WorldWideScience

Sample records for relevant experimental results

  1. The relevance of animal experimental results for the assessment of radiation genetic risks in man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stephan, G.

    1981-01-01

    No suitable data are available from man for the quantitative assessment of genetic radiation risk. Therefore, the results from experiments on animals must be utilized. Two hypotheses are presented here in drawing analogical conclusions from one species to another. Although the extrapolation of results from animal experiments remains an open question, the use of experimental results from mice seems to be justified for an assessment of the genetic radiation risk in man. (orig.) [de

  2. Fuel performance under normal PWR conditions: A review of relevant experimental results and models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles, M.; Lemaignan, C.

    1992-06-01

    Experiments conducted at Grenoble (CEA/DRN) over the past 20 years in the field of nuclear fuel behaviour are reviewed. Of particular concern is the need to achieve a comprehensive understanding of and subsequently overcome the limitations associated with high burnup and load-following conditions (pellet-cladding interaction (PCI), fission gas release (FGR), water-side corrosion). A general view is given of the organization of research work as well as some experimental details (irradiation, postirradiation examination — PIE). Based on various experimental programmes (Cyrano, Medicis, Anemone, Furet, Tango, Contact, Cansar, Hatac, Flog, Decor), the main contributions of the thermomechanical behaviour of a PWR fuel rod are described: thermal conductivity, in-pile densification, swelling, fission gas release in steady state and moderate transient conditions, gap thermal conductance, formation of primary and secondary ridges under PCI conditions. Specific programmes (Gdgrif, Thermox, Grimox) are devoted to the behaviour of particular fuels (gadolinia-bearing fuel, MOX fuel). Moreover, microstructure-based studies have been undertaken on fission gas release (fine analysis of the bubble population inside irradiated fuel samples), and on cladding behaviour (PCI related studies on stress-corrosion cracking (SCO, irradiation effects on zircaloy microstructure).

  3. Wire Array Z-pinches on Sphinx Machine: Experimental Results and Relevant Points of Microsecond Implosion Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calamy, H.; Hamann, F.; Lassalle, F.; Bayol, F.; Mangeant, C.; Morell, A.; Huet, D.; Bedoch, J. P.; Chittenden, J. P.; Lebedev, S. V.; Jennings, C. A.; Bland, S. N.

    2006-01-01

    Centre d'Etudes de Gramat (France) has developed an efficient long implosion time (800 ns) Aluminum plasma radiation source (PRS). Based on the LTD technology, the SPHINX facility is developed as a 1-3MJ, 1μs rise time, 4-10 MA current driver. In this paper, it was used in 1MJ, 4MA configuration to drive Aluminum nested wire arrays Z-pinches with K-shell yield up to 20 kJ and a FWHM of the x-ray pulse of about 50 ns. We present latest SPHINX experiments and some of the main physic issues of the microsecond regime. Experimental setup and results are described with the aim of giving trends that have been obtained. The main features of microsecond implosion of wire arrays can be analyzed thanks to same methods and theories as used for faster Z-pinches. The effect of load polarity was examined. The stability of the implosion , one of the critical point of microsecond wire arrays due to the load dimensions imposed by the time scale, is tackled. A simple scaling from 100 ns Z-pinch results to 800 ns ones gives good results and the use of nested arrays improves dramatically the implosion quality and the Kshell yield of the load. However, additional effects such as the impact of the return current can geometry on the implosion have to be taken into account on our loads. Axial inhomogeneity of the implosion the origin of which is not yet well understood occurs in some shots and impacts the radiation output. The shape of the radiative pulse is discussed and compared with the homogeneity of the implosion. Numerical 2D R-Z and R-θ simulations are used to highlight some experimental results and understand the plasma conditions during these microsecond wire arrays implosions.

  4. Wire Array Z-pinches on Sphinx Machine: Experimental Results and Relevant Points of Microsecond Implosion Physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calamy, H.; Hamann, F.; Lassalle, F.; Bayol, F.; Mangeant, C.; Morell, A.; Huet, D.; Bedoch, J.P.; Chittenden, J.P.; Lebedev, S.V.; Jennings, C.A.; Bland, S.N.

    2006-01-01

    Centre d'Etudes de Gramat (France) has developed an efficient long implosion time (800 ns) Aluminum plasma radiation source (PRS). Based on the LTD technology, the SPHINX facility is developed as a 1-3MJ, 1μs rise time, 4-10 MA current driver. In this paper, it was used in 1MJ, 4MA configuration to drive Aluminum nested wire arrays Z-pinches with K-shell yield up to 20 kJ and a FWHM of the x-ray pulse of about 50 ns. We present latest SPHINX experiments and some of the main physic issues of the microsecond regime. Experimental setup and results are described with the aim of giving trends that have been obtained. The main features of microsecond implosion of wire arrays can be analyzed thanks to same methods and theories as used for faster Z-pinches. The effect of load polarity was examined. The stability of the implosion , one of the critical point of microsecond wire arrays due to the load dimensions imposed by the time scale, is tackled. A simple scaling from 100 ns Z-pinch results to 800 ns ones gives good results and the use of nested arrays improves dramatically the implosion quality and the Kshell yield of the load. However, additional effects such as the impact of the return current can geometry on the implosion have to be taken into account on our loads. Axial inhomogeneity of the implosion the origin of which is not yet well understood occurs in some shots and impacts the radiation output. The shape of the radiative pulse is discussed and compared with the homogeneity of the implosion. Numerical 2D R-Z and R-θ simulations are used to highlight some experimental results and understand the plasma conditions during these microsecond wire arrays implosions

  5. Recent experimental results on ICF target implosions by Z-pinch radiation sources and their relevance to ICF ignition studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehlhorn, T A; Bailey, J E; Bennett, G; Chandler, G A; Cooper, G; Cuneo, M E; Golovkin, I; Hanson, D L; Leeper, R J; MacFarlane, J J; Mancini, R C; Matzen, M K; Nash, T J; Olson, C L; Porter, J L; Ruiz, C L; Schroen, D G; Slutz, S A; Varnum, W; Vesey, R A

    2003-01-01

    Inertial confinement fusion capsule implosions absorbing up to 35 kJ of x-rays from a ∼220 eV dynamic hohlraum on the Z accelerator at Sandia National Laboratories have produced thermonuclear D-D neutron yields of (2.6±1.3) x 10 10 . Argon spectra confirm a hot fuel with T e ∼ 1 keV and n e ∼ (1-2) x 10 23 cm -3 . Higher performance implosions will require radiation symmetry control improvements. Capsule implosions in a ∼70 eV double-Z-pinch-driven secondary hohlraum have been radiographed by 6.7 keV x-rays produced by the Z-beamlet laser (ZBL), demonstrating a drive symmetry of about 3% and control of P 2 radiation asymmetries to ±2%. Hemispherical capsule implosions have also been radiographed in Z in preparation for future experiments in fast ignition physics. Z-pinch-driven inertial fusion energy concepts are being developed. The refurbished Z machine (ZR) will begin providing scaling information on capsule and Z-pinch in 2006. The addition of a short pulse capability to ZBL will enable research into fast ignition physics in the combination of ZR and ZBL-petawatt. ZR could provide a test bed to study NIF-relevant double-shell ignition concepts using dynamic hohlraums and advanced symmetry control techniques in the double-pinch hohlraum backlit by ZBL

  6. Recent experimental results on ICF target implosions by Z-pinch radiation sources and their relevance to ICF ignition studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bailey, James E.; Chandler, Gordon Andrew; Vesey, Roger Alan; Hanson, David Lester; Olson, Craig Lee; Nash, Thomas J.; Matzen, Maurice Keith; Ruiz, Carlos L.; Porter, John Larry Jr.; Cuneo, Michael Edward; Varnum, William S.; Bennett, Guy R.; Cooper, Gary Wayne; Schroen, Diana Grace; Slutz, Stephen A.; MacFarlane, Joseph John; Leeper, Ramon Joe; Golovkin, I.E.; Mehlhorn, Thomas Alan; Mancini, Roberto Claudio

    2003-01-01

    Inertial confinement fusion capsule implosions absorbing up to 35 kJ of x-rays from a ∼220 eV dynamic hohlraum on the Z accelerator at Sandia National Laboratories have produced thermonuclear D-D neutron yields of (2.6 ± 1.3) x 10 10 . Argon spectra confirm a hot fuel with Te ∼ 1 keV and n e ∼ (1-2) x 10 23 cm -3 . Higher performance implosions will require radiation symmetry control improvements. Capsule implosions in a ∼70 eV double-Z-pinch-driven secondary hohlraum have been radiographed by 6.7 keV x-rays produced by the Z-beamlet laser (ZBL), demonstrating a drive symmetry of about 3% and control of P 2 radiation asymmetries to ±2%. Hemispherical capsule implosions have also been radiographed in Z in preparation for future experiments in fast ignition physics. Z-pinch-driven inertial fusion energy concepts are being developed. The refurbished Z machine (ZR) will begin providing scaling information on capsule and Z-pinch in 2006. The addition of a short pulse capability to ZBL will enable research into fast ignition physics in the combination of ZR and ZBL-petawatt. ZR could provide a test bed to study NIF-relevant double-shell ignition concepts using dynamic hohlraums and advanced symmetry control techniques in the double-pinch hohlraum backlit by ZBL.

  7. A constitutive model for the thermo-mechanical behaviour of fusion-relevant pebble beds and its application to the simulation of HELICA mock-up experimental results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vella, G.; Maio, P.A. Di; Giammusso, R.; Tincani, A.; Orco, G. Dell

    2006-01-01

    Within the framework of the activities promoted by European Fusion Development Agreement on the technology of the Helium Cooled Pebble Bed Test Blanket Module to be irradiated in one of the ITER equatorial ports, attention has been focused on the theoretical modelling of the thermo-mechanical constitutive behaviour of both beryllium and lithiated ceramics pebble beds, that are envisaged to act respectively as neutron multiplier and tritium breeder. The thermo-mechanical behaviour of the pebble beds and their nuclear performances in terms of tritium production depend on the reactor relevant conditions (heat flux and neutron wall load), the pebble sizes and the breeder cell geometries (bed thickness, pebble packing factor, bed overall thermal conductivity). ENEA-Brasimone and the Department of Nuclear Engineering (DIN) of the Palermo University have performed intense research activities intended to investigate fusion-relevant pebble bed thermo-mechanical behaviour by adopting both experimental and theoretical approaches. In particular, ENEA has carried out several experimental campaigns on small scale mock-ups tested in out-of-pile conditions, while DIN has developed a proper constitutive model that has been implemented on commercial FEM code, for the prediction of the thermal and mechanical performances of fusion-relevant pebble beds and for the comparison with the experimental results of the ENEA tests. In that framework, HELICA mock-up has been set-up and tested to investigate the behaviour of pebble bed in reactor-relevant geometries, providing useful data sets to be numerically reproduced by means of the DIN constitutive model, contributing to its assessment. The paper presents the constitutive model developed and the main experimental results of two test campaigns on HELICA mock-up carried out at HE-FUS 3 facility of ENEA Brasimone, the geometry of the mock-up, the adopted thermal and mechanical boundary conditions and the test operating conditions. The most

  8. New particles: experimental results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Augustin, J.E.

    The results of studies on production and properties of psi(3100) and psi(3700) resonances are presented, particular attention being given to spin, parity, g-parity and isospin determination. Evidence obtained in the SPEAR and DORIS storage rings in psi'→γ chi and psi→γX intermediate states are presented, together with SPEAR results on e-μ events and high energy jet production. (39 references) [fr

  9. Plan Merging : Experimental results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Weerdt, M.M.; Van der Krogt, R.P.J.; Zutt, J.

    2003-01-01

    In this paper we discuss the results of a plan merging algorithm. This algorithm coordinates the plans of multiple, autonomous agents, each able to independently find a plan. This algorithm is evaluated using realistic data from a taxi company. We show that when we allow passengers to be a few

  10. Experimental results from Stripa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hood, M.

    1979-06-01

    The results indicate that the temperature fields in a rock mass containing geologic discontinuities can be predicted accurately using the simple theory of heat conduction. Geologic discontinuities appear to introduce significant nonlinear thermomechanical deformation into the rock mass, as a result of which the thermally induced displacements are much less than those predicted by the simple theory of thermo-elasticity. In addition, the assumption that the rock properties are temperature independent appears to increase the values predicted for these displacements significantly. Therefore, it is important that the temperature dependence of these properties is known and that these values be used in the calculations. The onset of significant thermal spalling along the walls of the heater boreholes appears to be related to conditions where the maximum induced compressive stress exceeds the uniaxial compressive strength of the rock. 7 figures

  11. PDX experimental results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meade, D.; Arunasalam, V.; Barnes, C.

    1981-01-01

    During the initial period of operation PDX has obtained the following results: (a) Production of macroscopically stable poloidal divertor configurations with dee, inverse-dee and single null plasma shapes. (b) Determined vertical positional instability growth rates for passively stabilized elongated dee-shaped plasmas with surface elongations from 1 to 1.4. (c) Production of Z approximately equal to 1 plasmas in a diverted dee configuration with confinement times approaching 80 ms for plasmas with Isub(p) approximately equal to 300 kA, Bsub(T)=17 kG, a=38 cm, q approximately equal to 3 and anti nsub(e) approximately equal to 4x10 13 cm -3 . (d) Extended the Ohmic heating regime to q approximately equal to 2 at nsub(e)R/Bsub(T) approximately equal to 10 15 cm -2 T -1 and q approximately equal to 3 at anti nsub(e)R/Bsub(T) approximately equal to 4.5x10 15 cm -2 T -1 . Neutral beam injection has extended anti nsub(e)R/Bsub(T) to approximately 6x10 15 cm -2 T -1 . (e) Initial neutral beam injection experiments with 1-2 MW injected perpendicularly have been used to study ion and electron heating with divertor control of density and impurities. (f) Divertor physics studies indicate that the divertor captures approximately 70% of the input power, while approximately 30% of the power is radiated. (g) Particle and energy flow onto the divertor neutralizer plate is in qualitative agreement with a simple sheath model. (author)

  12. Experimental results obtained at GANIL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borrel, V.

    1993-01-01

    A review of experimental results obtained at GANIL on the study of nuclear structure and nuclear reactions with secondary radioactive beams is presented. Mass measurements by means of the GANIL cyclotrons are described. The possibilities of GANIL/LISE3 for the production and separation of radioactive beams are illustrated through a large variety of experiments. (author). 19 refs., 8 figs

  13. The Bigfoot Drive; Experimental Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Kevin; Thomas, Cliff; Khan, Shahab; Casey, Daniel; Spears, Brian; Nora, Ryan; Munro, Davis; Eder, David; Milovich, Jose; Berger, Dick; Strozzi, David; Goyon, Clement; Turnbull, David; Ma, Tammy; Izumi, Nobuhiko; Benedetti, Robin; Millot, Marius; Celliers, Peter; Yeamans, Charles; Hatarik, Robert; Landen, Nino; Hurricane, Omar; Callahan, Debbie

    2016-10-01

    The Bigfoot platform was developed on the National Ignition Facility to investigate low convergence, high adiabat, high rhoR hotspot implosions. This platform was designed to be less susceptible to wall motion, LPI and CBET and to be more robust against capsule hydrodynamic instabilities. To date experimental studies have been carried out at two hohlraum scales, a 5.75 and 5.4 mm diameter hohlraum. We will present experimental results from these tuning campaigns including the shape vs. cone fraction, surrogacy comparisons of self-emission from the capsules vs. radiography of the imploding capsule and doped vs. undoped capsules. Prepared by LLNL under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  14. Experimental results on evaporation waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grana Otero, Jose; Parra Fabian, Ignacio

    2010-11-01

    A liquid contained in a vertical glass tube is suddenly depressurized from a high initial pressure down to one for which the stable state is vapour, so vaporization sets off at the free surface. For large enough evaporation rates, the planar vapour-liquid interface is Darrieus-Landau unstable [1], leading to the interface surface rippling close to the instability threshold. Further increasing the initial to final pressure ratio brings about evaporation waves [2,3], in which a highly corrugated front propagates downwards into the liquid. A new experimental method is presented as well as some experimental results obtained by tracking the evolution of the front with a high speed camera. In addition, a number of new phenomena related to the dynamics of bubbles growth at the walls has been uncovered. In particular, a new mode of propagation of the evaporation front is found. In this mode the front originates from below the interface, so the propagation is upwards against gravity with a curved but smooth front.[4pt] [1] F. J. Higuera, Phys. Fluids, V. 30, 679 (1987).[0pt] [2] J.E.Shepherd and B.Sturtevant, J.Fluid Mech., V.121,379 (1982).[0pt] [3] P.Reinke and G.Yadigaroglu, Int.J.Multiph. Flow, V.27,1487 (2001).

  15. Majorana Thermosyphon Prototype Experimental Results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fast, James E.; Reid, Douglas J.; Aguayo Navarrete, Estanislao

    2010-01-01

    The Majorana demonstrator will operate at liquid Nitrogen temperatures to ensure optimal spectrometric performance of its High Purity Germanium (HPGe) detector modules. In order to transfer the heat load of the detector module, the Majorana demonstrator requires a cooling system that will maintain a stable liquid nitrogen temperature. This cooling system is required to transport the heat from the detector chamber outside the shield. One approach is to use the two phase liquid-gas equilibrium to ensure constant temperature. This cooling technique is used in a thermosyphon. The thermosyphon can be designed so the vaporization/condensing process transfers heat through the shield while maintaining a stable operating temperature. A prototype of such system has been built at PNNL. This document presents the experimental results of the prototype and evaluates the heat transfer performance of the system. The cool down time, temperature gradient in the thermosyphon, and heat transfer analysis are studied in this document with different heat load applied to the prototype.

  16. Experimental results surprise quantum theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, C.

    1986-01-01

    Interest in results from Darmstadt that positron-electron pairs are created in nuclei with high atomic numbers (in the Z range from 180-188) lies in the occurrence of a quantized positron kinetic energy peak at 300. The results lend substance to the contention of Erich Bagge that the traditionally accepted symmetries in positron-electron emission do not exist and, therefore, there is no need to posit the existence of the neutrino. The search is on for the decay of a previously unknown boson to account for the findings, which also points to the need for a major revision in quantum theory. 1 figure

  17. TMX-U experimental results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simonen, T.C.; Allen, S.L.; Casper, T.A.

    1983-01-01

    This paper describes results from the Tandem Mirror Experiment-Upgrade (TMX-U). Mirror-confined electrons with 30 to 70 keV mean energy densities of 0.5 to 2.0 x 10 12 cm -3 and average betas of 3 to 5% are produced using electron-cyclotron resonant heating (ECRH). These results are consistent with an electron Fokker-Planck code. Improved ion-cyclotron microstability is observed using neutral beam injection at 47 0 to the magnetic axis, rather than at 90 0 as in the previous experiment, TMX. Strong end plugging has been produced using a combination of ECRH gyrotrons with sloshing-ion beam injection. In these low-density central cell experiments (3 x 10 11 cm -3 ) the axial losses (tau/sub parallel/ = 20 to 80 ms) are smaller than the nonambipolar radial losses (tau/sub perpendicular/ = 4 to 8 ms). Plugging has been achieved with a central cell density double that of the end plugs. Although no direct measurements are yet available to determine if a thermal barrier potential dip is generated, these experiments support many theoretical features of the thermal barrier concept

  18. Summarizing Simulation Results using Causally-relevant States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parikh, Nidhi; Marathe, Madhav; Swarup, Samarth

    2016-01-01

    As increasingly large-scale multiagent simulations are being implemented, new methods are becoming necessary to make sense of the results of these simulations. Even concisely summarizing the results of a given simulation run is a challenge. Here we pose this as the problem of simulation summarization: how to extract the causally-relevant descriptions of the trajectories of the agents in the simulation. We present a simple algorithm to compress agent trajectories through state space by identifying the state transitions which are relevant to determining the distribution of outcomes at the end of the simulation. We present a toy-example to illustrate the working of the algorithm, and then apply it to a complex simulation of a major disaster in an urban area. PMID:28042620

  19. Relevance of Linear Stability Results to Enhanced Oil Recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Xueru; Daripa, Prabir

    2012-11-01

    How relevant can the results based on linear stability theory for any problem for that matter be to full scale simulation results? Put it differently, is the optimal design of a system based on linear stability results is optimal or even near optimal for the complex nonlinear system with certain objectives of interest in mind? We will address these issues in the context of enhanced oil recovery by chemical flooding. This will be based on an ongoing work. Supported by Qatar National Research Fund (a member of the Qatar Foundation).

  20. Computations for a condenser. Experimental results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walden, Jean.

    1975-01-01

    Computations for condensers are presented with experimental results. The computations are concerned with the steam flux at the condenser input, and inside the tube bundle. Experimental results are given for the flux inside the condenser sleeve and the flow passing through the tube bundle [fr

  1. Heuristics for Relevancy Ranking of Earth Dataset Search Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynnes, Christopher; Quinn, Patrick; Norton, James

    2016-01-01

    As the Variety of Earth science datasets increases, science researchers find it more challenging to discover and select the datasets that best fit their needs. The most common way of search providers to address this problem is to rank the datasets returned for a query by their likely relevance to the user. Large web page search engines typically use text matching supplemented with reverse link counts, semantic annotations and user intent modeling. However, this produces uneven results when applied to dataset metadata records simply externalized as a web page. Fortunately, data and search provides have decades of experience in serving data user communities, allowing them to form heuristics that leverage the structure in the metadata together with knowledge about the user community. Some of these heuristics include specific ways of matching the user input to the essential measurements in the dataset and determining overlaps of time range and spatial areas. Heuristics based on the novelty of the datasets can prioritize later, better versions of data over similar predecessors. And knowledge of how different user types and communities use data can be brought to bear in cases where characteristics of the user (discipline, expertise) or their intent (applications, research) can be divined. The Earth Observing System Data and Information System has begun implementing some of these heuristics in the relevancy algorithm of its Common Metadata Repository search engine.

  2. New experimental results on strangeness production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sapozhnikov, M.G.

    1998-01-01

    New experimental results on the production of φ and f 2 ' (1525) mesons in the annihilation of stopped antiprotons are discussed. The explanation of these facts in the framework of the polarized strangeness model is considered

  3. Relevance and reliability of experimental data in human health risk assessment of pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaltenhäuser, Johanna; Kneuer, Carsten; Marx-Stoelting, Philip; Niemann, Lars; Schubert, Jens; Stein, Bernd; Solecki, Roland

    2017-08-01

    Evaluation of data relevance, reliability and contribution to uncertainty is crucial in regulatory health risk assessment if robust conclusions are to be drawn. Whether a specific study is used as key study, as additional information or not accepted depends in part on the criteria according to which its relevance and reliability are judged. In addition to GLP-compliant regulatory studies following OECD Test Guidelines, data from peer-reviewed scientific literature have to be evaluated in regulatory risk assessment of pesticide active substances. Publications should be taken into account if they are of acceptable relevance and reliability. Their contribution to the overall weight of evidence is influenced by factors including test organism, study design and statistical methods, as well as test item identification, documentation and reporting of results. Various reports make recommendations for improving the quality of risk assessments and different criteria catalogues have been published to support evaluation of data relevance and reliability. Their intention was to guide transparent decision making on the integration of the respective information into the regulatory process. This article describes an approach to assess the relevance and reliability of experimental data from guideline-compliant studies as well as from non-guideline studies published in the scientific literature in the specific context of uncertainty and risk assessment of pesticides. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. PDX experimental results in FY82

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaye, S.M.; Bell, M.; Bol, K.

    1983-08-01

    This report presents a detailed summary of the major experimental results of PDX in FY82 and represents the efforts of the entire PDX group. Topics covered include β-scaling and fishbone studies, fluctuations, disruptions, impurities and impurity transport, power handling, limiter conditioning, edge studies, plasma fueling, counter-injection, and diagnostic development. A less detailed version will appear as the FY82 PDX contribution to the PPPL Annual Report

  5. Predictions of High Energy Experimental Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Comay E.

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Eight predictions of high energy experimental results are presented. The predictions contain the $Sigma ^+$ charge radius and results of two kinds of experiments using energetic pionic beams. In addition, predictions of the failure to find the following objects are presented: glueballs, pentaquarks, Strange Quark Matter, magnetic monopoles searched by their direct interaction with charges and the Higgs boson. The first seven predictions rely on the Regular Charge-Monopole Theory and the last one relies on mathematical inconsistencies of the Higgs Lagrangian density.

  6. Recent results relevant to ignition physics and machine design issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coppi, B.; Airoldi, A.; Bombarda, F.

    2001-01-01

    The plasma regimes under which ignition can be achieved involve a characteristic range of parameters and issues on which information has been provided by recent experiments. In particular, these results have motivated a new, in-depth analysis of the expected performance of the Ignitor machine as well as of the plasma processes that it can investigate. The main results and recent advances in the design of key systems of the machine are reported. (author)

  7. Recent results relevant to ignition physics and machine design issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coppi, B.; Airoldi, A.; Bombarda, F.

    1999-01-01

    The plasma regimes under which ignition can be achieved involve a characteristic range of parameters and issues on which information has been provided by recent experiments. In particular, these results have motivated a new, in-depth analysis of the expected performance of the Ignitor machine as well as of the plasma processes that it can investigate. The main results and recent advances in the design of key systems of the machine are reported. (author)

  8. F(α) curves: Experimental results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glazier, J.A.; Gunaratne, G.; Libchaber, A.

    1988-01-01

    We study the transition to chaos at the golden and silver means for forced Rayleigh-Benard (RB) convection in mercury. We present f(α) curves below, at, and above the transition, and provide comparisons to the curves calculated for the one-dimensional circle map. We find good agreement at both the golden and silver means. This confirms our earlier observation that for low amplitude forcing, forced RB convection is well described by the one-dimensional circle map and indicates that the f(α) curve is a good measure of the approach to criticality. For selected subcritical experimental data sets we calculate the degree of subcriticality. We also present both experimental and calculated results for f(α) in the presence of a third frequency. Again we obtain agreement: The presence of random noise or a third frequency narrows the right-hand (negative q) side of the f(α) curve. Subcriticality results in symmetrically narrowed curves. We can also distinguish these cases by examining the power spectra and Poincare sections of the time series

  9. Experimental results from a stepped frequency GPR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. M. Signore

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available In the framework of a nationally funded project, a Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR has been developed by the Italian Consortium for Research on Advanced Remote Sensing Systems (CO.RI.S.T.A.. The system was described in a previous paper (Alberti et al., 2002. As new aspects, the system is a stepped frequency GPR that can work both in gated and ungated mode, and the antennas can be moved automatically in a controlled fashion. As aspects of geophysical interest, the system is exploitable in situations wherein a high resolution and a shallow penetration in the soil (a few meters are required. Possibly, this is an example of probing a landscape. This paper completes the results of Alberti et al. (2002, wherein laboratory tests where described, by providing the main results obtained during an outdoor experimental campaign, performed fi rst in a controlled site and then in an archaeological site.

  10. Creation of reliable relevance judgments in information retrieval systems evaluation experimentation through crowdsourcing: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samimi, Parnia; Ravana, Sri Devi

    2014-01-01

    Test collection is used to evaluate the information retrieval systems in laboratory-based evaluation experimentation. In a classic setting, generating relevance judgments involves human assessors and is a costly and time consuming task. Researchers and practitioners are still being challenged in performing reliable and low-cost evaluation of retrieval systems. Crowdsourcing as a novel method of data acquisition is broadly used in many research fields. It has been proven that crowdsourcing is an inexpensive and quick solution as well as a reliable alternative for creating relevance judgments. One of the crowdsourcing applications in IR is to judge relevancy of query document pair. In order to have a successful crowdsourcing experiment, the relevance judgment tasks should be designed precisely to emphasize quality control. This paper is intended to explore different factors that have an influence on the accuracy of relevance judgments accomplished by workers and how to intensify the reliability of judgments in crowdsourcing experiment.

  11. Recent experimental results and diagnostics on LHD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawahata, Kazuo

    2001-01-01

    LHD is a superconducting heliotron type device with 1=2/m=10 continuous helical coils and three pairs of poloidal coils. The major and minor radii of the plasma are 3.5-3.9 m and 0.6 m, respectively. The plasma experiment was started at the end of March 1998 with the magnetic field of 1.5 T. Subsequently, the magnetic field has been gradually increased checking carefully the stability of the SC coils, and the maximum magnetic field used in the plasma experiment was 2.89 T at the magnetic axis of R ax =3.6 m. The heating power has been gradually increased, i.e., NBI up to 5.2 MW (with two beam lines), ICRF up to 2.7 MW (with two antenna system), and ECRH up to 1.0 MW (with six gyrotron tubes). The carbon tiles were installed as divertor plates to meet high power heatings, resulting in significant reduction in metal impurity concentration (Fe) and total radiation power. Upgrading of the key hardware system has led to (i) higher Te [Te(0)=4.4 keV at =5.3x10 18 m -3 and P abs =1.8 MW], (ii) higher confinement [τ E =0.3 s, Te(0)=1.1 keV at =6.5x10 19 m -3 and P abs =2.0 MW], (iii) higher stored energy W p dia =1.0 MJ, (iv) the highest β value in helical devices [2.4% at 1.3 T, >30% at 0.5 T]. In this workshop, we will report the recent experimental results on the LHD and plasma diagnostics related to mm and sub-mm wave diagnostics. (author)

  12. Updating experimental results on light meson spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diekmann, B.

    1991-06-01

    A recollection and summary is given on the understanding of light qanti q (q = u,d,s) mesons under the regime of the qanti q potential turning from a coulombic behaviour to a 'confining' one. In the second part the experimental knowledge obtained in the last years is updated: e + e - experiments, fixed target experiments with hadrons (kaons) and photons and panti p annihilations at LEAR discovered unknown objects and added new constraints on known but not fully understood states. (orig.)

  13. Experimental results of the betatron sum resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Y.; Ball, M.; Brabson, B.

    1993-06-01

    The experimental observations of motion near the betatron sum resonance, ν x + 2ν z = 13, are presented. A fast quadrupole (Panofsky-style ferrite picture-frame magnet with a pulsed power supplier) producing a betatron tune shift of the order of 0.03 at rise time of 1 μs was used. This quadrupole was used to produce betatron tunes which jumped past and then crossed back through a betatron sum resonance line. The beam response as function of initial betatron amplitudes were recorded turn by turn. The correlated growth of the action variables, J x and J z , was observed. The phase space plots in the resonance frame reveal the features of particle motion near the nonlinear sum resonance region

  14. Experimental results and analysis on hydrogen combustion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorofeev, S.B.; Efimenko, A.A.; Kochurko, A.S.; Sidorov, V.P.; Bezmelnitsin, A.V.

    1994-01-01

    The Small-Scale Development Apparatus (SSDA) was constructed to provide a preliminary set of experimental data to characterize the effect of temperature on the ability of hydrogen-air-steam-mixtures to undergo detonations and, equally important, to support design of the larger-scale High-Temperature Combustion Facility (HTCF) by providing a test bed for solution of a number of high-temperature design and operational problems. The SSDA, the central element of which is 10-cm inside diameter, 6.1-m long tubular test vessel designed to permit detonation experiments at temperatures up to 700K, was employed to study self-sustained detonations in gaseous mixtures of hydrogen, air, and steam at temperature between 300K and 650K at a fixed pressure of 0.1 MPa. Detonation cell size measurements provide clear evidence that the effect of hydrogen-air gas mixture temperature, in the range 300K to 650K, is to decrease cell size and, hence, to increase the sensitivity of the mixture to undergo detonations. The effect of steam content, at any given temperature, is to increase the cell size and, thereby, to decrease the sensitivity of stoichiometric hydrogen-air mixtures. The one-dimensional ZND model does a very good job at predicting the overall trends in the cell size data over the range of hydrogen-air-steam mixture compositions and temperature studied in the experiments. Experiments were conducted to measure the rate of hydrogen oxidation in the absence of ignition sources at temperatures of 500K and 650K, for hydrogen-air mixtures of 15% and 50%, and for a mixture of equimolar hydrogen-air and 30% steam at 650K. The rate of hydrogen oxidation was found to be significant at 650K. Reduction of hydrogen concentration by chemical reaction from 50 to 44% hydrogen, and from 15 to 11% hydrogen, were observed on a time frame of minutes. The DeSoete rate equation predicts the 50% experiment very well, but greatly underestimates the reaction rate of the lean mixtures

  15. Experimental results on RPC neutron sensitivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbrescia, M.; Altieri, S.; Baratti, V.; Barnaba, O.; Belli, G.; Bruno, G.; Colaleo, A.; De Vecchi, C.; Guida, R. E-mail: roberto.guida@pv.infn.it; Iaselli, G.; Imbres, E.; Loddo, F.; Maggi, M.; Marangelli, B.; Musitelli, G.; Nardo, R.; Natali, S.; Nuzzo, S.; Pugliese, G.; Ranieri, A.; Ratti, S.; Riccardi, C.; Romano, F.; Torre, P.; Vicini, A.; Vitulo, P

    2003-08-01

    RPC neutron sensitivity has been studied during two tests done with different neutrons energies. In the first test, neutrons from spontaneous fission events of {sup 252}Cf were used (average energy 2 MeV); while in the second test neutrons were produced using a 50 MeV deuteron beam on a 1 cm thick beryllium target (average energy 20 MeV). Preliminary results show that the neutron sensitivity in double gap mode is (0.52{+-}0.03)x10{sup -3} at about 2 MeV and (5.3{+-}0.5)x10{sup -3} at about 20 MeV.

  16. Overview of the initial NSTX experimental results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ono, M.; Bell, M.G.; Bell, R.E.

    2001-01-01

    The main aim of the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) is to establish the fusion physics principles of the spherical torus (ST) concept. The NSTX device began plasma operations in February 1999 and the plasma current I p was successfully brought up to the design value of 1 MA on 14 December 1999. The planned plasma shaping parameters, elongation κ=1:6-2.2 and triangularity δ=0:2-0.4, were achieved in inner wall limited, and single null and double null diverted configurations. The coaxial helicity injection (CHI) and high harmonic fast wave (HHFW) experiments were also initiated. CHI current of 27 kA produced up to 260 kA toroidal current without using an ohmic solenoid. With the injection of 2.3 MW of HHFW power, using 12 antennas connected to six transmitters, electrons were heated from a central temperature of 400 eV to 900 eV at a central density of 3.5x10 13 cm 3 , increasing the plasma energy to 59 kJ and the toroidal β, β T , to 10%. The NBI system commenced operation in September 2000. The initial results with two ion sources (P NBI =2:8 MW) show good heating, producing a total plasma stored energy of 90 kJ corresponding to β T ∼18% at a plasma current of 1.1 MA. (author)

  17. Experimental results from the TFTR tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawryluk, R.J.; Arunasalam, V.; Bell, J.D.

    1986-10-01

    Recent experiments on TFTR have extended the operating regime of TFTR in both ohmic- and neutral-beam-heated discharges. The TFTR tokamak has reached its original machine design specifications (I/sub p/ = 2.5 MA and B/sub T/ = 5.2 T). Initial neutral-beam-heating experiments used up to 6.3 MW of deuterium beams. With the recent installation of two additional beamlines, the power has been increased up to 11 MW. A deuterium pellet injector was used to increase the central density to 2.5 x 10 20 m -3 in high current discharges. At the opposite extreme, by operating at low plasma current (I/sub p/ ∼ 0.8 MA) and low density (anti n/sub e/ ∼ 1 x 10 19 m -3 ), high ion temperatures (9 +- 2 keV) and rotation speeds (7 x 10 5 m/s) have been achieved during injection. In addition, plasma compression experiments have demonstrated acceleration of beam ions from 82 keV to 150 keV, in accord with expectations. The wide operating range of TFTR, together with an extensive set of diagnostics and a flexible control system, has facilitated transport and scaling studies of both ohmic- and neutral-beam-heated discharges. The results of these confinement studies are presented

  18. Experimental results from the TUMAN 3 tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golant, V.E.; Andrejko, M.V.; Askinazi, L.G.; Korneev, V.A.; Krikunov, S.V.; Lipin, B.M.; Lebedev, S.V.; Levin, L.S.; Podushnikova, K.A.; Razdobarin, G.T.; Rozhansky, V.A.; Rozhdestvensky, V.V.; Tendler, M.; Tukachinsky, A.S.; Jaroshevich, S.P.

    1995-01-01

    The open-quote open-quote TUMAN-3 close-quote close-quote Tokamak programme concentrates on issues of improved confinement. In 1989 the transition from an ordinary Ohmic regime into an improved confinement mode was achieved. The signatures of the H-mode in auxiliary heated tokamaks have been observed in this regime. The crucial role of the boundary radial electric field was found in the experiments with internal bias probe. Other techniques were demonstrated to disturb the boundary plasma which led to H-mode triggering: short increase of working gas puffing, minor radius magnetic compression and pellet injection. The role scaling of the energy confinement time in the Ohmic H-mode was obtained, which differs dramatically from the scaling for the ordinary Ohmic regime. There were found a strong dependence of τ E on plasma current and a weak dependence on density. The maximum value of τ E was 10 times longer than in the ordinary Ohmic region. The τ E scaling for the Ohmic H-mode is consistent with the scaling proposed for devices with powerful auxiliary heating. The results shows that H-mode physics is universal in tokamaks with different geometries and heating methods. (AIP) copyright 1995 American Institute of Physics

  19. Overview of the initial NSTX experimental results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ono, M.; Bell, M.; Bell, R.

    2001-01-01

    The main aim of the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) is to establish the fusion physics principles of the spherical torus (ST) concept. The NSTX device began plasma operations in February 1999 and the plasma current I p was successfully brought up to the design value of 1 million amperes on December 14, 1999. The planned plasma shaping parameters, κ=1.6-2.2 and δ=0.2-0.4, were achieved in inner limited, single null and double null configurations. The CHI (Coaxial Helicity Injection) and HHFW (High Harmonic Fast Wave) experiments were also initiated. A CHI injected current of 27 kA produced up to 260 kA of toroidal current without using an ohmic solenoid. With an injection of 2.3 MW of HHFW power, using twelve antennas connected to six transmitters, electrons were heated from a central temperature of 400 eV to 900 eV at a central density of 3.5x10 13 cm -3 increasing the plasma energy to 59 kJ and the toroidal beta, β T to 10 %. Finally, the NBI system commenced operation in Sept. 2000. The initial results with two ion sources (P NBI =2.8MW) shows good heating, producing a total plasma stored energy of 90 kJ corresponding to β T ∼18% at a plasma current of 1.1 MA. (author)

  20. Overview of the Initial NSTX Experimental Results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ono, M.; Bell, M.; Bell, R. E.; Bigelow, T.; Bitter, M.

    2000-01-01

    The main aim of the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) is to establish the fusion physics principles of the spherical torus (ST) concept. The NSTX device began plasma operations in February 1999 and the plasma current Ip was successfully brought up to the design value of 1 million amperes on December 14, 1999. The planned plasma shaping parameters, k = 1.6 ± 2.2 and d = 0.2 ± 0.4, were achieved in inner limited, single null and double null configurations. The CHI (Coaxial Helicity Injection) and HHFW (High Harmonic Fast Wave) experiments were also initiated. A CHI injected current of 27 kA produced up to 260 kA of toroidal current without using an ohmic solenoid. With an injection of 2.3 MW of HHFW power, using twelve antennas connected to six transmitters, electrons were heated from a central temperature of 400 eV to 900 eV at a central density of 3.5 x 1013 cm-3 increasing the plasma energy to 59 kJ and the toroidal beta, bT to 10 %. Finally, the NBI system commenced operation in Sept. 2000. The initial results with two ion sources (PNBI = 2.8 MW) shows good heating, producing a total plasma stored energy of 90 kJ corresponding to bT = 18 % at a plasma current of 1.1 MA

  1. Overview of recent experimental results on MAST

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lloyd, B.; Akers, R.J.; Ahn, J-W.

    2003-01-01

    The low aspect ratio of MAST allows differentiation between different forms of the H-mode threshold scaling. With optimised fuelling (inboard puffing) and magnetic configuration (connected DND) the H-mode power threshold data lie somewhat above ( ∼ x1.7) recent scaling laws. Slight magnetic configuration changes (of the order of the ion Larmor radius) around a connected DND significantly influence H-mode access. H-mode confinement in discharges with low frequency ELMs is generally consistent with the IPB98(y,2) scaling. Strong indications of both particle and energy internal transport barriers have been seen. Normalised beta values β N > 5 have been obtained, approaching the ideal n = 1 no wall external kink stability limit. Sawtooth triggered NTMs (3/2, 2/1) have been observed; numerical modelling of the island evolution reproduces mode behaviour well and confirms the significance of stabilising field curvature effects. Divertor power loading studies, including transient effects (e.g. due to ELMs), show a strong bias of power efflux to the outboard targets where it is more easily handled. ELM energy losses ΔW ELM are less than 4% of the stored energy in all regimes explored so far, but ELM effluxes extending 30cm outside the outboard separatrix have been measured. Toroidally asymmetric divertor biasing resulted in significant broadening of the Dα profile on the biased components and a reduction in the total power to the unbiased components. Halo current magnitudes and asymmetries are generally small compared with conventional tokamaks; recent measurements show that the plasma behaves more as a voltage source than a current source. Initial neutral beam current drive experiments indicate non-inductively driven current values (I NBI ∼ 0.3I p ) comparable with code predictions. (author)

  2. Current Needs for the Experimental Investigation of the CHF Phenomenon Relevant to LWR Core Conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Corre, J.M.

    2009-01-01

    The current achievements and needs toward the investigation, understanding and mechanistic prediction of the Critical Heat Flux (CHF) event, under PWR and BWR core conditions, are addressed in this paper. It is shown that, even when using advanced 3-D CFD simulation tools, the current approach to CHF mechanistic modeling has serious limitations. This is mainly due to the lack of information regarding the relevant two-phase flow pattern(s) (in particular near the heated wall) and associated mechanisms (at the meso and micro-scale) leading to the CHF event. Areas of current experimental needs are identified in order to address these shortcomings. In addition, the use of 1-D and 3-D numerical tools to mechanistically predict the CHF is discussed. It is shown that 3-D two-phase CFD codes may not be superior to 1-D codes without proper consideration of relevant constitutive relations. (author)

  3. Experimental Models of Vaginal Candidiasis and Their Relevance to Human Candidiasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobel, Jack D.

    2016-01-01

    Vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) is a high-incidence disease seriously affecting the quality of life of women worldwide, particularly in its chronic, recurrent forms (RVVC), and with no definitive cure or preventive measure. Experimental studies in currently used rat and mouse models of vaginal candidiasis have generated a large mass of data on pathogenicity determinants and inflammation and immune responses of potential importance for the control of human pathology. However, reflection is necessary about the relevance of these rodent models to RVVC. Here we examine the chemical, biochemical, and biological factors that determine or contrast the forms of the disease in rodent models and in women and highlight the differences between them. We also appeal for approaches to improve or replace the current models in order to enhance their relevance to human infection. PMID:26883592

  4. Comparison of CFD simulations with experimental Jet Erosion Tests results

    OpenAIRE

    Mercier, F.; Bonelli, S.; Pinettes, P.; Golay, F.; Anselmet, F.; Philippe, P.

    2014-01-01

    The Jet Erosion Test (JET) is an experimental device increasingly used to quantify the resistance of soils to erosion. This resistance is characterised by two geotechnical parameters: the critical shear stress and the erosion coefficient. The JET interpretation model of Hanson and Cook (2004) provides an estimation of these erosion parameters. But Hanson's model is simplified, semi-empirical and several assumed hypotheses can be discussed. Our aim is to determine the relevance of the JET inte...

  5. Tag-Based Social Image Search: Toward Relevant and Diverse Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Kuiyuan; Wang, Meng; Hua, Xian-Sheng; Zhang, Hong-Jiang

    Recent years have witnessed a great success of social media websites. Tag-based image search is an important approach to access the image content of interest on these websites. However, the existing ranking methods for tag-based image search frequently return results that are irrelevant or lack of diversity. This chapter presents a diverse relevance ranking scheme which simultaneously takes relevance and diversity into account by exploring the content of images and their associated tags. First, it estimates the relevance scores of images with respect to the query term based on both visual information of images and semantic information of associated tags. Then semantic similarities of social images are estimated based on their tags. Based on the relevance scores and the similarities, the ranking list is generated by a greedy ordering algorithm which optimizes Average Diverse Precision (ADP), a novel measure that is extended from the conventional Average Precision (AP). Comprehensive experiments and user studies demonstrate the effectiveness of the approach.

  6. Assessors' Search Result Satisfaction Associated with Relevance in a Scientific Domain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingwersen, Peter; Lykke, Marianne; Bogers, Toine

    2010-01-01

    genuine information tasks. Ease of assessment and search satisfaction are cross tabulated with retrieval performance measured by Normalized Discounted Cumulated Gain. Results show that when assessors find small numbers of relevant documents they tend to regard the search results with dissatisfaction and...

  7. A 10-Year Mechatronics Curriculum Development Initiative: Relevance, Content, and Results--Part I

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, S.; Yost, S. A.; Krishnan, M.

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the first phase of a Mechatronics Curriculum Development effort--the design of an "Introduction to Mechatronics" course, the infusion of mechatronics activities throughout the curriculum and in outreach activities, and assessment results. In addition, the relevance and impact of such a curriculum on the education of engineers…

  8. Measuring reinforcement learning and motivation constructs in experimental animals: relevance to the negative symptoms of schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markou, Athina; Salamone, John D.; Bussey, Timothy; Mar, Adam; Brunner, Daniela; Gilmour, Gary; Balsam, Peter

    2013-01-01

    The present review article summarizes and expands upon the discussions that were initiated during a meeting of the Cognitive Neuroscience Treatment Research to Improve Cognition in Schizophrenia (CNTRICS; http://cntrics.ucdavis.edu). A major goal of the CNTRICS meeting was to identify experimental procedures and measures that can be used in laboratory animals to assess psychological constructs that are related to the psychopathology of schizophrenia. The issues discussed in this review reflect the deliberations of the Motivation Working Group of the CNTRICS meeting, which included most of the authors of this article as well as additional participants. After receiving task nominations from the general research community, this working group was asked to identify experimental procedures in laboratory animals that can assess aspects of reinforcement learning and motivation that may be relevant for research on the negative symptoms of schizophrenia, as well as other disorders characterized by deficits in reinforcement learning and motivation. The tasks described here that assess reinforcement learning are the Autoshaping Task, Probabilistic Reward Learning Tasks, and the Response Bias Probabilistic Reward Task. The tasks described here that assess motivation are Outcome Devaluation and Contingency Degradation Tasks and Effort-Based Tasks. In addition to describing such methods and procedures, the present article provides a working vocabulary for research and theory in this field, as well as an industry perspective about how such tasks may be used in drug discovery. It is hoped that this review can aid investigators who are conducting research in this complex area, promote translational studies by highlighting shared research goals and fostering a common vocabulary across basic and clinical fields, and facilitate the development of medications for the treatment of symptoms mediated by reinforcement learning and motivational deficits. PMID:23994273

  9. Measuring reinforcement learning and motivation constructs in experimental animals: relevance to the negative symptoms of schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markou, Athina; Salamone, John D; Bussey, Timothy J; Mar, Adam C; Brunner, Daniela; Gilmour, Gary; Balsam, Peter

    2013-11-01

    The present review article summarizes and expands upon the discussions that were initiated during a meeting of the Cognitive Neuroscience Treatment Research to Improve Cognition in Schizophrenia (CNTRICS; http://cntrics.ucdavis.edu) meeting. A major goal of the CNTRICS meeting was to identify experimental procedures and measures that can be used in laboratory animals to assess psychological constructs that are related to the psychopathology of schizophrenia. The issues discussed in this review reflect the deliberations of the Motivation Working Group of the CNTRICS meeting, which included most of the authors of this article as well as additional participants. After receiving task nominations from the general research community, this working group was asked to identify experimental procedures in laboratory animals that can assess aspects of reinforcement learning and motivation that may be relevant for research on the negative symptoms of schizophrenia, as well as other disorders characterized by deficits in reinforcement learning and motivation. The tasks described here that assess reinforcement learning are the Autoshaping Task, Probabilistic Reward Learning Tasks, and the Response Bias Probabilistic Reward Task. The tasks described here that assess motivation are Outcome Devaluation and Contingency Degradation Tasks and Effort-Based Tasks. In addition to describing such methods and procedures, the present article provides a working vocabulary for research and theory in this field, as well as an industry perspective about how such tasks may be used in drug discovery. It is hoped that this review can aid investigators who are conducting research in this complex area, promote translational studies by highlighting shared research goals and fostering a common vocabulary across basic and clinical fields, and facilitate the development of medications for the treatment of symptoms mediated by reinforcement learning and motivational deficits. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier

  10. Theoretical and experimental studies relevant to interpretation of auroral emissions. Annual Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keffer, C.E.

    1992-06-01

    The results obtained in the second year of a three year collaborative effort with MSFC are summarized. A succession of experimental studies was completed to determine the effects of the natural and induced space vehicle environment on the measurement of auroral images from space-based platforms. In addition, a global model which incorporates both auroral and dayglow emission sources is being developed to allow interpretation of measured auroral emissions. A description of work completed on these two tasks is presented

  11. Scale-up considerations relevant to experimental studies of nuclear waste-package behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coles, D.G.; Peters, R.D.

    1986-04-01

    Results from a study that investigated whether testing large-scale nuclear waste-package assemblages was technically warranted are reported. It was recognized that the majority of the investigations for predicting waste-package performance to date have relied primarily on laboratory-scale experimentation. However, methods for the successful extrapolation of the results from such experiments, both geometrically and over time, to actual repository conditions have not been well defined. Because a well-developed scaling technology exists in the chemical-engineering discipline, it was presupposed that much of this technology could be applicable to the prediction of waste-package performance. A review of existing literature documented numerous examples where a consideration of scaling technology was important. It was concluded that much of the existing scale-up technology is applicable to the prediction of waste-package performance for both size and time extrapolations and that conducting scale-up studies may be technically merited. However, the applicability for investigating the complex chemical interactions needs further development. It was recognized that the complexity of the system, and the long time periods involved, renders a completely theoretical approach to performance prediction almost hopeless. However, a theoretical and experimental study was defined for investigating heat and fluid flow. It was concluded that conducting scale-up modeling and experimentation for waste-package performance predictions is possible using existing technology. A sequential series of scaling studies, both theoretical and experimental, will be required to formulate size and time extrapolations of waste-package performance

  12. Experimental Study of Plasma-Surface Interaction and Material Damage Relevant to ITER Type I Elms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makhlai, V.A.; Bandura, A.N.; Byrka, O.V. and others; Landman, I.; Neklyudov, I.M.

    2006-01-01

    The paper presents experimental investigations of main features of plasma surface interaction and energy transfer to the material surface in dependence on plasma heat loads. The experiments were performed with QSPA repetitive plasma pulses of the duration of 0.25 ms and the energy density up to 2.5 MJ/m 2 . Surface morphology of the targets exposed to QSPA plasma screams is analyzed. Relative contribution of the Lorentz force and plasma pressure gradient to the resulting surface profile is discussed. development of cracking on the tungsten surface and swelling of the surface are found to be in strong dependence on initial temperature of the target

  13. The GEKKO XII-HIPER (High Intensity Plasma Experimental Research) system relevant to ignition targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyanaga, N.; Nakatsuka, M.; Azechi, H.

    2001-01-01

    To test high gain targets surrogated in the planar geometry, we have constructed a new experimental system (HIPER) which provides the high ablation pressure with a uniform irradiance profile. These performances were achieved by bundling twelve beams of the existing GEKKO XII into a F/3 focus cone. The partially coherent light is introduced for the beam smoothing of a green foot pulse consisting of three beams, and the three-directional smoothing by spectral dispersion is utilized for residual nine beams delivering a blue main drive pulse. The detail of design concept and results of initial activation of this system are reported. (author)

  14. Master-Slave synchronization of robot manipulators: experimental results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bondhus, A.K.; Pettersen, K.Y.; Nijmeijer, H.

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents experimental results for master-slave synchronization of two robot manipulators using a recently developed observer-controller scheme. The paper aims to investigate the value and the limitations of the theory. In particular, the theoretical result of uniform ultimate boundedness

  15. Sodium fires. Progress achieved in research and experimental results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malet, J.C.; Duverger de Cuy, G.; Casselman, C.; Charpenel, J.; Natta, M.; Devillers, C.

    1979-08-01

    This paper describes the sodium fire programs undertaken by the CEA's Nuclear Safety Department. Experimental results concerning sodium ignition and combustion, sodium fire suppression, sodium aerosol filtration and sodium-concrete contact reactions are given and the applications of these results in the Super-Phenix reactor is discussed

  16. Web-Scale Discovery Services Retrieve Relevant Results in Health Sciences Topics Including MEDLINE Content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Margaret Stovold

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available A Review of: Hanneke, R., & O’Brien, K. K. (2016. Comparison of three web-scale discovery services for health sciences research. Journal of the Medical Library Association, 104(2, 109-117. http://dx.doi.org/10.3163/1536-5050.104.2.004 Abstract Objective – To compare the results of health sciences search queries in three web-scale discovery (WSD services for relevance, duplicate detection, and retrieval of MEDLINE content. Design – Comparative evaluation and bibliometric study. Setting – Six university libraries in the United States of America. Subjects – Three commercial WSD services: Primo, Summon, and EBSCO Discovery Service (EDS. Methods – The authors collected data at six universities, including their own. They tested each of the three WSDs at two data collection sites. However, since one of the sites was using a legacy version of Summon that was due to be upgraded, data collected for Summon at this site were considered obsolete and excluded from the analysis. The authors generated three questions for each of six major health disciplines, then designed simple keyword searches to mimic typical student search behaviours. They captured the first 20 results from each query run at each test site, to represent the first “page” of results, giving a total of 2,086 total search results. These were independently assessed for relevance to the topic. Authors resolved disagreements by discussion, and calculated a kappa inter-observer score. They retained duplicate records within the results so that the duplicate detection by the WSDs could be compared. They assessed MEDLINE coverage by the WSDs in several ways. Using precise strategies to generate a relevant set of articles, they conducted one search from each of the six disciplines in PubMed so that they could compare retrieval of MEDLINE content. These results were cross-checked against the first 20 results from the corresponding query in the WSDs. To aid investigation of overall

  17. The relevance of cytokines in the radiation-induced lung reaction. Experimental basis and clinical significance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruebe, C.E.; Ruebe, C.; Rodemann, H.P.

    2004-01-01

    Methods: published data on radiation-induced cytokine expression from experimental and clinical studies are reviewed. Results and conclusion: the major pro-inflammatory cytokines in the radiation response of the lung include tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-1 (IL-1), and interleukin-6 (IL-6). Transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) appears to be of particular importance in the development of lung fibrosis. First approaches with radioprotective agents and gene therapy to modify radiation-induced cytokine expression have been investigated for prevention of late effects of irradiation lung damage in animal experiments. Preliminary data of clinical studies suggest that elevated plasma TGF-β-levels during radiotherapy may predict the development of symptomatic radiation pneumonitis. The biological impacts of endogenous radiation-induced cytokine production by tumor cells in respect of tumor behavior, potential damage to normal tissue, and clinical status of the host still need to be determined more precisely. (orig.)

  18. Experimental results on photon-photon interactions at Adone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baldini Celio, R.; Capon, G.; Fabbro, R. del; Santis, P. de; Grilli, M.; Iarocci, E.; Mencuccini, C.; Murtas, G.P.; Spinetti, M.; Valente, V.; Bacci, C.; Zorzi, C. de; Penso, G.; Stella, B.

    1979-01-01

    Experimental results for the reactions e + e - →e + e - +X are presented for X=e + e - ,μ + μ - ,π + π - ,eta'. A tagging technique has been used to detect final electrons and positrons. A QED test is performed and an upper limit of 20 keV is derived for the partial width GAMMA(eta'→γγ). (Auth.)

  19. First experimental results on CMOS Integrated Nickel Electroplated Resonators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yalcinkaya, Arda Deniz; Hansen, Ole

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents experimental results on MEMS metallic add-on post-fabrication effects on complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) transistors. Two versions of add-on processing, that use either e-beam evaporation or magnetron sputtering, are compared through investigation of the electri...

  20. Recent experimental results on Coherent Pion production in neutrino interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camilleri, L. [Columbia University, Nevis Labs Irvington on Hudson, New York 10533 (United States)

    2012-08-15

    Recent experimental results on charged current ({pi}{sup +}) coherent production by KEK and SciBooNE and neutral current ({pi}{sup 0}) production by MiniBooNE, SciBooNE and NOMAD will be discussed. The NOMAD results are at an average neutrino energy of 25 GeV whereas the energies of the other experiments are in an average energy range of 1-2 GeV. A comparison with some theoretical models will be presented.

  1. Feedback control of a cupola - concepts and experimental results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, K.L. [Idaho State Univ., Pocatello, ID (United States); Abdelrahman, M.A. [Tenn. Technological Univ., Cookeville, TN (United States); Larsen, E.; Clark, D. [Lockheed Martin Idaho Technologies Co., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); King, P. [US Dept. of Energy Albany Research Center, Albany, OR (United States)

    1998-10-01

    In this paper we present some final results from a research project focused on introducing automatic control to the operation of cupola iron furnaces. The main aim of this research is to improve the operational efficiency and performance of the cupola furnace, an important foundry process used to melt iron. Previous papers have described the development of appropriate control system architectures for the cupola. These results are summarized. Then we describe the experimental results obtained with the U.S. Department of Energy Albany Research Center`s research cupola. First, experimental data is used to calibrate the model, which is taken as a first-order multivariable system with time delay. Then relative gain analysis is used to select loop pairings to be used in a multi-loop controller. The resulting controller pairs meltrate with blast volume, iron temperature with oxygen addition, and carbon composition with percent coke. Special (nonlinear) filters are used to compute meltrate from actual scale readings of the amount of iron produced and to smooth the temperature measurement. The temperature and meltrate loops use single-loop PI control. The composition loop uses a Smith predictor to discount the deadtime associated with mass transport through the furnace. Experimental results validate the conceptual controller design and provide proof-of-concept of the idea of controlling a foundry cupola. Future research directions are discussed, including the concept of an integrated, intelligent industrial process controller, or I{sup 3}PC.

  2. Studies in nuclear structure relevant to Astrophysics: theoretical and experimental efforts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saha Sarkar, Maitreyee

    2016-01-01

    Experimental and theoretical investigations in the region around doubly magic neutron rich 132 Sn nucleus have recently revealed many intriguing issues concerning some newer aspects of nuclear structure in such exotic environments. These nuclei lie on or close to the path of the astrophysical r-process flow. A glimpse of the implication of these studies on the r-process nucleosynthesis will be discussed. Presently, the Nuclear Physics group in Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics is working for installation of a high-current, low energy Accelerator as the primary component of the Facility for Research in low Energy Nuclear Astrophysics (FRENA), a national facility, at Kolkata. Planning for future experiments has been undertaken for successful utilization of this facility. Implantation technique has been found to be one of the most effective methods to produce isotopically pure targets. We have prepared a few isotopically pure targets using this technique. Being the slowest process of the CNO cycle, study of the 14 N(p, γ) 15 O(Q = 7297 keV) capture reaction is of high astrophysical interest. From an experiment utilizing one of the newly prepared 14 N implanted targets, a preliminary estimate of the lifetime of 6792 keV state in 15 O has been obtained, using Doppler shift attenuation method (DSAM). The sensitivity of the results with respect to the uncertainties in various input quantities has been tested. This endeavour will be helpful to design a better experiment to extract more precise lifetime for this important state

  3. An experimental and theoretical study of reaction steps relevant to the methanol-to-hydrocarbons reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Svelle, Stian

    2004-07-01

    The primary objective of the present work is to obtain new insight into the reaction mechanism of the zeolite catalyzed methanol-to-hydrocarbons (MTH) reaction. It was decided to use both experimental and computational techniques to reach this goal. An investigation of the n-butene + methanol system was therefore initiated. Over time, it became apparent that it was possible to determine the rate for the methylation of n-butene by methanol. The ethene and propene systems were therefore reexamined in order to collect kinetic information also for those cases. With the development of user-friendly quantum chemistry programs such as the Gaussian suite of programs, the possibility of applying quantum chemical methods to many types of problems has become readily available even for non-experts. When performing mechanistic studies, there is quite often a considerable synergy effect when combining experimental and computational approaches. The methylation reactions mentioned above turned out to be an issue well suited for quantum chemical investigations. The incentive for examining the halomethane reactivity was the clear analogy to the MTH reaction system. Alkene dimerization was also a reaction readily examined with quantum chemistry. As discussed in the introduction of this thesis, polymethylbenzenes, or their cationic counterparts, are suspected to be key intermediates in the MTH reaction. It was therefore decided to investigate the intrinsic reactivity of these species in the gas-phase by employing sophisticated mass spectrometric (MS) techniques in collaboration with the MS group at the Department of Chemistry, University of Oslo The data thus obtained will also be compared with results from an ongoing computational study on gas phase polymethylbenzenium reactivity. 6 papers presenting various studies are included. The titles are: 1) A Theoretical Investigation of the Methylation of Alkenes with Methanol over Acidic Zeolites. 2) A Theoretical Investigation of the

  4. An experimental and theoretical study of reaction steps relevant to the methanol-to-hydrocarbons reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Svelle, Stian

    2004-07-01

    The primary objective of the present work is to obtain new insight into the reaction mechanism of the zeolite catalyzed methanol-to-hydrocarbons (MTH) reaction. It was decided to use both experimental and computational techniques to reach this goal. An investigation of the n-butene + methanol system was therefore initiated. Over time, it became apparent that it was possible to determine the rate for the methylation of n-butene by methanol. The ethene and propene systems were therefore reexamined in order to collect kinetic information also for those cases. With the development of user-friendly quantum chemistry programs such as the Gaussian suite of programs, the possibility of applying quantum chemical methods to many types of problems has become readily available even for non-experts. When performing mechanistic studies, there is quite often a considerable synergy effect when combining experimental and computational approaches. The methylation reactions mentioned above turned out to be an issue well suited for quantum chemical investigations. The incentive for examining the halomethane reactivity was the clear analogy to the MTH reaction system. Alkene dimerization was also a reaction readily examined with quantum chemistry. As discussed in the introduction of this thesis, polymethylbenzenes, or their cationic counterparts, are suspected to be key intermediates in the MTH reaction. It was therefore decided to investigate the intrinsic reactivity of these species in the gas-phase by employing sophisticated mass spectrometric (MS) techniques in collaboration with the MS group at the Department of Chemistry, University of Oslo The data thus obtained will also be compared with results from an ongoing computational study on gas phase polymethylbenzenium reactivity. 6 papers presenting various studies are included. The titles are: 1) A Theoretical Investigation of the Methylation of Alkenes with Methanol over Acidic Zeolites. 2) A Theoretical Investigation of the

  5. Thermodynamic properties of indan: Experimental and computational results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chirico, Robert D.; Steele, William V.; Kazakov, Andrei F.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Heat capacities were measured for the temperature range (5 to 445) K. • Vapor pressures were measured for the temperature range (338 to 495) K. • Densities at saturation pressure were measured from T = (323 to 523) K. • Computed and experimentally derived properties for ideal gas entropies are in excellent accord. • Thermodynamic consistency analysis revealed anomalous literature data. - Abstract: Measurements leading to the calculation of thermodynamic properties in the ideal-gas state for indan (Chemical Abstracts registry number [496-11-7], 2,3-dihydro-1H-indene) are reported. Experimental methods were adiabatic heat-capacity calorimetry, differential scanning calorimetry, comparative ebulliometry, and vibrating-tube densitometry. Molar thermodynamic functions (enthalpies, entropies, and Gibbs energies) for the condensed and ideal-gas states were derived from the experimental studies at selected temperatures. Statistical calculations were performed based on molecular geometry optimization and vibrational frequencies calculated at the B3LYP/6-31+G(d, p) level of theory. Computed ideal-gas properties derived with the rigid-rotor harmonic-oscillator approximation are shown to be in excellent accord with ideal-gas entropies derived from thermophysical property measurements of this research, as well as with experimental heat capacities for the ideal-gas state reported in the literature. Literature spectroscopic studies and ab initio calculations report a range of values for the barrier to ring puckering. Results of the present work are consistent with a large barrier that allows use of the rigid-rotor harmonic-oscillator approximation for ideal-gas entropy and heat-capacity calculations, even with the stringent uncertainty requirements imposed by the calorimetric and physical property measurements reported here. All experimental results are compared with property values reported in the literature.

  6. Recent experimental results on level densities for compound reaction calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voinov, A.V.

    2012-01-01

    There is a problem related to the choice of the level density input for Hauser-Feshbach model calculations. Modern computer codes have several options to choose from but it is not clear which of them has to be used in some particular cases. Availability of many options helps to describe existing experimental data but it creates problems when it comes to predictions. Traditionally, different level density systematics are based on experimental data from neutron resonance spacing which are available for a limited spin interval and one parity only. On the other hand reaction cross section calculations use the total level density. This can create large uncertainties when converting the neutron resonance spacing to the total level density that results in sizable uncertainties in cross section calculations. It is clear now that total level densities need to be studied experimentally in a systematic manner. Such information can be obtained only from spectra of compound nuclear reactions. The question is does level densities obtained from compound nuclear reactions keep the same regularities as level densities obtained from neutron resonances- Are they consistent- We measured level densities of 59-64 Ni isotopes from proton evaporation spectra of 6,7 Li induced reactions. Experimental data are presented. Conclusions of how level density depends on the neutron number and on the degree of proximity to the closed shell ( 56 Ni) are drawn. The level density parameters have been compared with parameters obtained from the analysis of neutron resonances and from model predictions

  7. Relevance of PLUREL's results to policies at EU, national, regional and local level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fertner, Christian; Nielsen, Thomas Alexander Sick

    and results to policies and policy development at the EU-level, as well as the national and regional level. PLUREL has peri-urban land use relationships as its main focus. This includes analysis of drivers, consequences, policies and scenarios for the future. Even though PLUREL aims for pan-European coverage...... of natural resources as well as an attractive development in general. Besides these spatial relevant sector policies, the EU enforces legislation which is translated into spatial explicit instruments on sub-regional level. E.g. the Habitat and Birds Directive caused the development of Natura 2000 areas......, an EU-wide network of nature protection areas. The implementation of Trans-European Networks through funding programmes is another sector policy having an impact on land-use change and rural-urban relations. On the sub-regional scale the perception on overall goals like sustainability can be very...

