WorldWideScience

Sample records for relevant empirically supported

  1. Empirical Support for Perceptual Conceptualism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolás Alejandro Serrano

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this paper is to show that perceptual conceptualism can be understood as an empirically meaningful position and, furthermore, that there is some degree of empirical support for its main theses. In order to do this, I will start by offering an empirical reading of the conceptualist position, and making three predictions from it. Then, I will consider recent experimental results from cognitive sciences that seem to point towards those predictions. I will conclude that, while the evidence offered by those experiments is far from decisive, it is enough not only to show that conceptualism is an empirically meaningful position but also that there is empirical support for it.

  2. Who supported the Deutsche Bundesbank? An empirical investigation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maier, P; Knaap, T

    2002-01-01

    The relevance of public support for monetary policy has largely been over-looked in the empirical Central Bank literature. We have constructed a new indicator for the support of the German Bundesbank and present descriptive and empirical evidence. We find that major German interest groups were quite

  3. Dissociative absorption: An empirically unique, clinically relevant, dissociative factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soffer-Dudek, Nirit; Lassri, Dana; Soffer-Dudek, Nir; Shahar, Golan

    2015-11-01

    Research of dissociative absorption has raised two questions: (a) Is absorption a unique dissociative factor within a three-factor structure, or a part of one general dissociative factor? Even when three factors are found, the specificity of the absorption factor is questionable. (b) Is absorption implicated in psychopathology? Although commonly viewed as "non-clinical" dissociation, absorption was recently hypothesized to be specifically associated with obsessive-compulsive symptoms. To address these questions, we conducted exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses on 679 undergraduates. Analyses supported the three-factor model, and a "purified" absorption scale was extracted from the original inclusive absorption factor. The purified scale predicted several psychopathology scales. As hypothesized, absorption was a stronger predictor of obsessive-compulsive symptoms than of general psychopathology. In addition, absorption was the only dissociative scale that longitudinally predicted obsessive-compulsive symptoms. We conclude that absorption is a unique and clinically relevant dissociative tendency that is particularly meaningful to obsessive-compulsive symptoms. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. On the empirical relevance of the transient in opinion models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banisch, Sven, E-mail: sven.banisch@universecity.d [Mathematical Physics, Physics Department, Bielefeld University, 33501 Bielefeld (Germany); Institute for Complexity Science (ICC), 1249-078 Lisbon (Portugal); Araujo, Tanya, E-mail: tanya@iseg.utl.p [Research Unit on Complexity in Economics (UECE), ISEG, TULisbon, 1249-078 Lisbon (Portugal); Institute for Complexity Science (ICC), 1249-078 Lisbon (Portugal)

    2010-07-12

    While the number and variety of models to explain opinion exchange dynamics is huge, attempts to justify the model results using empirical data are relatively rare. As linking to real data is essential for establishing model credibility, this Letter develops an empirical confirmation experiment by which an opinion model is related to real election data. The model is based on a representation of opinions as a vector of k bits. Individuals interact according to the principle that similarity leads to interaction and interaction leads to still more similarity. In the comparison to real data we concentrate on the transient opinion profiles that form during the dynamic process. An artificial election procedure is introduced which allows to relate transient opinion configurations to the electoral performance of candidates for which data are available. The election procedure based on the well-established principle of proximity voting is repeatedly performed during the transient period and remarkable statistical agreement with the empirical data is observed.

  5. On the empirical relevance of the transient in opinion models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banisch, Sven; Araujo, Tanya

    2010-01-01

    While the number and variety of models to explain opinion exchange dynamics is huge, attempts to justify the model results using empirical data are relatively rare. As linking to real data is essential for establishing model credibility, this Letter develops an empirical confirmation experiment by which an opinion model is related to real election data. The model is based on a representation of opinions as a vector of k bits. Individuals interact according to the principle that similarity leads to interaction and interaction leads to still more similarity. In the comparison to real data we concentrate on the transient opinion profiles that form during the dynamic process. An artificial election procedure is introduced which allows to relate transient opinion configurations to the electoral performance of candidates for which data are available. The election procedure based on the well-established principle of proximity voting is repeatedly performed during the transient period and remarkable statistical agreement with the empirical data is observed.

  6. Using small XML elements to support relevance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G. Ramirez Camps (Georgina); T.H.W. Westerveld (Thijs); A.P. de Vries (Arjen)

    2006-01-01

    htmlabstractSmall XML elements are often estimated relevant by the retrieval model but they are not desirable retrieval units. This paper presents a generic model that exploits the information obtained from small elements. We identify relationships between small and relevant elements and use this

  7. Empirically supported religious and spiritual therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hook, Joshua N; Worthington, Everett L; Davis, Don E; Jennings, David J; Gartner, Aubrey L; Hook, Jan P

    2010-01-01

    This article evaluated the efficacy status of religious and spiritual (R/S) therapies for mental health problems, including treatments for depression, anxiety, unforgiveness, eating disorders, schizophrenia, alcoholism, anger, and marital issues. Religions represented included Christianity, Islam, Taoism, and Buddhism. Some studies incorporated a generic spirituality. Several R/S therapies were found to be helpful for clients, supporting the further use and research on these therapies. There was limited evidence that R/S therapies outperformed established secular therapies, thus the decision to use an R/S therapy may be an issue of client preference and therapist comfort.

  8. Political economy models and agricultural policy formation : empirical applicability and relevance for the CAP

    OpenAIRE

    Zee, van der, F.A.

    1997-01-01

    This study explores the relevance and applicability of political economy models for the explanation of agricultural policies. Part I (chapters 4-7) takes a general perspective and evaluates the empirical applicability of voting models and interest group models to agricultural policy formation in industrialised market economics. Part II (chapters 8-11) focuses on the empirical applicability of political economy models to agricultural policy formation and agricultural policy developmen...

  9. Relevancy of mathematical support for geophysics determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vîlceanu, Clara-Beatrice; Grecea, Carmen; Muşat, Cosmin

    2017-07-01

    The importance of gravity in geodesy is recognized even since the 16th century. Starting with the experiments and theories of Galileo Galilei, the gravity and its global variation has continued to play an important role for those preoccupied with measuring the Earth's surface. The benefits of Physical Geodesy (studying the Earth's gravitational field) are extended to other disciplines such as Seismology, Oceanography, Volcanology etc. The aim of the present paper consists in highlighting the connection between gravity and the geodesist's profession. This was possible only throughout an extended study of Physical Geodesy realized with the support given by the International Gravity Office, Military Topographic Direction, The National Centre of Cartography and different specialists from these domains. Gravity represents the main factor which influences the Earth's shape and dimensions and when it comes to geodetic measurements, the gravity and its influence upon the measurements realized by specialists in geodesy has to be considered.

  10. Political economy models and agricultural policy formation : empirical applicability and relevance for the CAP

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zee, van der F.A.

    1997-01-01

    This study explores the relevance and applicability of political economy models for the explanation of agricultural policies. Part I (chapters 4-7) takes a general perspective and evaluates the empirical applicability of voting models and interest group models to agricultural policy

  11. Empirically Supported Treatment's Impact on Organizational Culture and Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson-Silver Wolf, David A.; Dulmus, Catherine N.; Maguin, Eugene

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: With the continued push to implement empirically supported treatments (ESTs) into community-based organizations, it is important to investigate whether working condition disruptions occur during this process. While there are many studies investigating best practices and how to adopt them, the literature lacks studies investigating the…

  12. Support and Against Historical Cost Accounting: is IT Value Relevance for Decision Making?

    OpenAIRE

    Rahmawati, Evi

    2006-01-01

    This paper reviews the issues on the support and criticism of historical cost accounting (HCA) and the incremental information content on current cost disclosures. Based on literature review this study find that historical cost is still relevant to use in decision making. Empirical studies show evidence both; supporting historical cost accounting and criticisms against the conventional historical cost based financial statements. Issues on historical cost are raised because of economic condit...

  13. Support and Against Historical Cost Accounting: is IT Value Relevance for Decision Making?

    OpenAIRE

    Rahmawati, Evi

    2006-01-01

    This paper reviews the issues on the support and criticism of historical cost accounting (HCA) and the incremental information content on current cost disclosures. Based on literature review this study find that historical cost is still relevant to use in decision making. Empirical studies show evidence both; supporting historical cost accounting and criticisms against the conventional historical cost based financial statements. Issues on historical cost are raised because of  economic condit...

  14. Support Vector Machines: Relevance Feedback and Information Retrieval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drucker, Harris; Shahrary, Behzad; Gibbon, David C.

    2002-01-01

    Compares support vector machines (SVMs) to Rocchio, Ide regular and Ide dec-hi algorithms in information retrieval (IR) of text documents using relevancy feedback. If the preliminary search is so poor that one has to search through many documents to find at least one relevant document, then SVM is preferred. Includes nine tables. (Contains 24…

  15. A new model of Social Support in Bereavement (SSB): An empirical investigation with a Chinese sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jie; Chen, Sheying

    2016-01-01

    Bereavement can be an extremely stressful experience while the protective effect of social support is expected to facilitate the adjustment after loss. The ingredients or elements of social support as illustrated by a new model of Social Support in Bereavement (SSB), however, requires empirical evidence. Who might be the most effective providers of social support in bereavement has also been understudied, particularly within specific cultural contexts. The present study uses both qualitative and quantitative analyses to explore these two important issues among bereaved Chinese families and individuals. The results show that three major types of social support described by the SSB model were frequently acknowledged by the participants in this study. Aside from relevant books, family and friends were the primary sources of social support who in turn received support from their workplaces. Helping professionals turned out to be the least significant source of social support in the Chinese cultural context. Differences by gender, age, and bereavement time were also found. The findings render empirical evidence to the conceptual model of Social Support in Bereavement and also offer culturally relevant guidance for providing effective support to the bereaved.

  16. Is 'legal empowerment of the poor' relevant to people with disabilities in developing countries? An empirical and normative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borg, Johan; Bergman, Anna-Karin; Östergren, Per-Olof

    2013-11-15

    Legal empowerment of the poor is highly relevant to public health as it aims to relieve income poverty, a main determinant of health. The Commission on Legal Empowerment of the Poor (CLEP) has proposed legal empowerment measures in the following four domains: access to justice and the rule of law, property, labor, and business rights. Despite being overrepresented among the poor, CLEP has not explicitly considered the situation of people with disabilities. To examine the empirical evidence for the relevance of the CLEP legal empowerment measures to people with disabilities in low- and lower middle-income countries, and to evaluate the extent to which the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD) addresses those measures. Critical literature review of empirical studies and a checklist assessment of the CRPD. Fourteen included articles confirm that people with disabilities experience problems in the domains of access to justice and the rule of law, labor rights, and business rights. No texts on property rights were found. Evidence for the effectiveness of the proposed measures is insufficient. Overall, the CRPD fully or partially supports two-thirds of the proposed measures (seven out of nine measures for access to justice and the rule of law, none of the five measures for property rights, all seven measures for labor rights, and six out of nine measures for business rights). Although most of the domains of the CLEP legal empowerment measures are relevant to people with disabilities from both empirical and normative perspectives, it is uncertain whether the devised measures are of immediate relevance to them. Further research is warranted in this regard.

  17. Examining the premises supporting the empirically supported intervention approach to social work practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBeath, Bowen; Briggs, Harold E; Aisenberg, Eugene

    2010-10-01

    Federal, state, and local policymakers and funders have increasingly organized human service delivery functions around the selection and implementation of empirically supported interventions (ESIs), under the expectation that service delivery through such intervention frameworks results in improvements in cost-effectiveness and system performance. This article examines the validity of four premises undergirding the ESI approach: ESIs are effective, relevant to common client problems and needs, culturally appropriate, and replicable and sustainable in community-based settings. In reviewing available literature, the authors found insufficient support for the uniform application of an ESI approach to social work practice in the human service sector, particularly as applied within agency contexts serving ethnic minority clients. The authors recommend that greater attention be devoted to the development and dissemination of social work interventions that respond to needs that are broadly understood and shared across diverse cultural groups, have proven clinical efficacy, and can be translated successfully for use across different agency and cultural environments. Such attention to the research and development function of the social work profession is increasingly necessary as policymakers and human service system architects require reduced costs and improved performance for programs serving historically oppressed client populations.

  18. System for selecting relevant information for decision support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalina, Jan; Seidl, Libor; Zvára, Karel; Grünfeldová, Hana; Slovák, Dalibor; Zvárová, Jana

    2013-01-01

    We implemented a prototype of a decision support system called SIR which has a form of a web-based classification service for diagnostic decision support. The system has the ability to select the most relevant variables and to learn a classification rule, which is guaranteed to be suitable also for high-dimensional measurements. The classification system can be useful for clinicians in primary care to support their decision-making tasks with relevant information extracted from any available clinical study. The implemented prototype was tested on a sample of patients in a cardiological study and performs an information extraction from a high-dimensional set containing both clinical and gene expression data.

  19. Knowledge Management Technology for Decision Support: an empirical examination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meliha Handzic

    2001-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the results of an empirical examination of the effectiveness of one type of knowledge management technology, namely 'contextual knowledge repository', for supporting individual decision makers in a predictive judgement task context. 31 volunteer subjects participated in the study. The results indicate that a given technology was fairly useful, but insufficient to maximally enhance individual decision making. On one hand, subjects were found to extract more knowledge and make significantly smaller decision errors than their notional naive counterparts. On the other hand, subjects tended to extract less knowledge and make significantly larger decision errors compared to notional optimal counterparts. These findings suggest that individuals could potentially benefit from those knowledge management technologies that would provide additional explicit analytical and procedural knowledge, or those that would facilitate sharing of tacit knowledge through interaction with others. Future research is necessary to address these issues.

  20. Empirical support for a reclassification of eating disorders NOS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helverskov, J L; Lyng, B; Clausen, L; Mors, O; Frydenberg, M; Thomsen, P H; Rokkedal, K

    2011-01-01

    To explore the empirical support for a reclassification of the eating disorders NOS (EDNOS) category. In a cross-sectional design eight specific subgroups of EDNOS were compared to anorexia nervosa (AN) and bulimia nervosa (BN) on interview-based data and questionnaire measures. The sample consisted of 965 patients in the age 13-54 years admitted to treatment for an eating disorder. According to the DSM-IV 176(18%) presented with AN, 290(30%) with BN and 499(52%) with EDNOS. Of all EDNOS cases 34% could be reclassified as AN or BN. Three specific subgroups emerged as separate diagnostic entities. A heterogeneous subgroup of 122 patients (13% of all) was proposed as 'true' EDNOS. Implications of the results on the DSM-V are discussed. The results support a broader definition of AN and BN and suggest subgroups of EDNOS as separate diagnostic entities. This results in a substantial reduction of the heterogeneous EDNOS group. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.

  1. Empirically Supported Interventions for Sexual and Gender Minority Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Ashley; Craig, Shelley L

    2015-01-01

    When empirically supported treatments (ESTs) are effectively adapted for use with minority populations, they may be more efficacious. As such, there is a need to adapt existing ESTs for use with diverse sexual and gender minority youth (SGMY). The unique bias-based challenges faced by SGMY require the integration of affirmative practices into ESTs to effectively address the specific needs of this underserved group of youth. The primary purpose of the authors in this article is to present a clearly articulated stakeholder driven model for developing an affirmative adapted version of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for use with diverse SGMY. The authors' approach to adaptation follows the "adapt and evaluate" framework for enhancing cultural congruence of interventions for minority groups. A community based participatory research approach, consistent with a stakeholder driven process, is utilized to develop the intervention from the ground up through the voices of the target community. Researchers conducted 3 focus groups with culturally diverse SGMY to explore salient aspects of youths' cultural and SGM identities in order to inform the intervention and ensure its applicability to a wide range of SGMY. Focus group data is analyzed and integrated into an existing group-based CBT intervention. The following themes emerge as critical to affirmative work with diverse SGMY: (1) the interplay between cultural norms, gender norms, sexual orientation, and gender identity; (2) the complex role of religious community within the lives of SGMY; and (3) consideration of extended family and cultural community as youth navigate their SGM identities.

  2. Support and Against Historical Cost Accounting: Is it Value Relevance for Decision Making?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evi Rahmawati

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the issues on the support and criticism of historical cost accounting (HCA and the incremental information content on current cost disclosures. Based on literature review this study find that historical cost is still relevant to use in decision making. Empirical studies show evidence both; supporting historical cost accounting and criticisms against the conventional historical cost based financial statements. Issues on historical cost are raised because of  economic condition, inflation, the change in high tech environment, price movements, and regulators statements. Studies shows that historical cost accounting. over the decade: still have power explanatory for investors, which indicates that its benefits outweigh its cost. However, Barth et al. (1996 provide strong evidence on incremental information of current cost disclosures for certain assets and liabilities. This paper concludes that even there are weaknesses (against HCA, still there are more benefits that we can gain through HCA.

  3. A Balanced Theoretical and Empirical Approach for the Development of a Design Support Tool

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Thomas Aakjær; Hansen, Claus Thorp

    1996-01-01

    The introduction of a new design support system may change the engineering designer's work situation. Therefore, it may not be possible to derive all the functionalities for a design support system from solely empirical studies of manual design work. Alternatively the design support system could ...... system, indicating a proposal for how to balance a theoretical and empirical approach. The result of this research will be utilized in the development of a Designer's Workbench to support the synthesis activity in mechanical design....

  4. Relevant factors for the impact of social media marketing strategies: Empirical study of the internet travel agency sector

    OpenAIRE

    Lebherz, Philipp Robert

    2011-01-01

    Projecte final de carrera fet en col.laboració amb Karlsruher Institut für Technologie English: Final proyect with the topic "relevant factors for the impact of social media marketing strategies - an empirical study of the internet travel agency sector" at Faculty of Informatics and the chair of management. Supervised by Ferran Sabaté and Antonio Cañabate. Student Philipp Lebherz.

  5. Rationales for technology-specific RES support and their relevance for German policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gawel, Erik; Lehmann, Paul; Purkus, Alexandra; Söderholm, Patrik; Witte, Katherina

    2017-01-01

    In order to achieve cost-effective RES-E deployment it is often argued that technology-neutral support schemes for renewables are indispensable. Against this background, RES-E support policies making widely use of technology differentiation in remuneration settings, e.g. across the EU, are frequently criticized from a theoretical point of view. However, in this paper we provide a systematic critique of the technology neutrality concept as a foundation for designing policy support schemes in the RES-E technology field. Specifically, the main objective of the paper is to scrutinize the arguments for technology-neutrality, and discuss three conceptual arguments for why technology-specific support schemes could in fact help minimize the societal costs of reaching future RES-E targets. We also briefly address different political economy concerns, which could constrain the choice of cost-effective policy support schemes, and that have to be taken into account for economic policy advice. For empirical illustration of the key arguments we refer to the case of German RES-E policy-making. The central conclusion from this paper is that technology-specific RES-E support schemes may generate significant economic benefits, particularly if technology markets work imperfectly and in second-best policy settings with additional non-internalized market failures. - Highlights: • Three theoretical cost-effectiveness reasons for technology-specific RES-E support. • German case study to show relevance of theoretical arguments for policy-making. • Political economy constraints to technology-neutral support are demonstrated. • Technology-specific RES-E support may generate significant economic benefits.

  6. Is ‘legal empowerment of the poor’ relevant to people with disabilities in developing countries? An empirical and normative review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johan Borg

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Legal empowerment of the poor is highly relevant to public health as it aims to relieve income poverty, a main determinant of health. The Commission on Legal Empowerment of the Poor (CLEP has proposed legal empowerment measures in the following four domains: access to justice and the rule of law, property, labor, and business rights. Despite being overrepresented among the poor, CLEP has not explicitly considered the situation of people with disabilities. Objectives: To examine the empirical evidence for the relevance of the CLEP legal empowerment measures to people with disabilities in low- and lower middle-income countries, and to evaluate the extent to which the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD addresses those measures. Methods: Critical literature review of empirical studies and a checklist assessment of the CRPD. Results: Fourteen included articles confirm that people with disabilities experience problems in the domains of access to justice and the rule of law, labor rights, and business rights. No texts on property rights were found. Evidence for the effectiveness of the proposed measures is insufficient. Overall, the CRPD fully or partially supports two-thirds of the proposed measures (seven out of nine measures for access to justice and the rule of law, none of the five measures for property rights, all seven measures for labor rights, and six out of nine measures for business rights. Conclusions: Although most of the domains of the CLEP legal empowerment measures are relevant to people with disabilities from both empirical and normative perspectives, it is uncertain whether the devised measures are of immediate relevance to them. Further research is warranted in this regard.

  7. Empirical Analysis of Social Support Provided via Social Media

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Medeiros, L.; Bosse, T.

    2016-01-01

    Social media are an effective means for people to share everyday problems with their peers. Although this often leads to empathic responses which help alleviate the experienced stress, such peer support is not always available. As an alternative solution for such situations, this paper explores the

  8. On Feature Relevance in Image-Based Prediction Models: An Empirical Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Konukoglu, E.; Ganz, Melanie; Van Leemput, Koen

    2013-01-01

    Determining disease-related variations of the anatomy and function is an important step in better understanding diseases and developing early diagnostic systems. In particular, image-based multivariate prediction models and the “relevant features” they produce are attracting attention from the co...

  9. Are narrative CSR disclosures relevant for investors? Empirical evidence from Germany

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verbeeten, F.; Gamerschlag, R.; Möller, K.

    2014-01-01

    CSR disclosures relate to the provision of information on companies’ environmental and social performance to external stakeholders. Although such disclosures can be directed at several stakeholders other than the (potential) firm shareholders, they may be relevant for valuation purposes. Based on

  10. Study of Government Support System in SMEs: An Empirical Investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussain Bux Marri

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The SMEs (Small and Medium Enterprises have created its own place and value universally, no matter how tough global competition is there in international market. This research work was undertaken to assess the increase in importance of SMEs in growing nations such as Pakistan and to highlight the importance of SMEs. This paper is validated through research work undertaken by domestic and worldwide scholars. Research work was carried out in enterprises of Sindh, province of Pakistan, using questionnaire and personal discussions with business owners/entrepreneurs of enterprises. Their response was very positive on parameters which were focused towards taxation policies (Rebate, government technological support, financial support and loan facilities. In addition to this, the results were further investigated and measured through statistical measures such as mean/average, which indicate that majority of enterprises, were not happy with country\\'s administration in terms of support they receive. Whereas, there are noticeable indications that government\\'s assistance to small and medium enterprises is very necessary at every stage. Enterprises which have received assistance from their governments have proved to be successful in developing nations.

  11. System for Selection of Relevant Information for Decision Support

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kalina, Jan; Seidl, L.; Zvára, K.; Grünfeldová, H.; Slovák, Dalibor; Zvárová, Jana

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 1, č. 1 (2013), s. 46-46 ISSN 1805-8698. [EFMI 2013 Special Topic Conference. 17.04.2013-19.04.2013, Prague] Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : decision support system * web-service * information extraction * high-dimension * gene expressions Subject RIV: IN - Informatics, Computer Science

  12. Individual Ready Reserve: It's Relevance in Supporting the Long War

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chisholm, Shelley A

    2008-01-01

    ... in sustaining personnel readiness while supporting on going operations. In response to meeting these personnel readiness concerns, the Army Reserve will require the call-up of Soldiers currently serving in the IRR...

  13. Divisia and Simple Sum Monetary Aggregates: Any Empirical Relevance for Turkey?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polat Umurcan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In consideration of channels through which monetary policy affects economic activity, the monetary aggregates have been mostly ignored by the monetary authorities instead of which shortrun interest rates have been given a priori role. These monetary aggregates are largely argued to fail in measuring the effectiveness of different monetary policy regimes in forecasting the macroeconomic fundamentals. Grounded on the “Barnett critique”, the formation of traditional simple-sum monetary aggregates assuming for perfect substitution among the components of the money supply is blamed for such a failure of money in explaining the real activity. Given increasing varieties of financial assets which have completely different “moneyness”, it is important to provide an alternative measure of the money supply. Hereby, the Divisia monetary aggregates which give different weights to different assets have arisen as an alternative approach. In this study, a Divisia index is constructed to test its predictive power on quantities and prices compared to its simple sum counterpart. Accordingly, a Divisia index is built-up for Turkish economy for the period 2006-2016 to see whether the utilization of the Divisia monetary aggregates in the conduct of monetary policy makes any difference compared to that of traditional simple sum money supply. Under different specifications, though the relative power of the Divisia aggregates in predicting quantity and price variables is found, still, it can be argued that theoretically well-rounded formation of the Divisia index is not that much empirically justified for the case of Turkey.

  14. Performance support system in higher engineering education - introduction and empirical validation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoyanov, S.; Stoyanov, Slavi; Kommers, Petrus A.M.; Bastiaens, T.J.; Martinez Mediano, Catalina

    2008-01-01

    The paper defines and empirically validates the concept of performance support system in higher engineering education. The validation of the concept is based upon two studies: a pilot and an experiment, on the effect of performance support system on achievements and attitudes of students. The

  15. Neural systems supporting and affecting economically relevant behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Braeutigam S

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Sven BraeutigamOxford Centre for Human Brain Activity, University of Oxford, Oxford, United KingdomAbstract: For about a hundred years, theorists and traders alike have tried to unravel and understand the mechanisms and hidden rules underlying and perhaps determining economically relevant behavior. This review focuses on recent developments in neuroeconomics, where the emphasis is placed on two directions of research: first, research exploiting common experiences of urban inhabitants in industrialized societies to provide experimental paradigms with a broader real-life content; second, research based on behavioral genetics, which provides an additional dimension for experimental control and manipulation. In addition, possible limitations of state-of-the-art neuroeconomics research are addressed. It is argued that observations of neuronal systems involved in economic behavior converge to some extent across the technologies and paradigms used. Conceptually, the data available as of today raise the possibility that neuroeconomic research might provide evidence at the neuronal level for the existence of multiple systems of thought and for the importance of conflict. Methodologically, Bayesian approaches in particular may play an important role in identifying mechanisms and establishing causality between patterns of neural activity and economic behavior.Keywords: neuroeconomics, behavioral genetics, decision-making, consumer behavior, neural system

  16. Mindfulness Meditation Training for Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in Adulthood: Current Empirical Support, Treatment Overview, and Future Directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, John T.; Zylowska, Lidia; Kollins, Scott H.

    2015-01-01

    Research examining nonpharmacological interventions for adults diagnosed with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has expanded in recent years and provides patients with more treatment options. Mindfulness-based training is an example of an intervention that is gaining promising preliminary empirical support and is increasingly administered in clinical settings. The aim of this review is to provide a rationale for the application of mindfulness to individuals diagnosed with ADHD, describe the current state of the empirical basis for mindfulness training in ADHD, and summarize a treatment approach specific to adults diagnosed with ADHD: the Mindful Awareness Practices (MAPs) for ADHD Program. Two case study examples are provided to demonstrate relevant clinical issues for practitioners interested in this approach. Directions for future research, including mindfulness meditation as a standalone treatment and as a complementary approach to cognitive-behavioral therapy, are provided. PMID:25908900

  17. A Planetary Defense Gateway for Smart Discovery of relevant Information for Decision Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bambacus, Myra; Yang, Chaowei Phil; Leung, Ronald Y.; Barbee, Brent; Nuth, Joseph A.; Seery, Bernard; Jiang, Yongyao; Qin, Han; Li, Yun; Yu, Manzhu; hide

    2017-01-01

    A Planetary Defense Gateway for Smart Discovery of relevant Information for Decision Support presentation discussing background, framework architecture, current results, ongoing research, conclusions.

  18. Environmental restoration issues relevant to lands that support native populations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simon, S.L.

    1999-01-01

    Islands and other remote locations that support indigenous (native) populations require special considerations in the setting of criteria for maximum allowable radioactivity contamination of the environment. The criteria can differ from those applicable to Western continental urban settings because of particular attributes related to lifestyle or environment. Conventionally, guidelines for land cleanup are derived by using a pathway model and descriptions of conventional intake patterns to calculate backwards from an acceptable dose or risk. However, pathways of possible exposure differ in characteristics and relative importance for indigenous populations, and conventional exposure-assessment models need considerable revision for them. More primitive lifestyles usually imply a need for stricter standards. In contrast, somewhat higher risk might not produce any excess cancer incidence if the population is small enough, as is often the case for islanders or other indigenous populations. This paper discusses various factors peculiar to indigenous populations that require consideration when criteria for restoration of contaminated environments are being determined. (author)

  19. Aspectos relevantes dos SAD nas organizações: um estudo exploratório Relevant aspects from DSS in organizations: an empirical investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Zenaide Clericuzi

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available A informação vem auxiliando as organizações a alcançarem seus objetivos num ambiente de crescente concorrência, exigindo delas rapidez, flexibilidade e alta percepção. A abrangência cada vez maior do uso dos Sistemas de Apoio à Decisão (SAD como suporte na solução de problemas tem como proposta o processamento de informação para reduzir a incerteza e resolver conflitos. Este artigo tem como objetivo fazer uma investigação sobre os SAD nas organizações brasileiras. Para tal, foi conduzida uma pesquisa exploratória e descritiva, sobre o assunto, foram utilizados questionários que investigaram os SAD nas empresas brasileiras e aspectos relevantes destes sistemas.Information is supporting organizations to reach theirs objectives. Competition is increasing in organizational environment, requiring capability, flexibility and high perception. Decision Support Systems (DSS are becoming greater as a tool for solution of problems, processing information to reduce uncertain in decision problems and deciding conflicts. The objective of this paper is reports a study about DSS in organizations. For such an empirical investigation of literature in DSS and an empirical research were done. Questionnaires had been used to investigate the relevant aspects of SAD in the Brazilian companies.

  20. Using Mental Health Consultation to Decrease Disruptive Behaviors in Preschoolers: Adapting an Empirically-Supported Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williford, Amanda P.; Shelton, Terri L.

    2008-01-01

    Background: This study examined the effectiveness of an adaptation of an empirically-supported intervention delivered using mental health consultation to preschoolers who displayed elevated disruptive behaviors. Method: Ninety-six preschoolers, their teachers, and their primary caregivers participated. Children in the intervention group received…

  1. A Model of Therapist Competencies for the Empirically Supported Interpersonal Psychotherapy for Adolescent Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sburlati, Elizabeth S.; Lyneham, Heidi J.; Mufson, Laura H.; Schniering, Carolyn A.

    2012-01-01

    In order to treat adolescent depression, a number of empirically supported treatments (ESTs) have been developed from both the cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) and interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT-A) frameworks. Research has shown that in order for these treatments to be implemented in routine clinical practice (RCP), effective therapist…

  2. Identifying Empirically Supported Treatments for Pica in Individuals with Intellectual Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagopian, Louis P.; Rooker, Griffin W.; Rolider, Natalie U.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to critically examine the existing literature on the treatment of pica displayed by individuals with intellectual disabilities. Criteria for empirically supported treatments as described by Divisions 12 and 16 of APA, and adapted for studies employing single-case designs were used to review this body of…

  3. Empirically Supported Psychotherapy in Social Work Training Programs: Does the Definition of Evidence Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bledsoe, Sarah E.; Weissman, Myrna M.; Mullen, Edward J.; Ponniah, Kathryn; Gameroff, Marc J.; Verdeli, Helen; Mufson, Laura; Fitterling, Heidi; Wickramaratne, Priya

    2007-01-01

    Objectives: A national survey finds that 62% of social work programs do not require didactic and clinical supervision in any empirically supported psychotherapy (EST). The authors report the results of analysis of national survey data using two alternative classifications of EST to determine if the results are because of the definition of EST used…

  4. Attachment-based family therapy for depressed and suicidal adolescents: theory, clinical model and empirical support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewing, E Stephanie Krauthamer; Diamond, Guy; Levy, Suzanne

    2015-01-01

    Attachment-Based Family Therapy (ABFT) is a manualized family-based intervention designed for working with depressed adolescents, including those at risk for suicide, and their families. It is an empirically informed and supported treatment. ABFT has its theoretical underpinnings in attachment theory and clinical roots in structural family therapy and emotion focused therapies. ABFT relies on a transactional model that aims to transform the quality of adolescent-parent attachment, as a means of providing the adolescent with a more secure relationship that can support them during challenging times generally, and the crises related to suicidal thinking and behavior, specifically. This article reviews: (1) the theoretical foundations of ABFT (attachment theory, models of emotional development); (2) the ABFT clinical model, including training and supervision factors; and (3) empirical support.

  5. Linking customisation of ERP systems to support effort: an empirical study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Stefan; Mitteregger, Kurt

    2016-01-01

    The amount of customisation to an enterprise resource planning (ERP) system has always been a major concern in the context of the implementation. This article focuses on the phase of maintenance and presents an empirical study about the relationship between the amount of customising and the resulting support effort. We establish a structural equation modelling model that explains support effort using customisation effort, organisational characteristics and scope of implementation. The findings using data from an ERP provider show that there is a statistically significant effect: with an increasing amount of customisation, the quantity of telephone calls to support increases, as well as the duration of each call.

  6. Substance Abuse Counselors’ Recovery Status and Self-Schemas: Preliminary Implications for Empirically Supported Treatment Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielson, Elizabeth M.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to better understand the relationship between substance abuse counselors’ personal recovery status, self-schemas, and willingness to use empirically supported treatments for substance use disorders. Methods A phenomenological qualitative study enrolled 12 practicing substance abuse counselors. Results Within this sample, recovering counselors tended to see those who suffer from addiction as qualitatively different from those who do not and hence themselves as similar to their patients, while nonrecovering counselors tended to see patients as experiencing a specific variety of the same basic human struggles everyone experiences, and hence also felt able to relate to their patients’ struggles. Discussion Since empirically supported treatments may fit more or less neatly within one or the other of these viewpoints, this finding suggests that counselors’ recovery status and corresponding self-schemas may be related to counselor willingness to learn and practice specific treatments. PMID:28626597

  7. Substance Abuse Counselors' Recovery Status and Self-Schemas: Preliminary Implications for Empirically Supported Treatment Implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielson, Elizabeth M

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to better understand the relationship between substance abuse counselors' personal recovery status, self-schemas, and willingness to use empirically supported treatments for substance use disorders. A phenomenological qualitative study enrolled 12 practicing substance abuse counselors. Within this sample, recovering counselors tended to see those who suffer from addiction as qualitatively different from those who do not and hence themselves as similar to their patients, while nonrecovering counselors tended to see patients as experiencing a specific variety of the same basic human struggles everyone experiences, and hence also felt able to relate to their patients' struggles. Since empirically supported treatments may fit more or less neatly within one or the other of these viewpoints, this finding suggests that counselors' recovery status and corresponding self-schemas may be related to counselor willingness to learn and practice specific treatments.

  8. Review of the Empirical and Clinical Support for Group Therapy Specific to Sexual Abusers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, Jerry L; Deming, Adam

    2017-12-01

    This review compiles 48 empirical studies and 55 clinical/practice articles specific to group therapy with sex offenders. Historically, group therapy has always been the predominant modality in sex offender-specific treatment. In the first decades of the field, treatment applied a psychoanalytic methodology that, although not empirically supported, fully appreciated the primary therapeutic importance of the group modality. Conversely, since the early 1980s, treatment has applied a cognitive behavioral method, but the field has largely neglected the therapeutic value of interpersonal group dynamics. The past decade has seen a growing re-appreciation of general therapeutic processes and more holistic approaches in sex offender treatment, and there is an emerging body of empirical research which, although often indirectly concerned with group, has yielded three definitive conclusions. First, the therapeutic qualities of the group therapist-specifically warmth, empathy, encouragement, and guidance-can strongly affect outcomes. Second, the quality of group cohesion can profoundly affect the effectiveness of treatment. Third, confrontational approaches in group therapy are ineffective, if not counter-therapeutic, and overwhelmingly rated as not helpful by sex offenders themselves. Additional conclusions are less strongly supported, but include compelling evidence that sex offenders generally prefer group therapy over individual therapy, that group therapy appears equally effective to individual therapy, and that mixing or separating groups by offense type is not important to therapeutic climate. Other group techniques and approaches specific to sexual abuse treatment are also summarized.

  9. Marital Conflict and Support Seeking by Parents in Adolescence: Empirical Support for the Parentification Construct

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peris, Tara S.; Goeke-Morey, Marcie C.; Cummings, E. Mark; Emery, Robert E.

    2010-01-01

    Parentification, a parent–child dynamic wherein children come to provide ongoing emotional support for their parents, has been documented extensively in the clinical literature; however, it rarely has been studied systematically. Using a community sample of 83 couples and their adolescent children (mean age = 15.26 years; 52% male, 48% female), the authors linked adolescent self-report of parentification to specific youth and adult behaviors using multiple methods and examined its associations with youth adjustment problems. The parentification measure demonstrated strong internal consistency and 1-year stability. Parentification was associated with marital conflict, youth perceptions of threat, low warmth in the parent–child relationship, and the tendency for youths to intervene in marital conflict. Links were also found with youth reports of internalizing and externalizing behavior and poorer competency in close friendships. These findings thus support the parentification construct and provide evidence that parentification may contribute to poor youth outcomes by burdening children with developmentally inappropriate responsibilities. PMID:18729677

  10. Supporting pre-service science teachers in developing culturally relevant pedagogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krajeski, Stephen

    This study employed a case study methodology to investigate a near-authentic intervention program designed to support the development of culturally relevant pedagogy and its impact on pre-service science teachers' notions of culturally relevant pedagogy. The unit of analysis for this study was the discourse of pre-service science teachers enrolled in a second semester science methods course, which was the site of the intervention program. Data for this study was collected from videos of classroom observations, audio recordings of personal interviews, and artifacts created by the pre-service science teachers during the class. To determine how effective science teacher certification programs are at supporting the development of culturally relevant pedagogy without an immersion aspect, two research questions were investigated: 1) How do pre-service science teachers view and design pedagogy while participating in an intervention designed to support the development of culturally relevant pedagogy? 2) How do pre-service science teachers view the importance of culturally relevant pedagogy for supporting student learning? How do their practices in the field change these initial views?

  11. Moving empirically supported practices to addiction treatment programs: recruiting supervisors to help in technology transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amodeo, Maryann; Storti, Susan A; Larson, Mary Jo

    2010-05-01

    Federal and state funding agencies are encouraging or mandating the use of empirically supported treatments in addiction programs, yet many programs have not moved in this direction (Forman, Bovasso, and Woody, 2001 ; Roman and Johnson, 2002 ; Willenbring et al., 2004 ). To improve the skills of counselors in community addiction programs, the authors developed an innovative Web-based course on Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT), a widely accepted empirically-supported practice (ESP) for addiction. Federal funding supports this Web course and a randomized controlled trial to evaluate its effectiveness. Since supervisors often play a pivotal role in helping clinicians transfer learned skills from training courses to the workplace, the authors recruited supervisor-counselor teams, engaging 54 supervisors and 120 counselors. Lessons learned focus on supervisor recruitment and involvement, supervisors' perceptions of CBT, their own CBT skills and their roles in the study, and implications for technology transfer for the addiction field as a whole. Recruiting supervisors proved difficult because programs lacked clinical supervisors. Recruiting counselors was also difficult because programs were concerned about loss of third-party reimbursement. Across the addiction field, technology transfer will be severely hampered unless such infrastructure problems can be solved. Areas for further investigation are identified.

  12. Support Vector Regression Model Based on Empirical Mode Decomposition and Auto Regression for Electric Load Forecasting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-Juan Li

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Electric load forecasting is an important issue for a power utility, associated with the management of daily operations such as energy transfer scheduling, unit commitment, and load dispatch. Inspired by strong non-linear learning capability of support vector regression (SVR, this paper presents a SVR model hybridized with the empirical mode decomposition (EMD method and auto regression (AR for electric load forecasting. The electric load data of the New South Wales (Australia market are employed for comparing the forecasting performances of different forecasting models. The results confirm the validity of the idea that the proposed model can simultaneously provide forecasting with good accuracy and interpretability.

  13. Empirical approach for designing of support system in mechanized coal pillar mining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kushwaha, A.; Singh, S.K.; Tewari, S.; Sinha, A. [Central Institute of Mining & Fuel Research, Dhanbad (India)

    2010-10-15

    Mechanized room-and-pillar system of coal pillar mining using side dump loading machine or load haul dumper machine, or by continuous miner, is the presently most dominant under ground method of extraction in India. Under this method of extraction, strata control is a major problem affecting safety and productivity of the mine. As per existing Director General of Mine Safety guidelines, systematic support rules must be followed at the depillaring faces irrespective of immediate roof rock type and competency. Therefore, there is a high chance that sometimes these systematic support rules give unnecessarily high support, or sometimes inadequate support, which may lead to roof failure at the face. As a result, there is a big loss of life and material including coal in terms of left-outribs/stooks and other associated mining equipment deployed at the faces. Therefore, in the present paper, authors attempted to develop generalized empirical equations for estimating the required support load density at different places of the face based on geotechnical parameters of the mine and physico-mechanical properties of the immediate roof rocks for designing of support system during mechanized coal pillar mining.

  14. An Evaluation of the Relative Efficiency for Various Relevant Labor Markets: An Empirical Approach for Establishing Teacher Salaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, I. Phillip; Delli, Dane A.; Miller-Smith, Kimberly; Buster, Amy

    2004-01-01

    Costs associated with teacher salaries are relative in that these costs are referenced to a relevant labor market rather than based on the absolute value of the services provided by teachers. Because the selection of a relevant labor market can substantially influence the costs associated with teacher salaries, a field study was conducted to…

  15. The role of information in supporting self-care in vascular conditions: a conceptual and empirical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blickem, Christian; Bower, Peter; Protheroe, Joanne; Kennedy, Anne; Vassilev, Ivaylo; Sanders, Caroline; Kirk, Sue; Chew-Graham, Carolyn; Rogers, Anne

    2011-09-01

    Self-care has the potential to make a significant contribution to vascular conditions, but engagement with self-care support has been limited. Lack of relevant information is highlighted by patients and policy-makers as an important barrier to effective self-care, and information provides a potentially efficient platform for changing behaviour. However, work within the social sciences has generally seen information as a necessary but insufficient driver of health behaviours. Furthermore, some groups (such as the socially disadvantaged) are expected to be less amenable to information interventions. We conducted an integrated conceptual and empirical review on information-based interventions for people with vascular disease (diabetes, heart disease and kidney disease). We reviewed conceptual and empirical work concerning the role and impact of information in self-care support to generate an explanatory framework to determine why information was effective or ineffective in encouraging self-care in patients with vascular conditions. This involved mapping relevant theories and models linking information and self-care. We also explored published systematic reviews of educational interventions in diabetes, coronary heart disease and chronic kidney disease to examine the role of information and evidence concerning its effectiveness and impact in different patient populations. The conceptual review identified variation among information interventions in terms of type, function, and their relationship to behaviour change techniques and psychological mediators of behaviour change. Key moderators of the effect of information included types of disorder, and patient capacity and resources. A wealth of educational interventions exists for diabetes and heart conditions, but the precise components of these interventions that are effective are difficult to identify. There is little evidence concerning optimal ways of tailoring interventions for socially disadvantaged groups other

  16. A Novel Empirical Mode Decomposition With Support Vector Regression for Wind Speed Forecasting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Ye; Suganthan, Ponnuthurai Nagaratnam; Srikanth, Narasimalu

    2016-08-01

    Wind energy is a clean and an abundant renewable energy source. Accurate wind speed forecasting is essential for power dispatch planning, unit commitment decision, maintenance scheduling, and regulation. However, wind is intermittent and wind speed is difficult to predict. This brief proposes a novel wind speed forecasting method by integrating empirical mode decomposition (EMD) and support vector regression (SVR) methods. The EMD is used to decompose the wind speed time series into several intrinsic mode functions (IMFs) and a residue. Subsequently, a vector combining one historical data from each IMF and the residue is generated to train the SVR. The proposed EMD-SVR model is evaluated with a wind speed data set. The proposed EMD-SVR model outperforms several recently reported methods with respect to accuracy or computational complexity.

  17. Assessment of Preschool Early Literacy Skills: Linking Children's Educational Needs with Empirically Supported Instructional Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lonigan, Christopher J; Allan, Nicholas P; Lerner, Matthew D

    2011-05-01

    The importance of the preschool period for becoming a skilled reader is highlighted by a significant body of evidence that preschool children's development in the areas of oral language, phonological awareness, and print knowledge is predictive of how well they will learn to read once they are exposed to formal reading instruction in elementary school. Although there are now a number of empirically supported instructional activities for helping children who are at -risk of later reading difficulties acquire these early literacy skills, limitations in instructional time and opportunities in most preschool settings requires the use of valid assessment procedures to ensure that instructional resources are utilized efficiently. In this paper, we discuss the degree to which informal, diagnostic, screening, and progress-monitoring assessments of preschool early literacy skills can inform instructional decisions by considering the strengths and weaknesses of each approach to assessment.

  18. Is Openness to Using Empirically Supported Treatments Related to Organizational Culture and Climate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson Silver Wolf Adelv Unegv Waya, David A; Dulmus, Catherine N; Maguin, Eugene

    2013-01-01

    The overall purpose of this study is to investigate workers' openness towards implementing a new empirically supported treatment (EST) and whether the workers' openness scores relate to their workplace culture and climate scores. Participants in this study (N=1273) worked in a total of 55 different programs in a large child and family services organization and completed a survey measuring their attitudes toward ESTs. Results indicate that work groups that measure themselves as being more open to using ESTs rated their organizational cultures as being significantly more proficient and significantly less resistant to change. With ESTs becoming the gold standard for professional social work practices, it is important to have accessible pathways to EST implementation.

  19. Empirically Supported Treatment’s Impact on Organizational Culture and Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson-Silver Wolf, David A.; Dulmus, Catherine N.; Maguin, Eugene

    2012-01-01

    Objectives With the continued push to implement empirically supported treatments (ESTs) into community-based organizations, it is important to investigate whether working condition disruptions occur during this process. While there are many studies investigating best practices and how to adopt them, the literature lacks studies investigating the working conditions in programs that currently use ESTs. Method This study compared the culture and climate scores of a large organization’s programs that use ESTs and those programs indicating no EST usage. Results Of the total 55 different programs (1,273 frontline workers), 27 programs used ESTs. Results indicate that the programs offering an EST had significantly more rigid and resistant cultures, compared to those without any ESTs. In regard to climate, programs offering an EST were significantly less engaged, less functional, and more stressed. Conclusion Outcomes indicate a significant disruption in organizational culture and climate for programs offering ESTs. PMID:23243379

  20. Teaching earth science in the field: GPS-based educational trails as a practically relevant, empirical verified approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kisser, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    GPS devices are common use in the daily life and are used in geography classes increasingly often. Presently, specialist literature is merely descriptive and thematically reduced to the function of orientation. The questions whether they are an applicable tool for teaching earth science circumstances and if the lasting learning success shows any differences compared to normal lessons hold in a class room haven't been answered. Neurobiological and teaching psychological knowledge support the idea that students completing the GPS-based educational trail will learn more successful compared to students in a "normal" class: A successful contextualization of modern geomedia stimulates the motivation. Geocaches are also suitable for didactical structuration. The order of "Geopoints" is chosen in a way that the structure of the landscape is being displayed adequate. The students feel addressed affectively due to the real-life encounters and experience their environment consciously. The presented concept "GPS-based educational trail" is different from a normal geocache, which is merely a hide-and-seek-game. Here, the main focus lays on the field work and earth science. The GPS-decvices are used for the orientation between the Geopoints. In order to get two groups with characteristics as different as possible, due to their developmental psychology, age-related education of cognitive and methodical competence, classes from grade 5 (11 years old) and 11 (17 years old) have been chosen. The different cognitive states of development require different didactical approaches. For the 11 grade the topic "rearrangements of fluvial topography" is a possible one. Using the example of anthropogenic rearrangements of the Rheinaue wetlands near Karlsruhe the interdependency between human and environment can be shown. The "Nördlinger Ries" between the Swabian and the Franconian Jura has been chosen for grade 5. The typical elements of the Swabian Jura (karst formation, hydrogeology

  1. Empirical Models of Demand for Out-Patient Physician Services and Their Relevance to the Assessment of Patient Payment Policies: A Critical Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Skriabikova

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the existing empirical micro-level models of demand for out-patient physician services where the size of patient payment is included either directly as an independent variable (when a flat-rate co-payment fee or indirectly as a level of deductibles and/or co-insurance defined by the insurance coverage. The paper also discusses the relevance of these models for the assessment of patient payment policies. For this purpose, a systematic literature review is carried out. In total, 46 relevant publications were identified. These publications are classified into categories based on their general approach to demand modeling, specifications of data collection, data analysis, and main empirical findings. The analysis indicates a rising research interest in the empirical micro-level models of demand for out-patient physician services that incorporate the size of patient payment. Overall, the size of patient payments, consumer socio-economic and demographic features, and quality of services provided emerge as important determinants of demand for out-patient physician services. However, there is a great variety in the modeling approaches and inconsistencies in the findings regarding the impact of price on demand for out-patient physician services. Hitherto, the empirical research fails to offer policy-makers a clear strategy on how to develop a country-specific model of demand for out-patient physician services suitable for the assessment of patient payment policies in their countries. In particular, theoretically important factors, such as provider behavior, consumer attitudes, experience and culture, and informal patient payments, are not considered. Although we recognize that it is difficult to measure these factors and to incorporate them in the demand models, it is apparent that there is a gap in research for the construction of effective patient payment schemes.

