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Sample records for relevant atherosclerotic renal

  1. Inflammation in renal atherosclerotic disease.

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    Udani, Suneel M; Dieter, Robert S

    2008-07-01

    The study of renal atherosclerotic disease has conventionally focused on the diagnosis and management of renal artery stenosis. With the increased understanding of atherosclerosis as a systemic inflammatory process, there has been increased interest in vascular biology at the microvasculature level. While different organ beds share some features, the inflammation and injury in the microvasculature of the kidney has unique elements as well. Understanding of the pathogenesis yields a better understanding of the clinical manifestations of renal atherosclerotic disease, which can be very subtle. Furthermore, identifying the molecular mechanisms responsible for the progression of kidney damage can also direct clinicians and scientists toward targeted therapies. Existing therapies used to treat atherosclerotic disease in other vascular beds may also play a role in the treatment of renal atherosclerotic disease.

  2. Interventional therapy of atherosclerotic renal artery occlusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Jian; Xu Ke; Xiao Liang

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effectiveness of interventional therapy for the atherosclerotic renal artery occlusion (ARAO). Methods: During the period of June 2001-Dec. 2007, 16 patients with ARAO (total of 16 occluded arteries) underwent interventional managements, including percutaneous endovascular renal artery revascularization, balloon dilatation angioplasty and stent placement. Follow-up survey was made at regular intervals. The patent condition of the renal artery was evaluated with ultrasonography and digital subtraction angiography. The blood pressure and the renal function were determined and the data were statistically analyzed in order to assess the intermediate and long-term effect of the interventional therapy. Results: Of 16 patients, technical success was achieved in 15 (93.8%) and failure occurred in one. During a follow-up period of 9 - 24 months, 3 patients died. According to the data obtained at each patient's last follow-up survey, the hypertension fell to normal in 3 (25.0%), was improved in 7 (58.3%) and showed no marked change in 2 patients (16.7%), with a clinical efficacy of 83.3% (10 / 12). The renal function was improved in 2 (16.7%), stabilized in 6 (50%) and deteriorated in 4 patients (33.3%), with an effective rate of 66.7% (8 / 12). Conclusion: For the treatment of atherosclerotic renal artery occlusion, the interventional therapy carries high successful rate and can effectively lower the blood pressure level, in addition, it can also protect the renal function in a certain degree. (authors)

  3. How to manage hypertension with atherosclerotic renal artery stenosis?

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    Ricco, Jean-Baptiste; Belmonte, Romain; Illuminati, Guilio; Barral, Xavier; Schneider, Fabrice; Chavent, Bertrand

    2017-04-01

    The management of atherosclerotic renal artery stenosis (ARAS) in patients with hypertension has been the topic of great controversy. Major contemporary clinical trials such as the Cardiovascular Outcomes for Renal Artery lesions (CORAL) and Angioplasty and Stenting for Renal Atherosclerotic lesions (ASTRAL) have failed to show significant benefit of revascularization over medical management in controlling blood pressure and preserving renal function. We present here the implications and limitations of these trials and formulate recommendations for management of ARAS.

  4. Atherosclerotic stenoses of renal arteries: Evaluation with CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marteau, V.; Melki, J.P.; DuTemple, C.; Despres, E.; Taieb, A.

    1987-01-01

    Recent reports have shown that the long-term results of transluminal angioplasty (PTA) in renal arteries, performed to treat renovascular hypertension resulting from atherosclerotic disease, depended on the location, extent, and consistency of the obstructing lesions. Therefore, 30 patients shown with arteriography to have 40 atherosclerotic stenoses and five occlusions of the renal artery underwent CT for study of the walls of the aorta and renal arteries. CT easily demonstrates atherosclerotic lesions and seems better than arteriography when the lesions are ostial. It shows whether stenoses are calcified and also defines the lesions of the abdominal aorta, which is helpful when surgical bypass is considered. The paper presents the authors' preliminary findings. Long-term follow-up of these patients show if CT has a predictive value about PTA results

  5. Cigarette smoking and cardio-renal events in patients with atherosclerotic renal artery stenosis.

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    Christopher A Drummond

    Full Text Available Cigarette smoking causes cardiovascular disease and is associated with poor kidney function in individuals with diabetes mellitus and primary kidney diseases. However, the association of smoking on patients with atherosclerotic renal artery stenosis has not been studied. The current study utilized data from the Cardiovascular Outcomes in Renal Atherosclerotic Lesions (CORAL, NCT00081731 clinical trial to evaluate the effects of smoking on the risk of cardio-renal events and kidney function in this population. Baseline data showed that smokers (n = 277 out of 931 were significantly younger at enrollment than non-smokers (63.3±9.1 years vs 72.4±7.8 years; p<0.001. In addition, patients who smoke were also more likely to have bilateral renal artery stenoses and peripheral vascular disease (PVD. Longitudinal analysis showed that smokers experienced composite endpoint events (defined as first occurrence of: stroke; cardiovascular or renal death; myocardial infarction; hospitalization for congestive heart failure; permanent renal replacement; and progressive renal insufficiency defined as 30% reduction of GFR from baseline sustained for ≥ 60 days at a substantially younger age compared to non-smokers (67.1±9.0 versus 76.1±7.9, p<0.001. Using linear regression and generalized linear modeling analysis controlled by age, sex, and ethnicity, smokers had significantly higher cystatin C levels (1.3±0.7 vs 1.2±0.9, p<0.01 whereas creatinine and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR were not different from non-smokers. From these data we conclude that smoking has a significant association with deleterious cardio-renal outcomes in patients with renovascular hypertension.

  6. Invasive assessment of renal artery atherosclerotic disease and resistant hypertension before renal sympathetic denervation.

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    Ribichini, Flavio; Pighi, Michele; Zivelonghi, Carlo; Gambaro, Alessia; Valvo, Enrico; Lupo, Antonio; Vassanelli, Corrado

    2013-01-01

    Renal sympathetic denervation (RSD) is emerging as a new therapeutic option for patients with severe hypertension refractory to medical therapy. The presence of a renal artery stenosis may be both a cause of secondary hypertension and a contraindication to RSD if a renal artery stent is implanted; therefore, the definition of the functional importance of a renal artery stenosis in a patient with refractory hypertension is crucial. We describe the imaging and functional intravascular assessment of an angiographically severe stenosis of the renal artery in a patient with severe refractory hypertension, by means of intravascular ultrasound (IVUS), and measurement of the translesional pressure gradient with a pressure wire. Pressure wire examination excluded any severity of the stenosis, and IVUS showed the presence of a dissected plaque that resolved spontaneously after 3 months of intensive medical therapy and high-dose statin. Subsequently the patient was treated with RSD, achieving a significant effect on blood pressure control. Intravascular imaging and functional assessment of renal artery anatomy in patients with atherosclerotic disease may prove particularly suited to patients with refractory hypertension and multilevel vascular disease who are considered for endovascular therapies, either renal artery stenting or RSD.

  7. Renal angioplasty for atherosclerotic renal artery stenosis: Cardiologist′s perspective

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    A S Gulati

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Atherosclerotic renal artery stenosis (ARAS is frequently associated with concomitant coronary and peripheral arterial disease with a significant impact on cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Renal angioplasty of ARAS is more challenging because of increased incidence of technical failures, complications, and restenosis; while there is barely perceptible control of hypertension and only marginal improvement in renal function. This is because most of the patient population in recent randomized trials had unmanifested or clinically silent renovascular disease. Manifestations of RAS should be looked for and incorporated in the management plan particularly before deciding for revascularization. In the absence of clinical manifestation like renovascular hypertension, ischemic nephropathy, left ventricular failure, or unstable coronary syndromes; mere presence of RAS is analogous to presence of concomitant peripheral arterial disease which increases risk of adverse coronary events. Dormant-RAS in the absence of any manifestations can be managed with masterly inactivity. Chronological sequence of events and clinical condition of the patient help in decision making by identifying progressive renovascular disease. Selecting patients for renal artery stenting who actually will benefit from revascularization shall also decrease the unnecessary complications inherent with any interventional procedure. The present review is an attempt to analyze the current view on the diagnostic and management issues more specifically about the need and rationale behind angioplasty.

  8. Renal function during pregnancy may predict risk of future hospitalization due to atherosclerotic-related morbidity.

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    Wolak, Talya; Shoham-Vardi, Ilana; Sergienko, Ruslan; Sheiner, Eyal

    2016-02-01

    This study aims to examine whether renal function during pregnancy can serve as a surrogate marker for the risk of developing atherosclerotic-related morbidity. A case-control study, including women who gave birth at a tertiary referral medical centre during 2000-2012. This population was divided into cases of women who were subsequently hospitalized for atherosclerotic morbidity during the study period and age-matched controls. From the study population, we retrieved two groups: the creatinine (Cr) group: women who had at least one Cr measurement (4945 women) and the urea group: women who had at least one urea measurement (4932 women) during their pregnancies. In the Cr and urea group, there were 572 and 571 cases and 4373 and 4361 controls, respectively. The mean follow-up period in the Cr and urea group was 61.7 ± 37.0 and 57.3 ± 36.0 months, respectively. Cox proportional hazards models (controlling for confounders: gestational hypertension, gestational diabetes, obesity, maternal age, creatinine level (for urea), and gestational week) were used to estimate the adjusted hazard ratios (HR) for hospitalizations. A significant association was documented between renal function during pregnancy and long-term atherosclerotic morbidity. Multivariate analysis, showed that Cr at pregnancy index of ≥89 μmol/L was associated with a significant increased risk for hospitalization due to cardiovascular (CVS) events (adjusted HR = 2.91 CI 1.37-6.19 P = 0.005) and urea level ≤7 mmol/L was independently associated with reduced prevalence of CVS hospitalization (adjusted HR = 0.62 CI 0.57-0.86 P = 0.001). Renal function abnormality during pregnancy may reveal occult predisposition to atherosclerotic morbidity years after childbirth. © 2015 Asian Pacific Society of Nephrology.

  9. Imaging and management of atherosclerotic renal artery stenosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarkodieh, J.E.; Walden, S.H.; Low, D.

    2013-01-01

    Renal artery stenosis (RAS) causes chronic, progressive ischaemic nephropathy and is the most common cause of secondary hypertension. Radiology plays a large part in the diagnosis, with a variety of imaging techniques available. Each has relative advantages and disadvantages depending on each unique clinical setting. We discuss and illustrate the range of diagnostic methods and interventional techniques for diagnosis and management of RAS and review the current evidence base for endovascular therapy compared with optimal medical management. Knowledge of the relative merits of the various forms of imaging and treatment will guide decision making in the multidisciplinary setting

  10. Atherosclerotic ischemic renal disease. Diagnosis and prevalence in an hypertensive and/or uremic elderly population

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    Rossi Michele

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Atherosclerotic ischemic renal disease is a frequent cause of end-stage renal failure leading to dialysis among the elderly; Its prevalence is inferred from autopsy or retrospective arteriographic studies. This study has been conducted on 269 subjects over 50 with hypertension and/or CRF, unrelated to other known causes of renal disease. Methods All 269 patients were studied either by color-flow duplex sonography (n = 238 or by renal scintigraphy (n = 224, and 199 of the 269 patients were evaluated using both of these techniques. 40 patients, found to have renal artery stenosis (RAS, were subjected to 3D-contrast enhancement Magnetic Resonance Angiography (MRA and/or Selective Angiography (SA. An additional 23 cases, negative both to scintigraphy and to ultrasound study, underwent renal angiography (MRA and/or SA. Results Color-duplex sonography, carried out in 238 patients, revealed 49 cases of RAS. MR or SA was carried out in 35 of these 49 patients, and confirmed the diagnosis in 33. Color-duplex sonography showed a PPV value of 94.3% and NPV of 87.0% while renal scintigraphy, carried out in 224 patients, had a PPV of 72.2% and a NPV of 29.4%. Patients with RAS showed a higher degree of renal insufficiency compared to non stenotic patients while there were no differences in proteinuria. RAS, based on color-duplex sonography studies, was present in 11% of patients in the age group 50–59, 18% in the 60–69 and 23% at age 70 and above. Conclusions A relatively large percentage of the elderly population with renal insufficiency and/or hypertension is affected by RAS and is at risk of developing end-stage renal failure. Color-duplex ultrasonography is a valid routine method of investigation of population at risk for renal artery stenosis.

  11. Efficacy of percutaneous transluminal renal angioplasty with stent in elderly male patients with atherosclerotic renal artery stenosis

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    Zhao J

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Jiahui Zhao, Qingli Cheng, Xiaoying Zhang, Meihua Li, Sheng Liu, Xiaodan WangDepartment of Geriatric Nephrology, Chinese PLA General Hospital, Beijing, ChinaObjectives: Percutaneous transluminal renal angioplasty with stent implantation (PTRAS has become the treatment of choice for atherosclerotic renal artery stenosis (ARAS. This study evaluates the long-term effects of PTRAS on hypertension and renal function in elderly patients with ARAS.Methods: We conducted a retrospective cohort study of all patients who underwent PTRAS in the geriatric division of a tertiary medical center during the period 2003–2010. The clinical data were extracted from the medical records of each patient. Changes in blood pressure, antihypertensive treatment, and estimated glomerular filtration rate were analyzed before and after PTRAS.Results: Eighty-six stents in 81 elderly patients were placed successfully. The average age of the patients was 76.2 years (65–89 years. Mean follow-up was 31.3 months (range 12 –49 months. There was a significant decrease in both systolic and diastolic blood pressure at the third day after the PTRAS procedure and the reduction in blood pressure was constant throughout the follow-up period until 36 months after PTRAS. However, there was no marked benefit to renal function outcome during the follow-up period. The incidence of contrast-induced nephropathy was 9.9% in this study group. The rate of renal artery restenosis was 14.8%. The survival rate was 96.3% for 4 years after the procedure.Conclusion: It is beneficial to control blood pressure in elderly patients with ARAS up to 36 months after a PTRAS procedure. However, their renal function improvement is limited.Keywords: angioplasty, hypertension, renal function, elderly, renal artery stenosis

  12. Magnetization Transfer Magnetic Resonance Imaging Noninvasively Detects Renal Fibrosis in Swine Atherosclerotic Renal Artery Stenosis at 3.0 T.

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    Jiang, Kai; Ferguson, Christopher M; Woollard, John R; Zhu, Xiangyang; Lerman, Lilach O

    2017-11-01

    Renal fibrosis is a useful biomarker for diagnosis and evaluation of therapeutic interventions of renal diseases but often requires invasive testing. Magnetization transfer magnetic resonance imaging (MT-MRI), which evaluates the presence of macromolecules, offers a noninvasive tool to probe renal fibrosis in murine renal artery stenosis (RAS) at 16.4 T. In this study, we aimed to identify appropriate imaging parameters for collagen detection at 3.0 T MRI and to test the utility of MT-MRI in measuring renal fibrosis in a swine model of atherosclerotic RAS (ARAS). To select the appropriate offset frequency, an MT-MRI study was performed on a phantom containing 0% to 40% collagen I and III with offset frequencies from -1600 to +1600 Hz and other MT parameters empirically set as pulse width at 16 milliseconds and flip angle at 800 degrees. Then selected MT parameters were used in vivo on pigs 12 weeks after sham (n = 8) or RAS (n = 10) surgeries. The ARAS pigs were fed with high-cholesterol diet to induce atherosclerosis. The MT ratio (MTR) was compared with ex vivo renal fibrosis measured using Sirius-red staining. Offset frequencies at 600 and 1000 Hz were selected for collagen detection without direct saturation of free water signal, and subsequently applied in vivo. The ARAS kidneys showed mild cortical and medullary fibrosis by Sirius-red staining. The cortical and medullary MTRs at 600 and 1000 Hz were both increased. Renal fibrosis measured ex vivo showed good linear correlations with MTR at 600 (cortex: Pearson correlation coefficient r = 0.87, P 3.0 T. Therefore, MT-MRI may potentially be clinically applicable and useful for detection and monitoring of renal pathology in subjects with RAS.

  13. Plasma Lipoprotein(a Levels and Atherosclerotic Renal Artery Stenosis in Hypertensive Patients

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    Cristiana Catena

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: The contribution of emergent cardiovascular risk factors to atherosclerotic renal artery stenosis (ARAS is debated. We investigated the relationship of lipoprotein(a and prothrombotic factors with ARAS in hypertension. Methods: In 50 hypertensive patients with angiographic evidence of ARAS and 58 hypertensive patients who had comparable cardiovascular risk factor burden but no evidence of renovascular disease, we measured renal function, lipoprotein(a, homocysteine, and hemostatic-fibrinolytic markers. Results: Patients with ARAS were more frequently smokers and had longer duration of hypertension, heavier antihypertensive treatment, and worse renal function than controls. Lipoprotein(a was higher in patients with ARAS than controls, whereas no differences were found in homocysteine and all hemostatic variables. Multivariate analysis showed that lipoprotein(a was associated with ARAS independent of other confounders including renal function and history of coronary heart, cerebrovascular, and peripheral artery disease. Conclusion: Lipoprotein(a might contribute to the development of ARAS and detection of elevated levels of this lipoprotein could raise the suspicion of renovascular disease in patients with high blood pressure.

  14. Renal embolic protection devices improve blood flow after stenting for atherosclerotic renal artery stenosis.

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    Paul, Timir K; Lee, John H; White, Christopher J

    2012-11-15

    We sought to measure angiographic renal frame counts (RFC), as a quantitative angiographic assessment of renal blood flow, to evaluate microvascular compromise due to atheroembolism associated with RAS. Atheroembolism associated with renal artery stenting (RAS) has been implicated as a cause for worsening renal function following successful intervention. Use of a distal embolic protection device (EPD) during RAS has been shown to be safe with debris capture in a high percentage of cases. However, objective benefit for renal function with EPD has been difficult to demonstrate. A control group of 30 consecutive patients (33 kidneys) who underwent RAS without EPD were compared with 33 consecutive patients (33 kidneys) who underwent RAS with EPD using RFC measurement. The prestent and poststent mean RFC for the control group was 30.4 ± 12.1 vs. 23.7 ± 9.9 (P = 0.002) and for the EPD group it was 42.6 ± 12.6 vs. 28.3 ± 9.2 (P renal blood flow, manifested by a greater reduction of the RFC (Δ RFC) 14.2 ± 15.2 vs. 6.7 ± 11.7 (P = 0.03) compared with the control group. The use of an EPD was associated with a much larger improvement in renal blood flow (lower RFC) following RAS. This suggests that EPD's may be effective in preventing renal atheroembolic injury and that a controlled trial measuring the impact of EPD's on renal blood flow following RAS should be performed. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. The benefit of stent placement and blood pressure and lipid-lowering for the prevention of progression of renal dysfunction caused by atherosclerotic ostial stenosis of the renal artery. The STAR-study: rationale and study design.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bax, L.; Mali, W.P.Th.; Buskens, E.; Koomans, H.A.; Beutler, J.J.; Braam, B.; Beek, F.J.A.; Rabelink, T.J.; Postma, C.T.; Huysmans, F.T.M.; Deinum, J.; Thien, Th.; Schultze Kool, L.J.; Woittiez, A.J.J.; Kouwenberg, J.J.; Meiracker, A.H. van den; Pattynama, P.M.; Ven, P.J. van der; Vroegindeweij, D.; Doorenbos, C.J.; Aarts, J.; Kroon, A.A.; Leeuw, P.W. de; Haan, M.W. de; Engelshoven, J. van; Rutten, M.J.C.M.; Montfrans, G.A. van; Reekers, J.A.; Plouin, P.F.; Batide Alanore, A. La; Azizi, M.; Raynaud, A.; Harden, P.N.; Cowling, M.

