WorldWideScience

Sample records for relevant earlier works

  1. Earlier saccades to task-relevant targets irrespective of relative gain between peripheral and foveal information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Christian; Schütz, Alexander C

    2017-06-01

    Saccades bring objects of interest onto the fovea for high-acuity processing. Saccades to rewarded targets show shorter latencies that correlate negatively with expected motivational value. Shorter latencies are also observed when the saccade target is relevant for a perceptual discrimination task. Here we tested whether saccade preparation is equally influenced by informational value as it is by motivational value. We defined informational value as the probability that information is task-relevant times the ratio between postsaccadic foveal and presaccadic peripheral discriminability. Using a gaze-contingent display, we independently manipulated peripheral and foveal discriminability of the saccade target. Latencies of saccades with perceptual task were reduced by 36 ms in general, but they were not modulated by the information saccades provide (Experiments 1 and 2). However, latencies showed a clear negative linear correlation with the probability that the target is task-relevant (Experiment 3). We replicated that the facilitation by a perceptual task is spatially specific and not due to generally heightened arousal (Experiment 4). Finally, the facilitation only emerged when the perceptual task is in the visual but not in the auditory modality (Experiment 5). Taken together, these results suggest that saccade latencies are not equally modulated by informational value as by motivational value. The facilitation by a perceptual task only arises when task-relevant visual information is foveated, irrespective of whether the foveation is useful or not.

  2. LightLeaves: computer controlled kinetic reflection hologram installation and a brief discussion of earlier work

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Connors Chen, Betsy

    2013-01-01

    LightLeaves is an installation combining leaf shaped, white light reflection holograms of landscape images with a special kinetic lighting device that houses a lamp and moving leaf shaped masks. The masks are controlled by an Arduino microcontroller and servomotors that position the masks in front of the illumination source of the holograms. The work is the most recent in a long series of landscapes that combine multi-hologram installations with computer controlled devices that play with the motion of the holograms, the light, sound or other elements in the work. LightLeaves was first exhibited at the Peabody Essex Museum in Salem, Massachusetts in a show titled E ye Spy: Playing with Perception .

  3. LightLeaves: computer controlled kinetic reflection hologram installation and a brief discussion of earlier work

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Connors Chen, Betsy, E-mail: acmeholo@gmail.com [ACME Holography, Somerville, Massachusetts USA 02144 (United States)

    2013-02-22

    LightLeaves is an installation combining leaf shaped, white light reflection holograms of landscape images with a special kinetic lighting device that houses a lamp and moving leaf shaped masks. The masks are controlled by an Arduino microcontroller and servomotors that position the masks in front of the illumination source of the holograms. The work is the most recent in a long series of landscapes that combine multi-hologram installations with computer controlled devices that play with the motion of the holograms, the light, sound or other elements in the work. LightLeaves was first exhibited at the Peabody Essex Museum in Salem, Massachusetts in a show titled {sup E}ye Spy: Playing with Perception{sup .}.

  4. An Enduring Health Risk of Childhood Adversity: Earlier, More Severe, and Longer Lasting Work Disability in Adult Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laditka, Sarah B; Laditka, James N

    2018-02-08

    Childhood adversity has been linked with adult health problems. We hypothesized that childhood adversity would also be associated with work limitations due to physical or nervous health problems, known as work disability. With data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID) (1968-2013; n=6,045; 82,374 transitions; 129,107 person-years) and the 2014 PSID Childhood Retrospective Circumstances Study, we estimated work disability transition probabilities with multinomial logistic Markov models. Four or more adversities defined a high level. Microsimulations quantified adult work disability patterns for African American and non-Hispanic white women and men, accounting for age, education, race, sex, diabetes, heart disease, obesity, and sedentary behavior. Childhood adversity was significantly associated with work disability. Of African American women with high adversity, 10.2% had moderate work disability at age 30 versus 4.1% with no reported adversities; comparable results for severe work disability were 5.6% versus 1.9% (both pwork disability remained significant after adjusting for diabetes, heart disease, obesity, and sedentary behavior (pwork disability throughout adult life. © The Author(s) 2018. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Alpha power gates relevant information during working memory updating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manza, Peter; Hau, Chui Luen Vera; Leung, Hoi-Chung

    2014-04-23

    Human working memory (WM) is inherently limited, so we must filter out irrelevant information in our environment or our mind while retaining limited important relevant contents. Previous work suggests that neural oscillations in the alpha band (8-14 Hz) play an important role in inhibiting incoming distracting information during attention and selective encoding tasks. However, whether alpha power is involved in inhibiting no-longer-relevant content or in representing relevant WM content is still debated. To clarify this issue, we manipulated the amount of relevant/irrelevant information using a task requiring spatial WM updating while measuring neural oscillatory activity via EEG and localized current sources across the scalp using a surface Laplacian transform. An initial memory set of two, four, or six spatial locations was to be memorized over a delay until an updating cue was presented indicating that only one or three locations remained relevant for a subsequent recognition test. Alpha amplitude varied with memory maintenance and updating demands among a cluster of left frontocentral electrodes. Greater postcue alpha power was associated with the high relevant load conditions (six and four dots cued to reduce to three relevant) relative to the lower load conditions (four and two dots reduced to one). Across subjects, this difference in alpha power was correlated with condition differences in performance accuracy. In contrast, no significant effects of irrelevant load were observed. These findings demonstrate that, during WM updating, alpha power reflects maintenance of relevant memory contents rather than suppression of no-longer-relevant memory traces.

  6. [work motivation -- assessment instruments and their relevance for medical care].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiedler, Rolf G; Ranft, Andreas; Greitemann, Bernhard; Heuft, Gereon

    2005-11-01

    The relevance of work motivation for medical research and healthcare, in particular rehabilitation, is described. Four diagnostic instruments in the German language are introduced which can assess work motivation using a scale system: AVEM, JDS, LMI and FBTM. Their possible application and potential usage for the clinical area are discussed. Apart from the FBTM, none of these instruments can be directly used as a general instrument in a normal medical clinical setting. Finally, a current model for work motivation (compensatory model of work motivation and volition) is presented that contains basis concepts, which are judged as important for future research questions concerning the development of motivation diagnostic instruments.

  7. Management of work-relevant upper limb disorders: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, A Kim; Kendall, Nicholas A S; Pearce, Brian G; Birrell, Lisa N; Bainbridge, L Christopher

    2009-01-01

    Upper limb disorders (ULDs) are clinically challenging and responsible for considerable work loss. There is a need to determine effective approaches for their management. To determine evidence-based management strategies for work-relevant ULDs and explore whether a biopsychosocial approach is appropriate. Literature review using a best evidence synthesis. Data from articles identified through systematic searching of electronic databases and citation tracking were extracted into evidence tables. The information was synthesized into high-level evidence statements, which were ordered into themes covering classification/diagnosis, epidemiology, associations/risks and management/treatment, focusing on return to work or work retention and taking account of distinctions between non-specific complaints and specific diagnoses. Neither biomedical treatment nor ergonomic workplace interventions alone offer an optimal solution; rather, multimodal interventions show considerable promise, particularly for occupational outcomes. Early return to work, or work retention, is an important goal for most cases and may be facilitated, where necessary, by transitional work arrangements. The emergent evidence indicates that successful management strategies require all the players to be on side and acting in a coordinated fashion; this requires engaging employers and workers to participate. The biopsychosocial model applies: biological considerations should not be ignored, but psychosocial factors are more influential for occupational outcomes. Implementation of interventions that address the full range of psychosocial issues will require a cultural shift in the way the relationship between upper limb complaints and work is conceived and handled. Dissemination of evidence-based messages can contribute to the needed cultural shift.

  8. Working Toward Policy-Relevant Air Quality Emissions Scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holloway, T.

    2010-12-01

    Though much work has been done to develop accurate chemical emission inventories, few publicly available inventories are appropriate for realistic policy analysis. Emissions from the electricity and transportation sectors, in particular, respond in complex ways to policy, technology, and energy use change. Many widely used inventories, such as the EPA National Emissions Inventory, are well-suited for modeling current air quality, but do not have the specificity needed to address "what if?" questions. Changes in electricity demand, fuel prices, new power sources, and emission controls all influence the emissions from regional power production, requiring a plant-by-plant assessment to capture the spatially explicit impacts. Similarly, land use, freight distribution, or driving behavior will yield differentiated transportation emissions for urban areas, suburbs, and rural highways. We here present results from three recent research projects at the University of Wisconsin—Madison, where bottom-up emission inventories for electricity, freight transport, and urban vehicle use were constructed to support policy-relevant air quality research. These three studies include: 1) Using the MyPower electricity dispatch model to calculate emissions and air quality impacts of Renewable Portfolio Standards and other carbon-management strategies; 2) Using advanced vehicle and commodity flow data from the Federal Highway Administration to evaluate the potential to shift commodities from truck to rail (assuming expanded infrastructure), and assess a range of alternative fuel suggestions; and 3) Working with urban planners to connect urban density with vehicle use to evaluate the air quality impacts of smart-growth in major Midwest cities. Drawing on the results of these three studies, and on challenges overcome in their execution, we discuss the current state of policy-relevant emission dataset generation, as well as techniques and attributes that need to be further refined in order

  9. THE PERSONAS BEING (BAKHTIN’S CONCEPT OF THE HUMAN PERSONAS PRESENTED IN HIS EARLIER PHILOSOPHICAL WORKS OF THE 1920S

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. KOLESNICHENKO

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The author attempts a detailed analysis of the earlier philosophical works of Bakhtin which in themselves are somewhat open to question and often full of contradictions. Her aim is to try to determine an all-comprehensive key term which formed the core of the philosopher’s early thought. By means of various methods of analysis, the author concludes that this key term is «personality» («lichnost». For Bakhtin, Personalityhas not only a social dimension but contains a broader scope: it refl ects Being (the substantiality per se. It is the contention of the author that Bakhtin’s early studies should be read against the background of this central key-term of «lichnost». As a result, a new non-contradictory theory of personality emerges. The author emphasizes that Bakhtin’s theory of personality is one example of a new, avant-garde type of philosophical paradigm which arose during the 1920’s.

  10. Family care work: a policy-relevant research agenda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moen, Phyllis; DePasquale, Nicole

    2017-03-01

    This article addresses the need for policy-relevant research agendas on family care in transaction with formal care and public as well as organisational norms and policies in light of the crisis in caregiving for older adults. We propose a combined institutional and life-course theoretical approach, suggesting seven ways of organising scholarly enquiry to promote understanding of the changing nature of family care in the 21st century, inform policymakers' efforts at supporting family caregivers and improve caregivers' and care recipients' quality of life. These include: (1) moving beyond snapshots of individuals; (2) conducting comparative cross-cultural and crosscohort analyses; (3) documenting social heterogeneity, vulnerability and inequality; (4) capturing individuals' and families' adaptive strategies and cycles of control during the caregiving process; (5) investigating policy innovations and natural experiments; (6) assessing third parties as mediating institutions between regulatory environments and caregiving families; and (7) attending to the subjective meanings of care.

  11. Load-related brain activation predicts spatial working memory performance in youth aged 9-12 and is associated with executive function at earlier ages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Anna S; Klein, Daniel N; Leung, Hoi-Chung

    2016-02-01

    Spatial working memory is a central cognitive process that matures through adolescence in conjunction with major changes in brain function and anatomy. Here we focused on late childhood and early adolescence to more closely examine the neural correlates of performance variability during this important transition period. Using a modified spatial 1-back task with two memory load conditions in an fMRI study, we examined the relationship between load-dependent neural responses and task performance in a sample of 39 youth aged 9-12 years. Our data revealed that between-subject differences in task performance was predicted by load-dependent deactivation in default network regions, including the ventral anterior cingulate cortex (vACC) and posterior cingulate cortex (PCC). Although load-dependent increases in activation in prefrontal and posterior parietal regions were only weakly correlated with performance, increased prefrontal-parietal coupling was associated with better performance. Furthermore, behavioral measures of executive function from as early as age 3 predicted current load-dependent deactivation in vACC and PCC. These findings suggest that both task positive and task negative brain activation during spatial working memory contributed to successful task performance in late childhood/early adolescence. This may serve as a good model for studying executive control deficits in developmental disorders. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  12. Load-related brain activation predicts spatial working memory performance in youth aged 9–12 and is associated with executive function at earlier ages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Anna S.; Klein, Daniel N.; Leung, Hoi-Chung

    2015-01-01

    Spatial working memory is a central cognitive process that matures through adolescence in conjunction with major changes in brain function and anatomy. Here we focused on late childhood and early adolescence to more closely examine the neural correlates of performance variability during this important transition period. Using a modified spatial 1-back task with two memory load conditions in an fMRI study, we examined the relationship between load-dependent neural responses and task performance in a sample of 39 youth aged 9–12 years. Our data revealed that between-subject differences in task performance was predicted by load-dependent deactivation in default network regions, including the ventral anterior cingulate cortex (vACC) and posterior cingulate cortex (PCC). Although load-dependent increases in activation in prefrontal and posterior parietal regions were only weakly correlated with performance, increased prefrontal-parietal coupling was associated with better performance. Furthermore, behavioral measures of executive function from as early as age 3 predicted current load-dependent deactivation in vACC and PCC. These findings suggest that both task positive and task negative brain activation during spatial working memory contributed to successful task performance in late childhood/early adolescence. This may serve as a good model for studying executive control deficits in developmental disorders. PMID:26562059

  13. Analysis and radiological assessment of residues containing NORM materials resulting from earlier activities including modelling of typical industrial residues. Pt. 1. Historical investigation of the radiological relevance of NORM residues and concepts for site identification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reichelt, Andreas; Niedermayer, Matthias; Sitte, Beate; Hamel, Peter Michael

    2007-01-01

    Natural radionuclides are part of the human environment and of the raw materials used. Technical processes may cause their accumulation in residues, and the result will be so-called NORM materials (Naturally occurring radioactive material). The amended Radiation Protection Ordinance (StrlSchV 2001) specifies how the public should be protected, but there are also residues dating back before the issuing of the StrlSchV 2001, the so-called NORM residues. The project intended to assess the risks resulting from these residues. It comprises four parts. Part 1 was for clarification of the radiological relevance of NORM residues and for the development of concepts to detect them. The criterion for their radiological relevance was their activity per mass unit and the material volume accumulated through the centuries. The former was calculated from a wide bibliographic search in the relevant literature on radiation protection, while the mass volume was obtained by a detailed historical search of the consumption of materials that may leave NORM residues. These are, in particular, residues from coal and ore mining and processing. To identify concrete sites, relevant data sources were identified, and a concept for identification of concrete NORM residues was developed on this basis. (orig.) [de

  14. Interactive Effects of Working Memory Self-Regulatory Ability and Relevance Instructions on Text Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Nancy Jo

    2012-01-01

    Reading is a process that requires the enactment of many cognitive processes. Each of these processes uses a certain amount of working memory resources, which are severely constrained by biology. More efficiency in the function of working memory may mediate the biological limits of same. Reading relevancy instructions may be one such method to…

  15. Employee health-relevant personality traits are associated with the psychosocial work environment and leadership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villaume, Karin; Hasson, Dan

    2017-01-01

    Little is known about personality in relation to assessments of the psychosocial work environment and leadership. Therefore the objective of this study is to explore possible associations and differences in mean values between employee health-relevant personality traits and assessments of the psychosocial work environment and leadership behaviors. 754 survey responses from ten organizations were selected from a large-scale intervention study. The Health-relevant Personality 5 inventory was used to assess personality. Five dimensions of the psychosocial work environment were assessed with 38 items from the QPS Nordic and 6 items from the Developmental Leadership Questionnaire were used to assess leadership behavior. Positive correlations were found between Hedonic capacity (facet of Extraversion) and perceptions of the psychosocial work environment and leadership behavior. Negative correlations were found for Negative affectivity (facet of Neuroticism), Antagonism (facet of Agreeableness), Impulsivity (facet of Conscientiousness) and Alexithymia (facet of Openness). There were also significant differences in mean values of all work environment indicators between levels of health-relevant personality traits. Those with higher levels of hedonic capacity had higher (better) perceptions compared to those with lower levels. Those with higher levels of negative affectivity had lower (worse) perceptions compared to those with lower levels. The findings show a clear association between employee health-relevant personality traits and assessments of the psychosocial work environment and leadership behavior. Personality can be important to take into consideration for leaders when interpreting survey results and when designing organizational interventions.

  16. The influence of self-relevant materials on working memory in dysphoric undergraduates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Qin; Rahman, Shaoon; Lau, Becky; Sook Kim, Hyang; Deldin, Patricia

    2015-10-30

    Difficulties in updating working memory (WM) may underlie problems with regulating emotions that contribute to depression. To examine the ability of updating affective materials in WM, 33 dysphoric and 34 non-dysphoric participants were asked to evaluate the self-descriptiveness of emotional adjectives and provide answers to self-relevant questions. Within 3-7 days, they completed a two-back task with a series of self-irrelevant or self-relevant emotional words (they had generated previously) and four conditions (match-set, break-set, perseveration-set, and no-set). After the WM task, an unexpected recall task was administered; controls recalled more positive self-relevant words and intrusions while dysphoric participants recalled more negative self-relevant words and intrusions. In break-set trials of the two-back task, dysphoric individuals showed slower response to self-relevant words regardless of valence. In the match-set and perseveration-set trials, dysphoric participants showed delayed response to self-related negative words. Moreover, longer reaction times for self-relevant negative words were correlated with higher rumination and worse depression. The results suggest that dysphoric undergraduates are interfered more by and have a better memory of self-relevant negative stimuli in WM, which is closely correlated with rumination. This study is among the first to confirm the potential mechanism that could underwrite the involvement of self-schema in effectively regulating negative affect. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Working Memory Capacity in Preschool Children Contributes to the Acquisition of School Relevant Precursor Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pressler, Anna-Lena; Krajewski, Kristin; Hasselhorn, Marcus

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate whether preschool children with limitations in the visual or phonological working memory are disadvantaged in the acquisition of school relevant precursor skills at school entry. A sample of 92 children was divided into three subgroups depending on their performance in visual and phonological working…

  18. Suppression of no-longer relevant information in Working Memory: An alpha-power related mechanism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poch, Claudia; Valdivia, María; Capilla, Almudena; Hinojosa, José Antonio; Campo, Pablo

    2018-03-27

    Selective attention can enhance Working Memory (WM) performance by selecting relevant information, while preventing distracting items from encoding or from further maintenance. Alpha oscillatory modulations are a correlate of visuospatial attention. Specifically, an enhancement of alpha power is observed in the ipsilateral posterior cortex to the locus of attention, along with a suppression in the contralateral hemisphere. An influential model proposes that the alpha enhancement is functionally related to the suppression of information. However, whether ipsilateral alpha power represents a mechanism through which no longer relevant WM representations are inhibited has yet not been explored. Here we examined whether the amount of distractors to be suppressed during WM maintenance is functionally related to alpha power lateralized activity. We measure EEG activity while participants (N = 36) performed a retro-cue task in which the WM load was varied across the relevant/irrelevant post-cue hemifield. We found that alpha activity was lateralized respect to the locus of attention, but did not track post-cue irrelevant load. Additionally, non-lateralized alpha activity increased with post-cue relevant load. We propose that alpha lateralization associated to retro-cuing might be related to a general orienting mechanism toward relevant representation. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. El amor al padre y la estabilidad histrérica: En la primera enseñanza de Lacán The love to the father and the hysterical stability In the earlier lacan's work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Godoy

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo reúne una parte de la tarea preparatoria del proyecto UBACyT 2004-07 P091 "La estructura del nudo borromeo en la caracterización de la histeria en el último período de la obra de J. Lacan (1974-1981" en la que examinamos algunos de los principales antecedentes de esta temática en las primeras etapas de la obra de Lacan. La función de anudamiento (sinthome entre los tres registros se localiza en la histeria a partir de lo que Lacan denominó, en los años setenta, la "armadura del amor al padre". El término francés armature designa aquí el armazón que otorga una singular estabilidad y consistencia al sujeto histérico y su cuerpo. Se destaca así la estabilidad estructural de la histeria abordada tanto desde la pregunta por lo femenino y la identificación con el padre, como desde el lazo que une a la histérica con el amor y la impotencia paterna.The present work assembles a part of the preparatory task of the UBACyT project 07 P091 "The structure of the borromean knot in the characterization of hysteria in the last period J. Lacan's work (in which we examined some of the main antecedents of this thematic one in the earlier Lacan's work. The function of knotting (sinthome between the three registries islocated in the hysteria from which Lacan denominated, in the Seventies, the "armor of the love to the father". The french term armature designates here the frame that grants a singular stability and consistency to the hysterical subject and its body. The structural stability of hysteria is pointed out as much therefore from the question by feminine and the identification with the father, like from the bow that unites hysteria with love and paternal impotence.

  20. Partnering Healthy@Work: an Australian university-government partnership facilitating policy-relevant research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jose, Kim; Venn, Alison; Jarman, Lisa; Seal, Judy; Teale, Brook; Scott, Jennifer; Sanderson, Kristy

    2017-12-01

    Research funding is increasingly supporting collaborations between knowledge users and researchers. Partnering Healthy@Work (pH@W), an inaugural recipient of funding through Australia's Partnership for Better Health Grants scheme, was a 5-year partnership between the Menzies Institute for Medical Research, University of Tasmania and the Tasmanian State Service (TSS). The partnerships purpose was to evaluate a comprehensive workplace health promotion programme (Healthy@Work) targeting 30 000 public sector employees; generating new knowledge and influencing workplace health promotion policy and decision-making. This mixed methods study evaluates the partnership between policy-makers and academics and identifies strategies that enabled pH@W to deliver key project outcomes. A pH@W document review was conducted, two partnership assessment tools completed and semi-structured interviews conducted with key policy-makers and academics. Analysis of the partnership assessment tools and interviews found that pH@W had reached a strong level of collaboration. Policy-relevant knowledge was generated about the health of TSS employees and their engagement with workplace health promotion. Knowledge exchange of a conceptual and instrumental nature occurred and was facilitated by the shared grant application, clear governance structures, joint planning, regular information exchange between researchers and policy-makers and research student placements in the TSS. Flexibility and acknowledgement of different priorities and perspectives of partner organizations were identified as critical factors for enabling effective partnership working and research relevance. Academic-policy-maker partnerships can be a powerful mechanism for improving policy relevance of research, but need to incorporate strategies that facilitate regular input from researchers and policy-makers in order to achieve this. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions

  1. Knowledge of ideas: On design and the politics of relevance in concept development work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yoshinaka, Yutaka

    important roles in the selection of ideas for conceptualization and synthesis work in such projects – they at once open up and enable, while also delimit and constrain, the design space in which practitioners may engage their insight and skills. The study explores the translation of knowledge practices......The paper examines the emergent nature of how ideas and problem issues are handled in the organisational processes of project work in design. It addresses the knowledge practices entailed in the (re)association of past projects or activities within a project with ongoing ones (the idea of knowledge...... reuse). This is pursued from the standpoint of the particular and partial framings of knowledge, as localised and situated in character and enactment, through its socio-material ordering and mediation in heterogeneous networks of relations. Network building processes and the drawing of relevance play...

  2. Accounting Students' Perspective of Work-Relevant Communication Skills: Evidence from a Philippine University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenedero, Pia Patricia P.

    2017-01-01

    To further probe the alignment (or misalignment) of university and industry priorities in terms of English language skills development of future accountants, this study extends the earlier investigation of employers' perception on the communication skills needed by entry-level accountants. Using conjoint analysis, this research examines the…

  3. Alzheimer's and Dementia Testing for Earlier Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for Earlier Diagnosis What if we could diagnose Alzheimer's before symptoms started? The hope is, future treatments ... diagnosis is among the most active areas in Alzheimer's science, and funding from the Alzheimer's Association has ...

  4. Working memory: what relevance does it have in learning process and in language processing ?

    OpenAIRE

    Lidiomar José Mascarello

    2012-01-01

    This work consists of a systematic review of the literature on working memory.  Researches, including the ones developed by George Miller (1956) and Paul Carrillo-Mora (2010) have shown that working memory is involved in remembering visual and spatial information, as well as in cognitive activities and in planning strategies.  In the present article, we first examine some important facts in the history of research about working memory. After that, we analyze works published from 2001 to 2011 ...

  5. Cultural Relevance and Working with Inner City Youth Populations to Achieve Civic Engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Shakoor; Webster, Nicole

    2011-01-01

    This article helps Extension professionals consider the cultural relevant needs of inner city residents in hopes of achieving ongoing civic engagement and appropriate program activities in these communities. Having a deep understanding of how the various dimensions of marginalized community life among inner city populations affect participation in…

  6. Overview of work-life balance discourse and its relevance in current economic scenario

    OpenAIRE

    Naithani, Pranav

    2010-01-01

    During the second half of the 20th century, with work demands increasingly encroaching on family and personal time at a faster pace, employers acknowledged the need of work-life balance programmes to facilitate employees maintain a healthy balance between the conflicting demands of their work and personal life. Availability of work-life balance facilities to employees witnessed a phenomenal growth between the late eighties of the 20th century and early years of the 21st century. This growth h...

  7. Relevance for Work in the Western Cape Tourism Industry of the National Certificate Vocational in Tourism Education at TVET Colleges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelbrecht, Mardine; Spencer, John; van der Bijl, Andre

    2017-01-01

    This article investigates the relevance of the National Certificate Vocational (NCV) tourism programme for the South African tourism industry in terms of skills needed by tourism students to work in the tourism industry after graduating. The NCV programmes were introduced in 2007 at public Further Education and Training Colleges (now Technical,…

  8. The role of human values and relations in the employment of people with work-relevant disabilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuiper, L.; Bakker, M.; van der Klink, J.J.L.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to discuss the role of human values and relations in the employment of people with work-relevant disabilities. Purpose: Finding and maintaining a paid job is known to be more difficult for people with a disability. The aim of the study is to explore the use which people with

  9. Ability to Work among Patients with ESKD: Relevance of Quality Care Metrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutner, Nancy G; Zhang, Rebecca

    2017-08-07

    Enabling patient ability to work was a key rationale for enacting the United States (US) Medicare program that provides financial entitlement to renal replacement therapy for persons with end-stage kidney disease (ESKD). However, fewer than half of working-age individuals in the US report the ability to work after starting maintenance hemodialysis (HD). Quality improvement is a well-established objective in oversight of the dialysis program, but a more patient-centered quality assessment approach is increasingly advocated. The ESKD Quality Incentive Program (QIP) initiated in 2012 emphasizes clinical performance indicators, but a newly-added measure requires the monitoring of patient depression-an issue that is important for work ability and employment. We investigated depression scores and four dialysis-specific QIP measures in relation to work ability reported by a multi-clinic cohort of 528 working-age maintenance HD patients. The prevalence of elevated depression scores was substantially higher among patients who said they were not able to work, while only one of the four dialysis-specific clinical measures differed for patients able/not able to work. Ability to work may be among patients' top priorities. As the parameters of quality assessment continue to evolve, increased attention to patient priorities might facilitate work ability and employment outcomes.

  10. Understanding the essential elements of work-based learning and its relevance to everyday clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Caroline

    2010-09-01

    To critically review the work-based learning literature and explore the implications of the findings for the development of work-based learning programmes. With NHS budgets under increasing pressure, and challenges to the impact of classroom-based learning on patient outcomes, work-based learning is likely to come under increased scrutiny as a potential solution. Evidence from higher education institutions suggests that work-based learning can improve practice, but in many cases it is perceived as little more than on-the-job training to perform tasks. The CINAHL database was searched using the keywords work-based learning, work-place learning and practice-based learning. Those articles that had a focus on post-registration nursing were selected and critically reviewed. Using the review of the literature, three key issues were explored. Work-based learning has the potential to change practice. Learning how to learn and critical reflection are key features. For effective work-based learning nurses need to take control of their own learning, receive support to critically reflect on their practice and be empowered to make changes to that practice. A critical review of the literature has identified essential considerations for the implementation of work-based learning. A change in culture from classroom to work-based learning requires careful planning and consideration of learning cultures. To enable effective work-based learning, nurse managers need to develop a learning culture in their workplace. They should ensure that skilled facilitation is provided to support staff with critical reflection and effecting changes in practice. CONTRIBUTION TO NEW KNOWLEDGE: This paper has identified three key issues that need to be considered in the development of work-based learning programmes. © 2010 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  11. [Test Reviews in Child Psychology: Test Users Wish to Obtain Practical Information Relevant to their Respective Field of Work].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renner, Gerolf; Irblich, Dieter

    2016-11-01

    Test Reviews in Child Psychology: Test Users Wish to Obtain Practical Information Relevant to their Respective Field of Work This study investigated to what extent diagnosticians use reviews of psychometric tests for children and adolescents, how they evaluate their quality, and what they expect concerning content. Test users (n = 323) from different areas of work (notably social pediatrics, early intervention, special education, speech and language therapy) rated test reviews as one of the most important sources of information. Readers of test reviews value practically oriented descriptions and evaluations of tests that are relevant to their respective field of work. They expect independent reviews that critically discuss opportunities and limits of the tests under scrutiny. The results show that authors of test reviews should not only have a background in test theory but should also be familiar with the practical application of tests in various settings.

  12. Post-encoding control of working memory enhances processing of relevant information in rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, Ryan J; Hampton, Robert R

    2018-06-01

    Working memory is a system by which a limited amount of information can be kept available for processing after the cessation of sensory input. Because working memory resources are limited, it is adaptive to focus processing on the most relevant information. We used a retro-cue paradigm to determine the extent to which monkey working memory possesses control mechanisms that focus processing on the most relevant representations. Monkeys saw a sample array of images, and shortly after the array disappeared, they were visually cued to a location that had been occupied by one of the sample images. The cue indicated which image should be remembered for the upcoming recognition test. By determining whether the monkeys were more accurate and quicker to respond to cued images compared to un-cued images, we tested the hypothesis that monkey working memory focuses processing on relevant information. We found a memory benefit for the cued image in terms of accuracy and retrieval speed with a memory load of two images. With a memory load of three images, we found a benefit in retrieval speed but only after shortening the onset latency of the retro-cue. Our results demonstrate previously unknown flexibility in the cognitive control of memory in monkeys, suggesting that control mechanisms in working memory likely evolved in a common ancestor of humans and monkeys more than 32 million years ago. Future work should be aimed at understanding the interaction between memory load and the ability to control memory resources, and the role of working memory control in generating differences in cognitive capacity among primates. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Objectives, scope and outline of study; relevant topics; division of outline of work

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    The main problem discussed by this working group is the development of nuclear power on the basis of long-term assured uranium supply and the improvement of fuel cycle technologies. Non-proliferation aspects and problems of developing countries are discussed

  14. Promoting employee wellbeing: the relevance of work characteristics and organizational justice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, Katrina J; Noblet, Andrew J; Rodwell, John J

    2009-09-01

    Research focusing on the relationship between organizational justice and health suggests that perceptions of fairness can make significant contributions to employee wellbeing. However, studies examining the justice-health relationship are only just emerging and there are several areas where further research is required, in particular, the uniqueness of the contributions made by justice and the extent to which the health effects can be explained by linear, non-linear and/or interaction models. The primary aim of the current study was to determine the main, curvilinear and interaction effects of work characteristics and organizational justice perceptions on employee wellbeing (as measured by psychological health and job satisfaction). Work characteristics were measured using the demand-control-support (DCS) model (Karasek and Theorell, 1990) and Colquitt's (2001) four justice dimensions (distributive, procedural, interpersonal and informational) assessed organizational justice (Colquitt, 2001). Hierarchical regression analyses found that in relation to psychological health, perceptions of justice added little to the explanatory power of the DCS model. In contrast, organizational justice did account for unique variance in job satisfaction, the second measure of employee wellbeing. The results supported linear relationships between the psychosocial working conditions and the outcome measures. A significant two-way interaction effect (control x support at work) was found for the psychological health outcome and the procedural justice by distributive justice interaction was significant for the job satisfaction outcome. Notably, the findings indicate that in addition to traditional job stressors, health promotion strategies should also address organizational justice.

  15. Undergraduate Reflective Journaling in Work Integrated Learning: Is It Relevant to Professional Practice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edgar, Susan; Francis-Coad, Jacqueline; Connaughton, Joanne

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the research findings from a study reviewing graduates' opinions on completing online reflective journaling tasks during work integrated learning as an undergraduate. The study was divided into two parts with an initial focus group conducted with six physiotherapy graduates seven months following graduation. Findings from the…

  16. Cognitive Contours: Recent Work on Cross-Cultural Psychology and Its Relevance for Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, W. Martin

    2007-01-01

    This paper outlines new work in cross-cultural psychology largely drawn from Nisbett, Choi, and Smith ("Cognition," 65, 15-32, 1997); Nisbett, Peng, Choi, & Norenzayan, "Psychological Review," 108(2), 291-310, 2001; Nisbett, "The Geography of Thought: How Asians and Westerners Think Differently...and Why." New…

  17. An Exploration of Teachers' Efforts to Understand Identity Work and its Relevance to Science Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, M. Cecil; Darfler, Anne

    2012-06-01

    US educators express concern that students are turning away from the study of science and have little interest in pursuing science careers. Nationally, science achievement scores for 8th graders are unchanged since 1996, but 12th graders' scores have significantly decreased. A shortcoming of education reform efforts is lack of attention to students' developmental needs. Science study should enable students to learn about themselves—to develop and refine their skills, define their values, explore personal interests, and understand the importance of science to themselves and others. Effective secondary science instruction requires attention to students' identity development—the key developmental task of adolescence. Secondary science teachers participated in an 8-week course focused on understanding adolescent identity development and methods for addressing identity. Transcripts of the teachers' online discussions of salient issues were analyzed to determine their perceptions regarding classroom identity work. Teachers identified several assets and obstacles to identity work that were organized into two broad categories: teacher knowledge, training opportunities, and administrative support, or lack of these; and, presence of inflexible curricula, standardized testing regimes, and increased teacher accountability. Implications for student growth and science teacher professional development are discussed.

  18. Relevant teaching in higher education: an exercise from complexity theory in the social work profession

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maribel Molina Correa

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The requirements of our globalized world and the advancement of the teaching science show didactics as a fundamental category defined as the scientific discipline with principles, laws, theoretical and methodological frameworks, creatively modeling the pedagogical intervention in the academic environment.The implementation of the research "Teaching focused on the development of superior thinking and meaningful learning in students of first semester of Social Work Program", set the goal: Qualify the personal life and student projects from the acknowledgement of potentials of the subjects, for the development of competences meaningful to life. This is a research experience that has been developed since 2009 at Simon Bolivar University in the District of Barranquilla.The didactics was based on the development of superior thinking cognitive-process-centered, for the processing of information, creativity, readings of the reality of contexts, expounded/voiced subjectivities of life projects of students, the incorporation of TIC, in order to approach a humanizing and contextualized pedagogical practice. The critical theory was used in this research as a part of its epistemological basis for understanding and building a new academic scenario.The methodology used is the action with techniques such as mind mapping, dialogues, and stories of life, field works, and contents analysis, among others. The data analysis was guided by the hermeneutics as a possibility for the understanding and interpretation of the events that occurred in the classroom.

  19. Isolated working heart: description of models relevant to radioisotopic and pharmacological assessments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Depre, Christophe

    1998-01-01

    Isolated heart preparations are used to study physiological and metabolic parameters of the heart independently of its environment. Several preparations of isolated perfused heart are currently used, mainly the retrograde perfusion system and the working heart model. Both models allow investigations of the metabolic regulation of the heart in various physiological conditions (changes in workload, hormonal influences, substrate competition). These systems may also reproduce different pathological conditions, such as ischemia, reperfusion and hypoxia. Quantitation of metabolic activity can be performed with specific radioactive tracers. Finally, the effects of various drugs on cardiac performance and resistance to ischemia can be studied as well. Heart perfusion also revealed efficient methods to determine the tracer/tracee relation for radioisotopic analogues used with Positron Emission Tomography

  20. The Role of Human Values and Relations in the Employment of People with Work-Relevant Disabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lieke Kuiper

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to discuss the role of human values and relations in the employment of people with work-relevant disabilities. Purpose: Finding and maintaining a paid job is known to be more difficult for people with a disability. The aim of the study is to explore the use which people with a disability make of their private and professional network in finding and maintaining a paid job and the role values play in these relations. This was placed in the context of three complementary perspectives: a perspective that stresses the importance of other than merely rationalistic values, a perspective that stresses the importance of values in work and an interpersonal perspective in which ‘the Other’ is central. Methods: Semi-structured interviews were held with 8 people with a working disability. As well, 4 interviews were held with people from their private network (family and partner and 4 interviews with people from their professional network (colleagues and employers. All interviews were audio-taped and transcribed verbatim. A framework analysis was used to identify the different values in the interviews. This was done with use of MAXqda. Results: The interviews showed that both romantic and rational values and arguments were mentioned by the employers in the context of hiring people with a work-relevant disability; they need to be willing to adjust. The importance of human relations was emphasised in the values mentioned by the respondents when talking about having a paid job. Moreover, ‘the Other’ played an important role in the employment process of people with a work-relevant disability. People with such a disability asked their private network to help them and to provide emotional support. Conclusion: Enabling values and relations had more chance if they were in line with the mission and central value of the organisation. This was one of the first studies on the role that human values and relations play in maintaining a paid

  1. Linking job-relevant personality traits, transformational leadership, and job performance via perceived meaningfulness at work: A moderated mediation model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frieder, Rachel E; Wang, Gang; Oh, In-Sue

    2018-03-01

    By integrating the fundamental principles of the theory of purposeful work behavior (TPWB; Barrick, Mount, & Li, 2013) with cognitive-affective personality system (CAPS) theory (Mischel, 1977; Mischel & Shoda, 1995), we examine how and when salespeople's job-relevant personality traits relate to their performance. We argue that individuals with personality traits that fit outdoor sales jobs (i.e., conscientious, extraversion, openness to experience) will perceive their work as more meaningful and as a result achieve heightened performance. Moreover, drawing from TPWB and CAPS theory, we expect that as an important element of the social context, transformational leadership moderates the indirect effect of salespeople's job-relevant personality traits on their job performance via enhanced perceptions of meaningfulness at work. Results based on data from 496 outdoor salespeople and their 218 supervisors and regional managers provide support for the hypotheses pertaining to conscientiousness and openness, but not extraversion. Specifically, the conditional indirect effects of conscientiousness or openness on performance through perceived meaningfulness are more positive under low, rather than high, levels of transformational leadership. Implications for research and practice are discussed along with study limitations and future research directions. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  2. The Relevance of Working Critical and Safe Internet Use in the School as a Key to Strengthen Digital Competence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakel GAMITO GOMEZ

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Information and Communication Technologies (ICT and the Internet have become indispensable means for the daily life of almost sectors of the population. Likewise, digital development has had a great impact on the younger population and, due to the frequent and continuous use of ICT, children are exposed daily to the multiple risks that exist in the network. This work has collected data, answers, attitudes and perceptions about the habits of use of ICT, the risks of the internet and the relevance of working this topic in the school. For this purpose, a training action has been designed and implemented with fifth year grade Primary Education students. The results have corroborated that the use of ICT and Internet connectivity are part of the day-to-day life of the adolescent population but they lack the necessary maturity to deal with the conflicting situations that they will have to face in the network. At the same time, the students have valued positively the formative action and that confirm the relevance of working on security aspects related to digital competence in the school.

  3. Examining the Effects of Perceived Relevance and Work-Related Subjective Well-Being on Individual Performance for Co-Op Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drewery, Dave; Pretti, T. Judene; Barclay, Sage

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships between co-op students' perceived relevance of their work term, work-related subjective well-being (SWB), and individual performance at work. Data were collected using a survey of co-op students (n = 1,989) upon completion of a work term. Results of regression analyses testing a…

  4. The British welfare state and mental health problems: the continuing relevance of the work of Claus Offe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilgrim, David

    2012-09-01

    It is now over thirty years since Claus Offe theorised the crisis tendencies of the welfare state in late capitalism. As part of that work he explored ongoing and irresolvable forms of crisis management in parliamentary democracies: capitalism cannot live with the welfare state but also cannot live without it. This article examines the continued relevance of this analysis by Offe, by applying its basic assumptions to the response of the British welfare state to mental health problems, at the turn of the twenty first century. His general theoretical abstractions are tested against the empirical picture of mental health service priorities, evident since the 1980s, in sections dealing with: re-commodification tendencies; the ambiguity of wage labour in the mental health workforce; the emergence of new social movements; and the limits of legalism. © 2012 The Author. Sociology of Health & Illness © 2012 Foundation for the Sociology of Health & Illness/Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  5. Fire and Water combined: Understanding the Relevance of Working Life Studies through a Concept of Practical Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keijo Räsänen

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available When I presented the basic ideas of this paper at a conference, a Swedish colleague commented: ‘you manage to combine water and fire.’ I understood his kind comment to mean that he used water and fire as metaphors for practice and theory. The comment puzzled me for a while. Water and fire obviously destroy each other, or at least radically transform each other. Then I realized that humans have actually managed to combine water and fire in several ways. One solution is the kettle. It makes possible to use fire in a controlled way for the human purpose of boiling water. Thus, this paper can be taken as an attempt at offering a kettle-like vehicle for bringing together practicetheoretical concepts and vocational practice. My kettle is a concept of practical activity. I am trying to boil up an answer to the following question: in what senses a study of work can be practically relevant to those who are doing the work being studied?

  6. What factors are most relevant to the assessment of work ability of employees on long-term sick leave? The physicians' perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekkers-Sánchez, Patricia M; Wind, Haije; Sluiter, Judith K; Frings-Dresen, Monique H W

    2013-07-01

    To reach insurance physician (IPs) consensus on factors that must be taken into account in the assessment of the work ability of employees who are sick-listed for 2 years. A Delphi study using online questionnaires was conducted from October 2010 to March 2011. One hundred and two insurance physicians reached a consensus on important factors for return to work (RTW) of employees on long-term sick leave; from those factors, the most relevant for the assessment of work ability was determined. From a total of 22 relevant factors considered for the return to work of long-term sick-listed employees, consensus was reached on nine relevant factors that need to be taken into account in the assessment of the work ability of employees on long-term sick leave. Relevant factors that support return to work are motivation, attitude towards RTW, assessment of cognitions and behaviour, vocational rehabilitation in an early stage and instruction for the sick-listed employee to cope with his disabilities. Relevant factors that hinder RTW are secondary gain from illness, negative perceptions of illness, inefficient coping style and incorrect advice of treating physicians regarding RTW. Non-medical personal and environmental factors may either hinder or promote RTW and must be considered in the assessment of the work ability of long-term sick-listed employees. Assessment of work ability should start early during the sick leave period. These factors may be used by IPs to improve the quality of the assessment of the work ability of employees on long-term sick leave.

  7. User-oriented innovation in the food sector: Relevant streams of research and an agenda for future work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunert, Klaus; Jensen, Birger Boutrup; Sonne, Anne-Mette

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to give an overview of relevant streams of research that can form a basis for research on user-oriented innovation in the food sector. We define user-oriented innovation as a process towards the development of a new product or service in which an integrated analysis...... and understanding of the users' wants, needs and preference formation play a key role. We distinguish three relevant streams of research that may provide a basis for research on user-oriented innovation in the food sector: research on the formation of user preferences, research on innovation management......, and research on interactive innovation. We show that the relevance of these three streams of research for the food sector depends on which type of innovation we are dealing with, and we propose a distinction of three types of food innovations depending on which actors in the food chain are involved...

  8. The relevance of socio-demographic and occupational variables for the assessment of work-related stress risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinaccio, Alessandro; Ferrante, Pierpaolo; Corfiati, Marisa; Di Tecco, Cristina; Rondinone, Bruna M; Bonafede, Michela; Ronchetti, Matteo; Persechino, Benedetta; Iavicoli, Sergio

    2013-12-10

    Work-related stress is widely recognized as one of the major challenges to occupational health and safety. The correlation between work-related stress risk factors and physical health outcomes is widely acknowledged. This study investigated socio-demographic and occupational variables involved in perceived risk of work-related stress. The Italian version of the Health and Safety Executive Management Standards Indicator Tool was used in a large survey to examine the relationship between work-related stress risks and workers' demographic and occupational characteristics. Out of 8,527 questionnaires distributed among workers (from 75 organizations) 6,378 were returned compiled (74.8%); a set of mixed effects models were adopted to test single and combined effects of the variables on work-related stress risk. Female workers reported lower scores on control and peer support and more negative perceptions of relationships and change at work than male workers, most of them with full-time contracts. Age, job seniority, and educational level appeared positively correlated with control at work, but negatively with job demands. Fixed-term workers had positive perceptions regarding job demands and relationships, but more difficulties about their role at work than permanent workers. A commuting time longer than one hour and shift work appeared to be associated with higher levels of risk factors for work-related stress (except for role), the latter having more negative effects, increasing with age. The findings suggest that the assessment and management of work-related stress risk should consider specific socio-demographic and occupational risk factors such as gender, age, educational level, job status, shift work, commuting time, job contracts.

  9. Relevance Theory as model for analysing visual and multimodal communication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Forceville, C.; Machin, D.

    2014-01-01

    Elaborating on my earlier work (Forceville 1996: chapter 5, 2005, 2009; see also Yus 2008), I will here sketch how discussions of visual and multimodal discourse can be embedded in a more general theory of communication and cognition: Sperber and Wilson’s Relevance Theory/RT (Sperber and Wilson

  10. The relevance of psychological capital on individual's perceptions of performance, motivation, work-engagement and job-satisfaction

    OpenAIRE

    Barbosa, Ana Isabel Veloso

    2017-01-01

    The concept of psychological capital (PsyCap) has been a great focus of interest and curiosity from academics and practitioners. The principal purpose of the present research is to study the relevance of PsyCap and its influence in employees’ attitudes, behaviors and performance. This investigation also aims to understand the importance of an authentic leader (leaders with power to influence their followers and to develop their capabilities) and the impact that the leader’s PsyCap may have on...

  11. The Concept of Origin in Meister Eckhart and the Philosophical Relevance of his Thought in the Work of Martin Heidegger

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Baeza García

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The intention of this article is twofold. In one hand it exposes the issue concerning the response to the question about the origin in Meister Eckhart’s work. In order to answer this question, the article at hand analyzes the concepts of eigenschaft and gêlazenheit, which are fundamental within the Eckhartian thought. The purpose of this first block is to demonstrate to what extent the work of this author stems from the coordinates of the scholastic-medieval discourse, unfolding a thought of great originality and philosophical interest. On the other hand, the present article analyzes, in the third section, the influence of the Eckhartian mysticism in the work of Martin Heidegger. The fundamental aim of this second thematic block is to reveal in what way the work of Eckhart transcends the parameters of what Heidegger understands as metaphysical thought

  12. Task-Relevant and Accessory Items in Working Memory Have Opposite Effects on Activity in Extrastriate Cortex

    OpenAIRE

    Peters, J.C.; Roelfsema, P.R.; Goebel, R.

    2012-01-01

    During visual search, the working memory (WM) representation of the search target guides attention to matching items in the visual scene. However, we can hold multiple items in WM. Do all these items guide attention at the same time? Using a new functional magnetic resonance imaging visual search paradigm, we found that items in WM can attain two different states that influence activity in extrastriate visual cortex in opposite directions: whereas the target item in WM enhanced processing of ...

  13. The earlier identification of the seedless characteristic of the wampee

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2010-12-13

    Dec 13, 2010 ... the production of new seedless wampee cultivars in recent years were operated. ... increase burliness rate in hybridization. In order to earlier ... methods is greatly limited due to a long juvenile phase of ... Plant materials .... This fragment may be linked ... reduce high temperature which affected pollen germi-.

  14. Prescription stimulant use is associated with earlier onset of psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Lauren V; Masters, Grace A; Pingali, Samira; Cohen, Bruce M; Liebson, Elizabeth; Rajarethinam, R P; Ongur, Dost

    2015-12-01

    A childhood history of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is common in psychotic disorders, yet prescription stimulants may interact adversely with the physiology of these disorders. Specifically, exposure to stimulants leads to long-term increases in dopamine release. We therefore hypothesized that individuals with psychotic disorders previously exposed to prescription stimulants will have an earlier onset of psychosis. Age of onset of psychosis (AOP) was compared in individuals with and without prior exposure to prescription stimulants while controlling for potential confounding factors. In a sample of 205 patients recruited from an inpatient psychiatric unit, 40% (n = 82) reported use of stimulants prior to the onset of psychosis. Most participants were prescribed stimulants during childhood or adolescence for a diagnosis of ADHD. AOP was significantly earlier in those exposed to stimulants (20.5 vs. 24.6 years stimulants vs. no stimulants, p drugs of abuse, and family history of a first-degree relative with psychosis, the association between stimulant exposure and earlier AOP remained significant. There was a significant gender × stimulant interaction with a greater reduction in AOP for females, whereas the smaller effect of stimulant use on AOP in males did not reach statistical significance. In conclusion, individuals with psychotic disorders exposed to prescription stimulants had an earlier onset of psychosis, and this relationship did not appear to be mediated by IQ or cannabis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Comprehensive methods for earlier detection and monitoring of forest decline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennifer Pontius; Richard Hallett

    2014-01-01

    Forested ecosystems are threatened by invasive pests, pathogens, and unusual climatic events brought about by climate change. Earlier detection of incipient forest health problems and a quantitatively rigorous assessment method is increasingly important. Here, we describe a method that is adaptable across tree species and stress agents and practical for use in the...

  16. Optimal HIV testing and earlier care: the way forward in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coenen, T; Lundgren, J; Lazarus, Jeff

    2008-01-01

    The articles in this supplement were developed from a recent pan-European conference entitled 'HIV in Europe 2007: Working together for optimal testing and earlier care', which took place on 26-27 November in Brussels, Belgium. The conference, organized by a multidisciplinary group of experts rep...

  17. Why relevance theory is relevant for lexicography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bothma, Theo; Tarp, Sven

    2014-01-01

    This article starts by providing a brief summary of relevance theory in information science in relation to the function theory of lexicography, explaining the different types of relevance, viz. objective system relevance and the subjective types of relevance, i.e. topical, cognitive, situational...... that is very important for lexicography as well as for information science, viz. functional relevance. Since all lexicographic work is ultimately aimed at satisfying users’ information needs, the article then discusses why the lexicographer should take note of all these types of relevance when planning a new...... dictionary project, identifying new tasks and responsibilities of the modern lexicographer. The article furthermore discusses how relevance theory impacts on teaching dictionary culture and reference skills. By integrating insights from lexicography and information science, the article contributes to new...

  18. Work-Related Eye Injuries: A Relevant Health Problem. Main Epidemiological Data from a Highly-Industrialized Area of Northern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gobba, Fabriziomaria; Dall'Olio, Enrico; Modenese, Alberto; De Maria, Michele; Campi, Luca; Cavallini, Gian Maria

    2017-06-06

    The province of Modena is one of the most industrialized areas of Northern Italy. The medical records of the Ophthalmological Emergency Department (OED) of Modena University Hospital were studied: there were 13,470 OED accesses in 2014 and in 754 cases that an occupational eye injury occurred. The frequency of work-related eye injuries (3‰) was lower compared to other published studies, but the absolute number is still relevant, showing the need for more adequate prevention, especially in metal work, construction work, and agriculture, where the worst prognoses were observed. Intervention programs must be implemented as early as possible in the working life, considering that the frequency in younger workers is about double that of the oldest age class (3.5‰ vs. 1.8‰), and special attention should also be given to foreigners, who have a 50% higher injury risk. Furthermore, the planning of specific interventions for eye-injured workers may be useful, considering that a previous injury does not appear to encourage the adoption of preventive interventions, and a subgroup of eye-injured workers have a potential risk for new injuries. Finally, the data presented here indicates how OED records, integrated with specific occupational information, can be applied for studies on work-related eye injuries.

  19. Work-Related Eye Injuries: A Relevant Health Problem. Main Epidemiological Data from a Highly-Industrialized Area of Northern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabriziomaria Gobba

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The province of Modena is one of the most industrialized areas of Northern Italy. The medical records of the Ophthalmological Emergency Department (OED of Modena University Hospital were studied: there were 13,470 OED accesses in 2014 and in 754 cases that an occupational eye injury occurred. The frequency of work-related eye injuries (3‰ was lower compared to other published studies, but the absolute number is still relevant, showing the need for more adequate prevention, especially in metal work, construction work, and agriculture, where the worst prognoses were observed. Intervention programs must be implemented as early as possible in the working life, considering that the frequency in younger workers is about double that of the oldest age class (3.5‰ vs. 1.8‰, and special attention should also be given to foreigners, who have a 50% higher injury risk. Furthermore, the planning of specific interventions for eye-injured workers may be useful, considering that a previous injury does not appear to encourage the adoption of preventive interventions, and a subgroup of eye-injured workers have a potential risk for new injuries. Finally, the data presented here indicates how OED records, integrated with specific occupational information, can be applied for studies on work-related eye injuries.

  20. Prescription Stimulant Use is Associated with Earlier Onset of Psychosis

    OpenAIRE

    Moran, Lauren V.; Masters, Grace A.; Pingali, Samira; Cohen, Bruce M.; Liebson, Elizabeth; Rajarethinam, R.P.; Ongur, Dost

    2015-01-01

    A childhood history of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is common in psychotic disorders, yet prescription stimulants may interact adversely with the physiology of these disorders. Specifically, exposure to stimulants leads to long-term increases in dopamine release. We therefore hypothesized that individuals with psychotic disorders previously exposed to prescription stimulants will have an earlier onset of psychosis. Age of onset of psychosis (AOP) was compared in individuals...

  1. Earlier vegetation green-up has reduced spring dust storms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Bihang; Guo, Li; Li, Ning; Chen, Jin; Lin, Henry; Zhang, Xiaoyang; Shen, Miaogen; Rao, Yuhan; Wang, Cong; Ma, Lei

    2014-10-24

    The observed decline of spring dust storms in Northeast Asia since the 1950s has been attributed to surface wind stilling. However, spring vegetation growth could also restrain dust storms through accumulating aboveground biomass and increasing surface roughness. To investigate the impacts of vegetation spring growth on dust storms, we examine the relationships between recorded spring dust storm outbreaks and satellite-derived vegetation green-up date in Inner Mongolia, Northern China from 1982 to 2008. We find a significant dampening effect of advanced vegetation growth on spring dust storms (r = 0.49, p = 0.01), with a one-day earlier green-up date corresponding to a decrease in annual spring dust storm outbreaks by 3%. Moreover, the higher correlation (r = 0.55, p storm outbreak ratio (the ratio of dust storm outbreaks to times of strong wind events) indicates that such effect is independent of changes in surface wind. Spatially, a negative correlation is detected between areas with advanced green-up dates and regional annual spring dust storms (r = -0.49, p = 0.01). This new insight is valuable for understanding dust storms dynamics under the changing climate. Our findings suggest that dust storms in Inner Mongolia will be further mitigated by the projected earlier vegetation green-up in the warming world.

  2. Alcoholism. Earlier diagnosis and definition of the problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girard, D E; Carlton, B E

    1978-07-01

    There are important measurements of alcoholism that are poorly understood by physicians. Professional attitudes toward alcoholic patients are often counterproductive. Americans spend about $30 billion on alcohol a year and most adults drink alcohol. Even though traditional criteria allow for recognition of the disease, diagnosis is often made late in the natural course, when intervention fails. Alcoholism is a major health problem and accounts for 10 percent of total health care costs. Still, this country's 10 million adult alcoholics come from a pool of heavy drinkers with well defined demographic characteristics. These social, cultural and familial traits, along with subtle signs of addiction, allow for earlier diagnosis. Although these factors alone do not establish a diagnosis of alcoholism, they should alert a physician that significant disease may be imminent. Focus must be directed to these aspects of alcoholism if containment of the problem is expected.

  3. The energy policy relevance of the 2014 IPCC Working Group III report on the macro-economics of mitigating climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosen, Richard A.; Guenther, Edeltraud

    2016-01-01

    Research which attempted to determine the macroeconomic importance of mitigating climate change through 2100 was presented primarily in Chapter 6 of the 2014 IPCC Working Group III report. Some of the findings of this chapter were then summarized in the Summary for Policy Makers (SPMs) of both the Synthesis Report, and the WGIII report. Unfortunately, these SPMs omitted key aspects of what the overall macroeconomic results for the costs and benefits of mitigating climate change actually did and did not include, how they were produced, and a careful assessment of their uncertainty and scientific validity. Yet, many of the major omissions were acknowledged deep in the text of Chapter 6, but were not revealed to the public. We conclude, therefore, that neither of these SPMs was useful for energy policy makers and energy managers, and they were misleading due to their many key omissions. Finally, we recommend several improvements that can be made to integrated assessment modeling methodologies so that the macroeconomic analysis of mitigating climate change resulting from the use of such models can be more relevant and useful to energy policy makers in the future, and can be communicated to them better. - Highlights: •The 2014 IPCC Working Group III Report has major omissions in its economic analysis. •Many well-known benefits of mitigation are not included in its economic results. •The Summary for Policy Makers is not very useful for energy policy decision makers. •The upcoming Sixth IPCC WGIII analysis should be structured quite differently.