  2. Empirical models of demand for out-patient physician services and their relevance to the assessment of patient payment policies: a critical review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skriabikova, Olga; Pavlova, Milena; Groot, Wim

    2010-06-01

    This paper reviews the existing empirical micro-level models of demand for out-patient physician services where the size of patient payment is included either directly as an independent variable (when a flat-rate co-payment fee) or indirectly as a level of deductibles and/or co-insurance defined by the insurance coverage. The paper also discusses the relevance of these models for the assessment of patient payment policies. For this purpose, a systematic literature review is carried out. In total, 46 relevant publications were identified. These publications are classified into categories based on their general approach to demand modeling, specifications of data collection, data analysis, and main empirical findings. The analysis indicates a rising research interest in the empirical micro-level models of demand for out-patient physician services that incorporate the size of patient payment. Overall, the size of patient payments, consumer socio-economic and demographic features, and quality of services provided emerge as important determinants of demand for out-patient physician services. However, there is a great variety in the modeling approaches and inconsistencies in the findings regarding the impact of price on demand for out-patient physician services. Hitherto, the empirical research fails to offer policy-makers a clear strategy on how to develop a country-specific model of demand for out-patient physician services suitable for the assessment of patient payment policies in their countries. In particular, theoretically important factors, such as provider behavior, consumer attitudes, experience and culture, and informal patient payments, are not considered. Although we recognize that it is difficult to measure these factors and to incorporate them in the demand models, it is apparent that there is a gap in research for the construction of effective patient payment schemes.

  3. Semi-empirical Algorithm for the Retrieval of Ecology-Relevant Water Constituents in Various Aquatic Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Shuchman

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available An advanced operational semi-empirical algorithm for processing satellite remote sensing data in the visible region is described. Based on the Levenberg-Marquardt multivariate optimization procedure, the algorithm is developed for retrieving major water colour producing agents: chlorophyll-a, suspended minerals and dissolved organics. Two assurance units incorporated by the algorithm are intended to flag pixels with inaccurate atmospheric correction and specific hydro-optical properties not covered by the applied hydro-optical model. The hydro-optical model is a set of spectral cross-sections of absorption and backscattering of the colour producing agents. The combination of the optimization procedure and a replaceable hydro-optical model makes the developed algorithm not specific to a particular satellite sensor or a water body. The algorithm performance efficiency is amply illustrated for SeaWiFS, MODIS and MERIS images over a variety of water bodies.

  4. Proactive Support of Internet Browsing when Searching for Relevant Health Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rurik, Clas; Zowalla, Richard; Wiesner, Martin; Pfeifer, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Many people use the Internet as one of the primary sources of health information. This is due to the high volume and easy access of freely available information regarding diseases, diagnoses and treatments. However, users may find it difficult to retrieve information which is easily understandable and does not require a deep medical background. In this paper, we present a new kind of Web browser add-on, in order to proactively support users when searching for relevant health information. Our add-on not only visualizes the understandability of displayed medical text but also provides further recommendations of Web pages which hold similar content but are potentially easier to comprehend.

  5. Going Global: A Model for Evaluating Empirically Supported Family-Based Interventions in New Contexts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundell, Knut; Ferrer-Wreder, Laura; Fraser, Mark W

    2014-06-01

    The spread of evidence-based practice throughout the world has resulted in the wide adoption of empirically supported interventions (ESIs) and a growing number of controlled trials of imported and culturally adapted ESIs. This article is informed by outcome research on family-based interventions including programs listed in the American Blueprints Model and Promising Programs. Evidence from these controlled trials is mixed and, because it is comprised of both successful and unsuccessful replications of ESIs, it provides clues for the translation of promising programs in the future. At least four explanations appear plausible for the mixed results in replication trials. One has to do with methodological differences across trials. A second deals with ambiguities in the cultural adaptation process. A third explanation is that ESIs in failed replications have not been adequately implemented. A fourth source of variation derives from unanticipated contextual influences that might affect the effects of ESIs when transported to other cultures and countries. This article describes a model that allows for the differential examination of adaptations of interventions in new cultural contexts. © The Author(s) 2012.

  6. Cognitive Behaviour Therapy in Schools: The Role of Educational Psychology in the Dissemination of Empirically Supported Interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugh, John

    2010-01-01

    Educational psychology has recently experienced something of a revival in the provision of psychological therapy. This revival has aligned with general developments in evidence-based psychology. A product of this has been more frequent delivery of empirically supported therapies in practice settings, for example, anxiety reduction programmes in…

  7. Use of Evidence-Based Practice Resources and Empirically Supported Treatments for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder among University Counseling Center Psychologists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juel, Morgen Joray

    2012-01-01

    In the present study, an attempt was made to determine the degree to which psychologists at college and university counseling centers (UCCs) utilized empirically supported treatments with their posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) clients. In addition, an attempt was made to determine how frequently UCC psychologists utilized a number of…

  8. A Model of Therapist Competencies for the Empirically Supported Cognitive Behavioral Treatment of Child and Adolescent Anxiety and Depressive Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sburlati, Elizabeth S.; Schniering, Carolyn A.; Lyneham, Heidi J.; Rapee, Ronald M.

    2011-01-01

    While a plethora of cognitive behavioral empirically supported treatments (ESTs) are available for treating child and adolescent anxiety and depressive disorders, research has shown that these are not as effective when implemented in routine practice settings. Research is now indicating that is partly due to ineffective EST training methods,…

  9. A review of empirically supported psychological therapies for mood disorders in adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollon, Steven D.; Ponniah, Kathryn

    2010-01-01

    Background The mood disorders are prevalent and problematic. We review randomized controlled psychotherapy trials to find those that are empirically supported with respect to acute symptom reduction and the prevention of subsequent relapse and recurrence. Methods We searched the PsycINFO and PubMed databases and the reference sections of chapters and journal articles to identify appropriate articles. Results One hundred twenty-five studies were found evaluating treatment efficacy for the various mood disorders. With respect to the treatment of major depressive disorder (MDD), interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT), cognitive behavior therapy (CBT), and behavior therapy (BT) are efficacious and specific and brief dynamic therapy (BDT) and emotion-focused therapy (EFT) are possibly efficacious. CBT is efficacious and specific, mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT) efficacious, and BDT and EFT possibly efficacious in the prevention of relapse/recurrence following treatment termination and IPT and CBT are each possibly efficacious in the prevention of relapse/recurrence if continued or maintained. IPT is possibly efficacious in the treatment of dysthymic disorder. With respect to bipolar disorder, CBT and family-focused therapy (FFT) are efficacious and interpersonal social rhythm therapy (IPSRT) possibly efficacious as adjuncts to medication in the treatment of depression. Psycho-education (PE) is efficacious in the prevention of mania/hypomania (and possibly depression) and FFT is efficacious and IPSRT and CBT possibly efficacious in preventing bipolar episodes. Conclusions The newer psychological interventions are as efficacious as and more enduring than medications in the treatment of MDD and may enhance the efficacy of medications in the treatment of bipolar disorder. PMID:20830696

  10. Support of local entrepreneurship: An empirical investigation for Serres-Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balomenou Chrysanthi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is divided into two parts, one theoretical and one empirical. The research deals with entrepreneurs that received loans from National Fund for Entrepreneurship and Development (ETEAN in Greek language. ETEAN provided enterprises with non interest or low interest loans based on state guarantees. The main objective of this research is to examine the project\\'s effectiveness and its contribution into local development on Regional Unity of Serres, Central Macedonia, Greece. The first part is divided into two sections. A comparative analysis of guarantees to small and medium enterprises (SME’s is presented in the first part referring to the European Union and in the second part to Greece. Particularly, in the first section of our paper presented data concerning guarantees provided in the EU. At the second section presented data which indicate the role of ETEAN’s programs into the contribution of local development in Greece and the moral hazards due to state provided guarantees. Furthermore, obstacles that entrepreneurs face when they applied for guarantee loans are analyzed in this part. Our data were extracted during the last three years by the extensive use of web links on the internet. Most data were taken from the websites of above mentioned ETEAN, the Pan-European Gateway to Business and Innovation Financing, the Gateway to European Research and Development and B.I.S. At the second part presented the results of our research based on 200 entrepreneurs in Serres who receive loans from ETEAN. The results analyzed with the use of descriptive statistical methods and correlations. It is noticeable that businessmen’s answers are similar to those deduced from the results of the researches that have been referred to in bibliography. In the final part of this paper the main conclusion is pointed out and that is that those programs which provide enterprises low interest or non interest loans support local development.

  11. Training addiction professionals in empirically supported treatments: perspectives from the treatment community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartzler, Bryan; Rabun, Carl

    2014-01-01

    Large-scale dissemination efforts seek to expand opportunities for the addiction treatment community to receive training in empirically supported treatments (ESTs). Prospective consumers of such training are valuable sources of input about content of interest, preferences for how training events are structured, and obstacles that deter receipt of training. In this mixed-method study, data were collected in 64 semistructured individual interviews with personnel during site visits to 16 community opioid treatment programs (OTPs). At each OTP, interviews were completed with the executive director, a clinical supervisor, and 2 direct-service clinicians. Topical interests were analyzed qualitatively in a cultural domain analysis. Likert ratings of training event preferences were analyzed via generalized linear mixed models (GLMMs), and unstructured interviewee comments were analyzed via narrative analysis. Obstacles to training receipt were analyzed qualitatively with both content coding and narrative analysis. Based on topics of reported interest, cultural domain analysis suggests as ESTs of note: Multidimensional Family Therapy, Motivational Enhancement Therapy, Relapse Prevention Therapy, "Seeking Safety," and broad addiction-focused pharmacotherapy. Regarding training event preferences, GLMMs and narrative analysis revealed clear preferences for time-distributed trainings and use of participatory activities (e.g., trainer demonstrations, role plays, small group exercises). Content coding identified cost as the primary obstacle to receipt of EST trainings, followed by lack of time, logistical challenges, and disinterest, and narrative analysis elaborated on contextual issues underlying these obstacles. As primary consumers of EST technologies, the treatment community has valuable input to offer. Dissemination efforts may be enhanced by greater consideration of their preferences for training content and event structure, as well as practical obstacles that challenge

  12. Filtered selection coupled with support vector machines generate a functionally relevant prediction model for colorectal cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabere MN

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Musa Nur Gabere,1 Mohamed Aly Hussein,1 Mohammad Azhar Aziz2 1Department of Bioinformatics, King Abdullah International Medical Research Center/King Saud bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 2Colorectal Cancer Research Program, Department of Medical Genomics, King Abdullah International Medical Research Center, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia Purpose: There has been considerable interest in using whole-genome expression profiles for the classification of colorectal cancer (CRC. The selection of important features is a crucial step before training a classifier.Methods: In this study, we built a model that uses support vector machine (SVM to classify cancer and normal samples using Affymetrix exon microarray data obtained from 90 samples of 48 patients diagnosed with CRC. From the 22,011 genes, we selected the 20, 30, 50, 100, 200, 300, and 500 genes most relevant to CRC using the minimum-redundancy–maximum-relevance (mRMR technique. With these gene sets, an SVM model was designed using four different kernel types (linear, polynomial, radial basis function [RBF], and sigmoid.Results: The best model, which used 30 genes and RBF kernel, outperformed other combinations; it had an accuracy of 84% for both ten fold and leave-one-out cross validations in discriminating the cancer samples from the normal samples. With this 30 genes set from mRMR, six classifiers were trained using random forest (RF, Bayes net (BN, multilayer perceptron (MLP, naïve Bayes (NB, reduced error pruning tree (REPT, and SVM. Two hybrids, mRMR + SVM and mRMR + BN, were the best models when tested on other datasets, and they achieved a prediction accuracy of 95.27% and 91.99%, respectively, compared to other mRMR hybrid models (mRMR + RF, mRMR + NB, mRMR + REPT, and mRMR + MLP. Ingenuity pathway analysis was used to analyze the functions of the 30 genes selected for this model and their potential association with CRC: CDH3, CEACAM7, CLDN1, IL8, IL6R, MMP1

  13. Towards Measures to Establish the Relevance of Climate Model Output for Decision Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, L.; Smith, L. A.

    2007-12-01

    How exactly can decision-support and policy making benefit from the use of multiple climate model experiments in terms of coping with the uncertainties on climate change projections? Climate modelling faces challenges beyond those of weather forecasting or even seasonal forecasting, as with climate we are now (and will probably always be) required to extrapolate to regimes in which we have no relevant forecast-verification archive. This suggests a very different approach from traditional methods of mixing models and skill based weighting to gain profitable probabilistic information when a large forecast-verification archive is in hand. In the case of climate, it may prove more rational to search for agreement between our models (in distribution), the aim being to determine the space and timescales on which, given our current understanding, the details of the simulation models are unimportant. This suggestion and others from Smith (2002, Proc. National Acad. Sci. USA 4 (99): 2487-2492) are interpreted in the light of recent advances. Climate models are large nonlinear dynamical systems which insightfully but imperfectly reflect the evolving weather patterns of the Earth. Their use in policy making and decision support assumes both that they contain sufficient information regarding reality to inform the decision, and that this information can be effectively communicated to the decision makers. There is nothing unique about climate modeling and these constraints, they apply in all cases where scientific modeling is applied to real-word actions (other than, perhaps, the action of improving our models). Starting with the issue of communication, figures from the 2007 IPCC Summary for Policy Makers will be constructively criticized from the perspective of decision makers, specifically those of the energy sector and the insurance/reinsurance sector. More information on basic questions of reliability and robustness would be of significant value when determining how heavily

  14. Tunnel support design by comparison of empirical and finite element analysis of the Nahakki tunnel in mohmand agency, pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riaz Asif

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyses the geological conditions of study area, rock mass strength parameters with suitable support structure propositions for the under construction Nahakki tunnel in Mohmand Agency. Geology of study area varies from mica schist to graphitic marble/phyllite to schist. The tunnel ground is classified and divided by the empisical classification systems like Rock mass rating (RMR, Q system (Q, and Geological strength index (GSI. Tunnel support measures are selected based on RMR and Q classification systems. Computer based finite element analysis (FEM has given yet another dimension to design approach. FEM software Phase2 version 7.017 is used to calculate and compare deformations and stress concentrations around the tunnel, analyze interaction of support systems with excavated rock masses and verify and check the validity of empirically determined excavation and support systems.

  15. Empirical methods for the estimation of Southern Ocean CO2: support vector and random forest regression

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Gregor, Luke

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available understanding with spatially integrated air–sea flux estimates (Fay and McKinley, 2014). Conversely, ocean biogeochemical process models are good tools for mechanis- tic understanding, but fail to represent the seasonality of CO2 fluxes in the Southern Ocean... of including coordinate variables as proxies of 1pCO2 in the empirical methods. In the inter- comparison study by Rödenbeck et al. (2015) proxies typi- cally include, but are not limited to, sea surface temperature (SST), chlorophyll a (Chl a), mixed layer...

  16. An empirical study of preferred settings for lumbar support on adjustable office chairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, N; Hull, B P; Ellitt, G

    1998-04-01

    The preferred settings for lumbar support height and depth of 43 male and 80 female office workers were investigated. All subjects were equipped with identical modern office chairs with foam-padded backrests adjustable in both height and depth. Measurements of lumbar support settings were recorded in the workplace, outside of working hours, on four different occasions, over a 5 week period. Preferred lumbar support height and depth settings extended to both extremes of the adjustment range. The mean preferred height setting was 190 mm above the compressed seat surface. The mean depth setting (horizontal distance from front of seat to lumbar support point) was 387 mm. A regression model examining the effects of standing height, Body Mass Index (BMI) and gender on mean preferred lumbar support height showed a significant relationship between preferred height and BMI. Higher lumbar supports were chosen by subjects with greater BMIs. Gender and standing height were not associated with preferred lumbar support height settings. Preferred lumbar support depth was not significantly associated with standing height, gender or BMI. Older subjects were more likely to readjust their lumbar support from a disrupted position than younger subjects, indicating that older users are more sensitive to the position of their lumbar support. Subjects who reported recent back pain or discomfort that they believed to be associated with their chair or office work were found to set their lumbar support significantly closer to the front of the seat, probably to ensure greater support for their back. Based on the evidence that a high proportion of users do make adjustments to the height and depth of their lumbar support, and the finding that different groups of users, with different physical characteristics, adjust the position of their lumbar support in distinct and predictable ways, the researchers conclude that office chairs with traditional padded fixed-height lumbar supports are unlikely

  17. Empirical evaluation of decision support systems: Needs, definitions, potential methods, and an example pertaining to waterfowl management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sojda, R.S.

    2007-01-01

    Decision support systems are often not empirically evaluated, especially the underlying modelling components. This can be attributed to such systems necessarily being designed to handle complex and poorly structured problems and decision making. Nonetheless, evaluation is critical and should be focused on empirical testing whenever possible. Verification and validation, in combination, comprise such evaluation. Verification is ensuring that the system is internally complete, coherent, and logical from a modelling and programming perspective. Validation is examining whether the system is realistic and useful to the user or decision maker, and should answer the question: “Was the system successful at addressing its intended purpose?” A rich literature exists on verification and validation of expert systems and other artificial intelligence methods; however, no single evaluation methodology has emerged as preeminent. At least five approaches to validation are feasible. First, under some conditions, decision support system performance can be tested against a preselected gold standard. Second, real-time and historic data sets can be used for comparison with simulated output. Third, panels of experts can be judiciously used, but often are not an option in some ecological domains. Fourth, sensitivity analysis of system outputs in relation to inputs can be informative. Fifth, when validation of a complete system is impossible, examining major components can be substituted, recognizing the potential pitfalls. I provide an example of evaluation of a decision support system for trumpeter swan (Cygnus buccinator) management that I developed using interacting intelligent agents, expert systems, and a queuing system. Predicted swan distributions over a 13-year period were assessed against observed numbers. Population survey numbers and banding (ringing) studies may provide long term data useful in empirical evaluation of decision support.

  18. PROMOTING RURAL DESTINATION BUCOVINA VIA FACEBOOK. AN EMPIRICAL IDENTIFICATION OF SUPPORTING ONLINE MARKETING INITIATIVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel STANCIU

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The villages of Bucovina possess a particular charm, mainly through the orthodox churches with heritage value, the deep spiritual character sent both to local communities and tourists, the architecture based on wood handicraft, the manner in which traditions, local customs and crafts are still preserved, the multicultural character, and, not least, the outstanding hospitality of the hosts.Continuous improvement of performance in rural tourism refers to an integrated approach of specific elements in the destination Bucovina, online marketing becoming more present in everyday practice of small entrepreneurs in local tourism. From an empirical point of view, promotion of rural tourism on Facebook and YouTube represents an easy initiative accessible to the general public, which has the ability to create the foundation of a competitive tourism.

  19. An empirical analysis of the impact of family moral support on Turkish women entrepreneurs

    OpenAIRE

    Welsh, Dianne H.B.; Memili, Esra; Kaciak, Eugene

    2016-01-01

    It is well documented that women entrepreneurs add exponential growth to the economic well-being of countries. The impact of family moral support on Turkish women entrepreneurs’ is examined including major challenges (i.e. personal problems and recognition of poor managerial skills and knowledge) and advantages (i.e. perceptions of helpfulness of education and work experience). Our findings show that family moral support can have both positive and negative impact on Turkish women entrepreneur...

  20. A Hybrid Model of Mathematics Support for Science Students Emphasizing Basic Skills and Discipline Relevance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Deborah C.; Johnson, Elizabeth D.

    2013-01-01

    The problem of students entering university lacking basic mathematical skills is a critical issue in the Australian higher-education sector and relevant globally. The Maths Skills programme at La Trobe University has been developed to address under preparation in the first-year science cohort in the absence of an institutional mathematics support…

  1. Executive Support of Information Technology and Information Systems in Australian Hospitals: an empirical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graeme Rose

    1997-11-01

    Full Text Available Little is known regarding the form executive support should take for the progressive use of information technology and information systems [FT] within organisations. This study applies the theory developed by Jarvenpaa and Ives (1991 who examined two forms of support provided by chief executive officers. These were executive participation, a set of IT-related activities, and executive involvement, a psychological state reflecting the importance of IT for the organisation's success. Our research, using data obtained from a questionnaire mailed to a sample of Australian hospitals, measures the relationships between these two forms of support and the progressive use of IT. Our statistical analysis supports the findings of Jarvenpaa and Ives (1991, who found a stronger relationship between executive involvement and the progressive use of IT. Using Australian hospitals allowed Jarvenpaa and Ives' (1991 theory to be applied in a different environment, increasing its external validity. Firm size was also found to have a positive relationship with the progressive use of IT independent of the two forms of executive support.

  2. How task characteristics and social support relate to managerial learning: empirical evidence from Dutch home care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouweneel, A P Else; Taris, Toon W; Van Zolingen, Simone J; Schreurs, Paul J G

    2009-01-01

    Researchers have revealed that managers profit most from informal and on-the-job learning. Moreover, research has shown that task characteristics and social support affect informal learning. On the basis of these insights, the authors examined the effects of task characteristics (psychological job demands, job control) and social support from the supervisor and colleagues on informal on-the-job learning among 1588 managers in the Dutch home-care sector. A regression analysis revealed that high demands, high control, and high colleague and supervisor support were each associated with high levels of informal learning. The authors found no evidence for statistical interactions among the effects of these concepts. They concluded that to promote managers' informal workplace learning, employers should especially increase job control.

  3. Use of empirically supported interventions for psychopathology: can the participatory approach move us beyond the research-to-practice gap?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Carolyn Black; Stice, Eric; Shaw, Heather; Woda, Susan

    2009-04-01

    Dissemination, or distribution, of empirically supported interventions (ESIs) for psychopathology remains a significant challenge. This paper reviews the principles of community-partnership research (CPR) and explores why CPR might improve distribution of psychological ESIs. Benefits of CPR include building trust, pooling resources and knowledge, and better serving a community by directly involving its members in the design and implementation of research. In addition, after establishing a community's trust using CPR, researchers are likely to be better positioned to partner with communities in the further distribution of ESIs via community networks. This paper reviews the case of dissonance-based eating disorder prevention interventions to provide an example of how CPR can facilitate the adoption and distribution of an ESI by a community, in this case, sororities. CPR also presents a number of challenges, however, because it is time consuming and does not always align with funding mechanisms and research designs used in randomized controlled trials. Further, CPR does not necessarily solve the challenge of training providers, though it may help with problem solving. Ultimately, we suggest that the benefits of CPR far outweigh the challenges, and hope that more researchers will adopt these practices so that more individuals can benefit from empirically supported psychological interventions.

  4. An empirical analysis of the impact of family moral support on Turkish women entrepreneurs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dianne H.B. Welsh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available It is well documented that women entrepreneurs add exponential growth to the economic well-being of countries. The impact of family moral support on Turkish women entrepreneurs’ is examined including major challenges (i.e. personal problems and recognition of poor managerial skills and knowledge and advantages (i.e. perceptions of helpfulness of education and work experience. Our findings show that family moral support can have both positive and negative impact on Turkish women entrepreneurs. Implications and future research are discussed.

  5. An analysis of functional communication training as an empirically supported treatment for problem behavior displayed by individuals with intellectual disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtz, Patricia F; Boelter, Eric W; Jarmolowicz, David P; Chin, Michelle D; Hagopian, Louis P

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the literature on the use of functional communication training (FCT) as a treatment for problem behavior displayed by individuals with intellectual disabilities (ID). Criteria for empirically supported treatments developed by Divisions 12 and 16 of the American Psychological Association (Kratochwill & Stoiber, 2002; Task Force, 1995) and adapted by Jennett and Hagopian (2008) for evaluation of single-case research studies were used to examine the support for FCT. Results indicated that FCT far exceeds criteria to be designated as a well-established treatment for problem behavior exhibited by children with ID and children with autism spectrum disorder, and can be characterized as probably efficacious with adults. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. An Empirical Evaluation of an Activity-Based Infrastructure for Supporting Cooperation in Software Engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tell, Paolo; Babar, Muhammad Ali

    2016-01-01

    Software engineering (SE) is predominantly a team effort that needs close cooperation among several people who may be geographically distributed. It has been recognized that appropriate tool support is a prerequisite to improve cooperation within SE teams. In an effort to contribute to this line...

  7. Conditional Election and Partisan Cycles in Government Support to the Agricultural Sector: An Empirical Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klomp, J.G.; Haan, de J.

    2013-01-01

    We examine the effect of elections and government ideology on public funding to the agricultural sector using a panel model for more than 70 democratic countries from 1975-2009.We find that support for agriculture increases prior to elections, and that right-wing governments redistribute more income

  8. Relationship between perceived organizational support, leadership behavior, and job satisfaction: An empirical study in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zainal Ariffin Ahmad

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available As the second largest producer of cement after Egypt in the Middle East, Iran planned to increase production from 33 million ton/yr (Mt/yr currently to 70 Mt/yr by 2021 due to increase in local demand and also to compete in export markets (Dehqan, 2002. Thus, Iran is experiencing some changes in workforce participation in order to achieve high level of organisational performance and effectiveness. The objective of this study is to determine the impact of leadership behavior and perceived organisational support on the job satisfaction of Iranian employees. Data were collected through questionnaire from 136 employees working in Tehran Cement Company. Consideration leadership behavior was found to have significant impact on both intrinsic and extrinsic job satisfaction whereas perceived organisational support was significantly related to extrinsic job satisfaction. Interestingly, the interaction of leadership behavior and perceived organisational support were not significantly related to job satisfaction. The implications to human resource development for organizations that want to increase employee commitment is to focus on improving the quality of the supportive relationships between the employees and both the leader and the organisation.

  9. An empirical comparison of different approaches for combining multimodal neuroimaging data with support vector machine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pettersson-Yeo, W.; Benetti, S.; Marquand, A.F.; Joules, R.; Catani, M.; Williams, S.C.; Allen, P.; McGuire, P.; Mechelli, A.

    2014-01-01

    In the pursuit of clinical utility, neuroimaging researchers of psychiatric and neurological illness are increasingly using analyses, such as support vector machine, that allow inference at the single-subject level. Recent studies employing single-modality data, however, suggest that classification

  10. Towards a Relationally-Orientated Approach to Therapy: Empirical Support and Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Mick

    2004-01-01

    Drawing on contemporary evidence in the counselling and psychotherapy research field, this paper argues that there is growing support for a relationship-orientated approach to therapeutic practice. The paper reviews findings from a range of meta-analytical and individual studies which provide strong evidence for the centrality of relational…

  11. Autogenic therapy: Techniques, foundations, health and clinical applications, and empirical support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel R. Abuín

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Autogenic therapy emerges from the "autogenic training" method created by Schultz, and its development incorporates different therapeutic methods based on a psychophysiological approach. All these methods promote homeostatic self-regulatory brain processes. The aims of this paper are to describe and analyse the autogenic methods, the psychophysiological and neurophysiological processes involved, and their effective applications in both health and clinical fields. For these purposes, beside reviewing the earlier work by Schultz and Luthe, an electronic search of literature was conducted in order to find relevant contributions on these topics. Results show a big development of autogenic methods until the 80s, with an enormous amount of applications and studies on the psychophysiological and neurophysiological changes related to the practice of autogenic training. However, their expansion during the last 25 years has been much lower in comparison with other methods such as mindfulness and hypnosis. Possible causes are discussed and new challenges are suggested

  12. Computer-Based Methods for Collecting Peer Nomination Data: Utility, Practice, and Empirical Support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Berg, Yvonne H M; Gommans, Rob

    2017-09-01

    New technologies have led to several major advances in psychological research over the past few decades. Peer nomination research is no exception. Thanks to these technological innovations, computerized data collection is becoming more common in peer nomination research. However, computer-based assessment is more than simply programming the questionnaire and asking respondents to fill it in on computers. In this chapter the advantages and challenges of computer-based assessments are discussed. In addition, a list of practical recommendations and considerations is provided to inform researchers on how computer-based methods can be applied to their own research. Although the focus is on the collection of peer nomination data in particular, many of the requirements, considerations, and implications are also relevant for those who consider the use of other sociometric assessment methods (e.g., paired comparisons, peer ratings, peer rankings) or computer-based assessments in general. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Service and Emotional Support Animals on Campus: The Relevance and Controversy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Melinda

    2016-01-01

    Service and emotional support animals (ESA) have recently been a topic of conversation on college campuses, despite decades of controversy related to the interpretation of federal law. The distinction between an Emotional Support Animal and Service Animals, and the rights of the student regarding accommodations under FHA and ADA have been debated…

  14. Selecting Relevant Information for Medical Decision Support with Application in Cardiology

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kalina, Jan; Seidl, L.; Grünfeldová, H.; Slovák, Dalibor; Zvárová, Jana

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 9, č. 1 (2013), s. 2-6 ISSN 1801-5603 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1M06014 Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : decision support system * web-service * information extraction * high dimension * gene expressions Subject RIV: IN - Informatics, Computer Science http://www.ejbi.org/img/ejbi/2013/1/Kalina_en.pdf

  15. An empirical study on the effects of human resource supporting strategies on job satisfaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Khodaei Valahzaghard

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available One of the essential functions of human resource management is to take care of skilled employees. The process is normally divided into two categories: first category includes different activities such as having health and safety in working centers, performing healthy and sport programs and some other similar activities to save and improve employees' physical characteristics. The second group includes other important issues normally called benefit packages, which includes good health insurance and retiring plans. Whenever an organization provides good benefit package and supporting programs, there is a better job satisfaction among employee. In this paper, the effects of related services to support employee to reach job satisfaction and employee activities in one of Iranian banks called Mellat bank is investigated using 276 random samples. The results show that employees are relatively satisfied from the benefit package of the bank and they were relatively happy on working for such organization.

  16. The biological control as a strategy to support nontraditional agricultural exports in Peru: An empirical analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franklin Duarte Cueva

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The study is oriented to explore the general characteristics of agriculture, the biological control as a pest control mechanism and agro export industry. In this context, we try to promote the use of biological control as a strategy to support nontraditional exports related to products such as asparagus and fresh avocados grown in the La Libertad Department (Peru, through an agronomic and management approach. Biological control is the basis of integrated pest management (IPM and contributes to the conservation of agricultural ecosystems allowing to export companies reduce costs, fulfill international phytosanitary measures and supports the preservation of the environment and health. Thus, the Peruvian agro export companies could build a sustainable competitive advantage and seek a positioning as socially responsible firms. We analyze variables such as crop statistics, comparative costs between biological control and chemical control, main destination markets for asparagus and fresh avocados, international standards, among others.

  17. Adolescent mental health and academic functioning: empirical support for contrasting models of risk and vulnerability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucier-Greer, Mallory; O'Neal, Catherine W; Arnold, A Laura; Mancini, Jay A; Wickrama, Kandauda K A S

    2014-11-01

    Adolescents in military families contend with normative stressors that are universal and exist across social contexts (minority status, family disruptions, and social isolation) as well as stressors reflective of their military life context (e.g., parental deployment, school transitions, and living outside the United States). This study utilizes a social ecological perspective and a stress process lens to examine the relationship between multiple risk factors and relevant indicators of youth well-being, namely depressive symptoms and academic performance, as well as the mediating role of self-efficacy (N = 1,036). Three risk models were tested: an additive effects model (each risk factor uniquely influences outcomes), a full cumulative effects model (the collection of risk factors influences outcomes), a comparative model (a cumulative effects model exploring the differential effects of normative and military-related risks). This design allowed for the simultaneous examination of multiple risk factors and a comparison of alternative perspectives on measuring risk. Each model was predictive of depressive symptoms and academic performance through persistence; however, each model provides unique findings about the relationship between risk factors and youth outcomes. Discussion is provided pertinent to service providers and researchers on how risk is conceptualized and suggestions for identifying at-risk youth. Reprint & Copyright © 2014 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  18. Public Policies to Support Entrepreneurship and SMEs. Empirical Evidences from Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorin Gabriel ANTON

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Based on a set of variables measured in the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (GEM study, we analyzed the entrepreneurial profi le of Romanian economy after the onset of fi nancial crisis. We found a positive attitude towards entrepreneurship in Romania, but the fi nancial crisis started in 2008 severely affected the entrepreneurial environment. In many countries, the lack of an entrepreneurial culture and fi nancial constraints are seen as critical barriers to entrepreneurship. In the light of global fi nancial crisis, the support of entrepreneurial activities has risen as the entrepreneurship has the potential to foster economic recovery. In the second part of the paper we analyze policy actions implemented by the Romanian authorities in order to support SMEs in coping with the effects of fi nancial crisis. We have found that the most used policy tools have been public subsidies for new businesses and loan guarantees. The paper highlights the main weaknesses in the design and implementation of public policies in Romania and recommends some policy action to improve SMEs’ access to fi nance. The results of this study can be useful for improving the local entrepreneurial environment and also for designing new policy actions aimed to improve the SMEs’ access to fi nancing.

  19. EMPIRICAL STUDY ON USABILITY OF CROSSING SUPPORT SYSTEM FOR VISUALLY DISABLED AT SIGNALIZED INTERSECTION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Koji; Fujita, Motohiro; Matsuura, Kazuma; Fukuzono, Kazuyuki

    This paper evaluates the adjustment process for crossing support system for visually disabled at signalized intersections with the use of pedestrian traffic signals in concert with visible light communication (VLC) technology through outdoor experiments. As for the experiments, we put a blindfold on sighted people by eye mask in order to analyze the behavior of acquired visually disabled. And we used a full-scale crosswalk which is taking into consideration the crossing slope, the bumps at the edge of a crosswalk between the roadway and the sidewalkand crosswalk line. From the results of the survey, it is found that repetitive use of the VLC system decreased the number of lost their bearings completely and ended up standing immobile and reduced the crossing time for each person. On the other hand, it is shown that the performance of our VLC system is nearly equal to the existing support system from the view point of crossing time and the number of standing immobile and we clarified the effect factor for guidance accuracy by the regression analyses. Then we broke test subjects down into patterns by cluster analysis, and explained the walking characteristics for each group as they used the VLC system. In addition, we conducted the additional surveys for the quasi-blind subjects who had difficulty walking by using VLC system and visually impaired users. As a result, it is revealed that guidance accuracy was improved by providing the information about their receiving movement at several points on crosswalk and the habit of their walks for each user.

  20. Policy-Relevant Systematic Reviews to Strengthen Health Systems: Models and Mechanisms to Support Their Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Sandra; Dickson, Kelly

    2016-01-01

    Support for producing systematic reviews about health systems is less well developed than for those about clinical practice. From interviewing policy makers and systematic reviewers we identified institutional mechanisms which bring systematic reviews and policy priorities closer by harnessing organisational and individual motivations, emphasising…

  1. Brief Report: Assessing Attitudes toward Culturally and Contextually Relevant Schoolwide Positive Behavior Support Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallon, Lindsay M.; O'Keeffe, Breda V.; Gage, Nicholas A.; Sugai, George

    2015-01-01

    Given the increased interest and implementation of Schoolwide Positive Behavior Support (SWPBS) systems in schools in the United States, practitioners and researchers have become interested in how to improve implementation with students and staff from a wide range of cultural backgrounds. Fallon, O'Keeffe, and Sugai (2012) reviewed the literature…

  2. Subtypes of batterers in treatment: empirical support for a distinction between type I, type II and type III.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis Graña

    Full Text Available This study explores the existence of different types of batterers in a sample of 266 men who had been court referred for intimate partner violence. The data collected in the assessment that have been used to perform a hierarchical and a two-step cluster analysis fall into three areas: aggression towards the partner, general aggression and presence of psychopathology and personality traits, more specifically, alcohol use, borderline and antisocial personality traits, psychopathy traits, state anger and trait anger, anger expression and control, anger, hostility, and, finally, impulsivity. The results show a typology consisting of 3 types of batterers on the basis of violence level and psychopathology: low (65%, moderate (27.8% and high (7.1%. This study provides empirical support for the development of batterer typologies. These typologies will help achieve early detection of different types of batterers, allowing us to tailor interventions on the basis of the needs of each of the types.

  3. Empirical evolution of a framework that supports the development of nursing competence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Sally; Jordan, Helen L; Kinney, Sharon; Hamilton, Bridget; Newall, Fiona

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to refine a framework for developing competence, for graduate nurses new to paediatric nursing in a transition programme. A competent healthcare workforce is essential to ensuring quality care. There are strong professional and societal expectations that nurses will be competent. Despite the importance of the topic, the most effective means through which competence develops remains elusive. A qualitative explanatory method was applied as part of a mixed methods design. Twenty-one graduate nurses taking part in a 12-month transition programme participated in semi-structured interviews between October and November 2013. Interviews were informed by data analysed during a preceding quantitative phase. Participants were provided with their quantitative results and a preliminary model for development of competence and asked to explain why their competence had developed as it had. The findings from the interviews, considered in combination with the preliminary model and quantitative results, enabled conceptualization of a Framework for Developing Competence. Key elements include: the individual in the team, identification and interpretation of standards, asking questions, guidance and engaging in endeavours, all taking place in a particular context. Much time and resources are directed at supporting the development of nursing competence, with little evidence as to the most effective means. This study led to conceptualization of a theory thought to underpin the development of nursing competence, particularly in a paediatric setting for graduate nurses. Future research should be directed at investigating the framework in other settings. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. An empirical comparison of different approaches for combining multimodal neuroimaging data with Support Vector Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William ePettersson-Yeo

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In the pursuit of clinical utility, neuroimaging researchers of psychiatric and neurological illness are increasingly using analyses, such as support vector machine (SVM, that allow inference at the single-subject level. Recent studies employing single-modality data, however, suggest that classification accuracies must be improved for such utility to be realised. One possible solution is to integrate different data types to provide a single combined output classification; either by generating a single decision function based on an integrated kernel matrix, or, by creating an ensemble of multiple single modality classifiers and integrating their predictions. Here, we describe four integrative approaches: 1 an un-weighted sum of kernels, 2 multi-kernel learning, 3 prediction averaging, and 4 majority voting, and compare their ability to enhance classification accuracy relative to the best single-modality classification accuracy. We achieve this by integrating structural, functional and diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging data, in order to compare ultra-high risk (UHR; n=19, first episode psychosis (FEP; n=19 and healthy control subjects (HCs; n=19. Our results show that i whilst integration can enhance classification accuracy by up to 13%, the frequency of such instances may be limited, ii where classification can be enhanced, simple methods may yield greater increases relative to more computationally complex alternatives, and, iii the potential for classification enhancement is highly influenced by the specific diagnostic comparison under consideration. In conclusion, our findings suggest that for moderately sized clinical neuroimaging datasets, combining different imaging modalities in a data-driven manner is no magic bullet for increasing classification accuracy.

  5. An empirical comparison of different approaches for combining multimodal neuroimaging data with support vector machine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettersson-Yeo, William; Benetti, Stefania; Marquand, Andre F; Joules, Richard; Catani, Marco; Williams, Steve C R; Allen, Paul; McGuire, Philip; Mechelli, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    In the pursuit of clinical utility, neuroimaging researchers of psychiatric and neurological illness are increasingly using analyses, such as support vector machine, that allow inference at the single-subject level. Recent studies employing single-modality data, however, suggest that classification accuracies must be improved for such utility to be realized. One possible solution is to integrate different data types to provide a single combined output classification; either by generating a single decision function based on an integrated kernel matrix, or, by creating an ensemble of multiple single modality classifiers and integrating their predictions. Here, we describe four integrative approaches: (1) an un-weighted sum of kernels, (2) multi-kernel learning, (3) prediction averaging, and (4) majority voting, and compare their ability to enhance classification accuracy relative to the best single-modality classification accuracy. We achieve this by integrating structural, functional, and diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging data, in order to compare ultra-high risk (n = 19), first episode psychosis (n = 19) and healthy control subjects (n = 23). Our results show that (i) whilst integration can enhance classification accuracy by up to 13%, the frequency of such instances may be limited, (ii) where classification can be enhanced, simple methods may yield greater increases relative to more computationally complex alternatives, and, (iii) the potential for classification enhancement is highly influenced by the specific diagnostic comparison under consideration. In conclusion, our findings suggest that for moderately sized clinical neuroimaging datasets, combining different imaging modalities in a data-driven manner is no "magic bullet" for increasing classification accuracy. However, it remains possible that this conclusion is dependent on the use of neuroimaging modalities that had little, or no, complementary information to offer one another, and that the

  6. The relevance of thermal hydraulics pipeline simulation as a regulatory support tool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Patricia Mannarino; Santos, Almir Beserra dos [Agencia Nacional do Petroleo, Gas Natural e Biocombustiveis (ANP), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    The capacity definition of a pipeline, along with its allocation, is very relevant to assure market transparency, nondiscriminatory access, security of supply, and also to give consistent signs for expansion needs. Nevertheless, the capacity definition is a controversial issue, and may widely vary depending on the technical and commercial assumptions made. To calculate a pipeline's nominal capacity, there are a variety of simulation tools, which include steady state, transient and on-line computer programs. It is desirable that the simulation tool is robust enough to predict the pipeline's capacity under different conditions. There are many variables that impact the flow through a pipeline, like gas characteristics, pipe and environmental variables. Designing a thermal model is a time-consuming task that requests understanding the level of detail need, in order to achieve success in its application. This article discusses the capacity definition, its role and calculation guidelines, describes ANP's experience with capacity calculation and further challenges according to the new regulation, and debates the role of thermal hydraulic simulation as a regulatory tool. (author)

  7. Empirical guidelines for forest management decision support systems based on the past experiences of the expert's community

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marques, A. F.; Ficko, A.; Kangas, A.; Rosset, C.; Ferreti, F.; Rasinmaki, J.; Packalen, T.; Gordom, S.

    2013-09-01

    Aim of the study: Decision support systems for forest management (FMDSS) have been developed world wide to account for a broad range of forest ecosystems, management goals and organizational frameworks (e.g. the wiki page of the FORSYS project reports 62 existing FMDSSs from 23 countries). The need to enhance the collaboration among this diverse community of developers and users fostered the rise of new group communication processes that could capture useful knowledge from past experiences in order to efficiently provide it to new FMDSS development efforts. Material and methods: This paper presents and tests an exploratory process aiming to identify the empirical guidelines assisting developers and users of FMDSS. This process encompasses a Delphi survey built upon the consolidation of the lessons-learned statements that summarize the past experiences of the experts involved in the FORSYS project. The experts come from 34 countries and have diverse interests, ranging from forest planners, IT developers, social scientists studying participatory planning, and researchers with interests in knowledge management and in quantitative models for forest planning. Main results: The proposed 37 empirical guidelines that group 102 lessons-learned cover a broad range of issues including the DSS development cycle, involvement of the stakeholders, methods, models and knowledge based techniques in use. Research highlights: These results may be used for improving new FMDSS development processes, teaching and training and further suggest new features of FMDSS and future research topics. Furthermore, the guidelines may constitute a knowledge repository that may be continuously improved by a community of practice. (Author)

  8. Supporting international development through the integration of relevant 'soft-skills' into geoscience education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Joel C.

    2014-05-01

    Geologists have an important role to play in international development, improving disaster risk reduction and access to clean water, sanitation, infrastructure, and natural resources. That geologists can contribute to international development is well established. Less so, however, is an understanding of the 'soft' skills required to do this effectively. The fight against global poverty requires an integrated and interdisciplinary approach, demanding a host of skills other than technical geology. Factors such as cultural understanding, cross disciplinary communication, diplomacy, community mobilisation and participation are all aspects that, if lacking, may result in a project failing to have maximum impact. Whilst project success may be highly dependent on these skills and aspects of knowledge, opportunities to develop them throughout a geologist's education are not common. Through a discussion of two case studies (based on water and hazards work), this study seeks to demonstrate the value of an integrated approach and the skills that geologists should invest in at an early stage of their career. It proceeds to examine a range of practical ways by which geology students can develop these skills during and after their education. A number of these opportunities are currently being utilised by Geology for Global Development (GfGD), a not-for-profit organisation working in the UK to support young geoscientists to make a long-term and effective contribution to international development.

  9. The Relevance of Reflection: An Empirical Examination of the Role of Reflection in Ethic of Caring, Leadership, and Psychological Well-Being

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Julie J.; Millora, Melissa L.

    2012-01-01

    This article is an empirical examination of reflection for first-year and third-year students using data from the College Students' Beliefs and Values survey. Frequency of self-reflection increased between the first and third years of college. Two self-reported measures of reflection, engaging in self-reflection and having classes that…

  10. Relevance or Excellence? Setting Research Priorities for Mental Health and Psychosocial Support in Humanitarian Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tol, Wietse A; Patel, Vikram; Tomlinson, Mark; Baingana, Florence; Galappatti, Ananda; Silove, Derrick; Sondorp, Egbert; van Ommeren, Mark; Wessells, Michael G; Catherine, Panter-Brick

    2012-01-01

    Background: Humanitarian crises are associated with an increase in mental disorders and psychological distress. Despite the emerging consensus on intervention strategies in humanitarian settings, the field of mental health and psychosocial support (MHPSS) in humanitarian settings lacks a consensus-based research agenda. Methods: From August 2009 to February 2010, we contacted policymakers, academic researchers, and humanitarian aid workers, and conducted nine semistructured focus group discussions with 114 participants in three locations (Peru, Uganda, and Nepal), in both the capitals and remote humanitarian settings. Local stakeholders representing a range of academic expertise (psychiatry, psychology, social work, child protection, and medical anthropology) and organizations (governments, universities, nongovernmental organizations, and UN agencies) were asked to identify priority questions for MHPSS research in humanitarian settings, and to discuss factors that hamper and facilitate research. Results: Thematic analyses of transcripts show that participants broadly agreed on prioritized research themes in the following order: (1) the prevalence and burden of mental health and psychosocial difficulties in humanitarian settings, (2) how MHPSS implementation can be improved, (3) evaluation of specific MHPSS interventions, (4) the determinants of mental health and psychological distress, and (5) improved research methods and processes. Rather than differences in research themes across countries, what emerged was a disconnect between different groups of stakeholders regarding research processes: the perceived lack of translation of research findings into actual policy and programs; misunderstanding of research methods by aid workers; different appreciation of the time needed to conduct research; and disputed universality of research constructs. Conclusions: To advance a collaborative research agenda, actors in this field need to bridge the perceived disconnect between

  11. Single-Trial Classification of Bistable Perception by Integrating Empirical Mode Decomposition, Clustering, and Support Vector Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hualou Liang

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available We propose an empirical mode decomposition (EMD- based method to extract features from the multichannel recordings of local field potential (LFP, collected from the middle temporal (MT visual cortex in a macaque monkey, for decoding its bistable structure-from-motion (SFM perception. The feature extraction approach consists of three stages. First, we employ EMD to decompose nonstationary single-trial time series into narrowband components called intrinsic mode functions (IMFs with time scales dependent on the data. Second, we adopt unsupervised K-means clustering to group the IMFs and residues into several clusters across all trials and channels. Third, we use the supervised common spatial patterns (CSP approach to design spatial filters for the clustered spatiotemporal signals. We exploit the support vector machine (SVM classifier on the extracted features to decode the reported perception on a single-trial basis. We demonstrate that the CSP feature of the cluster in the gamma frequency band outperforms the features in other frequency bands and leads to the best decoding performance. We also show that the EMD-based feature extraction can be useful for evoked potential estimation. Our proposed feature extraction approach may have potential for many applications involving nonstationary multivariable time series such as brain-computer interfaces (BCI.

  12. Theory-guided, empirically supported avenues for intervention on HIV medication nonadherence: findings from the Healthy Living Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Mallory O; Catz, Sheryl L; Remien, Robert H; Rotheram-Borus, Mary Jane; Morin, Stephen F; Charlebois, Edwin; Gore-Felton, Cheryl; Goldsten, Rise B; Wolfe, Hannah; Lightfoot, Marguerita; Chesney, Margaret A

    2003-12-01

    Adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) remains a challenge in efforts to maximize HIV treatment benefits. Previous studies of antiretroviral adherence are limited by low statistical power, homogeneous samples, and biased assessment methods. Based on Social Action Theory and using a large, diverse sample of men and women living with HIV, the objectives of the current study are to clarify correlates of nonadherence to ART and to provide theory-guided, empirically supported direction for intervening on ART nonadherence. Cross-sectional interview study utilizing a computerized interview. Recruited from clinics, agencies, and via media ads in four U.S. cities from June 2000 to January 2002. Two thousand seven hundred and sixty-five HIV-positive adults taking ART. Computer-assessed self-reported antiretroviral adherence. Thirty-two percent reported less than 90% adherence to ART in the prior 3 days. A number of factors were related to nonadherence in univariate analysis. Multivariate analyses identified that being African American, being in a primary relationship, and a history of injection drug use or homelessness in the past year were associated with greater likelihood of nonadherence. Furthermore, adherence self-efficacy, and being able to manage side effects and fit medications into daily routines were protective against nonadherence. Being tired of taking medications was associated with poorer adherence whereas a belief that nonadherence can make the virus stronger was associated with better adherence. Results support the need for multifocused interventions to improve medication adherence that address logistical barriers, substance use, attitudes and expectancies, as well as skills building and self-efficacy enhancement. Further exploration of issues related to adherence for African Americans and men in primary relationships is warranted.

