, van Merel R.; Winkels, Renate M.; Janssen, Silvie H.M.; Kampman, Ellen; Beijer, Sandra

    2018-01-01

    We investigated whether obtaining nutritional information influences reported changes in dietary behavior in cancer survivors and their relatives and whether nutritional information needs influence this association. We included 239 cancer survivors and their relatives, recruited from an online panel

  15. Use of a New International Classification of Health Interventions for Capturing Information on Health Interventions Relevant to People with Disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortune, Nicola; Madden, Richard; Almborg, Ann-Helene

    2018-01-17

    Development of the World Health Organization's International Classification of Health Interventions (ICHI) is currently underway. Once finalised, ICHI will provide a standard basis for collecting, aggregating, analysing, and comparing data on health interventions across all sectors of the health system. In this paper, we introduce the classification, describing its underlying tri-axial structure, organisation and content. We then discuss the potential value of ICHI for capturing information on met and unmet need for health interventions relevant to people with a disability, with a particular focus on interventions to support functioning and health promotion interventions. Early experiences of use of the Swedish National Classification of Social Care Interventions and Activities, which is based closely on ICHI, illustrate the value of a standard classification to support practice and collect statistical data. Testing of the ICHI beta version in a wide range of countries and contexts is now needed so that improvements can be made before it is finalised. Input from those with an interest in the health of people with disabilities and health promotion more broadly is welcomed.

  16. Expert vs. novice differences in the detection of relevant information during a chess game: evidence from eye movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheridan, Heather; Reingold, Eyal M

    2014-01-01

    The present study explored the ability of expert and novice chess players to rapidly distinguish between regions of a chessboard that were relevant to the best move on the board, and regions of the board that were irrelevant. Accordingly, we monitored the eye movements of expert and novice chess players, while they selected white's best move for a variety of chess problems. To manipulate relevancy, we constructed two different versions of each chess problem in the experiment, and we counterbalanced these versions across participants. These two versions of each problem were identical except that a single piece was changed from a bishop to a knight. This subtle change reversed the relevancy map of the board, such that regions that were relevant in one version of the board were now irrelevant (and vice versa). Using this paradigm, we demonstrated that both the experts and novices spent more time fixating the relevant relative to the irrelevant regions of the board. However, the experts were faster at detecting relevant information than the novices, as shown by the finding that experts (but not novices) were able to distinguish between relevant and irrelevant information during the early part of the trial. These findings further demonstrate the domain-related perceptual processing advantage of chess experts, using an experimental paradigm that allowed us to manipulate relevancy under tightly controlled conditions.

  17. Expert versus novice differences in the detection of relevant information during a chess game: Evidence from eye movements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather eSheridan

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The present study explored the ability of expert and novice chess players to rapidly distinguish between regions of a chessboard that were relevant to the best move on the board, and regions of the board that were irrelevant. Accordingly, we monitored the eye movements of expert and novice chess players, while they selected white’s best move for a variety of chess problems. To manipulate relevancy, we constructed two different versions of each chess problem in the experiment, and we counterbalanced these versions across participants. These two versions of each problem were identical except that a single piece was changed from a bishop to a knight. This subtle change reversed the relevancy map of the board, such that regions that were relevant in one version of the board were now irrelevant (and vice versa. Using this paradigm, we demonstrated that both the experts and novices spent more time fixating the relevant relative to the irrelevant regions of the board. However, the experts were faster at detecting relevant information than the novices, as shown by the finding that experts (but not novices were able to distinguish between relevant and irrelevant information during the early part of the trial. These findings further demonstrate the domain-related perceptual processing advantage of chess experts, using an experimental paradigm that allowed us to manipulate relevancy under tightly controlled conditions.

  18. Monitoring the Carbon Cycle: Improving Our Ability to Proved Policy Relevant Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruhwiler, L.

    2017-12-01

    Humans have altered the energy balance of the climate system mainly by producing and consuming fossil fuels, but also by emissions from food production. Manufacture and use of halocarbons, many of which are also strong greenhouse gases (GHGs) have added to anthropogenic radiative forcing. In response, the global atmosphere has warmed over the last half century at a rate of 0.17°C. The largest contribution to radiative forcing is due to CO2, and at present, about half of all anthropogenic CO2 emissions have been taken up by the oceans and terrestrial biosphere. The size of this "carbon emission discount" may change in the future as more carbon accumulates in the oceans, as human alter landscapes, and as climate changes. Efforts to limit global average temperature increases to 2°C and avoid the most catastrophic consequences of climate change depend on keeping track of both human emissions of greenhouse gases and changes in natural fluxes of carbon and nitrogen that occur in response to human activities and changing climate. Global in situ network observations provide information about changes in global GHG abundances over recent decades, as well as changing distributions between hemispheres. This information gives insight into changes in global and hemispheric sources and sinks of GHGs. It is, however, currently difficult to obtain robust information about regional sources and to discriminate between natural and anthropogenic fluxes. Information about regional sources is needed for GHG policymaking, while discrimination of natural sources is necessary for detection of trends in GHG fluxes and evaluation of coupled carbon cycle climate models. Although column average GHG abundances from space-based remote sensing data could provide considerable constraints on GHG budgets, there are still technical challenges to be overcome. Possible strategies for making progress involve greater increased observational coverage and more international collaboration, as well as