  4. A New Method of Earlier Kick Assessment Using ANFIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Deregeh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The late detection of the kick (the entrance of underground fluids into oil wells leads to oil well blowouts. It causes human life loss and imposes a great deal of expenses on the petroleum industry. This paper presents the application of adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system designed for an earlier kick detection using measurable drilling parameters. In order to generate the initial fuzzy inference system, subtractive clustering is utilized. The training set contains 50 data samples and there are 362 data samples for testing the proposed method. Also, ANFIS structure is examined at different radii (the parameter of subtractive clustering. Different conformations are tested to get the earliest detection and the lowest false alarms while facing kick. Eventually, ANFIS verifies the danger exposure depth of about 28.6 meters before the depth that the kick was sensed by crew. Such an assessment gives the rig crew enough time to prepare for the danger and stop the operation before being exposed to high pressure zones.

  5. Outcomes of arthroscopic lateral epicondylitis release: Should we treat earlier?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soeur, L; Desmoineaux, P; Devillier, A; Pujol, N; Beaufils, P

    2016-10-01

    When managed conservatively, lateral epicondylitis often subsides only after considerable time, during which social and occupational activities are severely disrupted. If conservative management fails, a recently introduced option is arthroscopic release of the extensor carpi radialis brevis (ECRB). The primary objective of this study was to compare clinical outcomes of this procedure according to preoperative symptom duration. Earlier arthroscopic release is associated with better functional outcomes. Consecutive patients with arthroscopically managed lateral epicondylitis were included in a retrospective study. Arthroscopy was performed only after at least 6 months of conservative treatment. The criteria to evaluate the clinical outcomes were the Nirschl and Quick-DASH scores, muscle strength, time to pain relief, and percentage of functional recovery. Thirty-five patients were evaluated at a median of 4 years (range: 1-12 years) after surgery. Mean preoperative symptom duration was 18 months (range: 6-106 months) with a mean sick leave duration of 2.3±4.9 months. Postoperatively, mean time to recovery was 37.5 days (range: 7 days to 5 years) and mean sick leave duration was 2.4±2.4 months. The mean Quick-DASH score was 15.9±19.1. The Nirschl score improved significantly, from 26.4±7.9 to 66.3±16.3. The initial muscle strength deficit was 10.1±33.2% and muscle strength at last follow-up was increased by 4.3±30.3%. Symptom duration showed no correlations with any of the clinical outcome measures. Outcomes after arthroscopic release were not associated with symptom duration in this study. Nevertheless, the good clinical outcomes support treatment with arthroscopic release after only 6 months of conservative management. IV, retrospective study. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  6. Hemodynamic parameters change earlier than tissue oxygen tension in hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pestel, Gunther J; Fukui, Kimiko; Kimberger, Oliver; Hager, Helmut; Kurz, Andrea; Hiltebrand, Luzius B

    2010-05-15

    Untreated hypovolemia results in impaired outcome. This study tests our hypothesis whether general hemodynamic parameters detect acute blood loss earlier than monitoring parameters of regional tissue beds. Eight pigs (23-25 kg) were anesthetized and mechanically ventilated. A pulmonary artery catheter and an arterial catheter were inserted. Tissue oxygen tension was measured with Clark-type electrodes in the jejunal and colonic wall, in the liver, and subcutaneously. Jejunal microcirculation was assessed by laser Doppler flowmetry (LDF). Intravascular volume was optimized using difference in pulse pressure (dPP) to keep dPP below 13%. Sixty minutes after preparation, baseline measurements were taken. At first, 5% of total blood volume was withdrawn, followed by another 5% increment, and then in 10% increments until death. After withdrawal of 5% of estimated blood volume, dPP increased from 6.1% +/- 3.0% to 20.8% +/- 2.7% (P < 0.01). Mean arterial pressure (MAP), mean pulmonary artery pressure (PAP) and pulmonary artery occlusion pressure (PAOP) decreased with a blood loss of 10% (P < 0.01). Cardiac output (CO) changed after a blood loss of 20% (P < 0.05). Tissue oxygen tension in central organs, and blood flow in the jejunal muscularis decreased (P < 0.05) after a blood loss of 20%. Tissue oxygen tension in the skin, and jejunal mucosa blood flow decreased (P < 0.05) after a blood loss of 40% and 50%, respectively. In this hemorrhagic pig model systemic hemodynamic parameters were more sensitive to detect acute hypovolemia than tissue oxygen tension measurements or jejunal LDF measurements. Acute blood loss was detected first by dPP. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. report earlier | Overview | Publications | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... for positive action made by responsible and concerned academic groups in the country. ... A Working Group to suggest ways and means of improving university science ... Each college would admit 240 students per year, based on a locally ...

  8. Earlier time to aerobic exercise is associated with faster recovery following acute sport concussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, David Wyndham; Richards, Doug; Comper, Paul; Hutchison, Michael G

    2018-01-01

    To determine whether earlier time to initiation of aerobic exercise following acute concussion is associated with time to full return to (1) sport and (2) school or work. A retrospective stratified propensity score survival analysis of acute (≤14 days) concussion was used to determine whether time (days) to initiation of aerobic exercise post-concussion was associated with, both, time (days) to full return to (1) sport and (2) school or work. A total of 253 acute concussions [median (IQR) age, 17.0 (15.0-20.0) years; 148 (58.5%) males] were included in this study. Multivariate Cox regression models identified that earlier time to aerobic exercise was associated with faster return to sport and school/work adjusting for other covariates, including quintile propensity strata. For each successive day in delay to initiation of aerobic exercise, individuals had a less favourable recovery trajectory. Initiating aerobic exercise at 3 and 7 days following injury was associated with a respective 36.5% (HR, 0.63; 95% CI, 0.53-0.76) and 73.2% (HR, 0.27; 95% CI, 0.16-0.45) reduced probability of faster full return to sport compared to within 1 day; and a respective 45.9% (HR, 0.54; 95% CI, 0.44-0.66) and 83.1% (HR, 0.17; 95% CI, 0.10-0.30) reduced probability of faster full return to school/work. Additionally, concussion history, symptom severity, LOC deleteriously influenced concussion recovery. Earlier initiation of aerobic exercise was associated with faster full return to sport and school or work. This study provides greater insight into the benefits and safety of aerobic exercise within the first week of the injury.

  9. Exploring factors relevant in the assessment of the return-to-work process of employees on long-term sickness absence due to a depressive disorder : a focus group study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muijzer, Anna; Brouwer, Sandra; Geertzen, Jan H.; Groothoff, Johan W.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Efforts undertaken during the Return-to-Work (RTW) process need to be sufficient in order to optimize the quality of the RTW process. The purpose of this study was to explore factors relevant to Return-to-Work Effort Sufficiency (RTW-ES) in cases of sick-listed employees with a

  10. Assumption and program of the earlier stage construction of L/ILW disposal site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Xuequn; Chen Shi; Li Xinbang

    1993-01-01

    The authors analysed the production and treatment of low- and intermediate-level radwastes (L/ILW) in China. Some problems and situation in this field are introduced. Over the past ten years, preliminary efforts have been made by CNNC (China National Nuclear Corporation) in policy, law and rules, developing program, management system, siting, engineering techniques, and safety assessment for radwaste disposal. The investment of the earlier stage work of L/ILW disposal site construction is estimated, the program and assumption to disposal site construction of the L/ILW are reviewed

  11. Neuropsychological dysfunction related to earlier occupational exposure to mercury vapor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.C. Zachi

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available We assessed the neuropsychological test performances of 26 patients (mean age = 41.5 ± 6.1 years; mean years of education = 9.8 ± 1.8; 20 males diagnosed with chronic occupational mercurialism who were former workers at a fluorescent lamp factory. They had been exposed to elemental mercury for an average of 10.2 ± 3.8 years and had been away from this work for 6 ± 4.7 years. Mean urinary mercury concentrations 1 year after cessation of work were 1.8 ± 0.9 µg/g creatinine. Twenty control subjects matched for age, gender, and education (18 males were used for comparison. Neuropsychological assessment included attention, inhibitory control, verbal and visual memory, verbal fluency, manual dexterity, visual-spatial function, executive function, and semantic knowledge tests. The Beck Depression Inventory and the State and Trait Inventory were used to assess depression and anxiety symptoms, respectively. The raw score for the group exposed to mercury indicated slower information processing speed, inferior performance in psychomotor speed, verbal spontaneous recall memory, and manual dexterity of the dominant hand and non-dominant hand (P < 0.05. In addition, the patients showed increased depression and anxiety symptoms (P < 0.001. A statistically significant correlation (Pearson was demonstrable between mean urinary mercury and anxiety trait (r = 0.75, P = 0.03. The neuropsychological performances of the former workers suggest that occupational exposure to elemental mercury has long-term effects on information processing and psychomotor function, with increased depression and anxiety also possibly reflecting the psychosocial context.

  12. Is Bologna Working? Employer and Graduate Reflections of the Quality, Value and Relevance of Business and Management Education in Four European Union Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Jane; Higson, Helen

    2014-01-01

    This article focuses on the relevance of undergraduate business and management higher education from the perspectives of recent graduates and graduate employers in four European countries. Drawing upon the findings of an empirical qualitative study in which data was collated and analysed using grounded theory research techniques, the paper draws…

  13. Insight Into Illness and Cognition in Schizophrenia in Earlier and Later Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerretsen, Philip; Voineskos, Aristotle N; Graff-Guerrero, Ariel; Menon, Mahesh; Pollock, Bruce G; Mamo, David C; Mulsant, Benoit H; Rajji, Tarek K

    2017-04-01

    Impaired insight into illness in schizophrenia is associated with illness severity and deficits in premorbid intellectual function, executive function, and memory. A previous study of patients aged 60 years and older found that illness severity and premorbid intellectual function accounted for variance in insight impairment. As such, we aimed to test whether similar relationships would be observed in earlier life. A retrospective analysis was performed on 1 large sample of participants (n = 171) with a DSM-IV-TR diagnosis of schizophrenia aged 19 to 79 years acquired from 2 studies: (1) a psychosocial intervention trial for older persons with schizophrenia (June 2008 to May 2014) and (2) a diffusion tensor imaging and genetics study of psychosis across the life span (February 2007 to December 2013). We assessed insight into illness using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) item G12 and explored its relationship to illness severity (PANSS total modified), premorbid intellectual function (Wechsler Test of Adult Reading [WTAR]), and cognition. Insight impairment was more severe in later life (≥ 60 years) than in earlier years (t = -3.75, P insight was explained by PANSS total modified (Exp[B] = 1.070, P insight, they did not independently contribute to its variance. However, the relationships between impaired insight and illness severity and between impaired insight and cognition, particularly working memory, were stronger in later life than in earlier life. These results suggest an opportunity for intervention may exist with cognitive-enhancing neurostimulation or medications to improve insight into illness in schizophrenia across the life span. Original study registered on ClinicalTrials.gov (identifier: NCT00832845). © Copyright 2017 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.

  14. Identifying factors relevant in the assessment of return-to-work efforts in employees on long-term sickness absence due to chronic low back pain : a focus group study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muijzer, Anna; Geertzen, Jan H.; de Boer, Wout E.; Groothoff, Johan W.; Brouwer, Sandra

    2012-01-01

    Background: Efforts undertaken during the return to work (RTW) process need to be sufficient to prevent unnecessary applications for disability benefits. The purpose of this study was to identify factors relevant to RTW Effort Sufficiency (RTW-ES) in cases of sick-listed employees with chronic low

  15. Exploring factors relevant in the assessment of the return-to-work process of employees on long-term sickness absence due to a depressive disorder: a focus group study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muijzer Anna

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Efforts undertaken during the Return-to-Work (RTW process need to be sufficient in order to optimize the quality of the RTW process. The purpose of this study was to explore factors relevant to Return-to-Work Effort Sufficiency (RTW-ES in cases of sick-listed employees with a Depressive Disorder (DD. Method A case of a long-term sick-listed employee with a DD applying for disability benefits was used to gather arguments and grounds relevant to the assessment of RTW-ES. Two focus group meetings were held, consisting of Labor Experts working at the Dutch Social Insurance Institute. Factors were collected and categorized using the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF model. Results Sixteen factors relevant to RTW-ES assessment in a case of DD were found, categorized in the ICF-model under activities (e.g. functional capacity, personal (e.g. competencies, attitude and environmental domain (e.g. employer-employee relationship, or categorized under interventions, job accommodations and measures. Conclusions This study shows that 16 factors are relevant in the assessment of RTW-ES in employees sick-listed due to DD. Further research is necessary to expand this knowledge to other health conditions, and to investigate the impact of these results on the quality of the RTW-ES assessment.

  16. In the eyes of residents good supervisors need to be more than engaged physicians: the relevance of teacher work engagement in residency training

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheepers, Renée A.; Arah, Onyebuchi A.; Heineman, Maas Jan; Lombarts, Kiki M. J. M. H.

    2015-01-01

    During their development into competent medical specialists, residents benefit from their attending physicians' excellence in teaching and role modelling. Work engagement increases overall job performance, but it is unknown whether this also applies to attending physicians' teaching performance and

  17. Relevance of a Healthy Change Process and Psychosocial Work Environment Factors in Predicting Stress, Health Complaints, and Commitment Among Employees in a Ghanaian Bank

    OpenAIRE

    Quaye, Emmanuel

    2010-01-01

    This thesis was intended to examine the effect of the healthiness of change process and psychosocial work environment factors in predicting job stress, health complaints and commitment among employees in a Ghanaian bank (N=132), undergoing organizational change. The change process was measured in terms of dimensions from the Healthy Change Process Index (HCPI) and the psychosocial work environment was measured by the Demands-Control-Support (DCS) model. Hierarchical regression analyses reveal...

  18. Social support and the working hours of employed mothers in Europe: The relevance of the state, the workplace, and the family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abendroth, Anja-Kristin; van der Lippe, Tanja; Maas, Ineke

    2012-05-01

    This paper studies the influence of state, workplace, and family support on the working hours of employed mothers and how these different support sources interact. Data taken from the European Social Survey 2004/2005 as well as country-specific information were used to estimate several hierarchical models. We find evidence that the availability of supportive workplace arrangements and family support positively impact the working hours of employed mothers and that state policies facilitating the traditional family have a negative effect. There is weak support for a positive relationship between state policies facilitating the dual-earner family and working hours of employed mothers. In addition, most of the sources of support appear to be complementary. Supportive family role models and supportive workplace arrangements have a reinforcing relationship, as do publicly funded child care and supportive workplace arrangements. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Relevant Subspace Clustering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller, Emmanuel; Assent, Ira; Günnemann, Stephan

    2009-01-01

    Subspace clustering aims at detecting clusters in any subspace projection of a high dimensional space. As the number of possible subspace projections is exponential in the number of dimensions, the result is often tremendously large. Recent approaches fail to reduce results to relevant subspace...... clusters. Their results are typically highly redundant, i.e. many clusters are detected multiple times in several projections. In this work, we propose a novel model for relevant subspace clustering (RESCU). We present a global optimization which detects the most interesting non-redundant subspace clusters...... achieves top clustering quality while competing approaches show greatly varying performance....

  20. The Relevance of the Functional 5-HT1A Receptor Polymorphism for Attention and Working Memory Processes during Mental Rotation of Characters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beste, Christian; Heil, Martin; Domschke, Katharina; Konrad, Carsten

    2010-01-01

    Numerous lines of research indicate that attentional processes, working memory and saccadic processes are highly interrelated. In the current study, we examine the relation between these processes with respect to their cognitive-neurophysiological and neurobiological background by means of event-related potentials (ERPs) in a sample of N = 72…

  1. Working Memory and Speech Recognition in Noise under Ecologically Relevant Listening Conditions: Effects of Visual Cues and Noise Type among Adults with Hearing Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Christi W.; Stewart, Erin K.; Wu, Yu-Hsiang; Bishop, Christopher; Bentler, Ruth A.; Tremblay, Kelly

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: This study evaluated the relationship between working memory (WM) and speech recognition in noise with different noise types as well as in the presence of visual cues. Method: Seventy-six adults with bilateral, mild to moderately severe sensorineural hearing loss (mean age: 69 years) participated. Using a cross-sectional design, 2…

  2. In the Eyes of Residents Good Supervisors Need to Be More than Engaged Physicians: The Relevance of Teacher Work Engagement in Residency Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheepers, Renée A.; Arah, Onyebuchi A.; Heineman, Maas Jan; Lombarts, Kiki M. J. M. H.

    2015-01-01

    During their development into competent medical specialists, residents benefit from their attending physicians' excellence in teaching and role modelling. Work engagement increases overall job performance, but it is unknown whether this also applies to attending physicians' teaching performance and role modelling. Attending physicians in clinical…

  3. What factors are most relevant to the assessment of work ability of employees on long-term sick leave? The physicians' perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekkers-Sánchez, Patricia M.; Wind, Haije; Sluiter, Judith K.; Frings-Dresen, Monique H. W.

    2013-01-01

    To reach insurance physician (IPs) consensus on factors that must be taken into account in the assessment of the work ability of employees who are sick-listed for 2 years. A Delphi study using online questionnaires was conducted from October 2010 to March 2011. One hundred and two insurance

  4. Identifying factors relevant in the assessment of return-to-work efforts in employees on long-term sickness absence due to chronic low back pain: a focus group study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muijzer Anna

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Efforts undertaken during the return to work (RTW process need to be sufficient to prevent unnecessary applications for disability benefits. The purpose of this study was to identify factors relevant to RTW Effort Sufficiency (RTW-ES in cases of sick-listed employees with chronic low back pain (CLBP. Methods Using focus groups consisting of Labor Experts (LE's working at the Dutch Social Insurance Institute, arguments and underlying grounds relevant to the assessment of RTW-ES were investigated. Factors were collected and categorized using the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF model. Results Two focus groups yielded 19 factors, of which 12 are categorized in the ICF model under activities (e.g. functional capacity and in the personal (e.g. age, tenure and environmental domain (e.g. employer-employee relationship. The remaining 7 factors are categorized under intervention, job accommodation and measures. Conclusions This focus group study shows that 19 factors may be relevant to RTW-ES in sick-listed employees with CLBP. Providing these results to professionals assessing RTW-ES might contribute to a more transparent and systematic approach. Considering the importance of the quality of the RTW process, optimizing the RTW-ES assessment is essential.

  5. Analysis of radioactive corrosion test specimens by means of ICP-MS. Comparison with earlier methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forsyth, Roy

    1997-07-01

    In June 1992, an ICP-MS instrument (Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry) was commissioned for use with radioactive sample solutions at Studsvik Nuclear's Hot Cell Laboratory. For conventional environmental samples the instrument permits the simultaneous analysis of many trace elements, but the software used in evaluation of the mass spectra is based on a library of isotopic compositions relevant only for elements in the lithosphere. Fission products and actinides, however, have isotopic compositions which are significantly different from the natural elements, and which also vary with the burnup of the nuclear fuel specimen. Consequently, a spread-sheet had to be developed which could evaluate the mass spectra with these isotopic compositions. Following these preparations, a large number of samples (about 200) from SKB's experimental programme for the study of spent fuel corrosion have been analyzed by the ICP-MS technique. Many of these samples were archive solutions of samples which had been taken earlier in the programme. This report presents a comparison of the analytical results for uranium, plutonium, cesium, strontium and technetium by both the ICP-MS technique, and the previously used analytical methods. For three products, a satisfactory agreement between the results from the various methods was obtained, but for uranium and plutonium the ICP-MS method gave results which were 10-20% higher than the conventional methods. The comparison programme has also shown, not unexpectedly, that significant losses of plutonium from solution had occurred, by precipitation and/or absorption, in the archive solutions during storage. It can be expected that such losses also occur for the other actinides, and consequently, all the analytical results for actinides in older archive solutions must be treated with great caution. 9 refs

  6. The Limits to Relevance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Averill, M.; Briggle, A.

    2006-12-01

    Science policy and knowledge production lately have taken a pragmatic turn. Funding agencies increasingly are requiring scientists to explain the relevance of their work to society. This stems in part from mounting critiques of the "linear model" of knowledge production in which scientists operating according to their own interests or disciplinary standards are presumed to automatically produce knowledge that is of relevance outside of their narrow communities. Many contend that funded scientific research should be linked more directly to societal goals, which implies a shift in the kind of research that will be funded. While both authors support the concept of useful science, we question the exact meaning of "relevance" and the wisdom of allowing it to control research agendas. We hope to contribute to the conversation by thinking more critically about the meaning and limits of the term "relevance" and the trade-offs implicit in a narrow utilitarian approach. The paper will consider which interests tend to be privileged by an emphasis on relevance and address issues such as whose goals ought to be pursued and why, and who gets to decide. We will consider how relevance, narrowly construed, may actually limit the ultimate utility of scientific research. The paper also will reflect on the worthiness of research goals themselves and their relationship to a broader view of what it means to be human and to live in society. Just as there is more to being human than the pragmatic demands of daily life, there is more at issue with knowledge production than finding the most efficient ways to satisfy consumer preferences or fix near-term policy problems. We will conclude by calling for a balanced approach to funding research that addresses society's most pressing needs but also supports innovative research with less immediately apparent application.

  7. In-utero cigarette smoke exposure and the risk of earlier menopause

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Honorato, Talita C; Haadsma, Maaike L; Land, Jolande A; Boezen, Marike H; Hoek, Annemieke; Groen, Henk

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Cigarette smoking is a risk factor for earlier menopause. Animal studies show that in-utero smoke exposure is toxic to developing ovaries. Our aim was to evaluate whether in-utero smoke exposed women reach menopause earlier compared with nonexposed women. METHODS: This is a cohort study

  8. Polymorphism in ficolin-1 ( FCN1 ) gene is associated with an earlier ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    -1 (FCN1) gene is associated with an earlier onset of type 1 diabetes mellitus in children and adolescents from northeast Brazil. ZILMA PEREIRA DOS ANJOSA MANUELLA MARIA SILVA SANTOS NATASSIA JAVORSKI RODRIGUES ...

  9. Working With New Designs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Visholm, Steen; Beck, Ulla Charlotte

    2014-01-01

    In this paper the learning concept of group relations conferences are discussed. The authors have worked with group relations conferences (GRC) in different contexts for many years-mainly as a part of educational programmes for managers and consultants (OPU at IGA Copenhagen, MPO at Roskilde...... University, and NAPSO). Seen from the horizon of their experience some of the basic concepts in the theories about GRC need clarifying, revision, and development. The GRC is a part of the learning from experience movement and as a consequence it stresses the underlying basis: learning is personal so everyone...... decides for themselves what makes sense and what does not. This principle sometimes work as a defence against a closer examination of the two questions: does GRCs provide relevant experiences to learn from, and what is it you learn or can expect to learn at a GRC. While two earlier papers (Beck & Visholm...

  10. Biological consequences of earlier snowmelt from desert dust deposition in alpine landscapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steltzer, Heidi; Landry, Chris; Painter, Thomas H; Anderson, Justin; Ayres, Edward

    2009-07-14

    Dust deposition to mountain snow cover, which has increased since the late 19(th) century, accelerates the rate of snowmelt by increasing the solar radiation absorbed by the snowpack. Snowmelt occurs earlier, but is decoupled from seasonal warming. Climate warming advances the timing of snowmelt and early season phenological events (e.g., the onset of greening and flowering); however, earlier snowmelt without warmer temperatures may have a different effect on phenology. Here, we report the results of a set of snowmelt manipulations in which radiation-absorbing fabric and the addition and removal of dust from the surface of the snowpack advanced or delayed snowmelt in the alpine tundra. These changes in the timing of snowmelt were superimposed on a system where the timing of snowmelt varies with topography and has been affected by increased dust loading. At the community level, phenology exhibited a threshold response to the timing of snowmelt. Greening and flowering were delayed before seasonal warming, after which there was a linear relationship between the date of snowmelt and the timing of phenological events. Consequently, the effects of earlier snowmelt on phenology differed in relation to topography, which resulted in increasing synchronicity in phenology across the alpine landscape with increasingly earlier snowmelt. The consequences of earlier snowmelt from increased dust deposition differ from climate warming and include delayed phenology, leading to synchronized growth and flowering across the landscape and the opportunity for altered species interactions, landscape-scale gene flow via pollination, and nutrient cycling.

  11. Deep learning relevance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lioma, Christina; Larsen, Birger; Petersen, Casper

    2016-01-01

    train a Recurrent Neural Network (RNN) on existing relevant information to that query. We then use the RNN to "deep learn" a single, synthetic, and we assume, relevant document for that query. We design a crowdsourcing experiment to assess how relevant the "deep learned" document is, compared...... to existing relevant documents. Users are shown a query and four wordclouds (of three existing relevant documents and our deep learned synthetic document). The synthetic document is ranked on average most relevant of all....

  12. Later endogenous circadian temperature nadir relative to an earlier wake time in older people

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, J. F.; Dijk, D. J.; Klerman, E. B.; Czeisler, C. A.

    1998-01-01

    The contribution of the circadian timing system to the age-related advance of sleep-wake timing was investigated in two experiments. In a constant routine protocol, we found that the average wake time and endogenous circadian phase of 44 older subjects were earlier than that of 101 young men. However, the earlier circadian phase of the older subjects actually occurred later relative to their habitual wake time than it did in young men. These results indicate that an age-related advance of circadian phase cannot fully account for the high prevalence of early morning awakening in healthy older people. In a second study, 13 older subjects and 10 young men were scheduled to a 28-h day, such that they were scheduled to sleep at many circadian phases. Self-reported awakening from scheduled sleep episodes and cognitive throughput during the second half of the wake episode varied markedly as a function of circadian phase in both groups. The rising phase of both rhythms was advanced in the older subjects, suggesting an age-related change in the circadian regulation of sleep-wake propensity. We hypothesize that under entrained conditions, these age-related changes in the relationship between circadian phase and wake time are likely associated with self-selected light exposure at an earlier circadian phase. This earlier exposure to light could account for the earlier clock hour to which the endogenous circadian pacemaker is entrained in older people and thereby further increase their propensity to awaken at an even earlier time.

  13. Earlier Right Ventricular Pacing in Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy for a Patient with Right Axis Deviation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hattori, Yusuke; Ishibashi, Kohei; Noda, Takashi; Okamura, Hideo; Kanzaki, Hideaki; Anzai, Toshihisa; Yasuda, Satoshi; Kusano, Kengo

    2017-09-01

    We describe the case of a 37-year-old woman who presented with complete right bundle branch block and right axis deviation. She was admitted to our hospital due to severe heart failure and was dependent on inotropic agents. Cardiac resynchronization therapy was initiated but did not improve her condition. After the optimization of the pacing timing, we performed earlier right ventricular pacing, which led to an improvement of her heart failure. Earlier right ventricular pacing should be considered in patients with complete right bundle branch block and right axis deviation when cardiac resynchronization therapy is not effective.

  14. Profiles of Dialogue for Relevance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas Walton

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper uses argument diagrams, argumentation schemes, and some tools from formal argumentation systems developed in artificial intelligence to build a graph-theoretic model of relevance shown to be applicable (with some extensions as a practical method for helping a third party judge issues of relevance or irrelevance of an argument in real examples. Examples used to illustrate how the method works are drawn from disputes about relevance in natural language discourse, including a criminal trial and a parliamentary debate.

  15. Smoking is associated with earlier time to revision of total knee arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Chin Tat; Goodman, Stuart B; Huddleston, James I; Harris, Alex H S; Bhowmick, Subhrojyoti; Maloney, William J; Amanatullah, Derek F

    2017-10-01

    Smoking is associated with early postoperative complications, increased length of hospital stay, and an increased risk of revision after total knee arthroplasty (TKA). However, the effect of smoking on time to revision TKA is unknown. A total of 619 primary TKAs referred to an academic tertiary center for revision TKA were retrospectively stratified according to the patient smoking status. Smoking status was then analyzed for associations with time to revision TKA using a Chi square test. The association was also analyzed according to the indication for revision TKA. Smokers (37/41, 90%) have an increased risk of earlier revision for any reason compared to non-smokers (274/357, 77%, p=0.031). Smokers (37/41, 90%) have an increased risk of earlier revision for any reason compared to ex-smokers (168/221, 76%, p=0.028). Subgroup analysis did not reveal a difference in indication for revision TKA (p>0.05). Smokers are at increased risk of earlier revision TKA when compared to non-smokers and ex-smokers. The risk for ex-smokers was similar to that of non-smokers. Smoking appears to have an all-or-none effect on earlier revision TKA as patients who smoked more did not have higher risk of early revision TKA. These results highlight the need for clinicians to urge patients not to begin smoking and encourage smokers to quit smoking prior to primary TKA. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Family history of atrial fibrillation is associated with earlier-onset and more symptomatic atrial fibrillation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gundlund, Anna; Fosbøl, Emil Loldrup; Kim, Sunghee

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We addressed whether patients with a family history of atrial fibrillation (AF) were diagnosed as having AF earlier in life, were more symptomatic, and had worse outcomes compared with those without a family history of AF. METHODS: Using the ORBIT-AF, we compared symptoms and disease...

  17. Do BRCA1/2 mutation carriers have an earlier onset of natural menopause?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Tilborg, Theodora C.; Broekmans, Frank J.; Pijpe, Anouk; Schrijver, Lieske H.; Mooij, Thea M.; Oosterwijk, Jan C.; Verhoef, Senno; Garcia, Encarna B. Gomez; van Zelst-Stams, Wendy A.; Adank, Muriel A.; van Asperen, Christi J.; van Doorn, Helena C.; van Os, Theo A.; Bos, Anna M.; Rookus, Matti A.; Ausems, Margreet G.

    Objective: It has been hypothesized that BRCA1/2 mutation carriers have an earlier age at natural menopause (ANM), although to date findings are inconclusive. This study assessed the influence of BRCA mutation status on ANM, and aimed to explore the reasons of inconsistency in the literature.

  18. Earlier activity from XTE J1739-302/IGR J17391-3021 detected by INTEGRAL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chenevez, Jérôme; Beckmann, V.; Kuulkers, E.

    2008-01-01

    The recently reported outburst from the supergiant fast X-ray transient XTE J1739-302/IGR J17391-3021 (ATEL #1466) began already about five hours earlier than the Swift/BAT trigger on 2008-04-08. The INTEGRAL/JEM-X monitor detected a flare starting at 16:18 (UTC) on the same day during recent Gal...

  19. Use of metformin earlier in pregnancy predicts supplemental insulin therapy in women with gestational diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrath, Rachel T; Glastras, Sarah J; Hocking, Samantha; Fulcher, Gregory R

    2016-06-01

    The use of metformin in gestational diabetes is safe and effective, yet some women require additional insulin therapy to achieve glycaemic targets. We found a significant association between earlier gestational age at initiation of metformin therapy and the necessity for supplemental insulin in women treated with metformin during pregnancy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Cardiac Complications, Earlier Treatment, and Initial Disease Severity in Kawasaki Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrams, Joseph Y; Belay, Ermias D; Uehara, Ritei; Maddox, Ryan A; Schonberger, Lawrence B; Nakamura, Yosikazu

    2017-09-01

    To assess if observed higher observed risks of cardiac complications for patients with Kawasaki disease (KD) treated earlier may reflect bias due to confounding from initial disease severity, as opposed to any negative effect of earlier treatment. We used data from Japanese nationwide KD surveys from 1997 to 2004. Receipt of additional intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) (data available all years) or any additional treatment (available for 2003-2004) were assessed as proxies for initial disease severity. We determined associations between earlier or later IVIG treatment (defined as receipt of IVIG on days 1-4 vs days 5-10 of illness) and cardiac complications by stratifying by receipt of additional treatment or by using logistic modeling to control for the effect of receiving additional treatment. A total of 48 310 patients with KD were included in the analysis. In unadjusted analysis, earlier IVIG treatment was associated with a higher risk for 4 categories of cardiac complications, including all major cardiac complications (risk ratio, 1.10; 95% CI, 1.06-1.15). Stratifying by receipt of additional treatment removed this association, and earlier IVIG treatment became protective against all major cardiac complications when controlling for any additional treatment in logistic regressions (OR, 0.90; 95% CI, 0.80-1.00). Observed higher risks of cardiac complications among patients with KD receiving IVIG treatment on days 1-4 of the illness are most likely due to underlying higher initial disease severity, and patients with KD should continue to be treated with IVIG as early as possible. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. The associations of earlier trauma exposures and history of mental disorders with PTSD after subsequent traumas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessler, R C; Aguilar-Gaxiola, S; Alonso, J; Bromet, E J; Gureje, O; Karam, E G; Koenen, K C; Lee, S; Liu, H; Pennell, B-E; Petukhova, M V; Sampson, N A; Shahly, V; Stein, D J; Atwoli, L; Borges, G; Bunting, B; de Girolamo, G; Gluzman, S F; Haro, J M; Hinkov, H; Kawakami, N; Kovess-Masfety, V; Navarro-Mateu, F; Posada-Villa, J; Scott, K M; Shalev, A Y; Ten Have, M; Torres, Y; Viana, M C; Zaslavsky, A M

    2017-09-19

    Although earlier trauma exposure is known to predict posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) after subsequent traumas, it is unclear whether this association is limited to cases where the earlier trauma led to PTSD. Resolution of this uncertainty has important implications for research on pretrauma vulnerability to PTSD. We examined this issue in the World Health Organization (WHO) World Mental Health (WMH) Surveys with 34 676 respondents who reported lifetime trauma exposure. One lifetime trauma was selected randomly for each respondent. DSM-IV (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition) PTSD due to that trauma was assessed. We reported in a previous paper that four earlier traumas involving interpersonal violence significantly predicted PTSD after subsequent random traumas (odds ratio (OR)=1.3-2.5). We also assessed 14 lifetime DSM-IV mood, anxiety, disruptive behavior and substance disorders before random traumas. We show in the current report that only prior anxiety disorders significantly predicted PTSD in a multivariate model (OR=1.5-4.3) and that these disorders interacted significantly with three of the earlier traumas (witnessing atrocities, physical violence victimization and rape). History of witnessing atrocities significantly predicted PTSD after subsequent random traumas only among respondents with prior PTSD (OR=5.6). Histories of physical violence victimization (OR=1.5) and rape after age 17 years (OR=17.6) significantly predicted only among respondents with no history of prior anxiety disorders. Although only preliminary due to reliance on retrospective reports, these results suggest that history of anxiety disorders and history of a limited number of earlier traumas might usefully be targeted in future prospective studies as distinct foci of research on individual differences in vulnerability to PTSD after subsequent traumas.Molecular Psychiatry advance online publication, 19 September 2017; doi:10.1038/mp.2017.194.

  2. Science and the struggle for relevance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hessels, L.K.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304832863

    2010-01-01

    This thesis deals with struggles for relevance of university researchers, their efforts to make their work correspond with ruling standards of relevance and to influence these standards. Its general research question is: How to understand changes in the struggle for relevance of Dutch academic

  3. Relevance theory: pragmatics and cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wearing, Catherine J

    2015-01-01

    Relevance Theory is a cognitively oriented theory of pragmatics, i.e., a theory of language use. It builds on the seminal work of H.P. Grice(1) to develop a pragmatic theory which is at once philosophically sensitive and empirically plausible (in both psychological and evolutionary terms). This entry reviews the central commitments and chief contributions of Relevance Theory, including its Gricean commitment to the centrality of intention-reading and inference in communication; the cognitively grounded notion of relevance which provides the mechanism for explaining pragmatic interpretation as an intention-driven, inferential process; and several key applications of the theory (lexical pragmatics, metaphor and irony, procedural meaning). Relevance Theory is an important contribution to our understanding of the pragmatics of communication. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. The adoption of sustainable innovations: The role of instrumental, environmental, and symbolic attributes for earlier and later adopters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H. Noppers, E.; Keizer, K.; Bockarjova, M.; Steg, L.

    2015-01-01

    We investigated motivations of potential earlier and later adopters for adopting sustainable innovations. A large questionnaire study revealed that potential earlier adopters of innovative cars evaluated the symbolic attributes of electric cars, but not the instrumental and environmental attributes,

  5. Reduction of Glucose Metabolism in Olfactory Bulb is an Earlier Alzheimer's Disease-related Biomarker in 5XFAD Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nai-An Xiao

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: The decline of (18F-FDG uptake in the olfactory bulb occurs earlier than other incidents, serving as an earlier in vivo biological marker of AD in 5XFAD mice and making early diagnosis of AD possibly.

  6. Compulsive Buying: Earlier Illicit Drug Use, Impulse Buying, Depression, and Adult ADHD Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brook, Judith S.; Zhang, Chenshu; Brook, David W.; Leukefeld, Carl G.

    2015-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined the association between psychosocial antecedents, including illicit drug use, and adult compulsive buying (CB) across a 29-year time period from mean age 14 to mean age 43. Participants originally came from a community-based random sample of residents in two upstate New York counties. Multivariate linear regression analysis was used to study the relationship between the participant’s earlier psychosocial antecedents and adult CB in the fifth decade of life. The results of the multivariate linear regression analyses showed that gender (female), earlier adult impulse buying (IB), depressive mood, illicit drug use, and concurrent ADHD symptoms were all significantly associated with adult CB at mean age 43. It is important that clinicians treating CB in adults should consider the role of drug use, symptoms of ADHD, IB, depression, and family factors in CB. PMID:26165963

  7. Evaluation of the safety of the operating nuclear power plants built to earlier standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menteseoglu, S.

    2001-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to provide practical assistance on judging the safety of a nuclear power plant, on the basis of a comparison with current safety standards and operational practices. For nuclear power plants built to earlier standards for which there are questions about the adequacy of the maintenance of the plant design and operational practices, a safety review against current standards and practices can be considered a high priority. The objective of reviewing nuclear power plants built to earlier standards against current standards and practices is to determine whether there are any deviations which would have an impact on plant safety. The safety significance of the issues identified should be judged according to their implications for plant design and operation in terms of basic safety concepts such as defence in depth and safety culture. In addition, this paper provides assistance on the prioritization of corrective measures and their implementation so as to approach an acceptable level of safety

  8. Compulsive buying: Earlier illicit drug use, impulse buying, depression, and adult ADHD symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brook, Judith S; Zhang, Chenshu; Brook, David W; Leukefeld, Carl G

    2015-08-30

    This longitudinal study examined the association between psychosocial antecedents, including illicit drug use, and adult compulsive buying (CB) across a 29-year time period from mean age 14 to mean age 43. Participants originally came from a community-based random sample of residents in two upstate New York counties. Multivariate linear regression analysis was used to study the relationship between the participant's earlier psychosocial antecedents and adult CB in the fifth decade of life. The results of the multivariate linear regression analyses showed that gender (female), earlier adult impulse buying (IB), depressive mood, illicit drug use, and concurrent ADHD symptoms were all significantly associated with adult CB at mean age 43. It is important that clinicians treating CB in adults should consider the role of drug use, symptoms of ADHD, IB, depression, and family factors in CB. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. A vantage from space can detect earlier drought onset: an approach using relative humidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farahmand, Alireza; AghaKouchak, Amir; Teixeira, Joao

    2015-02-25

    Each year, droughts cause significant economic and agricultural losses across the world. The early warning and onset detection of drought is of particular importance for effective agriculture and water resource management. Previous studies show that the Standard Precipitation Index (SPI), a measure of precipitation deficit, detects drought onset earlier than other indicators. Here we show that satellite-based near surface air relative humidity data can further improve drought onset detection and early warning. This paper introduces the Standardized Relative Humidity Index (SRHI) based on the NASA Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) observations. The results indicate that the SRHI typically detects the drought onset earlier than the SPI. While the AIRS mission was not originally designed for drought monitoring, we show that its relative humidity data offers a new and unique avenue for drought monitoring and early warning. We conclude that the early warning aspects of SRHI may have merit for integration into current drought monitoring systems.

  10. A Hepatocellular Carcinoma Case in a Patient Who had Immunity to Hepatitis B Virus Earlier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ates, Ihsan; Kaplan, Mustafa; Demirci, Selim; Altiparmak, Emin

    2016-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common malignant tumor of the liver. Hepatitis B virus infection is one of the most important etilogical factors of HCC. In this case report, a patient with HCC previously infected and having ongoing immunity against hepatitis B virus will be discussed. Ates I, Kaplan M, Demirci S, Altiparmak E. A Hepatocellular Carcinoma Case in a Patient Who had Immunity to Hepatitis B Virus Earlier. Euroasian J Hepato-Gastroenterol 2016;6(1):82-83.

  11. Perceptual sensitivity to spectral properties of earlier sounds during speech categorization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stilp, Christian E; Assgari, Ashley A

    2018-02-28

    Speech perception is heavily influenced by surrounding sounds. When spectral properties differ between earlier (context) and later (target) sounds, this can produce spectral contrast effects (SCEs) that bias perception of later sounds. For example, when context sounds have more energy in low-F 1 frequency regions, listeners report more high-F 1 responses to a target vowel, and vice versa. SCEs have been reported using various approaches for a wide range of stimuli, but most often, large spectral peaks were added to the context to bias speech categorization. This obscures the lower limit of perceptual sensitivity to spectral properties of earlier sounds, i.e., when SCEs begin to bias speech categorization. Listeners categorized vowels (/ɪ/-/ɛ/, Experiment 1) or consonants (/d/-/g/, Experiment 2) following a context sentence with little spectral amplification (+1 to +4 dB) in frequency regions known to produce SCEs. In both experiments, +3 and +4 dB amplification in key frequency regions of the context produced SCEs, but lesser amplification was insufficient to bias performance. This establishes a lower limit of perceptual sensitivity where spectral differences across sounds can bias subsequent speech categorization. These results are consistent with proposed adaptation-based mechanisms that potentially underlie SCEs in auditory perception. Recent sounds can change what speech sounds we hear later. This can occur when the average frequency composition of earlier sounds differs from that of later sounds, biasing how they are perceived. These "spectral contrast effects" are widely observed when sounds' frequency compositions differ substantially. We reveal the lower limit of these effects, as +3 dB amplification of key frequency regions in earlier sounds was enough to bias categorization of the following vowel or consonant sound. Speech categorization being biased by very small spectral differences across sounds suggests that spectral contrast effects occur

  12. Earlier adolescent substance use onset predicts stronger connectivity between reward and cognitive control brain networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David G. Weissman

    2015-12-01

    Discussion: The regions that demonstrated significant positive linear relationships between the number of adolescent years using substances and connectivity with NAcc are nodes in the right frontoparietal network, which is central to cognitive control. The coupling of reward and cognitive control networks may be a mechanism through which earlier onset of substance use is related to brain function over time, a trajectory that may be implicated in subsequent substance use disorders.

  13. Complementary functions of the two brain hemispheres: comparisons with earlier conceptions and implications for individual and society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeier, H

    1989-07-01

    The concept of different functions for the left and right cerebral hemispheres coincides in an astonishing way with earlier philosophical and psychological work which divided the human mind into two complementary functions without having a neurophysiological explanation. Representative are the ideas of Fichte, Hegel and Jung. The latter postulated the two subsystems Ego and Self and associated the conscious functions of the Ego with the intellect, the capacity for rational thought, and the Self with the mind, which also includes the emotional feelings. For the harmonic development and self-realization of man the functions of both systems in complementary interaction are required. Therefore, the current overaccentuation of the intellect and of progress directed technical-scientific thinking should be corrected by making better use of the much neglected functions of the right hemisphere.

  14. Earlier Pulmonary Valve Replacement in Down Syndrome Patients Following Tetralogy of Fallot Repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Rachel T; Frommelt, Peter C; Hill, Garick D

    2017-08-01

    The association between Down syndrome and pulmonary hypertension could contribute to more severe pulmonary regurgitation after tetralogy of Fallot repair and possibly earlier pulmonary valve replacement. We compared cardiac magnetic resonance measures of pulmonary regurgitation and right ventricular dilation as well as timing of pulmonary valve replacement between those with and without Down syndrome after tetralogy of Fallot repair. Review of our surgical database from 2000 to 2015 identified patients with tetralogy of Fallot with pulmonary stenosis. Those with Down syndrome were compared to those without. The primary outcome of interest was time from repair to pulmonary valve replacement. Secondary outcomes included pulmonary regurgitation and indexed right ventricular volume on cardiac magnetic resonance imaging. The cohort of 284 patients included 35 (12%) with Down syndrome. Transannular patch repair was performed in 210 (74%). Down syndrome showed greater degree of pulmonary regurgitation (55 ± 14 vs. 37 ± 16%, p = 0.01) without a significantly greater rate of right ventricular dilation (p = 0.09). In multivariable analysis, Down syndrome (HR 2.3, 95% CI 1.2-4.5, p = 0.02) and transannular patch repair (HR 5.5, 95% CI 1.7-17.6, p = 0.004) were significant risk factors for valve replacement. Those with Down syndrome had significantly lower freedom from valve replacement (p = 0.03). Down syndrome is associated with an increased degree of pulmonary regurgitation and earlier pulmonary valve replacement after tetralogy of Fallot repair. These patients require earlier assessment by cardiac magnetic resonance imaging to determine timing of pulmonary valve replacement and evaluation for and treatment of preventable causes of pulmonary hypertension.

  15. Earlier nesting by generalist predatory bird is associated with human responses to climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Shawn H; Steenhof, Karen; McClure, Christopher J W; Heath, Julie A

    2017-01-01

    Warming temperatures cause temporal changes in growing seasons and prey abundance that drive earlier breeding by birds, especially dietary specialists within homogeneous habitat. Less is known about how generalists respond to climate-associated shifts in growing seasons or prey phenology, which may occur at different rates across land cover types. We studied whether breeding phenology of a generalist predator, the American kestrel (Falco sparverius), was associated with shifts in growing seasons and, presumably, prey abundance, in a mosaic of non-irrigated shrub/grasslands and irrigated crops/pastures. We examined the relationship between remotely-sensed normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and abundance of small mammals that, with insects, constitute approximately 93% of kestrel diet biomass. We used NDVI to estimate the start of the growing season (SoGS) in irrigated and non-irrigated lands from 1992 to 2015 and tested whether either estimate of annual SoGS predicted the timing of kestrel nesting. Finally, we examined relationships among irrigated SoGS, weather and crop planting. NDVI was a useful proxy for kestrel prey because it predicted small mammal abundance and past studies showed that NDVI predicts insect abundance. NDVI-estimated SoGS advanced significantly in irrigated lands (β = -1·09 ± 0·30 SE) but not in non-irrigated lands (β = -0·57 ± 0·53). Average date of kestrel nesting advanced 15 days in the past 24 years and was positively associated with the SoGS in irrigated lands, but not the SoGS in non-irrigated lands. Advanced SoGS in irrigated lands was related to earlier planting of crops after relatively warm winters, which were more common in recent years. Despite different patterns of SoGS change between land cover types, kestrel nesting phenology shifted with earlier prey availability in irrigated lands. Kestrels may preferentially track prey in irrigated lands over non-irrigated lands because of higher quality prey on

  16. Skin-to-skin contact is associated with earlier breastfeeding attainment in preterm infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oras, Paola; Thernström Blomqvist, Ylva; Hedberg Nyqvist, Kerstin; Gradin, Maria; Rubertsson, Christine; Hellström-Westas, Lena; Funkquist, Eva-Lotta

    2016-07-01

    This study investigated the effects of skin-to-skin contact on breastfeeding attainment, duration and infant growth in preterm infants, as this has not been sufficiently explored. A prospective longitudinal study on Kangaroo mother care was carried out, comprising 104 infants with a gestational age of 28 + 0 to 33 + 6 and followed up to one year of corrected age. Parents and staff recorded the duration of skin-to skin contact during the stay in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). Medical data were collected through patient records, and follow-up questionnaires were filled in by parents. The 53 infants who attained full breastfeeding in the NICU did so at a median (range) of 35 + 0 (32 + 1 to 37 + 5) weeks of postmenstrual age, and skin-to-skin contact was the only factor that influenced earlier attainment in the regression analysis (R(2) 0.215 p skin-to-skin contact during the stay in the NICU did not affect the duration of breastfeeding or infant growth after discharge. Furthermore, infant growth was not affected by the feeding strategy of exclusive, partial breastfeeding or no breastfeeding. A longer daily duration of skin-to-skin contact in the NICU was associated with earlier attainment of exclusive breastfeeding. ©2016 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. The semiquantitative three-phase bone scintigraphy on hemiplegic patients with earlier complex regional pain syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Fang; Liu Xingdang; Lu Zhihui; Liu Congjin

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the difference between the early phases and delay phase of three-phase bone scintigraphy on hemiplegic patients with earlier complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS). Methods: Twenty-nine stroke patients with hemiplegia complicating CRPS received three-phase bone scintigraphy after intravenous injection of 99 Tc m -methylene diphosphonate (MDP). The region of interest (ROI) technique was used to obtain the radioactive counts of involved joints and contralateral sites on wrists, metacarpophalangeal, proximal interphalangeal and distal interphalangeal joints. The total counts of these four sites in each patient were then obtained and the total uptake ratios of involved joints/contralateral joints for each phase were calculated to compare the difference among the three phases. Wilcoxon test and ANOVA were used in data analyses. Results: The involved joints of hemiplegic side displayed higher tracer uptake. There were significant differences of the radioactive counts between involved joints and uninvolved ones in the perfusion, pool and delay phase (Wilcoxon test, Z: -4.73 to -2.10, P<0.05). There was no significant difference of total uptake ratios of involved joints/contralateral joints among the three phases (ANOVA, F = 0. 807, P < 0.05). Conclusions: Due to higher bone seeking agent accumulation on three-phase bone scintigraphy, both early phases and delay phase imaging showed similar value in stroke patients with hemiplegia complicating earlier CRPS. (authors)

  18. Earlier adolescent substance use onset predicts stronger connectivity between reward and cognitive control brain networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weissman, David G; Schriber, Roberta A; Fassbender, Catherine; Atherton, Olivia; Krafft, Cynthia; Robins, Richard W; Hastings, Paul D; Guyer, Amanda E

    2015-12-01

    Early adolescent onset of substance use is a robust predictor of future substance use disorders. We examined the relation between age of substance use initiation and resting state functional connectivity (RSFC) of the core reward processing (nucleus accumbens; NAcc) to cognitive control (prefrontal cortex; PFC) brain networks. Adolescents in a longitudinal study of Mexican-origin youth reported their substance use annually from ages 10 to 16 years. At age 16, 69 adolescents participated in a resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging scan. Seed-based correlational analyses were conducted using regions of interest in bilateral NAcc. The earlier that adolescents initiated substance use, the stronger the connectivity between bilateral NAcc and right dorsolateral PFC, right dorsomedial PFC, right pre-supplementary motor area, right inferior parietal lobule, and left medial temporal gyrus. The regions that demonstrated significant positive linear relationships between the number of adolescent years using substances and connectivity with NAcc are nodes in the right frontoparietal network, which is central to cognitive control. The coupling of reward and cognitive control networks may be a mechanism through which earlier onset of substance use is related to brain function over time, a trajectory that may be implicated in subsequent substance use disorders. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  19. Light pollution is associated with earlier tree budburst across the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ffrench-Constant, Richard H; Somers-Yeates, Robin; Bennie, Jonathan; Economou, Theodoros; Hodgson, David; Spalding, Adrian; McGregor, Peter K

    2016-06-29

    The ecological impact of night-time lighting is of concern because of its well-demonstrated effects on animal behaviour. However, the potential of light pollution to change plant phenology and its corresponding knock-on effects on associated herbivores are less clear. Here, we test if artificial lighting can advance the timing of budburst in trees. We took a UK-wide 13 year dataset of spatially referenced budburst data from four deciduous tree species and matched it with both satellite imagery of night-time lighting and average spring temperature. We find that budburst occurs up to 7.5 days earlier in brighter areas, with the relationship being more pronounced for later-budding species. Excluding large urban areas from the analysis showed an even more pronounced advance of budburst, confirming that the urban 'heat-island' effect is not the sole cause of earlier urban budburst. Similarly, the advance in budburst across all sites is too large to be explained by increases in temperature alone. This dramatic advance of budburst illustrates the need for further experimental investigation into the impact of artificial night-time lighting on plant phenology and subsequent species interactions. As light pollution is a growing global phenomenon, the findings of this study are likely to be applicable to a wide range of species interactions across the world. © 2016 The Authors.

  20. Making Deferred Taxes Relevant

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, Arjan; Naarding, Ewout

    2018-01-01

    We analyse the conceptual problems in current accounting for deferred taxes and provide solutions derived from the literature in order to make International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) deferred tax numbers value-relevant. In our view, the empirical results concerning the value relevance of

  1. Parsimonious relevance models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meij, E.; Weerkamp, W.; Balog, K.; de Rijke, M.; Myang, S.-H.; Oard, D.W.; Sebastiani, F.; Chua, T.-S.; Leong, M.-K.

    2008-01-01

    We describe a method for applying parsimonious language models to re-estimate the term probabilities assigned by relevance models. We apply our method to six topic sets from test collections in five different genres. Our parsimonious relevance models (i) improve retrieval effectiveness in terms of

  2. Onset of rigor mortis is earlier in red muscle than in white muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, M; Takatori, T; Nakajima, M; Sakurada, K; Hatanaka, K; Ikegaya, H; Matsuda, Y; Iwase, H

    2000-01-01

    Rigor mortis is thought to be related to falling ATP levels in muscles postmortem. We measured rigor mortis as tension determined isometrically in three rat leg muscles in liquid paraffin kept at 37 degrees C or 25 degrees C--two red muscles, red gastrocnemius (RG) and soleus (SO) and one white muscle, white gastrocnemius (WG). Onset, half and full rigor mortis occurred earlier in RG and SO than in WG both at 37 degrees C and at 25 degrees C even though RG and WG were portions of the same muscle. This suggests that rigor mortis directly reflects the postmortem intramuscular ATP level, which decreases more rapidly in red muscle than in white muscle after death. Rigor mortis was more retarded at 25 degrees C than at 37 degrees C in each type of muscle.

  3. IN BANGLADESH DIABETES STARTS EARLIER NOW THAN 10 YEARS BACK: A BIRDEM STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parvin Akter Khanam

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available BIRDEM is the largest referral center of diabetes in the world. It registered more than 300,000 diabetic patients from 1956 to 2005. This retrospective study compared the biophysical characteristics of diabetic patients registered in 1995 to those registered in 2005. Information on social (income, education, clinical (height, weight, blood pressure and oral glucose tolerance (OGTT of patients registered in 1995 and 2005 were retrieved from the BIRDEM registry. The age group ³ 20y was considered eligible. Overall, there were 11489 patients for 1995 and 19580 for 2005. Compared with the registry of 1995, a significant increase of registry for female patients were observed (39.5 vs. 46.7%, p<0.001 and also the rural population (31.9 vs. 47.4%, p<0.001. Likewise, the number of poor social class was also found higher in 2005 (5.2 vs. 25.5%, p<0.001. Young aged (<40y registry was also significantly higher in 2005 (34.4 vs. 37.1%, p<0.001. Compared with the registered patients of 1995, adjusted for sex and area, those of 2005 had a significantly higher BMI, higher FPG and higher 2hPG (for all, p<0.001. In contrast, a significantly lower age, lower height and lower blood pressure were observed in those of 2005. We conclude that the age at registration for diabetes has decreased significantly in 2005 compared to that in 1995 indicating an earlier onset of diabetes. Significantly higher obesity in the year 2005 than 1995 indicates that there has been an increase in obesity that might be an important contributing factor for earlier onset of diabetes. Ibrahim Med. Coll. J. 2008; 2(1: 1-3

  4. Identified research directions for using manufacturing knowledge earlier in the product lifecycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedberg, Thomas D; Hartman, Nathan W; Rosche, Phil; Fischer, Kevin

    2017-01-01

    Design for Manufacturing (DFM), especially the use of manufacturing knowledge to support design decisions, has received attention in the academic domain. However, industry practice has not been studied enough to provide solutions that are mature for industry. The current state of the art for DFM is often rule-based functionality within Computer-Aided Design (CAD) systems that enforce specific design requirements. That rule-based functionality may or may not dynamically affect geometry definition. And, if rule-based functionality exists in the CAD system, it is typically a customization on a case-by-case basis. Manufacturing knowledge is a phrase with vast meanings, which may include knowledge on the effects of material properties decisions, machine and process capabilities, or understanding the unintended consequences of design decisions on manufacturing. One of the DFM questions to answer is how can manufacturing knowledge, depending on its definition, be used earlier in the product lifecycle to enable a more collaborative development environment? This paper will discuss the results of a workshop on manufacturing knowledge that highlights several research questions needing more study. This paper proposes recommendations for investigating the relationship of manufacturing knowledge with shape, behavior, and context characteristics of product to produce a better understanding of what knowledge is most important. In addition, the proposal includes recommendations for investigating the system-level barriers to reusing manufacturing knowledge and how model-based manufacturing may ease the burden of knowledge sharing. Lastly, the proposal addresses the direction of future research for holistic solutions of using manufacturing knowledge earlier in the product lifecycle.

  5. Clinical presentation of retinoblastoma in Alexandria: A step toward earlier diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soliman, Sameh E; Eldomiaty, Wesam; Goweida, Mohamed B; Dowidar, Amgad

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate the clinical presentation of retinoblastoma in Alexandria, Egypt, correlate the timing of accurate diagnosis with the presence of advanced disease and identify causes of delayed presentation. Retrospective noncomparative single institution study reviews demographic and clinical data of all new children with retinoblastoma presenting to Alexandria Main University ocular oncology clinic (OOC) from January 2012 to June 2014. Diagnosis time was from initial parental complaint to retinoblastoma diagnosis and referral time was from retinoblastoma diagnosis to presentation to the Alexandria OCC. Delayed Diagnosis and referral were counted if >2 weeks. Advanced presentation is defined as clinical TNMH (8th edition) staging of cT2 or cT3 (international intraocular retinoblastoma classification group D or E) in at least one eye or the presence of extra-ocular disease (cT4). Seventy eyes of 47 children were eligible: 52% unilateral, 7% with family history and 96% presented with leukocorea. Sixty-four percent of children had advanced intraocular disease and none had extra-ocular disease. Delayed presentation occurred in 58% of children and was significantly associated with advanced disease in both unilaterally and bilaterally affected children (p = 0.003, 0.002 respectively). The delay in diagnosis was more in unilateral cases while the delay in referral was more in bilateral cases. The main cause of delayed presentation in unilateral retinoblastoma was misdiagnosis (30%) while parental shopping for second medical opinion (30%) was the main cause in bilateral children. Delayed diagnosis is a problem affecting retinoblastoma management. Better medical education and training, health education and earlier screening are recommended to achieve earlier diagnosis.