  8. Relevant training issues for introduction of digital radiology: Results of a survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peer, S.; Faulkner, K.; Torbica, P.; Peer, R.; Busch, H. P.; Vetter, S.; Neofotistou, E.; Back, C.; Bosmans, H.; Vano, E.

    2005-01-01

    Council Directive 97/43/Euratom establishes the need for adequate training of radiology staff. The transition to digital radiology implies changes in various imaging aspects, which are not sufficiently covered by current institutional training programmes. This work aimed to assess how professionals, experienced in digital imaging, acquired their expertise and hence, what form institutional training should take. Within DIMOND III, a survey on training and resources was performed among radiology professionals. A lack of institutional education for digital radiology was found. In the transition to digital radiology, 30-35% train on the job and another 23-28% receive training from digital equipment vendors. A general agreement exists on the need for new quality criteria and strategies for dose management. Issues relevant for conventional/digital transition are only sparsely covered in EC training programmes. Based on these results, a set of training issues was produced, to be included in future European guidelines. (authors)

  9. Results of experimental electromagnetic studies of the Crimean region

    OpenAIRE

    Burakhovich, T. K.; Kushnir, A. M.; Nikolaev, I. Yu.; Sheremet, E. M.; Shirkov, B. I.

    2017-01-01

    Spatial-temporal pattern of distribution of geomagnetic variations and the electric field on the Earth’s surface was obtained as a result of the modern experimental observations conducted in 2007—2013 along 9 profiles (48 points) by the methods of magnetotelluric sounding (MTS) and magnetovariation profiling (MVP). These profiles cross various geological structures of the Crimean region. It is possible to estimate the value of the electrical conductivity and vertical and horizontal geoelectri...

  10. Primarily Experimental Results for a W Wire Array Z Pinch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuai Bin; Aici, Qiu; Wang Liangping; Zeng Zhengzhong; Wang Wensheng; Cong Peitian; Gai Tongyang; Wei Fuli; Guo Ning; Zhang Zhong

    2006-01-01

    Primarily experimental results are given for a W wire array Z pinch imploded with up to 2 MA in 100 ns on a Qiangguang-I pulsed power generator. The configuration and parameters of the generator, the W wire array load assembly and the diagnostic system for the experiment are described. The total X-ray energy has been obtained with a averaged power of X-ray radiation of 1.28 TW

  11. Heavy ions testing experimental results on programmable integrated circuits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velazco, R.; Provost-Grellier, A.

    1988-01-01

    The natural radiation environment in space has been shown to produce anomalies in satellite-borne microelectronics. It becomes then mandatory to define qualification strategies allowing to choose the less vulnerable circuits. In this paper, is presented a strategy devoted to one of the most critical effects, the soft errors (so called upset). The method addresses programmable integrated circuits i.e. circuits able to execute an instruction or command set. Experimental results on representative circuits will illustrate the approach. 11 refs [fr

  12. Experimental results pertaining to the performance of thermal igniters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carmel, M.K.

    1989-10-01

    This report summarizes the results of various experimental programs regarding the performance of thermal igniters for the deliberate ignition of hydrogen in light water reactors. Experiments involving both premixed combustion and combustion with continuous hydrogen injection are reviewed. Combustion characteristics examined include flammability limits of hydrogen:air and hydrogen:air:steam mixtures, combustion pressure rises, combustion completeness, flame speeds, and heat transfer aspects. Comparisons of igniter type and igniter reliability under simulated reactor accident conditions are included. The results of the research programs provide a broad data base covering nearly all aspects of hydrogen combustion related to the performance of deliberate ignition systems

  13. Overview of JT-60U results toward high integrated performance in reactor-relevant regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujita, T.

    2003-01-01

    Recent JT-60U results toward high integrated performance are reported with emphasis on the projection to the reactor-relevant regime. N-NB and EC power increased up to 6.2 MW and 3 MW, respectively. A high β p H-mode plasma with full non-inductive current drive has been obtained at 1.8 MA and the fusion triple product reached 3.1x10 20 m -3 keVs. High beta with β N =2.7 was maintained for 7.4 s. NTM suppression with EC was accomplished using a real-time feedback control system and improvement in β N was obtained. A stable existence of current hole was observed. High DT-equivalent fusion gain of 0.8 was maintained for 0.55 s in a plasma with a current hole. The current profile control in high bootstrap current reversed shear plasmas was demonstrated using N-NB and LH. A new operation scenario has been established in which a plasma with high bootstrap current fraction and ITBs is produced without the use of OH coil. ECCD study was undertaken in a reactor-relevant high T e regime. A new type of AE mode has been proposed and found to explain the observed frequency chirp quite well. High confinement reversed shear plasmas with T e >T i were obtained. Ar exhaust with EC heating was obtained in a high β p mode plasma. Impurity accumulation related to strong ITBs in a reversed shear plasma and degradation of ITB by ECH in a weak positive shear plasma have been found. Dedicated measurement of ELM dynamics and SOL plasma flow advanced the physics understanding. N-NB heating in an Ar-seed plasma extended the density region to 95% of Greenwald density with HH y2 =0.9. The enhancement of pedestal pressure was obtained with an increase of β p in a high triangularity configuration. (author)

  14. OIL DECONTAMINATION OF BOTTOM SEDIMENTS EXPERIMENTAL WORK RESULTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lushnikov Sergey V.

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the results of experimental work during 2004-2005 on oil decontamination of bottom sediments of Lake Schuchye, situated in the Komi Republic (Northern Russia. The cause of thecontamination were huge oil spills occurred after a series of accidental ruptures on the Harjaga-Usinsk and Vozej-Usinsk oil-pipe lines in 1994. Flotation technology was used for the cleaning of bottom sediments.157 tons of crude oil were removed during the course of 2-year experimental work from an area of 4,1 ha.The content of aliphatic and alicyclic oil hydrocarbons was reduced from 53,3 g/kg to 2,2 g/kg, on average.Hydrobiological investigations revealed that bottom sediments started to be inhabited by benthos organisms, dominantly Oligochaeta. Besides Oligochaeta, Chironomidae maggots and Bivalvia were detected. Theappearance of Macrozoobenthos organisms can serve as a bioindicator of water quality.

  15. Genome-wide association studies in bladder cancer: first results and potential relevance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiemeney, Lambertus A; Grotenhuis, Anne J; Vermeulen, Sita H; Wu, Xifeng

    2009-09-01

    The role of genetic susceptibility in the development of urinary bladder cancer is unclear, as it is in many other types of cancer. Since 2007, however, an innovative research approach (i.e. genome-wide association studies or GWASs) has led to the identification of numerous genomic loci that harbor susceptibility factors for one or more cancer sites. All GWASs have been published in high-impact journals and the strengths of the design are acknowledged by all experts, but there is criticism about the relevance of the results. Late 2008, the first GWAS in bladder cancer was published. In this review, the principles of GWASs are explained, as well as their strengths and limitations. The study in bladder cancer among 4000 cases and 38,000 controls identified three new susceptibility loci at 8q24, 3q28, and 5p15 that increase the risk of bladder cancer by 22, 19, and 16%, respectively. The results of two other GWASs in bladder cancer are expected to appear this year. Joint analysis of the three studies will probably identify additional susceptibility loci. The results of bladder cancer GWASs may point the way to yet unknown disease mechanisms. So far, the findings are not sufficiently discriminative for risk predictions to be used in clinical care or public health.

  16. The IPIRG-1 pipe system fracture tests: Experimental results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, P.; Olson, R.J.; Wilkowski, G.M.

    1994-01-01

    As part of the First International Piping Integrity Research Group (IPIRG-1) program, six dynamic pipe system experiments were conducted. The objective of these experiments was to generate experimental data to assess analysis methodologies for characterizing the fracture behavior of circumferentially cracked pipe in a representative piping system subjected to combined inertial and displacement-controlled stresses. A unique experimental facility was designed and constructed. The pipe system evaluated was an expansion loop with over 30 m (100 feet) of 16-inch nominal diameter Schedule 100 pipe. The experimental facility was equipped with special hardware to ensure that system boundary conditions could be appropriately modeled. The test matrix involved one uncracked and five cracked dynamic pipe system experiments. The uncracked-pipe experiment was conducted to evaluate the piping system damping and natural frequency characteristics. The cracked-pipe experiments were conducted to evaluate the fracture behavior, piping system response, and fracture stability characteristics of five different materials. All cracked-pipe experiments were conducted at PWR conditions. Material characterization efforts provided the tensile and fracture toughness properties of the different pipe materials at various strain rates and temperatures. Key results from the six pipe system experiments and material characterization efforts are presented. Detailed analyses will be published in a companion paper

  17. Sterol Composition of Clinically Relevant Mucorales and Changes Resulting from Posaconazole Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Christoph; Neugebauer, Thomas; Zill, Patrizia; Lass-Flörl, Cornelia; Bracher, Franz; Binder, Ulrike

    2018-05-19

    Mucorales are fungi with increasing importance in the clinics. Infections take a rapidly progressive course resulting in high mortality rates. The ergosterol biosynthesis pathway and sterol composition are of interest, since they are targeted by currently applied antifungal drugs. Nevertheless, Mucorales often exhibit resistance to these drugs, resulting in therapeutic failure. Here, sterol patterns of six clinically relevant Mucorales ( Lichtheimia corymbifera , Lichtheimia ramosa , Mucor circinelloides , Rhizomucor pusillus , Rhizopus arrhizus , and Rhizopus microsporus ) were analysed in a targeted metabolomics fashion after derivatization by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Additionally, the effect of posaconazole (POS) treatment on the sterol pattern of R. arrhizus was evaluated. Overall, fifteen different sterols were detected with species dependent variations in the total and relative sterol amount. Sterol analysis from R. arrhizus hyphae confronted with sublethal concentrations of posaconazole revealed the accumulation of 14-methylergosta-8,24-diene-3,6-diol, which is a toxic sterol that was previously only detected in yeasts. Sterol content and composition were further compared to the well-characterized pathogenic mold Aspergillus fumigatus . This work contributes to a better understanding of the ergosterol biosynthesis pathway of Mucorales, which is essential to improve antifungal efficacy, the identification of targets for novel drug design, and to investigate the combinatorial effects of drugs targeting this pathway.

  18. Comparison the Results of Numerical Simulation And Experimental Results for Amirkabir Plasma Focus Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goudarzi, Shervin; Amrollahi, R.; Niknam Sharak, M.

    2014-06-01

    In this paper the results of the numerical simulation for Amirkabir Mather-type Plasma Focus Facility (16 kV, 36μF and 115 nH) in several experiments with Argon as working gas at different working conditions (different discharge voltages and gas pressures) have been presented and compared with the experimental results. Two different models have been used for simulation: five-phase model of Lee and lumped parameter model of Gonzalez. It is seen that the results (optimum pressures and current signals) of the Lee model at different working conditions show better agreement than lumped parameter model with experimental values.

  19. Comparison the results of numerical simulation and experimental results for Amirkabir plasma focus facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goudarzi, Shervin; Amrollahi, R; Sharak, M Niknam

    2014-01-01

    In this paper the results of the numerical simulation for Amirkabir Mather-type Plasma Focus Facility (16 kV, 36μF and 115 nH) in several experiments with Argon as working gas at different working conditions (different discharge voltages and gas pressures) have been presented and compared with the experimental results. Two different models have been used for simulation: five-phase model of Lee and lumped parameter model of Gonzalez. It is seen that the results (optimum pressures and current signals) of the Lee model at different working conditions show better agreement than lumped parameter model with experimental values.

  20. ANOVA parameters influence in LCF experimental data and simulation results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vercelli A.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The virtual design of components undergoing thermo mechanical fatigue (TMF and plastic strains is usually run in many phases. The numerical finite element method gives a useful instrument which becomes increasingly effective as the geometrical and numerical modelling gets more accurate. The constitutive model definition plays an important role in the effectiveness of the numerical simulation [1, 2] as, for example, shown in Figure 1. In this picture it is shown how a good cyclic plasticity constitutive model can simulate a cyclic load experiment. The component life estimation is the subsequent phase and it needs complex damage and life estimation models [3-5] which take into account of several parameters and phenomena contributing to damage and life duration. The calibration of these constitutive and damage models requires an accurate testing activity. In the present paper the main topic of the research activity is to investigate whether the parameters, which result to be influent in the experimental activity, influence the numerical simulations, thus defining the effectiveness of the models in taking into account of all the phenomena actually influencing the life of the component. To obtain this aim a procedure to tune the parameters needed to estimate the life of mechanical components undergoing TMF and plastic strains is presented for commercial steel. This procedure aims to be easy and to allow calibrating both material constitutive model (for the numerical structural simulation and the damage and life model (for life assessment. The procedure has been applied to specimens. The experimental activity has been developed on three sets of tests run at several temperatures: static tests, high cycle fatigue (HCF tests, low cycle fatigue (LCF tests. The numerical structural FEM simulations have been run on a commercial non linear solver, ABAQUS®6.8. The simulations replied the experimental tests. The stress, strain, thermal results from the thermo

  1. Experimental results for a novel rotary active magnetic regenerator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engelbrecht, Kurt; Eriksen, Dan; Bahl, Christian

    2012-01-01

    Active magnetic regenerator (AMR) refrigerators represent an alternative to vapor compression technology and have great potential in realizing cooling devices with high efficiency, which are highly desirable for a broad range of applications. The technology relies on the magnetocaloric effect...... in a solid refrigerant rather than the temperature change that occurs when a gas is compressed/expanded. This paper presents the general considerations for the design and construction of a high frequency rotary AMR device. Experimental results are presented at various cooling powers for a range of operating...

  2. Time-Domain Simulations of Transient Species in Experimentally Relevant Environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ueltschi, Tyler W.; Fischer, Sean A.; Apra, Edoardo; Tarnovsky, Alexander N.; Govind, Niranjan; El-Khoury, Patrick Z.; Hess, Wayne P.

    2016-02-04

    Simulating the spectroscopic properties of short-lived thermal and photochemical reaction intermediates and products is a challenging task, as these species often feature atypical molecular and electronic structures. The complex environments in which such species typically reside in practice add further complexity to the problem. Herein, we tackle this problem in silico using ab initio molecular dynamics (AIMD) simulations, employing iso-CHBr3, namely H(Br)C-Br-Br, as a prototypical system. This species was chosen because it features both a non-conventional C-Br-Br bonding pattern, as well as a strong dependence of its spectral features on the local environment in which it resides, as illustrated in recent experimental reports. The spectroscopic properties of iso-CHBr3 were measured by several groups that captured this transient intermediate in the photochemistry of CHBr3 in the gas phase, in rare gas matrices at 5K, and in solution under ambient laboratory conditions. We simulate the UV-Vis and IR spectra of iso-CHBr3 in all three media, including a Ne cluster (64 atoms) and a methylcyclohexane cage (14 solvent molecules) representative of the matrix isolated and solvated species. We exclusively perform fully quantum mechanical static and dynamic simulations. By comparing our condensed phase simulations to their experimental analogues, we stress the importance of (i) conformational sampling, even at cryogenic temperatures, and (ii) using a fully quantum mechanical description of both solute and bath to properly account for the experimental observables.

  3. Overview of JT-60U results toward high integrated performance in reactor-relevant regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujita, T.

    2002-01-01

    Toward steady sustainment of high integrated performance, we have developed weak magnetic shear (high β p mode) and reversed magnetic shear plasmas. As a large-sized tokamak equipped with a variety of devices for heating, current drive and profile/shape control, JT-60U has high ability to approach the conditions required in reactors: low values of normalized Larmor radius and collisionality, high temperatures with T e > or approx. T i , etc. This paper reviews recent JT-60U results with the emphasis on the projection to the reactor-relevant regime. Full non-inductive current drive has been achieved in a 1.8 MA high β p H-mode plasma with β N 2:4, HH y2 =1.2 and high fusion triple product (3 x 10 20 m -3 keVs) owing to increased N-NB power. In a reversed shear plasma, HH y2 =1.4 at n e /n GW 0.8 under the full non-inductive current drive has been achieved with injection of LHRF and N-NB. In box-type ITBs with reversed shear, barriers for ions and electrons were sustained in a regime with T e > or approx. T i . The pedestal pressure was doubled with increased total poloidal beta in pellet-injected high triangularity plasmas with type I and II ELMs. Stable existence of current hole was demonstrated. (author)

  4. Comparison of ATHENA/RELAP results against ice experimental data

    CERN Document Server

    Moore-Richard, L

    2002-01-01

    In order to demonstrate the adequacy of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor design from a safety stand point as well as investigating the behavior of two-phase flow phenomena during an ingress of coolant event, an integrated ICE test facility was constructed in Japan. The data generated from the ICE facility offers a valuable means to validate computer codes such as ATHENA /RELAP5, which is one of the codes used at the Idaho National Engineering And Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) to evaluate the safety of various fusion reactor concepts. In this paper we compared numerical results generated by the ATHENA code with corresponding test data from the ICE facility. Overall we found good agreement between the test data and the predicted results.

  5. Electrical and thermal behavior of unsaturated soils: experimental results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nouveau, Marie; Grandjean, Gilles; Leroy, Philippe; Philippe, Mickael; Hedri, Estelle; Boukcim, Hassan

    2016-05-01

    When soil is affected by a heat source, some of its properties are modified, and in particular, the electrical resistivity due to changes in water content. As a result, these changes affect the thermal properties of soil, i.e., its thermal conductivity and diffusivity. We experimentally examine the changes in electrical resistivity and thermal conductivity for four soils with different grain size distributions and clay content over a wide range of temperatures, from 20 to 100 °C. This temperature range corresponds to the thermal conditions in the vicinity of a buried high voltage cable or a geothermal system. Experiments were conducted at the field scale, at a geothermal test facility, and in the laboratory using geophysical devices and probing systems. The results show that the electrical resistivity decreases and the thermal conductivity increases with temperature up to a critical temperature depending on soil types. At this critical temperature, the air volume in the pore space increases with temperature, and the resulting electrical resistivity also increases. For higher temperatures , the thermal conductivity increases sharply with temperature up to a second temperature limit. Beyond it, the thermal conductivity drops drastically. This limit corresponds to the temperature at which most of the water evaporates from the soil pore space. Once the evaporation is completed, the thermal conductivity stabilizes. To explain these experimental results, we modeled the electrical resistivity variations with temperature and water content in the temperature range 20 - 100°C, showing that two critical temperatures influence the main processes occurring during heating at temperatures below 100 °C.

  6. Experimental results of the ATF in-line injection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, X.J.; Srinivasan-Rao, T.; Batchelor, K.

    1995-01-01

    The initial experimental results of the Brookhaven accelerator test facility (ATF) in-line injector is presented. The ATF in-line injector employed a full copper RF gun with a pair of solenoid magnets for emittance compensation. The maximum acceleration field of the RF gun was measured to be 130 MV/m. The electron yield from the copper cathode was maximized using p- polarized laser and the Schottky effect. The quantum efficiency under optimum conditions was measured to be 0.04%. The measured electron bunch length was less than 11 ps, which agreed with the laser pulse length measurement using a streak camera. The normalized rms. emittance for 0.25 nC charge is 0.9 ± 0.1 mm-mrad, which is almost four times smaller than the emittance predicted by the space-charge effect for a non-emittance compensation photocathode RF gun. The normalized rms for 0.6 nC charge was measured range from 1 to 3 mm-mrad. This measurement was first experimental demonstration of emittance compensation in a high-gradient, S-band photocathode RF gun

  7. Interpretation of PISCES -- A RF antenna system experimental results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rothweil, D.A.; Phelps, D.A.; Doerner, R.

    1995-10-01

    The paper describes experimental data from rf coupling experiments using one to four coil antenna arrays that encircle a linear magnetized plasma column. Experimental results using single turn coil that produce symmetric (i.e. m = 0), dipole (m = 1), and radial rf magnetic fields for coupling to ion waves are compared. By operating without a Faraday shield, it was observed for the first time that the plasma resistive load seen by these different antenna types tends to increase with the number of turns to at least the second power. A four-turn m = 0 coil experienced a record 3--5 Ω loading, corresponding to over 90% power coupling to the plasma. A four-turn m = 1 coil experienced up to 1--1.5 Ω loading, also higher than previous observations. First time observations using a two coil array of m = 0 coil are also reported. As predicted, the loading decreases with increasing phase between coil from 0 degree to 180 degree. Experiments using four coil arrays were difficult to optimize and interpret primarily due to complexity of the manual tuning. To facilitate this optimization in the future, a proposed feedback control system that automatically matches load variations between 0.2 and 10 Ω is described

  8. Experimental and numerical results from hybrid retrofitted photovoltaic panels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossi, Cecilia; Tagliafico, Luca A.; Scarpa, Federico; Bianco, Vincenzo

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • The experimental study focuses on the feasibility of hybrid PV/T panels retrofitting. • The critical role of a thin layer of air between PV panel and back plate is evidenced. • The benefit of the addition of a conductive paste layer is analyzed via FEM simulations. • The use of wood ribs to stick the back plate represents a cheap effective solution. - Abstract: The aim of present study is to investigate different methodologies to achieve a better contact between a photovoltaic panel and a thermal plate, in order to cool the PV panel by means of water in the perspective of coupling it with a heat pump. It is believed that this kind of system allows to obtain a higher energy efficiency. The analysis is developed both experimentally and numerically, testing different kinds of configurations in different operating conditions. Simulations are employed to analyze the effect of the variations of the contact resistance between the panel and the thermal plates, demonstrating that the use of a conductive paste increases the overall performance of the panel. Results show interesting possibilities in terms of retrofitting of existing photovoltaic panels by employing very simple solutions, such as to fix the thermal plate on the rear of the panel by means of wood ribs

  9. Automation in dairy cattle milking: experimental results and considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisanna Speroni

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of two experimental programs financed to the Istituto Sperimentale per la Zootecnia are presented. The objective of the two Italian programs was the verify if automatic milking is a suitable practice for Italian dairy system. Results are summarised and compared to those obtained in other international projects. Results refer to animal behaviour, milk yield, milk quality an animal welfare. In a trial comparing cows milked with an automatic milking system and cows milked in a milking parlour, we observed that when the temperature and humidity are very high cows reduce their activity, have lower milking frequency and milk yield than in cold seasons. In comparison to milking parlour, automatic milking system did not increase milk yield which was affected significantly by season, stage of lactation, parity, season per treatment and parity per treatment. The causes of the negative results obtained by this group and by other international groups are discussed. We also presented the results obtained in four trials thereby four appetizers or flavourings were tested to improve efficiency of automatic milking system. Comparing the two milking systems, automatic milking determined a worsening of milk quality, but from these data is not possible to exclude the possibility to use automatic milking for Grana Padano and Parmigiano Reggiano-type cheeses. Animal welfare is not negatively influenced by automatic milking system, which has the potentiality to improve the control and care of cows.

  10. Experimental installation of refrigeration solar-first results; Instalacion experimental de refrigeracion solar-primeros resultados

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moone, C.; Guallar, J.; Alonso, S.; Palacin, F.

    2008-07-01

    In this article they are and the first results of an installation of solar refrigeration composed by a field of flat solar collector are analysed and absorption chillers of simple effect (BrLi-H{sub 2}O), used to give cold to a gymnasium of the university sport pavilion. The data correspond to the registered experimental values during the summer of 2007 (months of June, Julio and August). (Author)

  11. Experimental investigations relevant for hydrogen and fission product issues raised by the Fukushima accident

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjeev Gupta

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The accident at Japan's Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant in March 2011, caused by an earthquake and a subsequent tsunami, resulted in a failure of the power systems that are needed to cool the reactors at the plant. The accident progression in the absence of heat removal systems caused Units 1-3 to undergo fuel melting. Containment pressurization and hydrogen explosions ultimately resulted in the escape of radioactivity from reactor containments into the atmosphere and ocean. Problems in containment venting operation, leakage from primary containment boundary to the reactor building, improper functioning of standby gas treatment system (SGTS, unmitigated hydrogen accumulation in the reactor building were identified as some of the reasons those added-up in the severity of the accident. The Fukushima accident not only initiated worldwide demand for installation of adequate control and mitigation measures to minimize the potential source term to the environment but also advocated assessment of the existing mitigation systems performance behavior under a wide range of postulated accident scenarios. The uncertainty in estimating the released fraction of the radionuclides due to the Fukushima accident also underlined the need for comprehensive understanding of fission product behavior as a function of the thermal hydraulic conditions and the type of gaseous, aqueous, and solid materials available for interaction, e.g., gas components, decontamination paint, aerosols, and water pools. In the light of the Fukushima accident, additional experimental needs identified for hydrogen and fission product issues need to be investigated in an integrated and optimized way. Additionally, as more and more passive safety systems, such as passive autocatalytic recombiners and filtered containment venting systems are being retrofitted in current reactors and also planned for future reactors, identified hydrogen and fission product issues will need to be coupled

  12. Blanking and piercing theory, applications and recent experimental results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaid, A. I. O.

    2013-01-01

    Blanking and piercing are manufacturing processes by which certain geometrical shapes are sheared off a sheet metal. If the sheared off part is the one required, the processes referred to as blanking and if the remaining part in the sheet is the one required, the process is referred to as piercing. In this paper, the theory and practice of these processes are reviewed and discussed The main parameters affecting these processes are presented and discussed. These include: the radial clearance percentage, punch and die geometrical parameters, for example punch and die profile radii. The above mentioned parameters on the force and energy required to effect blanking together with their effect on the quality of the products are also presented and discussed. Recent experimental results together with photomacrographs and photomicrographs are also included and discussed. Finally, the effect of punch and die wear on the quality of the blanks is also given and discussed. (author)

  13. Blanking and piercing theory, applications and recent experimental results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaid, Adnan l O

    2014-01-01

    Blanking and piercing are manufacturing processes by which certain geometrical shapes are sheared off a sheet metal. If the sheared off part is the one required, the processes referred to as blanking and if the remaining part in the sheet is the one required, the process is referred to as piercing. In this paper, the theory and practice of these processes are reviewed and discussed The main parameters affecting these processes are presented and discussed. These include: the radial clearance percentage, punch and die geometrical parameters, for example punch and die profile radii. The abovementioned parameters on the force and energy required to effect blanking together with their effect on the quality of the products are also presented and discussed. Recent experimental results together with photomacrographs and photomicrographs are also included and discussed. Finally, the effect of punch and die wear on the quality of the blanks is alsogiven and discussed

  14. Experimental results of some cluster tests in NSRR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Shinsho; Ohnishi, Nobuaki; Yoshimura, Tomio; Lussie, W.G.

    1978-01-01

    The NSRR programme is in progress in JAERI using a pulsed reactor to evaluate the behavior of reactor fuels under reactivity accident conditions. This report describes briefly the experimental results and preliminary analysis of two cluster tests. In the cluster configuration of five fuel rods, the power distribution in outer fuel rods are not symmetric due to neutron absorption in central fuel rod. The cladding temperature on the exterior boundaries of the cluster is higher than that in interior. Good agreement was obtained between the calculated and measured cladding temperature histories. In the 3.8$ excess reactivity test, cluster averaged energy deposition of 237 cal/g.UO 2 , cladding melting and deformation were limited to the portions of the fuel rods that were on the exterior boundaries of the cluster. (auth.)

  15. Recent results from experimental studies on laser-plasma coupling in a shock ignition relevant regime

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Koester, P.; Antonelli, L.; Atzeni, S.; Badziak, J.; Baffigi, F.; Batani, D.; Cecchetti, C.A.; Chodukowski, T.; Consoli, F.; Cristoforetti, G.; De Angelis, R.; Folpini, G.; Gizzi, L.A.; Kalinowska, Z.; Krouský, Eduard; Kuchařík, M.; Labate, L.; Levato, T.; Liška, R.; Malka, G.; Maheut, Y.; Marocchino, A.; Nicolai, P.; O´Dell, T.; Parys, P.; Pisarczyk, T.; Rączka, P.; Renner, Oldřich; Rhee, Y.-J.; Ribeyre, X.; Richetta, M.; Rosinski, M.; Ryc, L.; Skála, Jiří; Schiavi, A.; Schurtz, G.; Šmíd, Michal; Spindloe, C.; Ullschmied, Jiří; Wolowski, J.; Zaras, A.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 55, č. 12 (2013), , "124045-1"-"124045-8" ISSN 0741-3335 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC528; GA MŠk LM2010014 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 284464 - LASERLAB-EUROPE Institutional support: RVO:68378271 ; RVO:61389021 Keywords : laser-produced plasma s * inertial confinement fusion * shock ignition * X-ray imaging spectroscopy * ion diagnostics * interferometry * shock breakout chron Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 2.386, year: 2013

  16. Experimental and theoretical data on ion-molecule-reactions relevant for plasma modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansel, A.; Praxmarer, C.; Lindinger, W.

    1995-01-01

    Despite the fact that the rate coefficients of hundreds of ion-molecule-reactions have been published in the literature, much more data are required for the purpose of plasma modelling. Many ion molecule reactions have rate coefficients, k, as large as the collisional limiting value, k c , i.e. the rate coefficients k c at which ion-neutral collision complexes are formed are close to the actual rate coefficients observed. In the case of the interaction of an ion with a non polar molecule, k c , is determined by the Langevin limiting value k L being typically 10 -9 cm 3 s -1 . However, when ions react with polar molecules k c is predicted by the average dipole orientation (ADO) theory. These classical theories yield accurate rate coefficients at thermal and elevated temperatures for practically all proton transfer as well as for many charge transfer and hydrogen abstraction reactions. The agreement between experimental and calculated values is usually better than ±20% and in the case of proton transfer reactions the agreement seems to be even better as recent investigations have shown. Even the interaction of the permanent ion dipole with non polar and polar neutrals can be taken into account to predict reaction rate coefficients as has been shown very recently in reactions of the highly polar ion ArH 3 + with various neutrals

  17. Policy relevant results from an expert elicitation on the health risks of phthalates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zimmer, K.E.; Gutleb, A.C.; Ravnum, S.; Krayer von Krauss, M.; Murk, A.J.; Ropstad, E.; Skaare, J.U.; Eriksen, G.S.; Lyche, J.L.; Koppe, J.G.; Magnanti, B.; Yang, A.; Keune, H.

    2012-01-01

    Background: The EU 6th Framework Program (FP)-funded Health and Environment Network (HENVINET) aimed to support informed policy making by facilitating the availability of relevant knowledge on different environmental health issues. An approach was developed by which scientific agreement,

  18. Early-Life Effects on Adult Physical Activity: Concepts, Relevance, and Experimental Approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garland, Theodore; Cadney, Marcell D; Waterland, Robert A

    Locomotion is a defining characteristic of animal life and plays a crucial role in most behaviors. Locomotion involves physical activity, which can have far-reaching effects on physiology and neurobiology, both acutely and chronically. In human populations and in laboratory rodents, higher levels of physical activity are generally associated with positive health outcomes, although excessive exercise can have adverse consequences. Whether and how such relationships occur in wild animals is unknown. Behavioral variation among individuals arises from genetic and environmental factors and their interactions as well as from developmental programming (persistent effects of early-life environment). Although tremendous progress has been made in identifying genetic and environmental influences on individual differences in behavior, early-life effects are not well understood. Early-life effects can in some cases persist across multiple generations following a single exposure and, in principle, may constrain or facilitate the rate of evolution at multiple levels of biological organization. Understanding the mechanisms of such transgenerational effects (e.g., exposure to stress hormones in utero, inherited epigenetic alterations) may prove crucial to explaining unexpected and/or sex-specific responses to selection as well as limits to adaptation. One area receiving increased attention is early-life effects on adult physical activity. Correlational data from epidemiological studies suggest that early-life nutritional stress can (adversely) affect adult human activity levels and associated physiological traits (e.g., body composition, metabolic health). The few existing studies of laboratory rodents demonstrate that both maternal and early-life exercise can affect adult levels of physical activity and related phenotypes. Going forward, rodents offer many opportunities for experimental studies of (multigenerational) early-life effects, including studies that use maternal

  19. Internal wave emission from baroclinic jets: experimental results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borcia, Ion D.; Rodda, Costanza; Harlander, Uwe

    2016-04-01

    Large-scale balanced flows can spontaneously radiate meso-scale inertia-gravity waves (IGWs) and are thus in fact unbalanced. While flow-dependent parameterizations for the radiation of IGWs from orographic and convective sources do exist, the situation is less developed for spontaneously emitted IGWs. Observations identify increased IGW activity in the vicinity of jet exit regions. A direct interpretation of those based on geostrophic adjustment might be tempting. However, directly applying this concept to the parameterization of spontaneous imbalance is difficult since the dynamics itself is continuously re-establishing an unbalanced flow which then sheds imbalances by GW radiation. Examining spontaneous IGW emission in the atmosphere and validating parameterization schemes confronts the scientist with particular challenges. Due to its extreme complexity, GW emission will always be embedded in the interaction of a multitude of interdependent processes, many of which are hardly detectable from analysis or campaign data. The benefits of repeated and more detailed measurements, while representing the only source of information about the real atmosphere, are limited by the non-repeatability of an atmospheric situation. The same event never occurs twice. This argues for complementary laboratory experiments, which can provide a more focused dialogue between experiment and theory. Indeed, life cycles are also examined in rotating-annulus laboratory experiments. Thus, these experiments might form a useful empirical benchmark for theoretical and modeling work that is also independent of any sort of subgrid model. In addition, the more direct correspondence between experimental and model data and the data reproducibility makes lab experiments a powerful testbed for parameterizations. Here we show first results from a small rotating annulus experiments and we will further present our new experimental facility to study wave emission from jets and fronts.

  20. Experimental Results of Guided Wave Travel Time Tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volker, Arno; Mast, Arjan; Bloom, Joost

    2010-02-01

    Corrosion is one of the industries major issues regarding the integrity of assets. Currently inspections are conducted at regular intervals to ensure a sufficient integrity level of these assets. Both economical and social requirements are pushing the industry to even higher levels of availability, reliability and safety of installations. The concept of predictive maintenance using permanent sensors that monitor the integrity of an installation is an interesting addition to the current method of periodic inspections reducing uncertainty and extending inspection intervals. Guided wave travel time tomography is a promising method to monitor the wall thickness quantitatively over large areas. Obviously the robustness and reliability of such a monitoring system is of paramount importance. Laboratory experiments have been carried out on a 10″ pipe with a nominal wall thickness of 8 mm. Multiple, inline defects have been created with a realistic morphology. The depth of the defects was increased stepwise from 0.5 mm to 2 mm. Additionally the influences of the presence of liquid inside the pipe and surface roughness have been evaluated as well. Experimental results show that this method is capable of providing quantitative wall thickness information over a distance of 4 meter, with a sufficient accuracy such that results can be used for trending. The method has no problems imaging multiple defects.

  1. New experimental results on beam-plasma interaction in solenoids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arzhannikov, A.V.; Burdakov, A.V.; Kapitonov, V.A.

    1988-01-01

    New results are presented on studying the beam-plasma interaction and plasma heating dynamics at the INAR device. The specific features of the generation of ''hot'' (E greater than or ∼ 1 keV) plasma electrons containing the main part of the plasma energy are studied. In the case of a beam with a small initial angular spread, the ''hot'' electrons are shown to be mainly generated near the point where the beam is injected into the plasma. Also reported are the results of the experiments in which the magnetic field in the beam-plasma interaction region was increased up to 70 kOe. In this case, at the plasma length of 75 cm, the total beam energy losses exceed 40%. The growth of the plasma energy content at higher magnetic field is observed. The first stage of the GOL-3 experiment is described which is aimed at the study of the plasma heating is solonoid by a 100 kJ microsecond electron beam. This new experimental device is now ready for operation (author)

  2. Theoretical and Experimental Results Regarding LENR/CF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robert W. Bass; Wm. Stan Gleeson

    2000-01-01

    We challenge the predominant view that low-energy nuclear reactions (LENRs) are prohibited by standard quantum mechanics (QM). This view, supposedly based on standard nuclear theory, need not apply in condensed-matter environments. These considerations indicate that seemingly novel experimental evidence of rapid aneutronic bulk-process transmutation, at extraordinarily low-energy levels, in a simple electrochemical reactor, can occur. This explains: (a) induced rapid decay of radioactive thorium into stable nuclides, e.g., Cu and (b) resulting, anomalous distribution of Cu isotopes. We reexamine arguments of Peebles cited as evidence that standard QM 'forbids' cold fusion (CF). We note oversimplifications in those and present an alternative, more sophisticated calculation (see Bass, Refs. 3 through 8) demonstrating that conventional wisdom about impenetrability of the 'Coulomb barrier' fails as a result of periodic-order-induced resonance. We also examine empirical evidence. In three independent tests of an LENR electrolysis cell, using different I-V-T (current/voltage/time) protocols, the percentage of radiation reduction (RR) transmutation achieved η=[23%, 50%, 83%] versus expended energy E=[0.6535, 32.5, 74.6] (Watt-hours), obtained by numerical integration of recorded product I · V for processing time T, provides near-perfect straight-line correlation: η=α·E + η 0 , α=0.8105, η 0 =22.888, (0.65 < E < 0.75)

  3. Theoretical analysis of experimental results on SG-1 FEL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Zhenhua; Wu Shangqing; Tian Shihong; Dong Zhiwei; Wu Yupu

    1994-01-01

    In order to study the SG-1 FEL and the beam transport thoroughly, and draw certain quantitative conclusions, we developed 3-D WAGFEL code to describe the FEL evolution and 3-D CEBQ code to describe the beam transport. The CEBQ code can simulate the 3-D transport of the electron beam in the modulation section with linear approximation of space charge. According to the first ASE experiments results, the LIA provided a 2 kA, 3.0 MeV beam with a normalized emittance of 0.6 πrad·cm, an energy spread (FWHM) of 4%, resulting in a beam brightness nearly 10 8 A/(πm·rad) 2 . The numerical simulation showed that the quality of the beam was good enough to abandon the 9-m long beam line and substitute it with a 2-m long drifting and focusing region. The second series of ASE and amplifier experiments began in October 1992. The beam transport section was modified. The ASE output power, the amplifier output power and detuning curve was measured. We analysed the experimental results using the WAGFEL and CEBQ codes with parameters equal to those of experiments. Firstly we followed 4096 electrons to simulate the transport process of the beam in the beam line under the condition of I = 2 kA, r b = 1 cm, γ = 6.8, Δγ/γ 4%, ε rms = 0.6 (πrad·cm). Through the simulation, we predicted that the beam current injected into the wiggler was about 611 A. Based on these beam parameters at the entrance of the wiggler, we simulated the FEL process with P in = 300 W. The results are also in Fig.7,8,9

  4. Relevance of nonlinear effects of uncertainties in the input data on the calculational results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvalho da Silva, F.; D'Angelo, A.; Gandini, A.; Rado, V.

    1982-01-01

    The second order sensitivity analysis relevant to neutron activations at the end of Fe and Na blocks shows that the discrepancy between the values obtained from the direct calculation and those which take into account the inaccuracy of the input data (average values) can be significant in cases of interest. It has been observed that, for a threshold detector response after a penetration larger than 50 cm in Fe blocks and 100 cm in Na blocks, the magnitude of this discrepancy (from 50% up to 100% of standard deviation) leads to the necessity of improving the existing accuracy of the inelastic cross-sections of Fe and Na. Moreover, the above discrepancy has been evaluated in terms of project parameters relevant to a power fast fission reactor, in particular, the Fe-displacement rate in the Fe/Na shield region and the Na-activation rate in the heat exchanger. (author)

  5. Experimental results on advanced inertial fusion schemes obtained within the HiPER project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batani, Dimitri; Santos, Jorge J.; Schurtz, Guy; Hulin, Sebastien; Ribeyre, Xavier; Nicolai, Philippe; Vauzour, Benjamin; Dorchies, Fabien; Gizzi, Leonida A.; Koester, Petra; Labate, Luca; Honrubia, Javier; Antonelli, Luca; Morace, Alessio; Volpe, Luca; Nazarov, Wiger; Pasley, John; Richetta, Maria; Lancaster, Kate; Spindloe, Christopher; Tolley, Martin; Neely, David; Kozlova, Michaela; Nejdl, Jaroslav; Rus, Bedrich; Wolowski, Jerzy; Badziak, Jan

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the results of experiments conducted within the Work Package 10 (fusion experimental programme) of the HiPER project. The aim of these experiments was to study the physics relevant for advanced ignition schemes for inertial confinement fusion, i.e. the fast ignition and the shock ignition. Such schemes allow to achieve a higher fusion gain compared to the indirect drive approach adopted in the National Ignition Facility in United States, which is important for the future inertial fusion energy reactors and for realising the inertial fusion with smaller facilities. (authors)

  6. Design and experimental results of coaxial circuits for gyroklystron amplifiers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flaherty, M.K.E.; Lawson, W.; Cheng, J.; Calame, J.P.; Hogan, B.; Latham, P.E.; Granatstein, V.L.

    1994-01-01

    At the University of Maryland high power microwave source development for use in linear accelerator applications continues with the design and testing of coaxial circuits for gyroklystron amplifiers. This presentation will include experimental results from a coaxial gyroklystron that was tested on the current microwave test bed, and designs for second harmonic coaxial circuits for use in the next generation of the gyroklystron program. The authors present test results for a second harmonic coaxial circuit. Similar to previous second harmonic experiments the input cavity resonated at 9.886 GHz and the output frequency was 19.772 GHz. The coaxial insert was positioned in the input cavity and drift region. The inner conductor consisted of a tungsten rod with copper and ceramic cylinders covering its length. Two tungsten rods that bridged the space between the inner and outer conductors supported the whole assembly. The tube produced over 20 MW of output power with 17% efficiency. Beam interception by the tungsten rods resulted in minor damage. Comparisons with previous non-coaxial circuits showed that the coaxial configuration increased the parameter space over which stable operation was possible. Future experiments will feature an upgraded modulator and beam formation system capable of producing 300 MW of beam power. The fundamental frequency of operation is 8.568 GHz. A second harmonic coaxial gyroklystron circuit was designed for use in the new system. A scattering matrix code predicts a resonant frequency of 17.136 GHz and Q of 260 for the cavity with 95% of the outgoing microwaves in the desired TE032 mode. Efficiency studies of this second harmonic output cavity show 20% expected efficiency. Shorter second harmonic output cavity designs are also being investigated with expected efficiencies near 34%

  7. Experimental results for an experimental condensation heat exchanger with a spiral minichanel tube. Comparison to numerical imulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hrubý J.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes new results for an experimental heat exchanger equipped with a single corrugated capillary tube, basic information about the measurements and the experimental setup. Some of the results were compared with numerical simulations.

  8. Comprehensive Evaluation of Algal Biofuel Production: Experimental and Target Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colin M. Beal

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Worldwide, algal biofuel research and development efforts have focused on increasing the competitiveness of algal biofuels by increasing the energy and financial return on investments, reducing water intensity and resource requirements, and increasing algal productivity. In this study, analyses are presented in each of these areas—costs, resource needs, and productivity—for two cases: (1 an Experimental Case, using mostly measured data for a lab-scale system, and (2 a theorized Highly Productive Case that represents an optimized commercial-scale production system, albeit one that relies on full-price water, nutrients, and carbon dioxide. For both cases, the analysis described herein concludes that the energy and financial return on investments are less than 1, the water intensity is greater than that for conventional fuels, and the amounts of required resources at a meaningful scale of production amount to significant fractions of current consumption (e.g., nitrogen. The analysis and presentation of results highlight critical areas for advancement and innovation that must occur for sustainable and profitable algal biofuel production can occur at a scale that yields significant petroleum displacement. To this end, targets for energy consumption, production cost, water consumption, and nutrient consumption are presented that would promote sustainable algal biofuel production. Furthermore, this work demonstrates a procedure and method by which subsequent advances in technology and biotechnology can be framed to track progress.

  9. Laser long-range remote-sensing program experimental results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Highland, Ronald G.; Shilko, Michael L.; Fox, Marsha J.; Gonglewski, John D.; Czyzak, Stanley R.; Dowling, James A.; Kelly, Brian; Pierrottet, Diego F.; Ruffatto, Donald; Loando, Sharon; Matsuura, Chris; Senft, Daniel C.; Finkner, Lyle; Rae, Joe; Gallegos, Joe

    1995-12-01

    A laser long range remote sensing (LRS) program is being conducted by the United States Air Force Phillips Laboratory (AF/PL). As part of this program, AF/PL is testing the feasibility of developing a long path CO(subscript 2) laser-based DIAL system for remote sensing. In support of this program, the AF/PL has recently completed an experimental series using a 21 km slant- range path (3.05 km ASL transceiver height to 0.067 km ASL target height) at its Phillips Laboratory Air Force Maui Optical Station (AMOS) facility located on Maui, Hawaii. The dial system uses a 3-joule, (superscript 13)C isotope laser coupled into a 0.6 m diameter telescope. The atmospheric optical characterization incorporates information from an infrared scintillometer co-aligned to the laser path, atmospheric profiles from weather balloons launched from the target site, and meteorological data from ground stations at AMOS and the target site. In this paper, we report a description of the experiment configuration, a summary of the results, a summary of the atmospheric conditions and their implications to the LRS program. The capability of such a system for long-range, low-angle, slant-path remote sensing is discussed. System performance issues relating to both coherent and incoherent detection methods, atmospheric limitations, as well as, the development of advanced models to predict performance of long range scenarios are presented.

  10. Experimental result of poloidal limiter baking of Aditya tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jadeja, K.A.; Arambhadiya, B.G.; Bhatt, S.B.; Bora, D.

    2005-01-01

    In tokamak Aditya, Poloidal limiter function as the operational limiter and are subjected to very high particles load and heat flux during plasma discharge. In addition, Poloidal limiter is the first material surface to come in contact with the hot plasma. In plasma discharge, the impurity generations from limiter are mostly by adsorbed particles. The baking of limiter provides high degassing rate and thermal desorption of adsorbed particles of limiter to reduce impurities from the limiter tiles. The series of experiments are done with different conditions like, Baking of limiter SS ring by heating element with and without limiter tiles in atmosphere and vacuum. Than Poloidal limiter is structured with 14 numbers of graphite tiles and electrical isolated to the vessel and support structure. As a heating element and for electrical isolation, Nychrome wire and ceramic block with ceramic tubes are used. In addition, Thermo couple and two DC power supply (0-10 Ampere) are used for limiter baking. Mass analyzer gives partial pressures of different species to observe effect of limiter baking. For the period of Poloidal limiter baking in Aditya, the partial pressures of different species like hydrogen, water vapor, and oxygen are extremely increased with time duration. This paper presents series of experimental results of poloidal limiter baking. (author)

  11. Acoustic analysis in Mudejar-Gothic churches: experimental results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galindo, Miguel; Zamarreño, Teófilo; Girón, Sara

    2005-05-01

    This paper describes the preliminary results of research work in acoustics, conducted in a set of 12 Mudejar-Gothic churches in the city of Seville in the south of Spain. Despite common architectural style, the churches feature individual characteristics and have volumes ranging from 3947 to 10 708 m3. Acoustic parameters were measured in unoccupied churches according to the ISO-3382 standard. An extensive experimental study was carried out using impulse response analysis through a maximum length sequence measurement system in each church. It covered aspects such as reverberation (reverberation times, early decay times), distribution of sound levels (sound strength); early to late sound energy parameters derived from the impulse responses (center time, clarity for speech, clarity, definition, lateral energy fraction), and speech intelligibility (rapid speech transmission index), which all take both spectral and spatial distribution into account. Background noise was also measured to obtain the NR indices. The study describes the acoustic field inside each temple and establishes a discussion for each one of the acoustic descriptors mentioned by using the theoretical models available and the principles of architectural acoustics. Analysis of the quality of the spaces for music and speech is carried out according to the most widespread criteria for auditoria.

  12. Controlled Nuclear Fusion Research, September 1965: Review Of Experimental Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spitzer, Lyman Jr. [Princeton University, Princeton, NJ (United States)

    1966-04-15

    To my way of thinking the most significant milestone of the present meeting is the substantial body of evidence that has been presented on the hydromagnetic stabilization of open-ended systems. The success of minimum magnetic-field ('minimum-B') configurations in stabilizing a plasma marks one more area where theory and experiment in the field of plasma physics have been brought together with gratifying results. Let me go back a little into history and discuss the gradual growth of our information on hydromagnetic instabilities generally. Many of you will remember that hydromagnetic theory was applied to the self-pinched discharge in the early years of the controUed fusion programme. The predictions of this theory were very shortly fulfilled by the observations; the effects were so unmistakable that it was not difficult to compare the theory with the observations. On the streak pictures of the linear or toroidal discharges that were obtained in those early years one saw clearly the diffuse plasma column, which first contracted to a narrow filament and then started to distort and kink until finally it hit the wall. Under some conditions the plasma was observed to break up into a series of blobs like a string of sausages. Since the behaviour was exactly what the theory had predicted, it took no very great experimental wisdom to conclude that observations had confirmed theory.

  13. Experimental results on transport and focusing of laser accelerated protons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Busold, Simon; Deppert, Oliver; Roth, Markus [TU Darmstadt, IKP, Schlossgartenstr. 9, 64289 Darmstadt (Germany); Schumacher, Dennis; Blazevic, Abel; Zielbauer, Bernhard; Hofmann, Ingo; Bagnoud, Vincent [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung, Planckstr. 1, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Brabetz, Christian; Al-Omari, Husam [JWG Universitaet Frankfurt, IAP, Max von Laue Str. 1, 60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Joost, Martin; Kroll, Florian; Cowan, Tom [Helmholtzzentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Bautzner Landstr. 400, 01328 Dresden (Germany); Collaboration: LIGHT-Collaboration

    2013-07-01

    Irradiation of thin foils with high-intensity laser pulses became a reliable tool during the last decade for producing high-intensity proton bunches in about a pico-second from a sub-millimeter source. However, the energy distribution is of an exponential shape with a currently achievable cut-off energy <100 MeV (TNSA mechanism) and the beam is highly divergent with an energy-dependent envelope-divergence of up to 60 deg. Thus, for most applications it is necessary to be able to capture and control these protons as well as select a specific energy. In the frame of the LIGHT collaboration, experimental studies were done at the PHELIX laser at GSI Darmstadt using a pulsed high-field solenoid and alternatively a permanent magnet quadrupole triplet in order to match the beam for injection into a RF cavity. The beam was characterized at several distances after the source and the results are compared to particle tracking simulations.

  14. Acoustic analysis in Mudejar-Gothic churches: Experimental results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galindo, Miguel; Zamarreño, Teófilo; Girón, Sara

    2005-05-01

    This paper describes the preliminary results of research work in acoustics, conducted in a set of 12 Mudejar-Gothic churches in the city of Seville in the south of Spain. Despite common architectural style, the churches feature individual characteristics and have volumes ranging from 3947 to 10 708 m3. Acoustic parameters were measured in unoccupied churches according to the ISO-3382 standard. An extensive experimental study was carried out using impulse response analysis through a maximum length sequence measurement system in each church. It covered aspects such as reverberation (reverberation times, early decay times), distribution of sound levels (sound strength); early to late sound energy parameters derived from the impulse responses (center time, clarity for speech, clarity, definition, lateral energy fraction), and speech intelligibility (rapid speech transmission index), which all take both spectral and spatial distribution into account. Background noise was also measured to obtain the NR indices. The study describes the acoustic field inside each temple and establishes a discussion for each one of the acoustic descriptors mentioned by using the theoretical models available and the principles of architectural acoustics. Analysis of the quality of the spaces for music and speech is carried out according to the most widespread criteria for auditoria. .

  15. Fisetin, a dietary flavonoid, ameliorates experimental colitis in mice: Relevance of NF-κB signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahu, Bidya Dhar; Kumar, Jerald Mahesh; Sistla, Ramakrishna

    2016-02-01

    Fisetin, a dietary flavonoid, is commonly found in many fruits and vegetables. Although studies indicate that fisetin has an anti-inflammatory property, little is known about its effects on intestinal inflammation. The present study investigated the effects of the fisetin on dextran sulphate sodium (DSS)-induced murine colitis, an animal model that resembles human inflammatory bowel disease. Fisetin treatment to DSS-exposed mice significantly reduced the severity of colitis and alleviated the macroscopic and microscopic signs of the disease. Moreover, fisetin reduced the levels of myeloperoxidase activity, the production of proinflammatory cytokines, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) and the expressions of COX-2 and iNOS in the colon tissues. Further studies revealed that fisetin suppressed the activation of NF-κB (p65) by inhibiting IκBα phosphorylation and NF-κB (p65)-DNA binding activity and attenuated the phosphorylation of Akt and the p38, but not ERK and JNK MAPKs in the colon tissues of DSS-exposed mice. In addition, DSS-induced decline in reduced glutathione (GSH) and the increase in malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were significantly restored by oral fisetin. Furthermore, the results from in vitro studies showed that fisetin significantly reduced the pro-inflammatory cytokine and mediator release and suppressed the degradation and phosphorylation of IκBα with subsequent nuclear translocation of NF-κB (p65) in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated mouse primary peritoneal macrophages. These results suggest that fisetin exerts anti-inflammatory activity via inhibition of Akt, p38 MAPK and NF-κB signaling in the colon tissues of DSS-exposed mice. Thus, fisetin may be a promising candidate as pharmaceuticals or nutraceuticals in the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Which aspects of functioning are relevant for patients with ankylosing spondylitis: results of focus group interviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boonen, Annelies; van Berkel, Monique; Cieza, Alarcos; Stucki, Gerold; van der Heijde, Désirée

    2009-11-01

    To investigate whether concepts important to patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS) are covered by disease-specific self-report health status instruments. A qualitative focus group study was conducted with AS patients on problems in daily functioning. Group sessions with 4 to 5 patients each were organized up to the point that no new information was brought forward. Group sessions were tape-recorded, transcribed, and divided into meaning units. Concepts contained in the meaning units were extracted. Self-report instruments on health status specific for AS were identified in a literature search. Using the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) as a common reference, it was determined whether the concepts identified in the focus groups were covered by the instruments. Nineteen patients participated in 4 focus group interviews. In total, 332 unique meaning units were linked to 90 second-level ICF categories, of which 25 referred to body functions, 10 to body structures, 35 to activities and participation and 30 to environmental factors. In addition, several concepts relating to personal factors were identified. Only 47 categories were also covered by one of the self-report instruments in AS. Only a minority of concepts addressed by the AS-specific questionnaires were not revealed as relevant in the interviews. Relevant aspects of the influence of AS are not covered by the classic disease-specific instruments. In particular, the influence of AS on socializing and leisure and the relevance of environmental and personal factors are not adequately assessed by available instruments.

  17. Relevance of workplace social mixing during influenza pandemics: an experimental modelling study of workplace cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timpka, T; Eriksson, H; Holm, E; Strömgren, M; Ekberg, J; Spreco, A; Dahlström, Ö

    2016-07-01

    Workplaces are one of the most important regular meeting places in society. The aim of this study was to use simulation experiments to examine the impact of different workplace cultures on influenza dissemination during pandemics. The impact is investigated by experiments with defined social-mixing patterns at workplaces using semi-virtual models based on authentic sociodemographic and geographical data from a North European community (population 136 000). A simulated pandemic outbreak was found to affect 33% of the total population in the community with the reference academic-creative workplace culture; virus transmission at the workplace accounted for 10·6% of the cases. A model with a prevailing industrial-administrative workplace culture generated 11% lower incidence than the reference model, while the model with a self-employed workplace culture (also corresponding to a hypothetical scenario with all workplaces closed) produced 20% fewer cases. The model representing an academic-creative workplace culture with restricted workplace interaction generated 12% lower cumulative incidence compared to the reference model. The results display important theoretical associations between workplace social-mixing cultures and community-level incidence rates during influenza pandemics. Social interaction patterns at workplaces should be taken into consideration when analysing virus transmission patterns during influenza pandemics.

  18. Experimental Characterization of a Composite Morphing Radiator Prototype in a Relevant Thermal Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertagne, Christopher L.; Chong, Jorge B.; Whitcomb, John D.; Hartl, Darren J.; Erickson, Lisa R.

    2017-01-01

    For future long duration space missions, crewed vehicles will require advanced thermal control systems to maintain a desired internal environment temperature in spite of a large range of internal and external heat loads. Current radiators are only able to achieve turndown ratios (i.e. the ratio between the radiator's maximum and minimum heat rejection rates) of approximately 3:1. Upcoming missions will require radiators capable of 12:1 turndown ratios. A radiator with the ability to alter shape could significantly increase turndown capacity. Shape memory alloys (SMAs) offer promising qualities for this endeavor, namely their temperature-dependent phase change and capacity for work. In 2015, the first ever morphing radiator prototype was constructed in which SMA actuators passively altered the radiator shape in response to a thermal load. This work describes a follow-on endeavor to demonstrate a similar concept using highly thermally conductive composite materials. Numerous versions of this new concept were tested in a thermal vacuum environment and successfully demonstrated morphing behavior and variable heat rejection, achieving a turndown ratio of 4.84:1. A summary of these thermal experiments and their results are provided herein.

  19. Prospects for new information relevant to radiation protection from studies of experimental animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McClellan, R.O.

    1988-01-01

    The theory underlying radiation protection was developed from studies of people, laboratory animals, tissues, cells and macromolecules. Data on people were obtained from opportunistic studies of individuals previously exposed to radiation. Rarely has it been possible to conduct prospective studies of people exposed to known quantities of radiation, which sharply restricts the nature of questions that they can address. In contrast, studies using laboratory animals and simpler biological systems can be designed to address specific questions, using controlled exposure conditions. In-vitro research with macromolecules, cells and tissues leads to understanding normal and disease processes in isolated biological components. Studies of the intact animals provide opportunities to study in vivo interactive mechanisms observed in vitro and their role in development of radiation-induced diseases such as cancer. In the future, studies of intact animals should prove increasingly valuable in linking new knowledge at the subanimal level with the more fragmentary information obtained from direct observations on people. This will provide insight into important issues such as (a) effects of low-level radiation exposures, (b) mechanism of cancer induction at high versus low radiation doses, and (c) influence of factors such as nutrition and exposure to chemicals on radiation-induced cancer. This presentation describes strategies for conducting and integrating results of research using macromolecules, cells, tissues, laboratory animals and people to improve our understanding of radiation-induced cancer. It will also emphasize the problems encountered in studies at all levels of biological organization when the disease is observed in low excess incidence long after exposure to the toxicant

  20. Experimental and modelling studies of iodine oxide formation and aerosol behaviour relevant to nuclear reactor accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dickinson, S.; Auvinen, A.; Ammar, Y.; Bosland, L.; Clément, B.; Funke, F.; Glowa, G.; Kärkelä, T.; Powers, D.A.; Tietze, S.; Weber, G.; Zhang, S.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Radiolytic reactions can influence iodine volatility following a nuclear accident. • Kinetic models have been developed based on atmospheric chemistry studies. • Properties of iodine oxide aerosols produced by radiation have been measured. • Decomposition of iodine oxides by the action of heat or radiation has been observed. - Abstract: Plant assessments have shown that iodine contributes significantly to the source term for a range of accident scenarios. Iodine has a complex chemistry that determines its chemical form and, consequently, its volatility in the containment. If volatile iodine species are formed by reactions in the containment, they will be subject to radiolytic reactions in the atmosphere, resulting in the conversion of the gaseous species into involatile iodine oxides, which may deposit on surfaces or re-dissolve in water pools. The concentration of airborne iodine in the containment will, therefore, be determined by the balance between the reactions contributing to the formation and destruction of volatile species, as well as by the physico-chemical properties of the iodine oxide aerosols which will influence their longevity in the atmosphere. This paper summarises the work that has been done in the framework of the EC SARNET (Severe Accident Research Network) to develop a greater understanding of the reactions of gaseous iodine species in irradiated air/steam atmospheres, and the nature and behaviour of the reaction products. This work has mainly been focussed on investigating the nature and behaviour of iodine oxide aerosols, but earlier work by members of the SARNET group on gaseous reaction rates is also discussed to place the more recent work into context

  1. Energy-resolved computed tomography: first experimental results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shikhaliev, Polad M

    2008-01-01

    First experimental results with energy-resolved computed tomography (CT) are reported. The contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) in CT has been improved with x-ray energy weighting for the first time. Further, x-ray energy weighting improved the CNR in material decomposition CT when applied to CT projections prior to dual-energy subtraction. The existing CT systems use an energy (charge) integrating x-ray detector that provides a signal proportional to the energy of the x-ray photon. Thus, the x-ray photons with lower energies are scored less than those with higher energies. This underestimates contribution of lower energy photons that would provide higher contrast. The highest CNR can be achieved if the x-ray photons are scored by a factor that would increase as the x-ray energy decreases. This could be performed by detecting each x-ray photon separately and measuring its energy. The energy selective CT data could then be saved, and any weighting factor could be applied digitally to a detected x-ray photon. The CT system includes a photon counting detector with linear arrays of pixels made from cadmium zinc telluride (CZT) semiconductor. A cylindrical phantom with 10.2 cm diameter made from tissue-equivalent material was used for CT imaging. The phantom included contrast elements representing calcifications, iodine, adipose and glandular tissue. The x-ray tube voltage was 120 kVp. The energy selective CT data were acquired, and used to generate energy-weighted and material-selective CT images. The energy-weighted and material decomposition CT images were generated using a single CT scan at a fixed x-ray tube voltage. For material decomposition the x-ray spectrum was digitally spilt into low- and high-energy parts and dual-energy subtraction was applied. The x-ray energy weighting resulted in CNR improvement of calcifications and iodine by a factor of 1.40 and 1.63, respectively, as compared to conventional charge integrating CT. The x-ray energy weighting was also applied

  2. Results of Experimental Study on Flexitime and Family Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winett, Richard A.; Neale, Michael S.

    1980-01-01

    According to two small experimental studies of flexible working hours, federal workers with young children choose to arrive at and depart from work earlier, allowing them to increase the time spent with their families and to engage in recreational, educational, and household activities. (Author/SK)

  3. Alkali Metal Backup Cooling for Stirling Systems - Experimental Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwendeman, Carl; Tarau, Calin; Anderson, William G.; Cornell, Peggy A.

    2013-01-01

    In a Stirling Radioisotope Power System (RPS), heat must be continuously removed from the General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) modules to maintain the modules and surrounding insulation at acceptable temperatures. The Stirling convertor normally provides this cooling. If the Stirling convertor stops in the current system, the insulation is designed to spoil, preventing damage to the GPHS at the cost of an early termination of the mission. An alkali-metal Variable Conductance Heat Pipe (VCHP) can be used to passively allow multiple stops and restarts of the Stirling convertor. In a previous NASA SBIR Program, Advanced Cooling Technologies, Inc. (ACT) developed a series of sodium VCHPs as backup cooling systems for Stirling RPS. The operation of these VCHPs was demonstrated using Stirling heater head simulators and GPHS simulators. In the most recent effort, a sodium VCHP with a stainless steel envelope was designed, fabricated and tested at NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) with a Stirling convertor for two concepts; one for the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG) back up cooling system and one for the Long-lived Venus Lander thermal management system. The VCHP is designed to activate and remove heat from the stopped convertor at a 19 degC temperature increase from the nominal vapor temperature. The 19 degC temperature increase from nominal is low enough to avoid risking standard ASRG operation and spoiling of the Multi-Layer Insulation (MLI). In addition, the same backup cooling system can be applied to the Stirling convertor used for the refrigeration system of the Long-lived Venus Lander. The VCHP will allow the refrigeration system to: 1) rest during transit at a lower temperature than nominal; 2) pre-cool the modules to an even lower temperature before the entry in Venus atmosphere; 3) work at nominal temperature on Venus surface; 4) briefly stop multiple times on the Venus surface to allow scientific measurements. This paper presents the experimental

  4. Thermal-hydraulically controlled blowdown tests in the experimental facility COSIMA to study PWR fuel behavior: experimental and theoretical results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Class, G.; Hain, K.; Meyder, R.

    1978-01-01

    The fuel behavior in the blow-down phase of a LOCA is of importance for fuel rods with high internal pressure and high rod power, because of the effects on clad failure of the small cladding deformations occurring. The operating results of the COSIMA facility show that, on the basis of the new developments for measuring technique and fuel rod simulators performed, reactor relevant blow-down performances can be conducted in a controlled and reproduceable manner. The mechanical and thermal-hydraulic states occurring in the test bed may be subject to computational checking. This permits on one hand to improve the computing models and on the other yields a confirmation of the high state of development of the available computer codes. Therefore it appears that, with the results from COSIMA and the associated theoretical work in the field of the blow-down process, difficult to treat experimentally, an essential contribution to verifying the models for accident calculations is given. The work scheduled for the next about 1 1/2 years will serve to further support the rather preliminary results and to extend the range of then application. (orig.) [de

  5. Phase diagram Fe-Sn-Sr. New experimental results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nieva, N; Jimenez, M.J; Gomez, A; Corvalan Moya, C; Arias, D

    2012-01-01

    Zr-based alloys are widely used in nuclear industry due to their specific characteristics. The information of the phase diagrams of the ternary system Fe-Zr-Sn is scarce. In this work we investigate, in a experimental way, the central and the Fe-Sn binary adjacent regions of the Fe-Sn-Zr Gibbs triangle at the temperature of 800 o C. For the experimental work, a set of seven ternary alloys was designed, produced and examined by different complementary techniques. There were performed two types of heat treatments: one of medium and another of long duration. We present a new proposal for the 800 o C isothermal section. The boundaries of the identified phases and the fields of one, two and three phases are indicated in the diagram

  6. Experimental results from a flowing-lithium target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Annese, C.E.; Schwartz, K.E.