  19. A comparison of the information needs of women newly diagnosed with breast cancer in Malaysia and the United kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopal, Raja Lexshimi Raja; Beaver, Kinta; Barnett, Tony; Ismail, Nik Safiah Nik

    2005-01-01

    Little is known about the information needs of women with breast cancer in non-Western societies. This study examined the priority information needs of 100 women with breast cancer in Malaysia and compared the findings to previous work involving 150 women diagnosed with breast cancer in the United Kingdom. The study used a valid and reliable measure, the Information Needs Questionnaire (INQ). The INQ contained 9 items of information related to physical, psychological, and social care, used successfully in Canada and the United Kingdom. The INQ was shown to have cross-cultural relevance and sensitivity. For Malaysian women, information about likelihood of cure, sexual attractiveness, and spread of disease were the most important information needs. For UK women, similar priorities were evident, apart from the item on sexual attractiveness, which was ranked much lower by women in the United Kingdom. The cultural similarities and differences that emerged from this study have implications for nurses in the cancer field caring for people from a diversity of cultural backgrounds. Breast care nurses are not a feature of the Malaysian healthcare system, although the findings from this study support the view that specialist nurses have a vital role to play in meeting the psychosocial needs of women with breast cancer in non-Western societies.

  20. Need for Cognition and Active Information Search in Small Student Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curseu, Petru Lucian

    2011-01-01

    In a sample of 213 students organized in 44 groups this study tests the impact of need for cognition on active information search by using a multilevel analysis. The results show that group members with high need for cognition seek more advice in task related issues than those with low need for cognition and this pattern of information exchange is…

  1. Information Needs of Family Caregivers of Persons with Cognitive versus Physical Deficits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenig, Kelly N.; Steiner, Victoria; Pierce, Linda L.

    2011-01-01

    This study compared information needs of caregivers of persons with dementia with caregivers of those who received rehabilitation treatment. Caregivers were provided a 48-item survey and asked to choose their top ten information needs. Dementia caregivers' (n = 33) top needs were dealing with forgetfulness/confusion (91%) and repeating…

  2. Expressed information needs of patients with osteoporosis and/or fragility fractures: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raybould, Grace; Babatunde, Opeyemi; Evans, Amy L; Jordan, Joanne L; Paskins, Zoe

    2018-05-08

    This systematic review identified patients have unmet information needs about the nature of osteoporosis, medication, self-management and follow-up. Clinician knowledge and attitudes appear to be of key importance in determining whether these needs are met. Unmet information needs appear to have psychosocial consequences and result in poor treatment adherence. Patient education is an integral component of the management of osteoporosis, yet patients are dissatisfied with the information they receive and see this as an area of research priority. This study aimed to describe and summarise the specific expressed information needs of patients in previously published qualitative research. Using terms relating to osteoporosis, fragility fracture and information needs, seven databases were searched. Articles were screened using predefined inclusion and exclusion criteria. Full-text articles selected for inclusion underwent data extraction and quality appraisal. Findings were drawn together using narrative synthesis. The search identified 11,024 articles. Sixteen empirical studies were included in the review. Thematic analysis revealed three overarching themes relating to specific information needs, factors influencing whether information needs are met and the impact of unmet information needs. Specific information needs identified included the following: the nature of osteoporosis/fracture risk; medication; self-management and understanding the role of dual energy x-ray absorptiometry and follow-up. Perceived physician knowledge and attitudes, and the attitudes, beliefs and behaviours of patients were important factors in influencing whether information needs were met, in addition to contextual factors and the format of educational resources. Failure to elicit and address information needs appears to be associated with poor treatment adherence, deterioration of the doctor-patient relationship and important psychosocial consequences. This is the first study to describe the

  3. Information needs of adolescent and young adult cancer patients and their parent-carers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Maria C; McNeil, Robyn; Drew, Sarah; Orme, Lisa; Sawyer, Susan M

    2018-05-01

    This study aimed to explore health-related information needs of adolescent and young adults (AYAs) and their parent-carers and to examine demographic and clinical variables associated with unmet information needs, including patient activation. In a national cross-sectional study, 196 Australian AYAs diagnosed with cancer between 15 and 25 years and within 24 months of diagnosis and 204 parent-carers reported on total and unmet needs for cancer and health-related information. Fifty-one percent of AYAs were male, 81% had completed treatment and 86% were treated in adult hospitals. AYAs and parents reported high levels of total need for information. The mean number of unmet needs was 5.63 and 6.82 for AYAs and parents, respectively. AYAs reported the highest unmet needs in relation to their cancer (e.g. late effects and cancer recurrence, and having children in the future). The highest unmet parent information needs were related to medical information about their child as well as information on financial issues for their children and themselves. Unmet information need was associated with psychological distress (posttraumatic stress symptoms) for AYAs and parents. Patient activation was negatively associated with unmet information needs for AYAs. Demographic and treatment variables were not significantly associated with information needs. These findings indicate the importance of information needs for AYAs and their carers. The association between patient activation and information needs suggests that promoting young people's engagement with healthcare is a key opportunity within AYA care. Parent information needs and associated emotional distress additionally highlight the importance of family-centered care.