  6. Do BRCA1/2 mutation carriers have an earlier onset of natural menopause?

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Tilborg, Theodora C; Broekmans, Frank J; Pijpe, Anouk; Schrijver, Lieske H; Mooij, Thea M; Oosterwijk, Jan C; Verhoef, Senno; Gómez Garcia, Encarna B; van Zelst-Stams, Wendy A; Adank, Muriel A; van Asperen, Christi J; van Doorn, Helena C; van Os, Theo A; Bos, Anna M; Rookus, Matti A; Ausems, Margreet G

    2016-08-01

    It has been hypothesized that BRCA1/2 mutation carriers have an earlier age at natural menopause (ANM), although to date findings are inconclusive. This study assessed the influence of BRCA mutation status on ANM, and aimed to explore the reasons of inconsistency in the literature. Cross-sectional assessment from an ongoing nationwide cohort study among members of BRCA1/2 mutated families. Information was obtained by a standardized questionnaire. Kaplan-Meier curves were constructed, and Cox regression was used to assess the association between BRCA1/2 mutation status and ANM. Adjustments were made for birth cohort, family, smoking, use of hormonal contraceptives, and parity. A total of 1,208 BRCA1/2 mutation carriers and 2,211 proven noncarriers were included. Overall, no association was found between BRCA1/2 mutation status and ANM (adjusted hazard ratio [HR] = 1.06 [95% CI, 0.87-1.30]). We examined if the null finding was due to informative censoring by uptake of risk-reducing salpingo-oophorectomy. Indeed, within the oldest birth cohort, in which the percentage of surgical menopause events was lowest and comparable between carriers and noncarriers, the HR for earlier natural menopause in carriers was 1.45 (95% CI, 1.09-1.94). The second oldest birth cohort, however, demonstrated a decreased HR (0.67 [95% CI, 0.46-0.98]), and thus no trend over birth cohorts was found. Various types of selection bias hamper the comparison of ANM between BRCA1/2 mutation carriers and noncarriers, genetically tested in the clinic.

  7. The two faces of selective memory retrieval: Earlier decline of the beneficial than the detrimental effect with older age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslan, Alp; Schlichting, Andreas; John, Thomas; Bäuml, Karl-Heinz T

    2015-12-01

    Recent work with young adults has shown that, depending on study context access, selective memory retrieval can both impair and improve recall of other memories (Bäuml & Samenieh, 2010). Here, we investigated the 2 opposing effects of selective retrieval in older age. In Experiment 1, we examined 64 younger (20-35 years) and 64 older participants (above 60 years), and manipulated study context access using list-method directed forgetting. Whereas both age groups showed a detrimental effect of selective retrieval on to-be-remembered items, only younger but not older adults showed a beneficial effect on to-be-forgotten items. In Experiment 2, we examined 112 participants from a relatively wide age range (40-85 years), and manipulated study context access by varying the retention interval between study and test. Overall, a detrimental effect of selective retrieval arose when the retention interval was relatively short, but a beneficial effect when the retention interval was prolonged. Critically, the size of the beneficial but not the detrimental effect of retrieval decreased with age and this age-related decline was mediated by individuals' working memory capacity, as measured by the complex operation span task. Together, the results suggest an age-related dissociation in retrieval dynamics, indicating an earlier decline of the beneficial than the detrimental effect of selective retrieval with older age. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. Culturally Relevant Cyberbullying Prevention

    OpenAIRE

    Phillips, Gregory John

    2017-01-01

    In this action research study, I, along with a student intervention committee of 14 members, developed a cyberbullying intervention for a large urban high school on the west coast. This high school contained a predominantly African American student population. I aimed to discover culturally relevant cyberbullying prevention strategies for African American students. The intervention committee selected video safety messages featuring African American actors as the most culturally relevant cyber...

  9. Nutrition factors predict earlier acquisition of motor and language milestones among young children in Haiti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iannotti, Lora; Jean Louis Dulience, Sherlie; Wolff, Patricia; Cox, Katherine; Lesorogol, Carolyn; Kohl, Patricia

    2016-09-01

    To examine the nutrition-related factors associated with motor and language development among young children living in a poor urban area of Haiti. Children aged 6-11 months (n = 583) were enrolled and followed monthly for one year. World Health Organization motor developmental milestones and vowel and consonant counts were assessed. Longitudinal regression models were applied to assess the association of anthropometric, dietary intake, infectious disease morbidity and socio-economic and demographic factors on developmental outcomes. At baseline, 9.4% were stunted or length-for-age Z score < -2, and 30.2% were mild-to-moderately stunted or length-for-age Z score < -1. Stunting status was significantly associated with motor and phonetic language acquisition at each time point during infancy. Several nutrition factors significantly predicted earlier achievement of motor and language development outcomes in longitudinal models: child anthropometry; breastfeeding and complementary feeding frequencies; dietary diversity; egg and oil intake; and reduced infectious disease morbidities. Increases in the length-for-age Z score significantly predicted all motor and language outcomes and yielded the best fit models compared to other anthropometric indicators (p < 0.001). Child development interventions may be enhanced by incorporating nutrition strategies such as improved diet quality, breastfeeding promotion and diarrhoeal disease mitigation. ©2016 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Earlier onset of motor deficits in mice with double mutations in Dyt1 and Sgce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoi, Fumiaki; Yang, Guang; Li, Jindong; DeAndrade, Mark P; Zhou, Tong; Li, Yuqing

    2010-10-01

    DYT1 early-onset generalized torsion dystonia is an inherited movement disorder caused by mutations in DYT1 coding for torsinA with ∼30% penetrance. Most of the DYT1 dystonia patients exhibit symptoms during childhood and adolescence. On the other hand, DYT1 mutation carriers without symptoms during these periods mostly do not exhibit symptoms later in their life. Little is known about what controls the timing of the onset, a critical issue for DYT1 mutation carriers. DYT11 myoclonus-dystonia is caused by mutations in SGCE coding for ε-sarcoglycan. Two dystonia patients from a single family with double mutations in DYT1 and SGCE exhibited more severe symptoms. A recent study suggested that torsinA contributes to the quality control of ε-sarcoglycan. Here, we derived mice carrying mutations in both Dyt1 and Sgce and found that these double mutant mice showed earlier onset of motor deficits in beam-walking test. A novel monoclonal antibody against mouse ε-sarcoglycan was developed by using Sgce knock-out mice to avoid the immune tolerance. Western blot analysis suggested that functional deficits of torsinA and ε-sarcoglycan may independently cause motor deficits. Examining additional mutations in other dystonia genes may be beneficial to predict the onset in DYT1 mutation carriers.

  11. Safety of reactors built according to earlier standards (WWER 440/V230 type)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Misak, J.; Rohar, S.

    1995-01-01

    The problems of safety of WWER-440/V-230 type reactors are discussed, and the following conclusions are made. (1) The reactors have a very good operational record. (2) The reactors have serious design shortcomings, which should be eliminated by safety upgrading. Core damage frequency should be further reduced. (3) PSA methods constitute an appropriate tool for assessment of plant vulnerability to some initiating events and malfunctions, for prioritization of upgrading measures and for tolerability of deviations from current safety standards. (4) The most important safety merits, such as a large thermal inertia and low rupture probability, should be properly taken into account in the analysis. (5) Extensive safety upgrading is feasible and can lead to a considerable risk reduction. In certain circumstances such upgrading is the least expensive option even though the total cost is much higher than the initial plant construction cost. (6) Properly upgraded, the reactor units may be operable until better power resources are available within the country. (7) The existing gap between the technological and political judgements of nuclear safety should be reduced continuously by information exchange improvements. (8) A unified approach to nuclear safety should be adopted for all nuclear reactors (not just WWERs) built to earlier standards. 5 tabs., 1 fig

  12. Earlier Snowmelt Changes the Ratio Between Early and Late Season Forest Productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowles, J. F.; Molotch, N. P.; Trujillo, E.; Litvak, M. E.

    2017-12-01

    Future projections of declining snowpack and increasing potential evaporation associated with climate warming are predicted to advance the timing of snowmelt in mountain ecosystems globally. This scenario has direct implications for snowmelt-driven forest productivity, but the net effect of temporally shifting moisture dynamics is unknown with respect to the annual carbon balance. Accordingly, this study uses both satellite- and tower-based observations to document the forest productivity response to snowpack and potential evaporation variability between 1989 and 2012 throughout the southern Rocky Mountain ecoregion, USA. These results show that a combination of low snow accumulation and record high potential evaporation in 2012 resulted in the 34-year minimum ecosystem productivity that could be indicative of future conditions. Moreover, early and late season productivity were significantly and inversely related, suggesting that future shifts toward earlier or reduced snowmelt could increase late-season moisture stress to vegetation and thus restrict productivity despite a longer growing season. This relationship was further subject to modification by summer precipitation, and the controls on the early/late season productivity ratio are explored within the context of ecosystem carbon storage in the future. Any perturbation to the carbon cycle at this scale represents a potential feedback to climate change since snow-covered forests represent an important global carbon sink.

  13. Does menopause start earlier in smokers? Evidence from the Pro-Saude Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula de Holanda Mendes

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: cigarette smoking has been the modifiable risk factor most consistently associated with earlier menopause. This preliminary study based on cross-sectional data aimed to analyze the association between smoking status and age of onset of menopause in a Brazilian population. METHODS: a cross-sectional study was carried out with 1,222 female employees of Rio de Janeiro university campuses aged over 35 years who were at risk of natural menopause. A Cox proportional hazards model was used to investigate the association between smoking status and age at the onset of menopause, adjusting for education, parity and alcohol consumption. RESULTS: current smokers showed a 56% increase in the risk of menopause, being 1.8 years younger at menopause onset compared with women who had never smoked. However, no differences were observed between former smokers and women who had never smoked. The adjusted median age at menopause was 49.5 years for current smokers and 51.3 years for women who had never smoked (p<0.05. CONCLUSIONS: the results suggest a deleterious but potentially reversible effect of smoking on the age of onset of menopause, which should receive greater attention in tobacco control efforts. Longitudinal analyses of this association will be carried out in the future in a follow-up study of this population.

  14. Medically relevant ElectroNeedle technology development.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, Carrie Frances; Thomas, Michael Loren; McClain, Jaime L.; Harper, Jason C.; Achyuthan, Komandoor E.; Ten Eyck, Gregory A.

    2008-11-01

    ElectroNeedles technology was developed as part of an earlier Grand Challenge effort on Bio-Micro Fuel Cell project. During this earlier work, the fabrication of the ElectroNeedles was accomplished along with proof-of-concept work on several electrochemically active analytes such as glucose, quinone and ferricyanide. Additionally, earlier work demonstrated technology potential in the field of immunosensors by specifically detecting Troponin, a cardiac biomarker. The current work focused upon fabrication process reproducibility of the ElectroNeedles and then using the devices to sensitively detect p-cresol, a biomarker for kidney failure or nephrotoxicity. Valuable lessons were learned regarding fabrication assurance and quality. The detection of p-cresol was accomplished by electrochemistry as well as using fluorescence to benchmark ElectroNeedles performance. Results from these studies will serve as a guide for the future fabrication processes involving ElectroNeedles as well as provide the groundwork necessary to expand technology applications. One paper has been accepted for publication acknowledging LDRD funding (K. E. Achyuthan et al, Comb. Chem. & HTS, 2008). We are exploring the scope for a second paper describing the applications potential of this technology.

  15. How relevant is government championing behavior for technology development?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caerteling, J.S.; Halman, J.I.M.; Song, M.; Dorée, A.G.; van der Bij, J.D.

    Many studies emphasize the importance of government support in technology development. However, this study is among the first to provide empirical findings of the relevance of government roles for the performance of technology development projects. Based on earlier research and the strategic

  16. How relevant is government championing behavior for technology development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caerteling, Jasper; Halman, Johannes I.M.; Song, Michael; Doree, Andries G.; van der Bij, J.D.

    2013-01-01

    Many studies emphasize the importance of government support in technology development. However, this study is among the first to provide empirical findings of the relevance of government roles for the performance of technology development projects. Based on earlier research and the strategic

  17. The Improved Relevance Voxel Machine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ganz, Melanie; Sabuncu, Mert; Van Leemput, Koen

    The concept of sparse Bayesian learning has received much attention in the machine learning literature as a means of achieving parsimonious representations of features used in regression and classification. It is an important family of algorithms for sparse signal recovery and compressed sensing....... Hence in its current form it is reminiscent of a greedy forward feature selection algorithm. In this report, we aim to solve the problems of the original RVoxM algorithm in the spirit of [7] (FastRVM).We call the new algorithm Improved Relevance Voxel Machine (IRVoxM). Our contributions...... and enables basis selection from overcomplete dictionaries. One of the trailblazers of Bayesian learning is MacKay who already worked on the topic in his PhD thesis in 1992 [1]. Later on Tipping and Bishop developed the concept of sparse Bayesian learning [2, 3] and Tipping published the Relevance Vector...

  18. Relevance: An Interdisciplinary and Information Science Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Howard Greisdorf

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Although relevance has represented a key concept in the field of information science for evaluating information retrieval effectiveness, the broader context established by interdisciplinary frameworks could provide greater depth and breadth to on-going research in the field. This work provides an overview of the nature of relevance in the field of information science with a cursory view of how cross-disciplinary approaches to relevance could represent avenues for further investigation into the evaluative characteristics of relevance as a means for enhanced understanding of human information behavior.

  19. Earlier surgical intervention in congenital heart disease results in better outcome and resource utilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panni, Roheena Z; Ashfaq, Awais; Amanullah, Muhammad M

    2011-12-29

    Congenital heart disease (CHD) accounts for a major proportion of disease in the pediatric age group. The objective of the study was to estimate the cost of illness associated with CHD pre, intra and postoperatively; among patients referred to a tertiary care hospital in Karachi, Pakistan. This is the first study conducted to estimate the cost of managing CHD in Pakistan. A prevalence based cost of illness study design was used to estimate the cost of cardiac surgery (corrective & palliative) for congenital heart defects in children ≤ 5 years of age from June 2006 to June 2009. A total of 120 patients were enrolled after obtaining an informed consent and the data was collected using a pre-tested questionnaire. The mean age at the time of surgery in group A (1-12 mo age) was 6.08 ± 2.80 months and in group B (1-5 yrs) was 37.10 ± 19.94 months. The cost of surgical admission was found to be significantly higher in the older group, p = 0.001. The total number and cost of post-operative outpatient visits was also higher in group B, p = 0.003. Pre and post operative hospital admissions were not found to be significantly different among the two groups, p = 0.166 and 0.627, respectively. The number of complications were found to be different between the two groups (p = 0.019). Majority of these were contributed by hemorrhage and post-operative seizures. This study concluded that significant expenditure is incurred by people with CHD; with the implication that resources could be saved by earlier detection and awareness campaigns.

  20. Selection for earlier flowering crop associated with climatic variations in the Sahel.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yves Vigouroux

    Full Text Available Climate changes will have an impact on food production and will require costly adaptive responses. Adapting to a changing environment will be particularly challenging in sub-Saharan Africa where climate change is expected to have a major impact. However, one important phenomenon that is often overlooked and is poorly documented is the ability of agro-systems to rapidly adapt to environmental variations. Such an adaptation could proceed by the adoption of new varieties or by the adaptation of varieties to a changing environment. In this study, we analyzed these two processes in one of the driest agro-ecosystems in Africa, the Sahel. We performed a detailed study in Niger where pearl millet is the main crop and covers 65% of the cultivated area. To assess how the agro-system is responding to recent recurrent drought, we analyzed samples of pearl millet landraces collected in the same villages in 1976 and 2003 throughout the entire cultivated area of Niger. We studied phenological and morphological differences in the 1976 and 2003 collections by comparing them over three cropping seasons in a common garden experiment. We found no major changes in the main cultivated varieties or in their genetic diversity. However, we observed a significant shift in adaptive traits. Compared to the 1976 samples, samples collected in 2003 displayed a shorter lifecycle, and a reduction in plant and spike size. We also found that an early flowering allele at the PHYC locus increased in frequency between 1976 and 2003. The increase exceeded the effect of drift and sampling, suggesting a direct effect of selection for earliness on this gene. We conclude that recurrent drought can lead to selection for earlier flowering in a major Sahelian crop. Surprisingly, these results suggest that diffusion of crop varieties is not the main driver of short term adaptation to climatic variation.

  1. Non invasive blood flow measurement in cerebellum detects minimal hepatic encephalopathy earlier than psychometric tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felipo, Vicente; Urios, Amparo; Giménez-Garzó, Carla; Cauli, Omar; Andrés-Costa, Maria-Jesús; González, Olga; Serra, Miguel A; Sánchez-González, Javier; Aliaga, Roberto; Giner-Durán, Remedios; Belloch, Vicente; Montoliu, Carmina

    2014-09-07

    To assess whether non invasive blood flow measurement by arterial spin labeling in several brain regions detects minimal hepatic encephalopathy. Blood flow (BF) was analyzed by arterial spin labeling (ASL) in different brain areas of 14 controls, 24 cirrhotic patients without and 16 cirrhotic patients with minimal hepatic encephalopathy (MHE). Images were collected using a 3 Tesla MR scanner (Achieva 3T-TX, Philips, Netherlands). Pulsed ASL was performed. Patients showing MHE were detected using the battery Psychometric Hepatic Encephalopathy Score (PHES) consisting of five tests. Different cognitive and motor functions were also assessed: alterations in selective attention were evaluated using the Stroop test. Patients and controls also performed visuo-motor and bimanual coordination tests. Several biochemical parameters were measured: serum pro-inflammatory interleukins (IL-6 and IL-18), 3-nitrotyrosine, cGMP and nitrates+nitrites in plasma, and blood ammonia. Bivariate correlations were evaluated. In patients with MHE, BF was increased in cerebellar hemisphere (P = 0.03) and vermis (P = 0.012) and reduced in occipital lobe (P = 0.017). BF in cerebellar hemisphere was also increased in patients without MHE (P = 0.02). Bimanual coordination was impaired in patients without MHE (P = 0.05) and much more in patients with MHE (P battery and with CFF. BF in cerebellar hemisphere correlates with plasma cGMP and nitric oxide (NO) metabolites. BF in vermis cerebellar also correlates with NO metabolites and with 3-nitrotyrosine. IL-18 in plasma correlates with BF in thalamus and occipital lobe. Non invasive BF determination in cerebellum using ASL may detect MHE earlier than the PHES. Altered NO-cGMP pathway seems to be associated to altered BF in cerebellum.

  2. Metamorphosis Is Ancestral for Crown Euarthropods, and Evolved in the Cambrian or Earlier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, Joanna M

    2017-09-01

    Macroevolutionary developmental biology employs fossilized ontogenetic data and phylogenetic comparative methods to probe the evolution of development at ancient nodes. Despite the prevalence of ecologically differentiated larval forms in marine invertebrates, it has been frequently presumed that the ancestors of arthropods were direct developers, and that metamorphosis may not have evolved until the Ordovician or later. Using fossils and new dated phylogenies, I infer that metamorphosis was likely ancestral for crown arthropods, contradicting this assumption. Based on a published morphological dataset encompassing 217 exceptionally preserved fossil and 96 extant taxa, fossils were directly incorporated into both the topology and age estimates, as in "tip dating" analyses. Using data from post-embryonic fossils representing 25 species throughout stem and crown arthropod lineages (as well as most of the 96 extant taxa), characters for metamorphosis were assigned based on inferred ecological changes in development (e.g., changes in habitat and adaptive landscape). Under all phylogenetic hypotheses, metamorphosis was supported as most likely ancestral to both ecdysozoans and euarthropods. Care must be taken to account for potential drastic post-embryonic morphological changes in evolutionary analyses. Many stem group euarthrpods may have had ecologically differentiated larval stages that did not preserve in the fossil record. Moreover, a complex life cycle and planktonic ecology may have evolved in the Ediacaran or earlier, and may have typified the pre-Cambrian explosion "wormworld" prior to the origin of crown group euarthropods. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Integrative and Comparative Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Progressively implementation of the new degrees at E.T.S. of Agriculture Engineering and extinction of the earlier degrees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arce, A.; Caniego, J.; Vazquez, J.; Serrano, A.; Tarquis, A. M.; Cartagena, M. C.

    2012-04-01

    The Bologna process is to improve the quality of education, mobility, diversity and the competitiveness and involves three fundamental changes: transform of the structure of titles, changing in methods of teaching and implementation of the systems of quality assurance. Once that the new degrees have been implemented with this structure, and began at E.T.S. of Agriculture Engineering (ETSIA) at Madrid from 2010-2011 course, the main aim of this work is to deeply study the changes in teaching methodology as well as progressively implementation of the educational planning of the three new degrees: Engineering and Agronomic Graduate, Food Industry Engineering Graduate and Agro-environmental Graduate. Each one of them presents 240 ECTS with a common first course and will have access to an official Master in Agronomic Engineering. As part as an educational innovation project awarded by the Technical University of Madrid (UPM) to improve educational quality, the second course has been designed with the main objective to continue the educative model implemented last course. This model identifies several teaching activities and represents a proper teaching style at ETSIA-UPM. At the same time, a monitoring and development coordination plans have been established. On the other hand, a procedure to extinguish the earlier plans of Agriculture Engineering was also defined. Other activities related to this Project were the information improvement of the grades, in particular at High Schools centers, improving the processes of reception, counseling and tutoring and mentoring. Likewise, cooperative working workshops and programs to support the teaching of English language were implemented. Satisfaction surveys and opinion polls were done to professors and students involved in first course in order to test several aspects of this project. The students surveys were analyzed taking in account the academic results and their participation in mentoring activities giving a highly

  4. Is Information Still Relevant?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Lia

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: The term "information" in information science does not share the characteristics of those of a nomenclature: it does not bear a generally accepted definition and it does not serve as the bases and assumptions for research studies. As the data deluge has arrived, is the concept of information still relevant for information…

  5. Earlier reperfusion in patients with ST-elevation Myocardial infarction by use of helicopter

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background In patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) reperfusion therapy should be initiated as soon as possible. This study evaluated whether use of a helicopter for transportation of patients is associated with earlier initiation of reperfusion therapy. Material and methods A prospective study was conducted, including patients with STEMI and symptom duration less than 12 hours, who had primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PPCI) performed at Aarhus University Hospital in Skejby. Patients with a health care system delay (time from emergency call to first coronary intervention) of more than 360 minutes were excluded. The study period ran from 1.1.2011 until 31.12.2011. A Western Denmark Helicopter Emergency Medical Service (HEMS) project was initiated 1.6.2011 for transportation of patients with time-critical illnesses, including STEMI. Results The study population comprised 398 patients, of whom 376 were transported by ambulance Emergency Medical Service (EMS) and 22 by HEMS. Field-triage directly to the PCI-center was used in 338 of patients. The median system delay was 94 minutes among those field-triaged, and 168 minutes among those initially admitted to a local hospital. Patients transported by EMS and field-triaged were stratified into four groups according to transport distance from the scene of event to the PCI-center: ≤25 km., 26–50 km., 51–75 km. and > 75 km. For these groups, the median system delay was 78, 89, 99, and 141 minutes. Among patients transported by HEMS and field-triaged the estimated median transport distance by ground transportation was 115 km, and the observed system delay was 107 minutes. Based on second order polynomial regression, it was estimated that patients with a transport distance of >60 km to the PCI-center may benefit from helicopter transportation, and that transportation by helicopter is associated with a system delay of less than 120 minutes even at a transport distance up to 150 km

  6. Clinical Relevance of Adipokines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Blüher

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of obesity has increased dramatically during recent decades. Obesity increases the risk for metabolic and cardiovascular diseases and may therefore contribute to premature death. With increasing fat mass, secretion of adipose tissue derived bioactive molecules (adipokines changes towards a pro-inflammatory, diabetogenic and atherogenic pattern. Adipokines are involved in the regulation of appetite and satiety, energy expenditure, activity, endothelial function, hemostasis, blood pressure, insulin sensitivity, energy metabolism in insulin sensitive tissues, adipogenesis, fat distribution and insulin secretion in pancreatic β-cells. Therefore, adipokines are clinically relevant as biomarkers for fat distribution, adipose tissue function, liver fat content, insulin sensitivity, chronic inflammation and have the potential for future pharmacological treatment strategies for obesity and its related diseases. This review focuses on the clinical relevance of selected adipokines as markers or predictors of obesity related diseases and as potential therapeutic tools or targets in metabolic and cardiovascular diseases.

  7. Information Needs/Relevance

    OpenAIRE

    Wildemuth, Barbara M.

    2009-01-01

    A user's interaction with a DL is often initiated as the result of the user experiencing an information need of some kind. Aspects of that experience and how it might affect the user's interactions with the DL are discussed in this module. In addition, users continuously make decisions about and evaluations of the materials retrieved from a DL, relative to their information needs. Relevance judgments, and their relationship to the user's information needs, are discussed in this module. Draft

  8. The Relevance of Hegel's Logic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John W Burbidge

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Hegel defines his Logic as the science that thinks about thinking.nbsp; But when we interpret that work as outlining what happens when we reason we are vulnerable to Fregersquo;s charge of psychologism.nbsp; I use Hegelrsquo;s tripartite distinction among understanding, dialectical and speculative reason as operations of pure thought to suggest how thinking can work with objective concepts.nbsp; In the last analysis, however, our ability to move from the subjective contingency of representations and ideas to the pure concepts we think develops from mechanical memory, which separates sign from sense so hat we can focus simply on the latter.nbsp; By becoming aware of the connections that underlie our thinking processes we may be able to both move beyond the abstractions of symbolic logic and clarify what informal logicians call relevance.

  9. The earlier the better? When career learning starts in basic school

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lene Kofoed; Nielsen, Charlotte Hahn; Willaa, Katrine Cecilie Weiland

    school years when outlining a career path of each pupil. In addition, a subject named “Education and job” are to be taught from preschool till 9th grade, spanning three fields of competencies “Personal choice”, “From education to job” and “Worklife”, where “personal choice” has been given more weight...... and for the professional work with that issue. We ask, in a Bourdieu fashion, how do early carrier learning and evaluation of readiness structure opportunities for various pupils? Are differences and inequality reproduced, or are new patterns of in- and exclusion evolving? How do the career learning tasks fit...

  10. New approach to high-risk pregnancy begins far earlier than traditional programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-10-01

    Why? Because traditional programs that focus on women as soon as they become pregnant are not making any headway against the incidence of low and very low birth weight (LBW) babies. As a result, while more of these babies are surviving, a significant number have disabilities that will impact them for life while costing the health care system dearly. Experts at Emory University in Atlanta believe there must be a better way to curb the incidence of poor birth outcomes, and they are putting their theories to work in a new program focused on "interpregnancy" care.

  11. Differential engagement of attention and visual working memory in the representation and evaluation of the number of relevant targets and their spatial relations: Evidence from the N2pc and SPCN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maheux, Manon; Jolicœur, Pierre

    2017-04-01

    We examined the role of attention and visual working memory in the evaluation of the number of target stimuli as well as their relative spatial position using the N2pc and the SPCN. Participants performed two tasks: a simple counting task in which they had to determine if a visual display contained one or two coloured items among grey fillers and one in which they had to identify a specific relation between two coloured items. The same stimuli were used for both tasks. Each task was designed to permit an easier evaluation of either the same-coloured or differently-coloured stimuli. We predicted a greater involvement of attention and visual working memory for more difficult stimulus-task pairings. The results confirmed these predictions and suggest that visuospatial configurations that require more time to evaluate induce a greater (and presumably longer) involvement of attention and visual working memory. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. [Relevant public health enteropathogens].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riveros, Maribel; Ochoa, Theresa J

    2015-01-01

    Diarrhea remains the third leading cause of death in children under five years, despite recent advances in the management and prevention of this disease. It is caused by multiple pathogens, however, the prevalence of each varies by age group, geographical area and the scenario where cases (community vs hospital) are recorded. The most relevant pathogens in public health are those associated with the highest burden of disease, severity, complications and mortality. In our country, norovirus, Campylobacter and diarrheagenic E. coli are the most prevalent pathogens at the community level in children. In this paper we review the local epidemiology and potential areas of development in five selected pathogens: rotavirus, norovirus, Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC), Shigella and Salmonella. Of these, rotavirus is the most important in the pediatric population and the main agent responsible for child mortality from diarrhea. The introduction of rotavirus vaccination in Peru will have a significant impact on disease burden and mortality from diarrhea. However, surveillance studies are needed to determine the impact of vaccination and changes in the epidemiology of diarrhea in Peru following the introduction of new vaccines, as well as antibiotic resistance surveillance of clinical relevant bacteria.

  13. Applying Earlier Literacy Research in Iran to Current Literacy Theory and Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Street

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, I attempt to bring together approaches toliteracy in theory and in practice, drawing upon variousactivities I have been involved in over the years–research inIranian villages during the 1970s; linking research andtheory to literacy policy, with particular reference to acontribution to the Unesco Global Monitoring Report in2004 and involvement in an ongoing adult literacy trainingprogramme appropriately entitled Learning Empowermentthrough Training in Ethnographic Research (LETTER.IJSCL is interested in publishing original research andreview articles on the relationship between society, culture,and language and in particular ‘linking sound theoreticalapproaches on these fields with visible practical applicationsthat can be used by specialists in anthropology, sociology,linguistics, education, intercultural studies, and policymaking’. I hope that this piece on literacy, with duereference to work in Iran, will fit with that brief.

  14. Smart limbed vehicles for naval applications. Part II. Relevant technologies and performance evaluation. Interim report on research work on smart vehicle concepts for military use on the ocean surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weisberg, A.; Wood, L.

    1976-09-30

    Research work in smart, unmanned water-traversing limbed vehicles for naval warfare applications is reported. The areas covered include prime movers, power transformers and actuators, structural considerations, physical control, joint servo-control, motion control, visual data and the ocean surface, smartness, and vehicle characterization. (TFD)

  15. Housewife or working mum--each to her own? The relevance of societal factors in the association between social roles and alcohol use among mothers in 16 industrialized countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuntsche, Sandra; Knibbe, Ronald A; Kuntsche, Emmanuel; Gmel, Gerhard

    2011-11-01

    To investigate whether differences in gender-income equity at country level explain national differences in the links between alcohol use, and the combination of motherhood and paid labour. Cross-sectional data in 16 established market economies participating in the Gender, Alcohol and Culture: An International Study (GenACIS) study. Population surveys. A total of 12,454 mothers (aged 25-49 years). Alcohol use was assessed as the quantity per drinking day. Paid labour, having a partner, gender-income ratio at country level and the interaction between individual and country characteristics were regressed on alcohol consumed per drinking day using multi-level modelling. Mothers with a partner who were in paid labour reported consuming more alcohol on drinking days than partnered housewives. In countries with high gender-income equity, mothers with a partner who were in paid labour drank less alcohol per occasion, while alcohol use was higher among working partnered mothers living in countries with lower income equity. In countries which facilitate working mothers, daily alcohol use decreases as female social roles increase; in contrast, in countries where there are fewer incentives for mothers to remain in work, the protective effect of being a working mother (with partner) on alcohol use is weaker. These data suggest that a country's investment in measures to improve the compatibility of motherhood and paid labour may reduce women's alcohol use. © 2011 The Authors, Addiction © 2011 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  16. Hydrogen interaction with fusion-relevant materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caorlin, M.

    1990-01-01

    This paper is an outline of the work carried out at JRC Ispra in the Tritium-materials Interaction Laboratory, on the interaction of gaseous hydrogen with several materials of interest in the field of fusion technology. Experimental work is reported and a concise review of relevant theoretical and numerical supporting activity is given as well. A period of about seven years is covered since 1982. Current work and possible future extensions are also briefly mentioned. 11 figs., 18 refs

  17. Therapeutic concentrations of mitoxantrone elicit energetic imbalance in H9c2 cells as an earlier event.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossato, Luciana Grazziotin; Costa, Vera Marisa; Vilas-Boas, Vânia; de Lourdes Bastos, Maria; Rolo, Anabela; Palmeira, Carlos; Remião, Fernando

    2013-12-01

    Mitoxantrone (MTX) is a chemotherapeutic agent that emerged as an alternative to anthracycline therapy. However, MTX also causes late cardiotoxicity, being oxidative stress and mitochondrial-impaired function proposed as possible mechanisms. This work aimed to investigate the relevance of these mechanisms to the MTX toxicity in H9c2 cells, using therapeutic concentrations. The observed cytotoxicity of MTX was time and concentration dependent in both lactate dehydrogenase leakage assay and MTT reduction assay. Two therapeutic concentrations (100 nM and 1 μM) and three time points were selected (24, 48, and 96 h) for further studies. Both MTX concentrations caused a significant increase in caspase-3 activity, which was not prevented by inhibiting MTX CYP450-metabolism. Significant decreases were observed in the total and reduced glutathione levels only in MTX 100 nM at 96 h; however, neither alterations in oxidized glutathione nor increases in the malondialdehyde levels were observed at any time or concentrations tested. On the other hand, changes in the intracellular ATP levels, mitochondrial membrane potential, and intracellular calcium levels were observed in both concentrations and all time tested. Noteworthy, decreased levels of ATP-synthase expression and activity and increases in the reactive species generation were observed at 96 h in both working concentrations. However, the radical scavenger N-acetylcysteine or the mitochondrial function enhancer L-carnitine did not prevent MTX cytotoxicity. Thus, this work evidenced the early MTX-induced energetic crisis as a possible key factor in the cell injury.

  18. Other relevant biological papers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimizu, M.

    1989-01-01

    A considerable number of CRESP-relevant papers concerning deep-sea biology and radioecology have been published. It is the purpose of this study to call attention to them. They fall into three general categories. The first is papers of general interest. They are mentioned only briefly, and include text references to the global bibliography at the end of the volume. The second are papers that are not only mentioned and referenced, but for various reasons are described in abstract form. The last is a list of papers compiled by H.S.J. Roe specifically for this volume. They are listed in bibliographic form, and are also included in the global bibliography at the end of the volume

  19. Distribution of stoneflies of the family Taeniopterygidae (Plecoptera) in the Czech Republic: earlier data, new records and recent distributional changes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bojková, J.; Soldán, Tomáš; Špaček, J.; Straka, M.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 60, č. 3 (2011), s. 239-258 ISSN 1211-3026 Grant - others:Czech Science Foundation(CZ) GAP505/10/P302 Program:GP Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : Plecoptera * Taeniopterygidae * historical and earlier data Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  20. Are cause of subfertility and in vitro fertilization treatment risk factors for an earlier start of menopauze?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, E.J.; den Tonkelaar, I.; Burger, C.W.; van Leeuwen, F.E.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To study whether women diagnosed with unexplained subfertility reach the menopause transition and natural menopause earlier than women with tubal subfertility, in an in vitro fertilization (FVF)-treated population, and to examine the influence of the number of FVT cycles on the occurrence

  1. Natural selection for earlier male arrival to breeding grounds through direct and indirect effects in a migratory songbird

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velmala, William; Helle, Samuli; Ahola, Markus P.; Klaassen, M.R.J.; Lehikoinen, Esa; Rainio, Kalle; Sirkia, Paivi M.; Laaksonen, Toni

    2015-01-01

    For migratory birds, the earlier arrival of males to breeding grounds is often expected to have fitness benefits. However, the selection differential on male arrival time has rarely been decomposed into the direct effect of male arrival and potential indirect effects through female traits. We

  2. Test Blanket Working Group's recent activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vetter, J.E.

    2001-01-01

    The ITER Test Blanket Working Group (TBWG) has continued its activities during the period of extension of the EDA with a revised charter on the co-ordination of the development work performed by the Parties and by the JCT leading to a co-ordinated test programme on ITER for a DEMO-relevant tritium breeding blanket. This follows earlier work carried out until July 1998, which formed part of the ITER Final Design Report (FDR), completed in 1998. Whilst the machine parameters for ITER-FEAT have been significantly revised compared to the FDR, testing of breeding blanket modules remains a main objective of the test programme and the development of a reactor-relevant breeding blanket to ensure tritium fuel self-sufficiency is recognized a key issue for fusion. Design work and R and D on breeding blanket concepts, including co-operation with the other Contacting Parties of the ITER-EDA for testing these concepts in ITER, are included in the work plans of the Parties

  3. Spatial and Temporal Variation in Primary Productivity (NDVI) of Coastal Alaskan Tundra: Decreased Vegetation Growth Following Earlier Snowmelt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamon, John A.; Huemmrich, K. Fred; Stone, Robert S.; Tweedie, Craig E.

    2015-01-01

    In the Arctic, earlier snowmelt and longer growing seasons due to warming have been hypothesized to increase vegetation productivity. Using the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) from both field and satellite measurements as an indicator of vegetation phenology and productivity, we monitored spatial and temporal patterns of vegetation growth for a coastal wet sedge tundra site near Barrow, Alaska over three growing seasons (2000-2002). Contrary to expectation, earlier snowmelt did not lead to increased productivity. Instead, productivity was associated primarily with precipitation and soil moisture, and secondarily with growing degree days, which, during this period, led to reduced growth in years with earlier snowmelt. Additional moisture effects on productivity and species distribution, operating over a longer time scale, were evident in spatial NDVI patterns associated with microtopography. Lower, wetter regions dominated by graminoids were more productive than higher, drier locations having a higher percentage of lichens and mosses, despite the earlier snowmelt at the more elevated sites. These results call into question the oft-stated hypothesis that earlier arctic growing seasons will lead to greater vegetation productivity. Rather, they agree with an emerging body of evidence from recent field studies indicating that early-season, local environmental conditions, notably moisture and temperature, are primary factors determining arctic vegetation productivity. For this coastal arctic site, early growing season conditions are strongly influenced by microtopography, hydrology, and regional sea ice dynamics, and may not be easily predicted from snowmelt date or seasonal average air temperatures alone. Our comparison of field to satellite NDVI also highlights the value of in-situ monitoring of actual vegetation responses using field optical sampling to obtain detailed information on surface conditions not possible from satellite observations alone.

  4. User perspectives on relevance criteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maglaughlin, Kelly L.; Sonnenwald, Diane H.

    2002-01-01

    , partially relevant, or not relevant to their information need; and explained their decisions in an interview. Analysis revealed 29 criteria, discussed positively and negatively, that were used by the participants when selecting passages that contributed or detracted from a document's relevance......This study investigates the use of criteria to assess relevant, partially relevant, and not-relevant documents. Study participants identified passages within 20 document representations that they used to make relevance judgments; judged each document representation as a whole to be relevant...... matter, thought catalyst), full text (e.g., audience, novelty, type, possible content, utility), journal/publisher (e.g., novelty, main focus, perceived quality), and personal (e.g., competition, time requirements). Results further indicate that multiple criteria are used when making relevant, partially...

  5. Adolescents with anxiety and depression: is social recovery relevant?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonds, Laura M; Pons, Rebecca A; Stone, Nicola J; Warren, Fiona; John, Mary

    2014-01-01

    Social recovery has become a prominent aspect of mental health service design and delivery in the past decade. Much of the literature on social recovery is derived from first-person accounts or primary research with adult service users experiencing severe mental illness. There is a lack of both theoretical and empirical work that could inform consideration of how the concept of social recovery might apply to adolescents experiencing common (non-psychotic) mental health problems such as anxiety and depression. The current study was conducted to understand the process of experiencing anxiety and depression in young people. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with nine adolescents with anxiety and depression (seven girls and two boys aged 14-16 years) and 12 mothers who were recruited from a specialist Child and Adolescent Mental Health Service in the South of England. Thematic analysis indicated that young people do experience a process of 'recovery'; the processes participants described have some congruence with the earlier stages of adult recovery models involving biographical disruption and the development of new meanings, in this case of anxiety or depression, and changes in sense of identity. The accounts diverge with regard to later stages of adult models involving the development of hope and responsibility. The findings suggest that services should attend to social isolation and emphasise support for positive aspirations for future selves whilst also attending to young people's and parents' expectations about change. Methodological challenges face enquiry about 'recovery' given its connotations with cure in everyday language. Theoretical and empirical work on social recovery in young people and families is lacking. Using interviews, this study sought to understand the relevance of social recovery for adolescents with anxiety and depression and their mothers. Findings suggest some congruence with the earlier stages of adult recovery models involving

  6. Biogeochemical fingerprints of life: earlier analogies with polar ecosystems suggest feasible instrumentation for probing the Galilean moons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chela-Flores, J.; Cicuttin, A.; Crespo, M. L.; Tuniz, C.

    2015-07-01

    We base our search for the right instrumentation for detecting biosignatures on Europa on the analogy suggested by the recent work on polar ecosystems in the Canadian Arctic at Ellesmere Island. In that location sulphur patches (analogous to the Europan patches) are accumulating on glacial ice lying over saline springs rich in sulphate and sulphide. Their work reinforces earlier analogies in Antarctic ecosystems that are appropriate models for possible habitats that will be explored by the European Space Agency JUpiter ICy Moons Explorer (JUICE) mission to the Jovian System. Its Jupiter Ganymede Orbiter (JGO) will include orbits around Europa and Ganymede. The Galileo orbital mission discovered surficial patches of non-ice elements on Europa that were widespread and, in some cases possibly endogenous. This suggests the possibility that the observed chemical elements in the exoatmosphere may be from the subsurface ocean. Spatial resolution calculations of Cassidy and co-workers are available, suggesting that the atmospheric S content can be mapped by a neutral mass spectrometer, now included among the selected JUICE instruments. In some cases, large S-fractionations are due to microbial reduction and disproportionation (although sometimes providing a test for ecosystem fingerprints, even though with Sim - Bosak - Ono we maintain that microbial sulphate reduction large sulphur isotope fractionation does not require disproportionation. We address the question of the possible role of oxygen in the Europan ocean. Instrument issues are discussed for measuring stable S-isotope fractionations up to the known limits in natural populations of δ34 ~ -70‰. We state the hypothesis of a Europa anaerobic oceanic population of sulphate reducers and disproportionators that would have the effect of fractionating the sulphate that reaches the low-albedo surficial regions. This hypothesis is compatible with the time-honoured expectation of Kaplan and co-workers (going back to the

  7. To achieve an earlier IFN-γ response is not sufficient to control Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilaplana, Cristina; Prats, Clara; Marzo, Elena; Barril, Carles; Vegué, Marina; Diaz, Jorge; Valls, Joaquim; López, Daniel; Cardona, Pere-Joan

    2014-01-01

    The temporo-spatial relationship between the three organs (lung, spleen and lymph node) involved during the initial stages of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection has been poorly studied. As such, we performed an experimental study to evaluate the bacillary load in each organ after aerosol or intravenous infection and developed a mathematical approach using the data obtained in order to extract conclusions. The results showed that higher bacillary doses result in an earlier IFN-γ response, that a certain bacillary load (BL) needs to be reached to trigger the IFN-γ response, and that control of the BL is not immediate after onset of the IFN-γ response, which might be a consequence of the spatial dimension. This study may have an important impact when it comes to designing new vaccine candidates as it suggests that triggering an earlier IFN-γ response might not guarantee good infection control, and therefore that additional properties should be considered for these candidates.

  8. Another work-family interface: Work characteristics and family intentions in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-hsin Yu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Previous research highlights the importance of job and workplace characteristics in the work‒family interface. Nevertheless, we know little about how the specific context of work is related to singles' marriage and parenthood intentions. Objective: In this study we examine the links between work conditions and family intentions using a representative sample of never-married, childless adults in Japan, a country that is well known for rapid declines in marriage and fertility rates. Results: We find that, surprisingly, work characteristics conducive to less work‒family conflict are rarely associated with stronger desires to marry and have children. For never-married men in Japan, the job qualities most relevant to family intentions are those that imply a bright economic future. Job conditions with the potential for work‒family conflict can be positively related to the desire to marry and have children if they also indicate promising career prospects. Conversely, workplace sociability is highly relevant to women's marriage and fertility intentions. Never-married women working in more collaborative and interactive environments seek potential marriage partners more actively, want to marry and become parents more, and have higher preferred numbers of children. We suggest that in more sociable workplaces, childless singles tend to be more exposed to earlier cohorts' family experiences and beliefs and so become more interested in marriage and parenthood. Contribution: This study demonstrates that, in Japan, the work characteristics relevant to single men's family intentions differ from those that are relevant to the equivalent intentions of single women. In particular, the finding that women working in more sociable environments desire marriage and children more adds to the literature emphasizing the influence of social relations on family decisions in advanced economies, as well as suggesting a new channel through which social

  9. An inhibitor of polyamine synthesis arrests cells at an earlier stage of G1 than does calcium deprivation.

    OpenAIRE

    Cheetham, B F

    1983-01-01

    Methylglyoxal bis(guanylhydrazone) completely inhibits the induction of thymidine kinase after serum stimulation of quiescent fibroblasts only if added within 3 h after serum, whereas calcium deprivation blocks this induction up to 12 h after serum stimulation. Experiments in which one of these blocks was imposed as the other was released confirmed that cells blocked by methylglyoxal bis(guanylhydrazone) are arrested at an earlier stage in G1 than cells blocked by calcium deprivation.

  10. An inhibitor of polyamine synthesis arrests cells at an earlier stage of G1 than does calcium deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheetham, B F

    1983-01-01

    Methylglyoxal bis(guanylhydrazone) completely inhibits the induction of thymidine kinase after serum stimulation of quiescent fibroblasts only if added within 3 h after serum, whereas calcium deprivation blocks this induction up to 12 h after serum stimulation. Experiments in which one of these blocks was imposed as the other was released confirmed that cells blocked by methylglyoxal bis(guanylhydrazone) are arrested at an earlier stage in G1 than cells blocked by calcium deprivation. PMID:6843551

  11. Daily Use, Especially of High-Potency Cannabis, Drives the Earlier Onset of Psychosis in Cannabis Users

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Forti, Marta; Sallis, Hannah; Allegri, Fabio; Trotta, Antonella; Ferraro, Laura; Stilo, Simona A.; Marconi, Arianna; La Cascia, Caterina; Reis Marques, Tiago; Pariante, Carmine; Dazzan, Paola; Mondelli, Valeria; Paparelli, Alessandra; Kolliakou, Anna; Prata, Diana; Gaughran, Fiona; David, Anthony S.; Morgan, Craig; Stahl, Daniel; Khondoker, Mizanur; MacCabe, James H.; Murray, Robin M.

    2014-01-01

    Cannabis use is associated with an earlier age of onset of psychosis (AOP). However, the reasons for this remain debated. Methods: We applied a Cox proportional hazards model to 410 first-episode psychosis patients to investigate the association between gender, patterns of cannabis use, and AOP. Results: Patients with a history of cannabis use presented with their first episode of psychosis at a younger age (mean years = 28.2, SD = 8.0; median years = 27.1) than those who never used cannabis (mean years = 31.4, SD = 9.9; median years = 30.0; hazard ratio [HR] = 1.42; 95% CI: 1.16–1.74; P cannabis at age 15 or younger had an earlier onset of psychosis (mean years = 27.0, SD = 6.2; median years = 26.9) than those who had started after 15 years (mean years = 29.1, SD = 8.5; median years = 27.8; HR = 1.40; 95% CI: 1.06–1.84; P = .050). Importantly, subjects who had been using high-potency cannabis (skunk-type) every day had the earliest onset (mean years = 25.2, SD = 6.3; median years = 24.6) compared to never users among all the groups tested (HR = 1.99; 95% CI: 1.50- 2.65; P cannabis had an onset an average of 6 years earlier than that of non-cannabis users. Conclusions: Daily use, especially of high-potency cannabis, drives the earlier onset of psychosis in cannabis users. PMID:24345517

  12. The Earlier the Better? Taking the AP® in 10th Grade. Research Report No. 2012-10

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Awilda; McKillip, Mary E. M.; Niu, Sunny X.

    2013-01-01

    In this report, the authors examine the impact of scoring a 1 or 2 on an AP® Exam in 10th grade on later AP Exam participation and performance. As access to AP courses increases within and across schools, a growing number of students are taking AP courses and exams in the earlier grades of high school. Using a matched sample of AP and no-AP…

  13. Earlier flowering did not alter pollen limitation in an early flowering shrub under short-term experimental warming

    OpenAIRE

    Pan, Cheng-Chen; Feng, Qi; Zhao, Ha-Lin; Liu, Lin-De; Li, Yu-Lin; Li, Yu-Qiang; Zhang, Tong-Hui; Yu, Xiao-Ya

    2017-01-01

    In animal pollinated plants, phenological shifts caused by climate change may have important ecological consequences. However, no empirical evidence exists at present on the consequences that flowering phenology shifts have on the strength of pollen limitation under experimental warming. Here, we investigated the effects of experimental warming on flowering phenology, flower density, reproductive success, and pollen limitation intensity in Caragana microphylla and evaluated whether earlier fl...

  14. Earlier BMI rebound and lower pre-rebound BMI as risk of obesity among Japanese preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, N; Isojima, T; Yokoya, S; Tanaka, T; Ono, A; Yokomichi, H; Yamagata, Z; Tanaka, S; Matsubara, H; Ishikuro, M; Kikuya, M; Chida, S; Hosoya, M; Kuriyama, S; Kure, S

    2018-01-01

    Longitudinal growth data of children were analyzed to clarify the relationship between the timing of body mass index (BMI) rebound and obesity risk in later ages. Of 54 558 children born between April 2004 and March 2005 and longitudinally measured in April and October every year in the preschool period, 15 255 children were analyzed wherein no longitudinal measurement is missing after 1 year of age. BMI rebound age was determined as the age with smallest BMI value across longitudinal individual data after 1 year of age. Rebound age was compared between overweight and non-overweight groups. The subjects were divided into groups based on the timing of rebound. The sex- and age-adjusted mean of the BMI, height and weight s.d. scores for age group, along with 6 months weight and height gain, were compared among groups using analysis of covariance. Among those who were overweight at 66-71 months of age, BMI rebound age obtained at approximately 3 years of age was compared with the non-overweight group, whose BMI rebound age was utmost 66 months or later (PBMI age group showed that earlier BMI rebound results in larger BMI (PBMI rebound earlier than 30 months of age, low BMI was observed (PBMI rebound among groups with rebound age earlier than 60 months of age (PBMI rebound timing with pre-rebound low BMI leads to greater childhood obesity risk; hence, early detection and prevention is necessary for such cases.

  15. Recent gestational diabetes was associated with mothers stopping predominant breastfeeding earlier in a multi-ethnic population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baerug, Anne; Sletner, Line; Laake, Petter; Fretheim, Atle; Løland, Beate Fossum; Waage, Christin W; Birkeland, Kåre I; Jenum, Anne Karen

    2018-06-01

    It has previously been shown that breastfeeding may reduce the risk of type 2 diabetes in mothers with recent gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). This study compared the cessation of predominant breastfeeding in mothers with and without recent GDM in a multi-ethnic population. From May 2008 to May 2010, healthy pregnant women attending antenatal care provided by community health services in Eastern Oslo, Norway were recruited. We included 616 women-58% non-Western-and interviewed and examined them at a mean of 15 and 28 weeks of gestation and 14 weeks' postpartum. Cox regression models examined the association between GDM, as assessed by the 2013 World Health Organization criteria, and breastfeeding cessation. Overall, 190 of the 616 (31%) mothers had GDM and they ended predominant breastfeeding earlier than mothers without GDM, with an adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) of 1.33 and 95% confidence interval (95% CI) of 1.01-1.77. Mothers of South Asian origin ended predominant breastfeeding earlier than Western European mothers in the adjusted analysis (aHR 1.53, 95% CI: 1.04-2.25), but Middle Eastern mothers did not. Recent gestational diabetes was associated with earlier cessation of predominant breastfeeding in Western European and non-Western women. ©2018 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Identity theory and personality theory: mutual relevance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stryker, Sheldon

    2007-12-01

    Some personality psychologists have found a structural symbolic interactionist frame and identity theory relevant to their work. This frame and theory, developed in sociology, are first reviewed. Emphasized in the review are a multiple identity conception of self, identities as internalized expectations derived from roles embedded in organized networks of social interaction, and a view of social structures as facilitators in bringing people into networks or constraints in keeping them out, subsequently, attention turns to a discussion of the mutual relevance of structural symbolic interactionism/identity theory and personality theory, looking to extensions of the current literature on these topics.

  17. Minimum dipole moment required to bind an electron--molecular theorists rediscover phenomenon mentioned in Fermi--Teller paper on another subject twenty years earlier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, J.E.

    1976-07-01

    Work leading to the discovery of the minimum dipole moment for electron binding, D/sub min/ = 0.639 ea 0 (atomic units), by several groups in 1967-68 is described. It was subsequently learned that this number had been published in 1947 by Fermi and Teller, who did not, however, indicate how they derived it. The author has found a numerical solution in Fermi's notebooks from 1946-50 at the University of Chicago Library. Fermi's work is described and presented here with relevant material from his notebooks

  18. Minimum dipole moment required to bind an electron: molecular theorists rediscover phenomenon mentioned in Fermi-Teller paper twenty years earlier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, J.E.

    1977-01-01

    Work leading to the discovery of the minimum dipole moment for electron binding, D/sub min/=0.639 ea 0 (atomic units), by several groups in 1967--1968 is described. It was subsequently learned that this number had been published in 1947 by Fermi and Teller, who did not, however, indicate how they derived it. The author has found a numerical solution in Fermi's notebooks from 1946--1950 at the University of Chicago Library. Fermi's work is described and presented here with relevant material from his notebooks

  19. Do emotional support and classroom organization earlier in the year set the stage for higher quality instruction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curby, Timothy W; Rimm-Kaufman, Sara E; Abry, Tashia

    2013-10-01

    Many teachers believe that providing greater emotional and organizational supports in the beginning of the year strengthens their ability to teach effectively as the year progresses. Some interventions, such as the Responsive Classroom (RC) approach, explicitly embed this sequence into professional development efforts. We tested the hypothesis that earlier emotional and organizational supports set the stage for improved instruction later in the year in a sample of third- and fourth-grade teachers enrolled in a randomized controlled trial of the RC approach. Further, we examined the extent to which the model generalized for teachers using varying levels of RC practices as well as whether or not teachers were in the intervention or control groups. Teachers' emotional, organizational, and instructional interactions were observed using the Classroom Assessment Scoring System (Pianta, La Paro, & Hamre, 2008) on five occasions throughout the year. Results indicated a reciprocal relation between emotional and instructional supports. Specifically, higher levels of emotional support earlier in the year predicted higher instructional support later in the year. Also, higher levels of instructional support earlier in the year predicted higher emotional support later in the year. Classroom organization was not found to have longitudinal associations with the other domains across a year. This pattern was robust when controlling for the use of RC practices as well as across intervention and control groups. Further, teachers' use of RC practices predicted higher emotional support and classroom organization throughout the year, suggesting the malleability of this teacher characteristic. Discussion highlights the connection between teachers' emotional and instructional supports and how the use of RC practices improves teachers' emotionally supportive interactions with students. Copyright © 2013 Society for the Study of School Psychology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  20. The Relevance of Abraham Maslow's Work to Health Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolte, Ann

    1976-01-01

    Health educators should be aware of people as growth aspiring, with a basic nature of goodness, and that individuals need to experience those qualities within themselves which produce health and a zest for living. (JD)

  1. Earlier (late Pliocene) first appearance of the Caribbean reef-building coral Acropora palmata: Stratigraphic and evolutionary implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeill, Donald F.; Budd, Ann F.; Borne, Pamela F.

    1997-10-01

    An integrated stratigraphic study of reefal deposits on the Caribbean side of the Isthmus of Panama (Limon, Costa Rica) has discovered a significantly earlier first appearance of the major reef-building coral Acropora palmata. A. palmata is here reported from the early late Pliocene, constrained in age to within the Gauss chron (ca. 3.6 2.6 Ma). This coral was previously thought to have originated in the earliest Pleistocene and has subsequently been used as a Quaternary marker throughout the Caribbean and the Bahamas. An earlier appearance in the southern Caribbean implies a diachronous first appearance datum relative to the northern Caribbean. This older age also places A. palmata well within the transition phase of a Pliocene (4 1 Ma) faunal turnover that was marked by widespread extinction and origination of Caribbean coral species. An early late Pliocene origination is coincident with formation of the Isthmus, climate reorganization, and frequent sea-level changes associated with onset of Northern Hemisphere glaciations. The rapid growth and accumulation rates that characterize A. palmata may therefore be adaptive to these fluctuating environmental conditions, enabling its success during the subsequent Pleistocene glacial cycles.