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Atherosclerotic renal artery stenosis (ARAS) is associated with progressive loss of renal function and is one of the most important causes of renal failure in the elderly. Current treatment includes restoration of the renal arterial lumen by endovascular stent placement. However, this

  16. Low-profile stent system for treatment of atherosclerotic renal artery stenosis : The GREAT trial

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    Sapoval, Marc; Zahringer, Markus; Pattynama, Peter; Rabbia, Claudio; Vignali, Claudio; Maleux, Geert; Boyer, Louis; Szczerbo-Trojanowska, Malgorzata; Jaschke, Werner; Hafsahl, Geir; Downes, Mark; Beregi, Jean Paul; Veeger, Nic; Talen, Aly

    PURPOSE: The Palmaz Genesis Peripheral Stainless Steel Balloon Expandable Stent in Renal Artery Treatment (GREAT) Trial was designed to assess the safety and performance of a low-profile stent for the treatment of obstructive renal artery disease by looking at 6-month renal artery patency uniformly

  17. Atherosclerotic renal artery stenosis is associated with elevated cell cycle arrest markers related to reduced renal blood flow and postcontrast hypoxia.

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    Saad, Ahmed; Wang, Wei; Herrmann, Sandra M S; Glockner, James F; Mckusick, Michael A; Misra, Sanjay; Bjarnason, Haraldur; Lerman, Lilach O; Textor, Stephen C

    2016-11-01

    Atherosclerotic renal artery stenosis (ARAS) reduces renal blood flow (RBF), ultimately leading to kidney hypoxia and inflammation. Insulin-like growth factor binding protein-7 (IGFBP-7) and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-2 (TIMP-2) are biomarkers of cell cycle arrest, often increased in ischemic conditions and predictive of acute kidney injury (AKI). This study sought to examine the relationships between renal vein levels of IGFBP-7, TIMP-2, reductions in RBF and postcontrast hypoxia as measured by blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) magnetic resonance imaging. Renal vein levels of IGFBP-7 and TIMP-2 were obtained in an ARAS cohort (n= 29) scheduled for renal artery stenting and essential hypertensive (EH) healthy controls (n = 32). Cortical and medullary RBFs were measured by multidetector computed tomography (CT) immediately before renal artery stenting and 3 months later. BOLD imaging was performed before and 3 months after stenting in all patients, and a subgroup (N = 12) underwent repeat BOLD imaging 24 h after CT/stenting to examine postcontrast/procedure levels of hypoxia. Preintervention IGFBP-7 and TIMP-2 levels were elevated in ARAS compared with EH (18.5 ± 2.0 versus 15.7 ± 1.5 and 97.4 ± 23.1 versus 62.7 ± 9.2 ng/mL, respectively; Pblood flow (r = -0.59, P= 0.004). These data demonstrate elevated IGFBP-7 and TIMP-2 levels in ARAS as a function of the degree of reduced RBF. Elevated baseline IGFBP-7 levels were associated with protection against postimaging hypoxia, consistent with 'ischemic preconditioning'. Despite contrast injection and stenting, AKI in these high-risk ARAS subjects with elevated IGFBP-7/TIMP-2 was rare and did not affect long-term kidney function. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of ERA-EDTA. All rights reserved.

  18. The prevalence and clinical predictors of incidental atherosclerotic renal artery stenosis

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    Ozkan, Ugur [Baskent University Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Adana/Turkey (Turkey)], E-mail: radugur@yahoo.com; Oguzkurt, Levent; Tercan, Fahri [Baskent University Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Adana/Turkey (Turkey); Nursal, Tarik Z. [Baskent University Faculty of Medicine, Department of General Surgery, Ankara/Turkey (Turkey)

    2009-03-15

    Objective: To evaluate the prevalence of incidental renal artery stenosis due to atherosclerosis and associated risk factors in patients with peripheral arterial disease (PAD). Materials and methods: To determine renal artery stenosis, aortofemoropopliteal digital substraction angiographies (DSA) of 629 consecutive patients with PAD were prospectively reviewed. Angiographies were performed as catheter angiography with automated pump injection. Of the patients, 540 were male (86%) and 89 female (14%) (mean age {+-} S.D.: 61.5 {+-} 11.1 years). Statistical analysis was performed to determine the association of significant renal artery stenosis ({>=}60% diameter stenosis) with patient demographics (age, sex, reason for angiography and smoking status), medical history (diabetes mellitus, hypertension and coronary artery disease), laboratory values (blood creatinine, fasting glucose, triglycerides, LDL, HDL and total cholesterol) and distribution of PAD (aortoiliac, femoropopliteal and crural diseases and multisegment involvement). Results: Renal artery disease was found in 33% (207 of 629) of all patients with peripheral arterial disease, and 9.6% of patients (n = 60) had significant ({>=}60%) renal artery stenosis. Only age and hypertension (blood pressure systolic >140 mmHg or diastolic >90 mmHg) were independent risk factors for significant renal artery stenosis on multivariate analysis. Mean age of patients with RAS was 66.5 {+-} 8.9 years compared with 61 {+-} 11.2 years for patients without RAS (p < 0.001). Hypertension was found in 41% of the patients in control group and in 63% of the patients in RAS group (p = 0.01). Conclusion: Incidental renal artery stenosis which can be mild or significant is a relatively common finding among patients with peripheral arterial disease. Advance age and hypertension are closely associated with significant renal artery stenosis.

  19. The prevalence and clinical predictors of incidental atherosclerotic renal artery stenosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozkan, Ugur; Oguzkurt, Levent; Tercan, Fahri; Nursal, Tarik Z.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the prevalence of incidental renal artery stenosis due to atherosclerosis and associated risk factors in patients with peripheral arterial disease (PAD). Materials and methods: To determine renal artery stenosis, aortofemoropopliteal digital substraction angiographies (DSA) of 629 consecutive patients with PAD were prospectively reviewed. Angiographies were performed as catheter angiography with automated pump injection. Of the patients, 540 were male (86%) and 89 female (14%) (mean age ± S.D.: 61.5 ± 11.1 years). Statistical analysis was performed to determine the association of significant renal artery stenosis (≥60% diameter stenosis) with patient demographics (age, sex, reason for angiography and smoking status), medical history (diabetes mellitus, hypertension and coronary artery disease), laboratory values (blood creatinine, fasting glucose, triglycerides, LDL, HDL and total cholesterol) and distribution of PAD (aortoiliac, femoropopliteal and crural diseases and multisegment involvement). Results: Renal artery disease was found in 33% (207 of 629) of all patients with peripheral arterial disease, and 9.6% of patients (n = 60) had significant (≥60%) renal artery stenosis. Only age and hypertension (blood pressure systolic >140 mmHg or diastolic >90 mmHg) were independent risk factors for significant renal artery stenosis on multivariate analysis. Mean age of patients with RAS was 66.5 ± 8.9 years compared with 61 ± 11.2 years for patients without RAS (p < 0.001). Hypertension was found in 41% of the patients in control group and in 63% of the patients in RAS group (p = 0.01). Conclusion: Incidental renal artery stenosis which can be mild or significant is a relatively common finding among patients with peripheral arterial disease. Advance age and hypertension are closely associated with significant renal artery stenosis.

  20. Stent revascularization restores cortical blood flow and reverses tissue hypoxia in atherosclerotic renal artery stenosis but fails to reverse inflammatory pathways or glomerular filtration rate.

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    Saad, Ahmed; Herrmann, Sandra M S; Crane, John; Glockner, James F; McKusick, Michael A; Misra, Sanjay; Eirin, Alfonso; Ebrahimi, Behzad; Lerman, Lilach O; Textor, Stephen C

    2013-08-01

    Atherosclerotic renal artery stenosis (ARAS) is known to reduce renal blood flow, glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and amplify kidney hypoxia, but the relationships between these factors and tubulointerstitial injury in the poststenotic kidney are poorly understood. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of renal revascularization in ARAS on renal tissue hypoxia and renal injury. Inpatient studies were performed in patients with ARAS (n=17; >60% occlusion) before and 3 months after stent revascularization, or in patients with essential hypertension (n=32), during fixed Na(+) intake and angiotensin converting enzyme/angiotensin receptors blockers Rx. Single kidney cortical, medullary perfusion, and renal blood flow were measured using multidetector computed tomography, and GFR by iothalamate clearance. Tissue deoxyhemoglobin levels (R(2)*) were measured by blood oxygen level-dependent MRI at 3T, as was fractional kidney hypoxia (percentage of axial area with R(2)*>30/s). In addition, we measured renal vein levels of neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, and tumor necrosis factor-α. Pre-stent single kidney renal blood flow, perfusion, and GFR were reduced in the poststenotic kidney. Renal vein neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin, tumor necrosis factor-α, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, and fractional hypoxia were higher in untreated ARAS than in essential hypertension. After stent revascularization, fractional hypoxia fell (Pblood flow, whereas GFR and neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, and tumor necrosis factor-α remained unchanged. These data demonstrate that despite reversal of renal hypoxia and partial restoration of renal blood flow after revascularization, inflammatory cytokines and injury biomarkers remained elevated and GFR failed to recover in ARAS. Restoration of vessel patency alone failed to reverse tubulointerstitial damage and partly

  1. The Erasme Study: A Multicenter Study on the Safety and Technical Results of the Palmaz Stent Used for the Treatment of Atherosclerotic Ostial Renal Artery Stenosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakker, Jeannette; Goffette, Pierre P.; Henry, Michel; Mali, Willem P.T.M.; Melki, Jean-Pierre; Moss, Jon G.; Rabbia, Claudio; Therasse, Eric; Thomson, Kenneth R.; Thurnher, Siegfried; Vignali, Claudio

    1999-01-01

    Purpose: To assess, in a multicenter setting, safety, technical results, and restenosis rate of the Palmaz stent for treatment of atherosclerotic ostial renal artery stenosis. Methods: Ten centers enrolled 106 patients (120 treated renal artery stenoses) in the study. Patient selection was based on unsuccessful percutaneous transluminal renal angioplasty (residual stenosis ≥ 20%) performed for treatment of ostial stenosis ≥ 50%, in patients with hypertension and/or impaired renal function. Safety was assessed by means of the complication rate, and technical results by the number of successful stent placements and occurrence of restenosis (>50%) at intraarterial angiographic follow-up. Results: Stent placement was successful (n = 112) or partially successful (n = 5) in 117 (98%) arteries. Complications occurred in 19 procedures; seven were of serious clinical significance. Angiographic follow-up was performed in 89 of 117 (76%) cases, at a mean of 8 months (range 2.5-18 months). Fifteen stents (16.9%) showed restenosis (at a mean of 8.5 months), of which 10 were successfully redilated. Conclusion: Renal artery stenting has a high technical success rate, a complication rate comparable to percutaneous transluminal renal angioplasty, and a low rate of restenosis at 8 months angiographic follow-up

  2. The renal blood flow reserve in healthy humans and patients with atherosclerotic renovascular disease measured by positron emission tomography using [15O]H2O.

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    Päivärinta, Johanna; Koivuviita, Niina; Oikonen, Vesa; Iida, Hidehiro; Liukko, Kaisa; Manner, Ilkka; Löyttyniemi, Eliisa; Nuutila, Pirjo; Metsärinne, Kaj

    2018-06-11

    Microvascular function plays an important role in ARVD (atherosclerotic renovascular disease). RFR (renal flow reserve), the capacity of renal vasculature to dilate, is known to reflect renal microvascular function. In this pilot study, we assessed PET (positron emission tomography)-based RFR values of healthy persons and renal artery stenosis patients. Seventeen patients with ARVD and eight healthy subjects were included in the study. Intravenous enalapril 1 mg was used as a vasodilatant, and the maximum response (blood pressure and RFR) to it was measured at 40 min. Renal perfusion was measured by means of oxygen-15-labeled water PET. RFR was calculated as a difference of stress flow and basal flow and was expressed as percent [(stress blood flow - basal blood flow)/basal blood flow] × 100%. RFR of the healthy was 22%. RFR of the stenosed kidneys of bilateral stenosis patients (27%) was higher than that of the stenosed kidneys of unilateral stenosis patients (15%). RFR of the contralateral kidneys of unilateral stenosis patients was 21%. There was no difference of statistical significance between RFR values of ARVD subgroups or between ARVD subgroups and the healthy. In the stenosed kidneys of unilateral ARVD patients, stenosis grade of the renal artery correlated negatively with basal (p = 0.04) and stress flow (p = 0.02). Dispersion of RFR values was high. This study is the first to report [ 15 O]H 2 O PET-based RFR values of healthy subjects and ARVD patients in humans. The difference between RFR values of ARVD patients and the healthy did not reach statistical significance perhaps because of high dispersion of RFR values. [ 15 O]H 2 O PET is a valuable non-invasive and quantitative method to evaluate renal blood flow though high dispersion makes imaging challenging. Larger studies are needed to get more information about [ 15 O]H 2 O PET method in evaluation of renal blood flow.

  3. Relationship between Renal Artery Stenosis and Severity of Coronary Artery Disease in Patients with Coronary Atherosclerotic Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amirfarhang Zandparsa

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of the present investigation was to explore probable association of renal artery stenosis (RAS with coronary artery disease (CAD and the prevalence of renal artery stenosis (RAS in patients with CAD. Patients and methods: This study comprised 165 consecutive patients with CAD, including 52.7% males and 47.2% females with respective mean ages of 60.3 ±8.9 and 59.5±10.1. The patients underwent simultaneous coronary and renal angiographies, and the lumen reduction of 50% or more was considered as significant stenosis. Indeed, stenosis of more than 70% of the arterial lumen was regarded as severe. Results: According to our findings, the prevalence of renal artery stenosis in our hypertensive and normotensive patients were 46.2% and 19.5% respectively (p=0.002. Renal artery angiography revealed that 64 (38.8% of the patients had simultaneous renal artery stenosis. RAS is more common in females than males (p=0.031. Multivariate analysis revealed that among all examined factors, hypertension and serum creatinine were associated with RAS. There was no correlations found between gensini score and RAS (p=0.63. Conclusion: We found a relatively high prevalence of RAS including 46.2% in hypertensive and 19.5% in normotensive patients in our patients with CAD.

  4. [Diagnostic relevance of contact thermography in renal transplantation (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopsa, H

    1980-01-01

    102 renal transplant recipients were checked by contact thermography according to Tricoire for 2 1/2 years. Diagnostic value of this non invasive, quickly available and reproduceable method was investigated. The grafted kidney reveals on the thermographic screen its size, site, and vascularisation. The thermograhic pattern of a well functioning transplant shows warm areas in green, blue and violet colour. Onset of acute or chronic renal rejection leads to impaired heat conduction to the body surface either by oedema or by diminished blood flow. By photographic documentation in natural colour spotted or diffuse cold regions of brown, maroon and orange are seen. In the very early posttransplant period up to two months thermography is helpful in differential diagnosis for those recipients requiring initial haemodialysis treatment. Information is available between non functioning grafts with diminished renal blood supply and transplants with acute tubular necrosis. Impressive thermograms are found by rupture and subrupture of the kidney respectively. Superficial perirenal changes lead to topical temperature elevation as well. The high reliability of 92% correct diagnoses depends on exact application of the thermosensitive film and on determination of the basic individual skin temperature in reference to repeated examinations of the grafted area. Temperature measurement is influenced by subcutaneous abdominal fat distribution and muscle thickness as well as by deep position of the transplant or asymmetry of the lower abdominal region. In the wide field of diagnostic procedures necessary for transplant recipients with complications thermography by Tricoire is recommended.