  4. Studies analysing the need for health-related information in Germany - a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieper, Dawid; Jülich, Fabian; Antoine, Sunya-Lee; Bächle, Christina; Chernyak, Nadja; Genz, Jutta; Eikermann, Michaela; Icks, Andrea

    2015-09-23

    Exploring health-related information needs is necessary to better tailor information. However, there is a lack of systematic knowledge on how and in which groups information needs has been assessed, and which information needs have been identified. We aimed to assess the methodology of studies used to assess information needs, as well as the topics and extent of health-related information needs and associated factors in Germany. A systematic search was performed in Medline, Embase, Psycinfo, and all databases of the Cochrane Library. All studies investigating health-related information needs in patients, relatives, and the general population in Germany that were published between 2000 and 2012 in German or English were included. Descriptive content analysis was based on predefined categories. We identified 19 studies. Most studies addressed cancer or rheumatic disease. Methods used were highly heterogeneous. Apart from common topics such as treatment, diagnosis, prevention and health promotion, etiology and prognosis, high interest ratings were also found in more specific topics such as complementary and alternative medicine or nutrition. Information needs were notable in all surveyed patient groups, relatives, and samples of the general population. Younger age, shorter duration of illness, poorer health status and higher anxiety and depression scores appeared to be associated with higher information needs. Knowledge about information needs is still scarce. Assuming the importance of comprehensive information to enable people to participate in health-related decisions, further systematic research is required.

  5. 78 FR 37244 - Submission for Review: We Need Important Information About Your Eligibility for Social Security...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-20

    ... Important Information About Your Eligibility for Social Security Disability Benefits, RI 98-7. As required... Personnel Management. Title: We Need Important Information About Your Eligibility for Social Security... OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT Submission for Review: We Need Important Information About Your...

  6. Stimulus-response correspondence effect as a function of temporal overlap between relevant and irrelevant information processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dong-Yuan Debbie; Richard, F Dan; Ray, Brittany

    2016-01-01

    The stimulus-response correspondence (SRC) effect refers to advantages in performance when stimulus and response correspond in dimensions or features, even if the common features are irrelevant to the task. Previous research indicated that the SRC effect depends on the temporal course of stimulus information processing. The current study investigated how the temporal overlap between relevant and irrelevant stimulus processing influences the SRC effect. In this experiment, the irrelevant stimulus (a previously associated tone) preceded the relevant stimulus (a coloured rectangle). The irrelevant and relevant stimuli onset asynchrony was varied to manipulate the temporal overlap between the irrelevant and relevant stimuli processing. Results indicated that the SRC effect size varied as a quadratic function of the temporal overlap between the relevant stimulus and irrelevant stimulus. This finding extends previous experimental observations that the SRC effect size varies in an increasing or decreasing function with reaction time. The current study demonstrated a quadratic function between effect size and the temporal overlap.

  7. Regulatory Research of the PWR Severe Accident. Information Needs and Instrumentation for Hydrogen Control and Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Gun Chul; Suh, Kune Y.; Lee, Jin Yong; Lee, Seung Dong

    2001-03-01

    The current research is concerned with generation of basic engineering data needed in the process of developing hydrogen control guidelines as part of accident management strategies for domestic nuclear power plants and formulating pertinent regulatory requirements. Major focus is placed on identification of information needs and instrumentation methods for hydrogen control and management in the primary system and in the containment, development of decision-making trees for hydrogen management and their quantification, the instrument availability under severe accident conditions, critical review of relevant hydrogen generation model and phenomena In relation to hydrogen behavior, we analyzed the severe accident related hydrogen generation in the UCN 3·4 PWR with modified hydrogen generation model. On the basis of the hydrogen mixing experiment and related GASFLOW calculation, the necessity of 3-dimensional analysis of the hydrogen mixing was investigated. We examined the hydrogen control models related to the PAR(Passive Autocatalytic Recombiner) and performed MAAP4 calculation in relation to the decision tree to estimate the capability and the role of the PAR during a severe accident

  8. Regulatory Research of the PWR Severe Accident. Information Needs and Instrumentation for Hydrogen Control and Management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Gun Chul; Suh, Kune Y.; Lee, Jin Yong; Lee, Seung Dong [Seoul Nat' l Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-03-15

    The current research is concerned with generation of basic engineering data needed in the process of developing hydrogen control guidelines as part of accident management strategies for domestic nuclear power plants and formulating pertinent regulatory requirements. Major focus is placed on identification of information needs and instrumentation methods for hydrogen control and management in the primary system and in the containment, development of decision-making trees for hydrogen management and their quantification, the instrument availability under severe accident conditions, critical review of relevant hydrogen generation model and phenomena In relation to hydrogen behavior, we analyzed the severe accident related hydrogen generation in the UCN 3{center_dot}4 PWR with modified hydrogen generation model. On the basis of the hydrogen mixing experiment and related GASFLOW calculation, the necessity of 3-dimensional analysis of the hydrogen mixing was investigated. We examined the hydrogen control models related to the PAR(Passive Autocatalytic Recombiner) and performed MAAP4 calculation in relation to the decision tree to estimate the capability and the role of the PAR during a severe accident.