  2. HIV Cell-to-Cell Spread Results in Earlier Onset of Viral Gene Expression by Multiple Infections per Cell.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikaël Boullé

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Cell-to-cell spread of HIV, a directed mode of viral transmission, has been observed to be more rapid than cell-free infection. However, a mechanism for earlier onset of viral gene expression in cell-to-cell spread was previously uncharacterized. Here we used time-lapse microscopy combined with automated image analysis to quantify the timing of the onset of HIV gene expression in a fluorescent reporter cell line, as well as single cell staining for infection over time in primary cells. We compared cell-to-cell spread of HIV to cell-free infection, and limited both types of transmission to a two-hour window to minimize differences due to virus transit time to the cell. The mean time to detectable onset of viral gene expression in cell-to-cell spread was accelerated by 19% in the reporter cell line and by 35% in peripheral blood mononuclear cells relative to cell-free HIV infection. Neither factors secreted by infected cells, nor contact with infected cells in the absence of transmission, detectably changed onset. We recapitulated the earlier onset by infecting with multiple cell-free viruses per cell. Surprisingly, the acceleration in onset of viral gene expression was not explained by cooperativity between infecting virions. Instead, more rapid onset was consistent with a model where the fastest expressing virus out of the infecting virus pool sets the time for infection independently of the other co-infecting viruses.

  3. Effects of earlier sea ice breakup on survival and population size of polar bears in western Hudson Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regehr, E.V.; Lunn, N.J.; Amstrup, Steven C.; Stirling, I.

    2007-01-01

    Some of the most pronounced ecological responses to climatic warming are expected to occur in polar marine regions, where temperature increases have been the greatest and sea ice provides a sensitive mechanism by which climatic conditions affect sympagic (i.e., with ice) species. Population-level effects of climatic change, however, remain difficult to quantify. We used a flexible extension of Cormack-Jolly-Seber capture-recapture models to estimate population size and survival for polar bears (Ursus maritimus), one of the most ice-dependent of Arctic marine mammals. We analyzed data for polar bears captured from 1984 to 2004 along the western coast of Hudson Bay and in the community of Churchill, Manitoba, Canada. The Western Hudson Bay polar bear population declined from 1,194 (95% CI = 1,020-1,368) in 1987 to 935 (95% CI = 794-1,076) in 2004. Total apparent survival of prime-adult polar bears (5-19 yr) was stable for females (0.93; 95% CI = 0.91-0.94) and males (0.90; 95% CI = 0.88-0.91). Survival of juvenile, subadult, and senescent-adult polar bears was correlated with spring sea ice breakup date, which was variable among years and occurred approximately 3 weeks earlier in 2004 than in 1984. We propose that this correlation provides evidence for a causal association between earlier sea ice breakup (due to climatic warming) and decreased polar bear survival. It may also explain why Churchill, like other communities along the western coast of Hudson Bay, has experienced an increase in human-polar bear interactions in recent years. Earlier sea ice breakup may have resulted in a larger number of nutritionally stressed polar bears, which are encroaching on human habitations in search of supplemental food. Because western Hudson Bay is near the southern limit of the species' range, our findings may foreshadow the demographic responses and management challenges that more northerly polar bear populations will experience if climatic warming in the Arctic continues as

  4. Is QCD relevant to nuclear physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, A.W.

    1985-01-01

    A review is given of recent work on baryon structure in a number of QCD-motivated models. After establishing a prima facie case that the quark model should be relevant in a consistent description of the nucleus over a wide range of momentum transfer, the author looks for experimental confirmation. The discussion includes the search for exotic states, for a six quark component of the deuteron, and an up to date report on the interpretation of the EMC effect. (Auth.)

  5. Knowledge work and work-related stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ipsen, Christine

    2006-01-01

    Work-related stress is an increasing problem in Europe. Earlier studies have stated that knowledge-work comprises working conditions which reflect a good psychosocial environment. Recent Danish studies, however, point at stress being an increasing problem in knowledge-intensive companies...... with informally, individu-ally and incidentally. It is only when problems exist that enhanced support is offered in order to help an employee to cope or recover. As most workplace initiatives work at this tertiary level, the sources of work-related and organiza-tional stress are not reduced or eliminated...... as good and stimulating, but has on the other hand sides to it which can cause frustration and stress. The implication of organisational characteristics of the knowledge-intensive companies studied is a transfer of the responsibility for ones own working-life. Consequently, issues are dealt...

  6. Insights of the periodic reviews regarding the physical protection of nuclear power plants designed to earlier standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagemann, A.

    2001-01-01

    Among other prerequisites for licensing a nuclear activity, the German Atomic Energy Act stipulates that the necessary physical protection against malevolent acts has to be approved before granting a license. This is required for nuclear power plants in paragraph 7 of the Atomic Energy Act. The licenses for nuclear power plants designed to earlier standards were granted about 20 years ago and more. All NPPs are under the supervision of the Supervisory Authority in order to ensure that all conditions of the license are met during the whole plant operation period. The 'Periodic Safety Review', PSR, is designated to provide the Supervisory Authority with additional information on the safety status. One part of the PSR is the 'Deterministic Security Analysis', DSA. The subject of the DSA is the actual physical protection of a NPP. The following document outlines the experiences gained during the evaluation of DSA reports by GRS as an external expert organisation under contract of the Supervisory Authorities. (author)

  7. Association of Previous Clinical Breast Examination With Reduced Delays and Earlier-Stage Breast Cancer Diagnosis Among Women in Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanoff, Anya; Constant, Tara Hayes; Johnson, Kay M; Guadiamos, Manuel Cedano; Vega, Ana María Burga; Zunt, Joseph; Anderson, Benjamin O

    2017-11-01

    Mammographic screening is impractical in most of the world where breast cancers are first identified based on clinical signs and symptoms. Clinical breast examination may improve early diagnosis directly by finding breast cancers at earlier stages or indirectly by heightening women's awareness of breast health concerns. To investigate factors that influence time to presentation and stage at diagnosis among patients with breast cancer to determine whether history of previous clinical breast examination is associated with earlier presentation and/or earlier cancer stage at diagnosis. In this cross-sectional analysis of individual patient interviews using a validated Breast Cancer Delay Questionnaire, 113 (71.1%) of 159 women with breast cancer treated at a federally funded tertiary care referral cancer center in Trujillo, Peru, from February 1 through May 31, 2015, were studied. Method of breast cancer detection and factors that influence time to and stage at diagnosis. Of 113 women with diagnosed cancer (mean [SD] age, 54 [10.8] years; age range, 32-82 years), 105 (92.9%) had self-detected disease. Of the 93 women for whom stage was documented, 45 (48.4%) were diagnosed with early-stage disease (American Joint Committee on Cancer [AJCC] stage 0, I, or II), and 48 (51.6%) were diagnosed with late-stage disease (AJCC stage III or IV). Mean (SD) total delay from symptom onset to initiation of treatment was 407 (665) days because of patient (mean [SD], 198 [449] days) and health care system (mean [SD], 241 [556] days) delay. Fifty-two women (46.0%) had a history of clinical breast examination, and 23 (20.4%) had undergone previous mammography. Women who underwent a previous clinical breast examination were more likely to have shorter delays from symptom development to presentation compared with women who had never undergone a previous clinical breast examination (odds ratio, 2.92; 95% CI, 1.30-6.60; P = .01). Women diagnosed with shorter patient delay were more

  8. Low protein content of drainage fluid is a good predictor for earlier chest tube removal after lobectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olgac, Guven; Cosgun, Tugba; Vayvada, Mustafa; Ozdemir, Atilla; Kutlu, Cemal Asim

    2014-10-01

    Owing to the great absorption capability of the pleura for transudates, the protein content of draining pleural fluid may be considered as a more adequate determinant than its daily draining amount in the decision-making for earlier chest tube removal. In an a priori pilot study, we observed that the initially draining protein-rich exudate converts to a transudate quickly in most patients after lobectomies. Thus, chest tubes draining high-volume but low-protein fluids can safely be removed earlier in the absence of an air leak. This randomized study aims to investigate the validity and clinical applicability of this hypothesis as well as its influence on the timing for chest tube removal and earlier discharge after lobectomy. Seventy-two consecutive patients undergoing straightforward lobectomy were randomized into two groups. Patients with conditions affecting postoperative drainage and with persisting air leaks beyond the third postoperative day were excluded. Drains were removed if the pleural fluid to blood protein ratio (PrRPl/B) was ≤0.5, regardless of its daily draining amount in the study arm (Group S; n = 38), and patients in the control arm (Group C; n = 34) had their tubes removed if daily drainage was ≤250 ml regardless of its protein content. Patients were discharged home immediately or the following morning after removal of the last drain. All cases were followed up regarding the development of symptomatic pleural effusions and hospital readmissions for a redrainage procedure. Demographic and clinical characteristics as well as the pattern of decrease in PrRPl/B were the same between groups. The mean PrRPl/B was 0.65 and 0.67 (95% CI = 0.60-0.69 and 0.62-0.72) on the first postoperative day, and it remarkably dropped down to 0.39 and 0.33 (95% CI = 0.33-0.45 and 0.27-0.39) on the second day in Groups S and C, respectively, and remained below 0.5 on the third day (repeated-measures of ANOVA design, post hoc 'within-group' comparison of the first

  9. Earlier visual N1 latencies in expert video-game players: a temporal basis of enhanced visuospatial performance?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew J Latham

    Full Text Available Increasing behavioural evidence suggests that expert video game players (VGPs show enhanced visual attention and visuospatial abilities, but what underlies these enhancements remains unclear. We administered the Poffenberger paradigm with concurrent electroencephalogram (EEG recording to assess occipital N1 latencies and interhemispheric transfer time (IHTT in expert VGPs. Participants comprised 15 right-handed male expert VGPs and 16 non-VGP controls matched for age, handedness, IQ and years of education. Expert VGPs began playing before age 10, had a minimum 8 years experience, and maintained playtime of at least 20 hours per week over the last 6 months. Non-VGPs had little-to-no game play experience (maximum 1.5 years. Participants responded to checkerboard stimuli presented to the left and right visual fields while 128-channel EEG was recorded. Expert VGPs responded significantly more quickly than non-VGPs. Expert VGPs also had significantly earlier occipital N1s in direct visual pathways (the hemisphere contralateral to the visual field in which the stimulus was presented. IHTT was calculated by comparing the latencies of occipital N1 components between hemispheres. No significant between-group differences in electrophysiological estimates of IHTT were found. Shorter N1 latencies may enable expert VGPs to discriminate attended visual stimuli significantly earlier than non-VGPs and contribute to faster responding in visual tasks. As successful video-game play requires precise, time pressured, bimanual motor movements in response to complex visual stimuli, which in this sample began during early childhood, these differences may reflect the experience and training involved during the development of video-game expertise, but training studies are needed to test this prediction.

  10. Adverse childhood experiences predict earlier age of drinking onset: results from a representative US sample of current or former drinkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothman, Emily F; Edwards, Erika M; Heeren, Timothy; Hingson, Ralph W

    2008-08-01

    Our goal was to determine whether adverse childhood experiences predicted the age at which drinking was initiated and drinking motives in a representative sample of current or former drinkers in the United States. In 2006, a probability sample of 3592 US current or former drinkers aged 18 to 39 were surveyed. Multinomial logistic regression examined whether each of 10 adverse childhood experiences was associated with earlier ages of drinking onset, controlling for demographics, parental alcohol use, parental attitudes toward drinking, and peers' drinking in adolescence. We also examined whether there was a graded relationship between the number of adverse childhood experiences and age of drinking onset and whether adverse childhood experiences were related to self-reported motives for drinking during the first year that respondents drank. Sixty-six percent of respondents reported >or=1 adverse childhood experiences, and 19% reported experiencing >or=4. The most commonly reported adverse childhood experiences were parental separation/divorce (41.3%), living with a household member who was a problem drinker (28.7%), mental illness of a household member (24.8%), and sexual abuse (19.1%). Of the 10 specific adverse childhood experiences assessed, 5 were significantly associated with initiating drinking at or=21 years of age) after adjustment for confounders, including physical abuse, sexual abuse, having a mentally ill household member, substance abuse in the home, and parental discord or divorce. Compared with those without adverse childhood experiences, respondents with adverse childhood experiences were substantially more likely to report that they drank to cope during the first year that they used alcohol. Results suggest that children with particular adverse childhood experiences may initiate drinking earlier than their peers and that they may be more likely to drink to cope with problems (rather than for pleasure or to be social).

  11. Earlier visual N1 latencies in expert video-game players: a temporal basis of enhanced visuospatial performance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latham, Andrew J; Patston, Lucy L M; Westermann, Christine; Kirk, Ian J; Tippett, Lynette J

    2013-01-01

    Increasing behavioural evidence suggests that expert video game players (VGPs) show enhanced visual attention and visuospatial abilities, but what underlies these enhancements remains unclear. We administered the Poffenberger paradigm with concurrent electroencephalogram (EEG) recording to assess occipital N1 latencies and interhemispheric transfer time (IHTT) in expert VGPs. Participants comprised 15 right-handed male expert VGPs and 16 non-VGP controls matched for age, handedness, IQ and years of education. Expert VGPs began playing before age 10, had a minimum 8 years experience, and maintained playtime of at least 20 hours per week over the last 6 months. Non-VGPs had little-to-no game play experience (maximum 1.5 years). Participants responded to checkerboard stimuli presented to the left and right visual fields while 128-channel EEG was recorded. Expert VGPs responded significantly more quickly than non-VGPs. Expert VGPs also had significantly earlier occipital N1s in direct visual pathways (the hemisphere contralateral to the visual field in which the stimulus was presented). IHTT was calculated by comparing the latencies of occipital N1 components between hemispheres. No significant between-group differences in electrophysiological estimates of IHTT were found. Shorter N1 latencies may enable expert VGPs to discriminate attended visual stimuli significantly earlier than non-VGPs and contribute to faster responding in visual tasks. As successful video-game play requires precise, time pressured, bimanual motor movements in response to complex visual stimuli, which in this sample began during early childhood, these differences may reflect the experience and training involved during the development of video-game expertise, but training studies are needed to test this prediction.

  12. Analysis of arrhythmic events is useful to detect lead failure earlier in patients followed by remote monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishii, Nobuhiro; Miyoshi, Akihito; Kubo, Motoki; Miyamoto, Masakazu; Morimoto, Yoshimasa; Kawada, Satoshi; Nakagawa, Koji; Watanabe, Atsuyuki; Nakamura, Kazufumi; Morita, Hiroshi; Ito, Hiroshi

    2018-03-01

    Remote monitoring (RM) has been advocated as the new standard of care for patients with cardiovascular implantable electronic devices (CIEDs). RM has allowed the early detection of adverse clinical events, such as arrhythmia, lead failure, and battery depletion. However, lead failure was often identified only by arrhythmic events, but not impedance abnormalities. To compare the usefulness of arrhythmic events with conventional impedance abnormalities for identifying lead failure in CIED patients followed by RM. CIED patients in 12 hospitals have been followed by the RM center in Okayama University Hospital. All transmitted data have been analyzed and summarized. From April 2009 to March 2016, 1,873 patients have been followed by the RM center. During the mean follow-up period of 775 days, 42 lead failure events (atrial lead 22, right ventricular pacemaker lead 5, implantable cardioverter defibrillator [ICD] lead 15) were detected. The proportion of lead failures detected only by arrhythmic events, which were not detected by conventional impedance abnormalities, was significantly higher than that detected by impedance abnormalities (arrhythmic event 76.2%, 95% CI: 60.5-87.9%; impedance abnormalities 23.8%, 95% CI: 12.1-39.5%). Twenty-seven events (64.7%) were detected without any alert. Of 15 patients with ICD lead failure, none has experienced inappropriate therapy. RM can detect lead failure earlier, before clinical adverse events. However, CIEDs often diagnose lead failure as just arrhythmic events without any warning. Thus, to detect lead failure earlier, careful human analysis of arrhythmic events is useful. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. The policy relevance of global environmental change research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yarnal, Brent

    1996-01-01

    Many scientists are striving to identify and promote the policy implications of their global change research. Much basic research on global environmental change cannot advance policy directly, but new projects can determine the relevance of their research to decision makers and build policy-relevant products into the work. Similarly, many ongoing projects can alter or add to the present science design to make the research policy relevant. Thus, this paper shows scientists working on global change how to make their research policy relevant. It demonstrates how research on physical global change relates to human dimensions studies and integrated assessments. It also presents an example of how policy relevance can be fit retroactively into a global change project (in this case, SRBEX-the Susquehanna River Basin Experiment) and how that addition can enhance the project's status and science. The paper concludes that policy relevance is desirable from social and scientific perspectives

  14. IGF and myostatin pathways are respectively induced during the earlier and the later stages of skeletal muscle hypertrophy induced by clenbuterol, a β₂-adrenergic agonist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abo, Tokuhisa; Iida, Ryo-Hei; Kaneko, Syuhei; Suga, Takeo; Yamada, Hiroyuki; Hamada, Yoshiki; Yamane, Akira

    2012-12-01

    Clenbuterol, a β₂-adrenergic agonist, increases the hypertrophy of skeletal muscle. Insulin-like growth factor (IGF) is reported to work as a potent positive regulator in the clenbuterol-induced hypertrophy of skeletal muscles. However, the precise regulatory mechanism for the hypertrophy of skeletal muscle induced by clenbuterol is unknown. Myostatin, a member of the TGFβ super family, is a negative regulator of muscle growth. The aim of the present study is to elucidate the function of myostatin and IGF in the hypertrophy of rat masseter muscle induced by clenbuterol. To investigate the function of myostatin and IGF in regulatory mechanism for the clenbuterol-induced hypertrophy of skeletal muscles, we analysed the expression of myostatin and phosphorylation levels of myostatin and IGF signaling components in the masseter muscle of rat to which clenbuterol was orally administered for 21 days. Hypertrophy of the rat masseter muscle was induced between 3 and 14 days of oral administration of clenbuterol and was terminated at 21 days. The expression of myostatin and the phosphorylation of smad2/3 were elevated at 21 days. The phosphorylation of IGF receptor 1 (IGFR1) and akt1 was elevated at 3 and 7 days. These results suggest that myostatin functions as a negative regulator in the later stages in the hypertrophy of rat masseter muscle induced by clenbuterol, whereas IGF works as a positive regulator in the earlier stages. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Clinical relevance in anesthesia journals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauritsen, Jakob; Møller, Ann M

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to present the latest knowledge and research on the definition and distribution of clinically relevant articles in anesthesia journals. It will also discuss the importance of the chosen methodology and outcome of articles.......The purpose of this review is to present the latest knowledge and research on the definition and distribution of clinically relevant articles in anesthesia journals. It will also discuss the importance of the chosen methodology and outcome of articles....

  16. Making Work-Based Learning Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahill, Charlotte

    2016-01-01

    Americans seeking employment often face a conundrum: relevant work experience is a prerequisite for many jobs, but it is difficult to gain the required experience without being in the workplace. Work-based learning--activities that occur in workplaces through which youth and adults gain the knowledge, skills, and experience needed for entry or…

  17. 5 CFR Appendix A to Subpart C of... - Present Value Conversion Factors for Earlier Commencing Date of Annuities of Current and Former...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Present Value Conversion Factors for Earlier Commencing Date of Annuities of Current and Former Spouses of Deceased Separated Employees A...—Present Value Conversion Factors for Earlier Commencing Date of Annuities of Current and Former Spouses of...

  18. assessing the relevance of academic research productivity in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DGS-FUTO

    2018-06-01

    Jun 1, 2018 ... research process relevant to their future development. ... value the opportunity to work with academics in a one- to- one relationship while ... professional researchers that are publicized in scholarly journals are perceived to be.

  19. Filarial parasites develop faster and reproduce earlier in response to host immune effectors that determine filarial life expectancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babayan, Simon A; Read, Andrew F; Lawrence, Rachel A; Bain, Odile; Allen, Judith E

    2010-10-19

    Humans and other mammals mount vigorous immune assaults against helminth parasites, yet there are intriguing reports that the immune response can enhance rather than impair parasite development. It has been hypothesized that helminths, like many free-living organisms, should optimize their development and reproduction in response to cues predicting future life expectancy. However, immune-dependent development by helminth parasites has so far eluded such evolutionary explanation. By manipulating various arms of the immune response of experimental hosts, we show that filarial nematodes, the parasites responsible for debilitating diseases in humans like river blindness and elephantiasis, accelerate their development in response to the IL-5 driven eosinophilia they encounter when infecting a host. Consequently they produce microfilariae, their transmission stages, earlier and in greater numbers. Eosinophilia is a primary host determinant of filarial life expectancy, operating both at larval and at late adult stages in anatomically and temporally separate locations, and is implicated in vaccine-mediated protection. Filarial nematodes are therefore able to adjust their reproductive schedules in response to an environmental predictor of their probability of survival, as proposed by evolutionary theory, thereby mitigating the effects of the immune attack to which helminths are most susceptible. Enhancing protective immunity against filarial nematodes, for example through vaccination, may be less effective at reducing transmission than would be expected and may, at worst, lead to increased transmission and, hence, pathology.

  20. Filarial parasites develop faster and reproduce earlier in response to host immune effectors that determine filarial life expectancy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon A Babayan

    Full Text Available Humans and other mammals mount vigorous immune assaults against helminth parasites, yet there are intriguing reports that the immune response can enhance rather than impair parasite development. It has been hypothesized that helminths, like many free-living organisms, should optimize their development and reproduction in response to cues predicting future life expectancy. However, immune-dependent development by helminth parasites has so far eluded such evolutionary explanation. By manipulating various arms of the immune response of experimental hosts, we show that filarial nematodes, the parasites responsible for debilitating diseases in humans like river blindness and elephantiasis, accelerate their development in response to the IL-5 driven eosinophilia they encounter when infecting a host. Consequently they produce microfilariae, their transmission stages, earlier and in greater numbers. Eosinophilia is a primary host determinant of filarial life expectancy, operating both at larval and at late adult stages in anatomically and temporally separate locations, and is implicated in vaccine-mediated protection. Filarial nematodes are therefore able to adjust their reproductive schedules in response to an environmental predictor of their probability of survival, as proposed by evolutionary theory, thereby mitigating the effects of the immune attack to which helminths are most susceptible. Enhancing protective immunity against filarial nematodes, for example through vaccination, may be less effective at reducing transmission than would be expected and may, at worst, lead to increased transmission and, hence, pathology.

  1. Insights of the periodic reviews regarding the physical protection of nuclear power plants designed to earlier standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagemann, A. [Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit (GRS) mbH, Cologne (Germany)

    2001-07-01

    Among other prerequisites for licensing a nuclear activity, the German Atomic Energy Act stipulates that the necessary physical protection against malevolent acts has to be approved before granting a license. This is required for nuclear power plants in paragraph 7 of the Atomic Energy Act. The licenses for nuclear power plants designed to earlier standards were granted about 20 years ago and more. All NPPs are under the supervision of the Supervisory Authority in order to ensure that all conditions of the license are met during the whole plant operation period. The 'Periodic Safety Review', PSR, is designated to provide the Supervisory Authority with additional information on the safety status. One part of the PSR is the 'Deterministic Security Analysis', DSA. The subject of the DSA is the actual physical protection of a NPP. The following document outlines the experiences gained during the evaluation of DSA reports by GRS as an external expert organisation under contract of the Supervisory Authorities. (author)

  2. Coping and emotional distress during acute hospitalization in older persons with earlier trauma: the case of Holocaust survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimron, Lee; Cohen, Miri

    2012-06-01

    Older persons with earlier trauma are often more vulnerable to stresses of old age. To examine the levels of emotional distress in relation to cognitive appraisal of acute hospitalization and coping strategies in Holocaust survivors compared with an age- and education-matched group of elderly persons without Holocaust experience. This is a cross-sectional study of 63 Holocaust survivors, 65 years and older, hospitalized for an acute illness, and 57 age-, education- and hospital unit-matched people without Holocaust experience. Participants completed appraisal and coping strategies (COPE) questionnaires, and the brief symptoms inventory (BSI-18). Holocaust survivors reported higher levels of emotional distress, appraised the hospitalization higher as a threat and lower as a challenge, and used more emotion-focused and less problem-focused or support-seeking coping strategies than the comparison group. Study variables explained 65% of the variance of emotional distress; significant predictors of emotional distress in the final regression model were not having a partner and more use of emotion-focused coping. The latter mediated the relation of group variable and challenge appraisal to emotional distress. Health professionals must be aware of the potential impact of the hospital environment on the survivors of Holocaust as well as survivors of other trauma. Being sensitive to their specific needs may reduce the negative impact of hospitalization.

  3. Shippingport: A relevant decommissioning project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crimi, F.P.

    1988-01-01

    Because of Shippingport's low electrical power rating (72 MWe), there has been some misunderstanding on the relevancy of the Shippingport Station Decommissioning Project (SSDP) to a modern 1175 MWe commercial pressurized water reactor (PWR) power station. This paper provides a comparison of the major components of the reactor plant of the 72 MWe Shippingport Atomic Power Station and an 1175 MWe nuclear plant and the relevancy of the Shippingport decommissioning as a demonstration project for the nuclear industry. For the purpose of this comparison, Portland General Electric Company's 1175 MWe Trojan Nuclear Plant at Rainier, Oregon, has been used as the reference nuclear power plant. 2 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

  4. Dramatic lives and relevant becomings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Ann-Karina; Miller, Jody

    2012-01-01

    of marginality into positions of relevance. The analysis builds on empirical data from Copenhagen, Denmark, gained through ethnographic fieldwork with the participation of 20 female informants aged 13–22. The theoretical contribution proposes viewing conflicts as multi-linear, multi-causal and non...

  5. Regularization in Matrix Relevance Learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schneider, Petra; Bunte, Kerstin; Stiekema, Han; Hammer, Barbara; Villmann, Thomas; Biehl, Michael

    A In this paper, we present a regularization technique to extend recently proposed matrix learning schemes in learning vector quantization (LVQ). These learning algorithms extend the concept of adaptive distance measures in LVQ to the use of relevance matrices. In general, metric learning can

  6. Improved final predicted height with the injection of leuprolide in children with earlier puberty: A retrospective cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Chun Lin

    Full Text Available The adult height of children with early onset puberty is limited by the premature maturation of hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis. To evaluate the effects of gonadotropin-releasing hormone analog (GnRHa treatment on the final height (FH and bone maturation rate (BMR in girls with early puberty (EP or idiopathic central precocious puberty (ICPP, we examined data from girls who were diagnosed with EP or ICPP and underwent GnRHa (Leuplin Depot: 3.75 mg/month at China Medical University Hospital, in Taiwan, between 2006 and 2015. Patients were observed until the achievement of FH and divided into an "EP group" (T-ep and "ICPP group" (T-icpp according to the age of onset of puberty. Eighty-seven patients were enrolled (T-ep, N = 44, puberty onset at 8-10 years; T-icpp, N = 43, puberty onset before 8 years. The demographic data of girls with EP or IPP was characterized. BMR, change in predicted final height (PFH after GnRHa treatment, target height (TH and FH were measured. After GnRHa treatment, the study groups (T-ep: 160.24±6.18 cm, T-icpp: 158.99±5.92 cm both had higher PFH than at initiation (T-ep: 159.83±7.19 cm, T-icpp: 158.58±5.93 cm. There was deceleration of BMR in both groups (T-ep: 0.57±0.39; T-icpp: 0.97±0.97 and a significant difference between the groups (p = 0.027. The gap in FH standard deviation scores (SDS and TH SDS had a significant difference in T-ep (p = 0.045 but not in T-icpp. Moreover, there was no difference in the gap of PFH SDS between the 1st and final treatment in both groups. We concluded that GnRHa decelerated BMR in girls with earlier puberty. Further prospective clinical studies are warranted.

  7. Higher dose rate Gamma Knife radiosurgery may provide earlier and longer-lasting pain relief for patients with trigeminal neuralgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, John Y K; Sandhu, Sukhmeet; Miller, Denise; Solberg, Timothy; Dorsey, Jay F; Alonso-Basanta, Michelle

    2015-10-01

    Gamma Knife radiosurgery (GKRS) utilizes cobalt-60 as its radiation source, and thus dose rate varies as the fixed source decays over its half-life of approximately 5.26 years. This natural decay results in increasing treatment times when delivering the same cumulative dose. It is also possible, however, that the biological effective dose may change based on this dose rate even if the total dose is kept constant. Because patients are generally treated in a uniform manner, radiosurgery for trigeminal neuralgia (TN) represents a clinical model whereby biological efficacy can be tested. The authors hypothesized that higher dose rates would result in earlier and more complete pain relief but only if measured with a sensitive pain assessment tool. One hundred thirty-three patients were treated with the Gamma Knife Model 4C unit at a single center by a single neurosurgeon during a single cobalt life cycle from January 2006 to May 2012. All patients were treated with 80 Gy with a single 4-mm isocenter without blocking. Using an output factor of 0.87, dose rates ranged from 1.28 to 2.95 Gy/min. The Brief Pain Inventory (BPI)-Facial was administered before the procedure and at the first follow-up office visit 1 month from the procedure (mean 1.3 months). Phone calls were made to evaluate patients after their procedures as part of a retrospective study. Univariate and multivariate linear regression was performed on several independent variables, including sex, age in deciles, diagnosis, follow-up duration, prior surgery, and dose rate. In the short-term analysis (mean 1.3 months), patients' self-reported pain intensity at its worst was significantly correlated with dose rate on multivariate analysis (p = 0.028). Similarly, patients' self-reported interference with activities of daily living was closely correlated with dose rate on multivariate analysis (p = 0.067). A 1 Gy/min decrease in dose rate resulted in a 17% decrease in pain intensity at its worst and a 22% decrease

  8. Lean approach in knowledge work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanna Kropsu-Vehkapera

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Knowledge work productivity is a key area of improvement for many organisations. Lean approach is a sustainable way to achieve operational excellence and can be applied in many areas. The purpose of this novel study is to examine the potential of using lean approach for improving knowledge work practices. Design/methodology/approach: A systematic literature review has been carried out to study how lean approach is realised in knowledge work. The research is conceptual in nature and draws upon earlier research findings. Findings: This study shows that lean studies’ in knowledge work is an emerging research area. This study documents the methods and practices implemented in knowledge work to date, and presents a knowledge work continuum, which is an essential framework for effective lean approach deployment and to frame future research focus in knowledge work productivity. Research limitations/implications: This study structures the concept of knowledge work and outlines a concrete concept derived from earlier literature. The study summarises the literature on lean in knowledge work and highlights, which methods are used. More research is needed to understand how lean can be implemented in complex knowledge work environment and not only on the repetitive knowledge work. The limitations of this research are due to the limited availability of previous research. Practical implications: To analyse the nature of knowledge work, we implicate the areas where lean methods especially apply to improving knowledge work productivity. When applying lean in knowledge work context the focus should be using the people better and improving information flow. Originality/value: This study focuses on adapting lean methods into a knowledge work context and summarises earlier research done in this field. The study discusses the potential to improve knowledge work productivity by implementing lean methods and presents a unique knowledge work continuum to

  9. Microdosing: Concept, application and relevance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tushar Tewari

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of microdose pharmacokinetic studies as an essential tool in drug development is still to catch on. While this approach promises potential cost savings and a quantum leap in efficiencies of the drug development process, major hurdles still need to be overcome before the technique becomes commonplace and part of routine practice. Clear regulations in Europe and the USA have had an enabling effect. The lack of enabling provisions for microdosing studies in Indian regulation, despite low risk and manifest relevance for the local drug development industry, is inconsistent with the country′s aspirations to be among the leaders in pharmaceutical research.

  10. Molecular classification of endometrial carcinoma on diagnostic specimens is highly concordant with final hysterectomy: Earlier prognostic information to guide treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talhouk, Aline; Hoang, Lien N; McConechy, Melissa K; Nakonechny, Quentin; Leo, Joyce; Cheng, Angela; Leung, Samuel; Yang, Winnie; Lum, Amy; Köbel, Martin; Lee, Cheng-Han; Soslow, Robert A; Huntsman, David G; Gilks, C Blake; McAlpine, Jessica N

    2016-10-01

    predicts the molecular features in the final hysterectomy specimens, demonstrating concordance superior to grade and histotype. This biologically relevant information, available at initial diagnosis, has the potential to inform management (surgery, adjuvant therapy) from the earliest time point in cancer care. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. China's Work Safety Report

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liang Jiakun

    2005-01-01

    @@ General Situation of China's Work Safety in 2004 In 2004, the national work safety situation remained stable as a whole and gained momentum to improve. The totality of accidents held the line and began to drop. The safety conditions in industrial,mining, and commercial/trading enterprises improved. Progress was made in ensuring work safety in the relevant industries and fields. The safety situation in most provinces (autonomous regions, municipalities directly under the Central Government) kept stable.

  12. Other relevant numerical modelling papers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chartier, M.

    1989-01-01

    The ocean modelling is a rapidly evolving science and a large number of results have been published. Several categories of papers are of particular interest for this review: the papers published by the international atomic institutions, such as the NEA (for the CRESP or Subseabed Programs), the IAEA (for example the Safety Series, the Technical Report Series or the TECDOC), and the ICRP, and the papers concerned by more fundamental research, which are published in specific scientific literature. This paper aims to list some of the most relevant publications for the CRESP purposes. It means by no way to be exhaustive, but informative on the incontestable progress recently achieved in that field. One should note that some of these papers are so recent that their final version has not yet been published

  13. Industrial relevance of thermophilic Archaea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egorova, Ksenia; Antranikian, Garabed

    2005-12-01

    The dramatic increase of newly isolated extremophilic microorganisms, analysis of their genomes and investigations of their enzymes by academic and industrial laboratories demonstrate the great potential of extremophiles in industrial (white) biotechnology. Enzymes derived from extremophiles (extremozymes) are superior to the traditional catalysts because they can perform industrial processes even under harsh conditions, under which conventional proteins are completely denatured. In particular, enzymes from thermophilic and hyperthermophilic Archaea have industrial relevance. Despite intensive investigations, our knowledge of the structure-function relationships of their enzymes is still limited. Information concerning the molecular properties of their enzymes and genes has to be obtained to be able to understand the mechanisms that are responsible for catalytic activity and stability at the boiling point of water.

  14. A pertinência da categoria divisão sexual do trabalho para a análise da morfologia do trabalho na contemporaneidade (The relevance of category sexual division of labor to the analysis of work in... Doi: 10.5212/Emancipacao.v.15i1.0003

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Gomes da Costa

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Resumo: O presente artigo tem por objetivo refletir sobre a morfologia do trabalho na contemporaneidade, onde analisaremos a categoria divisão sexual do trabalho,conceituando e debatendo sua pertinência para compreender a organização e o processo do trabalho no capitalismo atual. Metodologicamente, caracteriza-se por um ensaio teóricoque busca demonstrar a importância e a necessidade da referida categoria para desvendar aspectos fundamentais nos estudos sobre o mundo do trabalho diante das mudanças e das manutenções nas contradições basilares desse processo. A discussão demonstra a desigualdade que as mulheres enfrentam na esfera produtiva e reprodutiva, assim como as relações sociais continuam a operar e a se apresentar por meio da exploração, dominação e opressão, manifestadas pelas desigualdades salariais, divisão sexual do trabalho, exploração no trabalho doméstico, altos índices de violência contra a mulher, dentre outros elementos. Palavras-chave: Trabalho. Divisão Sexual do Trabalho. Capitalismo. Abstract: This article aims to reflect on the morphology of work in contemporary society, where we analyze the category sexual division of labor, conceptualizing and discussing their relevance for understanding the organization and the process of labor in contemporary capitalism. Methodologically, is characterized by a theoretical essay that seeks to demonstrate the importance and the necessity of that category to unravel fundamental aspects in studies of the working world in the face of changes and maintenance of the basic contradictions of this process. The discussion demonstrates the inequality faced by women in productive and reproductive sphere, as well as social relations continue to operate and to present through exploration, domination and oppression expressed by wage inequality, sexual division of labor exploitation in domestic work, high rates of violence against women, among other elements. Keywords: Work

  15. The evolution of social work education in England: a critical review of its connections and commonalities with nurse education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manthorpe, Jill; Hussein, Shereen; Moriarty, Jo

    2005-07-01

    Social work education in England underwent significant change in its move to degree status in 2003. It is hoped that the result will be increased professional standing for social workers, an improvement in the current widespread problems with recruitment, and assurance that all newly qualified social workers meet the National Occupational Standards for Social Work (Available from: http://www.topssengland.net/files/cd/). This change has pre-occupied social work educators and debate within the profession has concentrated on the practicalities and expectations of reform. This paper suggests that those working in nurse education may observe a number of similarities with its own earlier reforms and with current debates on whether nursing should move to an all-graduate profession. It then highlights three aspects of the new requirements for social work training: service user involvement, the place of research-minded practice, and the primacy of practice--that may be of interest and relevance to nursing colleagues.

  16. Making 'what works' work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plum, Maja

    2017-01-01

    and a mattress. As such, the paper shows how DR, as an evidence-based method, is established through concrete relations, rather than abstracted and universal principals. It argues that these relations stabilising DR are never enacted once and for all, but require continual work to be held together as a method...... that ‘works’....

  17. Reach and Relevance of Prison Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilde Tubex

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In this contribution I reflect on the changes in the penal landscape and how they impact on prison research. I do this from my experiences as a prison researcher in a variety of roles, in both Europe and Australia. The growing dominance of managerialism has impacted on both corrective services and universities, in ways that have changed the relationship between current prison practices and academically oriented research. Therefore, academics have to question how their contemporary prison research can bridge the emerging gap: how they can not only produce research that adheres to the roots of criminology and provides a base for a rational penal policy, but also how they can develop strategies to get recognition of and funding for this broader contextual work which, although it might not produce results that are immediately identifiable, can be of relevance in indirect ways and in the longer term.

  18. Relevance of biotic pathways to the long-term regulation of nuclear waste disposal: Phase 2, Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKenzie, D.H.; Cadwell, L.L.; Kennedy, W.E. Jr.; Prohammer, L.A.; Simmons, M.A.

    1986-11-01

    The results reported here establish the relevance and propose a method for including biotic transport in the assessment and licensing process for commercial low-level waste disposal sites. Earlier work identified the biotic transport mechanisms and process scenarios linking biotic transport with dose to man, and developed models for assessment of impacts. Model modification and improvement efforts in enhancing the ability to represent soil erosion and soil transport within the trench cover. Two alternative hypotheses on plant root uptake were incorporated into the model to represent transport of radionuclides by roots that penetrate the buried waste. Enhancements were also made to the scenario for future site intruder activities. Representation of waste package decomposition in the model was confirmed as the best available alternative. Results from sensitivity analyses indicate that additional information is needed to evaluate the alternative hypotheses for plant root uptake of buried wastes. Site-specific evaluations of the contribution from biotic transport to the potential dose to man establish the relevance in the assessment process. The BIOPORT/MAXI1 computer software package is proposed for dose assessments of commercial low-level waste disposal sites

  19. Relevance of biotic pathways to the long-term regulation of nuclear waste disposal: Phase 2, Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKenzie, D.H.; Cadwell, L.L.; Kennedy, W.E. Jr.; Prohammer, L.A.; Simmons, M.A.

    1986-11-01

    The results reported here establish the relevance and propose a method for including biotic transport in the assessment and licensing process for commercial low-level waste disposal sites. Earlier work identified the biotic transport mechanisms and process scenarios linking biotic transport with dose to man, and developed models for assessment of impacts. Model modification and improvement efforts in enhancing the ability to represent soil erosion and soil transport within the trench cover. Two alternative hypotheses on plant root uptake were incorporated into the model to represent transport of radionuclides by roots that penetrate the buried waste. Enhancements were also made to the scenario for future site intruder activities. Representation of waste package decomposition in the model was confirmed as the best available alternative. Results from sensitivity analyses indicate that additional information is needed to evaluate the alternative hypotheses for plant root uptake of buried wastes. Site-specific evaluations of the contribution from biotic transport to the potential dose to man establish the relevance in the assessment process. The BIOPORT/MAXI1 computer software package is proposed for dose assessments of commercial low-level waste disposal sites.

  20. Bioprinting towards Physiologically Relevant Tissue Models for Pharmaceutics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Weijie; Unutmaz, Derya; Ozbolat, Ibrahim T

    2016-09-01

    Improving the ability to predict the efficacy and toxicity of drug candidates earlier in the drug discovery process will speed up the introduction of new drugs into clinics. 3D in vitro systems have significantly advanced the drug screening process as 3D tissue models can closely mimic native tissues and, in some cases, the physiological response to drugs. Among various in vitro systems, bioprinting is a highly promising technology possessing several advantages such as tailored microarchitecture, high-throughput capability, coculture ability, and low risk of cross-contamination. In this opinion article, we discuss the currently available tissue models in pharmaceutics along with their limitations and highlight the possibilities of bioprinting physiologically relevant tissue models, which hold great potential in drug testing, high-throughput screening, and disease modeling. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Factors contributing to risk for cancer among HIV-infected individuals, and evidence that earlier combination antiretroviral therapy will alter this risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borges, Alvaro Humberto Diniz; Dubrow, Robert; Silverberg, Michael J

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To critically appraise recent published literature about factors associated with cancer risk likely to be influenced by combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) in HIV-infected individuals, and the potential of earlier cART initiation to reduce this risk. RECENT FINDINGS: Fact...

  2. 2011 Annual Survey of Journalism and Mass Communication Enrollments: Enrollments Decline, Reversing the Increase of a Year Earlier, and Suggesting Slow Growth for Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Lee B.; Vlad, Tudor; Kalpen, Konrad

    2012-01-01

    Enrollments in journalism and mass communication programs declined in the autumn of 2011, compared to a year earlier. Enrollments were down slightly at the senior and junior levels and substantially at the freshman level. Enrollment increased at the sophomore level. The majority of administrators say they have made curricular changes in the past…

  3. Vygotsky's Crisis: Argument, context, relevance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyman, Ludmila

    2012-06-01

    Vygotsky's The Historical Significance of the Crisis in Psychology (1926-1927) is an important text in the history and philosophy of psychology that has only become available to scholars in 1982 in Russian, and in 1997 in English. The goal of this paper is to introduce Vygotsky's conception of psychology to a wider audience. I argue that Vygotsky's argument about the "crisis" in psychology and its resolution can be fully understood only in the context of his social and political thinking. Vygotsky shared the enthusiasm, widespread among Russian leftist intelligentsia in the 1920s, that Soviet society had launched an unprecedented social experiment: The socialist revolution opened the way for establishing social conditions that would let the individual flourish. For Vygotsky, this meant that "a new man" of the future would become "the first and only species in biology that would create itself." He envisioned psychology as a science that would serve this humanist teleology. I propose that The Crisis is relevant today insofar as it helps us define a fundamental problem: How can we systematically account for the development of knowledge in psychology? I evaluate how Vygotsky addresses this problem as a historian of the crisis. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Relevance of equilibrium in multifragmentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furuta, Takuya; Ono, Akira

    2009-01-01

    The relevance of equilibrium in a multifragmentation reaction of very central 40 Ca + 40 Ca collisions at 35 MeV/nucleon is investigated by using simulations of antisymmetrized molecular dynamics (AMD). Two types of ensembles are compared. One is the reaction ensemble of the states at each reaction time t in collision events simulated by AMD, and the other is the equilibrium ensemble prepared by solving the AMD equation of motion for a many-nucleon system confined in a container for a long time. The comparison of the ensembles is performed for the fragment charge distribution and the excitation energies. Our calculations show that there exists an equilibrium ensemble that well reproduces the reaction ensemble at each reaction time t for the investigated period 80≤t≤300 fm/c. However, there are some other observables that show discrepancies between the reaction and equilibrium ensembles. These may be interpreted as dynamical effects in the reaction. The usual static equilibrium at each instant is not realized since any equilibrium ensemble with the same volume as that of the reaction system cannot reproduce the fragment observables

  5. Is [Rural] Property Tax Relevant?

    OpenAIRE

    Villaveces-Niño, Marta-Juanita

    2015-01-01

    The present document presents the general notions and the definition of property taxation and, as part of it, the working definition of rural property taxation emphasizing that property taxation is a matter of “property” and rural property taxation is linked with rural property, specifically with land ownership. In addition, the document presents some facts about the performance of property taxation based on a secondary source of cross-country analysis. In order to giv...

  6. Advanced seasonal reproductive development in a male urban bird is reflected in earlier plasma luteinizing hormone rise but not energetic status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Scott; Behbahaninia, Hirbod; Giraudeau, Mathieu; Meddle, Simone L; Waites, Kyle; Deviche, Pierre

    2015-12-01

    Urban animals inhabit an environment considerably different than do their non-urban conspecifics, and to persist urban animals must adjust to these novel environments. The timing of seasonal reproductive development (i.e., growth of gonads and secondary sex organs) is a fundamental determinant of the breeding period and is frequently advanced in urban bird populations. However, the underlying mechanism(s) by which birds adjust the timing of reproductive development to urban areas remain(s) largely unknown. Here, we compared the timing of vernal reproductive development in free-ranging urban and non-urban male Abert's Towhees, Melozone aberti, in Phoenix, Arizona, USA, and tested the non-mutually exclusive hypotheses that earlier reproductive development is due to improved energetic status and/or earlier increase in endocrine activity of the reproductive system. We found that urban birds initiated testicular development earlier than non-urban birds, but this disparity was not associated with differences in body condition, fat stores, or innate immune performance. These results provide no support for the hypothesis that energetic constraints are responsible for delayed reproductive development of non-urban relative to urban male Abert's Towhees. Urban birds did, however, increase their plasma luteinizing hormone, but not plasma testosterone, earlier than non-urban birds. These findings suggest that adjustment to urban areas by Abert's Towhees involves increases in the endocrine activity of the anterior pituitary gland and/or hypothalamus earlier than non-urban towhees. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. The LAILAPS Search Engine: Relevance Ranking in Life Science Databases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lange Matthias

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Search engines and retrieval systems are popular tools at a life science desktop. The manual inspection of hundreds of database entries, that reflect a life science concept or fact, is a time intensive daily work. Hereby, not the number of query results matters, but the relevance does. In this paper, we present the LAILAPS search engine for life science databases. The concept is to combine a novel feature model for relevance ranking, a machine learning approach to model user relevance profiles, ranking improvement by user feedback tracking and an intuitive and slim web user interface, that estimates relevance rank by tracking user interactions. Queries are formulated as simple keyword lists and will be expanded by synonyms. Supporting a flexible text index and a simple data import format, LAILAPS can easily be used both as search engine for comprehensive integrated life science databases and for small in-house project databases.

  8. Statistical significance versus clinical relevance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Rijn, Marieke H C; Bech, Anneke; Bouyer, Jean; van den Brand, Jan A J G

    2017-04-01

    In March this year, the American Statistical Association (ASA) posted a statement on the correct use of P-values, in response to a growing concern that the P-value is commonly misused and misinterpreted. We aim to translate these warnings given by the ASA into a language more easily understood by clinicians and researchers without a deep background in statistics. Moreover, we intend to illustrate the limitations of P-values, even when used and interpreted correctly, and bring more attention to the clinical relevance of study findings using two recently reported studies as examples. We argue that P-values are often misinterpreted. A common mistake is saying that P < 0.05 means that the null hypothesis is false, and P ≥0.05 means that the null hypothesis is true. The correct interpretation of a P-value of 0.05 is that if the null hypothesis were indeed true, a similar or more extreme result would occur 5% of the times upon repeating the study in a similar sample. In other words, the P-value informs about the likelihood of the data given the null hypothesis and not the other way around. A possible alternative related to the P-value is the confidence interval (CI). It provides more information on the magnitude of an effect and the imprecision with which that effect was estimated. However, there is no magic bullet to replace P-values and stop erroneous interpretation of scientific results. Scientists and readers alike should make themselves familiar with the correct, nuanced interpretation of statistical tests, P-values and CIs. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of ERA-EDTA. All rights reserved.

  9. Shift Work and Cognitive Flexibility: Decomposing Task Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Philip; Tallent, Gabriel; Bender, Thomas John; Tran, Kieulinh Michelle; Drake, Christopher L

    2017-04-01

    Deficits in cognitive functioning associated with shift work are particularly relevant to occupational performance; however, few studies have examined how cognitive functioning is associated with specific components of shift work. This observational study examined how circadian phase, nocturnal sleepiness, and daytime insomnia in a sample of shift workers ( N = 30) were associated with cognitive flexibility during the night shift. Cognitive flexibility was measured using a computerized task-switching paradigm, which produces 2 indexes of flexibility: switch cost and set inhibition. Switch cost represents the additional cognitive effort required in switching to a different task and can impact performance when multitasking is involved. Set inhibition is the efficiency in returning to previously completed tasks and represents the degree of cognitive perseveration, which can lead to reduced accuracy. Circadian phase was measured via melatonin assays, nocturnal sleepiness was assessed using the Multiple Sleep Latency Test, and daytime insomnia was assessed using the Insomnia Severity Index. Results indicated that those with an earlier circadian phase, insomnia, and sleepiness exhibited reduced cognitive flexibility; however, specific components of cognitive flexibility were differentially associated with circadian phase, insomnia, and sleepiness. Individuals with an earlier circadian phase (thus more misaligned to the night shift) exhibited larger switch costs, which was also associated with reduced task efficiency. Shift workers with more daytime insomnia demonstrated difficulties with cognitive inhibition, whereas nocturnal sleepiness was associated with difficulties in reactivating previous tasks. Deficits in set inhibition were also related to reduced accuracy and increased perseverative errors. Together, this study indicates that task performance deficits in shift work are complex and are variably impacted by different mechanisms. Future research may examine

  10. Does relevance matter in academic policy research?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dredge, Dianne

    2015-01-01

    A reflection on whether relevance matters in tourism policy research. A debate among tourism scholars.......A reflection on whether relevance matters in tourism policy research. A debate among tourism scholars....

  11. How attention can create synaptic tags for the learning of working memories in sequential tasks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaldert O Rombouts

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Intelligence is our ability to learn appropriate responses to new stimuli and situations. Neurons in association cortex are thought to be essential for this ability. During learning these neurons become tuned to relevant features and start to represent them with persistent activity during memory delays. This learning process is not well understood. Here we develop a biologically plausible learning scheme that explains how trial-and-error learning induces neuronal selectivity and working memory representations for task-relevant information. We propose that the response selection stage sends attentional feedback signals to earlier processing levels, forming synaptic tags at those connections responsible for the stimulus-response mapping. Globally released neuromodulators then interact with tagged synapses to determine their plasticity. The resulting learning rule endows neural networks with the capacity to create new working memory representations of task relevant information as persistent activity. It is remarkably generic: it explains how association neurons learn to store task-relevant information for linear as well as non-linear stimulus-response mappings, how they become tuned to category boundaries or analog variables, depending on the task demands, and how they learn to integrate probabilistic evidence for perceptual decisions.

  12. Causal and Epistemic Relevance in Appeals to Authority

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastiano Lommi

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Appeals to authority have a long tradition in the history of argumentation theory. During the Middle Age they were considered legitimate and sound arguments, but after Locke’s treatment in the Essay Concerning Human Understanding their legitimacy has come under question. Traditionally, arguments from authority were considered informal arguments, but since the important work of Charles Hamblin (Hamblin, 1970 many attempts to provide a form for them have been done. The most convincing of them is the presumptive form developed by Douglas Walton and John Woods (Woods, Walton, 1974 that aims at taking into account the relevant contextual aspects in assessing the provisional validity of an appeal to authority. The soundness of an appeal depends on its meeting the adequacy conditions set to scrutinize all the relevant questions. I want to claim that this approach is compatible with the analysis of arguments in terms of relevance advanced by David Hitchcock (Hitchcock, 1992. He claims that relevance is a triadic relation between two items and a context. The first item is relevant to the second one in a given context. Different types of relevance relation exist, namely causal relevance and epistemic relevance. “Something is [causally] relevant to an outcome in a given situation if it helps to cause that outcome in the situation” (Hitchcock, 1992, p. 253, whereas it is epistemically relevant when it helps to achieve an epistemic goal in a given situation. I claim that we can adapt this conception to Walton and Krabbe’s theory of dialogue type (Walton, Krabbe, 1995, seeing the items of a relevance relation as the argument and its consequence and the context as the type of dialogue in which these arguments are advanced. According to this perspective, an argument from authority that meets the adequacy conditions has to be considered legitimate because it is an epistemically relevant relation. Therefore, my conclusion is that an analysis of appeals to

  13. Meaningful work, work engagement and organisational commitment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madelyn Geldenhuys

    2014-03-01

    Research purpose: The aim of the study was to investigate the relationships amongst psychological meaningfulness, work engagement and organisational commitment and to test for a possible mediation effect of work engagement on the relationship between psychological meaningfulness and organisational commitment. Motivation for the study: Managers have to rethink ways of improving productivity and performance at work, due to the diverse, and in some instances escalating, needs of employees (e.g. financial support to uphold their interest in and enjoyment of working. Research approach, design and method: A quantitative approach was employed to gather the data for the study, utilising a cross-sectional survey design. The sample (n = 415 consisted of working employees from various companies and positions in Gauteng, South Africa. Main findings: The results confirmed a positive relationship between psychological meaningfulness, work engagement and organisational commitment. Further, psychological meaningfulness predicts work engagement, whilst psychological meaningfulness and work engagement predict organisational commitment. Practical/managerial implications: Employers identifying their employees’ commitment patterns and mapping out strategies for enhancing those that are relevant to organisational goals will yield positive work outcomes (e.g. employees who are creative, seek growth or challenges for themselves. Contribution/value-add: This study contributes to the literature through highlighting the impact that meaningful work has on sustaining employee commitment to the organisation.

  14. Topic A. Have all the relevant issues been identified

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernero, R.M.

    1994-01-01

    This work is an answer to the question : have all the relevant issues been identified? The author tries to answer more particularly to the following three points : 1) can risk or responsibility for action be imposed on future generations. 2) Are current safety norms suitable for the future? 3) what controls are appropriate for inter generational cost/benefit evaluations. (O.L.)

  15. Classification of first branchial cleft anomalies: is it clinically relevant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: There are three classification systems for first branchial cleft anomalies currently in use. The Arnot, Work and Olsen classifications describe these lesions on the basis of morphology, tissue of origin and clinical appearance. However, the clinical relevance of these classifications is debated, as they may not be ...

  16. The Flora Malesiana Project and its relevance to Malaysia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saw, L.G.; Soepadmo, E.

    2002-01-01

    In a developing country like Malaysia, it is becoming difficult to attract funds to do basic taxonomic work. Taxonomic research must be made relevant to national needs. Among the increasing needs for indigenous plants and their environment in Malaysia are their conservation and determining the

  17. Publish or perish: remaining academically relevant and visible in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To improve the visibility of scholars' works and make them relevant on the academic scene, electronic publishing will be advisable. This provides the potential to readers to search and locate the ar ticles at minimum time within one journal or across multiple journals. This includes publishing articles in journals that are ...

  18. The Personal Relevance of the Social Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanSickle, Ronald L.

    1990-01-01

    Conceptualizes a personal-relevance framework derived from Ronald L. VanSickle's five areas of life integrated with four general motivating goals from Abraham Maslow's hierarchy of needs and Richard and Patricia Schmuck's social motivation theory. Illustrates ways to apply the personal relevance framework to make social studies more relevant to…

  19. The Development of Relevance in Information Retrieval

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mu-hsuan Huang

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available This article attempts to investigate the notion of relevance in information retrieval. It discusses various definitions for relevance from historical viewpoints and the characteristics of relevance judgments. Also, it introduces empirical results of important related researches.[Article content in Chinese

  20. Nuclear models relevant to evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arthur, E.D.; Chadwick, M.B.; Hale, G.M.; Young, P.G.

    1991-01-01

    The widespread use of nuclear models continues in the creation of data evaluations. The reasons include extension of data evaluations to higher energies, creation of data libraries for isotopic components of natural materials, and production of evaluations for radiative target species. In these cases, experimental data are often sparse or nonexistent. As this trend continues, the nuclear models employed in evaluation work move towards more microscopically-based theoretical methods, prompted in part by the availability of increasingly powerful computational resources. Advances in nuclear models applicable to evaluation will be reviewed. These include advances in optical model theory, microscopic and phenomenological state and level density theory, unified models that consistently describe both equilibrium and nonequilibrium reaction mechanism, and improved methodologies for calculation of prompt radiation from fission. 84 refs., 8 figs

  1. Military Social Work: Opportunities and Challenges for Social Work Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wooten, Nikki R.

    2015-01-01

    Military social work is a specialized field of practice spanning the micro-macro continuum and requiring advanced social work knowledge and skills. The complex behavioral health problems and service needs of Iraq and Afghanistan veterans highlight the need for highly trained social work professionals who can provide militarily relevant and…

  2. Left ventricular filling rate change as an earlier indicator than ejection fraction of chemotherapeutic cardiotoxicity in cancer paptents' nuclear medicine MUGA scans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miko, T.G.

    2004-01-01

    According to Wang Siegel has long suggested that an earlier indicator of damage to the hearts of cancer patients undergoing potentially cardiotoxic chemotherapy could be change in the left ventricular filling rate (LVFT) rather than dependence on the left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) as a measure for when to discontinue chemotherapy. Currently ejection fraction obtained by performing the nuclear medicine MUGA scan is the gold standard for determining further treatment of patients with these cardiotoxic agents. We are seeking to see if changes in filling rate (LVFR) are an earlier indicator of cardiotoxicity by performing a retrospective analysis of MUGA scans performed at our facility pre- and post-chemotherapy and performing a statistical analysis of changes in ejection fraction us filling rate in patients known to have cardiotoxic changes due to chemotherapy. (authors)

  3. Developing Scoring Algorithms (Earlier Methods)

    Science.gov (United States)

    We developed scoring procedures to convert screener responses to estimates of individual dietary intake for fruits and vegetables, dairy, added sugars, whole grains, fiber, and calcium using the What We Eat in America 24-hour dietary recall data from the 2003-2006 NHANES.