  13. The relationship between intelligence and creativity: New support for the threshold hypothesis by means of empirical breakpoint detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jauk, Emanuel; Benedek, Mathias; Dunst, Beate; Neubauer, Aljoscha C.

    2013-01-01

    The relationship between intelligence and creativity has been subject to empirical research for decades. Nevertheless, there is yet no consensus on how these constructs are related. One of the most prominent notions concerning the interplay between intelligence and creativity is the threshold hypothesis, which assumes that above-average intelligence represents a necessary condition for high-level creativity. While earlier research mostly supported the threshold hypothesis, it has come under fire in recent investigations. The threshold hypothesis is commonly investigated by splitting a sample at a given threshold (e.g., at 120 IQ points) and estimating separate correlations for lower and upper IQ ranges. However, there is no compelling reason why the threshold should be fixed at an IQ of 120, and to date, no attempts have been made to detect the threshold empirically. Therefore, this study examined the relationship between intelligence and different indicators of creative potential and of creative achievement by means of segmented regression analysis in a sample of 297 participants. Segmented regression allows for the detection of a threshold in continuous data by means of iterative computational algorithms. We found thresholds only for measures of creative potential but not for creative achievement. For the former the thresholds varied as a function of criteria: When investigating a liberal criterion of ideational originality (i.e., two original ideas), a threshold was detected at around 100 IQ points. In contrast, a threshold of 120 IQ points emerged when the criterion was more demanding (i.e., many original ideas). Moreover, an IQ of around 85 IQ points was found to form the threshold for a purely quantitative measure of creative potential (i.e., ideational fluency). These results confirm the threshold hypothesis for qualitative indicators of creative potential and may explain some of the observed discrepancies in previous research. In addition, we obtained

  14. Comparative Case Study of Diffusion of Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing in Two Clinical Settings: Empirically Supported Treatment Status Is Not Enough

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cook, Joan M.; Biyanova, Tatyana; Coyne, James C.

    2009-01-01

    An in-depth comparative case study was conducted of two attempts at diffusion of an empirically supported, but controversial, psychotherapy: eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR). One Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) treatment setting in which there was substantial uptake was

  15. Improving the relevance and impact of decision support research: A co-production framework and water management case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, R.; Kasprzyk, J. R.; Dilling, L.; Basdekas, L.; Kaatz, L.

    2016-12-01

    In light of the unpredictable effects of climate change and population shifts, responsible resource management will require new types of information and strategies going forward. For water utilities, this means that water supply infrastructure systems must be expanded and/or managed for changes in overall supply and increased extremes. Utilities have begun seeking innovative tools and methods to support planning and decision making, but there are limited channels through which they can gain exposure to emerging tools from the research world, and for researchers to uptake important real-world planning and decision context. A transdisciplinary team of engineers, social and climate scientists, and water managers designed this study to develop and apply a co-production framework which explores the potential of an emerging decision support tool to enhance flexibility and adaptability in water utility planning. It also demonstrates how to improve the link between research and practice in the water sector. In this study we apply the co-production framework to the use of Multiobjective Evolutionary Algorithms (MOEAs). MOEAs have shown promise in being able to generate and evaluate new planning alternatives but they have had little testing or application in water utilities. Anchored by two workshops, this study (1) elicited input from water managers from six water suppliers on the Front Range of Colorado, USA, to create a testbed MOEA application, and (2) evaluated the managers' responses to multiobjective optimization results. The testbed consists of a Front Range-relevant hypothetical water supply model, the Borg MOEA, hydrology and demand scenarios, and a set of planning decisions and performance objectives that drive the link between the algorithm and the model. In this presentation we describe researcher-manager interactions at the initial workshop that served to establish relationships and provide in-depth information to researchers about regional water management

  16. Psychosocial Clusters and their Associations with Well-Being and Health: An Empirical Strategy for Identifying Psychosocial Predictors Most Relevant to Racially/Ethnically Diverse Women’s Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabson, Jennifer M.; Bowen, Deborah; Weinberg, Janice; Kroenke, Candyce; Luo, Juhua; Messina, Catherine; Shumaker, Sally; Tindle, Hilary A.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Strategies for identifying the most relevant psychosocial predictors in studies of racial/ethnic minority women’s health are limited because they largely exclude cultural influences and they assume that psychosocial predictors are independent. This paper proposes and tests an empirical solution. METHODS Hierarchical cluster analysis, conducted with data from 140,652 Women’s Health Initiative participants, identified clusters among individual psychosocial predictors. Multivariable analyses tested associations between clusters and health outcomes. RESULTS A Social Cluster and a Stress Cluster were identified. The Social Cluster was positively associated with well-being and inversely associated with chronic disease index, and the Stress Cluster was inversely associated with well-being and positively associated with chronic disease index. As hypothesized, the magnitude of association between clusters and outcomes differed by race/ethnicity. CONCLUSIONS By identifying psychosocial clusters and their associations with health, we have taken an important step toward understanding how individual psychosocial predictors interrelate and how empirically formed Stress and Social clusters relate to health outcomes. This study has also demonstrated important insight about differences in associations between these psychosocial clusters and health among racial/ethnic minorities. These differences could signal the best pathways for intervention modification and tailoring. PMID:27279761

  17. Relevance Vector Machine and Support Vector Machine Classifier Analysis of Scanning Laser Polarimetry Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowd, Christopher; Medeiros, Felipe A.; Zhang, Zuohua; Zangwill, Linda M.; Hao, Jiucang; Lee, Te-Won; Sejnowski, Terrence J.; Weinreb, Robert N.; Goldbaum, Michael H.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose To classify healthy and glaucomatous eyes using relevance vector machine (RVM) and support vector machine (SVM) learning classifiers trained on retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness measurements obtained by scanning laser polarimetry (SLP). Methods Seventy-two eyes of 72 healthy control subjects (average age = 64.3 ± 8.8 years, visual field mean deviation =−0.71 ± 1.2 dB) and 92 eyes of 92 patients with glaucoma (average age = 66.9 ± 8.9 years, visual field mean deviation =−5.32 ± 4.0 dB) were imaged with SLP with variable corneal compensation (GDx VCC; Laser Diagnostic Technologies, San Diego, CA). RVM and SVM learning classifiers were trained and tested on SLP-determined RNFL thickness measurements from 14 standard parameters and 64 sectors (approximately 5.6° each) obtained in the circumpapillary area under the instrument-defined measurement ellipse (total 78 parameters). Tenfold cross-validation was used to train and test RVM and SVM classifiers on unique subsets of the full 164-eye data set and areas under the receiver operating characteristic (AUROC) curve for the classification of eyes in the test set were generated. AUROC curve results from RVM and SVM were compared to those for 14 SLP software-generated global and regional RNFL thickness parameters. Also reported was the AUROC curve for the GDx VCC software-generated nerve fiber indicator (NFI). Results The AUROC curves for RVM and SVM were 0.90 and 0.91, respectively, and increased to 0.93 and 0.94 when the training sets were optimized with sequential forward and backward selection (resulting in reduced dimensional data sets). AUROC curves for optimized RVM and SVM were significantly larger than those for all individual SLP parameters. The AUROC curve for the NFI was 0.87. Conclusions Results from RVM and SVM trained on SLP RNFL thickness measurements are similar and provide accurate classification of glaucomatous and healthy eyes. RVM may be preferable to SVM, because it provides a

  18. Investigating the empirical support for therapeutic targets proposed by the temporal experience of pleasure model in schizophrenia: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Clementine J; Cella, Matteo; Tarrier, Nicholas; Wykes, Til

    2015-10-01

    Anhedonia and amotivation are substantial predictors of poor functional outcomes in people with schizophrenia and often present a formidable barrier to returning to work or building relationships. The Temporal Experience of Pleasure Model proposes constructs which should be considered therapeutic targets for these symptoms in schizophrenia e.g. anticipatory pleasure, memory, executive functions, motivation and behaviours related to the activity. Recent reviews have highlighted the need for a clear evidence base to drive the development of targeted interventions. To review systematically the empirical evidence for each TEP model component and propose evidence-based therapeutic targets for anhedonia and amotivation in schizophrenia. Following PRISMA guidelines, PubMed and PsycInfo were searched using the terms "schizophrenia" and "anhedonia". Studies were included if they measured anhedonia and participants had a diagnosis of schizophrenia. The methodology, measures and main findings from each study were extracted and critically summarised for each TEP model construct. 80 independent studies were reviewed and executive functions, emotional memory and the translation of motivation into actions are highlighted as key deficits with a strong evidence base in people with schizophrenia. However, there are many relationships that are unclear because the empirical work is limited by over-general tasks and measures. Promising methods for research which have more ecological validity include experience sampling and behavioural tasks assessing motivation. Specific adaptations to Cognitive Remediation Therapy, Cognitive Behavioural Therapy and the utilisation of mobile technology to enhance representations and emotional memory are recommended for future development. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. Low-literates’ support needs for societal participation learning : Empirical grounding of theory- and model-based design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schouten, D.G.M.; Paulissen, R.T.; Hanekamp, M.; Groot, A.; Neerincx, M.A.; Cremers, A.H.M.

    2017-01-01

    Specialized learning support software can address the low societal participation of low-literate Dutch citizens. We use the situated Cognitive Engineering method to iteratively create a design specification for the envisioned system VESSEL: a Virtual Environment to Support the Societal participation

  20. Empirical study of the degrees to which social support, social status and gender affect the academic achievement

    OpenAIRE

    Volkov A.A.; Zerkalova E.A.

    2015-01-01

    The article reviews the studies of foreign authors concerning the impact of various factors on academic achievement. The factors under the study are: sociometric status, social support on the side of significant others, gender, support on the side of the family and the peer group.

  1. Empirical study of the degrees to which social support, social status and gender affect the academic achievement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volkov A.A.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The article reviews the studies of foreign authors concerning the impact of various factors on academic achievement. The factors under the study are: sociometric status, social support on the side of significant others, gender, support on the side of the family and the peer group.

  2. Making Deferred Taxes Relevant

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, Arjan; Naarding, Ewout

    2018-01-01

    We analyse the conceptual problems in current accounting for deferred taxes and provide solutions derived from the literature in order to make International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) deferred tax numbers value-relevant. In our view, the empirical results concerning the value relevance of

  3. Influencing factors of public support for modern coal-fired power plant projects: An empirical study from China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Feng; Lyu, Tao; Pan, Li; Wang, Fei

    2017-01-01

    With the development of clean coal technology, modern coal-fired power plants have achieved the similar emission standards as gas power plants. However, due to the impressions of high pollution and high emission in traditional coal-fired power plants, such projects are often opposed by local residents, which hinder the promotion of this technology. This manuscript aims to investigate public attitudes toward these projects and to analyze the influencing mechanisms of the factors of public support. The conceptual model was built with sense of place, trust and environmental attitude as the independent variables, benefit and cost perceptions as the mediating variables and public support as the dependent variable. The model was tested and modified by structural equation modelling. The results revealed that sense of place had a slight indirect impact (−0.043) on public support through benefit perception, whereas trust had a direct impact (0.332) on public support and indirect impacts (0.298) through benefit and cost perceptions. Environmental attitude had indirect impacts on public support through benefit perception (0.180) and cost perception (−0.115). In addition, policy suggestions on decision-making, project publicity and compensation strategy are proposed to enhance public support for similar projects. - Highlights: • This manuscript aims at eliminating the NIMBY effects on modern coal-fired power plant project. • A SEM model is proposed to explore how potential factors affect public support. • Trust is the dominant influencing factor to improve public support with both direct and indirect impacts. • Environmental attitude can also have positive effect on public support through rational compensation plans.

  4. Populism and Support for Protectionism: The Relevance of Opposition to Trade Openness for Leftist and Rightist Populist Voting in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. van der Waal (Jeroen); W. de Koster (Willem)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractLeftist and rightist populist parties in Western Europe both oppose trade openness. Is support for economic protectionism also relevant for their electorates? We assess this in the Netherlands, where both types of populist parties have seats in parliament. Analyses of representative

  5. Daily Peak Load Forecasting Based on Complete Ensemble Empirical Mode Decomposition with Adaptive Noise and Support Vector Machine Optimized by Modified Grey Wolf Optimization Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuyu Dai

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Daily peak load forecasting is an important part of power load forecasting. The accuracy of its prediction has great influence on the formulation of power generation plan, power grid dispatching, power grid operation and power supply reliability of power system. Therefore, it is of great significance to construct a suitable model to realize the accurate prediction of the daily peak load. A novel daily peak load forecasting model, CEEMDAN-MGWO-SVM (Complete Ensemble Empirical Mode Decomposition with Adaptive Noise and Support Vector Machine Optimized by Modified Grey Wolf Optimization Algorithm, is proposed in this paper. Firstly, the model uses the complete ensemble empirical mode decomposition with adaptive noise (CEEMDAN algorithm to decompose the daily peak load sequence into multiple sub sequences. Then, the model of modified grey wolf optimization and support vector machine (MGWO-SVM is adopted to forecast the sub sequences. Finally, the forecasting sequence is reconstructed and the forecasting result is obtained. Using CEEMDAN can realize noise reduction for non-stationary daily peak load sequence, which makes the daily peak load sequence more regular. The model adopts the grey wolf optimization algorithm improved by introducing the population dynamic evolution operator and the nonlinear convergence factor to enhance the global search ability and avoid falling into the local optimum, which can better optimize the parameters of the SVM algorithm for improving the forecasting accuracy of daily peak load. In this paper, three cases are used to test the forecasting accuracy of the CEEMDAN-MGWO-SVM model. We choose the models EEMD-MGWO-SVM (Ensemble Empirical Mode Decomposition and Support Vector Machine Optimized by Modified Grey Wolf Optimization Algorithm, MGWO-SVM (Support Vector Machine Optimized by Modified Grey Wolf Optimization Algorithm, GWO-SVM (Support Vector Machine Optimized by Grey Wolf Optimization Algorithm, SVM (Support Vector

  6. The determination of the structure of γ-alumina using empirical and first principle calculations and supporting experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paglia, G.; Buckely, C.E.; O'Connor, B.H.; Van Riessen, A.; Rohl, A.L.; Gale, J.D.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: Because of its hardness, abrasion resistance, mechanical strength, corrosion resistance, and good electrical insulation, alumina (AI 2 O 3 ) is a material of high technological and industrial significance. Alumina exists in a variety of metastable structures including the γ, η, θ, K, and χ aluminas, as well as its stable α alumina phase. The crystal structure of the γ-phase in alumina has attracted considerable attention over the past 40 years, with various reports attributing either a cubic or tetragonal structure to this phase. Consensus on the definitive structure of γ-alumina (γ-AI 2 O 3 ) has yet to be reached. Rapid advancement has occurred in the field of computational materials science in recent times. Huge advances in computing power during this period have made ft possible to apply the laws of quantum mechanics to the study of macroscopic properties of real materials at the atomic level. Predicting the properties of materials by theoretical means complements the traditional experimental approaches. This research is directed at determining the structure of γ-Al 2 O 3 using theoretical first principles and empirical computational techniques combined with experimental methods. The purpose of this presentation is to discuss the problems associated with determining the structure of γ-AI 2 O 3 and to outline the methodology being applied to solve it. Copyright (2002) Australian X-ray Analytical Association Inc

  7. Empirical study of ill-supported activities in variation risk identification and assessment in early stage product development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjarklev, Kristian; Mortensen, Niels Henrik; Ebro, Martin

    2017-01-01

    medical device company by interviewing six key employees that work in the variation risk identification and assessment process. It is found that there are several ill-supported activities, and that the project teams rely heavily on tolerance experts’ assistance and experience in order to identify...... and assess the variation risk. Ill-supported activities are found to be: Balancing hardness of requirements and the screening; communicating mechanism understanding; predicting user input and internal component movement; documenting and communicating tolerance analysis; implementing robustness in the early...

  8. An Automated System for Generating Situation-Specific Decision Support in Clinical Order Entry from Local Empirical Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klann, Jeffrey G.

    2011-01-01

    Clinical Decision Support is one of the only aspects of health information technology that has demonstrated decreased costs and increased quality in healthcare delivery, yet it is extremely expensive and time-consuming to create, maintain, and localize. Consequently, a majority of health care systems do not utilize it, and even when it is…

  9. Is the Nature of Communication Relevant to the Supportiveness of Women's Relationships With Probation and Parole Agents?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morash, Merry; Kashy, Deborah A; Smith, Sandi W; Cobbina, Jennifer E

    2018-05-01

    This article reports on a study of the connection of probation and parole agents' communication with relationship supportiveness as perceived by both women offenders and agents. For a sample of offenders and their agents, multilevel modeling was used to control for nonindependence of data for women assigned to the same agent. Consistent with communication theory, a conversational approach was positively related to measures of a supportive relationship, and an authoritarian/ conformity pattern of communication was negatively related to a supportive relationship. For low-risk offenders, attention to client-identified problems was positively related to more supportive relationships. For women with high risk for reoffending, the agents viewed themselves as less supportive if they addressed a high proportion of offender-identified needs. Findings suggest the efficacy of training to promote agents' conversational communication and attention to offender-identified problems. Findings also suggest the need to more fully explore agents' experience in working with very high-risk offenders.

  10. Forecasting of Energy Consumption in China Based on Ensemble Empirical Mode Decomposition and Least Squares Support Vector Machine Optimized by Improved Shuffled Frog Leaping Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuyu Dai

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available For social development, energy is a crucial material whose consumption affects the stable and sustained development of the natural environment and economy. Currently, China has become the largest energy consumer in the world. Therefore, establishing an appropriate energy consumption prediction model and accurately forecasting energy consumption in China have practical significance, and can provide a scientific basis for China to formulate a reasonable energy production plan and energy-saving and emissions-reduction-related policies to boost sustainable development. For forecasting the energy consumption in China accurately, considering the main driving factors of energy consumption, a novel model, EEMD-ISFLA-LSSVM (Ensemble Empirical Mode Decomposition and Least Squares Support Vector Machine Optimized by Improved Shuffled Frog Leaping Algorithm, is proposed in this article. The prediction accuracy of energy consumption is influenced by various factors. In this article, first considering population, GDP (Gross Domestic Product, industrial structure (the proportion of the second industry added value, energy consumption structure, energy intensity, carbon emissions intensity, total imports and exports and other influencing factors of energy consumption, the main driving factors of energy consumption are screened as the model input according to the sorting of grey relational degrees to realize feature dimension reduction. Then, the original energy consumption sequence of China is decomposed into multiple subsequences by Ensemble Empirical Mode Decomposition for de-noising. Next, the ISFLA-LSSVM (Least Squares Support Vector Machine Optimized by Improved Shuffled Frog Leaping Algorithm model is adopted to forecast each subsequence, and the prediction sequences are reconstructed to obtain the forecasting result. After that, the data from 1990 to 2009 are taken as the training set, and the data from 2010 to 2016 are taken as the test set to make an

  11. Re-evaluation of Yellowstone grizzly bear population dynamics not supported by empirical data: response to Doak & Cutler

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Manen, Frank T.; Ebinger, Michael R.; Haroldson, Mark A.; Harris, Richard B.; Higgs, Megan D.; Cherry, Steve; White, Gary C.; Schwartz, Charles C.

    2014-01-01

    Doak and Cutler critiqued methods used by the Interagency Grizzly Bear Study Team (IGBST) to estimate grizzly bear population size and trend in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem. Here, we focus on the premise, implementation, and interpretation of simulations they used to support their arguments. They argued that population increases documented by IGBST based on females with cubs-of-the-year were an artifact of increased search effort. However, we demonstrate their simulations were neither reflective of the true observation process nor did their results provide statistical support for their conclusion. They further argued that survival and reproductive senescence should be incorporated into population projections, but we demonstrate their choice of extreme mortality risk beyond age 20 and incompatible baseline fecundity led to erroneous conclusions. The conclusions of Doak and Cutler are unsubstantiated when placed within the context of a thorough understanding of the data, study system, and previous research findings and publications.

  12. KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT IN MALAYSIAN SMEs: AN EMPIRICAL EXAMINATION ON INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY (IT) SUPPORT AND STRATEGY AS PLAN

    OpenAIRE

    Tan Thai Soon; Fakhrul Anwar Zainol

    2011-01-01

    This research study demonstrates the important of the knowledge creation process. It helps to demonstrate that knowledge management enablers, including IT-support and Strategy as Plan can promote organizational creativity and thus organizational performance. Further, the findings on the new factor, Strategy as Plan, show that it is positively related to knowledge creation. Strategy as Plan can therefore be regarded as an integral part of knowledge creation. This reaffirms Glueck’s (1980, p.9)...

  13. Gene expression profiling to identify potentially relevant disease outcomes and support human health risk assessment for carbon black nanoparticle exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourdon, Julie A; Williams, Andrew; Kuo, Byron; Moffat, Ivy; White, Paul A; Halappanavar, Sabina; Vogel, Ulla; Wallin, Håkan; Yauk, Carole L

    2013-01-07

    New approaches are urgently needed to evaluate potential hazards posed by exposure to nanomaterials. Gene expression profiling provides information on potential modes of action and human relevance, and tools have recently become available for pathway-based quantitative risk assessment. The objective of this study was to use toxicogenomics in the context of human health risk assessment. We explore the utility of toxicogenomics in risk assessment, using published gene expression data from C57BL/6 mice exposed to 18, 54 and 162 μg Printex 90 carbon black nanoparticles (CBNP). Analysis of CBNP-perturbed pathways, networks and transcription factors revealed concomitant changes in predicted phenotypes (e.g., pulmonary inflammation and genotoxicity), that correlated with dose and time. Benchmark doses (BMDs) for apical endpoints were comparable to minimum BMDs for relevant pathway-specific expression changes. Comparison to inflammatory lung disease models (i.e., allergic airway inflammation, bacterial infection and tissue injury and fibrosis) and human disease profiles revealed that induced gene expression changes in Printex 90 exposed mice were similar to those typical for pulmonary injury and fibrosis. Very similar fibrotic pathways were perturbed in CBNP-exposed mice and human fibrosis disease models. Our synthesis demonstrates how toxicogenomic profiles may be used in human health risk assessment of nanoparticles and constitutes an important step forward in the ultimate recognition of toxicogenomic endpoints in human health risk. As our knowledge of molecular pathways, dose-response characteristics and relevance to human disease continues to grow, we anticipate that toxicogenomics will become increasingly useful in assessing chemical toxicities and in human health risk assessment. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Real-time monitoring of melittin-induced pore and tubule formation from supported lipid bilayers and its physiological relevance

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Macháň, Radek; Miszta, Adam; Hermens, W.; Hof, Martin

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 163, č. 2 (2010), s. 200-206 ISSN 0009-3084 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC06063; GA AV ČR GEMEM/09/E006 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503 Keywords : antimicrobiological peptides * support phospholipid builayers * ellipsometry Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 2.861, year: 2010

  15. Supporting deployed operations: are military nurses gaining the relevant experience from MDHUs to be competent in deployed operations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaumont, Steven P; Allan, Helen T

    2014-01-01

    To explore how peacetime employment of military nurses in the UK National Health Service Medical Defence Hospital Units prepares them to be competent to practise in their role on deployment. Military secondary care nurses are employed within UK National Health Service Trusts to gain clinical experience that will be relevant to their military nursing role. A two-stage grounded theory study using mixed methods: postal questionnaire survey and in-depth interviews. In stage one a postal questionnaire was distributed to all serving military nurses. Stage two involved 12 semi-structured interviews. The data from both parts of the study were analysed using grounded theory. Four categories and one core category were identified, which suggested that participants did not feel fully prepared for deployment. Their feelings of preparedness increased with deployment experience and decreased when the nature of injuries seen on deployment changed. Respondents argued that even when unprepared, they did not feel incompetent. The findings suggest that the peacetime clinical experience gained in the National Health Service did not always develop the necessary competencies to carry out roles as military nurses on deployment. This study highlights the unique role of military nurses. We discuss these findings in the light of the literature on competency and expertise. The military nurses in this study did not feel fully prepared for deployed operations. We propose a new model for how military nurses could gain relevant experience from their National Health Service placements. National Health Service clinical placements need to be reassessed regularly to ensure that they are meeting military nurses' clinical requirements. Experiences of nurses returning from deployment could be shared and used as a basis for reflection and learning within National Health Service Trusts and also inform decisions regarding the appropriateness of clinical placements for qualified military nurses. © 2012

  16. Sex-Specific Arrival Times on the Breeding Grounds: Hybridizing Migratory Skuas Provide Empirical Support for the Role of Sex Ratios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisovski, Simeon; Fröhlich, Anne; von Tersch, Matthew; Klaassen, Marcel; Peter, Hans-Ulrich; Ritz, Markus S

    2016-04-01

    In migratory animals, protandry (earlier arrival of males on the breeding grounds) prevails over protogyny (females preceding males). In theory, sex differences in timing of arrival should be driven by the operational sex ratio, shifting toward protogyny in female-biased populations. However, empirical support for this hypothesis is, to date, lacking. To test this hypothesis, we analyzed arrival data from three populations of the long-distance migratory south polar skua (Catharacta maccormicki). These populations differed in their operational sex ratio caused by the unidirectional hybridization of male south polar skuas with female brown skuas (Catharacta antarctica lonnbergi). We found that arrival times were protandrous in allopatry, shifting toward protogyny in female-biased populations when breeding in sympatry. This unique observation is consistent with theoretical predictions that sex-specific arrival times should be influenced by sex ratio and that protogyny should be observed in populations with female-biased operational sex ratio.

  17. Inglorious Empire

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khair, Tabish

    2017-01-01

    Review of 'Inglorious Empire: What the British did to India' by Shashi Tharoor, London, Hurst Publishers, 2017, 296 pp., £20.00......Review of 'Inglorious Empire: What the British did to India' by Shashi Tharoor, London, Hurst Publishers, 2017, 296 pp., £20.00...

  18. How relevant is government championing behavior for technology development?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caerteling, J.S.; Halman, J.I.M.; Song, M.; Dorée, A.G.; van der Bij, J.D.

    Many studies emphasize the importance of government support in technology development. However, this study is among the first to provide empirical findings of the relevance of government roles for the performance of technology development projects. Based on earlier research and the strategic

  19. How relevant is government championing behavior for technology development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caerteling, Jasper; Halman, Johannes I.M.; Song, Michael; Doree, Andries G.; van der Bij, J.D.

    2013-01-01

    Many studies emphasize the importance of government support in technology development. However, this study is among the first to provide empirical findings of the relevance of government roles for the performance of technology development projects. Based on earlier research and the strategic

  20. Weekly brief phone support in self-help cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia disorder: Relevance to adherence and efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Fiona Yan-Yee; Chung, Ka-Fai; Yeung, Wing-Fai; Ng, Tommy Ho-Yee; Cheng, Sammy Kin-Wing

    2014-12-01

    Self-help cognitive-behavioral therapy for insomnia (CBT-I) is an acceptable, low-intensity treatment in a stepped care model for insomnia. We tested the application of self-help CBT-I in a Chinese population. 312 participants with self-report of insomnia associated with distress or daytime impairment 3 or more nights per week for at least 3 months were randomized to self-help CBT-I with telephone support (SHS), self-help CBT-I (SH) and waiting-list (WL). The program was Internet-based with treatment materials delivered once per week, and lasted for 6 consecutive weeks, while the telephone support was limited to 15 min weekly. Mixed-effects analyses found significant group by time interaction in sleep and sleep-related cognitions at immediate and 4-week posttreatment. Post-hoc pairwise comparison with WL revealed that both SHS and SH had significantly higher sleep efficiency at immediate (p = .004 and p = .03, respectively) and 4-week posttreatment (p = .002 and p = .02, respectively) and lower insomnia and dysfunctional beliefs scores. The SHS group had additional improvements in sleep onset latency and sleep quality. Benefits with self-help CBT-I were maintained at 12-week posttreatment, but attrition rate was about 35%. Internet-based self-help CBT-I was effective and acceptable for treating insomnia in the Chinese population. A brief telephone support further enhanced the efficacy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Me and my body: the relevance of the distinction for the difference between withdrawing life support and euthanasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGee, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, I discuss David Shaw's claim that the body of a terminally ill person can be conceived as a kind of life support, akin to an artificial ventilator. I claim that this position rests upon an untenable dualism between the mind and the body. Given that dualism continues to be attractive to some thinkers, I attempt to diagnose the reasons why it continues to be attractive, as well as to demonstrate its incoherence, drawing on some recent work in the philosophy of psychology. I conclude that, if my criticisms are sound, Shaw's attempt to deny the distinction between withdrawal and euthanasia fails. © 2011 American Society of Law, Medicine & Ethics, Inc.

  2. Functional associations between support use and forelimb shape in strepsirrhines and their relevance to inferring locomotor behavior in early primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabre, Anne-Claire; Marigó, Judit; Granatosky, Michael C; Schmitt, Daniel

    2017-07-01

    The evolution of primates is intimately linked to their initial invasion of an arboreal environment. However, moving and foraging in this milieu creates significant mechanical challenges related to the presence of substrates differing in their size and orientation. It is widely assumed that primates are behaviorally and anatomically adapted to movement on specific substrates, but few explicit tests of this relationship in an evolutionary context have been conducted. Without direct tests of form-function relationships in living primates it is impossible to reliably infer behavior in fossil taxa. In this study, we test a hypothesis of co-variation between forelimb morphology and the type of substrates used by strepsirrhines. If associations between anatomy and substrate use exist, these can then be applied to better understand limb anatomy of extinct primates. The co-variation between each forelimb long bone and the type of substrate used was studied in a phylogenetic context. Our results show that despite the presence of significant phylogenetic signal for each long bone of the forelimb, clear support use associations are present. A strong co-variation was found between the type of substrate used and the shape of the radius, with and without taking phylogeny into account, whereas co-variation was significant for the ulna only when taking phylogeny into account. Species that use a thin branch milieu show radii that are gracile and straight and have a distal articular shape that allows for a wide range of movements. In contrast, extant species that commonly use large supports show a relatively robust and curved radius with an increased surface area available for forearm and hand muscles in pronated posture. These results, especially for the radius, support the idea that strepsirrhine primates exhibit specific skeletal adaptations associated with the supports that they habitually move on. With these robust associations in hand it will be possible to explore the same

  3. Surface-supported Ag islands stabilized by a quantum size effect: Their interaction with small molecules relevant to ethylene epoxidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shao, Dahai [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2013-05-15

    This dissertation focuses on how QSE-stabilized, surface-supported Ag nanoclusters will interact with ethylene or oxygen. Experiments are performed to determine whether the QSE-mediated Ag islands react differently toward adsorption of ethylene or oxygen, or whether the adsorption of these small molecules will affect the QSE-mediated stability of Ag islands. Studies of the interaction of oxygen with Ag/Si(111)-7×7 were previously reported, but these studies were performed at a low Ag coverage where 3D Ag islands were not formed. So the study of such a system at a higher Ag coverage will be a subject of this work. The interaction of ethylene with Ag/Si(111)-7×7, as well as the interaction of oxygen with Ag/NiAl(110) are also important parts of this study.

  4. A Clinical Decision Support System for Chronic Pain Management in Primary Care: Usability testing and its relevance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Kalpana Maria; Malaeekeh, Raheleh; Schabort, Inge; Taenzer, Paul; Radhakrishnan, Arun; Guenter, Dale

    2015-08-13

    Clinical decision support systems (CDSSs) that are integrated into electronic medical records may be useful for encouraging practice change compliant with clinical practice guidelines. To engage end users to inform early phase CDSS development through a process of usability testing. A sequential exploratory mixed method approach was used. Interprofessional clinician participants (seven in iteration 1 and six in iteration 2) were asked to 'think aloud' while performing various tasks on the CDSS and then complete the System Usability Scale (SUS). Changes were made to the CDSS after each iteration.Results Barriers and facilitators were identified: systemic; user interface (most numerous barriers); content (most numerous facilitators) and technical. The mean SUS score was 81.1 (SD = 12.02) in iteration 1 and 70.40 (SD = 6.78) in iteration 2 (p > 0.05). Qualitative data from usability testing were valuable in the CDSS development process. SUS scores were of limited value at this development stage.

  5. A clinical decision support system algorithm for intravenous to oral antibiotic switch therapy: validity, clinical relevance and usefulness in a three-step evaluation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhloufi, H; Hulscher, M; van der Hoeven, C P; Prins, J M; van der Sijs, H; Melles, D C; Verbon, A

    2018-04-26

    To evaluate a clinical decision support system (CDSS) based on consensus-based intravenous to oral switch criteria, which identifies intravenous to oral switch candidates. A three-step evaluation study of a stand-alone CDSS with electronic health record interoperability was performed at the Erasmus University Medical Centre in the Netherlands. During the first step, we performed a technical validation. During the second step, we determined the sensitivity, specificity, negative predictive value and positive predictive value in a retrospective cohort of all hospitalized adult patients starting at least one therapeutic antibacterial drug between 1 and 16 May 2013. ICU, paediatric and psychiatric wards were excluded. During the last step the clinical relevance and usefulness was prospectively assessed by reports to infectious disease specialists. An alert was considered clinically relevant if antibiotics could be discontinued or switched to oral therapy at the time of the alert. During the first step, one technical error was found. The second step yielded a positive predictive value of 76.6% and a negative predictive value of 99.1%. The third step showed that alerts were clinically relevant in 53.5% of patients. For 43.4% it had already been decided to discontinue or switch the intravenous antibiotics by the treating physician. In 10.1%, the alert resulted in advice to change antibiotic policy and was considered useful. This prospective cohort study shows that the alerts were clinically relevant in >50% (n = 449) and useful in 10% (n = 85). The CDSS needs to be evaluated in hospitals with varying activity of infectious disease consultancy services as this probably influences usefulness.

  6. Empirical likelihood

    CERN Document Server

    Owen, Art B

    2001-01-01

    Empirical likelihood provides inferences whose validity does not depend on specifying a parametric model for the data. Because it uses a likelihood, the method has certain inherent advantages over resampling methods: it uses the data to determine the shape of the confidence regions, and it makes it easy to combined data from multiple sources. It also facilitates incorporating side information, and it simplifies accounting for censored, truncated, or biased sampling.One of the first books published on the subject, Empirical Likelihood offers an in-depth treatment of this method for constructing confidence regions and testing hypotheses. The author applies empirical likelihood to a range of problems, from those as simple as setting a confidence region for a univariate mean under IID sampling, to problems defined through smooth functions of means, regression models, generalized linear models, estimating equations, or kernel smooths, and to sampling with non-identically distributed data. Abundant figures offer vi...

  7. Guidelines for using empirical studies in software engineering education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabian Fagerholm

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Software engineering education is under constant pressure to provide students with industry-relevant knowledge and skills. Educators must address issues beyond exercises and theories that can be directly rehearsed in small settings. Industry training has similar requirements of relevance as companies seek to keep their workforce up to date with technological advances. Real-life software development often deals with large, software-intensive systems and is influenced by the complex effects of teamwork and distributed software development, which are hard to demonstrate in an educational environment. A way to experience such effects and to increase the relevance of software engineering education is to apply empirical studies in teaching. In this paper, we show how different types of empirical studies can be used for educational purposes in software engineering. We give examples illustrating how to utilize empirical studies, discuss challenges, and derive an initial guideline that supports teachers to include empirical studies in software engineering courses. Furthermore, we give examples that show how empirical studies contribute to high-quality learning outcomes, to student motivation, and to the awareness of the advantages of applying software engineering principles. Having awareness, experience, and understanding of the actions required, students are more likely to apply such principles under real-life constraints in their working life.

  8. Finding harmony so the music plays on: pragmatic trial design considerations to promote organizational sustainment of an empirically-supported behavior therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartzler, Bryan; Peavy, K Michelle; Jackson, T Ron; Carney, Molly

    2016-01-22

    Pragmatic trials of empirically-supported behavior therapies may inform clinical and policy decisions concerning therapy sustainment. This retrospective trial design paper describes and discusses pragmatic features of a hybrid type III implementation/effectiveness trial of a contingency management (CM) intervention at an opioid treatment program. Prior reporting (Hartzler et al., J Subst Abuse Treat 46:429-438, 2014; Hartzler, Subst Abuse Treat Prev Policy 10:30, 2015) notes success in recruiting program staff for voluntary participation, durable impacts of CM training on staff-level outcomes, provisional setting implementation of the intervention, documentation of clinical effectiveness, and post-trial sustainment of CM. Six pragmatic design features, and both scientific and practical bases for their inclusion in the trial, are presented: (1) a collaborative intervention design process, (2) voluntary recruitment of program staff for therapy training and implementation, (3) serial training outcome assessments, with quasi-experimental staff randomization to either single or multiple baseline assessment conditions, (4) designation of a 90-day period immediately after training in which the setting implemented the intervention on a provisional basis, (5) inclusive patient eligibility for receipt of the CM intervention, and (6) designation of two staff as local implementation leaders to oversee clinical/administrative issues in provisional implementation. Each pragmatic trial design feature is argued to have contributed to sustainment of CM. Contributions implicate the building of setting proprietorship for the CM intervention, culling of internal staff expertise in its delivery, iterative use of assessment methods that limited setting burden, documentation of setting-specific clinical effectiveness, expanded penetration of CM among staff during provisional implementation, and promotion of setting self-reliance in the oversight of sustainable implementation procedures

  9. Empirical Hamiltonians

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peggs, S.; Talman, R.

    1987-01-01

    As proton accelerators get larger, and include more magnets, the conventional tracking programs which simulate them run slower. The purpose of this paper is to describe a method, still under development, in which element-by-element tracking around one turn is replaced by a single man, which can be processed far faster. It is assumed for this method that a conventional program exists which can perform faithful tracking in the lattice under study for some hundreds of turns, with all lattice parameters held constant. An empirical map is then generated by comparison with the tracking program. A procedure has been outlined for determining an empirical Hamiltonian, which can represent motion through many nonlinear kicks, by taking data from a conventional tracking program. Though derived by an approximate method this Hamiltonian is analytic in form and can be subjected to further analysis of varying degrees of mathematical rigor. Even though the empirical procedure has only been described in one transverse dimension, there is good reason to hope that it can be extended to include two transverse dimensions, so that it can become a more practical tool in realistic cases

  10. Supportive Accountability: A model for providing human support for internet and ehealth interventions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mohr, D.C.; Cuijpers, P.; Lehman, K.A.

    2011-01-01

    The effectiveness of and adherence to eHealth interventions is enhanced by human support. However, human support has largely not been manualized and has usually not been guided by clear models. The objective of this paper is to develop a clear theoretical model, based on relevant empirical

  11. Does risk management contribute to IT project success? A meta-analysis of empirical evidence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Bakker, K.F.C.; Boonstra, A.; Wortmann, J.C.

    The question whether risk management contributes to IT project success is considered relevant by people from both academic and practitioners' communities already for a long time. This paper presents a meta-analysis of the empirical evidence that either supports or opposes the claim that risk

  12. An Empirical Taxonomy of Social-Psychological Risk Indicators in Youth Suicide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyde, Toni; Kirkland, John; Bimler, David; Pechtel, Pia

    2005-01-01

    The current study integrates descriptive (though primarily social-psychological) statements about youth suicide into a coherent, empirically supported taxonomy. Drawing from relevant literature, a set of 107 items characterizing these contributions about youth suicide was created. Seventy-two participants sorted these statements according to their…

  13. Empirical Hamiltonians

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peggs, S.; Talman, R.

    1986-08-01

    As proton accelerators get larger, and include more magnets, the conventional tracking programs which simulate them run slower. At the same time, in order to more carefully optimize the higher cost of the accelerators, they must return more accurate results, even in the presence of a longer list of realistic effects, such as magnet errors and misalignments. For these reasons conventional tracking programs continue to be computationally bound, despite the continually increasing computing power available. This limitation is especially severe for a class of problems in which some lattice parameter is slowly varying, when a faithful description is only obtained by tracking for an exceedingly large number of turns. Examples are synchrotron oscillations in which the energy varies slowly with a period of, say, hundreds of turns, or magnet ripple or noise on a comparably slow time scale. In these cases one may with to track for hundreds of periods of the slowly varying parameter. The purpose of this paper is to describe a method, still under development, in which element-by-element tracking around one turn is replaced by a single map, which can be processed far faster. Similar programs have already been written in which successive elements are ''concatenated'' with truncation to linear, sextupole, or octupole order, et cetera, using Lie algebraic techniques to preserve symplecticity. The method described here is rather more empirical than this but, in principle, contains information to all orders and is able to handle resonances in a more straightforward fashion

  14. The Development of Relevance in Information Retrieval

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mu-hsuan Huang

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available This article attempts to investigate the notion of relevance in information retrieval. It discusses various definitions for relevance from historical viewpoints and the characteristics of relevance judgments. Also, it introduces empirical results of important related researches.[Article content in Chinese

  15. The Cost of Failure: An Empirical Look at the Financial Effect of Business Failure on the Self-Employed

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-08-01

    wealth measurements. Chapter Two also addresses the relevant work in labor economics that provides the theoretical basis and empirical support for how...lead to asset growth are typically not addressed in their own right. It is also worth noting that much of the labor economics literature devoted to...earnings profile, it is hard to ignore. Additionally, empirical labor economics literature shows the existence a quadratic component to the shape of

  16. Social support and the working hours of employed mothers in Europe: The relevance of the state, the workplace, and the family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abendroth, Anja-Kristin; van der Lippe, Tanja; Maas, Ineke

    2012-05-01

    This paper studies the influence of state, workplace, and family support on the working hours of employed mothers and how these different support sources interact. Data taken from the European Social Survey 2004/2005 as well as country-specific information were used to estimate several hierarchical models. We find evidence that the availability of supportive workplace arrangements and family support positively impact the working hours of employed mothers and that state policies facilitating the traditional family have a negative effect. There is weak support for a positive relationship between state policies facilitating the dual-earner family and working hours of employed mothers. In addition, most of the sources of support appear to be complementary. Supportive family role models and supportive workplace arrangements have a reinforcing relationship, as do publicly funded child care and supportive workplace arrangements. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Dramatic lives and relevant becomings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Ann-Karina; Miller, Jody

    2012-01-01

    of marginality into positions of relevance. The analysis builds on empirical data from Copenhagen, Denmark, gained through ethnographic fieldwork with the participation of 20 female informants aged 13–22. The theoretical contribution proposes viewing conflicts as multi-linear, multi-causal and non...

  18. Dissociation-focused Victim Support and Coping with Traumatic Memory: an empirical search for evidence sustaining the potential of downward comparison based interventions.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winkel, F.W.; Blaauw, E.; Wisman, F.

    1999-01-01

    Some victims are highly susceptible to develop traumatic memories. A basic model of traumatic memory and its theoretical implications for coping assistance offered by victim support is outlined. The main focus of victim support from this perspective is to initiate and facilitate a process of

  19. Gender and Children as the Moderators of the Relationship between Social Support and Quality of Life: An Empirical Study of People Living with HIV/AIDS in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrefa-Gyan, Tina; Cornelius, Llewellyn; Okundaye, Joshua

    2015-01-01

    Although gender differences persist in the receipt of social support and the report of quality of life among people living with HIV/AIDS in Sub-Saharan Africa, the knowledge base on this topic is scant. For those living with HIV/AIDS, women tend to participate more than men in support group activities, but their gender predisposes them to lower quality of life. Therefore, this study seeks to determine what demographic factors moderate the relationship between social support and quality of life among those living with HIV/AIDS in Ghana. A convenience sample of 300 HIV/AIDS support group members who have experience participating in research studies and was obtained for use via cross-sectional design survey in September and October 2013. The Medical Outcome Studies (MOS) HIV Health Survey, the MOS Social Support Survey, and demographic questionnaire instruments were used to assess quality of life, social support, and demographic information respectively. Gender (male) F(3, 296) = 66.04, t = 2.26, p = .024) and having children (have children) (F(5, 294) = 40.34, t = 2.50, p = .013) moderated the relationship between social support and quality of life. Implications of the findings for practice, policy, and research in Ghana and the rest of the developing world were discussed.

  20. Relevant Standards

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    .86: Ethernet over LAPS. Standard in China and India. G.7041: Generic Framing Procedure (GFP). Supports Ethernet as well as other data formats (e.g., Fibre Channel); Protocol of ... IEEE 802.3x for flow control of incoming Ethernet data ...

  1. [Is psychiatry relevant in autism? A brief historical perspective on the role of psychiatry in diagnosis, and support to autistic people].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mottron, Laurent

    2015-01-01

    Based on an overview of the recent history of professional roles in autism diagnosis and support in the province of Quebec, this paper supports the view that hearing what autistic people say, combined with interdisciplinary, but hierarchically ruled task sharing in clinical settings, and to a pacific confrontation between scientific and clinical demands, prevents the high jacking of autism for corporatist or ideological purposes.

  2. Simulating Pre-Asymptotic, Non-Fickian Transport Although Doing Simple Random Walks - Supported By Empirical Pore-Scale Velocity Distributions and Memory Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Most, S.; Jia, N.; Bijeljic, B.; Nowak, W.

    2016-12-01

    Pre-asymptotic characteristics are almost ubiquitous when analyzing solute transport processes in porous media. These pre-asymptotic aspects are caused by spatial coherence in the velocity field and by its heterogeneity. For the Lagrangian perspective of particle displacements, the causes of pre-asymptotic, non-Fickian transport are skewed velocity distribution, statistical dependencies between subsequent increments of particle positions (memory) and dependence between the x, y and z-components of particle increments. Valid simulation frameworks should account for these factors. We propose a particle tracking random walk (PTRW) simulation technique that can use empirical pore-space velocity distributions as input, enforces memory between subsequent random walk steps, and considers cross dependence. Thus, it is able to simulate pre-asymptotic non-Fickian transport phenomena. Our PTRW framework contains an advection/dispersion term plus a diffusion term. The advection/dispersion term produces time-series of particle increments from the velocity CDFs. These time series are equipped with memory by enforcing that the CDF values of subsequent velocities change only slightly. The latter is achieved through a random walk on the axis of CDF values between 0 and 1. The virtual diffusion coefficient for that random walk is our only fitting parameter. Cross-dependence can be enforced by constraining the random walk to certain combinations of CDF values between the three velocity components in x, y and z. We will show that this modelling framework is capable of simulating non-Fickian transport by comparison with a pore-scale transport simulation and we analyze the approach to asymptotic behavior.

  3. A Theoretical and Empirical Analysis of the Roles of Instructional Leadership, Teacher Collaboration, and Collective Efficacy Beliefs in Support of Student Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goddard, Roger; Goddard, Yvonne; Kim, Eun Sook; Miller, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Principals' instructional leadership may support the degree to which teachers work together to improve instruction, and together leadership and teacher collaboration may contribute to school effectiveness by strengthening collective efficacy beliefs. We found a significant direct effect of leadership on teacher collaboration. Further, leadership…

  4. Relevance in the science classroom: A multidimensional analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartwell, Matthew F.

    While perceived relevance is considered a fundamental component of adaptive learning, the experience of relevance and its conceptual definition have not been well described. The mixed-methods research presented in this dissertation aimed to clarify the conceptual meaning of relevance by focusing on its phenomenological experience from the students' perspective. Following a critical literature review, I propose an identity-based model of perceived relevance that includes three components: a contextual target, an identity target, and a connection type, or lens. An empirical investigation of this model that consisted of two general phases was implemented in four 9th grade-biology classrooms. Participants in Phase 1 (N = 118) completed a series of four open-ended writing activities focused on eliciting perceived personal connections to academic content. Exploratory qualitative content analysis of a 25% random sample of the student responses was used to identify the main meaning-units of the proposed model as well as different dimensions of student relevance perceptions. These meaning-units and dimensions provided the basis for the construction of a conceptual mapping sentence capturing students' perceived relevance, which was then applied in a confirmatory analysis to all other student responses. Participants in Phase 2 (N = 139) completed a closed survey designed based on the mapping sentence to assess their perceived relevance of a biology unit. The survey also included scales assessing other domain-level motivational processes. Exploratory factor analysis and non-metric multidimensional scaling indicated a coherent conceptual structure, which included a primary interpretive relevance dimension. Comparison of the conceptual structure across various groups (randomly-split sample, gender, academic level, domain-general motivational profiles) provided support for its ubiquity and insight into variation in the experience of perceived relevance among students of different

  5. Advancing Empirical Scholarship to Further Develop Evaluation Theory and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christie, Christina A.