  5. Fibromyalgia and its clinical relevance in renal transplant recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erkmen Uyar, M; Sezer, S; Bal, Z; Guliyev, O; Tutal, E; Genctoy, G; Kulah, E; Ozdemir Acar, N; Haberal, M

    2015-05-01

    Recent evidence suggests that fibromyalgia syndrome (FS) is associated with inflammation and endothelial dysfunction. Our aim was to determine the prevalence of FS in renal transplant recipients and to identify possible links between FS and clinical and laboratory parameters. Ninety-nine kidney transplant recipients with normal graft functions (37.15 ± 10.83 years old, 67 male) were enrolled in the study. All subjects completed the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ). The biochemical and clinical parameters in the 1st post-transplantation year were retrospectively recorded. Cardiovascular parameters, including body composition analyses (Tanita), ambulatory blood pressure monitoring data, and pulse-wave velocity, were cross-sectionally analyzed. Mean FIQ score for the whole group was 21.4 ± 14.7. Eight patients had FIQ score >50, and these patients had significantly higher left ventricular mass index than patients with lower FIQ score (P = .048). Patients were divided according to their physical impairment score (PIS): PIS ≥5 (n = 50) and PIS FIQ (7.6% vs 9.4%; P = .0001) than in other patients. FS in renal transplant recipients was strongly associated with hypertension, arterial stiffness, obesity, and renal allograft dysfunction. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Imaging of inflamed carotid artery atherosclerotic plaques with the use of {sup 99m}Tc-HYNIC-IL-2 scintigraphy in end-stage renal disease patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Opalinska, Marta; Pach, Dorota; Sowa-Staszczak, Anna; Glowa, Boguslaw; Hubalewska-Dydejczyk, Alicja [Jagiellonian University Medical School, Nuclear Medicine Unit, Department of Endocrinology, Cracow (Poland); Stompor, Tomasz [University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn, Department of Nephrology, Hypertensiology and Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Olsztyn (Poland); Mikolajczak, Renata; Garnuszek, Piotr; Maurin, Michal; Karczmarczyk, Urszula [National Centre for Nuclear Research Radioisotope Centre POLATOM, Otwock (Poland); Fedak, Danuta [Jagiellonian University Medical School, Clinical Biochemistry, Cracow (Poland); Krzanowski, Marcin; Sulowicz, Wladyslaw [Jagiellonian University Medical School, Department of Nephrology, Cracow (Poland); Rakowski, Tomasz [Jagiellonian University Medical School, 2nd Department of Cardiology, Institute of Cardiology, Cracow (Poland)

    2012-04-15

    Identification of vulnerable plaques remains crucial for better cardiovascular risk assessment. At least 20% of inflammatory cells within unstable (vulnerable) plaques comprise T lymphocytes, which contain receptors for interleukin-2 (IL-2); those receptors can be identified by scintigraphy with radiolabelled IL-2.The aim of this study was to identify the ''inflamed'' (vulnerable) plaques by scintigraphy using IL-2 labelled with {sup 99m}Tc in the selected, high cardiovascular risk group of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients. A total of 28 patients (18 men, 10 women, aged 55.2 {+-} 9.6 years, 17 on peritoneal dialysis, 11 on haemodialysis) underwent common carotid artery (CCA) scintigraphy with the use of {sup 99m}Tc-hydrazinonicotinamide (HYNIC)-IL-2. In all cases, ultrasound examination of the CCA was performed and levels of selected proinflammatory factors, atherogenic markers and calcium-phosphate balance parameters were measured. Finally, the target to non-target (T/nT) ratio of IL-2 uptake in atherosclerotic plaques with intima-media thickness (IMT), classic cardiovascular risk factors and concentrations of the measured factors were compared. Increased {sup 99m}Tc-HYNIC-IL-2 uptake in atherosclerotic plaques in 38/41 (91%) cases was detected. The median T/nT ratio of focal {sup 99m}Tc-HYNIC-IL-2 uptake in atherosclerotic plaques was 2.35 (range 1.23-3.63). The mean IMT value on the side of plaques assessed by scintigraphy was 0.79 {+-} 0.18 mm (median 0.8, range 0.5-1.275). Correlations between T/nT ratio and homocysteine (R = 0.22, p = 0.037), apolipoprotein B (apoB) (R = 0.31, p = 0.008), apoB to apoA-I ratio (R = 0.29, p = 0.012) and triglyceride concentration (R = 0.26, p = 0.021) were detected. A lower T/nT ratio in patients with better parameters of nutritional status (haemoglobin, albumin, adiponectin) in comparison with patients with worse nutritional parameters (3.20 {+-} 0.5 vs 2.16 {+-} 0.68, p = 0.025) was revealed as well

  7. Differential effects of Nd-YAG laser on collagen and elastin production by chick embryo aortae in vitro. Relevance to laser angioplasty for removal of atherosclerotic plaques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abergel, R.P.; Zaragoza, E.J.; Dwyer, R.M.; Uitto, J.

    1985-01-01

    Aortae from 17-day old chick embryos were subjected to irradiation with a Nd:YAG laser at energy densities varying from 1.2 - 4.7 X 10(3) J/cm2. The aortae were pulse-labeled in vitro with [ 3 H]proline or [ 14 C]valine, and the synthesis of collagenous polypeptides and soluble elastin was examined by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, followed by fluorography and quantitative scanning densitometry. Irradiation of the aortae with Nd:YAG laser resulted in inhibition of the synthesis of the extracellular matrix proteins. The production of collagen was inhibited to a considerably larger degree than the production of elastin. Thus, the biosynthetic pathway for collagen production appears to be more susceptible to laser inhibition than the corresponding pathway for elastin production. These observations may have relevance to laser angioplasty which has been proposed to be applicable for removal of atherosclerotic plaques in human vessels. Specifically, the results suggest that inhibition of the extracellular matrix production may result in weakening of the vessel wall with subsequent aneurysm formation and rupture

  8. Effect of Lowering Asymmetric Dimethylarginine (ADMA on Vascular Pathology in Atherosclerotic ApoE-Deficient Mice with Reduced Renal Mass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes Jacobi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the work was to study the impact of the endogenous nitric oxide synthase (NOS inhibitor asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA and its degrading enzyme, dimethylarginine dimethylaminohydrolase (DDAH1, on atherosclerosis in subtotally nephrectomized (SNX ApoE-deficient mice. Male DDAH1 transgenic mice (TG, n = 39 and C57Bl/6J wild-type littermates (WT, n = 27 with or without the deletion of the ApoE gene underwent SNX at the age of eight weeks. Animals were sacrificed at 12 months of age, and blood chemistry, as well as the extent of atherosclerosis within the entire aorta were analyzed. Sham treated (no renal mass reduction ApoE-competent DDAH1 transgenic and wild-type littermates (n = 11 served as a control group. Overexpression of DDAH1 was associated with significantly lower ADMA levels in all treatment groups. Surprisingly, SNX mice did not exhibit higher ADMA levels compared to sham treated control mice. Furthermore, the degree of atherosclerosis in ApoE-deficient mice with SNX was similar in mice with or without overexpression of DDAH1. Overexpression of the ADMA degrading enzyme, DDAH1, did not ameliorate atherosclerosis in ApoE-deficient SNX mice. Furthermore, SNX in mice had no impact on ADMA levels, suggesting a minor role of this molecule in chronic kidney disease (CKD in this mouse model.

  9. Bilirubin and atherosclerotic diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vítek, L

    2017-04-05

    Bilirubin is the final product of heme catabolism in the systemic circulation. For decades, increased serum/plasma bilirubin levels were considered an ominous sign of an underlying liver disease. However, data from recent years convincingly suggest that mildly elevated bilirubin concentrations are associated with protection against various oxidative stress-mediated diseases, atherosclerotic conditions being the most clinically relevant. Although scarce data on beneficial effects of bilirubin had been published also in the past, it took until 1994 when the first clinical study demonstrated an increased risk of coronary heart disease in subjects with low serum bilirubin levels, and bilirubin was found to be a risk factor for atherosclerotic diseases independent of standard risk factors. Consistent with these results, we proved in our own studies, that subjects with mild elevation of serum levels of unconjugated bilirubin (benign hyperbilirubinemia, Gilbert syndrome) have much lower prevalence/incidence of coronary heart as well as peripheral vascular disease. We have also demonstrated that this association is even more general, with serum bilirubin being a biomarker of numerous other diseases, often associated with increased risk of atherosclerosis. In addition, very recent data have demonstrated biological pathways modulated by bilirubin, which are responsible for observed strong clinical associations.

  10. Clinical Relevance of Gene Copy Number Variation in Metastatic Clear Cell Renal Cell Carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nouhaud, François-Xavier; Blanchard, France; Sesboue, Richard; Flaman, Jean-Michel; Sabourin, Jean-Christophe; Pfister, Christian; Di Fiore, Frédéric

    2018-02-23

    Gene copy number variations (CNVs) have been reported to be frequent in renal cell carcinoma (RCC), with potential prognostic value for some. However, their clinical utility, especially to guide treatment of metastatic disease remains to be established. Our objectives were to assess CNVs on a panel of selected genes and determine their clinical relevance in patients who underwent treatment of metastatic RCC. The genetic assessment was performed on frozen tissue samples of clear cell metastatic RCC using quantitative multiplex polymerase chain reaction of short fluorescent fragment method to detect CNVs on a panel of 14 genes of interest. The comparison of the electropherogram obtained from both tumor and normal renal adjacent tissue allowed for CNV identification. The clinical, biologic, and survival characteristics were assessed for their associations with the most frequent CNVs. Fifty patients with clear cell metastatic RCC were included. The CNV rate was 21.4%. The loss of CDKN2A and PLG was associated with a higher tumor stage (P relevance, especially those located on CDKN2A, PLG, and ALDOB, in a homogeneous cohort of patients with clear cell metastatic RCC. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Tomographic anatomy of the vena cava and renal veins: features relevant to vena cava filter placement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Melo do Espírito Santo

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: There is a growing demand for invasive procedures involving the inferior vena cava, in particular for placement of vena cava filters. It is not always easy to identify the more distal renal vein with cavography, for safe release of filters. OBJECTIVES: To determine parameters for the relationships between the renal veins and the infrarenal vena cava and their corresponding vertebral bodies, their relationships with biotype and the occurrence of anatomic variations, the relationships between vertebral bodies and the bifurcation of the common iliac veins and the distance from this bifurcation to the outflow of the more distal renal vein, with reference to placement of vena cava filters. METHODS: A total of 150 abdominal computed tomography scans conducted from October to November 2011 were analyzed and classified according to the biotype exhibited (using Charpy's angle. Scans were performed at MEDIMAGEM and analyzed at the Integrated Vascular Surgery Service, both part of Hospital da Beneficência Portuguesa in São Paulo, Brazil. RESULTS: In 127 of the 150 scans analyzed (84.66%, the more distal renal vein emerged between the first lumbar intervertebral space (L1-L2 and the body of L2, irrespective of patient biotype. Just 23 patients (15.33% exhibited a more distal renal vein with outflow below the body of L2, i.e. in the projection of the space between L2 and L3. CONCLUSIONS: The radiological correlation between the confluence of the more distal renal vein and vertebral bodies exhibits little variation, irrespective of the biotype of the patient.

  12. Surgical Anatomy and Microvascular Surgical Technique Relevant to Experimental Renal Transplant in Rat Employing Aortic and Inferior Venacaval Conduits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Badri Man; Haylor, John

    2017-11-15

    Rat models of renal transplant are used to investigate immunologic processes and responses to therapeutic agents before their translation into routine clinical practice. In this study, we have described details of rat surgical anatomy and our experiences with the microvascular surgical technique relevant to renal transplant by employing donor inferior vena cava and aortic conduits. For this study, 175 rats (151 Lewis and 24 Fisher) were used to establish the Fisher-Lewis rat model of chronic allograft injury at our institution. Anatomic and technical details were recorded during the period of training and establishment of the model. A final group of 12 transplanted rats were studied for an average duration of 51 weeks for the Lewis-to-Lewis isografts (5 rats) and 42 weeks for the Fisher-to-Lewis allografts (7 rats). Functional measurements and histology confirmed the diagnosis of chronic allograft injury. Mastering the anatomic details and microvascular surgical techniques can lead to the successful establishment of an experimental renal transplant model.

  13. Intracranial Atherosclerotic Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Khan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Intracranial atherosclerotic disease (ICAD is the most common proximate mechanism of ischemic stroke worldwide. Approximately half of those affected are Asians. For diagnosis of ICAD, intra-arterial angiography is the gold standard to identify extent of stenosis. However, noninvasive techniques including transcranial ultrasound and MRA are now emerging as reliable modalities to exclude moderate to severe (50%–99% stenosis. Little is known about measures for primary prevention of the disease. In terms of secondary prevention of stroke due to intracranial atherosclerotic stenosis, aspirin continues to be the preferred antiplatelet agent although clopidogrel along with aspirin has shown promise in the acute phase. Among Asians, cilostazol has shown a favorable effect on symptomatic stenosis and is of benefit in terms of fewer bleeds. Moreover, aggressive risk factor management alone and in combination with dual antiplatelets been shown to be most effective in this group of patients. Interventional trials on intracranial atherosclerotic stenosis have so far only been carried out among Caucasians and have not yielded consistent results. Since the Asian population is known to be preferentially effected, focused trials need to be performed to establish treatment modalities that are most effective in this population.

  14. MCT4 surpasses the prognostic relevance of the ancillary protein CD147 in clear cell renal cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisel, Pascale; Stühler, Viktoria; Bedke, Jens; Winter, Stefan; Rausch, Steffen; Hennenlotter, Jörg; Nies, Anne T; Stenzl, Arnulf; Scharpf, Marcus; Fend, Falko; Kruck, Stephan; Schwab, Matthias; Schaeffeler, Elke

    2015-10-13

    Cluster of differentiation 147 (CD147/BSG) is a transmembrane glycoprotein mediating oncogenic processes partly through its role as binding partner for monocarboxylate transporter MCT4/SLC16A3. As demonstrated for MCT4, CD147 is proposed to be associated with progression in clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC). In this study, we evaluated the prognostic relevance of CD147 in comparison to MCT4/SLC16A3 expression and DNA methylation. CD147 protein expression was assessed in two independent ccRCC-cohorts (n = 186, n = 59) by immunohistochemical staining of tissue microarrays and subsequent manual as well as automated software-supported scoring (Tissue Studio, Definien sAG). Epigenetic regulation of CD147 was investigated using RNAseq and DNA methylation data of The Cancer Genome Atlas. These results were validated in our cohort. Relevance of prognostic models for cancer-specific survival, comprising CD147 and MCT4 expression or SLC16A3 DNA methylation, was compared using chi-square statistics. CD147 protein expression generated with Tissue Studio correlated significantly with those from manual scoring (P CD147 in ccRCC. Association of CD147 expression with patient outcome differed between cohorts. DNA methylation in the CD147/BSG promoter was not associated with expression. Comparison of prognostic relevance of CD147/BSG and MCT4/SLC16A3, showed higher significance for MCT4 expression and superior prognostic power for DNA methylation at specific CpG-sites in the SLC16A3 promoter (e.g. CD147 protein: P = 0.7780,Harrell's c-index = 53.7% vs. DNA methylation: P = 0.0076, Harrell's c-index = 80.0%). Prognostic significance of CD147 protein expression could not surpass that of MCT4, especially of SLC16A3 DNA methylation, corroborating the role of MCT4 as prognostic biomarker for ccRCC.

  15. Renal artery stenosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tafur-Soto, Jose David; White, Christopher J

    2015-02-01

    Atherosclerotic renal artery stenosis (RAS) is the single largest cause of secondary hypertension; it is associated with progressive renal insufficiency and causes cardiovascular complications such as refractory heart failure and flash pulmonary edema. Medical therapy, including risk factor modification, renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system antagonists, lipid-lowering agents, and antiplatelet therapy, is advised in all patients. Patients with uncontrolled renovascular hypertension despite optimal medical therapy, ischemic nephropathy, and cardiac destabilization syndromes who have severe RAS are likely to benefit from renal artery revascularization. Screening for RAS can be done with Doppler ultrasonography, CT angiography, and magnetic resonance angiography. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Type 1 diabetes promotes disruption of advanced atherosclerotic lesions in LDL receptor-deficient mice

    OpenAIRE

    Johansson, Fredrik; Kramer, Farah; Barnhart, Shelley; Kanter, Jenny E.; Vaisar, Tomas; Merrill, Rachel D.; Geng, Linda; Oka, Kazuhiro; Chan, Lawrence; Chait, Alan; Heinecke, Jay W.; Bornfeldt, Karin E.

    2008-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease, largely because of disruption of atherosclerotic lesions, accounts for the majority of deaths in people with type 1 diabetes. Recent mouse models have provided insights into the accelerated atherosclerotic lesion initiation in diabetes, but it is unknown whether diabetes directly worsens more clinically relevant advanced lesions. We therefore used an LDL receptor-deficient mouse model, in which type 1 diabetes can be induced at will, to investigate the effects of diabe...

  17. Precision Medicine for Hypertension Management in Chronic Kidney Disease: Relevance of SPRINT for Therapeutic Targets in Nondiabetic Renal Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruzicka, Marcel; Burns, Kevin D; Hiremath, Swapnil

    2017-05-01

    In this review we evaluate the literature to determine if lower blood pressure (BP) targets are beneficial for patients with nondiabetic chronic kidney disease (CKD). Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD), African American Study of Kidney Disease and Hypertension (AASK), and Ramipril Efficacy in Nephropathy-2 (REIN-2), designed to assess the benefit of lower BP on progression of nondiabetic CKD, generally came to the same negative conclusion. They were not designed and powered to assess an effect of lower BP on cardiovascular outcomes. The Systolic Blood Pressure Intervention Trial (SPRINT) was the first trial designed and powered to address this issue, and showed a clear benefit of a lower targeted and achieved BP. SPRINT did not show any renal benefits from lower BP, and it was not designed to assess this outcome, and it enrolled patients with less "renal risk" per se. A distinguishing feature of SPRINT compared with other large trials is that it highlighted the importance of precise BP measurement methods in defining targets in hypertension treatment. Accordingly, we propose that SPRINT is truly a "game-changing" clinical trial that sets the bar for management of hypertension in select patients with nondiabetic CKD. In these patients, systolic BP target depends critically on the BP measurement method: < 140 mm Hg when derived from 3 readings using a mercury sphygmomanometer after 5 minutes of rest, < 130 mm Hg when calculated from at a minimum of 3 readings using an automated oscillometric device, and < 120 mm Hg when taken using an automated oscillometric device after 5 minutes of unattended rest. Copyright © 2017 Canadian Cardiovascular Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. [Hypertension and renal disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamper, A.L.; Pedersen, E.B.; Strandgaard, S.

    2009-01-01

    Renal mechanisms, in particular the renin-angiotensin system and renal salt handling, are of major importance in blood pressure regulation. Co-existence of hypertension and decreased renal function may be due to nephrosclerosis secondary to hypertension, or primary renal disease with secondary...... hypertension. Mild degrees of chronic kidney disease (CKD) can be detected in around 10% of the population, and detection is important as CKD is an important risk factor for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. Conversely, heart failure may cause an impairment of renal function. In chronic progressive...... nephropathy, effective blood pressure lowering is of paramount importance, and angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin receptor blockers are agents of choice Udgivelsesdato: 2009/6/15...

  19. Identification of periodontal pathogens in atherosclerotic vessels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fiehn, Nils-Erik; Larsen, Tove; Christiansen, Natalia

    2005-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have shown that periodontitis may be associated with presence of atherosclerosis. DNA from periodontal pathogens has been detected in atherosclerotic lesions, but viable oral bacteria have not yet been isolated from atherosclerotic plaques. The purpose of the present study...... was to determine if viable oral bacteria could be isolated from atherosclerotic lesions and if DNA from periodontal pathogens could be detected by use of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) techniques....