  9. Aberrant neural networks for the recognition memory of socially relevant information in patients with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Jooyoung; Chun, Ji-Won; Kim, Eunseong; Park, Hae-Jeong; Lee, Boreom; Kim, Jae-Jin

    2017-01-01

    Patients with schizophrenia exhibit several cognitive deficits, including memory impairment. Problems with recognition memory can hinder socially adaptive behavior. Previous investigations have suggested that altered activation of the frontotemporal area plays an important role in recognition memory impairment. However, the cerebral networks related to these deficits are not known. The aim of this study was to elucidate the brain networks required for recognizing socially relevant information in patients with schizophrenia performing an old-new recognition task. Sixteen patients with schizophrenia and 16 controls participated in this study. First, the subjects performed the theme-identification task during functional magnetic resonance imaging. In this task, pictures depicting social situations were presented with three words, and the subjects were asked to select the best theme word for each picture. The subjects then performed an old-new recognition task in which they were asked to discriminate whether the presented words were old or new. Task performance and neural responses in the old-new recognition task were compared between the subject groups. An independent component analysis of the functional connectivity was performed. The patients with schizophrenia exhibited decreased discriminability and increased activation of the right superior temporal gyrus compared with the controls during correct responses. Furthermore, aberrant network activities were found in the frontopolar and language comprehension networks in the patients. The functional connectivity analysis showed aberrant connectivity in the frontopolar and language comprehension networks in the patients with schizophrenia, and these aberrations possibly contribute to their low recognition performance and social dysfunction. These results suggest that the frontopolar and language comprehension networks are potential therapeutic targets in patients with schizophrenia.

  10. Structural analysis of health-relevant policy-making information exchange networks in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contandriopoulos, Damien; Benoît, François; Bryant-Lukosius, Denise; Carrier, Annie; Carter, Nancy; Deber, Raisa; Duhoux, Arnaud; Greenhalgh, Trisha; Larouche, Catherine; Leclerc, Bernard-Simon; Levy, Adrian; Martin-Misener, Ruth; Maximova, Katerina; McGrail, Kimberlyn; Nykiforuk, Candace; Roos, Noralou; Schwartz, Robert; Valente, Thomas W; Wong, Sabrina; Lindquist, Evert; Pullen, Carolyn; Lardeux, Anne; Perroux, Melanie

    2017-09-20

    Health systems worldwide struggle to identify, adopt, and implement in a timely and system-wide manner the best-evidence-informed-policy-level practices. Yet, there is still only limited evidence about individual and institutional best practices for fostering the use of scientific evidence in policy-making processes The present project is the first national-level attempt to (1) map and structurally analyze-quantitatively-health-relevant policy-making networks that connect evidence production, synthesis, interpretation, and use; (2) qualitatively investigate the interaction patterns of a subsample of actors with high centrality metrics within these networks to develop an in-depth understanding of evidence circulation processes; and (3) combine these findings in order to assess a policy network's "absorptive capacity" regarding scientific evidence and integrate them into a conceptually sound and empirically grounded framework. The project is divided into two research components. The first component is based on quantitative analysis of ties (relationships) that link nodes (participants) in a network. Network data will be collected through a multi-step snowball sampling strategy. Data will be analyzed structurally using social network mapping and analysis methods. The second component is based on qualitative interviews with a subsample of the Web survey participants having central, bridging, or atypical positions in the network. Interviews will focus on the process through which evidence circulates and enters practice. Results from both components will then be integrated through an assessment of the network's and subnetwork's effectiveness in identifying, capturing, interpreting, sharing, reframing, and recodifying scientific evidence in policy-making processes. Knowledge developed from this project has the potential both to strengthen the scientific understanding of how policy-level knowledge transfer and exchange functions and to provide significantly improved advice

  11. Superintendents and Principals Need Quality Public Information That Informs Decisions, Empowers Action. Don't Make Decisions in the Dark

    Science.gov (United States)

    Data Quality Campaign, 2014

    2014-01-01

    District superintendents or school principals need to be able to access and use high-quality data to make good decisions. Often this data is collected and stored locally, but information that is publicly reported by the state can provide additional value. Although public reporting in a few states is designed to serve information needs, states'…

  12. Assessing Unmet Information Needs of Breast Cancer Survivors: Exploratory Study of Online Health Forums Using Text Classification and Retrieval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McRoy, Susan; Rastegar-Mojarad, Majid; Wang, Yanshan; Ruddy, Kathryn J; Haddad, Tufia C; Liu, Hongfang