    1982-01-01

    Hydraulic stability of a free surface lithium jet was demonstrated at 260 0 C and from the middle-vacuum region of 0.01 Pa (10 - 4 Torr) up to 124 kPa (18 psia). The jet is formed by flowing lithium at rates to 0.04 m 3 /s (600 GPM) through a precisely defined nozzle which directs the flow along a curved wall where velocities of up to 17 m/s are attained. This nozzle and curved wall configuration form the basis of the Fusion Materials Irradiation Test (FMIT) Facility lithium target. A full-size experimental model of this target is presently under test with flowing lithium in the Experimental Lithium System (ELS). The FMIT is being developed for the Department of Energy by the Westinghouse Hanford Company at the Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory

  7. Experimentally increasing sedentary behavior results in decreased life satisfaction

    OpenAIRE

    Edwards, Meghan K.; Loprinzi, Paul D.

    2017-01-01

    Background: No study has experimentally manipulated sedentary behavior and evaluated its effect on life satisfaction. Thus, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of a free-living, sedentary behavior-inducing randomized controlled intervention on life satisfaction. Methods: Active, young adults between the ages of 18-35 were recruited and randomly assigned into a sedentary behavior intervention group (n = 26) or a control group (n = 13). The intervention group par...

  8. High temperature pressure water's blowdown into water. Experimental results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishida, Toshihisa; Kusunoki, Tsuyoshi; Kasahara, Yoshiyuki; Iida, Hiromasa

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of the present experimental study is to clarify the phenomena in blowdown of high temperature and pressure water in pressure vessel into the containment water for evaluation of design of an advanced marine reactor(MRX). The water blown into the containment water flushed and formed steam jet plume. The steam jet condensed in the water, but some stream penetrated to gas phase of containment and contributed to increase of containment pressure. (author)

  9. Polypharmacy as a Risk Factor for Clinically Relevant Sarcopenia: Results From the Berlin Aging Study II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    König, Maximilian; Spira, Dominik; Demuth, Ilja; Steinhagen-Thiessen, Elisabeth; Norman, Kristina

    2017-12-12

    Sarcopenia affects more than 10% of older adults. Next to age-associated physiologic changes, diseases like diabetes or inflammatory, neurological, malignant and endocrine disorders may contribute to the development of sarcopenia. Likewise, polypharmacy, i.e., multiple drug use, is common among older adults. Although the two conditions frequently co-occur, the association of polypharmacy with sarcopenia has not yet been examined. We investigated the association of polypharmacy and sarcopenia in a large cohort of community-dwelling older adults (60-84 years). Thousand five hundred and two participants from the Berlin Aging Study II were included. Polypharmacy was defined as concurrent use of 5 or more drugs (prescription and nonprescription). Body composition was assessed with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and appendicular lean mass (ALM) was calculated as sum of the four limbs' lean mass. Sarcopenia was defined as low ALM-to-body mass index (BMI)-ratio using validated sex-specific cutoffs. Mean age was 68.7 ± 3.7 years, 50.7% were female. The median (interquartile range) number of drugs was 2 (1-4); 21.1% of subjects reported regular use of ≥5 drugs. Subjects with polypharmacy were more often sarcopenic according to the applied ALM/BMI-cutoffs (16.3% vs 6.9%, p sarcopenia (odds ratio = 2.24, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.33-3.75). Polypharmacy is associated with clinically relevant sarcopenia, as assessed by a low ALM/BMI. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. DNA breathing dynamics: analytic results for distribution functions of relevant Brownian functionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandyopadhyay, Malay; Gupta, Shamik; Segal, Dvira

    2011-03-01

    We investigate DNA breathing dynamics by suggesting and examining several Brownian functionals associated with bubble lifetime and reactivity. Bubble dynamics is described as an overdamped random walk in the number of broken base pairs. The walk takes place on the Poland-Scheraga free-energy landscape. We suggest several probability distribution functions that characterize the breathing process, and adopt the recently studied backward Fokker-Planck method and the path decomposition method as elegant and flexible tools for deriving these distributions. In particular, for a bubble of an initial size x₀, we derive analytical expressions for (i) the distribution P(t{f}|x₀) of the first-passage time t{f}, characterizing the bubble lifetime, (ii) the distribution P(A|x₀) of the area A until the first-passage time, providing information about the effective reactivity of the bubble to processes within the DNA, (iii) the distribution P(M) of the maximum bubble size M attained before the first-passage time, and (iv) the joint probability distribution P(M,t{m}) of the maximum bubble size M and the time t{m} of its occurrence before the first-passage time. These distributions are analyzed in the limit of small and large bubble sizes. We supplement our analytical predictions with direct numericalsimulations of the related Langevin equation, and obtain a very good agreement in the appropriate limits. The nontrivial scaling behavior of the various quantities analyzed here can, in principle, be explored experimentally.

  11. Observer Based Sliding Mode Attitude Control: Theoretical and Experimental Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Jørgensen

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present the design of a sliding mode controller for attitude control of spacecraft actuated by three orthogonal reaction wheels. The equilibrium of the closed loop system is proved to be asymptotically stable in the sense of Lyapunov. Due to cases where spacecraft do not have angular velocity measurements, an estimator for the generalized velocity is derived and asymptotic stability is proven for the observer. The approach is tested on an experimental platform with a sphere shaped Autonomous Underwater Vehicle SATellite: AUVSAT, developed at the Norwegian University of Science and Technology.

  12. Experimental results on spin physics at the AGS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makdisi, Y.I.

    1986-01-01

    The AGS ran with polarized protons towards the end of 1985 and through the first two months of 1986. This comprised commissioning periods interleaved with two runs for physics at 13.5 GeV/c with beam polarization of 50 to 60%, and 18.5 GeV/c with an average beam polarization of 40%. Later, the AGS polarized beam reached peak energy of 22 GeV/c and polarization of 46%. This article describes the various spin related experimental efforts since the VI Symposium at Marseille. These will be grouped into those using unpolarized beams and the rest are the polarized proton beam users. Afterwards the future of the program is described as extensions of current experiments in addition to other measurements that are yet to be proposed

  13. Experimental MR imaging with Gd-DOTA: Preliminary results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schouman-Claeys, E.; Kien, P.; Caille, J.M.; Bonnemain, B.; Frija, G.

    1986-01-01

    To evaluate the paramagnetic properties of a new gadolinium chelate, Gd-DOTA, in vitro and in vivo MR imaging was performed with a 0.5-T supraconductive magnet. The in vitro study consisted in measuring the MR signal obtained with various concentrations of Gd-DOTA and Gd-DTPA in different solutions. Potentialization of the paramagnetic properties of both DOTA and DTPA can be achieved by deuterium, glycerol, and protein solutions. The in vivo study was performed in rabbits with various experimental lesions. Enhancement of anatomic details was obtained with both Gd-DOTA and Gd-DTPA. There was no significant difference between Gd-DOTA and Gd-DTPA, both for in vitro and in vivo experiments. Gd-DOTA appears to be a potential paramagnetic agent for MR imaging

  14. Waste glass corrosion modeling: Comparison with experimental results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourcier, W.L.

    1994-01-01

    Models for borosilicate glass dissolution must account for the processes of (1) kinetically-controlled network dissolution, (2) precipitation of secondary phases, (3) ion exchange, (4) rate-limiting diffusive transport of silica through a hydrous surface reaction layer, and (5) specific glass surface interactions with dissolved cations and anions. Current long-term corrosion models for borosilicate glass employ a rate equation consistent with transition state theory embodied in a geochemical reaction-path modeling program that calculates aqueous phase speciation and mineral precipitation/dissolution. These models are currently under development. Future experimental and modeling work to better quantify the rate-controlling processes and validate these models are necessary before the models can be used in repository performance assessment calculations

  15. A first glance at the initial ATF experimental results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carreras, B.A.; Dominguez, N.; Leboeuf, J.N.; Lynch, V.E.; Charlton, L.A.

    1989-05-01

    In the initial phase of ATF operation, the plasma minor radius and the edge rotational transform were reduced by field errors. This caused an effective change of the magnetic configuration: it improved the stability properties but worsened the equilibrium properties. The threshold for the second stability regime was lowered to β 0 /approximately/ 1.5%. Experimental profile data are compatible with operation in the second stability regime, and the achieved beta values, β 0 /approximately/ 3%, are well beyond the theoretically calculated threshold. Magnetic fluctuation measurements showed the effects of beta self-stabilization. They are in reasonable agreement with the predictions of the theory and support the evidence that ATF has already operated in the second stability regime. 24 refs., 20 figs., 1 tab

  16. Overview of recent experimental results from the Aditya tokamak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanna, R. L.; Ghosh, J.; Chattopadhyay, P. K.; Raj, Harshita; Patel, Sharvil; Dhyani, P.; Gupta, C. N.; Jadeja, K. A.; Patel, K. M.; Bhatt, S. B.; Panchal, V. K.; Patel, N. C.; Chavda, Chhaya; Praveenlal, E. V.; Shah, K. S.; Makawana, M. N.; Jha, S. K.; Gopalkrishana, M. V.; Tahiliani, K.; Sangwan, Deepak; Raju, D.; Nagora, Umesh; Pathak, S. K.; Atrey, P. K.; Purohit, S.; Raval, J.; Joisa, Y. S.; Rao, C. V. S.; Chowdhuri, M. B.; Banerjee, S.; Ramaiya, N.; Manchanda, R.; Thomas, J.; Kumar, Ajai; Ajay, Kumar; Sharma, P. K.; Kulkarni, S. V.; Sathyanarayana, K.; Shukla, B. K.; Das, Amita; Jha, R.; Saxena, Y. C.; Sen, A.; Kaw, P. K.; Bora, D.; the ADITYA Team

    2017-10-01

    Several experiments, related to controlled thermonuclear fusion research and highly relevant for large size tokamaks, including ITER, have been carried out in ADITYA, an ohmically heated circular limiter tokamak. Repeatable plasma discharges of a maximum plasma current of ~160 kA and discharge duration beyond ~250 ms with a plasma current flattop duration of ~140 ms have been obtained for the first time in ADITYA. The reproducibility of the discharge reproducibility has been improved considerably with lithium wall conditioning, and improved plasma discharges are obtained by precisely controlling the position of the plasma. In these discharges, chord-averaged electron density ~3.0-4.0  ×  1019 m-3 using multiple hydrogen gas puffs, with a temperature of the order of ~500-700 eV, have been achieved. Novel experiments related to disruption control are carried out and disruptions, induced by hydrogen gas puffing, are successfully mitigated using the biased electrode and ion cyclotron resonance pulse techniques. Runaway electrons are successfully mitigated by applying a short local vertical field (LVF) pulse. A thorough disruption database has been generated by identifying the different categories of disruption. Detailed analysis of several hundred disrupted discharges showed that the current quench time is inversely proportional to the q edge. Apart from this, for volt-sec recovery during the plasma formation phase, low loop voltage start-up and current ramp-up experiments have been carried out using electron cyclotron resonance heating (ECRH). Successful recovery of volt-sec leads to the achievement of longer plasma discharge durations. In addition, the neon gas puff assisted radiative improved confinement mode has also been achieved in ADITYA. All of the above mentioned experiments will be discussed in this paper.

  17. Attentional bias modification based on visual probe task: methodological issues, results and clinical relevance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Machado Lopes

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Attentional bias, the tendency that a person has to drive or maintain attention to a specific class of stimuli, may play an important role in the etiology and persistence of mental disorders. Attentional bias modification has been studied as a form of additional treatment related to automatic processing. Objectives: This systematic literature review compared and discussed methods, evidence of success and potential clinical applications of studies about attentional bias modification (ABM using a visual probe task. Methods: The Web of Knowledge, PubMed and PsycInfo were searched using the keywords attentional bias modification, attentional bias manipulation and attentional bias training. We selected empirical studies about ABM training using a visual probe task written in English and published between 2002 and 2014. Results: Fifty-seven studies met inclusion criteria. Most (78% succeeded in training attention in the predicted direction, and in 71% results were generalized to other measures correlated with the symptoms. Conclusions: ABM has potential clinical utility, but to standardize methods and maximize applicability, future studies should include clinical samples and be based on findings of studies about its effectiveness.

  18. Resolution of contradiction between in silico predictions and Ames test results for four pharmaceutically relevant impurities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunther, William C; Kenyon, Michelle O; Cheung, Jennifer R; Dugger, Robert W; Dobo, Krista L

    2017-12-01

    The ICH M7 Guideline requires low level control of mutagenic impurities in pharmaceutical products to minimize cancer risk in patients (ICHM7, 2014). Bacterial mutagenicity (Ames) data is generally used to determine mutagenic and possible carcinogenic potential of compounds. Recently, a publication on experiences of using two in silico systems to identify potentially mutagenic impurities highlighted the importance of performing a critical review of published Ames data utilized as part of a mutagenicity assessment of impurities (Greene et al., 2015). Four compounds (2-amino-5-hydroxybenzoic acid, 2-amino-3-chlorobenzoic acid, methyl 2-amino-4-chlorobenzoate and 4-morpholinopyridine) reported mutagenic were identified in a two system in silico assessment and expert review of the structuresas non-mutagenic. Likely reasons for mutagenicity could not be identified and the purity of the compounds tested was proposed. In the current investigation, the purest available sample of the four compounds was tested in an OECD-compliant Ames test. The compounds were all found to be non-mutagenic. Possible reasons for the discrepancy between previously reported and current results are discussed. Additionally, important points to consider when conducting an expert review of available Ames data are provided particularly in cases where reported Ames results are discrepant with a two system in silico assessment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Vaporization inside a mini microfin tube: experimental results and modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diani, A.; Rossetto, L.

    2015-11-01

    This paper proposes a comparison among the common R134a and the extremely low GWP refrigerant R1234yf during vaporization inside a mini microfin tube. This microfin tube has an internal diameter of 2.4 mm, it has 40 fins, with a fin height of 0.12 mm. Due to the high heat transfer coefficients shown by this tube, this technology can lead to a refrigerant charge reduction. Tests were run in the Heat Transfer in Micro Geometries Lab of the Dipartimento di Ingegneria Industriale of the Università di Padova. Mass velocities range between 375 and 940 kg m-2 s-1, heat fluxes from 10 to 50 kW m-2, vapour qualities from 0.10 to 0.99, at a saturation temperature of 30°C. The comparison among the two fluids is proposed at the same operating conditions, in order to highlight the heat transfer and pressure drop differences among the two refrigerants. In addition, two correlations are proposed to estimate the heat transfer coefficient and frictional pressure drop during refrigerant flow boiling inside mini microfin tubes. These correlations well predict the experimental values, and thus they can be used as a useful tool to design evaporators based on these mini microfin tubes.

  20. Construction of a WMR for Trajectory Tracking Control: Experimental Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Silva-Ortigoza

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports a solution for trajectory tracking control of a differential drive wheeled mobile robot (WMR based on a hierarchical approach. The general design and construction of the WMR are described. The hierarchical controller proposed has two components: a high-level control and a low-level control. The high-level control law is based on an input-output linearization scheme for the robot kinematic model, which provides the desired angular velocity profiles that the WMR has to track in order to achieve the desired position (x*,y* and orientation (φ*. Then, a low-level control law, based on a proportional integral (PI approach, is designed to control the velocity of the WMR wheels to ensure those tracking features. Regarding the trajectories, this paper provides the solution or the following cases: (1 time-varying parametric trajectories such as straight lines and parabolas and (2 smooth curves fitted by cubic splines which are generated by the desired data points x1*,y1*,…,xn*,yn*. A straightforward algorithm is developed for constructing the cubic splines. Finally, this paper includes an experimental validation of the proposed technique by employing a DS1104 dSPACE electronic board along with MATLAB/Simulink software.

  1. Waste glass corrosion modeling: Comparison with experimental results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourcier, W.L.

    1993-11-01

    A chemical model of glass corrosion will be used to predict the rates of release of radionuclides from borosilicate glass waste forms in high-level waste repositories. The model will be used both to calculate the rate of degradation of the glass, and also to predict the effects of chemical interactions between the glass and repository materials such as spent fuel, canister and container materials, backfill, cements, grouts, and others. Coupling between the degradation processes affecting all these materials is expected. Models for borosilicate glass dissolution must account for the processes of (1) kinetically-controlled network dissolution, (2) precipitation of secondary phases, (3) ion exchange, (4) rate-limiting diffusive transport of silica through a hydrous surface reaction layer, and (5) specific glass surface interactions with dissolved cations and anions. Current long-term corrosion models for borosilicate glass employ a rate equation consistent with transition state theory embodied in a geochemical reaction-path modeling program that calculates aqueous phase speciation and mineral precipitation/dissolution. These models are currently under development. Future experimental and modeling work to better quantify the rate-controlling processes and validate these models are necessary before the models can be used in repository performance assessment calculations

  2. Modeling of rock friction 1. Experimental results and constitutive equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dieterich, J.H.

    1979-01-01

    Direct shear experiments on ground surfaces of a granodiorite from Raymond, California, at normal stresses of approx.6 MPa demonstrate that competing time, displacement, and velocity, effects control rock friction. It is proposed that the strength of the population of points of contacts between sliding surfaces determines frictional strength and that the population of contacts changes continuously with displacements. Previous experiments demonstrate that the strength of the contacts increases with the age of the contacts. The present experiments establish that a characteristic displacement, proportional to surface roughness, is required to change the population of contacts. Hence during slip the average age of the points of contact and therefore frictional strength decrease as slip velocity increases. Displacement weakening and consequently the potential for unstable slip occur whenever displacement reduces the average age of the contacts. In addition to this velocity dependency, which arises from displacement dependency and time dependency, the experiments also show a competing but transient increase in friction whenever slip velocity increases. Creep of the sliding surface at stresses below that for steady state slip also observed. Constitutive relationships are developed that permit quantitative simulation of the friction versus displacement data as a function of surface roughness and for different time and velocity histories. Unstable slip in experiments is controlled by these constitutive effects and by the stiffness of the experimental system. It is argued that analogous properties control earthquake instability

  3. Experimental results with hydrogen fueled internal combustion engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Boer, P. C. T.; Mclean, W. J.; Homan, H. S.

    1975-01-01

    The paper focuses on the most important experimental findings for hydrogen-fueled internal combustion engines, with particular reference to the application of these findings to the assessment of the potential of hydrogen engines. Emphasis is on the various tradeoffs that can be made, such as between maximum efficiency, maximum power, and minimum NO emissions. The various possibilities for induction and ignition are described. Some projections are made about areas in which hydrogen engines may find their initial application and about optimum ways to design such engines. It is shown that hydrogen-fueled reciprocal internal combustion engines offer important advantages with respect to thermal efficiency and exhaust emissions. Problems arising from preignition can suitably be avoided by restricting the fuel-air equivalence ratio to values below about 0.5. The direct cylinder injection appears to be a very attractive way to operate the engine, because it combines a wide range of possible power outputs with a high thermal efficiency and very low NO emissions at part loads.

  4. Experimental Results from a Microwave Cavity Beam Position Monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balakin, V.; Bazhan, A.; Lunev, P.; Solyak, N.; Vogel, V.; Zhogolev, P.; Lisitsyn, A.; Yakimenko, V.

    1999-01-01

    Future Linear Colliders have hard requirements for the beam transverse position stability in the accelerator. A beam Position Monitor (BPM) with the resolution better than 0.1 micron in the single bunch regime is needed to control the stability of the beam position along the linac. Proposed BPM is based on the measurement of the asymmetrical mode excited by single bunch in the cavity. Four stages of signal processing (space-, time-, frequency- and phase-filtering providing the required signal-to-noise ratio) are used to obtain extremely high resolution. The measurement set-up was designed by BINP and installed at ATF/BNL to test experimentally this concept. The set-up includes three two-coordinates BPM's at the frequency of 13.566 GHz, and reference intensity/phase cavity. BPM's were mounted on support table. The two-coordinates movers allow to move and align BPM's along the straight line, using the signals from the beam. The position of each monitor is controlled by the sensors with the accuracy 0.03 micron. The information from three monitors allows to exclude angle and position jitter of the beam and measure BPM resolution. In the experiments the resolution of about 0.15 micron for 0.25 nC beam intensity was obtained, that is close to the value required

  5. Test results of an ITER relevant FPGA when irradiated with neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batista, Antonio J. N.; Santos, Bruno; Fernandes, Ana; Goncalves, Bruno [Instituto de Plasmas e Fusao Nuclear, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Universidade de Lisboa, 1049-001 Lisboa, (Portugal); Leong, Carlos; Teixeira, Joao P. [Instituto de Engenharia de Sistemas e Computadores - Investigacao e Desenvolvimento, 1000-029 Lisboa, (Portugal); Ramos, Ana Rita; Santos, Joana P.; Marques, Jose G. [Centro de Ciencias e Tecnologias Nucleares, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Universidade de Lisboa, 2695-066 Bobadela, (Portugal)

    2015-07-01

    The data acquisition and control instrumentation cubicles room of the ITER tokamak will be irradiated with neutrons during the fusion reactor operation. A Virtex-6 FPGA from Xilinx (XC6VLX365T-1FFG1156C) is used on the ATCA-IO-PROCESSOR board, included in the ITER Catalog of I and C products - Fast Controllers. The Virtex-6 is a re-programmable logic device where the configuration is stored in Static RAM (SRAM), functional data stored in dedicated Block RAM (BRAM) and functional state logic in Flip-Flops. Single Event Upsets (SEU) due to the ionizing radiation of neutrons causes soft errors, unintended changes (bit-flips) to the values stored in state elements of the FPGA. The SEU monitoring and soft errors repairing, when possible, were explored in this work. An FPGA built-in Soft Error Mitigation (SEM) controller detects and corrects soft errors in the FPGA configuration memory. Novel SEU sensors with Error Correction Code (ECC) detect and repair the BRAM memories. Proper management of SEU can increase reliability and availability of control instrumentation hardware for nuclear applications. The results of the tests performed using the SEM controller and the BRAM SEU sensors are presented for a Virtex-6 FPGA (XC6VLX240T-1FFG1156C) when irradiated with neutrons from the Portuguese Research Reactor (RPI), a 1 MW nuclear fission reactor operated by IST in the neighborhood of Lisbon. Results show that the proposed SEU mitigation technique is able to repair the majority of the detected SEU errors in the configuration and BRAM memories. (authors)

  6. Data base of reactor physics experimental results in Kyoto University critical assembly experimental facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ichihara, Chihiro; Fujine, Shigenori; Hayashi, Masatoshi

    1986-01-01

    The Kyoto University critical assembly experimental facilities belong to the Kyoto University Research Reactor Institute, and are the versatile critical assembly constructed for experimentally studying reactor physics and reactor engineering. The facilities are those for common utilization by universities in whole Japan. During more than ten years since the initial criticality in 1974, various experiments on reactor physics and reactor engineering have been carried out using many experimental facilities such as two solidmoderated cores, a light water-moderated core and a neutron generator. The kinds of the experiment carried out were diverse, and to find out the required data from them is very troublesome, accordingly it has become necessary to make a data base which can be processed by a computer with the data accumulated during the past more than ten years. The outline of the data base, the data base CAEX using personal computers, the data base supported by a large computer and so on are reported. (Kako, I.)

  7. Experimental studies of keV energy neutron-induced reactions relevant to astrophysics and nuclear physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shima, T.; Kii, T.; Kikuchi, T.; Okazaki, F.; Kobayashi, T.; Baba, T.; Nagai, Y. [Tokyo Inst. of Tech. (Japan). Faculty of Science; Igashira, M.

    1997-03-01

    Nuclear reactions induced by keV energy neutrons provide a plenty of informations for studies of both astrophysics and nuclear physics. In this paper we will show our experimental studies of neutron- induced reactions of light nuclei in the keV energy region by means of a pulsed keV neutron beam and high-sensitivity detectors. Also we will discuss astrophysical and nuclear-physical consequences by using the obtained results. (author)

  8. Some recent multi-frequency electron paramagnetic resonance results on systems relevant for dosimetry and dating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callens, F; Vanhaelewyn, G; Matthys, P

    2002-04-01

    Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) applications like e.g. EPR dosimetry and dating, are usually performed at X-band frequencies because of practical reasons (cost, sample size, etc.). However, it is increasingly recognized that the radiation-induced EPR signals are strongly composite, what might affect dose/age estimates. A few recent examples from both the dosimetry and dating field, illustrating the problems, will be presented. The involved spectra are mainly due to carbonate-derived radicals (CO2-, CO3(3-), etc.). Measurements at higher microwave frequencies are often recommended to improve the insight into the spectra and/or the practical signal quantification. Recent results at Q- and W-band frequencies will show that a multi-frequency approach indeed opens many interesting perspectives in this field but also that each frequency may have specific (dis)advantages depending on the EPR probe and application involved. The discussion will concern carbonate-containing apatite single crystals, shells, modern and fossil tooth enamel.

  9. Ventilation Relevant Contaminants of Concern in Commercial Buildings Screening Process and Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parthasarathy, Srinandini [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); McKone, Thomas E. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Apte, Michael G. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2011-04-29

    This report summarizes the screening procedure and its results for selecting contaminants of concern (COC), whose concentrations are affected by ventilation in commercial buildings. Many pollutants comprising criteria pollutants, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs) and biological contaminants are found in commercial buildings. In this report, we focus primarily on identifying potential volatile organic COC, which are impacted by ventilation. In the future we plan to extend this effort to inorganic gases and particles. Our screening considers compounds detected frequently in indoor air and compares the concentrations to health-guidelines and thresholds. However, given the range of buildings under consideration, the contaminant sources and their concentrations will vary depending on the activity and use of the buildings. We used a literature review to identify a large list of chemicals found in commercial-building indoor air. The VOCs selected were subject to a two stage screening process, and the compounds of greater interest are included in priority List A. Other VOCs that have been detected in commercial buildings are included in priority List B. The compounds in List B, were further classified into groups B1, B2, B3, B4 in order of decreasing interest.

  10. Evidence relevant to the life on Mars debate. I - C-14 results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, I. P.; Grady, M. M.; Pillinger, C. T.

    1997-03-01

    The Martian meteorite EET A79001 contains, in localized concentrations, a relatively high proportion of organic materials, equivalent to about 1000 ppm carbon (compared to a maximum of 200 ppm which could be ascribed to terrestrial contamination). The organic compounds are associated with carbonate minerals, for which arguments have been made to substantiate a preterrestrial (i.e., Martian) origin. However, measurements of C-14 have cast aspersions on the provenance of the carbonates, suggesting instead a terrestrial origin. Herein we show that these results are misleading and conclude that the minerals are indeed Martian. What we are left with now are putative Martian organic materials with a carbon isotopic composition that is very similar to that of the Earth's biomass. More importantly there is a large isotopic difference between the carbon in the organic fraction compared with that of Martian atmospheric carbon dioxide (and subsequently formed carbonates). It is tempting to equate this with the effect of vital processes on Earth. For this to be true it would be necessary to accept that biological activity had occurred on Mars in the very recent past (i.e., between 0.6 x 10 exp 6 and 0.18 x 10 exp 9 yr ago).

  11. A review of experimental results at the knee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoeorandel, Joerg R.

    2006-01-01

    Results of experiments investigating air showers in the energy region of the knee are summarized. The all-particle energy spectrum, the mean logarithmic mass, and the average depth of the shower maximum will be discussed. Spectra for groups of elements from air shower data are compared to results from direct measurements

  12. Metal fires and their implications for advanced reactors. Part 3: Experimental and modeling results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nowlen, Steven Patrick; Figueroa, Victor G.; Olivier, Tara Jean; Hewson, John C.; Blanchat, Thomas K.

    2010-01-01

    This report details the primary results of the Laboratory Directed Research and Development project (LDRD 08-0857) Metal Fires and Their Implications for Advance Reactors. Advanced reactors may employ liquid metal coolants, typically sodium, because of their many desirable qualities. This project addressed some of the significant challenges associated with the use of liquid metal coolants, primary among these being the extremely rapid oxidation (combustion) that occurs at the high operating temperatures in reactors. The project has identified a number of areas for which gaps existed in knowledge pertinent to reactor safety analyses. Experimental and analysis capabilities were developed in these areas to varying degrees. In conjunction with team participation in a DOE gap analysis panel, focus was on the oxidation of spilled sodium on thermally massive surfaces. These are spills onto surfaces that substantially cool the sodium during the oxidation process, and they are relevant because standard risk mitigation procedures seek to move spill environments into this regime through rapid draining of spilled sodium. While the spilled sodium is not quenched, the burning mode is different in that there is a transition to a smoldering mode that has not been comprehensively described previously. Prior work has described spilled sodium as a pool fire, but there is a crucial, experimentally-observed transition to a smoldering mode of oxidation. A series of experimental measurements have comprehensively described the thermal evolution of this type of sodium fire for the first time. A new physics-based model has been developed that also predicts the thermal evolution of this type of sodium fire for the first time. The model introduces smoldering oxidation through porous oxide layers to go beyond traditional pool fire analyses that have been carried out previously in order to predict experimentally observed trends. Combined, these developments add significantly to the safety

  13. Surgical Anatomy and Microvascular Surgical Technique Relevant to Experimental Renal Transplant in Rat Employing Aortic and Inferior Venacaval Conduits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Badri Man; Haylor, John

    2017-11-15

    Rat models of renal transplant are used to investigate immunologic processes and responses to therapeutic agents before their translation into routine clinical practice. In this study, we have described details of rat surgical anatomy and our experiences with the microvascular surgical technique relevant to renal transplant by employing donor inferior vena cava and aortic conduits. For this study, 175 rats (151 Lewis and 24 Fisher) were used to establish the Fisher-Lewis rat model of chronic allograft injury at our institution. Anatomic and technical details were recorded during the period of training and establishment of the model. A final group of 12 transplanted rats were studied for an average duration of 51 weeks for the Lewis-to-Lewis isografts (5 rats) and 42 weeks for the Fisher-to-Lewis allografts (7 rats). Functional measurements and histology confirmed the diagnosis of chronic allograft injury. Mastering the anatomic details and microvascular surgical techniques can lead to the successful establishment of an experimental renal transplant model.

  14. Experimental results on charmonium from E760 (FNAL)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armstrong, T.A.; Hasan, M.A.; Lewis, R.A.; Majewska, A.M.; Reid, J.D.; Smith, G.A.; Zhang, Y.; Bettoni, D.; Borreani, G.; Calabrese, R.; Dalpiaz, P.; Dalpiaz, P.F.; Fabbri, M.; Luppi, E.; Martini, M.; Petrucci, F.; Savrie, M.; Bharadwaj, V.; Church, M.D.; Hahn, A.A.; Hsueh, S.Y.; Marsh, W.; Peoples, J. Jr.; Pordes, S.; Rapidis, P.A.; Werkema, S.J.; Biino, C.; Ceccucci, A.; Cester, R.; Marchetto, F.; Menichetti, E.; Migliori, A.; Mussa, R.; Palestini, S.; Pastrone, N.; Pesando, L.; Rinaudo, G.; Tecchio, L.; Broemmelsiek, D.R.; Fast, J.E.; Gee, M.; Gollwitzer, K.E.; Mandelkern, M.A.; Marques, J.L.; Schultz, J.; Weber, M.F.; Zioulas, G.; Buzzo, A.; Dameri, M.; Ferroni, S.; Macri, M.; Marinelli, M.; Patrignani, C.; Pia, M.G.; Santroni, A.; Tommasini, S.; Zito, M.; Dimitroyannis, D.; Ginsburg, C.M.; Masuzawa, M.; Rosen, J.L.; Sarmiento, M.; Seth, K.K.; Trokenheim, S.; Zhao, J.L.; Ray, R.E.

    1992-01-01

    E760 is a fixed target experiment dedicated to the study of charmonium spectroscopy in anti pp annihilations. Results on X 1 and X 2 resonance parameters from 1990 data taking are presented, consisting of precise measurement of mass, total width and partial width to anti pp. A preliminary result is presented on the first determination of Ψ'width from line shape analysis. (orig.)

  15. Reporting the results of meta-analyses: a plea for incorporating clinical relevance referring to an example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartels, Ronald H M A; Donk, Roland D; Verhagen, Wim I M; Hosman, Allard J F; Verbeek, André L M

    2017-11-01

    The results of meta-analyses are frequently reported, but understanding and interpreting them is difficult for both clinicians and patients. Statistical significances are presented without referring to values that imply clinical relevance. This study aimed to use the minimal clinically important difference (MCID) to rate the clinical relevance of a meta-analysis. This study is a review of the literature. This study is a review of meta-analyses relating to a specific topic, clinical results of cervical arthroplasty. The outcome measure used in the study was the MCID. We performed an extensive literature search of a series of meta-analyses evaluating a similar subject as an example. We searched in Pubmed and Embase through August 9, 2016, and found articles concerning meta-analyses of the clinical outcome of cervical arthroplasty compared with that of anterior cervical discectomy with fusion in cases of cervical degenerative disease. We evaluated the analyses for statistical significance and their relation to MCID. MCID was defined based on results in similar patient groups and a similar disease entity reported in the literature. We identified 21 meta-analyses, only one of which referred to MCID. However, the researchers used an inappropriate measurement scale and, therefore, an incorrect MCID. The majority of the conclusions were based on statistical results without mentioning clinical relevance. The majority of the articles we reviewed drew conclusions based on statistical differences instead of clinical relevance. We recommend introducing the concept of MCID while reporting the results of a meta-analysis, as well as mentioning the explicit scale of the analyzed measurement. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. New experimental results on electron cooling at COSY-Juelich

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dietrich, J.; Maier, R.; Prasuhn, D.; Stein, H.J.; Kobets, A.; Meshkov, I.; Sidorin, A.; Smirnov, A.

    2007-01-01

    Recent results of electron cooling of proton beams at COSY-Juelich are reported. Cooling at an electron energy of 70 keV has been studied for the first time. At the injection energy level of COSY, corresponding to 24.5 keV electron energy, the features of the cooled proton beam at extremely low intensities have been investigated in order to find out whether an ordering of the proton beam can be achieved. Such investigations are motivated by the results of a numerical simulation of the ordering process by the BETACOOL code. (author)

  17. Comments on experimental results of energy confinement of tokamak plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chu, T.K.

    1989-04-01

    The results of energy-confinement experiments on steady-state tokamak plasmas are examined. For plasmas with auxiliary heating, an analysis based on the heat diffusion equation is used to define heat confinement time (the incremental energy confinement time). For ohmically sustained plasmas, experiments show that the onset of the saturation regime of energy confinement, marfeing, detachment, and disruption are marked by distinct values of the parameter /bar n//sub e///bar j/. The confinement results of the two types of experiments can be described by a single surface in 3-dimensional space spanned by the plasma energy, the heating power, and the plasma density: the incremental energy confinement time /tau//sub inc/ = ΔW/ΔP is the correct concept for describing results of heat confinement in a heating experiment; the commonly used energy confinement time defined by /tau//sub E/ = W/P is not. A further examination shows that the change of edge parameters, as characterized by the change of the effective collision frequency ν/sub e/*, governs the change of confinement properties. The totality of the results of tokamak experiments on energy confinement appears to support a hypothesis that energy transport is determined by the preservation of the pressure gradient scale length. 70 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab

  18. Review of JT-60U experimental results in 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adachi, H.; Akasaka, H.; Akino, N.

    1999-09-01

    Based on the high confinement regimes such as reversed shear mode, high-β p mode and H-mode, the JT-60U experiment in 1998 was devoted to expand the discharge regimes in terms of 1) achievement of high fusion gain, 2) concept optimization for long sustainment of the advanced modes for >>τ E and >τ p * with the current profile close to the steady-state solution, 3) high confinement by electron heating (T e >T i ), 4) high confinement at high electron density and/or at high divertor radiation and 5) active control of multiple parameters including both core and divertor plasmas. As for the reversed shear mode, high performance discharges satisfying Q DT eq (DT equivalent fusion gain ) >1 were obtained reproducibly and the record value of Q DT eq =1.25 was achieved in a reactor-relevant thermonuclear dominant regime due to the optimized discharge scenario using feedback control of the neutron production rate where β-values were kept in the MHD stable region during the I p ramping phase with a large radius of the internal transport barrier (ITB). The reduction of Z eff obtained after installation of W-shaped pumped divertor increased fusion reaction rate. Concerning long sustainment, the reversed shear ELMy H-mode with H 89PL -factor∼1.5-2 and β N =1.0-1.4 was kept for 5.5 s with NB heating. By off axis LH current drive, the reversed shear current profile with the ITB was kept constant for 4.7 s under full non- inductive current drive condition (LHCD=77%, bootstrap=23%) at T e -1.2T i . In the high-β p ELMy H-mode regime, benefits of the high triangularity shape were demonstrated. At a high triangularity δ X ∼0.46, β N =2.5-2.7 was sustained for 3.5 s even at the low value of q 95 =2.9-3.3. The product of β N xH-factor sustainable for >5τ E (>τ p *) increases with δ x and reaches ∼6 at δ X ∼0.46. In addition to extension of the discharge regimes, the key phenomena determining transport and stability around ITBs were studied intensively. For the

  19. Review of JT-60U experimental results in 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adachi, H.; Akasaka, H.; Akino, N. [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Naka, Ibaraki (Japan). Naka Fusion Research Establishment] [and others

    1999-09-01

    Based on the high confinement regimes such as reversed shear mode, high-{beta}{sub p} mode and H-mode, the JT-60U experiment in 1998 was devoted to expand the discharge regimes in terms of 1) achievement of high fusion gain, 2) concept optimization for long sustainment of the advanced modes for >>{tau}{sub E} and >{tau}{sub p}* with the current profile close to the steady-state solution, 3) high confinement by electron heating (T{sub e}>T{sub i}), 4) high confinement at high electron density and/or at high divertor radiation and 5) active control of multiple parameters including both core and divertor plasmas. As for the reversed shear mode, high performance discharges satisfying Q{sub DT}{sup eq} (DT equivalent fusion gain ) >1 were obtained reproducibly and the record value of Q{sub DT}{sup eq}=1.25 was achieved in a reactor-relevant thermonuclear dominant regime due to the optimized discharge scenario using feedback control of the neutron production rate where {beta}-values were kept in the MHD stable region during the I{sub p} ramping phase with a large radius of the internal transport barrier (ITB). The reduction of Z{sub eff} obtained after installation of W-shaped pumped divertor increased fusion reaction rate. Concerning long sustainment, the reversed shear ELMy H-mode with H{sup 89PL}-factor{approx}1.5-2 and {beta}{sub N}=1.0-1.4 was kept for 5.5 s with NB heating. By off axis LH current drive, the reversed shear current profile with the ITB was kept constant for 4.7 s under full non- inductive current drive condition (LHCD=77%, bootstrap=23%) at T{sub e}-1.2T{sub i}. In the high-{beta}{sub p} ELMy H-mode regime, benefits of the high triangularity shape were demonstrated. At a high triangularity {delta}{sub X}{approx}0.46, {beta}{sub N}=2.5-2.7 was sustained for 3.5 s even at the low value of q{sub 95}=2.9-3.3. The product of {beta}{sub N}xH-factor sustainable for >5{tau}{sub E} (>{tau}{sub p}*) increases with {delta}{sub x} and reaches {approx}6 at {delta

  20. Experimental high power plasma-filled backward wave oscillator results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minami, K.; Lou, W.R.; Destler, W.W.; Kehs, R.A.; Granatstein, V.L.; Carmel, Y.

    1988-01-01

    Previous results have indicated that a background gas can be used to increase the output microwave power of relativistic backward wave oscillators (BWOs) two or three times the vacuum case. In their experiments, two methods of plasma production are investigated in detail: the use of the electron beam to ionize a background gas, and the use of a plasma gun to inject a background plasma into the slow-wave structure of a BWO. It is found in the first case that there was a resonant increase in microwave power at a particular pressure of the background gas by a factor of ten. In the second case, power also increased compared with power production in vacuum. Detailed results are presented and the relative merits of the two approaches is discussed and compared with theoretical expectations

  1. Verification of aseismic design model by using experimental results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizuno, N.; Sugiyama, N.; Suzuki, T.; Shibata, Y.; Miura, K.; Miyagawa, N.

    1985-01-01

    A lattice model is applied as an analysis model for an aseismic design of the Hamaoka nuclear reactor building. With object to verify an availability of this design model, two reinforced concrete blocks are constructed on the ground and the forced vibration tests are carried out. The test results are well followed by simulation analysis using the lattice model. Damping value of the ground obtained from the test is more conservative than the design value. (orig.)

  2. Recent experimental results in sub- and near-barrier heavy-ion fusion reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montagnoli, Giovanna [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Universita di Padova (Italy); INFN Sezione di Padova (Italy); Stefanini, Alberto M. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, Legnaro (Padova) (Italy)

    2017-08-15

    Recent advances obtained in the field of near and sub-barrier heavy-ion fusion reactions are reviewed. Emphasis is given to the results obtained in the last decade, and focus is mainly on the experimental work performed concerning the influence of transfer channels on fusion cross sections and the hindrance phenomenon far below the barrier. Indeed, early data of sub-barrier fusion taught us that cross sections may strongly depend on the low-energy collective modes of the colliding nuclei, and, possibly, on couplings to transfer channels. The coupled-channels (CC) model has been quite successful in the interpretation of the experimental evidences. Fusion barrier distributions often yield the fingerprint of the relevant coupled channels. Recent results obtained by using radioactive beams are reported. At deep sub-barrier energies, the slope of the excitation function in a semi-logarithmic plot keeps increasing in many cases and standard CC calculations overpredict the cross sections. This was named a hindrance phenomenon, and its physical origin is still a matter of debate. Recent theoretical developments suggest that this effect, at least partially, may be a consequence of the Pauli exclusion principle. The hindrance may have far-reaching consequences in astrophysics where fusion of light systems determines stellar evolution during the carbon and oxygen burning stages, and yields important information for exotic reactions that take place in the inner crust of accreting neutron stars. (orig.)

  3. Calculation results and experimental testing of doppler feedback coefficients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Shunhai

    1989-01-01

    The Doppler feedback coefficients are calculated by the interpolation and group collapsing method from multigroup self-shielding factors and infinite dilution cross sections rather than effective resonance integrals by using resonance data base. Since many updated sets of multigroup data are in existence to be selected, the calculation process can be simplified. The heterogeneous effects are taken into account by equivalence relation. The computer code of Doppler feedback coefficients is created on computer CYBER-825 and PDP-11. The results calculated are in good agreement with the experiments

  4. Experimental test accelerator: description and results of initial experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fessenden, T.; Birx, D.; Briggs, R.

    1980-01-01

    The ETA is a high current (10,000 Amp) linear induction accelerator that produces short (30 ns) pulses of electrons at 5 MeV twice per second or in bursts of 5 pulses separated by as little as one millisecond. At this time the machine has operated at 65% of its design current and 90% of the design voltage. This report contains a description of the accelerator and its diagnostics; the results of the initial year of operation; a comparison of design codes with experiments on beam transport; and a discussion of some of the special problems and their status

  5. Influence of shock waves as a result of assumed vessel failure on parts of the plant relevant to safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danisch, R.; Graubner, U.

    1981-01-01

    The shock wave induced rupture is of subordinate importance for the laying out of the parts of the plant relevant to safety. It is covered by the precautions for maximum potential earthquakes, aircraft crashes and chemical explosions. The failure of vessels in the power house (WAZUe, SPWB) as the result of a maximum potential earthquake is extremely improbable. If a combination of the stresses resulting from maximum potential earthquakes with the hypothetical stresses resulting from vessel failure is undertaken, it can be seen that the total stresses are only increased by a minimal amount, due to the quadratic averaging of less than 3%. (orig./DG) [de

  6. Space Launch System Base Heating Test: Experimental Operations & Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufrene, Aaron; Mehta, Manish; MacLean, Matthew; Seaford, Mark; Holden, Michael

    2016-01-01

    NASA's Space Launch System (SLS) uses four clustered liquid rocket engines along with two solid rocket boosters. The interaction between all six rocket exhaust plumes will produce a complex and severe thermal environment in the base of the vehicle. This work focuses on a recent 2% scale, hot-fire SLS base heating test. These base heating tests are short-duration tests executed with chamber pressures near the full-scale values with gaseous hydrogen/oxygen engines and RSRMV analogous solid propellant motors. The LENS II shock tunnel/Ludwieg tube tunnel was used at or near flight duplicated conditions up to Mach 5. Model development was based on the Space Shuttle base heating tests with several improvements including doubling of the maximum chamber pressures and duplication of freestream conditions. Test methodology and conditions are presented, and base heating results from 76 runs are reported in non-dimensional form. Regions of high heating are identified and comparisons of various configuration and conditions are highlighted. Base pressure and radiometer results are also reported.

  7. Preliminary experimental results from a linear reciprocating magnetic refrigerator prototype

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tagliafico, Luca Antonio; Scarpa, Federico; Valsuani, Federico; Tagliafico, Giulio

    2013-01-01

    A linear reciprocating magnetic refrigerator prototype was designed and built with the aid of an industrial partner. The refrigerator is based on the Active Magnetic Regenerative cycle, and exploits two regenerators working in parallel. The active material is Gadolinium in plates, 0.8 mm thick, for a total mass of 0.36 kg. The device is described and results about magnetic field and temperature span measurements are presented. The designed permanent magnet structure, based on an improved cross-type arrangement, generates a maximum magnetic field intensity of 1.55 T in air, over a gap of (13 × 50 × 100) mm 3 . The maximum temperature span achieved is 5.0 K, in a free run condition. -- Highlights: ► We give preliminary results from a linear reciprocating magnetic refrigerator prototype. ► The design is intended to process visualization and investigation. ► The prototype behavior gives us various suggestions to improve its general performance

  8. Impacts of changing hydrology on permanent gully growth: experimental results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Stephanie S.; Gran, Karen B.; Paola, Chris

    2018-06-01

    Permanent gullies grow through head cut propagation in response to overland flow coupled with incision and widening in the channel bottom leading to hillslope failures. Altered hydrology can impact the rate at which permanent gullies grow by changing head cut propagation, channel incision, and channel widening rates. Using a set of small physical experiments, we tested how changing overland flow rates and flow volumes alter the total volume of erosion and resulting gully morphology. Permanent gullies were modeled as both detachment-limited and transport-limited systems, using two different substrates with varying cohesion. In both cases, the erosion rate varied linearly with water discharge, such that the volume of sediment eroded was a function not of flow rate, but of total water volume. This implies that efforts to reduce peak flow rates alone without addressing flow volumes entering gully systems may not reduce erosion. The documented response in these experiments is not typical when compared to larger preexisting channels where higher flow rates result in greater erosion through nonlinear relationships between water discharge and sediment discharge. Permanent gullies do not respond like preexisting channels because channel slope remains a free parameter and can adjust relatively quickly in response to changing flows.

  9. Experimental results on low alpha electron-storage rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robin, D.; Hama, H.; Nadji, A.

    1995-09-01

    The authors report on experiments performed in two synchrotron light sources, UVSOR and Super-ACO, where the momentum compaction factor is reduced in order to reduce the bunch length. By controlling the second-order momentum compaction factor, UVSOR and Super-ACO have managed to reduce the first-order momentum compaction factor by 100. At low current the resulting bunch lengths are less than 10 ps, a factor of 10 smaller than normal. Measurements of current dependent bunch lengthening in UVSOR are presented and the cause of the bunch lengthening is determined to be potential-well distortion. The authors also show that by operating with a negative momentum compaction factor, SuperACO has achieved shorter bunch lengthening and higher peak currents than at positive momentum compaction

  10. New experimental results in atlas-based brain morphometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gee, James C.; Fabella, Brian A.; Fernandes, Siddharth E.; Turetsky, Bruce I.; Gur, Ruben C.; Gur, Raquel E.

    1999-05-01

    In a previous meeting, we described a computational approach to MRI morphometry, in which a spatial warp mapping a reference or atlas image into anatomic alignment with the subject is first inferred. Shape differences with respect to the atlas are then studied by calculating the pointwise Jacobian determinant for the warp, which provides a measure of the change in differential volume about a point in the reference as it transforms to its corresponding position in the subject. In this paper, the method is used to analyze sex differences in the shape and size of the corpus callosum in an ongoing study of a large population of normal controls. The preliminary results of the current analysis support findings in the literature that have observed the splenium to be larger in females than in males.

  11. Experimental results: Pilot plant calcine dissolution and liquid feed stability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herbst, R.S.; Fryer, D.S.; Brewer, K.N.; Johnson, C.K.; Todd, T.A.

    1995-02-01

    The dissolution of simulated Idaho Chemical Processing Plant pilot plant calcines, containing none of the radioactive actinides, lanthanides or fission products, was examined to evaluate the solubility of calcine matrix materials in acidic media. This study was a necessary precursor to dissolution and optimization experiments with actual radionuclide-containing calcines. The importance of temperature, nitric acid concentration, ratio of acid volume to calcine mass, and time on the amount, as a weight percentage of calcine dissolved, was evaluated. These parameters were studied for several representative pilot plant calcine types: (1) Run No. 74 Zirconia calcine; (2) Run No. 17 Zirconia/Sodium calcine; (3) Run No. 64 Zirconia/Sodium calcine; (3) Run No. 1027 Alumina calcine; and (4) Run No. 20 Alumina/Zirconia/Sodium calcine. Statistically designed experiments with the different pilot plant calcines indicated the effect of the studied process variables on the amount of calcine dissolved decreases in the order: Acid/Calcine Ratio > Temperature > HNO 3 Concentration > Dissolution Time. The following conditions are suitable to achieve greater than 90 wt. % dissolution of most Zr, Al, or Na blend calcines: (1) Maximum nitric acid concentration of 5M; (2) Minimum acid/calcine ratio of 10 mL acid/1 gram calcine; (3) Minimum dissolution temperature of 90 degrees C; and (4) Minimum dissolution time of 30 minutes. The formation of calcium sulphate (CaSO 4 ) precipitates was observed in certain dissolved calcine solutions during the dissolution experiments. Consequently, a study was initiated to evaluate if and under what conditions the resulting dissolved calcine solutions would be unstable with regards to precipitate formation. The results indicate that precipitate formation in the calcine solutions prepared under the above proposed dissolution conditions are not anticipated

  12. [Experimental results of erbium:YAG laser vitrectomy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mrochen, M; Petersen, H; Wüllner, C; Seiler, T

    1998-01-01

    Vitrectomy performed by conventional guillotine devices includes the risk of mechanical damage to retina as well as other ocular structures. The present study aims to investigate the efficacy of the Er:YAG laser for vitreous liquefaction. Vitreous liquefaction by means of Er:YAG laser pulses was performed using a special handpiece. The output of an Er:YAG laser operating at 2.94 microns was coupled into a ZrF optical fibre (length 2 m) which ended inside a cavity located at the quartz tip (diameter 320 microns) of the handpiece where tissue ablation took place. The viscosity of the liquefied vitreous was determined by rotation viscosimetry and compared to liquefied vitreous obtained by mechanical vitrectomy. In addition, the aspiration flow (ml/min) was correlated to the repetition/cutting rate of the laser and the cutter. The temperature rise at the handpiece was recorded with a micro thermocouple. The cutting threshold was determined to 5 mJ +/- 3 mJ at a pulse duration of 200 microseconds. The viscosity of the vitreous liquefied with the Er:YAG laser was 31 +/- 10 mPa s which is similar to the results of mechanical vitrectomy (42 +/- 19 mPa s) but significant less than that of normal vitreous (880 +/- 280 mPa s). The aspiration of the laser handpiece in dependence to the repetition rate increases linear up to 2.6 ml/min at 30 Hz. The temperature increase at the handpiece was < 1 K under vitrectomy conditions (aspiration and irrigation) with an averaged laser power of 0.3 W (10 mJ at 30 Hz). The decreased vacuum forces used by the laser vitrectomy system may result in less mechanical stress to the retina as well as intravitreal structures which may be attached to it. An Er:YAG laser vitrectomy system may offer the potential of fewer complications during vitrectomy.

  13. Experimental Results of Integrated Refrigeration and Storage System Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Notardonato, W. U.; Johnson, W. L.; Jumper, K.

    2009-01-01

    Launch operations engineers at the Kennedy Space Center have identified an Integrated Refrigeration and Storage system as a promising technology to reduce launch costs and enable advanced cryogenic operations. This system uses a close cycle Brayton refrigerator to remove energy from the stored cryogenic propellant. This allows for the potential of a zero loss storage and transfer system, as well and control of the state of the propellant through densification or re-liquefaction. However, the behavior of the fluid in this type of system is different than typical cryogenic behavior, and there will be a learning curve associated with its use. A 400 liter research cryostat has been designed, fabricated and delivered to KSC to test the thermo fluid behavior of liquid oxygen as energy is removed from the cryogen by a simulated DC cycle cryocooler. Results of the initial testing phase focusing on heat exchanger characterization and zero loss storage operations using liquid oxygen are presented in this paper. Future plans for testing of oxygen densification tests and oxygen liquefaction tests will also be discussed. KEYWORDS: Liquid Oxygen, Refrigeration, Storage

  14. Bridge Testing With Ground-Based Interferometric Radar: Experimental Results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiara, P.; Morelli, A.

    2010-01-01

    The research of innovative non-contact techniques aimed at the vibration measurement of civil engineering structures (also for damage detection and structural health monitoring) is continuously directed to the optimization of measures and methods. Ground-Based Radar Interferometry (GBRI) represents the more recent technique available for static and dynamic control of structures and ground movements.Dynamic testing of bridges and buildings in operational conditions are currently performed: (a) to assess the conformity of the structure to the project design at the end of construction; (b) to identify the modal parameters (i.e. natural frequencies, mode shapes and damping ratios) and to check the variation of any modal parameters over the years; (c) to evaluate the amplitude of the structural response to special load conditions (i.e. strong winds, earthquakes, heavy railway or roadway loads). If such tests are carried out by using a non-contact technique (like GBRI), the classical issues of contact sensors (like accelerometers) are easily overtaken.This paper presents and discusses the results of various tests carried out on full-scale bridges by using a Stepped Frequency-Continuous Wave radar system.

  15. Bridge Testing With Ground-Based Interferometric Radar: Experimental Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiara, P.; Morelli, A.

    2010-05-01

    The research of innovative non-contact techniques aimed at the vibration measurement of civil engineering structures (also for damage detection and structural health monitoring) is continuously directed to the optimization of measures and methods. Ground-Based Radar Interferometry (GBRI) represents the more recent technique available for static and dynamic control of structures and ground movements. Dynamic testing of bridges and buildings in operational conditions are currently performed: (a) to assess the conformity of the structure to the project design at the end of construction; (b) to identify the modal parameters (i.e. natural frequencies, mode shapes and damping ratios) and to check the variation of any modal parameters over the years; (c) to evaluate the amplitude of the structural response to special load conditions (i.e. strong winds, earthquakes, heavy railway or roadway loads). If such tests are carried out by using a non-contact technique (like GBRI), the classical issues of contact sensors (like accelerometers) are easily overtaken. This paper presents and discusses the results of various tests carried out on full-scale bridges by using a Stepped Frequency-Continuous Wave radar system.

  16. Recent experimental results on solutions of deuterium in lithium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ihle, H.R.; Wu, C.H.

    1976-01-01

    The existence of a number of stable molecules containing lithium and hydrogen isotopes in the saturated vapor over dilute solutions of hydrogen isotopes in lithium causes an unexpectedly high density of hydrogen isotopes in the vapor at high temperature. An evaluation of the partial pressures of the gas species Li, Li 2 , LiD, Li 2 D, LiD 2 and D 2 over solutions of deuterium in lithium measured in the temperature range 770 to 970 0 K, and extrapolation to higher temperatures, leads to the conclusion that the ratio of the atom fraction of deuterium in the gas to its atom fraction in the liquid exceeds unity above approximately 1240 0 K; this ratio is independent of the deuterium atom fraction in the liquid at low concentrations. Therefore the thermodynamic supposition that hydrogen isotopes can be separated from lithium by fractional distillation even at extremely low concentration exists. A direct verification of this phenomenon was made by Rayleigh distillation of Li-D solutions in the temperature range 970 to 1600 0 K. These measurements yield also the ratio of the deuterium atom fraction in the gas to that in the liquid and are in good agreement with the data obtained by extrapolation of partial pressures. The enrichment and depletion of deuterium in dependence on the number of theoretical plates of a distillation column at total reflux is calculated using the results

  17. Experimentally increasing sedentary behavior results in decreased life satisfaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meghan K. Edwards

    2017-03-01

    behavior-inducing randomized controlled intervention on life satisfaction. Methods: Active, young adults between the ages of 18-35 were recruited and randomly assigned into a sedentary behavior intervention group (n = 26 or a control group (n = 13. The intervention group participants were instructed to eliminate all exercise and restrict daily steps (as measured via pedometry to 5000 or less per day for one week. The control group was instructed to maintain regular levels of exercise and other physical activity for one week. Both groups completed the Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS pre-intervention and immediately post-intervention. Results: There was a significant group x time interaction (F = 32.75, P < 0.001, with post-hoc contrast tests indicating decreased SWLS score (indicating lower levels of life satisfaction in the intervention group during Visit 2 (post-intervention compared with Visit 1 (pre-intervention; this corresponded with a mean absolute (Visit 2 minus Visit 1 change of -8.58 (95% CI: -5.91, -11.24 for SWLS scores in the intervention group (31.1% reduction. Conclusion: A one-week sedentary behavior-inducing intervention may negatively impact life satisfaction in an active, young adult population. Regular physical activity may be imperative in avoiding negative life satisfaction-related consequences.

  18. The experimental results and analysis of a borehole radar prototype

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Sixin; Wu, Junjun; Dong, Hang; Fu, Lei; Wang, Fei

    2012-01-01

    A prototype of borehole radar has been successfully tested in three sites for different purposes under a field condition. The objective of the prototype is providing an effective down-hole tool for detecting targets in deep boreholes situated in a relatively high conductivity area such as the metal ores. The first testing site is at a geothermal field. The fractures extending more than 20 m from the borehole are delineated by the borehole radar in the single-hole reflection mode. The second testing site is located in a jade mine for basement evaluation. The cross-hole measurement mode was used to detect the cavities made by previous unorganized mining activities. Several high-velocity anomalies were found in the velocity profile and presumably the targets of the mine shafts and tunnels. The third test site is located in a mineralized belt characterized by low resistivity less than 1000 Ohm m, the surface-borehole measurement was carried out and the data were processed with velocity tomography. The low-velocity zone corresponds to a mineralized zone from geological records. The three testing results proved the readiness of this borehole radar prototype for further deployment in more complicated and realistic field situations. (paper)

  19. First experimental results on the IShTAR testbed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D’Inca, R.; Jacquot, J.; Ochoukov, R.; Morgal, I.; Fünfgelder, H.; Faugel, H. [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, Garching (Germany); Crombe, K.; Louche, F.; Van Eester, D. [LPP-ERM-KMS, TEC partner, Brussels (Belgium); Heuraux, S.; Devaux, S.; Moritz, J.; Faudot, E. [Institut Jean Lamour UMR 7198 CNRS-Université de Lorraine, Nancy (France); Noterdaeme, J.-M. [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, Garching (Germany); Department of Applied Physics, Ghent University (Belgium)

    2015-12-10

    IShTAR (Ion cyclotron Sheath Test ARrangement) is a linear magnetized plasma test facility dedicated to the investigation of RF wave/plasma interaction [1] in the Ion Cyclotron Range of Frequencies (ICRF). It provides a better accessibility for the instrumentation than tokamaks while being representative of the neighboring region of the wave emitter. It is equipped with a magnetized plasma source (1 m long, 0.4 m diameter) powered by a helical antenna up to 3 kW at 11 MHz. We present the results of the first analysis of the plasma characteristics (plasma density, electron temperature) in function of the operating parameters (injected power, neutral pressure and magnetic field) as measured with fixed and movable Langmuir probes, spectrometer and cameras. The plasma is presently produced only by the helical antenna (no ICRF). We show that the plasma exists in three regime depending on the power level: the first two ones are stable and separated by a jump in density; a first spatial profile of the plasma density has been established for these modes; The third mode is unstable, characterized by strong oscillations of the plasma tube position.

  20. Equatorial spread F: a review of recent experimental results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelley, M.C.

    1979-01-01

    In this paper the authors review an intense research effort aimed at understanding the large scale disruption of the equatorial F layer which often commences just after sunset, and lasts for most of the night. A very attractive explanation for the phenomena, although one not universally accepted, is that the F layer is unstable to the classic Rayleigh-Taylor condition in which a heavy fluid, the plasma, is supported against gravity by a light 'fluid', the Earth's magnetic field. It is concluded that a reasonable case has been made for this explanation provided that the concept is extended to include nonlinear Rayleigh-Taylor like buoyancy effects above the F peak where linear process is stable. Internal gravity waves in neutral atmosphere seem to play an important role in seeding the Rayleigh-Taylor process with large scale finite amplitude perturbations. One of the remarkable features of this phenomena is the nearly simultaneous generation of structure with scale sizes spanning five orders of magnitude. These results may have applications in astrophysical processes where the Rayleigh-Taylor instability is thought to play a role. (Auth.)

  1. The European Tracer Experiment - experimental results and database

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nodop, K.; Connolly, R.; Girardi, F.

    1997-01-01

    As part of the European Tracer Experiment (ETEX) two successful atmospheric experiments were carried out in October and November, 1994. Perfluorocarbon (PFC) tracers were released into the atmosphere in Monterfil, Brittany, and air samples were taken at 168 stations in 17 European countries for 72 hours after the release. Upper air tracer measurements were made from three aircraft. During the first experiment a westerly air flow transported the tracer plume north-eastwards across Europe. During the second release the flow was eastwards. The results from the ground sampling network allowed the determination of the cloud evolution as far as Sweden, Poland and Bulgaria. Typical background concentrations of the tracer used are around 5 to 7 fl/l in ambient air. Concentrations in the plume ranged from 10 to above 200 fl/l. The tracer release characteristics, the tracer concentrations at the ground and in upper air, the routine and additional meteorological observations at the ground level and in upper air, trajectories derived from constant-level balloons and the meteorological input fields for long-range transport (LRT) models are assembled in the ETEX database. The ETEX database is accessible via the Internet

  2. EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS OF THE NEPHELINE PHASE III STUDY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, K.; Edwards, T.

    2009-11-09

    This study is the third phase in a series of experiments designed to reduce conservatism in the model that predicts the formation of nepheline, a crystalline phase that can reduce the durability of high level waste glass. A Phase I study developed a series of glass compositions that were very durable while their nepheline discriminator values were well below the current nepheline discriminator limit of 0.62, where nepheline is predicted to crystallize upon slow cooling. A Phase II study selected glass compositions to identify any linear effects of composition on nepheline crystallization and that were restricted to regions that fell within the validation ranges of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) Product Composition Control System (PCCS) models. However, it was not possible to identify any linear effects of composition on chemical durability performance for this set of study glasses. The results of the Phase II study alone were not sufficient to recommend modification of the current nepheline discriminator. It was recommended that the next series of experiments continue to focus not only on compositional regions where the PCCS models are considered applicable (i.e., the model validation ranges), but also be restricted to compositional regions where the only constraint limiting processing is the current nepheline discriminator. Two methods were used in selecting glasses for this Phase III nepheline study. The first was based on the relationship of the current nepheline discriminator model to the other DWPF PCCS models, and the second was based on theory of crystallization in mineral and glass melts. A series of 29 test glass compositions was selected for this study using a combination of the two approaches. The glasses were fabricated and characterized in the laboratory. After reviewing the data, the study glasses generally met the target compositions with little issue. Product Consistency Test results correlated well with the crystallization analyses in

  3. OPERA and MINOS Experimental Result Prove Big Bang Theory Invalid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pressler, David E.

    2012-03-01

    The greatest error in the history of science is the misinterpretation of the Michelson-Morley Experiment. The speed of light was measured to travel at the same speed in all three directions (x, y, z axis) in ones own inertial reference system; however, c will always be measured as having an absolute different speed in all other inertial frames at different energy levels. Time slows down due to motion or a gravity field. Time is the rate of physical process. Speed = Distance/Time. If the time changes the distance must change. Therefore, BOTH mirrors must move towards the center of the interferometer and space must contract in all-three-directions; C-Space. Gravity is a C-Space condition, and is the cause of redshift in our universe-not motion. The universe is not expanding. OPERA results are directly indicated; at the surface of earth, the strength of the gravity field is at maximum-below the earth's surface, time and space is less distorted, C-Space; therefore, c is faster. Newtonian mechanics dictate that a spherical shell of matter at greater radii, with uniform density, produces no net force on an observer located centrally. An observer located on the sphere's surface, like our Earth's or a large sphere, like one located in a remote galaxy, will construct a picture centered on himself to be identical to the one centered inside the spherical shell of mass. Both observers will view the incoming radiation, emitted by the other observer, as redshifted, because they lay on each others radial line. The Universe is static and very old.

  4. Review of JT-60U experimental results in 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-11-01

    The results of JT-60U experiments in 2000, from February to December, are reviewed. The performance under the full non-inductive current drive has been greatly advanced both in high β p H-mode plasmas and in reversed shear (RS) plasmas. In the high β p H-mode, with injection of the negative ion based neutral beam (NNB) of 360 keV and 4 MW into a high electron temperature plasma (T e (0) ∼ 13 keV), a high fusion triple product n D (0)T i (0)τ E = 2.0 x 10 20 keVm -3 s has been obtained at the plasma current of 1.5 MA, and the highest value of current drive efficiency of NNB (1.55 x 10 19 A/W/m 2 ) has been achieved. In RS, LHCD and NNB-CD were employed for current drive and high confinement (HH y2 ∼ 1.4) at high density (f GW ∼ 0.80) has been achieved. In the 110 GHz ECRF system, two more gyrotrons have been installed in addition to the one installed in 1999 and 1.5 MW was injected into the torus for 3 s. Complete stabilization of neoclassical tearing mode (NTM), realization of high confinement plasmas with T e ∼ T i , a high value (1 MA) of NNB-driven current in the high T e regime, and measurement of localized EC driven current were achieved with the upgraded EC system. The multiple pellet injection system has been newly installed. In high power NB heated plasmas, high-field-side pellet injection was more effective than low-field-side injection, and it extended the regime of high confinement high β p H-mode to a higher density. A new method, called CCS (Cauchy-condition surface method), for the control of the plasma position and shape in real-time became available and was found very useful especially for the control of plasma-wall clearance in LH and IC experiments. The active control of ITB strength by the switch of the injection direction of toroidal angular momentum was successfully demonstrated. In high triangularity H-mode plasmas, higher pressure and temperature at the edge pedestal were observed, which resulted in higher temperature and

  5. Experimental results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, C.E.

    1980-01-01

    Concepts available for discussing stable crack growth have progressed sufficiently for similarities to be appreciated. Despite rather different starting points and diverse presentation, they are now tending to be complementary, each reinforcing by alternate arguments, the general trends and conclusions of various models for tearing instability

  6. An experimental investigation of stimulated Brillouin scattering in laser-produced plasmas relevant to inertial confinement fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradley, K.S.