  20. Epistaxis as the First Manifestation of Silent Renal Cell Carcinoma: A Case Report with Relevant Literature Review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Seung Min; Kim, You Me; Kim, Bong Man

    2016-01-01

    The paranasal sinuses are known to be a rare location for metastasis. Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is the most frequent primary tumor to metastasize to the sinonasal region, followed by lung and breast cancer. In particular, clear cell type RCC, which represents approximately 85% of RCCs, is characterized by early metastasis, and it sometimes spreads to unusual sites (1, 2). Metastatic tumors in the paranasal sinuses are distributed in the maxillary, sphenoid, ethmoid, and frontal sinuses, in order of decreasing frequency. Symptoms are usually nonspecific, but epistaxis is the most common sign, due to the hypervascularity of the primary tumor. The prognosis is uncertain, but the 5-year survival rate fluctuates between 15% and 30%. The purpose of this case report is to document a rare case of silent RCC that first presented as epistaxis due to nasal cavity and ethmoid sinus metastasis

  1. CAROTID ATHEROSCLEROTIC LESION IN YOUNG PATIENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. V. Pizova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to determine the incidence of atherosclerotic lesions in the carotid and vertebral arteries of young patients from Doppler ultrasound data and to compare the quantitatively assessed traditional risk factors of coronary heart disease (CHD with severe extracranial artery atherosclerotic lesion.Subjects and methods. Doppler ultrasound was carried out evaluating structural changes in the aortic arch branches in 1563 railway transport workers less than 45 years of age. A separate sample consisted of 68 young people with carotid atherosclerotic changes, in whom traditional risk factors for CHD were studied, so were in a control group of individuals without atherosclerotic changes (n = 38.Results. Among the examinees, carotid atherosclerotic lesion was detected in 112 (7.1 % cases, the increase in the rate of atherosclerotic plaques in patients aged 35–45 years being 9.08 %; that in the rate of local intima-media thickness in those aged 31–40 years being 5.1 %. Smoking (particularly that along with hypercholesterolemia and a family history of cardiovascular diseases, obesity (along with low activity, and emotional overstrain were defined as important risk factors in the young patients. Moreover, factor analysis has shown that smoking,hypertension, and early cardiovascular pathology in the next of kin makes the greatest contribution to the development of carotid atherosclerotic lesion.Conclusion. Among the patients less than 45 years of age, carotid and vertebral artery atherosclerotic changes were found in 112 (7.1 % cases, which were more pronounced in male patients. Smoking, particularly along with hypercholesterolemia and genetic predisposition to cardiovascular diseases, was a risk factor that had the highest impact on the degree of atherosclerotic lesion in the aortic arch branches of the young patients.

  2. Anti-atherosclerotic effects of konjac

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hidekatsu Yanai

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Definition: The Konjac plant comes from the genus Amorphophallus. Japanese food uses Konjac cake. Konjac contains almost no calories and a great amount of dietary fiber. Here, we reviewed possible anti-atherosclerotic effects of konjac, using the search Pubmed ®. Konjac ingestion is likely beneficially associated with obesity, blood pressure, lipid and glucose metabolism. However, evidence is lacking on the relationship between konjac ingestion and development of atherosclerotic diseases. To more fully understand the anti-atherosclerotic effects of konjac, future studies, preferably with larger numbers of subjects, will be performed.

  3. IAP survivin regulates atherosclerotic macrophage survival

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blanc-Brude, Olivier P.; Teissier, Elisabeth; Castier, Yves; Lesèche, Guy; Bijnens, Ann-Pascal; Daemen, Mat; Staels, Bart; Mallat, Ziad; Tedgui, Alain

    2007-01-01

    Inflammatory macrophage apoptosis is critical to atherosclerotic plaque formation, but its mechanisms remain enigmatic. We hypothesized that inhibitor of apoptosis protein (IAP) survivin regulates macrophage death in atherosclerosis. Western blot analysis revealed discrete survivin expression in

  4. “Transcollateral” Renal Angioplasty for a Completely Occluded Renal Artery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandra, Subash; Chadha, Davinder S.; Swamy, Ajay

    2011-01-01

    Percutaneous transluminal renal angioplasty with stenting has been effective in the control of hypertension, renal function, and pulmonary edema caused by atherosclerotic renal artery stenosis. However, the role of the procedure has not been fully established in the context of chronic total occlusion of renal artery. We report the successful use of this procedure in 57-year-old male patient who reported for evaluation of a recent episode of accelerated hypertension. A renal angiogram in this patient showed ostial stenosis of the right renal artery, which was filling by way of the collateral artery. Renal angioplasty for chronic total occlusion of right renal artery was successfully performed in a retrograde fashion through a collateral artery, thereby leading to improvement of renal function and blood pressure control.

  5. Rhenium(V) oxo complexes relevant to technetium renal imaging agents derived from mercaptoacetylglycylglycylaminobenzoic acid isomers. Structural and molecular mechanics studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, L.; Taylor, A. Jr; Marzilli, L.G.; Cini, R.

    1992-01-01

    The synthesis and characterization of three rhenium(V) oxo complexes derived from isomers of mercaptoacetylglycylglycylaminobenzoic acid (MAG 2 -ABAH 5 ) are reported. The isomers were synthesized from o-, m- and p-aminobenzoic acid and differed in the position of the terminal carboxyl group. The anions of 8-10, [ReO(MAG 2 -*ABAH)] - (* = para (8), meta (9), ortho (10)), contained the tetraanionic form of the ligands with the carboxyl group protonated. Compounds 8,9, and 10 were synthesized by exchange reactions of ReOCl 3 (Me 2 SO)(Ph 3 P) under moderate conditions and were isolated as [Ph 4 P] + , [Bu 4 N] + , and [Ph 4 P] + salts, respectively. The structures of 8 and 10 were determined by X-ray diffraction methods; except for the location of the carboxyl group, the structures are similar. The coordination geometry is pseudo square pyramidal, with nitrogen and sulfur donor atoms forming a square base and the oxo ligand at the apex. The orientation of the carboxyl group in 10 is anti to the Re double-bond O group. Since the carboxyl groups are protonated in 8 and 10 and in other relevant structures from this class of radiopharmaceuticals including [Ph 4 As][TcO(MAG 3 H)] (MAG 3 H = tetraanionic form of mercaptoacetyltriglycine), the authors developed molecular mechanics parameters that allowed them to calculate the structures of 8, 10, and [TcO(MAG 3 H)] - . They then extended the calculations to all three isomeric complexes in their deprotonated forms and to [TcO(MAG 3 )] 2- in order to approximate their solution phase structures. They conclude that the [TcO(MAG 3 )] 2- species is conformationally flexible, and they have made an initial assessment of structures vs renal clearance

  6. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance in carotid atherosclerotic disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Huijun

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Atherosclerosis is a chronic, progressive, inflammatory disease affecting many vascular beds. Disease progression leads to acute cardiovascular events such as myocardial infarction, stroke and death. The diseased carotid alone is responsible for one third of the 700,000 new or recurrent strokes occurring yearly in the United States. Imaging plays an important role in the management of atherosclerosis, and cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR of the carotid vessel wall is one promising modality in the evaluation of patients with carotid atherosclerotic disease. Advances in carotid vessel wall CMR allow comprehensive assessment of morphology inside the wall, contributing substantial disease-specific information beyond luminal stenosis. Although carotid vessel wall CMR has not been widely used to screen for carotid atherosclerotic disease, many trials support its potential for this indication. This review summarizes the current state of knowledge regarding carotid vessel wall CMR and its potential clinical application for management of carotid atherosclerotic disease.

  7. Anti-atherosclerotic effects of tomatoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hidekatsu Yanai

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Tomatoes are rich in lycopene, which causes the red coloring of tomatoes. Several reports have suggested lycopene plays a role in the prevention of cardiovascular diseases. In this study, we systematically reviewed the interventional studies using tomatoes or tomato products to understandtheanti-atherosclerotic effects of the tomatoas a functional food. We found that a significantnumber of interventional studies reportedtheanti-atherosclerotic effects of tomatoes, includinganti-obesity effects, hypotensiveeffects, improvement of lipid/glucose metabolismand endothelial function, anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory effect, and anti-platelet effect; however, the anti-platelet effect was disagreed uponby some studies. Furthermore, we discoveredcooking methods significantlyaffect anti-atherosclerotic effects of tomatoes.

  8. Renal PTA stenting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsetis, D.

    2012-01-01

    Full text: Renal artery stenosis (RAS) is a common condition that may lead to hypertension, progressive renal dysfunction and cardiovascular morbidity. Catheter-based therapy for symptomatic, haemodynamically significant, RAS has become the preferred method of revascularization. Balloon angioplasty has been the traditional treatment of choice for fibromuscular dysplasia, however stents are increasingly used for the treatment of atheromatous lesions; in many cases-such as in ostial lesions-, direct stenting is strongly indicated. Despite the increased use of endovascular therapy for renal artery stenosis, there is still controversy regarding the optimal management and the net benefit of this treatment. Several randomized trials of balloon angioplasty or stenting for renal artery stenosis compared with medical therapy alone have been conducted, however these could not show definite advantage of endovascular therapy. Problems encountered with those trials include enrollment of small number of patients, frequent crossover from medical to interventional therapy compromising the intention-to-treat results, or selection of patients that are not expected to show clear benefit. The Angioplasty and Stenting for Renal Artery Lesions (ASTRAL) is the most important of these trials; however, it,s study design was faulty and therefore did not provide conclusive evidence to answer the question of whether angioplasty and stenting or medical therapy is the best treatment for haemodynamically significant RAS. All expectations are now focused on the Cardiovascular Outcomes in Renal Atherosclerotic Lesions (CORAL) trial which was designed to answer the same question, and its methodologies took into consideration the weaknesses of the ASTRAL trial. Regarding stent device itself, it seems that the optimal design is probably a stainless steel, laser cut, open-cells stent mounted on a rapid exchange delivery balloon catheter compatible with 0.014-in and 0.018-in guidewire. As a future

  9. Cytomegalovirus localization in atherosclerotic plaques is associated with acute coronary syndromes: report of 105 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izadi, Morteza; Fazel, Mozhgan; Saadat, Seyed Hassan; Nasseri, Mohammad Hassan; Ghasemi, Mojtaba; Dabiri, Hossein; Aryan, Reza Safi; Esfahani, Ali Akbar; Ahmadi, Ali; Kazemi-Saleh, Davood; Kalantar-Motamed, Mohammad Hassan; Taheri, Saeed

    2012-01-01

    It has been shown that cytomegalovirus (CMV) is present in coronary atherosclerotic plaques, but the clinical relevance of this presence remains to be elucidated. In this study we sought to examine CMV infection in atherosclerosis patients defined by different methods and to identify the clinical significance of CMV replication in the atherosclerotic plaques. The study included 105 consecutive patients who were admitted to our department and underwent coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) surgical interventions. Coronary atherosclerotic specimens as well as 53 specimens from the mamillary artery of these same patients were analyzed. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) methods were used for evaluations. The CMV PCR test result was positive for 28 (26.7%) of patients with coronary artery atherosclerosis. After adjusting for other risk factors, coronary artery disease patients with a history of acute coronary syndrome were more likely to be positive for CMV PCR test (P=0.027; odds ratio: 4.2; 95% CI: 1.18-15.0). They were also more likely to have a positive family history for cardiovascular diseases (CVD). This study confirms previous evidence about the replication of CMV virus in the atherosclerotic plaques of coronary arteries and brings clinical significance to this observation by showing a higher prevalence of acute coronary syndromes in those patients with CMV-infected plaques. Our study also suggests a familial vulnerability to CMV replication in the coronary artery walls.

  10. Chronic Inflammatory Diseases and Atherosclerotic Cardiovascular Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Peter Riis

    2018-01-01

    Inflammation plays a significant role in atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease (CVD). Patients with chronic inflammatory diseases are at increased risk of CVD, but it is debated whether this association is causal or dependent on shared risk factors, other exposures, genes, and/or inflammatory...... pathways. The current review summarizes epidemiological, clinical, and experimental data supporting the role of shared inflammatory mechanisms between atherosclerotic CVD and rheumatoid arthritis, psoriasis, inflammatory bowel disease, and periodontitis, respectively, and provides insights to future...... prospects in this area of research. Awareness of the role of inflammation in CVD in patients with chronic inflammatory diseases and the potential for anti-inflammatory therapy, e.g., with tumor necrosis factor-α inhibitors, to also reduce atherosclerotic CVD has evolved into guideline- based recommendations...

  11. PET/CT for atherosclerotic plaque imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben-Haim, S.; Technion Institute of Technology, Haifa; Israel, O.; Rambam Medical Center, Haifa

    2006-01-01

    Atherosclerosis is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in the world. Rupture of atherosclerotic plaques and thrombi formation are the primary mechanisms of myocardial infarction or cerebrovascular accident. Angiography is considered to represent the gold standard technique for imaging of the arterial lumen. However, in recent years it has been realized that the primary determinant of the atherosclerotic plaque stability is the composition of the plaque and other imaging modalities have been suggested. The purpose of this review is to briefly summarize the knowledge accumulated to present date regarding the potential role of fluo deoxyglucose imaging in the assessment of atherosclerosis and to compare this modality to additional available imaging approaches for the detection of vulnerable plaques

  12. The contemporary management of intracranial atherosclerotic disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leng, Xinyi; Wong, Ka Sing; Leung, Thomas W

    2016-06-01

    Intracranial atherosclerotic disease is the most common cause of cerebral vasculopathy and an important stroke etiology worldwide, with a higher prevalence in Asian, Hispanic and African ethnicities. Symptomatic intracranial atherosclerotic disease portends a recurrent stroke risk as high as 18% at one year. The key to secondary prevention is an understanding of the underlying stroke mechanism and aggressive control of conventional cardiovascular risks. Contemporary treatment includes antiplatelet therapy, optimal glycemic and blood pressure control, statin therapy and lifestyle modifications. For patients with high-grade (70-99%) symptomatic steno-occlusion, short-term dual antiplatelet therapy with aspirin and clopidogrel followed by life-long single antiplatelet therapy may reduce the recurrent risk. Current evidence does not advocate percutaneous transluminal angioplasty and stenting as an initial treatment. External counterpulsation, encephaloduroarteriosynangiosis and remote limb ischemic preconditioning are treatments under investigation. Future studies should aim at predicting patients prone to recurrence despite of medical therapies and testing the efficacy of emerging therapies.

  13. Macrophage antioxidant protection within atherosclerotic plaques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gieseg, Steven P; Leake, David S; Flavall, Elizabeth M; Amit, Zunika; Reid, Linzi; Yang, Ya-Ting

    2009-01-01

    Macrophage cells within inflammatory lesions are exposed to a wide range of degrading and cytotoxic molecules including reactive oxygen species. Unlike neutrophils, macrophages do not normally die in this environment but continue to generate oxidants, phagocytose cellular remains, and release a range of cyto-active agents which modulate the immune response. It is this potential of the macrophage cell to survive in an oxidative environment that allows the growth and complexity of advanced atherosclerotic plaques. This review will examine the oxidants encountered by macrophages within an atherosclerotic plaque and describe some of the potential antioxidant mechanisms which enable macrophages to function within inflammatory lesions. Ascorbate, a-tocopherol, and glutathione appear to be central to the protection of macrophages yet additional antioxidant mechanisms appear to be involved. Gamma-Interferon causes macrophages to generate 7,8-dihydroneopterin, neopterin and 3-hydroxyanthranilic acid both of which have antioxidant properties. Manganese superoxide dismutase is also upregulated in macrophages. The evidence that these antioxidants provide further protection, so allowing the macrophage cells to survive within sites of chronic inflammation such as atherosclerotic plaques, will be described.

  14. Mechanism of petroleum-induced sex-specific protein droplet nephropathy and renal cell proliferation in Fischer-344 rats: relevance to humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charbonneau, M.; Short, B.G.; Lock, E.A.; Swenberg, J.A.

    1987-01-01

    Acute inhalation exposure of male rats to vaporized unleaded gasoline causes a protein droplet-nephropathy syndrome, whereas chronic exposure produces a significant increase renal tumor incidence. The renal lesions produced by chronic or acute exposure to UG have not been observed in kidneys of female rats, or either sex of mice. The assessment of the genotoxic properties of unleaded gasoline by a battery of tests has shown that unleaded gasoline is non-genotoxic. A 21-day histoautoradiographic study in male rats exposed to inhaled unleaded gasoline or gavaged with 2,2,4-trimethylpentane (TMP), a nephrotoxic component of unleaded gasoline selected as a model compound, has shown a dose-dependent increase in cell proliferation specifically in the proximal tubule, segments that have an increased protein droplet formation. A disposition study in male and female rats showed that after a single dose of [ 14 C]-TMP, TMP-derived radiolabel was retained in kidneys of male rats. An increase in the renal α2u-globulin concentration was concomitantly observed in male but not female rats

  15. Anatomic and Radiologic Study of Renal Avascular Plane (Brödel's Line) and Its Potential Relevance on Percutaneous and Surgical Approaches to the Kidney.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macchi, Veronica; Picardi, Edgardo; Inferrera, Antonino; Porzionato, Andrea; Crestani, Alessandro; Novara, Giacomo; De Caro, Raffaele; Ficarra, Vincenzo

    2018-02-01

    The aim of the present anatomic and radiologic study was to evaluate the location, extension, and characteristics of the Brödel's plane and eventually define its different patterns. We evaluated 15 human normal kidneys sampled from unembalmed cadavers without clinical history or anatomical evidence of renal diseases. Kidneys with the surrounding perirenal fat tissue were removed en bloc with the abdominal segment of the aorta. The renal artery was injected with acrylic and radiopaque resins. A CT examination of the injected kidneys was performed. After the imaging acquisition, the specimens were treated with sodium hydroxide for removal of the parenchyma to obtain the vascular casts. All the CT images were elaborated using dedicated three-dimensional (3D) software with the aim to improve the possibility to identify the Brödel's plane. The avascular plane was identified directly on the vascular casts and confirmed on the corresponding 3D images. The avascular plane was located in all cases medially to the lateral convex border of the kidneys. The recorded mean distance was 2.04 cm (range 1.8-2.4 cm). Three patterns of distribution of the Brödel's line were identified. In five (33.3%) cases the avascular plane was extended from the apical to the inferior segment of the kidneys (type 1); in six (40%) from the superior to the inferior segment (type 2); and in four (26.7%) from the apical to the middle segment (type 3). Fourth and fifth order vessels crossing the Brödel's line were detected in all the analyzed cases. The renal avascular plane showed a different extension allowing us to cluster three different patterns. Preoperative identification of the Brödel's line patterns could help surgeons to minimize hemorrhagic complications during percutaneous and surgical procedures requiring an incision of the renal parenchyma such as traditional or robot-assisted nephrolithotomy or partial nephrectomy for endophytic renal tumors. Radiologic studies validated that

  16. Direct anti-atherosclerotic therapy; development of natural anti-atherosclerotic drugs preventing cellular cholesterol retention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orekhov, Alexander N

    2013-01-01

    The results of numerous clinical trials with statins and other drugs have demonstrated the principal possibility of the prevention and regression of atherosclerosis by pharmacotherapy. This review describes the use of cultured human arterial cells for the mass screening of anti-atherosclerotic substances, the investigation of the mechanisms responsible for their atherosclerosis-related effects, and the optimization of anti-atherosclerotic and anti-atherogenic drug and dietary therapies. Natural products can be considered promising drugs for anti-atherosclerotic therapy. Our basic studies have shown that cellular lipidosis is the principal event in the genesis of atherosclerotic lesions. Using cellular models and natural products, we have developed an approach to prevent lipid accumulation in arterial cells. Based on our knowledge of atherosclerosis, we developed drugs that possess direct anti-atherosclerotic activity. Two-year treatment with allicor (garlic powder) has a direct anti-atherosclerotic effect on carotid atherosclerosis in asymptomatic men. Inflaminat (calendula, elder, and violet), which possesses anti-cytokine activity, has been shown to cause the regression of carotid atherosclerosis following the treatment of asymptomatic men for one year. The phytoestrogen-rich drug karinat (garlic powder, extract of grape seeds, green tea leaves, hop cones, β-carotene, α-tocopherol, and ascorbic acid) prevents the development of carotid atherosclerosis in postmenopausal women. Thus, our basic findings were successfully translated into clinical practice. Because of this translation, a novel approach to antiatherosclerotic therapy was developed. Our clinical trial confirmed the efficacy of both the novel approach and the novel drugs.