  4. Nostalgia's place among self-relevant emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Tilburg, Wijnand A P; Wildschut, Tim; Sedikides, Constantine

    2017-07-24

    How is nostalgia positioned among self-relevant emotions? We tested, in six studies, which self-relevant emotions are perceived as most similar versus least similar to nostalgia, and what underlies these similarities/differences. We used multidimensional scaling to chart the perceived similarities/differences among self-relevant emotions, resulting in two-dimensional models. The results were revealing. Nostalgia is positioned among self-relevant emotions characterised by positive valence, an approach orientation, and low arousal. Nostalgia most resembles pride and self-compassion, and least resembles embarrassment and shame. Our research pioneered the integration of nostalgia among self-relevant emotions.

  5. The effect of rapid screening for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) on the identification and earlier isolation of MRSA-positive patients.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Creamer, Eilish

    2010-04-01

    (1) To determine whether rapid screening with polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays leads to the earlier isolation of patients at risk for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) colonization, (2) to assess compliance with routine MRSA screening protocols, (3) to confirm the diagnostic accuracy of the Xpert MRSA real-time PCR assay (Cepheid) by comparison with culture, and (4) to compare turnaround times for PCR assay results with those for culture results.

  6. Age of diagnosis of breast cancer in china: almost 10 years earlier than in the United States and the European union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Qing-Kun; Li, Jing; Huang, Rong; Fan, Jin-Hu; Zheng, Rong-Shou; Zhang, Bao-Ning; Zhang, Bin; Tang, Zhong-Hua; Xie, Xiao-Ming; Yang, Hong-Jian; He, Jian-Jun; Li, Hui; Li, Jia-Yuan; Qiao, You-Lin; Chen, Wan-Qing

    2014-01-01

    The study aimed to describe the age distribution of breast cancer diagnosis among Chinese females for comparison with the United States and the European Union, and provide evidence for the screening target population in China. Median age was estimated from hospital databases from 7 tertiary hospitals in China. Population-based data in China, United States and European Union was extracted from the National Central Cancer Registry, SEER program and GLOBOCAN 2008, respectively. Age-standardized distribution of breast cancer at diagnosis in the 3 areas was estimated based on the World Standard Population 2000. The median age of breast cancer at diagnosis was around 50 in China, nearly 10 years earlier than United States and European Union. The diagnosis age in China did not vary between subgroups of calendar year, region and pathological characteristics. With adjustment for population structure, median age of breast cancer at diagnosis was 50~54 in China, but 55~59 in United States and European Union. The median diagnosis age of female breast cancer is much earlier in China than in the United States and the European Union pointing to racial differences in genetics and lifestyle. Screening programs should start at an earlier age for Chinese women and age disparities between Chinese and Western women warrant further studies.

  7. Decreased length of stay and earlier oral feeding associated with standardized postoperative clinical care for total gastrectomies at a cancer center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selby, Luke V; Rifkin, Marissa B; Yoon, Sam S; Ariyan, Charlotte E; Strong, Vivian E

    2016-09-01

    Standardization of postoperative care has been shown to decrease postoperative length of stay. In June 2009, we standardized postoperative care for all gastrectomies at our institution. Four years' worth of total gastrectomies (2 years prior to standardization and 2 years after standardization) were reviewed to determine the effect of standardization on postoperative care, length of stay, complications, and readmissions. Between June 2007 and July 2011, 99 patients underwent curative intent open total gastrectomy: 51 patients prior to standardization, and 48 patients poststandardization. Patients were predominantly male (70%); median age was 63; and median body mass index was 26. Standardization of postoperative care was associated with a decrease in median time to beginning both clear liquids and a postgastrectomy diet, earlier removal of epidural catheters, earlier use of oral pain medication, less time receiving intravenous fluids, and decreased length of stay (all P Care Center, or readmission. Institution of standardized postoperative orders for total gastrectomy was associated with a significantly decreased length of stay and earlier oral feeding without increasing postoperative complications, early postoperative outpatient visits, or readmissions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Social validation of vocabulary selection: ensuring stakeholder relevance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornman, Juan; Bryen, Diane Nelson

    2013-06-01

    The vocabulary needs of individuals who are unable to spell their messages continue to be of concern in the field of augmentative and alternative communication (AAC). Social validation of vocabulary selection has been suggested as one way to improve the effectiveness and relevance of service delivery in AAC. Despite increased emphasis on stakeholder accountability, social validation is not frequently used in AAC research. This paper describes an investigation of the social validity of a vocabulary set identified in earlier research. A previous study used stakeholder focus groups to identify vocabulary that could be used by South African adults who use AAC to disclose their experiences as victims of crime or abuse. Another study used this vocabulary to create communication boards for use by adults with complex communication needs. In this current project, 12 South African adults with complex communication needs who use AAC systems used a 5-point Likert scale to score the importance of each of the previously identified 57 vocabulary items. This two-step process of first using stakeholder focus groups to identify vocabulary, and then having literate persons who use AAC provide information on social validity of the vocabulary on behalf of their peers who are illiterate, appears to hold promise as a culturally relevant vocabulary selection approach for sensitive topics such as crime and abuse.

  9. Mobility Work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bardram, Jakob Eyvind; Bossen, Claus

    2005-01-01

    We posit the concept of Mobility Work to describe efforts of moving about people and things as part of accomplishing tasks. Mobility work can be seen as a spatial parallel to the concept of articulation work proposed by the sociologist Anselm Strauss. Articulation work describes efforts of coordi....../or resources. To accomplish their work, actors have to make the right configuration of these four aspects emerge.......We posit the concept of Mobility Work to describe efforts of moving about people and things as part of accomplishing tasks. Mobility work can be seen as a spatial parallel to the concept of articulation work proposed by the sociologist Anselm Strauss. Articulation work describes efforts...... of coordination necessary in cooperative work, but focuses, we argue, mainly on the temporal aspects of cooperative work. As a supplement, the concept of mobility work focuses on the spatial aspects of cooperative work. Whereas actors seek to diminish the amount of articulation work needed in collaboration...

  10. Human error theory: relevance to nurse management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armitage, Gerry

    2009-03-01

    Describe, discuss and critically appraise human error theory and consider its relevance for nurse managers. Healthcare errors are a persistent threat to patient safety. Effective risk management and clinical governance depends on understanding the nature of error. This paper draws upon a wide literature from published works, largely from the field of cognitive psychology and human factors. Although the content of this paper is pertinent to any healthcare professional; it is written primarily for nurse managers. Error is inevitable. Causation is often attributed to individuals, yet causation in complex environments such as healthcare is predominantly multi-factorial. Individual performance is affected by the tendency to develop prepacked solutions and attention deficits, which can in turn be related to local conditions and systems or latent failures. Blame is often inappropriate. Defences should be constructed in the light of these considerations and to promote error wisdom and organizational resilience. Managing and learning from error is seen as a priority in the British National Health Service (NHS), this can be better achieved with an understanding of the roots, nature and consequences of error. Such an understanding can provide a helpful framework for a range of risk management activities.

  11. Accreditation - Its relevance for laboratories measuring radionuclides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palsson, S E [Icelandic Radiation Protection Inst. (Iceland)

    2001-11-01

    Accreditation is an internationally recognised way for laboratories to demonstrate their competence. Obtaining and maintaining accreditation is, however, a costly and time-consuming procedure. The benefits of accreditation also depend on the role of the laboratory. Accreditation may be of limited relevance for a research laboratory, but essential for a laboratory associated with a national authority and e.g. issuing certificates. This report describes work done within the NKSBOK-1.1 sub-project on introducing accreditation to Nordic laboratories measuring radionuclides. Initially the focus was on the new standard ISO/IEC 17025, which was just in a draft form at the time, but which provides now a new framework for accreditation of laboratories. Later the focus was widened to include a general introduction to accreditation and providing through seminars a forum for exchanging views on the experience laboratories have had in this field. Copies of overheads from the last such seminar are included in the appendix to this report. (au)

  12. On the marginally relevant operator in z=2 Lifshitz holography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holsheimer, Kristian

    2014-01-01

    We study holographic renormalization and RG flow in a strongly-coupled Lifshitz-type theory in 2+1 dimensions with dynamical exponent z=2. The bottom-up gravity dual we use is 3+1 dimensional Einstein gravity coupled to a massive vector field. This model contains a marginally relevant operator around the Lifshitz fixed point. We show how holographic renormalization works in the presence of this marginally relevant operator without the need to introduce explicitly cutoff-dependent counterterms. A simple closed-form expression is found for the renormalized on-shell action. We also discuss how asymptotically Lifshitz geometries flow to AdS in the interior due to the marginally relevant operator. We study the behavior of the renormalized entanglement entropy and confirm that it decreases monotonically along the Lifshitz-to-AdS RG flow

  13. Presentation of conclusions of the 9. meeting of the working group on the division by four of the greenhouse gases emissions in France for 2050, called factor 4; Releve de conclusions de la 9. reunion du groupe de travail sur la division par quatre des emissions de gaz a effet de serre de la France a l'horizon 2050, dit Facteur 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lamblin, V

    2006-05-15

    This document provides opinions and recommendations of the working group on the factor 4. It deals with the individual behaviors and their positive evolution, the part of the public policies, the actions of the CITEPA, the scientific context about the greenhouse gases decrease objectives, the works of the factor 4 and the long dated reduction aboard. (A.L.B.)

  14. Domestic Work: Challenges for Decent Work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solange Sanches

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available This article presents an overview of the situation of the domestic workers and focuses on some issues related to its dimension in the world and in Brazil, to their conditions of work and its importance to the labor market and to the households. We aim to demonstrate the relevance of the concept of decent work, promoted by ILO – International Labor Organization, for the domestic work and the need to extend their rights to level them with the other workers. It also highlights the opportunity offered by the next International Labor Conference, in 2010, when one of the issues of the agenda is to discuss the crafting and adoption of international labor standards in the form of a specific convention or recommendation.

  15. Does relevance matter in academic policy research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dredge, Dianne

    2015-01-01

    A reflection on whether relevance matters in tourism policy research, and if so, to whom/what should it matter......A reflection on whether relevance matters in tourism policy research, and if so, to whom/what should it matter...

  16. Inoculating Relevance Feedback Against Poison Pills

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dehghani, Mostafa; Azarbonyad, Hosein; Kamps, Jaap; Hiemstra, Djoerd; Marx, Maarten

    2016-01-01

    Relevance Feedback is a common approach for enriching queries, given a set of explicitly or implicitly judged documents to improve the performance of the retrieval. Although it has been shown that on average, the overall performance of retrieval will be improved after relevance feedback, for some

  17. Relevant cost information for order acceptance decisions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wouters, M.J.F.

    1997-01-01

    Some economic considerations for order acceptance decisions are discussed. The relevant economic considerations for order acceptance are widely discussed in the literature: only those costs are relevant which would be avoidable by not accepting the order incremental costs plus opportunity costs .

  18. Android Smartphone Relevance to Military Weather Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-01

    lithium -ion battery that may be replaced by the user (unlike Apple iPod Touch devices), thus spare batteries can be carried. If there is only sporadic...Android Smartphone Relevance to Military Weather Applications by David Sauter ARL-TR-5793 October 2011...Android Smartphone Relevance to Military Weather Applications David Sauter Computational and Information Sciences Directorate, ARL

  19. Using small XML elements to support relevance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G. Ramirez Camps (Georgina); T.H.W. Westerveld (Thijs); A.P. de Vries (Arjen)

    2006-01-01

    htmlabstractSmall XML elements are often estimated relevant by the retrieval model but they are not desirable retrieval units. This paper presents a generic model that exploits the information obtained from small elements. We identify relationships between small and relevant elements and use this

  20. Translation as secondary communication. The relevance theory ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ernst-August Gutt started one of the greatest translation debates of the past ten years when he suggested that relevance theory holds the key to providing a unified account of translation. The bulk of the debate has been between practitioners of functional equivalence and advocates of a relevance theoretic approach to ...

  1. Assessment of serology and spirometry and the combination of both to complement microbiological isolation for earlier detection of Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection in children with cystic fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotnik Pirš, Ana; Krivec, Uroš; Simčič, Saša; Seme, Katja

    2016-11-25

    The aim of this study was to assess whether serology and spirometry and the combination of both can complement culture-based detection for earlier recognition of Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection in children with cystic fibrosis. A 4 year longitudinal prospective study that included 67 Slovenian children with cystic fibrosis with a mean age of 10.5 years was conducted. Serology, spirometry and a scoring system combining serology and spirometry were assessed and compared. Infection was confirmed with isolation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa from respiratory samples. There was a significantly positive correlation between serology and the combination of serology and spirometry and Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolation (P spirometry and Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolation (P spirometry the highest sensitivity (0.90). Both had a high negative predictive value (0.93 and 0.79 respectively). Using serology and the combination of serology and lung function measurement can be beneficial for earlier detection of infection with Pseudomonas aeruginosa in children with cystic fibrosis when done simultaneously with standard culture-based detection from respiratory samples.

  2. Cholesteatoma has a high prevalence in Turner syndrome, highlighting the need for earlier diagnosis and the potential benefits of otoscopy training for paediatricians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, D B N; Gault, E J; Kubba, H; Morrissey, M S C; Wynne, D M; Donaldson, M D C

    2014-07-01

    Girls with Turner syndrome are prone to cholesteatoma, a serious suppurative middle ear disease. We aimed to confirm its high prevalence in Turner syndrome, identify risk factors and suggest possible strategies for earlier detection. We reviewed 179 girls with Turner syndrome between 1989 and 2012 to identify cases of cholesteatoma. Seven girls (3.9%) had cholesteatoma (index girls) and each was compared with three age-matched girls without cholesteatoma (comparison girls). All the index girls had either the 45,X or 45,X/46X,i(Xq) karyotypes. Nine ears were initially affected, with three recurrences in two girls. Median age at first cholesteatoma presentation was 11.9 years (range: 7.5-15.2), with otorrhoea for three (range: one to seven) months in all 12 affected ears. Index girls had a significantly higher proportion of previous recurrent acute (p = 0.007) and chronic otitis media (p = 0.008), chronic perforation (p = 0.038) aural polyps (p Turner syndrome. Risk factors include 45,X and 46,XiXq karyotypes; a history of chronic otitis media, tympanic membrane retraction and persistent otorrhoea; and older age. Earlier recognition of ear disease is needed and otoscopy training for paediatricians caring for Turner syndrome patients may be beneficial. ©2014 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Evolutionary relevance facilitates visual information processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Russell E; Calvillo, Dusti P

    2013-11-03

    Visual search of the environment is a fundamental human behavior that perceptual load affects powerfully. Previously investigated means for overcoming the inhibitions of high perceptual load, however, generalize poorly to real-world human behavior. We hypothesized that humans would process evolutionarily relevant stimuli more efficiently than evolutionarily novel stimuli, and evolutionary relevance would mitigate the repercussions of high perceptual load during visual search. Animacy is a significant component to evolutionary relevance of visual stimuli because perceiving animate entities is time-sensitive in ways that pose significant evolutionary consequences. Participants completing a visual search task located evolutionarily relevant and animate objects fastest and with the least impact of high perceptual load. Evolutionarily novel and inanimate objects were located slowest and with the highest impact of perceptual load. Evolutionary relevance may importantly affect everyday visual information processing.

  4. Evolutionary Relevance Facilitates Visual Information Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Russell E. Jackson

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Visual search of the environment is a fundamental human behavior that perceptual load affects powerfully. Previously investigated means for overcoming the inhibitions of high perceptual load, however, generalize poorly to real-world human behavior. We hypothesized that humans would process evolutionarily relevant stimuli more efficiently than evolutionarily novel stimuli, and evolutionary relevance would mitigate the repercussions of high perceptual load during visual search. Animacy is a significant component to evolutionary relevance of visual stimuli because perceiving animate entities is time-sensitive in ways that pose significant evolutionary consequences. Participants completing a visual search task located evolutionarily relevant and animate objects fastest and with the least impact of high perceptual load. Evolutionarily novel and inanimate objects were located slowest and with the highest impact of perceptual load. Evolutionary relevance may importantly affect everyday visual information processing.

  5. Development of an ITER relevant inspection robot

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gargiulo, Laurent [Association Euratom-CEA, Departement de Recherche sur la Fusion Controlee, CE Cadarache 13108 (France)], E-mail: laurent.gargiulo@cea.fr; Bayetti, Pascal; Bruno, Vincent; Cordier, Jean-Jacques [Association Euratom-CEA, Departement de Recherche sur la Fusion Controlee, CE Cadarache 13108 (France); Friconneau, Jean-Pierre [CEA-LIST Robotics and Interactive Systems Unit, CE Fontenay Aux Roses (France); Grisolia, Christian; Hatchressian, Jean-Claude; Houry, Michael [Association Euratom-CEA, Departement de Recherche sur la Fusion Controlee, CE Cadarache 13108 (France); Keller, Delphine; Perrot, Yann [CEA-LIST Robotics and Interactive Systems Unit, CE Fontenay Aux Roses (France)

    2008-12-15

    Robotic operations are one of the major maintenance challenges for ITER and future fusion reactors. In particular, in-vessel inspection operations without loss of conditioning will be mandatory. In this context, an Articulated Inspection Arm (AIA) is currently developed by the CEA within the European work programme framework, which aims at demonstrating the feasibility of a multi-purpose in-vessel Remote Handling inspection system using a long reach, limited payload carrier (up to 10 kg). It is composed of 5 segments with 8 degrees of freedom and a total range of 8 m. The first in situ tests will take place by the end of 2007 on the Tore Supra Tokamak at Cadarache (France). They will validate concepts for operations under ITER relevant vacuum and temperature conditions. After qualification, the arm will constitute a promising tool for various applications. Several processes are already considered for ITER maintenance and will be demonstrated on the AIA robot carrier: - The first embedded process is the viewing system. It is already manufactured and will allow close visual inspection of the complex Plasma Facing Components (PFC) (limiters, neutralisers, RF antenna, diagnostic windows, etc.). - In situ localisation of water leakage based on a helium sniffing system is also being studied to improve and facilitate maintenance operations. - Finally a laser ablation system for PFC detritiation, developed in CEA laboratories, is being fitted to be implemented on the robot for future operation in Tore Supra. This paper deals with the integration of the robot into Tore Supra and the progress in the development of the processes listed above. It also describes the current test campaign aiming to qualify the robot performance and reliability under vacuum and temperature conditions.

  6. Development of an ITER relevant inspection robot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gargiulo, Laurent; Bayetti, Pascal; Bruno, Vincent; Cordier, Jean-Jacques; Friconneau, Jean-Pierre; Grisolia, Christian; Hatchressian, Jean-Claude; Houry, Michael; Keller, Delphine; Perrot, Yann

    2008-01-01

    Robotic operations are one of the major maintenance challenges for ITER and future fusion reactors. In particular, in-vessel inspection operations without loss of conditioning will be mandatory. In this context, an Articulated Inspection Arm (AIA) is currently developed by the CEA within the European work programme framework, which aims at demonstrating the feasibility of a multi-purpose in-vessel Remote Handling inspection system using a long reach, limited payload carrier (up to 10 kg). It is composed of 5 segments with 8 degrees of freedom and a total range of 8 m. The first in situ tests will take place by the end of 2007 on the Tore Supra Tokamak at Cadarache (France). They will validate concepts for operations under ITER relevant vacuum and temperature conditions. After qualification, the arm will constitute a promising tool for various applications. Several processes are already considered for ITER maintenance and will be demonstrated on the AIA robot carrier: - The first embedded process is the viewing system. It is already manufactured and will allow close visual inspection of the complex Plasma Facing Components (PFC) (limiters, neutralisers, RF antenna, diagnostic windows, etc.). - In situ localisation of water leakage based on a helium sniffing system is also being studied to improve and facilitate maintenance operations. - Finally a laser ablation system for PFC detritiation, developed in CEA laboratories, is being fitted to be implemented on the robot for future operation in Tore Supra. This paper deals with the integration of the robot into Tore Supra and the progress in the development of the processes listed above. It also describes the current test campaign aiming to qualify the robot performance and reliability under vacuum and temperature conditions

  7. The Culture-Work-Health Model and Work Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Michael; Wilson, John F.

    2002-01-01

    Examines the role of organizational culture in the etiology of workplace stress through the framework of the Culture-Work- Health model. A review of relevant business and health literature indicates that culture is an important component of work stress and may be a key to creating effective organizational stress interventions. (SM)

  8. The value relevance of investment property fair value

    OpenAIRE

    Selas, Duarte Nuno Gonçalves da Costa

    2009-01-01

    A Work Project, presented as part of the requirements for the Award of a Masters Degree in Finance from the NOVA – School of Business and Economics This paper examines if the use of the fair value model is value relevant in companies where the investment properties are not their core business. An analysis is also made into whether the disclosed fair value of investment property is perceived by investors. The sample includes Portuguese listed companies subject to the mandatory adoption of I...

  9. Developments in entanglement theory and applications to relevant physical systems

    OpenAIRE

    Lamata Manuel, Lucas

    2007-01-01

    This Thesis is devoted to the analysis of entanglement in relevant physical systems. Entanglement is the conducting theme of this research, though I do not dedicate to a single topic, but consider a wide scope of physical situations. I have followed mainly three lines of research for this Thesis, with a series of different works each, which are, Entanglement and Relativistic Quantum Theory, Continuous-variable entanglement, and Multipartite entanglement.

  10. Transformational leadership: is this still relevant to clinical leaders?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, David; McKimm, Judy; Till, Alex

    2018-06-02

    Transformational leadership theory has been at the centre of health-care leadership research for the past three decades, has had a tangible influence on the evolution of NHS leadership development strategies, and is still evident in current frameworks. This article provides an overview of the key concepts and weaknesses of transformational leadership theory and discusses its relevance within the context of the NHS working environment.

  11. Family History of Early Infant Death Correlates with Earlier Age at Diagnosis But Not Shorter Time to Diagnosis for Severe Combined Immunodeficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anderson Dik Wai Luk

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundSevere combined immunodeficiency (SCID is fatal unless treated with hematopoietic stem cell transplant. Delay in diagnosis is common without newborn screening. Family history of infant death due to infection or known SCID (FH has been associated with earlier diagnosis.ObjectiveThe aim of this study was to identify the clinical features that affect age at diagnosis (AD and time to the diagnosis of SCID.MethodsFrom 2005 to 2016, 147 SCID patients were referred to the Asian Primary Immunodeficiency Network. Patients with genetic diagnosis, age at presentation (AP, and AD were selected for study.ResultsA total of 88 different SCID gene mutations were identified in 94 patients, including 49 IL2RG mutations, 12 RAG1 mutations, 8 RAG2 mutations, 7 JAK3 mutations, 4 DCLRE1C mutations, 4 IL7R mutations, 2 RFXANK mutations, and 2 ADA mutations. A total of 29 mutations were previously unreported. Eighty-three of the 94 patients fulfilled the selection criteria. Their median AD was 4 months, and the time to diagnosis was 2 months. The commonest SCID was X-linked (n = 57. A total of 29 patients had a positive FH. Candidiasis (n = 27 and bacillus Calmette–Guérin (BCG vaccine infection (n = 19 were the commonest infections. The median age for candidiasis and BCG infection documented were 3 months and 4 months, respectively. The median absolute lymphocyte count (ALC was 1.05 × 109/L with over 88% patients below 3 × 109/L. Positive FH was associated with earlier AP by 1 month (p = 0.002 and diagnosis by 2 months (p = 0.008, but not shorter time to diagnosis (p = 0.494. Candidiasis was associated with later AD by 2 months (p = 0.008 and longer time to diagnosis by 0.55 months (p = 0.003. BCG infections were not associated with age or time to diagnosis.ConclusionFH was useful to aid earlier diagnosis but was overlooked by clinicians and not by parents. Similarly, typical clinical features of

  12. Astrophysical relevance of γ transition energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rauscher, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    The relevant γ energy range is explicitly identified where additional γ strength must be located to have an impact on astrophysically relevant reactions. It is shown that folding the energy dependences of the transmission coefficients and the level density leads to maximal contributions for γ energies of 2≤E γ ≤4 unless quantum selection rules allow isolated states to contribute. Under this condition, electric dipole transitions dominate. These findings allow us to more accurately judge the relevance of modifications of the γ strength for astrophysics

  13. Neutrophil programming dynamics and its disease relevance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ran, Taojing; Geng, Shuo; Li, Liwu

    2017-11-01

    Neutrophils are traditionally considered as first responders to infection and provide antimicrobial host defense. However, recent advances indicate that neutrophils are also critically involved in the modulation of host immune environments by dynamically adopting distinct functional states. Functionally diverse neutrophil subsets are increasingly recognized as critical components mediating host pathophysiology. Despite its emerging significance, molecular mechanisms as well as functional relevance of dynamically programmed neutrophils remain to be better defined. The increasing complexity of neutrophil functions may require integrative studies that address programming dynamics of neutrophils and their pathophysiological relevance. This review aims to provide an update on the emerging topics of neutrophil programming dynamics as well as their functional relevance in diseases.

  14. Chapter 11: Civic Youth Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roholt, Ross VeLure; Hildreth, R. W.; Baizerman, Michael

    2007-01-01

    We propose civic youth work as a new craft orientation in the family of child and youth care, education, social work, recreation and other relevant semi-to-full professions. We envision this practice as based in the philosophies and practical sciences of pedagogy, politics, and human development. The ideal-type civic youth worker will have a…

  15. Adiposity, Dysmetabolic Traits, and Earlier Onset of Female Puberty in Adolescent Offspring of Women With Gestational Diabetes Mellitus: A Clinical Study Within the Danish National Birth Cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunnet, L. G.; Hansen, S.; Hjort, L.

    2017-01-01

    and associated cardiometabolic traits in 561 9- to 16-year-old offspring of mothers with GDM and 597 control offspring. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We measured anthropometric characteristics; puberty status; blood pressure; and fasting glucose, insulin, C-peptide, and lipid levels; and conducted a DEXA scan...... in a subset of the cohort. Differences in the outcomes between offspring of mothers with GDM and control subjects were examined using linear and logistic regression models. RESULTS: After adjustment for age and sex, offspring of mothers with GDM displayed higher weight, BMI, waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), systolic...... glucose, insulin, C-peptide, HOMA-insulin resistance (IR), and plasma triglyceride levels, whereas fasting plasma HDL cholesterol levels were decreased. Female offspring of mothers with GDM had an earlier onset of puberty than control offspring. Offspring of mothers with GDM had significantly higher BMI...

  16. Endochondral fracture healing with external fixation in the Sost knockout mouse results in earlier fibrocartilage callus removal and increased bone volume fraction and strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morse, A; Yu, N Y C; Peacock, L; Mikulec, K; Kramer, I; Kneissel, M; McDonald, M M; Little, D G

    2015-02-01

    Sclerostin deficiency, via genetic knockout or anti-Sclerostin antibody treatment, has been shown to cause increased bone volume, density and strength of calluses following endochondral bone healing. However, there is limited data on the effect of Sclerostin deficiency on the formative early stage of fibrocartilage (non-bony tissue) formation and removal. In this study we extensively investigate the early fibrocartilage callus. Closed tibial fractures were performed on Sost(-/-) mice and age-matched wild type (C57Bl/6J) controls and assessed at multiple early time points (7, 10 and 14days), as well as at 28days post-fracture after bony union. External fixation was utilized, avoiding internal pinning and minimizing differences in stability stiffness, a variable that has confounded previous research in this area. Normal endochondral ossification progressed in wild type and Sost(-/-) mice with equivalent volumes of fibrocartilage formed at early day 7 and day 10 time points, and bony union in both genotypes by day 28. There were no significant differences in rate of bony union; however there were significant increases in fibrocartilage removal from the Sost(-/-) fracture calluses at day 14 suggesting earlier progression of endochondral healing. Earlier bone formation was seen in Sost(-/-) calluses over wild type with greater bone volume at day 10 (221%, p<0.01). The resultant Sost(-/-) united bony calluses at day 28 had increased bone volume fraction compared to wild type calluses (24%, p<0.05), and the strength of the fractured Sost(-/-) tibiae was greater than that that of wild type fractured tibiae. In summary, bony union was not altered by Sclerostin deficiency in externally-fixed closed tibial fractures, but fibrocartilage removal was enhanced and the resultant united bony calluses had increased bone fraction and increased strength. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Earlier Age of Onset of Chronic Hypertension and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus After a Hypertensive Disorder of Pregnancy or Gestational Diabetes Mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heida, Karst Y; Franx, Arie; van Rijn, Bas B; Eijkemans, Marinus J C; Boer, Jolanda M A; Verschuren, Monique W M; Oudijk, Martijn A; Bots, Michiel L; van der Schouw, Yvonne T

    2015-12-01

    A prospective cohort study was conducted to assess the impact of a history of hypertensive disorder of pregnancy (HDP) or gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) on the risk and age of onset of hypertension, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D), and cardiovascular disease (CVD) later in life, independent of hypertension and T2D. Between 1993 and 1997, 22 265 ever-pregnant women were included from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition-NL study, aged 20 to 70 years at baseline. Details on complications of pregnancy and known hypertension were obtained by questionnaire. Blood pressure was measured at enrollment. Participants were followed for the occurrence of CVD events. Data were analyzed using ANCOVA, multivariable logistic regression, and Cox proportional hazard (with HDP and GDM as time-dependent variables for T2D and CVD) models. At enrollment, women with a HDP reported diagnosis of hypertension 7.7 years earlier (95% confidence interval [CI] 6.9-8.5) and women with GDM reported diagnosis of T2D 7.7 years earlier (95% CI 5.8-9.6) than women without pregnancy complications. After adjustment for potential confounders, HDP was associated with presence of hypertension at enrollment (odds ratio 2.12, 95% CI 1.98-2.28) and onset of CVD later in life (hazard ratio 1.21, 95% CI 1.10-1.32). After including the intermediates hypertension and T2D in the model, the risk of CVD later in life decreased (hazard ratio 1.09, 95% CI 1.00-1.20). GDM was associated with an increased risk of developing T2D later in life (hazard ratio 3.68, 95% CI 2.77-4.90), but not with risk of CVD. HDP and GDM have a substantial impact on the risk of CVD and are potentially important indicators for preventive cardiovascular risk management. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  18. Onset Symptoms, Tobacco Smoking, and Progressive-Onset Phenotype Are Associated With a Delayed Onset of Multiple Sclerosis, and Marijuana Use With an Earlier Onset

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunrong Tao

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Age at symptom onset (ASO is a prognostic factor that could affect the accrual of disability in multiple sclerosis (MS patients. Some factors are known to influence the risk of multiple sclerosis (MS, but their influence on the ASO is less well-investigated.Objective: Examine the associations between known or emerging MS risk factors and ASO.Methods: This was a multicenter study, incident cases (n = 279 with first clinical diagnosis of demyelinating event aged 18–59 years recruited at four Australian centres (latitudes 27°-43°S, from 1 November 2003 to 31 December 2006. Environmental/behavioral variables and initial symptoms were recorded at baseline interview. Linear regression was used to assess the association between risk factors and ASO.Results: Five factors were significantly associated with ASO: a history of tobacco smoking was associated with 3.05-years later ASO (p = 0.002; a history of marijuana use was associated with 6.03-years earlier ASO (p < 0.001; progressive-onset cases had 5.61-years later ASO (p = 0.001; an initial presentation of bowel & bladder and cerebral dysfunctional were associated with 3.39 (p = 0.017 and 4.37-years (p = 0.006 later ASO, respectively. Other factors, including sex, offspring number, latitude of study site, history of infectious mononucleosis, HLA-DR15 & HLA-A2 genotype, 25(OHD levels, and ultraviolet radiation exposure were not associated with ASO. Including all five significant variables into one model explained 12% of the total variance in ASO.Conclusion: We found a novel association between a history of tobacco smoking and later onset, whereas marijuana use was associated with earlier onset. Behavioral factors seem important drivers of MS onset timing although much of the variance remains unexplained.

  19. Earlier and greater hand pre-shaping in the elderly: a study based on kinematic analysis of reaching movements to grasp objects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamaru, Yoshiki; Naito, Yasuo; Nishikawa, Takashi

    2017-11-01

    Elderly people are less able to manipulate objects skilfully than young adults. Although previous studies have examined age-related deterioration of hand movements with a focus on the phase after grasping objects, the changes in the reaching phase have not been studied thus far. We aimed to examine whether changes in hand shape patterns during the reaching phase of grasping movements differ between young adults and the elderly. Ten healthy elderly adults and 10 healthy young adults were examined using the Simple Test for Evaluating Hand Functions and kinetic analysis of hand pre-shaping reach-to-grasp tasks. The results were then compared between the two groups. For kinetic analysis, we measured the time of peak tangential velocity of the wrist and the inter-fingertip distance (the distance between the tips of the thumb and index finger) at different time points. The results showed that the elderly group's performance on the Simple Test for Evaluating Hand Functions was significantly lower than that of the young adult group, irrespective of whether the dominant or non-dominant hand was used, indicating deterioration of hand movement in the elderly. The peak tangential velocity of the wrist in either hand appeared significantly earlier in the elderly group than in the young adult group. The elderly group also showed larger inter-fingertip distances with arch-like fingertip trajectories compared to the young adult group for all object sizes. To perform accurate prehension, elderly people have an earlier peak tangential velocity point than young adults. This allows for a longer adjustment time for reaching and grasping movements and for reducing errors in object prehension by opening the hand and fingers wider. Elderly individuals gradually modify their strategy based on previous successes and failures during daily living to compensate for their decline in dexterity and operational capabilities. © 2017 Japanese Psychogeriatric Society.

  20. Working alone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tearle, Paul

    2004-09-01

    Employees may be found working alone in a wide range of occupations. Technological advance, rationalisation and automation mean that more and more frequently. one single person is in charge of several machines, pieces of equipment or different work activities. Employees will be found working alone during work carried out as 'overtime', as part of flexible working hours, on Saturdays, Sundays, Bank Holidays and other statutory leave days, or in situations where their work takes them away from a fixed base (mobile workers). A person may be considered to be 'working alone' whenever it is not possible to offer immediate assistance following an accident or in another critical situation. This article looks at the legal background to lone working and what an employer must do to ensure lone workers are at no greater risk to their health and safety than any other members of the workforce.

  1. The foundation of the concept of relevance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjørland, Birger

    2010-01-01

    that what was regarded as the most fundamental view by Saracevic in 1975 has not since been considered (with very few exceptions). Other views, which are based on less fruitful assumptions, have dominated the discourse on relevance in information retrieval and information science. Many authors have...... reexamined the concept of relevance in information science, but have neglected the subject knowledge view, hence basic theoretical assumptions seem not to have been properly addressed. It is as urgent now as it was in 1975 seriously to consider “the subject knowledge view” of relevance (which may also...... be termed “the epistemological view”). The concept of relevance, like other basic concepts, is influenced by overall approaches to information science, such as the cognitive view and the domain-analytic view. There is today a trend toward a social paradigm for information science. This paper offers...

  2. Exploring Educational Quality and Relevance through Integrating ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Exploring Educational Quality and Relevance through Integrating Environmental and Social Issues in Science Education. ... However, the new contextualised concept of learning and teaching was applied only to one of them. A post-test was ...

  3. Has Financial Statement Information become Less Relevant?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thinggaard, Frank; Damkier, Jesper

    This paper presents insights into the question of whether accounting information based on the EU’s Accounting Directives has become less value-relevant to investors over time. The study is based on a research design first used by Francis and Schipper (1999), where value-relevance is measured......? The sample is based on non-financial companies listed on the Copenhagen Stock Exchange in the period 1984-2002. Our analyses show that all the applied accounting measures are value-relevant as investment strategies based on the information earn positive market-adjusted returns in our sample period....... The results provide some indication of a decline in the value-relevance of earnings information in the 1984-2001 period, and mixed, but not statistically reliable, evidence for accounting measures where book value information and asset values are also extracted from financial statements. The results seem...

  4. A comparison of the ability of rilpivirine (TMC278 and selected analogues to inhibit clinically relevant HIV-1 reverse transcriptase mutants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnson Barry C

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The recently approved anti-AIDS drug rilpivirine (TMC278, Edurant is a nonnucleoside inhibitor (NNRTI that binds to reverse transcriptase (RT and allosterically blocks the chemical step of DNA synthesis. In contrast to earlier NNRTIs, rilpivirine retains potency against well-characterized, clinically relevant RT mutants. Many structural analogues of rilpivirine are described in the patent literature, but detailed analyses of their antiviral activities have not been published. This work addresses the ability of several of these analogues to inhibit the replication of wild-type (WT and drug-resistant HIV-1. Results We used a combination of structure activity relationships and X-ray crystallography to examine NNRTIs that are structurally related to rilpivirine to determine their ability to inhibit WT RT and several clinically relevant RT mutants. Several analogues showed broad activity with only modest losses of potency when challenged with drug-resistant viruses. Structural analyses (crystallography or modeling of several analogues whose potencies were reduced by RT mutations provide insight into why these compounds were less effective. Conclusions Subtle variations between compounds can lead to profound differences in their activities and resistance profiles. Compounds with larger substitutions replacing the pyrimidine and benzonitrile groups of rilpivirine, which reorient pocket residues, tend to lose more activity against the mutants we tested. These results provide a deeper understanding of how rilpivirine and related compounds interact with the NNRTI binding pocket and should facilitate development of novel inhibitors.

  5. Work Overload.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bateman, Thomas S.

    1980-01-01

    To investigate managerial use of work (or role) overload to increase productivity, the author studied 77 nonclerical white-collar employees and found that work overload had negative effects on productivity, supervisors' ratings, employee attitudes, job satisfaction, and health. He recommends ways for managers and employees to reduce work overload.…

  6. Developmental Work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Niels; Hvid, Helge; Kristensen, Tage Søndergaard

    2003-01-01

    Human Deveoplment and Working Life - Work for Welfare explores whether the development of human resources at company level can improve individuals' quality of life, companies' possibilities of development, and welfare and democracy in society. Chapter two discuss the concept "developmental work...

  7. Professor Zalman Makhover. A relevant contributor to early tropopause studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antuna, Juan C. [Camagueey Lidar Station, Camagueey (Cuba); Anel, Juan A. [CESAM, Univ. de Aveiro, Campus Univ. de Santiago, Aveiro (Portugal); EPhysLab, Facultade de Ciencias de Ourense, Univ. de Vigo, Ourense (Spain); Sterin, Alexander [Russian Research Inst. for Hydrometeorological Information - World Data Center, Obninsk (Russian Federation); Gimeno, Luis [EPhysLab, Facultade de Ciencias de Ourense, Univ. de Vigo, Ourense (Spain)

    2009-12-15

    We present an assessment of the work of Zalman Meerovich Makhover (1922-99), a leading expert on tropopause studies in the former USSR. Although a much-respected scientist among his peers, his work remains unknown, possibly as a result of much of never having been translated into English. His most important contributions were on the subject of the spatial and temporal structure of the altitude and temperature of the tropopause, as well as its variability over a range of different time scales from annual to daily. We describe the determination of the seasonal features of the tropopause and note his achievements in determining the roles of synoptic conditions and the annual cycle on tropopause characteristics. Recent tropopause research has confirmed much of his earlier work and provided important results for, among other things, stratospheretroposphere exchange processes, climate change indicator studies, and the climatology of aircraft exhaust traces. The legacy of Makhover includes his own research on tropopause phenomena, as well as a synthesis of the numerous studies conducted by former Soviet and other researchers. Here we provide a brief biography, citation data, as well as graphical material taken from his monographs and papers. (orig.)

  8. Ageing towards meaningful work? Age, labour-market change, and attitudes to work in the Swedish workforce, 1979–2003

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johan Örestig

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available A central finding in earlier research on work orientation is that there are substantial age-differences regarding attitudes to work. Generally, more older workers describe their jobs as intrinsically meaningful than younger workers. This result has been interpreted in three different ways, the psychological, the cultural, and the structural hypotheses, where the first emphasizes cognitive age-differences, the second sees age-differences as outcomes of generational differences, and the third regards them as expressions of labour-market inequalities. These different approaches lead to quite different hypotheses regarding recent developments, but the relevant research is limited. Drawing on data from the Swedish survey of living conditions (ULF, this study has examined attitudinal change within the Swedish workforce during 1979–2003. Three sub-periods, 1986-1987, 1994-1996, and 2001-2003 were compared with 1979, the year of reference. The results showed that a consistently smaller share of the workforce held extrinsic work values in the subsequent periods, and that this applied to all age-groups. Further, the results did not support the assumption of broader cultural differences between generations. Rather, the results provide support for the structural hypothesis. Older workers held extrinsic work values to a lesser degree than younger workers regardless of period. Most strikingly, the gap between the youngest group on the labour market (ages 16–29 and the older groups widened during the period. Furthermore, class differences in the distribution of the extrinsic attitude were intact throughout the study period; manual employees were consistently more likely to hold an extrinsic attitude than were service-class employees. This implies that differences in the probability of extrinsic work attitudes have been identifiable regardless of period, but that their prevalence has decreased as jobs involving features related to extrinsic work values

  9. High throughtput comparisons and profiling of metagenomes for industrially relevant enzymes

    KAUST Repository

    Alam, Intikhab

    2016-01-01

    .g. temperature, environmental chemistry, etc… These metagenomes can be profiled to unearth enzymes relevant to several industries based on specific enzyme properties such as ability to work on extreme conditions, such as extreme temperatures, salinity

  10. INFO ANAV, a channel that is consolidated in the communication of information relevant to plant safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopera Broto, A. J.; Balbas Gomez, S.

    2012-01-01

    This weekly publication intended to make it to all the people who work at the sites of Asco and Vandellos relevant information for security since we are all responsible for the safe and reliable operation of our plants.

  11. Is work engagement related to work ability beyond working conditions and lifestyle factors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Airila, Auli; Hakanen, Jari; Punakallio, Anne; Lusa, Sirpa; Luukkonen, Ritva

    2012-11-01

    To examine the associations of age, lifestyle and work-related factors, and particularly work engagement with the work ability index (WAI) and its sub-dimensions. Step-wise regression analysis with a sample of Finnish firefighters (n = 403) was used. The outcome variables were the WAI and its six sub-dimensions. The independent variables consisted of age, lifestyle variables (alcohol consumption, BMI, smoking, physical exercise, and sleep problems), working conditions (job demands, physical workload, supervisory relations, and task resources), and work engagement. The outcome variables and all the variables related to lifestyle, working conditions, and work engagement were measured in 2009. Work ability at baseline 10 years earlier was adjusted for in the models. Work engagement, age, physical exercise, sleep problems, and physical workload were associated with the WAI. All independent variables, except BMI and alcohol consumption, were associated with at least one sub-dimension of the WAI after controlling the baseline WAI. Lifestyle variables, working conditions, and work engagement were more strongly related to the subjective WAI sub-dimensions than to the two more objective WAI sub-dimensions. Work engagement was significantly associated with work ability even after adjusting for various factors, indicating its importance in promoting work ability. Other key factors for good work ability were frequent exercise, good sleep, non-smoking, low job demands, low physical workload, and high task resources. More specifically, this study suggests that in maintaining work ability, it is valuable not only to promote lifestyle factors or working conditions, but also to enhance employees' positive state of work engagement.

  12. Inferring relevance in a changing world

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert C Wilson

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Reinforcement learning models of human and animal learning usually concentrate on how we learn the relationship between different stimuli or actions and rewards. However, in real world situations stimuli are ill-defined. On the one hand, our immediate environment is extremely multi-dimensional. On the other hand, in every decision-making scenario only a few aspects of the environment are relevant for obtaining reward, while most are irrelevant. Thus a key question is how do we learn these relevant dimensions, that is, how do we learn what to learn about? We investigated this process of representation learning experimentally, using a task in which one stimulus dimension was relevant for determining reward at each point in time. As in real life situations, in our task the relevant dimension can change without warning, adding ever-present uncertainty engendered by a constantly changing environment. We show that human performance on this task is better described by a suboptimal strategy based on selective attention and serial hypothesis testing rather than a normative strategy based on probabilistic inference. From this, we conjecture that the problem of inferring relevance in general scenarios is too computationally demanding for the brain to solve optimally. As a result the brain utilizes approximations, employing these even in simplified scenarios in which optimal representation learning is tractable, such as the one in our experiment.

  13. Performative Work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beunza, Daniel; Ferraro, Fabrizio

    2018-01-01

    by attending to the normative and regulative associations of the device. We theorize this route to performativity by proposing the concept of performative work, which designates the necessary institutional work to enable translation and the subsequent adoption of the device. We conclude by considering...... the implications of performative work for the performativity and the institutional work literatures.......Callon’s performativity thesis has illuminated how economic theories and calculative devices shape markets, but has been challenged for its neglect of the organizational, institutional and political context. Our seven-year qualitative study of a large financial data company found that the company...

  14. Manual for best practice for emergency response procedures, part 3: a review of the department of Minerals and Energy guidelines relevant to inrushes, fires, explosions and other emergencies.

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Spencer, KC

    2000-02-01

    Full Text Available The relevant guidelines issued by the Department of Minerals and Energy were reviewed in light of the findings given in parts one and two of this report. The earlier guidelines were issued unilaterally by the Department of Minerals and Energy...

  15. Summarizing Simulation Results using Causally-relevant States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parikh, Nidhi; Marathe, Madhav; Swarup, Samarth

    2016-01-01

    As increasingly large-scale multiagent simulations are being implemented, new methods are becoming necessary to make sense of the results of these simulations. Even concisely summarizing the results of a given simulation run is a challenge. Here we pose this as the problem of simulation summarization: how to extract the causally-relevant descriptions of the trajectories of the agents in the simulation. We present a simple algorithm to compress agent trajectories through state space by identifying the state transitions which are relevant to determining the distribution of outcomes at the end of the simulation. We present a toy-example to illustrate the working of the algorithm, and then apply it to a complex simulation of a major disaster in an urban area. PMID:28042620

  16. Study of the reactor relevance of the NET design concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reynolds, P.; Worraker, W.J.

    1987-08-01

    The objective of the study was to explore the reactor relevance of NET, i.e. whether the technologies and design principles proposed for NET can be directly extrapolated to a demonstration power reactor (DEMO). The main areas of study were those near to the plasma, namely the divertor, first wall and tritium breeding blanket. Other aspects which were investigated were tritium permeation and recovery, reactor maintenance, afterheat and effects of disruptions. The principal results of the study are briefly presented; the details of the work are given in fourteen appendices. These appendices were selected for INIS and indexed separately. The overall conclusion of the study is that the NET design is only partly relevant to the design requirements of a DEMO reactor. (U.K.)

  17. Passage relevance models for genomics search

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frieder Ophir

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We present a passage relevance model for integrating syntactic and semantic evidence of biomedical concepts and topics using a probabilistic graphical model. Component models of topics, concepts, terms, and document are represented as potential functions within a Markov Random Field. The probability of a passage being relevant to a biologist's information need is represented as the joint distribution across all potential functions. Relevance model feedback of top ranked passages is used to improve distributional estimates of query concepts and topics in context, and a dimensional indexing strategy is used for efficient aggregation of concept and term statistics. By integrating multiple sources of evidence including dependencies between topics, concepts, and terms, we seek to improve genomics literature passage retrieval precision. Using this model, we are able to demonstrate statistically significant improvements in retrieval precision using a large genomics literature corpus.

  18. Resistance to Fusarium verticillioides and fumonisin accumulation in maize inbred lines involves an earlier and enhanced expression of lipoxygenase (LOX) genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maschietto, Valentina; Marocco, Adriano; Malachova, Alexandra; Lanubile, Alessandra

    2015-09-01

    Fusarium verticillioides causes ear rot in maize and contaminates the kernels with the fumonisin mycotoxins. It is known that plant lipoxygenase (LOX)-derived oxylipins regulate defence against pathogens and that the host-pathogen lipid cross-talk influences the pathogenesis. The expression profiles of fifteen genes of the LOX pathway were studied in kernels of resistant and susceptible maize lines, grown in field condition, at 3, 7 and 14 days post inoculation (dpi) with F. verticillioides. Plant defence responses were correlated with the pathogen growth, the expression profiles of fungal FUM genes for fumonisin biosynthesis and fumonisin content in the kernels. The resistant genotype limited fungal growth and fumonisin accumulation between 7 and 14 dpi. Pathogen growth became exponential in the susceptible line after 7 dpi, in correspondence with massive transcription of FUM genes and fumonisins augmented exponentially at 14 dpi. LOX pathway genes resulted strongly induced after pathogen inoculation in the resistant line at 3 and 7 dpi, whilst in the susceptible line the induction was reduced or delayed at 14 dpi. In addition, all genes resulted overexpressed before infection in kernels of the resistant genotype already at 3 dpi. The results suggest that resistance in maize may depend on an earlier activation of LOX genes and genes for jasmonic acid biosynthesis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  19. The association between peer, parental influence and tobacco product features and earlier age of onset of regular smoking among adults in 27 European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filippidis, Filippos T; Agaku, Israel T; Vardavas, Constantine I

    2015-10-01

    Factors that influence smoking initiation and age of smoking onset are important considerations in tobacco control. We evaluated European Union (EU)-wide differences in the age of onset of regular smoking, and the potential role of peer, parental and tobacco product design features on the earlier onset of regular smoking among adults influenced their decision to start smoking, including peer influence, parental influence and features of tobacco products. Multi-variable logistic regression, adjusted for age; geographic region; education; difficulty to pay bills; and gender, was used to assess the role of the various pro-tobacco influences on early onset of regular smoking (i.e. influenced by peers (OR = 1.70; 95%CI 1.30-2.20) or parents (OR = 1.60; 95%CI 1.21-2.12) were more likely to have started smoking regularly <18 years old. No significant association between design and marketing features of tobacco products and an early initiation of regular smoking was observed (OR = 1.04; 95%CI 0.83-1.31). We identified major differences in smoking initiation patterns among EU countries, which may warrant different approaches in the prevention of tobacco use. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  20. Molecular screening of the ghrelin gene in Italian obese children: the Leu72Met variant is associated with an earlier onset of obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miraglia del Giudice, E; Santoro, N; Cirillo, G; Raimondo, P; Grandone, A; D'Aniello, A; Di Nardo, M; Perrone, L

    2004-03-01

    To test whether ghrelin variants could play a role in modulating some aspects of the obese phenotype during childhood. We screened the ghrelin gene in 300 Italian obese children and adolescents (mean age 10.5+/-3.2 y; range 4-19 y) and 200 controls by using the single-strand conformation polymorphism and the restriction fragment length polymoprhism analysis. No mutations were detected with the exception of two previously described polymorphisms, Arg51Gln and Leu72Met. For both variations, allelic frequencies were similar between patients and controls. Interestingly, we showed that the Leu72Met polymorphism was associated with differences in the age at obesity onset. Patients with the Met72 allele became obese earlier than homozygous patients for the wild Leu72 allele. The logrank test comparing the plots of the complement of Kaplan-Meier estimates between the two groups of patients was statistically significant (Pghrelin variations cause the obesity due to single-gene mutations. The Leu72Met polymorphism of the ghrelin gene seems to play a role in anticipating the onset of obesity among children suggesting, therefore, that ghrelin may be involved in the pathophysiology of human adiposity.

  1. Hepatitis B and C virus prevalence in couples attending an in vitro fertilization clinic in a tertiary care hospital in Saudi Arabia: comparison with ten years earlier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albadran, Asma; Hibshi, Ali; Saeed, Bahjat; Coskun, Serdar; Awartani, Khalid Arab

    2017-01-01

    Viral hepatitis B (HBV) and C (HCV) are a major public health problem in Saudi Arabia. Recent data has indicated a major reduction in viral hepatitis prevalence in Saudi population. However, there is limited data for infertile Saudi couples. To determine the prevalence of HCV and HBV attending an in vitro fertilization (IVF) clinic in Saudi Arabia between 2012 and 2015 to compare with the prevalence 10 years earlier in the same center. Retrospective prevalence study. Tertiary care center in Riyadh. Data on the prevalence of HBV and HCV was collected on all couples seen at the IVF unit between 2002-2005 and 2012-2015. Prevalence of HBV and HCV. In 4442 patients during 2002-2005 and 5747 patients during 2012-2015, the prevalence of HBV was significantly less in 2012-2015 compared with 2002-2005 (1.67% [97 patients] vs 4.7% [210 patients], P < .0001), respectively, but HCV prevalence was similar for the two periods (0.7% for both periods) (P=.887). The hepatitis B seroprevalence rate was higher in males compared to females during 2002-2005 (6.3% vs 3.1%) (P < .0001) and 2012-2015 (2.4% vs 1.1% ) (P < .0001), respectively. The significant drop in HBV prevalence was most likely due to the introduction of the vaccination program in 1989, while reasons for HCV prevalence remaining unchanged are unclear. No data on confounding factors that may have affected the prevalence.

  2. Preoperative left ventricular internal dimension in end-diastole as earlier identification of early patent ductus arteriosus operation and postoperative intensive care in very low birth weight infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saida, Ken; Nakamura, Tomohiko; Hiroma, Takehiko; Takigiku, Kiyohiro; Yasukochi, Satoshi

    2013-10-01

    Patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) is common in premature infants. In very low birth weight infants (VLBWI), PDA requires surgical therapy in many cases. It is unclear to know at-risk infants showing cardio-dysfunction after PDA surgery. The purpose of this study was to identify at-risk infants showing cardio-dysfunction after surgery for patent ductus arteriosus (PDA). We examined the relationship between left ventricular (LV) performance before and after PDA ligation in a retrospective observational cohort study. We studied 64 preterm neonates with symptomatic PDA before and after surgical ligation. Echocardiographic examinations were performed pre- and postoperatively. M-mode measurements included left ventricular internal dimension in end-diastole (LVIDd) and LV fractional shortening (FS). All cases showed decreased LVFS after PDA closure. Most cases (49/64, 77%) showed postoperative FS decreased to below normal (<28%). Preoperative relative LVIDd was significantly larger in abnormal FS infants (137 ± 18%) than in normal FS infants (118 ± 11%; p<0.01). A cut-off value of preoperative relative LVIDd (absolute LVIDd/normal value) for predicting postoperative cardio-dysfunction was 127.4% (sensitivity, 0.735; specificity, 0.933; area under curve, 0.817). Determination of preoperative LVIDd might facilitate earlier identification of infants needing early PDA surgery and postoperative intensive care. © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Group Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Kristy J.; Brickman, Peggy; Brame, Cynthia J.

    2018-01-01

    Science, technology, engineering, and mathematics faculty are increasingly incorporating both formal and informal group work in their courses. Implementing group work can be improved by an understanding of the extensive body of educational research studies on this topic. This essay describes an online, evidence-based teaching guide published by…

  4. Work cabinet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hornby, L.

    1981-01-01

    A simple work cabinet is described for handling materials such as radiopharmaceuticals. The cabinet includes a perforated working surface to which an operator can gain hand and forearm access through an aperture. Clean air is supplied through a high efficiency particulate air filter and withdrawn through the perforated surface. (U.K.)

  5. [Wet work].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kieć-Swierczyńska, Marta; Chomiczewska, Dorota; Krecisz, Beata

    2010-01-01

    Wet work is one of the most important risk factors of occupational skin diseases. Exposure of hands to the wet environment for more than 2 hours daily, wearing moisture-proof protective gloves for a corresponding period of time or necessity to wash hands frequently lead to the disruption of epidermal stratum corneum, damage to skin barrier function and induction of irritant contact dermatitis. It may also promote penetration of allergens into the skin and increase the risk of sensitization to occupational allergens. Exposure to wet work plays a significant role in occupations, such as hairdressers and barbers, nurses and other health care workers, cleaning staff, food handlers and metalworkers. It is more common among women because many occupations involving wet work are female-dominated. The incidence of wet-work-induced occupational skin diseases can be reduced by taking appropriate preventive measures. These include identification of high-risk groups, education of workers, organization of work enabling to minimize the exposure to wet work, use of personal protective equipment and skin care after work.

  6. Bible Translation And Relevance Theory | Deist | Stellenbosch ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Stellenbosch Papers in Linguistics Plus. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 22 (1992) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register. Bible Translation And Relevance Theory. F Deist ...

  7. Relevant Scatterers Characterization in SAR Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaabouni, Houda; Datcu, Mihai

    2006-11-01

    Recognizing scenes in a single look meter resolution Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) images, requires the capability to identify relevant signal signatures in condition of variable image acquisition geometry, arbitrary objects poses and configurations. Among the methods to detect relevant scatterers in SAR images, we can mention the internal coherence. The SAR spectrum splitted in azimuth generates a series of images which preserve high coherence only for particular object scattering. The detection of relevant scatterers can be done by correlation study or Independent Component Analysis (ICA) methods. The present article deals with the state of the art for SAR internal correlation analysis and proposes further extensions using elements of inference based on information theory applied to complex valued signals. The set of azimuth looks images is analyzed using mutual information measures and an equivalent channel capacity is derived. The localization of the "target" requires analysis in a small image window, thus resulting in imprecise estimation of the second order statistics of the signal. For a better precision, a Hausdorff measure is introduced. The method is applied to detect and characterize relevant objects in urban areas.

  8. Seeking Relevance: American Political Science and America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maranto, Robert; Woessner, Matthew C.