    1993-01-01

    Despite the apparent simplicity of controlled fusion, there are many phenomena which have prevented its achievement. One phenomenon is laser-plasma instabilities. An investigation of one such instability, stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS), is reported here. SBS is a parametric process whereby an electromagnetic wave (the parent wave) decays into another electromagnetic wave and an ion acoustic wave (the daughter waves). SBS impedes controlled fusion since it can scatter much or all of the incident laser light, resulting in poor drive symmetry and inefficient laser-plasma coupling. It is widely believed that SBS becomes convectively unstable--that is, it grows as it traverses the plasma. Though it has yet to be definitively tested, convective theory is often invoked to explain experimental observations, even when one or more of the theory's assumptions are violated. In contrast, the experiments reported here not only obeyed the assumptions of the theory, but were also conducted in plasmas with peak densities well below quarter-critical density. This prevented other competing or coexisting phenomena from occurring, thereby providing clearly interpretable results. These are the first SBS experiments that were designed to be both a clear test of linear convective theory and pertinent to controlled fusion research. A crucial part of this series of experiments was the development of a new instrument, the Multiple Angle Time Resolving Spectrometer (MATRS). MATRS has the unique capability of both spectrally and temporally resolving absolute levels of scattered light at many angles simultaneously, and is the first of its kind used in laser-plasma experiments. A detailed comparison of the theoretical predictions and the experimental observations is made

  7. Experimental Analysis of the Input Variables’ Relevance to Forecast Next Day’s Aggregated Electric Demand Using Neural Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo García

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Thanks to the built in intelligence (deployment of new intelligent devices and sensors in places where historically they were not present, the Smart Grid and Microgrid paradigms are able to take advantage from aggregated load forecasting, which opens the door for the implementation of new algorithms to seize this information for optimization and advanced planning. Therefore, accuracy in load forecasts will potentially have a big impact on key operation factors for the future Smart Grid/Microgrid-based energy network like user satisfaction and resource saving, and new methods to achieve an efficient prediction in future energy landscapes (very different from the centralized, big area networks studied so far. This paper proposes different improved models to forecast next day’s aggregated load using artificial neural networks, taking into account the variables that are most relevant for the aggregated. In particular, seven models based on the multilayer perceptron will be proposed, progressively adding input variables after analyzing the influence of climate factors on aggregated load. The results section presents the forecast from the proposed models, obtained from real data.

  8. Salton and Buckley’s Landmark Research in Experimental Text Information Retrieval. A Review of: Salton, G., & Buckley, C. (1990. Improving retrieval performance by relevance feedback. Journal of the American Society for Information Science, 41(4, 288–297.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine F. Marton

    2011-01-01

    using both positive and negative weights based on whether the terms are coming from relevant or non-relevant documents. Yet, no new terms are actually added with negative weights; the contribution of non-relevant document terms is to modify the weighting of new terms coming from relevant documents. . . . The probabilistic model . . . is based on the distribution of query terms in relevant and non-relevant documents, This is expressed as a term weight, with the rank of each retrieved document then being the sum of the term weights for terms contained in the document that match query terms. (pp. 1-2Second, while the vector space model “has an inherent relationship between term reweighting and query expansion” (p. 2, the probabilistic model does not. Thus, query expansion is optional, but given its usefulness, various schemes have been proposed for expanding queries using terms from retrieved relevant documents.In the Salton and Buckley study 3 versions of each of the two relevance feedback methods were utilized, with two different levels of query expansion, and run on 6 different test collections. More specifically, they queried test collections that ranged in size from small to large, and that represented different domains of knowledge, including medicine and engineering with 72 experimental runs in total.Salton and Buckley examined 3 variants of the vector space model, the second and third of which were based on the first. The first model was the classic Rocchio algorithm (1971, which uses reduced document weights to modify the queries. The second model was the “Ide regular” algorithm, which reweights both relevant and non-relevant query terms (Ide, 1971. And the third model was the “Ide dec-hi” algorithm, which reweights all identified relevant items but only one retrieved nonrelevant item, the one retrieved first in the initial set of search results (Ide & Salton, 1971.As well, 3 variants of the probabilistic model developed by S.E. Robertson (Robertson

  9. MRI in the early stage of spinal cord injury: does it have clinical relevance? An experimental study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hannmann, T.T.; Freund, M.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: An experimental technique for producing a ventral spinal trauma which imitates a slipped intervertebral disc or a fractured vertebra was evaluated using magnetic resonance imaging and histology. The results were evaluated with respect to their clinical importance. Materials and Methods: A total of 69 Wistar rats were used for this study. An inflatable angioplasty balloon device was placed dorsally or ventrally to the spinal cord in order to produce a spinal trauma. 30 rats were used to compare neurological pathologies between ventral and dorsal trauma. 30 animals underwent graded ventral spinal cord compression. Magnetic resonance imaging was performed and the results were compared to histology. Results: Using this technique, the balloon device can be placed ventrally to the spinal cord. The compression time had a direct effect on changes on magnetic resonance images and edema in histology, but a longer compression time did not produce increased bleeding. The T2-weighted MRI scans showed hyperintense changes immediately after spinal compression. Therefore, they are the appropriate way for diagnosing acute spinal injuries. Although the T1-weighted MRI scans did not change after spinal compression, they are important for diagnosing epidural hematomas. (orig.)

  10. Why we should use simpler models if the data allow this: relevance for ANOVA designs in experimental biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lazic Stanley E

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Analysis of variance (ANOVA is a common statistical technique in physiological research, and often one or more of the independent/predictor variables such as dose, time, or age, can be treated as a continuous, rather than a categorical variable during analysis – even if subjects were randomly assigned to treatment groups. While this is not common, there are a number of advantages of such an approach, including greater statistical power due to increased precision, a simpler and more informative interpretation of the results, greater parsimony, and transformation of the predictor variable is possible. Results An example is given from an experiment where rats were randomly assigned to receive either 0, 60, 180, or 240 mg/L of fluoxetine in their drinking water, with performance on the forced swim test as the outcome measure. Dose was treated as either a categorical or continuous variable during analysis, with the latter analysis leading to a more powerful test (p = 0.021 vs. p = 0.159. This will be true in general, and the reasons for this are discussed. Conclusion There are many advantages to treating variables as continuous numeric variables if the data allow this, and this should be employed more often in experimental biology. Failure to use the optimal analysis runs the risk of missing significant effects or relationships.

  11. Radiosensitization by SAHA in Experimental Colorectal Carcinoma Models-In Vivo Effects and Relevance of Histone Acetylation Status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Folkvord, Sigurd; Ree, Anne Hansen; Furre, Torbjorn; Halvorsen, Thomas; Flatmark, Kjersti

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: Histone deacetylase inhibitors are being evaluated as antitumor agents in ongoing clinical trials, and promising preclinical results, combined with favorable toxicity profiles, have rendered the drugs as interesting candidates for combination with other treatment modalities, such as radiotherapy. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the radiosensitizing properties of suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA) and the possible requirement of histone hyperacetylation at radiation exposure. Methods and materials: Radiosensitization by SAHA was assessed in a colorectal carcinoma cell line and in two colorectal xenograft models by analysis of clonogenic survival and tumor growth delay, respectively. Histone acetylation status at radiation exposure was evaluated by Western blot. Results: In vitro, radiosensitization was demonstrated when cells were preincubated with SAHA, and, in the xenografts, tumor growth was delayed when the mice were treated with fractionated radiation combined with daily SAHA injections compared with radiation alone. Surprisingly, the SAHA-dependent growth delay was still present when radiation was delivered at restored baseline acetylation levels compared with maximal histone hyperacetylation. Conclusion: SAHA was an effective radiosensitizer in experimental colorectal carcinoma models, suggesting that histone deacetylase inhibition might constitute a valuable supplement to current multimodal treatment strategies in rectal cancer. The presence of histone hyperacetylation at radiation was not required to obtain an increased radiation response, questioning the validity of using histone hyperacetylation as a molecular marker for radiosensitivity.

  12. Comparison of analysis results with experimental results for ENEA and CRIEPI rubber bearings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoo, B.; Lee, J.H.; Koo, G.H.

    1993-01-01

    In this paper, the preliminary structural analyses of ENEA HDRB and CRIEPI NRB were performed by using computer code ABAQUS, and the analysis results were compared with the test results provided by Italy and Japan thru IAEA. The test data for the rubbers used for the fabrication of bearings were also provided thru IAEA, and were utilized for the formulation of the rubber models for the analyses. The analyses performed for the rubber bearings are for the combined compression and shear and for the compression. The analysis results show a good agreement in shear strains when compared with the test results of HDRB and NRB for the combined compression and shear and for the compression benchmarks, but show relatively smaller responses in displacements for the compression with offsets benchmarks. (author)

  13. Trends in Surface Level Ozone Observations from Human-health Relevant Metrics: Results from the Tropospheric Ozone Assessment Report (TOAR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Z. L.; von Schneidemesser, E.; Doherty, R. M.; Malley, C.; Cooper, O. R.; Pinto, J. P.; Colette, A.; Xu, X.; Simpson, D.; Schultz, M.; Hamad, S.; Moola, R.; Solberg, S.; Feng, Z.

    2017-12-01

    Ozone is an air pollutant formed in the atmosphere from precursor species (NOx, VOCs, CH4, CO) that is detrimental to human health and ecosystems. The global Tropospheric Ozone Assessment Report (TOAR) initiative has assembled a global database of surface ozone observations and generated ozone exposure metrics at thousands of measurement sites around the world. This talk will present results from the assessment focused on those indicators most relevant to human health. Specifically, the trends in ozone, comparing different time periods and patterns across regions and among metrics will be addressed. In addition, the fraction of population exposed to high ozone levels and how this has changed between 2000 and 2014 will also be discussed. The core time period analyzed for trends was 2000-2014, selected to include a greater number of sites in East Asia. Negative trends were most commonly observed at many US and some European sites, whereas many sites in East Asia showed positive trends, while sites in Japan showed more of a mix of positive and negative trends. More than half of the sites showed a common direction and significance in the trends for all five human-health relevant metrics. The peak ozone metrics indicate a reduction in exposure to peak levels of ozone related to photochemical episodes in Europe and the US. A considerable number of European countries and states within the US have shown a decrease in population-weighted ozone over time. The 2000-2014 results will be augmented and compared to the trend analysis for additional time periods that cover a greater number of years, but by necessity are based on fewer sites. Trends are found to be statistically significant at a larger fraction of sites with longer time series, compared to the shorter (2000-2014) time series.

  14. Experimental geothermal well at Bad Schinznach. First results; Geothermiebohrung Bad Schinznach. Erste Resultate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haering, M O [Haering Geo-Project, Steinmaur (Switzerland)

    1997-12-01

    The spa of Bad Schinznach (Canton Argovia, Switzerland) endeavours to cover its heating requirements with geothermal energy. A recently drilled well to a depth of 890 meters encountered the regional acquifer of thermal water (Oberer Muschelkalk, Triassic) in three levels. Preliminary results indicate a productive aquifer in the uppermost level with a wellhead temperature of 42 C. An additional exploitation of the bottomhole formation temperature of 63 C is envisaged. (orig.) [Deutsch] Das Bad Schinznach (Kanton Aargau, Schweiz) moechte im Rahmen der wirtschaftlichen Moeglichkeiten seinen Waermebedarf mit der Nutzung des Thermalwassers aus dem Oberen Muschelkalk (Trias) decken. Eine neulich abgeteufte Bohrung bis auf 890 Meter Tiefe hat die Formation auf drei Niveaus angetroffen. Erste Resultate deuten auf ein nutzbares Vorkommen im obersten Horizont mit einer Austrittstemperatur von 42 C. Eine zusaetzliche Nutzung der hohen Formationstemperatur von 63 C auf Endtiefe wird erwogen. (orig.)

  15. Mutation of the CH1 Domain in the Histone Acetyltransferase CREBBP Results in Autism-Relevant Behaviors in Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Zheng

    Full Text Available Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs are a group of neurodevelopmental afflictions characterized by repetitive behaviors, deficits in social interaction, and impaired communication skills. For most ASD patients, the underlying causes are unknown. Genetic mutations have been identified in about 25 percent of ASD cases, including mutations in epigenetic regulators, suggesting that dysregulated chromatin or DNA function is a critical component of ASD. Mutations in the histone acetyltransferase CREB binding protein (CBP, CREBBP cause Rubinstein-Taybi Syndrome (RTS, a developmental disorder that includes ASD-like symptoms. Recently, genomic studies involving large numbers of ASD patient families have theoretically modeled CBP and its paralog p300 (EP300 as critical hubs in ASD-associated protein and gene interaction networks, and have identified de novo missense mutations in highly conserved residues of the CBP acetyltransferase and CH1 domains. Here we provide animal model evidence that supports this notion that CBP and its CH1 domain are relevant to autism. We show that mice with a deletion mutation in the CBP CH1 (TAZ1 domain (CBPΔCH1/ΔCH1 have an RTS-like phenotype that includes ASD-relevant repetitive behaviors, hyperactivity, social interaction deficits, motor dysfunction, impaired recognition memory, and abnormal synaptic plasticity. Our results therefore indicate that loss of CBP CH1 domain function contributes to RTS, and possibly ASD, and that this domain plays an essential role in normal motor function, cognition and social behavior. Although the key physiological functions affected by ASD-associated mutation of epigenetic regulators have been enigmatic, our findings are consistent with theoretical models involving CBP and p300 in ASD, and with a causative role for recently described ASD-associated CBP mutations.

  16. Experimental results of two stage harmonic generation with picosecond pulses on the Stanford Mark III FEL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hooper, B.A.; Utah Univ., Salt Lake City; Stanford Univ., CA; Benson, S.V.; Madey, M.J.; Cutolo, A.; Naples Univ.

    1988-01-01

    We report experimental results on upper harmonic conversion using a lithium niobate and a beta barium borate crystal to quadruple the FEL light up into the visible and near infrared. The effects of finite linewidth, birefringent walk-off, and group velocity walk-off on conversion efficiency will be discussed with reference to the experimental results. (orig.)

  17. Dynamic Coefficients of a Tilting Pad With Active Lubrication: Comparison Between Theoretical and Experimental Results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cerda Varela, Alejandro Javier; Santos, Ilmar

    2015-01-01

    experimental results from the literature for industrial grade passive tilting pad bearings. This initial validation is followed by a comparison with experimental identification results obtained from a test rig featuring the active bearing design. Good overall agreement is observed in both configurations...

  18. Armature reaction effects on a high temperature superconducting field winding of an synchronous machine: experimental results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mijatovic, Nenad; Jensen, Bogi Bech

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents experimental results from the Superwind laboratory setup. Particular focus in the paper has been placed on describing and quantifying the influence of armature reaction on performance of the HTS filed winding. Presented experimental results have confirmed the HTS field winding...

  19. Can analysis of Platichthys flesus otoliths provide relevant data on historical metal pollution in estuaries? Experimental and in situ approaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selleslagh, Jonathan; Echard, Aurélie; Pécheyran, Christophe; Baudrimont, Magalie; Lobry, Jérémy; Daverat, Françoise

    2016-01-01

    otoliths were complex, the concentrations were correlated with those in the water. Analysis of flounder specimens collected from 2007 to 2014 in the Gironde estuary (SW France) showed interannual variability in Pb concentrations, with higher values for fish otoliths from 2007 to 2010 than those from 2012 to 2014. This trend indicated a decrease in Pb in the Gironde estuary over the last decade, which is consistent with the results of other surveys on bivalves. Our study demonstrates that it is possible to use otolith microchemistry as a tool in assessing and retracing long-term metal pollution in estuarine systems. - Highlights: • Platichthys flesus was exposed to a cocktail of metals at realistic environmental concentrations. • Bioaccumulation of metals in tissue and otolith was linked to exposure level. • Cartography of metal in fish otolith was realized for the first time. • Otolith microchemistry of P. flesus was suggested as relevant tool to assess and retrace metal pollution. • Otoliths of P. flesus specimens collected from 2007 to 2014 in the Gironde estuary were analyzed

  20. Can analysis of Platichthys flesus otoliths provide relevant data on historical metal pollution in estuaries? Experimental and in situ approaches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Selleslagh, Jonathan, E-mail: Jonathan.Selleslagh@u-bordeaux.fr [Université de Bordeaux, CNRS, UMR EPOC 5805, Station Marine d' Arcachon, place du docteur Peyneau, 33120 Arcachon (France); Echard, Aurélie [IRSTEA Centre de Bordeaux, unité EABX, 50 avenue de Verdun, 33612 Cestas (France); Pécheyran, Christophe [Université de Pau et des pays de l' Adour, CNRS, LCABIE-IPREM UMR 5254, 64053 Pau (France); Baudrimont, Magalie [Université de Bordeaux, CNRS, UMR EPOC 5805, Station Marine d' Arcachon, place du docteur Peyneau, 33120 Arcachon (France); Lobry, Jérémy; Daverat, Françoise [IRSTEA Centre de Bordeaux, unité EABX, 50 avenue de Verdun, 33612 Cestas (France)

    2016-07-01

    otoliths were complex, the concentrations were correlated with those in the water. Analysis of flounder specimens collected from 2007 to 2014 in the Gironde estuary (SW France) showed interannual variability in Pb concentrations, with higher values for fish otoliths from 2007 to 2010 than those from 2012 to 2014. This trend indicated a decrease in Pb in the Gironde estuary over the last decade, which is consistent with the results of other surveys on bivalves. Our study demonstrates that it is possible to use otolith microchemistry as a tool in assessing and retracing long-term metal pollution in estuarine systems. - Highlights: • Platichthys flesus was exposed to a cocktail of metals at realistic environmental concentrations. • Bioaccumulation of metals in tissue and otolith was linked to exposure level. • Cartography of metal in fish otolith was realized for the first time. • Otolith microchemistry of P. flesus was suggested as relevant tool to assess and retrace metal pollution. • Otoliths of P. flesus specimens collected from 2007 to 2014 in the Gironde estuary were analyzed.

  1. Experimental and numerical results of a high frequency rotating active magnetic refrigerator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lozano, Jaime; Engelbrecht, Kurt; Bahl, Christian

    2012-01-01

    Experimental results for a recently developed prototype magnetic refrigeration device at The Technical University of Denmark (DTU) were obtained and compared with numerical simulation results. A continuously rotating active magnetic regenerator (AMR) using 2.8 kg packed sphere regenerators...

  2. Experimental and numerical results of a high frequency rotating active magnetic refrigerator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lozano, Jaime; Engelbrecht, Kurt; Bahl, Christian R.H.

    2014-01-01

    Experimental results for a recently developed prototype magnetic refrigeration device at the Technical University of Denmark (DTU) were obtained and compared with numerical simulation results. A continuously rotating active magnetic regenerator (AMR) using 2.8 kg packed sphere regenerators...

  3. Do means-end chains exist? Experimental tests of their hierarchicity, automatic spreading activation, directionality, and self-relevance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scholderer, Joachim; Grunert, Klaus G.

    2004-01-01

    , bidirectionality, and self-relevance. The predictions were tested in altogether six experiments, using the same basic methodology. Two sessions were held with each participant. In a pilot session, a set of conventional MEC representations was elicited from each participant using the laddering technique. From......Despite its popularity in consumer research, means-end chain (MEC) theory suffers from problems of unconfirmed validity. Theoretically, MECs can be cast as associative networks with a three-layered structure that should exhibit four properties: hierarchicity, automatic spreading activation...

  4. Perceived Relevance of Educative Information on Public (Skin Health: Results of a Representative, Population-Based Telephone Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Haluza

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Individual skin health attitudes are influenced by various factors, including public education campaigns, mass media, family, and friends. Evidence-based, educative information materials assist communication and decision-making in doctor-patient interactions. The present study aims at assessing the prevailing use of skin health information material and sources and their impact on skin health knowledge, motives to tan, and sun protection. We conducted a questionnaire survey among a representative sample of Austrian residents. Print media and television were perceived as the two most relevant sources for skin health information, whereas the source physician was ranked third. Picking the information source physician increased participants’ skin health knowledge (p = 0.025 and sun-protective behavior (p < 0.001. The study results highlight the demand for targeted health messages to attain lifestyle changes towards photo-protective habits. Providing resources that encourage pro-active counseling in every-day doctor-patient communication could increase skin health knowledge and sun-protective behavior, and thus, curb the rise in skin cancer incidence rates.

  5. Quantitative comparison between theoretical predictions and experimental results for the BCS-BEC crossover

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perali, A.; Pieri, P.; Strinati, G.C.

    2004-01-01

    Theoretical predictions for the Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer-Bose-Einstein condensation crossover of trapped Fermi atoms are compared with recent experimental results for the density profiles of L 6 i. The calculations rest on a single theoretical approach that includes pairing fluctuations beyond mean-field. Excellent agreement with experimental results is obtained. Theoretical predictions for the zero-temperature chemical potential and gap at the unitarity limit are also found to compare extremely well with Quantum Monte Carlo simulations and with recent experimental results

  6. Comparison of numerical results with experimental data for single-phase natural convection in an experimental sodium loop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribando, R.J.

    1979-01-01

    A comparison is made between computed results and experimental data for single-phase natural convection in an experimental sodium loop. The tests were conducted in the Thermal-Hydraulic Out-of-Reactor Safety (THORS) Facility, an engineering-scale high temperature sodium facility at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory used for thermal-hydraulic testing of simulated LMFBR subassemblies at normal and off-normal operating conditions. Heat generation in the 19 pin assembly during these tests was typical of decay heat levels. Tests were conducted both with zero initial forced flow and with a small initial forced flow. The bypass line was closed in most tests, but open in one. The computer code used to analyze these tests [LONAC (LOw flow and NAtural Convection)] is an ORNL-developed, fast running, one-dimensional, single-phase finite difference model for simulating forced and free convection transients in the THORS loop

  7. Removal of arsenic from wastewaters by cryptocrystalline magnesite: complimenting experimental results with modelling

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Masindi, Vhahangwele

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available -1 Journal of Cleaner Production Removal of arsenic from wastewaters by cryptocrystalline magnesite: complimenting experimental results with modelling Vhahangwele Masindi W. Mugera Gitari Keywords: Arsenic Mine leachates Cryptocrystalline...

  8. Experimental and modelling results of a parallel-plate based active magnetic regenerator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tura, A.; Nielsen, Kaspar Kirstein; Rowe, A.

    2012-01-01

    The performance of a permanent magnet magnetic refrigerator (PMMR) using gadolinium parallel plates is described. The configuration and operating parameters are described in detail. Experimental results are compared to simulations using an established twodimensional model of an active magnetic...

  9. An appraisal of crack arrest results and their relevance to the onset of upper shelf temperature issue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, E.

    1996-01-01

    The paper appraises experimental results which support the view that a crack can propagate by cleavage mechanism in a ferritic steel as used in a nuclear reactor pressure vessel, at temperatures that are markedly in excess of the onset of upper shelf temperature as estimated using an initiation based criterion. At temperatures in the vicinity of the onset shelf as estimated by such a criterion, cleavage crack propagation can occur at K values that are markedly less than the static fracture toughness values appropriate to the same temperature regime. It is demonstrated how these conclusions are reflected in the ASME Code Section III Appendix G procedure for defining the pressure-temperature limits associated with the normal operation of a PWR reactor pressure vessel in the USA. This procedure defines the onset of upper shelf temperature in relation to the crack arrest toughness curve and not the initiation toughness curve, the difference between the onset of upper shelf temperatures using the two definitions being about 80 o F. (author)

  10. Clinical relevancy and determinants of potential drug–drug interactions in chronic kidney disease patients: results from a retrospective analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saleem A

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Ahsan Saleem,1,2 Imran Masood,1 Tahir Mehmood Khan3 1Department of Pharmacy, The Islamia University of Bahawalpur, Bahawalpur, Pakistan; 2Pharmacy Services Department, Integrated Medical Center, The Aga Khan University Hospital, Lahore, Pakistan; 3School of Pharmacy, Monash University, Sunway Campus, Selangor, Malaysia Background: Chronic kidney disease (CKD alters the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic responses of various renally excreted drugs and increases the risk of drug-related problems, such as drug–drug interactions.Objectives: To assess the pattern, determinants, and clinical relevancy of potential drug–drug interactions (pDDIs in CKD patients.Materials and methods: This study retrospectively reviewed medical charts of all CKD patients admitted in the nephrology unit of a tertiary care hospital in Pakistan from January 2013 to December 2014. The Micromedex Drug-Reax® system was used to screen patient profiles for pDDIs, and IBM SPSS version 20 was used to carry out statistical analysis.Results: We evaluated 209 medical charts and found pDDIs in nearly 78.5% CKD patients. Overall, 541 pDDIs were observed, of which, nearly 60.8% patients had moderate, 41.1% had minor, 27.8% had major, and 13.4% had contraindicated interactions. Among those interactions, 49.4% had good evidence, 44.0% had fair, 6.3% had excellent evidence, and 35.5% interactions had delayed onset of action. The potential adverse outcomes of pDDIs included postural hypotension, QT prolongation, ceftriaxone–calcium precipitation, cardiac arrhythmias, and reduction in therapeutic effectiveness. The occurrence of pDDIs was found strongly associated with the age of <60 years, number of prescribed medicines ≥5, hypertension, and the lengthy hospitalization of patients.Conclusion: The occurrence of pDDIs was high in CKD patients. It was observed that CKD patients with an older age, higher number of prescribed medicines, lengthy hospitalization, and hypertension were at

  11. Some results of experimental investigation of super-deep penetration into the metal's targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andilevko, S.K.; Roman, O.V.; Usherenko, S.M.; Shilkin, V.A.

    1994-01-01

    The phenomenon of Super-Deep Penetration (SDP) is briefly presented. Various experimental techniques, including that based on neutron-activated autoradiography (NAAR), for experimentally investigating this phenomenon are described. Results from a number of investigations in which the effect on SDP of initial target temperature, the dependence of the concentration on depth for different powder particles and the use of bimetallic targets, are reviewed. The complicated nature of the SDP process and the need for a wider range of experimental data if it is to be fully understood are discussed. (orig.)

  12. Transfer of elements relevant to nuclear fuel cycle from soil to boreal plants and animals in experimental meso- and microcosms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuovinen, Tiina S., E-mail: tiina.tuovinen@uef.fi [Department of Environmental Science, University of Eastern Finland, P.O. Box 1627, FI-70211 Kuopio (Finland); Kasurinen, Anne; Häikiö, Elina [Department of Environmental Science, University of Eastern Finland, P.O. Box 1627, FI-70211 Kuopio (Finland); Tervahauta, Arja [Department of Biology, University of Eastern Finland, P.O. Box FI-70211, Kuopio (Finland); Makkonen, Sari; Holopainen, Toini; Juutilainen, Jukka [Department of Environmental Science, University of Eastern Finland, P.O. Box 1627, FI-70211 Kuopio (Finland)

    2016-01-01

    Uranium (U), cobalt (Co), molybdenum (Mo), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb), thorium (Th) and zinc (Zn) occur naturally in soil but their radioactive isotopes can also be released into the environment during the nuclear fuel cycle. The transfer of these elements was studied in three different trophic levels in experimental mesocosms containing downy birch (Betula pubescens), narrow buckler fern (Dryopteris carthusiana) and Scandinavian small-reed (Calamagrostis purpurea ssp. Phragmitoides) as producers, snails (Arianta arbostorum) as herbivores, and earthworms (Lumbricus terrestris) as decomposers. To determine more precisely whether the element uptake of snails is mainly via their food (birch leaves) or both via soil and food, a separate microcosm experiment was also performed. The element uptake of snails did not generally depend on the presence of soil, indicating that the main uptake route was food, except for U, where soil contact was important for uptake when soil U concentration was high. Transfer of elements from soil to plants was not linear, i.e. it was not correctly described by constant concentration ratios (CR) commonly applied in radioecological modeling. Similar nonlinear transfer was found for the invertebrate animals included in this study: elements other than U were taken up more efficiently when element concentration in soil or food was low. - Highlights: • We studied transfer of elements in boreal food chain using meso- and microcosms. • Elements related to nuclear fuel cycle and mining were examined. • Higher uptake at lower soil concentrations was observed for primary producers. • Snails took up elements mainly from food but for U also soil was an element source. • Non-linear transfer of essential elements was observed for herbivore and decomposer.

  13. Experimental Results and Numerical Simulation of the Target RCS using Gaussian Beam Summation Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghanmi Helmi

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a numerical and experimental study of Radar Cross Section (RCS of radar targets using Gaussian Beam Summation (GBS method. The purpose GBS method has several advantages over ray method, mainly on the caustic problem. To evaluate the performance of the chosen method, we started the analysis of the RCS using Gaussian Beam Summation (GBS and Gaussian Beam Launching (GBL, the asymptotic models Physical Optic (PO, Geometrical Theory of Diffraction (GTD and the rigorous Method of Moment (MoM. Then, we showed the experimental validation of the numerical results using experimental measurements which have been executed in the anechoic chamber of Lab-STICC at ENSTA Bretagne. The numerical and experimental results of the RCS are studied and given as a function of various parameters: polarization type, target size, Gaussian beams number and Gaussian beams width.

  14. Analysis and presentation of experimental results with examples, problems and programs

    CERN Document Server

    Christodoulides, Costas

    2017-01-01

    This book is intended as a guide to the analysis and presentation of experimental results. It develops various techniques for the numerical processing of experimental data, using basic statistical methods and the theory of errors. After presenting basic theoretical concepts, the book describes the methods by which the results can be presented, both numerically and graphically. The book is divided into three parts, of roughly equal length, addressing the theory, the analysis of data, and the presentation of results. Examples are given and problems are solved using the Excel, Origin, Python and R software packages. In addition, programs in all four languages are made available to readers, allowing them to use them in analyzing and presenting the results of their own experiments. Subjects are treated at a level appropriate for undergraduate students in the natural sciences, but this book should also appeal to anyone whose work involves dealing with experimental results.

  15. Ablation of clinically relevant kidney tissue volumes by high-intensity focused ultrasound: Preliminary results of standardized ex-vivo investigations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Häcker, Axel; Peters, Kristina; Knoll, Thomas; Marlinghaus, Ernst; Alken, Peter; Jenne, Jürgen W; Michel, Maurice Stephan

    2006-11-01

    To investigate strategies to achieve confluent kidney-tissue ablation by high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU). Our model of the perfused ex-vivo porcine kidney was used. Tissue ablation was performed with an experimental HIFU device (Storz Medical, Kreuzlingen, Switzerland). Lesion-to-lesion interaction was investigated by varying the lesion distance (5 to 2.5 mm), generator power (300, 280, and 260 W), cooling time (10, 20, and 30 seconds), and exposure time (4, 3, and 2 seconds). The lesion rows were analyzed grossly and by histologic examination (hematoxylin-eosin and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide staining). It was possible to achieve complete homogeneous ablation of a clinically relevant tissue volume but only by meticulous adjustment of the exposure parameters. Minimal changes in these parameters caused changes in lesion formation with holes within the lesions and lesion-to-lesion interaction. Our preliminary results show that when using this new device, HIFU can ablate a large tissue volume homogeneously in perfused ex-vivo porcine tissue under standardized conditions with meticulous adjustment of exposure parameters. Further investigations in vivo are necessary to test whether large tissue volumes can be ablated completely and reliably despite the influence of physiologic tissue and organ movement.

  16. Experimental studies of relevance on zirconium nitrate raffinate sludge for its disposal as well as zirconium recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brahmananda Reddy, G.; Narasimha Murty, B.; Ravindra, H.R.

    2013-01-01

    One of the many routes of production of nuclear grade zirconium dioxide involve separation of zirconium and hafnium by solvent extraction of zirconium nitrate using tri-n-butyl phosphate followed by precipitation of zirconium with ammonia and finally calcination of the so obtained hydrated zirconia at elevated temperature. The zirconium feed solution as is generated from digestion of zirconium washed dried frit (produced by the caustic fusion of zircon sand which is one of the beach sand heavy minerals) in nitric acid contain considerable amount of sludge material and after solvent extraction this whole sludge material rests with raffinate. This sludge material has a scope to contain considerable amounts of zirconium along with other metal ions such as hafnium, aluminium, iron, etc. besides nitric acid and it constitutes one of the important solid wastes that needs to be disposed suitably. One of the disposal means of this sludge material is to use it as a land fill for which two important criteria are to be viz the pH of 10% solid waste solution should be near to neutral pH and the loss on ignition at 550℃ on dry basis of the sludge to be below 20%. In order to study the implications of presence of varying amounts of zirconium nitrate in the sludge on the pH of 10% solution of the sludge various synthetic zirconium nitrate solid waste were prepared using the sludge material generated at the laboratory during the analysis of zirconium washed dried frit. Presence of zirconium in the sludge is expected to decrease the overall pH of the 10% solution of the sludge because zirconium is prone to hydrolyze especially locally when zirconium ion comes into contact with water according to the chemical equation Zr 4+ H 2 O → ZrO 2+ + 2H + . From this equation, it is clear that for every one mole of zirconium ions two moles of hydrogen ions are produced. This is verified experimentally using the synthetically prepared sludge materials with varying amounts of zirconium

  17. Favorable results from the use of herbal and plant products in inflammatory bowel disease: evidence from experimental animal studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triantafillidis, John K.; Triantafyllidi, Aikaterini; Vagianos, Constantinos; Papalois, Apostolos

    2016-01-01

    The use of herbal therapy for inflammatory bowel disease is increasing worldwide. The aim of this study was to review the available literature on the efficacy of herbal therapy in experimental colitis. All relevant studies published in Medline and Embase up to June 2015 have been reviewed. The results of bowel histology and serum parameters have been recorded. A satisfactory number of published experimental studies, and a quite large one of both herbal and plant products tested in different studies have been reported. The results showed that in the majority of the studies, herbal therapy reduced the inflammatory activity of experimental colitis and diminished the levels of many inflammatory indices, including serum cytokines and indices of oxidative stress. The most promising plant and herbal products were tormentil extracts, wormwoodherb, Aloe vera, germinated barley foodstuff, curcumin, Boswellia serrata, Panax notoginseng, Ixeris dentata, green tea, Cordia dichotoma, Plantago lanceolata, Iridoidglycosides, and mastic gum. Herbal therapies exert their therapeutic benefit via various mechanisms, including immune regulation, anti-oxidant activity, inhibition of leukotriene B4 and nuclear factor-κB, and antiplatelet activity. Large, double-blind clinical studies assessing these natural substances should be urgently conducted. PMID:27366027

  18. DoSSiER: Database of Scientific Simulation and Experimental Results

    CERN Document Server

    Wenzel, Hans; Genser, Krzysztof; Elvira, Daniel; Pokorski, Witold; Carminati, Federico; Konstantinov, Dmitri; Ribon, Alberto; Folger, Gunter; Dotti, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    The Geant4, GeantV and GENIE collaborations regularly perform validation and regression tests for simulation results. DoSSiER (Database of Scientific Simulation and Experimental Results) is being developed as a central repository to store the simulation results as well as the experimental data used for validation. DoSSiER can be easily accessed via a web application. In addition, a web service allows for programmatic access to the repository to extract records in json or xml exchange formats. In this article, we describe the functionality and the current status of various components of DoSSiER as well as the technology choices we made.

  19. Simple and efficient machine learning frameworks for identifying protein-protein interaction relevant articles and experimental methods used to study the interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Shashank; Liu, Feifan; Yu, Hong

    2011-10-03

    Protein-protein interaction (PPI) is an important biomedical phenomenon. Automatically detecting PPI-relevant articles and identifying methods that are used to study PPI are important text mining tasks. In this study, we have explored domain independent features to develop two open source machine learning frameworks. One performs binary classification to determine whether the given article is PPI relevant or not, named "Simple Classifier", and the other one maps the PPI relevant articles with corresponding interaction method nodes in a standardized PSI-MI (Proteomics Standards Initiative-Molecular Interactions) ontology, named "OntoNorm". We evaluated our system in the context of BioCreative challenge competition using the standardized data set. Our systems are amongst the top systems reported by the organizers, attaining 60.8% F1-score for identifying relevant documents, and 52.3% F1-score for mapping articles to interaction method ontology. Our results show that domain-independent machine learning frameworks can perform competitively well at the tasks of detecting PPI relevant articles and identifying the methods that were used to study the interaction in such articles. Simple Classifier is available at http://sourceforge.net/p/simpleclassify/home/ and OntoNorm at http://sourceforge.net/p/ontonorm/home/.

  20. Comparison of numerical results with experimental data for single-phase natural convection in an experimental sodium loop. [LMFBR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribando, R.J.

    1979-01-01

    A comparison is made between computed results and experimental data for a single-phase natural convection test in an experimental sodium loop. The test was conducted in the Thermal-Hydraulic Out-of-Reactor Safety (THORS) facility, an engineering-scale high temperature sodium loop at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) used for thermal-hydraulic testing of simulated Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor (LMFBR) subassemblies at normal and off-normal operating conditions. Heat generation in the 19 pin assembly during the test was typical of decay heat levels. The test chosen for analysis in this paper was one of seven natural convection runs conducted in the facility using a variety of initial conditions and testing parameters. Specifically, in this test the bypass line was open to simulate a parallel heated assembly and the test was begun with a pump coastdown from a small initial forced flow. The computer program used to analyze the test, LONAC (LOw flow and NAtural Convection) is an ORNL-developed, fast-running, one-dimensional, single-phase, finite-difference model used for simulating forced and free convection transients in the THORS loop.

  1. Comparison of numerical results with experimental data for single-phase natural convection in an experimental sodium loop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribando, R.J.

    1979-01-01

    A comparison is made between computed results and experimental data for a single-phase natural convection test in an experimental sodium loop. The test was conducted in the Thermal-Hydraulic Out-of-Reactor Safety (THORS) facility, an engineering-scale high temperature sodium loop at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) used for thermal-hydraulic testing of simulated Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor (LMFBR) subassemblies at normal and off-normal operating conditions. Heat generation in the 19 pin assembly during the test was typical of decay heat levels. The test chosen for analysis in this paper was one of seven natural convection runs conducted in the facility using a variety of initial conditions and testing parameters. Specifically, in this test the bypass line was open to simulate a parallel heated assembly and the test was begun with a pump coastdown from a small initial forced flow. The computer program used to analyze the test, LONAC (LOw flow and NAtural Convection) is an ORNL-developed, fast-running, one-dimensional, single-phase, finite-difference model used for simulating forced and free convection transients in the THORS loop

  2. High energy nucleus-nucleus collisions at CERN: Signatures, physical observables and experimental results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, J.W.

    1988-02-01

    Experimental results on high energy nucleus-nucleus collisions have become available with the recent experiments at CERN utilizing 200 GeV/n oxygen and sulfur beams. Physics motivations for these experiments are presented: a description of predicted signatures for possible formation of a quark-gluon plasma and physical observables that are expected to provide important information for understanding the dynamics of these collisions. A presentation will be made of some of the first experimental results to emerge from this new field. 28 refs., 9 figs

  3. Mixed-mode chaotic circuit with Wien-bridge configuration: The results of experimental verification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kilic, Recai [Erciyes University, Department of Electronic Engineering, 38039 Kayseri (Turkey)]. E-mail: kilic@erciyes.edu.tr

    2007-05-15

    In this paper, we deal with the experimentally implementation of inductorless Wien bridge-based mixed-mode chaotic circuit (MMCC) which is capable to exhibit both linear and nonlinear oscillations. The results of experimental implementation agree with the results of theoretical and computer simulation presented in literature. Since the proposed implementation of MMCC circuit uses different design blocks such as Wien bridge-based autonomous circuit part, CFOA (current feedback operational amplifier)-based floating inductance simulator, CFOA-based Chua's diode and switching mechanism, it offers very versatile chaotic circuit model for studying autonomous and nonautonomous chaotic dynamics.

  4. Mixed-mode chaotic circuit with Wien-bridge configuration: The results of experimental verification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kilic, Recai

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we deal with the experimentally implementation of inductorless Wien bridge-based mixed-mode chaotic circuit (MMCC) which is capable to exhibit both linear and nonlinear oscillations. The results of experimental implementation agree with the results of theoretical and computer simulation presented in literature. Since the proposed implementation of MMCC circuit uses different design blocks such as Wien bridge-based autonomous circuit part, CFOA (current feedback operational amplifier)-based floating inductance simulator, CFOA-based Chua's diode and switching mechanism, it offers very versatile chaotic circuit model for studying autonomous and nonautonomous chaotic dynamics

  5. Experimental results for characterization of a tapered plastic optical fiber sensor based on SPR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cennamo, N.; Galatus, R.; Zeni, L.

    2015-05-01

    The experimental results obtained with two different Plastic Optical Fiber (POF) geometries, tapered and not-tapered, for a sensor based on Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR) are presented. SPR is used for determining the refractive index variations at the interface between a gold layer and a dielectric medium (aqueous medium). In this work SPR sensors in POF configurations, useful for bio-sensing applications, have been realized for the optimization of the sensitivity and experimentally tested. The results show as the sensitivity increases with the tapered POF configuration, when the refractive index of aqueous medium increases.

  6. Progress report on the results of testing advanced conceptual design metal barrier materials under relevant environmental conditions for a tuff repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCright, R.D.; Halsey, W.G.; Van Konynenburg, R.A.

    1987-12-01

    This report discusses the performance of candidate metallic materials envisioned for fabricating waste package containers for long-term disposal at a possible geological repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Candidate materials include austenitic iron-base to nickel-base alloy (AISI 304L, AISI 316L, and Alloy 825), high-purity copper (CDA 102), and copper-base alloys (CDA 613 and CDA 715). Possible degradation modes affecting these container materials are identified in the context of anticipated environmental conditions at the repository site. Low-temperature oxidation is the dominant degradation mode over most of the time period of concern (minimum of 300 yr to a maximum of 1000 yr after repository closure), but various forms of aqueous corrosion will occur when water infiltrates into the near-package environment. The results of three years of experimental work in different repository-relevant environments are presented. Much of the work was performed in water taken from Well J-13, located near the repository, and some of the experiments included gamma irradiation of the water or vapor environment. The influence of metallurgical effects on the corrosion and oxidation resistance of the material is reviewed; these effects result from container fabrication, welding, and long-term aging at moderately elevated temperatures in the repository. The report indicates the need for mechanisms to understand the physical/chemical reactions that determine the nature and rate of the different degradation modes, and the subsequent need for models based on these mechanisms for projecting the long-term performance of the container from comparatively short-term laboratory data. 91 refs., 17 figs., 16 tabs

  7. Experimental results and validation of a method to reconstruct forces on the ITER test blanket modules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeile, Christian; Maione, Ivan A.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • An in operation force measurement system for the ITER EU HCPB TBM has been developed. • The force reconstruction methods are based on strain measurements on the attachment system. • An experimental setup and a corresponding mock-up have been built. • A set of test cases representing ITER relevant excitations has been used for validation. • The influence of modeling errors on the force reconstruction has been investigated. - Abstract: In order to reconstruct forces on the test blanket modules in ITER, two force reconstruction methods, the augmented Kalman filter and a model predictive controller, have been selected and developed to estimate the forces based on strain measurements on the attachment system. A dedicated experimental setup with a corresponding mock-up has been designed and built to validate these methods. A set of test cases has been defined to represent possible excitation of the system. It has been shown that the errors in the estimated forces mainly depend on the accuracy of the identified model used by the algorithms. Furthermore, it has been found that a minimum of 10 strain gauges is necessary to allow for a low error in the reconstructed forces.

  8. Comparing the Influence of Title and URL in Information Retrieval Relevance in Search Engines Results between Human Science and Agriculture Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parisa Allami

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available When the World Wide Web provides suitable methods for producing and publishing information to scientists, the Web has become a mediator to publishing information. This environment has been formed billions of web pages that each of them has a special title, special content, special address and special purpose. Search engines provide a variety of facilities limit search results to raise the possibility of relevance in the retrieval results. One of these facilities is the limitation of the keywords and search terms to the title or URL. It can increase the possibility of results relevance significantly. Search engines claim what are limited to title and URL is most relevant. This research tried to compare the results relevant between results limited in title and URL in agricultural and Humanities areas from their users sights also it notice to Comparison of the presence of keywords in the title and URL between two areas and the relationship between search query numbers and matching keywords in title and their URLs. For this purpose, the number of 30 students in each area whom were in MA process and in doing their thesis was chosen. There was a significant relevant of the results that they limited their information needs to title and URL. There was significantly relevance in URL results in agricultural area, but there was not any significant difference between title and URL results in the humanities. For comparing the number of keywords in title and URL in two areas, 30 keywords in each area were chosen. There was not any significantly difference between the number of keywords in the title and URL of websites in two areas. To show relationship between number of search keyword and the matching of title and URL 45 keywords in each area were chosen. They were divided to three parts (one keyword, two keywords and three keywords. It was determined that if search keyword was less, the amount of matching between title and URL was more and if the matching

  9. Experimental results on elongation control using dynamic input allocation at FTU

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varano, G.; Boncagni, L.; Galeani, S.; Granucci, G.; Vitale, V.; Zaccarian, L.

    2011-01-01

    We report on the experimental results related to a recently proposed control scheme for the regulation of plasma elongation using the poloidal field coils available at FTU, already used for the horizontal position control. The proposed technique allows to realize elongation regulation as a secondary task using the same poloidal coils.

  10. Experimental validation of the twins prediction program for rolling noise. Pt.2: results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thompson, D.J.; Fodiman, P.; Mahé, H.

    1996-01-01

    Two extensive measurement campaigns have been carried out to validate the TWINS prediction program for rolling noise, as described in part 1 of this paper. This second part presents the experimental results of vibration and noise during train pass-bys and compares them with predictions from the

  11. Alignment procedure for the VIRGO interferometer: experimental results from the Frascati Prototype

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babusci, D.; Giordano, G.; Matone, G.; Matone, L.; Sannibale, V.

    1996-07-01

    A small fixed-mirrors Michelson interferometer has been suggested for VIRGO. The experimental results are excellent and fully confirm the adequacy of the method. The minimum angular misalignment that can be detected in the present set-up is 10 nrad

  12. Experimental results of the effective water head in downcomer during reflood phase of a PWR LOCA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sudo, Yukio; Murao, Yoshio; Akimoto, Hajime

    1980-08-01

    The results and analysis of an experiment for the effective water head in downcomer with 50mm gap size are described. The main objective of the experiment was to clarify the effect of gap size on reflooding in a PWR LOCA. The effective water head in downcomer is the driving force for feeding emergency coolant into the core during reflood phase of a PWR LOCA. Discussions presented here follow those of a previous report in which experimental results and analysis were described for the case of 200mm gap size. Experimental Conditions were: Initial Wall Temperature = 200 -- 300 0 C, Back Pressure = 1 atm., Coolant Temperature = 71 -- 100 0 C, Extraction Water Velocity = 0 -- 2 cm/s, Gap Size = 50 mm. The effective water head history obtained in the experiment was compared with those predicted with Sudo's void fraction correlation. In the prediction, heat input to coolant was calculated from the response of measured wall temperature with heat condition analysis. The experimental results and analysis reveals that: (1) The effects of the gap size and initial wall temperature are evident, (2) The effect of extraction water velocity is negligible, and (3) The predicted history of effective water head is in good agreement with the experimental results except during the transient period in which the effective water head is descreasing. (author)

  13. F.E. analysis of seismic isolators: comparison with experimental results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuller, K.N.G.; Gough, J.; Ahmadi, H.R.

    1998-01-01

    Analysis of seismic isolators is performed by the ABAQUS code. The force deformation behaviour of a circular layer of rubber bonded to rigid surface was investigated. This model is chosen because of its simplicity and the relatively short processing time required. A 3-dimensional model was used for finite element calculations. Comparison of calculated values with experimental results is shown

  14. Tribology of skin : review and analysis of experimental results for the friction coefficient of human skin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Derler, S.; Gerhardt, L.C.

    2012-01-01

    In this review, we discuss the current knowledge on the tribology of human skin and present an analysis of the available experimental results for skin-friction coefficients. Starting with an overview on the factors influencing the friction behaviour of skin, we discuss the up-to-date existing

  15. Nuclear magnetic resonance. Present results and its application to renal pathology. Experimental study of hydronephrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertrand, P.

    1987-01-01

    Results of proton nuclear magnetic resonance imaging and relaxation time measurement of experimental hydronephrosis in mice are presented. The study is preceded by a description of the physical principles underlying the phenomenon of nuclear magnetic resonance and of its biomedical applications and with a review of the clinical use of NMR imaging in renal pathology [fr

  16. Results of experimental research of the modes of short circuit in a traction network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.Ye. Mykhalichenko

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In the article the results, namely oscillograms of the transitional feeder electric values obtained by the experimental tests of the short circuit modes in case of setting off different types of substation fast-acting switches are presented. The experiments were conducted on the operating electrified track sections of the Prydniprovs’ka Railway.

  17. Shear or bending? Experimental results on large t-shaped prestressed conrete beams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ensink, S.W.H.; Van der Veen, C.; De Boer, A.

    2015-01-01

    Experimental results of four shear tests on two large prestressed concrete beams are compared to nonlinear analysis and design code calculations. The beams have a length of 12 m and a depth of 1.3 m and are reinforced with stirrups and pre-tensioning. The four tests consist of a single point load at

  18. Assessing incentive contracts for reducing residential electricity consumption: new experimental methods for new results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frachet, Laure

    2013-01-01

    Facing economic, political and environmental stakes, electricity providers are nowadays developing incentive tools, in order to reduce consumer's demand, particularly during peak demand periods. For residential customers, these tools can be tariffs (dynamic pricing of time-of-use tariffs), or informative devices or services (feedbacks on historical or real-time consumption, given on various media). They might go along with automation systems that can help cutting of some electric devices when needed. In order to evaluate the capacity of these settings among their customers, electricity utilities are developing quite a few studies, which are mainly field experiment often called pilots. During these pilots, demand response tools are implemented on a population sample. These long and expensive studies lid to quantitative and qualitative analysis. We have compiled about 40 of them and extract from this survey some generalizable teachings. We have shown what these results were and highlighted pilot programs' methodological limits. In order to propose a substitute to these heavy experimentations, we assessed the capacity or experimental economics. This relatively new discipline's objective is to evaluation the efficiency of institutions, like markets, but also to study what animate economic agents' behaviour, e.g. preferences, beliefs, cognitive biases, willingness to pay... We were also able to elaborate an experimental protocol dedicated to the evaluation of some demand response contracts' acceptability. The results collected during 14 experimental sessions gave us some innovative clues and insight on these contracts acceptability. But, beyond these results, we have demonstrated that even if experimental economics can't obviously be a substitute for field experiments, it can represent an interesting exploratory methodology. To sum up the experimental economics can take part of residential customers' behaviour understanding, performing

  19. Vertical Instability in EAST: Comparison of Model Predictions with Experimental Results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qian Jinping; Wan Baonian; Shen Biao; Xiao Bingjia; Sun Youwen; Shi Yuejiang; Lin Shiyao; Li Jiangang; Gong Xianzu

    2008-01-01

    Growth rates of the axisymmetric mode in elongated plasmas in the experimental advanced superconducting tokamak (EAST) are measured with zero feedback gains and then compared with numerically calculated growth rates for the reconstructed shapes. The comparison is made after loss of vertical position control. The open-loop growth rates were scanned with the number of vessel eigenmodes, which up to 20 is enough to make the growth rates settled. The agreement between the growth rates measured experimentally and the growth rates determined numerically is good. The results show that a linear RZIP model is essentially good enough for the vertical position feedback control.

  20. Experimental results for hydrocarbon refrigerant vaporization inside brazed plate heat exchangers at high pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Desideri, Adriano; Ommen, Torben Schmidt; Wronski, Jorrit

    2016-01-01

    fluids at typical working conditions of ORC systems for low temperature waste heat recovery (WHR) applications. Based on these premises, a novel testrig has been recently designed and built at the Technical University of Denmark to simulate the evaporating condition occurring in a small capacity ORC...... power unit. In this contribution the preliminary experimental results obtained from the first experimental campaign carried out on the rig are reported. HFC-134a was selected as working fluid. The experiments were carried out at saturation temperature of 60, 70 and 80 °C and inlet and outlet qualities...

  1. A rapid Q-PCR titration protocol for adenovirus and helper-dependent adenovirus vectors that produces biologically relevant results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallaher, Sean D.; Berk, Arnold J.

    2013-01-01

    Adenoviruses are employed in the study of cellular processes and as expression vectors used in gene therapy. The success and reproducibility of these studies is dependent in part on having accurate and meaningful titers of replication competent and helper-dependent adenovirus stocks, which is problematic due to the use of varied and divergent titration protocols. Physical titration methods, which quantify the total number of viral particles, are used by many, but are poor at estimating activity. Biological titration methods, such as plaque assays, are more biologically relevant, but are time consuming and not applicable to helper-dependent gene therapy vectors. To address this, a protocol was developed called “infectious genome titration” in which viral DNA is isolated from the nuclei of cells ~3 h post-infection, and then quantified by Q-PCR. This approach ensures that only biologically active virions are counted as part of the titer determination. This approach is rapid, robust, sensitive, reproducible, and applicable to all forms of adenovirus. Unlike other Q-PCR-based methods, titers determined by this protocol are well correlated with biological activity. PMID:23624118

  2. Uncertainties and understanding of experimental and theoretical results regarding reactions forming heavy and superheavy nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giardina, G.; Mandaglio, G.; Nasirov, A. K.; Anastasi, A.; Curciarello, F.; Fazio, G.

    2018-02-01

    Experimental and theoretical results of the PCN fusion probability of reactants in the entrance channel and the Wsur survival probability against fission at deexcitation of the compound nucleus formed in heavy-ion collisions are discussed. The theoretical results for a set of nuclear reactions leading to formation of compound nuclei (CNs) with the charge number Z = 102- 122 reveal a strong sensitivity of PCN to the characteristics of colliding nuclei in the entrance channel, dynamics of the reaction mechanism, and excitation energy of the system. We discuss the validity of assumptions and procedures for analysis of experimental data, and also the limits of validity of theoretical results obtained by the use of phenomenological models. The comparison of results obtained in many investigated reactions reveals serious limits of validity of the data analysis and calculation procedures.

  3. Experimental Results of Network-Assisted Interference Suppression Scheme Using Adaptive Beam-Tilt Switching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomoki Murakami

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces a network-assisted interference suppression scheme using beam-tilt switching per frame for wireless local area network systems and its effectiveness in an actual indoor environment. In the proposed scheme, two access points simultaneously transmit to their own desired station by adjusting angle of beam-tilt including transmit power assisted from network server for the improvement of system throughput. In the conventional researches, it is widely known that beam-tilt is effective for ICI suppression in the outdoor scenario. However, the indoor effectiveness of beam-tilt for ICI suppression has not yet been indicated from the experimental evaluation. Thus, this paper indicates the effectiveness of the proposed scheme by analyzing multiple-input multiple-output channel matrices from experimental measurements in an office environment. The experimental results clearly show that the proposed scheme offers higher system throughput than the conventional scheme using just transmit power control.

  4. Closed Loop Two-Phase Thermosyphon of Small Dimensions: a Review of the Experimental Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, Alessandro; Filippeschi, Sauro

    2012-06-01

    A bibliographical review on the heat and mass transfer in gravity assisted Closed Loop Two Phase Thermosyphons (CLTPT) with channels having a hydraulic diameter of the order of some millimetres and input power below 1 kW is proposed. The available experimental works in the literature are critically analysed in order to highlight the main results and the correlation between mass flow rate and heat input in natural circulation loops. A comparison of different experimental apparatuses and results is made. It is observed that the results are very different among them and in many cases the experimental data disagree with the conventional theory developed for an imposed flow rate. The paper analyses the main differences among the experimental devices and try to understand these disagreements. From the present analysis it is evident that further systematic studies are required to generate a meaningful body of knowledge of the heat and mass transport mechanism in these devices for practical applications in cooling devices or energy systems.

  5. Computations for the 1:5 model of the THTR pressure vessel compared with experimental results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stangenberg, F.

    1972-01-01

    In this report experimental results measured at the 1:5-model of the prestressed concrete pressure vessel of the THTR-nuclear power station Schmehausen in 1971, are compared with the results of axis-symmetrical computations. Linear-elastic computations were performed as well as approximate computations for overload pressures taking into consideration the influences of the load history (prestressing, temperature, creep) and the effects of the steel components. (orig.) [de

  6. Zr-Fe-Sn Ternary System Phase Diagrams- New Experimental Results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nieva, N; Gomez, A; Arias, D

    2004-01-01

    New experimental results for the Zr-Fe-Sn ternary system are presented in this paper. The phases present and equilibrium relations for the 900 o C isothermal on the central zone of the Gibbs triangle are analysed. A set of ternary alloys was designed and obtained, and they were analysed by semi quantitative SEM- EDS, XRD, and metallographic samples. The resulting ternary phase diagrams are presented here (JCH)

  7. Numerical analysis of temperature field during hardfacing process and comparison with experimental results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lazić Vukić N.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The three-dimensional transient nonlinear thermal analysis of the hard facing process is performed by using the finite element method. The simulations were executed on the open source Salome platform using the open source finite element solver Code_Aster. The Gaussian double ellipsoid was selected in order to enable greater possibilities for the calculation of the moving heat source. The numerical results were compared with available experimental results.

  8. Experimental results concerning global observables from the CERN SPS heavy ion program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, G.R.

    1990-06-01

    A brief overview is given of experimental results obtained during the initial operation of the heavy-ion program at the CERN SPS during the period 1986--1988. This paper confines itself to a presentation of results on so-called global observables, such as energy flow and multiplicity distributions, and on information extracted from them. Of particular interest among the latter are an estimate of the magnitude and spatial distribution of the energy density attained. 3 refs., 27 figs

  9. Design and experimental results of the 1-T Bitter Electromagnet Testing Apparatus (BETA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, E. M.; Birmingham, W. J.; Romero-Talamás, C. A.

    2018-05-01

    The Bitter Electromagnet Testing Apparatus (BETA) is a 1-Tesla (T) technical prototype of the 10 T Adjustable Long Pulsed High-Field Apparatus. BETA's final design specifications are highlighted in this paper which include electromagnetic, thermal, and stress analyses. We discuss here the design and fabrication of BETA's core, vessel, cooling, and electrical subsystems. The electrical system of BETA is composed of a scalable solid-state DC breaker circuit. Experimental results display the stable operation of BETA at 1 T. These results are compared to both analytical design and finite element calculations. Experimental results validate analytical magnet designing methods developed at the Dusty Plasma Laboratory. The theoretical steady state maxima and the limits of BETA's design are explored in this paper.

  10. A global analysis of recent experimental results: How well determined are the parton distribution functions?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morfin, J.G.

    1990-08-01

    Following is a brief summary of the results of an analysis of experimental data performed to extract the patron distribution functions. In contrast to other global analyses, this study investigated how the fit results depend on: Experimental Systematic Errors; Kinematic Cuts on the Analyzed Data and Choice of Initial Functional Forms, with a prime goal being a close look at the range of low-x behavior allowed by data. This is crucial for predictions for the SSC/LHC, HERA, and even at Tevatron Collider energies. Since all details can be found in the just released Fermilab preprint Parton Distributions from a Global QCD Analysis of Deep Inelastic Scattering and Lepton-Pair Production by J. G. M. and Wu-Ki Tung, this summary will be only a brief outline of major results. 11 refs., 13 figs

  11. Processing considerations with plasma-based ion implantation of polymers: theoretical aspects, limitations, and experimental results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lacoste, A.; Pelletier, J.

    2003-01-01

    Processing of polymers using plasma-based ion implantation techniques (PBII) has general implications in terms of plasma specifications and pulse characteristics. In particular, the different aspects of the processing of polymer layers are discussed as functions of plasma density, pulse duration, and layer characteristics (thickness and permittivity). Clearly, severe limitations (true implantation energy, arcing) may appear for high-density plasmas as well as for long pulse durations, when processing polymer layers with thickness in the mm range. A review of the experimental results of ion implantation in polymeric materials via PBII processing is presented. The experimental results demonstrate the possibility of processing polymer layers with the PBII technique, but with severe limitations resulting from the process itself

  12. The possibilities of application of experimental Kfk results from BR2 on SNR designs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karsten, G.; Elbel, K.; Dienst, W.; Schaefer, L.

    1978-01-01

    A review is given of the relevant results of the technological application for the SNR300 reactor, since the BR2 reactor has been used as a test facility for the material development. Special emphasis has been laid on the fuel pin behavior under the aspect of chemical and mechanical fuel-clad interaction and on the specification of the cladding in terms of high temperature mechanical behavior in the SNR 300 reactor. A systematic analysis of urgent research topics in BR2 test facility reactor is presented. (A.F.)

  13. Determination of relevant neuron-neuron connections for neural prosthetics using time-delayed mutual information: tutorial and preliminary results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taghva, Alexander; Song, Dong; Hampson, Robert E; Deadwyler, Sam A; Berger, Theodore W

    2012-12-01

    Identification of functional dependence among neurons is a necessary component in both the rational design of neural prostheses as well as in the characterization of network physiology. The objective of this article is to provide a tutorial for neurosurgeons regarding information theory, specifically time-delayed mutual information, and to compare time-delayed mutual information, an information theoretic quantity based on statistical dependence, with cross-correlation, a commonly used metric for this task in a preliminary analysis of rat hippocampal neurons. Spike trains were recorded from rats performing delayed nonmatch-to-sample task using an array of electrodes surgically implanted into the hippocampus of each hemisphere of the brain. In addition, spike train simulations of positively correlated neurons, negatively correlated neurons, and neurons correlated by nonlinear functions were generated. These were evaluated by time-delayed mutual information (MI) and cross-correlation. Application of time-delayed MI to experimental data indicated the optimal bin size for information capture in the CA3-CA1 system was 40 ms, which may provide some insight into the spatiotemporal nature of encoding in the rat hippocampus. On simulated data, time-delayed MI showed peak values at appropriate time lags in positively correlated, negatively correlated, and complexly correlated data. Cross-correlation showed peak and troughs with positively correlated and negatively correlated data, but failed to capture some higher order correlations. Comparison of time-delayed MI to cross-correlation in identification of functionally dependent neurons indicates that the methods are not equivalent. Time-delayed MI appeared to capture some interactions between CA3-CA1 neurons at physiologically plausible time delays missed by cross-correlation. It should be considered as a method for identification of functional dependence between neurons and may be useful in the development of neural

  14. An analytical model for backscattered luminance in fog: comparisons with Monte Carlo computations and experimental results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taillade, Frédéric; Dumont, Eric; Belin, Etienne

    2008-01-01

    We propose an analytical model for backscattered luminance in fog and derive an expression for the visibility signal-to-noise ratio as a function of meteorological visibility distance. The model uses single scattering processes. It is based on the Mie theory and the geometry of the optical device (emitter and receiver). In particular, we present an overlap function and take the phase function of fog into account. The results of the backscattered luminance obtained with our analytical model are compared to simulations made using the Monte Carlo method based on multiple scattering processes. An excellent agreement is found in that the discrepancy between the results is smaller than the Monte Carlo standard uncertainties. If we take no account of the geometry of the optical device, the results of the model-estimated backscattered luminance differ from the simulations by a factor 20. We also conclude that the signal-to-noise ratio computed with the Monte Carlo method and our analytical model is in good agreement with experimental results since the mean difference between the calculations and experimental measurements is smaller than the experimental uncertainty

  15. Validation of thermohydraulic codes by comparison of experimental results with computer simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madeira, A.A.; Galetti, M.R.S.; Pontedeiro, A.C.

    1989-01-01

    The results obtained by simulation of three cases from CANON depressurization experience, using the TRAC-PF1 computer code, version 7.6, implanted in the VAX-11/750 computer of Brazilian CNEN, are presented. The CANON experience was chosen as first standard problem in thermo-hydraulic to be discussed at ENFIR for comparing results from different computer codes with results obtained experimentally. The ability of TRAC-PF1 code to prevent the depressurization phase of a loss of primary collant accident in pressurized water reactors is evaluated. (M.C.K.) [pt

  16. Characteristics of prompt fission gamma-ray emission - Experimental results and predictions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oberstedt, Andreas; Billnert, Robert; Oberstedt, Stephan

    2014-01-01

    Systematics from 2001, describing prompt fission gamma-ray spectra (PFGS) characteristics as function of mass and atomic number of the fissioning system, has been revisited and parameters have been revised based on recent experimental results. Although originally expressed for spontaneous and thermal neutron-induced fission, validity for fast neutrons was assumed and applied to predict PFGS characteristics for the reaction n + 238 U up to incident neutron energies of E n = 20 MeV. The results from this work are in good agreement with corresponding results from both model calculations and experiments. (authors)

  17. Room temperature thin foil SLIM-cut using an epoxy paste: experimental versus theoretical results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellanger, Pierre; Serra, Joao; Bouchard, Pierre-Olivier; Bernacki, Marc

    2015-01-01

    The stress induced lift-off method (SLIM) -cut technique allows the detachment of thin silicon foils using a stress inducing layer. In this work, results of SLIM-cut foils obtained using an epoxy stress inducing layer at room temperature are presented. Numerical analyses were performed in order to study and ascertain the important experimental parameters. The experimental and simulation results are in good agreement. Indeed, large area (5 × 5 cm 2 ) foils were successfully detached at room temperature using an epoxy thickness of 900 μm and a curing temperature of 150 °C. Moreover, three foils (5 × 3 cm 2 ) with thickness 135, 121 and 110 μm were detached from the same monocrystalline substrate. Effective minority carrier lifetimes of 46, 25 and 20 μs were measured using quasi-steady-state photoconductance technique in these foils after iodine ethanol surface passivation. (paper)

  18. Performance limits of direct cryogenically cooled silicon monochromators - experimental results at the APS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, W.-K.; Fernandez, P.; Mills, D.M.