    2018-05-15

    Patient education materials given to breast cancer survivors may not be a good fit for their information needs. Needs may change over time, be forgotten, or be misreported, for a variety of reasons. An automated content analysis of survivors' postings to online health forums can identify expressed information needs over a span of time and be repeated regularly at low cost. Identifying these unmet needs can guide improvements to existing education materials and the creation of new resources. The primary goals of this project are to assess the unmet information needs of breast cancer survivors from their own perspectives and to identify gaps between information needs and current education materials. This approach employs computational methods for content modeling and supervised text classification to data from online health forums to identify explicit and implicit requests for health-related information. Potential gaps between needs and education materials are identified using techniques from information retrieval. We provide a new taxonomy for the classification of sentences in online health forum data. 260 postings from two online health forums were selected, yielding 4179 sentences for coding. After annotation of data and training alternative one-versus-others classifiers, a random forest-based approach achieved F1 scores from 66% (Other, dataset2) to 90% (Medical, dataset1) on the primary information types. 136 expressions of need were used to generate queries to indexed education materials. Upon examination of the best two pages retrieved for each query, 12% (17/136) of queries were found to have relevant content by all coders, and 33% (45/136) were judged to have relevant content by at least one. Text from online health forums can be analyzed effectively using automated methods. Our analysis confirms that breast cancer survivors have many information needs that are not covered by the written documents they typically receive, as our results suggest that at most

  13. What's New in the Medicine Cabinet?: A Panoramic Review of Clinically Relevant Information for the Busy Dermatologist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Rosso, James Q; Zeichner, Joshua

    2014-01-01

    This article is the first in a periodic series of therapeutic topics with short reviews gleaned from major dermatology meetings, especially Scientific Poster Sessions, and is designed to provide information that may assist the readers in adapting information from the literature to their clinical practice. The topics covered in this issue are discussions of the clinical relevance of newer information about acne pathophysiology, acne in adult women, and topical corticosteroid spray formulations for chronic plaque psoriasis.

  14. Analysis of the Relevance of Information Content of the Value Added Statement in the Brazilian Capital Markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcio André Veras Machado

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The usefulness of financial statements depends, fundamentally, on the degree of relevance of the information they disclose to users. Thus, studies that measure the relevance of accounting information to the users of financial statements are of some importance. One line of research within this subject is in ascertaining the relevance and importance of accounting information for the capital markets: if a particular item of accounting information is minimally reflected in the price of a share, it is because this information has relevance, at least at a certain level of significance, for investors and analysts of the capital markets. This present study aims to analyze the relevance, in the Brazilian capital markets, of the information content of the Value Added Statement (or VAS - referred to in Brazil as the Demonstração do Valor Adicionado, or DVA. It analyzed the ratio between stock price and Wealth created per share (WCPS, using linear regressions, for the period 2005-2011, for non-financial listed companies included in Melhores & Maiores ('Biggest & Best', an annual listing published by Exame Magazine in Brazil. As a secondary objective, this article seeks to establish whether WCPS represents a better indication of a company's result than Net profit per share (in this study, referred to as NPPS. The empirical evidence that was found supports the concept that the VAS has relevant information content, because it shows a capacity to explain a variation in the share price of the companies studied. Additionally, the relationship between WCPS and the stock price was shown to be significant, even after the inclusion of the control variables Stockholders' equity per share (which we abbreviate in this study to SEPS and NPPS. Finally, the evidence found indicates that the market reacts more to WCPS (Wealth created per share than to NPPS. Thus, the results obtained give some indication that, for the Brazilian capital markets, WCPS may be a better proxy

  15. Effective utilization of technology to meet the information needs of the world-wide natural gas industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Markuszewski, R.; Capadocia, S.R.; Worster, C.L.; Kosman, J.E. [IGT (United States)

    1997-11-01

    Surveys on technical information relevant to the gas industry showed that no single information source was sufficient for all needs, while a number of sources include some pertinent information as part of their mission. The surveys concluded that access was difficult and wide usage of electronic resources had some real as well as some perceived problems. With the availability of the Internet and World Wide Web, many of these difficulties are being overcome. The natural gas industry is moving rapidly toward an era of electronic information with global access to a wide variety of technical, financial, and operational information. The most important sources of technical information are reviewed, and access to resources is briefly described. Cost comparison, relevancy, ease of use, and other factors are also discussed. The current status and future developments of gas industry information resources and technology are addressed in terms of emerging technologies and management issues which will bring critical information to the desktop of engineers, planners, and marketers. (au)

  16. Information needs of the Chinese community affected by cancer: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Bee Teng; Butow, Phyllis; Mills, Jill; Miller, Annie; Goldstein, David

    2017-10-01

    The information needs of patients and carers from culturally and linguistically diverse backgrounds, including from the Chinese community, are not well understood, and there has been no previous synthesis of the literature. We conducted a systematic review of the information needs of the Chinese community affected by cancer. Database, reference list, and author searches were conducted to identify studies reporting information needs of the Chinese community affected by cancer. Data synthesis was undertaken to define categories of information needs. Initial searches yielded 2558 articles. Out of the 40 full-text articles reviewed, 26 met all the eligibility criteria. Cancer-specific, treatment, and prognosis information were the most frequently reported information needs across the cancer care continuum. Similarly, this information was the most commonly reported information needs across different health systems, migration statuses, and Chinese cultural values. Though less frequent, information needs related to interpersonal/social, financial/legal, and body image/sexuality were also raised. Thirteen studies quantified the prevalence of unmet needs, and the most frequently reported unmet needs were related to health system and information, followed by psychological, patient care and support, physical daily living, and sexuality needs. Language and cultural factors were identified in all studies involving Chinese migrants living in English-speaking countries. Failing to meet the information needs of the Chinese community members affected by cancer increases the risk for poor cancer outcomes. Potential interventions such as translated resources, bilingual advocates, an online information portal, and communication aids can be helpful in addressing the unmet needs for this community. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Nutritional Information Provision to Cancer Patients and Their Relatives Can Promote Dietary Behavior Changes Independent of Nutritional Information Needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Veen, Merel R; Winkels, Renate M; Janssen, Silvie H M; Kampman, Ellen; Beijer, Sandra