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the authors talk about the relevance of American political science and America. Political science has enormous strengths in its highly talented practitioners and sophisticated methods. However, its disconnection from its host society, while not so severe as for fields like English and sociology, nonetheless poses an existential…

  9. Is Enterprise Education Relevant to Social Enterprise?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridge, Simon

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Both enterprise education and social enterprise have become fashionable but what, if any, should be the connections between them? The purpose of this paper is to explore those connections and to reflect on what relevance the two concepts might have for each other. Design/methodology/approach: Both enterprise education and social…

  10. The Relevant Physical Trace in Criminal Investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Durdica Hazard

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A criminal investigation requires the forensic scientist to search and to interpret vestiges of a criminal act that happened in the past. The forensic scientist is one of the many stakeholders who take part in the information quest within the criminal justice system. She reads the investigation scene in search of physical traces that should enable her to tell the story of the offense/crime that allegedly occurred. The challenge for any investigator is to detect and recognize relevant physical traces in order to provide clues for investigation and intelligence purposes, and that will constitute sound and relevant evidence for the court. This article shows how important it is to consider the relevancy of physical traces from the beginning of the investigation and what might influence the evaluation process. The exchange and management of information between the investigation stakeholders are important. Relevancy is a dimension that needs to be understood from the standpoints of law enforcement personnel and forensic scientists with the aim of strengthening investigation and ultimately the overall judicial process.

  11. Interpersonal communication: It's relevance to nursing practice ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper is aimed at highlighting how essential interpersonal communication is necessary for establishing rapport, understanding the needs of the patients and planning effective intervention for meeting holistic health care. To be continually relevant, Nurses have to improve on their communication skills to meet the ...

  12. Inferring feature relevances from metric learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schulz, Alexander; Mokbel, Bassam; Biehl, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Powerful metric learning algorithms have been proposed in the last years which do not only greatly enhance the accuracy of distance-based classifiers and nearest neighbor database retrieval, but which also enable the interpretability of these operations by assigning explicit relevance weights...

  13. The Relevance of Causal Social Construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marques Teresa

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Social constructionist claims are surprising and interesting when they entail that presumably natural kinds are in fact socially constructed. The claims are interesting because of their theoretical and political importance. Authors like Díaz-León argue that constitutive social construction is more relevant for achieving social justice than causal social construction. This paper challenges this claim. Assuming there are socially salient groups that are discriminated against, the paper presents a dilemma: if there were no constitutively constructed social kinds, the causes of the discrimination of existing social groups would have to be addressed, and understanding causal social construction would be relevant to achieve social justice. On the other hand, not all possible constitutively socially constructed kinds are actual social kinds. If an existing social group is constitutively constructed as a social kind K, the fact that it actually exists as a K has social causes. Again, causal social construction is relevant. The paper argues that (i for any actual social kind X, if X is constitutively socially constructed as K, then it is also causally socially constructed; and (ii causal social construction is at least as relevant as constitutive social construction for concerns of social justice. For illustration, I draw upon two phenomena that are presumed to contribute towards the discrimination of women: (i the poor performance effects of stereotype threat, and (ii the silencing effects of gendered language use.

  14. The economic lot size and relevant costs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Corbeij, M.H.; Jansen, R.A.; Grübström, R.W.; Hinterhuber, H.H.; Lundquist, J.

    1993-01-01

    In many accounting textbooks it is strongly argued that decisions should always be evaluated on relevant costs; that is variable costs and opportunity costs. Surprisingly, when it comes to Economic Order Quantities or Lot Sizes, some textbooks appear to be less straightforward. The question whether

  15. Bootstrapping Visual Categorization with Relevant Negatives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, X.; Snoek, C.G.M.; Worring, M.; Koelma, D.; Smeulders, A.W.M.

    Learning classifiers for many visual concepts are important for image categorization and retrieval. As a classifier tends to misclassify negative examples which are visually similar to positive ones, inclusion of such misclassified and thus relevant negatives should be stressed during learning.

  16. Why ritual plant use has ethnopharmacological relevance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quiroz, Diana; Sosef, Marc; Andel, Van Tinde

    2016-01-01

    Ethnopharmacological relevance Although ritual plant use is now recognised both for its socio-cultural importance and for its contribution to nature conservation, its potential pharmacological effects remain overlooked. Aim of the study Our objective was to see whether ritual plant use could have

  17. Bradford's Law and Its Relevance to Researchers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shenton, Andrew K.; Hay-Gibson, Naomi V.

    2009-01-01

    Bradford's Law has been the subject of much discussion and analysis in library and information science since its formulation in the 1930s and remains frequently debated to this day. It has been applied to various practices within the discipline, especially with regard to collection development, but its relevance to researchers and the potential it…

  18. The relevance of cosmopolitanism for moral education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Merry, M.S.; de Ruyter, D.J.

    2011-01-01

    In this article we defend a moral conception of cosmopolitanism and its relevance for moral education. Our moral conception of cosmopolitanism presumes that persons possess an inherent dignity in the Kantian sense and therefore they should be recognised as ends-in-themselves. We argue that

  19. Ranking Music Data by Relevance and Importance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruxanda, Maria Magdalena; Nanopoulos, Alexandros; Jensen, Christian Søndergaard

    2008-01-01

    Due to the rapidly increasing availability of audio files on the Web, it is relevant to augment search engines with advanced audio search functionality. In this context, the ranking of the retrieved music is an important issue. This paper proposes a music ranking method capable of flexibly fusing...

  20. Fast multi-output relevance vector regression

    OpenAIRE

    Ha, Youngmin

    2017-01-01

    This paper aims to decrease the time complexity of multi-output relevance vector regression from O(VM^3) to O(V^3+M^3), where V is the number of output dimensions, M is the number of basis functions, and V

  1. Pragmatic inferences and self-relevant judgments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Puente-Diaz, Rogelio; Cavazos Arroyo, Judith; Brem, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Three studies examined the influence of type of scale on self-relevant judgments and the moderating role of age, prevention, focus, and need for cogni- tion. Participants were randomly assigned to a bipolar or a unipolar scale condition in all three studies. Results from study 1 with a representa...

  2. Making Chemistry Relevant to the Engineering Major

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu-Dutt, Sharmistha; Slappey, Charles; Bartley, Julie K.

    2010-01-01

    As part of a campus-wide, externally funded project to increase performance in, enthusiasm for, and retention within STEM disciplines, we developed an interdisciplinary, team-taught first-year seminar course. The construction and delivery of this course was designed to show the relevance of selected general chemistry topics such as matter and…

  3. Contingent Attentional Capture by Conceptually Relevant Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyble, Brad; Folk, Charles; Potter, Mary C.

    2013-01-01

    Attentional capture is an unintentional shift of visuospatial attention to the location of a distractor that is either highly salient, or relevant to the current task set. The latter situation is referred to as contingent capture, in that the effect is contingent on a match between characteristics of the stimuli and the task-defined…

  4. The Relevance Aura of Bibliographic Records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Terrence A.

    1997-01-01

    Analyzes relevance assessments of topical descriptors for bibliographic records for two dimensions: (1) a vertical conceptual hierarchy of broad to narrow descriptors, and (2) a horizontal linkage of related terms. The data were analyzed for a semantic distance and semantic direction effect as postulated by the Semantic Distance Model. (Author/LRW)

  5. The Relevance of Cosmopolitanism for Moral Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merry, Michael S.; de Ruyter, Doret J.

    2011-01-01

    In this article we defend a moral conception of cosmopolitanism and its relevance for moral education. Our moral conception of cosmopolitanism presumes that persons possess an inherent dignity in the Kantian sense and therefore they should be recognised as ends-in-themselves. We argue that cosmopolitan ideals can inspire moral educators to awaken…

  6. Work Stress

    OpenAIRE

    Roeters, Anne

    2014-01-01

    Most of us agree that stress is a growing problem within organizations. We hear about the postal workers who had killed fellow employees and supervisors, and then hear that a major cause of tension is at work. Friends tell us that they are stressed due to increased workload and he has to work overtime because the company is restructured. We read the polls that employees complain about the stress in trying to balance family life with the work. Stress is a dynamic condition in which an individu...

  7. Earlier anal sexarche and co-occurring sexual risk are associated with current HIV-related risk behaviors among an online sample of men who have sex with men in Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Doug H.; Suharlim, Christian; Guadamuz, Thomas E.; Lim, Sin How; Koe, Stuart; Wei, Chongyi

    2014-01-01

    Studies of heterosexual populations across the globe and men who have sex with men (MSM) in a few developed countries showed that earlier sexual debut (sexarche) was associated with higher levels of co-occurring and subsequent HIV risk behaviors. We examined the relationships between earlier anal sexarche, unprotected earlier anal sexarche and current HIV risks among MSM from Asia. A cross-sectional online survey was conducted among MSM (N = 10,826) in Asia in 2010. Bivariate and multivariable logistic regressions were used to identify co-occurring (i.e., sexual experiences during sexarche) and current HIV-related risk factors (i.e., past six months) associated with earlier anal sexarche (before the age of 18) and unprotected earlier anal sexarche, respectively. Earlier anal sexarche was significantly associated with lack of condom use, being anal receptive or both receptive and insertive, and having a partner who were older during sexarche. It was also associated with current HIV-related risk behaviors including having multiple male sexual partners, having been paid for sex, and increased frequencies of recreational drug use. Unprotected earlier anal sexarche was significantly associated with inconsistent condom use in the past the six months. Improved and culturally sensitive sex education at schools should be included in national and regional HIV/AIDS prevention programming and policies in Asia. Such sex education programs should incorporate curriculum that address sexuality, sexual orientation, and sexual behaviors beyond those related to reproductive health. PMID:24920344

  8. Health benefits, costs, and cost-effectiveness of earlier eligibility for adult antiretroviral therapy and expanded treatment coverage: a combined analysis of 12 mathematical models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaton, Jeffrey W; Menzies, Nicolas A; Stover, John; Cambiano, Valentina; Chindelevitch, Leonid; Cori, Anne; Hontelez, Jan A C; Humair, Salal; Kerr, Cliff C; Klein, Daniel J; Mishra, Sharmistha; Mitchell, Kate M; Nichols, Brooke E; Vickerman, Peter; Bakker, Roel; Bärnighausen, Till; Bershteyn, Anna; Bloom, David E; Boily, Marie-Claude; Chang, Stewart T; Cohen, Ted; Dodd, Peter J; Fraser, Christophe; Gopalappa, Chaitra; Lundgren, Jens; Martin, Natasha K; Mikkelsen, Evelinn; Mountain, Elisa; Pham, Quang D; Pickles, Michael; Phillips, Andrew; Platt, Lucy; Pretorius, Carel; Prudden, Holly J; Salomon, Joshua A; van de Vijver, David A M C; de Vlas, Sake J; Wagner, Bradley G; White, Richard G; Wilson, David P; Zhang, Lei; Blandford, John; Meyer-Rath, Gesine; Remme, Michelle; Revill, Paul; Sangrujee, Nalinee; Terris-Prestholt, Fern; Doherty, Meg; Shaffer, Nathan; Easterbrook, Philippa J; Hirnschall, Gottfried; Hallett, Timothy B

    2014-01-01

    DALY averted compared with 2010 guidelines. In Zambia, expansion of eligibility to adults with a CD4 count threshold of 500 cells per μL ranged from improving health outcomes while reducing costs (ie, dominating the previous guidelines) to $749 per DALY averted. In both countries results were similar for expansion of eligibility to all HIV-positive adults, and when substantially expanded treatment coverage was assumed. Expansion of treatment coverage in the general population was also cost effective. In India, the cost for extending eligibility to all HIV-positive adults ranged from $131 to $241 per DALY averted, and in Vietnam extending eligibility to patients with CD4 counts of 500 cells per μL or less cost $290 per DALY averted. In concentrated epidemics, expanded access for key populations was also cost effective. Our estimates suggest that earlier eligibility for antiretroviral therapy is very cost effective in low-income and middle-income settings, although these estimates should be revisited when more data become available. Scaling up antiretroviral therapy through earlier eligibility and expanded coverage should be considered alongside other high-priority health interventions competing for health budgets. Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, WHO. Copyright © 2014 Eaton et al. Open Access article distributed under the terms of CC BY-NC-ND. Published by .. All rights reserved.

  9. Working Collaboratively

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holder, Anna; Lovett, George

    2009-01-01

    identified as a transformative global force of the last decade, most notably in knowledge and information publishing, communication and creation. This paper presents a structured conversation on changing understandings of collaboration, and the realities of collaborative methodology in architectural work...

  10. Working Mothers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... work is unpleasant and damages instead of builds self-esteem. Family relationships may suffer if both parents want ... with your child, especially if he is very young. You may worry that you will miss some ...

  11. Working hot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stix, G.

    1988-01-01

    The author says ''barehand'' methods, where specially trained utility workers are called in conductive suits to equalize voltage over their bodies, to maintain high-voltage transmission lines are on the rise. Utilities are building lines at higher voltages and selling more power to other utilities, making it highly inconvenient to take the lines out of service. However, some unions view the barehand work with less than enthusiasm. Touching lines energized at hundreds of thousands of volts demands flawless equipment and rigid work procedures followed to the letter. Some local unions contend that adequate safety procedures and training, and appropriate penalties for workplace negligence, should be in place before utilities may do barehand work. The author discusses some of the methods of barehand work and the equipment used, i.e. steel-mesh lineman's suit, bucket truck's boom, helicopters, and robots

  12. Aerosol exposure to Rift Valley fever virus causes earlier and more severe neuropathology in the murine model, which has important implications for therapeutic development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Reed

    Full Text Available Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV is an important mosquito-borne veterinary and human pathogen that can cause severe disease including acute-onset hepatitis, delayed-onset encephalitis, retinitis and blindness, or a hemorrhagic syndrome. Currently, no licensed vaccine or therapeutics exist to treat this potentially deadly disease. Detailed studies describing the pathogenesis of RVFV following aerosol exposure have not been completed and candidate therapeutics have not been evaluated following an aerosol exposure. These studies are important because while mosquito transmission is the primary means for human infection, it can also be transmitted by aerosol or through mucosal contact. Therefore, we directly compared the pathogenesis of RVFV following aerosol exposure to a subcutaneous (SC exposure in the murine model by analyzing survival, clinical observations, blood chemistry, hematology, immunohistochemistry, and virus titration of tissues. Additionally, we evaluated the effectiveness of the nucleoside analog ribavirin administered prophylactically to treat mice exposed by aerosol and SC. The route of exposure did not significantly affect the survival, chemistry or hematology results of the mice. Acute hepatitis occurred despite the route of exposure. However, the development of neuropathology occurred much earlier and was more severe in mice exposed by aerosol compared to SC exposed mice. Mice treated with ribavirin and exposed SC were partially protected, whereas treated mice exposed by aerosol were not protected. Early and aggressive viral invasion of brain tissues following aerosol exposure likely played an important role in ribavirin's failure to prevent mortality among these animals. Our results highlight the need for more candidate antivirals to treat RVFV infection, especially in the case of a potential aerosol exposure. Additionally, our study provides an account of the key pathogenetic differences in RVF disease following two potential

  13. Ensemble response in mushroom body output neurons of the honey bee outpaces spatiotemporal odor processing two synapses earlier in the antennal lobe.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin F Strube-Bloss

    Full Text Available Neural representations of odors are subject to computations that involve sequentially convergent and divergent anatomical connections across different areas of the brains in both mammals and insects. Furthermore, in both mammals and insects higher order brain areas are connected via feedback connections. In order to understand the transformations and interactions that this connectivity make possible, an ideal experiment would compare neural responses across different, sequential processing levels. Here we present results of recordings from a first order olfactory neuropile - the antennal lobe (AL - and a higher order multimodal integration and learning center - the mushroom body (MB - in the honey bee brain. We recorded projection neurons (PN of the AL and extrinsic neurons (EN of the MB, which provide the outputs from the two neuropils. Recordings at each level were made in different animals in some experiments and simultaneously in the same animal in others. We presented two odors and their mixture to compare odor response dynamics as well as classification speed and accuracy at each neural processing level. Surprisingly, the EN ensemble significantly starts separating odor stimuli rapidly and before the PN ensemble has reached significant separation. Furthermore the EN ensemble at the MB output reaches a maximum separation of odors between 84-120 ms after odor onset, which is 26 to 133 ms faster than the maximum separation at the AL output ensemble two synapses earlier in processing. It is likely that a subset of very fast PNs, which respond before the ENs, may initiate the rapid EN ensemble response. We suggest therefore that the timing of the EN ensemble activity would allow retroactive integration of its signal into the ongoing computation of the AL via centrifugal feedback.

  14. Pulsatile gonadotropin-releasing hormone therapy is associated with earlier spermatogenesis compared to combined gonadotropin therapy in patients with congenital hypogonadotropic hypogonadism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang-Feng Mao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Both pulsatile gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH infusion and combined gonadotropin therapy (human chorionic gonadotropin and human menopausal gonadotropin [HCG/HMG] are effective to induce spermatogenesis in male patients with congenital hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (CHH. However, evidence is lacking as to which treatment strategy is better. This retrospective cohort study included 202 patients with CHH: twenty had received pulsatile GnRH and 182 had received HCG/HMG. Patients had received therapy for at least 12 months. The total follow-up time was 15.6 ± 5.0 months (range: 12-27 months for the GnRH group and 28.7 ± 13.0 months (range: 12-66 months for the HCG/HMG group. The median time to first sperm appearance was 6 months (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.6-10.4 in the GnRH group versus 18 months (95% CI: 16.4-20.0 in the HCG/HMG group (P 1 × 10 6 ml−1 was 43.7% ± 20.4% (16 samples in the GnRH group versus 43.2% ± 18.1% (153 samples in the HCG/HMG group (P = 0.921. Notably, during follow-up, the GnRH group had lower serum testosterone levels than the HCG/HMG group (8.3 ± 4.6 vs 16.2 ± 8.2 nmol l−1 , P < 0.001. Our study found that pulsatile GnRH therapy was associated with earlier spermatogenesis and larger testicular size compared to combined gonadotropin therapy. Additional prospective randomized studies would be required to confirm these findings.

  15. Analysis of trastuzumab and chemotherapy in advanced breast cancer after the failure of at least one earlier combination: An observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Locker Gottfried J

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Combining trastuzumab and chemotherapy is standard in her2/neu overexpressing advanced breast cancer. It is not established however, whether trastuzumab treatment should continue after the failure of one earlier combination. In this trial, we report our experience with continued treatment beyond disease progression. Methods Fifty-four patients, median age 46 years, range 25–73 years, were included. We analysed for time to tumour progression (TTP for first, second and beyond second line treatment, response rates and overall survival. Results Median time of observation was 24 months, range 7–51. Response rates for first line treatment were 7.4% complete remission (CR, 35.2% partial remissions (PR, 42.6% stable disease > 6 months (SD and 14.8% of patients experienced disease progression despite treatment (PD. Corresponding numbers for second line were 3.7% CR, 22.2% PR, 42.6% SD and 31.5% PD; numbers for treatment beyond second line (60 therapies, 33 pts 3rd line, 18 pts 4th line, 6 pts 5th line, 2 pts 6th line and 1 patient 7th line were 1.7% CR, 28.3% PR, 28.3% SD and 41.6% PD respectively. Median TTP was 6 months (m in the first line setting, and also 6 m for second line and beyond second line. An asymptomatic drop of left ventricular ejection fraction below 50% was observed in one patient. No case of symptomatic congestive heart failure was observed. Conclusion The data presented clearly strengthen evidence that patients do profit from continued trastuzumab treatment. The fact that TTP did not decrease significantly from first line to beyond second line treatment is especially noteworthy. Still, randomized trials are warranted.

  16. Earlier defibrotide initiation post-diagnosis of veno-occlusive disease/sinusoidal obstruction syndrome improves Day +100 survival following haematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Paul G; Smith, Angela R; Triplett, Brandon M; Kernan, Nancy A; Grupp, Stephan A; Antin, Joseph H; Lehmann, Leslie; Miloslavsky, Maja; Hume, Robin; Hannah, Alison L; Nejadnik, Bijan; Soiffer, Robert J

    2017-07-01

    Hepatic veno-occlusive disease/sinusoidal obstruction syndrome (VOD/SOS) is a progressive, potentially fatal complication of conditioning for haematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT). The VOD/SOS pathophysiological cascade involves endothelial-cell activation and damage, and a prothrombotic-hypofibrinolytic state. Severe VOD/SOS (typically characterized by multi-organ dysfunction) may be associated with >80% mortality. Defibrotide is approved for treating severe hepatic VOD/SOS post-HSCT in the European Union, and for hepatic VOD/SOS with renal or pulmonary dysfunction post-HSCT in the United States. Previously, defibrotide (25 mg/kg/day in 4 divided doses for a recommended ≥21 days) was available through an expanded-access treatment protocol for patients with VOD/SOS. Data from this study were examined post-hoc to determine if the timing of defibrotide initiation post-VOD/SOS diagnosis affected Day +100 survival post-HSCT. Among 573 patients, defibrotide was started on the day of VOD/SOS diagnosis in approximately 30%, and within 7 days in >90%. The relationship between Day +100 survival and treatment initiation before/after specific days post-diagnosis showed superior survival when treatment was initiated closer to VOD/SOS diagnosis with a statistically significant trend over time for better outcomes with earlier treatment initiation (P defibrotide should not be delayed after diagnosis of VOD/SOS. © 2017 The Authors. British Journal of Haematology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Identifying relevant feature-action associations for grasping unmodelled objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Mikkel Tang; Kraft, Dirk; Krüger, Norbert

    2015-01-01

    content. The method is provided with a large and structured set of visual features, motivated by the visual hierarchy in primates and finds relevant feature action associations automatically. We apply our method in a simulated environment on three different object sets for the case of grasp affordance...... learning. For box objects, we achieve a 0.90 success probability, 0.80 for round objects and up to 0.75 for open objects, when presented with novel objects. In this work, we in particular demonstrate the effect of choosing appropriate feature representations. We demonstrate a significant performance...

  18. Relevance of Linear Stability Results to Enhanced Oil Recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Xueru; Daripa, Prabir

    2012-11-01

    How relevant can the results based on linear stability theory for any problem for that matter be to full scale simulation results? Put it differently, is the optimal design of a system based on linear stability results is optimal or even near optimal for the complex nonlinear system with certain objectives of interest in mind? We will address these issues in the context of enhanced oil recovery by chemical flooding. This will be based on an ongoing work. Supported by Qatar National Research Fund (a member of the Qatar Foundation).

  19. Bootstrapping agency: How control-relevant information affects motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karsh, Noam; Eitam, Baruch; Mark, Ilya; Higgins, E Tory

    2016-10-01

    How does information about one's control over the environment (e.g., having an own-action effect) influence motivation? The control-based response selection framework was proposed to predict and explain such findings. Its key tenant is that control relevant information modulates both the frequency and speed of responses by determining whether a perceptual event is an outcome of one's actions or not. To test this framework empirically, the current study examines whether and how temporal and spatial contiguity/predictability-previously established as being important for one's sense of agency-modulate motivation from control. In 5 experiments, participants responded to a cue, potentially triggering a perceptual effect. Temporal (Experiments 1a-c) and spatial (Experiments 2a and b) contiguity/predictability between actions and their potential effects were experimentally manipulated. The influence of these control-relevant factors was measured, both indirectly (through their effect on explicit judgments of agency) and directly on response time and response frequency. The pattern of results was highly consistent with the control-based response selection framework in suggesting that control relevant information reliably modulates the impact of "having an effect" on different levels of action selection. We discuss the implications of this study for the notion of motivation from control and for the empirical work on the sense of agency. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  20. Tomographic diagnosis and relevant aspects of otosclerosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaiotti, Juliana Oggioni; Gomes, Natalia Delage; Costa, Ana Maria Doffemond; Villela, Caroline Laurita Batista Couto; Moreira, Wanderval; Diniz, Renata Lopes Furletti Caldeira

    2013-01-01

    A literature review and pictorial essay were developed to discuss the importance of knowing the main findings and locations of otosclerosis at multidetector computed tomography (MDCT). The authors performed a retrospective review of cases of otosclerosis diagnosed in their institution by means of high resolution multidetector computed tomography. Otosclerosis corresponds to otic capsule dysplasia characterized by metabolic derangement of its endochondral layer. Such condition constitutes a relevant cause of sensorineural hearing loss, affecting about 7% to 10% of the general population. The diagnosis is usually clinical, but imaging methods play a significant role in the anatomical detailing, differential diagnosis, surgical planning and evaluation of postoperative complications. Among such methods, the relevance of MDCT is highlighted. Radiologists should be familiar with the MDCT findings of otosclerosis, as well as with the temporal bone anatomy to assist in the appropriate clinical management of this disease. (author)

  1. Tomographic diagnosis and relevant aspects of otosclerosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaiotti, Juliana Oggioni; Gomes, Natalia Delage; Costa, Ana Maria Doffemond; Villela, Caroline Laurita Batista Couto; Moreira, Wanderval; Diniz, Renata Lopes Furletti Caldeira, E-mail: jugaiotti@gmail.com [Hospital Mater Dei-Mater Imagem, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2013-09-15

    A literature review and pictorial essay were developed to discuss the importance of knowing the main findings and locations of otosclerosis at multidetector computed tomography (MDCT). The authors performed a retrospective review of cases of otosclerosis diagnosed in their institution by means of high resolution multidetector computed tomography. Otosclerosis corresponds to otic capsule dysplasia characterized by metabolic derangement of its endochondral layer. Such condition constitutes a relevant cause of sensorineural hearing loss, affecting about 7% to 10% of the general population. The diagnosis is usually clinical, but imaging methods play a significant role in the anatomical detailing, differential diagnosis, surgical planning and evaluation of postoperative complications. Among such methods, the relevance of MDCT is highlighted. Radiologists should be familiar with the MDCT findings of otosclerosis, as well as with the temporal bone anatomy to assist in the appropriate clinical management of this disease. (author)

  2. Is working memory still working?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baddeley, A D

    2001-11-01

    The current state of A. D. Baddeley and G. J. Hitch's (1974) multicomponent working memory model is reviewed. The phonological and visuospatial subsystems have been extensively investigated, leading both to challenges over interpretation of individual phenomena and to more detailed attempts to model the processes underlying the subsystems. Analysis of the controlling central executive has proved more challenging, leading to a proposed clarification in which the executive is assumed to be a limited capacity attentional system, aided by a newly postulated fourth system, the episodic buffer. Current interest focuses most strongly on the link between working memory and long-term memory and on the processes allowing the integration of information from the component subsystems. The model has proved valuable in accounting for data from a wide range of participant groups under a rich array of task conditions. Working memory does still appear to be working.

  3. Paid work and unpaid work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonke, Jens

    Time-use information is preferably obtained from diaries, as this method is considered more reliable than information from questionnaires. The diary-technique seems to be unique in catching the rhythm of every day life and thereby the structuring of work and leisure during a well-defined and memo......Time-use information is preferably obtained from diaries, as this method is considered more reliable than information from questionnaires. The diary-technique seems to be unique in catching the rhythm of every day life and thereby the structuring of work and leisure during a well......-questions are asked about the time spent on paid work and unpaid/household work. The advantage of the latter technique is that it can easily be integrated into surveys. Thus the American National Survey of Families and Households (NSFH) already contains two waves, and a new wave for 2001-2002, which allows...

  4. EOG feature relevance determination for microsleep detection

    OpenAIRE

    Golz Martin; Wollner Sebastian; Sommer David; Schnieder Sebastian

    2017-01-01

    Automatic relevance determination (ARD) was applied to two-channel EOG recordings for microsleep event (MSE) recognition. 10 s immediately before MSE and also before counterexamples of fatigued, but attentive driving were analysed. Two type of signal features were extracted: the maximum cross correlation (MaxCC) and logarithmic power spectral densities (PSD) averaged in spectral bands of 0.5 Hz width ranging between 0 and 8 Hz. Generalised learn-ing vector quantisation (GRLVQ) was used as ARD...

  5. Trade Off Relevance Dan Reliability: Isu Ifrs

    OpenAIRE

    Mahmudah, Hadi

    2013-01-01

    Financial reports containing qualitative characteristic that are useful for usernya.For a long time believed to be the existence of trade off between characteristic of qualitative relevance and reliability. Trade off due to the fact that the use of the method of measurement historical cost and fair value. Trade off occur because of the interests of for the purpose of the preparation of reports on finance. Accountability for the purpose of the measurement of the cost of historical still reliab...

  6. Nanostructure symmetry: Relevance for physics and computing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dupertuis, Marc-André; Oberli, D. Y.; Karlsson, K. F.; Dalessi, S.; Gallinet, B.; Svendsen, G.

    2014-01-01

    We review the research done in recent years in our group on the effects of nanostructure symmetry, and outline its relevance both for nanostructure physics and for computations of their electronic and optical properties. The exemples of C3v and C2v quantum dots are used. A number of surprises and non-trivial aspects are outlined, and a few symmetry-based tools for computing and analysis are shortly presented

  7. Nanostructure symmetry: Relevance for physics and computing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dupertuis, Marc-André; Oberli, D. Y. [Laboratory for Physics of Nanostructure, EPF Lausanne (Switzerland); Karlsson, K. F. [Department of Physics, Chemistry, and Biology (IFM), Linköping University (Sweden); Dalessi, S. [Computational Biology Group, Department of Medical Genetics, University of Lausanne (Switzerland); Gallinet, B. [Nanophotonics and Metrology Laboratory, EPF Lausanne (Switzerland); Svendsen, G. [Dept. of Electronics and Telecom., Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim (Norway)

    2014-03-31

    We review the research done in recent years in our group on the effects of nanostructure symmetry, and outline its relevance both for nanostructure physics and for computations of their electronic and optical properties. The exemples of C3v and C2v quantum dots are used. A number of surprises and non-trivial aspects are outlined, and a few symmetry-based tools for computing and analysis are shortly presented.

  8. Monochloramine Cometabolism by Nitrifying Biofilm Relevant ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recently, biological monochloramine removal (i.e., cometabolism) by a pure culture ammonia–oxidizing bacteria, Nitrosomonas europaea, and a nitrifying mixed–culture have been shown to increase monochloramine demand. Although important, these previous suspended culture batch kinetic experiments were not representative of drinking water distribution systems where bacteria grow predominantly as biofilm attached to pipe walls or sediments and physiological differences may exist between suspension and biofilm growth. Therefore, the current research was an important next step in extending the previous results to investigate monochloramine cometabolism by biofilm grown in annular reactors under drinking water relevant conditions. Estimated monochloramine cometabolism kinetics were similar to those of ammonia metabolism, and monochloramine cometabolism was a significant loss mechanism (25–40% of the observed monochloramine loss). These results demonstrated that monochloramine cometabolism occurred in drinking water relevant nitrifying biofilm; thus, cometabolism may be a significant contribution to monochloramine loss during nitrification episodes in distribution systems. Investigate whether or not nitrifying biofilm can biologically transform monochloramine under drinking water relevant conditions.

  9. Selection of relevant dietary indicators for health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steingrímsdóttir, L; Ovesen, L; Moreiras, O; Jacob, S

    2002-05-01

    To define a set of dietary components that are relevant determinants for health in Europe. The selected components are intended to serve as nutrition indicators for health in the European Health Monitoring Programme and, as such, must be limited in number, relevant to health in Europe and practical for all involved countries with respect to data gathering and comparability of data. Major nutrition factors were determined by reviewing relevant epidemiological and clinical literature in nutrition and health as well as referring to reports from international expert groups, including the report from the project Nutrition and Diet for Healthy Lifestyles in Europe. The selection of factors was also based on the relative ease and cost involved for participating countries to obtain comparable and valid data. The selected factors include foods or food groups as well as individual nutrients. Biomarkers are suggested for selected nutrients that pose the greatest difficulty in obtaining valid and comparable data from dietary studies. The following list of diet indicators for health monitoring in Europe was agreed upon by the EFCOSUM group in 2001, in order of priority: vegetables, fruit, bread, fish, saturated fatty acids as percentage of energy (%E), total fat as %E, and ethanol in grams per day. Biomarkers were suggested for the following nutrients: folate, vitamin D, iron, iodine and sodium. Energy has to be assessed in order to calculate %E from total fat and saturated fatty acids.

  10. The value relevance of environmental emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melinda Lydia Nelwan

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This study examines whether environmental performance has value relevance by investigating the relations between environmental emissions and stock prices for the U.S. public companies. The previous studies argued that the conjectured relations between accounting performance measures and environmental performance do not have a strong theoretical basis, and the modeling of relations between market per-formance measures and environmental performance do not adequately consider the relevance of accounting performance to market value. Therefore, this study examines whether publicly reported environmental emissions provide incremental information to accounting earnings in pricing companies stocks. It is done among the complete set of industries covered by Toxics Release Inventory (TRI reporting for the period 2007 to 2010. Using Ohlson model but modified to include different types of emis-sions, it is found that ground emissions (underground injection and land emissions are value relevant but other emission types (air and water and transferred-out emis-sions appear to not provide incremental information in the valuation model. The result in this study raise concerns that different types of emissions are assessed differently by the market, confirming that studies should not aggregate such measures.

  11. EOG feature relevance determination for microsleep detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golz Martin

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Automatic relevance determination (ARD was applied to two-channel EOG recordings for microsleep event (MSE recognition. 10 s immediately before MSE and also before counterexamples of fatigued, but attentive driving were analysed. Two type of signal features were extracted: the maximum cross correlation (MaxCC and logarithmic power spectral densities (PSD averaged in spectral bands of 0.5 Hz width ranging between 0 and 8 Hz. Generalised learn-ing vector quantisation (GRLVQ was used as ARD method to show the potential of feature reduction. This is compared to support-vector machines (SVM, in which the feature reduction plays a much smaller role. Cross validation yielded mean normalised relevancies of PSD features in the range of 1.6 – 4.9 % and 1.9 – 10.4 % for horizontal and vertical EOG, respectively. MaxCC relevancies were 0.002 – 0.006 % and 0.002 – 0.06 %, respectively. This shows that PSD features of vertical EOG are indispensable, whereas MaxCC can be neglected. Mean classification accuracies were estimated at 86.6±b 1.3 % and 92.3±b 0.2 % for GRLVQ and SVM, respectively. GRLVQ permits objective feature reduction by inclusion of all processing stages, but is not as accurate as SVM.

  12. EOG feature relevance determination for microsleep detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golz Martin

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Automatic relevance determination (ARD was applied to two-channel EOG recordings for microsleep event (MSE recognition. 10 s immediately before MSE and also before counterexamples of fatigued, but attentive driving were analysed. Two type of signal features were extracted: the maximum cross correlation (MaxCC and logarithmic power spectral densities (PSD averaged in spectral bands of 0.5 Hz width ranging between 0 and 8 Hz. Generalised learn-ing vector quantisation (GRLVQ was used as ARD method to show the potential of feature reduction. This is compared to support-vector machines (SVM, in which the feature reduction plays a much smaller role. Cross validation yielded mean normalised relevancies of PSD features in the range of 1.6 - 4.9 % and 1.9 - 10.4 % for horizontal and vertical EOG, respectively. MaxCC relevancies were 0.002 - 0.006 % and 0.002 - 0.06 %, respectively. This shows that PSD features of vertical EOG are indispensable, whereas MaxCC can be neglected. Mean classification accuracies were estimated at 86.6±b 1.3 % and 92.3±b 0.2 % for GRLVQ and SVM, respec-tively. GRLVQ permits objective feature reduction by inclu-sion of all processing stages, but is not as accurate as SVM.

  13. Valerian: No Evidence for Clinically Relevant Interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olaf Kelber

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent popular publications as well as in widely used information websites directed to cancer patients, valerian is claimed to have a potential of adverse interactions with anticancer drugs. This questions its use as a safe replacement for, for example, benzodiazepines. A review on the interaction potential of preparations from valerian root (Valeriana officinalis L. root was therefore conducted. A data base search and search in a clinical drug interaction data base were conducted. Thereafter, a systematic assessment of publications was performed. Seven in vitro studies on six CYP 450 isoenzymes, on p-glycoprotein, and on two UGT isoenzymes were identified. However, the methodological assessment of these studies did not support their suitability for the prediction of clinically relevant interactions. In addition, clinical studies on various valerian preparations did not reveal any relevant interaction potential concerning CYP 1A2, 2D6, 2E1, and 3A4. Available animal and human pharmacodynamic studies did not verify any interaction potential. The interaction potential of valerian preparations therefore seems to be low and thereby without clinical relevance. We conclude that there is no specific evidence questioning their safety, also in cancer patients.

  14. Functional dyspepsia: Are psychosocial factors of relevance?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sandra Barry; Timothy G Dinan

    2006-01-01

    The pathogenesis of Functional Dyspepsia (FD) remains unclear, appears diverse and is thus inadequately understood. Akin to other functional gastrointestinal disorders, research has demonstrated an association between this common diagnosis and psychosocial factors and psychiatric morbidity. Conceptualising the relevance of these factors within the syndrome of FD requires application of the biopsychosocial model of disease.Using this paradigm, dysregulation of the reciprocal communication between the brain and the gut is central to symptom generation, interpretation and exacerbation.Appreciation and understanding of the neurobiological correlates of various psychological states is also relevant.The view that psychosocial factors exert their influence in FD predominantly through motivation of health care seeking also persists. This appears too one-dimensional an assertion in light of the evidence available supporting a more intrinsic aetiological link. Evolving understanding of pathogenic mechanisms and the heterogeneous nature of the syndrome will facilitate effective management.Co-morbid psychiatric illness warrants treatment with conventional therapies. Acknowledging the relevance of psychosocial variables in FD, the degree of which is subject to variation, has implications for assessment and management. Available evidence suggests psychological therapies may benefit FD patients particularly those with chronic symptoms. The rationale for use of psychotropic medications in FD is apparent but the evidence base to support the use of antidepressant pharmacotherapy is to date limited.

  15. Working hours

    OpenAIRE

    Fialová, Lenka

    2012-01-01

    Working hours The aim of this thesis that I set was a comprehensive analysis of the working hours issue. The main purpose was to summarize this area of labor law while taking into account the Labour Code amendment which came into force on 1st January 2012. The changes in the related legal terms were also included into this thesis because of the mentioned changes. The thesis is composed of three chapters. Chapter One deals briefly with history of Labour Law and regulatory development. Author`s...

  16. Comets Nature, Dynamics, Origin, and their Cosmogonical Relevance

    CERN Document Server

    Fernández, Julio Angel

    2005-01-01

    The book covers the most recent ideas about the nature and dynamics of comets, including a thorough discussion on Oort cloud dynamics which has not received due attention in other books on the subject. It also discusses the most relevant aspects of the physics and chemistry of comet nuclei, highlighting their importance as relics of the protoplanetary disk and, perhaps, as carriers of water and organics that permitted the development of life on Earth. The book contains several tables with useful data, and an ample bibliography covering the most recent work as well as some historical key contributions to the subject. It may be suitable as a textbook for graduate students with some basic knowledge of celestial mechanics and astrophysics, as well as a consult book for comet researchers, or researchers from other related fields willing to start working on comets, or get an updated view of the subject.

  17. Using the Characteristics of Documents, Users and Tasks to Predict the Situational Relevance of Health Web Documents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melinda Oroszlányová

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Relevance is usually estimated by search engines using document content, disregarding the user behind the search and the characteristics of the task. In this work, we look at relevance as framed in a situational context, calling it situational relevance, and analyze whether it is possible to predict it using documents, users and tasks characteristics. Using an existing dataset composed of health web documents, relevance judgments for information needs, user and task characteristics, we build a multivariate prediction model for situational relevance. Our model has an accuracy of 77.17%. Our findings provide insights into features that could improve the estimation of relevance by search engines, helping to conciliate the systemic and situational views of relevance. In a near future we will work on the automatic assessment of document, user and task characteristics.

  18. Construction work

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    Construction work on building 179 will start on the 16th February 2004 and continue until November 2004. The road between buildings 179 and 158 will temporarily become a one way street from Route Democrite towards building 7. The parking places between buildings 179 and 7 will become obsolete. The ISOLDE collaboration would like to apologize for any inconveniences.

  19. Wetlands Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messina, Linda; Blanchard, Pamela Borne

    2004-01-01

    This article describes how a biology teacher's search for a cross-curricular project in science, math, history, and environmental science, that would help her students connect what they were learning in the classroom to their everyday life, resulted in an ongoing stewardship project. Working together with the Louisiana Sea Grant College Program…

  20. Work notice

    CERN Multimedia

    TS-FM

    2005-01-01

    Please note that work to repair the water mains on Route Bloch near Gate C will be carried out between 12 and 30 September 2005. The area between Route Bakker and Gate C will be closed to traffic during this period. You are kindly requested to comply with the road signs in place. Thank you for your understanding. TS-FM Group

  1. Road works

    CERN Multimedia

    GS Department

    2010-01-01

    From Monday 11 October until Friday 29 October 2010, the flow of traffic will be disrupted by road works at the roundabout in front of Restaurant No. 2; The number of spaces available in the car park in front of Rest. No. 2 will be reduced. Thank you for your understanding during this period. GS/SEM Group

  2. Heart Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madden, Sandra R.; Gonzales, Alicia C.

    2017-01-01

    It is not every day that a former student greets a teacher with, "Your course changed my life." The authors are the professor and student of the transformative course. Alicia Gonzales wanted to understand how to work with students to co-construct an environment where persistent problem solving in a technologically rich classroom was the…

  3. Work Simplification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Lynne

    1970-01-01

    Excerpts from a talk by Mrs. Ross at the 23rd annual convention of the American School Food Service Association in Detroit, August 5, 1969. A book on work simplification by Mrs. Ross will be available in June from the Iowa State University Press, Ames, Iowa. (Editor)

  4. Is Working Memory Training Effective?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shipstead, Zach; Redick, Thomas S.; Engle, Randall W.

    2012-01-01

    Working memory (WM) is a cognitive system that strongly relates to a person's ability to reason with novel information and direct attention to goal-relevant information. Due to the central role that WM plays in general cognition, it has become the focus of a rapidly growing training literature that seeks to affect broad cognitive change through…

  5. Ecological Relevance Determines Task Priority in Older Adults' Multitasking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doumas, Michail; Krampe, Ralf Th

    2015-05-01

    Multitasking is a challenging aspect of human behavior, especially if the concurrently performed tasks are different in nature. Several studies demonstrated pronounced performance decrements (dual-task costs) in older adults for combinations of cognitive and motor tasks. However, patterns of costs among component tasks differed across studies and reasons for participants' resource allocation strategies remained elusive. We investigated young and older adults' multitasking of a working memory task and two sensorimotor tasks, one with low (finger force control) and one with high ecological relevance (postural control). The tasks were performed in single-, dual-, and triple-task contexts. Working memory accuracy was reduced in dual-task contexts with either sensorimotor task and deteriorated further under triple-task conditions. Postural and force performance deteriorated with age and task difficulty in dual-task contexts. However, in the triple-task context with its maximum resource demands, older adults prioritized postural control over both force control and memory. Our results identify ecological relevance as the key factor in older adults' multitasking. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Analysis of interoperability requirements and of relevant activities in standards bodies and fora

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guarneri, R.; Skouby, Knud Erik; Falch, Morten

    1999-01-01

    The aim of this deliverable is to provide the summary of the standardisation activities considered of most relevance for the work of the PRIME project with respect to interoperability; this information is of prime importance for the planning of further PRIME technical work in this area....

  7. Work and minor work contracts

    CERN Document Server

    1999-01-01

    The Work and Minor Work contracts are all of the result-oriented type. The work is specified by CERN and the contractor is given full responsibility for its performance. The contracts are thus very similar to supply contracts. The re-tendering of the existing contracts is almost complete, except for some building maintenance contracts. A new cycle of re-tendering for some activities will be launched in the next twelve months. The total estimated expenditure in the year 2000 for the contracts referred to in this document is 27 750 000 Swiss francs at 1999 prices. The Finance Committee is invited: - to approve the proposed expenditure for the extension of contracts for which the estimated amount for the year 2000 exceeds 750 000 Swiss francs, namely those under references 1, 2, 3, 5, 7, 8, 9 and 23, highlighted in Table I; - to take note that all Work and Minor Work contracts have been tendered since 1 January 1994, except the small contracts shown under references 12 and 16 in Table I; - to take note that the ...

  8. Verbal Working Memory in Children with Cochlear Implants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nittrouer, Susan; Caldwell-Tarr, Amanda; Low, Keri E.; Lowenstein, Joanna H.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Verbal working memory in children with cochlear implants and children with normal hearing was examined. Participants: Ninety-three fourth graders (47 with normal hearing, 46 with cochlear implants) participated, all of whom were in a longitudinal study and had working memory assessed 2 years earlier. Method: A dual-component model of…

  9. Making it work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther, Jonas

    Within the field of health research, the randomised controlled trial (RCT) is often highlighted as the best method for producing statistically valid evidence about the effects of health interventions. To produce evidence that is also socially relevant, health researchers increasingly perform trials...... outside the laboratory in people’s everyday lives. This creates a situation, in which scientific ideals of methodological rigour must be made to work with trial participants and their ongoing everyday lives. Jonas Winther’s dissertation, Making it Work, explores how this ambition is pursued in practice....... The dissertation builds on Winther’s engagement as an ethnologist in an interdisciplinary research project in Denmark, which was structured around an intervention trial that tested the health effects of exercise in everyday life. Through ethnographic fieldwork among the participants and the researchers...

  10. The impact of positive, negative and topical relevance feedback

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaptein, Rianne; Kamps, Jaap; Hiemstra, Djoerd

    2008-01-01

    This document contains a description of experiments for the 2008 Relevance Feedback track. We experiment with different amounts of feedback, including negative relevance feedback. Feedback is implemented using massive weighted query expansion. Parsimonious query expansion using only relevant

  11. [Relevant factors in medico-legal prognosis of whiplash injury].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pujol, Amadeo; Puig, Luisa; Mansilla, Joaquina; Idiaquez, Itziar

    2003-07-12

    Whiplash injury (WI) is commonly evaluated in medico-legal practice. With the aim of knowing the determining factors of WI's medico-legal prognosis, a prospective and observational study was carried out. One hundred and twenty consecutive patients who were clinically observed and evaluated in the Medico-Legal Clinic of Barcelona were studied. Socio-demographic, clinical, radiographic and evolutive factors were analyzed. We included 120 patients with a mean age of 35.6 (14) years (range, 4-74), with a homogeneous male/female distribution. An earlier cervical pathology was detected in 10% of patients; none of them had previous psychiatric pathology. 95% corresponded to road-traffic accident cases and there were 5 aggression cases. Over 50% of cases involved a rear-end collision. All patients had neck pain, almost 25% had headache and 13% had paresthesia. According to the Whiplash Association Disorders clinical classification, distribution in grades (G) was: G I 51%, G II 32% and G III 17%. Patients reported recovery within a mean time of 71.6 (46) days (range, 4-244), with 51,2 (45) no working days (range, 0-180 days). The 52% of the patients rest with complains. According to the recovery time, the following medico-legal prognostic factors were identified: age (p legal prognostic factors were age, being females, severity of initial clinical symptoms, previous cervical pathology and abnormal cervical MRI/CT.

  12. Sedentary work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Dorte; Rosthøj, Susanne; Burr, Hermann

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to investigate the association between five-year changes in occupational sitting and body mass index (BMI) in working adults. METHODS: We analyzed data from The Danish Work Environment Cohort Study (2005 and 2010, n=3.482). Data on occupational sitting, weight......, height and several potential confounders were self-reported. The association between change in occupational sitting (hours) (categorized as large decrease 2.5 to 7.5 and large increase >7.5) and change in BMI was explored...... by multiple linear regression analyses. RESULTS: 43.0% men and 36.1% women had high occupational sitting time (≥25h per week) at baseline. 31.8% men and 27.2% women decreased while 30.0% men and 33.0% women increased occupational sitting. The proportion of obese (BMI≥30) increased almost 3% for both genders...

  13. Works notice

    CERN Multimedia

    GS Department

    2009-01-01

    We would like to inform you that renovation work on the road lighting equipment will take place on the Meyrin site between 19 October and 18 December 2009. During this period, traffic will be disrupted on the Schrödinger, Perrin and Siegbahn roads, ie from Building 274 to Building 188. We request that you comply with the road signs and thank you for your understanding. GS-SEM Group

  14. Sustainable Entrepreneurship and Quality of Work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lauge Baungaard

    2004-01-01

    The chapter presents an overview of the crises and challenges facing many European, regional areas. Furthermore, the concept 'sustainable entrepreneurship' (SE) and its relevance for regional development is discussed. in addition, work quality is discussed from a SE perspective. Finally...

  15. Identifying Relevant Studies in Software Engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, He; Ali Babar, Muhammad; Tell, Paolo

    2011-01-01

    Context: Systematic literature review (SLR) has become an important research methodology in software engineering since the introduction of evidence-based software engineering (EBSE) in 2004. One critical step in applying this methodology is to design and execute appropriate and effective search....... Objective: The main objective of the research reported in this paper is to improve the search step of undertaking SLRs in software engineering (SE) by devising and evaluating systematic and practical approaches to identifying relevant studies in SE. Method: We have systematically selected and analytically...

  16. Happiness: origins, forms, and technical relevance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhtar, Salman

    2010-09-01

    By critically reviewing Freud's views on happiness, and also those of Helene Deutsch, Bertram Lewin, Melanie Klein, and Heinz Kohut, the author evolves a complex and multilayered perspective on the phenomenon. He categorizes happiness into four related and occasionally overlapping varieties: pleasure-based happiness (elation), assertion-based happiness (joy), merger-based happiness (ecstasy), and fulfillment-based happiness (contentment). After entering some caveats and drawing from his clinical experience, the author then demonstrates the relevance of these ideas to the conduct of psychotherapy and psychoanalysis.

  17. Relevance of physics to the pharmacy major.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCall, Richard P

    2007-08-15

    To offer a physics course that is relevant to pharmacy students, yet still contains many of the fundamental principles of physics. The course was modified over a period of several years to include activities and examples that were related to other courses in the curriculum. Course evaluations were given to assess student attitudes about the importance of physics in the pharmacy curriculum. Students' attitudes have changed over time to appreciate the role that physics plays in their studies. Students gained confidence in their ability to learn in other courses.

  18. Reward-dependent modulation of working memory in lateral prefrontal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennerley, Steven W; Wallis, Jonathan D

    2009-03-11

    Although research implicates lateral prefrontal cortex (PFC) in executive control and goal-directed behavior, it remains unclear how goals influence executive processes. One possibility is that goal-relevant information, such as expected rewards, could modulate the representation of information relating to executive control, thereby ensuring the efficient allocation of cognitive resources. To investigate this, we examined how reward modulated spatial working memory. Past studies investigating spatial working memory have focused on dorsolateral PFC, but this area only weakly connects with areas processing reward. Ventrolateral PFC has better connections in this regard. Thus, we contrasted the functional properties of single neurons in ventrolateral and dorsolateral PFC as two subjects performed a task that required them to hold spatial information in working memory under different expectancies of reward for correct performance. We balanced the order of presentation of spatial and reward information so we could assess the neuronal encoding of the two pieces of information independently and conjointly. Neurons in ventrolateral PFC encoded both spatial and reward information earlier, stronger and in a more sustained manner than neurons in dorsolateral PFC. Within ventrolateral PFC, spatial selectivity was more prevalent on the inferior convexity than within the principal sulcus. Finally, when reward increased spatial selectivity, behavioral performance improved, whereas when reward decreased spatial selectivity, behavioral performance deteriorated. These results suggest that ventrolateral PFC may be a locus whereby information about expected rewards can modulate information in working memory. The pattern of results is consistent with a role for ventrolateral PFC in attentional control.

  19. A WIDER ROLE FOR TECHNICIANS IN SCIENCE PRACTICAL WORK WITH SCHOOL STUDENTS?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy G. Harrison

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the results of a study made on the impact of improved deployment of science technicians in the classroom could directly benefit students in practical science investigations. Science technicians are skilled individuals whose understanding of practical work is a valuable resource not being used of in support of students understanding of science. Aspects of practical work and technician support were scrutinised, through information attained from a post-16 student survey to improve understanding about this teaching tool, to establish if it was being used to its full potential within science lessons. Analysis was also made of students’ perceptions of school science. The main outcomes were that the majority of students enjoyed science practical work and felt that science could not be taught without it. Students studying science at pre-university level attained a greater understanding, through participating in relevant practical work, than students who had studied it at earlier, compulsory levels. Students reported that science technicians provide impact on student learning when contact time was the greatest.

  20. Ansel Adams: early works

    Science.gov (United States)

    Throckmorton, Jodi

    2010-02-01

    Ansel Adams (1902-1984), photographer, musician, naturalist, explorer, critic, and teacher, was a giant in the field of landscape photography. In his images of the unspoiled Western landscape, he strove to capture the sublime: the transcendentalist concept that nature can generate the experience of awe for the viewer. Many viewers are familiar with the heroic, high-contrast prints on high-gloss paper that Adams made to order beginning in the 1970s; much less well known are the intimate prints that the artist crafted earlier in his career. This exhibition focuses on these masterful small prints from the 1920s into the 1950s. During this time period, Adams's printing style changed dramatically. The painterly, soft-focus, warm-toned style of the Parmelian Prints of the High Sierras from the 1920s evolved into the sharp-focus style of the f/64 school of photography that Adams co-founded in the 1930s with Edward Weston and Imogen Cunningham. After World War II, Adams opted for a cooler, higher-contrast look for his prints. Throughout the various styles in which he chose to work, Adams explored the power of nature and succeeded in establishing landscape photography as a legitimate form of modern art.

  1. [Relevance of Personality Factors for Successful Vocational Rehabilitation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arling, V; Slavchova, V; Knispel, J; Spijkers, W

    2016-02-01

    The Main purpose of vocational rehabilitation is occupational reintegration of clients into the job market who have lost their job or whose job is threatened because of a handicap or chronicl illness. With regard to existing evidence for the relevance of personality factors for work performance and job achievement, the present study investigated the influence of participants' personality factors on a successful reintegration after a retraining program in a vocational training center over 2 years. A central research objective was to identify prognostic personality factors for successful vocational integration. In this longitudinal study 15 vocational training centers participated at 3 time points of measurement (T1, T2 and T3). Data gathering was based on rehabilitants' self-reports (standardized questionnaires: SVF, BSW, SPR, CSES) about personality aspects. First data collection started at the beginning (T1) and a second survey was conducted at the end of the training 2 years later (T2). Based on the data at measurement points T1 and T2, 4 prognostic models were computed (binary logistic regression analysis) and evaluated, examining the differenzial influence of several scales and items on direct reintegration after completing the vocational retraining and reintegration status 6 months later (T3). As expected, different variables turned out to be relevant for occupational integration at the end of the training program and 6 months later. Correspondingly other variables appeared to be relevant for occupational reintegration at T1 and at T2. At the end of the vocational training program, approximately 24% of the participants had a job. With respect to direct reintegration, regression analysis revealed that vocational self-efficacy (R(2)=0,175) and self-evaluation were relevant (R(2)=0,383). Approximately 70% of the participants had gotten a job 6 months later. Several stress coping strategies (R(2)=0,170), estimation of the own reintegration prognosis and aspects

  2. Gender and Working Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tapio Bergholm

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of occupational segregation by sex and gendered practices in the workplace are complex, multidimensional and contested fields of research and academic discourse. Since the 1960s, we have seen a rapid growth in both quantity and quality of academic work in this field. Earlier simplistic main (male stream as well as straightforward feminist explanations has been roundly criticised and deconstructed. It is now clear that the study of gender relations in working life is far more complicated than it was believed decades ago. The central question in gender research is how gendered structures – in which men in general have more power, more prestigious positions and higher pay – are reproduced in a world in which demography, economy, production, education and therefore society and family have changed over time. Nordic countries represents an interesting geographical arena to examine gender relations in working life, because many factors, which have been seen in other countries as causes for female subordination, appear in other forms. At present, the labour force participation rate of women in Nordic countries is nearly equal to that of men, but there are still substantial differences. Women are better educated than men, and also, to a large extent unionised. Although these factors make Nordic women stand out globally, gender equality at work or at home has not yet been achieved. The male breadwinner is still a societal norm and a construct, which conditions the behaviour of organisations and individuals in many circumstances in working life. This influence can be obvious or obscure. From the 1990s, research has turned to focus also on the fate of the male workforce during deindustrialisation and global restructuring. Participation rate of men in gainful employment have diminished in all industrialised countries (Crouch; 1999, Walby; 1997. Nordic countries are not an exception to this trend. Men’s difficulties to adapt to a new service

  3. Other relevant papers in physical oceanography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nyffeler, F.

    1989-01-01

    During the past few years, significant progress has occurred in the field of physical oceanography partly as a consequence of developing cooperation and international participation in well-coordinated ocean research programmes. Although these programs were not designed specifically to address CRESP problems, many have proved to be directly relevant to CRESP objectives. For example, MODE, POLYMODE, and Tourbillon were intensive site-specific experiments that included studies of dispersion processes throughout the water column. NOAMP and GME were also site specific, involved the entire water column, and even stressed near-bottom and suspended-sediment processes. Others, (e.g., WOCE) are larger in scope and include extensive observations of the general circulation of entire ocean basins. As a whole, they contribute immensely to improving the data base for exchange and transport processes and thereby for the verification and validation of both regional-scale and general-circulation ocean models. That, in turn, is directly relevant to radiological assessments. Selected papers deriving from experiments such as these are discussed and referenced below

  4. [Terbinafine : Relevant drug interactions and their management].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dürrbeck, A; Nenoff, P

    2016-09-01

    The allylamine terbinafine is the probably most frequently prescribed systemic antifungal agent in Germany for the treatment of dermatomycoses and onychomycoses. According to the German drug law, terbinafine is approved for patients who are 18 years and older; however, this antifungal agent is increasingly used off-label for treatment of onychomycoses and tinea capitis in children. Terbinafine is associated with only a few interactions with other drugs, which is why terbinafine can generally be used without problems in older and multimorbid patients. Nevertheless, some potential interactions of terbinafine with certain drug substances are known, including substances of the group of antidepressants/antipsychotics and some cardiovascular drugs. Decisive for the relevance of interactions is-along with the therapeutic index of the substrate and the possible alternative degradation pathways-the genetically determined type of metabolism. When combining terbinafine with tricyclic antidepressants or selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and serotonin/noradrenalin reuptake inhibitors, the clinical response and potential side effects must be monitored. Problematic is the use of terbinafine with simultaneous treatment with tamoxifen. The administration of potent CYP2D6 inhibitors leads to a diminished efficacy of tamoxifen because one of its most important active metabolites-endoxifen-is not sufficiently available. Therefore, combination of tamoxifen and terbinafine should be avoided. In conclusion, the number of substances which are able to cause clinically relevant interactions in case of simultaneously administration with terbinafine is clear and should be manageable in the dermatological office with adequate monitoring.