    2000-01-01

    The successful use of cryogenically cooled silicon monochromators at third-generation synchrotron facilities is well documented. At the Advanced Photon Source (APS) it has been shown that, at 100 mA operation with the standard APS undulator A, the cryogenically cooled silicon monochromator performs very well with minimal (<2 arcsec) or no observable thermal distortions. However, to date there has not been any systematic experimental study on the performance limits of this approach. This paper presents experimental results on the performance limits of these directly cooled crystals. The results show that if the beam is limited to the size of the radiation central cone then, at the APS, the crystal will still perform well at twice the present 100 mA single 2.4 m-long 3.3 cm-period undulator heat load. However, the performance would degrade rapidly if a much larger incident white-beam size is utilized

  19. Adsorption of methanol molecule on graphene: Experimental results and first-principles calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, X. W.; Tian, Y. L.; Yue, W. W.; Chen, M. N.; Hu, G. C.; Ren, J. F.; Yuan, X. B.

    2018-04-01

    Adsorption properties of methanol molecule on graphene surface are studied both theoretically and experimentally. The adsorption geometrical structures, adsorption energies, band structures, density of states and the effective masses are obtained by means of first-principles calculations. It is found that the electronic characteristics and conductivity of graphene are sensitive to the methanol molecule adsorption. After adsorption of methanol molecule, bandgap appears. With the increasing of the adsorption distance, the bandgap, adsorption energy and effective mass of the adsorption system decreased, hence the resistivity of the system decreases gradually, these results are consistent with the experimental results. All these calculations and experiments indicate that the graphene-based sensors have a wide range of applications in detecting particular molecules.

  20. Critical experiments carried out with a homogeneous plutonium solution. Experimental results. Theoretical interpretations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouly, J.C.; Caizergues, R.; Deilgat, E.; Houelle, M.; Lecorche, P.

    1967-01-01

    This report groups together a series of experimental and theoretical studies on cylinders and plates of solution tried out at the Valduc Centre. a) Comparison of the theoretical and experimental results obtained on critical heights of solutions. b) Study of the effect of nitrogen, introduced in the form of the ion NO 3- , on the reactivity of fissile media. c) Study of the effect of 240 94 Pu on the reactivity of these media. d) Study of the influence of the dimensions of the inner cavity of annular cylinders, as well as of the influence of the moderator which may be introduced. Simple results were obtained which were easy to apply. An extrapolation to other geometries is made. (authors) [fr

  1. Experimental Results for Direction of Arrival Estimation with a Single Acoustic Vector Sensor in Shallow Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alper Bereketli

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We study the performances of several computationally efficient and simple techniques for estimating direction of arrival (DOA of an underwater acoustic source using a single acoustic vector sensor (AVS in shallow water. Underwater AVS is a compact device, which consists of one hydrophone and three accelerometers in a packaged form, measuring scalar pressure and three-dimensional acceleration simultaneously at a single position. A very controlled experimental setup is prepared to test how well-known techniques, namely, arctan-based, intensity-based, time domain beamforming, and frequency domain beamforming methods, perform in estimating DOA of a source in different circumstances. Experimental results reveal that for almost all cases beamforming techniques perform best. Moreover, arctan-based method, which is the simplest of all, provides satisfactory results for practical purposes.

  2. Advanced Supersonic Nozzle Concepts: Experimental Flow Visualization Results Paired With LES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Matthew; Magstadt, Andrew; Stack, Cory; Gaitonde, Datta; Glauser, Mark; Syracuse University Team; The Ohio State University Team

    2015-11-01

    Advanced supersonic nozzle concepts are currently under investigation, utilizing multiple bypass streams and airframe integration to bolster performance and efficiency. This work focuses on the parametric study of a supersonic, multi-stream jet with aft deck. The single plane of symmetry, rectangular nozzle, displays very complex and unique flow characteristics. Flow visualization techniques in the form of PIV and schlieren capture flow features at various deck lengths and Mach numbers. LES is compared to the experimental results to both validate the computational model and identify limitations of the simulation. By comparing experimental results to LES, this study will help create a foundation of knowledge for advanced nozzle designs in future aircraft. SBIR Phase II with Spectral Energies, LLC under direction of Barry Kiel.

  3. Search for muonium to antimuonium conversion: Overview and recent experimental results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reiner Schaefer, H.

    1988-01-01

    The motivation for an experimental search for muonium to antimuonium conversion is briefly discussed. Results of measurements on limits for the strength of the coupling constant involved in this interaction are summarized with emphasis on the recently completed search, LAMPF E985. Plans are presented for an upcoming next generation experiment, LAMF E1073, which aims at an improvement in the sensitivity by more than two orders of magnitude

  4. Verification of simulation model with COBRA-IIIP code by confrontment of experimental results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva Galetti, M.R. da; Pontedeiro, A.C.; Oliveira Barroso, A.C. de

    1985-01-01

    It is presented an evaluation of the COBRA IIIP/MIT code (of thermal hydraulic analysis by subchannels), comparing their results with experimental data obtained in stationary and transient regimes. It was done a study to calculate the spatial and temporal critical heat flux. It is presented a sensitivity study of simulation model related to the turbulent mixture and the number of axial intervals. (M.C.K.) [pt

  5. FIRST EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS FROM DEGAS, THE QUANTUM LIMITED BRIGHTNESS ELECTRON SOURCE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zolotorev, Max S.; Commins, Eugene D.; Oneill, James; Sannibale, Fernando; Tremsin, Anton; Wan, Weishi

    2008-01-01

    The construction of DEGAS (DEGenerate Advanced Source), a proof of principle for a quantum limited brightness electron source, has been completed at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. The commissioning and the characterization of this source, designed to generate coherent single electron 'bunches' with brightness approaching the quantum limit at a repetition rate of few MHz, has been started. In this paper the first experimental results are described

  6. Variable Entry Biased Paracentric Hemispherical Deflector: Experimental results on energy resolution for different entry positions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogan, Mevlut; Ulu, Melike; Gennerakis, Giannis; Zouros, Theo J. M.

    2014-04-01

    A new hemispherical deflector analyzer (HDA) which is designed for electron energy analysis in atomic collisions has been constructed and tested. Using the crossed beam technique at the electron spectrometer, test measurements were performed for electron beam (200 eV) - Helium atoms interactions. These first experimental results show that the paracentric entries give almost twice as good resolution as that for the conventional entry. Supporting simulations of the entire lens+HDA spectrometer are found in relatively good agreement with experiment.

  7. Defining Dynamic Characteristics of Multilink Pendulum System with Comparison of the Calculated and Experimental Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Gribkov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider the multilink pendulum system consisting of six physical pendulums. A pendulum (carrier has inertia parameters, which significantly exceed the remaining (carried ones placed on the carrier. In addition to the system under analysis, in particular, the paper presents a design scheme for a two-stage liquid fuel rocket using pendulums as the analogues of fluctuating fuel. Pendulum models also find application to solve problems of stabilization of space tether systems. The objective of the study is to determine dynamic characteristics of the said sixmembered pendulum system, as well as to identify specific dynamic properties inherent in objects of this kind. Dynamic characteristics of the system are determined by calculations. A physical model of the pendulum allowed us to compare the calculated and experimental results. To conduct the frequency tests of the pendulum model three pilot units have been created. The first two units turned out to be inappropriate for fulfilling the experimental tasks for various reasons. The third unit enabled us to obtain desirable experimental results. The "calculation–experiment” discrepancy on the natural frequencies of the pendulum model for the majority of frequencies was less than 5%. We analyzed the dynamic features of multilink pendulum systems "carried by the carrier unit links". The analysis results are applicable to the above-noted object classes of rocket and space technology.

  8. Experimental results of a direct air-cooled ammonia–lithium nitrate absorption refrigeration system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Llamas-Guillén, S.U.; Cuevas, R.; Best, R.; Gómez, V.H.

    2014-01-01

    Absorption thermal cooling systems driven by renewable energy are a viable option in order to reduce fossil fuel consumption and the associated emissions. This work shows the results of an air cooled absorption cooling prototype working with an ammonia–lithium nitrate mixture at high ambient temperatures. An absorption refrigeration system was designed and built. The prototype is a one stage ammonia–lithium nitrate air cooled chiller. The experimental system was instrumented to evaluate each component. This paper shows the operation conditions in the experimental unit as well as some of the heat loads encountered at different operating conditions. The system was operated successfully at ambient temperatures in the range of 25–35 °C. A series of test showed that even at ambient temperatures it can be operated at evaporator temperatures below 10 °C producing chilled water for air conditioning applications such as radiative cooling panels. The system proved to stabilize very quickly and no risk of crystallization was encountered so the first results are promising in order to continue with the development of a more advanced prototype. - Highlights: •Experimental results of a direct air-cooled ammonia–lithium nitrate system. •The prototype is a one stage ammonia–lithium nitrate air cooled chiller. •The absorption system was operated successfully at ambient temperatures. •Cooling loads of 4.5 kW were reached in the chilled water side

  9. Experimental results for a 1.5 MW, 110 GHz gyrotron oscillator with reduced mode competition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, E. M.; Marchewka, C. D.; Mastovsky, I.; Sirigiri, J. R.; Shapiro, M. A.; Temkin, R. J.

    2006-02-01

    A new result from a 110GHz gyrotron at MIT is reported with an output power of 1.67MW and an efficiency of 42% when operated at 97kV and 41A for 3μs pulses in the TE22,6 mode. These results are a major improvement over results obtained with an earlier cavity design, which produced 1.43MW of power at 37% efficiency. These new results were obtained using a cavity with a reduced output taper angle and a lower ohmic loss when compared with the earlier cavity. The improved operation is shown experimentally to be the result of reduced mode competition from the nearby TE19,7 mode. The reduced mode competition agrees well with an analysis of the startup scenario based on starting current simulations. The present results should prove useful in planning long pulse and CW versions of the 110GHz gyrotron.

  10. Experimental results for a 1.5 MW, 110 GHz gyrotron oscillator with reduced mode competition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, E.M.; Marchewka, C.D.; Mastovsky, I.; Sirigiri, J.R.; Shapiro, M.A.; Temkin, R.J.

    2006-01-01

    A new result from a 110 GHz gyrotron at MIT is reported with an output power of 1.67 MW and an efficiency of 42% when operated at 97 kV and 41 A for 3 μs pulses in the TE 22,6 mode. These results are a major improvement over results obtained with an earlier cavity design, which produced 1.43 MW of power at 37% efficiency. These new results were obtained using a cavity with a reduced output taper angle and a lower ohmic loss when compared with the earlier cavity. The improved operation is shown experimentally to be the result of reduced mode competition from the nearby TE 19,7 mode. The reduced mode competition agrees well with an analysis of the startup scenario based on starting current simulations. The present results should prove useful in planning long pulse and CW versions of the 110 GHz gyrotron

  11. Thermodynamic properties of 1-naphthol: Mutual validation of experimental and computational results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chirico, Robert D.; Steele, William V.; Kazakov, Andrei F.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Heat capacities were measured for the temperature range 5 K to 445 K. • Vapor pressures were measured for the temperature range 370 K to 570 K. • Computed and derived properties for ideal gas entropies are in excellent accord. • The enthalpy of combustion was measured and shown to be consistent with reliable literature values. • Thermodynamic consistency analysis revealed anomalous literature data. - Abstract: Thermodynamic properties for 1-naphthol (Chemical Abstracts registry number [90-15-3]) in the ideal-gas state are reported based on both experimental and computational methods. Measured properties included the triple-point temperature, enthalpy of fusion, and heat capacities for the crystal and liquid phases by adiabatic calorimetry; vapor pressures by inclined-piston manometry and comparative ebulliometry; and the enthalpy of combustion of the crystal phase by oxygen bomb calorimetry. Critical properties were estimated. Entropies for the ideal-gas state were derived from the experimental studies for the temperature range 298.15 ⩽ T/K ⩽ 600, and independent statistical calculations were performed based on molecular geometry optimization and vibrational frequencies calculated at the B3LYP/6-31+G(d,p) level of theory. The mutual validation of the independent experimental and computed results is achieved with a scaling factor of 0.975 applied to the calculated vibrational frequencies. This same scaling factor was successfully applied in the analysis of results for other polycyclic molecules, as described in a series of recent articles by this research group. This article reports the first extension of this approach to a hydroxy-aromatic compound. All experimental results are compared with property values reported in the literature. Thermodynamic consistency between properties is used to show that several studies in the literature are erroneous. The enthalpy of combustion for 1-naphthol was also measured in this research, and excellent

  12. Comparison of numerical and experimental results of the flow in the U9 Kaplan turbine model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petit, O.; Mulu, B.; Nilsson, H.; Cervantes, M.

    2010-08-01

    The present work compares simulations made using the OpenFOAM CFD code with experimental measurements of the flow in the U9 Kaplan turbine model. Comparisons of the velocity profiles in the spiral casing and in the draft tube are presented. The U9 Kaplan turbine prototype located in Porjus and its model, located in Älvkarleby, Sweden, have curved inlet pipes that lead the flow to the spiral casing. Nowadays, this curved pipe and its effect on the flow in the turbine is not taken into account when numerical simulations are performed at design stage. To study the impact of the inlet pipe curvature on the flow in the turbine, and to get a better overview of the flow of the whole system, measurements were made on the 1:3.1 model of the U9 turbine. Previously published measurements were taken at the inlet of the spiral casing and just before the guide vanes, using the laser Doppler anemometry (LDA) technique. In the draft tube, a number of velocity profiles were measured using the LDA techniques. The present work extends the experimental investigation with a horizontal section at the inlet of the draft tube. The experimental results are used to specify the inlet boundary condition for the numerical simulations in the draft tube, and to validate the computational results in both the spiral casing and the draft tube. The numerical simulations were realized using the standard k-e model and a block-structured hexahedral wall function mesh.

  13. Comparison of numerical and experimental results of the flow in the U9 Kaplan turbine model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petit, O; Nilsson, H; Mulu, B; Cervantes, M

    2010-01-01

    The present work compares simulations made using the OpenFOAM CFD code with experimental measurements of the flow in the U9 Kaplan turbine model. Comparisons of the velocity profiles in the spiral casing and in the draft tube are presented. The U9 Kaplan turbine prototype located in Porjus and its model, located in Alvkarleby, Sweden, have curved inlet pipes that lead the flow to the spiral casing. Nowadays, this curved pipe and its effect on the flow in the turbine is not taken into account when numerical simulations are performed at design stage. To study the impact of the inlet pipe curvature on the flow in the turbine, and to get a better overview of the flow of the whole system, measurements were made on the 1:3.1 model of the U9 turbine. Previously published measurements were taken at the inlet of the spiral casing and just before the guide vanes, using the laser Doppler anemometry (LDA) technique. In the draft tube, a number of velocity profiles were measured using the LDA techniques. The present work extends the experimental investigation with a horizontal section at the inlet of the draft tube. The experimental results are used to specify the inlet boundary condition for the numerical simulations in the draft tube, and to validate the computational results in both the spiral casing and the draft tube. The numerical simulations were realized using the standard k-e model and a block-structured hexahedral wall function mesh.

  14. Main Experimental Results of ISTC-1606 for Recycling and Transmutation in Molten Salt Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ignatiev, Victor; Feynberg, Olga; Merzlyakov, Aleksandr; Surenkov, Aleksandr; Subbotin, Vladimir; Zakirov, Raul; Toropov, Andrey; Panov, Aleksandr; Afonichkin, Valery

    2008-01-01

    To examine and demonstrate the feasibility of molten salt reactors (MSR) to reduce long lived waste toxicity and to produce efficiently electricity in closed fuel cycle, some national and international studies were initiated last years. In this paper main focus is placed on experimental evaluation of single stream Molten Salt Actinide Recycler and Transmuter (MOSART) system fuelled with different compositions of plutonium plus minor actinide trifluoride (AnF 3 ) from LWR spent nuclear fuel without U-Th support. This paper summarizes main experimental results of ISTC-1606 related to physical and chemical properties of fuel salt, container materials for fuel circuit, and fuel salt clean up of MOSART system. As result of ISTC-1606 studies claim is made, that the 7 Li,Na,Be/F and 7 Li,Be/F solvents selected for primary system appear to resolve main reactor physics, thermal hydraulics, materials compatibility, fuel salt clean up and safety problems as applied to the MOSART concept development. The created experimental facilities and the database on properties of fuel salt mixtures and container materials are used for a choice and improvement fuel salts and coolants for new applications of this high temperature technology for sustainable nuclear power development. (authors)

  15. SiO2-Ta2O5 sputtering yields: simulated and experimental results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vireton, E.; Ganau, P.; Mackowski, J.M.; Michel, C.; Pinard, L.; Remillieux, A.

    1994-09-01

    To improve mirrors coating, we have modeled sputtering of binary oxide targets using TRIM code. First, we have proposed a method to calculate TRIM input parameters using on the one hand thermodynamic cycle and on the other hand Malherbe's results. Secondly, an iterative processing has provided for oxide steady targets caused by ionic bombardment. Thirdly, we have exposed a model to get experimental sputtering yields. Fourthly, for (Ar - SiO 2 ) pair, we have determined that steady target is a silica one. A good agreement between simulated and experimental yields versus ion incident angle has been found. For (Ar - Ta 2 O 5 ) pair, we have to introduce preferential sputtering concept to explain discrepancy between simulation and experiment. In this case, steady target is tantalum monoxide. For (Ar - Ta(+O 2 ) pair, tantalum sputtered by argon ions in reactive oxygen atmosphere, we have to take into account new concept of oxidation stimulated by ion beam. We have supposed that tantalum target becomes a Ta 2 O 5 one in reactive oxygen atmosphere. Then, following mechanism is similar to previous pair. We have obtained steady target of tantalum monoxide too. Comparison between simulated and experimental sputtering yields versus ion incident angle has given very good agreement. By simulation, we have found that tantalum monoxide target has at least 15 angstrom thickness. Those results are compatible with Malherbe's and Taglauer's ones. (authors)

  16. Comparison of numerical and experimental results of the flow in the U9 Kaplan turbine model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petit, O; Nilsson, H [Division of Fluid Mechanics, Chalmers University of Technology, Hoersalsvaegen 7A, SE-41296 Goeteborg (Sweden); Mulu, B; Cervantes, M, E-mail: olivierp@chalmers.s [Division of Fluid Mechanics, Luleaa University of Technology, SE-971 87 Luleaa (Sweden)

    2010-08-15

    The present work compares simulations made using the OpenFOAM CFD code with experimental measurements of the flow in the U9 Kaplan turbine model. Comparisons of the velocity profiles in the spiral casing and in the draft tube are presented. The U9 Kaplan turbine prototype located in Porjus and its model, located in Alvkarleby, Sweden, have curved inlet pipes that lead the flow to the spiral casing. Nowadays, this curved pipe and its effect on the flow in the turbine is not taken into account when numerical simulations are performed at design stage. To study the impact of the inlet pipe curvature on the flow in the turbine, and to get a better overview of the flow of the whole system, measurements were made on the 1:3.1 model of the U9 turbine. Previously published measurements were taken at the inlet of the spiral casing and just before the guide vanes, using the laser Doppler anemometry (LDA) technique. In the draft tube, a number of velocity profiles were measured using the LDA techniques. The present work extends the experimental investigation with a horizontal section at the inlet of the draft tube. The experimental results are used to specify the inlet boundary condition for the numerical simulations in the draft tube, and to validate the computational results in both the spiral casing and the draft tube. The numerical simulations were realized using the standard k-e model and a block-structured hexahedral wall function mesh.

  17. Validation of Code ASTEC with LIVE-L1 Experimental Results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bachrata, Andrea

    2008-01-01

    The severe accidents with core melting are considered at the design stage of project at Generation 3+ of Nuclear Power Plants (NPP). Moreover, there is an effort to apply the severe accident management to the operated NPP. The one of main goals of severe accidents mitigation is corium localization and stabilization. The two strategies that fulfil this requirement are: the in-vessel retention (e.g. AP-600, AP- 1000) and the ex-vessel retention (e.g. EPR). To study the scenario of in-vessel retention, a large experimental program and the integrated codes have been developed. The LIVE-L1 experimental facility studied the formation of melt pools and the melt accumulation in the lower head using different cooling conditions. Nowadays, a new European computer code ASTEC is being developed jointly in France and Germany. One of the important steps in ASTEC development in the area of in-vessel retention of corium is its validation with LIVE-L1 experimental results. Details of the experiment are reported. Results of the ASTEC (module DIVA) application to the analysis of the test are presented. (author)

  18. Main Experimental Results of ISTC-1606 for Recycling and Transmutation in Molten Salt Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ignatiev, Victor; Feynberg, Olga; Merzlyakov, Aleksandr; Surenkov, Aleksandr [Russian Research Center - Kurchatov Institute, Kurchatov sq. 1, Moscow, RF, 123182 (Russian Federation); Subbotin, Vladimir; Zakirov, Raul; Toropov, Andrey; Panov, Aleksandr [Russian Federal Nuclear Center - Institute of Technical Physics, Snezhinsk (Russian Federation); Afonichkin, Valery [Institute of High-Temperature Electrochemistry, Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation)

    2008-07-01

    To examine and demonstrate the feasibility of molten salt reactors (MSR) to reduce long lived waste toxicity and to produce efficiently electricity in closed fuel cycle, some national and international studies were initiated last years. In this paper main focus is placed on experimental evaluation of single stream Molten Salt Actinide Recycler and Transmuter (MOSART) system fuelled with different compositions of plutonium plus minor actinide trifluoride (AnF{sub 3}) from LWR spent nuclear fuel without U-Th support. This paper summarizes main experimental results of ISTC-1606 related to physical and chemical properties of fuel salt, container materials for fuel circuit, and fuel salt clean up of MOSART system. As result of ISTC-1606 studies claim is made, that the {sup 7}Li,Na,Be/F and {sup 7}Li,Be/F solvents selected for primary system appear to resolve main reactor physics, thermal hydraulics, materials compatibility, fuel salt clean up and safety problems as applied to the MOSART concept development. The created experimental facilities and the database on properties of fuel salt mixtures and container materials are used for a choice and improvement fuel salts and coolants for new applications of this high temperature technology for sustainable nuclear power development. (authors)

  19. The German carbide program: Performance, experimental findings, and evaluation of irradiation results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steiner, H.; Freund, D.; Geithoff, D.

    1982-09-01

    In this report a synopsis of the German carbide program is presented. The program comprises the irradiation of about 100 carbide pins equipped with pelletted fuel. Most of these fuel pins were He-bonded, the sodium bonding concept taken as a back-up solution. The main design parameters such as smear and pellet density, gap size, pin diameter and wall thickness as well as the irradiation conditions were varied mostly within wide ranges. Based on a compilation of relevant pin parameters, irradiation conditions, and the results of various irradiation experiments conclusions on the optimum ranges of the main design parameters are drawn. Furthermore, some important aspects of fuel pin behaviour are discussed based on quantitative results from post irradiation examinations. (orig.) [de

  20. Preliminary Experimental Results for Indirect Vector-Control of Induction Motor Drives with Forced Dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Vittek

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The contribution presents an extension of indirect vector control of electric drives employing induction motors to 'Forced Dynamic Control'. This method of control offers an accurate realisation of dynamic response profiles, which can be selected by the user. The developed system can be integrated into a drive with a shaft position encoder or a shaft sensoriess drive, in which only the stator currents are measured. The applied stator voltages are determined by a computed inverter switching algorithm. Simulation results and preliminary experimental results for indirect vector control of an idle running induction motor indicate good agreement with the theoretical predictions.

  1. First experimental results and simulation for gas optimisation of the MART-LIME detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bazzano, A.; Brunetti, M.T.; Cocchi, M.; Hall, C.J.; Lewis, R.A.; Natalucci, L.; Ortuno-Prados, F.; Ubertini, P.

    1996-01-01

    A large area high pressure multi-wire proportional counter (MWPC), with both spatial and spectroscopic capabilities, is being jointly developed by the Istituto di Astrofisica Spaziale (IAS), CNR, Frascati, Italy and the Daresbury Laboratory (DL), Warrington, UK as part of the MART-LIME telescope. Recent test results (October-December 1995) carried out at the DL facilities are presented. A brief study, by means of a simulation program, on the possible gas mixtures to be employed in the MART-LIME detector is also reported. The results of the simulation are compared with the experimental data obtained from the tests. (orig.)

  2. Dimethyl Ether: New Advances in Wear Testing: Theoretical and Experimental Results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sivebæk, Ion Marius; Sorenson, Spencer C; Jakobsen, J.

    2003-01-01

    The issues addressed in this paper are investigation of the wear mechanisms present in the standard lubricity test for diesel oil: The High frequency reciprocating Rig (HFRR). The HFRR is a laboratory wear test using a ball on disk configuration. The result of a test is the wear scar diameter (WSD...... surfaces with long-range elasticity. This last property has enabled the model to correlate well with experimental results. The outcome of the alkane calculations indicates that the longer ones lubricate better than the shorts ones but not necessarily because of viscosity differences. The reason is more...

  3. Experimental results on polarized structure functions in deep inelastic lepton-nucleon scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stuart, L.

    1994-08-01

    A summary is given of experimental results on spin structure functions of the proton g 1 p (x,Q 2 ), deuteron g 1 d (x,Q 2 ), and neutron g 1 n (x,Q 2 ) as measured in deep inelastic scattering of polarized leptons from a polarized target. All results are consistent with the Bjorken sum rule predictions at the Q 2 of each experiment. The data do not support the Ellis-Jaffe sum rule prediction for the proton which implies that the hencity carried by the strange quark may be nonzero and that the net quark helicity is smaller than expected from simple quark models

  4. Some experimental results of the investigation of hadron-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azimov, S.A.; Gulamov, K.G.; Chernov, G.M.

    1978-01-01

    Recent experimental data on the hadron-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus inelastic interactions are analyzed. A particular attention is paid to the description of the leading hadron spectra and of the spectra of nucleon recoils in hadron-nucleus interactions. Some of the results of the experimental studies of correlations between secondary particles are discussed. This discussion demonstrates that an analysis of the multiparticle phenomena is very promising regarding the discrimination between the different models for the hadron-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus interactions. It is pointed out that the actual mechanism of the hadron-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus interactions is a rather complex one and can be described comprehensively by none of the existing models

  5. Sub-millimeter planar imaging with positron emitters: EGS4 code simulation and experimental results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bollini, D.; Del Guerra, A.; Di Domenico, G.

    1996-01-01

    Experimental data for Planar Imaging with positron emitters (pulse height, efficiency and spatial resolution) obtained with two matrices of 25 crystals (2 x 2 x 30 mm 3 each) of YAP:Ce coupled with a Position Sensitive PhotoMultiplier (Hamamatsu R2486-06) have been reproduced with high accuracy using the EGS4 code. Extensive simulation provides a detailed description of the performance of this type of detector as a function of the matrix granularity, the geometry of the detector and detection threshold. We present the Monte Carlo simulation and the preliminary experimental results of a prototype planar imaging system made of two matrices, each one consisting of 400 (2 x 2 x 30 mm 3 ) crystals of YAP-Ce

  6. Linear elastic obstacles: analysis of experimental results in the case of stress dependent pre-exponentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Surek, T.; Kuon, L.G.; Luton, M.J.; Jones, J.J.

    1975-01-01

    For the case of linear elastic obstacles, the analysis of experimental plastic flow data is shown to have a particularly simple form when the pre-exponential factor is a single-valued function of the modulus-reduced stress. The analysis permits the separation of the stress and temperature dependence of the strain rate into those of the pre-exponential factor and the activation free energy. As a consequence, the true values of the activation enthalpy, volume and entropy also are obtained. The approach is applied to four sets of experimental data, including Zr, and the results for the pre-exponential term are examined for self-consistency in view of the assumed functional dependence

  7. Reflectivity of 1D photonic crystals: A comparison of computational schemes with experimental results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Huerta, J. S.; Ariza-Flores, D.; Castro-García, R.; Mochán, W. L.; Ortiz, G. P.; Agarwal, V.

    2018-04-01

    We report the reflectivity of one-dimensional finite and semi-infinite photonic crystals, computed through the coupling to Bloch modes (BM) and through a transfer matrix method (TMM), and their comparison to the experimental spectral line shapes of porous silicon (PS) multilayer structures. Both methods reproduce a forbidden photonic bandgap (PBG), but slowly-converging oscillations are observed in the TMM as the number of layers increases to infinity, while a smooth converged behavior is presented with BM. The experimental reflectivity spectra is in good agreement with the TMM results for multilayer structures with a small number of periods. However, for structures with large amount of periods, the measured spectral line shapes exhibit better agreement with the smooth behavior predicted by BM.

  8. Comparison between maximum radial expansion of ultrasound contrast agents and experimental postexcitation signal results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Daniel A; O'Brien, William D

    2011-01-01

    Experimental postexcitation signal data of collapsing Definity microbubbles are compared with the Marmottant theoretical model for large amplitude oscillations of ultrasound contrast agents (UCAs). After taking into account the insonifying pulse characteristics and size distribution of the population of UCAs, a good comparison between simulated results and previously measured experimental data is obtained by determining a threshold maximum radial expansion (Rmax) to indicate the onset of postexcitation. This threshold Rmax is found to range from 3.4 to 8.0 times the initial bubble radius, R0, depending on insonification frequency. These values are well above the typical free bubble inertial cavitation threshold commonly chosen at 2R0. The close agreement between the experiment and models suggests that lipid-shelled UCAs behave as unshelled bubbles during most of a large amplitude cavitation cycle, as proposed in the Marmottant equation.

  9. Comparison of Experimental Surface and Flow Field Measurements to Computational Results of the Juncture Flow Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roozeboom, Nettie H.; Lee, Henry C.; Simurda, Laura J.; Zilliac, Gregory G.; Pulliam, Thomas H.

    2016-01-01

    Wing-body juncture flow fields on commercial aircraft configurations are challenging to compute accurately. The NASA Advanced Air Vehicle Program's juncture flow committee is designing an experiment to provide data to improve Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) modeling in the juncture flow region. Preliminary design of the model was done using CFD, yet CFD tends to over-predict the separation in the juncture flow region. Risk reduction wind tunnel tests were requisitioned by the committee to obtain a better understanding of the flow characteristics of the designed models. NASA Ames Research Center's Fluid Mechanics Lab performed one of the risk reduction tests. The results of one case, accompanied by CFD simulations, are presented in this paper. Experimental results suggest the wall mounted wind tunnel model produces a thicker boundary layer on the fuselage than the CFD predictions, resulting in a larger wing horseshoe vortex suppressing the side of body separation in the juncture flow region. Compared to experimental results, CFD predicts a thinner boundary layer on the fuselage generates a weaker wing horseshoe vortex resulting in a larger side of body separation.

  10. Integrated visualization of simulation results and experimental devices in virtual-reality space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohtani, Hiroaki; Ishiguro, Seiji; Shohji, Mamoru; Kageyama, Akira; Tamura, Yuichi

    2011-01-01

    We succeeded in integrating the visualization of both simulation results and experimental device data in virtual-reality (VR) space using CAVE system. Simulation results are shown using Virtual LHD software, which can show magnetic field line, particle trajectory, and isosurface of plasma pressure of the Large Helical Device (LHD) based on data from the magnetohydrodynamics equilibrium simulation. A three-dimensional mouse, or wand, determines the initial position and pitch angle of a drift particle or the starting point of a magnetic field line, interactively in the VR space. The trajectory of a particle and the stream-line of magnetic field are calculated using the Runge-Kutta-Huta integration method on the basis of the results obtained after pointing the initial condition. The LHD vessel is objectively visualized based on CAD-data. By using these results and data, the simulated LHD plasma can be interactively drawn in the objective description of the LHD experimental vessel. Through this integrated visualization, it is possible to grasp the three-dimensional relationship of the positions between the device and plasma in the VR space, opening a new path in contribution to future research. (author)

  11. Photovoltaic Grid-Connected Modeling and Characterization Based on Experimental Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humada, Ali M.; Hojabri, Mojgan; Sulaiman, Mohd Herwan Bin; Hamada, Hussein M.; Ahmed, Mushtaq N.

    2016-01-01

    A grid-connected photovoltaic (PV) system operates under fluctuated weather condition has been modeled and characterized based on specific test bed. A mathematical model of a small-scale PV system has been developed mainly for residential usage, and the potential results have been simulated. The proposed PV model based on three PV parameters, which are the photocurrent, IL, the reverse diode saturation current, Io, the ideality factor of diode, n. Accuracy of the proposed model and its parameters evaluated based on different benchmarks. The results showed that the proposed model fitting the experimental results with high accuracy compare to the other models, as well as the I-V characteristic curve. The results of this study can be considered valuable in terms of the installation of a grid-connected PV system in fluctuated climatic conditions. PMID:27035575

  12. Photovoltaic Grid-Connected Modeling and Characterization Based on Experimental Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humada, Ali M; Hojabri, Mojgan; Sulaiman, Mohd Herwan Bin; Hamada, Hussein M; Ahmed, Mushtaq N

    2016-01-01

    A grid-connected photovoltaic (PV) system operates under fluctuated weather condition has been modeled and characterized based on specific test bed. A mathematical model of a small-scale PV system has been developed mainly for residential usage, and the potential results have been simulated. The proposed PV model based on three PV parameters, which are the photocurrent, IL, the reverse diode saturation current, Io, the ideality factor of diode, n. Accuracy of the proposed model and its parameters evaluated based on different benchmarks. The results showed that the proposed model fitting the experimental results with high accuracy compare to the other models, as well as the I-V characteristic curve. The results of this study can be considered valuable in terms of the installation of a grid-connected PV system in fluctuated climatic conditions.

  13. Comparative study of methods on outlying data detection in experimental results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, P.M.S.; Munita, C.S.; Hazenfratz, R.

    2009-01-01

    The interpretation of experimental results through multivariate statistical methods might reveal the outliers existence, which is rarely taken into account by the analysts. However, their presence can influence the results interpretation, generating false conclusions. This paper shows the importance of the outliers determination for one data base of 89 samples of ceramic fragments, analyzed by neutron activation analysis. The results were submitted to five procedures to detect outliers: Mahalanobis distance, cluster analysis, principal component analysis, factor analysis, and standardized residual. The results showed that although cluster analysis is one of the procedures most used to identify outliers, it can fail by not showing the samples that are easily identified as outliers by other methods. In general, the statistical procedures for the identification of the outliers are little known by the analysts. (author)

  14. Experimental results on 2-30 keV bremsstrahlung from thick and thin targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shanker, R. [Atomic Physics Laboratory, Physics Department, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi 221005 (India)]. E-mail: rshanker@bhu.ac.in

    2006-10-15

    The recent experimental investigations on electron bremsstrahlung produced from impact of 2-30 keV electrons with thick solid and thin gaseous targets are reviewed. The theoretical models describing the energy and angular distributions of bremsstrahlung photons are discussed with their brief outlines and formulations to explain the experimental data. The results on thick target bremsstrahlung (TTB) spectra produced by keV electrons have suggested that there is a need to develop a comprehensive theory for accounting the solid state effects. It is further noted that the prediction of the modified KKD formula gives a reasonable agreement with the TTB data, whereas a semi-empirical formula gives a better fit to the data for thick targets. The available experimental data for dependence of double differential cross-sections of emitted photons on impact energy and their emission angles for gaseous atoms and molecules exhibit a good agreement with the theoretical calculations of Kissel et al., [1983. Shape functions for atomic-field bremsstrahlung from electrons of kinetic energy 1-500 keV on selected neutral atoms 1

  15. Plasma exhaust purification by thermal swing adsorption: Experimental results and modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ricapito, I.; Malara, R.C.

    1996-01-01

    For several years at the Joint Research Centre-Ispra laboratories, cyclic adsorption processes have been developed for the purification of the plasma exhaust stream of a deuterium-tritium fusion reactor. A purification process consisting of two coupled thermal swing adsorption systems seemed to be the most convenient process. In this context, a screening study was carried out to select the most suitable adsorbent materials and appropriate working temperatures. This was mainly done by experimental measurements of adsorption isotherms of the single components of the plasma exhaust stream and by a careful evaluation of the multicomponent adsorption equilibria. Experiments on adsorption dynamics were carried out in a pilot plant to demonstrate the feasibility and to evaluate the performance of the process. The experimental apparatus was designed to treat gas mixture flow rates up to 20 to 30 standard temperature and pressure l/h. A mathematical model was developed and tested against the experimental results to describe the adsorption process and, in particular, to evaluate and to optimize the process cycle time. 27 refs., 4 figs., 9 tabs

  16. Experimental results from a pilot plant for the ammonia removal from drinkable supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruno, G.; Di Sabatino, B.

    2001-01-01

    Ion exchange represents a valid alternative to chlorination for ammonia removal from drinking water, because it allows to prevent the main disadvantage of the chlorination process, i.e. the production of chlorinated organic compounds, which may be cancerous, occurring when the water to be treated contains organic substances. Ion exchange can be carried out by means of natural zeolites. Zeolites are microcrystalline aluminosilicates minerals, being common constituents of the quaternary tuffs emitted by volcanic alkaline - potassic districts of Lazio (Italy). Particularly, phyllipsite and chabasite were selected among several zeolites species because of their high specific selectivity with ammonium ion and high theoretical exchange capacity (3.5 meq/g). The concentrations of such mineral in the rocks employed were about 40-50%. A preliminary experimental step was performed in order to select the main operative parameters. Then, a pilot plant was built up at the 'Acquedotto Municipale' of Turin (Italy), made by filtration columns. A nitrifying biomass was observed to grow onto the zeolite granules, thus forming a combined chemical-biological system allowing a high removal efficiency to be attained throughout the experimental campaigns. The present paper deals with the results obtained from a two-year experimental investigation [it

  17. Investigation of Energy Absorption in Aluminum Foam Sandwich Panels By Drop Hammer Test: Experimental Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Nouri Damghani

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The sandwich panel structures with aluminum foam core and metal surfaces have light weight with high performance in dispersing energy. This has led to their widespread use in the absorption of energy. The cell structure of foam core is subjected to plastic deformation in the constant tension level that absorbs a lot of kinetic energy before destruction of the structure. In this research, by making samples of aluminum foam core sandwich panels with aluminum surfaces, experimental tests of low velocity impact by a drop machine are performed for different velocities and weights of projectile on samples of sandwich panels with aluminum foam core with relative density of 18%, 23%, and 27%. The output of device is acceleration‐time diagram which is shown by an accelerometer located on the projectile. From the experimental tests, the effect of weight, velocity and energy of the projectile and density of the foam on the global deformation, and energy decrease rate of projectile have been studied. The results of the experimental testes show that by increasing the density of aluminum foam, the overall impression is reduced and the slop of energy loss of projectile increases. Also by increasing the velocity of the projectile, the energy loss increases.

  18. Investigating dynamic parameters in HWZPR ased on the experimental and calculated results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nasrazadani, Zahra; Behfamia, Manochehar; Khosandi, Jamshid; Mirvakili, Mohammad [Reactors Research School, Nuclear Science And Technology Research Institute, Atomic Energy Organization of Iran, Esfahan (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    The neutron decay constant, α, and effective delayed neutron fraction, β{sub eff}, are important parameters for the control of the dynamic behavior of nuclear reactors. For the heavy water zero power reactor (HWZPR), this document describes the measurements of the neutron decay constant by noise analysis methods, including variance to mean (VTM) ratio and endogenous pulse source (EPS) methods. The measured α is successively used to determine the experimental value of the effective delayed neutron fraction as well. According to the experimental results, β{sub eff} of the HWZPR reactor under study is equal to 7.84e-3. This value is finally used to validate the calculation of the effective delayed neutron fraction by the Monte Carlo methods that are discussed in the document. Using the Monte Carlo N-Particle (MCNP)-4C code, a β{sub eff} value of 7.58e-3 was obtained for the reactor under study. Thus, the relative difference between the β{sub eff} values determined experimentally and by Monte Carlo methods was estimated to be < 4%.

  19. Solubility of water in fluorocarbons: Experimental and COSMO-RS prediction results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freire, Mara G.; Carvalho, Pedro J.; Santos, Luis M.N.B.F.; Gomes, Ligia R.; Marrucho, Isabel M.; Coutinho, Joao A.P.

    2010-01-01

    This work aims at providing experimental and theoretical information about the water-perfluorocarbon molecular interactions. For that purpose, experimental solubility results for water in cyclic and aromatic perfluorocarbons (PFCs), over the temperature range between (288.15 and 318.15) K, and at atmospheric pressure, were obtained and are presented. From the experimental solubility dependence on temperature, the partial molar solution and solvation thermodynamic functions such as Gibbs free energy, enthalpy and entropy were determined and are discussed. The process of dissolution of water in PFCs is shown to be spontaneous for cyclic and aromatic compounds. It is demonstrated that the interactions between the non-aromatic PFCs and water are negligible while those between aromatic PFCs and water are favourable. The COSMO-RS predictive capability was explored for the description of the water solubility in PFCs and others substituted fluorocompounds. The COSMO-RS is shown to be a useful model to provide reasonable predictions of the solubility values, as well as to describe their temperature and structural modifications dependence. Moreover, the molar Gibbs free energy and molar enthalpy of solution of water are predicted remarkably well by COSMO-RS while the main deviations appear for the prediction of the molar entropy of solution.

  20. Comparison of Computational and Experimental Microphone Array Results for an 18%-Scale Aircraft Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockard, David P.; Humphreys, William M.; Khorrami, Mehdi R.; Fares, Ehab; Casalino, Damiano; Ravetta, Patricio A.

    2015-01-01

    An 18%-scale, semi-span model is used as a platform for examining the efficacy of microphone array processing using synthetic data from numerical simulations. Two hybrid RANS/LES codes coupled with Ffowcs Williams-Hawkings solvers are used to calculate 97 microphone signals at the locations of an array employed in the NASA LaRC 14x22 tunnel. Conventional, DAMAS, and CLEAN-SC array processing is applied in an identical fashion to the experimental and computational results for three different configurations involving deploying and retracting the main landing gear and a part span flap. Despite the short time records of the numerical signals, the beamform maps are able to isolate the noise sources, and the appearance of the DAMAS synthetic array maps is generally better than those from the experimental data. The experimental CLEAN-SC maps are similar in quality to those from the simulations indicating that CLEAN-SC may have less sensitivity to background noise. The spectrum obtained from DAMAS processing of synthetic array data is nearly identical to the spectrum of the center microphone of the array, indicating that for this problem array processing of synthetic data does not improve spectral comparisons with experiment. However, the beamform maps do provide an additional means of comparison that can reveal differences that cannot be ascertained from spectra alone.

  1. PVTxy properties of CO2 mixtures relevant for CO2 capture, transport and storage: Review of available experimental data and theoretical models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Hailong; Jakobsen, Jana P.; Wilhelmsen, Oivind; Yan, Jinyue

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Accurate knowledge about the thermodynamic properties of CO 2 is essential in the design and operation of CCS systems. → Experimental data about the phase equilibrium and density of CO 2 -mixtures have been reviewed. → Equations of state have been reviewed too regarding CO 2 -mixtures. None has shown any clear advantage in CCS applications. → Identified knowledge gaps suggest to conducting more experiments and developing novel models. -- Abstract: The knowledge about pressure-volume-temperature-composition (PVTxy) properties plays an important role in the design and operation of many processes involved in CO 2 capture and storage (CCS) systems. A literature survey was conducted on both the available experimental data and the theoretical models associated with the thermodynamic properties of CO 2 mixtures within the operation window of CCS. Some gaps were identified between available experimental data and requirements of the system design and operation. The major concerns are: for the vapour-liquid equilibrium, there are no data about CO 2 /COS and few data about the CO 2 /N 2 O 4 mixture. For the volume property, there are no published experimental data for CO 2 /O 2 , CO 2 /CO, CO 2 /N 2 O 4 , CO 2 /COS and CO 2 /NH 3 and the liquid volume of CO 2 /H 2 . The experimental data available for multi-component CO 2 mixtures are also scarce. Many equations of state are available for thermodynamic calculations of CO 2 mixtures. The cubic equations of state have the simplest structure and are capable of giving reasonable results for the PVTxy properties. More complex equations of state such as Lee-Kesler, SAFT and GERG typically give better results for the volume property, but not necessarily for the vapour-liquid equilibrium. None of the equations of state evaluated in the literature show any clear advantage in CCS applications for the calculation of all PVTxy properties. A reference equation of state for CCS should, thus, be a future goal.

  2. Liquid blanket MHD effects experimental results from LMEL facility at SWIP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Zengyu; Pan Chuanjie; Liu Yong; Pan Chuanhong; Reed, C.B.

    2007-01-01

    The self-cooled /helium-cooled liquid metal blanket concept is an attractive ITER and DEMO blanket candidate as it has low operating pressure, simplicity, and a convenient tritium breeding cycle. But MHD pressure drop remains a key issue, especially in ducts with flow channel inserts (FCI), where the reduction in MHD pressure drop is difficult to predict with existing tools, and there are no available experimental data to check current predictions. To understand well various kinds of MHD effects, it is important for us to analyze and understand FCI effects. In this paper, we present measurements of the MHD effects due to off normal power shutdown, two-dimensional effects due to channel velocity profiles, three-dimensional effects caused by manifolds, and surface/bulk instability effects as a result of insulator coating imperfections. These results were collected from the Liquid Metal Experimental Loop (LMEL) facility at Southwestern Institute of Physics, China and in collaboration with Argonne National Laboratory, US under an umbrella of the People's Republic of China/United States program of cooperation in magnetic fusion. Some results were observed for the first time, such as two dimensional effects and instabilities due to insulator coating imperfections. The experiments were conducted under the following conditions: a uniform magnetic field volume of 80 x 170 x 740 mm and a maximum value of magnetic field, B 0 , of 2 Tesla. The mean flow velocity v 0 was measured with an electromagnetic (EM) flow meter (error of 1.2%); a Liquid-metal Electro-magnetic Velocity Instrument (LEVI) was provided by Argonne National Laboratory. The flow was driven by two Electro-magnetic (EM) pumps (6.5+11.6 m3/h); the operating temperature was 85 centigrade degree due to self-heating by the EM pump and friction of the fluid against the loop piping. Experimental parameters were: Hartmann number, M, up to 3500, velocity v 0 up to 1.2 m/s under magnetic field, and B 0 =1.95 Tesla

  3. Wind refrigeration : design and results of an experimental facility; Refrigeracion eolica: Diseno y resultados de una instalacion experimental

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beltran, R. G.; Talero, A.

    2004-07-01

    This article describes the experimental setup used to obtain design parameters for a wind driven refrigeration equipment. The system compressor is directly coupled to the wind mill and will provide refrigeration to a community located in La Guajira in northern Colombia. The testing on the experimental installation assessed the refrigeration capacity that could be provided by an open type commercial compressor coupled to the wind mill axis. Power and torque requirements have been evaluated for different wind mill rotational speeds. An assessment of the local conditions relating to wind speed, frequency and preferred direction for the installation site has been made based on measurements by the Meteorological National Institute and independent data from other sources. (Author)

  4. NUCLEAR HEATING IN LIF DOSEMETERS IN A FUSION NEUTRON FIELD, TRIAL OF DIRECT COMPARISON OF EXPERIMENTAL AND SIMULATED RESULTS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohorecki, Wladyslaw; Obryk, Barbara

    2017-09-29

    The results of nuclear heating measured by means of thermoluminescent dosemeters (TLD-LiF) in a Cu block irradiated by 14 MeV neutrons are presented. The integral Cu experiment relevant for verification of copper nuclear data at neutron energies characteristic for fusion facilities was performed in the ENEA FNG Laboratory at Frascati. Five types of TLDs were used: highly photon sensitive LiF:Mg,Cu,P (MCP-N), 7LiF:Mg,Cu,P (MCP-7) and standard, lower sensitivity LiF:Mg,Ti (MTS-N), 7LiF:Mg,Ti (MTS-7) and 6LiF:Mg,Ti (MTS-6). Calibration of the detectors was performed with gamma rays in terms of air-kerma (10 mGy of 137Cs air-kerma). Nuclear heating in the Cu block was also calculated with the use of MCNP transport code Nuclear heating in Cu and air in TLD's positions was calculated as well. The nuclear heating contribution from all simulated by MCNP6 code particles including protons, deuterons, alphas tritons and heavier ions produced by the neutron interactions were calculated. A trial of the direct comparison between experimental results and results of simulation was performed. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Comparison of experimental data with results of some drying models for regularly shaped products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaya, Ahmet [Aksaray University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Aksaray (Turkey); Aydin, Orhan [Karadeniz Technical University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Trabzon (Turkey); Dincer, Ibrahim [University of Ontario Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering and Applied Science, Oshawa, ON (Canada)

    2010-05-15

    This paper presents an experimental and theoretical investigation of drying of moist slab, cylinder and spherical products to study dimensionless moisture content distributions and their comparisons. Experimental study includes the measurement of the moisture content distributions of slab and cylindrical carrot, slab and cylindrical pumpkin and spherical blueberry during drying at various temperatures (e.g., 30, 40, 50 and 60 C) at specific constant velocity (U = 1 m/s) and the relative humidity {phi}=30%. In theoretical analysis, two moisture transfer models are used to determine drying process parameters (e.g., drying coefficient and lag factor) and moisture transfer parameters (e.g., moisture diffusivity and moisture transfer coefficient), and to calculate the dimensionless moisture content distributions. The calculated results are then compared with the experimental moisture data. A considerably high agreement is obtained between the calculations and experimental measurements for the cases considered. The effective diffusivity values were evaluated between 0.741 x 10{sup -5} and 5.981 x 10{sup -5} m{sup 2}/h for slab products, 0.818 x 10{sup -5} and 6.287 x 10{sup -5} m{sup 2}/h for cylindrical products and 1.213 x 10{sup -7} and 7.589 x 10{sup -7} m{sup 2}/h spherical products using the model-I and 0.316 x 10{sup -5}-5.072 x 10{sup -5} m{sup 2}/h for slab products, 0.580 x 10{sup -5}-9.587 x 10{sup -5} m{sup 2}/h for cylindrical products and 1.408 x 10{sup -7}-13.913 x 10{sup -7} m{sup 2}/h spherical products using the model-II. (orig.)

  6. Comparison of experimental data with results of some drying models for regularly shaped products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaya, Ahmet; Aydın, Orhan; Dincer, Ibrahim

    2010-05-01

    This paper presents an experimental and theoretical investigation of drying of moist slab, cylinder and spherical products to study dimensionless moisture content distributions and their comparisons. Experimental study includes the measurement of the moisture content distributions of slab and cylindrical carrot, slab and cylindrical pumpkin and spherical blueberry during drying at various temperatures (e.g., 30, 40, 50 and 60°C) at specific constant velocity ( U = 1 m/s) and the relative humidity φ = 30%. In theoretical analysis, two moisture transfer models are used to determine drying process parameters (e.g., drying coefficient and lag factor) and moisture transfer parameters (e.g., moisture diffusivity and moisture transfer coefficient), and to calculate the dimensionless moisture content distributions. The calculated results are then compared with the experimental moisture data. A considerably high agreement is obtained between the calculations and experimental measurements for the cases considered. The effective diffusivity values were evaluated between 0.741 × 10-5 and 5.981 × 10-5 m2/h for slab products, 0.818 × 10-5 and 6.287 × 10-5 m2/h for cylindrical products and 1.213 × 10-7 and 7.589 × 10-7 m2/h spherical products using the Model-I and 0.316 × 10-5-5.072 × 10-5 m2/h for slab products, 0.580 × 10-5-9.587 × 10-5 m2/h for cylindrical products and 1.408 × 10-7-13.913 × 10-7 m2/h spherical products using the Model-II.

  7. Review of JT-60 experimental results from June to October, 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-03-01

    After the achievement of AEC (Atomic Energy Commission) milestone in October, 1987, a new divertor coil has been installed to produce divertor plasmas with a single null at the buttom. A pellet injector was also installed during the same shut down period. This report presents the results from the experiment held from June to October in 1988. Major experimental issues during this phase are: 1) confinement and 2) divertor characteristics of lower X-point discharges, 3) enhancement of confinement with pellet injection, 4) ion heating with ICRF of LHRF, 5) current drive with LHRF or ICRF, and evaluation of bootstrap current. (J.P.N.)

  8. Preliminary Results on the Experimental Investigation of the Structure Functions of Bound Nucleons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bodek, Arie [Univ. of Rochester, NY (United States); Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States)

    2016-08-01

    We present preliminary results on an experimental study of the nuclear modification of the longitudinal ($\\sigma_L$) and transverse ($\\sigma_T$) structure functions of nucleons bound in nuclear targets. The origin of these modifications (commonly referred as as the EMC effect) is not fully understood. Our measurements of R= $\\sigma_L / \\sigma_T$ for nuclei ($R_A$) and for deuterium ($R_D$) indicate that nuclear modifications of the structure functions of bound nucleons are different for the longitudinal and transverse structure functions, and that contrary to expectation from several theoretical models, $R_A< R_D$.

  9. Combustion synthesis of TiB2-based cermets: modeling and experimental results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez Pacheco, M.; Bouma, R.H.B.; Katgerman, L.

    2008-01-01

    TiB 2 -based cermets are prepared by combustion synthesis followed by a pressing stage in a granulate medium. Products obtained by combustion synthesis are characterized by a large remaining porosity (typically 50%). To produce dense cermets, a subsequent densification step is performed after the combustion process and when the reacted material is still hot. To design the process, numerical simulations are carried out and compared to experimental results. In addition, physical and electrical properties of the products related to electrical contact applications are evaluated. (orig.)

  10. An experimental result of surface roughness machining performance in deep hole drilling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Azizah

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study presents an experimental result of a deep hole drilling process for Steel material at different machining parameters which are feed rate (f, spindle speed (s, the depth of the hole (d and MQL, number of drops (m on surface roughness, Ra. The experiment was designed using two level full factorial design of experiment (DoE with centre points to collect surface roughness, Ra values. The signal to noise (S/N ratio analysis was used to discover the optimum level for each machining parameters in the experiment.

  11. The Cornell field-reversed ion ring experiment FIREX: experimental design and first results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Podulka, W J; Greenly, J B; Anderson, D E; Glidden, S C; Hammer, D A; Omelchenko, Yu A; Sudan, R N [Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States). Laboratory of Plasma Studies

    1997-12-31

    The goal of FIREX (Field-reversed Ion Ring EXperiment) is to produce a fully field-reversed ring with 1 MeV protons. Such a ring requires about (2-3) x 10{sup 17} protons, or 30-50 mC of charge. This charge is to be injected as an annular proton beam through a suitable magnetic cusp configuration to produce a compact ring. The critical design issues for the ion beam accelerator are described. First experimental results of ion diode operation indicate that the design is capable of producing the required beam parameters. (author). 4 figs., 4 refs.

  12. The Cornell field-reversed ion ring experiment FIREX: experimental design and first results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Podulka, W.J.; Greenly, J.B.; Anderson, D.E.; Glidden, S.C.; Hammer, D.A.; Omelchenko, Yu.A.; Sudan, R.N.

    1996-01-01

    The goal of FIREX (Field-reversed Ion Ring EXperiment) is to produce a fully field-reversed ring with 1 MeV protons. Such a ring requires about (2-3) x 10 17 protons, or 30-50 mC of charge. This charge is to be injected as an annular proton beam through a suitable magnetic cusp configuration to produce a compact ring. The critical design issues for the ion beam accelerator are described. First experimental results of ion diode operation indicate that the design is capable of producing the required beam parameters. (author). 4 figs., 4 refs

  13. Numerical and experimental results of a passive free yawing downwind wind turbine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verelst, D.R.S.

    2013-09-15

    The background of this PhD study concerns a medium sized 3 bladed wind turbine in a free yawing and downwind configuration. Largely funded by an EU Marie-Curie IAPP grant, the project was jointly setup by the renewable energy consultant 3E, DTU Wind Energy and the TU Delft. The 3 bladed free yawing downwind concept is pursued in an attempt to increase the robustness of a wind turbine by eliminating the traditionally actively controlled, and sometimes failure prone yawing mechanism. Under certain conditions, such as for remote (off shore) and off grid applications, a decreased failure rate can increase the economical competitiveness significantly compared to more traditional power supplies. This work presents aeroelastic analysis and results of a wind tunnel test campaign for the 3 bladed free yawing downwind concept. The investigated topics concern free yawing stability and how it is affected by coning angle, blade sweep, and blade flexibility using both numerical and experimental methods. The wind tunnel tests were organized in the Open Jet Facility of the TU Delft, and the thesis discusses the experiment's design, construction, operation, and gives an analysis of the results. It provides a dataset to compare aeroelastic simulations with experimental results for varying yawed inflow conditions and free yawing stability. The experimental data scope is limited to rotor speed, tower base bending moment, yaw angle, and blade root flapwise bending moments measurements. Other work covered during the PhD study is a parametric blade sweep investigation for the NREL 5MW turbine, and a detailed study on load extrapolation methods based on aeroelastic simulations. It is concluded that the 3 bladed, free yawing, and downwind wind turbine can operate in a stable manner. However, numerical studies indicate a less stable operating region when the rotor flow is about to stall. The experiments confirmed the free yawing stability, but the unstable region indicated in the

  14. Experimental-demonstrative system for energy conversion using hydrogen fuel cell - preliminary results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoenescu, D.; Stefanescu, I.; Patularu, I.; Culcer, M.; Lazar, R.E.; Carcadea, E.; Mirica, D. . E-mail address of corresponding author: daniela@icsi.ro; Stoenescu, D.)

    2005-01-01

    It is well known that hydrogen is the most promising solution of future energy, both for long and medium term strategies. Hydrogen can be produced using many primary sources (natural gas, methane, biomass, etc.), it can be burned or chemically react having a high yield of energy conversion, being a non-polluted fuel. This paper presents the preliminary results obtained by ICSI Rm. Valcea in an experimental-demonstrative conversion energy system made by a sequence of hydrogen purification units and a CO removing reactors until a CO level lower than 10ppm, that finally feeds a hydrogen fuel stack. (author)

  15. Active vibration absorber for the CSI evolutionary model - Design and experimental results. [Controls Structures Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruner, Anne M.; Belvin, W. Keith; Horta, Lucas G.; Juang, Jer-Nan

    1991-01-01

    The development of control of large flexible structures technology must include practical demonstrations to aid in the understanding and characterization of controlled structures in space. To support this effort, a testbed facility has been developed to study practical implementation of new control technologies under realistic conditions. The paper discusses the design of a second order, acceleration feedback controller which acts as an active vibration absorber. This controller provides guaranteed stability margins for collocated sensor/actuator pairs in the absence of sensor/actuator dynamics and computational time delay. Experimental results in the presence of these factors are presented and discussed. The robustness of this design under model uncertainty is demonstrated.

  16. Experimental results supporting the concept of one-sided muon tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boniface, K., E-mail: bonifak@mcmaster.ca [McMaster University, Hamilton, ON (Canada); Jonkmans, G. [Canadian Nuclear Laboratories, Chalk River, ON (Canada); Buijs, A. [McMaster University, Hamilton, ON (Canada); Erlandson, A.; Livingstone, S. [Canadian Nuclear Laboratories, Chalk River, ON (Canada)

    2015-07-01

    Naturally occurring cosmic-ray muons have been shown to exhibit properties ideal for imaging the interior of structures containing material of high density and atomic number. The commonly used method for 3D imaging requires two modules of detection in order to measure muon scattering. This paper provides experimental results for a novel 3D imaging method that uses a reconstruction algorithm common to medical imaging and only one module of detection in order to measure the attenuation of the muon flux at several angles of rotation around a structure. (author)

  17. A perspective on thermal annealing of reactor pressure vessel materials from the viewpoint of experimental results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iskander, S.K.; Sokolov, M.A.; Nanstad, R.K.

    1996-01-01

    It is believed that in the next decade or so, several nuclear reactor pressure vessels (RPVs) may exceed the reference temperature limits set by the pressurized thermal shock screening criteria. One of the options to mitigate the effects of irradiation on RPVs is to thermally anneal them to restore the toughness properties that have been degraded by neutron irradiation. This paper summarizes recent experimental results from work performed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory to study the annealing response, or ''recovery'' of several irradiated RPV steels. The fracture toughness is one of the important properties used in the evaluation of the integrity of RPVs. Optimally, the fracture toughness is measured directly by fracture toughness specimens, such as compact tension or precracked Charpy specimens, but is often inferred from the results of Charpy V-notch impact specimens. The experimental results are compared to the predictions of models for embrittlement recovery which have been developed by Eason et al. Some of the issues in annealing that still need to be resolved are discussed

  18. Impulsivity in Multiplayer Online Battle Arena Gamers: Preliminary Results on Experimental and Self-Report Measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuyens, Filip; Deleuze, Jory; Maurage, Pierre; Griffiths, Mark D; Kuss, Daria J; Billieux, Joël

    2016-06-01

    Background and aims Multiplayer Online Battle Arena (MOBA) games have become the most popular type of video games played worldwide, superseding the playing of Massively Multiplayer Online Role-Playing Games and First-Person Shooter games. However, empirical studies focusing on the use and abuse of MOBA games are still very limited, particularly regarding impulsivity, which is an indicator of addictive states but has not yet been explored in MOBA games. In this context, the objective of the present study is to explore the associations between impulsivity and symptoms of addictive use of MOBA games in a sample of highly involved League of Legends (LoL, currently the most popular MOBA game) gamers. Methods Thirty-six LoL gamers were recruited and completed both experimental (Single Key Impulsivity Paradigm) and self-reported impulsivity assessments (s-UPPS-P Impulsive Behavior Scale, Barratt Impulsiveness Scale), in addition to an assessment of problematic video game use (Problematic Online Gaming Questionnaire). Results Results showed links between impulsivity-related constructs and signs of excessive MOBA game involvement. Findings indicated that impaired ability to postpone rewards in an experimental laboratory task was strongly related to problematic patterns of MOBA game involvement. Although less consistent, several associations were also found between self-reported impulsivity traits and signs of excessive MOBA game involvement. Conclusions Despite these results are preliminary and based upon a small (self-selected) sample, the present study highlights potential psychological factors related to the addictive use of MOBA games.

  19. Impulsivity in Multiplayer Online Battle Arena Gamers: Preliminary Results on Experimental and Self-Report Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuyens, Filip; Deleuze, Jory; Maurage, Pierre; Griffiths, Mark D.; Kuss, Daria J.; Billieux, Joël

    2016-01-01

    Background and aims Multiplayer Online Battle Arena (MOBA) games have become the most popular type of video games played worldwide, superseding the playing of Massively Multiplayer Online Role-Playing Games and First-Person Shooter games. However, empirical studies focusing on the use and abuse of MOBA games are still very limited, particularly regarding impulsivity, which is an indicator of addictive states but has not yet been explored in MOBA games. In this context, the objective of the present study is to explore the associations between impulsivity and symptoms of addictive use of MOBA games in a sample of highly involved League of Legends (LoL, currently the most popular MOBA game) gamers. Methods Thirty-six LoL gamers were recruited and completed both experimental (Single Key Impulsivity Paradigm) and self-reported impulsivity assessments (s-UPPS-P Impulsive Behavior Scale, Barratt Impulsiveness Scale), in addition to an assessment of problematic video game use (Problematic Online Gaming Questionnaire). Results Results showed links between impulsivity-related constructs and signs of excessive MOBA game involvement. Findings indicated that impaired ability to postpone rewards in an experimental laboratory task was strongly related to problematic patterns of MOBA game involvement. Although less consistent, several associations were also found between self-reported impulsivity traits and signs of excessive MOBA game involvement. Conclusions Despite these results are preliminary and based upon a small (self-selected) sample, the present study highlights potential psychological factors related to the addictive use of MOBA games. PMID:27156376

  20. Comparison of typical inelastic analysis predictions with benchmark problem experimental results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clinard, J.A.; Corum, J.M.; Sartory, W.K.

    1975-01-01

    The results of exemplary inelastic analyses are presented for a series of experimental benchmark problems. Consistent analytical procedures and constitutive relations were used in each of the analyses, and published material behavior data were used in all cases. Two finite-element inelastic computer programs were employed. These programs implement the analysis procedures and constitutive equations for Type 304 stainless steel that are currently used in many analyses of elevated-temperature nuclear reactor system components. The analysis procedures and constitutive relations are briefly discussed, and representative analytical results are presented and compared to the test data. The results that are presented demonstrate the feasibility of performing inelastic analyses, and they are indicative of the general level of agreement that the analyst might expect when using conventional inelastic analysis procedures. (U.S.)

  1. Comparison of typical inelastic analysis predictions with benchmark problem experimental results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clinard, J.A.; Corum, J.M.; Sartory, W.K.

    1975-01-01

    The results of exemplary inelastic analyses for experimental benchmark problems on reactor components are presented. Consistent analytical procedures and constitutive relations were used in each of the analyses, and the material behavior data presented in the Appendix were used in all cases. Two finite-element inelastic computer programs were employed. These programs implement the analysis procedures and constitutive equations for type 304 stainless steel that are currently used in many analyses of elevated-temperature nuclear reactor system components. The analysis procedures and constitutive relations are briefly discussed, and representative analytical results are presented and compared to the test data. The results that are presented demonstrate the feasibility of performing inelastic analyses for the types of problems discussed, and they are indicative of the general level of agreement that the analyst might expect when using conventional inelastic analysis procedures. (U.S.)

  2. A hierarchy of models for simulating experimental results from a 3D heterogeneous porous medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogler, Daniel; Ostvar, Sassan; Paustian, Rebecca; Wood, Brian D.