    2011-01-01

    Good theory development is grounded in empirical inquiry. In the context of educational evaluation, the development of empirically grounded theory has important benefits for the field and the practitioner. In particular, a shift to empirically derived theory will assist in advancing more systematic and contextually relevant evaluation practice, as…

  6. Observational drawing biases are predicted by biases in perception: Empirical support of the misperception hypothesis of drawing accuracy with respect to two angle illusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrofsky, Justin; Kozbelt, Aaron; Cohen, Dale J

    2015-01-01

    We tested the misperception hypothesis of drawing errors, which states that drawing accuracy is strongly influenced by the perceptual encoding of a to-be-drawn stimulus. We used a highly controlled experimental paradigm in which nonartist participants made perceptual judgements and drawings of angles under identical stimulus exposure conditions. Experiment 1 examined the isosceles/scalene triangle angle illusion; congruent patterns of bias in the perception and drawing tasks were found for 40 and 60° angles, but not for 20 or 80° angles, providing mixed support for the misperception hypothesis. Experiment 2 examined shape constancy effects with respect to reproductions of single acute or obtuse angles; congruent patterns of bias in the perception and drawing tasks were found across a range of angles from 29 to 151°, providing strong support for the misperception hypothesis. In both experiments, perceptual and drawing biases were positively correlated. These results are largely consistent with the misperception hypothesis, suggesting that inaccurate perceptual encoding of angles is an important reason that nonartists err in drawing angles from observation.

  7. Source selection for analogical reasoning an empirical approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stubblefield, W.A. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Luger, G.F. [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1996-12-31

    The effectiveness of an analogical reasoner depends upon its ability to select a relevant analogical source. In many problem domains, however, too little is known about target problems to support effective source selection. This paper describes the design and evaluation of SCAVENGER, an analogical reasoner that applies two techniques to this problem: (1) An assumption-based approach to matching that allows properties of candidate sources to match unknown target properties in the absence of evidence to the contrary. (2) The use of empirical learning to improve memory organization based on problem solving experience.

  8. Relevance theory: pragmatics and cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wearing, Catherine J

    2015-01-01

    Relevance Theory is a cognitively oriented theory of pragmatics, i.e., a theory of language use. It builds on the seminal work of H.P. Grice(1) to develop a pragmatic theory which is at once philosophically sensitive and empirically plausible (in both psychological and evolutionary terms). This entry reviews the central commitments and chief contributions of Relevance Theory, including its Gricean commitment to the centrality of intention-reading and inference in communication; the cognitively grounded notion of relevance which provides the mechanism for explaining pragmatic interpretation as an intention-driven, inferential process; and several key applications of the theory (lexical pragmatics, metaphor and irony, procedural meaning). Relevance Theory is an important contribution to our understanding of the pragmatics of communication. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. The limitations of using the existing TAM in adoption of clinical decision support system in hospitals: An empirical study in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pouyan Esmaeilzadeh

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The technology acceptance model (TAM has been widely used to study user acceptance of new computer technologies. Previous studies claimed that future technology acceptance research should explore other additional explanatory variables, which may affect the originally proposed constructs of the TAM. The use of information technology in the health care sector and especially in hospitals offers great potential for improving the performance of physicians, increasing the quality of services and also reducing the organizational expenses. However, the main challenge that arises according to the literature is whether healthcare professionals are willing to adopt and use clinical information technology while performing their tasks. Although adoption of various information technologies has been studied using the technology acceptance model (TAM, the study of technology acceptance for professional groups (such as physicians has been limited. Physician adoption of clinical information technology is important for its successful implementation. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to gain a better insight about factors affecting physicians’ acceptance of clinical decision support systems (CDSS in a hospital setting. The results reflect the importance of perceived threat to professional autonomy, perceived interactivity with clinical IT, perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use in determining physicians’ intention to use CDSS.

  10. Are CSR disclosures relevant for investors? Empirical evidence from Germany

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verbeeten, F.H.M.; Gamerschlag, R.; Möller, K.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to examine whether narrative corporate social responsibility (CSR) disclosures (the provision of textual information on companies’ environmental and social performance to external stakeholders) are associated with firm value in Germany.

  11. The Limits to Relevance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Averill, M.; Briggle, A.

    2006-12-01

    Science policy and knowledge production lately have taken a pragmatic turn. Funding agencies increasingly are requiring scientists to explain the relevance of their work to society. This stems in part from mounting critiques of the "linear model" of knowledge production in which scientists operating according to their own interests or disciplinary standards are presumed to automatically produce knowledge that is of relevance outside of their narrow communities. Many contend that funded scientific research should be linked more directly to societal goals, which implies a shift in the kind of research that will be funded. While both authors support the concept of useful science, we question the exact meaning of "relevance" and the wisdom of allowing it to control research agendas. We hope to contribute to the conversation by thinking more critically about the meaning and limits of the term "relevance" and the trade-offs implicit in a narrow utilitarian approach. The paper will consider which interests tend to be privileged by an emphasis on relevance and address issues such as whose goals ought to be pursued and why, and who gets to decide. We will consider how relevance, narrowly construed, may actually limit the ultimate utility of scientific research. The paper also will reflect on the worthiness of research goals themselves and their relationship to a broader view of what it means to be human and to live in society. Just as there is more to being human than the pragmatic demands of daily life, there is more at issue with knowledge production than finding the most efficient ways to satisfy consumer preferences or fix near-term policy problems. We will conclude by calling for a balanced approach to funding research that addresses society's most pressing needs but also supports innovative research with less immediately apparent application.

  12. The Globalization of Food Systems: A Conceptual Framework and Empirical Patterns

    OpenAIRE

    Senauer, Benjamin; Venturini, Luciano

    2005-01-01

    This paper discusses a number of stylized facts and empirical patterns regarding agri-food trade flows as well as foreign direct investments in food processing and retailing. This evidence supports the hypothesis of an increasingly global food system. We identify the main factors at work such as push/supply side, pull/demand-side, and enabling/external factors. We show how the shift from national to global retailing is a recent phenomenon whose relevance for the globalization of upstream sect...

  13. Telecommunication Support System Using Keywords and Their Relevant Information in Videoconferencing — Presentation Method for Keeping Audience's Concentration at Distance Lectures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asai, Kikuo; Kondo, Kimio; Kobayashi, Hideaki; Saito, Fumihiko

    We developed a prototype system to support telecommunication by using keywords selected by the speaker in a videoconference. In the traditional presentation style, a speaker talks and uses audiovisual materials, and the audience at remote sites looks at these materials. Unfortunately, the audience often loses concentration and attention during the talk. To overcome this problem, we investigate a keyword presentation style, in which the speaker holds keyword cards that enable the audience to see additional information. Although keyword captions were originally intended for use in video materials for learning foreign languages, they can also be used to improve the quality of distance lectures in videoconferences. Our prototype system recognizes printed keywords in a video image at a server, and transfers the data to clients as multimedia functions such as language translation, three-dimensional (3D) model visualization, and audio reproduction. The additional information is collocated to the keyword cards in the display window, thus forming a spatial relationship between them. We conducted an experiment to investigate the properties of the keyword presentation style for an audience. The results suggest the potential of the keyword presentation style for improving the audience's concentration and attention in distance lectures by providing an environment that facilitates eye contact during videoconferencing.

  14. Clinically Relevant Subsets Identified by Gene Expression Patterns Support a Revised Ontogenic Model of Wilms Tumor: A Children's Oncology Group Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha Gadd

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Wilms tumors (WT have provided broad insights into the interface between development and tumorigenesis. Further understanding is confounded by their genetic, histologic, and clinical heterogeneity, the basis of which remains largely unknown. We evaluated 224 WT for global gene expression patterns; WT1, CTNNB1, and WTX mutation; and 11p15 copy number and methylation patterns. Five subsets were identified showing distinct differences in their pathologic and clinical features: these findings were validated in 100 additional WT. The gene expression pattern of each subset was compared with published gene expression profiles during normal renal development. A novel subset of epithelial WT in infants lacked WT1, CTNNB1, and WTX mutations and nephrogenic rests and displayed a gene expression pattern of the postinduction nephron, and none recurred. Three subsets were characterized by a low expression of WT1 and intralobar nephrogenic rests. These differed in their frequency of WT1 and CTNNB1 mutations, in their age, in their relapse rate, and in their expression similarities with the intermediate mesoderm versus the metanephric mesenchyme. The largest subset was characterized by biallelic methylation of the imprint control region 1, a gene expression profile of the metanephric mesenchyme, and both interlunar and perilobar nephrogenic rests. These data provide a biologic explanation for the clinical and pathologic heterogeneity seen within WT and enable the future development of subset-specific therapeutic strategies. Further, these data support a revision of the current model of WT ontogeny, which allows for an interplay between the type of initiating event and the developmental stage in which it occurs.

  15. Principles Involving Marketing Policies: An Empirical Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    JS Armstrong; Randall L. Schultz

    2005-01-01

    We examined nine marketing textbooks, published since 1927, to see if they contained useful marketing principles. Four doctoral students found 566 normative statements about pricing, product, place, or promotion in these texts. None of these stateinents were supported by empirical evidence. Four raters agreed on only twenty of these 566 statements as providing meaningful principles. Twenty marketing professors rated whether the twenty meaningful principles were correct, supported by empirical...

  16. Supporting graduation programs through empirical evidence and ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Chiffrer le travail des femmes - économie sexiste sur le marché et au foyer. Les femmes ont accompli de grands progrès dans les sphères de l'économie et de la politique, mais elles n'ont pas encore rejoint les hommes. Voir davantageChiffrer le travail des femmes - économie sexiste sur le marché et au foyer ...

  17. Supporting graduation programs through empirical evidence and ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... girls, migrant workers, and the ultra-poor (people who live on less than 60 cents a day). ... Call for new OWSD Fellowships for Early Career Women Scientists now open ... Eleven world-class research teams set to improve livestock vaccine ...

  18. A New Twist on Empirically Supported Treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larry E. Beutler

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo presenta los resultados preliminares de un estudio experimental diseñado para desarrollar y validar un modelo integrador de intervenciones psicológicas. La psicoterapia prescriptiva basa sus procedimientos en principios de cambios meta-teóricos. Este enfoque enfatiza la adecuación o correspondencia de las intervenciones psicológicas a las características del paciente, planteando que esta correspondencia incrementa el poder predictivo de las contribuciones iniciales de los factores del paciente, tipos de intervención y alianza terapéutica de cara al resultado terapéutico. Este estudio piloto, en una muestra de 40 pacientes con trastornos del estado de ánimo y consumo excesivo de sustancias, confirmó que la correspondencia entre las características del paciente y las intervenciones psicológicas beneficia sustancialmente la eficacia del tratamiento, especialmente a los seis meses de finalizar el tratamiento. Los resultados sugieren que las características del paciente influyen en su pronóstico, que las intervenciones como tal influyen de forma modesta y que la alianza terapéutica incrementa el poder predictivo. Con todo, la adecuación de las intervenciones al paciente parece tener un valor predictivo superior al resto de variables, en particular para la depresión y la sensación de bienestar.

  19. Empirical Test Case Specification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kalyanova, Olena; Heiselberg, Per

    This document includes the empirical specification on the IEA task of evaluation building energy simulation computer programs for the Double Skin Facades (DSF) constructions. There are two approaches involved into this procedure, one is the comparative approach and another is the empirical one. I....... In the comparative approach the outcomes of different software tools are compared, while in the empirical approach the modelling results are compared with the results of experimental test cases....

  20. Empirical research on constructing Taiwan's ecoenvironmental ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper, the material flow indicators and ecological footprint approach structured are adopted to construct eco-environmental stress indicators. We use relevant data to proceed with the empirical analyses on environmental stress and ecological impacts in Taiwan between the years of 1998 and 2007. Analysis of ...

  1. Reflective equilibrium and empirical data: third person moral experiences in empirical medical ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Vries, Martine; Van Leeuwen, Evert

    2010-11-01

    In ethics, the use of empirical data has become more and more popular, leading to a distinct form of applied ethics, namely empirical ethics. This 'empirical turn' is especially visible in bioethics. There are various ways of combining empirical research and ethical reflection. In this paper we discuss the use of empirical data in a special form of Reflective Equilibrium (RE), namely the Network Model with Third Person Moral Experiences. In this model, the empirical data consist of the moral experiences of people in a practice. Although inclusion of these moral experiences in this specific model of RE can be well defended, their use in the application of the model still raises important questions. What precisely are moral experiences? How to determine relevance of experiences, in other words: should there be a selection of the moral experiences that are eventually used in the RE? How much weight should the empirical data have in the RE? And the key question: can the use of RE by empirical ethicists really produce answers to practical moral questions? In this paper we start to answer the above questions by giving examples taken from our research project on understanding the norm of informed consent in the field of pediatric oncology. We especially emphasize that incorporation of empirical data in a network model can reduce the risk of self-justification and bias and can increase the credibility of the RE reached. © 2009 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  2. Why relevance theory is relevant for lexicography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bothma, Theo; Tarp, Sven

    2014-01-01

    This article starts by providing a brief summary of relevance theory in information science in relation to the function theory of lexicography, explaining the different types of relevance, viz. objective system relevance and the subjective types of relevance, i.e. topical, cognitive, situational...... that is very important for lexicography as well as for information science, viz. functional relevance. Since all lexicographic work is ultimately aimed at satisfying users’ information needs, the article then discusses why the lexicographer should take note of all these types of relevance when planning a new...... dictionary project, identifying new tasks and responsibilities of the modern lexicographer. The article furthermore discusses how relevance theory impacts on teaching dictionary culture and reference skills. By integrating insights from lexicography and information science, the article contributes to new...

  3. Empirical Philosophy of Science

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mansnerus, Erika; Wagenknecht, Susann

    2015-01-01

    knowledge takes place through the integration of the empirical or historical research into the philosophical studies, as Chang, Nersessian, Thagard and Schickore argue in their work. Building upon their contributions we will develop a blueprint for an Empirical Philosophy of Science that draws upon...... qualitative methods from the social sciences in order to advance our philosophical understanding of science in practice. We will regard the relationship between philosophical conceptualization and empirical data as an iterative dialogue between theory and data, which is guided by a particular ‘feeling with......Empirical insights are proven fruitful for the advancement of Philosophy of Science, but the integration of philosophical concepts and empirical data poses considerable methodological challenges. Debates in Integrated History and Philosophy of Science suggest that the advancement of philosophical...

  4. Quality of life: a key variable to consider in the evaluation of adjustment in parents of children with autism spectrum disorders and in the development of relevant support and assistance programmes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappe, Emilie; Wolff, Marion; Bobet, René; Adrien, Jean-Louis

    2011-10-01

    Our primary objective was to identify cognitive and behavioural profiles that affect adjustment, in order to make relevant recommendations about support and assistance for parents of autistic children. One hundred and sixty French parents completed a battery of questionnaires and self-report measures developed or adapted to assess (1) the child and family situations; (2) perceived stress; (3) perceived social support; (4) perceived control; (5) coping strategies; and (6) quality of life. The psychometric properties of the instruments we used proved to be adequate. Our results support the pre-existing data and our findings may prove to be of interest to clinicians. Our primary finding was that emotion-focused coping strategies seem to be less effective. Parents who employed emotion-focused strategies were more stressed and more disturbed in most parts of their life. They also experienced more guilt and reported more false beliefs about PDD. Our data underscore the need for psychoeducation programmes for parents, focused on handling stress and emotions, modifying false beliefs and solving the daily problems that arise from PDD. We propose a 5-axis intervention model for parents of children with PDD, based on cognitive-behavioural therapies and on a stress management programme.

  5. Empirical research in medical ethics: How conceptual accounts on normative-empirical collaboration may improve research practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background The methodology of medical ethics during the last few decades has shifted from a predominant use of normative-philosophical analyses to an increasing involvement of empirical methods. The articles which have been published in the course of this so-called 'empirical turn' can be divided into conceptual accounts of empirical-normative collaboration and studies which use socio-empirical methods to investigate ethically relevant issues in concrete social contexts. Discussion A considered reference to normative research questions can be expected from good quality empirical research in medical ethics. However, a significant proportion of empirical studies currently published in medical ethics lacks such linkage between the empirical research and the normative analysis. In the first part of this paper, we will outline two typical shortcomings of empirical studies in medical ethics with regard to a link between normative questions and empirical data: (1) The complete lack of normative analysis, and (2) cryptonormativity and a missing account with regard to the relationship between 'is' and 'ought' statements. Subsequently, two selected concepts of empirical-normative collaboration will be presented and how these concepts may contribute to improve the linkage between normative and empirical aspects of empirical research in medical ethics will be demonstrated. Based on our analysis, as well as our own practical experience with empirical research in medical ethics, we conclude with a sketch of concrete suggestions for the conduct of empirical research in medical ethics. Summary High quality empirical research in medical ethics is in need of a considered reference to normative analysis. In this paper, we demonstrate how conceptual approaches of empirical-normative collaboration can enhance empirical research in medical ethics with regard to the link between empirical research and normative analysis. PMID:22500496

  6. The normative background of empirical-ethical research: first steps towards a transparent and reasoned approach in the selection of an ethical theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salloch, Sabine; Wäscher, Sebastian; Vollmann, Jochen; Schildmann, Jan

    2015-04-04

    Empirical-ethical research constitutes a relatively new field which integrates socio-empirical research and normative analysis. As direct inferences from descriptive data to normative conclusions are problematic, an ethical framework is needed to determine the relevance of the empirical data for normative argument. While issues of normative-empirical collaboration and questions of empirical methodology have been widely discussed in the literature, the normative methodology of empirical-ethical research has seldom been addressed. Based on our own research experience, we discuss one aspect of this normative methodology, namely the selection of an ethical theory serving as a background for empirical-ethical research. Whereas criteria for a good ethical theory in philosophical ethics are usually related to inherent aspects, such as the theory's clarity or coherence, additional points have to be considered in the field of empirical-ethical research. Three of these additional criteria will be discussed in the article: (a) the adequacy of the ethical theory for the issue at stake, (b) the theory's suitability for the purposes and design of the empirical-ethical research project, and (c) the interrelation between the ethical theory selected and the theoretical backgrounds of the socio-empirical research. Using the example of our own study on the development of interventions which support clinical decision-making in oncology, we will show how the selection of an ethical theory as a normative background for empirical-ethical research can proceed. We will also discuss the limitations of the procedures chosen in our project. The article stresses that a systematic and reasoned approach towards theory selection in empirical-ethical research should be given priority rather than an accidental or implicit way of choosing the normative framework for one's own research. It furthermore shows that the overall design of an empirical-ethical study is a multi-faceted endeavor which has to

  7. Functional co-activation within the prefrontal cortex supports the maintenance of behavioural performance in fear-relevant situations before an iTBS modulated virtual reality challenge in participants with spider phobia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deppermann, S; Notzon, S; Kroczek, A; Rosenbaum, D; Haeussinger, F B; Diemer, J; Domschke, K; Fallgatter, A J; Ehlis, A-C; Zwanzger, P

    2016-07-01

    A number of studies/meta-analyses reported moderate antidepressant effects of activating repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) over the prefrontal cortex (PFC). Regarding the treatment of anxiety, study outcomes are inconsistent, probably because of the heterogenity of anxiety disorders/study designs. To specifically evaluate the impact of rTMS on emotion regulation in fear-relevant situations we applied a sham-controlled activating protocol (intermittent Theta Burst Stimulation/iTBS) over the left PFC (F3) succeeded by a virtual reality (VR) challenge in n=41 participants with spider phobia and n=42 controls. Prior to/after iTBS and following VR prefrontal activation was assessed by functional near-infrared spectroscopy during an emotional Stroop paradigm. Performance (reaction times/error rates) was evaluated. Stimuli were rated regarding valence/arousal at both measurements. We found diminished activation in the left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) of participants with spider phobia compared to controls, particularly elicited by emotionally-irrelevant words. Simultaneously, a functional connectivity analysis showed increased co-activation between the left IFG and the contra-lateral hemisphere. Behavioural performance was unimpaired. After iTBS/VR no significant differences in cortical activation between the phobic and control group remained. However, verum-iTBS did not cause an additional augmentation. We interpreted our results in terms of a prefrontal network which gets activated by emotionally-relevant stimuli and supports the maintenance of adequate behavioural reactions. The missing add-on effects of iTBS might be due to a ceiling effect of VR, thereby supporting its potential during exposure therapy. Concurrently, it implies that the efficient application of iTBS in the context of emotion regulation still needs to be studied further. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Life Writing After Empire

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    A watershed moment of the twentieth century, the end of empire saw upheavals to global power structures and national identities. However, decolonisation profoundly affected individual subjectivities too. Life Writing After Empire examines how people around the globe have made sense of the post...... in order to understand how individual life writing reflects broader societal changes. From far-flung corners of the former British Empire, people have turned to life writing to manage painful or nostalgic memories, as well as to think about the past and future of the nation anew through the personal...

  9. Theological reflections on empire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allan A. Boesak

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Since the meeting of the World Alliance of Reformed Churches in Accra, Ghana (2004, and the adoption of the Accra Declaration, a debate has been raging in the churches about globalisation, socio-economic justice, ecological responsibility, political and cultural domination and globalised war. Central to this debate is the concept of empire and the way the United States is increasingly becoming its embodiment. Is the United States a global empire? This article argues that the United States has indeed become the expression of a modern empire and that this reality has considerable consequences, not just for global economics and politics but for theological refl ection as well.

  10. Gun Laws and Crime: An Empirical Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Matti Viren

    2012-01-01

    This paper deals with the effect of gun laws on crime. Several empirical analyses are carried to investigate the relationship between five different crime rates and alternative law variables. The tests are based on cross-section data from US sates. Three different law variables are used in the analysis, together with a set of control variables for income, poverty, unemployment and ethnic background of the population. Empirical analysis does not lend support to the notion that crime laws would...

  11. Deep learning relevance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lioma, Christina; Larsen, Birger; Petersen, Casper

    2016-01-01

    train a Recurrent Neural Network (RNN) on existing relevant information to that query. We then use the RNN to "deep learn" a single, synthetic, and we assume, relevant document for that query. We design a crowdsourcing experiment to assess how relevant the "deep learned" document is, compared...... to existing relevant documents. Users are shown a query and four wordclouds (of three existing relevant documents and our deep learned synthetic document). The synthetic document is ranked on average most relevant of all....

  12. Empirical Evidence from Kenya

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    FIRST LADY

    2011-01-18

    Jan 18, 2011 ... Empirical results reveal that consumption of sugar in. Kenya varies ... experiences in trade in different regions of the world. Some studies ... To assess the relationship between domestic sugar retail prices and sugar sales in ...

  13. Relevance of Green Marketing on Environmental Degradation: An ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Relevance of Green Marketing on Environmental Degradation: An Empirical ... to others through product, process, packaging and advertising modification(s). ... thus appropriate strategies for effective application of green marketing are lacking.

  14. Empirical logic and tensor products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foulis, D.J.; Randall, C.H.

    1981-01-01

    In our work we are developing a formalism called empirical logic to support a generalization of conventional statistics; the resulting generalization is called operational statistics. We are not attempting to develop or advocate any particular physical theory; rather we are formulating a precision 'language' in which such theories can be expressed, compared, evaluated, and related to laboratory experiments. We believe that only in such a language can the connections between real physical procedures (operations) and physical theories be made explicit and perspicuous. (orig./HSI)

  15. Empirical and pragmatic adequacy of grounded theory: Advancing nurse empowerment theory for nurses' practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udod, Sonia A; Racine, Louise

    2017-12-01

    To draw on the findings of a grounded theory study aimed at exploring how power is exercised in nurse-manager relationships in the hospital setting, this paper examines the empirical and pragmatic adequacy of grounded theory as a methodology to advance the concept of empowerment in the area of nursing leadership and management. The evidence on staff nurse empowerment has highlighted the magnitude of individual and organisational outcomes, but has not fully explicated the micro-level processes underlying how power is exercised, shared or created within the nurse-manager relationship. Although grounded theory is a widely adopted nursing research methodology, it remains less used in nursing leadership because of the dominance of quantitative approaches to research. Grounded theory methodology provides the empirical and pragmatic relevance to inform nursing practice and policy. Grounded theory is a relevant qualitative approach to use in leadership research as it provides a fine and detailed analysis of the process underlying complexity and bureaucracy. Discursive paper. A critical examination of the empirical and pragmatic relevance of grounded theory by (Corbin & Strauss, , ) as a method for analysing and solving problems in nurses' practice is provided. This paper provides evidence to support the empirical and pragmatic adequacy of grounded theory methodology. Although the application of the ontological, epistemological and methodological assumptions of grounded theory is challenging, this methodology is useful to address real-life problems in nursing practice by developing theoretical explanations of nurse empowerment, or lack thereof, in the workplace. Grounded theory represents a relevant methodology to inform nursing leadership research. Grounded theory is anchored in the reality of practice. The strength of grounded theory is to provide results that can be readily applied to clinical practice and policy as they arise from problems that affect practice and that

  16. Empirical philosophy of science

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagenknecht, Susann; Nersessian, Nancy J.; Andersen, Hanne

    2015-01-01

    A growing number of philosophers of science make use of qualitative empirical data, a development that may reconfigure the relations between philosophy and sociology of science and that is reminiscent of efforts to integrate history and philosophy of science. Therefore, the first part...... of this introduction to the volume Empirical Philosophy of Science outlines the history of relations between philosophy and sociology of science on the one hand, and philosophy and history of science on the other. The second part of this introduction offers an overview of the papers in the volume, each of which...... is giving its own answer to questions such as: Why does the use of qualitative empirical methods benefit philosophical accounts of science? And how should these methods be used by the philosopher?...

  17. Empirically evaluating decision-analytic models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldhaber-Fiebert, Jeremy D; Stout, Natasha K; Goldie, Sue J

    2010-08-01

    Model-based cost-effectiveness analyses support decision-making. To augment model credibility, evaluation via comparison to independent, empirical studies is recommended. We developed a structured reporting format for model evaluation and conducted a structured literature review to characterize current model evaluation recommendations and practices. As an illustration, we applied the reporting format to evaluate a microsimulation of human papillomavirus and cervical cancer. The model's outputs and uncertainty ranges were compared with multiple outcomes from a study of long-term progression from high-grade precancer (cervical intraepithelial neoplasia [CIN]) to cancer. Outcomes included 5 to 30-year cumulative cancer risk among women with and without appropriate CIN treatment. Consistency was measured by model ranges overlapping study confidence intervals. The structured reporting format included: matching baseline characteristics and follow-up, reporting model and study uncertainty, and stating metrics of consistency for model and study results. Structured searches yielded 2963 articles with 67 meeting inclusion criteria and found variation in how current model evaluations are reported. Evaluation of the cervical cancer microsimulation, reported using the proposed format, showed a modeled cumulative risk of invasive cancer for inadequately treated women of 39.6% (30.9-49.7) at 30 years, compared with the study: 37.5% (28.4-48.3). For appropriately treated women, modeled risks were 1.0% (0.7-1.3) at 30 years, study: 1.5% (0.4-3.3). To support external and projective validity, cost-effectiveness models should be iteratively evaluated as new studies become available, with reporting standardized to facilitate assessment. Such evaluations are particularly relevant for models used to conduct comparative effectiveness analyses.

  18. Persistent Educational Advantage Across Three Generations: Empirical Evidence for Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Ziefle

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article uses survey data from the German Socio-Economic Panel (GSOEP to analyze the persistence of educational attainment across three generations in Germany. I obtain evidence of a robust effect of grandparents' education on respondents' own educational attainment in West Germany, net of parental class, education, occupational status, family income, parents' relationship history, and family size. I also test whether the grandparent effect results from resource compensation or cumulative advantage and find empirical support for both mechanisms. In comparison, the intergenerational association between grandparents' and respondents' education is considerably weaker in East Germany and is also mediated completely by parental education. There are hardly any gender differences in the role of grandparents for respondents’ educational attainment, except for the fact that resource compensation is found to be exclusively relevant for women’s attainment in both West Germany and in East Germany after German reunification and the associated transition to an open educational system.

  19. Empire vs. Federation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gravier, Magali

    2011-01-01

    The article discusses the concepts of federation and empire in the context of the European Union (EU). Even if these two concepts are not usually contrasted to one another, the article shows that they refer to related type of polities. Furthermore, they can be used at a time because they shed light...... on different and complementary aspects of the European integration process. The article concludes that the EU is at the crossroads between federation and empire and may remain an ‘imperial federation’ for several decades. This could mean that the EU is on the verge of transforming itself to another type...

  20. Empirical comparison of theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Opp, K.D.; Wippler, R.

    1990-01-01

    The book represents the first, comprehensive attempt to take an empirical approach for comparative assessment of theories in sociology. The aims, problems, and advantages of the empirical approach are discussed in detail, and the three theories selected for the purpose of this work are explained. Their comparative assessment is performed within the framework of several research projects, which among other subjects also investigate the social aspects of the protest against nuclear power plants. The theories analysed in this context are the theory of mental incongruities and that of the benefit, and their efficiency in explaining protest behaviour is compared. (orig./HSCH) [de

  1. Empirical Music Aesthetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grund, Cynthia M.

    The toolbox for empirically exploring the ways that artistic endeavors convey and activate meaning on the part of performers and audiences continues to expand. Current work employing methods at the intersection of performance studies, philosophy, motion capture and neuroscience to better understand...... musical performance and reception is inspired by traditional approaches within aesthetics, but it also challenges some of the presuppositions inherent in them. As an example of such work I present a research project in empirical music aesthetics begun last year and of which I am a team member....

  2. Empirical research through design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keyson, D.V.; Bruns, M.

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the empirical research through design method (ERDM), which differs from current approaches to research through design by enforcing the need for the designer, after a series of pilot prototype based studies, to a-priori develop a number of testable interaction design hypothesis

  3. Essays in empirical microeconomics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Péter, A.N.

    2016-01-01

    The empirical studies in this thesis investigate various factors that could affect individuals' labor market, family formation and educational outcomes. Chapter 2 focuses on scheduling as a potential determinant of individuals' productivity. Chapter 3 looks at the role of a family factor on

  4. Worship, Reflection, Empirical Research

    OpenAIRE

    Ding Dong,

    2012-01-01

    In my youth, I was a worshipper of Mao Zedong. From the latter stage of the Mao Era to the early years of Reform and Opening, I began to reflect on Mao and the Communist Revolution he launched. In recent years I’ve devoted myself to empirical historical research on Mao, seeking the truth about Mao and China’s modern history.

  5. Trade and Empire

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bang, Peter Fibiger

    2007-01-01

    This articles seeks to establish a new set of organizing concepts for the analysis of the Roman imperial economy from Republic to late antiquity: tributary empire, port-folio capitalism and protection costs. Together these concepts explain better economic developments in the Roman world than the...

  6. Empirically sampling Universal Dependencies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schluter, Natalie; Agic, Zeljko

    2017-01-01

    Universal Dependencies incur a high cost in computation for unbiased system development. We propose a 100% empirically chosen small subset of UD languages for efficient parsing system development. The technique used is based on measurements of model capacity globally. We show that the diversity o...

  7. Integrated empirical ethics: loss of normativity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Scheer, Lieke; Widdershoven, Guy

    2004-01-01

    An important discussion in contemporary ethics concerns the relevance of empirical research for ethics. Specifically, two crucial questions pertain, respectively, to the possibility of inferring normative statements from descriptive statements, and to the danger of a loss of normativity if normative statements should be based on empirical research. Here we take part in the debate and defend integrated empirical ethical research: research in which normative guidelines are established on the basis of empirical research and in which the guidelines are empirically evaluated by focusing on observable consequences. We argue that in our concrete example normative statements are not derived from descriptive statements, but are developed within a process of reflection and dialogue that goes on within a specific praxis. Moreover, we show that the distinction in experience between the desirable and the undesirable precludes relativism. The normative guidelines so developed are both critical and normative: they help in choosing the right action and in evaluating that action. Finally, following Aristotle, we plead for a return to the view that morality and ethics are inherently related to one another, and for an acknowledgment of the fact that moral judgments have their origin in experience which is always related to historical and cultural circumstances.

  8. Empirically Exploring Higher Education Cultures of Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Matthew B.; Skidmore, Susan T.; Bustamante, Rebecca M.; Holzweiss, Peggy C.

    2016-01-01

    Although touted as beneficial to student learning, cultures of assessment have not been examined adequately using validated instruments. Using data collected from a stratified, random sample (N = 370) of U.S. institutional research and assessment directors, the models tested in this study provide empirical support for the value of using the…

  9. Practical Relevance of Experiments in Comprehensibility of Requirements Specifications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Condori-Fernandez, Nelly; Daneva, Maia; Sikkel, Nicolaas; Herrmann, Andrea

    2011-01-01

    Recently, the Requirements Engineering (RE) community has become increasingly aware of the importance of carrying out industry-relevant research. Researchers and practitioners should be able to evaluate the relevance of their empirical research to increase the likely adoption of RE methods in

  10. Abnormal Time Experiences in Major Depression: An Empirical Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanghellini, Giovanni; Ballerini, Massimo; Presenza, Simona; Mancini, Milena; Northoff, Georg; Cutting, John

    2017-01-01

    Phenomenological psychopathology, through theoretical and idiographic studies, conceptualizes major depressive disorder (MDD) as a disorder of time experience. Investigations on abnormal time experience (ATE) in MDD adopting methodologies requested by the standards of empirical sciences are still lacking. Our study aimed to provide a qualitative analysis, on an empirical ground and on a large scale, of narratives of temporal experiences of persons affected by MDD. We interviewed 550 consecutive patients affected by affective and schizophrenic disorders. Clinical files were analysed by means of consensual qualitative research. Out of 100 MDD patients, 96 reported at least 1 ATE. The principal categories of ATE are vital retardation - the experience of a stagnation of endogenous vital processes (37 patients), the experience of present and future dominated by the past (29 patients), and the experience of the slackening of the flow oftime (25 patients). A comparison with ATE in schizophrenia patients showed that in MDD, unlike in schizophrenia, there is no disarticulation of time experience (disorder of temporal synthesis) but rather a disorder of conation or inhibition of becoming. The interview style was not meant to make a quantitative assessment ("false negatives" cannot be excluded). Our findings confirm the relevance of distinctive features of ATE in MDD, support the hypothesis of an intrinsic disordered temporal structure in depressive symptoms, and may have direct implications in clinical practice, especially in relation to differential diagnosis, setting the boundaries between "true" and milder forms of depression, and neurobiological research. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. Autobiography After Empire

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasch, Astrid

    of the collective, but insufficient attention has been paid to how individuals respond to such narrative changes. This dissertation examines the relationship between individual and collective memory at the end of empire through analysis of 13 end of empire autobiographies by public intellectuals from Australia......Decolonisation was a major event of the twentieth century, redrawing maps and impacting on identity narratives around the globe. As new nations defined their place in the world, the national and imperial past was retold in new cultural memories. These developments have been studied at the level......, the Anglophone Caribbean and Zimbabwe. I conceive of memory as reconstructive and social, with individual memory striving to make sense of the past in the present in dialogue with surrounding narratives. By examining recurring tropes in the autobiographies, like colonial education, journeys to the imperial...

  12. Gazprom: the new empire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guillemoles, A.; Lazareva, A.

    2008-01-01

    Gazprom is conquering the world. The Russian industrial giant owns the hugest gas reserves and enjoys the privilege of a considerable power. Gazprom edits journals, owns hospitals, airplanes and has even built cities where most of the habitants work for him. With 400000 workers, Gazprom represents 8% of Russia's GDP. This inquiry describes the history and operation of this empire and show how its has become a masterpiece of the government's strategy of russian influence reconquest at the world scale. Is it going to be a winning game? Are the corruption affairs and the expected depletion of resources going to weaken the empire? The authors shade light on the political and diplomatic strategies that are played around the crucial dossier of the energy supply. (J.S.)

  13. Intrapreneur organizational culture and gender manager: an empirical study on SMES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica García Solarte

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to empirically identify the relationship between the gender manager of the SMEs and the characteristics of the intrapreneurculture. The empirical study was conducted using a sample of 600 SMEs in the region of Murcia (Spain. The intrapreneur culture is analyzed considering theclassification of Galvez and Garcia (2011. The results show that companies The results show that companies directed by women promoted greater extentthan men intrapreneur characteristics of culture such as: autonomy and risk taking, teamwork, compensation and support to management. The implicationsof our research are relevant and can help public authorities and managers to the analysis and development of policies that promote gender equity withinorganizations.

  14. Energy structure, marginal efficiency and substitution rate: An empirical study of China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han Zhiyong; Fan Ying; Jiao Jianling; Yan Jisheng; Wei Yiming

    2007-01-01

    Energy efficiency is an important factor in developing energy policies as it represents the extent to which resources support economic output. In recent literature, relevant studies have mainly focused on aggregate energy efficiency, but rarely touched on the marginal efficiency of diverse energy resources and their comparative substitution rate. During 1978-2003, China's energy efficiency continually increased; and consequently became a hot topic in contemporary literature. However, there is no empirical study on the relationship between energy structure and energy efficiency. In order to close the gap, this paper reports the empirical study of the impact of China's energy structure on its energy efficiency from 1978 to 2003. The work covered primary estimation of the marginal efficiency of coal and petroleum in China, as well as the comparative substitution rate. Results indicate that the substitution rate between petroleum and coal is a factor of 5.38

  15. Parsimonious relevance models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meij, E.; Weerkamp, W.; Balog, K.; de Rijke, M.; Myang, S.-H.; Oard, D.W.; Sebastiani, F.; Chua, T.-S.; Leong, M.-K.

    2008-01-01

    We describe a method for applying parsimonious language models to re-estimate the term probabilities assigned by relevance models. We apply our method to six topic sets from test collections in five different genres. Our parsimonious relevance models (i) improve retrieval effectiveness in terms of

  16. Reframing Serial Murder Within Empirical Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurian, Elizabeth A

    2017-04-01

    Empirical research on serial murder is limited due to the lack of consensus on a definition, the continued use of primarily descriptive statistics, and linkage to popular culture depictions. These limitations also inhibit our understanding of these offenders and affect credibility in the field of research. Therefore, this comprehensive overview of a sample of 508 cases (738 total offenders, including partnered groups of two or more offenders) provides analyses of solo male, solo female, and partnered serial killers to elucidate statistical differences and similarities in offending and adjudication patterns among the three groups. This analysis of serial homicide offenders not only supports previous research on offending patterns present in the serial homicide literature but also reveals that empirically based analyses can enhance our understanding beyond traditional case studies and descriptive statistics. Further research based on these empirical analyses can aid in the development of more accurate classifications and definitions of serial murderers.

  17. Epistemology and Empirical Investigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahlström, Kristoffer

    2008-01-01

    Recently, Hilary Kornblith has argued that epistemological investigation is substantially empirical. In the present paper, I will ¿rst show that his claim is not contingent upon the further and, admittedly, controversial assumption that all objects of epistemological investigation are natural kinds....... Then, I will argue that, contrary to what Kornblith seems to assume, this methodological contention does not imply that there is no need for attending to our epistemic concepts in epistemology. Understanding the make-up of our concepts and, in particular, the purposes they ¿ll, is necessary...

  18. The frontiers of empirical science: A Thomist-inspired critique of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-07-08

    Jul 8, 2016 ... of scientism, is, however, self-destructive of scientism because contrary to its ... The theory that only empirical facts have epistemic meaning is supported by the ..... (2002:1436). The cyclic model lacks empirical verification,.

  19. Empirical microeconomics action functionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baaquie, Belal E.; Du, Xin; Tanputraman, Winson

    2015-06-01

    A statistical generalization of microeconomics has been made in Baaquie (2013), where the market price of every traded commodity, at each instant of time, is considered to be an independent random variable. The dynamics of commodity market prices is modeled by an action functional-and the focus of this paper is to empirically determine the action functionals for different commodities. The correlation functions of the model are defined using a Feynman path integral. The model is calibrated using the unequal time correlation of the market commodity prices as well as their cubic and quartic moments using a perturbation expansion. The consistency of the perturbation expansion is verified by a numerical evaluation of the path integral. Nine commodities drawn from the energy, metal and grain sectors are studied and their market behavior is described by the model to an accuracy of over 90% using only six parameters. The paper empirically establishes the existence of the action functional for commodity prices that was postulated to exist in Baaquie (2013).

  20. What 'empirical turn in bioethics'?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurst, Samia

    2010-10-01

    Uncertainty as to how we should articulate empirical data and normative reasoning seems to underlie most difficulties regarding the 'empirical turn' in bioethics. This article examines three different ways in which we could understand 'empirical turn'. Using real facts in normative reasoning is trivial and would not represent a 'turn'. Becoming an empirical discipline through a shift to the social and neurosciences would be a turn away from normative thinking, which we should not take. Conducting empirical research to inform normative reasoning is the usual meaning given to the term 'empirical turn'. In this sense, however, the turn is incomplete. Bioethics has imported methodological tools from empirical disciplines, but too often it has not imported the standards to which researchers in these disciplines are held. Integrating empirical and normative approaches also represents true added difficulties. Addressing these issues from the standpoint of debates on the fact-value distinction can cloud very real methodological concerns by displacing the debate to a level of abstraction where they need not be apparent. Ideally, empirical research in bioethics should meet standards for empirical and normative validity similar to those used in the source disciplines for these methods, and articulate these aspects clearly and appropriately. More modestly, criteria to ensure that none of these standards are completely left aside would improve the quality of empirical bioethics research and partly clear the air of critiques addressing its theoretical justification, when its rigour in the particularly difficult context of interdisciplinarity is what should be at stake.

  1. Culturally Relevant Cyberbullying Prevention

    OpenAIRE

    Phillips, Gregory John

    2017-01-01

    In this action research study, I, along with a student intervention committee of 14 members, developed a cyberbullying intervention for a large urban high school on the west coast. This high school contained a predominantly African American student population. I aimed to discover culturally relevant cyberbullying prevention strategies for African American students. The intervention committee selected video safety messages featuring African American actors as the most culturally relevant cyber...

  2. EGG: Empirical Galaxy Generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiber, C.; Elbaz, D.; Pannella, M.; Merlin, E.; Castellano, M.; Fontana, A.; Bourne, N.; Boutsia, K.; Cullen, F.; Dunlop, J.; Ferguson, H. C.; Michałowski, M. J.; Okumura, K.; Santini, P.; Shu, X. W.; Wang, T.; White, C.

    2018-04-01

    The Empirical Galaxy Generator (EGG) generates fake galaxy catalogs and images with realistic positions, morphologies and fluxes from the far-ultraviolet to the far-infrared. The catalogs are generated by egg-gencat and stored in binary FITS tables (column oriented). Another program, egg-2skymaker, is used to convert the generated catalog into ASCII tables suitable for ingestion by SkyMaker (ascl:1010.066) to produce realistic high resolution images (e.g., Hubble-like), while egg-gennoise and egg-genmap can be used to generate the low resolution images (e.g., Herschel-like). These tools can be used to test source extraction codes, or to evaluate the reliability of any map-based science (stacking, dropout identification, etc.).

  3. Birds of the Mongol Empire

    OpenAIRE

    Eugene N. Anderson

    2016-01-01

    The Mongol Empire, the largest contiguous empire the world has ever known, had, among other things, a goodly number of falconers, poultry raisers, birdcatchers, cooks, and other experts on various aspects of birding. We have records of this, largely in the Yinshan Zhengyao, the court nutrition manual of the Mongol empire in China (the Yuan Dynasty). It discusses in some detail 22 bird taxa, from swans to chickens. The Huihui Yaofang, a medical encyclopedia, lists ten taxa used medicinally. Ma...

  4. Relevant Subspace Clustering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller, Emmanuel; Assent, Ira; Günnemann, Stephan

    2009-01-01

    Subspace clustering aims at detecting clusters in any subspace projection of a high dimensional space. As the number of possible subspace projections is exponential in the number of dimensions, the result is often tremendously large. Recent approaches fail to reduce results to relevant subspace...... clusters. Their results are typically highly redundant, i.e. many clusters are detected multiple times in several projections. In this work, we propose a novel model for relevant subspace clustering (RESCU). We present a global optimization which detects the most interesting non-redundant subspace clusters...... achieves top clustering quality while competing approaches show greatly varying performance....

  5. Empirical techniques in finance

    CERN Document Server

    Bhar, Ramaprasad

    2005-01-01

    This book offers the opportunity to study and experience advanced empi- cal techniques in finance and in general financial economics. It is not only suitable for students with an interest in the field, it is also highly rec- mended for academic researchers as well as the researchers in the industry. The book focuses on the contemporary empirical techniques used in the analysis of financial markets and how these are implemented using actual market data. With an emphasis on Implementation, this book helps foc- ing on strategies for rigorously combing finance theory and modeling technology to extend extant considerations in the literature. The main aim of this book is to equip the readers with an array of tools and techniques that will allow them to explore financial market problems with a fresh perspective. In this sense it is not another volume in eco- metrics. Of course, the traditional econometric methods are still valid and important; the contents of this book will bring in other related modeling topics tha...

  6. Is Information Still Relevant?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Lia

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: The term "information" in information science does not share the characteristics of those of a nomenclature: it does not bear a generally accepted definition and it does not serve as the bases and assumptions for research studies. As the data deluge has arrived, is the concept of information still relevant for information…

  7. Final Empirical Test Case Specification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kalyanova, Olena; Heiselberg, Per

    This document includes the empirical specification on the IEA task of evaluation building energy simulation computer programs for the Double Skin Facades (DSF) constructions. There are two approaches involved into this procedure, one is the comparative approach and another is the empirical one....

  8. Remembrances of Empires Past

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Aldrich

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper argues that the colonial legacy is ever present in contemporary Europe. For a generation, most Europeans largely tried, publicly, to forget the colonial past, or remembered it only through the rose-coloured lenses of nostalgia; now the pendulum has swung to memory of that past – even perhaps, in the views of some, to a surfeit of memory, where each group agitates for its own version of history, its own recognition in laws and ceremonies, its own commemoration in museums and monuments, the valorization or repatriation of its own art and artefacts. Word such as ‘invasion,’ ‘racism’ and ‘genocide’ are emotional terms that provoke emotional reactions. Whether leaders should apologize for wrongs of the past – and which wrongs – remains a highly sensitive issue. The ‘return of the colonial’ thus has to do with ethics and politics as well as with history, and can link to statements of apology or recognition, legislation about certain views of history, monetary compensation, repatriation of objects, and—perhaps most importantly—redefinition of national identity and policy. The colonial flags may have been lowered, but many barricades seem to have been raised. Private memories—of loss of land, of unacknowledged service, of political, economic, social and cultural disenfranchisement, but also on the other side of defeat, national castigation and self-flagellation—have been increasingly public. Monuments and museums act not only as sites of history but as venues for political agitation and forums for academic debate – differences of opinion that have spread to the streets. Empire has a long after-life.

  9. Empire as a Geopolitical Figure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parker, Noel

    2010-01-01

    This article analyses the ingredients of empire as a pattern of order with geopolitical effects. Noting the imperial form's proclivity for expansion from a critical reading of historical sociology, the article argues that the principal manifestation of earlier geopolitics lay not in the nation...... but in empire. That in turn has been driven by a view of the world as disorderly and open to the ordering will of empires (emanating, at the time of geopolitics' inception, from Europe). One implication is that empires are likely to figure in the geopolitical ordering of the globe at all times, in particular...... after all that has happened in the late twentieth century to undermine nationalism and the national state. Empire is indeed a probable, even for some an attractive form of regime for extending order over the disorder produced by globalisation. Geopolitics articulated in imperial expansion is likely...

  10. Clinical Relevance of Adipokines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Blüher

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of obesity has increased dramatically during recent decades. Obesity increases the risk for metabolic and cardiovascular diseases and may therefore contribute to premature death. With increasing fat mass, secretion of adipose tissue derived bioactive molecules (adipokines changes towards a pro-inflammatory, diabetogenic and atherogenic pattern. Adipokines are involved in the regulation of appetite and satiety, energy expenditure, activity, endothelial function, hemostasis, blood pressure, insulin sensitivity, energy metabolism in insulin sensitive tissues, adipogenesis, fat distribution and insulin secretion in pancreatic β-cells. Therefore, adipokines are clinically relevant as biomarkers for fat distribution, adipose tissue function, liver fat content, insulin sensitivity, chronic inflammation and have the potential for future pharmacological treatment strategies for obesity and its related diseases. This review focuses on the clinical relevance of selected adipokines as markers or predictors of obesity related diseases and as potential therapeutic tools or targets in metabolic and cardiovascular diseases.

  11. Information Needs/Relevance

    OpenAIRE

    Wildemuth, Barbara M.

    2009-01-01

    A user's interaction with a DL is often initiated as the result of the user experiencing an information need of some kind. Aspects of that experience and how it might affect the user's interactions with the DL are discussed in this module. In addition, users continuously make decisions about and evaluations of the materials retrieved from a DL, relative to their information needs. Relevance judgments, and their relationship to the user's information needs, are discussed in this module. Draft

  12. Corporate Social Responsibility Applied for Rural Development: An Empirical Analysis of Firms from the American Continent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Arato

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Corporate Social Responsibility has been recognized by policymakers and development specialists as a feasible driver for rural development. The present paper explores both theoretically and empirically how firms involved in CSR provide development opportunities to rural communities. The research first evaluates the applied literature on the implementation of CSR by private firms and policymakers as means to foster sustainable rural development. The empirical research analyses the CSR activities of 100 firms from a variety of industries, sizes, and countries to determine the type of companies who are involved in rural development and the kind of activities they deployed. Results from the empirical research show that although rural development initiatives are not relevant for all types of companies, a significant number of firms from a variety of industries have engaged in CSR programs supporting rural communities. Firms appear to be interested in stimulating rural development and seem to benefit from it. This paper also includes an exploration of the main challenges and constraints that firms encounter when encouraging rural development initiatives.