  5. Relevance of randomised controlled trials in oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tannock, Ian F; Amir, Eitan; Booth, Christopher M; Niraula, Saroj; Ocana, Alberto; Seruga, Bostjan; Templeton, Arnoud J; Vera-Badillo, Francisco

    2016-12-01

    Well-designed randomised controlled trials (RCTs) can prevent bias in the comparison of treatments and provide a sound basis for changes in clinical practice. However, the design and reporting of many RCTs can render their results of little relevance to clinical practice. In this Personal View, we discuss the limitations of RCT data and suggest some ways to improve the clinical relevance of RCTs in the everyday management of patients with cancer. RCTs should ask questions of clinical rather than commercial interest, avoid non-validated surrogate endpoints in registration trials, and have entry criteria that allow inclusion of all patients who are fit to receive treatment. Furthermore, RCTs should be reported with complete accounting of frequency and management of toxicities, and with strict guidelines to ensure freedom from bias. Premature reporting of results should be avoided. The bar for clinical benefit should be raised for drug registration, which should require publication and review of mature data from RCTs, post-marketing health outcome studies, and value-based pricing. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Working together

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1957-01-01

    The film summarizes international cooperation in advancing peaceful applications of atomic energy. It describes: U.S. shipments abroad of radioisotopes; formation of the European Council for Nuclear Research; former president Dwight D. Eisenhower's 'Atoms for Peace' announcement to the UN; first International Conference at the University of Michigan; first shipment abroad by AEC Libraries; UN General Assembly debate on the international agency; the Joint Norwegian-Dutch Atomic Energy Laboratory; atomic energy work of India, Brazil and others; U.S. training of foreign scientists; U.S. agreements with other nations; Geneva 1955 International Conference; approval and signing of the Charter of the International Atomic Energy Agency

  7. Working together

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1958-12-31

    The film summarizes international cooperation in advancing peaceful applications of atomic energy. It describes: U.S. shipments abroad of radioisotopes; formation of the European Council for Nuclear Research; former president Dwight D. Eisenhower`s `Atoms for Peace` announcement to the UN; first International Conference at the University of Michigan; first shipment abroad by AEC Libraries; UN General Assembly debate on the international agency; the Joint Norwegian-Dutch Atomic Energy Laboratory; atomic energy work of India, Brazil and others; U.S. training of foreign scientists; U.S. agreements with other nations; Geneva 1955 International Conference; approval and signing of the Charter of the International Atomic Energy Agency

  8. Lice work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benali, Amira; Ren, Carina Bregnholm

    2018-01-01

    and Nepalese everyday life and show how these are deployed, contested and reconfigured onsite by volunteer tourism actors. By exploring patterns of absences and presences and using the concept of ontological choreography as an analytical resource, we show how the situated lice work of human and non...... at the orphanage. This post-human approach decenters the volunteer and destabilises the host and guest binary, while adding to our understanding of tourism practices as complex and materially distributed endeavours. We first analyse two configurations of head lice enacted through a Western morality of hygiene...

  9. RESUMING WORK

    CERN Document Server

    2004-01-01

    In application of the Staff Rules and Regulations, every member of the CERN personnel is required to undergo a medical examination on resuming work after sick leave: • if the medical absence has been for 21 calendar days or longer • if absent more than 48 hours due to professional accident It is incumbent upon the member of the personnel himself/herself to contact the Medical Service tel. 73186, without awaiting its summons. The purpose of this exam is not to check on the absenteeism, but to support the professional reinsertion. Medical Service

  10. RESUMING WORK

    CERN Document Server

    2003-01-01

    In application of the Staff Rules and Regulations, every member of the CERN personnel is required to undergo a medical examination on resuming work after sick leave: - if the medical absence has been for 21 calendar days or longer - if absent more than 48 hours due to professional accident It is incumbent upon the member of the personnel himself/herself to contact the Medical Service Tel. 73186, without awaiting its summons. The purpose of this exam is not to check on the absenteeism, but to support the professional reinsertion. Medical Service

  11. RESUMING WORK

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    In application of the Staff Rules and Regulations, every member of the CERN personnel is required to undergo a medical examination on resuming work after sick leave: - if the medical absence has been for 21 calendar days or longer - if absent more than 48 hours due to professional accident It is incumbent upon the member of the personnel himself/herself to contact the Medical Service tel. 73186, without awaiting its summons. The purpose of this exam is not to check on the absenteeism, but to support the professional reinsertion. Medical Service

  12. Exact work

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeger, J.

    1993-01-01

    Organized criminals also tried to illegally transfer nuclear material through Austria. Two important questions have to be answered after the material is sized by police authorities: What is the composition of the material and where does it come from? By application of a broad range of analytical techniques, which were developed or refined by our experts, it is possible to measure the exact amount and isotopic composition of uranium and plutonium in any kind of samples. The criminalistic application is only a byproduct of the large scale work on controlling the peaceful application of nuclear energy, which is done in contract with the IAEA in the context of the 'Network of Analytical Laboratories'

  13. Perceived Relevance of an Introductory Information Systems Course to Prospective Business Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Govender

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The study is designed to examine students’ perceptions of the introductory Information Systems (IS course. It was an exploratory study in which 67 students participated. A quantitative approach was followed making use of questionnaires for the collection of data. Using the theory of reasoned action as a framework, the study explores the factors that influence non-IS major students’ perceived relevance of the IS introductory course. The analysis of collected data included descriptive and inferential statistics. Using multiple regression analysis, the results suggest that overall, the independent variables, relevance of the content, previous IT knowledge, relevance for professional practice, IT preference in courses and peers’ influence may account for 72% of the explanatory power for the dependent variable, perceived relevance of the IS course. In addition, the results have shown some strong predictors (IT preference and peers’ influence that influence students’ perceived relevance of the IS course. Practical work was found to be a strong mediating variable toward positive perceptions of IS. The results of this study suggest that students do indeed perceive the introductory IS course to be relevant and match their professional needs, but more practical work would enhance their learning. Implications for theory and practice are discussed as a result of the behavioural intention to perceive the IS course to be relevant and eventually to recruit more IS students.

  14. A report on the collection of data relevant to the Canadian National Uranium Tailings Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, A.

    1984-10-01

    In December of 1983, Systemhouse Ltd. was awarded a contract to collect data relevant to the Canadian National Uranium Tailings Program and to convert it into a machine readable format. The work was carried out in four phases, namely, data identification, data collection, data transcription/conversion and data verification. The main priority was to identify as much relevant data as possible. The identified data was priorized against a predefined criteria established in conjunction with the project scientific authority. A total of 428 studies were identified as being relevant. Data from 19 of these were converted to machine-readable format, giving information on 2398 samples from 78 boreholes

  15. Flexible time arrangements: relevance and impact of part-time work in Switzerland

    OpenAIRE

    Krone-Germann, Irenka

    2010-01-01

    In recent labour market history, one of the most striking features has been the increase of non-standard employment arrangements. These types of arrangements refer to atypical and alternative employment arrangements which are often called flexible staffing arrangements. The utilization of these flexible labour arrangements has been, however, the source of much controversy in the last twenty years but nowadays it is becoming more and more common in the OECD countries, more specifically in Swit...

  16. Personality Matters: Relevance and Assessment of Personality Characteristics. OECD Education Working Papers, No. 157

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kankaraš, Miloš

    2017-01-01

    Personality characteristics shape human behaviour and influence a wide range of life events and outcomes. They do so not only through their direct effects on life outcomes, but also through their indirect effects on other important personal factors and intermediate life events, such as the development of cognitive capacities, the attainment of…

  17. Nuclear thermal rocket clustering: 1, A summary of previous work and relevant issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buksa, J.J.; Houts, M.G.

    1991-01-01

    A general review of the technical merits of nuclear thermal rocket clustering is presented. A summary of previous analyses performed during the Rover program is presented and used to assess clustering in the context of projected Space Exploration Initiative missions. A number of technical issues are discussed including cluster reliability, engine-out operation, neutronic coupling, shutdown core power generation, shutdown reactivity requirements, reactor kinetics, and radiation shielding. 7 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs

  18. Fracture hydrology relevant to radionuclide transport. Field work in a granite formation in Cornwall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourke, P.J.; Hodgkinson, D.P.; Durrance, E.M.; Heath, M.J.

    1985-01-01

    Separation, orientation, apertures and intersections of water-bearing fractures are the variables which control water flow and affect radionuclide transport through fractured rocks. The need is discussed for information on the distribution of these variables in statistical treatments of flow and transport, because of the inadequacy of permeability and porosity data in continuum treatments. Satisfactory methods of measuring distributions of separation, orientation and apetures have been developed and data for Cornish granite are presented. An estimate of the average distance between fracture intersections is made

  19. Constitutional relevance of atomic energy law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lettow, S.

    1980-01-01

    In a decision publicized on December 20, 1979 the German Federal Constitutional Court rejected a claim of unconstitutionality in connection with the licensing procedure of the Muelheim-Kaerlich Nuclear Power Station currently under construction. This constitutes confirmation, by the 1st Department of the Court, of a decision in 1978 by the 2nd Department about the Kalkar fast breeder power plant, in which the peaceful utilization of nuclear energy had been found to be constitutional. However, the new decision by the Federal Constitutional Court particularly emphasizes the constitutional relevance of the rules of procedure under the Atomic Energy Act and their function with respect to the protection of civil rights. (orig.) [de

  20. Mirror neurons and their clinical relevance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzolatti, Giacomo; Fabbri-Destro, Maddalena; Cattaneo, Luigi

    2009-01-01

    One of the most exciting events in neurosciences over the past few years has been the discovery of a mechanism that unifies action perception and action execution. The essence of this 'mirror' mechanism is as follows: whenever individuals observe an action being done by someone else, a set of neurons that code for that action is activated in the observers' motor system. Since the observers are aware of the outcome of their motor acts, they also understand what the other individual is doing without the need for intermediate cognitive mediation. In this Review, after discussing the most pertinent data concerning the mirror mechanism, we examine the clinical relevance of this mechanism. We first discuss the relationship between mirror mechanism impairment and some core symptoms of autism. We then outline the theoretical principles of neurorehabilitation strategies based on the mirror mechanism. We conclude by examining the relationship between the mirror mechanism and some features of the environmental dependency syndromes.

  1. The Integrin Receptor in Biologically Relevant Bilayers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kalli, Antreas C.; Róg, Tomasz; Vattulainen, Ilpo

    2017-01-01

    /talin complex was inserted in biologically relevant bilayers that resemble the cell plasma membrane containing zwitterionic and charged phospholipids, cholesterol and sphingolipids to study the dynamics of the integrin receptor and its effect on bilayer structure and dynamics. The results of this study...... demonstrate the dynamic nature of the integrin receptor and suggest that the presence of the integrin receptor alters the lipid organization between the two leaflets of the bilayer. In particular, our results suggest elevated density of cholesterol and of phosphatidylserine lipids around the integrin....../talin complex and a slowing down of lipids in an annulus of ~30 Å around the protein due to interactions between the lipids and the integrin/talin F2–F3 complex. This may in part regulate the interactions of integrins with other related proteins or integrin clustering thus facilitating signal transduction...

  2. PREDICTING RELEVANT EMPTY SPOTS IN SOCIAL INTERACTION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yoshiharu MAENO; Yukio OHSAWA

    2008-01-01

    An empty spot refers to an empty hard-to-fill space which can be found in the records of the social interaction, and is the clue to the persons in the underlying social network who do not appear in the records. This contribution addresses a problem to predict relevant empty spots in social interaction. Homogeneous and inhomogeneous networks are studied as a model underlying the social interaction. A heuristic predictor function method is presented as a new method to address the problem. Simulation experiment is demonstrated over a homogeneous network. A test data set in the form of market baskets is generated from the simulated communication. Precision to predict the empty spots is calculated to demonstrate the performance of the presented method.

  3. Mathematical Properties Relevant to Geomagnetic Field Modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sabaka, Terence J.; Hulot, Gauthier; Olsen, Nils

    2010-01-01

    be directly measured. In this chapter, the mathematical foundation of global (as opposed to regional) geomagnetic field modeling is reviewed, and the spatial modeling of the field in spherical coordinates is focussed. Time can be dealt with as an independent variable and is not explicitly considered......Geomagnetic field modeling consists in converting large numbers of magnetic observations into a linear combination of elementary mathematical functions that best describes those observations.The set of numerical coefficients defining this linear combination is then what one refers.......The relevant elementary mathematical functions are introduced, their properties are reviewed, and how they can be used to describe the magnetic field in a source-free (such as the Earth’s neutral atmosphere) or source-dense (such as the ionosphere) environment is explained. Completeness and uniqueness...

  4. Mathematical Properties Relevant to Geomagnetic Field Modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sabaka, Terence J.; Hulot, Gauthier; Olsen, Nils

    2014-01-01

    be directly measured. In this chapter, the mathematical foundation of global (as opposed to regional) geomagnetic field modeling is reviewed, and the spatial modeling of the field in spherical coordinates is focused. Time can be dealt with as an independent variable and is not explicitly considered......Geomagnetic field modeling consists in converting large numbers of magnetic observations into a linear combination of elementary mathematical functions that best describes those observations. The set of numerical coefficients defining this linear combination is then what one refers....... The relevant elementary mathematical functions are introduced, their properties are reviewed, and how they can be used to describe the magnetic field in a source-free (such as the Earth’s neutral atmosphere) or source-dense (such as the ionosphere) environment is explained. Completeness and uniqueness...

  5. Towards increased policy relevance in energy modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Worrell, Ernst; Ramesohl, Stephan; Boyd, Gale

    2003-07-29

    Historically, most energy models were reasonably equipped to assess the impact of a subsidy or change in taxation, but are often insufficient to assess the impact of more innovative policy instruments. We evaluate the models used to assess future energy use, focusing on industrial energy use. We explore approaches to engineering-economic analysis that could help improve the realism and policy relevance of engineering-economic modeling frameworks. We also explore solutions to strengthen the policy usefulness of engineering-economic analysis that can be built from a framework of multi-disciplinary cooperation. We focus on the so-called ''engineering-economic'' (or ''bottom-up'') models, as they include the amount of detail that is commonly needed to model policy scenarios. We identify research priorities for the modeling framework, technology representation in models, policy evaluation and modeling of decision-making behavior.

  6. Climate-relevant monitorings in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metternich, P.

    1993-01-01

    This catalogue contains so-called meta-data; i.e. information on data. For each measuring programme or set of data, users find the address (postal address, telephone, fax-number) of the respective contact person at the beginning of the entry. The catalogue has three parts: Part A is a compilation of monitoring programmes using conventional methods adopted on the ground. Part B contains research programmes or sets of data from the field of remote sensing. In part C, data sets from time series of climate-relevant parameters are described. Section A was additionally structured according so the compartments of the climate system: Atmosphere, hydrosphere, cryosphere, biosphere. (orig./KW) [de

  7. Bacteriophage lambda: early pioneer and still relevant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casjens, Sherwood R.; Hendrix, Roger W.

    2015-01-01

    Molecular genetic research on bacteriophage lambda carried out during its golden age from the mid 1950's to mid 1980's was critically important in the attainment of our current understanding of the sophisticated and complex mechanisms by which the expression of genes is controlled, of DNA virus assembly and of the molecular nature of lysogeny. The development of molecular cloning techniques, ironically instigated largely by phage lambda researchers, allowed many phage workers to switch their efforts to other biological systems. Nonetheless, since that time the ongoing study of lambda and its relatives have continued to give important new insights. In this review we give some relevant early history and describe recent developments in understanding the molecular biology of lambda's life cycle. PMID:25742714

  8. Relevance of protection quantities in medical exposures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pradhan, A.S.

    2008-01-01

    International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) continues to classify the exposures to radiation in three categories; namely 1- occupational exposure, 2- public exposure, and 3- medical exposure. Protection quantities are primarily meant for the regulatory purpose in radiological protection for controlling and limiting stochastic risks in occupational and public exposures. These are based on two basic assumptions of 1- linear no-threshold dose-effect relationship (LNT) at low doses and 2- long-term additivity of low doses. Medical exposure are predominantly delivered to individuals (patients) undergoing diagnostic examinations, interventional procedures and radiation therapy but also include individual caring for or comforting patients incurring exposure and the volunteers of biomedical medical research programmes. Radiation protection is as relevant to occupational and public exposure as to medical exposures except that the dose limits set for the formers are not applicable to medical exposure but reference levels and dose constrains are recommended for diagnostic and interventional medical procedures. In medical institutions, both the occupational and medical exposure takes place. Since the doses in diagnostic examinations are low, it has been observed that not only the protection quantities are often used in such cases but these are extended to estimate the number of cancer deaths due to such practices. One of the striking features of the new ICRP recommendations has been to elaborate the concepts of the dosimetric quantities. The limitation of protection quantities ((Effective dose, E=Σ RT D TR .W T .W R and Equivalent Dose H T =Σ RT D TR .W R ) have been brought out and this has raised a great concern and initiated debates on the use of these quantities in medical exposures. Consequently, ICRP has set a task group to provide more details and the recommendations. It has, therefore, became important to draw the attention of medical physics community

  9. Ecological principles relevant to nuclear war

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hutchinson, T.C.; Cropper, W.P. Jr.; Grover, H.D.

    1985-01-01

    The ecological principles outlined are very basic ones; the authors anticipate a readership trained in a broad range of disciplines, including those unfamiliar with the academic discipline of ecology. The authors include substantial discussion on ecophysiology (i.e., the responses of organisms to their environment) because this is relevant to the new understanding of the potential climatic consequences of nuclear war. In particular, the physiological sensitivity of organisms to reduced levels of light and temperature are a key part of the analysis of the potential ecological effects and agricultural effects of nuclear war. Much of the ecological analysis has been organized around major biological units called biomes. The authors describe the biome concept and discuss some of the environmental-climatic factors that are believed to control biome distribution. Emphasis is given to plants because of their controlling influence on ecosystem functions through their role as primary producers. Future reports are needed to address more fully the potential effects on animals. Much more research needs to be done on both plant and animal responses to the types of perturbations possible for the aftermath of a nuclear war. Another important element for analysis of the potential ecological consequences of nuclear war concerns recovery processes. As the post-nuclear war environmental extremes ameliorate, ecological communities in devastated regions would begin to reorganize. It is not possible to predict the course of such a succession precisely, but some principles concerning post-perturbation replacement (such as seed banks and germination), relevant successional patterns, and organism strategies are discussed

  10. Thermochemical data for environmentally-relevant elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markich, S.J.; Brown, P.L.

    1999-01-01

    This study provides an extensive stability constant (log K) database suitable for calculating the speciation of selected environmentally-relevant elements (H, Na, K, Ca, Mg, Fe, Mn, U, Al Pb, Zn, Cu and cd) in an aqueous system, where a model fulvic acid (comprising aspartic, citric, malonic, salicylic and tricarballylic acids) is used to simulate metal binding by dissolved organic material Stability constants for inorganic metal complexes and minerals were selected primarily from critical literature complications and/or reviews. In contrast, few critically evaluated data were available for metal complexes with aspartic, citric, malonic, salicylic and tricarballylic acids. Consequently, data from original research articles were carefully evaluated and compiled as part of the study, following defined selection criteria. to meet the objective of compiling a comprehensive and reliable database of stability constants, all relevant equilibria and species, ranging from simple binary metal complexes to more complex ternary and even quaternary, metal complexes were included where possible in addition to the selection of stability constants from empirical sources, estimates of stability constants were performed when this could be done reliably, based on the unified theory of metal ion complexation and/or linear tree energy relationships The stability constants are given as common logarithms (logo) in the form required by the HARPHRQ geochemical code and refer to the standard state, i.e 298.15 K (25 deg C), 10 5 Pa (1 atm) and, for all species, infinite dilution (ionic strength = 0 mol L -1 ). In addition to the compilation of stability constant data, an overview is given of geochemical speciation modelling in aqueous systems and available conceptual models of metal binding by humic substances. (authors)

  11. Were Viking Dry-dock methods in the Americas used earlier to Build Pyramids, with Outflow Eroding the Sphinx, and were Stonehenge, the Obelisks, and Moas Similarly Erected?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLeod, Edward; McLeod, Roger

    2006-03-01

    Chisel-quarried recycled granite in MA is datable by runes to 1069 CE; it could corroborate dating by a LIDAR. Associated sites, possibly used by Vikings to dry-dock their ships, could have exploited lock-like controls, possibly a continued technology. Site-leveling at the Giza Pyramids proves water was used. `Locks' and body-immersion worked for building, moving, erecting, or watering, at sites like Stonehenge, The Hanging Gardens at Babylon, the Moas of Easter Island, or The Pyramids, where the eroding water discharge was deliberately flushed over the Sphinx complex. It enhance the electromagnetically excited blue light signals we can detect, especially at sites frequented by Molocket of ME. Information, as at America's Stonehenge, in NH, and constructions at Acton MA, at Giza or at Rumford ME proves that the Pyramids and Sphinx were engineered and built about 4500 BP.

  12. Prognosis Essay Scoring and Article Relevancy Using Multi-Text Features and Machine Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arif Mehmood

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study develops a model for essay scoring and article relevancy. Essay scoring is a costly process when we consider the time spent by an evaluator. It may lead to inequalities of the effort by various evaluators to apply the same evaluation criteria. Bibliometric research uses the evaluation criteria to find relevancy of articles instead. Researchers mostly face relevancy issues while searching articles. Therefore, they classify the articles manually. However, manual classification is burdensome due to time needed for evaluation. The proposed model performs automatic essay evaluation using multi-text features and ensemble machine learning. The proposed method is implemented in two data sets: a Kaggle short answer data set for essay scoring that includes four ranges of disciplines (Science, Biology, English, and English language Arts, and a bibliometric data set having IoT (Internet of Things and non-IoT classes. The efficacy of the model is measured against the Tandalla and AutoP approach using Cohen’s kappa. The model achieves kappa values of 0.80 and 0.83 for the first and second data sets, respectively. Kappa values show that the proposed model has better performance than those of earlier approaches.

  13. A multiple relevance feedback strategy with positive and negative models.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunlong Ma

    Full Text Available A commonly used strategy to improve search accuracy is through feedback techniques. Most existing work on feedback relies on positive information, and has been extensively studied in information retrieval. However, when a query topic is difficult and the results from the first-pass retrieval are very poor, it is impossible to extract enough useful terms from a few positive documents. Therefore, the positive feedback strategy is incapable to improve retrieval in this situation. Contrarily, there is a relatively large number of negative documents in the top of the result list, and it has been confirmed that negative feedback strategy is an important and useful way for adapting this scenario by several recent studies. In this paper, we consider a scenario when the search results are so poor that there are at most three relevant documents in the top twenty documents. Then, we conduct a novel study of multiple strategies for relevance feedback using both positive and negative examples from the first-pass retrieval to improve retrieval accuracy for such difficult queries. Experimental results on these TREC collections show that the proposed language model based multiple model feedback method which is generally more effective than both the baseline method and the methods using only positive or negative model.

  14. Dynamic Effects of Self-Relevance and Task on the Neural Processing of Emotional Words in Context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fields, Eric C; Kuperberg, Gina R

    2015-01-01

    We used event-related potentials (ERPs) to examine the interactions between task, emotion, and contextual self-relevance on processing words in social vignettes. Participants read scenarios that were in either third person (other-relevant) or second person (self-relevant) and we recorded ERPs to a neutral, pleasant, or unpleasant critical word. In a previously reported study (Fields and Kuperberg, 2012) with these stimuli, participants were tasked with producing a third sentence continuing the scenario. We observed a larger LPC to emotional words than neutral words in both the self-relevant and other-relevant scenarios, but this effect was smaller in the self-relevant scenarios because the LPC was larger on the neutral words (i.e., a larger LPC to self-relevant than other-relevant neutral words). In the present work, participants simply answered comprehension questions that did not refer to the emotional aspects of the scenario. Here we observed quite a different pattern of interaction between self-relevance and emotion: the LPC was larger to emotional vs. neutral words in the self-relevant scenarios only, and there was no effect of self-relevance on neutral words. Taken together, these findings suggest that the LPC reflects a dynamic interaction between specific task demands, the emotional properties of a stimulus, and contextual self-relevance. We conclude by discussing implications and future directions for a functional theory of the emotional LPC.

  15. Dynamic effects of self-relevance and task on the neural processing of emotional words in context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric C. Fields

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We used event-related potentials (ERPs to examine the interactions between task, emotion, and contextual self-relevance on processing words in social vignettes. Participants read scenarios that were in either third person (other-relevant or second person (self-relevant and we recorded ERPs to a neutral, pleasant, or unpleasant critical word. In a previously reported study (Fields & Kuperberg, 2012 with these stimuli, participants were tasked with producing a third sentence continuing the scenario. We observed a larger LPC to emotional words than neutral words in both the self-relevant and other-relevant scenarios, but this effect was smaller in the self-relevant scenarios because the LPC was larger on the neutral words (i.e., a larger LPC to self-relevant than other-relevant neutral words. In the present work, participants simply answered comprehension questions that did not refer to the emotional aspects of the scenario. Here we observed quite a different pattern of interaction between self-relevance and emotion: the LPC was larger to emotional versus neutral words in the self-relevant scenarios only, and there was no effect of self-relevance on neutral words. Taken together, these findings suggest that the LPC reflects a dynamic interaction between specific task demands, the emotional properties of a stimulus, and contextual self-relevance. We conclude by discussing implications and future directions for a functional theory of the emotional LPC.

  16. Impacts of a lengthening open water season on Alaskan coastal communities: deriving locally relevant indices from large-scale datasets and community observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolph, Rebecca J.; Mahoney, Andrew R.; Walsh, John; Loring, Philip A.

    2018-05-01

    Using thresholds of physical climate variables developed from community observations, together with two large-scale datasets, we have produced local indices directly relevant to the impacts of a reduced sea ice cover on Alaska coastal communities. The indices include the number of false freeze-ups defined by transient exceedances of ice concentration prior to a corresponding exceedance that persists, false break-ups, timing of freeze-up and break-up, length of the open water duration, number of days when the winds preclude hunting via boat (wind speed threshold exceedances), the number of wind events conducive to geomorphological work or damage to infrastructure from ocean waves, and the number of these wind events with on- and along-shore components promoting water setup along the coastline. We demonstrate how community observations can inform use of large-scale datasets to derive these locally relevant indices. The two primary large-scale datasets are the Historical Sea Ice Atlas for Alaska and the atmospheric output from a regional climate model used to downscale the ERA-Interim atmospheric reanalysis. We illustrate the variability and trends of these indices by application to the rural Alaska communities of Kotzebue, Shishmaref, and Utqiaġvik (previously Barrow), although the same procedure and metrics can be applied to other coastal communities. Over the 1979-2014 time period, there has been a marked increase in the number of combined false freeze-ups and false break-ups as well as the number of days too windy for hunting via boat for all three communities, especially Utqiaġvik. At Utqiaġvik, there has been an approximate tripling of the number of wind events conducive to coastline erosion from 1979 to 2014. We have also found a delay in freeze-up and earlier break-up, leading to a lengthened open water period for all of the communities examined.

  17. Impacts of a lengthening open water season on Alaskan coastal communities: deriving locally relevant indices from large-scale datasets and community observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. J. Rolph

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Using thresholds of physical climate variables developed from community observations, together with two large-scale datasets, we have produced local indices directly relevant to the impacts of a reduced sea ice cover on Alaska coastal communities. The indices include the number of false freeze-ups defined by transient exceedances of ice concentration prior to a corresponding exceedance that persists, false break-ups, timing of freeze-up and break-up, length of the open water duration, number of days when the winds preclude hunting via boat (wind speed threshold exceedances, the number of wind events conducive to geomorphological work or damage to infrastructure from ocean waves, and the number of these wind events with on- and along-shore components promoting water setup along the coastline. We demonstrate how community observations can inform use of large-scale datasets to derive these locally relevant indices. The two primary large-scale datasets are the Historical Sea Ice Atlas for Alaska and the atmospheric output from a regional climate model used to downscale the ERA-Interim atmospheric reanalysis. We illustrate the variability and trends of these indices by application to the rural Alaska communities of Kotzebue, Shishmaref, and Utqiaġvik (previously Barrow, although the same procedure and metrics can be applied to other coastal communities. Over the 1979–2014 time period, there has been a marked increase in the number of combined false freeze-ups and false break-ups as well as the number of days too windy for hunting via boat for all three communities, especially Utqiaġvik. At Utqiaġvik, there has been an approximate tripling of the number of wind events conducive to coastline erosion from 1979 to 2014. We have also found a delay in freeze-up and earlier break-up, leading to a lengthened open water period for all of the communities examined.

  18. The Brooks Act, Is it Relevant Today?

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-06-01

    Publishing Company, 1990. 7. Fla=., Kenneth. Creatina The ComDuter. Washington, D.C.: The Brookings Institution, 1988. 8. Gilchrist, Bruce, & Wessel...Milton R. Reaulation of the Computer Industry. Montvale: AFIPS Press, 1972. 9. Gore, Al. Creatina A Government That Works Better & Cost Less: Renort

  19. Psychological Contracts: Are They Still Relevant?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maguire, Heather

    2002-01-01

    Empirical evidence from a banking organization illustrated how change has an impact on psychological contracts. Concluded that maintenance of contracts makes an important contribution to relationships but organizations need to adjust psychological contracts to meet the needs of the work force. (Contains 58 references.) (JOW)

  20. The Relevance of AI Research to CAI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kearsley, Greg P.

    This article provides a tutorial introduction to Artificial Intelligence (AI) research for those involved in Computer Assisted Instruction (CAI). The general theme is that much of the current work in AI, particularly in the areas of natural language understanding systems, rule induction, programming languages, and socratic systems, has important…

  1. Facing Big Data: Making sociology relevant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie Mützel

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Working with computational methods and large textual analysis has been challenging and very rewarding—with all the ups and downs that doing empirical social research entails. In my contribution, I relate some research experiences and reflect upon data construction and the links between theory, data, and methods.

  2. Scaffolding scientific discussion using socially relevant representations in networked multimedia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoadley, Christopher M.

    1999-11-01

    How do students make use of social cues when learning on the computer? This work examines how students in a middle-school science course learned through on-line peer discussion. Cognitive accounts of collaboration stress interacting with ideas, while socially situated accounts stress the interpersonal context. The design of electronic environments allows investigation into the interrelation of cognitive and social dimensions. I use on-line peer discussion to investigate how socially relevant representations in interfaces can aid learning. First, I identify some of the variables that affect individual participation in on-line discussion, including interface features. Individual participation is predicted by student attitudes towards learning from peers. Second, I describe the range of group outcomes for these on-line discussions. There is a large effect of discussion group on learning outcomes which is not reducible to group composition or gross measures of group process. Third, I characterize how students (individually) construct understanding from these group discussions. Learning in the on-line discussions is shown to be a result of sustained interaction over time, not merely encountering or expressing ideas. Experimental manipulations in the types of social cues available to students suggest that many students do use socially relevant representations to support their understanding of multiple viewpoints and science reasoning. Personalizing scientific disputes can afford reflection on the nature of scientific discovery and advance. While there are many individual differences in how social representations are used by students in learning, overall learning benefits for certain social representations can be shown. This work has profound implications for design of collaborative instructional methods, equitable access to science learning, design of instructional technology, and understanding of learning and cognition in social settings.

  3. [Personal resources relevant to psychological well-being in nursing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrogante, O; Pérez-García, A M; Aparicio-Zaldívar, E G

    2016-01-01

    To determine differences in social support, resilience, coping, and psychological well-being (PWB) among intensive care nursing and nursing staff of other hospital services, as well as to establish a structural model in these professionals where relevant personal resources to PWB were included. Correlational and cross-sectional study. A sample of 208 nursing professionals from University Hospital of Fuenlabrada (Madrid) took part in the study. This sample consisted of nurses (n=133), nursing assistants (n=61), and midwives (n=14), of whom 44 worked in intensive care unit, 50 in other special units, and 114 in wards. Social Support Subscale, 10-Item CD-RISC (resilience), Brief-Cope (coping), Scales of PWB, and sociodemographic variables. No differences were found in any assessed psychological variables as regards hospital service worked in. A structural model was found and showed that social support, resilience, and coping determined PWB of nursing professionals. The most important personal resource was coping strategies, which determined PWB directly (β=0.68). Social support influenced PWB directly (β=0.33), and indirectly (β=0.32), whereas resilience influenced it indirectly (β=0.57). Differences in PWB, coping, social support and resilience are not determined by hospital service. Coping strategies focused on engagement (or adaptive), social support, and resilience, constitute three relevant personal resources that determine the PWB of nursing staff, which can be developed and improved by specific programs. The most important PWB dimensions are self-acceptance and environment mastery. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y SEEIUC. All rights reserved.

  4. Microbial processes relevant for the long-term performance of radioactive waste repositories in clays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meleshyn, Artur

    2012-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. A number of investigations on occurrence and viability of microbes in compacted clays have been aimed at studying possible microbial effects on long-term performance of a deep geological repository (DGR) for high-level radioactive waste (HLW) and spent nuclear fuel (SF). Compacted clays are considered in current DGR designs either as a buffer material or as a host rock. The primary purpose of the present work was to qualitatively evaluate the relevance of microbial activity for the long-term performance of a DGR and to identify which safety-relevant processes and properties can be potentially influenced by this activity. The present analysis identified eight clay properties essential for maintaining safety functions of containment and retardation of the disposal system - swelling pressure, specific surface area, cation exchange capacity, anion sorption capacity, porosity, permeability, fluid pressure, plasticity - which can potentially be influenced by microbial processes in clay buffer and Clay-stone within a DGR for HLW/SF. Iron(III)- and sulphate-reducing, fermentative, methane-producing and oxidizing microbes can be considered to be present in any clay formation. Each habitat includes a massive number of microbial niches with perhaps only a small proportion of the species being metabolically active at the habitat's conditions, the remainder becoming not extinct. Moreover, clays contain electron donors and electron acceptors in amounts sufficient for these microbes to remain active during very long periods of time. Additional sources of electron donors or electron acceptors will inevitably be added to the repository system as a result of DGR excavation, placement of radioactive waste as well as backfilling and sealing of the DGR. In no case should the potential impact of microbes be underestimated based on a possible argument of comparably low biomass of the microbes in contact with metal surfaces or dissolved

  5. Niels Bohr collected works, volume 9: Nuclear physics (1929-1952)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peierls, R.

    1985-01-01

    This volume deals with Bohr's work on nuclear physics which began in the pre-1932 days with his thinking deeply, but inconclusively about the seeming contradictions then presented by the evidence about the nucleus. In 1936 Bohr recognized and described the insights provided by neutron scattering experiments and the excitement of this new understanding and its extension and consolidation occupied much of the subsequent years. In 1939 he was again first in understanding the essential features of the newly discovered phenomenon of fission, applying successfully the point of view of nuclear reactions which he had developed over the past three years. Later, in 1949-50, he was impressed by the success of the nuclear shell model, which on the face of it seemed hard to reconcile with the picture of the closely interacting nucleons which he had pioneered in 1936 and he put much effort into clarifying this paradox. As in earlier volumes the published papers are supported by appropriate selections from unpublished notes and drafts, and by relevant correspondence. CONTENTS: Foreword. Part I: Papers and Manuscripts Related to Nuclear Physics. Part II: Selected Correspondence (1929-1949). Inventory of Relevant Manuscripts in the Niels Bohr Archive. Index

  6. Functionally relevant microsatellites in sugarcane unigenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Nagendra K

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Unigene sequences constitute a rich source of functionally relevant microsatellites. The present study was undertaken to mine the microsatellites in the available unigene sequences of sugarcane for understanding their constitution in the expressed genic component of its complex polyploid/aneuploid genome, assessing their functional significance in silico, determining the extent of allelic diversity at the microsatellite loci and for evaluating their utility in large-scale genotyping applications in sugarcane. Results The average frequency of perfect microsatellite was 1/10.9 kb, while it was 1/44.3 kb for the long and hypervariable class I repeats. GC-rich trinucleotides coding for alanine and the GA-rich dinucleotides were the most abundant microsatellite classes. Out of 15,594 unigenes mined in the study, 767 contained microsatellite repeats and for 672 of these putative functions were determined in silico. The microsatellite repeats were found in the functional domains of proteins encoded by 364 unigenes. Its significance was assessed by establishing the structure-function relationship for the beta-amylase and protein kinase encoding unigenes having repeats in the catalytic domains. A total of 726 allelic variants (7.42 alleles per locus with different repeat lengths were captured precisely for a set of 47 fluorescent dye labeled primers in 36 sugarcane genotypes and five cereal species using the automated fragment analysis system, which suggested the utility of designed primers for rapid, large-scale and high-throughput genotyping applications in sugarcane. Pair-wise similarity ranging from 0.33 to 0.84 with an average of 0.40 revealed a broad genetic base of the Indian varieties in respect of functionally relevant regions of the large and complex sugarcane genome. Conclusion Microsatellite repeats were present in 4.92% of sugarcane unigenes, for most (87.6% of which functions were determined in silico. High level of

  7. Working document dispersion models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dop, H. van

    1988-01-01

    This report is a summary of the most important results from June 1985 of the collaboration of the RIVM (Dutch National Institute for Public Health and Environment Hygiene) and KNMI (Royal Dutch Meteorologic Institute) on the domain of dispersion models. It contains a short description of the actual SO x /NO x -model. Furthermore it contains recommendations for modifications of some numerical-mathematical aspects and an impulse to a more complete description of chemical processes in the atmosphere and the (wet) deposition process. A separate chapter is devoted to the preparation of meteorologic data which are relevant for dispersion as well as atmospheric chemistry and deposition. This report serves as working document for the final formulation of a acidifying- and oxidant-model. (H.W.). 69 refs.; 51 figs.; 13 tabs.; 3 schemes

  8. CONSTRUCTING SERVICE DISCOURSES IN LITHUANIAN FAMILY SOCIAL WORK

    OpenAIRE

    Roberta Motiečienė; Merja Laitinen

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, family social work is constructed through the analysis of social service discourses from the social workers’ perspective. Recent research shows how social workers are dealing with complex and fluid issues, as well as the societal uncertainty in their work with families (e.g., Spratt, 2009; Menéndez et al., 2015). Based on earlier studies, it is vital to analyse family social work in different contextual settings. Societal, political and organisational contexts affect the pre...

  9. Lower likelihood of falling at age 90+ is associated with daily exercise a quarter of a century earlier: The 90+ Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paganini-Hill, Annlia; Greenia, Dana E; Perry, Shawna; Sajjadi, Seyed Ahmad; Kawas, Claudia H; Corrada, Maria M

    2017-11-01

    to explore the relationship between risk of falling at age 90+ and prior physical activity at age 60-70s. population-based cohort study (The 90+ Study). California retirement community. of 1596 cohort members, 1536 had both falls and prior activity data. Mean age = 94 years; 78% female; 99% Caucasian. time spent in active physical activity was self-reported in 1980s; medical history, medication, assistive devices, residence type, and falls (outcome) was collected in 2000s. Activity/fall relationships were assessed using logistic regression. falls were reported by 52% of participants, recurrent falls by 32%, and severe injury by 21% of fallers. In univariate analyses risk of falling at age 90+ was significantly related to medical history (heart disease, TIA/stroke, arthritis, vision disease, depression, dementia), medication use (hypnotics, anti-psychotics, anti-depressants), use of assistive devices (cane, walker, wheelchair), residence type (living with relatives, sheltered living), and source of information (self-report vs informant). Risks of falling and recurrent falls at age 90+ were 35-45% lower in those reporting 30+ minutes/day of active physical activity at age 60-70s compared with no activity. The odds ratio of falling was 0.65 (95% CI = 0.44-0.97) for 30-45 minutes/day and 0.64 (0.44-0.94) for 1+ hour/day adjusting for age, sex, medical history (stroke/TIA, vision disease, depression), use of assistive devices, and source of information. falls are extremely common among the oldest-old and a significant proportion lead to severe injury. This work is the first to show an association between exercise at age 60-70s and lower risk of falling at age 90+. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Geriatrics Society.All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com

  10. Stress-related increases in risk taking and attentional failures predict earlier relapse to smoking in young adults: A pilot investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schepis, Ty S; Tapscott, Brian E; Krishnan-Sarin, Suchitra

    2016-04-01

    Substantial evidence links greater impulsivity and stress exposure to poorer smoking cessation outcomes. Results from adolescents also indicate that stress-related change in risk taking can impede cessation attempts. We investigated the effects of stress-related change in impulsivity, risk taking, attention and nicotine withdrawal, and craving in young adult smokers on time to smoking relapse in a relapse analogue paradigm. Twenty-six young adult smokers (50% women; mean age: 20.9 ± 1.8) were exposed to a stress imagery session followed by a contingency management-based relapse analogue paradigm. Participants smoked at least 5 cigarettes daily, with a mean baseline carbon monoxide (CO) level of 13.7 (± 5.1) ppm. Repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) and paired t tests examined stress induction validity and Cox regressions of proportional hazards examined the effects of stress-related changes in nicotine withdrawal, nicotine craving, attention, impulsivity, and risk taking on time to relapse. While stress-related change in impulsivity, nicotine craving and withdrawal did not predict time to relapse (all ps > .10), greater stress-related increases in reaction time (RT) variability (p = .02) were predictive of shorter time to relapse, with trend-level findings for inattention and risk taking. Furthermore, changes in stress-related risk taking affected outcome in women more than in men, with a significant relationship between stress-related change in risk taking only in women (p = .026). Smoking cessation attempts in young adults may be adversely impacted by stress-related increases in risk taking and attentional disruption. Clinicians working with young adults attempting cessation may need to target these stress-related impairments by fostering more adaptive coping and resilience. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. Early onset depression: the relevance of anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, G; Wilhelm, K; Asghari, A

    1997-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine risk factors that may differentiate early onset from late onset depression. A non-clinical cohort that had been assessed from 1978 to 1993 at 5 yearly intervals and that had a high prevalence rate of lifetime depression took part in the study. We established an appropriate age cut-off to distinguish early onset (i.e. before 26 years) of major and of minor depression, and examined the relevance of a number of possible determinants of early onset depression assessed over the life of the study. Despite several dimensional measures of depression, self-esteem and personality being considered, they generally failed (when assessed early in the study) to discriminate subsequent early onset depression, with the exception of low masculinity scores being a weak predictor of major and/or minor depression. Early onset depression was strongly predicted, however, by a lifetime episode of a major anxiety disorder, with generalised anxiety being a somewhat stronger and more consistent predictor than panic disorder, agoraphobia and minor anxiety disorders (ie social phobia, simple phobia). The possibility that anxiety may act as a key predispositional factor to early onset depression and to a greater number of depressive episodes is important in that clinical assessment and treatment of any existing anxiety disorder may be a more efficient and useful strategy than focussing primarily on the depressive disorder.

  12. Top studies relevant to primary care practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Danielle; Kolber, Michael R; Korownyk, Christina; Lindblad, Adrienne J; Ramji, Jamil; Ton, Joey; Allan, G Michael

    2018-04-01

    To summarize 10 high-quality studies from 2017 that have strong relevance to primary care practice. Study selection involved routine literature surveillance by a group of primary care health professionals. This included screening abstracts of important journals and Evidence Alerts, as well as searching the American College of Physicians Journal Club. Topics of the 2017 articles include whether treating subclinical hypothyroidism improves outcomes or symptoms; whether evolocumab reduces cardiovascular disease as well as low-density lipoprotein levels; whether lifestyle interventions reduce medication use in patients with diabetes; whether vitamin D prevents cardiovascular disease, cancer, or upper respiratory tract infections; whether canagliflozin reduces clinical events in patients with diabetes; how corticosteroid injections affect knee osteoarthritis; whether drained abscesses benefit from antibiotic treatment; whether patients with diabetes benefit from bariatric surgery; whether exenatide reduces clinical events in patients with diabetes; and whether tympanostomy tubes affect outcomes in recurrent acute otitis media or chronic otitis media. We provide brief summaries, context where needed, and final recommendations for 10 studies with potential effects on primary care. We also briefly review 5 "runner-up" studies. Research from 2017 produced several high-quality studies in diabetes management. These have demonstrated benefit for alternative therapies and offered evidence not previously available. This year's selection of studies also provided information on a variety of conditions and therapies that are, or might become, more common in primary care settings. Copyright© the College of Family Physicians of Canada.

  13. Clinically Relevant Anticancer Polymer Paclitaxel Therapeutics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danbo Yang

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The concept of utilizing polymers in drug delivery has been extensively explored for improving the therapeutic index of small molecule drugs. In general, polymers can be used as polymer-drug conjugates or polymeric micelles. Each unique application mandates its own chemistry and controlled release of active drugs. Each polymer exhibits its own intrinsic issues providing the advantage of flexibility. However, none have as yet been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. General aspects of polymer and nano-particle therapeutics have been reviewed. Here we focus this review on specific clinically relevant anticancer polymer paclitaxel therapeutics. We emphasize their chemistry and formulation, in vitro activity on some human cancer cell lines, plasma pharmacokinetics and tumor accumulation, in vivo efficacy, and clinical outcomes. Furthermore, we include a short review of our recent developments of a novel poly(L-g-glutamylglutamine-paclitaxel nano-conjugate (PGG-PTX. PGG-PTX has its own unique property of forming nano-particles. It has also been shown to possess a favorable profile of pharmacokinetics and to exhibit efficacious potency. This review might shed light on designing new and better polymer paclitaxel therapeutics for potential anticancer applications in the clinic.

  14. Ligand Exchange Kinetics of Environmentally Relevant Metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panasci, Adele Frances [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States)

    2014-07-15

    The interactions of ground water with minerals and contaminants are of broad interest for geochemists but are not well understood. Experiments on the molecular scale can determine reaction parameters (i.e. rates of ligand exchange, activation entropy, activation entropy, and activation volume) that can be used in computations to gain insight into reactions that occur in natural groundwaters. Experiments to determine the rate of isotopic ligand exchange for three environmentally relevant metals, rhodium (Rh), iron (Fe), and neptunium (Np), are described. Many environmental transformations of metals (e.g. reduction) in soil occur at trivalent centers, Fe(III) in particular. Contaminant ions absorb to mineral surfaces via ligand exchange, and the reversal of this reaction can be dangerous, releasing contaminants into the environment. Ferric iron is difficult to study spectroscopically because most of its complexes are paramagnetic and are generally reactive toward ligand exchange; therefore, Rh(III), which is diamagnetic and less reactive, was used to study substitution reactions that are analogous to those that occur on mineral oxide surfaces. Studies on both Np(V) and Np(VI) are important in their own right, as 237Np is a radioactive transuranic element with a half-life of 2 million years.

  15. Relevance of extracellular DNA in rhizosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietramellara, Giacomo; Ascher, Judith; Baraniya, Divyashri; Arfaioli, Paola; Ceccherini, Maria Teresa; Hawes, Martha

    2013-04-01

    One of the most promising areas for future development is the manipulation of the rhizosphere to produce sustainable and efficient agriculture production systems. Using Omics approaches, to define the distinctive features of eDNA systems and structures, will facilitate progress in rhizo-enforcement and biocontrol studies. The relevance of these studies results clear when we consider the plethora of ecological functions in which eDNA is involved. This fraction can be actively extruded by living cells or discharged during cellular lysis and may exert a key role in the stability and variability of the soil bacterial genome, resulting also a source of nitrogen and phosphorus for plants due to the root's capacity to directly uptake short DNA fragments. The adhesive properties of the DNA molecule confer to eDNA the capacity to inhibit or kill pathogenic bacteria by cation limitation induction, and to facilitate formation of biofilm and extracellular traps (ETs), that may protect microorganisms inhabiting biofilm and plant roots against pathogens and allelopathic substances. The ETs are actively extruded by root border cells when they are dispersed in the rhizosphere, conferring to plants the capacity to extend an endogenous pathogen defence system outside the organism. Moreover, eDNA could be involved in rhizoremediation in heavy metal polluted soil acting as a bioflotation reagent.

  16. Relevance of tidal heating on large TNOs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, Prabal; Renaud, Joe P.; Henning, Wade G.; Jutzi, Martin; Hurford, Terry

    2018-03-01

    We examine the relevance of tidal heating for large Trans-Neptunian Objects, with a focus on its potential to melt and maintain layers of subsurface liquid water. Depending on their past orbital evolution, tidal heating may be an important part of the heat budget for a number of discovered and hypothetical TNO systems and may enable formation of, and increased access to, subsurface liquid water. Tidal heating induced by the process of despinning is found to be particularly able to compete with heating due to radionuclide decay in a number of different scenarios. In cases where radiogenic heating alone may establish subsurface conditions for liquid water, we focus on the extent by which tidal activity lifts the depth of such conditions closer to the surface. While it is common for strong tidal heating and long lived tides to be mutually exclusive, we find this is not always the case, and highlight when these two traits occur together. We find cases where TNO systems experience tidal heating that is a significant proportion of, or greater than radiogenic heating for periods ranging from100‧s of millions to a billion years. For subsurface oceans that contain a small antifreeze component, tidal heating due to very high initial spin states may enable liquid water to be preserved right up to the present day. Of particular interest is the Eris-Dysnomia system, which in those cases may exhibit extant cryovolcanism.

  17. Extracellular vesicles: fundamentals and clinical relevance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wael Nassar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available All types of cells of eukaryotic organisms produce and release small nanovesicles into their extracellular environment. Early studies have described these vesicles as ′garbage bags′ only to remove obsolete cellular molecules. Valadi and colleagues, in 2007, were the first to discover the capability of circulating extracellular vesicles (EVs to horizontally transfer functioning gene information between cells. These extracellular vesicles express components responsible for angiogenesis promotion, stromal remodeling, chemoresistance, genetic exchange, and signaling pathway activation through growth factor/receptor transfer. EVs represent an important mode of intercellular communication by serving as vehicles for transfer between cells of membrane and cytosolic proteins, lipids, signaling proteins, and RNAs. They contribute to physiology and pathology, and they have a myriad of potential clinical applications in health and disease. Moreover, vesicles can pass the blood-brain barrier and may perhaps even be considered as naturally occurring liposomes. These cell-derived EVs not only represent a central mediator of the disease microenvironment, but their presence in the peripheral circulation may serve as a surrogate for disease biopsies, enabling real-time diagnosis and disease monitoring. In this review, we′ll be addressing the characteristics of different types of extracellular EVs, as well as their clinical relevance and potential as diagnostic markers, and also define therapeutic options.

  18. Clinically Relevant Anticancer Polymer Paclitaxel Therapeutics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Danbo; Yu, Lei; Van, Sang

    2010-01-01

    The concept of utilizing polymers in drug delivery has been extensively explored for improving the therapeutic index of small molecule drugs. In general, polymers can be used as polymer-drug conjugates or polymeric micelles. Each unique application mandates its own chemistry and controlled release of active drugs. Each polymer exhibits its own intrinsic issues providing the advantage of flexibility. However, none have as yet been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. General aspects of polymer and nano-particle therapeutics have been reviewed. Here we focus this review on specific clinically relevant anticancer polymer paclitaxel therapeutics. We emphasize their chemistry and formulation, in vitro activity on some human cancer cell lines, plasma pharmacokinetics and tumor accumulation, in vivo efficacy, and clinical outcomes. Furthermore, we include a short review of our recent developments of a novel poly(l-γ-glutamylglutamine)-paclitaxel nano-conjugate (PGG-PTX). PGG-PTX has its own unique property of forming nano-particles. It has also been shown to possess a favorable profile of pharmacokinetics and to exhibit efficacious potency. This review might shed light on designing new and better polymer paclitaxel therapeutics for potential anticancer applications in the clinic

  19. Perspective: Organizational professionalism: relevant competencies and behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egener, Barry; McDonald, Walter; Rosof, Bernard; Gullen, David

    2012-05-01

    The professionalism behaviors of physicians have been extensively discussed and defined; however, the professionalism behaviors of health care organizations have not been systemically categorized or described. Defining organizational professionalism is important because the behaviors of a health care organization may substantially impact the behaviors of physicians and others within the organization as well as other institutions and the larger community. In this article, the authors discuss the following competencies of organizational professionalism, derived from ethical values: service, respect, fairness, integrity, accountability, mindfulness, and self-motivation. How nonprofit health care organizations can translate these competencies into behaviors is described. For example, incorporating metrics of population health into assessments of corporate success may increase collaboration among regional health care organizations while also benefiting the community. The unique responsibilities of leadership to model these competencies, promote them in the community, and develop relevant organizational strategies are clarified. These obligations elevate the importance of the executive leadership's capacity for self-reflection and the governing boards' responsibility for mapping operational activities to organizational mission. Lastly, the authors consider how medical organizations are currently addressing professionalism challenges. In an environment made turbulent by regulatory change and financial constraints, achieving proficiency in professionalism competencies can assist nonprofit health care organizations to promote population health and the well-being of their workforces.

  20. Media and mental illness: Relevance to India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S K Padhy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Media has a complex interrelationship with mental illnesses. This narrative review takes a look at the various ways in which media and mental illnesses interact. Relevant scientific literature and electronic databases were searched, including Pubmed and GoogleScholar, to identify studies, viewpoints and recommendations using keywords related to media and mental illnesses. This review discusses both the positive and the negative portrayals of mental illnesses through the media. The portrayal of mental health professionals and psychiatric treatment is also discussed. The theories explaining the relationship of how media influences the attitudes and behavior are discussed. Media has also been suggested to be a risk factor for the genesis or exacerbation of mental illnesses like eating disorders and substance use disorders. The potential use of media to understand the psychopathology and plight of those with psychiatric disorders is referred to. The manner in which media can be used as a tool for change to reduce the stigma surrounding mental illnesses is explored.

  1. EXTRACELLULAR VESICLES: CLASSIFICATION, FUNCTIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Oberemko

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This review presents a generalized definition of vesicles as bilayer extracellular organelles of all celular forms of life: not only eu-, but also prokaryotic. The structure and composition of extracellular vesicles, history of research, nomenclature, their impact on life processes in health and disease are discussed. Moreover, vesicles may be useful as clinical instruments for biomarkers, and they are promising as biotechnological drug. However, many questions in this area are still unresolved and need to be addressed in the future. The most interesting from the point of view of practical health care represents a direction to study the effect of exosomes and microvesicles in the development and progression of a particular disease, the possibility of adjusting the pathological process by means of extracellular vesicles of a particular type, acting as an active ingredient. Relevant is the further elucidation of the role and importance of exosomes to the surrounding cells, tissues and organs at the molecular level, the prospects for the use of non-cellular vesicles as biomarkers of disease.

  2. Clinically Relevant Anticancer Polymer Paclitaxel Therapeutics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Danbo [Biomedical Engineering and Technology Institute, Institutes for Advanced Interdisciplinary Research, East China Normal University, 3663 North Zhongshan Road, Shanghai, 200062 (China); Yu, Lei, E-mail: yu-lei@gg.nitto.co.jp [Biomedical Engineering and Technology Institute, Institutes for Advanced Interdisciplinary Research, East China Normal University, 3663 North Zhongshan Road, Shanghai, 200062 (China); Biomedical Group, Nitto Denko Technical Corporation, 501 Via Del Monte, Oceanside, CA 92058 (United States); Van, Sang [Biomedical Group, Nitto Denko Technical Corporation, 501 Via Del Monte, Oceanside, CA 92058 (United States)

    2010-12-23

    The concept of utilizing polymers in drug delivery has been extensively explored for improving the therapeutic index of small molecule drugs. In general, polymers can be used as polymer-drug conjugates or polymeric micelles. Each unique application mandates its own chemistry and controlled release of active drugs. Each polymer exhibits its own intrinsic issues providing the advantage of flexibility. However, none have as yet been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. General aspects of polymer and nano-particle therapeutics have been reviewed. Here we focus this review on specific clinically relevant anticancer polymer paclitaxel therapeutics. We emphasize their chemistry and formulation, in vitro activity on some human cancer cell lines, plasma pharmacokinetics and tumor accumulation, in vivo efficacy, and clinical outcomes. Furthermore, we include a short review of our recent developments of a novel poly(l-γ-glutamylglutamine)-paclitaxel nano-conjugate (PGG-PTX). PGG-PTX has its own unique property of forming nano-particles. It has also been shown to possess a favorable profile of pharmacokinetics and to exhibit efficacious potency. This review might shed light on designing new and better polymer paclitaxel therapeutics for potential anticancer applications in the clinic.