  17. "The challenge facing renal artery revascularization: what have we not proven and why we must"?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hynes, B G

    2012-01-04

    Endovascular renal artery stent therapy for atherosclerotic renal artery stenosis (RAS) is associated with excellent acute technical success, low complication rates and acceptable long-term patency. However, the clinical benefits to patients of renal artery stenting remain uncertain. To facilitate debate regarding the treatment of RAS, we need to understand the epidemiology, basic physiology and clinical consequences of renal artery stenosis. We must attempt to determine which patients are likely to benefit from renal artery stenting, assess the nuances of the percutaneous procedure and review the current literature pertaining to renal artery stenting.

  18. The formation of atherosclerotic plaque, its destabilisation and diagnostics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Kaźmierski

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available According to the established medical knowledge, the atheromatous lesions occur in the arteries of large and medium diameter. Their presence in the aorta, arteries of extremities as well as extracerebral and coronal arteries is clinically relevant. The evolution of atherosclerotic plaques probably starts in the prenatal development, what may be proved by the presence of the fatty streaks in endothelium of coronal arteries in some newborns. Then it evolves through lipid accumulation, media inflammatory response, vasa vasorum proliferation, fibrination and calcification of plaques. Researches proved that the matter of atherosclerosis is exaggerated inflammatory proliferative reaction to the arterial wall damage. The oxidative stress phenomenon and infections with common pathogens play an undoubtful role in this process. Ultimately the direct damage is an effect of immune response cells infiltration and secretion of cytokines and proinflammatory factors. Among the cells of immune system responsible for formation and development of atheromatous plaque are considered: macrophages, dendritic cells, T and B lymphocytes, monocytes. Attention was also paid to the inflammatory mediators and growth factors. Scientist are interested in unstable atherosclerotic plaque and accompanying inflammatory process within the artery wall for a long time. Meanwhile, there are conducted researches on inflammation markers underlying the destabilisation of plaques. Revealing the role of these cells in evolution of atherosclerosis would enable more complex understanding of the mechanism of lesions development. Then it would facilitate an introduction of the new and upgraded methods of treatment and prevention. Also the progress of imaging examinations is meaningful for diagnostics and treatment. It is contributory to the choice of therapeutic strategy and assessment of surgical intervention urgency. In the clinical practice there are recognized standards of imaging the

  19. Efficient generation of patient-matched malignant and normal primary cell cultures from clear cell renal cell carcinoma patients: clinically relevant models for research and personalized medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lobo, Nazleen C.; Gedye, Craig; Apostoli, Anthony J.; Brown, Kevin R.; Paterson, Joshua; Stickle, Natalie; Robinette, Michael; Fleshner, Neil; Hamilton, Robert J.; Kulkarni, Girish; Zlotta, Alexandre; Evans, Andrew; Finelli, Antonio; Moffat, Jason; Jewett, Michael A. S.; Ailles, Laurie

    2016-01-01

    Patients with clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) have few therapeutic options, as ccRCC is unresponsive to chemotherapy and is highly resistant to radiation. Recently targeted therapies have extended progression-free survival, but responses are variable and no significant overall survival benefit has been achieved. Commercial ccRCC cell lines are often used as model systems to develop novel therapeutic approaches, but these do not accurately recapitulate primary ccRCC tumors at the genomic and transcriptional levels. Furthermore, ccRCC exhibits significant intertumor genetic heterogeneity, and the limited cell lines available fail to represent this aspect of ccRCC. Our objective was to generate accurate preclinical in vitro models of ccRCC using tumor tissues from ccRCC patients. ccRCC primary single cell suspensions were cultured in fetal bovine serum (FBS)-containing media or defined serum-free media. Established cultures were characterized by genomic verification of mutations present in the primary tumors, expression of renal epithelial markers, and transcriptional profiling. The apparent efficiency of primary cell culture establishment was high in both culture conditions, but genotyping revealed that the majority of cultures contained normal, not cancer cells. ccRCC characteristically shows biallelic loss of the von Hippel Lindau (VHL) gene, leading to accumulation of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) and expression of HIF target genes. Purification of cells based on expression of carbonic anhydrase IX (CA9), a cell surface HIF target, followed by culture in FBS enabled establishment of ccRCC cell cultures with an efficiency of >80 %. Culture in serum-free conditions selected for growth of normal renal proximal tubule epithelial cells. Transcriptional profiling of ccRCC and matched normal cell cultures identified up- and down-regulated networks in ccRCC and comparison to The Cancer Genome Atlas confirmed the clinical validity of our cell cultures. The ability

  20. Fibromuscular dysplasia in living renal donors: Still a challenge to computed tomographic angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blondin, D.; Lanzman, R.; Schellhammer, F.; Oels, M.; Grotemeyer, D.; Baldus, S.E.; Rump, L.C.; Sandmann, W.; Voiculescu, A.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Computed tomographic angiography has become the standard evaluating method of potential living renal donors in most centers. Although incidence of fibromuscular dysplasia is low (3.5-6%), this pathology may be relevant for success of renal transplantation. The incidence of FMD in our population of LRD and reliability of CTA for detecting vascular pathology were the aims of this study. Materials and methods: 101 living renal donors, examined between 7/2004 and 9/2008 by CTA, were included in a retrospective evaluation. The examinations were carried out using a 64 Multi-detector CT (Siemens Medical Solutions, Erlangen). The presence or absence of the characteristic signs of fibromuscular dysplasia, as 'string-of-beads' appearance, focal stenosis or aneurysms, were assessed and graded from mild (=1) to severe (=3). Furthermore, vascular anatomy and arterial stenosis were investigated in this study. Retrospective analysis of CTA and ultrasound were compared with operative and histological reports. Results: Four cases of fibromuscular dysplasia (incidence 3.9%) in 101 renal donors were diagnosed by transplanting surgeons and histopathology, respectively. Three cases could be detected by CTA. In one donor even retrospective analysis of CTA was negative. Ten accessory arteries, 14 venous anomalies and 12 renal arteries stenosis due to atherosclerosis were diagnosed by CTA and could be confirmed by the operative report. Conclusion: CTA is sufficient for detection of hemodynamic relevant stenosis and vascular anatomy. Only one patient with a mild form of FMD was under estimated. Therefore, if the CTA shows slightest irregularities which are not typical for atherosclerotic lesions, further diagnostic work up by DSA might still be necessary.

  1. Fibromuscular dysplasia in living renal donors: Still a challenge to computed tomographic angiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blondin, D., E-mail: blondin@med.uni-duesseldorf.d [Institute of Radiology, University Hospital Duesseldorf, Moorenstr. 5, D-40225 Duesseldorf (Germany); Lanzman, R.; Schellhammer, F. [Institute of Radiology, University Hospital Duesseldorf, Moorenstr. 5, D-40225 Duesseldorf (Germany); Oels, M. [Department of Nephrology (Germany); Grotemeyer, D. [Department of Vascular Surgery and Renal Transplantation (Germany); Baldus, S.E. [Institute of Pathology (Germany); Rump, L.C. [Department of Nephrology (Germany); Sandmann, W. [Department of Vascular Surgery and Renal Transplantation (Germany); Voiculescu, A. [Department of Nephrology (Germany)

    2010-07-15

    Background: Computed tomographic angiography has become the standard evaluating method of potential living renal donors in most centers. Although incidence of fibromuscular dysplasia is low (3.5-6%), this pathology may be relevant for success of renal transplantation. The incidence of FMD in our population of LRD and reliability of CTA for detecting vascular pathology were the aims of this study. Materials and methods: 101 living renal donors, examined between 7/2004 and 9/2008 by CTA, were included in a retrospective evaluation. The examinations were carried out using a 64 Multi-detector CT (Siemens Medical Solutions, Erlangen). The presence or absence of the characteristic signs of fibromuscular dysplasia, as 'string-of-beads' appearance, focal stenosis or aneurysms, were assessed and graded from mild (=1) to severe (=3). Furthermore, vascular anatomy and arterial stenosis were investigated in this study. Retrospective analysis of CTA and ultrasound were compared with operative and histological reports. Results: Four cases of fibromuscular dysplasia (incidence 3.9%) in 101 renal donors were diagnosed by transplanting surgeons and histopathology, respectively. Three cases could be detected by CTA. In one donor even retrospective analysis of CTA was negative. Ten accessory arteries, 14 venous anomalies and 12 renal arteries stenosis due to atherosclerosis were diagnosed by CTA and could be confirmed by the operative report. Conclusion: CTA is sufficient for detection of hemodynamic relevant stenosis and vascular anatomy. Only one patient with a mild form of FMD was under estimated. Therefore, if the CTA shows slightest irregularities which are not typical for atherosclerotic lesions, further diagnostic work up by DSA might still be necessary.

  2. The surface chemistry determines the spatio-temporal interaction dynamics of quantum dots in atherosclerotic lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhl, Bernd; Hirn, Stephanie; Mildner, Karina; Coletti, Raffaele; Massberg, Steffen; Reichel, Christoph A; Rehberg, Markus; Zeuschner, Dagmar; Krombach, Fritz

    2018-03-01

    To optimize the design of nanoparticles for diagnosis or therapy of vascular diseases, it is mandatory to characterize the determinants of nano-bio interactions in vascular lesions. Using ex vivo and in vivo microscopy, we analyzed the interactive behavior of quantum dots with different surface functionalizations in atherosclerotic lesions of ApoE-deficient mice. We demonstrate that quantum dots with different surface functionalizations exhibit specific interactive behaviors with distinct molecular and cellular components of the injured vessel wall. Moreover, we show a role for fibrinogen in the regulation of the spatio-temporal interaction dynamics in atherosclerotic lesions. Our findings emphasize the relevance of surface chemistry-driven nano-bio interactions on the differential in vivo behavior of nanoparticles in diseased tissue.

  3. Electrical impedance of layered atherosclerotic plaques on human aortas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.J. Slager (Cornelis); A.C. Phaff; C.E. Essed; N. Bom (Klaas); J.C.H. Schuurbiers (Johan); P.W.J.C. Serruys (Patrick)

    1992-01-01

    textabstractElectrical impedance measurements were performed on 13 atherosclerotic human aortic segments at 67 measuring spots in order to determine whether or not on the basis of these data a distinction can be made between atherosclerotic lesions and normal tissue. Stenosis localization and

  4. 3D Fiber Orientation in Atherosclerotic Carotid Plaques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.C. Akyildiz (Ali); C.-K. Chai (Chen-Ket); C.W.J. Oomens (Cees); A. van der Lugt (Aad); F.P.T. Baaijens (Frank); G.J. Strijkers (Gustav); F.J.H. Gijsen (Frank)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractAtherosclerotic plaque rupture is the primary trigger of fatal cardiovascular events. Fibrillar collagen in atherosclerotic plaques and their directionality are anticipated to play a crucial role in plaque rupture. This study aimed assessing 3D fiber orientations and architecture in

  5. RENAL INVOLVEMENT IN SUBJECTS WITH PERIPHERAL ATHEROSCLEROSIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    FAWZY, A.; IBRAHIM, S.

    2008-01-01

    Ischemic nephropathy is an important cause of renal failure.Sub-clinical renal function abnormalities may exist in patients with extra renal atherosclerosis and may precede the onset of overt ischemic nephropathy. To assess the impact of extrarenal atherosclerosis on the kidney, the study evaluated renal function in 50 subjects with differing degrees of peripheral atherosclerosis without manifest clinical or laboratory signs of ischemic nephropathy and renovascular hypertension.All laboratory testing including total LDL and HDL-cholesterol, triglycerides, ultrasonography with Doppler analysis for the localization of peripheral vascular disease (carotid and lower limb arteries), and non-invasive evaluation of renal function by radionuclide studies of renal plasma flow (MAG3 clearance) and glomerular filtration (DTPA clearance) were determined as well as smoking habit was recorded. By combining sonographic data on arterial tree stenosis (ATS), the subjects were grouped according to the atherosclerotic vascular damage (ATS involvement). The results showed no change in plasma creatinine while DTPA clearance was increased from 91.58±26.53 to 93.47±24.82 ml/min/1.73 m. MAG3 clearance was progressively declined with the severity of vascular damage from 244.86 ± 60.60 to 173.59±58.74 ml/min/1.73 m.Stepwise, multiple regression analysis indicated that MAG3 clearance was best explained by ATS involvement (standardized B coefficient -0.40; P< 0.001), smoking habit (-0.34;P=0.004) and serum LDL-cholesterol (-0.24; P<0.035).It could be concluded that the renal hemodynamic profile in atherosclerotic patients might constitute functional evidence of the silent phase of ischemic renal disease. The findings suggest that renal function should be carefully assessed in patients with extrarenal atherosclerosis, particularly in those with classic cardiovascular risk factors

  6. Mechanical properties of human atherosclerotic intima tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akyildiz, Ali C; Speelman, Lambert; Gijsen, Frank J H

    2014-03-03

    Progression and rupture of atherosclerotic plaques in coronary and carotid arteries are the key processes underlying myocardial infarctions and strokes. Biomechanical stress analyses to compute mechanical stresses in a plaque can potentially be used to assess plaque vulnerability. The stress analyses strongly rely on accurate representation of the mechanical properties of the plaque components. In this review, the composition of intima tissue and how this changes during plaque development is discussed from a mechanical perspective. The plaque classification scheme of the American Heart Association is reviewed and plaques originating from different vascular territories are compared. Thereafter, an overview of the experimental studies on tensile and compressive plaque intima properties are presented and the results are linked to the pathology of atherosclerotic plaques. This overview revealed a considerable variation within studies, and an enormous dispersion between studies. Finally, the implications of the dispersion in experimental data on the clinical applications of biomechanical plaque modeling are presented. Suggestions are made on mechanical testing protocol for plaque tissue and on using a standardized plaque classification scheme. This review identifies the current status of knowledge on plaque mechanical properties and the future steps required for a better understanding of the plaque type specific material properties. With this understanding, biomechanical plaque modeling may eventually provide essential support for clinical plaque risk stratification. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. The gut microbiome in atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jie, Zhuye; Xia, Huihua; Zhong, Shi-Long

    2017-01-01

    The gut microbiota has been linked to cardiovascular diseases. However, the composition and functional capacity of the gut microbiome in relation to cardiovascular diseases have not been systematically examined. Here, we perform a metagenome-wide association study on stools from 218 individuals...... with atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ACVD) and 187 healthy controls. The ACVD gut microbiome deviates from the healthy status by increased abundance of Enterobacteriaceae and Streptococcus spp. and, functionally, in the potential for metabolism or transport of several molecules important for cardiovascular......), with liver cirrhosis, and rheumatoid arthritis. Our data represent a comprehensive resource for further investigations on the role of the gut microbiome in promoting or preventing ACVD as well as other related diseases.The gut microbiota may play a role in cardiovascular diseases. Here, the authors perform...

  8. Diagnosing extracranial atherosclerotic diseases with spiral CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moran, C.J.; Vannier, M.W.; Erickson, K.K.; Broderick, D.F.; Kido, D.K.; Yoffie, R.L.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that this discovery study was performed to determine whether extracranial carotid artery plaques could be diagnosed with a new CT technique (spiral CT) that allows nondistorted three-dimensional (3D) reconstructions in the z axis. Twenty carotid arteries were examined with spiral CT in normal volunteers and in patients suspected of having atherosclerotic plaques in the extracranial carotid arteries. The Somatom Plus CT table was advanced at a constant rate, the x-ray tube was continuously rotated, and 3D data were continuously acquired. Sixty milliliters of nonionic contrast medium was injected intravenously previous to and during the acquisition of data. The carotid bifurcations were identified in all patients. Planar images, similar to conventional intraarterial angiograms, were routinely produced from the volumetric CT data

  9. The gut microbiome in atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jie, Zhuye; Xia, Huihua; Zhong, Shi-Long

    2017-01-01

    The gut microbiota has been linked to cardiovascular diseases. However, the composition and functional capacity of the gut microbiome in relation to cardiovascular diseases have not been systematically examined. Here, we perform a metagenome-wide association study on stools from 218 individuals...... with atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ACVD) and 187 healthy controls. The ACVD gut microbiome deviates from the healthy status by increased abundance of Enterobacteriaceae and Streptococcus spp. and, functionally, in the potential for metabolism or transport of several molecules important for cardiovascular...... health. Although drug treatment represents a confounding factor, ACVD status, and not current drug use, is the major distinguishing feature in this cohort. We identify common themes by comparison with gut microbiome data associated with other cardiometabolic diseases (obesity and type 2 diabetes...