  13. System Dynamics Modeling as a Supporting Tool in order to Uncover Relevant KPI’s as well as Their Main Relations in the Process of Constructing a Balanced Scorecard

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Steen; Nielsen, Erland Hejn; Bjoern Pedersen, Lars

    This paper focuses on how system dynamics modelling can contribute to an increased understanding of business, which is necessarily to identify those variables that are strongest in relation to supporting the company's strategy execution through the use of the Balanced Scorecard. Strategic plannin...

  14. Malaria diagnosis and treatment under the strategy of the integrated management of childhood illness (IMCI): relevance of laboratory support from the rapid immunochromatographic tests of ICT Malaria P.f/P.v and OptiMal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarimo, D S; Minjas, J N; Bygbjerg, I C

    2001-01-01

    to be excluded as a cause of illness (e.g. prior to treatment with toxic or expensive drugs, or during malaria epidemics). Wherever the effective drugs for the first-line treatment of malaria are cheap (e.g. chloroquine and Fansidar), treatment based on clinical diagnosis alone should prove cost-saving in health...... significantly associated with the P. falciparum asexual parasitaemias that equalled or exceeded the threshold intensity (2000/microl) that has the optimum sensitivity and specificity for the definition of a malarial episode. Diagnostic likelihood ratios (DLR) showed that a positive result in the OptiMal test....... Although the RIT may seem attractive for use in primary health facilities because relatively inexperienced staff can perform them, the high cost of these tests is prohibitive. In holo-endemic areas, use of RIT or microscopical examination of bloodsmears may only be relevant when malaria needs...

  15. Relevant or determinant: Importance in certified sustainable food consumption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dam, van Y.K.; Trijp, van J.C.M.

    2013-01-01

    Perceived relevance and determinance are two distinct constructs, underlying the overall concept of attribute importance. The present study proposes a survey based measure of attribute determinance. Based on construal level theory it is argued and empirically shown that actual choices of certified

  16. Birds of the Mongol Empire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugene N. Anderson

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The Mongol Empire, the largest contiguous empire the world has ever known, had, among other things, a goodly number of falconers, poultry raisers, birdcatchers, cooks, and other experts on various aspects of birding. We have records of this, largely in the Yinshan Zhengyao, the court nutrition manual of the Mongol empire in China (the Yuan Dynasty. It discusses in some detail 22 bird taxa, from swans to chickens. The Huihui Yaofang, a medical encyclopedia, lists ten taxa used medicinally. Marco Polo also made notes on Mongol bird use. There are a few other records. This allows us to draw conclusions about Mongol ornithology, which apparently was sophisticated and detailed.

  17. Education, Internationalism and Empire at the 1928 and 1930 Pan-Pacific Women's Conferences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Joyce

    2014-01-01

    In order to explore education at the first two Pan-Pacific Women's Conferences, this article builds on Campbell and Sherington's account of education in Oceania and on empirical research undertaken by Selleck and others, along with relevant primary source material. It traces elements of empire as they played out in inter-war women's education and…

  18. [Relevant public health enteropathogens].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riveros, Maribel; Ochoa, Theresa J

    2015-01-01

    Diarrhea remains the third leading cause of death in children under five years, despite recent advances in the management and prevention of this disease. It is caused by multiple pathogens, however, the prevalence of each varies by age group, geographical area and the scenario where cases (community vs hospital) are recorded. The most relevant pathogens in public health are those associated with the highest burden of disease, severity, complications and mortality. In our country, norovirus, Campylobacter and diarrheagenic E. coli are the most prevalent pathogens at the community level in children. In this paper we review the local epidemiology and potential areas of development in five selected pathogens: rotavirus, norovirus, Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC), Shigella and Salmonella. Of these, rotavirus is the most important in the pediatric population and the main agent responsible for child mortality from diarrhea. The introduction of rotavirus vaccination in Peru will have a significant impact on disease burden and mortality from diarrhea. However, surveillance studies are needed to determine the impact of vaccination and changes in the epidemiology of diarrhea in Peru following the introduction of new vaccines, as well as antibiotic resistance surveillance of clinical relevant bacteria.

  19. An empirically informed critique of Habermas' argument from human nature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morar, Nicolae

    2015-02-01

    In a near-future world of bionics and biotechnology, the main ethical and political issue will be the definition of who we are. Could biomedical enhancements transform us to such an extent that we would be other than human? Habermas argues that any genetic enhancement intervention that could potentially alter 'human nature' should be morally prohibited since it alters the child's nature or the very essence that makes the child who he is. This practice also commits the child to a specific life project or, in any case, it puts specific restrictions on his freedom to choose a life of his own. Ultimately, genetic enhancement jeopardizes the very foundations of moral equality. I contend that Habermas' argument is based either on a series of presuppositions that imply a gross misunderstanding of evolution or the relevant factual information concerning the action we are about to morally assess is not empirically supported. Hence, the argument from human nature is based on a series of false or problematic assumptions, and, as such, it fails to play the normative role intended by Habermas.

  20. Empirical Legality and Effective Reality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernán Pringe

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The conditions that Kant’s doctrine establishes are examined for the predication of the effective reality of certain empirical objects. It is maintained that a for such a predication, it is necessary to have not only perception but also a certain homogeneity of sensible data, and b the knowledge of the existence of certain empirical objects depends on the application of regulative principles of experience.

  1. Empirical logic and quantum mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foulis, D.J.; Randall, C.H.

    1976-01-01

    This article discusses some of the basic notions of quantum physics within the more general framework of operational statistics and empirical logic (as developed in Foulis and Randall, 1972, and Randall and Foulis, 1973). Empirical logic is a formal mathematical system in which the notion of an operation is primitive and undefined; all other concepts are rigorously defined in terms of such operations (which are presumed to correspond to actual physical procedures). (Auth.)

  2. Empirical Research In Engineering Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmed, Saeema

    2007-01-01

    Increasingly engineering design research involves the use of empirical studies that are conducted within an industrial environment [Ahmed, 2001; Court 1995; Hales 1987]. Research into the use of information by designers or understanding how engineers build up experience are examples of research...... of research issues. This paper describes case studies of empirical research carried out within industry in engineering design focusing upon information, knowledge and experience in engineering design. The paper describes the research methods employed, their suitability for the particular research aims...

  3. Other relevant biological papers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimizu, M.

    1989-01-01

    A considerable number of CRESP-relevant papers concerning deep-sea biology and radioecology have been published. It is the purpose of this study to call attention to them. They fall into three general categories. The first is papers of general interest. They are mentioned only briefly, and include text references to the global bibliography at the end of the volume. The second are papers that are not only mentioned and referenced, but for various reasons are described in abstract form. The last is a list of papers compiled by H.S.J. Roe specifically for this volume. They are listed in bibliographic form, and are also included in the global bibliography at the end of the volume

  4. Malaria diagnosis and treatment under the strategy of the integrated management of childhood illness (IMCI): relevance of laboratory support from the rapid immunochromatographic tests of ICT Malaria P.f/P.v and OptiMal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarimo, D S; Minjas, J N; Bygbjerg, I C

    2001-07-01

    The algorithm developed for the integrated management of childhood illness (IMCI) provides guidelines for the treatment of paediatric malaria. In areas where malaria is endemic, for example, the IMCI strategy may indicate that children who present with fever, a recent history of fever and/or pallor should receive antimalarial chemotherapy. In many holo-endemic areas, it is unclear whether laboratory tests to confirm that such signs are the result of malaria would be very relevant or useful. Children from a holo-endemic region of Tanzania were therefore checked for malarial parasites by microscopy and by using two rapid immunochromatographic tests (RIT) for the diagnosis of malaria (ICT Malaria P.f/P.v and OptiMal. At the time they were tested, each of these children had been targeted for antimalarial treatment (following the IMCI strategy) because of fever and/or pallor. Only 70% of the 395 children classified to receive antimalarial drugs by the IMCI algorithm had malarial parasitaemias (68.4% had Plasmodium falciparum trophozoites, 1.3% only P. falciparum gametocytes, 0.3% P. ovale and 0.3% P. malariae). As indicators of P. falciparum trophozoites in the peripheral blood, fever had a sensitivity of 93.0% and a specificity of 15.5% whereas pallor had a sensitivity of 72.2% and a specificity of 50.8%. The RIT both had very high corresponding sensitivities (of 100.0% for the ICT and 94.0% for OptiMal) but the specificity of the ICT (74.0%) was significantly lower than that for OptiMal (100.0%). Fever and pallor were significantly associated with the P. falciparum asexual parasitaemias that equalled or exceeded the threshold intensity (2000/microl) that has the optimum sensitivity and specificity for the definition of a malarial episode. Diagnostic likelihood ratios (DLR) showed that a positive result in the OptiMal test (DLR = infinity) was a better indication of malaria than a positive result in the ICT (DLR = 3.85). In fact, OptiMal had diagnostic reliability (0

  5. 46 CFR 560.5 - Receipt of relevant information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Receipt of relevant information. 560.5 Section 560.5... FOREIGN PORTS § 560.5 Receipt of relevant information. (a) In making its decision on matters arising under... submissions should be supported by affidavits of fact and memorandum of law. Relevant information may include...

  6. A relevância da Rede de Apoio ao estomizado La relevancia de la Red de Apoyo a el ostomizado The importance of the Support Network for the stomized patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Lúcia da Silva

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available O estudo teve como objetivo conhecer o apoio social utilizado pelas pessoas estomizadas, bem como os seus benefícios para o enfrentamento das mudanças ocorridas no novo modo de vida. O referencial metodológico foi a história oral de vida tópica. Foram realizadas dez entrevistas semi-estruturadas com portadores de estomia intestinal definitiva. Utilizou-se a técnica de análise de conteúdo, especificamente, a temática, de onde emergiram três importantes redes de apoio, as crenças religiosas e espirituais, a família e a Associação dos Ostomizados. Essas redes funcionam como suportes para minimizar o sofrimento das pessoas estomizadas. Os profissionais de saúde devem valorizar essas redes de apoio a fim de trabalhar a melhoria da qualidade de vida dos estomizados.El estudio tuvo como objetivo conocer el apoyo social utilizado por las personas ostomizadas, asi como sus beneficios para el enfrentamiento de los cambios ocurridos en el nuevo modo de vida. La referencia de metodología usada fue la historia oral de vida tópica. Fueron realizadas diez entrevistas semiestruturadas con portadores de ostomía intestinal definitiva. Fue utilizada la técnica de análisis de contenido, en especial la temática, donde emergieron tres importantes redes de apoyo: las creencias religiosas y espirituales, la familia y la asociación de los ostomizados. Los profisionales de la salud deben valorar las redes de apoyo a fin de trabajar la mejoría de la calidad de vida de los ostomizados.The purpose of the study was to learn about the social support stomized patients turn to, as well as their benefits in facing the changes a new way of life incur in. The methodological reference was oral history of topic lives. Ten half-structured interviews have been conducted with subjects with definitive intestinal ostomy. It was used the technique of content analysis, which provided us with three important supporting networks: religious and spiritual beliefs, family

  7. Human Power Empirically Explored

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jansen, A.J.

    2011-01-18

    Harvesting energy from the users' muscular power to convert this into electricity is a relatively unknown way to power consumer products. It nevertheless offers surprising opportunities for product designers; human-powered products function independently from regular power infrastructure, are convenient and can be environmentally and economically beneficial. This work provides insight into the knowledge required to design human-powered energy systems in consumer products from a scientific perspective. It shows the developments of human-powered products from the first introduction of the BayGen Freeplay radio in 1995 till current products and provides an overview and analysis of 211 human-powered products currently on the market. Although human power is generally perceived as beneficial for the environment, this thesis shows that achieving environmental benefit is only feasible when the environmental impact of additional materials in the energy conversion system is well balanced with the energy demands of the products functionality. User testing with existing products showed a preference for speeds in the range of 70 to 190 rpm for crank lengths from 32 to 95 mm. The muscular input power varied from 5 to 21 W. The analysis of twenty graduation projects from the Faculty of Industrial Design Engineering in the field of human-powered products, offers an interesting set of additional practice based design recommendations. The knowledge based approach of human power is very powerful to support the design of human-powered products. There is substantial potential for improvements in the domains energy conversion, ergonomics and environment. This makes that human power, when applied properly, is environmentally and economically competitive over a wider range of applications than thought previously.

  8. Adolescents with anxiety and depression: is social recovery relevant?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonds, Laura M; Pons, Rebecca A; Stone, Nicola J; Warren, Fiona; John, Mary

    2014-01-01

    Social recovery has become a prominent aspect of mental health service design and delivery in the past decade. Much of the literature on social recovery is derived from first-person accounts or primary research with adult service users experiencing severe mental illness. There is a lack of both theoretical and empirical work that could inform consideration of how the concept of social recovery might apply to adolescents experiencing common (non-psychotic) mental health problems such as anxiety and depression. The current study was conducted to understand the process of experiencing anxiety and depression in young people. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with nine adolescents with anxiety and depression (seven girls and two boys aged 14-16 years) and 12 mothers who were recruited from a specialist Child and Adolescent Mental Health Service in the South of England. Thematic analysis indicated that young people do experience a process of 'recovery'; the processes participants described have some congruence with the earlier stages of adult recovery models involving biographical disruption and the development of new meanings, in this case of anxiety or depression, and changes in sense of identity. The accounts diverge with regard to later stages of adult models involving the development of hope and responsibility. The findings suggest that services should attend to social isolation and emphasise support for positive aspirations for future selves whilst also attending to young people's and parents' expectations about change. Methodological challenges face enquiry about 'recovery' given its connotations with cure in everyday language. Theoretical and empirical work on social recovery in young people and families is lacking. Using interviews, this study sought to understand the relevance of social recovery for adolescents with anxiety and depression and their mothers. Findings suggest some congruence with the earlier stages of adult recovery models involving

  9. The effects of family support and work engagement on organizationally valued job outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    Karatepe, Osman M.

    2015-01-01

    There are calls for more empirical research about the antecedents and outcomes of work engagement in frontline service jobs in the hospitality management literature. With this realization, using the precepts of the motivational process of the Job Demands-Resources model, the present study aims to develop and test a conceptual model that examines work engagement as a mediator of the effect of family support on organizationally relevant and valued job outcomes. Turnover intentions, job performa...

  10. Intertwining personal and reward relevance: evidence from the drift-diffusion model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yankouskaya, A; Bührle, R; Lugt, E; Stolte, M; Sui, J

    2018-01-24

    In their seminal paper 'Is our self nothing but reward', Northoff and Hayes (Biol Psychiatry 69(11):1019-1025, Northoff, Hayes, Biological Psychiatry 69(11):1019-1025, 2011) proposed three models of the relationship between self and reward and opened a continuing debate about how these different fields can be linked. To date, none of the proposed models received strong empirical support. The present study tested common and distinct effects of personal relevance and reward values by de-componenting different stages of perceptual decision making using a drift-diffusion approach. We employed a recently developed associative matching paradigm where participants (N = 40) formed mental associations between five geometric shapes and five labels referring personal relevance in the personal task, or five shape-label pairings with different reward values in the reward task and then performed a matching task by indicating whether a displayed shape-label pairing was correct or incorrect. We found that common effects of personal relevance and monetary reward were manifested in the facilitation of behavioural performance for high personal relevance and high reward value as socially important signals. The differential effects between personal and monetary relevance reflected non-decisional time in a perceptual decision process, and task-specific prioritization of stimuli. Our findings support the parallel processing model (Northoff & Hayes, Biol Psychiatry 69(11):1019-1025, Northoff, Hayes, Biological Psychiatry 69(11):1019-1025, 2011) and suggest that self-specific processing occurs in parallel with high reward processing. Limitations and further directions are discussed.

  11. User perspectives on relevance criteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maglaughlin, Kelly L.; Sonnenwald, Diane H.

    2002-01-01

    , partially relevant, or not relevant to their information need; and explained their decisions in an interview. Analysis revealed 29 criteria, discussed positively and negatively, that were used by the participants when selecting passages that contributed or detracted from a document's relevance......This study investigates the use of criteria to assess relevant, partially relevant, and not-relevant documents. Study participants identified passages within 20 document representations that they used to make relevance judgments; judged each document representation as a whole to be relevant...... matter, thought catalyst), full text (e.g., audience, novelty, type, possible content, utility), journal/publisher (e.g., novelty, main focus, perceived quality), and personal (e.g., competition, time requirements). Results further indicate that multiple criteria are used when making relevant, partially...

  12. Academic dishonesty in nursing schools: an empirical investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCabe, Donald L

    2009-11-01

    Academic dishonesty, whether in the form of plagiarism or cheating on tests, has received renewed attention in the past few decades as pervasive use of the Internet and a presumed deterioration of ethics in the current generation of students has led some, perhaps many, to conclude that academic dishonesty is reaching epidemic proportions. What is lacking in many cases, including in the nursing profession, is empirical support of these trends. This article attempts to provide some of that empirical data and supports the conclusion that cheating is a significant issue in all disciplines today, including nursing. Some preliminary policy implications are also considered. Copyright 2009, SLACK Incorporated.

  13. Umayyad Relations with Byzantium Empire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansoor Haidari

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This research investigates the political and military relations between Umayyad caliphates with the Byzantine Empire. The aim of this research is to clarify Umayyad caliphate’s relations with the Byzantine Empire. We know that these relations were mostly about war and fight. Because there were always intense conflicts between Muslims and the Byzantine Empire, they had to have an active continuous diplomacy to call truce and settle the disputes. Thus, based on the general policy of the Umayyad caliphs, Christians were severely ignored and segregated within Islamic territories. This segregation of the Christians was highly affected by political relationships. It is worthy of mentioning that Umayyad caliphs brought the governing style of the Sassanid kings and Roman Caesar into the Islamic Caliphate system but they didn’t establish civil institutions and administrative organizations.

  14. A holistic approach to corporate social responsibility as a prerequisite for sustainable development: Empirical evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zlatanović Dejana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The growing importance of sustainable development and corporate social responsibility (CSR for contemporary organizations demands appropriate holistic tools. The paper highlights how Soft Systems Methodology (SSM, a relevant holistic, i.e., soft systems approach, supports the conceptualization and management of the complex issues of CSR and sustainable development. The SSM’s key methodological tools are used: rich picture, root definitions, and conceptual models. Empirical research compares a selected sample of enterprises in the automotive industry in the Republic of Serbia, to identify possible systemically desirable and culturally feasible changes to improve their CSR behaviour through promoting their sustainable development. Some limitations of this research and of SSM application are discussed. Combining SSM with some other systems approaches, such as System Dynamics or Critical Systems Heuristics, is recommended for future research.

  15. An Empirical Analysis of the Budget Deficit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioan Talpos

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Economic policies and, particularly, fiscal policies are not designed and implemented in an “empty space”: the structural characteristics of the economic systems, the institutional architecture of societies, the cultural paradigm and the power relations between different social groups define the borders of these policies. This paper tries to deal with these borders, to describe their nature and the implications of their existence to the fiscal policies’ quality and impact at a theoretical level as well as at an empirical one. The main results of the proposed analysis support the ideas that the mentioned variables matters both for the social mandate entrusted by the society to the state and thus to the role and functions of the state and for the economic growth as a support of the resources collected at distributed by the public authorities.

  16. An Efficiency Assessment among Empirically Defined Labor Markets for Determining Pay for Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Henry; Young, I. Phillip

    2013-01-01

    Fundamental to updating a fixed-rate salary schedule for teachers is the reliance on a relevant labor market containing comparisons to other school districts--that is, object school districts, which can be chosen from a policy or empirical/efficiency perspective. As such, four relevant markets having roots in neoclassical economic…

  17. Football and exchange rates: empirical support for behavioral economics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eker, Gulin; Berument, Hakan; Dogan, Burak

    2007-10-01

    Recently, economic theory has been expanded to incorporate emotions, which have been assumed to play an important role in financial decisions. The present study illustrates this by showing a connection between the sports performance of popular national football teams (Besiktas, Fenerbahce, and Galatasaray) and performance of the Turkish economy. Specifically, a significant positive association was found between the success of three major professional Turkish football teams and the exchange rate of the Turkish lira against the U.S. dollar. The effect of the football success of several Turkish football teams on the exchange rate of the Turkish lira was examined using the simultaneous multiple regression model with predictor measures of wins, losses, and ties for different combinations of teams to predict the depreciation rate of the Turkish lira between the years 1987 and 2003. Wins by Turkish football teams against foreign (non-Turkish) rivals increased with exchange rate depreciation of the Turkish lira against the U.S. dollar.

  18. Technology Applications for Children with ADHD: Assessing the Empirical Support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Chunzhen; Reid, Robert; Steckelberg, Allen

    2002-01-01

    This article reviews technology research (n=20) with students with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in five categories: computer-assisted instruction, computer-based cognitive training, biofeedback training, assessment, and behavior modification. Analysis of available research suggests there is little well controlled experimental…

  19. Empirical support for optimal virulence in a castrating parasite.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knut Helge Jensen

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available The trade-off hypothesis for the evolution of virulence predicts that parasite transmission stage production and host exploitation are balanced such that lifetime transmission success (LTS is maximised. However, the experimental evidence for this prediction is weak, mainly because LTS, which indicates parasite fitness, has been difficult to measure. For castrating parasites, this simple model has been modified to take into account that parasites convert host reproductive resources into transmission stages. Parasites that kill the host too early will hardly benefit from these resources, while postponing the killing of the host results in diminished returns. As predicted from optimality models, a parasite inducing castration should therefore castrate early, but show intermediate levels of virulence, where virulence is measured as time to host killing. We studied virulence in an experimental system where a bacterial parasite castrates its host and produces spores that are not released until after host death. This permits estimating the LTS of the parasite, which can then be related to its virulence. We exposed replicate individual Daphnia magna (Crustacea of one host clone to the same amount of bacterial spores and followed individuals until their death. We found that the parasite shows strong variation in the time to kill its host and that transmission stage production peaks at an intermediate level of virulence. A further experiment tested for the genetic basis of variation in virulence by comparing survival curves of daphniids infected with parasite spores obtained from early killing versus late killing infections. Hosts infected with early killer spores had a significantly higher death rate as compared to those infected with late killers, indicating that variation in time to death was at least in part caused by genetic differences among parasites. We speculate that the clear peak in lifetime reproductive success at intermediate killing times may be caused by the exceptionally strong physiological trade-off between host and parasite reproduction. This is the first experimental study to demonstrate that the production of propagules is highest at intermediate levels of virulence and that parasite genetic variability is available to drive the evolution of virulence in this system.

  20. Tax morale : theory and empirical analysis of tax compliance

    OpenAIRE

    Torgler, Benno

    2003-01-01

    Tax morale is puzzling in our society. Observations show that tax compliance cannot be satisfactorily explained by the level of enforcement. Other factors may well be relevant. This paper contains a short survey of important theoretical and empirical findings in the tax morale literature, focussing on personal income tax morale. The following three key topics are discussed: moral sentiments, fairness and the relationship between taxpayer and government. The survey stresses the ...

  1. Colonial Connections: A Review of Redrawing French Empire in Comics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lise Tannahill

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The consequences of France's colonial past and wars in Algeria and Indochina are still very relevant in modern, multicultural France. 'Redrawing French Empire In Comics '(2013 examines how this colonial history is depicted in the francophone comic or 'bande dessinée', by authors with links to both the colonised population and the French colonisers and military forces, and how their depictions of events reinforces or diminishes barriers between those on both sides.

  2. Explaining citizens’ perceptions of international climate-policy relevance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schleich, Joachim; Faure, Corinne

    2017-01-01

    This paper empirically analyses the antecedents of citizens’ perceptions of the relevance of international climate policy. Its use of representative surveys in the USA, China and Germany controls for different environmental attitudes and socio-economic factors between countries. The findings of the micro-econometric analysis suggest that the perceived relevance of international climate policy is positively affected by its perceived effectiveness, approval of the key topics discussed at international climate conferences, and environmental attitudes, but is not affected by perceived procedural justice. A higher level of perceived trust in international climate policy was positively related to perceived relevance in the USA and in China, but not in Germany. Citizens who felt that they were well informed and that their position was represented at climate summits were more likely to perceive international climate policy as relevant in China in particular. Generally, the results show only weak evidence of socio-demographic effects. - Highlights: • Perceptions of climate-policy relevance increase with perceptions of effectiveness. • In China and the USA, trust increases perceptions of climate-policy relevance. • Environmental attitudes are related to perceptions of climate-policy relevance. • In China, well-informed citizens perceive climate policy as more relevant. • Socio-demographics only weakly affect perceptions of climate-policy relevance.

  3. Gazprom the new russian empire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cosnard, D.

    2004-01-01

    The author analyzes the economical and political impacts of the great Gazprom group, leader in the russian energy domain, in Russia. Already number one of the world gas industry, this Group is becoming the right-hand of the Kremlin. Thus the author wonders on this empire transparency and limits. (A.L.B.)

  4. Phenomenology and the Empirical Turn

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwier, Jochem; Blok, Vincent; Lemmens, Pieter

    2016-01-01

    This paper provides a phenomenological analysis of postphenomenological philosophy of technology. While acknowledging that the results of its analyses are to be recognized as original, insightful, and valuable, we will argue that in its execution of the empirical turn, postphenomenology forfeits

  5. Empirical ethics as dialogical practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Widdershoven, G.A.M.; Abma, T.A.; Molewijk, A.C.

    2009-01-01

    In this article, we present a dialogical approach to empirical ethics, based upon hermeneutic ethics and responsive evaluation. Hermeneutic ethics regards experience as the concrete source of moral wisdom. In order to gain a good understanding of moral issues, concrete detailed experiences and

  6. Teaching "Empire of the Sun."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riet, Fred H. van

    1990-01-01

    A Dutch teacher presents reading, film viewing, and writing activities for "Empire of the Sun," J. G. Ballard's autobiographical account of life as a boy in Shanghai and in a Japanese internment camp during World War II (the subject of Steven Spielberg's film of the same name). Includes objectives, procedures, and several literature,…

  7. Empirical Specification of Utility Functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellenbergh, Gideon J.

    Decision theory can be applied to four types of decision situations in education and psychology: (1) selection; (2) placement; (3) classification; and (4) mastery. For the application of the theory, a utility function must be specified. Usually the utility function is chosen on a priori grounds. In this paper methods for the empirical assessment…

  8. Empirical Productivity Indices and Indicators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B.M. Balk (Bert)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractThe empirical measurement of productivity change (or difference) by means of indices and indicators starts with the ex post profit/loss accounts of a production unit. Key concepts are profit, leading to indicators, and profitability, leading to indices. The main task for the productivity

  9. EMPIRICAL RESEARCH AND CONGREGATIONAL ANALYSIS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    empirical research has made to the process of congregational analysis. 1 Part of this ... contextual congegrational analysis – meeting social and divine desires”) at the IAPT .... methodology of a congregational analysis should be regarded as a process. ... essential to create space for a qualitative and quantitative approach.

  10. Empirical processes: theory and applications

    OpenAIRE

    Venturini Sergio

    2005-01-01

    Proceedings of the 2003 Summer School in Statistics and Probability in Torgnon (Aosta, Italy) held by Prof. Jon A. Wellner and Prof. M. Banerjee. The topic presented was the theory of empirical processes with applications to statistics (m-estimation, bootstrap, semiparametric theory).

  11. Empirical laws, regularity and necessity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koningsveld, H.

    1973-01-01

    In this book I have tried to develop an analysis of the concept of an empirical law, an analysis that differs in many ways from the alternative analyse's found in contemporary literature dealing with the subject.

    1 am referring especially to two well-known views, viz. the regularity and

  12. Empirical analysis of consumer behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huang, Yufeng

    2015-01-01

    This thesis consists of three essays in quantitative marketing, focusing on structural empirical analysis of consumer behavior. In the first essay, he investigates the role of a consumer's skill of product usage, and its imperfect transferability across brands, in her product choice. It shows that

  13. Managing export success – An empirical picture of German wineries’ performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dressler Marc

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Export represents an important strategic lever for enterprises to reach new clients, to diversify, and to participate in regional economic growth. An online based survey invited more than 800 wine experts to assess wine export success factors as well as the performance of German producers. The questionnaire tested a literature based success factor framework with the four success factors. The experts assessed the relevance of the levers for the wine industry and the performance of German produc- ers. Respondents judged all four success factors as well as all underlying 27 criteria to be relevant in the wine industry. Export strategy receives highest value of the success factor rating. The survey depicts a heterogeneous performance of German produc- ers comparing the success factors but a homogeneous performance for all the underlying criteria within each success factor. The responses reveal a performance gap for the success factors export commitment and export strategy. For the success factor export knowledge German producers apparently overperform. Export programs are of importance and in the case of Germany appar- ently meet the needed level of support and activity. The results thereby support empiric findings in the context of cultural differ- ences of different nations. The study provides orientation for German wine producers but also small and medium enterprises of other industries.

  14. The importance of psychological and social factors in influencing the uptake and maintenance of physical activity after stroke: a structured review of the empirical literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Jacqui; Oliver, Tracey; Kroll, Thilo; Macgillivray, Steve

    2012-01-01

    Background. People with stroke are not maintaining adequate engagement in physical activity (PA) for health and functional benefit. This paper sought to describe any psychological and social factors that may influence physical activity engagement after stroke. Methods. A structured literature review of studies indexed in MEDLINE, CinAHL, P&BSC, and PsycINFO using search terms relevant to stroke, physical disabilities, and PA. Publications reporting empirical findings (quantitative or qualitative) regarding psychological and/or social factors were included. Results. Twenty studies from 19 publications (9 surveys, 1 RCT, and 10 qualitative studies) were included. Seventeen studies reported findings pertinent to psychological factors and fourteen findings pertinent to social factors. Conclusion. Self-efficacy, physical activity beliefs, and social support appear particularly relevant to physical activity behaviour after stroke and should be included in theoretically based physical interventions. The Transtheoretical Model and the Theory of Planned Behaviour are candidate behavioural models that may support intervention development.

  15. The Socratic Method: Empirical Assessment of a Psychology Capstone Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Lawrence R.; Stephenson, Paul L.; Bellamy, Katy

    2016-01-01

    Although students make some epistemological progress during college, most graduate without developing meaning-making strategies that reflect an understanding that knowledge is socially constructed. Using a pre-test-post-test design and a within-subjects 2 × 2 mixed-design ANOVA, this study reports on empirical findings which support the Socratic…

  16. An Empirical Study about China: Gender Equity in Science Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jianjun; Staver, John R.

    A data base representing a random sample of more than 10,000 grade 9 students in an SISS (Second IEA Science Study) Extended Study (SES), a key project supported by the China State Commission of Education in the late 1980s, was employed in this study to investigate gender equity in student science achievement in China. This empirical data analysis…

  17. The roles of social bonds, personality, and perceived costs: an empirical investigation into Hirschi's "new" control theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intravia, Jonathan; Jones, Shayne; Piquero, Alex R

    2012-12-01

    Hirschi's reconceptualized control theory suggests that social bonds serve as the primary inhibitors to delinquency and that personality-based self-control (PBSC) is not relevant. He also indicates that the number of inhibitors, multiplied by their salience, influences the perceived costs of delinquency. These claims have not been widely tested. Using a large, school-based sample of adolescents, the authors test Hirschi's reconceptualization and find that certain inhibitors (e.g., parental monitoring) are more important than others (e.g., maternal attachment). There are also unique types of costs (e.g., parental costs, peer costs) with differential impacts. Salience exerts a main effect, but there was little evidence to suggest it interacts with costs. Finally, PBSC has the strongest effect. These findings not only offer support for some of Hirschi's claims but also provide directions to better formulate a more comprehensive and empirically supported control theory.

  18. Best approach to impact assessment is to use empirically based or simulation models to forecast impacts. Environmental Sciences Division Publication No. 1538

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christensen, S.W.

    1980-01-01

    This paper advocates the utility of mathematical models, as contrasted with statistical procedures and processional judgment, for assessing environmental impacts. While it would be desirable to use statistical tests to detect and estimate impacts, this is generally difficult or impossible to do, even with existing sources of impact. Empirical modeling, supported by statistical analyses when possible, is proffered as the logical alternative. Next, for purposes of forecasting impacts, the use of models as opposed to professional judgment or experience is considered. The conclusion is reached that, while models cannot answer all of the relevant questions, they can be used effectively and can address problems that are beyond the reach of statistical methods

  19. Do women on management board increase fair value relevance?

    OpenAIRE

    Velte, Patrick

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is the link between women on management board and the value relevance of fair value accounting according to IFRS 13. The empirical quantitative study covers a sample of German companies listed at the Prime Standard of the Frankfurt Stock Exchange for the business years 2013-2015 (411 firm-year observations). Value relevance is measured by the modified Ohlson (1995) model and we separate fair value accounting in level 1, level 2 and level 3 fair values. Multiple regre...

  20. An empirically based conceptual framework for fostering meaningful patient engagement in research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Clayon B; Hoens, Alison M; Backman, Catherine L; McKinnon, Annette M; McQuitty, Shanon; English, Kelly; Li, Linda C

    2018-02-01

    Patient engagement in research (PEIR) is promoted to improve the relevance and quality of health research, but has little conceptualization derived from empirical data. To address this issue, we sought to develop an empirically based conceptual framework for meaningful PEIR founded on a patient perspective. We conducted a qualitative secondary analysis of in-depth interviews with 18 patient research partners from a research centre-affiliated patient advisory board. Data analysis involved three phases: identifying the themes, developing a framework and confirming the framework. We coded and organized the data, and abstracted, illustrated, described and explored the emergent themes using thematic analysis. Directed content analysis was conducted to derive concepts from 18 publications related to PEIR to supplement, confirm or refute, and extend the emergent conceptual framework. The framework was reviewed by four patient research partners on our research team. Participants' experiences of working with researchers were generally positive. Eight themes emerged: procedural requirements, convenience, contributions, support, team interaction, research environment, feel valued and benefits. These themes were interconnected and formed a conceptual framework to explain the phenomenon of meaningful PEIR from a patient perspective. This framework, the PEIR Framework, was endorsed by the patient research partners on our team. The PEIR Framework provides guidance on aspects of PEIR to address for meaningful PEIR. It could be particularly useful when patient-researcher partnerships are led by researchers with little experience of engaging patients in research. © 2017 The Authors Health Expectations Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Medical Support Issues of Relevance to Military Operations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lewis, Brian

    1998-01-01

    Military medicine is often a hotly debated topic among a majority who believe that its primary mission is peacetime healthcare for an enormous dependent, retired, and active duty beneficiary population...

  2. Empirically Testing Thematic Analysis (ETTA)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gildberg, Frederik Alkier; Bradley, Stephen K.; Tingleff, Elllen B.

    2015-01-01

    Text analysis is not a question of a right or wrong way to go about it, but a question of different traditions. These tend to not only give answers to how to conduct an analysis, but also to provide the answer as to why it is conducted in the way that it is. The problem however may be that the li...... for themselves. The advantage of utilizing the presented analytic approach is argued to be the integral empirical testing, which should assure systematic development, interpretation and analysis of the source textual material....... between tradition and tool is unclear. The main objective of this article is therefore to present Empirical Testing Thematic Analysis, a step by step approach to thematic text analysis; discussing strengths and weaknesses, so that others might assess its potential as an approach that they might utilize/develop...

  3. Practice management: observations, issues, and empirical evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, H M; Braithwaite, J

    2001-02-01

    The primary objective of this study is to provide objective, empirical, evidence-based practice management information. This is a hitherto under-researched area of considerable interest for both the practitioner and educator. A questionnaire eliciting a mix of structured and free text responses was administered to a random sample of 480 practitioners who are members of the American Academy of Periodontology. Potential respondents not in private practice were excluded and the next listed person substituted. The results provide demographic and descriptive information about some of the main issues and problems facing practice managers, central to which are information technology (IT), financial, people management, and marketing. Human resource and marketing management appear to represent the biggest challenges. Periodontists running practices would prefer more information, development, and support in dealing with IT, finance, marketing, and people management. The empirical evidence reported here suggests that although tailored educational programs on key management issues at both undergraduate and postgraduate levels have become ubiquitous, nevertheless some respondents seek further training opportunities. Evidence-based practice management information will be invaluable to the clinician considering strategic and marketing planning, and also for those responsible for the design and conduct of predoctoral and postdoctoral programs.

  4. Essays in empirical industrial organization

    OpenAIRE

    Aguiar de Luque, Luis

    2013-01-01

    My PhD thesis consists of three chapters in Empirical Industrial Organization. The first two chapters focus on the relationship between firrm performance and specific public policies. In particular, we analyze the cases of cooperative research and development (R&D) in the European Union and the regulation of public transports in France. The third chapter focuses on copyright protection in the digital era and analyzes the relationship between legal and illegal consumption of di...

  5. Empirical research on Waldorf education

    OpenAIRE

    Randoll, Dirk; Peters, Jürgen

    2015-01-01

    Waldorf education began in 1919 with the first Waldorf School in Stuttgart and nowadays is widespread in many countries all over the world. Empirical research, however, has been rare until the early nineties and Waldorf education has not been discussed within educational science so far. This has changed during the last decades. This article reviews the results of surveys during the last 20 years and is mainly focused on German Waldorf Schools, because most investigations have been done in thi...

  6. Empirical distribution function under heteroscedasticity

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Víšek, Jan Ámos

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 45, č. 5 (2011), s. 497-508 ISSN 0233-1888 Grant - others:GA UK(CZ) GA402/09/0557 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : Robustness * Convergence * Empirical distribution * Heteroscedasticity Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics , Operational Research Impact factor: 0.724, year: 2011 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2011/SI/visek-0365534.pdf

  7. Expert opinion vs. empirical evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Herman, Rod A; Raybould, Alan

    2014-01-01

    Expert opinion is often sought by government regulatory agencies when there is insufficient empirical evidence to judge the safety implications of a course of action. However, it can be reckless to continue following expert opinion when a preponderance of evidence is amassed that conflicts with this opinion. Factual evidence should always trump opinion in prioritizing the information that is used to guide regulatory policy. Evidence-based medicine has seen a dramatic upturn in recent years sp...

  8. Clinicians' emotional responses and Psychodynamic Diagnostic Manual adult personality disorders: A clinically relevant empirical investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazzillo, Francesco; Lingiardi, Vittorio; Del Corno, Franco; Genova, Federica; Bornstein, Robert F; Gordon, Robert M; McWilliams, Nancy

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study is to explore the relationship between level of personality organization and type of personality disorder as assessed with the categories in the Psychodynamic Diagnostic Manual (PDM; PDM Task Force, 2006) and the emotional responses of treating clinicians. We asked 148 Italian clinicians to assess 1 of their adult patients in treatment for personality disorders with the Psychodiagnostic Chart (PDC; Gordon & Bornstein, 2012) and the Personality Diagnostic Prototype (PDP; Gazzillo, Lingiardi, & Del Corno, 2012) and to complete the Therapist Response Questionnaire (TRQ; Betan, Heim, Zittel-Conklin, & Westen, 2005). The patients' level of overall personality pathology was positively associated with helpless and overwhelmed responses in clinicians and negatively associated with positive emotional responses. A parental and disengaged response was associated with the depressive, anxious, and dependent personality disorders; an exclusively parental response with the phobic personality disorder; and a parental and criticized response with narcissistic disorder. Dissociative disorder evoked a helpless and parental response in the treating clinicians whereas somatizing disorder elicited a disengaged reaction. An overwhelmed and disengaged response was associated with sadistic and masochistic personality disorders, with the latter also associated with a parental and hostile/criticized reaction; an exclusively overwhelmed response with psychopathic patients; and a helpless response with paranoid patients. Finally, patients with histrionic personality disorder evoked an overwhelmed and sexualized response in their clinicians whereas there was no specific emotional reaction associated with the schizoid and the obsessive-compulsive disorders. Clinical implications of these findings were discussed. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  9. Does Partner Volatility Have Firm Value Relevance? An Empirical Analysis of Part Suppliers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Insung Son

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Considering the lifecycle of products, firms are releasing new products through diversified strategic partnerships via the global supply chain. As the uncertainty about the future increases and strategic partnership grows more important, part suppliers are becoming more and more significant in assessing firm value. From the perspective of the signaling effect, this study analyzed the impact of partner volatility (new partner, old partner, revocation partner on firm value in terms of global supply chain management. Regarding both Apple and Samsung which have bisected the premium smart phone market, research results reveal that companies eliminated from partnership selection are found to show negative signaling effect, and the newly selected companies have the stronger innovative capacity and higher signaling effect of higher excess earning rate than that of re-selected companies. The findings indicate that the partner volatility of partner companies work as a reliable investment signal for investors to recognize as an investment indication, contributing to firm value. In particular, it is meaningful to confirm that a new partner’s differentiated R&D capacity is a key factor of new product launching and a significant variable capable of determining a firm’s survival in the smart phone market.

  10. Does Partner Volatility Have Firm Value Relevance? An Empirical Analysis of Part Suppliers

    OpenAIRE

    Insung Son; Sihyun Kim

    2018-01-01

    Considering the lifecycle of products, firms are releasing new products through diversified strategic partnerships via the global supply chain. As the uncertainty about the future increases and strategic partnership grows more important, part suppliers are becoming more and more significant in assessing firm value. From the perspective of the signaling effect, this study analyzed the impact of partner volatility (new partner, old partner, revocation partner) on firm value in terms of global s...

  11. Variable interest consolidation (FASB,FIN 46/R) : valve relevance and empirical consequences on financial reporting

    OpenAIRE

    Valentinis, Edi

    2008-01-01

    2007/2008 FASB introduction of FIN 46/R variable interest consolidation model proved revolutionary as it ties up the accounting to the economic/financial frameworks and the judicial one. Legal structures and agreements among stakeholders of entities, creating net assets’ variability, have from now on to be compared with expected losses and expected returns distribution, prior to identify which stakeholder will need to consolidate pursuant this Interpretation. As a result, return variabilit...

  12. Is earnings uncertainty relevant for educational choice? An empirical analysis for China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartog, J.; Ding, X.; Liao, J.

    2011-01-01

    We use the method of Dominitz and Manski (1996) to solicit anticipated wage distributions for continuing to a Master degree or going to work after completing the Bachelor degree. The means of the distributions have an effect on intention to continue as predicted by theory. The dispersions in these

  13. Is earnings uncertainty relevant for educational choice? An empirical analysis for China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartog, J.; Ding, X.; Liao, J.

    2014-01-01

    We use the method of Dominitz and Manski [1996. Eliciting student expectations of the return to schooling. Journal of Human Resources 31, no. 1: 1-26] to solicit anticipated wage distributions for continuing to a master degree or going to work after completing the bachelor degree. The means of the

  14. Is earnings uncertainty relevant for educational choice? An empirical analysis for China.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartog, J.; Ding, X.; Liao, J.

    2011-01-01

    We use the method of Dominitz and Manski (1996) to solicit anticipated wage distributions for continuing to a Master degree or going to work after completing the Bachelor degree. The means of the distributions have an effect on intention to continue as predicted by theory. The dispersions in these

  15. Theorising Catholic Education: The Relevance of Bourdieu and Bernstein for Empirical Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, Richard; Devine, Dympna

    2017-01-01

    The broader theoretical frameworks of both Bourdieu (and his concepts of habitus, field, doxa, collusio and capital) and Bernstein (and his concepts of classification, framing and ritual) provide a deeper understanding of the distinctiveness of Catholic schooling. This article presents a model for theorising Catholic schooling in which levels of…

  16. Empirical isotropic chemical shift surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Czinki, Eszter; Csaszar, Attila G.

    2007-01-01

    A list of proteins is given for which spatial structures, with a resolution better than 2.5 A, are known from entries in the Protein Data Bank (PDB) and isotropic chemical shift (ICS) values are known from the RefDB database related to the Biological Magnetic Resonance Bank (BMRB) database. The structures chosen provide, with unknown uncertainties, dihedral angles φ and ψ characterizing the backbone structure of the residues. The joint use of experimental ICSs of the same residues within the proteins, again with mostly unknown uncertainties, and ab initio ICS(φ,ψ) surfaces obtained for the model peptides For-(l-Ala) n -NH 2 , with n = 1, 3, and 5, resulted in so-called empirical ICS(φ,ψ) surfaces for all major nuclei of the 20 naturally occurring α-amino acids. Out of the many empirical surfaces determined, it is the 13C α ICS(φ,ψ) surface which seems to be most promising for identifying major secondary structure types, α-helix, β-strand, left-handed helix (α D ), and polyproline-II. Detailed tests suggest that Ala is a good model for many naturally occurring α-amino acids. Two-dimensional empirical 13C α - 1 H α ICS(φ,ψ) correlation plots, obtained so far only from computations on small peptide models, suggest the utility of the experimental information contained therein and thus they should provide useful constraints for structure determinations of proteins

  17. Two concepts of empirical ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Malcolm

    2009-05-01

    The turn to empirical ethics answers two calls. The first is for a richer account of morality than that afforded by bioethical principlism, which is cast as excessively abstract and thin on the facts. The second is for the facts in question to be those of human experience and not some other, unworldly realm. Empirical ethics therefore promises a richer naturalistic ethics, but in fulfilling the second call it often fails to heed the metaethical requirements related to the first. Empirical ethics risks losing the normative edge which necessarily characterizes the ethical, by failing to account for the nature and the logic of moral norms. I sketch a naturalistic theory, teleological expressivism (TE), which negotiates the naturalistic fallacy by providing a more satisfactory means of taking into account facts and research data with ethical implications. The examples of informed consent and the euthanasia debate are used to illustrate the superiority of this approach, and the problems consequent on including the facts in the wrong kind of way.

  18. Supportive Accountability: A Model for Providing Human Support to Enhance Adherence to eHealth Interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    The effectiveness of and adherence to eHealth interventions is enhanced by human support. However, human support has largely not been manualized and has usually not been guided by clear models. The objective of this paper is to develop a clear theoretical model, based on relevant empirical literature, that can guide research into human support components of eHealth interventions. A review of the literature revealed little relevant information from clinical sciences. Applicable literature was drawn primarily from organizational psychology, motivation theory, and computer-mediated communication (CMC) research. We have developed a model, referred to as “Supportive Accountability.” We argue that human support increases adherence through accountability to a coach who is seen as trustworthy, benevolent, and having expertise. Accountability should involve clear, process-oriented expectations that the patient is involved in determining. Reciprocity in the relationship, through which the patient derives clear benefits, should be explicit. The effect of accountability may be moderated by patient motivation. The more intrinsically motivated patients are, the less support they likely require. The process of support is also mediated by the communications medium (eg, telephone, instant messaging, email). Different communications media each have their own potential benefits and disadvantages. We discuss the specific components of accountability, motivation, and CMC medium in detail. The proposed model is a first step toward understanding how human support enhances adherence to eHealth interventions. Each component of the proposed model is a testable hypothesis. As we develop viable human support models, these should be manualized to facilitate dissemination. PMID:21393123

  19. Hydrogen interaction with fusion-relevant materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caorlin, M.

    1990-01-01

    This paper is an outline of the work carried out at JRC Ispra in the Tritium-materials Interaction Laboratory, on the interaction of gaseous hydrogen with several materials of interest in the field of fusion technology. Experimental work is reported and a concise review of relevant theoretical and numerical supporting activity is given as well. A period of about seven years is covered since 1982. Current work and possible future extensions are also briefly mentioned. 11 figs., 18 refs

  20. Experts' attitudes towards medical futility: an empirical survey from Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asai Atsushi

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The current debate about medical futility is mostly driven by theoretical and personal perspectives and there is a lack of empirical data to document experts and public attitudes towards medical futility. Methods To examine the attitudes of the Japanese experts in the fields relevant to medical futility a questionnaire survey was conducted among the members of the Japan Association for Bioethics. A total number of 108 questionnaires returned filled in, giving a response rate of 50.9%. Among the respondents 62% were healthcare professionals (HCPs and 37% were non-healthcare professionals (Non-HCPs. Results The majority of respondents (67.6 % believed that a physician's refusal to provide or continue a treatment on the ground of futility judgment could never be morally justified but 22.2% approved such refusal with conditions. In the case of physiologically futile care, three-quarters believed that a physician should inform the patient/family of his futility judgment and it would be the patient who could decide what should be done next, based on his/her value judgment. However more than 10% said that a physician should ask about a patient's value and goals, but the final decision was left to the doctor not the patient. There was no statistically significant difference between HCPs and Non-HCPs (p = 0.676. Of respondents 67.6% believed that practical guidelines set up by the health authority would be helpful in futility judgment. Conclusion The results show that there is no support for the physicians' unilateral decision- making on futile care. This survey highlights medical futility as an emerging issue in Japanese healthcare and emphasizes on the need for public discussion and policy development.