    2018-04-01

    We investigated whether obtaining nutritional information influences reported changes in dietary behavior in cancer survivors and their relatives and whether nutritional information needs influence this association. We included 239 cancer survivors and their relatives, recruited from an online panel of cancer survivors and relatives. This panel completed a survey about their experiences with nutritional information provision by healthcare professionals and the media in the period after diagnosis, their information needs regarding nutrition and cancer, and whether they changed their dietary behavior since diagnosis. The survey showed that 56% of respondents obtained nutritional information, mostly during treatment. Respondents who obtained nutritional information more often reported to have altered their dietary behavior after diagnosis. This association was not altered by having information needs. The reported changes in dietary behavior were coherent with the recommendations of the World Cancer Research Fund: respondents reported to choose less products that promote weight gain, increased intake of plant foods, and decreased meat and alcohol use. Respondents who obtained nutritional information more often changed their dietary behavior, regardless whether they had nutritional information needs. This might be an indication that healthcare professionals should provide nutritional information not only to those expressing a need for nutritional information.

  18. INFORMATION SECURITY: Strengthened Management Needed to Protect Critical Federal Operations and Assets

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dodaro, Gene

    1998-01-01

    .... Our most recent report, done at the request of this Committee, delineates the serious information security weaknesses placing critical operations and assets at risk and outlines actions needed...

  19. Information needs of rural health professionals: a review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorsch, J L

    2000-10-01

    This review analyzes the existing research on the information needs of rural health professionals and relates it to the broader information-needs literature to establish whether the information needs of rural health professionals differ from those of other health professionals. The analysis of these studies indicates that rural health practitioners appear to have the same basic needs for patient-care information as their urban counterparts, and that both groups rely on colleagues and personal libraries as their main sources of information. Rural practitioners, however, tend to make less use of journals and online databases and ask fewer clinical questions; a difference that correlates with geographic and demographic factors. Rural practitioners experience pronounced barriers to information access including lack of time, isolation, inadequate library access, lack of equipment, lack of skills, costs, and inadequate Internet infrastructure. Outreach efforts to this group of underserved health professionals must be sustained to achieve equity in information access and to change information-seeking behaviors.

  20. Intelligent Information Retrieval: Diagnosing Information Need. Part I. The Theoretical Framework for Developing an Intelligent IR Tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Charles

    1998-01-01

    Suggests that the principles underlying the procedure used by doctors to diagnose a patient's disease are useful in the design of intelligent information-retrieval systems because the task of the doctor is conceptually similar to the computer or human intermediary's task in information retrieval: to draw out the user's query/information need.…

  1. Information needs, acceptability of risk, trust, and reliance: The case of National Predictive Services customers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patricia L. Winter; Heidi. Bigler-Cole

    2010-01-01

    Making complex risk-related decisions involves a degree of uncertainty. How that uncertainty is addressed or presented in reports or data tables can be tailored to meet information users’ needs and preferences. Involving the recipients of risk-related information in the design of information to be delivered (including the types of information delivered, format, and...

  2. Information needs, acceptability of risk, trust, and reliance: the case of national predictive services customers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patricia L. Winter; Heidi Bigler-Cole

    2010-01-01

    Making complex risk-related decisions involves a degree of uncertainty. How that uncertainty is addressed or presented in reports or data tables can be tailored to meet information users’ needs and preferences. Involving the recipients of risk-related information in the design of information to be delivered (including the types of information delivered, format, and...

  3. Providing Decision-Relevant Information for a State Climate Change Action Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wake, C.; Frades, M.; Hurtt, G. C.; Magnusson, M.; Gittell, R.; Skoglund, C.; Morin, J.

    2008-12-01

    Carbon Solutions New England (CSNE), a public-private partnership formed to promote collective action to achieve a low carbon society, has been working with the Governor appointed New Hampshire Climate Change Policy Task Force (NHCCTF) to support the development of a state Climate Change Action Plan. CSNE's role has been to quantify the potential carbon emissions reduction, implementation costs, and cost savings at three distinct time periods (2012, 2025, 2050) for a range of strategies identified by the Task Force. These strategies were developed for several sectors (transportation and land use, electricity generation and use, building energy use, and agriculture, forestry, and waste).New Hampshire's existing and projected economic and population growth are well above the regional average, creating additional challenges for the state to meet regional emission reduction targets. However, by pursuing an ambitious suite of renewable energy and energy efficiency strategies, New Hampshire may be able to continue growing while reducing emissions at a rate close to 3% per year up to 2025. This suite includes efficiency improvements in new and existing buildings, a renewable portfolio standard for electricity generation, avoiding forested land conversion, fuel economy gains in new vehicles, and a reduction in vehicle miles traveled. Most (over 80%) of these emission reduction strategies are projected to provide net economic savings in 2025.A collaborative and iterative process was developed among the key partners in the project. The foundation for the project's success included: a diverse analysis team with leadership that was committed to the project, an open source analysis approach, weekly meetings and frequent communication among the partners, interim reporting of analysis, and an established and trusting relationship among the partners, in part due to collaboration on previous projects.To develop decision-relevant information for the Task Force, CSNE addressed

  4. Nuclear information in Finmark. Research concerning public need for information about nuclear fallout and nuclear emergency preparedness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larsen, A.K.