  3. A comparison between new ways of working and Ssociotechnical systems in new ways of working practices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blok, M.; Meulen, F. van der; Dhondt, S.

    2016-01-01

    For various reasons many organisations are currently introducing the new ways of working (NWW). By now, this occurs on such a large scale, that it becomes relevant to investigate whether the new way of working leads to the best way of working: are the measurements taken by NWW really resulting in

  4. Engaged work teams in healthy companies: drivers, processes, and outcomes of team work engagement

    OpenAIRE

    Torrente Barberà, Pedro

    2014-01-01

    This PhD thesis analyses work engagement in the context of work teams taking a collective, psychosocial perspective. Throughout this thesis, the following topics will be addressed: 1) the state-of-the-art in the topic of team work engagement, 2) the measurement of team work engagement, 3) the association of team work engagement with other relevant individual-level constructs and how it fits in traditional research models in the field of Positive Occupational Health Psychology, 4) the antecede...

  5. The Relevance of Foucauldian Art-of-Living for Ethics Education in a Military Context: Theory and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Baarle, Eva; Verweij, Desiree; Molewijk, Bert; Widdershoven, Guy

    2018-01-01

    How can ethical decision-making in organizations be further reinforced? This article explores the relevance of Michel Foucault's ideas on art-of-living for ethics education in organizations. First, we present a theoretical analysis of art-of-living in the work of Foucault as well as in the work of two philosophers who greatly influenced his work,…

  6. Franchising: creation of companies, relevant aspects

    OpenAIRE

    Castro, Silvio César de; Cesumar

    2007-01-01

    Since franchising is a formatted business, it is usually presented as a guaranteed successful business. In this system, the company works around a packet of products or services. But the system has its advantages and disadvantages, being possible to present a few fundamental differences between inserting business in a franchise type and a traditional business. In the traditional one the entrepreneur needs to be aware of the innovations and a series of other factors, mainly because it does not...

  7. Demands, values, and burnout: relevance for physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leiter, Michael P; Frank, Erica; Matheson, Timothy J

    2009-12-01

    T o explore the interaction between workload and values congruence (personal values with health care system values) in the context of burnout and physician engagement and to explore the relative importance of these factors by sex, given the distinct work patterns of male and female physicians. National mailed survey. Canada. A random sample of 8100 Canadian physicians (response rate 40%, N = 3213); 2536 responses (from physicians working more than 35 hours per week) were analyzed. Levels of burnout, values congruence, and workload, by sex, measured by the Maslach Burnout Inventory-General Scale and the Areas of Worklife Scale. Results showed a moderate level of burnout among Canadian physicians, with relatively positive scores on exhaustion, average scores on cynicism, and mildly negative scores on professional efficacy. A series of multiple regression analyses confirmed parallel main effect contributions from manageable workload and values congruence. Both workload and values congruence predicted exhaustion and cynicism for men and women (P = .001). Only values congruence provided a significant prediction of professional efficacy for both men and women (P = .001) These predictors interacted for women on all 3 aspects of burnout (exhaustion, cynicism, and diminished efficacy). Howevever, overall levels of the burnout indicators departed only modestly from normative levels. W orkload and values congruence make distinct contributions to physician burnout. Work overload contributes to predicting exhaustion and cynicism; professional values crises contribute to predicting exhaustion, cynicism, and low professional efficacy. The interaction of values and workload for women in particular has implications for the distinct work-life patterns of male and female physicians. Specifically, the congruence of individual values with values inherent in the health care system appeared to be of greater consequence for women than for men.

  8. Radiological characterization of a relevant facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barberis, Claudia M.; Madariaga, Marcelo

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this work is the radiological characterization of a Nuclear Installation, the RA-1 nuclear reactor. By means of this characterization all the information about amount, type and distribution of radionuclides in the installation will be available. Thus the order of magnitude of the activities that will be involved in the removal of the different materials, at the moment of the decommissioning, will be established. (author)

  9. SENTIDO FILOSÓFICO NO BRASIL DOS PRIMEIROS DEBATES ACERCA DA RELAÇÃO ENTRE MENTE E CORPO PHILOSOPHICAL MEANING OF THE EARLIER DISCUSSIONS ON MIND AND BODY RELATIONSHIP IN BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Ferreira Almada

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available

    Nosso objetivo é destacar o sentido filosófico no Brasil dos primeiros debates suscitados pela ideia de uma psicologia científica. Para tanto, trabalharemos com os textos de dois autores em especial, Gonçalves de Magalhães e Tobias Barreto. Nosso interesse é o de demonstrar em que sentido estes filósofos foram capazes de oferecer oposição a uma tendência positiva vigente na Psicologia e, ao mesmo tempo, superar o caráter contemplativo da consciência de si inerente à Psicologia sob a égide dos Jesuítas, e em vista da necessidade de modernização filosófica no Brasil. Ao mesmo tempo, pretendemos mostrar que, a despeito da crítica de Tobias a Magalhães, ambos souberam reconhecer a significação do naturalismo em Psicologia, especialmente no que diz respeito à tarefa de inserir o pensamento brasileiro nos rumos da filosofia ocidental.

    Our aim is to point out the philosophical meaning in Brazil of the earlier discussions about the nature of Scientific Psychology. Therefore, we will work in particular with texts of two authors, Gonçalves de Magalhães and Tobias Barreto. Our interest it to demonstrate in what sense these philosophers were able to offer opposition to a current positive trend in Psychology and the same time, overcome the contemplative character of self-consciousness inherent in Psychology under the aegis of the Jesuits, in view of need for philosophical modernization in Brazil. At the same time, we intend to show that, despite the criticism of Tobias to Magalhães, both know recognize the significance of the naturalism in Psychology, especially with regard to the task of entering the Brazilian thought in the course of Western Philosophy.

  10. [Difficulties at work and work motivation of ulcerative colitis suffers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasu, Ayami; Yamada, Kazuko; Morioka, Ikuharu

    2015-01-01

    Because ulcerative colitis (UC) repeats remission and relapse, it is necessary to keep the condition at the relapse time in mind when considering support to provide UC suffers with at the workplace. The aim of this survey was to clarify the difficulties at work and work motivation that UC suffers feel at present and experience at the worsening time, and the factors for maintaining work motivation. We carried out an anonymous questionnaire survey of patients with present or past work experience. The difficulties at work (17 items) and work motivation (4 items) in the past week and at the time when the symptoms were most intensive during work were investigated using a newly designed questionnaire. We regarded the time in the past week as the present, and the time when the symptoms were most intensive during work as the worsening time. There were 70 respondents (response rate 32.0%). Their mean age was 43.8 years, and their mean age at onset was 33.8 years. All subjects, except 2 subjects after surgery, took medicine. Fifty-three (75.7%) of the subjects were in remission at the present, and most of them (91.4%) managed their physical condition well. Difficulties at work that many subjects worried about at the present were relevant to work conditions, such as "Others at workplace do not understand having an intractable and relapsing disease" (41.4%) or "Feel delayed or lack of chance of promotion or career advancement due to the disease" (38.6%). At the worsening time, the management of physical condition went wrong, and the frequency of hospital visits was increased, but few subjects consulted with superiors or colleagues at workplace. Difficulties at work that many subjects underwent at the worsening time were relevant to symptoms, such as "Feel physically tired" (80.0%) or "Decline foods or alcoholic beverages offered at business parties" (72.9%). Those who maintained work motivation even at the worsening time received no work-related consideration and had an

  11. Perspectives of Employees with Intellectual Disabilities on Themes Relevant to Their Job Satisfaction. An Explorative Study using Photovoice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akkerman, A.; Janssen, C.G.C.; Kef, S.; Meininger, H.P.

    2014-01-01

    Background: This study explored the perspectives of people with intellectual disabilities on themes relevant to their job satisfaction in integrated and sheltered employment. Method: The photovoice method was used. Nine participants with moderate to mild intellectual disabilities, working in

  12. Searchers' relevance judgments and criteria in evaluating Web pages in a learning style perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Papaeconomou, Chariste; Zijlema, Annemarie F.; Ingwersen, Peter

    2008-01-01

    The paper presents the results of a case study of searcher's relevance criteria used for assessments of Web pages in a perspective of learning style. 15 test persons participated in the experiments based on two simulated work tasks that provided cover stories to trigger their information needs. Two...... learning styles were examined: Global and Sequential learners. The study applied eye-tracking for the observation of relevance hot spots on Web pages, learning style index analysis and post-search interviews to gain more in-depth information on relevance behavior. Findings reveal that with respect to use......, they are statistically insignificant. When interviewed in retrospective the resulting profiles tend to become even similar across learning styles but a shift occurs from instant assessments with content features of web pages replacing topicality judgments as predominant relevance criteria....

  13. Working together to improve usability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Mie; Hornbæk, Kasper

    2010-01-01

    In theory, usability work is an important and well-integrated activity in developing software. In practice, collaboration on improving usability is ridden with challenges relating to conflicting professional goals, tight project schedules, and unclear usability findings. The authors study those...... challenges through 16 interviews with software developers, usability experts, and project managers. Four themes that are key challenges to successful interaction between stakeholders are identified: poor timing when delivering usability results, results lacking relevance, little respect for other disciplines...

  14. Working memory and the hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baddeley, Alan; Jarrold, Christopher; Vargha-Khadem, Faraneh

    2011-12-01

    A number of studies suggest an important role for the hippocampus in tasks involving visuospatial or relational working memory. We test the generality of this proposal across tasks using a battery designed to investigate the various components of working memory, studying the working memory performance of Jon, who shows a bilateral reduction in hippocampal volume of approximately 50%, comparing him to a group of 48 college students. We measure performance on four complex working memory span measures based on combining visuospatial and verbal storage with visuospatial or verbal concurrent processing as well as measuring Jon's ability to carry out the component storage and processing aspects of these tasks. Jon performed at a consistently high level across our range of tasks. Possible reasons for the apparent disparity between our own findings and earlier studies showing a hippocampal deficit are discussed in terms of both the potential differences in the demands placed on relational memory and of the proposed distinction between egocentric and allocentric visuospatial processing.

  15. Theoretical Issues in Clinical Social Group Work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randall, Elizabeth; Wodarski, John S.

    1989-01-01

    Reviews relevant issues in clinical social group practice including group versus individual treatment, group work advantages, approach rationale, group conditions for change, worker role in group, group composition, group practice technique and method, time as group work dimension, pretherapy training, group therapy precautions, and group work…

  16. Woman's harmony at work and family life

    OpenAIRE

    Trnková, Dagmar

    2009-01-01

    The subject of this bachelor's essay is problem of Work Life Balance from the woman's perspective. The study describes woman's position in the Czech society and labour market, using relevant sociological and statistical data. Author reveals the immediate link between maternity and disadvantaging of woman in the work. The text deals with the family life and its public support and employers' policies in detail.

  17. Structural Model Error and Decision Relevancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldsby, M.; Lusk, G.

    2017-12-01

    The extent to which climate models can underwrite specific climate policies has long been a contentious issue. Skeptics frequently deny that climate models are trustworthy in an attempt to undermine climate action, whereas policy makers often desire information that exceeds the capabilities of extant models. While not skeptics, a group of mathematicians and philosophers [Frigg et al. (2014)] recently argued that even tiny differences between the structure of a complex dynamical model and its target system can lead to dramatic predictive errors, possibly resulting in disastrous consequences when policy decisions are based upon those predictions. They call this result the Hawkmoth effect (HME), and seemingly use it to rebuke rightwing proposals to forgo mitigation in favor of adaptation. However, a vigorous debate has emerged between Frigg et al. on one side and another philosopher-mathematician pair [Winsberg and Goodwin (2016)] on the other. On one hand, Frigg et al. argue that their result shifts the burden to climate scientists to demonstrate that their models do not fall prey to the HME. On the other hand, Winsberg and Goodwin suggest that arguments like those asserted by Frigg et al. can be, if taken seriously, "dangerous": they fail to consider the variety of purposes for which models can be used, and thus too hastily undermine large swaths of climate science. They put the burden back on Frigg et al. to show their result has any effect on climate science. This paper seeks to attenuate this debate by establishing an irenic middle position; we find that there is more agreement between sides than it first seems. We distinguish a `decision standard' from a `burden of proof', which helps clarify the contributions to the debate from both sides. In making this distinction, we argue that scientists bear the burden of assessing the consequences of HME, but that the standard Frigg et al. adopt for decision relevancy is too strict.

  18. Intracranial Aneurysms of Neuro-Ophthalmologic Relevance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micieli, Jonathan A; Newman, Nancy J; Barrow, Daniel L; Biousse, Valérie

    2017-12-01

    Intracranial saccular aneurysms are acquired lesions that often present with neuro-ophthalmologic symptoms and signs. Recent advances in neurosurgical techniques, endovascular treatments, and neurocritical care have improved the optimal management of symptomatic unruptured aneurysms, but whether the chosen treatment has an impact on neuro-ophthalmologic outcomes remains debated. A review of the literature focused on neuro-ophthalmic manifestations and treatment of intracranial aneurysms with specific relevance to neuro-ophthalmologic outcomes was conducted using Ovid MEDLINE and EMBASE databases. Cavernous sinus aneurysms were not included in this review. Surgical clipping vs endovascular coiling for aneurysms causing third nerve palsies was compared in 13 retrospective studies representing 447 patients. Complete recovery was achieved in 78% of surgical patients compared with 44% of patients treated with endovascular coiling. However, the complication rate, hospital costs, and days spent in intensive care were reported as higher in surgically treated patients. Retrospective reviews of surgical clipping and endovascular coiling for all ocular motor nerve palsies (third, fourth, or sixth cranial nerves) revealed similar results of complete resolution in 76% and 49%, respectively. Improvement in visual deficits related to aneurysmal compression of the anterior visual pathways was also better among patients treated with clipping than with coiling. The time to treatment from onset of visual symptoms was a predictive factor of visual recovery in several studies. Few reports have specifically assessed the improvement of visual deficits after treatment with flow diverters. Decisions regarding the choice of therapy for intracranial aneurysms causing neuro-ophthalmologic signs ideally should be made at high-volume centers with access to both surgical and endovascular treatments. The status of the patient, location of the aneurysm, and experience of the treating physicians

  19. Patient-relevant treatment goals in psoriasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blome, Christine; Gosau, Ramona; Radtke, Marc A; Reich, Kristian; Rustenbach, Stephan J; Spehr, Christina; Thaçi, Diamant; Augustin, Matthias

    2016-03-01

    Patient-oriented care requires therapeutic decisions to agree with the patients' treatment needs and goals. This study addressed the following questions: What is important to psoriasis patients starting systemic treatment? How stable are these preferences within the first year of treatment? Are treatment goals associated with age, gender, or treatment success? The importance of treatment goals was assessed for patients with moderate-to-severe psoriasis in the German Psoriasis Registry (PsoBest) at baseline (onset of a systemic treatment; n = 3066) and at a 1-year follow-up (n = 1444) using the Patient Benefit Index (PBI). Treatment success was measured with PBI global score and Psoriasis Area Severity Index (PASI). Patients with moderate-to-severe psoriasis pursued a wide range of different goals. The most general treatment goals were rated most relevant, including skin healing and quick skin improvement (94.8/94.5 % "quite" or "very" important), confidence in the therapy (93.0 %), control over the disease (92.3 %), and a clear diagnosis and therapy (89.6 %). Further important goals related to not being in fear of the disease getting worse (84.8 %), reduction in itching (83.9 %), burning (70.6 %), and pain (60.6 %) as well as attaining a normal everyday life (78.4 %) and low treatment burden (64.2-77.9 %). Goals were mostly not associated with sex and gender. Goal importance slightly increased with treatment success. In a substantial proportion of patients (30.3-54.7 %) goal importance changed within 1 year after onset of systemic treatment. We conclude that treatment goal importance should be assessed in clinical practice on a regular basis.

  20. Relevant optical properties for direct restorative materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pecho, Oscar E; Ghinea, Razvan; do Amaral, Erika A Navarro; Cardona, Juan C; Della Bona, Alvaro; Pérez, María M

    2016-05-01

    To evaluate relevant optical properties of esthetic direct restorative materials focusing on whitened and translucent shades. Enamel (E), body (B), dentin (D), translucent (T) and whitened (Wh) shades for E (WhE) and B (WhB) from a restorative system (Filtek Supreme XTE, 3M ESPE) were evaluated. Samples (1 mm thick) were prepared. Spectral reflectance (R%) and color coordinates (L*, a*, b*, C* and h°) were measured against black and white backgrounds, using a spectroradiometer, in a viewing booth, with CIE D65 illuminant and d/0° geometry. Scattering (S) and absorption (K) coefficients and transmittance (T%) were calculated using Kubelka-Munk's equations. Translucency (TP) and opalescence (OP) parameters and whiteness index (W*) were obtained from differences of CIELAB color coordinates. R%, S, K and T% curves from all shades were compared using VAF (Variance Accounting For) coefficient with Cauchy-Schwarz inequality. Color coordinates and optical parameters were statistically analyzed using one-way ANOVA, Tukey's test with Bonferroni correction (α=0.0007). Spectral behavior of R% and S were different for T shades. In addition, T shades showed the lowest R%, S and K values, as well as the highest T%, TP an OP values. In most cases, WhB shades showed different color and optical properties (including TP and W*) than their corresponding B shades. WhE shades showed similar mean W* values and higher mean T% and TP values than E shades. When using whitened or translucent composites, the final color is influenced not only by the intraoral background but also by the color and optical properties of multilayers used in the esthetic restoration. Copyright © 2016 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Development of an ITER relevant inspection robot

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gargiulo, L.; Bayetti, P.; Cordier, J.J.; Grisolia, C.; Hatchressian, J.C. [Association Euratom-CEA, Cadarache (France). Dept. de Recherche sur la Fusion Controlee; Friconneau, J.P.; Keller, D.; Perrot, Y. [CEA-LIST Robotics and Interactive Systems Unit, Fontenay aux Roses (France)

    2007-07-01

    Robotic operations are one of the major maintenance challenges for ITER and future fusion reactors. In particular, in vessel inspection operations without loss of conditioning could be very useful. Within this framework, the aim of the project called AIA (Articulated Inspection Arm) is to demonstrate the feasibility of a multi-purpose in-vessel Remote Handling inspection system using a long reach, limited payload carrier (up to 10 kg). It is composed of 5 segments with 11 degrees of freedom and a total range of 8 m. The project is currently developed by the CEA within the European workprogramme. Its first in situ tests are planned this summer on the Tore Supra tokamak at Cadarache (France). They will validate chosen concepts for operations under ITER relevant vacuum and temperature conditions. After qualification, the arm will constitute a promising tool for generic application. Several processes are already considered for ITER maintenance and will be demonstrated on the AIA robot carrier: - The first embedded process is the viewing system. It is currently being manufactured and will allow for close visual inspection of the complex Plasma Facing Components (limiters, neutralisers, RF antennae, diagnostic windows, etc.). - In situ localisation of leakage based on helium sniffer is also studied to improve maintenance operations. - Finally the laser ablation system for PFC detritiation, also developed in CEA laboratories, is being fitted to be implanted into the robot and put into operation in Tore Supra. This paper deals with the integration of the robot in the Tore Supra tokamak and the advances in the development of the listed processes. It also introduces the current test campaign aiming to qualify the robot performance and reliability under vacuum and temperature conditions. (orig.)

  2. Development of an ITER relevant inspection robot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gargiulo, L.; Bayetti, P.; Cordier, J.J.; Grisolia, C.; Hatchressian, J.C.

    2007-01-01

    Robotic operations are one of the major maintenance challenges for ITER and future fusion reactors. In particular, in vessel inspection operations without loss of conditioning could be very useful. Within this framework, the aim of the project called AIA (Articulated Inspection Arm) is to demonstrate the feasibility of a multi-purpose in-vessel Remote Handling inspection system using a long reach, limited payload carrier (up to 10 kg). It is composed of 5 segments with 11 degrees of freedom and a total range of 8 m. The project is currently developed by the CEA within the European workprogramme. Its first in situ tests are planned this summer on the Tore Supra tokamak at Cadarache (France). They will validate chosen concepts for operations under ITER relevant vacuum and temperature conditions. After qualification, the arm will constitute a promising tool for generic application. Several processes are already considered for ITER maintenance and will be demonstrated on the AIA robot carrier: - The first embedded process is the viewing system. It is currently being manufactured and will allow for close visual inspection of the complex Plasma Facing Components (limiters, neutralisers, RF antennae, diagnostic windows, etc.). - In situ localisation of leakage based on helium sniffer is also studied to improve maintenance operations. - Finally the laser ablation system for PFC detritiation, also developed in CEA laboratories, is being fitted to be implanted into the robot and put into operation in Tore Supra. This paper deals with the integration of the robot in the Tore Supra tokamak and the advances in the development of the listed processes. It also introduces the current test campaign aiming to qualify the robot performance and reliability under vacuum and temperature conditions. (orig.)

  3. Sorption of environmentally relevant radionuclides (U(VI), Np(V)) and lanthanides (Nd(III)) on feldspar and mica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richter, Constanze

    2015-11-05

    obtained sorption curves exhibit a similar characteristic for orthoclase and muscovite. As expected Nd(III) shows the highest amount of sorption followed by U(VI) and finally Np(V). With spectroscopic investigations of the aquatic U(VI) solution in presence of Ca{sup 2+}, the Ca{sub 2}UO{sub 2}(CO{sub 3}){sub 3} complex could be identified. Furthermore, with spectroscopic methods the U(VI) surface species onto orthoclase could be characterized, of which a novel uranium-carbonate surface species was observed. Based on the results of batch experiments and spectroscopic methods new SCM parameters for the sorption of U(VI), Np(V), and Nd(III) onto orthoclase and for Np(V) and Nd(III) onto muscovite could be derived. SCM parameters for U(VI) sorption onto muscovite confirmed earlier investigations. The obtained SCM parameters increase the amount of data available for sorption processes onto feldspar and mica. With this the relevance of feldspars for the sorption of actinides and lanthanides could be shown. Thus, this work contributes to a better understanding of interactions of actinides and lanthanides, in particular U(VI), Np(V), and Nd(III), with mineral phases ubiquitous in the environment. This in turn adds confidence to long-term safety assessments essential for the protection of humans and the environment from the hazards of radioactive waste.

  4. Sorption of environmentally relevant radionuclides (U(VI), Np(V)) and lanthanides (Nd(III)) on feldspar and mica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richter, Constanze

    2015-01-01

    obtained sorption curves exhibit a similar characteristic for orthoclase and muscovite. As expected Nd(III) shows the highest amount of sorption followed by U(VI) and finally Np(V). With spectroscopic investigations of the aquatic U(VI) solution in presence of Ca 2+ , the Ca 2 UO 2 (CO 3 ) 3 complex could be identified. Furthermore, with spectroscopic methods the U(VI) surface species onto orthoclase could be characterized, of which a novel uranium-carbonate surface species was observed. Based on the results of batch experiments and spectroscopic methods new SCM parameters for the sorption of U(VI), Np(V), and Nd(III) onto orthoclase and for Np(V) and Nd(III) onto muscovite could be derived. SCM parameters for U(VI) sorption onto muscovite confirmed earlier investigations. The obtained SCM parameters increase the amount of data available for sorption processes onto feldspar and mica. With this the relevance of feldspars for the sorption of actinides and lanthanides could be shown. Thus, this work contributes to a better understanding of interactions of actinides and lanthanides, in particular U(VI), Np(V), and Nd(III), with mineral phases ubiquitous in the environment. This in turn adds confidence to long-term safety assessments essential for the protection of humans and the environment from the hazards of radioactive waste.

  5. Teamwork: relevance and interdependence of interprofessional education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamayo, M; Besoaín-Saldaña, A; Aguirre, M; Leiva, J

    2017-04-27

    Determine the perception of university students regarding interprofessional and interdependent work between team members in their inclusion in primary care. Analytical cross-sectional study. The sampling had a probabilistic, stratified random type with 95% confidence and 5% margin of error. Seven-hundred and four students of Public Universities in Santiago (Chile) answered self-administered questionnaire. Ninety-seven point eight of students say that interprofessional work is important; 27.1% of them declare that their university did not seem to show that their study plans were important. The professionals listed as most important in teams are physicians and nurses. Spaces for development and institutional support are key elements to promote interprofessional work. If this competence can involve each academic unit in their different formative spaces there will be a significant contribution to said promotion. Teamwork is a pending task. Determinar la percepción de estudiantes universitarios respecto al trabajo interprofesional e interdependencia entre los miembros del equipo en su inserción en la atención primaria. Estudio de tipo analítico y transversal. El muestreo fue de tipo aleatorio, probabilístico estratificado con un 95% de confianza y un 5% de margen de error. Se utilizó un cuestionario auto-administrado en 704 estudiantes de Universidades del Estado en Santiago de Chile. Un 97,8% de los estudiantes opinan que el trabajo interprofesional es importante; un 27,1% de ellos declara que su universidad no le ha entregado importancia en sus planes de estudios. Los profesionales mencionados como más importantes en el equipo son los médicos y enfermeras. Espacios de desarrollo y respaldo institucional son elementos claves para promover el trabajo interprofesional. Que esta competencia logre involucrar a cada unidad académica en sus diferentes espacios formativos será un aporte significativo en aquello. Trabajo en equipo es una tarea pendiente.

  6. Work team

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RBE Editorial

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Work Team 2016 (Jan-Jul1. Editorial TeamChief-editorsBayardo Bapstista Torres, Instituto de Química (USP, BrasilEduardo Galembeck, Depto. Bioquímica, Instituto de Biologia, Universidade de Campinas (Unicamp, Brasil Co-editorsGabriel Gerber Hornink, Depto. Bioquímica, Instituto de Ciências Biomédicas, Universidade - Federal de Alfenas (Unifal-MG, BrasilVera Maria Treis Trindade, Departamento de Bioquímica, Instituto de Ciências Básicas da Saúde, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS, Brasil Editorial BoardAdriana Cassina, Department of Biochemistry, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de la República, UruguayAngel Herráez, Departamento de Bioquímica y Biología molecular, Universidad de Alcalá de Henares, Madrid, SpainAndré Amaral Gonçalves Bianco, Universidade Federal de São Paulo (Unifesp, BrasilDenise Vaz de Macedo, Depto. Bioquímica, Instituto de Biologia, Universidade Estadual de Campinas (Unicamp, BrasilEneida de Paula, Depto. Bioquímica, Instituto de Biologia, Universidade Estadual de Campinas (Unicamp, BrasilJose Antonio Martinez Oyanedel, Universidad de Concepción, ChileJosep Maria Fernández Novell, Department of Molecular Biology & Biochemistry, Universitat de Barcelona, SpainLeila Maria Beltramini, Instituto de Física de São Carlos, Universidade Estadual de São Paulo (USP, BrasilManuel João da Costa, Escola de Ciências da Saúde, Universidade do Minho, PortugalMaria Lucia Bianconi, Instituto de Bioquímica Médica, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ, BrasilMaría Noel Alvarez, Department of Biochemistry, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de la República, UruguayMiguel Ángel Medina Torres, Department of Molecular Biology & Biochemistry Faculty of Sciences University of Málaga, SpainNelma Regina Segnini Bossolan, Instituto de Física de São Carlos, Universidade de São Paulo (USP, BrasilPaulo De Avila Junior, Centro de Ciências Naturais e Humanas (CCNH Universidade Federal do ABC (UFABC

  7. Root cause analysis of relevant events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez, Silvia S.; Vidal, Patricia G.

    2000-01-01

    During 1998 the research work followed more specific guidelines, which entailed focusing exclusively on the two selected methods (ASSET and HPIP) and incorporating some additional human behaviour elements based on the documents of reference. Once resident inspectors were incorporated in the project (and trained accordingly), events occurring in Argentine nuclear power plants were analysed. Some events were analysed (all of them from Atucha I and Embalse nuclear power plant), concluding that the systematic methodology used allows us to investigate also minor events that were precursors of the events selected. (author)

  8. The Continuing Relevance of Austrian Capital Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss, Nicolai Juul

    2012-01-01

    The article presents a speech by Professor Nicolai J. Foss of Copenhagen Business School, delivered at the Austrian Scholars Conference held on March 8, 2012 in Auburn, Alabama, in which he discussed the knowledge essays by economist Friedrich A. von Hayek, the concept of capital theory and the w......The article presents a speech by Professor Nicolai J. Foss of Copenhagen Business School, delivered at the Austrian Scholars Conference held on March 8, 2012 in Auburn, Alabama, in which he discussed the knowledge essays by economist Friedrich A. von Hayek, the concept of capital theory...... and the works of Hayek on political philosophy and cultural evolution....

  9. Autonomia e relevância dos regimes The autonomy and relevance of regimes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Seignemartin de Carvalho

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Teorias institucionalistas na disciplina de relações internacionais usualmente definem regimes como um conjunto de normas e regras formais ou informais que permitem a convergência de expectativas ou a padronização do comportamento de seus participantes em uma determinada área de interesses com o objetivo de resolver problemas de coordenação que tenderiam a resultados não pareto-eficientes. Como estas definições baseadas meramente na "eficiência" dos regimes não parecem suficientes para explicar sua efetividade, o presente artigo propõe uma definição diferente para regimes: a de arranjos políticos que permitem a redistribuição dos ganhos da cooperação pelos participantes em uma determinada área de interesses em um contexto de interdependência. Regimes possuiriam efetividade pela sua autonomia e relevância, ou seja, por possuírem existência objetiva autônoma da de seus participantes e por influenciarem seu comportamento e expectativas de maneiras que não podem ser reduzidas à ação individual de nenhum deles. O artigo inicia-se com uma breve discussão sobre as dificuldades terminológicas associadas ao estudo de regimes e a definição dos conceitos de autonomia e relevância. Em seguida, classifica os diversos autores participantes do debate em duas perspectivas distintas, uma que nega (não-autonomistas e outra que atribui (autonomistas aos regimes autonomia e relevância, e faz uma breve análise dos autores e tradições mais significativos para o debate, aprofundando-se nos autonomistas e nos argumentos que reforçam a hipótese aqui apresentada. Ao final, o artigo propõe uma decomposição analítica dos regimes nos quatro elementos principais que lhes propiciam autonomia e relevância: normatividade, atores, especificidade da área de interesses e interdependência complexa com o contexto.Regimes are defined by institutionalist theories in the discipline of International Relations as formal or informal sets

  10. The concept of work ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tengland, Per-Anders

    2011-06-01

    The concept of "work ability" is central for many sciences, especially for those related to working life and to rehabilitation. It is one of the important concepts in legislation regulating sickness insurance. How the concept is defined therefore has important normative implications. The concept is, however, often not sufficiently well defined. AIM AND METHOD The objective of this paper is to clarify, through conceptual analysis, what the concept can and should mean, and to propose a useful definition for scientific and practical work. RESULTS Several of the defining characteristics found in the literature are critically scrutinized and discussed, namely health, basic standard competence, occupational competence, occupational virtues, and motivation. These characteristics are related to the work tasks and the work environment. One conclusion is that we need two definitions of work ability, one for specific jobs that require special training or education, and one for jobs that most people can manage given a short period of practice. Having work ability, in the first sense, means having the occupational competence, the health required for the competence, and the occupational virtues that are required for managing the work tasks, assuming that the tasks are reasonable and that the work environment is acceptable. In the second sense, having work ability is having the health, the basic standard competence and the relevant occupational virtues required for managing some kind of job, assuming that the work tasks are reasonable and that the work environment is acceptable. CONCLUSION These definitions give us tools for understanding and discussing the complex, holistic and dynamic aspects of work ability, and they can lay the foundations for the creation of instruments for evaluating work ability, as well as help formulate strategies for rehabilitation.

  11. IEK-3 report 2011. Climate-relevant energy research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    IEK-3 is one of nine sub-institutes within the Institute of Energy and Climate Research at Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH. IEK-3 aims to conduct research of social, ecological and economic relevance and thus generate groundbreaking results on an international level. This quality of work is achieved through basic research in close coordination with technical development work in relevant scientific and technical fields of expertise. Special significance is attached here to international cooperations with partners from research and industry. By implementing research results in innovative products, procedures and processes in cooperation with industry, IEK-3 hopes to help bridge the gap between science and technology. Cooperation with universities, universities of applied sciences, training departments and training centers is designed to promote opportunities for further education and training. With a staff of approximately 100, IEK-3 concentrates on the basic topics of electrochemistry and process engineering for fuel cells. In an integrated approach, the four key areas worked on in the institute - direct methanol fuel cells, high-temperature polymer electrolyte fuel cells, solid oxide fuel cells and fuel processing systems - are accompanied by systems analysis and theoretical investigations, basic modeling and simulations, and by experimental and theoretical systems evaluations. The information generated in these areas is used to design and verify functional systems. In addition, particular attention is given to the development, configuration and application of special measuring techniques for the structural analysis of membrane electrode assemblies, for flow simulation and visualization, and for the characterization of stacks. The solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) stack pictured comprises 36 cells, each with an active cell area of 360 cm{sup 2}. The nominal power at a mean cell voltage of 800 mV is approximately 5.5 kW. The stack is operated on natural gas, which is

  12. Visualizing Culturally Relevant Science Pedagogy Through Photonarratives of Black Middle School Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldston, M. Jenice; Nichols, Sharon

    2009-04-01

    This study situated in a Southern resegregated Black middle school involved four Black teachers and two White science educators’ use of photonarratives to envision culturally relevant science pedagogy. Two questions guided the study: (1) What community referents are important for conceptualizing culturally relevant practices in Black science classrooms? and (2) How do teachers’ photonarratives serve to open conversations and notions of culturally relevant science practices? The research methodologically drew upon memory-work, Black feminism, critical theory, visual methodology, and narrative inquiry as “portraiture.” Issues of positionality and identity proved to be central to this work, as three luminaries portray Black teachers’ insights about supports and barriers to teaching and learning science. The community referents identified were associated with church and its oral traditions, inequities of the market place in meeting their basic human needs, and community spaces.

  13. Deleuze, art and social work

    OpenAIRE

    Crociani-Windland, L.

    2017-01-01

    This article outlines the value of Deleuze’s philosophy to social work in offering a different understanding of the constitution of reality and being human and the importance of the visual by way of artistic and craft activities. The key concepts derived from Deleuze’s work and outlined in the article concern the idea of the ‘virtual’ as relevant to the concept of ‘a life’ and ‘difference and repetition’ as a way of conceptualising an anti-essentialist post-modern view of identity as fragment...

  14. Experiments with positive, negative and topical relevance feedback

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaptein, R.; Kamps, J.; Li, R.; Hiemstra, D.

    2008-01-01

    This document contains a description of experiments for the 2008 Relevance Feedback track. We experiment with different amounts of feedback, including negative relevance feedback. Feedback is implemented using massive weighted query expansion. Parsimonious query expansion using Dirichlet smoothing

  15. Is the flower fluorescence relevant in biocommunication?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iriel, Analía; Lagorio, María Gabriela

    2010-10-01

    Flower fluorescence has been previously proposed as a potential visual signal to attract pollinators. In this work, this point was addressed by quantitatively measuring the fluorescence quantum yield ( Φ f) for flowers of Bellis perennis (white, yellow, pink, and purple), Ornithogalum thyrsoides (petals and ovaries), Limonium sinuatum (white and yellow), Lampranthus productus (yellow), Petunia nyctaginiflora (white), Bougainvillea spectabilis (white and yellow), Antirrhinum majus (white and yellow), Eustoma grandiflorum (white and blue), Citrus aurantium (petals and stigma), and Portulaca grandiflora (yellow). The highest values were obtained for the ovaries of O. thyrsoides ( Φ f = 0.030) and for Citrus aurantium petals ( Φ f = 0.014) and stigma ( Φ f = 0.013). Emitted photons as fluorescence were compared with reflected photons. It was concluded that the fluorescence emission is negligible compared to the reflected light, even for the most fluorescent samples, and it may not be considered as an optical signal in biocommunication. The work was complemented with the calculation of quantum catches for each studied flower species to describe the visual sensitization of eye photoreceptors.

  16. RELEVANCE OF PROCESS RISK ASSESSMENT IN AIRLINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oksana G. Feoktistova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The notion of “the concept on assumed risk” that took over from the outdated concept of absolute security is analyzed, the increasing significance of operating risk assessment at the present stage is noted. Some basic risk assessment techniques are considered. Matrix technique of risk assessment is considered more thoroughly, and it may be used in risk assessment of airlines in the context of labour protection management system.The ability to correctly assess risks and develop appropriate precautionary measures will allow airlines to avoid incidents leading to drastic consequences for staff, as well as to direct and indirect costs for the enterprise among which there could be singled out both direct property damage and loss of profit and expenses connected to incident investigation, penalty and compensation payment, loss of business reputation and so on. To reduce the rate of accidents and to develop safe activities skills for airlines staff a risk assessment chart is supposed to be implemented, which will be an efficient accidents prevention involving the staff in the process and making them follow safe working conditions.Process risk assessment is an integral part of assessment of the whole enterprise activity and work efficiency of a department and particular workers evaluation system. Labour protection activity should be based on risk identification and its control. Risk assessment is a keystone of labour protection activity planning.

  17. Automated Work Package: Initial Wireless Communication Platform Design, Development, and Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al Rashdan, Ahmad Yahya Mohammad [Idaho National Laboratory; Agarwal, Vivek [Idaho National Laboratory

    2016-03-01

    The Department of Energy’s Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program is developing the scientific basis to ensure long-term reliability, productivity, safety, and security of the nuclear power industry in the United States. The Instrumentation, Information, and Control (II&C) pathway of the program aims to increase the role of advanced II&C technologies to achieve this objective. One of the pathway efforts at Idaho National Laboratory (INL) is to improve the work packages execution process by replacing the expensive, inefficient, bulky, complex, and error-prone paper-based work orders with automated work packages (AWPs). An AWP is an automated and dynamic presentation of the work package designed to guide the user through the work process. It is loaded on a mobile device, such as a tablet, and is capable of communicating with plant equipment and systems to acquire plant and procedure states. The AWP replaces those functions where a computer is more efficient and reliable than a human. To enable the automatic acquisition of plant data, it is necessary to design and develop a prototype platform for data exchange between the field instruments and the AWP mobile devices. The development of the platform aims to reveal issues and solutions generalizable to large-scale implementation of a similar system. Topics such as bandwidth, robustness, response time, interference, and security are usually associated with wireless communication. These concerns, along with other requirements, are listed in an earlier INL report. Specifically, the targeted issues and performance aspects in this work are relevant to the communication infrastructure from the perspective of promptness, robustness, expandability, and interoperability with different technologies.

  18. Safety relevant failure mechanisms in the post-operational phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayer, Gerhard; Stiller, Jan Christopher; Roemer, Sarah

    2017-03-01

    When the 13"t"h amendment of the Atomic Energy Act came into force, eight Germ an nuclear power plant units had their power operating licences revoked and are now in the so-called post operation phase. Of the remaining nuclear power plants, one have by now also entered the post operation phase, with those left in operation bound for entering this phase sometime between now and the end of 2022. Therefore, failure mechanisms that are particularly relevant for post operation were to be identified and described in the frame of the present project. To do so, three major steps were taken: Firstly, recent national and international pertinent literature was evaluated to obtain indications of failure mechanisms in the post operation phase. It turned out that most of the national and international literature deals with the general procedure of the transition from power operation to decommissioning and dismantling. However, there were also some documents providing detailed indications of possible failure mechanisms in post operation. This includes e.g. the release of radioactive materials caused by the drop of containers, chemical impacts on systems important to safety in connection with decontamination work, and corrosion in connection with the storage of the core in the spent fuel pool, with the latter leading to the jamming of the fuel assemblies in the storage racks and a possible reduction of coolant circulation. In a second step, three safety analyses of pressurised water reactors prepared by the respective plant operators were evaluated to identify failure mechanisms based on systems engineering. The failure mechanisms that were found here include e.g. faults in the boric acid concentration of the reactor coolant, damage to the equipment airlock upon the unloading of Castor casks, leakages in connection with primary system decontamination, and the drop of packages holding radioactive residual materials or waste with subsequent mobilisation of radioactive aerosols

  19. Teaching History to Adolescents: A Quest for Relevance. Adolescent Cultures, School, and Society. Volume 52

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beineke, John A.

    2011-01-01

    "Teaching History to Adolescents: A Quest for Relevance" is an exploration of research, ideas, trends, and practices for educators who teach American history to adolescents from the middle grades through high school. Higher education faculty in history and professional education will also find the book germane to their work. Topics within the…

  20. Enduring relevance: an introduction to the clinical contributions of K. R. Eissler.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Emanuel E

    2009-10-01

    The author offers a personal selection and discussion of papers that epitomize the enduring relevance of K. R. Eissler's contributions to psychoanalytic therapy. The innovations of technique embodied by these works (on parameters, schizophrenia, adolescence, cure, fees, and the treatment of the dying patient) reveal a therapeutic approach that is a natural extension of psychoanalytic science: patient-centered, maximally comprehensive, and appropriately flexible.

  1. Re-enacting the relevance of the moral codes of the un-shrined ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Also they maintain social justice, give cultural identity and encourage patriotism. The work will, identify the moral codes and analyze the methods of enforcing them. It will also delve into how the gods are appeased. The socio-cultural significance would be treated for a clearer view of the relevance of the moral codes of the ...

  2. Using Social Media as a Marketing Channel : how relevance, realness, and remarkableness influence interactivity and engagement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Boer, de

    2010-01-01

    This research explored a potential working framework for using social media as a marketing channel. Based on an extensive literature review and a multiple case study, important factors for using social media have been identified. Companies should provide relevant information, show signs of real

  3. Community historians and the dilemma of rigor vs relevance : A comment on Danziger and van Rappard

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dehue, Trudy

    1998-01-01

    Since the transition from finalism to contextualism, the history of science seems to be caught up in a basic dilemma. Many historians fear that with the new contextualist standards of rigorous historiography, historical research can no longer be relevant to working scientists themselves. The present

  4. Measuring Teacher Dispositions: Identifying Workplace Personality Traits Most Relevant to Teaching Professionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Yuankun; Pagnani, Alexander; Thomas, Matt; Abellan-Pagnani, Luisa; Brown, Terrell; Buchanan, Dawna Lisa

    2017-01-01

    What personality traits represent dispositions most relevant to teaching professionals? Could an instrument reflecting work personality traits for a wide variety of professions provide a valid assessment of dispositions for teacher candidates? This study analyzed the internal structure of a state mandated dispositions assessment that was adapted…

  5. The Advisor as Servant: The Theoretical and Philosophical Relevance of Servant Leadership to Academic Advising

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClellan, Jeffrey L.

    2007-01-01

    Servant. This novel actively portrays Greenleaf's concept of servant leadership by describing the extracurricular work of a university professor. Consequently, some scholars have demonstrated the relevance of servant leadership to classroom instruction (Powers & Moore, 2005). However, it was not as an instructor, but as an advisor that the…

  6. 49 CFR 556.9 - Public inspection of relevant information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Public inspection of relevant information. 556.9... NONCOMPLIANCE § 556.9 Public inspection of relevant information. Information relevant to a petition under this... Administration, 400 Seventh Street, SW., Washington, DC 20590. Copies of available information may be obtained in...

  7. 46 CFR 560.5 - Receipt of relevant information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Receipt of relevant information. 560.5 Section 560.5... FOREIGN PORTS § 560.5 Receipt of relevant information. (a) In making its decision on matters arising under... submissions should be supported by affidavits of fact and memorandum of law. Relevant information may include...

  8. Aspect-based Relevance Learning for Image Retrieval

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.J. Huiskes (Mark)

    2005-01-01

    htmlabstractWe analyze the special structure of the relevance feedback learning problem, focusing particularly on the effects of image selection by partial relevance on the clustering behavior of feedback examples. We propose a scheme, aspect-based relevance learning, which guarantees that feedback

  9. Work environments for employee creativity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dul, Jan; Ceylan, Canan

    2011-01-01

    Innovative organisations need creative employees who generate new ideas for product or process innovation. This paper presents a conceptual framework for the effect of personal, social-organisational and physical factors on employee creativity. Based on this framework, an instrument to analyse the extent to which the work environment enhances creativity is developed. This instrument was applied to a sample of 409 employees and support was found for the hypothesis that a creative work environment enhances creative performance. This paper illustrates how the instrument can be used in companies to select and implement improvements. STATEMENT OF RELEVANCE: The ergonomics discipline addresses the work environment mainly for improving health and safety and sometimes productivity and quality. This paper opens a new area for ergonomics: designing work environments for enhancing employee creativity in order to strengthen an organisation's capability for product and process innovation and, consequently, its competitiveness.

  10. Contextualizing the global relevance of local land change observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magliocca, N R; Ellis, E C; Oates, T; Schmill, M

    2014-01-01

    To understand global changes in the Earth system, scientists must generalize globally from observations made locally and regionally. In land change science (LCS), local field-based observations are costly and time consuming, and generally obtained by researchers working at disparate local and regional case-study sites chosen for different reasons. As a result, global synthesis efforts in LCS tend to be based on non-statistical inferences subject to geographic biases stemming from data limitations and fragmentation. Thus, a fundamental challenge is the production of generalized knowledge that links evidence of the causes and consequences of local land change to global patterns and vice versa. The GLOBE system was designed to meet this challenge. GLOBE aims to transform global change science by enabling new scientific workflows based on statistically robust, globally relevant integration of local and regional observations using an online social-computational and geovisualization system. Consistent with the goals of Digital Earth, GLOBE has the capability to assess the global relevance of local case-study findings within the context of over 50 global biophysical, land-use, climate, and socio-economic datasets. We demonstrate the implementation of one such assessment – a representativeness analysis – with a recently published meta-study of changes in swidden agriculture in tropical forests. The analysis provides a standardized indicator to judge the global representativeness of the trends reported in the meta-study, and a geovisualization is presented that highlights areas for which sampling efforts can be reduced and those in need of further study. GLOBE will enable researchers and institutions to rapidly share, compare, and synthesize local and regional studies within the global context, as well as contributing to the larger goal of creating a Digital Earth

  11. Culturally relevant model program to prevent and reduce agricultural injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helitzer, D L; Hathorn, G; Benally, J; Ortega, C

    2014-07-01

    Limited research has explored pesticide injury prevention among American Indian farmers. In a five-year agricultural intervention, a university-community partnership, including the University of New Mexico School of Medicine, New Mexico State University, Shiprock Area Cooperative Extension Service, and Navajo Nation communities, used a culturally relevant model to introduce and maintain safe use of integrated pest management techniques. We applied the Diffusion of Innovations theory and community-based approaches to tailor health promotion strategies for our intervention. In a longitudinal study with repeated measures, we trained six "model farmers" to be crop management experts in pesticide safety, application, and control. Subsequently, these model farmers worked with 120 farm families randomized into two groups: intervention (Group 1) and delayed intervention (Group 2). Measurements included a walk-through analysis, test of knowledge and attitudes, and yield analysis. Both groups demonstrated improvements in pesticide storage behaviors after training. Test scores regarding safety practices improved significantly: from 57.3 to 72.4 for Group 1 and from 52.6 to 76.3 for Group 2. Group 1 maintained their knowledge and safety practices after the intervention. Attitudes about pesticides and communication of viewpoints changed across the study years. With pesticides and fertilizer, the number of corn ears increased by 56.3% and yield (kg m(-2)) of alfalfa increased by 41.2%. The study combined traditional farming practices with culturally relevant approaches and behavior change theory to affect knowledge, safety practices, attitudes, communication channels, and crop yield. Storage behaviors, use of pesticides and safety and application equipment, and safety practice knowledge changed significantly, as did attitudes about social networking, social support, and the compatibility and relative advantage of pesticides for farms.

  12. Environmentally relevant approaches to assess nanoparticles ecotoxicity: A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bour, Agathe; Mouchet, Florence; Silvestre, Jérôme; Gauthier, Laury [Université de Toulouse (France); UPS, INP (France); EcoLab (Laboratoire d’écologie fonctionnelle et environnement) (France); ENSAT, Avenue de l’Agrobiopôle, F-31326 Castanet-Tolosan (France); CNRS (France); EcoLab (Laboratoire d’écologie fonctionnelle et environnement), F-31326 Castanet-Tolosan (France); Pinelli, Eric, E-mail: pinelli@ensat.fr [Université de Toulouse (France); UPS, INP (France); EcoLab (Laboratoire d’écologie fonctionnelle et environnement) (France); ENSAT, Avenue de l’Agrobiopôle, F-31326 Castanet-Tolosan (France); CNRS (France); EcoLab (Laboratoire d’écologie fonctionnelle et environnement), F-31326 Castanet-Tolosan (France)

    2015-02-11

    Highlights: • Integrated ecotoxicity of NPs from organism to community level is reviewed. • Trophic chains allow determining the implication of trophic route in NP toxicity. • The use of microcosms and mesocosms allows studies at larger scale. • Data concerning NP fate and effects in environmental conditions are lacking. - Abstract: Despite the increasing production and use of nanoparticles (NPs), there is a lack of knowledge about their environmental fate and ecotoxicity. Studies in environmentally relevant conditions are necessary to better assess these parameters, but such studies are rather rare. The present work represents first time that studies on engineered NPs using environmentally relevant exposure methods have been reviewed. These exposure methods differ from standardized protocols and can be classified into three groups: experimental trophic chains that allow study of the trophic route, multi-species exposures under laboratory conditions that allow for complex but controlled exposure and outdoor exposures that are more similar to environmentally realistic conditions. The majority of studies of micro- or mesocosms have focused on NP partitioning and bioaccumulation. The other major parameter that has been studied is NP ecotoxicity, which has been assessed in single species, in single species via the trophic route, and at the community level. The induction of biochemical defense systems, immunomodulation, effects on growth and reproduction, behavioral alterations and mortality have been used as indicators of major toxicity, depending on the species studied. The major effects of NPs on both microbial and algal communities include modifications of community compositions and diversities, decreased biomass and changes in community activities.

  13. Environmentally relevant approaches to assess nanoparticles ecotoxicity: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bour, Agathe; Mouchet, Florence; Silvestre, Jérôme; Gauthier, Laury; Pinelli, Eric

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Integrated ecotoxicity of NPs from organism to community level is reviewed. • Trophic chains allow determining the implication of trophic route in NP toxicity. • The use of microcosms and mesocosms allows studies at larger scale. • Data concerning NP fate and effects in environmental conditions are lacking. - Abstract: Despite the increasing production and use of nanoparticles (NPs), there is a lack of knowledge about their environmental fate and ecotoxicity. Studies in environmentally relevant conditions are necessary to better assess these parameters, but such studies are rather rare. The present work represents first time that studies on engineered NPs using environmentally relevant exposure methods have been reviewed. These exposure methods differ from standardized protocols and can be classified into three groups: experimental trophic chains that allow study of the trophic route, multi-species exposures under laboratory conditions that allow for complex but controlled exposure and outdoor exposures that are more similar to environmentally realistic conditions. The majority of studies of micro- or mesocosms have focused on NP partitioning and bioaccumulation. The other major parameter that has been studied is NP ecotoxicity, which has been assessed in single species, in single species via the trophic route, and at the community level. The induction of biochemical defense systems, immunomodulation, effects on growth and reproduction, behavioral alterations and mortality have been used as indicators of major toxicity, depending on the species studied. The major effects of NPs on both microbial and algal communities include modifications of community compositions and diversities, decreased biomass and changes in community activities

  14. [Work and family in the sociodemographic study of Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, B; De Oliveira, O

    1991-06-01

    This work reviews sociodemographic studies of the interrelationship between work and family in Mexico from 1950 to the present. 3 main themes are distinguished and examined in separate sections. The 1st are labor market studies focusing on aggregates of individuals, a trend most prominent through the mid 1970s but still somewhat in evidence. The 2nd type of studies stress the household or domestic unit as the relevant unit of analysis and often conceptualize economic participation as part of the family life strategy or survival strategy. This perspective reached its maximum development in the late 1970s and early 1980s but also still appears. The last type of study stresses the increasing heterogeneity of labor markets related to the increase in nonsalaried employment and increasing female employment. The domestic unit is present as a determinant of family-based economic activity and female employment, but differences and conflicts between generations within the household are stressed. This perspective began to gain importance in the mid-1980s. The objective of the differentiation into 3 periods and types of study is to analyze changes in theoretical elements considered, principal thematic contents, methodological tools utilized, and results. The work is based on a selective review of literature considered representative. On the theoretical level, relations between work and family are now perceived as more complex and incorporate more elements of social reality than they did in the earlier studies. Most studies of this type have concerned female employment. The belief that male employment depends less on the family context requires reassessment, especially in view of the differential employment opportunities of men and women. Quantitative sociodemographic research in Mexico has been greatly aided by the growing availability of detailed survey data. This, together with advances in statistics and computation, has allowed a greater use of multivariate analysis to

  15. Phononic crystals and elastodynamics: Some relevant points

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Aravantinos-Zafiris

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper we review briefly some of the first works on wave propagation in phononic crystals emphasizing the conditions for the creation of acoustic band-gaps and the role of resonances to the band-gap creation. We show that useful conclusions in the analysis of phononic band gap structures can be drawn by considering the mathematical similarities of the basic classical wave equation (Helmholtz equation with Schrödinger equation and by employing basic solid state physics concepts and conclusions regarding electronic waves. In the second part of the paper we demonstrate the potential of phononic systems to be used as elastic metamaterials. This is done by demonstrating negative refraction in phononic crystals and subwavelength waveguiding in a linear chain of elastic inclusions, and by proposing a novel structure with close to pentamode behavior. Finally the potential of phononic structures to be used in liquid sensor applications is discussed and demonstrated.

  16. TASK RELEVANCE IN THE DESIGN OF ONLINE PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT FOR TEACHERS OF ELLs: A Q Methodology Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda J. COLLINS

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Online professional development (oPD for teachers should focus on designing web-based learning opportunities that help practicing educators solve the tough problems of practice when working in their schools. Technology, pedagogy, and content knowledge can be integrated in the design of online professional development modules to enhance task relevance for maximum learning and transformation. The purpose of this study was to learn which tasks in an online professional development module were ranked by in-service educators as relevant to their work with English language learners (ELLs. Using Q methodology, the researcher asked participants to rank the relevancy of 36 online tasks from an online professional development module designed and developed at an American university. Participants used a -5 to 5 forced distribution to rank online activities from “Least relevant to my work with ELLs” to “Most relevant to my work with ELLs” followed by a semi-structured interview to explain their decisions. After data analysis, two factors emerged, indicating that participants’ perceptions on task relevance differed by professional roles and educational settings. The participants also favored didactic online tasks over interactive tasks. The findings from the oPD participants’ responses have the potential to serve as the basis for future online professional development design and for planning other relevant activities to be applied to the e-learning environment.

  17. Making academic research more relevant: A few suggestions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abinash Panda

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Academic research in the domain of management scholarship, though steeped in scientific and methodological rigour, is generally found to be of little relevance to practice. The authors of this paper have revisited the rigour-relevance debate in light of recent developments and with special reference to the management research scenario in India. The central thesis of the argument is that the gulf between rigour and relevance needs to be bridged to make academic research more relevant to business organizations and practitioners. They have offered some suggestions to enhance the relevance of academic research to practice.

  18. Relevance Feedback in Content Based Image Retrieval: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manesh B. Kokare

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides an overview of the technical achievements in the research area of relevance feedback (RF in content-based image retrieval (CBIR. Relevance feedback is a powerful technique in CBIR systems, in order to improve the performance of CBIR effectively. It is an open research area to the researcher to reduce the semantic gap between low-level features and high level concepts. The paper covers the current state of art of the research in relevance feedback in CBIR, various relevance feedback techniques and issues in relevance feedback are discussed in detail.

  19. Work-related stress and psychosomatic medicine

    OpenAIRE

    Nakao, Mutsuhiro

    2010-01-01

    Abstract This article introduces key concepts of work-related stress relevant to the clinical and research fields of psychosomatic medicine. Stress is a term used to describe the body's physiological and/or psychological reaction to circumstances that require behavioral adjustment. According to the Japanese National Survey of Health, the most frequent stressors are work-related problems, followed by health-related and then financial problems. Conceptually, work-related stress includes a varie...

  20. Older men, work and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granville, G; Evandrou, M

    2010-05-01

    To consider the complex interrelationships between work and health among older men, drawing out the importance of considering gender difference in approaches to occupational medicine. The method used in the literature search was to review national and international research published in English since 1990 on the health and work of older men. Journal articles were the primary source. Databases used included Web of Science, CSA Illumina Social Sciences, CINAHL, Medline and ANGINFO. The review of the evidence was structured in terms of key themes emerging from the literature into which issues of gender, ethnicity, age and socio-economic inequalities were cross cut. The current paper now focuses on two of those themes that have particular relevance to occupational medicine: work-caused and work-related ill-health, and secondly promoting workplace health. It begins by setting the scene with a profile of older men in the labour market. Two key themes emerge from the review, which are of particular significance. One is the central role that work plays in the lives and identity of men and therefore the impact this has on their health, both in and out of work. Secondly, the occupational histories of men expose them to work-related and work-caused ill-health, which has consequences for life expectancy and chronic disease in old age. These findings have implications for future research, policy formulation and implementation, and for public health practice.