  10. Ophthalmic masquerades of the atherosclerotic carotids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anupriya Arthur

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Patients with carotid atherosclerosis can present with ophthalmic symptoms. These symptoms and signs can be due to retinal emboli, hypoperfusion of the retina and choroid, opening up of collateral channels, or chronic hypoperfusion of the globe (ocular ischemic syndrome. These pathological mechanisms can produce many interesting signs and a careful history can bring out important past symptoms pointing toward the carotid as the source of the patient′s presenting symptom. Such patients are at high risk for an ischemic stroke, especially in the subsequent few days following their first acute symptom. It is important for clinicians to be familiar with these ophthalmic symptoms and signs caused by carotid atherosclerosis for making an early diagnosis and to take appropriate measures to prevent a stroke. This review elaborates the clinical features, importance, and implications of various ophthalmic symptoms and signs resulting from atherosclerotic carotid artery disease.

  11. Endovascular revascularization for aortoiliac atherosclerotic disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aggarwal V

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Vikas Aggarwal,1 Stephen W Waldo,2,3 Ehrin J Armstrong2,3 1Prairie Heart Institute, St John's Hospital, Springfield, IL, 2Section of Cardiology, Denver Veterans Affairs Medical Center, 3Section of Cardiology, University of Colorado, Aurora, CO, USA Abstract: Atherosclerotic iliac artery disease is increasingly being treated with endovascular techniques. A number of new stent technologies can be utilized with high long-term patency, including self-expanding stents, balloon-expandable stents, and covered stents, but comparative data on these stent types and in more complex lesions are lacking. This article provides a review of currently available iliac stent technologies, as well as complex procedural aspects of iliac artery interventions, including approaches to the treatment of iliac bifurcation disease, long segment occlusions, choice of stent type, and treatment of iliac artery in-stent restenosis. Keywords: peripheral artery disease, iliac artery, balloon expandable stent, self expanding stent, covered stent, claudication, endovascular

  12. Mitochondrial DNA damage and vascular function in patients with diabetes mellitus and atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fetterman, Jessica L; Holbrook, Monica; Westbrook, David G; Brown, Jamelle A; Feeley, Kyle P; Bretón-Romero, Rosa; Linder, Erika A; Berk, Brittany D; Weisbrod, Robert M; Widlansky, Michael E; Gokce, Noyan; Ballinger, Scott W; Hamburg, Naomi M

    2016-03-31

    Prior studies demonstrate mitochondrial dysfunction with increased reactive oxygen species generation in peripheral blood mononuclear cells in diabetes mellitus. Oxidative stress-mediated damage to mitochondrial DNA promotes atherosclerosis in animal models. Thus, we evaluated the relation of mitochondrial DNA damage in peripheral blood mononuclear cells s with vascular function in patients with diabetes mellitus and with atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. We assessed non-invasive vascular function and mitochondrial DNA damage in 275 patients (age 57 ± 9 years, 60 % women) with atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease alone (N = 55), diabetes mellitus alone (N = 74), combined atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease and diabetes mellitus (N = 48), and controls age >45 without diabetes mellitus or atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (N = 98). Mitochondrial DNA damage measured by quantitative PCR in peripheral blood mononuclear cells was higher with clinical atherosclerosis alone (0.55 ± 0.65), diabetes mellitus alone (0.65 ± 1.0), and combined clinical atherosclerosis and diabetes mellitus (0.89 ± 1.32) as compared to control subjects (0.23 ± 0.64, P < 0.0001). In multivariable models adjusting for age, sex, and relevant cardiovascular risk factors, clinical atherosclerosis and diabetes mellitus remained associated with higher mitochondrial DNA damage levels (β = 0.14 ± 0.13, P = 0.04 and β = 0.21 ± 0.13, P = 0.002, respectively). Higher mitochondrial DNA damage was associated with higher baseline pulse amplitude, a measure of arterial pulsatility, but not with flow-mediated dilation or hyperemic response, measures of vasodilator function. We found greater mitochondrial DNA damage in patients with diabetes mellitus and clinical atherosclerosis. The association of mitochondrial DNA damage and baseline pulse amplitude may suggest a link between mitochondrial dysfunction and excessive small artery pulsatility with potentially adverse microvascular impact.

  13. Renal Osteodystrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aynur Metin Terzibaşoğlu

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Chronic renal insufficiency is a functional definition which is characterized by irreversible and progressive decreasing in renal functions. This impairment is in collaboration with glomeruler filtration rate and serum creatinine levels. Besides this, different grades of bone metabolism disorders develop in chronic renal insufficiency. Pathologic changes in bone tissue due to loss of renal paranchyme is interrelated with calcium, phosphorus vitamine-D and parathyroid hormone. Clinically we can see high turnover bone disease, low turnover bone disease, osteomalacia, osteosclerosis and osteoporosis in renal osteodystropy. In this article we aimed to review pathology of bone metabolism disorders due to chronic renal insufficiency, clinic aspects and treatment approaches briefly.

  14. Progranulin expression in advanced human atherosclerotic plaque.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kojima, Yoji; Ono, Koh; Inoue, Katsumi; Takagi, Yasushi; Kikuta, Ken-ichiro; Nishimura, Masaki; Yoshida, Yoshinori; Nakashima, Yasuhiro; Matsumae, Hironobu; Furukawa, Yutaka; Mikuni, Nobuhiro; Nobuyoshi, Masakiyo; Kimura, Takeshi; Kita, Toru; Tanaka, Makoto

    2009-09-01

    Progranulin (PGRN) is a unique growth factor that plays an important role in cutaneous wound healing. It has an anti-inflammatory effect and promotes cell proliferation. However, when it is degraded to granulin peptides (GRNs) by neutrophil proteases, a pro-inflammatory reaction occurs. Since injury, inflammation and repair are common features in the progression of atherosclerosis, it is conceivable that PGRN plays a role in atherogenesis. Immunohistochemical analysis of human carotid endoatherectomy specimens indicated that vascular smooth muscle cells (vSMCs) in the intima expressed PGRN. Some macrophages in the plaque also expressed PGRN. We assessed the effect of PGRN on a human monocytic leukemia cell line (THP-1) and human aortic smooth muscle cells (HASMCs). PGRN alone had no effect on HASMC or THP-1 proliferation or migration. However, when THP-1 cells were stimulated with MCP-1, the number of migrated cells decreased in a PGRN-dose-dependent manner. TNF-alpha-induced HASMC migration was enhanced only at 10nM of PGRN. Interleukin-8 (IL-8) secretion from HASMCs was reduced by forced expression of PGRN and increased by RNAi-mediated knockdown of PGRN. While exogenous treatment with recombinant PGRN decreased IL-8 secretion, degraded recombinant GRNs increased IL-8 secretion from HASMCs. The expression of PGRN mainly reduces inflammation and its degradation into GRNs enhances inflammation in atherosclerotic plaque and may contribute to the progression of atherosclerosis.

  15. Glomerular Filtration Rate Estimation in Renal and Non-Renal Solid Organ Transplantation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hornum, Mads; Feldt-Rasmussen, Bo

    2017-01-01

    Following transplantation (TX) of both renal and non-renal organs, a large proportion of patients have renal dysfunction. There are multiple causes for this. Chronic nephrotoxicity and high doses of calcineurin inhibitors are important factors. Preoperative and perioperative factors like...... or estimates of renal function in these patients, in order to accurately and safely dose immunosuppressive medication and perform and adjust the treatment and prophylaxis of renal dysfunction. This is a short overview and discussion of relevant studies and possible caveats of estimated glomerular filtration...... rate methods for use in renal and non-renal TX....

  16. Renal venogram

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... be black. Other structures will be shades of gray. Veins are not normally seen in an x- ... Venogram - kidney; Renal vein thrombosis - venogram Images Kidney anatomy Kidney - blood and urine flow Renal veins References ...

  17. Association of postalimentary lipemia with atherosclerotic manifestations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tentor, J. [Departamento de Patologia Clínica, Faculdade de Ciências Médicas, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Campinas, SP (Brazil); Nakamura, R.T. [Laboratório de Diagnóstico por Imagem, Campinas, SP (Brazil); Departamento de Radiologia, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Campinas, SP (Brazil); Gidlund, M. [Laboratório de Imunofisiopatologia, Instituto de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Barros-Mazon, S. [Departamento de Patologia Clínica, Faculdade de Ciências Médicas, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Campinas, SP (Brazil); Harada, L.M. [Laboratório de Lípides, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Zago, V.S.; Oba, J.F.; Faria, E.C. de [Departamento de Patologia Clínica, Faculdade de Ciências Médicas, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Campinas, SP (Brazil)

    2012-08-10

    We identified different lipemic and metabolic responses after the ingestion of a standardized meal by healthy adults and related them to atherosclerotic markers. Samples from 60 normolipidemic adults were collected before and after a liquid meal (40 g fat/m{sup 2} body surface) at 0, 2, 4, 6, and 8 h for measurements of lipids, free fatty acids (FFA), insulin, cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP), autoantibodies to epitopes of oxidized LDL (oxLDL Ab), lipolytic activities, and apolipoprotein E polymorphism. Mean carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) was determined by Doppler ultrasound. The volunteers were classified into early (N = 39) and late (N = 31) triacylglycerol (TAG) responders to the test meal. Late responders showed lower HDL cholesterol concentration at fasting and in the TAG peak, lower insulin and higher FFA concentrations compared to early responders. Multivariate regression analyses showed that mean cIMT was associated with gender (male) and age in early responders and by cholesterol levels at the 6th hour in late responders. oxLDL Ab were explained by lipoprotein lipase and negatively by hepatic lipase and oxLDL Ab (fasting period) by CETP (negative) and FFA (positive). This study is the first to identify a postalimentary insulin resistance state, combined with a reduced CETP response exclusively among late responders, and the identification of the regulators of postalimentary atherogenicity. Further research is required to determine the metabolic mechanisms described in the different postalimentary phenotypes observed in this study, as well as in different pathological states, as currently investigated in our laboratory.

  18. Nuclear microscopy of atherosclerotic tissue: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watt, Frank; Ren, M.Q.; Xie, J.P.; Tan, B.K.H.; Halliwell, B.

    2001-01-01

    This paper reviews the work carried out in the Research Centre for Nuclear Microscopy, NUS on the role of iron in coronary heart disease, using the technique of nuclear microscopy to determine the levels of iron and other trace elements in the artery wall and lesions. These investigations have indicated that iron may play a significant role in the development of atherosclerosis, probably through the promotion of cytotoxic free radicals leading to the oxidation of low-density lipoprotein (LDL). Using a rabbit model we have observed that early atherosclerotic lesions, induced by feeding the animals on a 1% cholesterol diet, contain increased levels of iron (up to 8 times) compared with the adjacent healthy artery wall. In a follow-up time sequence study, we have shown that iron accumulation occurs at the onset of lesion formation, which takes place around 4-6 weeks after exposure to the 1% cholesterol diet. As the lesions mature, they enlarge to occupy a significant fraction of the artery wall, and at about 16 weeks the lesions begin to show signs of calcification. In an additional experiment, where the cholesterol fed rabbits were kept anaemic through weekly bleeding, the iron content of the artery wall was reduced and the onset of atherogenesis was delayed. In a further investigation, rabbits were fed on a 1% cholesterol diet and after 6 weeks (corresponding to the period of early lesion formation) a test group was subjected to treatment using the iron chelator desferal. Preliminary results indicate that during the treatment with desferal, lesion development was slowed down

  19. Association of postalimentary lipemia with atherosclerotic manifestations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Tentor

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available We identified different lipemic and metabolic responses after the ingestion of a standardized meal by healthy adults and related them to atherosclerotic markers. Samples from 60 normolipidemic adults were collected before and after a liquid meal (40 g fat/m² body surface at 0, 2, 4, 6, and 8 h for measurements of lipids, free fatty acids (FFA, insulin, cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP, autoantibodies to epitopes of oxidized LDL (oxLDL Ab, lipolytic activities, and apolipoprotein E polymorphism. Mean carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT was determined by Doppler ultrasound. The volunteers were classified into early (N = 39 and late (N = 31 triacylglycerol (TAG responders to the test meal. Late responders showed lower HDL cholesterol concentration at fasting and in the TAG peak, lower insulin and higher FFA concentrations compared to early responders. Multivariate regression analyses showed that mean cIMT was associated with gender (male and age in early responders and by cholesterol levels at the 6th hour in late responders. oxLDL Ab were explained by lipoprotein lipase and negatively by hepatic lipase and oxLDL Ab (fasting period by CETP (negative and FFA (positive. This study is the first to identify a postalimentary insulin resistance state, combined with a reduced CETP response exclusively among late responders, and the identification of the regulators of postalimentary atherogenicity. Further research is required to determine the metabolic mechanisms described in the different postalimentary phenotypes observed in this study, as well as in different pathological states, as currently investigated in our laboratory.

  20. Association of postalimentary lipemia with atherosclerotic manifestations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tentor, J.; Nakamura, R.T.; Gidlund, M.; Barros-Mazon, S.; Harada, L.M.; Zago, V.S.; Oba, J.F.; Faria, E.C. de

    2012-01-01

    We identified different lipemic and metabolic responses after the ingestion of a standardized meal by healthy adults and related them to atherosclerotic markers. Samples from 60 normolipidemic adults were collected before and after a liquid meal (40 g fat/m 2 body surface) at 0, 2, 4, 6, and 8 h for measurements of lipids, free fatty acids (FFA), insulin, cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP), autoantibodies to epitopes of oxidized LDL (oxLDL Ab), lipolytic activities, and apolipoprotein E polymorphism. Mean carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) was determined by Doppler ultrasound. The volunteers were classified into early (N = 39) and late (N = 31) triacylglycerol (TAG) responders to the test meal. Late responders showed lower HDL cholesterol concentration at fasting and in the TAG peak, lower insulin and higher FFA concentrations compared to early responders. Multivariate regression analyses showed that mean cIMT was associated with gender (male) and age in early responders and by cholesterol levels at the 6th hour in late responders. oxLDL Ab were explained by lipoprotein lipase and negatively by hepatic lipase and oxLDL Ab (fasting period) by CETP (negative) and FFA (positive). This study is the first to identify a postalimentary insulin resistance state, combined with a reduced CETP response exclusively among late responders, and the identification of the regulators of postalimentary atherogenicity. Further research is required to determine the metabolic mechanisms described in the different postalimentary phenotypes observed in this study, as well as in different pathological states, as currently investigated in our laboratory

  1. Association of postalimentary lipemia with atherosclerotic manifestations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tentor, J; Nakamura, R T; Gidlund, M; Barros-Mazon, S; Harada, L M; Zago, V S; Oba, J F; Faria, E C de

    2012-11-01

    We identified different lipemic and metabolic responses after the ingestion of a standardized meal by healthy adults and related them to atherosclerotic markers. Samples from 60 normolipidemic adults were collected before and after a liquid meal (40 g fat/m² body surface) at 0, 2, 4, 6, and 8 h for measurements of lipids, free fatty acids (FFA), insulin, cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP), autoantibodies to epitopes of oxidized LDL (oxLDL Ab), lipolytic activities, and apolipoprotein E polymorphism. Mean carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) was determined by Doppler ultrasound. The volunteers were classified into early (N = 39) and late (N = 31) triacylglycerol (TAG) responders to the test meal. Late responders showed lower HDL cholesterol concentration at fasting and in the TAG peak, lower insulin and higher FFA concentrations compared to early responders. Multivariate regression analyses showed that mean cIMT was associated with gender (male) and age in early responders and by cholesterol levels at the 6th hour in late responders. oxLDL Ab were explained by lipoprotein lipase and negatively by hepatic lipase and oxLDL Ab (fasting period) by CETP (negative) and FFA (positive). This study is the first to identify a postalimentary insulin resistance state, combined with a reduced CETP response exclusively among late responders, and the identification of the regulators of postalimentary atherogenicity. Further research is required to determine the metabolic mechanisms described in the different postalimentary phenotypes observed in this study, as well as in different pathological states, as currently investigated in our laboratory.

  2. Flow visualisation study of spiral flow in the aorta-renal bifurcation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulker, David; Javadzadegan, Ashkan; Li, Zuming; Barber, Tracie

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse the flow dynamics in an idealised model of the aorta-renal bifurcation using flow visualisation, with a particular focus on the effect of aorta-to-renal flow ratio and flow spirality. The recirculation length was longest when there was low flow in the renal artery and smaller in the presence of spiral flow. The results also indicate that patients without spiral flow or who have low flow in the renal artery due to the presence of stenosis may be susceptible to heightened development of atherosclerotic lesions.

  3. Are calcifying matrix vesicles in atherosclerotic lesions of cellular origin?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobryshev, Yuri V; Killingsworth, Murray C; Huynh, Thuan G; Lord, Reginald S A; Grabs, Anthony J; Valenzuela, Stella M

    2007-03-01

    Over recent years, the role of matrix vesicles in the initial stages of arterial calcification has been recognized. Matrix calcifying vesicles have been isolated from atherosclerotic arteries and the biochemical composition of calcified vesicles has been studied. No studies have yet been carried out to examine the fine structure of matrix vesicles in order to visualize the features of the consequent stages of their calcification in arteries. In the present work, a high resolution ultrastructural analysis has been employed and the study revealed that matrix vesicles in human atherosclerotic lesions are heterogeneous with two main types which we classified. Type I calcified vesicles were presented by vesicles surrounded by two electron-dense layers and these vesicles were found to be resistant to the calcification process in atherosclerotic lesions in situ. Type II matrix vesicles were presented by vesicles surrounded by several electron-dense layers and these vesicles were found to represent calcifying vesicles in atherosclerotic lesions. To test the hypothesis that calcification of matrix vesicles surrounded by multilayer sheets may occur simply as a physicochemical process, independently from the cell regulation, we produced multilamellar liposomes and induced their calcification in vitro in a manner similar to that occurring in matrix vesicles in atherosclerotic lesions in situ.

  4. Renal perfusion scintiscan

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Radionuclide renal perfusion scan; Perfusion scintiscan - renal; Scintiscan - renal perfusion Images Kidney anatomy Kidney - blood and urine flow Intravenous pyelogram References Rottenberg G, Andi AC. Renal ...