    1994-10-01

    The main objective of the present investigation was to discover whether there is a co-ordination between public and governmental problem recognition, and between demand and supply of nuclear information. Another objective was to identify relevant object groups and to prepare for communication strategy planning. 27 refs., 49 tabs

  5. Information Security: USDA Needs to Implement Its Departmentwide Information Security Plan

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2000-01-01

    USDA has taken positive steps to begin improving its information security by developing its August 1999 Action Plan with recommendations to strengthen department-wide information security and hiring...

  6. Linking attentional processes and conceptual problem solving: visual cues facilitate the automaticity of extracting relevant information from diagrams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouinfar, Amy; Agra, Elise; Larson, Adam M; Rebello, N Sanjay; Loschky, Lester C

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated links between visual attention processes and conceptual problem solving. This was done by overlaying visual cues on conceptual physics problem diagrams to direct participants' attention to relevant areas to facilitate problem solving. Participants (N = 80) individually worked through four problem sets, each containing a diagram, while their eye movements were recorded. Each diagram contained regions that were relevant to solving the problem correctly and separate regions related to common incorrect responses. Problem sets contained an initial problem, six isomorphic training problems, and a transfer problem. The cued condition saw visual cues overlaid on the training problems. Participants' verbal responses were used to determine their accuracy. This study produced two major findings. First, short duration visual cues which draw attention to solution-relevant information and aid in the organizing and integrating of it, facilitate both immediate problem solving and generalization of that ability to new problems. Thus, visual cues can facilitate re-representing a problem and overcoming impasse, enabling a correct solution. Importantly, these cueing effects on problem solving did not involve the solvers' attention necessarily embodying the solution to the problem, but were instead caused by solvers attending to and integrating relevant information in the problems into a solution path. Second, this study demonstrates that when such cues are used across multiple problems, solvers can automatize the extraction of problem-relevant information extraction. These results suggest that low-level attentional selection processes provide a necessary gateway for relevant information to be used in problem solving, but are generally not sufficient for correct problem solving. Instead, factors that lead a solver to an impasse and to organize and integrate problem information also greatly facilitate arriving at correct solutions.

  7. The Problems in Chinese Government Financial Information Disclosure and Relevant Proposals

    OpenAIRE

    Zhe Wang

    2016-01-01

    Government financial information is an important part of government information, fully reporting the operational efficiency and the place where government puts tax onto. This paper analyses the problems in Chinese government financial information disclosure and the necessity of reform in detail. It also provides several proposals for the improvement of Chinese governmental financial report and financial information disclosure system.

  8. The Problems in Chinese Government Financial Information Disclosure and Relevant Proposals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhe Wang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Government financial information is an important part of government information, fully reporting the operational efficiency and the place where government puts tax onto. This paper analyses the problems in Chinese government financial information disclosure and the necessity of reform in detail. It also provides several proposals for the improvement of Chinese governmental financial report and financial information disclosure system.

  9. INFORMATION LOGISTICS AS MEANS OF INFORMATION SERVICES FOR FREIGHT TRANSPORT NEEDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Straka

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available European parking information center (EPIC – it will provide unified and detailed information about European parking areas. The EPIC system will receive the data from local information centres. For Slovak republic there will be one provider for traffic data – a National traffic information center (NDIC. The EPIC system is available at http://truckinform.eu. Intelligent parking system (IPS will be linked with NDIC. The aim of the IPS system is to provide information as follows: number of free parking places, services to be used in parking area and so one.

  10. Information needs of survivors and families after childhood CNS tumor treatment: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hovén, Emma; Lannering, Birgitta; Gustafsson, Göran; Boman, Krister K

    2018-05-01

    This study examines information needs and satisfaction with provided information among childhood central nervous system (CNS) tumor survivors and their parents. In a population-based sample of 697 adult survivors in Sweden, 518 survivors and 551 parents provided data. Information needs and satisfaction with information were studied using a multi-dimensional standardized questionnaire addressing information-related issues. Overall, 52% of the survivors and 48% of the parents reported no, or only minor, satisfaction with the extent of provided information, and 51% of the survivors expressed a need for more information than provided. The information received was found useful (to some extent/very much) by 53%, while 47% did not find it useful, or to a minor degree only. Obtaining written material was associated with greater satisfaction and usefulness of information. Dissatisfaction with information was associated with longer time since diagnosis, poorer current health status and female sex. The survivors experienced unmet information needs vis-à-vis late effects, illness education, rehabilitation and psychological services. Overall, parents were more dissatisfied than the survivors. These findings have implications for improvements in information delivery. Information in childhood CNS tumor care and follow-up should specifically address issues where insufficiency was identified, and recognize persistent and with time changing needs at the successive stages of long-term survivorship.