    2018-04-01

    In this work we examine the dispersion of conservative tracers (bromide and fluorescein) in an experimentally-constructed three-dimensional dual-porosity porous medium. The medium is highly heterogeneous (σY2 = 5.7), and consists of spherical, low-hydraulic-conductivity inclusions embedded in a high-hydraulic-conductivity matrix. The bimodal medium was saturated with tracers, and then flushed with tracer-free fluid while the effluent breakthrough curves were measured. The focus for this work is to examine a hierarchy of four models (in the absence of adjustable parameters) with decreasing complexity to assess their ability to accurately represent the measured breakthrough curves. The most information-rich model was (1) a direct numerical simulation of the system in which the geometry, boundary and initial conditions, and medium properties were fully independently characterized experimentally with high fidelity. The reduced-information models included; (2) a simplified numerical model identical to the fully-resolved direct numerical simulation (DNS) model, but using a domain that was one-tenth the size; (3) an upscaled mobile-immobile model that allowed for a time-dependent mass-transfer coefficient; and, (4) an upscaled mobile-immobile model that assumed a space-time constant mass-transfer coefficient. The results illustrated that all four models provided accurate representations of the experimental breakthrough curves as measured by global RMS error. The primary component of error induced in the upscaled models appeared to arise from the neglect of convection within the inclusions. We discuss the necessity to assign value (via a utility function or other similar method) to outcomes if one is to further select from among model options. Interestingly, these results suggested that the conventional convection-dispersion equation, when applied in a way that resolves the heterogeneities, yields models with high fidelity without requiring the imposition of a more

  3. VX hydrolysis by human serum paraoxonase 1: a comparison of experimental and computational results.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew W Peterson

    Full Text Available Human Serum paraoxonase 1 (HuPON1 is an enzyme that has been shown to hydrolyze a variety of chemicals including the nerve agent VX. While wildtype HuPON1 does not exhibit sufficient activity against VX to be used as an in vivo countermeasure, it has been suggested that increasing HuPON1's organophosphorous hydrolase activity by one or two orders of magnitude would make the enzyme suitable for this purpose. The binding interaction between HuPON1 and VX has recently been modeled, but the mechanism for VX hydrolysis is still unknown. In this study, we created a transition state model for VX hydrolysis (VX(ts in water using quantum mechanical/molecular mechanical simulations, and docked the transition state model to 22 experimentally characterized HuPON1 variants using AutoDock Vina. The HuPON1-VX(ts complexes were grouped by reaction mechanism using a novel clustering procedure. The average Vina interaction energies for different clusters were compared to the experimentally determined activities of HuPON1 variants to determine which computational procedures best predict how well HuPON1 variants will hydrolyze VX. The analysis showed that only conformations which have the attacking hydroxyl group of VX(ts coordinated by the sidechain oxygen of D269 have a significant correlation with experimental results. The results from this study can be used for further characterization of how HuPON1 hydrolyzes VX and design of HuPON1 variants with increased activity against VX.

  4. Thermodynamic properties of 9-fluorenone: Mutual validation of experimental and computational results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chirico, Robert D.; Kazakov, Andrei F.; Steele, William V.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Heat capacities were measured for the temperature range 5 K to 520 K. ► Vapor pressures were measured for the temperature range 368 K to 668 K. ► The enthalpy of combustion was measured and the enthalpy of formation was derived. ► Calculated and derived properties for the ideal gas are in excellent accord. ► Thermodynamic consistency analysis revealed anomalous literature data. - Abstract: Measurements leading to the calculation of thermodynamic properties for 9-fluorenone (IUPAC name 9H-fluoren-9-one and Chemical Abstracts registry number [486-25-9]) in the ideal-gas state are reported. Experimental methods were adiabatic heat-capacity calorimetry, inclined-piston manometry, comparative ebulliometry, and combustion calorimetry. Critical properties were estimated. Molar entropies for the ideal-gas state were derived from the experimental studies at selected temperatures T between T = 298.15 K and T = 600 K, and independent statistical calculations were performed based on molecular geometry optimization and vibrational frequencies calculated at the B3LYP/6 − 31 + G(d,p) level of theory. Values derived with the independent methods are shown to be in excellent accord with a scaling factor of 0.975 applied to the calculated frequencies. This same scaling factor was successfully applied in the analysis of results for other polycyclic molecules, as described in recent articles by this research group. All experimental results are compared with property values reported in the literature. Thermodynamic consistency between properties is used to show that several studies in the literature are erroneous.

  5. Silver release from nanocomposite Ag/alginate hydrogels in the presence of chloride ions: experimental results and mathematical modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kostic, Danijela, E-mail: dkostic@tmf.bg.ac.rs [Innovation Center of the Faculty of Technology and Metallurgy (Serbia); Vidovic, Srđan, E-mail: srdjanhi@gmail.com; Obradovic, Bojana, E-mail: bojana@tmf.bg.ac.rs [University of Belgrade, Faculty of Technology and Metallurgy (Serbia)

    2016-03-15

    A stepwise experimental and mathematical modeling approach was used to assess silver release from nanocomposite Ag/alginate microbeads in wet and dried forms into water and into normal saline solution chosen as a simplified model for certain biological fluids (e.g., blood plasma, wound exudates, sweat, etc). Three phenomena were connected and mathematically described: diffusion of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) within the alginate hydrogel, AgNP oxidation/dissolution and reaction with chloride ions, and diffusion of the resultant silver-chloride species. Mathematical modeling results agreed well with the experimental data with the AgNP diffusion coefficient estimated as 1.3 × 10{sup −18} m{sup 2} s{sup −1}, while the first-order kinetic rate constant of AgNP oxidation/dissolution and diffusivity of silver-chloride species were shown to be inversely related. In specific, rapid rehydration and swelling of dry Ag/alginate microbeads induced fast AgNP oxidation/dissolution reaction with Cl{sup −} and AgCl precipitation within the microbeads with the lowest diffusivity of silver-chloride species compared to wet microbeads in normal saline. The proposed mathematical model provided an insight into the phenomena related to silver release from nanocomposite Ca-alginate hydrogels relevant for use of antimicrobial devices and established, at the same time, a basis for further in-depth studies of AgNP interactions in hydrogels in the presence of chloride ions.

  6. First evaluation of experimental results describing pressure buildup and hydrogen distribution, obtained by experimental series E11

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holzbauer, H.; Wolf, L.; Valencia, L.

    1990-01-01

    The beginning of the core meltdown process in the reactor pressure vessel, with a supposed release position for hydrogen in the upper part of the containment, is simulated, and the influence of the plant geometry on the distribution process is studied. In addition, the release point is shifted to the lower containment area, additional hydrogen production owing to the interaction between concrete and melt is taken into account, and sump boiling is simulated. The experimental program covers analytical investigations in the form of blind post-calculations. (DG) [de

  7. Generation of thermonuclear fusion neutrons by means of a pure explosion. Part 2. Experimental results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Derentowicz, H.; Kaliski, S.; Wolski, J.; Ziolkowski, Z.

    1977-01-01

    This paper presents the experimental results of the generation of a thermonuclear fusion neutrons by means of explosion. The experimental set is based on a quasi-spherical experiment in which a polyethylene layer is shot into a conic region hollowed out in a golden target and filled with deuterium gas. The speeding-up system is based on shooting the conic liner onto the surface of the Cu cone in which the Mach wave is generated and propagates along the cone axis leading to an implosion velocity of the polyethylene layer of the order of (4 - 5).10 6 cm/s. This affords a 10 3 -multiple compression of the D 2 gas (p 0 approximately 1.2 atm) and a neutron emission of the order of 3.10 7 from a mass of about 10 -7 g. This result is in full agreement with theoretical estimates. This is the first published and documented experiment in which a neutron stream of thermonuclear fusion was obtained by means of a pure explosion. (author)

  8. Some new experimental results on the Zr-Nb-Fe system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramos, C. [Departamento de Fisica - CAC - Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Av. Gral Paz 1499, (1650) San Martin, Buenos Aires (Argentina)]. E-mail: ciramos@cnea.gov.ar; Saragovi, C. [Departamento de Fisica - CAC - Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Av. Gral Paz 1499, (1650) San Martin, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Granovsky, M.S. [Departamento de Materiales - CAC - Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Av. Gral Paz 1499, (1650) San Martin, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2007-06-30

    The scope of this study is the identification and characterization of intermetallic phases and their binary and ternary fields in the Zr-Nb-Fe phase diagram. A construction of the central region of the phase diagram at 900 {sup o}C was proposed using new experimental results obtained by optical and scanning electron microscopies, X-ray diffraction and microprobe analysis. In addition to the well-known Laves C15-type (ZrNb)Fe{sub 2} phase (the polytypic C14 and C36 structures were not detected in the studied compositions), another Laves C14-type phase was found (Zr(NbFe){sub 2}). Watson and Bennett maps helped to predict the occurrence of both of these phases. Moreover, the validity of the Pettifor prediction model for Laves phases in pseudobinary systems with transition elements was checked, verifying the obtained experimental results in the Zr-Nb-Fe system. On the other hand it was determined that the Zr-Nb-Fe ternary system at 900 {sup o}C, as it happens in the binary Zr-Nb system, would have a miscibility gap ({beta}-Zr + {beta}-Nb) in the 25-70 at.% Nb composition range, accepting up to 3 at.% Fe approximately.

  9. Thermal conductivity of silicic tuffs: predictive formalism and comparison with preliminary experimental results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lappin, A. R.

    1980-07-01

    Performance of both near- and far-field thermomechanical calculations to assess the feasibility of waste disposal in silicic tuffs requires a formalism for predicting thermal conductivity of a broad range of tuffs. This report summarizes the available thermal conductivity data for silicate phases that occur in tuffs and describes several grain-density and conductivity trends which may be expected to result from post-emplacement alteration. A bounding curve is drawn that predicts the minimum theoretical matrix (zero-porosity) conductivity for most tuffs as a function of grain density. Comparison of experimental results with this curve shows that experimental conductivities are consistently lower at any given grain density. Use of the lowered bounding curve and an effective gas conductivity of 0.12 W/m 0 C allows conservative prediction of conductivity for a broad range of tuff types. For the samples measured here, use of the predictive curve allows estimation of conductivity to within 15% or better, with one exception. Application and possible improvement of the formalism are also discussed

  10. Deviations between experimental and theoretical results in Ar (e, 3e) double ionization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jia, C C; Lahmam-Bennani, A; Cappello, C Dal; Duguet, A; Avaldi, L

    2003-01-01

    The coplanar (e, 3e) relative cross sections for double ionization of argon have been measured at an electron impact energy of E 0 = 561.4 eV and under equal energy sharing among the two 'ejected' electrons, E b = E c = 9 eV. The scattering angle is fixed to θ a = 1.5 degrees, corresponding to a momentum transfer K=0.4 au to the target. The experimental results have been compared with calculations in the first Born approximation, which include only first-order processes in the target-projectile interaction. The comparison shows severe deviations between the experimental and theoretical results. These deviations are much larger than the ones previously observed in helium under comparable kinematics. To fill this gap between theory and experiment, a decisive improvement in the theory is needed. This can be achieved by improving the first-order calculations and by including higher-order processes such as the two-step mechanism, or even new mechanisms, for instance the simultaneous ejection of the pair of target electrons. (letter to the editor)

  11. Tilted wheel satellite attitude control with air-bearing table experimental results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inumoh, Lawrence O.; Forshaw, Jason L.; Horri, Nadjim M.

    2015-12-01

    Gyroscopic actuators for satellite control have attracted significant research interest over the years, but their viability for the control of small satellites has only recently started to become clear. Research on variable speed gyroscopic actuators has long been focused on single gimbal actuators; double gimbal actuators typically operate at constant wheel spin rate and allow tilt angle ranges far larger than the ranges needed to operate most satellite missions. This research examines a tilted wheel, a newly proposed type of inertial actuator that can generate torques in all three principal axes of a rigid satellite using a spinning wheel and a double tilt mechanism. The tilt mechanism tilts the angular momentum vector about two axes providing two degree of freedom control, while variation of the wheel speed provides the third. The equations of motion of the system lead to a singularity-free system during nominal operation avoiding the need for complex steering logic. This paper describes the hardware design of the tilted wheel and the experimental setup behind both standalone and spherical air-bearing tables used to test it. Experimental results from the air bearing table are provided with the results depicting the high performance capabilities of the proposed actuator in torque generation.

  12. Polarimetric Emission of Rain Events: Simulation and Experimental Results at X-Band

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuria Duffo

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Accurate models are used today for infrared and microwave satellite radiance simulations of the first two Stokes elements in the physical retrieval, data assimilation etc. of surface and atmospheric parameters. Although in the past a number of theoretical and experimental works have studied the polarimetric emission of some natural surfaces, specially the sea surface roughened by the wind (Windsat mission, very limited studies have been conducted on the polarimetric emission of rain cells or other natural surfaces. In this work, the polarimetric emission (four Stokes elements of a rain cell is computed using the polarimetric radiative transfer equation assuming that raindrops are described by Pruppacher-Pitter shapes and that their size distribution follows the Laws-Parsons law. The Boundary Element Method (BEM is used to compute the exact bistatic scattering coefficients for each raindrop shape and different canting angles. Numerical results are compared to the Rayleigh or Mie scattering coefficients, and to Oguchi’s ones, showing that above 1-2 mm raindrop size the exact formulation is required to model properly the scattering. Simulation results using BEM are then compared to the experimental data gathered with a X-band polarimetric radiometer. It is found that the depolarization of the radiation caused by the scattering of non-spherical raindrops induces a non-zero third Stokes parameter, and the differential phase of the scattering coefficients induces a non-zero fourth Stokes parameter.

  13. An analysis of domestic experimental results for soil-to-crops transfer factors of radionuclides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jun, In; Choi, Young Ho; Keum, Dong Kwon; Kang, Hee Seok; Lee, Han Soo; Lee, Chang Woo [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-12-15

    For more realistic assessment of Korean food chain radiation doses due to the operation of nuclear facilities, it is required to use domestically produced data for radionuclide transfer parameters in crop plants. This paper analyzed results of last about 10 year's studies on radionuclide transfer parameters in major crop plants by the Korean Atomic Energy Research Institute, comparing with the published international data, and consequently suggested the proper parameters to use. The trends of transfer parameter shows normal distributions if we have a lot of experimental data, but some radionuclides showed enormous variations with the environment of experimental, crops and soils. These transfer factors can be used to assess realistic radiation doses or to predict the doses in crops for normal operation or accidental release. Some kinds of parameter can be produced as conservatives or fragmentary results because soil-to-plant transfer factors were measured through greenhouse experiments which sometimes showed improper field situations. But these parameters mentioned in this paper can be representative of the status of Korean food chain than that of foreign country.

  14. A flashing driven moderator cooling system for CANDU reactors: Experimental and computational results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khartabil, H.F.

    2000-01-01

    A flashing-driven passive moderator cooling system is being developed at AECL for CANDU reactors. Preliminary simulations and experiments showed that the concept was feasible at normal operating power. However, flow instabilities were observed at low powers under conditions of variable and constant calandria inlet temperatures. This finding contradicted code predictions that suggested the loop should be stable at all powers if the calandria inlet temperature was constant. This paper discusses a series of separate-effects tests that were used to identify the sources of low-power instabilities in the experiments, and it explores methods to avoid them. It concludes that low-power instabilities can be avoided, thereby eliminating the discrepancy between the experimental and code results. Two factors were found to be important for loop stability: (1) oscillations in the calandria outlet temperature, and (2) flashing superheat requirements, and the presence of nucleation sites. By addressing these factors, we could make the loop operate in a stable manner over the whole power range and we could obtain good agreement between the experimental and code results. (author)

  15. An analysis of domestic experimental results for soil-to-crops transfer factors of radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jun, In; Choi, Young Ho; Keum, Dong Kwon; Kang, Hee Seok; Lee, Han Soo; Lee, Chang Woo

    2006-01-01

    For more realistic assessment of Korean food chain radiation doses due to the operation of nuclear facilities, it is required to use domestically produced data for radionuclide transfer parameters in crop plants. This paper analyzed results of last about 10 year's studies on radionuclide transfer parameters in major crop plants by the Korean Atomic Energy Research Institute, comparing with the published international data, and consequently suggested the proper parameters to use. The trends of transfer parameter shows normal distributions if we have a lot of experimental data, but some radionuclides showed enormous variations with the environment of experimental, crops and soils. These transfer factors can be used to assess realistic radiation doses or to predict the doses in crops for normal operation or accidental release. Some kinds of parameter can be produced as conservatives or fragmentary results because soil-to-plant transfer factors were measured through greenhouse experiments which sometimes showed improper field situations. But these parameters mentioned in this paper can be representative of the status of Korean food chain than that of foreign country

  16. Epistemology and expectations survey about experimental physics: Development and initial results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin M. Zwickl

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In response to national calls to better align physics laboratory courses with the way physicists engage in research, we have developed an epistemology and expectations survey to assess how students perceive the nature of physics experiments in the contexts of laboratory courses and the professional research laboratory. The Colorado Learning Attitudes about Science Survey for Experimental Physics (E-CLASS evaluates students’ epistemology at the beginning and end of a semester. Students respond to paired questions about how they personally perceive doing experiments in laboratory courses and how they perceive an experimental physicist might respond regarding their research. Also, at the end of the semester, the E-CLASS assesses a third dimension of laboratory instruction, students’ reflections on their course’s expectations for earning a good grade. By basing survey statements on widely embraced learning goals and common critiques of teaching labs, the E-CLASS serves as an assessment tool for lab courses across the undergraduate curriculum and as a tool for physics education research. We present the development, evidence of validation, and initial formative assessment results from a sample that includes 45 classes at 20 institutions. We also discuss feedback from instructors and reflect on the challenges of large-scale online administration and distribution of results.

  17. Removal of radon decay products with ion generators - comparison of experimental results with theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maher, E.F.; Rudnick, S.N.; Moeller, D.W.

    1985-01-01

    The potential of ion generators to remove radon decay products from the airspace of residences or mines was investigated both experimentally and theoretically. A positive ion generator, producing an air ion current of less than 2 μA and operated in a 78 m 3 chamber with air exchange rates ranging from 0.2 to 0.8-hr -1 and relative humidities ranging from 20 to nearly 100%, reduced the concentrations of airborne radon decay products by as much as 85%. A negative ion generator, operated under the same range of conditions, was less effective, producing airborne radon decay product removals up to 67%. Experimental results compared favorably with a simple theoretical model that hypothesizes a three-part process: 1) radon decay products, as well as aerosol particles to which some of these decay products attach, are charged by diffusion of the air ions produced by the generator; 2) the air ions also produce a nonuniform space charge in the chamber that results in an electric field gradient radially outwards from the generator to the chamber surfaces; and 3) because of the influence of this electric field, the charged decay products and particles migrate toward nearby surfaces where they plate out. The net benefit of unipolar space charging is a substantial decrease in the steady-state radon decay product concentrations in the airspace with a corresponding reduction in the lung dose equivalent to the occupants

  18. Attitudes towards the Government’s Remembrance Policy in Poland: Results of an Experimental Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wawrzyński Patryk

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of an experimental study of Polish students’ attitudes towards their government’s remembrance policy (or, in other words, the intentional narration and interpretation of the past by the government. It includes four parts: a justification of why remembrance is a significant political asset in post-Communist Poland; a classification of remembrance policy instruments; a presentation of general results of the study; and a discussion of participants’ attitudes to particular policy instruments. In our assessment of the general results, we discuss three types of collected data: the results of the initial measurement of attitudes; the results of measurement after the manipulation of emotions (neutral vs. positive vs. negative and commitment (no commitment vs. low commitment; and the results in terms of attitude change. In the section on attitudes to particular instruments, we compare participants’ support for different commemorative actions with their support for the governments’ dominant role in the popularising of remembrance narratives. The study’s results lead us to formulate three conclusions about the relationships between attitudes to the policy and Polish political culture.

  19. Comparison of results of experimental research with numerical calculations of a model one-sided seal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joachimiak Damian

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Paper presents the results of experimental and numerical research of a model segment of a labyrinth seal for a different wear level. The analysis covers the extent of leakage and distribution of static pressure in the seal chambers and the planes upstream and downstream of the segment. The measurement data have been compared with the results of numerical calculations obtained using commercial software. Based on the flow conditions occurring in the area subjected to calculations, the size of the mesh defined by parameter y+ has been analyzed and the selection of the turbulence model has been described. The numerical calculations were based on the measurable thermodynamic parameters in the seal segments of steam turbines. The work contains a comparison of the mass flow and distribution of static pressure in the seal chambers obtained during the measurement and calculated numerically in a model segment of the seal of different level of wear.

  20. Comparison of leak opening and leak rate calculations to HDR experimental results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grebner, H.; Hoefler, A.; Hunger, H.

    1993-01-01

    During the last years a number of calculations of leak opening and leak rate for through cracks in piping components have been performed. Analyses are pre- or mostly post-calculations to experiments performed at the HDR facility under PWR operating conditions. Piping components under consideration were small diameter straight pipes with circumferential cracks, pipe bends with longitudinal or circumferential cracks and pipe branches with weldment cracks. The components were loaded by internal pressure and opening as well as closing bending moment. The finite element method and two-phase flow leak rate programs were used for the calculations. Results of the analyses are presented as J-integral values, crack opening displacements and areas and leak rates as well as comparisons to the experimental results

  1. Wave Synchronizing Crane Control during Water Entry in Offshore Moonpool Operations - Experimental Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tor A. Johansen

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available A new strategy for active control in heavy-lift offshore crane operations is suggested, by introducing a new concept referred to as wave synchronization. Wave synchronization reduces the hydrodynamic forces by minimization of variations in the relative vertical velocity between payload and water using a wave amplitude measurement. Wave synchronization is combined with conventional active heave compensation to obtain accurate control. Experimental results using a scale model of a semi-submerged vessel with a moonpool shows that wave synchronization leads to significant improvements in performance. Depending on the sea state and payload, the results indicate that the reduction in the standard deviation of the wire tension may be up to 50

  2. Follow-the-leader control for a train-like-vehicle. Implementation and experimental results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Micaelli, A.; Louveau, F.; Sabourin, D.

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents some practical implementation aspects and results of a particular control law dedicated to Train-Like-Vehicles (TLV) for trajectory tracking purpose. The CEA's demonstrator consists of two modules. It is a partial but representative mockup of a future 4-modules vehicle devoted to maintenance and intervention in nuclear plants, which is now on development within the frame of the Teleman/MESSINA project. The main principles of the control are first recalled; then the reference trajectory and its on line computation, and the robot's reference configuration are investigated; tuning the control parameters and control saturation are studied. Experimental and successful results of a real implementation on a TLV mockup are given and discussed. 10 figs., 3 refs

  3. Follow-the-leader control for a train-like-vehicle. Implementation and experimental results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Micaelli, A; Louveau, F; Sabourin, D [CEA Centre d` Etudes de Grenoble, 38 (France). Direction des Technologies Avancees; Canudas de Wit, C; Ndoudi-Likoho, A D [Laboratoire d` Automatique de Grenoble, 38 - Saint-martin d` Heres (France)

    1994-12-31

    This paper presents some practical implementation aspects and results of a particular control law dedicated to Train-Like-Vehicles (TLV) for trajectory tracking purpose. The CEA`s demonstrator consists of two modules. It is a partial but representative mockup of a future 4-modules vehicle devoted to maintenance and intervention in nuclear plants, which is now on development within the frame of the Teleman/MESSINA project. The main principles of the control are first recalled; then the reference trajectory and its on line computation, and the robot`s reference configuration are investigated; tuning the control parameters and control saturation are studied. Experimental and successful results of a real implementation on a TLV mockup are given and discussed. 10 figs., 3 refs.

  4. From electroweak theory to the primordial universe. A synthesis of some experimental results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ealet, A.

    2004-12-01

    Particle physic is based on a theory which can be tested on the current large colliders. Measurements are in a very good agreement with this electroweak theory and no deviation is observed to indicate new physics. What is surprising today is that none of its results agrees with what is known from our universe, neither to explain the primordial baryogenesis, neither to explain the acceleration of the expansion of the Universe. In this work, I come back on some results obtained in the Lep collider, to test the electroweak theory (Higgs and W boson production) and on some measurements of CP violation. I compare them with what can be extrapolated in term of primordial baryogenesis and dark energy density and show that there is no possible agreement in the Standard Model. I finish by some experimental and theoretical views to answer this fundamental question. (author)

  5. Experimental results on the design for the APS PID global orbit control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Y.; Kirchman, J. A.

    1997-01-01

    The Advanced Photon Source third generation synchrotrons light source needs a stabilized particle beam position to produce high brightness and low emittance radiation. Global orbit correction control is introduced and is utilized to satisfy the demanding needs of the accelerator. This paper presents the experimental results for determining an effective and optimal controller to meet the global orbit correction requirements. These requirements include frequency/time domain demands consisting of vibrational noise attenuation, limiting of controller gains for stability and improving the system time response. Experiments were conducted with a digital signal processor implementing various PID sets to make comparisons between simulations and experiments. Measurements at these PID sets supported the results of software simulation

  6. Low pollution combustor designs for CTOL engines - Results of the Experimental Clean Combustor Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, R.; Peduzzi, A.; Niedzwiecki, R. W.

    1976-01-01

    The NASA/Pratt & Whitney Aircraft Experimental Clean Combustor Program is a multi-year, major contract effort. Primary program objectives are the generation of combustor technology for development of advanced commercial CTOL engines with lower exhaust emissions than current aircraft and demonstration of this technology in a full-scale JT9D engine in 1976. This paper describes the pollution and performance goals, Phase I and II test results, and the Phase III combustor hardware, pollution sampling techniques, and test plans. Best results were obtained with the Vorbix concept which employs multiple burning zones and improved fuel preparation and distribution. Substantial reductions were achieved in all pollutant categories, meeting the 1979 EPA standards for NOx, THC, and smoke when extrapolated to JT9D cycle conditions. The Vorbix concept additionally demonstrated the capability for acceptable altitude relight and did not appear to have unsolvable durability or exit temperature distribution problems.

  7. Soil gas and radon entry into a simple test structure: Comparison of experimental and modelling results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, C.E.; Søgaard-Hansen, J.; Majborn, B.

    1994-01-01

    A radon test structure has been established at a field site at Riso National Laboratory. Measurements have been made of soil gas entry rates, pressure couplings and radon depletion. The experimental results have been compared with results obtained from measured soil parameters and a two......-dimensional steady-state numerical model of Darcy flow and combined diffusive and advective transport of radon. For most probe locations, the calculated values of the pressure couplings and the radon depletion agree well with the measured values, thus verifying important elements of the Darcy flow approximation......, and the ability of the model to treat combined diffusive and advective transport of radon. However, the model gives an underestimation of the soil gas entry rate. Even if it is assumed that the soil has a permeability equal to the highest of the measured values, the model underestimates the soil gas entry rate...

  8. Experimental and raytrace results for throat-to-throat compound parabolic concentrators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leviton, D. B.; Leitch, J. W.

    1986-01-01

    Compound parabolic concentrators are nonimaging cone-shaped optics with useful angular transmission characteristics. Two cones used throat-to-throat accept radiant flux within one well-defined acceptance angle and redistribute it into another. If the entrance cone is fed with Lambertian flux, the exit cone produces a beam whose half-angle is the exit cone's acceptance angle and whose cross section shows uniform irradiance from near the exit mouth to infinity. (The pair is a beam angle transformer). The design of one pair of cones is discussed, also an experiment to map the irradiance of the emergent beam, and a raytracing program which models the cones fed by Lambertian flux. Experimental results compare favorably with raytrace results.

  9. Concepts to optimize stent-grafting of abdominal aortic aneurysms based on results of experimental studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chavan, A.; Kirchhoff, T.; Baus, S.; Galanski, M.; Pichlmaier, M.

    2001-01-01

    Purpose. In the endoluminal therapy of abdominal aortic aneurysms, a short proximal aneurysm neck, endoleaks and the large size and stiffness of the introducer systems are responsible for many of the complications and sub-optimal outcomes. The purpose of the present review article is to to suggest strategies to minimize these complications based on the results of experimental studies in animals. Material and methods. After implanting various types of stents across the renal artery origins, the functional and morphological changes in the kidneys and renal vessels were studied by various authors. In order to prevent progressive widening of the proximal aneurysmal neck and graft dislocation, Sonesson et al. performed a laparoscopic banding around the proximal neck in pigs. To study the effects of endoleaks, Marty, Schurink and Pitton carried out pressure measurements in experimental aneurysms with and without endoleaks. Sakaguchi and Pavcnik developed the 'Twin-tube endografts' (TTEG) and the 'Bifurcated drum occluder endografts' (BDOEG) and tested them in dogs. Results. Up to 3 months after suprarenal stent placement, Chavan et al. detected no significant fall in the mean inulin clearance in sheep (140±46 ml/min before, 137±58 ml/min after). Nasim et al. and Malina et al. reported similar observations with respect to renal function. Suprarenal fixation may result in isolated thrombotic occlusions of the renal arteries and microinfarcts in the kidneys. Mean aortic diameters at the level of banding were significantly smaller in the animals with aortic banding as opposed to those in the control group without banding (8 mm vs 11 mm, p=0.004). The banding caused a secure proximal fixation of the stent-graft. Persistent endoleaks resulted in significantly higher intraaneurysmal pressures. Although the TTEG and the BDOEG stent-grafts required smaller sheaths, occlusions were observed in 8% (TTEG) and 60% (BDOEG) of the graft limbs. (orig.) [de

  10. Experimental results to determine the separation performance of the packages used in cryogenic distillation isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bornea, A.M.; Stefanescu, I.; Zamfirache, M.; Balteanu, O.; Preda, A.

    2007-01-01

    The cryogenic distillation of the hydrogen isotopes represents the back-end separation process most efficient and usually used in detritiation technologies. In our institute there were made many researches in the field of hydrogen isotopes separation. The first results were obtained based on an experimental installation - Pilot Plant for heavy water production - and in present days using a Detritiation Pilot Plant. In our Institute, was manufactured and patented a lot of hydrophilic package for isotopic distillation of water and hydrogen and also catalysts used for isotopic exchange waterhydrogen. This items was continuously developed in order to increase the isotopic separation efficiency. The goal of this paper is to determine by experimental work the performance of the package manufactured in our institute used in the cryogenic distillation process. To describe the separation performances was developed a mathematical model for the cryogenic distillation of the hydrogen isotopes. In order to determine the characteristics of the package, the installation was operated in the total reflux mode, for different flow rate for the liquid. There were made several experiments considering different operating conditions corresponding to various values for the refrigeration power in the column condenser. From the bottom and the top of the distillation column there were extracted samples in order to determine the isotopic composition. Processing the experimental data obtained from these tests using the Fenske relation, we obtained the separation efficiency function of the power inside the column boiler, operating pressure and also pressure drop along the package. This efficiency is describe by the number of theoretical plates per meter (NTT/m) or by equivalent height of one theoretical plate (IETT). (orig.)

  11. Experimental results to determine the separation performance of the packages used in cryogenic distillation isotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bornea, A.M.; Stefanescu, I.; Zamfirache, M.; Balteanu, O.; Preda, A.

    2007-07-01

    The cryogenic distillation of the hydrogen isotopes represents the back-end separation process most efficient and usually used in detritiation technologies. In our institute there were made many researches in the field of hydrogen isotopes separation. The first results were obtained based on an experimental installation - Pilot Plant for heavy water production - and in present days using a Detritiation Pilot Plant. In our Institute, was manufactured and patented a lot of hydrophilic package for isotopic distillation of water and hydrogen and also catalysts used for isotopic exchange waterhydrogen. This items was continuously developed in order to increase the isotopic separation efficiency. The goal of this paper is to determine by experimental work the performance of the package manufactured in our institute used in the cryogenic distillation process. To describe the separation performances was developed a mathematical model for the cryogenic distillation of the hydrogen isotopes. In order to determine the characteristics of the package, the installation was operated in the total reflux mode, for different flow rate for the liquid. There were made several experiments considering different operating conditions corresponding to various values for the refrigeration power in the column condenser. From the bottom and the top of the distillation column there were extracted samples in order to determine the isotopic composition. Processing the experimental data obtained from these tests using the Fenske relation, we obtained the separation efficiency function of the power inside the column boiler, operating pressure and also pressure drop along the package. This efficiency is describe by the number of theoretical plates per meter (NTT/m) or by equivalent height of one theoretical plate (IETT). (orig.)

  12. Study on natural convection in core barrel. Experimental and numerical results for band type spacer pads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, Kenji; Kawamata, Nobuhiro; Kamide, Hideki

    2003-03-01

    In a fast reactor an Inter-Wrapper Flow (IWF) is one of significant phenomena for decay heat removal under natural circulation condition, when a direct reactor auxiliary cooling system (DRACS) is adopted for decay heat removal system. Cold coolant provided by dipped heat exchangers (DHX) of DRACS can penetrate into the core barrel (region between the subassemblies) and it makes natural convection int he core barrel. Such IWF will depend on a spacer pad geometry of subassemblies. Water experiment, TRIF (Test Rig for Inter-wrapper Flow), was carried out for IWF in a reactor core. The test section modeled a 1/12th sector of the core and upper plenum of reactor vessel. Experimental parameters were the spacer pad geometry and flow path geometries connecting the upper plenum and core barrel. Numerical simulation using AQUA code was also performed to confirm applicability of a simulation method. An experimental series using a button type spacer pad had been carried out. Here a band type spacer pad was examined. Temperatures at subassembly wall were measured with parameter of the flow path geometries; one was a connection pipe between the upper plenum and core barrel and the other was flow hole in core former plates between the outermost subassemblies and the core barrel. It was found that these flow paths were effective to remove heat in the core in case of the band type spacer pad. A general purpose three dimensional analysis code, AQUA, was applied to the experimental analysis. Each subassembly and inter wrapper gap region were modeled by slab mesh geometry. Pressure loss coefficient at the pacer pad was set based on the geometry. The numerical simulation results were in good agreement with measured temperature profiles in the core. (author)

  13. Recovery of yttrium from cathode ray tubes and lamps’ fluorescent powders: experimental results and economic simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Innocenzi, V.; De Michelis, I.; Ferella, F.; Vegliò, F.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Fluorescent powder of lamps. • Fluorescent powder of cathode ray rubes. • Recovery of yttrium from fluorescent powders. • Economic simulation for the processes to recover yttrium from WEEE. - Abstract: In this paper, yttrium recovery from fluorescent powder of lamps and cathode ray tubes (CRTs) is described. The process for treating these materials includes the following: (a) acid leaching, (b) purification of the leach liquors using sodium hydroxide and sodium sulfide, (c) precipitation of yttrium using oxalic acid, and (d) calcinations of oxalates for production of yttrium oxides. Experimental results have shown that process conditions necessary to purify the solutions and recover yttrium strongly depend on composition of the leach liquor, in other words, whether the powder comes from treatment of CRTs or lamp. In the optimal experimental conditions, the recoveries of yttrium oxide are about 95%, 55%, and 65% for CRT, lamps, and CRT/lamp mixture (called MIX) powders, respectively. The lower yields obtained during treatments of MIX and lamp powders are probably due to the co-precipitation of yttrium together with other metals contained in the lamps powder only. Yttrium loss can be reduced to minimum changing the experimental conditions with respect to the case of the CRT process. In any case, the purity of final products from CRT, lamps, and MIX is greater than 95%. Moreover, the possibility to treat simultaneously both CRT and lamp powders is very important and interesting from an industrial point of view since it could be possible to run a single plant treating fluorescent powder coming from two different electronic wastes

  14. The fish sexual development test: an OECD test guideline proposal with possible relevance for environmental risk assessment. Results from the validation programme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holbech, Henrik; Brande-Lavridsen, Nanna; Kinnberg, Karin Lund

    2010-01-01

    The Fish Sexual Development Test (FSDT) has gone through two validations as an OECD test guideline for the detection of endocrine active chemicals with different modes of action. The validation has been finalized on four species: Zebrafish (Danio rerio), Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes), three s...... as a population relevant endpoint and the results of the two validation rounds will be discussed in relation to environmental risk assessment and species selection....... for histology. For all three methods, the fish parts were numbered and histology could therefore be linked to the vitellogenin concentration in individual fish. The two core endocrine relevant endpoints were vitellogenin concentrations and phenotypic sex ratio. Change in the sex ratio is presented...

  15. Pipe damping: experimental results from laboratory tests in the seismic frequency range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ware, A.G.; Arendts, J.G.

    1986-06-01

    The Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) has been conducting a research program to assist the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC) in determining best-estimate damping values for the seismic analysis of nuclear piping systems. As part of this program, a 5-in. piping system was tested by the INEL, and data from USNRC/EPRI piping vibration tests at the ANCO Engineers facility were evaluated. These systems were subjected to various types of excitation methods and magnitudes, the support configurations were varied, and the effects of pipe insulation and internal pressure were investigated on the INEL system. The INEL has used several different methods to reduce the data to determine the damping in both these piping systems under the various test conditions. It was concluded that at representative seismic excitation levels, pressure was not a contributing factor, but the supports, insulation, and magnitude of response all were major influences contributing to damping. These tests are part of the ongoing program to determine how various parameters and data reduction methods affect piping system damping. The evaluation of all relevant test results, including these two series, will potentially lead to revised damping guidelines for the seismic analysis of nuclear plants, making them safer, less costly, and easier to inspect and maintain. The test results as well as accompanying evaluations and recommendations are presented in this report. 27 refs., 72 figs., 13 tabs

  16. Deliberation of arc plasma characteristics according to experimental results in a typical gas circuit-breaker

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borghei, M.

    2005-01-01

    One of the industrial plasma applications is in the gas circuit breakers (GCB) and switching processes. During GCB operation and opening of its two contacts, current flows through of the inter-electrode medium (generally SF 6 or its mixture) and electric arc forms from the plasma that has been created between the contacts. The electric arc is a self-sustained discharge having low voltage drop and able to support great amplitudes of current. The technical basis of circuit breaker is: initiating arc plasma, flowing a large current, cooling it effectively to avoid re-ignition, and finally the transition from a well-conducting medium into insulating gas space in a very short time interval. In other words, for a successful interruption we need to know about power brought to the arc and that of removed. In this paper an attempt has been made to study, characterize and understand some arc behaviors such as arc conductance and its changes according to recorded current and voltage traces experimentally. From physical point of view, there are different phenomena that affect on arc behavior. According to methodology used here, we tried to understand some of arc behavior from experimental results and finally we extract some arc parameters. (author)

  17. RC Beams Strengthened with Mechanically Fastened Composites: Experimental Results and Numerical Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enzo Martinelli

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The use of mechanically-fastened fiber-reinforced polymer (MF-FRP systems has recently emerged as a competitive solution for the flexural strengthening of reinforced concrete (RC beams and slabs. An overview of the experimental research has proven the effectiveness and the potentiality of the MF-FRP technique which is particularly suitable for emergency repairs or when the speed of installation and immediacy of use are imperative. A finite-element (FE model has been recently developed by the authors with the aim to simulate the behavior of RC beams strengthened in bending by MF-FRP laminates; such a model has also been validated by using a wide experimental database collected from the literature. By following the previous study, the FE model and the assembled database are considered herein with the aim of better exploring the influence of some specific aspects on the structural response of MF-FRP strengthened members, such as the bearing stress-slip relationship assumed for the FRP-concrete interface, the stress-strain law considered for reinforcing steel rebars and the cracking process in RC members resulting in the well-known tension stiffening effect. The considerations drawn from this study will be useful to researchers for the calibration of criteria and design rules for strengthening RC beams through MF-FRP laminates.

  18. Experimental results obtained with the simulated cold moderator system. System characteristics and technical issues

    CERN Document Server

    Aso, T; Hino, R; Kaminaga, M; Kinoshita, H; Takahashi, T

    2002-01-01

    The Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute and the High Energy Accelerator Research Organization have been developing a Mega-Watt scale spallation target system. In the system, neutrons generated in a target are sorted out their energy to the proper values in liquid-hydrogen moderators. Then, the liquid-hydrogen is forced to circulate in order to suppress hydrogen temperature increase. In the operation of moderators, it is very important to establish a safety protection system against emergency shutdown of the accelerator or accidents of the cold moderator system. In order to obtain a technical data for design and safety review of the liquid-hydrogen system, we have fabricated an experimental apparatus simulated the cold moderator system using liquid nitrogen (max. 1.5 MPa, mini. 77 K) instead of liquid hydrogen. The experiments on a controllability of the system were carried out to investigate dynamic characteristics of the system. This report presents the experimental results and technical issues for the co...

  19. Microstructure evolution during homogenization of Al–Mn–Fe–Si alloys: Modeling and experimental results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du, Q.; Poole, W.J.; Wells, M.A.; Parson, N.C.

    2013-01-01

    Microstructure evolution during the homogenization heat treatment of Al–Mn–Fe–Si, or AA3xxx, alloys has been investigated using a combination of modeling and experimental studies. The model is fully coupled to CALculation PHAse Diagram (CALPHAD) software and has explicitly taken into account the two different length scales for diffusion encountered in modeling the homogenization process. The model is able to predict the evolution of all the important microstructural features during homogenization, including the inhomogeneous spatial distribution of dispersoids and alloying elements in solution, the dispersoid number density and the size distribution, and the type and fraction of intergranular constituent particles. Experiments were conducted using four direct chill (DC) cast AA3xxx alloys subjected to various homogenization treatments. The resulting microstructures were then characterized using a range of characterization techniques, including optical and electron microscopy, electron micro probe analysis, field emission gun scanning electron microscopy, and electrical resistivity measurements. The model predictions have been compared with the experimental measurements to validate the model. Further, it has been demonstrated that the validated model is able to predict the effects of alloying elements (e.g. Si and Mn) on microstructure evolution. It is concluded that the model provides a time and cost effective tool in optimizing and designing industrial AA3xxx alloy chemistries and homogenization heat treatments

  20. Experimental Estimation Of Energy Damping During Free Rocking Of Unreinforced Masonry Walls. First Results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sorrentino, Luigi; Masiani, Renato; Benedetti, Stefano

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents an ongoing experimental program on unreinforced masonry walls undergoing free rocking. Aim of the laboratory campaign is the estimation of kinetic energy damping exhibited by walls released with non-zero initial conditions of motion. Such energy damping is necessary for dynamic modelling of unreinforced masonry local mechanisms. After a brief review of the literature on this topic, the main features of the laboratory tests are presented. The program involves the experimental investigation of several parameters: 1) unit material (brick or tuff), 2) wall aspect ratio (ranging between 14.5 and 7.1), 3) restraint condition (two-sided or one-sided rocking), and 4) depth of the contact surface between facade and transverse walls (one-sided rocking only). All walls are single wythe and the mortar is pozzuolanic. The campaign is still in progress. However, it is possible to present the results on most of the mechanical properties of mortar and bricks. Moreover, a few time histories are reported, already indicating the need to correct some of the assumptions frequent in the literature

  1. Experimental results of the SMART ECC injection performance with reduced scale of test facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Young Il; Cho, Seok; Ko, Yung Joo; Shin, Yong Cheol; Kwon, Tae Soon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-05-15

    SMART pressurized water reactor type is different from the existing integral NSSS commercial pressurized water reactor system which is equipped with the main features. In addition, RCS piping is removed and the feature of the SBLOCA is a major design break accident. SWAT (SMART ECC Water Asymmetric Two-phase choking test facility) test facility is to simulate the 2 inch SBLOCA of the SMART using with reduced scale. The Test was performed to produce experimental data for the validation of the TASS/SMR-S thermal hydraulic analysis code, and to investigate the related thermal hydraulic phenomena in the down-comer region during the 2 inch SBLOCA of the safety inject line. The particular phenomena for the observation are ECC bypass and multi-dimensional flow characteristics to verify the effectiveness and performance of the safety injection system. In this paper, the corresponding steady state test conditions, including initial and boundary conditions along with major measuring parameters, and related experimental results were described

  2. Experimental results obtained with the simulated cold moderator system. System characteristics and technical issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aso, Tomokazu; Kaminaga, Masanori; Haga, Katsuhiro; Kinoshita, Hidetaka; Takahashi, Toshio; Hino, Ryutaro [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    2002-12-01

    The Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute and the High Energy Accelerator Research Organization have been developing a Mega-Watt scale spallation target system. In the system, neutrons generated in a target are sorted out their energy to the proper values in liquid-hydrogen moderators. Then, the liquid-hydrogen is forced to circulate in order to suppress hydrogen temperature increase. In the operation of moderators, it is very important to establish a safety protection system against emergency shutdown of the accelerator or accidents of the cold moderator system. In order to obtain a technical data for design and safety review of the liquid-hydrogen system, we have fabricated an experimental apparatus simulated the cold moderator system using liquid nitrogen (max. 1.5 MPa, mini. 77 K) instead of liquid hydrogen. The experiments on a controllability of the system were carried out to investigate dynamic characteristics of the system. This report presents the experimental results and technical issues for the construction of a practical liquid-hydrogen moderator system of the Mega-Watt scale target system. (author)

  3. Stimulating Contributions to Public Goods through Information Feedback: Some Experimental Results.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco A Janssen

    Full Text Available In traditional public good experiments participants receive an endowment from the experimenter that can be invested in a public good or kept in a private account. In this paper we present an experimental environment where participants can invest time during five days to contribute to a public good. Participants can make contributions to a linear public good by logging into a web application and performing virtual actions. We compared four treatments, with different group sizes and information of (relative performance of other groups. We find that information feedback about performance of other groups has a small positive effect if we control for various attributes of the groups. Moreover, we find a significant effect of the contributions of others in the group in the previous day on the number of points earned in the current day. Our results confirm that people participate more when participants in their group participate more, and are influenced by information about the relative performance of other groups.

  4. Theory, simulation and experimental results of the acoustic detection of magnetization changes in superparamagnetic iron oxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borgert Jörn

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Magnetic Particle Imaging is a novel method for medical imaging. It can be used to measure the local concentration of a tracer material based on iron oxide nanoparticles. While the resulting images show the distribution of the tracer material in phantoms or anatomic structures of subjects under examination, no information about the tissue is being acquired. To expand Magnetic Particle Imaging into the detection of soft tissue properties, a new method is proposed, which detects acoustic emissions caused by magnetization changes in superparamagnetic iron oxide. Methods Starting from an introduction to the theory of acoustically detected Magnetic Particle Imaging, a comparison to magnetically detected Magnetic Particle Imaging is presented. Furthermore, an experimental setup for the detection of acoustic emissions is described, which consists of the necessary field generating components, i.e. coils and permanent magnets, as well as a calibrated microphone to perform the detection. Results The estimated detection limit of acoustic Magnetic Particle Imaging is comparable to the detection limit of magnetic resonance imaging for iron oxide nanoparticles, whereas both are inferior to the theoretical detection limit for magnetically detected Magnetic Particle Imaging. Sufficient data was acquired to perform a comparison to the simulated data. The experimental results are in agreement with the simulations. The remaining differences can be well explained. Conclusions It was possible to demonstrate the detection of acoustic emissions of magnetic tracer materials in Magnetic Particle Imaging. The processing of acoustic emission in addition to the tracer distribution acquired by magnetic detection might allow for the extraction of mechanical tissue parameters. Such parameters, like for example the velocity of sound and the attenuation caused by the tissue, might also be used to support and improve ultrasound imaging. However, the method

  5. Smectite clays in Mars soil - Evidence for their presence and role in Viking biology experimental results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banin, A.; Rishpon, J.

    1979-01-01

    Evidence for the presence of smectite clays in Martian soils is reviewed and results of experiments with certain active clays simulating the Viking biology experiments are reported. Analyses of Martian soil composition by means of X-ray fluorescence spectrometry and dust storm spectroscopy and Martian geological history strongly suggest the presence of a mixture of weathered ferro-silicate minerals, mainly nontronite and montmorillonite, accompanied by soluble sulphate salts, as major constituents. Samples of montmorillonite and nontronite incubated with (C-14)-formate or the radioactive nutrient medium solution used in the Viking Labeled Release experiment, were found to produce patterns of release of radioactive gas very similar to those observed in the Viking experiments, indicating the iron-catalyzed decomposition of formate as the reaction responsible for the Viking results. The experimental results of Hubbard (1979) simulating the results of the Viking Pyrolytic Release experiment using iron montmorillonites are pointed out, and it is concluded that many of the results of the Viking biology experiments can be explained in terms of the surface activity of smectite clays in catalysis and adsorption.

  6. Association between red meat consumption and colon cancer: A systematic review of experimental results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Nancy D; Lloyd, Shannon K

    2017-04-01

    A role for red and processed meat in the development of colorectal cancer has been proposed based largely on evidence from observational studies in humans, especially in those populations consuming a westernized diet. Determination of causation specifically by red or processed meat is contingent upon identification of plausible mechanisms that lead to colorectal cancer. We conducted a systematic review of the available evidence to determine the availability of plausible mechanistic data linking red and processed meat consumption to colorectal cancer risk. Forty studies using animal models or cell cultures met specified inclusion criteria, most of which were designed to examine the role of heme iron or heterocyclic amines in relation to colon carcinogenesis. Most studies used levels of meat or meat components well in excess of those found in human diets. Although many of the experiments used semi-purified diets designed to mimic the nutrient loads in current westernized diets, most did not include potential biologically active protective compounds present in whole foods. Because of these limitations in the existing literature, there is currently insufficient evidence to confirm a mechanistic link between the intake of red meat as part of a healthy dietary pattern and colorectal cancer risk. Impact statement Current recommendations to reduce colon cancer include the reduction or elimination of red or processed meats. These recommendations are based on data from epidemiological studies conducted among cultures where meat consumption is elevated and consumption of fruits, vegetables, and whole grains are reduced. This review evaluated experimental data exploring the putative mechanisms whereby red or processed meats may contribute to colon cancer. Most studies used levels of meat or meat-derived compounds that were in excess of those in human diets, even in cultures where meat intake is elevated. Experiments where protective dietary compounds were used to mitigate the

  7. Experimental results of beryllium exposed to intense high energy proton beam pulses

    CERN Document Server

    Ammigan, K; Hurh, P; Zwaska, R; Butcher, M; Guinchard, M; Calviani, M; Losito, R; Roberts, S; Kuksenko, V; Atherton, A; Caretta, O; Davenne, T; Densham, C; Fitton, M; Loveridge, J; O'Dell, J

    2017-01-01

    Beryllium is extensively used in various accelerator beam lines and target facilities as a material for beam windows, and to a lesser extent, as secondary particle production targets. With increasing beam intensities of future accelerator facilities, it is critical to understand the response of beryllium under extreme conditions to reliably operate these components as well as avoid compromising particle production efficiency by limiting beam parameters. As a result, an exploratory experiment at CERN’s HiRadMat facility was carried out to take advantage of the test facility’s tunable high intensity proton beam to probe and investigate the damage mechanisms of several beryllium grades. The test matrix consisted of multiple arrays of thin discs of varying thicknesses as well as cylinders, each exposed to increasing beam intensities. This paper outlines the experimental measurements, as well as findings from Post-Irradiation-Examination (PIE) work where different imaging techniques were used to analyze and co...

  8. First experimental results with the Current Limit Avoidance System at the JET tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Tommasi, G. [Associazione EURATOM-ENEA-CREATE, Università di Napoli Federico II, Via Claudio 21, 80125 Napoli (Italy); Galeani, S. [Dipartimento di Informatica, Sistemi e Produzione, Università di Roma, Tor Vergata, Rome (Italy); Jachmich, S. [Association EURATOM-Belgian State, Koninklijke Militaire School - Ecole Royale Militaire, B-1000 Brussels (Belgium); Joffrin, E. [IRFM-CEA, Centre de Cadarache, 13108 Saint-paul-lez-Durance (France); Lennholm, M. [EFDA Close Support Unit, Culham Science Centre, OX14 3DB Abingdon (United Kingdom); European Commission, B-1049 Brussels (Belgium); Lomas, P.J. [Euratom-CCFE, Culham Science Centre, OX14 3DB Abingdon (United Kingdom); Neto, A.C. [Associazione EURATOM-IST, Instituto de Plasmas e Fusao Nuclear, IST, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Maviglia, F. [Associazione EURATOM-ENEA-CREATE, Via Claudio 21, 80125 Napoli (Italy); McCullen, P. [Euratom-CCFE, Culham Science Centre, OX14 3DB Abingdon (United Kingdom); Pironti, A. [Associazione EURATOM-ENEA-CREATE, Università di Napoli Federico II, Via Claudio 21, 80125 Napoli (Italy); Rimini, F.G. [Euratom-CCFE, Culham Science Centre, OX14 3DB Abingdon (United Kingdom); Sips, A.C.C. [European Commission, B-1049 Brussels (Belgium); Varano, G.; Vitelli, R. [Dipartimento di Informatica, Sistemi e Produzione, Università di Roma, Tor Vergata, Rome (Italy); Zaccarian, L. [CNRS, LAAS, 7 Avenue du Colonel Roche, F-31400 Toulouse (France); Universitè de Toulouse, LAAS, F-31400 Toulouse (France)

    2013-06-15

    The Current Limit Avoidance System (CLA) has been recently deployed at the JET tokamak to avoid current saturations in the poloidal field (PF) coils when the eXtreme Shape Controller is used to control the plasma shape. In order to cope with the current saturation limits, the CLA exploits the redundancy of the PF coils system to automatically obtain almost the same plasma shape using a different combination of currents in the PF coils. In the presence of disturbances it tries to avoid the current saturations by relaxing the constraints on the plasma shape control. The CLA system has been successfully implemented on the JET tokamak and fully commissioned in 2011. This paper presents the first experimental results achieved in 2011–2012 during the restart and the ITER-like wall campaigns at JET.

  9. Results of experimental testing of hee girl students’ motor skills at aerobic trainings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. P. Martinova

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to analyze dynamic of motor skills’ formation in girl students, who practice aerobic by experimental program. Material: in the research 40 girl students participated. Motor skills level was tested with the help of state and additional tests. Results: it was found that for training quickness it is necessary to use rope skipping in mode, corresponding to development of this quality. For training maximal strength it is purposeful to use more complex power exercises in ground part of the complex. Conclusions: implementation of rope skipping means in dance aerobic trainings increases training influence on practically all motor skills. Rope skipping permits to doze and regulate training load. The same under musical accompaniment develop sense of rhythm. In some modes such jumps facilitate training of speed power qualities and power endurance.

  10. Beam dynamics studies at DAΦNE: from ideas to experimental results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zobov, M.; DAΦNE Team

    2017-12-01

    DAΦNE is the electron-positron collider operating at the energy of Φ-resonance, 1 GeV in the center of mass. The presently achieved luminosity is by about two orders of magnitude higher than that obtained at other colliders ever operated at this energy. Careful beam dynamic studies such as the vacuum chamber design with low beam coupling impedance, suppression of different kinds of beam instabilities, investigation of beam-beam interaction, optimization of the beam nonlinear motion have been the key ingredients that have helped to reach this impressive result. Many novel ideas in accelerator physics have been proposed and/or tested experimentally at DAΦNE for the first time. In this paper we discuss the advanced accelerator physics studies performed at DAΦNE.

  11. Study of a vibrating plate: comparison between experimental (ESPI) and analytical results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, G.; Alvarez, L.; Alanís, E.; Nallim, L.; Grossi, R.

    2003-07-01

    Real-time electronic speckle pattern interferometry (ESPI) was used for tuning and visualization of natural frequencies of a trapezoidal plate. The plate was excited to resonant vibration by a sinusoidal acoustical source, which provided a continuous range of audio frequencies. Fringe patterns produced during the time-average recording of the vibrating plate—corresponding to several resonant frequencies—were registered. From these interferograms, calculations of vibrational amplitudes by means of zero-order Bessel functions were performed in some particular cases. The system was also studied analytically. The analytical approach developed is based on the Rayleigh-Ritz method and on the use of non-orthogonal right triangular co-ordinates. The deflection of the plate is approximated by a set of beam characteristic orthogonal polynomials generated by using the Gram-Schmidt procedure. A high degree of correlation between computational analysis and experimental results was observed.

  12. Experimental results on performance improvement of doped carbon-base materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Zengyu

    2002-01-01

    Carbon-base materials is one of candidate plasma facing materials and have been widely used in current tokamak facilities in the world. But some defect properties are presented on high yield of chemical sputtering , high yield of radiation enhancement sublimate (RES), cracking after heat flux and so on. It can be improved by doped some little other elements into the carbon-base materials, such as boron, silicon, titanium and so on. Experimental results indicate that it is feasible and successful to improve thermo-physics and chemical properties of carbon-base materials by multi-element doped. Doped 12 % silicon can strained RES and chemical sputtering yield do not changed. It is the same level of chemical sputtering yield for B 4 C from 3 % to 10 % , but their resistance thermal shock properties ability increases with B 4 C increases

  13. Experimental Results on the Level Crossing Intervals of the Phase of Sine Wave Plus Noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youssef, Neji; Munakata, Tsutomu; Mimaki, Tadashi

    1993-03-01

    Experimental study was made on the level crossing intervals of a phase process of a sine wave plus narrow-band Gaussian noise. Since successive level crossings of phase do not necessarily occur alternately in the upward and downward direction due to the phase jump beyond 2π, the usual definitions of the probability densities of the level crossing intervals for continuous random processes are not applicable in the case of the phase process. Therefore, the probability densities of level crossing intervals of phase process are newly defined. Measurements of these densities were performed for noise having lowpass spectra of Gaussian and 7th order Butterworth types. Results are given for various values of the signal-to-noise power ratio and of the crossing level, and compared with corresponding approximation developed under the assumption of quasi-independence. The validity of the assumption depends on the spectrum shape of the noise.

  14. First experimental results of the BNL inverse free electron laser accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steenbergen, A. van; Gallardo, J.; Babzien, M.; Skaritka, J.; Wang, X.J.; Sandweiss, J.; Fang, J.M.; Qiu, X.

    1996-10-01

    A 40 MeV electron beam, using the inverse3e free-electron laser interaction, has been accelerated by ΔE/E = 2.5% over a distance of 0.47 m. The electrons interact with a 1--2 GW CO 2 laser beam bounded by a 2.8 mm ID sapphire circular waveguide in the presence of a tapered wiggler with Bmax ∼ 1 T and a period 2.89 cm ≤ λ w ≤ 3.14 cm. The experimental results of ΔE/E as a function of electron energy E, peak magnetic field Bw and laser power W 1 compare well with analytical and 1-D numerical simulations and permit scaling to higher laser power and electron energy

  15. Experimental investigation of solid sodium-water reaction: tests results and phenomenological analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daudin, K.; Beauchamp, F.; Proust, C.

    2014-01-01

    Sodium-Water Reaction (SWR) is an issue one has to be capable to deal with for the next generation of nuclear reactors (SFR for GEN IV). The background of these experiments is the improvement of safety demonstration regarding SWR in an open volume. This experimental campaign is conducted at the CEA Cadarache inside a cylindrical reactor filled with inert gas. The sodium is inside a loading pot and water comes into contact by immersion. SWR and its physical effects are followed by different pressure and temperature sensors. The results show a limit to the overpressure increasing sodium mass. Global assessment of physical effects of SWR contributes to put forward the relative nature of phenomena with geometric configuration, and the importance of scale effects. (authors)

  16. Study on driver model for hybrid truck based on driving simulator experimental results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dam Hoang Phuc

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a proposed car-following driver model taking into account some features of both the compensatory and anticipatory model representing the human pedal operation has been verified by driving simulator experiments with several real drivers. The comparison between computer simulations performed by determined model parameters with the experimental results confirm the correctness of this mathematical driver model and identified model parameters. Then the driver model is joined to a hybrid vehicle dynamics model and the moderate car following maneuver simulations with various driver parameters are conducted to investigate influences of driver parameters on vehicle dynamics response and fuel economy. Finally, major driver parameters involved in the longitudinal control of drivers are clarified. Keywords: Driver model, Driver-vehicle closed-loop system, Car Following, Driving simulator/hybrid electric vehicle (B1

  17. Laser program development at CEL-V: overview of recent experimental results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buresi, E.; Coutant, J.; Dautray, R.

    1985-11-01

    A significant effort has been made recently at CEL-V to improve laser facilities. OCTAL, the eight beam, 2 kJ laser, has been equipped with phosphate glass and KDP frequency tripling systems. PHEBUS, a two beam 20 kJ neodymium glass laser based on NOVA technology was defined, built and will be tested in early 1986 in close collaboration with Lawrence Livermore National laboratory. In the field of diagnostics, the development of soft X-ray emission analysis has been emphasized. Most of recent experimental results have been obtained at short wave-length (0.35 μm). They deal with: effect of non-uniform illumination, 2D hydrodynamics with either plane or spherical targets, and study of thermal transport inhibition

  18. Review of JT-60U experimental results from March to October, 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-06-01

    Experimental results achieved in the initial operation of JT-60U are described in this paper. Experiments of JT-60U were initiated in March 1991, and deuterium experiments started in the middle of July. Multivariable non-interacting control, H-mode experiments, the high-q and high-β p regime with hot ion enhanced confinement, the divertor heat flux, etc. are reported. Achieved values of the first experiment of the JT-60U LHCD in 1991 were P LH = 1.5 MW, driven current I RF = 2MA, current drive efficiency η CD (=n-bar e R p I RF /P LH ) = 0.25 x 10 20 m -2 A/W and current driven product CDP(=n-bar e R p I RF ) = 3 x 10 20 m -2 MA. (J.P.N.)

  19. Experimental Results Obtained with Air Liquide Cold Compression System CERN LHC and SNS Projects

    CERN Document Server

    Delcayre, F; Hamber, F; Hilbert, B; Monneret, E; Toia, J L

    2006-01-01

    Large scale collider facilities will make intensive use of superconducting magnets, operating below 2.0 K. This dictates high‐capacity refrigeration systems operating below 2.0 K. These systems, making use of cryogenic centrifugal compressors in a series arrangement with room temperature screw compressors will be coupled to a refrigerator, providing a certain power at 4.5 K. A first Air Liquide Cold Compression System (CCS) unit was built and delivered to CERN in 2001. Installed at the beginning of 2002, it was commissioned and tested successfully during year 2002. A series of four sets of identical CCS were then tested in 2004. Another set of four cryogenic centrifugal compressors (CCC) has been delivered to Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (JLAB) for the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) in 2002. These compressors were tested and commissioned from December 2004 to July 2005. The experimental results obtained with these systems will be presented and discussed: the characteristics of the CCC wil...

  20. Gold Nanoparticles as Probes for Nano-Raman Spectroscopy: Preliminary Experimental Results and Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Le Nader

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an effective Tip-Enhanced Raman Spectrometer (TERS in backscattering reflection configuration. It combines a tip-probe nanopositioning system with Raman spectroscope. Specific tips were processed by anchoring gold nanoparticles on the apex of tapered optical fibers, prepared by an improved chemical etching method. Hence, it is possible to expose a very small area of the sample (~20 nm2 to the very strong local electromagnetic field generated by the lightning rod effect. This experimental configuration was modelled and optimised using the finite element method, which takes into account electromagnetic effects as well as the plasmon resonance. Finally, TERS measurements on single-wall carbon nanotubes were successfully performed. These results confirm the high Raman scattering enhancement predicted by the modelling, induced by our new nano-Raman device.

  1. Active vibration absorber for CSI evolutionary model: Design and experimental results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruner, Anne M.; Belvin, W. Keith; Horta, Lucas G.; Juang, Jer-Nan

    1991-01-01

    The development of control of large flexible structures technology must include practical demonstration to aid in the understanding and characterization of controlled structures in space. To support this effort, a testbed facility was developed to study practical implementation of new control technologies under realistic conditions. The design is discussed of a second order, acceleration feedback controller which acts as an active vibration absorber. This controller provides guaranteed stability margins for collocated sensor/actuator pairs in the absence of sensor/actuator dynamics and computational time delay. The primary performance objective considered is damping augmentation of the first nine structural modes. Comparison of experimental and predicted closed loop damping is presented, including test and simulation time histories for open and closed loop cases. Although the simulation and test results are not in full agreement, robustness of this design under model uncertainty is demonstrated. The basic advantage of this second order controller design is that the stability of the controller is model independent.

  2. Benchmark of Space Charge Simulations and Comparison with Experimental Results for High Intensity, Low Energy Accelerators

    CERN Document Server

    Cousineau, Sarah M

    2005-01-01

    Space charge effects are a major contributor to beam halo and emittance growth leading to beam loss in high intensity, low energy accelerators. As future accelerators strive towards unprecedented levels of beam intensity and beam loss control, a more comprehensive understanding of space charge effects is required. A wealth of simulation tools have been developed for modeling beams in linacs and rings, and with the growing availability of high-speed computing systems, computationally expensive problems that were inconceivable a decade ago are now being handled with relative ease. This has opened the field for realistic simulations of space charge effects, including detailed benchmarks with experimental data. A great deal of effort is being focused in this direction, and several recent benchmark studies have produced remarkably successful results. This paper reviews the achievements in space charge benchmarking in the last few years, and discusses the challenges that remain.

  3. Experimental and computer simulation results of the spot welding process using SORPAS software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Jader, M A; Cullen, J D; Athi, N; Al-Shamma'a, A I

    2009-01-01

    The highly competitive nature of the automotive industry drives demand for improvements and increased precision engineering in resistance spot welding. Currently there are about 4300 weld points on the average steel vehicle. Current industrial monitoring systems check the quality of the nugget after processing 15 cars, once every two weeks. The nuggets are examined off line using a destructive process, which takes approximately 10 days to complete causing a long delay in the production process. This paper presents a simulation of the spot welding growth curves, along with a comparison to growth curves performed on an industrial spot welding machine. The correlation of experimental results shows that SORPAS simulations can be used as an off line measurement to reduce factory energy usage. The first section in your paper

  4. MLFMA-accelerated Nyström method for ultrasonic scattering - Numerical results and experimental validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurrala, Praveen; Downs, Andrew; Chen, Kun; Song, Jiming; Roberts, Ron

    2018-04-01

    Full wave scattering models for ultrasonic waves are necessary for the accurate prediction of voltage signals received from complex defects/flaws in practical nondestructive evaluation (NDE) measurements. We propose the high-order Nyström method accelerated by the multilevel fast multipole algorithm (MLFMA) as an improvement to the state-of-the-art full-wave scattering models that are based on boundary integral equations. We present numerical results demonstrating improvements in simulation time and memory requirement. Particularly, we demonstrate the need for higher order geom-etry and field approximation in modeling NDE measurements. Also, we illustrate the importance of full-wave scattering models using experimental pulse-echo data from a spherical inclusion in a solid, which cannot be modeled accurately by approximation-based scattering models such as the Kirchhoff approximation.