  1. Computational RNA secondary structure design: empirical complexity and improved methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Condon Anne

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We investigate the empirical complexity of the RNA secondary structure design problem, that is, the scaling of the typical difficulty of the design task for various classes of RNA structures as the size of the target structure is increased. The purpose of this work is to understand better the factors that make RNA structures hard to design for existing, high-performance algorithms. Such understanding provides the basis for improving the performance of one of the best algorithms for this problem, RNA-SSD, and for characterising its limitations. Results To gain insights into the practical complexity of the problem, we present a scaling analysis on random and biologically motivated structures using an improved version of the RNA-SSD algorithm, and also the RNAinverse algorithm from the Vienna package. Since primary structure constraints are relevant for designing RNA structures, we also investigate the correlation between the number and the location of the primary structure constraints when designing structures and the performance of the RNA-SSD algorithm. The scaling analysis on random and biologically motivated structures supports the hypothesis that the running time of both algorithms scales polynomially with the size of the structure. We also found that the algorithms are in general faster when constraints are placed only on paired bases in the structure. Furthermore, we prove that, according to the standard thermodynamic model, for some structures that the RNA-SSD algorithm was unable to design, there exists no sequence whose minimum free energy structure is the target structure. Conclusion Our analysis helps to better understand the strengths and limitations of both the RNA-SSD and RNAinverse algorithms, and suggests ways in which the performance of these algorithms can be further improved.

  2. Developing Tacit Knowledge of Complex Systems: The Value of Early Empirical Inquiry in Healthcare Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chantal Trudel

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Infection prevention and control has been the subject of much study in medical and epidemiological research and a variety of best practice guidelines have been developed to support healthcare workers and related stakeholders. Yet, despite the availability of information, managing healthcare-associated infections remains a challenge because the relevant explicit knowledge is not being adequately developed and mobilized as tacit knowledge for use "on the front lines". Some researchers have called for a human factors perspective to help address challenges in designing for infection prevention and control, but relatively few studies have been conducted to date. Researchers also suggest that empirical inquiry is needed to better inform the design process, and particularly the design of complex systems where attention to detailed processes and interactions can support the success of an intervention. A human factors approach can help designers develop a deeper understanding of work processes, technology considerations, as well as physiological, psychological, cultural, and organizational factors. The need is particularly pressing in low-resource healthcare environments where funds, time, and human resources may be scarce and strategic design decisions based on evidence are needed to support meaningful and effective changes. With this in mind, a human factors study was conducted in an existing neonatal intensive care unit to identify the influence of product and environment design on infection prevention and control and to inform recommendations for improvement. In this case study, we illustrate how the application of an empirical, methodical approach can help design professionals and stakeholders develop tacit knowledge of complex systems – knowledge that can be used to better inform design priorities, the design process, decision making, and the allocation of resources to help maximize improvements.

  3. Empirical and theoretical challenges in aboveground-belowground ecology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    W.H. van der Putten,; R.D. Bardgett; P.C. de Ruiter

    2009-01-01

    of the current conceptual succession models into more predictive models can help targeting empirical studies and generalising their results. Then, we discuss how understanding succession may help to enhance managing arable crops, grasslands and invasive plants, as well as provide insights into the effects...... and environmental settings, we explore where and how they can be supported by theoretical approaches to develop testable predictions and to generalise empirical results. We review four key areas where a combined aboveground-belowground approach offers perspectives for enhancing ecological understanding, namely...

  4. Empirical Phenomenology: A Qualitative Research Approach (The ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Empirical Phenomenology: A Qualitative Research Approach (The Cologne Seminars) ... and practical application of empirical phenomenology in social research. ... and considers its implications for qualitative methods such as interviewing ...

  5. Generalized empirical likelihood methods for analyzing longitudinal data

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, S.

    2010-02-16

    Efficient estimation of parameters is a major objective in analyzing longitudinal data. We propose two generalized empirical likelihood based methods that take into consideration within-subject correlations. A nonparametric version of the Wilks theorem for the limiting distributions of the empirical likelihood ratios is derived. It is shown that one of the proposed methods is locally efficient among a class of within-subject variance-covariance matrices. A simulation study is conducted to investigate the finite sample properties of the proposed methods and compare them with the block empirical likelihood method by You et al. (2006) and the normal approximation with a correctly estimated variance-covariance. The results suggest that the proposed methods are generally more efficient than existing methods which ignore the correlation structure, and better in coverage compared to the normal approximation with correctly specified within-subject correlation. An application illustrating our methods and supporting the simulation study results is also presented.

  6. Science and the British Empire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Mark

    2005-03-01

    The last few decades have witnessed a flowering of interest in the history of science in the British Empire. This essay aims to provide an overview of some of the most important work in this area, identifying interpretative shifts and emerging themes. In so doing, it raises some questions about the analytical framework in which colonial science has traditionally been viewed, highlighting interactions with indigenous scientific traditions and the use of network-based models to understand scientific relations within and beyond colonial contexts.

  7. Mentoring, training and support to global health innovators: a scoping review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Dan-Bi; Cole, Donald; Simiyu, Ken; Luong, Winnie; Neufeld, Vic

    2013-06-28

    Global health innovators must navigate substantial complexities to successfully develop, implement and sustain global health innovations with impact through application of an Integrated InnovationTM approach. We sought to examine the nature of the literature and evidence around mentoring, training and support of global health innovators. We conducted a scoping review searching eight databases with terms capturing different kinds of innovation and support. Assessment of relevance and mapping was completed by two reviewers, with interpretation by the review team. Twenty-eight relevant papers provided perspectives on fostering global health innovators and innovation. Fifteen included empirical data on supports to global health innovators involving a wide range of innovators. Eight included documentation of outcomes but without designs to determine effectiveness. The diverse mentoring, training and support activities included: business incubators, support organizations and centres for entrepreneurship, technology transfer and intellectual property management, internship programs for business skill development, initiatives to bridge industry and researchers, and platforms for South-led innovation for global health. We propose the cultivation of a pipeline of global health innovators to increase the number of appropriate, sustainable innovations with impact in global health. Further empirical work on how to effectively support global health innovators is needed.

  8. Motives and chances of firm diversification: theory and empirical evidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Briglauer, W.

    2001-11-01

    It is beyond controversy that the majority of the largest companies in the industrialized countries perform to a certain extent product diversification strategies. Tying up to this finding the underlying work firstly deals with alternative theoretical and empirical definitions of corporate diversification. Subsequently the theoretical part mainly elaborates an industrial economic framework for categorizing motives of firm diversification. Despite of some inevitable degree of arbitrariness, a relatively widespread and sufficient categorization can be presented. With regards to the relevant economic literature most explanations of product diversification can be classified appropriately. Observing diversification activities one would prima facie infer a positive relationship between product diversification and firm performance, but both, theory and empirical evidence, yield ambiguous results. The empirical part provides a list of existing studies, classified according to the theoretical categorization. In an overview some stylised facts are filtered and discussed consecutively. Most notably, it was found that related diversification strategies significantly outperform strategies of unrelated diversification. At the end of the empirical section econometric methods are applied to agricultural and industrial economic (relating to telecommunication markets) data sets. For the agricultural studies a significantly positive relationship between product diversification and firm performance was found. In contrast no significant results were obtained for the telecommunication markets. (author)

  9. What should we mean by empirical validation in hypnotherapy: evidence-based practice in clinical hypnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alladin, Assen; Sabatini, Linda; Amundson, Jon K

    2007-04-01

    This paper briefly surveys the trend of and controversy surrounding empirical validation in psychotherapy. Empirical validation of hypnotherapy has paralleled the practice of validation in psychotherapy and the professionalization of clinical psychology, in general. This evolution in determining what counts as evidence for bona fide clinical practice has gone from theory-driven clinical approaches in the 1960s and 1970s through critical attempts at categorization of empirically supported therapies in the 1990s on to the concept of evidence-based practice in 2006. Implications of this progression in professional psychology are discussed in the light of hypnosis's current quest for validation and empirical accreditation.

  10. Shifts in foci and priorities. Different relevance of requirements to changing goals yields conflicting priorizations and is viewpoint-dependent.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoorn, J.F.; Breuker, M.E.; Kok, E.

    2006-01-01

    Stakeholders judge goal relevance and software-development project requirements differently, considering them from a business versus a personal viewpoint. Three empirical studies provided evidence that stakeholders' personal goals for a system are valued higher than business goals and that,

  11. Shifts in foci and priorities. Different relevance of requirements to changing goals yields conflicting prioritizations and is viewpoint-dependent

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoorn, J.F.; Breuker, M.E.; Kok, E.

    2006-01-01

    Stakeholders judge goal relevance and software-development project requirements differently, considering them from a business versus a personal viewpoint. Three empirical studies provided evidence that stakeholders' personal goals for a system are valued higher than business goals and that,

  12. Profiles of Dialogue for Relevance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas Walton

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper uses argument diagrams, argumentation schemes, and some tools from formal argumentation systems developed in artificial intelligence to build a graph-theoretic model of relevance shown to be applicable (with some extensions as a practical method for helping a third party judge issues of relevance or irrelevance of an argument in real examples. Examples used to illustrate how the method works are drawn from disputes about relevance in natural language discourse, including a criminal trial and a parliamentary debate.

  13. Enhancing team-sport athlete performance: is altitude training relevant?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billaut, François; Gore, Christopher J; Aughey, Robert J

    2012-09-01

    Field-based team sport matches are composed of short, high-intensity efforts, interspersed with intervals of rest or submaximal exercise, repeated over a period of 60-120 minutes. Matches may also be played at moderate altitude where the lower oxygen partial pressure exerts a detrimental effect on performance. To enhance run-based performance, team-sport athletes use varied training strategies focusing on different aspects of team-sport physiology, including aerobic, sprint, repeated-sprint and resistance training. Interestingly, 'altitude' training (i.e. living and/or training in O(2)-reduced environments) has only been empirically employed by athletes and coaches to improve the basic characteristics of speed and endurance necessary to excel in team sports. Hypoxia, as an additional stimulus to training, is typically used by endurance athletes to enhance performance at sea level and to prepare for competition at altitude. Several approaches have evolved in the last few decades, which are known to enhance aerobic power and, thus, endurance performance. Altitude training can also promote an increased anaerobic fitness, and may enhance sprint capacity. Therefore, altitude training may confer potentially-beneficial adaptations to team-sport athletes, which have been overlooked in contemporary sport physiology research. Here, we review the current knowledge on the established benefits of altitude training on physiological systems relevant to team-sport performance, and conclude that current evidence supports implementation of altitude training modalities to enhance match physical performances at both sea level and altitude. We hope that this will guide the practice of many athletes and stimulate future research to better refine training programmes.

  14. Social opportunity cost of capital: empirical estimates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Townsend, S.

    1978-02-01

    This report develops estimates of the social-opportunity cost of public capital. The private and social costs of capital are found to diverge primarily because of the effects of corporate and personal income taxes. Following Harberger, the social-opportunity cost of capital is approximated by a weighted average of the returns to different classes of savers and investors where the weights are the flows of savings or investments in each class multiplied by the relevant elasticity. Estimates of these parameters are obtained and the social-opportunity cost of capital is determined to be in the range of 6.2 to 10.8%, depending upon the parameter values used. Uncertainty is found to affect the social-opportunity cost of capital in two ways. First, some allowance must be made for the chance of failure or at least of not realizing claims of a project's proponents. Second, a particular government project will change the expected variability of the returns to the government's entire portfolio of projects. In the absence of specific information about each project, the use of the economy-wide average default and risk adjustments is suggested. These are included in the empirical estimates reported. International capital markets make available private capital, the price of which is not distorted by the U.S. tax system. The inclusion of foreign sources slightly reduces the social-opportunity cost of capital. 21 references.

  15. AN EMPIRICAL STUDY OF ECONOMIC ALTERNATIVES FOR THE ELDERLY IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Podoabă Lucia

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper is part of an applied, broad, based popular empirical procedures (such as natural observation scientific research. The positivist research methodology used was based on consensual-inductive system (Locke, which is why we studied different specialists’ opinions on the use of EU funds for the elderly in Romania or employer contributions to voluntary private funds, necessary to formulate the problem of generating relevant information. The used research strategies were the comparative and longitudinal ones, as we analyzed the time evolution in time of the number of pensioners and employees in Romania, in the main time with the EU funding for the elderly, to determine Romania's concrete economic alternatives to support this category of populations. Causality assumptions about the relationship efficient use of EU funds-beneficiaries was inductively built in this paper (by analyzing the European funds management issue in Romania, causally (by cause and effect explanation of the studied phenomenon, deductively, logically and subjectively (on the basis of existence and perpetuation of fund premise conflict between strategic absorption of European funds and regional development. The qualitative approach of the phenomenon studied was made by collecting information (using the mediate data collection technique has allowed relevant findings and practical solutions necessary for all those involved in this concerted action for the elderly, which affects us all.

  16. Empirical reality, empirical causality, and the measurement problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    d'Espagnat, B.

    1987-01-01

    Does physics describe anything that can meaningfully be called independent reality, or is it merely operational? Most physicists implicitly favor an intermediate standpoint, which takes quantum physics into account, but which nevertheless strongly holds fast to quite strictly realistic ideas about apparently obvious facts concerning the macro-objects. Part 1 of this article, which is a survey of recent measurement theories, shows that, when made explicit, the standpoint in question cannot be upheld. Part 2 brings forward a proposal for making minimal changes to this standpoint in such a way as to remove such objections. The empirical reality thus constructed is a notion that, to some extent, does ultimately refer to the human means of apprehension and of data processing. It nevertheless cannot be said that it reduces to a mere name just labelling a set of recipes that never fail. It is shown that their usual notion of macroscopic causality must be endowed with similar features

  17. Functional dyspepsia: Are psychosocial factors of relevance?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sandra Barry; Timothy G Dinan

    2006-01-01

    The pathogenesis of Functional Dyspepsia (FD) remains unclear, appears diverse and is thus inadequately understood. Akin to other functional gastrointestinal disorders, research has demonstrated an association between this common diagnosis and psychosocial factors and psychiatric morbidity. Conceptualising the relevance of these factors within the syndrome of FD requires application of the biopsychosocial model of disease.Using this paradigm, dysregulation of the reciprocal communication between the brain and the gut is central to symptom generation, interpretation and exacerbation.Appreciation and understanding of the neurobiological correlates of various psychological states is also relevant.The view that psychosocial factors exert their influence in FD predominantly through motivation of health care seeking also persists. This appears too one-dimensional an assertion in light of the evidence available supporting a more intrinsic aetiological link. Evolving understanding of pathogenic mechanisms and the heterogeneous nature of the syndrome will facilitate effective management.Co-morbid psychiatric illness warrants treatment with conventional therapies. Acknowledging the relevance of psychosocial variables in FD, the degree of which is subject to variation, has implications for assessment and management. Available evidence suggests psychological therapies may benefit FD patients particularly those with chronic symptoms. The rationale for use of psychotropic medications in FD is apparent but the evidence base to support the use of antidepressant pharmacotherapy is to date limited.

  18. The Role of Students’ Emotional Intelligence: Empirical Evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalio Extremera Pacheco

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Emotional intelligence (EI has attracted great interest in the field of education as a vehicle to improve the socioemotional development of students. The first publications that appeared made a great number of claims about the positive influence of emotional intelligence in the classroom. The only problem was that not all these claims were coupled with empirical research to show, on the one hand, the predictive level of EI, and on the other hand, the actual role of EI in different areas of life. It has been only recently that the effect of a high level of EI exercises on people has been investigated. The object of this article is to examine the most relevant empirical research done within the educational setting, in order to collect the existing evidence for the influence of EI, evaluated by different instruments, in the personal, social and scholastic functioning of students.

  19. Nudges and coercion: conceptual, empirical, and normative considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cratsley, Kelso

    2015-01-01

    Given that the concept of coercion remains a central concern for bioethics, Quigley's (Monash Bioethics Rev 32:141-158, 2014) recent article provides a helpful analysis of its frequent misapplication in debates over the use of 'nudges'. In this commentary I present a generally sympathetic response to Quigley's argument while also raising several issues that are important for the larger debates about nudges and coercion. I focus on several closely related topics, including the definition of coercion, the role of empirical research, and the normative concerns at the core of these disputes. I suggest that while a degree of precision is certainly required when deploying the relevant concepts, perhaps informed by empirical data, we need to continue to push these debates towards more pressing normative considerations.

  20. Clinical relevance in anesthesia journals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauritsen, Jakob; Møller, Ann M

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to present the latest knowledge and research on the definition and distribution of clinically relevant articles in anesthesia journals. It will also discuss the importance of the chosen methodology and outcome of articles.......The purpose of this review is to present the latest knowledge and research on the definition and distribution of clinically relevant articles in anesthesia journals. It will also discuss the importance of the chosen methodology and outcome of articles....

  1. Revolutionary land use change in the 21st century: Is (rangeland) science relevant?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrick, J.E.; Brown, J.R.; Bestelmeyer, B.T.; Andrews, S.S.; Baldi, G.; Davies, J.; Duniway, M.; Havstad, K.M.; Karl, J.W.; Karlen, D.L.; Peters, Debra P.C.; Quinton, J.N.; Riginos, C.; Shaver, P.L.; Steinaker, D.; Twomlow, S.

    2012-01-01

    Rapidly increasing demand for food, fiber, and fuel together with new technologies and the mobility of global capital are driving revolutionary changes in land use throughout the world. Efforts to increase land productivity include conversion of millions of hectares of rangelands to crop production, including many marginal lands with low resistance and resilience to degradation. Sustaining the productivity of these lands requires careful land use planning and innovative management systems. Historically, this responsibility has been left to agronomists and others with expertise in crop production. In this article, we argue that the revolutionary land use changes necessary to support national and global food security potentially make rangeland science more relevant now than ever. Maintaining and increasing relevance will require a revolutionary change in range science from a discipline that focuses on a particular land use or land cover to one that addresses the challenge of managing all lands that, at one time, were considered to be marginal for crop production. We propose four strategies to increase the relevance of rangeland science to global land management: 1) expand our awareness and understanding of local to global economic, social, and technological trends in order to anticipate and identify drivers and patterns of conversion; 2) emphasize empirical studies and modeling that anticipate the biophysical (ecosystem services) and societal consequences of large-scale changes in land cover and use; 3) significantly increase communication and collaboration with the disciplines and sectors of society currently responsible for managing the new land uses; and 4) develop and adopt a dynamic and flexible resilience-based land classification system and data-supported conceptual models (e.g., state-and-transition models) that represent all lands, regardless of use and the consequences of land conversion to various uses instead of changes in state or condition that are

  2. Defining effective community support for long-term psychiatric patients according to behavioural principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, I M; Moltzen, N L

    2000-08-01

    The purpose of this article is to define the characteristics of effective support in community mental health settings for patients with serious and persistent mental illness. A broad literature providing empirical evidence on competent caregiver behaviours and styles is selectively reviewed. Relevant findings from family caregiver research and studies of social environments that enhance skill development in people with intellectual disabilities are incorporated, within a cognitive-behavioural framework. Six important domains are identified which represent positive caregiver styles: acceptance, creating a positive atmosphere, expectations of change, responsiveness, normalisation and educativeness. The characteristics hypothesised to be critical for caregivers and support workers are defined in a general way that can allow for individualisation according to the goals of the programs and the cultural priorities of staff and patients. Further empirical validation of these characteristics would enable community mental health services to provide more specialised clinical treatments.

  3. Expert opinion vs. empirical evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, Rod A; Raybould, Alan

    2014-01-01

    Expert opinion is often sought by government regulatory agencies when there is insufficient empirical evidence to judge the safety implications of a course of action. However, it can be reckless to continue following expert opinion when a preponderance of evidence is amassed that conflicts with this opinion. Factual evidence should always trump opinion in prioritizing the information that is used to guide regulatory policy. Evidence-based medicine has seen a dramatic upturn in recent years spurred by examples where evidence indicated that certain treatments recommended by expert opinions increased death rates. We suggest that scientific evidence should also take priority over expert opinion in the regulation of genetically modified crops (GM). Examples of regulatory data requirements that are not justified based on the mass of evidence are described, and it is suggested that expertise in risk assessment should guide evidence-based regulation of GM crops. PMID:24637724

  4. Analysis of the Relevance of Information Content of the Value Added Statement in the Brazilian Capital Markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcio André Veras Machado

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The usefulness of financial statements depends, fundamentally, on the degree of relevance of the information they disclose to users. Thus, studies that measure the relevance of accounting information to the users of financial statements are of some importance. One line of research within this subject is in ascertaining the relevance and importance of accounting information for the capital markets: if a particular item of accounting information is minimally reflected in the price of a share, it is because this information has relevance, at least at a certain level of significance, for investors and analysts of the capital markets. This present study aims to analyze the relevance, in the Brazilian capital markets, of the information content of the Value Added Statement (or VAS - referred to in Brazil as the Demonstração do Valor Adicionado, or DVA. It analyzed the ratio between stock price and Wealth created per share (WCPS, using linear regressions, for the period 2005-2011, for non-financial listed companies included in Melhores & Maiores ('Biggest & Best', an annual listing published by Exame Magazine in Brazil. As a secondary objective, this article seeks to establish whether WCPS represents a better indication of a company's result than Net profit per share (in this study, referred to as NPPS. The empirical evidence that was found supports the concept that the VAS has relevant information content, because it shows a capacity to explain a variation in the share price of the companies studied. Additionally, the relationship between WCPS and the stock price was shown to be significant, even after the inclusion of the control variables Stockholders' equity per share (which we abbreviate in this study to SEPS and NPPS. Finally, the evidence found indicates that the market reacts more to WCPS (Wealth created per share than to NPPS. Thus, the results obtained give some indication that, for the Brazilian capital markets, WCPS may be a better proxy

  5. Thermochemical data for environmentally-relevant elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markich, S.J.; Brown, P.L.

    1999-01-01

    This study provides an extensive stability constant (log K) database suitable for calculating the speciation of selected environmentally-relevant elements (H, Na, K, Ca, Mg, Fe, Mn, U, Al Pb, Zn, Cu and cd) in an aqueous system, where a model fulvic acid (comprising aspartic, citric, malonic, salicylic and tricarballylic acids) is used to simulate metal binding by dissolved organic material Stability constants for inorganic metal complexes and minerals were selected primarily from critical literature complications and/or reviews. In contrast, few critically evaluated data were available for metal complexes with aspartic, citric, malonic, salicylic and tricarballylic acids. Consequently, data from original research articles were carefully evaluated and compiled as part of the study, following defined selection criteria. to meet the objective of compiling a comprehensive and reliable database of stability constants, all relevant equilibria and species, ranging from simple binary metal complexes to more complex ternary and even quaternary, metal complexes were included where possible in addition to the selection of stability constants from empirical sources, estimates of stability constants were performed when this could be done reliably, based on the unified theory of metal ion complexation and/or linear tree energy relationships The stability constants are given as common logarithms (logo) in the form required by the HARPHRQ geochemical code and refer to the standard state, i.e 298.15 K (25 deg C), 10 5 Pa (1 atm) and, for all species, infinite dilution (ionic strength = 0 mol L -1 ). In addition to the compilation of stability constant data, an overview is given of geochemical speciation modelling in aqueous systems and available conceptual models of metal binding by humic substances. (authors)

  6. Personalization and perceived personal relevance in computer-tailored persuasion in smoking cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dijkstra, Arie; Ballast, Karien

    2012-02-01

    In most computer-tailored interventions, the recipient's name is used to personalize the information. This is done to increase the process of persuasion but few empirical data exist that support this notion. An experimental laboratory study was conducted to test the effects of mentioning the participants name and to study whether it was related to the depth of processing in a 2 (personalization/standard) × 2 (weak/strong arguments) design. Over 120 student smokers were randomly assigned to one of the four experimental conditions in which they read smoking cessation messages offering (pre-tested) strong or weak arguments. Personalization was applied by mentioning the recipient's first name three times in the text. The intention to quit smoking was the dependent variable. Personalization increased persuasion when perceived personal relevance was high, but it decreased persuasion when perceived personal relevance was low. The effects on persuasion were only present in the case of strong arguments. Personalization is not always effective, and it may even lead to less persuasion. Therefore, this often used way to tailor messages must be applied with care. ©2011 The British Psychological Society.

  7. The relevance of temporal iconicity with instruction manuals for elderly users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mertens, Alexander; Nick, Claudia; Krüger, Stefan; Schlick, Christopher M

    2012-01-01

    Gerontolinguistic obtains a growing importance with the increase of elderly users due to Demographic Change. Since acceptance and ease of use of supportive systems for elderly, such as "E-Nursing-Assistants", are highly dependent on the age suitable design of readable instructions, an age-appropriate linguistic concept is of high value for usability. There has been only little research on the relevance of foreign words, signal words, textual arrangement, optical accentuation of key terms and temporal iconicity concerning older users. Thus, an efficient design of age suitable manual instructions within a medical context still remains to be done. The objective of this research was to evaluate the relevance of the previously mentioned factors in the context of written instructions. For this, an empirical survey was designed which was given to 45 study participants. The subjects of the experiment were given 4x3 instructions after a pretest questionnaire. The aim was to execute these instructions as correctly and quickly as possible. Furthermore the instructions were rated regarding comprehensibility with a retrospective questionnaire.

  8. Economic Growth and the Environment. An empirical analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Bruyn, S.M.

    1999-12-21

    A number of economists have claimed that economic growth benefits environmental quality as it raises political support and financial means for environmental policy measures. Since the early 1990s this view has increasingly been supported by empirical evidence that has challenged the traditional belief held by environmentalists that economic growth degrades the environment. This study investigates the relationship between economic growth and environmental quality and elaborates the question whether economic growth can be combined with a reduced demand for natural resources. Various hypotheses on this relationship are described and empirically tested for a number of indicators of environmental pressure. The outcome of the tests advocates the use of alternative models for estimation that alter conclusions about the relationship between economic growth and the environment and give insight into the driving forces of emission reduction in developed economies. refs.

  9. Shippingport: A relevant decommissioning project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crimi, F.P.

    1988-01-01

    Because of Shippingport's low electrical power rating (72 MWe), there has been some misunderstanding on the relevancy of the Shippingport Station Decommissioning Project (SSDP) to a modern 1175 MWe commercial pressurized water reactor (PWR) power station. This paper provides a comparison of the major components of the reactor plant of the 72 MWe Shippingport Atomic Power Station and an 1175 MWe nuclear plant and the relevancy of the Shippingport decommissioning as a demonstration project for the nuclear industry. For the purpose of this comparison, Portland General Electric Company's 1175 MWe Trojan Nuclear Plant at Rainier, Oregon, has been used as the reference nuclear power plant. 2 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

  10. Bootstrapping agency: How control-relevant information affects motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karsh, Noam; Eitam, Baruch; Mark, Ilya; Higgins, E Tory

    2016-10-01

    How does information about one's control over the environment (e.g., having an own-action effect) influence motivation? The control-based response selection framework was proposed to predict and explain such findings. Its key tenant is that control relevant information modulates both the frequency and speed of responses by determining whether a perceptual event is an outcome of one's actions or not. To test this framework empirically, the current study examines whether and how temporal and spatial contiguity/predictability-previously established as being important for one's sense of agency-modulate motivation from control. In 5 experiments, participants responded to a cue, potentially triggering a perceptual effect. Temporal (Experiments 1a-c) and spatial (Experiments 2a and b) contiguity/predictability between actions and their potential effects were experimentally manipulated. The influence of these control-relevant factors was measured, both indirectly (through their effect on explicit judgments of agency) and directly on response time and response frequency. The pattern of results was highly consistent with the control-based response selection framework in suggesting that control relevant information reliably modulates the impact of "having an effect" on different levels of action selection. We discuss the implications of this study for the notion of motivation from control and for the empirical work on the sense of agency. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. Regularization in Matrix Relevance Learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schneider, Petra; Bunte, Kerstin; Stiekema, Han; Hammer, Barbara; Villmann, Thomas; Biehl, Michael

    A In this paper, we present a regularization technique to extend recently proposed matrix learning schemes in learning vector quantization (LVQ). These learning algorithms extend the concept of adaptive distance measures in LVQ to the use of relevance matrices. In general, metric learning can

  12. EOG feature relevance determination for microsleep detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golz Martin

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Automatic relevance determination (ARD was applied to two-channel EOG recordings for microsleep event (MSE recognition. 10 s immediately before MSE and also before counterexamples of fatigued, but attentive driving were analysed. Two type of signal features were extracted: the maximum cross correlation (MaxCC and logarithmic power spectral densities (PSD averaged in spectral bands of 0.5 Hz width ranging between 0 and 8 Hz. Generalised learn-ing vector quantisation (GRLVQ was used as ARD method to show the potential of feature reduction. This is compared to support-vector machines (SVM, in which the feature reduction plays a much smaller role. Cross validation yielded mean normalised relevancies of PSD features in the range of 1.6 – 4.9 % and 1.9 – 10.4 % for horizontal and vertical EOG, respectively. MaxCC relevancies were 0.002 – 0.006 % and 0.002 – 0.06 %, respectively. This shows that PSD features of vertical EOG are indispensable, whereas MaxCC can be neglected. Mean classification accuracies were estimated at 86.6±b 1.3 % and 92.3±b 0.2 % for GRLVQ and SVM, respectively. GRLVQ permits objective feature reduction by inclusion of all processing stages, but is not as accurate as SVM.

  13. EOG feature relevance determination for microsleep detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golz Martin

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Automatic relevance determination (ARD was applied to two-channel EOG recordings for microsleep event (MSE recognition. 10 s immediately before MSE and also before counterexamples of fatigued, but attentive driving were analysed. Two type of signal features were extracted: the maximum cross correlation (MaxCC and logarithmic power spectral densities (PSD averaged in spectral bands of 0.5 Hz width ranging between 0 and 8 Hz. Generalised learn-ing vector quantisation (GRLVQ was used as ARD method to show the potential of feature reduction. This is compared to support-vector machines (SVM, in which the feature reduction plays a much smaller role. Cross validation yielded mean normalised relevancies of PSD features in the range of 1.6 - 4.9 % and 1.9 - 10.4 % for horizontal and vertical EOG, respectively. MaxCC relevancies were 0.002 - 0.006 % and 0.002 - 0.06 %, respectively. This shows that PSD features of vertical EOG are indispensable, whereas MaxCC can be neglected. Mean classification accuracies were estimated at 86.6±b 1.3 % and 92.3±b 0.2 % for GRLVQ and SVM, respec-tively. GRLVQ permits objective feature reduction by inclu-sion of all processing stages, but is not as accurate as SVM.

  14. Valerian: No Evidence for Clinically Relevant Interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olaf Kelber

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent popular publications as well as in widely used information websites directed to cancer patients, valerian is claimed to have a potential of adverse interactions with anticancer drugs. This questions its use as a safe replacement for, for example, benzodiazepines. A review on the interaction potential of preparations from valerian root (Valeriana officinalis L. root was therefore conducted. A data base search and search in a clinical drug interaction data base were conducted. Thereafter, a systematic assessment of publications was performed. Seven in vitro studies on six CYP 450 isoenzymes, on p-glycoprotein, and on two UGT isoenzymes were identified. However, the methodological assessment of these studies did not support their suitability for the prediction of clinically relevant interactions. In addition, clinical studies on various valerian preparations did not reveal any relevant interaction potential concerning CYP 1A2, 2D6, 2E1, and 3A4. Available animal and human pharmacodynamic studies did not verify any interaction potential. The interaction potential of valerian preparations therefore seems to be low and thereby without clinical relevance. We conclude that there is no specific evidence questioning their safety, also in cancer patients.

  15. ROMANIAN YOUNG ENTREPRENEURS FEATURES: AN EMPIRICAL SURVEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ceptureanu Sebastian Ion

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available There are many studies linking entrepreneurship and economic development. For specialists and public decision makers, developing entrepreneurship seems to be an easy policy action, even though actions and results are rather debatable. Unfortunately the relevant literature is not so generous concerning youth entrepreneurship. Youth is one of the most vulnerable groups in society, especially in the current economic and demographic situation in European Union and worldwide. At the same time, youth is the period when most people engage in their first job, are gaining financial independence and are assuming new responsibilities and roles shaping their identity. With respect to this, starting their own business is a natural choice for many young people. When considering entrepreneurial potential of young Romanians, there is almost not any data available. This paper aims to disseminate the results of a survey focused on young entrepreneurs, designed to fill the gap in the literature about Romanian young entrepreneurs’ features. The empirical study was divided in five parts: A. Personality of young entrepreneurs, highlighting the main features of behaviour and personality of young entrepreneurs. B. Professional background, focusing on young entrepreneurs’ background and how it influences their interest and performance improvement. C. Risk and crisis acceptance, highlighting the ability of young entrepreneurs to deal with critical situations. D. Business and business environment, focusing on internal and environmental aspects of the business. E. Social - cultural attitude, highlighting the attitude of society (incentives and disincentives to entrepreneurial initiatives of young people. This are excerpts of results from the first part, regarding personality of Romanian young entrepreneurs, concerning issues like level of independence, capacity for innovation, self-confidence, decision making process, level of persistence flexibility of young

  16. An Empirical Mass Function Distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, S. G.; Robotham, A. S. G.; Power, C.

    2018-03-01

    The halo mass function, encoding the comoving number density of dark matter halos of a given mass, plays a key role in understanding the formation and evolution of galaxies. As such, it is a key goal of current and future deep optical surveys to constrain the mass function down to mass scales that typically host {L}\\star galaxies. Motivated by the proven accuracy of Press–Schechter-type mass functions, we introduce a related but purely empirical form consistent with standard formulae to better than 4% in the medium-mass regime, {10}10{--}{10}13 {h}-1 {M}ȯ . In particular, our form consists of four parameters, each of which has a simple interpretation, and can be directly related to parameters of the galaxy distribution, such as {L}\\star . Using this form within a hierarchical Bayesian likelihood model, we show how individual mass-measurement errors can be successfully included in a typical analysis, while accounting for Eddington bias. We apply our form to a question of survey design in the context of a semi-realistic data model, illustrating how it can be used to obtain optimal balance between survey depth and angular coverage for constraints on mass function parameters. Open-source Python and R codes to apply our new form are provided at http://mrpy.readthedocs.org and https://cran.r-project.org/web/packages/tggd/index.html respectively.

  17. The empirical potential of live streaming beyond cognitive psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Nicolai Wendt

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Empirical methods of self-description, think aloud protocols and introspection have been extensively criticized or neglected in behaviorist and cognitivist psychology. Their methodological value has been fundamentally questioned since there apparently is no suficient proof for their validity. However, the major arguments against self-description can be critically reviewed by theoretical psychology. This way, these methods’ empirical value can be redeemed. Furthermore, self-descriptive methods can be updated by the use of contemporary media technology. In order to support the promising perspectives for future empirical research in the field of cognitive psychology, Live Streaming is proposed as a viable data source. Introducing this new paradigm, this paper presents some of the formal constituents and accessible contents of Live Streaming, and relates them to established forms of empirical research. By its structure and established usage, Live Streaming bears remarkable resemblances to the traditional methods of self-description, yet it also adds fruitful new features of use. On the basis of its qualities, the possible benefits that appear to be feasible in comparison with the traditional methods of self-description are elaborated, such as Live Streaming’s ecological validity. Ultimately, controversial theoretical concepts, such as those in phenomenology and cultural-historical psychology, are adopted to sketch further potential benefits of the utility of Live Streaming in current psychology debates.

  18. An Empirical Examination of Factors Affecting Group Effectiveness in Information Systems Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, Bassam; Ali, Jafar

    2007-01-01

    Although group project concepts and skills have become a major component in most information systems (IS) academic programs, very little research has attempted to examine factors that may improve or undermine effectiveness of IS group projects. Accordingly, based on relevant literatures, this study develops and empirically tests a model of factors…

  19. From micro data to causality: Forty years of empirical labor economics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Klaauw, B.

    2014-01-01

    This overview describes the development of methods for empirical research in the field of labor economics during the past four decades. This period is characterized by the use of micro data to answer policy relevant research question. Prominent in the literature is the search for exogenous variation

  20. The empirical versus DSM-oriented approach of the child behavior checklist: Similarities and dissimilarities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolff, M.S. de; Vogels, A.G.C.; Reijneveld, S.A.

    2014-01-01

    The DSM-oriented approach of the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) is a relatively new classification of problem behavior in children and adolescents. Given the clinical and scientific relevance of the CBCL, this study examines similarities and dissimilarities between the empirical and the

  1. The Empirical Versus DSM-Oriented Approach of the Child Behavior Checklist Similarities and Dissimilarities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Wolff, Marianne S.; Vogels, Anton G. C.; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.

    2014-01-01

    The DSM-oriented approach of the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) is a relatively new classification of problem behavior in children and adolescents. Given the clinical and scientific relevance of the CBCL, this study examines similarities and dissimilarities between the empirical and the

  2. Evolution of viral virulence: empirical studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurath, Gael; Wargo, Andrew R.

    2016-01-01

    The concept of virulence as a pathogen trait that can evolve in response to selection has led to a large body of virulence evolution theory developed in the 1980-1990s. Various aspects of this theory predict increased or decreased virulence in response to a complex array of selection pressures including mode of transmission, changes in host, mixed infection, vector-borne transmission, environmental changes, host vaccination, host resistance, and co-evolution of virus and host. A fundamental concept is prediction of trade-offs between the costs and benefits associated with higher virulence, leading to selection of optimal virulence levels. Through a combination of observational and experimental studies, including experimental evolution of viruses during serial passage, many of these predictions have now been explored in systems ranging from bacteriophage to viruses of plants, invertebrates, and vertebrate hosts. This chapter summarizes empirical studies of viral virulence evolution in numerous diverse systems, including the classic models myxomavirus in rabbits, Marek's disease virus in chickens, and HIV in humans. Collectively these studies support some aspects of virulence evolution theory, suggest modifications for other aspects, and show that predictions may apply in some virus:host interactions but not in others. Finally, we consider how virulence evolution theory applies to disease management in the field.

  3. Successful intelligence and giftedness: an empirical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mercedes Ferrando

    Full Text Available The aim of our research is to look into the diversity within gifted and talented students. This is important to better understand their complexity and thus offer a more appropriate educational programs. There are rather few empirical works which attempt to identify high abilities profiles (giftedness and talent that actually exist beyond the theoretical level. The present work intends to single out the different patterns or profiles resulting from the combination of the successful intelligence abilities (analytical, synthetic and practical, as defined by Stenberg. A total of 431 students from the Region of Murcia participated in this study. These students performed the Aurora Battery tasks (Chart, Grigorenko, & Sternberg, 2008, designed to measure the analytical, practical and creative intelligence. Analytically gifted students (n=27, practically gifted (n=33 and creatively gifted (n= 34 were identified, taking as criteria scores equal to or higher than 120 IQ on each intelligence. Different Q-factor analyses were carried out for the three groups of students, in such a way that students were grouped according to their similarities. A total of 10 profiles showing how successful intelligence abilities are combined were obtained, something that has made possible to support the theory put forward by Sternberg (2000: the analytical, practical and creative talent profiles, as well as the resulting combinations, the analytical-practical, analytical-creative, practical-creative profiles, along with the consummate balance talent (high performance in the three types of intelligence.

  4. Culturally Relevant Pedagogy 20 Years Later: Progress or Pontificating? What Have We Learned, and Where Do We Go?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Tyrone C.; Rodriguez-Scheel, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, the authors discuss the concept of culturally relevant pedagogy 20 years after its introduction to the professional literature. The authors discuss key tenets of culturally relevant pedagogy, examine empirical examples of it, and makes recommendations on how the concept may inform and influence the outcomes of culturally diverse…

  5. Essays on empirical likelihood in economics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gao, Z.

    2012-01-01

    This thesis intends to exploit the roots of empirical likelihood and its related methods in mathematical programming and computation. The roots will be connected and the connections will induce new solutions for the problems of estimation, computation, and generalization of empirical likelihood.

  6. Empirical training for conditional random fields

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhu, Zhemin; Hiemstra, Djoerd; Apers, Peter M.G.; Wombacher, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    In this paper (Zhu et al., 2013), we present a practi- cally scalable training method for CRFs called Empir- ical Training (EP). We show that the standard train- ing with unregularized log likelihood can have many maximum likelihood estimations (MLEs). Empirical training has a unique closed form MLE

  7. Intermodal connectivity in Europe, an empirical exploration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Langen, P.W.; Lases Figueroa, D.M.; van Donselaar, K.H.; Bozuwa, J.

    2017-01-01

    In this paper we analyse the intermodal connectivity in Europe. The empirical analysis is to our knowledge the first empirical analysis of intermodal connections, and is based on a comprehensive database of intermodal connections in Europe. The paper focuses on rail and barge services, as they are

  8. Empirical Moral Philosophy and Teacher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schjetne, Espen; Afdal, Hilde Wågsås; Anker, Trine; Johannesen, Nina; Afdal, Geir

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we explore the possible contributions of empirical moral philosophy to professional ethics in teacher education. We argue that it is both possible and desirable to connect knowledge of how teachers empirically do and understand professional ethics with normative theories of teachers' professional ethics. Our argument is made in…

  9. Empirical ethics, context-sensitivity, and contextualism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musschenga, Albert W

    2005-10-01

    In medical ethics, business ethics, and some branches of political philosophy (multi-culturalism, issues of just allocation, and equitable distribution) the literature increasingly combines insights from ethics and the social sciences. Some authors in medical ethics even speak of a new phase in the history of ethics, hailing "empirical ethics" as a logical next step in the development of practical ethics after the turn to "applied ethics." The name empirical ethics is ill-chosen because of its associations with "descriptive ethics." Unlike descriptive ethics, however, empirical ethics aims to be both descriptive and normative. The first question on which I focus is what kind of empirical research is used by empirical ethics and for which purposes. I argue that the ultimate aim of all empirical ethics is to improve the context-sensitivity of ethics. The second question is whether empirical ethics is essentially connected with specific positions in meta-ethics. I show that in some kinds of meta-ethical theories, which I categorize as broad contextualist theories, there is an intrinsic need for connecting normative ethics with empirical social research. But context-sensitivity is a goal that can be aimed for from any meta-ethical position.

  10. The emerging empirics of evolutionary economic geography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boschma, R.A.; Frenken, K.

    2011-01-01

    Following last decade’s programmatic papers on Evolutionary Economic Geography, we report on recent empirical advances and how this empirical work can be positioned vis-a`-vis other strands of research in economic geography. First, we review studies on the path dependent nature of clustering, and

  11. The emerging empirics of evolutionary economic geography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boschma, R.A.; Frenken, K.

    2010-01-01

    Following last decade’s programmatic papers on Evolutionary Economic Geography, we report on recent empirical advances and how this empirical work can be positioned vis-à-vis other strands of research in economic geography. First, we review studies on the path dependent nature of clustering, and how

  12. The emerging empirics of evolutionary economic geography.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boschma, R.A.; Frenken, K.

    2011-01-01

    Following last decade’s programmatic papers on Evolutionary Economic Geography, we report on recent empirical advances and how this empirical work can be positioned vis-a`-vis other strands of research in economic geography. First, we review studies on the path dependent nature of clustering, and

  13. The Relevance of People’s Attitudes Towards Freedom of Expression in a Changing Media Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa K. NAAB

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The article outlines arguments for the relevance of people’s attitudes towards freedom of expression: It is a fundamental principle of democracy that if a virtue does not receive support from the population, it will not be anchored in law and its foundation is endangered in the medium term. People’s support for free speech is becoming even more influential because authoritative control of internet communication is faced with difficulties. Furthermore, with the development of social media users gain new opportunities to publicly express their opinions attaching even more importance to normative self-regulation. As a matter of fact, these increased opportunities of self-regulation may either enhance or decrease the exercise of expression rights. Thus, citizen’s endorsement of free expression is a valuable indicator of the status of freedom of expression in a country. To approach to the subject empirically, the paper systematizes findings on people’s attitudes towards free speech: Most people believe in freedom of expression in the abstract. Willingness to apply the right to opposing groups, however, is lower. Perceived threats, confidence in democratic principles, mode of communication, and personality variables influence tolerance of expressions. Finally, a research agenda is put forward to examine appreciation of free expression, its antecedence, and implications.

  14. Empirical Studies on Cash Payments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Kippers (Jeanine)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractCash is still the most common means of daily payments. The large number of cash payments is supported by a costly distribution system in which retailers, banks and central banks participate. Currency is issued in a range of bank note and coin denominations to facilitate efficiency

  15. The discovered preference hypothesis - an empirical test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundhede, Thomas; Ladenburg, Jacob; Olsen, Søren Bøye

    Using stated preference methods for valuation of non-market goods is known to be vulnerable to a range of biases. Some authors claim that these so-called anomalies in effect render the methods useless for the purpose. However, the Discovered Preference Hypothesis, as put forth by Plott [31], offers...... an nterpretation and explanation of biases which entails that the stated preference methods need not to be completely written off. In this paper we conduct a test for the validity and relevance of the DPH interpretation of biases. In a choice experiment concerning preferences for protection of Danish nature areas...... as respondents evaluate more and more choice sets. This finding supports the Discovered Preference Hypothesis interpretation and explanation of starting point bias....

  16. The Improved Relevance Voxel Machine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ganz, Melanie; Sabuncu, Mert; Van Leemput, Koen

    The concept of sparse Bayesian learning has received much attention in the machine learning literature as a means of achieving parsimonious representations of features used in regression and classification. It is an important family of algorithms for sparse signal recovery and compressed sensing....... Hence in its current form it is reminiscent of a greedy forward feature selection algorithm. In this report, we aim to solve the problems of the original RVoxM algorithm in the spirit of [7] (FastRVM).We call the new algorithm Improved Relevance Voxel Machine (IRVoxM). Our contributions...... and enables basis selection from overcomplete dictionaries. One of the trailblazers of Bayesian learning is MacKay who already worked on the topic in his PhD thesis in 1992 [1]. Later on Tipping and Bishop developed the concept of sparse Bayesian learning [2, 3] and Tipping published the Relevance Vector...

  17. The Role of Empirical Research in Bioethics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kon, Alexander A.

    2010-01-01

    There has long been tension between bioethicists whose work focuses on classical philosophical inquiry and those who perform empirical studies on bioethical issues. While many have argued that empirical research merely illuminates current practices and cannot inform normative ethics, others assert that research-based work has significant implications for refining our ethical norms. In this essay, I present a novel construct for classifying empirical research in bioethics into four hierarchical categories: Lay of the Land, Ideal Versus Reality, Improving Care, and Changing Ethical Norms. Through explaining these four categories and providing examples of publications in each stratum, I define how empirical research informs normative ethics. I conclude by demonstrating how philosophical inquiry and empirical research can work cooperatively to further normative ethics. PMID:19998120

  18. Mixing Bayes and empirical Bayes inference to anticipate the realization of engineering concerns about variant system designs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quigley, John; Walls, Lesley

    2011-01-01

    Mixing Bayes and Empirical Bayes inference provides reliability estimates for variant system designs by using relevant failure data - observed and anticipated - about engineering changes arising due to modification and innovation. A coherent inference framework is proposed to predict the realization of engineering concerns during product development so that informed decisions can be made about the system design and the analysis conducted to prove reliability. The proposed method involves combining subjective prior distributions for the number of engineering concerns with empirical priors for the non-parametric distribution of time to realize these concerns in such a way that we can cross-tabulate classes of concerns to failure events within time partitions at an appropriate level of granularity. To support efficient implementation, a computationally convenient hypergeometric approximation is developed for the counting distributions appropriate to our underlying stochastic model. The accuracy of our approximation over first-order alternatives is examined, and demonstrated, through an evaluation experiment. An industrial application illustrates model implementation and shows how estimates can be updated using information arising during development test and analysis.

  19. Discovering relevance knowledge in data: a growing cell structures approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azuaje, F; Dubitzky, W; Black, N; Adamson, K

    2000-01-01

    Both information retrieval and case-based reasoning systems rely on effective and efficient selection of relevant data. Typically, relevance in such systems is approximated by similarity or indexing models. However, the definition of what makes data items similar or how they should be indexed is often nontrivial and time-consuming. Based on growing cell structure artificial neural networks, this paper presents a method that automatically constructs a case retrieval model from existing data. Within the case-based reasoning (CBR) framework, the method is evaluated for two medical prognosis tasks, namely, colorectal cancer survival and coronary heart disease risk prognosis. The results of the experiments suggest that the proposed method is effective and robust. To gain a deeper insight and understanding of the underlying mechanisms of the proposed model, a detailed empirical analysis of the models structural and behavioral properties is also provided.

  20. Value-Relevance of Biological Assets under IFRS

    OpenAIRE

    Rute Gonçalves; Patrícia Lopes

    2015-01-01

    Using 389 firm-year observations of listed firms worldwide in 27 countries that adopted International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) until 2010, for the period 2011-2013, the purpose of this paper is to examine the value-relevance of fair value accounting of biological assets. In order to operationalize it as the book value’s ability to explain market equity value, this study adjusts the Ohlson model. The results support that recognized biological assets are value-relevant. After includ...