  11. Physicians' pharmacogenomics information needs and seeking behavior: a study with case vignettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heale, Bret S E; Khalifa, Aly; Stone, Bryan L; Nelson, Scott; Del Fiol, Guilherme

    2017-08-01

    Genetic testing, especially in pharmacogenomics, can have a major impact on patient care. However, most physicians do not feel that they have sufficient knowledge to apply pharmacogenomics to patient care. Online information resources can help address this gap. We investigated physicians' pharmacogenomics information needs and information-seeking behavior, in order to guide the design of pharmacogenomics information resources that effectively meet clinical information needs. We performed a formative, mixed-method assessment of physicians' information-seeking process in three pharmacogenomics case vignettes. Interactions of 6 physicians' with online pharmacogenomics resources were recorded, transcribed, and analyzed for prominent themes. Quantitative data included information-seeking duration, page navigations, and number of searches entered. We found that participants searched an average of 8 min per case vignette, spent less than 30 s reviewing specific content, and rarely refined search terms. Participants' information needs included a need for clinically meaningful descriptions of test interpretations, a molecular basis for the clinical effect of drug variation, information on the logistics of carrying out a genetic test (including questions related to cost, availability, test turn-around time, insurance coverage, and accessibility of expert support).Also, participants sought alternative therapies that would not require genetic testing. This study of pharmacogenomics information-seeking behavior indicates that content to support their information needs is dispersed and hard to find. Our results reveal a set of themes that information resources can use to help physicians find and apply pharmacogenomics information to the care of their patients.

  12. A Study of Rural Elderly’s Health Information Needs and Seeking Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Chun Liao

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Survey method was used and 92 valid questionnaires were collected for the analyses. The results showed that the majority of the rural elder people expressed the need for and attention to health information. ‘‘health service information’’ and ‘‘prevention health care information’’ were the most needed and important. Family, friends and television were the main channels for accessing health information. However, fewer respondents actively sought health information. When health problems occurred, they tended to seek direct medical treatment. This study also found that men were more attentive and active in seeking health information. Respondents over 75 years old rarely concerned about their health information need. People with more education were also more aware of their health information needs and more attentive to information disseminated via mass media. [Article content in Chinese

  13. Concept development and needs identification for Intelligent Network Flow Optimization (INFLO) : assessment of relevant prior and ongoing research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    Through the USDOT Dynamic Mobility Applications (DMA) program, a number of high-priority mobility applications have been assessed and identified that can connect vehicles, travelers, and infrastructure in order to provide better information to travel...

  14. Informational Needs of Korean Women with Breast Cancer: Cross-Cultural Adaptation of the Toronto Informational Needs Questionnaire of Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myungsun Yi, RN, DNS

    2007-12-01

    Conclusion: The TINQ-BC, developed and tested in Canada, was adapted and successfully utilized in this study in Korea, indicating that it has the potential to assess the informational needs of women with breast cancer on an international basis. Health care professionals must be aware of the domains of information that these women perceive to be important so that educational interventions can be effectively planned and executed.

  15. Information Needs of Distance Learners: A Case of Winneba Study Center, University of Education, Winneba, Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Agatha Gifty; Owusu-Acheaw, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The study focuses on the information needs of distance learners of the Winneba Study Centre of the University of Education, Winneba. The main objective was to investigate the information needs of this group of students who live far away from their host institution and have minimal interaction with their tutors. The study was a survey and made use…

  16. Evidence-based information needs of public health workers: a systematized review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jill Barr-Walker, MPH, MS

    2017-01-01

    Conclusions: Recommendations are given for how librarians can increase the use of evidence-based information in public health research, practice, and policy making. Further research using rigorous methodologies and transparent reporting practices in a wider variety of settings is needed to further evaluate public health workers’ information needs.

  17. An Information Needs Profile of Israeli Older Adults, regarding the Law and Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Getz, Irith; Weissman, Gabriella

    2010-01-01

    Based on Nicholas' framework for assessing information needs, this research aims to construct a profile of both Israeli older adults and their information needs regarding laws and social services. Data were collected by questionnaires answered by 200 older adults, born in Europe, Asia and Africa, who attended social clubs for older adults. The…

  18. A Study of Labour Market Information Needs through Employers' Seeking Behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Cuadrado, Sonia; Morato, Jorge; Andreadakis, Yorgos; Moreiro, Jose Antonio

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: The objective of this study is understand the information needs that businesses have while seeking Library and Information Science professionals and analyse how they formulate those needs. Method: The analysis is performed by examining the professional skills and capabilities demanded in job offers published. A total of 1,020 job…

  19. Participatory Gender-Oriented Study of the Information Needs of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An adequate understanding of the information needs of the youth is crucial in planning programmes that address their socio-economic wellbeing. This study investigated the information needs of the youth in Uzoagba, a rural community in South-Eastern Nigeria. Data were collected from the youth through focus group ...

  20. 20 CFR 416.1816 - Information we need concerning marriage when you apply for SSI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Information we need concerning marriage when you apply for SSI. 416.1816 Section 416.1816 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION....1816 Information we need concerning marriage when you apply for SSI. When you apply for SSI benefits...