  5. Experimental results from a large volume active target made of glass capillaries and liquid scintillator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Annis, P.; Buontempo, S.; Brunner, J.; De Jong, M.; Fabre, J.P.; Frenkel, A.; Galeazzi, F.; Golovkin, S.; Gregoire, G.; Hoepfner, K.; Konijn, J.; Kozarenko, E.; Kreslo, I.; Kushnirenko, A.; Martellotti, G.; Mazzoni, M.A.; Medvedkov, A.; Michel, L.; Mondardini, M.R.; Panman, J.; Penso, G.; Petukhov, Y.; Riccardi, F.; Siegmund, W.P.; Strack, R.; Tyukov, V.; Vasilchenko, V.; Vilain, P.; Wilquet, G.; Winter, K.; Wong, H.; Zymin, K.

    1995-01-01

    We are investigating the feasibility of high-resolution tracking with an active target made of glass capillaries filled with organic liquid scintillator. This technique allows real time detection of short-lived particle decays. In this paper, we report on experimental results obtained from an active target having 2 x 2 cm 2 cross section and 180 cm length, installed in front of the CHORUS detector and exposed to the CERN Wide Band Neutrino Beam. The detector consists of 5.1 x 10 5 capillaries with 20 μm inner diameter, read out by a single optoelectronic chain and a Megapixel CCD. Details on tests in the neutrino beam will be reported. First neutrino interactions have been detected. (orig.)

  6. Experimental results of active control on a large structure to suppress vibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, H. J.

    1991-01-01

    Three design methods, Linear Quadratic Gaussian with Loop Transfer Recovery (LQG/LTR), H-infinity, and mu-synthesis, are used to obtain compensators for suppressing the vibrations of a 10-bay vertical truss structure, a component typical of what may be used to build a large space structure. For the design process the plant dynamic characteristics of the structure were determined experimentally using an identification method. The resulting compensators were implemented on a digital computer and tested for their ability to suppress the first bending mode response of the 10-bay vertical truss. Time histories of the measured motion are presented, and modal damping obtained during the experiments are compared with analytical predictions. The advantages and disadvantages of using the various design methods are discussed.

  7. Prophages and growth dynamics confound experimental results with antibiotic-tolerant persister cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harms, Alexander; Fino, Cinzia; Sørensen, Michael Askvad

    2017-01-01

    the validity of our model of persister formation in a refined assay setup that uses robust culture conditions and unravels the dynamics of persister cells through all bacterial growth stages. Our results confirm the importance of (p)ppGpp and Lon but no longer support a role of TA modules in E. coli persister......) modules. This model found considerable support among researchers studying persisters but also generated controversy as part of recent debates in the field. In this study, we therefore used our previous work as a model to critically examine common experimental procedures to understand and overcome......-tolerant persisters via induction of cryptic prophages. Similarly, the inadvertent infection of mutant strains with bacteriophage φ80, a notorious laboratory contaminant, apparently caused several of the phenotypes that we reported in our previous studies. We therefore reconstructed all infected mutants and probed...

  8. Using leg muscles as shock absorbers: theoretical predictions and experimental results of drop landing performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minetti, A E; Ardigò, L P; Susta, D; Cotelli, F

    1998-12-01

    The use of muscles as power dissipators is investigated in this study, both from the modellistic and the experimental points of view. Theoretical predictions of the drop landing manoeuvre for a range of initial conditions have been obtained by accounting for the mechanical characteristics of knee extensor muscles, the limb geometry and assuming maximum neural activation. Resulting dynamics have been represented in the phase plane (vertical displacement versus speed) to better classify the damping performance. Predictions of safe landing in sedentary subjects were associated to dropping from a maximum (feet) height of 1.6-2.0 m (about 11 m on the moon). Athletes can extend up to 2.6-3.0 m, while for obese males (m = 100 kg, standard stature) the limit should reduce to 0.9-1.3 m. These results have been calculated by including in the model the estimated stiffness of the 'global elastic elements' acting below the squat position. Experimental landings from a height of 0.4, 0.7, 1.1 m (sedentary males (SM) and male (AM) and female (AF) athletes from the alpine ski national team) showed dynamics similar to the model predictions. While the peak power (for a drop height of about 0.7 m) was similar in SM and AF (AM shows a +40% increase, about 33 W/kg), AF stopped the downward movement after a time interval (0.219 +/- 0.030 s) from touch-down 20% significantly shorter than SM. Landing strategy and the effect of anatomical constraints are discussed in the paper.

  9. Technical Note: Experimental results from a prototype high-field inline MRI-linac

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liney, G. P., E-mail: gary.liney@sswahs.nsw.gov.au [Department of Medical Physics, Ingham Institute for Applied Medical Research, Liverpool NSW 2170 (Australia); Dong, B.; Zhang, K. [Department of Medical Physics, Ingham Institute for Applied Medical Research, Liverpool NSW 2170 (Australia); and others

    2016-09-15

    Purpose: The pursuit of real-time image guided radiotherapy using optimal tissue contrast has seen the development of several hybrid magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-treatment systems, high field and low field, and inline and perpendicular configurations. As part of a new MRI-linac program, an MRI scanner was integrated with a linear accelerator to enable investigations of a coupled inline MRI-linac system. This work describes results from a prototype experimental system to demonstrate the feasibility of a high field inline MR-linac. Methods: The magnet is a 1.5 T MRI system (Sonata, Siemens Healthcare) was located in a purpose built radiofrequency (RF) cage enabling shielding from and close proximity to a linear accelerator with inline (and future perpendicular) orientation. A portable linear accelerator (Linatron, Varian) was installed together with a multileaf collimator (Millennium, Varian) to provide dynamic field collimation and the whole assembly built onto a stainless-steel rail system. A series of MRI-linac experiments was performed to investigate (1) image quality with beam on measured using a macropodine (kangaroo) ex vivo phantom; (2) the noise as a function of beam state measured using a 6-channel surface coil array; and (3) electron contamination effects measured using Gafchromic film and an electronic portal imaging device (EPID). Results: (1) Image quality was unaffected by the radiation beam with the macropodine phantom image with the beam on being almost identical to the image with the beam off. (2) Noise measured with a surface RF coil produced a 25% elevation of background intensity when the radiation beam was on. (3) Film and EPID measurements demonstrated electron focusing occurring along the centerline of the magnet axis. Conclusions: A proof-of-concept high-field MRI-linac has been built and experimentally characterized. This system has allowed us to establish the efficacy of a high field inline MRI-linac and study a number of the technical

  10. Models and experimental results from the wide aperture Nb-Ti magnets for the LHC upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Kirby, G.; Bajko, M.; Charrondiere, M.; Bourcey, N.; Datskov, V.I.; Fessia, P.; Feuvrier, J.; Galbraith, P.; Tabares, A. Garcia; Garcia-Perez, J.; Granieri, P.; Hagen, P.; Lorin, C.; Perez, J.C.; Russenschuck, S.; Sahner, T.; Segreti, M.; Todesco, E.; Willering, G.

    2013-01-01

    MQXC is a Nb-Ti quadrupole designed to meet the accelerator quality requirements needed for the phase-1 LHC upgrade, now superseded by the high luminosity upgrade foreseen in 2021. The 2-m-long model magnet was tested at room temperature and 1.9 K. The technology developed for this magnet is relevant for other magnets currently under development for the high-luminosity upgrade, namely D1 (at KEK) and the large aperture twin quadrupole Q4 (at CEA). In this paper we present MQXC test results, some of the specialized heat extraction features, spot heaters, temperature sensor mounting and voltage tap development for the special open cable insulation. We look at some problem solving with noisy signals, give an overview of electrical testing, look at how we calculate the coil resistance during at quench and show that the heaters are not working We describe the quench signals and its timing, the development of the quench heaters and give an explanation of an Excel quench calculation and its comparison including the ...

  11. Non-spatial pre-training in the water maze as a clinically relevant model for evaluating learning and memory in experimental TBI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Amy K; Brayer, Samuel W; Hurwitz, Max; Niyonkuru, Christian; Zou, Huichao; Failla, Michelle; Arenth, Patricia; Manole, Mioara D; Skidmore, Elizabeth; Thiels, Edda

    2013-11-01

    Explicit and implicit learning and memory networks exist where each network can facilitate or inhibit cognition. Clinical evidence suggests that implicit networks are relatively preserved after traumatic brain injury (TBI). Non-spatial pre-training (NSPT) in the Morris Water Maze (MWM) provides the necessary behavioral components to complete the task, while limiting the formation of spatial maps. Our study utilized NSPT in the MWM to assess implicit and explicit learning and memory system deficits in the controlled cortical impact (CCI) model of TBI. 76 adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided: CCI vs. sham surgery, NSPT vs. No-NSPT, and cued vs. non-cued groups. NSPT occurred for 4d prior to surgery (dynamic hidden platform location, extra-maze cues covered, static pool entry point). Acquisition (d14-18), Probe/Visible Platform (d19), and Reversal (d20-21) trials were conducted with or without extra-maze cues. Novel time allocation and search strategy selection metrics were utilized. Results indicated implicit and explicit learning/memory networks are distinguishable in the MWM. In the cued condition, NSPT reduced thigmotaxis, improved place learning, and largely eliminated the apparent injury-induced deficits typically observed between untrained CCI and sham rats. However, among NSPT groups, incorporation of cues into search strategy selection for CCI rats was relatively impaired compared to shams. Non-cued condition performance showed sham/NSPT and CCI/NSPT rats perform similarly, suggesting implicit memory networks are largely intact 2weeks after CCI. Place learning differences between CCI/NSPT and sham/NSPT rats more accurately reflect spatial deficits in our CCI model compared to untrained controls. These data suggest NSPT as a clinically relevant construct for evaluating potential neurorestorative and neuroprotective therapies. These findings also support development of non-spatial cognitive training paradigms for evaluating rehabilitation relevant

  12. Experimental characterisation of sprays resulting from impacts of liquid-containing projectiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hostikka, Simo, E-mail: simo.hostikka@aalto.fi [Aalto University, Espoo (Finland); Silde, Ari; Sikanen, Topi; Vepsä, Ari; Paajanen, Antti [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland Ltd, Espoo (Finland); Honkanen, Markus [Pixact Oy, Tampere (Finland)

    2015-12-15

    Highlights: • Detailed characterisation of sprays resulting from the impacts of water-filled metal projectiles on a hard wall. • Experimental measurements of spray speed, direction and droplet size. • Detailed analysis of overall spray evolution. • The spray characterisation information can be used in CFD analyses of aircraft impact fires. - Abstract: Modelling and analysing fires following aircraft impacts requires information about the behaviour of liquid fuel. In this study, we investigated sprays resulting from the impacts of water-filled metal projectiles on a hard wall. The weights of the projectiles were in the range of 38–110 kg, with 8.6–68 kg water, and the impact speeds varied between 96 and 169 m/s. The overall spray behaviour was observed with high-speed video cameras. Ultra-high-speed cameras were used in backlight configuration for measuring the droplet size and velocity distributions. The results indicate that the liquid leaves the impact position as a thin sheet of spray in a direction perpendicular to the projectile velocity. The initial spray speeds were 1.5–2.5 times the impact speed, and the Sauter mean diameters were in the 147–344 μm range. This data can be used as boundary conditions in CFD fire analyses, considering the two-phase fuel flow. The overall spray observations, including the spray deceleration rate, can be used for validating the model.

  13. Prediction for disruption erosion of ITER plasma facing components; a comparison of experimental and numerical results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laan, J.G. van der; Akiba, M.; Seki, M.; Hassanein, A.; Tanchuk, V.

    1991-01-01

    An evaluation is given for the prediction for disruption erosion in the International Thermonuclear Engineering Reactor (ITER). At first, a description is given of the relation between plasma operating paramters and system dimensions to the predictions of loading parameters of Plasma Facing Components (PFC) in off-normal events. Numerical results from ITER parties on the prediction of disruption erosion are compared for a few typical cases and discussed. Apart from some differences in the codes, the observed discrepancies can be ascribed to different input data of material properties and boundary conditions. Some physical models for vapour shielding and their effects on numerical results are mentioned. Experimental results from ITER parties, obtained with electron and laser beams, are also compared. Erosion rates for the candidate ITER PFC materials are shown to depend very strongly on the energy deposition parameters, which are based on plasma physics considerations, and on the assumed material loss mechanisms. Lifetimes estimates for divertor plate and first wall armour are given for carbon, tungsten and beryllium, based on the erosion in the thermal quench phase. (orig.)

  14. Sample similarity analysis of angles of repose based on experimental results for DEM calibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Yuan; Günthner, Willibald A.; Kessler, Stephan; Zhang, Lu

    2017-06-01

    As a fundamental material property, particle-particle friction coefficient is usually calculated based on angle of repose which can be obtained experimentally. In the present study, the bottomless cylinder test was carried out to investigate this friction coefficient of a kind of biomass material, i.e. willow chips. Because of its irregular shape and varying particle size distribution, calculation of the angle becomes less applicable and decisive. In the previous studies only one section of those uneven slopes is chosen in most cases, although standard methods in definition of a representable section are barely found. Hence, we presented an efficient and reliable method from the new technology, 3D scan, which was used to digitize the surface of heaps and generate its point cloud. Then, two tangential lines of any selected section were calculated through the linear least-squares regression (LLSR), such that the left and right angle of repose of a pile could be derived. As the next step, a certain sum of sections were stochastic selected, and calculations were repeated correspondingly in order to achieve sample of angles, which was plotted in Cartesian coordinates as spots diagram. Subsequently, different samples were acquired through various selections of sections. By applying similarities and difference analysis of these samples, the reliability of this proposed method was verified. Phased results provides a realistic criterion to reduce the deviation between experiment and simulation as a result of random selection of a single angle, which will be compared with the simulation results in the future.

  15. Synthesizing large-scale pyroclastic flows: Experimental design, scaling, and first results from PELE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lube, G.; Breard, E. C. P.; Cronin, S. J.; Jones, J.

    2015-03-01

    Pyroclastic flow eruption large-scale experiment (PELE) is a large-scale facility for experimental studies of pyroclastic density currents (PDCs). It is used to generate high-energy currents involving 500-6500 m3 natural volcanic material and air that achieve velocities of 7-30 m s-1, flow thicknesses of 2-4.5 m, and runouts of >35 m. The experimental PDCs are synthesized by a controlled "eruption column collapse" of ash-lapilli suspensions onto an instrumented channel. The first set of experiments are documented here and used to elucidate the main flow regimes that influence PDC dynamic structure. Four phases are identified: (1) mixture acceleration during eruption column collapse, (2) column-slope impact, (3) PDC generation, and (4) ash cloud diffusion. The currents produced are fully turbulent flows and scale well to natural PDCs including small to large scales of turbulent transport. PELE is capable of generating short, pulsed, and sustained currents over periods of several tens of seconds, and dilute surge-like PDCs through to highly concentrated pyroclastic flow-like currents. The surge-like variants develop a basal <0.05 m thick regime of saltating/rolling particles and shifting sand waves, capped by a 2.5-4.5 m thick, turbulent suspension that grades upward to lower particle concentrations. Resulting deposits include stratified dunes, wavy and planar laminated beds, and thin ash cloud fall layers. Concentrated currents segregate into a dense basal underflow of <0.6 m thickness that remains aerated. This is capped by an upper ash cloud surge (1.5-3 m thick) with 100 to 10-4 vol % particles. Their deposits include stratified, massive, normally and reversely graded beds, lobate fronts, and laterally extensive veneer facies beyond channel margins.

  16. Photoionization microscopy: Hydrogenic theory in semiparabolic coordinates and comparison with experimental results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalaitzis, P.; Danakas, S.; Lépine, F.; Bordas, C.; Cohen, S.

    2018-05-01

    Photoionization microscopy (PM) is an experimental method allowing for high-resolution measurements of the electron current probability density in the case of photoionization of an atom in an external uniform static electric field. PM is based on high-resolution velocity-map imaging and offers the unique opportunity to observe the quantum oscillatory spatial structure of the outgoing electron flux. We present the basic elements of the quantum-mechanical theoretical framework of PM for hydrogenic systems near threshold. Our development is based on the computationally more convenient semiparabolic coordinate system. Theoretical results are first subjected to a quantitative comparison with hydrogenic images corresponding to quasibound states and a qualitative comparison with nonresonant images of multielectron atoms. Subsequently, particular attention is paid on the structure of the electron's momentum distribution transversely to the static field (i.e., of the angularly integrated differential cross-section as a function of electron energy and radius of impact on the detector). Such 2D maps provide at a glance a complete picture of the peculiarities of the differential cross-section over the entire near-threshold energy range. Hydrogenic transverse momentum distributions are computed for the cases of the ground and excited initial states and single- and two-photon ionization schemes. Their characteristics of general nature are identified by comparing the hydrogenic distributions among themselves, as well as with a presently recorded experimental distribution concerning the magnesium atom. Finally, specificities attributed to different target atoms, initial states, and excitation scenarios are also discussed, along with directions of further work.

  17. Vegetation growth parameters and leaf temperature: Experimental results from a six plots green roofs' system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrante, Patrizia; La Gennusa, Maria; Peri, Giorgia; Rizzo, Gianfranco; Scaccianoce, Gianluca

    2016-01-01

    The paper provides a contribution for populating database of three physical parameters needed to model energy performance of buildings with green roofs: “coverage ratio” (σ_f), leaf area index (LAI) and leaf temperature (T_f). On purpose, six plant species were investigated experimentally: Phyla nordiflora, Aptenia lancifolia, Mesembryanthenum barbatus, Gazania nivea, Gazania uniflora, and Sedum. Proper ranges of the cited parameters have been found for each species. The here indicated ranges of σ_f values refer to different growth levels of the species in the same lapse of time, that is four months. Single measured LAI values are also reported for the same plants. As for the T_f (upper and lower layer), ranges of revealed temperatures refer to those detected from 10:30 a.m. to 16:30 p.m. of a selected day. Additionally, the dependence of T_f on climatic parameters was investigated. A linear equation resulted the best fitting curve for all experimental T_f data and the corresponding solar radiation data (with autocorrelation coefficients between 0.80 and 0.98). Furthermore, the effect potentially produced on building energy consumption by these species was analyzed using a simulation tool. Estimated cooling energy savings range approximately between 8% and 20% depending on adopted plants. - Highlights: • Green roof modeling requires the knowledge of various physical parameters. • Coverage ratio, leaf area index and leaves temperatures were measured for six species. • A tentative correlation between leaf temperature and climatic parameters was shown. • A correlation between LAI and coverage ratio was checked and discussed. • Potential effects of studied species on building energy consumption were investigated.

  18. Preliminary Experimental Results on the Technique of Artificial River Replenishment to Mitigate Sediment Loss Downstream Dams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franca, M. J.; Battisacco, E.; Schleiss, A. J.

    2014-12-01

    The transport of sediments by water throughout the river basins, from the steep slopes of the upstream regions to the sea level, is recognizable important to keep the natural conditions of rivers with a role on their ecology processes. Over the last decades, a reduction on the supply of sand and gravel has been observed downstream dams existing in several alpine rivers. Many studies highlight that the presence of a dam strongly modifies the river behavior in the downstream reach, in terms of morphology and hydrodynamics, with consequences on local ecology. Sediment deficit, bed armoring, river incision and bank instability are the main effects which affect negatively the aquatic habitats and the water quality. One of the proposed techniques to solve the problem of sediment deficit downstream dams, already adopted in few Japanese and German rivers although on an unsatisfactory fashion, is the artificial replenishment of these. Generally, it was verified that the erosion of the replenishments was not satisfactory and the transport rate was not enough to move the sediments to sufficient downstream distances. In order to improve and to provide an engineering answer to make this technique more applicable, a series of laboratory tests are ran as preparatory study to understand the hydrodynamics of the river flow when the replenishment technique is applied. Erodible volumes, with different lengths and submergence conditions, reproducing sediment replenishments volumes, are positioned along a channel bank. Different geometrical combinations of erodible sediment volumes are tested as well on the experimental flume. The first results of the experimental research, concerning erosion time evolution, the influence of discharge and the distance travelled by the eroded sediments, will be presented and discussed.

  19. Experimental results on mechanisms of action of electrical neuromodulation in chronic urinary retention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz-Lampel, D; Jiang, C; Lindström, S; Thüroff, J W

    1998-01-01

    Sacral foramen neuromodulation--initially applied for the treatment of urinary incontinence--has proved to be effective in patients with chronic urinary retention. Thus far, the underlying neurophysiological mechanisms have not been elucidated. In an experimental study on the neurophysiological basis of sacral neurostimulation, one objective was to investigate the mechanisms responsible for initiation of micturition in chronic urinary retention. In ten female cats anesthetized with alpha-chloralose the clinical situation of sacral foramen stimulation was experimentally reproduced by isolated S2 nerve stimulation after L6-S3 laminectomy. Stimulation responses were recorded from the bladder, peripheral nerves, and striated muscles of the foot and pelvic floor. The effect of sudden cessation of prolonged S2 stimulation, during which the bladder was completely inhibited, was evaluated in 70 stimulation sequences in 5 cats. Sacral nerve stimulation induced excitatory and inhibitory effects on the bladder, depending on the frequency and intensity of stimulation. With unilateral S2 stimulation, bladder excitation was best at frequencies of 2-5 Hz and at intensities ranging between 0.8 and 1.4 times the threshold for the M-response of the foot muscle. Inhibition was the dominating effect at frequencies of 7-10 Hz and at intensities exceeding 1.4 times the threshold. Prolonged S2 stimulation above the threshold produced complete bladder inhibition during stimulation but induced strong bladder contractions after sudden interruption of stimulation, with amplitudes being significantly higher than that of spontaneous contractions preceding the stimulation. These results confirm the hypothesis of a "rebound" phenomenon as the mechanism of action for induction of spontaneous voiding in patients with chronic urinary retention.

  20. Experimental results on the coolability of a debris bed with multidimensional cooling effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rashid, M.; Kulenovic, R.; Laurien, E.; Nayak, A.K.

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: ► Performing of dryout experiments with a polydispersed bed for top- and bottom-flooding. ► Study of influence of different down comer configurations on the coolability of debris bed. ► Measurement of temperature profiles, pressure drops and determination of dryout heat flux. ► Observation of noticeable increase in coolability of debris bed with the use of down comer is observed. - Abstract: Within the reactor safety research, the removal of decay heat from a debris bed (formed from corium and residual water) is of great importance. In order to investigate experimentally the long term coolability of debris beds, the scaled test facility “DEBRIS” (Fig. 1) has been built at IKE. A large number of experiments had been carried out to investigate the coolability limits for different bed configurations (). Analyses based on one-dimensional configurations underestimate the coolability in realistic multidimensional configurations, where lateral water access and water inflow via bottom regions are favoured. Following the experiments with top- and bottom-flooding flow conditions this paper presents experimental results of boiling and dryout tests at different system pressures based on top- and bottom-flooding via a down comer configuration. A down comer with an internal diameter of 10 mm has been installed at the centre of the debris bed. The debris bed is built up in a cylindrical crucible with an inner diameter of 125 mm. The bed of height 640 mm is composed of polydispersed particles with particle diameters 2, 3 and 6 mm. Since the long term coolability of such particle bed is limited by the availability of coolant inside the bed and not by heat transfer limitations from the particles to the coolant, the bottom inflow of water improves the coolability of the debris bed and an increase of the dryout heat flux can be observed. With increasing system pressure, the coolability limits are enhanced (increased dryout heat flux).

  1. Review of JT-60U experimental results in 2007 and 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isayama, Akihiko; Oyama, Naoyuki; Suzuki, Takahiro; Shinohara, Kouji; Sakamoto, Yoshiteru; Matsunaga, Go; Yoshida, Maiko; Asakura, Nobuyuki; Nakano, Tomohide; Kamiya, Kensaku; Itami, Kiyoshi

    2010-02-01

    Results in JT-60U experiments in 2007 and 2008 are reviewed. In this campaign, which is the final experimental period in JT-60U, development of advanced tokamak plasma was extensively performed toward establishment of physics basis of ITER and DEMO. High integrated performance plasma with high normalized beta (β N -2.6) and high confinement enhancement factor (H H98(y,2) -1.0-1.1), which are comparable to those in the ITER Hybrid Scenario, and at the same time with high bootstrap current fraction (f BS -40%) was sustained for 25 s. High density and high radiation loss fraction plasma was sustained for 12 s by adding argon and neon to a deuterium plasma. The duration of the high-performance plasmas is more than 10 times longer than the current diffusion time, τ R . In a high beta regime exceeding the ideal MHD limit without conducting wall (no-wall limit), a new instability was observed. By suppressing the instability a high beta plasma was sustained for 5 s, which corresponds to several times longer than τ R . Performance of reversed shear plasmas was significantly improved by utilizing the stabilizing effect of the conducting wall, and β N -2.7 and f BS -90% were obtained. These results significantly exceed those in the previous experimental campaign. In addition, real-time control system was improved, and ion temperature and current profile were independently or simultaneously controlled in real time. Development of new diagnostics was also continuously performed. For example, profiles of electron density and current were measured using the lithium beam probe diagnostic with high resolution. A number of important results from physics experiments were obtained in the area of transport, confinement, instability, plasma-wall interaction etc. Performance of heating and current drive systems was also extended significantly. In the electron cyclotron wave system, 2.9 MW for 5 s injection and 0.4 MW for 30 s injection to plasma were successfully demonstrated. Power

  2. Using the Viking biology experimental results to obtain chemical information about Martian regolith

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plumb, Robert C.

    1992-01-01

    Although initially formulated as biology experiments, most of the results produced by the Viking Labeled Release (LR), Gas Exchange (GEX), and Pyrolytic Release (PR) experiments have been reproduced by chemical means. The experiments do not need more study as 'biological' phenomena, but they do deserve much more careful consideration from a chemical viewpoint. They are the only 'wet-chemical' experiments that scientists have performed on another planet, but they have not found very general use as sources of scientific information. There is a large set of potentially useful chemical observations, e.g., the three resolvable and precisely measured kinetic components of the release of C-14-labeled gases, the thermal sensitivity and magnitudes of the oxidation reaction(s) of the LR experiments, the kinetics and magnitude of the O2 and CO2 release of the GEX experiments, the thermal sensitivity of the GEX results, the differences between the thermal sensitivity of the GEX and the thermal sensitivity of the LR responses, and the kinetics and magnitudes of the LR successive injection reabsorption effect. It should be possible to test many chemical aspects of hypothetical martian phenomena in experiments using the biology experimental configurations and derive much valuable information by comparisons with the Viking observations.

  3. SSI on the Dynamic Behaviour of a Historical Masonry Building: Experimental versus Numerical Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Ceroni

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available A reliable procedure to identify the dynamic behaviour of existing masonry buildings is described in the paper, referring to a representative case study: a historical masonry palace located in Benevento (Italy. Since the building has been equipped with a permanent dynamic monitoring system by the Department of Civil Protection, some of the recorded data, acquired in various operating conditions, have been analysed with basic instruments of the Operational Modal Analysis in order to identify the main eigenfrequencies and vibration modes of the structure. The obtained experimental results have been compared to the numerical outcomes provided by three detailed Finite Element (FE models of the building. The influence of Soil-Structure Interaction (SSI has been also introduced in the FE model by a sub-structure approach where concentrated springs were placed at the base of the building to simulate the effect of soil and foundation on the global dynamic behaviour of the structure. The obtained results evidence that subsoil cannot a priori be disregarded in identifying the dynamic response of the building.

  4. Preliminary experimental results of tungsten wire-array Z-pinches on primary test stand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Xian-Bin; Zhou, Shao-Tong; Dan, Jia-Kun; Ren, Xiao-Dong, E-mail: amosrxd@163.com; Wang, Kun-Lun; Zhang, Si-Qun; Li, Jing; Xu, Qiang; Cai, Hong-Chun; Duan, Shu-Chao; Ouyang, Kai; Chen, Guang-Hua; Ji, Ce; Wei, Bing; Feng, Shu-Ping; Wang, Meng; Xie, Wei-Ping; Deng, Jian-Jun [Key Laboratory of Pulsed Power, Institute of Fluid Physics, China Academy of Engineering Physics, P.O. Box 919-108, Mianyang, Sichuan 621999 (China); Zhou, Xiu-Wen; Yang, Yi [Research Center of Laser Fusion, China Academy of Engineering Physics, P.O. Box 919-987, Mianyang, Sichuan 621999 (China)

    2015-07-15

    The Primary Test Stand (PTS) developed at the China Academy of Engineering Physics is a 20 TW pulsed power driver, which can deliver a ∼10 MA, 70 ns rise-time (10%–90%) current to a short-circuit load and has important applications in Z-pinch driven inertial confinement fusion and high energy density physics. Preliminary results of tungsten wire-array Z-pinch experiments on PTS are presented. The load geometries investigated include 15-mm-tall cylindrical single and nested arrays with diameter ranging from 13 mm to 30 mm, consisting of 132–300 tungsten wires with 5–10 μm in diameter. Multiple diagnostics were fielded to characterize the x-ray radiation from wire-array Z pinches. The x-ray peak power (∼50 TW) and total radiated energy (∼500 kJ) were obtained from a single 20-mm-diam array with 80-ns stagnation time. The highest x-ray peak power up to 80 TW with 2.4 ns FWHM was achieved by using a nested array with 20-mm outer diameter, and the total x-ray energy from the nested array is comparable to that of single array. Implosion velocity estimated from the time-resolved image measurement exceeds 30 cm/μs. The detailed experimental results and other findings are presented and discussed.

  5. Pathogenesis of acute radiation effects in the urinary bladder. Experimental results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doerr, W.; Eckhardt, M.; Ehme, A.; Koi, S.

    1998-01-01

    Purpose: The present review summarizes experimental studies of the pathogenesis of acute radiation-induced changes in urinary bladder function. Material and methods: Transurethral cystometry was used for longitudinal assessment of bladder function in mice. With this technique, radiation-induced changes in storage capacity can be quantified. In histological studies, changes in urothelial cell density and in urothelial protein expression during the acute radiation response were determined. Acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) was used for the treatment of acute functional changes. Results: The histological studies did not reveal any systematic fluctuations in urothelial cell density during the time of the acute radiation response. However, characteristic changes in the expression of proteins associated with urothelial cell function, differentiation and cell contact were observed, which correlated with the functional impairment. By local or systemical application of ASA, a significant restoration of bladder function compared to placebo treatment could be achieved. Conclusion: Acute functional radiation effects in the urinary bladder are not based on urothelial denudation. However, changes in protein expression indicate an impairment of the urothelial barrier function. The results of ASA treatment demonstrate that prostaglandins are involved in the response. Alterations in urothelial or endothelial prostaglandin metabolism may be primarily radiation-induced or secondary because of the impaired urothelial barrier. (orig.) [de

  6. Evaluation of in-vehicle HMI using occlusion techniques: experimental results and practical implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumann, Martin; Keinath, Andreas; Krems, Josef F; Bengler, Klaus

    2004-05-01

    Despite the usefulness of new on-board information systems one has to be concerned about the potential distraction effects that they impose on the driver. Therefore, methods and procedures are necessary to assess the visual demand that is connected to the usage of an on-board system. The occlusion-method is considered a strong candidate as a procedure for evaluating display designs with regard to their visual demand. This paper reports results from two experimental studies conducted to further evaluate this method. In the first study, performance in using an in-car navigation system was measured under three conditions: static (parking lot), occlusion (shutter glasses), and driving. The results show that the occlusion-procedure can be used to simulate visual requirements of real traffic conditions. In a second study the occlusion method was compared to a global evaluation criterion based on the total task time. It can be demonstrated that the occlusion method can identify tasks which meet this criterion, but are yet irresolvable under driving conditions. It is concluded that the occlusion technique seems to be a reliable and valid method for evaluating visual and dialogue aspects of in-car information systems.

  7. Molecular hyperpolarizabilities of push–pull chromophores: A comparison between theoretical and experimental results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Capobianco, A. [Dipartimento di Fisica E.R. Caianiello, Università di Salerno, via ponte don Melillo, I-84084 Fisciano (Italy); Centore, R. [Dipartimento di Chimica P. Corradini, Università di Napoli, via Cintia, I-80126 Napoli (Italy); Noce, C. [Dipartimento di Fisica E.R. Caianiello, Università di Salerno, via ponte don Melillo, I-84084 Fisciano (Italy); Peluso, A., E-mail: apeluso@unisa.it [Dipartimento di Chimica e Biologia, Università di Salerno, via ponte don Melillo, I-84084 Fisciano (Italy)

    2013-01-16

    Highlights: ► Electro-optical determined and MP2/DFT computed NLO properties have been compared. ► Significant dependence of dipole moments of elongated NLO chromophores on conformations has been found. ► A thorough comparison between MP2 and DFT/TD-DFT computational approaches has been carried out. ► The two-state model overestimates hyperpolarizability. - Abstract: Electric dipole moments and static first order hyperpolarizabilities of two push–pull molecules with an extended π electron systems have been evaluated at different computational levels and compared with the results of electro-optical absorption measurements, based on the two state model. Calculations show that: (i) the dipole moments of such elongated systems depend significantly on conformation, a thorough conformational search is necessary for a meaningful comparison between theoretical and experimental results; (ii) DFT methods, in particular CAM-B3LYP and M05-2X, yield dipole moments which compare well with those obtained by post Hartree–Fock methods (MP2) and by EOA measurements; (iii) theoretical first order hyperpolarizabilities are largely underestimated, both by MP2 and DFT methods, possibly because of the failure of two state model used in electro-optical measurements.

  8. David Lewis in the Lab: Experimental Results on the Emergence of Meaning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruner, Justin; O'Connor, Cailin; Rubin, Hannah; Huttegger, S. (Simon)

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we use an experimental approach to investigate how linguistic conventions can emerge in a society without explicit agreement. As a starting point we consider the signaling game introduced by Lewis (Convention 1969). We find that in experimental settings, small groups can quickly

  9. Sample similarity analysis of angles of repose based on experimental results for DEM calibration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tan Yuan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available As a fundamental material property, particle-particle friction coefficient is usually calculated based on angle of repose which can be obtained experimentally. In the present study, the bottomless cylinder test was carried out to investigate this friction coefficient of a kind of biomass material, i.e. willow chips. Because of its irregular shape and varying particle size distribution, calculation of the angle becomes less applicable and decisive. In the previous studies only one section of those uneven slopes is chosen in most cases, although standard methods in definition of a representable section are barely found. Hence, we presented an efficient and reliable method from the new technology, 3D scan, which was used to digitize the surface of heaps and generate its point cloud. Then, two tangential lines of any selected section were calculated through the linear least-squares regression (LLSR, such that the left and right angle of repose of a pile could be derived. As the next step, a certain sum of sections were stochastic selected, and calculations were repeated correspondingly in order to achieve sample of angles, which was plotted in Cartesian coordinates as spots diagram. Subsequently, different samples were acquired through various selections of sections. By applying similarities and difference analysis of these samples, the reliability of this proposed method was verified. Phased results provides a realistic criterion to reduce the deviation between experiment and simulation as a result of random selection of a single angle, which will be compared with the simulation results in the future.

  10. Cessation of environmentally-assisted cracking in a low-alloy steel: Experimental results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Y.Y.

    1997-01-01

    The presence of dissolved metallurgical sulfides in pressure vessel and piping steels has been linked to Environmentally-Assisted Cracking (EAC), a phenomenon observed in laboratory tests that results in fatigue crack growth rates as high as 100 times that in air. Previous experimental and analytical work based on diffusion as the mass transport process has shown that surface cracks that are initially clean of sulfides will not initiate EAC in most applications. This is because the average crack tip velocity would not be sufficiently high to expose enough metallurgical sulfides per unit time and produce the sulfide concentration required for EAC. However, there is a potential concern for the case of a relatively large embedded crack breaking through to the wetted surface. Such a crack would not be initially clean of sulfides, and EAC could initiate. This paper presents the results of a series of experiments conducted on two heats of an EAC susceptible, high-sulfur, low-alloy steel in 243 degrees C low-oxygen water to further study the phenomenon of EAC persistence at low crack tip velocities. A load cycle profile that incorporated a significant load dwell period at minimum load was used. In one experiment, the fatigue cycling history was such that relatively high crack tip velocities at the start of the experiment produced a persistent case of EAC even when crack tip velocities were later reduced to levels below the EAC initiation velocity. The other series of experiments used initial crack tip velocities that were much lower and probably more realistic. Air precracking of the compact tension specimens produced an initial inventory of undissolved sulfides on the crack flanks that directly simulates the array of sulfides expected from the breakthrough of an embedded crack. In all cases, results showed EAC ceased after several hundred hours of cycling

  11. Dissociation coefficients of protein adsorption to nanoparticles as quantitative metrics for description of the protein corona: A comparison of experimental techniques and methodological relevance

    KAUST Repository

    Hü hn, Jonas; Fedeli, Chiara; Zhang, Qian; Masood, Atif; del Pino, Pablo; Khashab, Niveen M.; Papini, Emanuele; Parak, Wolfgang J.

    2015-01-01

    Protein adsorption to nanoparticles is described as a chemical reaction in which proteins attach to binding sites on the nanoparticle surface. This process can be described with a dissociation coefficient, which tells how many proteins are adsorbed per nanoparticle in dependence of the protein concentration. Different techniques to experimentally determine dissociation coefficients of protein adsorption to nanoparticles are reviewed. Results of more than 130 experiments in which dissociation coefficients have been determined are compared. Data show that different methods, nanoparticle systems, and proteins can lead to significantly different dissociation coefficients. However, we observed a clear tendency of smaller dissociation coefficients upon less negative towards more positive zeta potentials of the nanoparticles. The zeta potential thus is a key parameter influencing protein adsorption to the surface of nanoparticles. Our analysis highlights the importance of the characterization of the parameters governing protein-nanoparticle interaction for quantitative evaluation and objective literature comparison.

  12. Dissociation coefficients of protein adsorption to nanoparticles as quantitative metrics for description of the protein corona: A comparison of experimental techniques and methodological relevance

    KAUST Repository

    Hühn, Jonas

    2015-12-31

    Protein adsorption to nanoparticles is described as a chemical reaction in which proteins attach to binding sites on the nanoparticle surface. This process can be described with a dissociation coefficient, which tells how many proteins are adsorbed per nanoparticle in dependence of the protein concentration. Different techniques to experimentally determine dissociation coefficients of protein adsorption to nanoparticles are reviewed. Results of more than 130 experiments in which dissociation coefficients have been determined are compared. Data show that different methods, nanoparticle systems, and proteins can lead to significantly different dissociation coefficients. However, we observed a clear tendency of smaller dissociation coefficients upon less negative towards more positive zeta potentials of the nanoparticles. The zeta potential thus is a key parameter influencing protein adsorption to the surface of nanoparticles. Our analysis highlights the importance of the characterization of the parameters governing protein-nanoparticle interaction for quantitative evaluation and objective literature comparison.

  13. Review of JT-60 experimental results from January to October, 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-03-01

    Emphases in recent JT-60 experiments are placed on 1) improvements in plasma confinement with profile control and 2) steady state operation study. Both limiter and lower X-point divertor configurations were employed. The operating gas was hydrogen and, in some cases, helium. Improvements in confinement were demonstrated with pellet injection, LH current drive, high-Ti mode operation or ICRF. Current profile controllability with energetic electrons has been improved by the new LH launcher. The H-mode was achieved in limiter discharges with LH current drive for the first time. Nearly steady-state ELM-free H-mode with durations up to 3.3. sec was established without significant impurity accumulation. High-Ti and high-βp discharges were obtained in high field and low plasma current. Major experimental issues for the steady-state operation research were non-inductive current drive and He-ash exhaust. The neoclassical bootstrap current was confirmed in the wide range of βp. 30 keV helium NB was injected into NB heated lower X-point discharges, which produced centrally peaked birth profile of α-particles. A simple extension of the present result is promising for the helium exhaust in future device. (J.P.N.)

  14. Experimental results for TiO2 melting and release using cold crucible melting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, S. W.; Min, B. T.; Park, I. G.; Kim, H. D.

    2000-01-01

    To simulate the severe accident phenomena using the real reactor material which melting point is about 2,800K, the melting and release method for materials with high melting point should be developed. This paper discusses the test results for TiO 2 materials using the cold crucible melting method to study the melting and release method of actual corium. To melt and release of few kg of TiO2, the experimental facility is manufactured through proper selection of design parameters such as frequency and capacity of R.F generator, crucible size and capacity of coolant. The melting and release of TiO 2 has been successfully performed in the cold crucible of 15cm in inner diameter and 30cm in height with 30kW RF power generator of 370 KHz. In the melt delivery experiment, about 2.6kg of molten TiO2, 60% of initial charged mass, is released. Rest of it is remained in the watercage in form of the rubble crust formed at the top of crucible and melt crust formed at the interface between the water-cage and melt. Especially, in the melt release test, the location of the working coil is important to make the thin crust at the bottom of the crucible

  15. Experimental test results of multi-channel test rig of T1 test section, 5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hino, Ryutaro; Takase, Kazuyuki; Miyamoto, Yoshiaki

    1990-09-01

    Channel blockage test on a fuel column of the high temperature engineering test reactor (HTTR) has been performed under the helium gas atmosphere at a high temperature and a high pressure in order to obtain safety data on flow rate and temperature distributions in the fuel column with the multi-channel test rig of the fuel stack test section (T 1 ) in HENDEL. In the test, one of 12 fuel channels was blockaded to 90% of flow area at the channel inlet. Experimental results showed that the helium gas flow rate in the blockaded channel was 28%∼33% lower than the average flow rate for Reynolds number from 2300 to 14000 in isothermal flow. When simulated fuel rods were heated, the flow rate in the blockaded channel did not decrease down in comparison with the isothermal flow. This is due to that the heat generated in the fuel rods conducts to the other fuel channels in graphite fuel blocks, so that accelerated pressure losses in the fuel channels change with helium gas temperatures. (author)

  16. Pressurized thermal shocks: the JRC Ispra experimental test rig and analytical results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jovanovic, A.; Lucia, A.C.

    1990-01-01

    The paper tackles some issues of particular interest for the remanent (remaining) life prediction for the pressurized components exposed to pressurized thermal shock (PTS) loads, that have been tackled in analytical work performed in the framework of the MPA - JRC collaboration for the PTS experimental research at the JRC Ispra. These issues regard in general application of damage mechanics, fracture mechanics and artificial intelligence (including the treatment of uncertainties in the PTS analysis and experiments). The considered issues are essential for further understanding and modelling of the crack behaviour and of the component response in PTS conditions. In particular, the development of the FRAP preprocessor and development and implementation of a methodology for analysis of local non-stationary heat transfer coefficients during a PTS, have been explained more in detail. FRAP is used as a frontend, for the finite element code ABAQUS, for the heat transfer, stress and fracture mechanics analyses. The ABAQUS results are used further on, for the probabilistic fatigue crack growth analysis performed by the COVASTOL code. (author)

  17. Development, calibration and experimental results obtained with an innovative calorimeter (CALMOS) for nuclear heating measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carcreff, H.; Cloute-Cazalaa, V.; Salmon, L.

    2011-01-01

    Nuclear heating inside an MTR reactor has to be known in order to be able to control samples temperature during irradiation experiments. An R and D program has been carried out at CEA to design a new type of in-core calorimetric system. This new development, started in 2002, has for main objective to manufacture a calorimeter suitable to monitoring nuclear heating inside the 70 MWth OSIRIS material testing reactor operated by CEA's Nuclear Energy Div. at the Saclay research center. An innovative calorimetric probe, associated to a specific handling system, has been designed to provide access to measurements both along the fissile height and on the upper part of the core, where nuclear heating still remains high. Two mock-ups of the probe were manufactured and tested in 2005 and 2009 in ex-core area of OSIRIS reactor for process validation, while a displacement system has been especially studied to move the probe along a given axial measurement range. This paper deals with the development, tests on preliminary mock-ups and the finalization of the probe. Main modeling and experimental results are presented. Moreover, alternative methods to calibration for nuclear heating rate measurements which are now possible with this new calorimeter are presented and discussed. (authors)

  18. Development, calibration, and experimental results obtained with an innovative calorimeter (CALMOS) for nuclear heating measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carcreff, Hubert; Cloute-Cazalaa, Veronique; Salmon, Laurent

    2012-01-01

    Nuclear heating inside an MTR reactor has to be known in order to be able to control samples temperature during irradiation experiments. An R and D program has been carried out at CEA to design a new type of in-core calorimetric system. This new development, started in 2002, has for main objective to manufacture a calorimeter suitable to monitoring nuclear heating inside the 70 MWth OSIRIS material testing reactor operated by CEA's Nuclear Energy Division at the Saclay research center. An innovative calorimetric probe, associated to a specific handling system, has been designed to provide access to measurements both along the fissile height and on the upper part of the core, where nuclear heating still remains high. Two mock-ups of the probe were manufactured and tested in 2005 and 2009 in ex-core area of OSIRIS reactor for process validation, while a displacement system has been especially studied to move the probe along a given axial measurement range. This paper deals with the development, tests on preliminary mock-ups and the finalization of the probe. Main modeling and experimental results are presented. Moreover, alternative methods to calibration for nuclear heating rate measurements which are now possible with this new calorimeter are presented and discussed. (authors)

  19. Cathodic protection simulation of above ground storage tank bottom: Experimental and numerical results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schultz, Marcelo [Inspection Department, Rio de Janeiro Refinery - REDUC, Petrobras, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Brasil, Simone L.D.C. [Chemistry School, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, UFRJ, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Baptista, Walmar [Corrosion Department, Research Centre - CENPES, Petrobras (Brazil); Miranda, Luiz de [Materials and Metallurgical Engineering Program, COPPE, UFRJ, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Brito, Rosane F. [Corrosion Department, Research Centre, CENPES, Petrobras, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    The deterioration history of Above ground Storage Tanks (AST) of Petrobras' refineries - shows that the great incidence of corrosion in the AST bottom is at the external side. This is a problem in the disposability of storage crude oil and other final products. At this refinery, all AST's are built over a concrete base with a lot of pile to support the structure and distribute the charge homogeneously. Because of this it is very difficult to use cathodic protection as an anti-corrosive method for each one of these tanks. This work presents an alternative cathodic protection system to protect the external side of the tank bottom using a new metallic bottom, placed at different distance from the original one. The space between the two bottoms was filled with one of two kinds of soils, sand or clay, more conductive than the concrete. Using a prototype tank it was studied the potential distributions over the new tank bottom for different system parameters, as soil resistivity, number and position of anodes localized in the old bottom. These experimental results were compared to numerical simulations, carried out using a software based on the Boundary Element Method. The computer simulation validates this protection method, confirming to be a very useful tool to define the optimized cathodic protection system configuration. (authors)

  20. Experimental results of beryllium exposed to intense high energy proton beam pulses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ammigan, K. [Fermilab; Hartsell, B. [Fermilab; Hurh, P. [Fermilab; Zwaska, R. [Fermilab; Butcher, M. [CERN; Guinchard, M. [CERN; Calviani, M. [CERN; Losito, R. [CERN; Roberts, S. [Culham Lab; Kuksenko, V. [Oxford U.; Atherton, A. [Rutherford; Caretta, O. [Rutherford; Davenne, T. [Rutherford; Densham, C. [Rutherford; Fitton, M. [Rutherford; Loveridge, J. [Rutherford; O' Dell, J. [Rutherford

    2017-02-10

    Beryllium is extensively used in various accelerator beam lines and target facilities as a material for beam windows, and to a lesser extent, as secondary particle production targets. With increasing beam intensities of future accelerator facilities, it is critical to understand the response of beryllium under extreme conditions to reliably operate these components as well as avoid compromising particle production efficiency by limiting beam parameters. As a result, an exploratory experiment at CERN’s HiRadMat facility was carried out to take advantage of the test facility’s tunable high intensity proton beam to probe and investigate the damage mechanisms of several beryllium grades. The test matrix consisted of multiple arrays of thin discs of varying thicknesses as well as cylinders, each exposed to increasing beam intensities. This paper outlines the experimental measurements, as well as findings from Post-Irradiation-Examination (PIE) work where different imaging techniques were used to analyze and compare surface evolution and microstructural response of the test matrix specimens.

  1. Tracer movement in a single fissure in granitic rock - some experimental results and their interpretation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neretnieks, I.; Eriksen, T.; Taetinen, P.

    1980-08-01

    Radionuclide migration was studied in a natural fissure in a granite core. The fissure was oriented parallel to the axis in a cylindrical core 30 cm long and 20 in diameter. The traced solution was injected at one end of the core and collected at the other. Breakthrough curves were obtained for the nonsorbing tracers tritiated water, and a large molecular weight lignosulphonate molecule and the sorbing tracers cesium and strontium. From the breakthrough curves for the nonsorbing tracers it could be concluded that channeling occurs in the single fissure. A 'dispersion' model based on channeling is presented. The results from the sorbing tracers indicate that there is substantial diffusion into and sorption in the rock matrix. Sorption on the surface of the fissure also accounts for a part of the retardation effect of the sorbing species. A model which includes the mechanisms of channeling, surface sorption matrix diffusion and matrix sorption is presented. The experimental breakthrough curves can be fitted fairly well by this model by use of independently obtained data on diffusivities and matrix sorption. (author)

  2. Tracer Movement in a Single Fissure in Granitic Rock: Some Experimental Results and Their Interpretation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neretnieks, Ivars; Eriksen, Tryggve; TäHtinen, PäIvi

    1982-08-01

    Radionuclide migration was studied in a natural fissure in a granite core. The fissure was oriented parallel to the axis in a cylindrical core 30 cm long and 20 cm in diameter. The traced solution was injected at one end of the core and collected at the other. Breakthrough curves were obtained for the nonsorbing tracers, tritiated water, and a large-molecular-weight lignosulphonate molecule and for the sorbing tracers, cesium and strontium. From the breakthrough curves for the nonsorbing tracers it could be concluded that channeling occurs in the single fissure. A `dispersion' model based on channeling is presented. The results from the sorbing tracers indicate that there is substantial diffusion into and sorption in the rock matrix. Sorption on the surface of the fissure also accounts for a part of the retardation effect of the sorbing species. A model which includes the mechanisms of channeling, surface sorption, matrix diffusion, and matrix sorption is presented. The experimental breakthrough curves can be fitted fairly well by this model by use of independently obtained data on diffusivities and matrix sorption.

  3. MHD activity in the ISX-B tokamak: experimental results and theoretical interpretation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carreras, B.A.; Dunlap, J.L.; Bell, J.D.; Charlton, L.A.; Cooper, W.A.; Dory, R.A.; Hender, T.C.; Hicks, H.R.; Holmes, J.A.; Lynch, V.E.

    1982-01-01

    The observed spectrum of MHD fluctuations in the ISX-B tokamak is clearly dominated by the n=1 mode when the q=1 surface is in the plasma. This fact agrees well with theoretical predictions based on 3-D resistive MHD calculations. They show that the (m=1; n=1) mode is then the dominant instability. It drives other n=1 modes through toroidal coupling and n>1 modes through nonlinear couplings. These theoretically predicted mode structures have been compared in detail with the experimentally measured wave forms (using arrays of soft x-ray detectors). The agreement is excellent. More detailed comparisons between theory and experiment have required careful reconstructions of the ISX-B equilibria. The equilibria so constructed have permitted a precise evaluation of the ideal MHD stability properties of ISX-B. The present results indicate that the high ..beta.. ISX-B equilibria are marginally stable to finite eta ideal MHD modes. The resistive MHD calculations also show that at finite ..beta.. there are unstable resistive pressure driven modes.

  4. Experimental Results Obtained with Air Liquide Cold Compression System: CERN LHC and SNS Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delcayre, F.; Courty, J.-C.; Hamber, F.; Hilbert, B.; Monneret, E.; Toia, J.-L.

    2006-04-01

    Large scale collider facilities will make intensive use of superconducting magnets, operating below 2.0 K. This dictates high-capacity refrigeration systems operating below 2.0 K. These systems, making use of cryogenic centrifugal compressors in a series arrangement with room temperature screw compressors will be coupled to a refrigerator, providing a certain power at 4.5 K. A first Air Liquide Cold Compression System (CCS) unit was built and delivered to CERN in 2001. Installed at the beginning of 2002, it was commissioned and tested successfully during year 2002. A series of four sets of identical CCS were then tested in 2004. Another set of four cryogenic centrifugal compressors (CCC) has been delivered to Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (JLAB) for the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) in 2002. These compressors were tested and commissioned from December 2004 to July 2005. The experimental results obtained with these systems will be presented and discussed: the characteristics of the CCC will be detailed. The principles of control for the CCC in series will be detailed.

  5. Experimental results of thermally controlled superconducting switches for high frequency operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mulder, G.B.J.; IerAvest, D.; Tenkate, H.H.J.; Krooshoop, H.J.G.; Van de Klundert, L.

    1988-01-01

    The aim of this study is to develop thermally controlled switches which are to be used in superconducting rectifiers operating at a few hertz and 1 kA. Usually, the operating frequency of thermally controlled rectifiers is limited to about 0.1 Hz due to the thermal recovery times of the switches. The thermal switches have to satisfy two conditions which are specific for the application in a superconducting rectifier: a) they have to operate in the repetitive mode so beside short activation times, fast recovery times of the switches are equally important, b) the power required to effect and maintain the normal state of the switches should be low since it will determine the rectifier efficiency. To what extent these obviously conflicting demands can be satisfied depends on the material and geometry of the switch. This paper presents a theoretical model of the thermal behaviour of a switch. The calculations are compared with experimental results of several switches having recovery times between 40 and 200 ms. Also, the feasibility of such switches for application in superconducting rectifiers operating at a few hertz with an acceptable efficiency is demonstrated

  6. Review of JT-60 experimental results from January to March, 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-08-01

    This is a prompt report on JT-60 experimental results from January to March, 1987. Maximum LHRF injection power of 6.3 MW was achieved by using 3 launchers. The correlation between flattening of plasma current profile and energy confinement improvement was demonstrated by controlling N 11 spectrum of current drive and heating launchers. The maximum electron temperature of 6 kW was achieved with 2.4 MW LH injection in electron heating mode. Non-inductive driven current of 2 MA with 2.5 sec duration was demonstrated with 3 MW LHRF injection. Substantial acceleration of NB injected fast ions up to 160 kW was observed during ICRF + NB (60 keV) injection. In low density high power NB injected limiter discharges, high ion temperature of ∼ 11 keV and electron temperature of 5 keV were obtained with Z eff = 5. Various attempts were made to produce H-mode in divertor and limiter discharges. (author)

  7. The CABRI fast neutron Hodoscope: Renovation, qualification program and first results following the experimental reactor restart

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chevalier, V.; Mirotta, S.; Guillot, J.; Biard, B.

    2018-01-01

    The CABRI experimental pulse reactor, located at the Cadarache nuclear research center, southern France, is devoted to the study of Reactivity Initiated Accidents (RIA). For the purpose of the CABRI International Program (CIP), managed and funded by IRSN, in the framework of an OECD/NEA agreement, a huge renovation of the facility has been conducted since 2003. The Cabri Water Loop was then installed to ensure prototypical Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) conditions for testing irradiated fuel rods. The hodoscope installed in the CABRI reactor is a unique online fuel motion monitoring system, operated by IRSN and dedicated to the measurement of the fast neutrons emitted by the tested rod during the power pulse. It is one of the distinctive features of the CABRI reactor facility, which is operated by CEA. The system is able to determine the fuel motion, if any, with a time resolution of 1 ms and a spatial resolution of 3 mm. The hodoscope equipment has been upgraded as well during the CABRI facility renovation. This paper presents the main outcomes achieved with the hodoscope since October 2015, date of the first criticality of the CABRI reactor in its new Cabri Water Loop configuration. Results obtained during reactor commissioning phase functioning, either in steady-state mode (at low and high power, up to 23 MW) or in transient mode (start-up, possibly beyond 20 GW), are discussed.

  8. Control of Warm Compression Stations Using Model Predictive Control: Simulation and Experimental Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonne, F.; Alamir, M.; Bonnay, P.

    2017-02-01

    This paper deals with multivariable constrained model predictive control for Warm Compression Stations (WCS). WCSs are subject to numerous constraints (limits on pressures, actuators) that need to be satisfied using appropriate algorithms. The strategy is to replace all the PID loops controlling the WCS with an optimally designed model-based multivariable loop. This new strategy leads to high stability and fast disturbance rejection such as those induced by a turbine or a compressor stop, a key-aspect in the case of large scale cryogenic refrigeration. The proposed control scheme can be used to achieve precise control of pressures in normal operation or to avoid reaching stopping criteria (such as excessive pressures) under high disturbances (such as a pulsed heat load expected to take place in future fusion reactors, expected in the cryogenic cooling systems of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor ITER or the Japan Torus-60 Super Advanced fusion experiment JT-60SA). The paper details the simulator used to validate this new control scheme and the associated simulation results on the SBTs WCS. This work is partially supported through the French National Research Agency (ANR), task agreement ANR-13-SEED-0005.

  9. Experimental Results From a 2kW Brayton Power Conversion Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hervol, David; Mason, Lee; Birchenough, Arthur

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents experimental test results from operation of a 2 kWe Brayton power conversion unit. The Brayton converter was developed for a solar dynamic power system flight experiment planned for the Mir Space Station in 1997. The flight experiment was cancelled, but the converter was tested at Glenn Research Center as part of the Solar Dynamic Ground Test Demonstration system which included a solar concentrator, heat receiver, and space radiator. In preparation for the current testing, the heat receiver was removed and replaced with an electrical resistance heater, simulating the thermal input of a steady-state nuclear source. The converter was operated over a full range of thermal input power levels and rotor speeds to generate an overall performance map. The converter unit will serve as the centerpiece of a Nuclear Electric Propulsion Testbed at Glenn. Future potential uses for the Testbed include high voltage electrical controller development, integrated electric thruster testing and advanced radiator demonstration testing to help guide high power Brayton technology development for Nuclear Electric Propulsion (NEP).

  10. Development and first experimental results of the KERENA Passive Outflow Reducer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dumond, Julien; Maisberger, Fabian; Class, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    component, the parallel disposition was adopted (section 1.3). To validate the principle of the POR and optimize the geometry, experiments are carried out at AREVA Technical Center in Karlstein (chapter 2). The experimental setup is depicted in section 2.1 and the first experimental results are described and discussed in section 2.2. (orig.)

  11. Development and first experimental results of the KERENA Passive Outflow Reducer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dumond, Julien; Maisberger, Fabian [AREVA NP GmbH (Germany); Class, Andreas [Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie (Germany)

    2012-11-01

    component, the parallel disposition was adopted (section 1.3). To validate the principle of the POR and optimize the geometry, experiments are carried out at AREVA Technical Center in Karlstein (chapter 2). The experimental setup is depicted in section 2.1 and the first experimental results are described and discussed in section 2.2. (orig.)

  12. Wageningen Urban Rainfall Experiment 2014 (WURex14): Experimental Setup and First Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Leth, Thomas; Uijlenhoet, Remko; Overeem, Aart; Leijnse, Hidde; Hazenberg, Pieter

    2015-04-01

    the atmosphere. Approximately halfway along the link path a rain gauge from the KNMI operational network is located. Finally, data is available from several commercial microwave links in the vicinity of the experimental setup, as well as from the KNMI weather radars. We report on the first results from this experiment, collected during the Summer and Fall of 2014.

  13. Experimental Setup for Determining Ammonia-Salt Adsorption and Desorption Behavior Under Typical Heat Pump Conditions. Experimental Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van der Pal, M.; De Boer, R.; Veldhuis, J.B.J. [ECN Biomass and Energy Efficiency, Petten (Netherlands)

    2013-09-15

    For the aim of obtaining a better understanding of the performance of a salt-ammonia sorption reactor/heat exchanger a new test-rig was developed. This test-rig enables the measurement of the performance in adsorption and desorption mode of different sorption reactor designs. It measures the speed of uptake and release of ammonia gas of various salt-ammonia reactions under well-controlled and well-monitored process conditions, similar to the heat pump conditions. The test-rig measures the ammonia uptake and release under controlled pressure and temperature conditions. Temperatures of the salt reactor can be varied from ambient temperature up to 200{sup o}C and the ammonia pressure can be varied between 0.02 to 2 MPa. These conditions can be set independently and repeated at regular time-intervals. Besides NH3-mass-flow meters, pressure and temperature sensors, the setup also contains an endoscope to observe any macroscopic structural changes in the material during uptake and release of ammonia. Measurements so far have shown a liquid phase of LiCl.3NH3 at pressures of 0.5 MPa and temperatures exceeding 90{sup o}C. Voilent foaming is observed at 120{sup o}C resulting in salt losses. A correlation was determined between the reaction rate of MgCl{sub 2}(2-6)NH3 and the relative pressure gradient yielding a reaction time of about 1500 seconds for a relative pressure difference of 1. Multiple sorption cycles of the CaCl{sub 2}(2-4)NH3 reaction, showed a reduced activity from 85% of the theoretical maximum sorbed mass at the first sorption cycle, to 15% after 300+ cycles.

  14. Multimodal Emotion Recognition Is Resilient to Insufficient Sleep: Results From Cross-Sectional and Experimental Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holding, Benjamin C; Laukka, Petri; Fischer, Håkan; Bänziger, Tanja; Axelsson, John; Sundelin, Tina

    2017-11-01

    Insufficient sleep has been associated with impaired recognition of facial emotions. However, previous studies have found inconsistent results, potentially stemming from the type of static picture task used. We therefore examined whether insufficient sleep was associated with decreased emotion recognition ability in two separate studies using a dynamic multimodal task. Study 1 used a cross-sectional design consisting of 291 participants with questionnaire measures assessing sleep duration and self-reported sleep quality for the previous night. Study 2 used an experimental design involving 181 participants where individuals were quasi-randomized into either a sleep-deprivation (N = 90) or a sleep-control (N = 91) condition. All participants from both studies were tested on the same forced-choice multimodal test of emotion recognition to assess the accuracy of emotion categorization. Sleep duration, self-reported sleep quality (study 1), and sleep deprivation (study 2) did not predict overall emotion recognition accuracy or speed. Similarly, the responses to each of the twelve emotions tested showed no evidence of impaired recognition ability, apart from one positive association suggesting that greater self-reported sleep quality could predict more accurate recognition of disgust (study 1). The studies presented here involve considerably larger samples than previous studies and the results support the null hypotheses. Therefore, we suggest that the ability to accurately categorize the emotions of others is not associated with short-term sleep duration or sleep quality and is resilient to acute periods of insufficient sleep. © Sleep Research Society 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Sleep Research Society. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Comparison of simulation and experimental results for a model aqueous tert-butanol solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overduin, S. D.; Patey, G. N.

    2017-07-01

    Molecular dynamics simulations are used to investigate the behavior of aqueous tert-butanol (TBA) solutions for a range of temperatures, using the CHARMM generalized force field (CGenFF) to model TBA and the TIP4P/2005 or TIP4P-Ew water model. Simulation results for the density, isothermal compressibility, constant pressure heat capacity, and self-diffusion coefficients are in good accord with experimental measurements. Agreement with the experiment is particularly good at low TBA concentration, where experiments have revealed anomalies in a number of thermodynamic properties. Importantly, the CGenFF model does not exhibit liquid-liquid demixing at temperatures between 290 and 320 K (for systems of 32 000 molecules), in contrast with the situation for several other common TBA models [R. Gupta and G. N. Patey, J. Chem. Phys. 137, 034509 (2012)]. However, whereas real water and TBA are miscible at all temperatures where the liquid is stable, we observe some evidence of demixing at 340 K and above. To evaluate the structural properties at low concentrations, we compare with both neutron scattering and recent spectroscopic measurements. This reveals that while the CGenFF model is a definite improvement over other models that have been considered, the TBA molecules still exhibit a tendency to associate at low concentrations that is somewhat stronger than that indicated by experiments. Finally, we discuss the range and decay times of the long-range correlations, providing an indication of the system size and simulation times that are necessary in order to obtain reliable results for certain properties.

  16. Generalization of results on experimental study on resistance of ribbed tube bundles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lokshin, V.A.; Fomina, V.N.

    1978-01-01

    On a wide experimental basis a new technique of calculating aerodynamic resistance of chess and passage tube bundles is worked out using inner diameter of carrier tube and ribbing coefficient as geometric parameters in formulae. New calculated formulae are based on a wider experimental material. Their structure is more simple. They are in good agreement with formulae for smooth tube bundles in the chess arrangement

  17. Conservatism of loss-of-coolant accident licensing analysis compared to experimental results and best-estimate calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winkler, F.; Friedmann, P.

    1986-01-01

    The paper compares results of loss-of-coolant accident licensing analysis with experimental results and results of best-estimate calculations. The large safety margins resulting from the more realistic best-estimate results are used to show the high conservatism inherent in the licensing process of pressurized water reactors. (orig.) [de

  18. Clean Sampling of an Englacial Conduit at Blood Falls, Antarctica - Some Experimental and Numerical Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalski, Julia; Francke, Gero; Feldmann, Marco; Espe, Clemens; Heinen, Dirk; Digel, Ilya; Clemens, Joachim; Schüller, Kai; Mikucki, Jill; Tulaczyk, Slawek M.; Pettit, Erin; Berry Lyons, W.; Dachwald, Bernd

    2017-04-01

    results of its deployment at Blood Falls. In contrast to conventional melting-probe applications, which can only melt vertically, the IceMole realized an oblique melting path to penetrate the englacial conduit. Experimental and numerical results on melting at oblique angles are rare. Besides reporting on the IceMole technology and the field deployment itself, we will compare and discuss the observed melting behavior with re-analysis results in the context of a recently developed numerical model. Finally, we will present our first steps in utilizing the model to infer on the ambient cryo-environment.