  1. Empirical essays on energy economics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thoenes, Stefan

    2013-06-13

    The main part of this thesis consists of three distinct essays that empirically analyze economic issues related to energy markets in the United States and Europe. The first chapter provides an introduction and discusses the motivation for the different analyses pursued in this thesis. The second chapter examines attention effects in the market for hybrid vehicles. We show that local media coverage, gasoline price changes and unprecedented record gasoline prices have a significant impact on the consumers' attention. As attention is not directly observable, we analyze online search behavior as a proxy for the revealed consumer attention. Our study is based on a unique weekly panel dataset for 19 metropolitan areas in the US. Additionally, we use monthly state-level panel data to show that the adoption rate of hybrid vehicles is robustly related to our measure of attention. Our results show that the consumers' attention fluctuates strongly and systematically. The third chapter shows how the effect of fuel prices varies with the level of electricity demand. It analyzes the relationship between daily prices of electricity, natural gas and carbon emission allowances with a semiparametric varying smooth coefficient cointegration model. This model is used to analyze the market impact of the nuclear moratorium by the German Government in March 2011. Futures prices of electricity, natural gas and emission allowances are used to show that the market efficiently accounts for the suspended capacity and correctly expects that several nuclear plants will not be switched on after the moratorium. In the fourth chapter, we develop a structural vector autoregressive model (VAR) for the German natural gas market. In particular, we illustrate the usefulness of our approach by disentangling the effects of different fundamental influences during four specific events: The financial crisis starting in 2008, the Russian-Ukrainian gas dispute in January 2009, the Libyan civil war

  2. Empirical essays on energy economics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thoenes, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    The main part of this thesis consists of three distinct essays that empirically analyze economic issues related to energy markets in the United States and Europe. The first chapter provides an introduction and discusses the motivation for the different analyses pursued in this thesis. The second chapter examines attention effects in the market for hybrid vehicles. We show that local media coverage, gasoline price changes and unprecedented record gasoline prices have a significant impact on the consumers' attention. As attention is not directly observable, we analyze online search behavior as a proxy for the revealed consumer attention. Our study is based on a unique weekly panel dataset for 19 metropolitan areas in the US. Additionally, we use monthly state-level panel data to show that the adoption rate of hybrid vehicles is robustly related to our measure of attention. Our results show that the consumers' attention fluctuates strongly and systematically. The third chapter shows how the effect of fuel prices varies with the level of electricity demand. It analyzes the relationship between daily prices of electricity, natural gas and carbon emission allowances with a semiparametric varying smooth coefficient cointegration model. This model is used to analyze the market impact of the nuclear moratorium by the German Government in March 2011. Futures prices of electricity, natural gas and emission allowances are used to show that the market efficiently accounts for the suspended capacity and correctly expects that several nuclear plants will not be switched on after the moratorium. In the fourth chapter, we develop a structural vector autoregressive model (VAR) for the German natural gas market. In particular, we illustrate the usefulness of our approach by disentangling the effects of different fundamental influences during four specific events: The financial crisis starting in 2008, the Russian-Ukrainian gas dispute in January 2009, the Libyan civil war in 2011 as

  3. The support of autonomy and the control of behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deci, E L; Ryan, R M

    1987-12-01

    In this article we suggest that events and contexts relevant to the initiation and regulation of intentional behavior can function either to support autonomy (i.e., to promote choice) or to control behavior (i.e., to pressure one toward specific outcomes). Research herein reviewed indicates that this distinction is relevant to specific external events and to general interpersonal contexts as well as to specific internal events and to general personality orientations. That is, the distinction is relevant whether one's analysis focuses on social psychological variables or on personality variables. The research review details those contextual and person factors that tend to promote autonomy and those that tend to control. Furthermore, it shows that autonomy support has generally been associated with more intrinsic motivation, greater interest, less pressure and tension, more creativity, more cognitive flexibility, better conceptual learning, a more positive emotional tone, higher self-esteem, more trust, greater persistence of behavior change, and better physical and psychological health than has control. Also, these results have converged across different assessment procedures, different research methods, and different subject populations. On the basis of these results, we present an organismic perspective in which we argue that the regulation of intentional behavior varies along a continuum from autonomous (i.e., self-determined) to controlled. The relation of this organismic perspective to historical developments in empirical psychology is discussed, with a particular emphasis on its implications for the study of social psychology and personality.

  4. Vocational Teachers and Professionalism - A Model Based on Empirical Analyses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duch, Henriette Skjærbæk; Andreasen, Karen E

    Vocational Teachers and Professionalism - A Model Based on Empirical Analyses Several theorists has developed models to illustrate the processes of adult learning and professional development (e.g. Illeris, Argyris, Engeström; Wahlgren & Aarkorg, Kolb and Wenger). Models can sometimes be criticized...... emphasis on the adult employee, the organization, its surroundings as well as other contextual factors. Our concern is adult vocational teachers attending a pedagogical course and teaching at vocational colleges. The aim of the paper is to discuss different models and develop a model concerning teachers...... at vocational colleges based on empirical data in a specific context, vocational teacher-training course in Denmark. By offering a basis and concepts for analysis of practice such model is meant to support the development of vocational teachers’ professionalism at courses and in organizational contexts...

  5. Radical Islamism and Migrant Integration in Denmark: An Empirical Inquiry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Marco Goli

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available It has been suggested that alienation and failed integration may be causes of "Homegrown Radical Islamism" in Western societies. Western countries often expect that migrants and their descendants residing there as citizens will embrace or support common democratic ideals as a predicate for—or consequence of—their societal integration. Conventional wisdom suggests: "The more you associate yourself with the cherished and established goals and means, the more you will disassociate yourself from Radical Islamism," and vice versa. We believe that, quite surprisingly, an empirical test of this idea is lacking. Based on a nationally representative sample of 1,113 youth (ages 15–30 in Denmark with national ties to a"Muslim country," this study provides empirical evidence on the validity of this common assumption.

  6. The value relevance of top executive departures : Evidence from the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cools, Kees; van Praag, C. Mirjam

    2007-01-01

    On theoretical grounds, monitoring of top executives by the (supervisory) board is expected to be value relevant. The empirical evidence is ambiguous and we analyze three non-competing explanations for this ambiguity: (i) The positive effect on firm value of board monitoring is hidden in stock price

  7. They Have "Verve": Preservice Teachers' Perceptions about Culturally Relevant/Responsive Pedagogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nash, Kindel

    2018-01-01

    Based on concerns about the permanence of racism in our society and its impact on opportunities for children's equitable education, this empirical study used narrative inquiry to explore four preservice teachers' developing dispositions as they studied and implemented culturally relevant/responsive pedagogy (CR/RP) in an early literacy education…

  8. British Literature: Increasing Relevancy for High School Seniors through Multicultural Augmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkland, Nancy C.

    A practicum aimed to increase the relevancy (to the ethnically diverse students of contemporary classrooms) of the regular high school senior English course in British literature and composition by expanding the curriculum to include selections from countries (other than the United States) influenced by the British Colonial Empire. Using a…

  9. Essays on the relevance and use of dirty surplus accounting flows in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, Y.

    2006-01-01

    This thesis intends to add empirical evidence to a recently heavily debated regulatory issue, the necessity of promoting a clean surplus income statement. I document the magnitude, and assess the relevance of dirty surplus accounting flows in European member states. In particular, this thesis

  10. Empirical data and moral theory. A plea for integrated empirical ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molewijk, Bert; Stiggelbout, Anne M; Otten, Wilma; Dupuis, Heleen M; Kievit, Job

    2004-01-01

    Ethicists differ considerably in their reasons for using empirical data. This paper presents a brief overview of four traditional approaches to the use of empirical data: "the prescriptive applied ethicists," "the theorists," "the critical applied ethicists," and "the particularists." The main aim of this paper is to introduce a fifth approach of more recent date (i.e. "integrated empirical ethics") and to offer some methodological directives for research in integrated empirical ethics. All five approaches are presented in a table for heuristic purposes. The table consists of eight columns: "view on distinction descriptive-prescriptive sciences," "location of moral authority," "central goal(s)," "types of normativity," "use of empirical data," "method," "interaction empirical data and moral theory," and "cooperation with descriptive sciences." Ethicists can use the table in order to identify their own approach. Reflection on these issues prior to starting research in empirical ethics should lead to harmonization of the different scientific disciplines and effective planning of the final research design. Integrated empirical ethics (IEE) refers to studies in which ethicists and descriptive scientists cooperate together continuously and intensively. Both disciplines try to integrate moral theory and empirical data in order to reach a normative conclusion with respect to a specific social practice. IEE is not wholly prescriptive or wholly descriptive since IEE assumes an interdepence between facts and values and between the empirical and the normative. The paper ends with three suggestions for consideration on some of the future challenges of integrated empirical ethics.

  11. Microdosing: Concept, application and relevance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tushar Tewari

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of microdose pharmacokinetic studies as an essential tool in drug development is still to catch on. While this approach promises potential cost savings and a quantum leap in efficiencies of the drug development process, major hurdles still need to be overcome before the technique becomes commonplace and part of routine practice. Clear regulations in Europe and the USA have had an enabling effect. The lack of enabling provisions for microdosing studies in Indian regulation, despite low risk and manifest relevance for the local drug development industry, is inconsistent with the country′s aspirations to be among the leaders in pharmaceutical research.

  12. Narcissistic personality disorder in DSM-V--in support of retaining a significant diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronningstam, Elsa

    2011-04-01

    Narcissistic personality disorder, NPD, has been excluded as a diagnostic category and independent personality disorder type in the Personality and Personality Disorder Work Group's recent proposal for DSM-5 Personality and Personality Disorders. The aim of this paper is to present supporting evidence in favor of keeping NPD as a personality type with a set of separate diagnostic criteria in DSM-5. These include: the prevalence rate, extensive clinical and empirical reports and facts, its psychiatric, social and societal significance especially when associated to functional vocational and interpersonal impairment, social and moral adaptation, and acute suicidality. Proposals for a clinically relevant and empirically based definition of narcissism, a description of the narcissistic personality disorder type, and a set of diagnostic criteria for NPD are outlined.

  13. An Empirical Investigation of External Debt - Military Expenditure Nexus in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalid ZAMAN

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to empirically investigate a two-way statistical relationship between the real external debt and real military expenditure in the context of Bangladesh. A time series co-integration and Granger causality tests have been employed from 1980 - 2009 for analysis. The empirical results support the bi-directional causality between the external debt and economic growth, while unidirectional causality runs from military spending to external debt.

  14. Introducing Empirical Exercises into Principles of Economics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrath, Eileen L.; Tiemann, Thomas K.

    1985-01-01

    A rationale for requiring undergraduate students to become familiar with the empirical side of economics is presented, and seven exercises that can be used in an introductory course are provided. (Author/RM)

  15. Review essay: empires, ancient and modern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, John A

    2011-09-01

    This essay drews attention to two books on empires by historians which deserve the attention of sociologists. Bang's model of the workings of the Roman economy powerfully demonstrates the tributary nature of per-industrial tributary empires. Darwin's analysis concentrates on modern overseas empires, wholly different in character as they involved the transportation of consumption items for the many rather than luxury goods for the few. Darwin is especially good at describing the conditions of existence of late nineteenth century empires, noting that their demise was caused most of all by the failure of balance of power politics in Europe. Concluding thoughts are offered about the USA. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2011.

  16. Inland empire logistics GIS mapping project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    The Inland Empire has experienced exponential growth in the area of warehousing and distribution facilities within the last decade and it seems that it will continue way into the future. Where are these facilities located? How large are the facilitie...

  17. Teaching Empirical Software Engineering Using Expert Teams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuhrmann, Marco

    2017-01-01

    Empirical software engineering aims at making software engineering claims measurable, i.e., to analyze and understand phenomena in software engineering and to evaluate software engineering approaches and solutions. Due to the involvement of humans and the multitude of fields for which software...... is crucial, software engineering is considered hard to teach. Yet, empirical software engineering increases this difficulty by adding the scientific method as extra dimension. In this paper, we present a Master-level course on empirical software engineering in which different empirical instruments...... an extra specific expertise that they offer as service to other teams, thus, fostering cross-team collaboration. The paper outlines the general course setup, topics addressed, and it provides initial lessons learned....

  18. Team awareness for workplace substance abuse prevention: the empirical and conceptual development of a training program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, J B; Lehman, W E; Reynolds, G S

    2000-09-01

    This paper describes the empirical and theoretical development of a workplace training program to help reduce/prevent employee alcohol and drug abuse and enhance aspects of the work group environment that support ongoing prevention. The paper (1) examines the changing social context of the workplace (e.g., teamwork, privacy issues) as relevant for prevention, (2) reviews studies that assess risks and protective factors in employee substance abuse (work environment, group processes, and employee attitudes), (3) provides a conceptual model that focuses on work group processes (enabling, neutralization of deviance) as the locus of prevention efforts, (4) describes an enhanced team-oriented training that was derived from previous research and the conceptual model, and (5) describes potential applications of the program. It is suggested that the research and conceptual model may help prevention scientists to assess the organizational context of any workplace prevention strategy. The need for this team-oriented approach may be greater among employees who experience psychosocial risks such as workplace drinking climates, social alienation, and policies that emphasize deterrence (drug testing) over educative prevention. Limitations of the model are also discussed.

  19. Sources of Currency Crisis: An Empirical Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Weber, Axel A.

    1997-01-01

    Two types of currency crisis models coexist in the literature: first generation models view speculative attacks as being caused by economic fundamentals which are inconsistent with a given parity. Second generation models claim self-fulfilling speculation as the main source of a currency crisis. Recent empirical research in international macroeconomics has attempted to distinguish between the sources of currency crises. This paper adds to this literature by proposing a new empirical approach ...

  20. Agency Theory and Franchising: Some Empirical Results

    OpenAIRE

    Francine Lafontaine

    1992-01-01

    This article provides an empirical assessment of various agency-theoretic explanations for franchising, including risk sharing, one-sided moral hazard, and two-sided moral hazard. The empirical models use proxies for factors such as risk, moral hazard, and franchisors' need for capital to explain both franchisors' decisions about the terms of their contracts (royalty rates and up-front franchise fees) and the extent to which they use franchising. In this article, I exploit several new sources...

  1. Empirical direction in design and analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Anderson, Norman H

    2001-01-01

    The goal of Norman H. Anderson's new book is to help students develop skills of scientific inference. To accomplish this he organized the book around the ""Experimental Pyramid""--six levels that represent a hierarchy of considerations in empirical investigation--conceptual framework, phenomena, behavior, measurement, design, and statistical inference. To facilitate conceptual and empirical understanding, Anderson de-emphasizes computational formulas and null hypothesis testing. Other features include: *emphasis on visual inspection as a basic skill in experimental analysis to help student

  2. An Empirical Taxonomy of Crowdfunding Intermediaries

    OpenAIRE

    Haas, Philipp; Blohm, Ivo; Leimeister, Jan Marco

    2014-01-01

    Due to the recent popularity of crowdfunding, a broad magnitude of crowdfunding intermediaries has emerged, while research on crowdfunding intermediaries has been largely neglected. As a consequence, existing classifications of crowdfunding intermediaries are conceptual, lack theoretical grounding, and are not empirically validated. Thus, we develop an empirical taxonomy of crowdfunding intermediaries, which is grounded in the theories of two-sided markets and financial intermediation. Integr...

  3. An empirical analysis of Diaspora bonds

    OpenAIRE

    AKKOYUNLU, Şule; STERN, Max

    2018-01-01

    Abstract. This study is the first to investigate theoretically and empirically the determinants of Diaspora Bonds for eight developing countries (Bangladesh, Ethiopia, Ghana, India, Lebanon, Pakistan, the Philippines, and Sri-Lanka) and one developed country - Israel for the period 1951 and 2008. Empirical results are consistent with the predictions of the theoretical model. The most robust variables are the closeness indicator and the sovereign rating, both on the demand-side. The spread is ...

  4. Other relevant numerical modelling papers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chartier, M.

    1989-01-01

    The ocean modelling is a rapidly evolving science and a large number of results have been published. Several categories of papers are of particular interest for this review: the papers published by the international atomic institutions, such as the NEA (for the CRESP or Subseabed Programs), the IAEA (for example the Safety Series, the Technical Report Series or the TECDOC), and the ICRP, and the papers concerned by more fundamental research, which are published in specific scientific literature. This paper aims to list some of the most relevant publications for the CRESP purposes. It means by no way to be exhaustive, but informative on the incontestable progress recently achieved in that field. One should note that some of these papers are so recent that their final version has not yet been published

  5. Industrial relevance of thermophilic Archaea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egorova, Ksenia; Antranikian, Garabed

    2005-12-01

    The dramatic increase of newly isolated extremophilic microorganisms, analysis of their genomes and investigations of their enzymes by academic and industrial laboratories demonstrate the great potential of extremophiles in industrial (white) biotechnology. Enzymes derived from extremophiles (extremozymes) are superior to the traditional catalysts because they can perform industrial processes even under harsh conditions, under which conventional proteins are completely denatured. In particular, enzymes from thermophilic and hyperthermophilic Archaea have industrial relevance. Despite intensive investigations, our knowledge of the structure-function relationships of their enzymes is still limited. Information concerning the molecular properties of their enzymes and genes has to be obtained to be able to understand the mechanisms that are responsible for catalytic activity and stability at the boiling point of water.

  6. The Relevance of Hegel's Logic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John W Burbidge

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Hegel defines his Logic as the science that thinks about thinking.nbsp; But when we interpret that work as outlining what happens when we reason we are vulnerable to Fregersquo;s charge of psychologism.nbsp; I use Hegelrsquo;s tripartite distinction among understanding, dialectical and speculative reason as operations of pure thought to suggest how thinking can work with objective concepts.nbsp; In the last analysis, however, our ability to move from the subjective contingency of representations and ideas to the pure concepts we think develops from mechanical memory, which separates sign from sense so hat we can focus simply on the latter.nbsp; By becoming aware of the connections that underlie our thinking processes we may be able to both move beyond the abstractions of symbolic logic and clarify what informal logicians call relevance.

  7. Expatriate support and success : A systematic review of organization-based sources of social support

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Laken, P.A.; van Engen, M.L.; van Veldhoven, M.J.P.M.; Paauwe, J.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to review empirical research on the relationship between organization-based social support and the success of international assignments (IAs). Design/methodology/approach Four search engines were used to obtain empirical studies relating organization-based social

  8. Protein-Ligand Empirical Interaction Components for Virtual Screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Yuna; Wang, Weijun; Sun, Zhaoxi; Zhang, John Z H; Ji, Changge

    2017-08-28

    A major shortcoming of empirical scoring functions is that they often fail to predict binding affinity properly. Removing false positives of docking results is one of the most challenging works in structure-based virtual screening. Postdocking filters, making use of all kinds of experimental structure and activity information, may help in solving the issue. We describe a new method based on detailed protein-ligand interaction decomposition and machine learning. Protein-ligand empirical interaction components (PLEIC) are used as descriptors for support vector machine learning to develop a classification model (PLEIC-SVM) to discriminate false positives from true positives. Experimentally derived activity information is used for model training. An extensive benchmark study on 36 diverse data sets from the DUD-E database has been performed to evaluate the performance of the new method. The results show that the new method performs much better than standard empirical scoring functions in structure-based virtual screening. The trained PLEIC-SVM model is able to capture important interaction patterns between ligand and protein residues for one specific target, which is helpful in discarding false positives in postdocking filtering.

  9. Empirical intrinsic geometry for nonlinear modeling and time series filtering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talmon, Ronen; Coifman, Ronald R

    2013-07-30

    In this paper, we present a method for time series analysis based on empirical intrinsic geometry (EIG). EIG enables one to reveal the low-dimensional parametric manifold as well as to infer the underlying dynamics of high-dimensional time series. By incorporating concepts of information geometry, this method extends existing geometric analysis tools to support stochastic settings and parametrizes the geometry of empirical distributions. However, the statistical models are not required as priors; hence, EIG may be applied to a wide range of real signals without existing definitive models. We show that the inferred model is noise-resilient and invariant under different observation and instrumental modalities. In addition, we show that it can be extended efficiently to newly acquired measurements in a sequential manner. These two advantages enable us to revisit the Bayesian approach and incorporate empirical dynamics and intrinsic geometry into a nonlinear filtering framework. We show applications to nonlinear and non-Gaussian tracking problems as well as to acoustic signal localization.

  10. VALUE RELEVANCE OF GROUP FINANCIAL STATEMENTS BASED ON ENTITY VERSUS PARENT COMPANY THEORY: EVIDENCE FROM THE LARGEST THREE EUROPEAN CAPITAL MARKETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Müller Victor-Octavian

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Financial statementsn#8217; main objective is to give information on the financial position, performance and changes in financial position of the reporting entity, which is useful to investors and other users in making economic decisions. In order to be useful, financial information needs to be relevant to the decision-making process of users in general, and investors in particular. Regarding consolidated financial statements, the accounting theory knows four perspectives (theories on which the preparation of those statements is based, namely, the proprietary theory, the parent company theory, the parent company extension theory and the entity theory (Baxter and Spinney, 1975. Of practical importance are especially the parent company extension perspective and the entity perspective. The IASB and FASB decided (within an ED regarding the Improvement of the Conceptual Framework that consolidated financial statements should be presented from the perspective of the group entity, and not from the perspective of the parent-company. However, this support for the entity theory is to our knowledge not backed by empirical findings in the academic literature. Therefore, in our paper we set to contribute with empirical arguments to finding an actual answer to the question about the superior market value relevance of one of the two concurrent perspectives (theories. We set to carry out an empirical association study on the problem of market value relevance of consolidated financial statements based on the entity theory respectively on the parent company (extension theory, searching for an answer to the above question. In this sense, we pursued an analysis of market value relevance of consolidated accounting information (based on the two perspectives of listed entities between 2003-2008 on the largest three European Stock Exchanges (London, Paris and Frankfurt. The obtained results showed that a n#8222;restrainedn#8221; entity perspective, which would combine

  11. Agricultural rent-seeking in developing countries: an empirical investigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvid, Anna

    2014-01-01

    or rural development? This article finds empirical support for a proposed theory which suggests that the extent of agricultural rent-seeking, in the form of large-scale land acquisitions, is determined by the relative political power of an elite and a farmer group. © 2014 Taylor & Francis.......Recent increases in demand for agricultural land has fuelled academic, as well as public, interest in the potential effects of high value agricultural land, particularly in developing countries. The dominating question seems to be: will increasing demand for agricultural land imply land grabbing...

  12. The LAILAPS Search Engine: Relevance Ranking in Life Science Databases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lange Matthias

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Search engines and retrieval systems are popular tools at a life science desktop. The manual inspection of hundreds of database entries, that reflect a life science concept or fact, is a time intensive daily work. Hereby, not the number of query results matters, but the relevance does. In this paper, we present the LAILAPS search engine for life science databases. The concept is to combine a novel feature model for relevance ranking, a machine learning approach to model user relevance profiles, ranking improvement by user feedback tracking and an intuitive and slim web user interface, that estimates relevance rank by tracking user interactions. Queries are formulated as simple keyword lists and will be expanded by synonyms. Supporting a flexible text index and a simple data import format, LAILAPS can easily be used both as search engine for comprehensive integrated life science databases and for small in-house project databases.

  13. An update on the "empirical turn" in bioethics: analysis of empirical research in nine bioethics journals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wangmo, Tenzin; Hauri, Sirin; Gennet, Eloise; Anane-Sarpong, Evelyn; Provoost, Veerle; Elger, Bernice S

    2018-02-07

    A review of literature published a decade ago noted a significant increase in empirical papers across nine bioethics journals. This study provides an update on the presence of empirical papers in the same nine journals. It first evaluates whether the empirical trend is continuing as noted in the previous study, and second, how it is changing, that is, what are the characteristics of the empirical works published in these nine bioethics journals. A review of the same nine journals (Bioethics; Journal of Medical Ethics; Journal of Clinical Ethics; Nursing Ethics; Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics; Hastings Center Report; Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics; Christian Bioethics; and Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal) was conducted for a 12-year period from 2004 to 2015. Data obtained was analysed descriptively and using a non-parametric Chi-square test. Of the total number of original papers (N = 5567) published in the nine bioethics journals, 18.1% (n = 1007) collected and analysed empirical data. Journal of Medical Ethics and Nursing Ethics led the empirical publications, accounting for 89.4% of all empirical papers. The former published significantly more quantitative papers than qualitative, whereas the latter published more qualitative papers. Our analysis reveals no significant difference (χ2 = 2.857; p = 0.091) between the proportion of empirical papers published in 2004-2009 and 2010-2015. However, the increasing empirical trend has continued in these journals with the proportion of empirical papers increasing from 14.9% in 2004 to 17.8% in 2015. This study presents the current state of affairs regarding empirical research published nine bioethics journals. In the quarter century of data that is available about the nine bioethics journals studied in two reviews, the proportion of empirical publications continues to increase, signifying a trend towards empirical research in bioethics. The growing volume is mainly attributable to two

  14. On the Development of a Theory of Traveler Attitude-Behavior Interrelationships : Volume 2. Theoretical and Empirical Findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-08-01

    The second volume of this final report presents conceptual and empirical findings which support the development of a theory of traveler attitude-behavior interrelationships. Such a theory will be useful in the design of transport systems and operatin...

  15. Central bank transparency, private information and the predictability of monetary policy in the financial markets : theoretical, experimental and empirical evidence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Middeldorp, M.H.

    2010-01-01

    Central banks worldwide have become considerably more communicative about their policies and forecasts. An important reason is that democratic societies expect such transparency from public institutions. Central bankers, supported by a significant body of empirical research, also believe that

  16. Participation, Care and Support

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prof. dr. Jean Pierre Wilken

    2017-01-01

    The research group Participation, Care and Support is part of the Research Centre for Social Innovation of Utrecht University for Applied Sciences. This is a transdisciplinary research centre, doing practice based research focused on relevant social issues, connecting different fields like social

  17. Judging Managerial Actions as Ethical or Unethical: Decision Bias and Domain Relevant Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey J. Bailey, Ph.D.

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This is an empirical study comparing the susceptibility of managers and students to a decision-making bias when making judgments about ethical business practices. The managers and students read through vignettes and made judgments about how ethical they perceived the described business actions to be. Half of the participants (half of the managers and half of the students were exposed to three situations in which the actions being judged were clearly unethical. The other half of each group was exposed to situations in which the actions being judged were clearly ethical. All were exposed to the same fourth situation of a business decision. In this ambiguous situation it was not clear if the business decision being evaluated was ethical or unethical. The decision bias examined here addressed the question of ‘to what extent does exposure to prior unethical (or ethical actions influence one’s evaluation of how ethical a particular business decision is when it is not a clearly right or wrong action. The results demonstrated that students’ ethical judgments about the action in the fourth scenario (the same scenario for everyone differed depending on what they were previously exposed to. Significant assimilation effects were found in the student sample suggesting support for the perceptual readiness models. The managerial sample yielded differences in the opposite direction, one of a contrast effect, but these did not reach statistical significance. Assimilation effects occurred in the sample without domain relevant experience and contrast effects occurred with the experienced sample. Implications are discussed.

  18. Dielectric response of molecules in empirical tight-binding theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boykin, Timothy B.; Vogl, P.

    2002-01-01

    In this paper we generalize our previous approach to electromagnetic interactions within empirical tight-binding theory to encompass molecular solids and isolated molecules. In order to guarantee physically meaningful results, we rederive the expressions for relevant observables using commutation relations appropriate to the finite tight-binding Hilbert space. In carrying out this generalization, we examine in detail the consequences of various prescriptions for the position and momentum operators in tight binding. We show that attempting to fit parameters of the momentum matrix directly generally results in a momentum operator which is incompatible with the underlying tight-binding model, while adding extra position parameters results in numerous difficulties, including the loss of gauge invariance. We have applied our scheme, which we term the Peierls-coupling tight-binding method, to the optical dielectric function of the molecular solid PPP, showing that this approach successfully predicts its known optical properties even in the limit of isolated molecules.

  19. EMPIRICAL EVIDENCE ON DYNAMICS OF CREDIT GROWTH AND FOREIGN RESERVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satrugan Sinah

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a model for looking into the nature of change in foreign reserve from movements in domestic credit. This model is relevant to foreign reserve targeting, small and open economies. The model denotes that measures undertaken by central banks to constraint domestic credit growth with the view of controlling capital outflows will also be detrimental to foreign reserves level. The empirical studies with application of Fourier Transformation technique have been used to build a model, which shows that growth in domestic credit is more biased towards positive swings in foreign reserves, rather than being unfavorable. The small and open economies, particularly, the Pacific Island nations, have the right set up for application of this model to safeguard foreign reserves level.

  20. Vygotsky's Crisis: Argument, context, relevance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyman, Ludmila

    2012-06-01

    Vygotsky's The Historical Significance of the Crisis in Psychology (1926-1927) is an important text in the history and philosophy of psychology that has only become available to scholars in 1982 in Russian, and in 1997 in English. The goal of this paper is to introduce Vygotsky's conception of psychology to a wider audience. I argue that Vygotsky's argument about the "crisis" in psychology and its resolution can be fully understood only in the context of his social and political thinking. Vygotsky shared the enthusiasm, widespread among Russian leftist intelligentsia in the 1920s, that Soviet society had launched an unprecedented social experiment: The socialist revolution opened the way for establishing social conditions that would let the individual flourish. For Vygotsky, this meant that "a new man" of the future would become "the first and only species in biology that would create itself." He envisioned psychology as a science that would serve this humanist teleology. I propose that The Crisis is relevant today insofar as it helps us define a fundamental problem: How can we systematically account for the development of knowledge in psychology? I evaluate how Vygotsky addresses this problem as a historian of the crisis. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Relevance of equilibrium in multifragmentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furuta, Takuya; Ono, Akira

    2009-01-01

    The relevance of equilibrium in a multifragmentation reaction of very central 40 Ca + 40 Ca collisions at 35 MeV/nucleon is investigated by using simulations of antisymmetrized molecular dynamics (AMD). Two types of ensembles are compared. One is the reaction ensemble of the states at each reaction time t in collision events simulated by AMD, and the other is the equilibrium ensemble prepared by solving the AMD equation of motion for a many-nucleon system confined in a container for a long time. The comparison of the ensembles is performed for the fragment charge distribution and the excitation energies. Our calculations show that there exists an equilibrium ensemble that well reproduces the reaction ensemble at each reaction time t for the investigated period 80≤t≤300 fm/c. However, there are some other observables that show discrepancies between the reaction and equilibrium ensembles. These may be interpreted as dynamical effects in the reaction. The usual static equilibrium at each instant is not realized since any equilibrium ensemble with the same volume as that of the reaction system cannot reproduce the fragment observables

  2. The Role of Ethnographic Studies in Empirical Software Engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sharp, Helen; Dittrich, Yvonne; Souza, Cleidson R. B. de

    2016-01-01

    Ethnography is a qualitative research method used to study people and cultures. It is largely adopted in disciplines outside software engineering, including different areas of computer science. Ethnography can provide an in-depth understanding of the socio-technological realities surrounding ever...... as a useful and usable approach to empirical software engineering research. Throughout the paper, relevant examples of ethnographic studies of software practice are used to illustrate the points being made.......Ethnography is a qualitative research method used to study people and cultures. It is largely adopted in disciplines outside software engineering, including different areas of computer science. Ethnography can provide an in-depth understanding of the socio-technological realities surrounding...... everyday software development practice, i.e., it can help to uncover not only what practitioners do, but also why they do it. Despite its potential, ethnography has not been widely adopted by empirical software engineering researchers, and receives little attention in the related literature. The main goal...

  3. Empirical Bayes Credibility Models for Economic Catastrophic Losses by Regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jindrová Pavla

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Catastrophic events affect various regions of the world with increasing frequency and intensity. The number of catastrophic events and the amount of economic losses is varying in different world regions. Part of these losses is covered by insurance. Catastrophe events in last years are associated with increases in premiums for some lines of business. The article focus on estimating the amount of net premiums that would be needed to cover the total or insured catastrophic losses in different world regions using Bühlmann and Bühlmann-Straub empirical credibility models based on data from Sigma Swiss Re 2010-2016. The empirical credibility models have been developed to estimate insurance premiums for short term insurance contracts using two ingredients: past data from the risk itself and collateral data from other sources considered to be relevant. In this article we deal with application of these models based on the real data about number of catastrophic events and about the total economic and insured catastrophe losses in seven regions of the world in time period 2009-2015. Estimated credible premiums by world regions provide information how much money in the monitored regions will be need to cover total and insured catastrophic losses in next year.

  4. The relevance of "non-relevant metabolites" from plant protection products (PPPs) for drinking water: the German view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieter, Hermann H

    2010-03-01

    "Non-relevant metabolites" are those degradation products of plant protection products (PPPs), which are devoid of the targeted toxicities of the PPP and devoid of genotoxicity. Most often, "non-relevant metabolites" have a high affinity to the aquatic environment, are very mobile within this environment, and, usually, are also persistent. Therefore, from the point of drinking water hygiene, they must be characterized as "relevant for drinking water" like many other hydrophilic/polar environmental contaminants of different origins. "Non-relevant metabolites" may therefore penetrate to water sources used for abstraction of drinking water and may thus ultimately be present in drinking water. The presence of "non-relevant metabolites" and similar trace compounds in the water cycle may endanger drinking water quality on a long-term scale. During oxidative drinking water treatment, "non-relevant metabolites" may also serve as the starting material for toxicologically relevant transformation products similar to processes observed by drinking water disinfection with chlorine. This hypothesis was recently confirmed by the detection of the formation of N-nitroso-dimethylamine from ozone and dimethylsulfamide, a "non-relevant metabolite" of the fungicide tolylfluanide. In order to keep drinking water preferably free of "non-relevant metabolites", the German drinking water advisory board of the Federal Ministry of Health supports limiting their penetration into raw and drinking water to the functionally (agriculturally) unavoidable extent. On this background, the German Federal Environment Agency (UBA) recently has recommended two health related indication values (HRIV) to assess "non-relevant metabolites" from the view of drinking water hygiene. Considering the sometimes incomplete toxicological data base for some "non-relevant metabolites", HRIV also have the role of health related precautionary values. Depending on the completeness and quality of the toxicological

  5. [Mes differ by positioning: empirical testing of decentralized dynamics of the self].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizokami, Shinichi

    2013-10-01

    The present study empirically tested the conceptualization of the decentralized dynamics of the self proposed by Hermans & Kempen (1993), which they developed theoretically and from clinical cases, not from large samples of empirical data. They posited that worldviews and images of the self could vary by positioning even in the same individual, and denied that the ego was an omniscient entity that knew and controlled all aspects of the self (centralized ego). Study 1 tested their conceptualization empirically with 47 university students in an experimental group and 17 as a control group. The results showed that the scores on the Rosenberg's self-esteem scale and images of the Mes in the experimental group significantly varied by positioning, but those in the control group did not. Similar results were found in Study 2 with a sample of 120 university students. These results empirically supported the conceptualization of the decentralized dynamics of the self.

  6. Statistical significance versus clinical relevance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Rijn, Marieke H C; Bech, Anneke; Bouyer, Jean; van den Brand, Jan A J G

    2017-04-01

    In March this year, the American Statistical Association (ASA) posted a statement on the correct use of P-values, in response to a growing concern that the P-value is commonly misused and misinterpreted. We aim to translate these warnings given by the ASA into a language more easily understood by clinicians and researchers without a deep background in statistics. Moreover, we intend to illustrate the limitations of P-values, even when used and interpreted correctly, and bring more attention to the clinical relevance of study findings using two recently reported studies as examples. We argue that P-values are often misinterpreted. A common mistake is saying that P < 0.05 means that the null hypothesis is false, and P ≥0.05 means that the null hypothesis is true. The correct interpretation of a P-value of 0.05 is that if the null hypothesis were indeed true, a similar or more extreme result would occur 5% of the times upon repeating the study in a similar sample. In other words, the P-value informs about the likelihood of the data given the null hypothesis and not the other way around. A possible alternative related to the P-value is the confidence interval (CI). It provides more information on the magnitude of an effect and the imprecision with which that effect was estimated. However, there is no magic bullet to replace P-values and stop erroneous interpretation of scientific results. Scientists and readers alike should make themselves familiar with the correct, nuanced interpretation of statistical tests, P-values and CIs. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of ERA-EDTA. All rights reserved.

  7. Theoretical and Empirical Review of Asset Pricing Models: A Structural Synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saban Celik

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to give a comprehensive theoretical review devoted to asset pricing models by emphasizing static and dynamic versions in the line with their empirical investigations. A considerable amount of financial economics literature devoted to the concept of asset pricing and their implications. The main task of asset pricing model can be seen as the way to evaluate the present value of the pay offs or cash flows discounted for risk and time lags. The difficulty coming from discounting process is that the relevant factors that affect the pay offs vary through the time whereas the theoretical framework is still useful to incorporate the changing factors into an asset pricing models. This paper fills the gap in literature by giving a comprehensive review of the models and evaluating the historical stream of empirical investigations in the form of structural empirical review.

  8. Pluvials, Droughts, Energetics, and the Mongol Empire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hessl, A. E.; Pederson, N.; Baatarbileg, N.

    2012-12-01

    The success of the Mongol Empire, the largest contiguous land empire the world has ever known, is a historical enigma. At its peak in the late 13th century, the empire influenced areas from the Hungary to southern Asia and Persia. Powered by domesticated herbivores, the Mongol Empire grew at the expense of agriculturalists in Eastern Europe, Persia, and China. What environmental factors contributed to the rise of the Mongols? What factors influenced the disintegration of the empire by 1300 CE? Until now, little high resolution environmental data have been available to address these questions. We use tree-ring records of past temperature and water to illuminate the role of energy and water in the evolution of the Mongol Empire. The study of energetics has long been applied to biological and ecological systems but has only recently become a theme in understanding modern coupled natural and human systems (CNH). Because water and energy are tightly linked in human and natural systems, studying their synergies and interactions make it possible to integrate knowledge across disciplines and human history, yielding important lessons for modern societies. We focus on the role of energy and water in the trajectory of an empire, including its rise, development, and demise. Our research is focused on the Orkhon Valley, seat of the Mongol Empire, where recent paleoenvironmental and archeological discoveries allow high resolution reconstructions of past human and environmental conditions for the first time. Our preliminary records indicate that the period 1210-1230 CE, the height of Chinggis Khan's reign is one of the longest and most consistent pluvials in our tree ring reconstruction of interannual drought. Reconstructed temperature derived from five millennium-long records from subalpine forests in Mongolia document warm temperatures beginning in the early 1200's and ending with a plunge into cold temperatures in 1260. Abrupt cooling in central Mongolia at this time is

  9. Symbiotic empirical ethics: a practical methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frith, Lucy

    2012-05-01

    Like any discipline, bioethics is a developing field of academic inquiry; and recent trends in scholarship have been towards more engagement with empirical research. This 'empirical turn' has provoked extensive debate over how such 'descriptive' research carried out in the social sciences contributes to the distinctively normative aspect of bioethics. This paper will address this issue by developing a practical research methodology for the inclusion of data from social science studies into ethical deliberation. This methodology will be based on a naturalistic conception of ethical theory that sees practice as informing theory just as theory informs practice - the two are symbiotically related. From this engagement with practice, the ways that such theories need to be extended and developed can be determined. This is a practical methodology for integrating theory and practice that can be used in empirical studies, one that uses ethical theory both to explore the data and to draw normative conclusions. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  10. Wireless and empire geopolitics radio industry and ionosphere in the British Empire 1918-1939

    CERN Document Server

    Anduaga, Aitor

    2009-01-01

    Although the product of consensus politics, the British Empire was based on communications supremacy and the knowledge of the atmosphere. Focusing on science, industry, government, the military, and education, this book studies the relationship between wireless and Empire throughout the interwar period.

  11. Empirical psychology, common sense, and Kant's empirical markers for moral responsibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frierson, Patrick

    2008-12-01

    This paper explains the empirical markers by which Kant thinks that one can identify moral responsibility. After explaining the problem of discerning such markers within a Kantian framework I briefly explain Kant's empirical psychology. I then argue that Kant's empirical markers for moral responsibility--linked to higher faculties of cognition--are not sufficient conditions for moral responsibility, primarily because they are empirical characteristics subject to natural laws. Next. I argue that these markers are not necessary conditions of moral responsibility. Given Kant's transcendental idealism, even an entity that lacks these markers could be free and morally responsible, although as a matter of fact Kant thinks that none are. Given that they are neither necessary nor sufficient conditions, I discuss the status of Kant's claim that higher faculties are empirical markers of moral responsibility. Drawing on connections between Kant's ethical theory and 'common rational cognition' (4:393), I suggest that Kant's theory of empirical markers can be traced to ordinary common sense beliefs about responsibility. This suggestion helps explain both why empirical markers are important and what the limits of empirical psychology are within Kant's account of moral responsibility.

  12. Does relevance matter in academic policy research?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dredge, Dianne

    2015-01-01

    A reflection on whether relevance matters in tourism policy research. A debate among tourism scholars.......A reflection on whether relevance matters in tourism policy research. A debate among tourism scholars....

  13. Empirical evaluation methods in computer vision

    CERN Document Server

    Christensen, Henrik I

    2002-01-01

    This book provides comprehensive coverage of methods for the empirical evaluation of computer vision techniques. The practical use of computer vision requires empirical evaluation to ensure that the overall system has a guaranteed performance. The book contains articles that cover the design of experiments for evaluation, range image segmentation, the evaluation of face recognition and diffusion methods, image matching using correlation methods, and the performance of medical image processing algorithms. Sample Chapter(s). Foreword (228 KB). Chapter 1: Introduction (505 KB). Contents: Automate

  14. Evaluation of empirical atmospheric diffusion data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horst, T.W.; Doran, J.C.; Nickola, P.W.

    1979-10-01

    A study has been made of atmospheric diffusion over level, homogeneous terrain of contaminants released from non-buoyant point sources up to 100 m in height. Current theories of diffusion are compared to empirical diffusion data, and specific dispersion estimation techniques are recommended which can be implemented with the on-site meteorological instrumentation required by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. A comparison of both the recommended diffusion model and the NRC diffusion model with the empirical data demonstrates that the predictions of the recommended model have both smaller scatter and less bias, particularly for groundlevel sources

  15. Evaluation of empirical atmospheric diffusion data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horst, T.W.; Doran, J.C.; Nickola, P.W.

    1979-10-01

    A study has been made of atmospheric diffusion over level, homogeneous terrain of contaminants released from non-buoyant point sources up to 100 m in height. Current theories of diffusion are compared to empirical diffusion data, and specific dispersion estimation techniques are recommended which can be implemented with the on-site meteorological instrumentation required by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. A comparison of both the recommended diffusion model and the NRC diffusion model with the empirical data demonstrates that the predictions of the recommended model have both smaller scatter and less bias, particularly for ground-level sources.

  16. Empirical Model Building Data, Models, and Reality

    CERN Document Server

    Thompson, James R

    2011-01-01

    Praise for the First Edition "This...novel and highly stimulating book, which emphasizes solving real problems...should be widely read. It will have a positive and lasting effect on the teaching of modeling and statistics in general." - Short Book Reviews This new edition features developments and real-world examples that showcase essential empirical modeling techniques Successful empirical model building is founded on the relationship between data and approximate representations of the real systems that generated that data. As a result, it is essential for researchers who construct these m

  17. Nursing intellectual capital theory: operationalization and empirical validation of concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Covell, Christine L; Sidani, Souraya

    2013-08-01

    To present the operationalization of concepts in the nursing intellectual capital theory and the results of a methodological study aimed at empirically validating the concepts. The nursing intellectual capital theory proposes that the stocks of nursing knowledge in an organization are embedded in two concepts, nursing human capital and nursing structural capital. The theory also proposes that two concepts in the work environment, nurse staffing and employer support for nursing continuing professional development, influence nursing human capital. A cross-sectional design. A systematic three-step process was used to operationalize the concepts of the theory. In 2008, data were collected for 147 inpatient units from administrative departments and unit managers in 6 Canadian hospitals. Exploratory factor analyses were conducted to determine if the indicator variables accurately reflect their respective concepts. The proposed indicator variables collectively measured the nurse staffing concept. Three indicators were retained to construct nursing human capital: clinical expertise and experience concept. The nursing structural capital and employer support for nursing continuing professional development concepts were not validated empirically. The nurse staffing and the nursing human capital: clinical expertise and experience concepts will be brought forward for further model testing. Refinement for some of the indicator variables of the concepts is indicated. Additional research is required with different sources of data to confirm the findings. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  18. Transformational leadership: application of magnet's new empiric outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meredith, Erin K; Cohen, Elaine; Raia, Lucille V

    2010-03-01

    The many benefits to hospitals throughout the world that achieved Magnet designation is well documented. This status of recognition demands the support of leadership during the Magnet journey. In 2008, the American Nurses Credentialing Center (ANCC) announced a new model for the Magnet Recognition Program that translates the original 14 Forces of Magnetism into Five Model Components. Specifically, this new model includes sources of evidence and empiric outcomes that by definition accentuates transformational nursing leadership. The day-to-day impact of this change places an even greater emphasis on demonstrated outcomes and innovation that may potentially transform nursing practice, quality and safety of care, and the population served. This article provides tangible examples and outcomes for reaching nursing excellence through leadership support and engagement. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. Science and the struggle for relevance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hessels, L.K.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304832863

    2010-01-01

    This thesis deals with struggles for relevance of university researchers, their efforts to make their work correspond with ruling standards of relevance and to influence these standards. Its general research question is: How to understand changes in the struggle for relevance of Dutch academic

  20. The Personal Relevance of the Social Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanSickle, Ronald L.

    1990-01-01

    Conceptualizes a personal-relevance framework derived from Ronald L. VanSickle's five areas of life integrated with four general motivating goals from Abraham Maslow's hierarchy of needs and Richard and Patricia Schmuck's social motivation theory. Illustrates ways to apply the personal relevance framework to make social studies more relevant to…

  1. PROBLEMS WITH WIREDU'S EMPIRICALISM Martin Odei Ajei1 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In his “Empiricalism: The Empirical Character of an African Philosophy”,. Kwasi Wiredu sets out ... others, that an empirical metaphysical system contains both empirical ..... realms which multiple categories of existents inhabit and conduct their being in .... to a mode of reasoning that conceives categories polarized by formal.

  2. Benefits of peer support groups in the treatment of addiction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tracy K

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Kathlene Tracy,1,2 Samantha P Wallace3 1Community Research and Recovery Program (CRRP, Department of Psychiatry, New York University School of Medicine, 2New York Harbor Healthcare System (NYHHS, New York, 3Department of Community Health Sciences, State University of New York Downstate School of Public Health, Brooklyn, NY, USA Objective: Peer support can be defined as the process of giving and receiving nonprofessional, nonclinical assistance from individuals with similar conditions or circumstances to achieve long-term recovery from psychiatric, alcohol, and/or other drug-related problems. Recently, there has been a dramatic rise in the adoption of alternative forms of peer support services to assist recovery from substance use disorders; however, often peer support has not been separated out as a formalized intervention component and rigorously empirically tested, making it difficult to determine its effects. This article reports the results of a literature review that was undertaken to assess the effects of peer support groups, one aspect of peer support services, in the treatment of addiction.Methods: The authors of this article searched electronic databases of relevant peer-reviewed research literature including PubMed and MedLINE.Results: Ten studies met our minimum inclusion criteria, including randomized controlled trials or pre-/post-data studies, adult participants, inclusion of group format, substance use-related, and US-conducted studies published in 1999 or later. Studies demonstrated associated benefits in the following areas: 1 substance use, 2 treatment engagement, 3 human immunodeficiency virus/hepatitis C virus risk behaviors, and 4 secondary substance-related behaviors such as craving and self-efficacy. Limitations were noted on the relative lack of rigorously tested empirical studies within the literature and inability to disentangle the effects of the group treatment that is often included as a component of other services

  3. Supporting Book Search

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bogers, Toine; Petras, Vivien

    2017-01-01

    of information needs. In this paper, we present a large-scale empirical comparison of the effectiveness of book metadata elements for searching complex information needs. Using a test collection of over 2 million book records and over 330 real-world book search requests, we perform a highly controlled and in......-depth analysis of topical metadata, comparing controlled vocabularies with social tags. Tags perform better overall in this setting, but controlled vocabulary terms provide complementary information, which will improve a search. We analyze potential underlying factors that contribute to search performance......, such as the relevance aspect(s) mentioned in a request or the type of book. In addition, we investigate the possible causes of search failure. We conclude that neither tags nor controlled vocabularies are wholly suited to handling the complex information needs in book search, which means that different approaches...

  4. Impact of GDP and tax revenue on health care financing: An empirical investigation from Indian states

    OpenAIRE

    Deepak Kumar BEHERA; Umakant DASH

    2017-01-01

    This paper investigates the long run impact of GDP and tax revenue on public health care expenditure using panel FMOLS and DOLS models for sixteen major states of India over the period 1980-2013. This study is more relevant in order to measure the progress in universal health care financing across the states of India because states are heterogeneous in terms of health care spending, associated with low tax bases and low level of GDP growth. The empirical result shows that healt...