  5. Endovascular treatment of renal artery stenoses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lashari, M.N.

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the procedure success and effect on hypertension after stenting of incidentally diagnosed atherosclerotic renal artery stenoses. Study Design: An experimental study. Place and Duration of Study: A multicentric study was conducted at the Plastic Surgery and General Hospital, National Medical Center and Ziauddin University Hospital, Karachi, Pakistan from January 2009 to March 2013. Methodology: Hypertension (systolic blood pressure > 160 and diastolic > 90 mmHg with two or more than two medications) with coronary artery disease were initially evaluated for coronary angiography, Renal artery angiography was also endovascular performed and stent was deployed for atherosclerotic renal artery stenosis when found. Blood pressure readings, reduction in need of antihypertensive medication and serum creatinine levels were taken as outcome measures. Patients having renal artery stenoses secondary to connective tissue disorders and fibromuscular dysplasia were excluded. Results: There were 25 patients, 14 (56%) male and 11 (44%) female, with mean age of 49 +- 6 years. Diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia and smoking were seen in 11 (44%), 10 (40%) and 4 (16%) patients respectively. Renal insufficiency (serum creatinine > 1.5 mg/dl) was seen in one (04%) patient. Bilateral, and isolated right and left renal artery stenoses was seen in 5 (20%), 9 (36%) and 11(44%) patients respectively. Mean percentage of renal artery stenoses was 89%, ranged from 70% to 99% while ostial lesion was found in 20 (80%) patients. A significant decrease in systolic (168.20 +- 9.987 vs. 140.60 +- 5.649 mmHg, p < 0.001) and diastolic blood pressure (88.60 +- 5.50 vs. 77.20 +- 5.017 mmHg, p < 0.001) and reduction of medication (2.72 +- 0.458 vs. 1.5 +- 0.510, p < 0.01) were noted without a change in renal function (p= 0.061) after renal artery stenting. Conclusion: Endovascular stenting of renal artery stenoses in patients with poorly controlled hypertension is a safe and effective treatment

  6. Emerging Technology Update Intravascular Photoacoustic Imaging of Vulnerable Atherosclerotic Plaque.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Min; Fw van der Steen, Antonius; Regar, Evelyn; van Soest, Gijs

    2016-10-01

    The identification of vulnerable atherosclerotic plaques in the coronary arteries is emerging as an important tool for guiding atherosclerosis diagnosis and interventions. Assessment of plaque vulnerability requires knowledge of both the structure and composition of the plaque. Intravascular photoacoustic (IVPA) imaging is able to show the morphology and composition of atherosclerotic plaque. With imminent improvements in IVPA imaging, it is becoming possible to assess human coronary artery disease in vivo . Although some challenges remain, IVPA imaging is on its way to being a powerful tool for visualising coronary atherosclerotic features that have been specifically associated with plaque vulnerability and clinical syndromes, and thus such imaging might become valuable for clinical risk assessment in the catheterisation laboratory.

  7. Atherosclerotic plaque rupture and thrombosis. Evolving concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuster, V; Stein, B; Ambrose, J A; Badimon, L; Badimon, J J; Chesebro, J H

    1990-09-01

    Rupture of an atherosclerotic plaque associated with partial or complete thrombotic vessel occlusion is fundamental to the development of ischemic coronary syndromes. Plaques that produce only mild-to-moderate angiographic luminal stenosis are frequently those that undergo abrupt disruption, leading to unstable angina or acute myocardial infarction. Plaques with increased lipid content appear more prone to rupture, particularly when the lipid pool is localized eccentrically within the intima. Macrophages appear to play an important role in atherogenesis, perhaps by participating in the uptake and metabolism of lipoproteins, secretion of growth factors, and production of enzymes and toxic metabolites that may facilitate plaque rupture. In addition, the particular composition or configuration of a plaque and the hemodynamic forces to which it is exposed may determine its susceptibility to disruption. Exposure of collagen, lipids, and smooth muscle cells after plaque rupture leads to the activation of platelets and the coagulation cascade system. The resulting thrombus may lead to marked reduction in myocardial perfusion and the development of an unstable coronary syndrome, or it may become organized and incorporated into the diseased vessel, thus contributing to the progression of atherosclerosis. In unstable angina, plaque disruption leads to thrombosis, which is usually labile and results in only a transient reduction in myocardial perfusion. Release of vasoactive substances, arterial spasm, or increases in myocardial oxygen demand may contribute to ischemia. In acute myocardial infarction, plaque disruption results in a more persistent thrombotic vessel occlusion; the extent of necrosis depends on the size of the artery, the duration of occlusion, the presence of collateral flow, and the integrity of the fibrinolytic system. Thrombi that undergo lysis expose a highly thrombogenic surface to the circulating blood, which has the capacity of activating platelets and

  8. Serum-Sphingosine-1-Phosphate Concentrations Are Inversely Associated with Atherosclerotic Diseases in Humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Soltau

    Full Text Available Atherosclerotic changes of arteries are the leading cause for deaths in cardiovascular disease and greatly impair patient's quality of life. Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P is a signaling sphingolipid that regulates potentially pro-as well as anti-atherogenic processes. Here, we investigate whether serum-S1P concentrations are associated with peripheral artery disease (PAD and carotid stenosis (CS.Serum was sampled from blood donors (controls, N = 174 and from atherosclerotic patients (N = 132 who presented to the hospital with either clinically relevant PAD (N = 102 or CS (N = 30. From all subjects, serum-S1P was measured by mass spectrometry and blood parameters were determined by routine laboratory assays. When compared to controls, atherosclerotic patients before invasive treatment to restore blood flow showed significantly lower serum-S1P levels. This difference cannot be explained by risk factors for atherosclerosis (old age, male gender, hypertension, hypercholesteremia, obesity, diabetes or smoking or comorbidities (Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, kidney insufficiency or arrhythmia. Receiver operating characteristic curves suggest that S1P has more power to indicate atherosclerosis (PAD and CS than high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C. In 35 patients, serum-S1P was measured again between one and six months after treatment. In this group, serum-S1P concentrations rose after treatment independent of whether patients had PAD or CS, or whether they underwent open or endovascular surgery. Post-treatment S1P levels were highly associated to platelet numbers measured pre-treatment.Our study shows that PAD and CS in humans is associated with decreased serum-S1P concentrations and that S1P may possess higher accuracy to indicate these diseases than HDL-C.

  9. RENAL CRYOABLATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Govorov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Renal cryoablation is an alternative minimally-invasive method of treatment for localized renal cell carcinoma. The main advantages of this methodology include visualization of the tumor and the forming of "ice ball" in real time, fewer complications compared with other methods of treatment of renal cell carcinoma, as well as the possibility of conducting cryotherapy in patients with concomitant pathology. Compared with other ablative technologies cryoablation has a low rate of repeat sessions and good intermediate oncological results. The studies of long-term oncological and functional results of renal cryoablation are presently under way.

  10. Berberine ameliorates chronic kidney injury caused by atherosclerotic renovascular disease through the suppression of NFκB signaling pathway in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Wan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Impaired renal function in atherosclerotic renovascular disease (ARD may be the result of crosstalk between atherosclerotic renovascular stenosis and amplified oxidative stress, inflammation and fibrosis. Berberine (BBR regulates cholesterol metabolism and exerts antioxidant effects. Accordingly, we hypothesized that BBR treatment may ameliorate ARD-induced kidney injury through its cholesterol-lowering effect and also suppression of the pathways involved in oxidative stress, inflammation and NFκB activation. METHODS: Male rats were subjected to unilateral renal artery stenosis with silver-irritant coil, and then fed with 12-week hypercholesterolemic diet. Rats with renal artery stenosis were randomly assigned to two groups (n = 6 each - ARD, or ARD+BBR - according to diet alone or in combination with BBR. Similarly, age-matched rats underwent sham operation and were also fed with hypercholesterolemic diet alone or in combination with BBR as two corresponding controls. Single-kidney hemodynamic metrics were measured in vivo with Doppler ultrasound to determine renal artery flow. The metrics reflecting hyperlipidemia, oxidative stress, renal structure and function, inflammation and NFκB activation were measured, respectively. RESULTS: Compared with control rats, ARD rats had a significant increase in urinary albumin, plasma cholesterol, LDL and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS and a significant decrease in SOD activity. When exposed to 12-week BBR, ARD rats had significantly lower levels in blood pressure, LDL, urinary albumin, and TBARS. In addition, there were significantly lower expression levels of iNOS and TGF-β in the ARD+BBR group than in the ARD group, with attenuated NFκB-DNA binding activity and down-regulated protein levels of subunits p65 and p50 as well as IKKβ. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that BBR can improve hypercholesterolemia and redox status in the kidney, eventually ameliorating

  11. Optimization of dual-wavelength intravascular photoacoustic imaging of atherosclerotic plaques using Monte Carlo optical modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dana, Nicholas; Sowers, Timothy; Karpiouk, Andrei; Vanderlaan, Donald; Emelianov, Stanislav

    2017-10-01

    Coronary heart disease (the presence of coronary atherosclerotic plaques) is a significant health problem in the industrialized world. A clinical method to accurately visualize and characterize atherosclerotic plaques is needed. Intravascular photoacoustic (IVPA) imaging is being developed to fill this role, but questions remain regarding optimal imaging wavelengths. We utilized a Monte Carlo optical model to simulate IVPA excitation in coronary tissues, identifying optimal wavelengths for plaque characterization. Near-infrared wavelengths (≤1800 nm) were simulated, and single- and dual-wavelength data were analyzed for accuracy of plaque characterization. Results indicate light penetration is best in the range of 1050 to 1370 nm, where 5% residual fluence can be achieved at clinically relevant depths of ≥2 mm in arteries. Across the arterial wall, fluence may vary by over 10-fold, confounding plaque characterization. For single-wavelength results, plaque segmentation accuracy peaked at 1210 and 1720 nm, though correlation was poor (blood, a primary and secondary wavelength near 1210 and 1350 nm, respectively, may offer the best implementation of dual-wavelength IVPA imaging. These findings could guide the development of a cost-effective clinical system by highlighting optimal wavelengths and improving plaque characterization.

  12. Renal cancer.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Corgna, E.; Betti, M.; Gatta, G.; Roila, F.; Mulder, P.H.M. de

    2007-01-01

    In Europe, renal cancer (that is neoplasia of the kidney, renal pelvis or ureter (ICD-9 189 and ICD-10 C64-C66)) ranks as the seventh most common malignancy in men amongst whom there are 29,600 new cases each year (3.5% of all cancers). Tobacco, obesity and a diet poor in vegetables are all

  13. Renal cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Corgna, Enrichetta; Betti, Maura; Gatta, Gemma; Roila, Fausto; De Mulder, Pieter H. M.

    2007-01-01

    In Europe, renal cancer (that is neoplasia of the kidney, renal pelvis or ureter (ICD-9 189 and ICD-10 C64-C66)) ranks as the seventh most common malignancy in men amongst whom there are 29,600 new cases each year (3.5% of all cancers). Tobacco, obesity and a diet poor in vegetables are all

  14. Mast cells in atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease - Activators and actions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovanen, Petri T; Bot, Ilze

    2017-12-05

    Mast cells are potent actors involved in inflammatory reactions in various tissues, including both in the intimal and the adventitial layers of atherosclerotic arteries. In the arterial intima, the site of atherogenesis, mast cells are activated to degranulate, and thereby triggered to release an abundance of preformed inflammatory mediators, notably histamine, heparin, neutral proteases and cytokines stored in their cytoplasmic secretory granules. Depending on the stimulus, mast cell activation may also launch prolonged synthesis and secretion of single bioactive molecules, such as cytokines and derivatives of arachidonic acid. The mast cell-derived mediators may impede the functions of different types of cells present in atherosclerotic lesions, and also compromise the structural and functional integrity of the intimal extracellular matrix. In the adventitial layer of atherosclerotic coronary arteries, mast cells locate next to peptidergic sensory nerve fibers, which, by releasing neuropeptides may activate mast cells to release vasoactive compounds capable of triggering local vasoconstriction. The concerted actions of arterial mast cells have the potential to contribute to the initiation and progression of atherosclerosis, and ultimately to destabilization and rupture of an advanced atherosclerotic plaque with ensuing atherothrombotic complications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Acute type II cryoglobulinaemic vasculitis mimicking atherosclerotic peripheral vascular disease.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Saeed, A

    2012-01-31

    Atherosclerotic peripheral vascular disease is a common presenting cause for digital ischaemia in life long smokers. Acute severe Type II Cryoglobulinaemic vasculitis is a rare yet important cause, which may present with similar clinical features and which if undiagnosed may be rapidly fatal. Following the instigation of therapy with intravenous methylprednisolone and cyclophosphamide this patient made an excellent recovery.

  16. Cryotherapy increases features of plaque stability in atherosclerotic rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verheye, Stefan; Roth, Lynn; De Meyer, Inge; Van Hove, Cor E; Nahon, Daniel; Santoianni, Domenic; Yianni, John; Martinet, Wim; Buchbinder, Maurice; De Meyer, Guido R Y

    2016-08-20

    In the last 10 years, cryotherapy has been investigated as a new technology to treat vascular disease. The efficiency of cryotherapy in stabilising atherosclerotic plaques has never been described. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effect of catheter-based cryotherapy on atherosclerotic plaque composition in a rabbit model of atherosclerosis. Twenty-four New Zealand white rabbits were fed a 0.3% cholesterol-supplemented diet for 24 weeks. At two predefined sites of the atherosclerotic thoracic aorta, catheter-based cryotherapy, applying either single-dose, double-dose cryotherapy or control inflation, was performed after randomisation. Rabbits were continued on a cholesterol-supplemented diet for one day (acute) or four weeks (chronic). One day after cryotherapy, apoptotic cell death of smooth muscle cells (SMCs) and endothelial cells (ECs) was observed, whereas macrophages were unaffected. Four weeks later, the amount of SMCs was restored, the EC layer was regenerated, and a subendothelial macrophage-free layer was formed, indicative of a more stable plaque. In addition, both the thickness and the type I collagen content of the fibrous cap were increased. The present study demonstrated that cryotherapy is feasible and appears to stabilise atherosclerotic plaques in a rabbit model.

  17. Atherosclerotic Plaque Destabilization in Mice: A Comparative Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helene Hartwig

    Full Text Available Atherosclerosis-associated diseases are the main cause of mortality and morbidity in western societies. The progression of atherosclerosis is a dynamic process evolving from early to advanced lesions that may become rupture-prone vulnerable plaques. Acute coronary syndromes are the clinical manifestation of life-threatening thrombotic events associated with high-risk vulnerable plaques. Hyperlipidemic mouse models have been extensively used in studying the mechanisms controlling initiation and progression of atherosclerosis. However, the understanding of mechanisms leading to atherosclerotic plaque destabilization has been hampered by the lack of proper animal models mimicking this process. Although various mouse models generate atherosclerotic plaques with histological features of human advanced lesions, a consensus model to study atherosclerotic plaque destabilization is still lacking. Hence, we studied the degree and features of plaque vulnerability in different mouse models of atherosclerotic plaque destabilization and find that the model based on the placement of a shear stress modifier in combination with hypercholesterolemia represent with high incidence the most human like lesions compared to the other models.

  18. Lipid lowering and anti-atherosclerotic properties of Tinospora ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    atherosclerotic properties of Tinospora crispa aqueous extract (TCAE) on rabbits for 10 weeks. The hyperlipidemic rabbits were induced and the rabbit were given different concentration of TCAE (200, 450 and 600 mg/kg). Results from lipid analysis show ...

  19. In vivo determination of arterial collagen synthesis in atherosclerotic rabbits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Opsahl, W.P.; DeLuca, D.J.; Ehrhart, L.A.

    1986-01-01

    Collagen and non-collagen protein synthesis rates were determined in vivo in tissues from rabbits fed a control or atherogenic diet supplemented with 2% peanut oil and 0.25% cholesterol for 4 months. Rabbits received a bolus intravenous injection of L-[ 3 H]-proline (1.0 mCi/kg) and unlabeled L-proline (7 mmoles/kg) in 0.9% NaCl. Plasma proline specific activity decreased only 20% over 5 hr and was similar to the specific activity of free proline in tissues. Thoracic aortas from atherosclerotic rabbits exhibited raised plaques covering at least 75% of the surface. Thoracic intima plus a portion of the media (TIM) was separated from the remaining media plus adventitia (TMA). Dry delipidated weight, total collagen content, and collagen as a percent of dry weight were increased significantly in the TIM of atherosclerotic rabbits. Collagen synthesis rates and collagen synthesis as a percent of total protein synthesis were likewise increased both in the TIM and in the abdominal aortas. No differences from controls either in collagen content or collagen synthesis rates were observed in the TMA, lung or skin. These results demonstrate for the first time in vivo that formation of atherosclerotic plaques is associated with increased rates of collagen synthesis. Furthermore, as previously observed with incubations in vitro, collagen synthesis was elevated to a greater extent than noncollagen protein synthesis in atherosclerotic aortas from rabbits fed cholesterol plus peanut oil

  20. Control of atherosclerotic plaque vulnerability: insights from transgenic mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heeneman, Sylvia; Lutgens, Esther; Schapira, Kitty B.; Daemen, Mat J. A. P.; Biessen, Erik A. L.

    2008-01-01

    Atherosclerosis is a complex, progressive disease of the large systemic arteries. This multi-factorial disease is characterized by accumulation of lipids, cells and extracellular matrix in the vessel wall. The quest to unravel the molecular mechanisms leading to progression of human atherosclerotic

  1. Initial stress in biomechanical models of atherosclerotic plaques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Speelman, L.; Akyildiz, A.C.; Adel, den B.; Wentzel, J.J.; Steen, van der A.F.W.; Virmani, R.; Weerd, van der L.; Jukema, J.W.; Poelmann, R.E.; Brummelen, van E.H.; Gijsen, F.J.H.