  19. Experimental study of sodium droplet burning in free fall. Evaluation of preliminary test results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyahara, Shinya; Ara, Kuniaki

    1998-08-01

    To study a sodium leak and combustion behavior phenomenologically and to construct the mechanistic evaluation method, an experimental series of a sodium droplet burning in free fall is under way. In this study, the accuracy of measurement technique used in the preliminary test was assessed and the modified technique was proposed for the next test series. Analytical study of the test results was also conducted to deduce dominant parameters and important measurement items which would play an important role in the droplet combustion behavior. The results and conclusions are as follows: (1) Assessment of measurement accuracy and modified technique proposed for the next test series. a) Control accuracy of sodium supply system using β-alumina solid electrolyte was sufficient for generation of objective size of single droplet. However, it is necessary to calibrate the correlation between the quantity of electric charge for sodium supply system and that of supplied sodium. b) Measurement accuracy of falling velocity using high-speed video was ±0.33 m/s at an upper part and ±0.48 m/s at a lower part of the measurement. To reduce the error, a high-speed stroboscopic method is recommended to measure the falling velocity of droplet. (2) Results of analytical study and deduced dominant parameters and important measurement items. a) The falling behavior of a burning droplet was described solving the equation of free falling motion for a rigid sphere. In the case of higher falling height, it is necessary to study the burning effects on the falling behavior. b) The mass burned of a falling droplet was calculated using the combustion model according to 'D 2 ' law during the full burning phase. It is necessary to study the dominant chemical reaction in the burning flame because the mass burned depends on the composition of the reaction products. c) The mass burned was calculated using surface oxidation model for preignition phase together with above model. However, it is

  20. Experimental results of passive vibro-acoustic leak detection in SFR steam generator mock-up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moriot, J.; Gastaldi, O.; Maxit, L.; Guyader, J-L.; Perisse, J.; Migot, B.

    2013-06-01

    Regarding to GEN 4 context, it is necessary to fulfil the high safety standards for sodium fast reactors (SFR), particularly against water-sodium reaction which may occur in the steam generator units (SGU) in case of leak. This reaction can cause severe damages in the component in a short time. Detecting such a leak by visual in-sodium inspection is impossible because of sodium opacity. Hydrogen detection is then used but the time response of this method can be high in certain operating conditions. Active and passive acoustic leak detection methods were studied before SUPERPHENIX plant shutdown in 1997 to detect a water-into-sodium leak with a short time response. In the context of the new R and D studies for SFR, an innovative passive vibro-acoustic method is developed in the framework of a Ph.D. thesis to match with GEN 4 safety requirements. The method consists in assuming that a small leak emits spherical acoustic waves in a broadband frequency domain, which propagate in the liquid sodium and excite the SGU cylindrical shell. These spatially coherent waves are supposed to be buried by a spatially incoherent background noise. The radial velocities of the shell is measured by an array of accelerometers positioned on the external envelop of the SGU and a beam forming treatment is applied to increase the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and to detect and localize the acoustic source. Previous numerical experiments were achieved and promising results were obtained. In this paper, experimental results of the proposed passive vibro-acoustic leak detection are presented. The experiment consists in a cylindrical water-filled steel pipe representing a model of SGU shell without tube bundle. A hydro-phone emitting an acoustic signal is used to simulate an acoustic monopole. Spatially uncorrelated noise or water-flow induced shell vibrations are considered as the background noise. The beam-forming method is applied to vibration signals measured by a linear array of

  1. Slit-scanning differential phase-contrast mammography: first experimental results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roessl, Ewald; Daerr, Heiner; Koehler, Thomas; Martens, Gerhard; van Stevendaal, Udo

    2014-03-01

    The demands for a large field-of-view (FOV) and the stringent requirements for a stable acquisition geometry rank among the major obstacles for the translation of grating-based, differential phase-contrast techniques from the laboratory to clinical applications. While for state-of-the-art Full-Field-Digital Mammography (FFDM) FOVs of 24 cm x 30 cm are common practice, the specifications for mechanical stability are naturally derived from the detector pixel size which ranges between 50 and 100 μm. However, in grating-based, phasecontrast imaging, the relative placement of the gratings in the interferometer must be guaranteed to within micro-meter precision. In this work we report on first experimental results on a phase-contrast x-ray imaging system based on the Philips MicroDose L30 mammography unit. With the proposed approach we achieve a FOV of about 65 mm x 175 mm by the use of the slit-scanning technique. The demand for mechanical stability on a micrometer scale was relaxed by the specific interferometer design, i.e., a rigid, actuator-free mount of the phase-grating G1 with respect to the analyzer-grating G2 onto a common steel frame. The image acquisition and formation processes are described and first phase-contrast images of a test object are presented. A brief discussion of the shortcomings of the current approach is given, including the level of remaining image artifacts and the relatively inefficient usage of the total available x-ray source output.

  2. Go!: results from a quasi-experimental obesity prevention trial with hospital employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaCaille, Lara J; Schultz, Jennifer Feenstra; Goei, Ryan; LaCaille, Rick A; Dauner, Kim Nichols; de Souza, Rebecca; Nowak, Amy Versnik; Regal, Ronald

    2016-02-19

    Worksite obesity prevention interventions using an ecological approach may hold promise for reducing typical weight gain. The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of Go!, an innovative 12-month multi-component worksite obesity prevention intervention. A quasi-experimental non-equivalent control group design was utilized; 407 eligible hospital employees (intervention arm) and 93 eligible clinic employees (comparison arm) participated. The intervention involved pedometer distribution, labeling of all foods in the worksite cafeteria and vending machines (with calories, step equivalent, and a traffic light based on energy density signaling recommended portion), persuasive messaging throughout the hospital, and the integration of influential employees to reinforce healthy social norms. Changes in weight, BMI, waist circumference, physical activity, and dietary behavior after 6 months and 1 year were primary outcomes. Secondary outcomes included knowledge, perceptions of employer commitment to employee health, availability of information about diet, exercise, and weight loss, perceptions of coworker support and frequency of health discussions with coworkers. A process evaluation was conducted as part of the study. Repeated measures ANCOVA indicated that neither group showed significant increases in weight, BMI, or waist circumference over 12 months. The intervention group showed a modest increase in physical activity in the form of walking, but decreases in fruit and vegetable servings and fiber intake. They also reported significant increases in knowledge, information, perceptions of employer commitment, and health discussions with peers. Employees expressed positive attitudes towards all components of the Go! This low-intensity intervention was well-received by employees but had little effect on their weight over the course of 12 months. Such results are consistent with other worksite obesity prevention studies using ecological approaches

  3. Review of JT-60 experimental results from June to October, 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-03-01

    This is a prompt report on JT-60 experimental results from June to October, 1987. Experiments in hydrogen plasmas have been undertaken with up to 3.2 MA of plasma current in limiter discharges, 2.7 MA in divertor discharges, and 30 MW of total NB (H 0 → H + ) and RF injection power. In limiter discharges with ∼3 MA plasma current, the maximum central electron density of 1.3 x 10 20 m -3 and the energy confinement time of 0.15 - 0.18 sec were obtained with heating powers of 13 - 20 MW. The total plasma stored energy of 3.1 MJ, and n e (0)τ E of 1.4 - 1.8 x 10 19 m -3 sec were achieved. The best set of parameters achieved is n e (0)τ E = 1.8 x 10 19 m -3 sec and T i (0) = 3.7 KeV at plasma current of 3.2 MA. By applying deutrium discharge condition, n e (0)τ E and T i (0) enter the JT-60 target area determined by Atomic Energy Commission. Many short periods (50 - 100 ms) of H-mode phase are found in outside X-point divertor discharges with NB or NB + RF (LH or IC) heating power of more than 16 MW, although at present the energy confinement improvement is limited to within 10 %. In combined LH and NB heating of low-n-bar e discharge, the plasma stored energy increases with the same rate as NB heating only, with preferential absorption of LH wave to the high energy beam ions. In combined NB and on-axis ICRF heating of low-n-bar e discharge, a high incremental energy confinement time is obtained, with strong high energy beam ion acceleration and electron heating in the central region of the plasma. (author)

  4. Experimental critical loadings and control rod worths in LWR-PROTEUS configurations compared with MCNPX results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plaschy, M.; Murphy, M.; Jatuff, F.; Seiler, R.; Chawla, R.

    2006-01-01

    The PROTEUS research reactor at the Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI) has been operating since the sixties and has already permitted, due to its high flexibility, investigation of a large range of very different nuclear systems. Currently, the ongoing experimental programme is called LWR-PROTEUS. This programme was started in 1997 and concerns large-scale investigations of advanced light water reactors (LWR) fuels. Until now, the different LWR-PROTEUS phases have permitted to study more than fifteen different configurations, each of them having to be demonstrated to be operationally safe, in particular, for the Swiss safety authorities. In this context, recent developments of the PSI computer capabilities have made possible the use of full-scale SD-heterogeneous MCNPX models to calculate accurately different safety related parameters (e.g. the critical driver loading and the shutdown rod worth). The current paper presents the MCNPX predictions of these operational characteristics for seven different LWR-PROTEUS configurations using a large number of nuclear data libraries. More specifically, this significant benchmarking exercise is based on the ENDF/B6v2, ENDF/B6v8, JEF2.2, JEFF3.0, JENDL3.2, and JENDL3.3 libraries. The results highlight certain library specific trends in the prediction of the multiplication factor k eff (e.g. the systematically larger reactivity calculated with JEF2.2 and the smaller reactivity associated with JEFF3.0). They also confirm the satisfactory determination of reactivity variations by all calculational schemes, for instance, due to the introduction of a safety rod pair, these calculations having been compared with experiments. (authors)

  5. Experimental study of the tritium distribution in the effluents resulting from the sodium hydrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chassery, A. [CEA, DEN, Centre de Cadarache, Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Universite de Toulouse, Laboratoire de Genie Chimique, Toulouse (France); CNRS, Laboratoire de Genie Chimique, Toulouse (France); Lorcet, H.; Godlewski, J; Liger, K.; Latge, C. [CEA, DEN, Centre de Cadarache, Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Joulia, X. [Universite de Toulouse, Laboratoire de Genie Chimique, Toulouse (France); CNRS, Laboratoire de Genie Chimique, Toulouse (France)

    2015-03-15

    Within the framework of the dismantling of fast breeder reactors in France several processes are under investigation regarding sodium disposal. One of them, called ELA (radioactive sodium waste treatment process), is based on the implementation of the sodium-water reaction, in a controlled and progressive way, to remove residual sodium. This sodium contains impurities such as sodium hydride, sodium oxide and tritiated sodium hydride. The hydrolysis of these various chemical species leads to the production of a liquid effluent, mainly composed of an aqueous solution of sodium hydroxide, and a gaseous effluent, mainly composed of nitrogen (inert gas), hydrogen and steam. The tritium is distributed between these effluents, and, within the gaseous effluent, according to its forms HT and HTO (tritiated water). HTO being 10,000 times more radio-toxic than HT, a precise knowledge of the mechanisms governing the phase distribution of tritium is necessary. This paper presents the first experimental results from a parametric study on the tritium distribution between the various effluents generated during hydrolysis operations. A series of experiments have been performed in order to study the influence of water flow rate, argon flow rate, initial mass and specific activity of the hydrolyzed sodium sample. An important influence of the total tritium concentration in the hydrolyzed sample has been highlighted. As for the phenomena suspected to be responsible for the phase change of tritiated water, in the studied range of parameters, vaporization induced by the heat of reactions seems to be dominant over the evaporation induced by the inert gas flow rate.

  6. Development and experimental evaluation of models for low capillary number two-phase flows in rough walled fractures relevant to natural gradient conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glass, R.J.; Yarrington, L.; Nicholl, M.J.

    1997-09-01

    The major results from SNL's Conceptual Model Development and Validation Task (WBS 1.2.5.4.6) as developed through exploration of small scale processes were synthesized in Glass et al. to give guidance to Performance Assessment on improving conceptual models for isothermal flow in unsaturated, fractured rock. There, pressure saturation and relative permeability curves for single fractures were proposed to be a function of both fracture orientation within the gravity field and initial conditions. We refer the reader to Glass et al. for a discussion of the implications of this behavior for Performance Assessment. The scientific research we report here substantiates this proposed behavior. We address the modeling of phase structure within fractures under natural gradient conditions relevant to unsaturated flow through fractures. This phase structure underlies the calculation of effective properties for individual fractures and hence fracture networks as required for Performance Assessment. Standard Percolation (SP) and Invasion Percolation (IP) approaches have been recently proposed to model the underlying phase saturation structures within the individual fractures during conditions of two-phase flow. Subsequent analysis of these structures yields effective two-phase pressure-saturation and relative permeability relations for the fracture. However, both of these approaches yield structures that are at odds with physical reality as we see in experiments and thus effective properties calculated from these structures are in error. Here we develop and evaluate a Modified Invasion Percolation (MIP) approach to better model quasi-static immiscible displacement in fractures. The effects of gravity, contact angle, local aperature field geometry, and local in-plane interfacial curvature between phases are included in the calculation of invasion pressure for individual sites in a discretized aperture field

  7. Experimental results from containment piping bellows subjected to severe accident conditions: Results from bellows tested in corroded conditions. Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambert, L.D.; Parks, M.B.

    1995-10-01

    Bellows are an integral part of the containment pressure boundary in nuclear power plants. They are used at piping penetrations to allow relative movement between piping and the containment wall, while minimizing the load imposed on the piping and wall. Piping bellows are primarily used in steel containments; however, they have received limited use in some concrete (reinforced and prestressed) containments. In a severe accident they may be subjected to pressure and temperature conditions that exceed the design values, along with a combination of axial and lateral deflections. A test program to determine the leak-tight capacity of containment penetration bellows is being conducted at Sandia National Laboratories under the sponsorship of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Several different bellows geometries, representative of actual containment bellows, have been subjected to extreme deflections along with pressure and temperature loads. The bellows geometries and loading conditions are described along with the testing apparatus and procedures. A total of nineteen bellows have been tested. Thirteen bellows were tested in ''like-new'' condition (results reported in Volume 1), and six were tested in a corroded condition. The tests showed that bellows in ''like-new'' condition are capable of withstanding relatively large deformations, up to, or near, the point of full compression or elongation, before developing leakage, while those in a corroded condition did not perform as well, depending on the amount of corrosion. The corroded bellows test program and results are presented in this report

  8. Go!: results from a quasi-experimental obesity prevention trial with hospital employees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lara J. LaCaille

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Worksite obesity prevention interventions using an ecological approach may hold promise for reducing typical weight gain. The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of Go!, an innovative 12-month multi-component worksite obesity prevention intervention. Methods A quasi-experimental non-equivalent control group design was utilized; 407 eligible hospital employees (intervention arm and 93 eligible clinic employees (comparison arm participated. The intervention involved pedometer distribution, labeling of all foods in the worksite cafeteria and vending machines (with calories, step equivalent, and a traffic light based on energy density signaling recommended portion, persuasive messaging throughout the hospital, and the integration of influential employees to reinforce healthy social norms. Changes in weight, BMI, waist circumference, physical activity, and dietary behavior after 6 months and 1 year were primary outcomes. Secondary outcomes included knowledge, perceptions of employer commitment to employee health, availability of information about diet, exercise, and weight loss, perceptions of coworker support and frequency of health discussions with coworkers. A process evaluation was conducted as part of the study. Results Repeated measures ANCOVA indicated that neither group showed significant increases in weight, BMI, or waist circumference over 12 months. The intervention group showed a modest increase in physical activity in the form of walking, but decreases in fruit and vegetable servings and fiber intake. They also reported significant increases in knowledge, information, perceptions of employer commitment, and health discussions with peers. Employees expressed positive attitudes towards all components of the Go! intervention. Conclusions This low-intensity intervention was well-received by employees but had little effect on their weight over the course of 12 months. Such results are consistent with

  9. Stability and spring constant investigation for micromachined inductive suspensions: theoretical analysis vs. experimental results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poletkin, K; Lu, Z; Wallrabe, U; Badilita, V; Den Hartogh, B

    2014-01-01

    We present a linear analytical model coupled with experimental analysis to discuss stability of a levitated proof mass (PM) in a micromachined inductive suspension (MIS), which has been previously introduced and characterized. The model is a function of the MIS geometry, describes the dynamics of a levitated disk-shaped PM near the equilibrium point, and predicts conditions for stable levitation. The experimental setup directly measures the lateral component of the Lorentz force, which has a stabilization role in the MIS structure, as well as the vertical levitation force. The experimental setup is further used to derive mechanical parameters such as stiffness values relative to lateral, vertical and angular displacements, proven to be in excellent agreement with the values predicted by the analytical model

  10. Experimental results for a magnetic refrigerator using three different types of magnetocaloric material regenerators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engelbrecht, Kurt; Bahl, Christian Robert Haffenden; Nielsen, Kaspar Kirstein

    2011-01-01

    in an experimental device. This paper compares the performance of three magnetocaloric material candidates for AMRs, La(Fe,Co,Si)13, (La,Ca,Sr)MnO3 and Gd, in an experimental active magnetic regenerator with a parallel plate geometry. The performance of single-material regenerators of each magnetocaloric material...... family were compared. In an attempt to improve system performance, graded two-material regenerators were made from two different combinations of La(Fe,Co,Si)13 compounds having different magnetic transition temperatures. One combination of the La(Fe,Co,Si)13 materials yielded a higher performance, while...

  11. Experimental checking results of mathematical modeling of the radiation environment sensor based on diamond detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gladchenkov, E V; Kolyubin, V A; Nedosekin, P G; Zaharchenko, K V; Ibragimov, R F; Kadilin, V V; Tyurin, E M

    2017-01-01

    Were conducted a series of experiments, the purpose of which had to verify the mathematical model of the radiation environment sensor. Theoretical values of the beta particles count rate from 90 Sr - 90 Y source registered by radiation environment sensor was compared with the experimental one. Theoretical (calculated) count rate of beta particles was found with using the developed mathematical model of the radiation environment sensor. Deviation of the calculated values of the beta particle count rate does not exceed 10% from the experimental. (paper)

  12. Calculation of Impedance from Multibunch Synchronous Phases: Theory and Experimental Results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prabhakar, Shyam

    1998-01-01

    A novel beam-based method for measuring the longitudinal impedance spectrum is demonstrated using experimental data from the PEP-II High Energy Ring (HER). The method uses a digital longitudinal feedback system from which the charge and synchronous phase are measured for every bucket. Calculation of the transfer function from fill shape to synchronous phase yields the impedance seen by the beam at revolution harmonics. The experimentally-derived longitudinal impedance function and lab measurements of the impedance of parked RF cavities are compared to suggest a mechanism for the occasional instability of low-order coupled bunch modes observed in the HER during commissioning in October 1997

  13. Experimental results and clinical implications of the four R's in fractionated radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trott, K.R.; Gesellschaft fuer Strahlen- und Umweltforschung m.b.H. Muenchen, Neuherberg

    1982-01-01

    Experimental and clinical data on the four R' in fractionated radiotherapy are reviewed. The clinical importance of redistribution has not been proven in the experiment yet. On reoxygenation no unequivocal data in human cancer exists and a lot of variability in rodent tumours. Repair and regeneration are the most important of the four R's in fractionated radiotherapy. The presented experimental and clinical evidence suggests a differential response between tumour and late responding normal tissues with regard to these two R's. Tumours appear to have, in general, a smaller capacity for repairing sublethal radiation damage but a higher capacity for repopulation than late responding normal tissues. (orig.)

  14. Relevance of physical fitness levels and exercise-related beliefs for self-reported and experimental pain in fibromyalgia: an explorative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bruijn, Saskia T; van Wijck, Albert J M; Geenen, Rinie; Snijders, Tom J; van der Meulen, Wout J T M; Jacobs, Johannes W G; Veldhuijzen, Dieuwke Swaantje

    2011-09-01

    It has been suggested that low physical fitness is a contributor to pain in fibromyalgia and that exercise-related beliefs play a role in the persistence of this association. Yet the association between physical fitness and pain is hardly explored in detail. The aim of this exploratory study in patients with fibromyalgia was to investigate the association of physical fitness levels with self-reported and experimental pain as well as with pain catastrophizing and activity-avoidance beliefs. Physical fitness of 18 patients with fibromyalgia was examined using maximal ergocycling and the 6-minute walking test (6MWT). Pain intensity was assessed using self-report scales and quantitative sensory testing. A reduced walking distance on the 6MWT was correlated with more severe self-reported pain on the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (r = -0.52, P physically fit and experienced more severe pain. The results demonstrate some associations between physical fitness and pain in fibromyalgia and point to the importance of activity avoidance. Although the causal directionality of the associations needs substantiation in clinical research, the findings support the notion that low fitness and activity-avoidance beliefs should be targeted while treating pain in fibromyalgia.

  15. Review of JT-60U experimental results in 2001 and 2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-11-01

    The results from the JT-60U experiments in 2001 and 2002 are reviewed. A high poloidal beta (β p ) H-mode plasma with full non-inductive current drive was obtained at 1.8 MA, and the fusion triple product reached 3.1x10 20 m -3 keV s. High normalized beta (β N ) around 2.7 was maintained for 7.4 s. Neoclassical tearing mode suppression by electron cyclotron current drive (ECCD) was accomplished using a real-time feedback control system, and improvement in β N was obtained. In a reversed shear plasma, a high DT-equivalent fusion gain (>0.8) was maintained for 0.55 s with a current hole. High confinement reversed shear plasmas where the electron temperature was higher than the ion temperature were obtained. A new operation scenario was established in which a plasma with high bootstrap current fraction and internal transport barriers (ITBs) was produced without using the OH coil. For physics studies of ITB formation, dedicated experiment was performed, in which the heating power was deliberately scanned. Accumulation of heavy impurity related to strong ITBs in reversed shear plasmas, and degradation of ITBs by electron cyclotron heating (ECH) in weak positive shear plasmas was found. In high β p mode plasmas, Ar exhaust by ECH was obtained. Correlation between the particle and thermal diffusivities was observed in ITB plasmas with both negative and weak shear. As for the current hole, the mechanism was investigated in detail by accurate current profile measurement and ECCD. A new type of Alfven eigenmode (Reversed shear Alfven eigenmode) was proposed, and the observed frequency chirp was explained quite well. As for ECCD, the current drive efficiency was evaluated in a reactor-relevant high electron-temperature regime. In Ar-seeded H-mode plasmas with the outer strike point located on the divertor dome-top, high-power negative-ion-based neutral beam injection (N-NBI) extended the electron density regime to 0.95 Greenwald density keeping confinement enhancement

  16. Analysis of Experimentation Results on University Graduates' Readiness Formation to Act in Extraordinary Situations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moloshavenko, Vera L.; Prozorova, Galina V.; Sienkiewicz, Lyudmila B.

    2016-01-01

    The article presents the experimentation on graduates' readiness formation to act in extraordinary situations conducted in the Tyumen Industrial University in training bachelors in "Oil and Gas Business". The criteria of graduates' readiness formation to act in extraordinary situations are the following: practicability, validity,…

  17. Power-Based Setpoint Control : Experimental Results on a Planar Manipulator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dirksz, D. A.; Scherpen, J. M. A.

    In the last years the power-based modeling framework, developed in the sixties to model nonlinear electrical RLC networks, has been extended for modeling and control of a larger class of physical systems. In this brief we apply power-based integral control to a planar manipulator experimental setup.

  18. Transparency Regulation as a Remedy for Network Neutrality Concerns : Experimental Results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sluijs, J.P.J.B.; Schuett, F.; Henze, B.

    2010-01-01

    We present a research project in experimental law and economics about the effects of new transparency provisions in European telecommunications law on Internet Service Providers (ISPs) and end-users in broadband markets, with implications for the debate on network neutrality. Our experiment

  19. Cerebrospinal fluid pressures resulting from experimental traumatic spinal cord injuries in a pig model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Claire F; Lee, Jae H T; Burstyn, Uri; Okon, Elena B; Kwon, Brian K; Cripton, Peter A

    2013-10-01

    Despite considerable effort over the last four decades, research has failed to translate into consistently effective treatment options for spinal cord injury (SCI). This is partly attributed to differences between the injury response of humans and rodent models. Some of this difference could be because the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) layer of the human spine is relatively large, while that of the rodents is extremely thin. We sought to characterize the fluid impulse induced in the CSF by experimental SCIs of moderate and high human-like severity, and to compare this with previous studies in which fluid impulse has been associated with neural tissue injury. We used a new in vivo pig model (n = 6 per injury group, mean age 124.5 days, 20.9 kg) incorporating four miniature pressure transducers that were implanted in pairs in the subarachnoid space, cranial, and caudal to the injury at 30 mm and 100 mm. Tissue sparing was assessed with Eriochrome Cyanine and Neutral Red staining. The median peak pressures near the injury were 522.5 and 868.8 mmHg (range 96.7-1430.0) and far from the injury were 7.6 and 36.3 mmHg (range 3.8-83.7), for the moderate and high injury severities, respectively. Pressure impulse (mmHg.ms), apparent wave speed, and apparent attenuation factor were also evaluated. The data indicates that the fluid pressure wave may be sufficient to affect the severity and extent of primary tissue damage close to the injury site. However, the CSF pressure was close to normal physiologic values at 100 mm from the injury. The high injury severity animals had less tissue sparing than the moderate injury severity animals; this difference was statistically significant only within 1.6 mm of the epicenter. These results indicate that future research seeking to elucidate the mechanical origins of primary tissue damage in SCI should consider the effects of CSF. This pig model provides advantages for basic and preclinical SCI research due to its

  20. Synthetic analyses of the LAVA experimental results on in-vessel corium retention through gap cooling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Kyoung Ho; Cho, Young Ro; Koo, Kil Mo; Park, Rae Joon; Kim, Jong Hwan; Kim, Jong Tae; Ha, Kwang Sun; Kim, Sang Baik; Kim, Hee Dong

    2001-03-01

    LAVA(Lower-plenum Arrested Vessel Attack) has been performed to gather proof of gap formation between the debris and lower head vessel and to evaluate the effect of the gap formation on in-vessel cooling. Through the total of 12 tests, the analyses on the melt relocation process, gap formation and the thermal and mechanical behaviors of the vessel were performed. The thermal behaviors of the lower head vessel were affected by the formation of the fragmented particles and melt pool during the melt relocation process depending on mass and composition of melt and subcooling and depth of water. During the melt relocation process 10.0 to 20.0 % of the melt mass was fragmented and also 15.5 to 47.5 % of the thermal energy of the melt was transferred to water. The experimental results address the non-adherence of the debris to the lower head vessel and the consequent gap formation between the debris and the lower head vessel in case there was an internal pressure load across the vessel abreast with the thermal load induced by the thermite melt. The thermal behaviors of the lower head vessel during the cooldown period were mainly affected by the heat removal characteristics through this gap, which were determined by the possibilities of the water ingression into the gap depending on the melt composition of the corium simulant. The enhanced cooling capacity through the gap was distinguished in the Al 2 O 3 melt tests. It could be inferred from the analyses on the heat removal capacity through the gap that the lower head vessel could effectively cooldown via heat removal in the gap governed by counter current flow limits(CCFL) even if 2mm thick gap should form in the 30 kg Al 2 O 3 melt tests, which was also confirmed through the variations of the conduction heat flux in the vessel and rapid cool down of the vessel outer surface in the Al 2 O 3 melt tests. In the case of large melt mass of 70 kg Al 2 O 3 melt, however, the infinite possibility of heat removal through the

  1. Soil-to-plant transfer of elements is not linear: Results for five elements relevant to radioactive waste in five boreal forest species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuovinen, Tiina S.; Roivainen, Paeivi, E-mail: paivi.roivainen@uef.fi; Makkonen, Sari; Kolehmainen, Mikko; Holopainen, Toini; Juutilainen, Jukka

    2011-12-01

    Element-specific concentration ratios (CRs) assuming that plant uptake of elements is linear are commonly used in radioecological modelling to describe the soil-to-plant transfer of elements. The goal of this study was to investigate the validity of the linearity assumption in boreal forest plants, for which only limited relevant data are available. The soil-to-plant transfer of three essential (Mo, Ni, Zn) and two non-essential (Pb, U) elements relevant to the safety of radioactive waste disposal was studied. Three understory species (blueberry, narrow buckler fern and May lily) and two tree species (Norway spruce and rowan) were included. Examining CRs as a function of soil concentration showed that CR was not constant but decreased with increasing soil concentrations for all elements and plant species. A non-linear equation fitted fairly well with the empirical data; the R{sup 2}-values for this equation were constantly higher than those for the linear fit. The difference between the two fits was most evident at low soil concentrations where the use of constant CRs underestimated transfer from soil to plants. Site-specific factors affected the transfer of Mo and Ni. The results suggested that systematic variation with soil concentrations explains a part of the large variation of empirically determined CRs, and the accuracy of modelling the soil-to-plant transfer might be improved by using non-linear methods. Non-linearity of soil-to-plant transfer has been previously reported for a few different species, elements and environments. The present study systematically tested the linearity assumption for five elements (both essential and non-essential) and in five boreal forest species representing different growth traits and phylogenies. The data supported non-linearity in all cases.

  2. Maternal exposure to an environmentally relevant dose of triclocarban results in perinatal exposure and potential alterations in offspring development in the mouse model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather A Enright

    Full Text Available Triclocarban (TCC is among the top 10 most commonly detected wastewater contaminants in both concentration and frequency. Its presence in water, as well as its propensity to bioaccumulate, has raised numerous questions about potential endocrine and developmental effects. Here, we investigated whether exposure to an environmentally relevant concentration of TCC could result in transfer from mother to offspring in CD-1 mice during gestation and lactation using accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS. 14C-TCC (100 nM was administered to dams through drinking water up to gestation day 18, or from birth to post-natal day 10. AMS was used to quantify 14C-concentrations in offspring and dams after exposure. We demonstrated that TCC does effectively transfer from mother to offspring, both trans-placentally and via lactation. TCC-related compounds were detected in the tissues of offspring with significantly higher concentrations in the brain, heart and fat. In addition to transfer from mother to offspring, exposed offspring were heavier in weight than unexposed controls demonstrating an 11% and 8.5% increase in body weight for females and males, respectively. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR was used to examine changes in gene expression in liver and adipose tissue in exposed offspring. qPCR suggested alterations in genes involved in lipid metabolism in exposed female offspring, which was consistent with the observed increased fat pad weights and hepatic triglycerides. This study represents the first report to quantify the transfer of an environmentally relevant concentration of TCC from mother to offspring in the mouse model and evaluate bio-distribution after exposure using AMS. Our findings suggest that early-life exposure to TCC may interfere with lipid metabolism and could have implications for human health.

  3. Maternal exposure to an environmentally relevant dose of triclocarban results in perinatal exposure and potential alterations in offspring development in the mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enright, Heather A; Falso, Miranda J S; Malfatti, Michael A; Lao, Victoria; Kuhn, Edward A; Hum, Nicholas; Shi, Yilan; Sales, Ana Paula; Haack, Kurt W; Kulp, Kristen S; Buchholz, Bruce A; Loots, Gabriela G; Bench, Graham; Turteltaub, Kenneth W

    2017-01-01

    Triclocarban (TCC) is among the top 10 most commonly detected wastewater contaminants in both concentration and frequency. Its presence in water, as well as its propensity to bioaccumulate, has raised numerous questions about potential endocrine and developmental effects. Here, we investigated whether exposure to an environmentally relevant concentration of TCC could result in transfer from mother to offspring in CD-1 mice during gestation and lactation using accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). 14C-TCC (100 nM) was administered to dams through drinking water up to gestation day 18, or from birth to post-natal day 10. AMS was used to quantify 14C-concentrations in offspring and dams after exposure. We demonstrated that TCC does effectively transfer from mother to offspring, both trans-placentally and via lactation. TCC-related compounds were detected in the tissues of offspring with significantly higher concentrations in the brain, heart and fat. In addition to transfer from mother to offspring, exposed offspring were heavier in weight than unexposed controls demonstrating an 11% and 8.5% increase in body weight for females and males, respectively. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) was used to examine changes in gene expression in liver and adipose tissue in exposed offspring. qPCR suggested alterations in genes involved in lipid metabolism in exposed female offspring, which was consistent with the observed increased fat pad weights and hepatic triglycerides. This study represents the first report to quantify the transfer of an environmentally relevant concentration of TCC from mother to offspring in the mouse model and evaluate bio-distribution after exposure using AMS. Our findings suggest that early-life exposure to TCC may interfere with lipid metabolism and could have implications for human health.

  4. Soil-to-plant transfer of elements is not linear: Results for five elements relevant to radioactive waste in five boreal forest species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuovinen, Tiina S.; Roivainen, Päivi; Makkonen, Sari; Kolehmainen, Mikko; Holopainen, Toini; Juutilainen, Jukka

    2011-01-01

    Element-specific concentration ratios (CRs) assuming that plant uptake of elements is linear are commonly used in radioecological modelling to describe the soil-to-plant transfer of elements. The goal of this study was to investigate the validity of the linearity assumption in boreal forest plants, for which only limited relevant data are available. The soil-to-plant transfer of three essential (Mo, Ni, Zn) and two non-essential (Pb, U) elements relevant to the safety of radioactive waste disposal was studied. Three understory species (blueberry, narrow buckler fern and May lily) and two tree species (Norway spruce and rowan) were included. Examining CRs as a function of soil concentration showed that CR was not constant but decreased with increasing soil concentrations for all elements and plant species. A non-linear equation fitted fairly well with the empirical data; the R 2 -values for this equation were constantly higher than those for the linear fit. The difference between the two fits was most evident at low soil concentrations where the use of constant CRs underestimated transfer from soil to plants. Site-specific factors affected the transfer of Mo and Ni. The results suggested that systematic variation with soil concentrations explains a part of the large variation of empirically determined CRs, and the accuracy of modelling the soil-to-plant transfer might be improved by using non-linear methods. Non-linearity of soil-to-plant transfer has been previously reported for a few different species, elements and environments. The present study systematically tested the linearity assumption for five elements (both essential and non-essential) and in five boreal forest species representing different growth traits and phylogenies. The data supported non-linearity in all cases.

  5. Experimental warming delays autumn senescence in a boreal spruce bog: Initial results from the SPRUCE experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Andrew; Furze, Morgan; Aubrecht, Donald; Milliman, Thomas; Nettles, Robert; Krassovski, Misha; Hanson, Paul

    2016-04-01

    Phenology is considered one of the most robust indicators of the biological impacts of global change. In temperate and boreal regions, long-term data show that rising temperatures are advancing spring onset (e.g. budburst and flowering) and delaying autumn senescence (e.g. leaf coloration and leaf fall) in a wide range of ecosystems. While warm and cold temperatures, day length and insolation, precipitation and water availability, and other factors, have all been shown to influence plant phenology, the future response of phenology to rising temperatures and elevated CO2 still remains highly uncertain because of the challenges associated with conducting realistic manipulative experiments to simulate future environmental conditions. At the SPRUCE (Spruce and Peatland Responses Under Climatic and Environmental Change) experiment in the north-central United States, experimental temperature (0 to +9° C above ambient) and CO2 (ambient and elevated) treatments are being applied to mature, and intact, Picea mariana-Sphagnum spp. bog communities in their native habitat through the use of ten large (approximately 12 m wide, 10 m high) open-topped enclosures. We are tracking vegetation green-up and senescence in these chambers, at both the individual and whole-community level, using repeat digital photography. Within each chamber, digital camera images are recorded every 30 minutes and uploaded to the PhenoCam (http://phenocam.sr.unh.edu) project web page, where they are displayed in near-real-time. Image processing is conducted nightly to extract quantitative measures of canopy color, which we characterize using Gcc, the green chromatic coordinate. Data from a camera mounted outside the chambers (since November 2014) indicate strong seasonal variation in Gcc for both evergreen shrubs and trees. Shrub Gcc rises steeply in May and June, and declines steeply in September and October. By comparison, tree Gcc rises gradually from March through June, and declines gradually from

  6. Cold Climate Foundation Retrofit Experimental Hygrothermal Performance. Cloquet Residential Research Facility Laboratory Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldberg, Louise F. [NorthernSTAR, St. Paul, MN (United States); Harmon, Anna C. [NorthernSTAR, St. Paul, MN (United States)

    2015-04-09

    This project was funded jointly by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). ORNL focused on developing a full basement wall system experimental database to enable others to validate hygrothermal simulation codes. NREL focused on testing the moisture durability of practical basement wall interior insulation retrofit solutions for cold climates. The project has produced a physically credible and reliable long-term hygrothermal performance database for retrofit foundation wall insulation systems in zone 6 and 7 climates that are fully compliant with the performance criteria in the 2009 Minnesota Energy Code. These data currently span the period from November 10, 2012 through May 31, 2014 and are anticipated to be extended through November 2014. The experimental data were configured into a standard format that can be published online and that is compatible with standard commercially available spreadsheet and database software.

  7. Recent Experimental Results Related to Ejector Mode Studies of Rocket-Based Combined Cycle (RBCC) Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cramer, J. M.; Pal, S.; Marshall, W. M.; Santoro, R. J.

    2003-01-01

    Contents include the folloving: 1. Motivation. Support NASA's 3d generation launch vehicle technology program. RBCC is promising candidate for 3d generation propulsion system. 2. Approach. Focus on ejector mode p3erformance (Mach 0-3). Perform testing on established flowpath geometry. Use conventional propulsion measurement techniques. Use advanced optical diagnostic techniques to measure local combustion gas properties. 3. Objectives. Gain physical understanding of detailing mixing and combustion phenomena. Establish an experimental data set for CFD code development and validation.

  8. Wireless power transfer in the presence of metallic plates: Experimental results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaofang Yu

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available We demonstrate efficient wireless power transfer between two high Q resonators, especially in a complex electromagnetic environment. In the close proximity of metallic plates, the transfer efficiency stays roughly the same as the free space efficiency with proper designs. The experimental data fits well with a coupled theory model. Resonance frequency matching, alignment of the magnetic field, and impedance matching are shown to be the most important factors for efficient wireless power transfer.

  9. Experimental Results For Hydrocarbon Refrigerant Vaporization In Brazed Plate Heat Exchangers at High Pressure

    OpenAIRE

    Desideri, Adriano; Schmidt Ommen, Torben; Wronski, Jorrit; Quoilin, Sylvain; Lemort, Vincent; Haglind, Fredrik

    2016-01-01

    In this contribution, the experimental heat transfer coefficient  and the pressure drop measured during HFC refrigerants vaporization inside small brazed plate heat exchanger (PHE) at typical evaporation temperature for organic Rankine cycle systems for low thermal energy quality applications are presented. Scientific work focusing on the heat transfer in PHEs has been carried out since the late 19th century. More recent publications have been focusing on vaporization and condensation of ref...

  10. Comparison of computer code calculations with experimental results obtained in the NSPP series of experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tobias, M.L.

    1987-01-01

    Experiments were done on several aerosols in air atmospheres at varying temperatures and humidity conditions of interest in forming a data base for testing aerosol behavior models used as part of the process of evaluating the ''source term'' in light water reactor accidents. This paper deals with the problems of predicting the observed experimental data for suspended aerosol concentration with aerosol calculational codes. Comparisons of measured versus predicted data are provided

  11. Scoliosis correction with shape-memory metal: results of an experimental study

    OpenAIRE

    Wever, D.; Elstrodt, J.; Veldhuizen, A.; v Horn, J.

    2001-01-01

    The biocompatibility and functionality of a new scoliosis correction device, based on the properties of the shape-memory metal nickel-titanium alloy, were studied. With this device, the shape recovery forces of a shape-memory metal rod are used to achieve a gradual three-dimensional scoliosis correction. In the experimental study the action of the new device was inverted: the device was used to induce a scoliotic curve instead of correcting one. Surgical procedures were performed in six pigs....

  12. Construction of PREMUX and preliminary experimental results, as preparation for the HCPB breeder unit mock-up testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernández, F., E-mail: francisco.hernandez@kit.edu [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Institute for Neutron Physics and Reactor Technology (INR) (Germany); Kolb, M. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Institute for Applied Materials (IAM-WPT) (Germany); Annabattula, R. [Indian Institute of Technology Madras (IITM), Department of Mechanical Engineering (India); Weth, A. von der [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Institute for Neutron Physics and Reactor Technology (INR) (Germany)

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • PREMUX has been constructed as preparation for a future out-of-pile thermo-mechanical qualification of a HCPB breeder unit mock-up. • The rationale and constructive details of PREMUX are reported in this paper. • PREMUX serves as a test rig for the new heater system developed for the HCPB-BU mock-up. • PREMUX will be used as benchmark for the thermal and thermo-mechanical models developed in ANSYS for the pebble beds of the HCPB-BU. • Preliminary results show the functionality of PREMUX and the good agreement of the measured temperatures with the thermal model developed in ANSYS. - Abstract: One of the European blanket designs for ITER is the Helium Cooled Pebble Bed (HCPB) blanket. The core of the HCPB-TBM consists of so-called breeder units (BUs), which encloses beryllium as neutron multiplier and lithium orthosilicate (Li{sub 4}SiO{sub 4}) as tritium breeder in form of pebble beds. After the design phase of the HCPB-BU, a non-nuclear thermal and thermo-mechanical qualification program for this device is running at the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology. Before the complex full scale BU testing, a pre-test mock-up experiment (PREMUX) has been constructed, which consists of a slice of the BU containing the Li{sub 4}SiO{sub 4} pebble bed. PREMUX is going to be operated under highly ITER-relevant conditions and has the following goals: (1) as a testing rig of new heater concept based on a matrix of wire heaters, (2) as benchmark for the existing finite element method (FEM) codes used for the thermo-mechanical assessment of the Li{sub 4}SiO{sub 4} pebble bed, and (3) in situ measurement of thermal conductivity of the Li{sub 4}SiO{sub 4} pebble bed during the tests. This paper describes the construction of PREMUX, its rationale and the experimental campaign planned with the device. Preliminary results testing the algorithm used for the temperature reconstruction of the pebble bed are reported and compared qualitatively with first analyses

  13. Electron microscopy of human peripheral nerves of clinical relevance to the practice of nerve blocks. A structural and ultrastructural review based on original experimental and laboratory data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reina, M A; Arriazu, R; Collier, C B; Sala-Blanch, X; Izquierdo, L; de Andrés, J

    2013-12-01

    The goal is to describe the ultrastructure of normal human peripheral nerves, and to highlight key aspects that are relevant to the practice of peripheral nerve block anaesthesia. Using samples of sciatic nerve obtained from patients, and dural sac, nerve root cuff and brachial plexus dissected from fresh human cadavers, an analysis of the structure of peripheral nerve axons and distribution of fascicles and topographic composition of the layers that cover the nerve is presented. Myelinated and unmyelinated axons, fascicles, epineurium, perineurium and endoneurium obtained from patients and fresh cadavers were studied by light microscopy using immunohistochemical techniques, and transmission and scanning electron microscopy. Structure of perineurium and intrafascicular capillaries, and its implications in blood-nerve barrier were revised. Each of the anatomical elements is analyzed individually with regard to its relevance to clinical practice to regional anaesthesia. Routine practice of regional anaesthetic techniques and ultrasound identification of nerve structures has led to conceptions, which repercussions may be relevant in future applications of these techniques. In this regard, the ultrastructural and histological perspective accomplished through findings of this study aims at enlightening arising questions within the field of regional anaesthesia. Copyright © 2013 Sociedad Española de Anestesiología, Reanimación y Terapéutica del Dolor. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  14. An overview of experimental results and dispersion modelling of nanoparticles in the wake of moving vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpentieri, Matteo; Kumar, Prashant; Robins, Alan

    2011-03-01

    Understanding the transformation of nanoparticles emitted from vehicles is essential for developing appropriate methods for treating fine scale particle dynamics in dispersion models. This article provides an overview of significant research work relevant to modelling the dispersion of pollutants, especially nanoparticles, in the wake of vehicles. Literature on vehicle wakes and nanoparticle dispersion is reviewed, taking into account field measurements, wind tunnel experiments and mathematical approaches. Field measurements and modelling studies highlighted the very short time scales associated with nanoparticle transformations in the first stages after the emission. These transformations strongly interact with the flow and turbulence fields immediately behind the vehicle, hence the need of characterising in detail the mixing processes in the vehicle wake. Very few studies have analysed this interaction and more research is needed to build a basis for model development. A possible approach is proposed and areas of further investigation identified. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Development and Experimental Validation of Large Eddy Simulation Techniques for the Prediction of Combustion-Dynamic Process in Syngas Combustion: Characterization of Autoignition, Flashback, and Flame-Liftoff at Gas-Turbine Relevant Operating Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ihme, Matthias [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Driscoll, James [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    2015-08-31

    The objective of this closely coordinated experimental and computational research effort is the development of simulation techniques for the prediction of combustion processes, relevant to the oxidation of syngas and high hydrogen content (HHC) fuels at gas-turbine relevant operating conditions. Specifically, the research goals are (i) the characterization of the sensitivity of syngas ignition processes to hydrodynamic processes and perturbations in temperature and mixture composition in rapid compression machines and ow-reactors and (ii) to conduct comprehensive experimental investigations in a swirl-stabilized gas turbine (GT) combustor under realistic high-pressure operating conditions in order (iii) to obtain fundamental understanding about mechanisms controlling unstable flame regimes in HHC-combustion.

  16. Does uranium exposure induce oxidative stress and genotoxicity in the teleostean Danio rerio? first experimental results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barillet, S.; Devaux, A.; Simon, O.; Buet, A.; Pradines, C.

    2004-01-01

    Within the Envirhom research program, key advances have been obtained in uranium bioaccumulation and underlying mechanisms understanding in various biological models at the individual level. However, considering different scales of biological effects (from early to delayed ones, from low to high level of organization) is crucial to provide ecologically relevant indicators. Organisms counteract stress induced by pollutant exposure through a wide range of physiological responses being both dose and time dependent. Effects at higher hierarchical levels are always preceded by early changes in biological processes, from subtle biochemical disturbances to impaired physiological functions, increased susceptibility to other stresses, reduced life-span Within this global context, preliminary experiments were carried out on adult zebra fish (Danio rerio), to assess early changes after short-term uranium exposure. Among the subsequent primary subcellular damages oxidative stress and genotoxicity (characterizing both chemo-toxicity and radiotoxicity) are relevant endpoints, thus requiring the knowledge of dose-effects relationships as a first operational approach to provide useful tool in predicting possible effects of U exposure. Zebra fish has been selected due to its small size (facilitating its maintenance) and its extended use in eco-toxicological studies. Moreover, its short life-cycle will allow to carry out chronic exposure experiments (along the whole life-cycle). Four uranium concentrations (0, 20, 100 and 500μg.L -1 ) and five sampling times (0, 0.5, 1, 5 and 10 days) were selected. Catalase, glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities were measured as oxidative stress bio-markers. DNA damage level was assessed in zebra fish erythrocytes using the comet assay. Uranium bioaccumulation was concurrently studied to understand observed bio-marker responses. Further experiments, dedicated to the assessment of the impact of chronic uranium

  17. Pressure suppression system (PSS) for nuclear ships. Experimental results obtained at the GKSS PSS-test-facillity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aust, E.; Niemann, H.R.; Schwan, H.; Vollbrandt, J.

    1978-01-01

    The PSS-test facility is shortly presented which was designed to show experimentally the operation of the pressure suppression containment for the NCS 80 concept. The results of the experimental LOCA-simulation tests in the PSS-test facility are illustrated by diagrams. The observed phenomena as chugging and pessure oscillations immediately after vent clearing are reported as well as the thermohydraulic loadings of the total system. Finally a short view is given on the future test program

  18. Experimental results showing the internal three-component velocity field and outlet temperature contours for a model gas turbine combustor

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Meyers, BC

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available by the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics Inc. All rights reserved ISABE-2011-1129 EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS SHOWING THE INTERNAL THREE-COMPONENT VELOCITY FIELD AND OUTLET TEMPERATURE CONTOURS FOR A MODEL GAS TURBINE COMBUSTOR BC Meyers*, GC... identifier c Position identifier F Fuel i Index L (Combustor) Liner OP Orifice plate Introduction There are often inconsistencies when comparing experimental and Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations for gas turbine combustors [1...

  19. Preliminary analysis of the results and description of the meteorological experiments I and II performed at Aramar Experimental Center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molnary, L. de

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes the experimental program in Applied Meteorology that has been developed at Aramar Experimental Center (CEA) located in Ipero, S.P - Brazil. The program intends to study the meteorological systems and the regional circulation around Aramar to use the information in atmospheric transport and diffusion of radionuclides studies, as soon, analysis of impacts on the environment at Aramar site. The results collected during the first and second Meteorological Experiment are examined. (author)

  20. Literature review and experimental results for a cylinder with perforations and protrusions at high Reynolds numbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, G. S.; Horvath, T. J.; Stainback, P. C.; Beasley, W. D.; Mcghee, R. J.

    1987-01-01

    The NASA Langley Low Turbulence Pressure Tunnel has been used to conduct an experimental study of the flow around a series of circular cylinders; the models used consisted of a baseline, smooth cylinder together with a cylinder that could be reconfigured with six different arrangements of two types of surface irregularity. Mean lift and drag forces were measured on all seven model configurations, and correlations were made between unsteady pressure in the wake region and fluctuating lift forces, in order to identify coherent structures.

  1. A model for negative ion extraction and comparison of negative ion optics calculations to experimental results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pamela, J.

    1990-10-01

    Negative ion extraction is described by a model which includes electron diffusion across transverse magnetic fields in the sheath. This model allows a 2-Dimensional approximation of the problem. It is used to introduce electron space charge effects in a 2-D particle trajectory code, designed for negative ion optics calculations. Another physical effect, the stripping of negative ions on neutral gas atoms, has also been included in our model; it is found to play an important role in negative ion optics. The comparison with three sets of experimental data from very different negative ion accelerators, show that our model is able of accurate predictions

  2. Experimental results on the MOX fuel. Study of the calculus/measures divergences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, S.

    1997-01-01

    For each nuclear plant unit restart, all safety criterion have to be respected. Various parameters as boron concentration, temperature coefficient, worth or power and activity distributions related to fuel assemblies, have to be calculated. To compute these parameters Framatome uses the neutronic channel Science. Before the validation they are compare to experimental measures. For UO 2 fuel the divergence calculus/measures are correct. But for MOX fuels the divergence worsening. This paper discusses tis divergence and research the origin. (A.L.B.)

  3. Comparison of dynamic analysis of a Schilling hydraulic manipulator with experimental results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, C.P.; Lew, J.Y.; Evans, M.S.; Magee, D.P.

    1993-07-01

    Two independent models of the dynamics of a Schilling Titan II hydraulic manipulator were developed and compared in order to obtain an accurate model of the manipulator dynamics. These models will be used in the development of feedback control laws and active damping algorithms. One of the model is an analytical model which was developed open-quotes by handclose quotes with the assistance of computer symbolic manipulation. The other is a numerical model developed using a commercially available dynamics code. The data from these models were then compared with experimental data from an actual Titan II manipulator

  4. A review of experimental results obtained in Au-Au collisions at the RHIC-BNL energies using BRAHMS experimental set-up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jipa, Alexandru

    2003-01-01

    Ultrarelativistic heavy ion collisions are useful tools to investigate highly excited dense nuclear matter. At sufficiently high temperature, nuclear matter is expected to undergo a phase transition to quark-gluon plasma. Therefore, new experiments have been proposed to investigate the behaviour of the highly excited dense nuclear matter. One of the experiments performed at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider from Brookhaven National Laboratory is the BRAHMS Experiment. In the three running years many experimental data have been obtained. These data permitted to establish significant experimental results on charged pion, charged kaon, proton and antiproton production in Au-Au collisions at 130 A GeV and 200 A GeV in CMS. The present work summarizes the main experimental results on charged particle multiplicities, rapidity distributions, momentum spectra, antiparticle to particle ratios and connects these results with some interesting physical quantities. Their dependencies on the available energies in the CMS in similar collisions are included. Interesting behaviours with the increase of this energy are reported. The most interesting are related to the behaviour of the antiproton to proton ratio on the collision centrality and on the available energy in the centre of mass system, the strangeness production, Coulomb repulsion and slope parameters of the momentum spectra. A few new steps in the knowledge of the behaviour of the highly excited and dense nuclear matter can be reported. (authors)

  5. Perceived relevance and information needs regarding food topics and preferred information sources among Dutch adults: results of a quantitative consumer study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dillen, van S.M.E.; Hiddink, G.J.; Koelen, M.A.; Graaf, de C.; Woerkum, van C.M.J.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: For more effective nutrition communication, it is crucial to identify sources from which consumers seek information. Our purpose was to assess perceived relevance and information needs regarding food topics, and preferred information sources by means of quantitative consumer research.

  6. Cold Climate Foundation Retrofit Experimental Hygrothermal Performance: Cloquet Residential Research Facility Laboratory Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldberg, Louise F. [NorthernSTAR, St. Paul, MN (United States); Harmon, Anna C. [NorthernSTAR, St. Paul, MN (United States)

    2015-04-01

    Thermal and moisture problems in existing basements create a unique challenge because the exterior face of the wall is not easily or inexpensively accessible. This approach addresses thermal and moisture management from the interior face of the wall without disturbing the exterior soil and landscaping. the interior and exterior environments. This approach has the potential for improving durability, comfort, and indoor air quality. This project was funded jointly by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). ORNL focused on developing a full basement wall system experimental database to enable others to validate hygrothermal simulation codes. NREL focused on testing the moisture durability of practical basement wall interior insulation retrofit solutions for cold climates. The project has produced a physically credible and reliable long-term hygrothermal performance database for retrofit foundation wall insulation systems in zone 6 and 7 climates that are fully compliant with the performance criteria in the 2009 Minnesota Energy Code. The experimental data were configured into a standard format that can be published online and that is compatible with standard commercially available spreadsheet and database software.

  7. Hydrodynamical model and experimental results of a calcium looping cycle for CO2 capture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lisbona, Pilar; Martínez, Ana; Romeo, Luis M.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► A scaled experimental cold flow model of a dual fluidized bed facility is presented. ► Two MATLAB models are developed for the single CFB and the dual CFB facility. ► Set of experiments are carried out and used to validate the mathematical model. ► Good agreement between model and experimental tests for sCFB. ► Further work required for validating dual CFB operation. -- Abstract: High temperature looping cycles involving solid circulation, such as carbonation–calcination, play an essential role among the CO 2 capture technologies under development. The low cost and high availability of Ca-based sorbents together with the feasibility of integration between these capture systems and existing power plants lead to very competitive potential costs of avoided CO 2 , below 20 €/tonne. Optimal configurations make use of several interconnected fluidized beds. One promising configuration for Ca-based sorbents looping systems relies on the use of two circulating beds (carbonator and calciner) and two bubbling beds acting as non-mechanical valves. Fluidized beds are well characterized when operating independently since they are extensively used in industrial applications, power and chemical plants. However, the operation when two or more fluidized beds exchange solid material through non-mechanical valves is still uncertain because of the more complex pressure balance of the system. Theoretical studies based on thermo-chemical simulations and experimental studies show that minimum CO 2 capture cost is attained with large solid circulation flow between reactors. The challenge is to reach the required particle circulation in a system with a complex configuration and be able to control it. Solid internal recirculation in any of these fluidized beds would provide flexibility in its control but it will also make harder the characterization of the whole system. The aim of this work is to analyse the hydrodynamics of the system and to generate a

  8. An overview of experimental results and dispersion modelling of nanoparticles in the wake of moving vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carpentieri, Matteo; Kumar, Prashant; Robins, Alan

    2011-01-01

    Understanding the transformation of nanoparticles emitted from vehicles is essential for developing appropriate methods for treating fine scale particle dynamics in dispersion models. This article provides an overview of significant research work relevant to modelling the dispersion of pollutants, especially nanoparticles, in the wake of vehicles. Literature on vehicle wakes and nanoparticle dispersion is reviewed, taking into account field measurements, wind tunnel experiments and mathematical approaches. Field measurements and modelling studies highlighted the very short time scales associated with nanoparticle transformations in the first stages after the emission. These transformations strongly interact with the flow and turbulence fields immediately behind the vehicle, hence the need of characterising in detail the mixing processes in the vehicle wake. Very few studies have analysed this interaction and more research is needed to build a basis for model development. A possible approach is proposed and areas of further investigation identified. - Research highlights: → Nanoparticle emissions experience very short transformation time scales. → Vehicle wakes need to be characterised to analyse nanoparticle dispersion. → Fast response measurements of nanoparticle evolution in vehicle wakes are very rare. → Wind tunnel methodologies can be further improved to include nanoparticle dynamics. → A simple mathematical approach has been proposed for future development. - The transformation of nanoparticles and the flow characteristics in both the near and far wake regions must be understood in order to develop mathematical models.

  9. Kidney Disease and Perinatal Programming of Arterial Hypertension: the Results of Experimental Researches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga P. Kovtun

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Deterioration of development conditions in the perinatal period (starvation of the mother, excess sodium ions in her diet, exposure to glucocorticosteroids, placental insufficiency programs significant  changes in the excretion of sodium ions in the newborn and leads to the development of hypertension. Studies on experimental animals show  that unfavourable conditions of intrauterine development can reduce the effective area of glomerular filtration and its rate. These circumstances  increase the expression of membrane carriers of sodium ions in the  apical membranes, the production of superoxide radicals and enhance  the reabsorption of sodium. The article discusses the potential mechanisms of perinatal programming of renal hypertension in humans.

  10. Thermal and in-reactor densification of UO2; mechanism and experimental results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Assmann, H.; Stehle, H.

    1980-01-01

    Suggested is a generalized model of UO 2 densification kinetics under irradiation in a reactor which takes into account the peculiarities of small and large pores behaviour in four temperature ranges (450 deg C, 450-750 deg C; 750-1300 deg C; 1300 deg C ) determining the process. It is pointed out that one of the most important parameters influencing the speed of densification is an initial distribution of pores according to dimensions. Summary VO 2 volume change under irradiation is shown to be obtained from decreasing the volume at the expense of pore shrinkage and matrix swelling. The model also takes into account such parameters as irradiation time and temperature, burning, and initial fuel density. The densification model suggested is confirmed by many experimental data

  11. Performance of the Argonne Wakefield Accelerator facility and initial experimental results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gai, W.; Conde, M.; Cox, G.; Konecny, R.; Power, J.; Schoessow, P.; Simpson, J.; Barov, N.

    1996-01-01

    The Argonne Wakefield Accelerator (AWA) facility has begun its experimental program. This unique facility is designed to address advanced acceleration research which requires very short, intense electron bunches. The facility incorporates two photo-cathode based electron sources. One produces up to 100 nC, multi-kiloamp 'drive' bunches which are used to excite wakefields in dielectric loaded structures and in plasma. The second source produces much lower intensity 'witness' pulses which are used to probe the fields produced by the drive. The drive and witness pulses can be precisely timed as well as laterally positioned with respect to each other. We discuss commissioning, initial experiments, and outline plans for a proposed 1 GeV demonstration accelerator. (author)

  12. Performance of the Argonne Wakefield Accelerator Facility and initial experimental results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gai, W.; Conde, M.; Cox, G.; Konecny, R.; Power, J.; Schoessow, P.; Simpson, J.; Barov, N.

    1996-01-01

    The Argonne Wakefield Accelerator facility has begun its experimental program. It is designed to address advanced acceleration research requiring very short, intense electron bunches. It incorporates two photocathode based electron sources. One produces up to 100 nC, multi-kiloamp 'drive' bunches which are used to excite wakefields in dielectric loaded structures and in plasma. The second source produces much lower intensity 'witness' pulses which are used to probe the fields produced by the drive. The drive and witness pulses can be precisely timed as well as laterally positioned with respect to each other. This paper discusses commissioning, initial experiments, and outline plans for a proposed 1 GeV demonstration accelerator

  13. Stand alone power system coupling a PV field and a fuel cell: first experimental results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Busquet, S.; Labbe, J.; Leroux, P.; Metkemeijer, R.; Mayer, D. [ENSMP-CENERG, Sophia Antipolis (France)

    2003-07-01

    The purpose of the work, through the PVFC-SYS project, is to optimise the operation of a system coupling a photovoltaic field, an electrolyser, a gas storage, a fuel cell and a power management unit. A test bench is at present finalised in the Laboratory. All components have been selected for an optimal, automatic, safe and reliable operation of the complete system. Fully instrumented, this test bench furnishes new data concerning each component and the complete system behaviour for variable real weather conditions and different load demands. The paper describes the test bench, the simulation tool based on empirical model fitted to the component experimental data and the complete system performance for different load profiles along a year of operation. (orig.)

  14. Performance of the Opalinus Clay under thermal loading: experimental results from Mont Terri rock laboratory (Switzerland)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gens, A. [Universitat Politència de Catalunya, Barcelona (Spain); Wieczorek, K. [Gesellschaft für Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit (GRS) GmbH, Braunschweig (Germany); Gaus, I. [National Cooperative for the Disposal of Radioactive Waste (NAGRA), Wettingen (Switzerland); and others

    2017-04-15

    The paper presents an overview of the behaviour of Opalinus Clay under thermal loading as observed in three in situ heating tests performed in the Mont Terri rock laboratory: HE-B, HE-D and HE-E. The three tests are summarily described; they encompass a broad range of test layouts and experimental conditions. Afterwards, the following topics are examined: determination of thermal conductivity, thermally-induced pore pressure generation and thermally-induced mechanical effects. The mechanisms underlying pore pressure generation and dissipation are discussed in detail and the relationship between rock damage and thermal loading is examined using an additional in situ test: SE-H. The paper concludes with an evaluation of the various thermo-hydro-mechanical (THM) interactions identified in the heating tests. (authors)

  15. Experimental results from a DC photocathode electron gun for an IR FEL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kehne, D.; Engwall, D.; Legg, R.; Shinn, M.

    1997-01-01

    A 350 keV DC photocathode gun capable of delivering the high-brightness CW electron beam necessary for Jefferson Lab's infrared free-electron laser is described. The gun is to be used with a superconducting radiofrequency linac operating at 1.497 GHz and is mode-locked to the 40th subharmonic of the fundamental using a Nd:YLF drive laser. The gun provides 20--25 ps bunches at up to 135 pC/bunch. Experimental measurements of transverse and longitudinal beam properties are presented. Transverse emittance is measured using a slit-wire scanner emittance meter, and energy spread is measured using the slit and a spectrometer magnet. Longitudinal emittance is measured using a combination of sampling aperture, kicker cavity, slit and spectrometer. Measurements for bunch charges of 135 pC are described and compared with simulations

  16. Statistics is not enough: revisiting Ronald A. Fisher's critique (1936) of Mendel's experimental results (1866).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilpel, Avital

    2007-09-01

    This paper is concerned with the role of rational belief change theory in the philosophical understanding of experimental error. Today, philosophers seek insight about error in the investigation of specific experiments, rather than in general theories. Nevertheless, rational belief change theory adds to our understanding of just such cases: R. A. Fisher's criticism of Mendel's experiments being a case in point. After an historical introduction, the main part of this paper investigates Fisher's paper from the point of view of rational belief change theory: what changes of belief about Mendel's experiment does Fisher go through and with what justification. It leads to surprising insights about what Fisher had done right and wrong, and, more generally, about the limits of statistical methods in detecting error.

  17. The Halden corrosion cycling experiment IFA-560.2. Experimental results and their interpretation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beck, W.; Boehner, G.; Eberle, R.

    1992-01-01

    The Halden experiment IFA-560.2 was an experiment in which the corrosion behaviour of PWR fuel rodlets was investigated simultaneously under different load and cooling conditions: Permanent convective cooling at 50% power, permanent nucleate boiling at 100% power and periodic cycling between these two states. The objective was to study possible influences on the corrosion mechanism which might generically be related to the cycling operation. The oxide layer increments after 90 operations days and 60 day/night cycles were evaluated using the Siemens/KWU corrosion model regarding the special thermal hydraulic conditions of the experimental loop. The analysis proves that the layer thickness increases could be described purely following the changes in temperature caused by the power changes. No extra effect due to the frequent changes between the different cooling conditions could be observed. (orig.)

  18. The results of decontamination and decommissioning of experimental DUPIC equipment at PIEF 9405 hot cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, H. H.; Park, J. J.; Shin, J. M.; Cho, K. H.; Yang, M. S.; Lee, E. P. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejeon (Korea)

    2002-02-01

    The characterization experiment for powder and sintered fuel had been performed using about 1 kg-U spent PWR fuel at No. 9405 hot-cell in PIEF(Post Irradiated Experiment Facility) since early in 1999. Currently, the experiments in PIEF have been completed. Since all DUPIC equipment in hot-cell are contaminated by high radioactive material, the decontamination and dismantlement must be performed remotely by M/S manipulator. During the radioactive waste packing and transportation, the reduction method of radiation exposure has to be considered. This report describes the basic plan for dismantlement/decontamination of the characterization equipment (power and sintered fuel). And methods of measurement/packing/transportation, method of dismantlement/decontamination of the experimental apparatus and the reduction method of radiation dose exposure, etc. are explained in order. 7 refs., 42 figs., 10 tabs. (Author)

  19. Production of molten UO2 pools by internal heating: apparatus and preliminary experimental heat transfer results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chasanov, M.G.; Gunther, W.H.; Baker, L. Jr.

    1977-01-01

    The capability for removal of heat from a pool of molten fuel under postaccident conditions is an important consideration in liquid-metal fast breeder reactor safety analysis. No experimental data for pool heat transfer from molten UO 2 under conditions simulating internal heat generation by fission product decay have been reported previously in the literature. An apparatus to provide such data was developed and used to investigate heat transfer from pools containing up to 7.5 kg of UO 2 ; the internal heat generation rates and pool depths attained cover most of the ranges of interest for postaccident heat removal analysis. It was also observed in these studies that the presence of simulated fission products corresponding to approximately 150,000 kW-day/kg burnup had no significant effect on the observed heat transfer

  20. Corrosion by liquid lead and lead-bismuth: experimental results review and analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Jinsuo [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2008-01-01

    Liquid metal technologies for liquid lead and lead-bismuth alloy are under wide investigation and development for advanced nuclear energy systems and waste transmutation systems. Material corrosion is one of the main issues studied a lot recently in the development of the liquid metal technology. This study reviews corrosion by liquid lead and lead bismuth, including the corrosion mechanisms, corrosion inhibitor and the formation of the protective oxide layer. The available experimental data are analyzed by using a corrosion model in which the oxidation and scale removal are coupled. Based on the model, long-term behaviors of steels in liquid lead and lead-bismuth are predictable. This report provides information for the selection of structural materials for typical nuclear reactor coolant systems when selecting liquid lead or lead bismuth as heat transfer media.