  5. The Relevance of Nuclear Physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weisskopf, V.F.

    1969-01-01

    I am asked what nuclear physics is about, that is, nuclear physics as distinct from particle physics and other parts of physics. I see three trends in this science. One is the discovery of new phenomena, phenomena of nature which we have not seen or observed, of which we did not know anything before. The second trend, I would say, is towards the solution of fundamental problems, the answers to certain basic questions in physics; I shall give some details later on. The third is the construction of new concepts in physics necessary to deal with the problems not only in nuclear physics but also in the rest of physics. The order of these three items is unimportant. This meeting should be concerned not only with the factual questions of science, but also with the, let me say, philosophic and practical questions of nuclear physics. Why do we do nuclear physics, what is the sense of it, what is the meaning of it and, most importantly, how can we defend the support of nuclear physics, how can we convince the governments to spend money on such a thing, which to a certain extent is our pleasure? And so we will have to be quite clear among ourselves that this is a very important matter

  6. Nostalgia's place among self-relevant emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Tilburg, Wijnand A P; Wildschut, Tim; Sedikides, Constantine

    2017-07-24

    How is nostalgia positioned among self-relevant emotions? We tested, in six studies, which self-relevant emotions are perceived as most similar versus least similar to nostalgia, and what underlies these similarities/differences. We used multidimensional scaling to chart the perceived similarities/differences among self-relevant emotions, resulting in two-dimensional models. The results were revealing. Nostalgia is positioned among self-relevant emotions characterised by positive valence, an approach orientation, and low arousal. Nostalgia most resembles pride and self-compassion, and least resembles embarrassment and shame. Our research pioneered the integration of nostalgia among self-relevant emotions.

  7. Whole-body cryotherapy: empirical evidence and theoretical perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleakley, Chris M; Bieuzen, François; Davison, Gareth W; Costello, Joseph T

    2014-01-01

    Whole-body cryotherapy (WBC) involves short exposures to air temperatures below -100°C. WBC is increasingly accessible to athletes, and is purported to enhance recovery after exercise and facilitate rehabilitation postinjury. Our objective was to review the efficacy and effectiveness of WBC using empirical evidence from controlled trials. We found ten relevant reports; the majority were based on small numbers of active athletes aged less than 35 years. Although WBC produces a large temperature gradient for tissue cooling, the relatively poor thermal conductivity of air prevents significant subcutaneous and core body cooling. There is weak evidence from controlled studies that WBC enhances antioxidant capacity and parasympathetic reactivation, and alters inflammatory pathways relevant to sports recovery. A series of small randomized studies found WBC offers improvements in subjective recovery and muscle soreness following metabolic or mechanical overload, but little benefit towards functional recovery. There is evidence from one study only that WBC may assist rehabilitation for adhesive capsulitis of the shoulder. There were no adverse events associated with WBC; however, studies did not seem to undertake active surveillance of predefined adverse events. Until further research is available, athletes should remain cognizant that less expensive modes of cryotherapy, such as local ice-pack application or cold-water immersion, offer comparable physiological and clinical effects to WBC.

  8. Institutional quality and private sector participation: theory and empirical findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahel Schomaker

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Through several conduits, sound institutional quality is pivotal for economic development, as there is evidence that stable democratic institutions, rule of law and sound governance structures in the administration are highly conducive to promote growth. Therefore, a high institutional quality is not only the end point, but also the starting point of a more sustainable development. In this paper we provide some theoretical considerations as well as empirical evidence, based on several regression analyses, that the quality of institutions in a wider sense, and governance, which includes not only the level of “politics” itself, but also the administrative level, is relevant not only for the macro-level of development (i.e. the increase of the national welfare and foreign investment, but also on a micro-level: A stronger participation of private enterprises in public service provision and the introduction of public-private part¬nerships depends to a high degree on the institutional quality. This is even more relevant as the improvement of public services and of core infrastructures can be seen as crucial multipliers for future growth.

  9. EMPIRICAL STUDY REGARDING SUSTAINABILITY OF ROMANIAN PENSION SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oprean Delia

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper is part of a broad, applied scientific research, based on popular empirical procedures (such as natural observation. Positivistic and constructive research methodology used was based on the consensual-inductive system (Locke, which is why we studied the different views of specialists on sustainability of pensions in Romania, necessary to formulate the problem of generating relevant information. Research strategies used were the comparative and longitudinal ones, as we analyzed the time evolution of qualitative indicators VUAN (unitary value of net asset specific to pension funds Pillar II and Pillar III of Romania, concomitant with the number of participants in these funds, as to determine their direct relationship with the need for sustainability in this area. The hypotheses regarding causal relationship efficiency – participants - sustainability and needed measures for pension reform were built in this paper inductively (by analyzing the sustainability issues of pensions in time, causally (by explaining the cause and effect phenomenon studied, deductively, logically and subjectively (due to the existence and perpetuation of conflict premise between generations and social inequality between employees and pensioners. The qualitative approach of the phenomenon studied by collecting information (using mediated data collection technique has allowed the relevant findings and practical solutions necessary for all those involved in this concerted action of pensions, which affects us all.

  10. Downside Risk And Empirical Asset Pricing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P. van Vliet (Pim)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractCurrently, the Nobel prize winning Capital Asset Pricing Model (CAPM) celebrates its 40th birthday. Although widely applied in financial management, this model does not fully capture the empirical riskreturn relation of stocks; witness the beta, size, value and momentum effects. These

  11. Empirical analysis of uranium spot prices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morman, M.R.

    1988-01-01

    The objective is to empirically test a market model of the uranium industry that incorporates the notion that, if the resource is viewed as an asset by economic agents, then its own rate of return along with the own rate of return of a competing asset would be a major factor in formulating the price of the resource. The model tested is based on a market model of supply and demand. The supply model incorporates the notion that the decision criteria used by uranium mine owners is to select that extraction rate that maximizes the net present value of their extraction receipts. The demand model uses a concept that allows for explicit recognition of the prospect of arbitrage between a natural-resource market and the market for other capital goods. The empirical approach used for estimation was a recursive or causal model. The empirical results were consistent with the theoretical models. The coefficients of the demand and supply equations had the appropriate signs. Tests for causality were conducted to validate the use of the causal model. The results obtained were favorable. The implication of the findings as related to future studies of exhaustible resources are: (1) in some cases causal models are the appropriate specification for empirical analysis; (2) supply models should incorporate a measure to capture depletion effects

  12. Trade costs in empirical New Economic Geography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosker, E.M.; Garretsen, J.H.

    Trade costs are a crucial element of New Economic Geography (NEG) models. Without trade costs there is no role for geography. In empirical NEG studies the unavailability of direct trade cost data calls for the need to approximate these trade costs by introducing a trade cost function. In doing so,

  13. Methods for Calculating Empires in Quasicrystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Fang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the empire problem for quasiperiodic tilings and the existing methods for generating the empires of the vertex configurations in quasicrystals, while introducing a new and more efficient method based on the cut-and-project technique. Using Penrose tiling as an example, this method finds the forced tiles with the restrictions in the high dimensional lattice (the mother lattice that can be cut-and-projected into the lower dimensional quasicrystal. We compare our method to the two existing methods, namely one method that uses the algorithm of the Fibonacci chain to force the Ammann bars in order to find the forced tiles of an empire and the method that follows the work of N.G. de Bruijn on constructing a Penrose tiling as the dual to a pentagrid. This new method is not only conceptually simple and clear, but it also allows us to calculate the empires of the vertex configurations in a defected quasicrystal by reversing the configuration of the quasicrystal to its higher dimensional lattice, where we then apply the restrictions. These advantages may provide a key guiding principle for phason dynamics and an important tool for self error-correction in quasicrystal growth.

  14. Alternative Approaches to Evaluation in Empirical Microeconomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blundell, Richard; Dias, Monica Costa

    2009-01-01

    This paper reviews some of the most popular policy evaluation methods in empirical microeconomics: social experiments, natural experiments, matching, instrumental variables, discontinuity design, and control functions. It discusses identification of traditionally used average parameters and more complex distributional parameters. The adequacy,…

  15. Characterizing Student Expectations: A Small Empirical Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warwick, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the results of a small empirical study (n = 130), in which undergraduate students in the Business Faculty of a UK university were asked to express views and expectations relating to the study of a mathematics. Factor analysis is used to identify latent variables emerging from clusters of the measured variables and these are…

  16. EVOLVING AN EMPIRICAL METHODOLOGY DOR DETERMINING ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The uniqueness of this approach, is that it can be applied to any forest or dynamic feature on the earth, and can enjoy universal application as well. KEY WORDS: Evolving empirical methodology, innovative mathematical model, appropriate interval, remote sensing, forest environment planning and management. Global Jnl ...

  17. Caught between Empires: Ambivalence in Australian Films ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Caught between Empires: Ambivalence in Australian Films. Greg McCarthy. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners · Terms and Conditions of Use · Contact AJOL · News. OTHER RESOURCES... for Researchers · for ...

  18. Spitsbergen - Imperialists beyond the British Empire

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruse, Frigga; Hacquebord, Louwrens

    2012-01-01

    This paper looks at the relationship between Spitsbergen in the European High Arctic and the global British Empire in the first quarter of the twentieth century. Spitsbergen was an uninhabited no man's land and comprised an unknown quantity of natural resources. The concepts of geopolitics and New

  19. An Empirical Investigation into Nigerian ESL Learners ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    General observations indicate that ESL learners in Nigeria tend to manifest fear and anxiety in grammar classes, which could influence their performance negatively or positively. This study examines empirically some of the reasons for some ESL learners' apprehension of grammar classes. The data for the study were ...

  20. Air pollutant taxation: an empirical survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cansier, D.; Krumm, R.

    1997-01-01

    An empirical analysis of the current taxation of the air pollutants sulphur dioxide, nitrogen oxides and carbon dioxide in the Scandinavian countries, the Netherlands, France and Japan is presented. Political motivation and technical factors such as tax base, rate structure and revenue use are compared. The general concepts of the current polices are characterised

  1. Empirical Bayes Approaches to Multivariate Fuzzy Partitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodbury, Max A.; Manton, Kenneth G.

    1991-01-01

    An empirical Bayes-maximum likelihood estimation procedure is presented for the application of fuzzy partition models in describing high dimensional discrete response data. The model describes individuals in terms of partial membership in multiple latent categories that represent bounded discrete spaces. (SLD)

  2. Empirically Based Myths: Astrology, Biorhythms, and ATIs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragsdale, Ronald G.

    1980-01-01

    A myth may have an empirical basis through chance occurrence; perhaps Aptitude Treatment Interactions (ATIs) are in this category. While ATIs have great utility in describing, planning, and implementing instruction, few disordinal interactions have been found. Article suggests narrowing of ATI research with replications and estimates of effect…

  3. Transition States from Empirical Force Fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Frank; Norrby, Per-Ola

    2003-01-01

    This is an overview of the use of empirical force fields in the study of reaction mechanisms. EVB-type methods (including RFF and MCMM) produce full reaction surfaces by mixing, in the simplest case, known force fields describing reactants and products. The SEAM method instead locates approximate...

  4. Classification of Marital Relationships: An Empirical Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Douglas K.; Smith, Gregory T.

    1986-01-01

    Derives an empirically based classification system of marital relationships, employing a multidimensional self-report measure of marital interaction. Spouses' profiles on the Marital Satisfaction Inventory for samples of clinic and nonclinic couples were subjected to cluster analysis, resulting in separate five-group typologies for husbands and…

  5. Empirical scaling for present ohmic heated tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daughney, C.

    1975-06-01

    Empirical scaling laws are given for the average electron temperature and electron energy confinement time as functions of plasma current, average electron density, effective ion charge, toroidal magnetic field, and major and minor plasma radius. The ohmic heating is classical, and the electron energy transport is anomalous. The present scaling indicates that ohmic-heating becomes ineffective with larger experiments. (U.S.)

  6. Developing empirical relationship between interrill erosion, rainfall ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In order to develop an empirical relationship for interrill erosion based on rainfall intensity, slope steepness and soil types, an interrill erosion experiment was conducted using laboratory rainfall simulator on three soil types (Vertisols, Cambisols and Leptosols) for the highlands of North Shewa Zone of Oromia Region.

  7. Governance and Human Development: Empirical Evidence from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study empirically investigates the effects of governance on human development in Nigeria. Using annual time series data covering the period 1998 to 2010, obtained from various sources, and employing the classical least squares estimation technique, the study finds that corruption, foreign aid and government ...

  8. Software Development Management: Empirical and Analytical Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Keumseok

    2011-01-01

    Managing software development is a very complex activity because it must deal with people, organizations, technologies, and business processes. My dissertation consists of three studies that examine software development management from various perspectives. The first study empirically investigates the impacts of prior experience with similar…

  9. The Italian Footwear Industry: an Empirical Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Pirolo, Luca; Giustiniano, Luca; Nenni, Maria Elena

    2013-01-01

    This paper aims to provide readers with a deep empirical analysis on the Italian footwear industry in order to investigate the evolution of its structure (trends in sales and production, number of firms and employees, main markets, etc.), together with the identification of the main drivers of competitiveness in order to explain the strategies implemented by local actors.

  10. Multiscale empirical interpolation for solving nonlinear PDEs

    KAUST Repository

    Calo, Victor M.; Efendiev, Yalchin R.; Galvis, Juan; Ghommem, Mehdi

    2014-01-01

    residuals and Jacobians on the fine grid. We use empirical interpolation concepts to evaluate these residuals and Jacobians of the multiscale system with a computational cost which is proportional to the size of the coarse-scale problem rather than the fully

  11. Quantitative analyses of empirical fitness landscapes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szendro, Ivan G; Franke, Jasper; Krug, Joachim; Schenk, Martijn F; De Visser, J Arjan G M

    2013-01-01

    The concept of a fitness landscape is a powerful metaphor that offers insight into various aspects of evolutionary processes and guidance for the study of evolution. Until recently, empirical evidence on the ruggedness of these landscapes was lacking, but since it became feasible to construct all possible genotypes containing combinations of a limited set of mutations, the number of studies has grown to a point where a classification of landscapes becomes possible. The aim of this review is to identify measures of epistasis that allow a meaningful comparison of fitness landscapes and then apply them to the empirical landscapes in order to discern factors that affect ruggedness. The various measures of epistasis that have been proposed in the literature appear to be equivalent. Our comparison shows that the ruggedness of the empirical landscape is affected by whether the included mutations are beneficial or deleterious and by whether intragenic or intergenic epistasis is involved. Finally, the empirical landscapes are compared to landscapes generated with the rough Mt Fuji model. Despite the simplicity of this model, it captures the features of the experimental landscapes remarkably well. (paper)

  12. Qualitative Case Study Research as Empirical Inquiry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellinger, Andrea D.; McWhorter, Rochell

    2016-01-01

    This article introduces the concept of qualitative case study research as empirical inquiry. It defines and distinguishes what a case study is, the purposes, intentions, and types of case studies. It then describes how to determine if a qualitative case study is the preferred approach for conducting research. It overviews the essential steps in…

  13. The problem analysis for empirical studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenland, E.A.G.

    2014-01-01

    This article proposes a systematic methodology for the development of a problem analysis for cross-sectional, empirical research. This methodology is referred to as the 'Annabel approach'. It is suitable both for academic studies and applied (business) studies. In addition it can be used for both

  14. Empirical questions for collective-behaviour modelling

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The collective behaviour of groups of social animals has been an active topic of study ... Models have been successful at reproducing qualitative features of ... quantitative and detailed empirical results for a range of animal systems. ... standard method [23], the redundant information recorded by the cameras can be used to.

  15. Synthetic and Empirical Capsicum Annuum Image Dataset

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barth, R.

    2016-01-01

    This dataset consists of per-pixel annotated synthetic (10500) and empirical images (50) of Capsicum annuum, also known as sweet or bell pepper, situated in a commercial greenhouse. Furthermore, the source models to generate the synthetic images are included. The aim of the datasets are to

  16. An Empirical Investigation into Programming Language Syntax

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefik, Andreas; Siebert, Susanna

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies in the literature have shown that syntax remains a significant barrier to novice computer science students in the field. While this syntax barrier is known to exist, whether and how it varies across programming languages has not been carefully investigated. For this article, we conducted four empirical studies on programming…

  17. Self-Published Books: An Empirical "Snapshot"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Jana; Fulton, Bruce; Helm, Marlene

    2012-01-01

    The number of books published by authors using fee-based publication services, such as Lulu and AuthorHouse, is overtaking the number of books published by mainstream publishers, according to Bowker's 2009 annual data. Little empirical research exists on self-published books. This article presents the results of an investigation of a random sample…

  18. Empirical Differential Balancing for Nonlinear Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kawano, Yu; Scherpen, Jacquelien M.A.; Dochain, Denis; Henrion, Didier; Peaucelle, Dimitri

    In this paper, we consider empirical balancing of nonlinear systems by using its prolonged system, which consists of the original nonlinear system and its variational system. For the prolonged system, we define differential reachability and observability Gramians, which are matrix valued functions

  19. Multiscale empirical interpolation for solving nonlinear PDEs

    KAUST Repository

    Calo, Victor M.

    2014-12-01

    In this paper, we propose a multiscale empirical interpolation method for solving nonlinear multiscale partial differential equations. The proposed method combines empirical interpolation techniques and local multiscale methods, such as the Generalized Multiscale Finite Element Method (GMsFEM). To solve nonlinear equations, the GMsFEM is used to represent the solution on a coarse grid with multiscale basis functions computed offline. Computing the GMsFEM solution involves calculating the system residuals and Jacobians on the fine grid. We use empirical interpolation concepts to evaluate these residuals and Jacobians of the multiscale system with a computational cost which is proportional to the size of the coarse-scale problem rather than the fully-resolved fine scale one. The empirical interpolation method uses basis functions which are built by sampling the nonlinear function we want to approximate a limited number of times. The coefficients needed for this approximation are computed in the offline stage by inverting an inexpensive linear system. The proposed multiscale empirical interpolation techniques: (1) divide computing the nonlinear function into coarse regions; (2) evaluate contributions of nonlinear functions in each coarse region taking advantage of a reduced-order representation of the solution; and (3) introduce multiscale proper-orthogonal-decomposition techniques to find appropriate interpolation vectors. We demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed methods on several nonlinear multiscale PDEs that are solved with Newton\\'s methods and fully-implicit time marching schemes. Our numerical results show that the proposed methods provide a robust framework for solving nonlinear multiscale PDEs on a coarse grid with bounded error and significant computational cost reduction.

  20. Autonomous Vehicles Require Socio-Political Acceptance-An Empirical and Philosophical Perspective on the Problem of Moral Decision Making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergmann, Lasse T; Schlicht, Larissa; Meixner, Carmen; König, Peter; Pipa, Gordon; Boshammer, Susanne; Stephan, Achim

    2018-01-01

    Autonomous vehicles, though having enormous potential, face a number of challenges. As a computer system interacting with society on a large scale and human beings in particular, they will encounter situations, which require moral assessment. What will count as right behavior in such situations depends on which factors are considered to be both morally justified and socially acceptable. In an empirical study we investigated what factors people recognize as relevant in driving situations. The study put subjects in several "dilemma" situations, which were designed to isolate different and potentially relevant factors. Subjects showed a surprisingly high willingness to sacrifice themselves to save others, took the age of potential victims in a crash into consideration and were willing to swerve onto a sidewalk if this saved more lives. The empirical insights are intended to provide a starting point for a discussion, ultimately yielding societal agreement whereby the empirical insights should be balanced with philosophical considerations.

  1. Autonomous Vehicles Require Socio-Political Acceptance—An Empirical and Philosophical Perspective on the Problem of Moral Decision Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergmann, Lasse T.; Schlicht, Larissa; Meixner, Carmen; König, Peter; Pipa, Gordon; Boshammer, Susanne; Stephan, Achim

    2018-01-01

    Autonomous vehicles, though having enormous potential, face a number of challenges. As a computer system interacting with society on a large scale and human beings in particular, they will encounter situations, which require moral assessment. What will count as right behavior in such situations depends on which factors are considered to be both morally justified and socially acceptable. In an empirical study we investigated what factors people recognize as relevant in driving situations. The study put subjects in several “dilemma” situations, which were designed to isolate different and potentially relevant factors. Subjects showed a surprisingly high willingness to sacrifice themselves to save others, took the age of potential victims in a crash into consideration and were willing to swerve onto a sidewalk if this saved more lives. The empirical insights are intended to provide a starting point for a discussion, ultimately yielding societal agreement whereby the empirical insights should be balanced with philosophical considerations. PMID:29541023

  2. Autonomous Vehicles Require Socio-Political Acceptance—An Empirical and Philosophical Perspective on the Problem of Moral Decision Making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lasse T. Bergmann

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Autonomous vehicles, though having enormous potential, face a number of challenges. As a computer system interacting with society on a large scale and human beings in particular, they will encounter situations, which require moral assessment. What will count as right behavior in such situations depends on which factors are considered to be both morally justified and socially acceptable. In an empirical study we investigated what factors people recognize as relevant in driving situations. The study put subjects in several “dilemma” situations, which were designed to isolate different and potentially relevant factors. Subjects showed a surprisingly high willingness to sacrifice themselves to save others, took the age of potential victims in a crash into consideration and were willing to swerve onto a sidewalk if this saved more lives. The empirical insights are intended to provide a starting point for a discussion, ultimately yielding societal agreement whereby the empirical insights should be balanced with philosophical considerations.

  3. Tech Support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beem, Kate

    2002-01-01

    Discusses technology-support issues, including staff training, cost, and outsourcing. Describes how various school districts manage technology-support services. Features the Technology Support Index, developed by the International Society for Technology in Education, to gauge the operation of school district technology-support programs. (PKP)

  4. Mechanisms of change in psychotherapy for depression : An empirical update and evaluation of research aimed at identifying psychological mediators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lemmens, L.H.J.M.; Müller, V.N.L.S.; Arntz, A.; Huibers, M.J.H.

    2016-01-01

    We present a systematic empirical update and critical evaluation of the current status of research aimed at identifying a variety of psychological mediators in various forms of psychotherapy for depression. We summarize study characteristics and results of 35 relevant studies, and discuss the extent

  5. Empirical estimates in stochastic programs with probability and second order stochastic dominance constraints

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Omelchenko, Vadym; Kaňková, Vlasta

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 84, č. 2 (2015), s. 267-281 ISSN 0862-9544 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-14445S Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : Stochastic programming problems * empirical estimates * light and heavy tailed distributions * quantiles Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2015/E/omelchenko-0454495.pdf

  6. Augmented Reality-Based Simulators as Discovery Learning Tools: An Empirical Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibáñez, María-Blanca; Di-Serio, Ángela; Villarán-Molina, Diego; Delgado-Kloos, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports empirical evidence on having students use AR-SaBEr, a simulation tool based on augmented reality (AR), to discover the basic principles of electricity through a series of experiments. AR-SaBEr was enhanced with knowledge-based support and inquiry-based scaffolding mechanisms, which proved useful for discovery learning in…

  7. Emotions and Motivation in Mathematics Education: Theoretical Considerations and Empirical Contributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schukajlow, Stanislaw; Rakoczy, K.; Pekrun, R.

    2017-01-01

    Emotions and motivation are important prerequisites, mediators, and outcomes of learning and achievement. In this article, we first review major theoretical approaches and empirical findings in research on students' emotions and motivation in mathematics, including a discussion of how classroom instruction can support emotions and motivation.…

  8. An Empirical Case Study of a Child Sexual Abuse Prevention Initiative in Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schober, Daniel J.; Fawcett, Stephen B.; Thigpen, Sally; Curtis, Anna; Wright, Renee

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This empirical case study describes Prevent Child Abuse Georgia's effort to prevent child sexual abuse (CSA) by educating communities throughout the state on supporting preventive behaviour. The initiative consisted of three major components: (1) dissemination of CSA prevention messages and materials; (2) a statewide helpline that…

  9. Does age impact self-actualization needs?—an empirical study ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Thus, although this study supports the existence of needs, the chronology of their dominance may not be as per Maslow's hierarchy pyramid. This empirical study establishes that there may not be progressive increase in self-actualization need as age progresses. Keywords: Maslow, need priorities, age, self-actualization ...

  10. The Theoretical and Empirical Basis for Meditation as an Intervention for PTSD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Ariel J.; Strauss, Jennifer L.; Bomyea, Jessica; Bormann, Jill E.; Hickman, Steven D.; Good, Raquel C.; Essex, Michael

    2012-01-01

    In spite of the existence of good empirically supported treatments for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), consumers and providers continue to ask for more options for managing this common and often chronic condition. Meditation-based approaches are being widely implemented, but there is minimal research rigorously assessing their effectiveness.…

  11. New Product Development in the Fashion Industry: An Empirical Investigation of Italian Firms

    OpenAIRE

    Bandinelli, Romeo; Rinaldi, Rinaldo; Rossi, Monica; Terzi, Sergio

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates how companies in the fashion industry organize, plan and perform their New Product Development process (NPD). The results have been achieved through an empirical study carried out by the authors with the support of the GeCo Observatory, an Italian research initiative launched in 2012. This paper shows the details of eight selected case studies from the Italian fashion industry.

  12. Development and performance of self-managing work teams : a theoretical and empirical examination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuipers, B.J.; Stoker, J.I.

    2009-01-01

    Several theories have been developed that prescribe the team development of self-managing work teams (SMWTs). Some of these have led to models with successive linear developmental phases. However, both the theory and the empirical data show little support for these models. Based on an extensive

  13. Factors Influencing Beliefs for Adoption of a Learning Analytics Tool: An Empirical Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Liaqat; Asadi, Mohsen; Gasevic, Dragan; Jovanovic, Jelena; Hatala, Marek

    2013-01-01

    Present research and development offer various learning analytics tools providing insights into different aspects of learning processes. Adoption of a specific tool for practice is based on how its learning analytics are perceived by educators to support their pedagogical and organizational goals. In this paper, we propose and empirically validate…

  14. An empirical InSAR-optical fusion approach to mapping vegetation canopy height

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wayne S. Walker; Josef M. Kellndorfer; Elizabeth LaPoint; Michael Hoppus; James Westfall

    2007-01-01

    Exploiting synergies afforded by a host of recently available national-scale data sets derived from interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) and passive optical remote sensing, this paper describes the development of a novel empirical approach for the provision of regional- to continental-scale estimates of vegetation canopy height. Supported by data from the...

  15. Naturalistic Developmental Behavioral Interventions: Empirically Validated Treatments for Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreibman, Laura; Dawson, Geraldine; Stahmer, Aubyn C.; Landa, Rebecca; Rogers, Sally J.; McGee, Gail G.; Kasari, Connie; Ingersoll, Brooke; Kaiser, Ann P.; Bruinsma, Yvonne; McNerney, Erin; Wetherby, Amy; Halladay, Alycia

    2015-01-01

    Earlier autism diagnosis, the importance of early intervention, and development of specific interventions for young children have contributed to the emergence of similar, empirically supported, autism interventions that represent the merging of applied behavioral and developmental sciences. "Naturalistic Developmental Behavioral Interventions…

  16. Physician Assistant Job Satisfaction: A Narrative Review of Empirical Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooker, Roderick S; Kuilman, Luppo; Everett, Christine M

    2015-12-01

    To examine physician assistant (PA) job satisfaction and identify factors predicting job satisfaction and identify areas of needed research. With a global PA movement underway and a half-century in development, the empirical basis for informing employers of approaches to improve job satisfaction has not received a careful review. A narrative review of empirical research was undertaken to inform stakeholders about PA employment with a goal of improved management. The a priori criteria included published studies that asked PAs about job satisfaction. Articles addressing PA job satisfaction, written in English, were reviewed and categorized according to the Job Characteristics Model. Of 68 publications reviewed, 29 met criteria and were categorized in a Job Characteristics Model. Most studies report a high degree of job satisfaction when autonomy, income, patient responsibility, physician support, and career advancement opportunities are surveyed. Age, sex, specialty, and occupational background are needed to understand the effect on job satisfaction. Quality of studies varies widely. Employers may want to examine their relationships with PAs periodically. The factors of job satisfaction may assist policymakers and health administrators in creating welcoming professional employment environments. The main limitation: no study comprehensively evaluated all the antecedents of job satisfaction. PAs seem to experience job satisfaction supported by low attrition rates and competitive wages. Contributing factors are autonomy, experienced responsibility, pay, and supportive supervising physician. A number of intrinsic rewards derived from the performance of the job within the social environment, along with extrinsic rewards, may contribute to overall job satisfaction. PA job satisfaction research is underdeveloped; investigations should include longitudinal studies, cohort analyses, and economic determinants.

  17. An empirical examination of the factor structure of compassion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Jenny; Cavanagh, Kate; Baer, Ruth; Strauss, Clara

    2017-01-01

    Compassion has long been regarded as a core part of our humanity by contemplative traditions, and in recent years, it has received growing research interest. Following a recent review of existing conceptualisations, compassion has been defined as consisting of the following five elements: 1) recognising suffering, 2) understanding the universality of suffering in human experience, 3) feeling moved by the person suffering and emotionally connecting with their distress, 4) tolerating uncomfortable feelings aroused (e.g., fear, distress) so that we remain open to and accepting of the person suffering, and 5) acting or being motivated to act to alleviate suffering. As a prerequisite to developing a high quality compassion measure and furthering research in this field, the current study empirically investigated the factor structure of the five-element definition using a combination of existing and newly generated self-report items. This study consisted of three stages: a systematic consultation with experts to review items from existing self-report measures of compassion and generate additional items (Stage 1), exploratory factor analysis of items gathered from Stage 1 to identify the underlying structure of compassion (Stage 2), and confirmatory factor analysis to validate the identified factor structure (Stage 3). Findings showed preliminary empirical support for a five-factor structure of compassion consistent with the five-element definition. However, findings indicated that the 'tolerating' factor may be problematic and not a core aspect of compassion. This possibility requires further empirical testing. Limitations with items from included measures lead us to recommend against using these items collectively to assess compassion. Instead, we call for the development of a new self-report measure of compassion, using the five-element definition to guide item generation. We recommend including newly generated 'tolerating' items in the initial item pool, to determine

  18. Countertransference when working with narcissistic personality disorder: An empirical investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanzilli, Annalisa; Muzi, Laura; Ronningstam, Elsa; Lingiardi, Vittorio

    2017-06-01

    Narcissistic personality disorder (NPD) is one of the most challenging clinical syndromes to treat in psychotherapy, especially due to the difficulties of establishing a good enough therapist-patient relationship. Countertransference responses to NPD can be particularly intense, frustrating, and difficult to manage, as is often reported in the clinical literature though not clearly supported empirically. The aims of this study were to (a) investigate the relationship between patients' NPD and therapists' responses; (b) examine the associations between patient, clinician, therapy variables and clinicians' reactions during treatment of NPD patients; and (c) provide an empirically derived portrait of countertransference with NPD. A sample of psychiatrists and clinical psychologists (N = 67) completed the Therapist Response Questionnaire to identify patterns of countertransference, the Shedler-Westen Assessment Procedure-200, and the Global Assessment of Functioning Scale to assess the personality pathology and psychosocial functioning of a patient in their care. The results showed that NPD was positively associated with hostile/angry, criticized/devalued, helpless/inadequate, and disengaged countertransference and negatively associated with therapists' positive response, regardless of patients' personality and psychosocial functioning. NPD patients with stronger traits of cluster B personality pathology tended to elicit more negative and heterogeneous countertransference reactions than NPD patients without these features. The countertransference patterns with NPD patients were not strongly influenced by the variables of clinicians and therapy, with the exception of clinical experience. Overall, the portrait of therapists' reactions to NPD provided a clinically nuanced and empirically founded description strongly resembling theoretical-clinical accounts. The therapeutic implications of these findings were discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights

  19. THE RELEVANCE OF DUESENBERRY CONSUMPTION THEORY! AN APPLIED CASE TO LATIN AMERICA

    OpenAIRE

    Parada Corrales, Jairo; Bacca Mejia, William

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we examine the to-date relevance of Duesenberry's Consumption Theory through an applied case to four economies in Latin America: Mexico, Brazil, Argentina and Colombia. Using annual time series of these countries we show that some empirical evidence of Duesenberry's theory still holds and should not be discarded in modern macroeconomics as it has happened in regular macro text books in mainstream economics. Duesenberry's theory includes important institutional factors that canno...

  20. The DSM revision process: needing to keep an eye on the empirical ball.

    Science.gov (United States)

    First, M B

    2017-01-01

    From DSM-III onward, successive DSM editions have strived to ground the diagnostic definitions in empirical evidence. DSM-IV established a three-stage process of empirical review, consisting of comprehensive and systematic literature reviews, secondary analyses of datasets, and field trials to provide reliability and validity data for the most substantial or controversial proposals. DSM-IV Work Group members were required to review the empirical literature to document explicitly the evidence supporting the text and criteria published in DSM-IV. As noted by Kendler and Solomon (2016), in contrast to the emphasis on systematic reviews in medicine which is a manifestation of the evidence-based medicine movement, such systematic evidence-based reviews have not been consistently integrated into the development of DSM-5, raising questions about empirical rigor underlying the DSM-5 revision. It is likely that this regression in terms of anchoring the revision process in a comprehensive review of empirical data stemmed from the emphasis during the DSM-5 revision process on trying to move DSM-5 from its categorical descriptive approach towards a more etiological dimensional approach. Although such a shift ultimately did not occur, the effort spent on trying to achieve a paradigm shift likely came at the expense of the hard work of conducting systematic empirical reviews. For the DSM to continue to remain credible in the current era of evidence-based medicine, it is essential that the developers of future editions of the DSM avoid taking their eye off the empirical ball and insure that the manual remains grounded in solid empirical evidence.

  1. Estimating rate of occurrence of rare events with empirical bayes: A railway application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quigley, John; Bedford, Tim; Walls, Lesley

    2007-01-01

    Classical approaches to estimating the rate of occurrence of events perform poorly when data are few. Maximum likelihood estimators result in overly optimistic point estimates of zero for situations where there have been no events. Alternative empirical-based approaches have been proposed based on median estimators or non-informative prior distributions. While these alternatives offer an improvement over point estimates of zero, they can be overly conservative. Empirical Bayes procedures offer an unbiased approach through pooling data across different hazards to support stronger statistical inference. This paper considers the application of Empirical Bayes to high consequence low-frequency events, where estimates are required for risk mitigation decision support such as as low as reasonably possible. A summary of empirical Bayes methods is given and the choices of estimation procedures to obtain interval estimates are discussed. The approaches illustrated within the case study are based on the estimation of the rate of occurrence of train derailments within the UK. The usefulness of empirical Bayes within this context is discussed

  2. Mortality salience increases personal relevance of the norm of reciprocity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schindler, Simon; Reinhard, Marc-André; Stahlberg, Dagmar

    2012-10-01

    Research on terror management theory found evidence that people under mortality salience strive to live up to salient cultural norms and values, like egalitarianism, pacifism, or helpfulness. A basic, strongly internalized norm in most human societies is the norm of reciprocity: people should support those who supported them (i.e., positive reciprocity), and people should injure those who injured them (i.e., negative reciprocity), respectively. In an experiment (N = 98; 47 women, 51 men), mortality salience overall significantly increased personal relevance of the norm of reciprocity (M = 4.45, SD = 0.65) compared to a control condition (M = 4.19, SD = 0.59). Specifically, under mortality salience there was higher motivation to punish those who treated them unfavourably (negative norm of reciprocity). Unexpectedly, relevance of the norm of positive reciprocity remained unaffected by mortality salience. Implications and limitations are discussed.

  3. Empirical Bayesian inference and model uncertainty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poern, K.

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents a hierarchical or multistage empirical Bayesian approach for the estimation of uncertainty concerning the intensity of a homogeneous Poisson process. A class of contaminated gamma distributions is considered to describe the uncertainty concerning the intensity. These distributions in turn are defined through a set of secondary parameters, the knowledge of which is also described and updated via Bayes formula. This two-stage Bayesian approach is an example where the modeling uncertainty is treated in a comprehensive way. Each contaminated gamma distributions, represented by a point in the 3D space of secondary parameters, can be considered as a specific model of the uncertainty about the Poisson intensity. Then, by the empirical Bayesian method each individual model is assigned a posterior probability

  4. Porphyry of Russian Empires in Paris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulakh, Andrey

    2014-05-01

    Porphyry of Russian Empires in Paris A. G. Bulakh (St Petersburg State University, Russia) So called "Schokhan porphyry" from Lake Onega, Russia, belongs surely to stones of World cultural heritage. One can see this "porphyry" at facades of a lovely palace of Pavel I and in pedestal of the monument after Nicolas I in St Petersburg. There are many other cases of using this stone in Russia. In Paris, sarcophagus of Napoleon I Bonaparte is constructed of blocks of this stone. Really, it is Proterozoic quartzite. Geology situation, petrography and mineralogical characteristic will be reported too. Comparison with antique porphyre from the Egyptian Province of the Roma Empire is given. References: 1) A.G.Bulakh, N.B.Abakumova, J.V.Romanovsky. St Petersburg: a History in Stone. 2010. Print House of St Petersburg State University. 173 p.

  5. Relevance: An Interdisciplinary and Information Science Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Howard Greisdorf

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Although relevance has represented a key concept in the field of information science for evaluating information retrieval effectiveness, the broader context established by interdisciplinary frameworks could provide greater depth and breadth to on-going research in the field. This work provides an overview of the nature of relevance in the field of information science with a cursory view of how cross-disciplinary approaches to relevance could represent avenues for further investigation into the evaluative characteristics of relevance as a means for enhanced understanding of human information behavior.

  6. Autonomous e-coaching in the wild: Empirical validation of a model-based reasoning system

    OpenAIRE

    Kamphorst, B.A.; Klein, M.C.A.; van Wissen, A.

    2014-01-01

    Autonomous e-coaching systems have the potential to improve people's health behaviors on a large scale. The intelligent behavior change support system eMate exploits a model of the human agent to support individuals in adopting a healthy lifestyle. The system attempts to identify the causes of a person's non-adherence by reasoning over a computational model (COMBI) that is based on established psychological theories of behavior change. The present work presents an extensive, monthlong empiric...

  7. EMPIRICAL ANALYSIS OF THE ROLE OF THE FIRMS’ VALUE DRIVERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita KISS

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the value creation and the value drivers. One of the objectives of this paper is to present the concept of maximizing shareholder value. The main goal is to categorize the most important value drivers, and their role of the firms’ value. This study proceeds as follows. The first section presents the value chain, the primary and the support activities. The second part describes the theoretical background of maximizing shareholder value. The third part illustrates the key value drivers. The fourth empirical section of the study analyses the database featuring data from 18 European countries, 10 sectors and 1553 firms in the period between 2004 and 2011. Finally, the fifth section includes concluding remarks. Based on the related literature reviewed and in the conducted empirical research it can be assessed that, the EBIT, reinvestment, invested capital, the return on invested capital, the net margin and the sales growth rate all have a positive effect on firm value, while the tax rate and the market value of return on asset (MROA has a negative one.

  8. Kindness in Australia: an empirical critique of moral decline sociology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habibis, Daphne; Hookway, Nicholas; Vreugdenhil, Anthea

    2016-09-01

    A new sociological agenda is emerging that interrogates how morality can be established in the absence of the moral certainties of the past but there is a shortage of empirical work on this topic. This article establishes a theoretical framework for the empirical analysis of everyday morality drawing on the work of theorists including Ahmed, Bauman and Taylor. It uses the Australian Survey of Social Attitudes to assess the state and shape of contemporary moralities by asking how kind are Australians, how is its expression socially distributed, and what are the motivations for kindness. The findings demonstrate that Australians exhibit a strong attachment and commitment to kindness as a moral value that is primarily motivated by interiorized sources of moral authority. We argue these findings support the work of theorists such as Ahmed and Taylor who argue authenticity and embodied emotion are legitimate sources of morality in today's secular societies. The research also provides new evidence that generational changes are shaping understandings and practices of kindness in unexpected ways. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2016.

  9. Improved Wind Speed Prediction Using Empirical Mode Decomposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHANG, Y.

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Wind power industry plays an important role in promoting the development of low-carbon economic and energy transformation in the world. However, the randomness and volatility of wind speed series restrict the healthy development of the wind power industry. Accurate wind speed prediction is the key to realize the stability of wind power integration and to guarantee the safe operation of the power system. In this paper, combined with the Empirical Mode Decomposition (EMD, the Radial Basis Function Neural Network (RBF and the Least Square Support Vector Machine (SVM, an improved wind speed prediction model based on Empirical Mode Decomposition (EMD-RBF-LS-SVM is proposed. The prediction result indicates that compared with the traditional prediction model (RBF, LS-SVM, the EMD-RBF-LS-SVM model can weaken the random fluctuation to a certain extent and improve the short-term accuracy of wind speed prediction significantly. In a word, this research will significantly reduce the impact of wind power instability on the power grid, ensure the power grid supply and demand balance, reduce the operating costs in the grid-connected systems, and enhance the market competitiveness of the wind power.

  10. Surface Passivation in Empirical Tight Binding

    OpenAIRE

    He, Yu; Tan, Yaohua; Jiang, Zhengping; Povolotskyi, Michael; Klimeck, Gerhard; Kubis, Tillmann

    2015-01-01

    Empirical Tight Binding (TB) methods are widely used in atomistic device simulations. Existing TB methods to passivate dangling bonds fall into two categories: 1) Method that explicitly includes passivation atoms is limited to passivation with atoms and small molecules only. 2) Method that implicitly incorporates passivation does not distinguish passivation atom types. This work introduces an implicit passivation method that is applicable to any passivation scenario with appropriate parameter...

  11. Empirically Examining Prostitution through a Feminist Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Child, Shyann

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis is to empirically explore prostitution through a feminist perspective. Several background factors are explored on a small sample of women in the northeastern United States. Some of these women have been involved in an act of prostitution in their lifetime; some have not. This research will add to the body of knowledge on prostitution, as well as highlight the unique experiences of women. The goal is to understand whether or not these life experiences have had a h...

  12. Theoretical and Empirical Descriptions of Thermospheric Density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, S. C.; Qian, L.

    2004-12-01

    The longest-term and most accurate overall description the density of the upper thermosphere is provided by analysis of change in the ephemeris of Earth-orbiting satellites. Empirical models of the thermosphere developed in part from these measurements can do a reasonable job of describing thermospheric properties on a climatological basis, but the promise of first-principles global general circulation models of the coupled thermosphere/ionosphere system is that a true high-resolution, predictive capability may ultimately be developed for thermospheric density. However, several issues are encountered when attempting to tune such models so that they accurately represent absolute densities as a function of altitude, and their changes on solar-rotational and solar-cycle time scales. Among these are the crucial ones of getting the heating rates (from both solar and auroral sources) right, getting the cooling rates right, and establishing the appropriate boundary conditions. However, there are several ancillary issues as well, such as the problem of registering a pressure-coordinate model onto an altitude scale, and dealing with possible departures from hydrostatic equilibrium in empirical models. Thus, tuning a theoretical model to match empirical climatology may be difficult, even in the absence of high temporal or spatial variation of the energy sources. We will discuss some of the challenges involved, and show comparisons of simulations using the NCAR Thermosphere-Ionosphere-Electrodynamics General Circulation Model (TIE-GCM) to empirical model estimates of neutral thermosphere density and temperature. We will also show some recent simulations using measured solar irradiance from the TIMED/SEE instrument as input to the TIE-GCM.

  13. Insurability of Cyber Risk: An Empirical Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Biener, Christian; Eling, Martin; Wirfs, Jan Hendrik

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses the adequacy of insurance for managing cyber risk. To this end, we extract 994 cases of cyber losses from an operational risk database and analyse their statistical properties. Based on the empirical results and recent literature, we investigate the insurability of cyber risk by systematically reviewing the set of criteria introduced by Berliner (1982). Our findings emphasise the distinct characteristics of cyber risks compared with other operational risks and bring to li...

  14. Conducting empirical research in virtual worlds

    OpenAIRE

    Minocha, Shailey

    2011-01-01

    We will focus on the following aspects of conducting empirical research in virtual worlds: the toolbox of techniques for data collection; selection of technique(s) for the research questions; tips on how the techniques need to be adapted for conducting research in virtual worlds; guidance for developing research materials such as the consent form, project summary sheet, and how to address the possible concerns of an institution’s ethics committee who may not be familiar with the avatar-based ...

  15. Empirical solar/stellar cycle simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santos Ângela R. G.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available As a result of the magnetic cycle, the properties of the solar oscillations vary periodically. With the recent discovery of manifestations of activity cycles in the seismic data of other stars, the understanding of the different contributions to such variations becomes even more important. With this in mind, we built an empirical parameterised model able to reproduce the properties of the sunspot cycle. The resulting simulations can be used to estimate the magnetic-induced frequency shifts.

  16. The empirical turn in international legal scholarship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory Shaffer

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This article presents and assesses a new wave of em- pirical research on international law. Recent scholar- ship has moved away from theoretical debates over whether international law “matters,” and focuses in- stead on exploring the conditions under which inter- national law is created and produces effects. As this empirical research program has matured, it has al- lowed for new, midlevel theorizing that we call “conditional international law theory”. 

  17. Compassion: An Evolutionary Analysis and Empirical Review

    OpenAIRE

    Goetz, Jennifer L.; Keltner, Dacher; Simon-Thomas, Emiliana

    2010-01-01

    What is compassion? And how did it evolve? In this review, we integrate three evolutionary arguments that converge on the hypothesis that compassion evolved as a distinct affective experience whose primary function is to facilitate cooperation and protection of the weak and those who suffer. Our empirical review reveals compassion to have distinct appraisal processes attuned to undeserved suffering, distinct signaling behavior related to caregiving patterns of touch, posture, and vocalization...

  18. Services outsourcing and innovation: an empirical investigation

    OpenAIRE

    Görg, Holger; Hanley, Aoife

    2009-01-01

    We provide a comprehensive empirical analysis of the links between international services outsourcing, domestic outsourcing, profits and innovation using plant level data. We find a positive effect of international outsourcing of services on innovative activity at the plant level. Such a positive effect can also be observed for domestic outsourcing of services, but the magnitude is smaller. This makes intuitive sense, as international outsourcing allows more scope for exploiting international...

  19. Corporate Diversification and Firm Performance: an Empirical Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olu Ojo

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The importance of diversification and performance in then strategic management literature is widely accepted among academics and practitioners . However, the proxies for performance and diversification that have been employed in past strategy research has not been unanimously agreed upon. Given the current state of confusion that exists with regard to the impact of corporate diversification on firm performance in selected Nigerian companies. The reason for increased interest in diversification has always been on the possibility that diversification is related to corporate performance. However , while this topic is rich in studies, empirical evidence semerging from various studies about the effect of diversification on performance have so far yield mixed results that are inconclusive and contradictory. In addition , despite the existence of these studies, very litlle attention has been given to the companies in developing countries including Nigeria. This means that there is a major gap in the relevant literature on developing countries which has to be covered by research. This research attempts to fill this gap by studying the situation of the Nigeria companies and providing more empirical evidence on the effects of corporate diversification on firm performance based on individual company-level data. Survey research design was adopted in this study with the application of simple random sampling tehnique in selecting our case study companies as well as our respondents. Primary data were collected through questionnaire. Data were analysed through descriptive statistics and correlation and coefficient of determination were used to test our hypothese. It was discovered that diversification impacted performance of these companies posivitely and we recommend that these companies should engage in geographical diversification in addition to other forms of diversification they are currently involved in for maximum performance.

  20. Non-empirical energy density functional for the nuclear structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rot ival, V.

    2008-09-01

    The energy density functional (EDF) formalism is the tool of choice for large-scale low-energy nuclear structure calculations both for stable experimentally known nuclei whose properties are accurately reproduced and systems that are only theoretically predicted. We highlight in the present dissertation the capability of EDF methods to tackle exotic phenomena appearing at the very limits of stability, that is the formation of nuclear halos. We devise a new quantitative and model-independent method that characterizes the existence and properties of halos in medium- to heavy-mass nuclei, and quantifies the impact of pairing correlations and the choice of the energy functional on the formation of such systems. These results are found to be limited by the predictive power of currently-used EDFs that rely on fitting to known experimental data. In the second part of this dissertation, we initiate the construction of non-empirical EDFs that make use of the new paradigm for vacuum nucleon-nucleon interactions set by so-called low-momentum interactions generated through the application of renormalization group techniques. These soft-core vacuum potentials are used as a step-stone of a long-term strategy which connects modern many-body techniques and EDF methods. We provide guidelines for designing several non-empirical models that include in-medium many-body effects at various levels of approximation, and can be handled in state-of-the art nuclear structure codes. In the present work, the first step is initiated through the adjustment of an operator representation of low-momentum vacuum interactions using a custom-designed parallel evolutionary algorithm. The first results highlight the possibility to grasp most of the relevant physics for low-energy nuclear structure using this numerically convenient Gaussian vertex. (author)