    2011-01-01

    Rupture of atherosclerotic plaques is the underlying cause for the majority of acute strokes and myocardial infarctions. Rupture of the plaque occurs when the stress in the plaque exceeds the strength of the material locally. Biomechanical stress analyses are commonly based on pressurized

  2. Lower limb atherosclerotic disease causes various deteriorations of patients' health-related quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koivunen, Kirsi; Lukkarinen, Hannele

    2006-12-01

    Lower limb atherosclerotic disease (LLAD) is a worldwide health problem. Approximately 100,000 Finns have LLAD. Currently, a large number of health-related quality of life (HRQoL) studies are available, but we still have scant comprehensive information of HRQoL of patients with LLAD. The aim was to describe the HRQoL of women and men with LLAD in relation to the age- and sex-matched general population. In addition, the purpose was to study which demographic and relevant clinical and psychologic factors are connected with HRQoL of patients with LLAD. Patients with LLAD (N = 180, 62 women and 118 men) were recruited to participate in this study in the Clinic of Surgery, Oulu University Hospital, from 2001 to 2004. The control sample consisted of an age- and sex-matched general population (N = 2126; 1081 women and 1045 men). The HRQoL of the women and men with LLAD was evaluated using the Nottingham Health Profile (NHP) instrument, in relation to an age- and sex-matched general population (N = 2126) as well as demographic and relevant clinical and psychologic factors. The HRQoL of men was significantly (P women with LLAD was only significantly poorer (P women. The most emphasized relationships between poor HRQoL and the demographic, relevant clinical and psychologic factors were male sex, lack of exercise, retirement, a short painless walking distance, other atherosclerotic disease, poor subjective health status, problems with ability to cope at home, problems with the treatment of illness, and sex life. Male patients with LLAD had poorer HRQoL than the corresponding female patients on the dimensions of energy (P = .023), emotional reaction (P = .050), social isolation (P = .028), and NHP total score (P = .023). Those who did not exercise regularly had poorer HRQoL on the dimensions of energy (P = .005), pain (P = .049), emotional reaction (P = .007), social isolation (P = .001), and physical mobility (P = .028) than those who did exercise regularly. The HRQoL of

  3. Metabolic Syndrome and Outcomes after Renal Intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daynene Vykoukal

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Metabolic syndrome significantly increases the risk for cardiovascular disease and chronic kidney disease. The increased risk for cardiovascular diseases can partly be caused by a prothrombotic state that exists because of abdominal obesity. Multiple observational studies have consistently shown that increased body mass index as well as insulin resistance and increased fasting insulin levels is associated with chronic kidney disease, even after adjustment for related disorders. Metabolic syndrome appears to be a risk factor for chronic kidney disease, likely due to the combination of dysglycemia and high blood pressure. Metabolic syndrome is associated with markedly reduced renal clinical benefit and increased progression to hemodialysis following endovascular intervention for atherosclerotic renal artery stenosis. Metabolic syndrome is associated with inferior early outcomes for dialysis access procedures.

  4. Renal scan

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003790.htm Renal scan To use the sharing features on this ... anaphylaxis . Alternative Names Renogram; Kidney scan Images Kidney anatomy Kidney - blood and urine flow References Chernecky CC, ...

  5. Renal Hemangiopericytoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İbrahim Halil Bozkurt

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Hemangiopericytoma is an uncommon perivascular tumor originating from pericytes in the pelvis, head and tneck, and the meninges; extremely rarely in the urinary system. We report a case of incidentally detected renal mass in which radiologic evaluation was suggestive of renal cell carcinoma. First, we performed partial nephrectomy, and then, radical nephrectomy because of positive surgical margins and the pathological examination of the surgical specimen that revealed a hemangiopericytoma. No additional treatment was administered.

  6. Penetrating atherosclerotic ulcer of the aorta: A continuing debate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patatas, K.; Shrivastava, V.; Ettles, D.F.

    2013-01-01

    Aortic penetrating atherosclerotic ulcer (PAU) is a relatively common incidental finding on thoracic computed tomography (CT) examinations. This is likely to relate to the steady increase in the number of CT examinations performed and also due, in part, to the increasing age of the general population. There is as yet no consensus on the management of incidental PAUs in asymptomatic patients. This article aims to review the literature and discuss the natural history, prognosis, and management of incidental PAU

  7. Amputation of extremity in patients with atherosclerotic gangrene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsareva Yu.O.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim of investigation — to analyze the results of treatment of patients with atherosclerotic gangrene of a limb, to identify the causes of adverse outcomes amputation. Materials and methods: We analyzed the results of examination and treatment of 218 patients with atherosclerotic gangrene of the limb. Good outcome of amputation was considered the primary surgical wound healing of the stump. Suppuration, secondary healing, re-amputation and death we attributed to the adverse results of amputation. Results: The adverse outcomes of amputation due to technical errors in surgery, properly chosen level, inadequate drainage of the wound stump, an unsuccessful operation on the arteries of a limb, inadequate empirical antibiotic therapy, patient's age, functional capabilities of myocardium, the duration of critical ischemia, as well as the lack of psychological adaptation of patients before amputation. Conclusion: To decide the need for amputation in patients with atherosclerotic gangrene follows the assessment of possible vascular reconstructive surgery. In determining the level of amputation is necessary to objectively assess the degree of disruption of regional blood flow using multilevel manometry and laser Dopplerflowmetry. In preparation for amputation should be paid special attention to the correction of rheological and coagulation properties of blood, normalization of the functional state of the myocardium, as well as specialized psychotherapeutic training for timely and adequate psychological adaptation of the patient

  8. Molecular magnetic resonance imaging of atherosclerotic vessel wall disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noerenberg, Dominik [Charite - University Medicine Berlin, Department of Radiology, Berlin (Germany); University of Munich - Grosshadern, Department of Clinical Radiology, Munich (Germany); Ebersberger, Hans U. [Heart Center Munich-Bogenhausen, Department of Cardiology and Intensive Care Medicine, Munich (Germany); Diederichs, Gerd; Hamm, Bernd [Charite - University Medicine Berlin, Department of Radiology, Berlin (Germany); Botnar, Rene M. [King' s College London, Division of Imaging Sciences and Biomedical Engineering, London (United Kingdom); Makowski, Marcus R. [Charite - University Medicine Berlin, Department of Radiology, Berlin (Germany); King' s College London, Division of Imaging Sciences and Biomedical Engineering, London (United Kingdom)

    2016-03-15

    Molecular imaging aims to improve the identification and characterization of pathological processes in vivo by visualizing the underlying biological mechanisms. Molecular imaging techniques are increasingly used to assess vascular inflammation, remodeling, cell migration, angioneogenesis and apoptosis. In cardiovascular diseases, molecular magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) offers new insights into the in vivo biology of pathological vessel wall processes of the coronary and carotid arteries and the aorta. This includes detection of early vascular changes preceding plaque development, visualization of unstable plaques and assessment of response to therapy. The current review focuses on recent developments in the field of molecular MRI to characterise different stages of atherosclerotic vessel wall disease. A variety of molecular MR-probes have been developed to improve the non-invasive detection and characterization of atherosclerotic plaques. Specifically targeted molecular probes allow for the visualization of key biological steps in the cascade leading to the development of arterial vessel wall lesions. Early detection of processes which lead to the development of atherosclerosis and the identification of vulnerable atherosclerotic plaques may enable the early assessment of response to therapy, improve therapy planning, foster the prevention of cardiovascular events and may open the door for the development of patient-specific treatment strategies. (orig.)

  9. High speed intravascular photoacoustic imaging of atherosclerotic arteries (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piao, Zhonglie; Ma, Teng; Qu, Yueqiao; Li, Jiawen; Yu, Mingyue; He, Youmin; Shung, K. Kirk; Zhou, Qifa; Kim, Chang-Seok; Chen, Zhongping

    2016-02-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death in the industrialized nations. Accurate quantification of both the morphology and composition of lipid-rich vulnerable atherosclerotic plaque are essential for early detection and optimal treatment in clinics. In previous works, intravascular photoacoustic (IVPA) imaging for detection of lipid-rich plaque within coronary artery walls has been demonstrated in ex vivo, but the imaging speed is still limited. In order to increase the imaging speed, a high repetition rate laser is needed. In this work, we present a high speed integrated IVPA/US imaging system with a 500 Hz optical parametric oscillator laser at 1725 nm. A miniature catheter with 1.0 mm outer diameter was designed with a 200 μm multimode fiber and an ultrasound transducer with 45 MHz center frequency. The fiber was polished at 38 degree and enclosed in a glass capillary for total internal reflection. An optical/electrical rotary junction and pull-back mechanism was applied for rotating and linearly scanning the catheter to obtain three-dimensional imaging. Atherosclerotic rabbit abdominal aorta was imaged as two frame/second at 1725 nm. Furthermore, by wide tuning range of the laser wavelength from 1680 nm to 1770 nm, spectroscopic photoacoustic analysis of lipid-mimicking phantom and an human atherosclerotic artery was performed ex vivo. The results demonstrated that the developed IVPA/US imaging system is capable for high speed intravascular imaging for plaque detection.

  10. Collagen and related extracellular matrix proteins in atherosclerotic plaque development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shami, Annelie; Gonçalves, Isabel; Hultgårdh-Nilsson, Anna

    2014-10-01

    The structure, composition and turnover of the extracellular matrix (ECM) as well as cell-matrix interactions are crucial in the developing atherosclerotic plaque. There is a need for further insight into specific proteins in the ECM and their functions in the developing plaque, and during the last few years a number of publications have highlighted this very important field of research. These novel findings will be addressed in the present review. This review covers literature focused on collagen and ECM proteins interacting with collagen, and what their roles may be in plaque development. Acute myocardial infarction and stroke are common diseases that cause disability and mortality, and the underlying mechanism is often the rupture of a vulnerable atherosclerotic plaque. The vascular ECM and the tissue repair in the atherosclerotic lesion are important players in plaque progression. Understanding how specific proteins in the ECM interact with cells in the plaque and affect the fate of the plaque can lead to new treatments for cardiovascular disease.

  11. Molecular magnetic resonance imaging of atherosclerotic vessel wall disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noerenberg, Dominik; Ebersberger, Hans U.; Diederichs, Gerd; Hamm, Bernd; Botnar, Rene M.; Makowski, Marcus R.

    2016-01-01

    Molecular imaging aims to improve the identification and characterization of pathological processes in vivo by visualizing the underlying biological mechanisms. Molecular imaging techniques are increasingly used to assess vascular inflammation, remodeling, cell migration, angioneogenesis and apoptosis. In cardiovascular diseases, molecular magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) offers new insights into the in vivo biology of pathological vessel wall processes of the coronary and carotid arteries and the aorta. This includes detection of early vascular changes preceding plaque development, visualization of unstable plaques and assessment of response to therapy. The current review focuses on recent developments in the field of molecular MRI to characterise different stages of atherosclerotic vessel wall disease. A variety of molecular MR-probes have been developed to improve the non-invasive detection and characterization of atherosclerotic plaques. Specifically targeted molecular probes allow for the visualization of key biological steps in the cascade leading to the development of arterial vessel wall lesions. Early detection of processes which lead to the development of atherosclerosis and the identification of vulnerable atherosclerotic plaques may enable the early assessment of response to therapy, improve therapy planning, foster the prevention of cardiovascular events and may open the door for the development of patient-specific treatment strategies. (orig.)

  12. The prevalence of renal artery stenosis among patients with diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postma, C T; Klappe, E M; Dekker, H M; Thien, Th

    2012-10-01

    Patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) have a high prevalence of atherosclerotic vascular lesions. It is therefore reasonable to assume that also the rate of renal artery stenosis (RAS) is higher. The presence of a RAS can have implications for the treatment of patients with diabetes mellitus and hypertension and renal impairment. Therefore it is important to be informed about the chance that a RAS is present among such patients. We prospectively studied the prevalence of atherosclerotic renal artery stenosis (RAS) among patients with diabetes mellitus. Patients were included if they were diagnosed with DM and hypertension with or without impairment of renal function. If causes of renal disease other than DM or hypertension were more probable on the basis of biochemical data, then such patients were excluded. A magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) of the renal arteries was made in 54 included successive patients. mean age 59 ± 8.5 years (range 35 to 80). Eight patients had DM 1 and 46 DM 2. Mean BMI was 31.4 ± 5.6 kg/m(2). A RAS was present in 18 of the 54 (33%) patients, 3 patients had bilateral stenoses. Factors related to the presence of RAS were diastolic blood pressure, glomerular filtration rate and dyslipidaemia. In this group of diabetic patients with hypertension and or renal impairment the prevalence of RAS was 33%. Copyright © 2012 European Federation of Internal Medicine. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. RENAL DAMAGE WITH MALIGNANT NEOPLASMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. B. Kolina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between renal damage and malignant neoplasms is one of the most actual problems of the medicine of internal diseases. Very often, exactly availability of renal damage determines the forecast of cancer patients. The range of renal pathologies associated with tumors is unusually wide: from the mechanical effect of the tumor or metastases on the kidneys and/or the urinary tract and paraneoplastic manifestations in the form of nephritis or amyloidosis to nephropathies induced with drugs or tumor lysis, etc. Thrombotic complications that develop as a result of exposure to tumor effects, side effects of certain drugs or irradiation also play an important role in the development of the kidney damage. The most frequent variants of renal damage observed in the practice of medical internists (therapists, urologists, surgeons, etc., as well as methods of diagnosis and treatment approaches are described in the article. Timely and successful prevention and treatment of tumor-associated nephropathies give hope for retaining renal functions, therefore, a higher life standard after completion of anti-tumor therapy. Even a shortterm episode of acute renal damage suffered by a cancer patient must be accompanied with relevant examination and treatment. In the caseof transformation of acute renal damage into the chronic kidney disease, such patients need systematic and weighted renoprotective therapy and correct dosing of nephrotoxic drugs.

  14. Combined Atherosclerotic Lesions in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.V. Khimion

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Significant prevalence of atherosclerosis and its complications in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM determines the need for further investigations of existing risk factors. Objective. To determine the effect of various risk factors on the development of atherosclerotic lesions in patients with type 2 DM. Materials and methods. The average levels of systolic blood pressure (SBP, HbA1c, high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP, uric acid (UA, low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL–C in the blood serum and the score by the anxiety and depression scale (HADRS compared to the evaluation of ultrasound data of atherosclerotic lesion of the carotid arteries (intima-media thickness ≥ 0.9 mm or the presence of atherosclerotic plaques and lower limb arteries (ankle-brachial index ≤ 0.9 were analyzed in 122 patients with type 2 DM (66 women, 56 men, mean age — 55.0 (49.8–62.0 years during 5-year follow-up. Statistical analysis was performed using IBM SPSS Statistics 20. Results. During the study, patients were divided into 3 groups: group 1 — 48 people with atherosclerotic lesions of the carotid arteries and lower extremities, group 2 — 47 individuals with atherosclerosis of the carotid arteries, group 3 — 27 people with no signs of atherosclerotic lesion. It was found that in group 1 patients, the average levels of SBP (141.7 (132.1–152.9 mmHg, HbA1c (9.2 (8.2–9.9 %, hsCRP (5.8 (4.2–6.9 mg/L, UA (358.1 (302.4–396.1 μmol/L, LDL–C (4.1 (3.6–5.2 mmol/L, a score by HADRS (16.0 (9.0–18.8 points were significantly higher compared to that of in group 3 (SBP — 136.7 (128.3–143.3 mmHg, HbA1c — 7.7 (7.0–8.4 %, hsCRP — 2.7 (1.1–3.3 mg/L, UA — 276.8 (227.0–316.0 μmol/L, LDL–C — 3.3 (3.0–4.0 mmol/L, a score by HADRS (8.0 (7.0–10.0 points (p < 0.05. The average levels of HbA1c and hsCRP in group 1 patients were significantly higher compared with that of in group 2 (HbA1c — 8.7 (7.6–9

  15. Salusins: Potential Use as a Biomarker for Atherosclerotic Cardiovascular Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kengo Sato

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Human salusin-α and salusin-β are related peptides produced from prosalusin. Bolus injection of salusin-β into rats induces more profound hypotension and bradycardia than salusin-α. Central administration of salusin-β increases blood pressure via release of norepinephrine and arginine-vasopressin. Circulating levels of salusin-α and salusin-β are lower in patients with essential hypertension. Salusin-β exerts more potent mitogenic effects on human vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs and fibroblasts than salusin-α. Salusin-β accelerates inflammatory responses in human endothelial cells and monocyte-endothelial adhesion. Human macrophage foam cell formation is stimulated by salusin-β but suppressed by salusin-α. Chronic salusin-β infusion into apolipoprotein E-deficient mice enhances atherosclerotic lesions; salusin-α infusion reduces lesions. Salusin-β is expressed in proliferative neointimal lesions of porcine coronary arteries after stenting. Salusin-α and salusin-β immunoreactivity have been detected in human coronary atherosclerotic plaques, with dominance of salusin-β in macrophage foam cells, VSMCs, and fibroblasts. Circulating salusin-β levels increase and salusin-α levels decrease in patients with coronary artery disease. These findings suggest that salusin-β and salusin-α may contribute to proatherogenesis and antiatherogenesis, respectively. Increased salusin-β and/or decreased salusin-α levels in circulating blood and vascular tissue are closely linked with atherosclerosis. Salusin-α and salusin-β could be candidate biomarkers and therapeutic targets for atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases.

  16. SAP deficiency mitigated atherosclerotic lesions in ApoE(-/-) mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Lingyun; Wu, Teng; Zeng, Cuiling; Li, Xiangli; Li, Xiaoqiang; Wen, Dingwen; Ji, Tianxing; Lan, Tian; Xing, Liying; Li, Jiangchao; He, Xiaodong; Wang, Lijing

    2016-01-01

    Serum amyloid P conpoent (SAP), a member of the pentraxin family, interact with pathogens and cell debris to promote their removal by macrophages and neutrophils and is co-localized with atherosclerotic plaques in patients. However, the exact mechanism of SAP in atherogenesis is still unclear. We investigated whether SAP influence macrophage recruitment and foam cell formation and ultimately affect atherosclerotic progression. we generated apoE(-/-); SAP(-/-) (DKO) mice and fed them western diet for 4 and 8 weeks to characterize atherosclerosis development. SAP deficiency effectively reduced plaque size both in the aorta (p = 0.0006 for 4 wks; p = 0.0001 for 8 wks) and the aortic root (p = 0.0061 for 4 wks; p = 0.0079 for 8wks) compared with apoE(-/-) mice. Meanwhile, SAP deficiency inhibited oxLDL-induced foam cell formation (p = 0.0004) compared with apoE(-/-) mice and SAP treatment increases oxLDL-induced foam cell formation (p = 0.002) in RAW cells. Besides, SAP deficiency reduced macrophages recruitment (p = 0.035) in vivo and in vitro (p = 0.026). Furthermore, SAP treatment enhanced CD36 (p = 0.007) and FcγRI (p = 0.031) expression induced by oxLDL through upregulating JNK and p38 MAPK phosphorylation whereas specific JNK1/2 inhibitor reduced CD36 (p = 0.0005) and FcγRI (P = 0.0007) expression in RAW cell. SAP deficiency also significantly decreased the expression of M1 and M2 macrophage markers and inflammatory cytokines in oxLDL-induced macrophages. SAP deficiency mitigated foam cell formation and atherosclerotic development in apoE(-/-) mice, due to reduction in macrophages recruitment, polarization and pro-inflammatory cytokines and inhibition the CD36/FcγR-dependent signaling pathway. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Raised soluble P-selectin moderately accelerates atherosclerotic plaque progression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin J Woollard

    Full Text Available Soluble P-selectin (sP-selectin, a biomarker of inflammatory related pathologies including cardiovascular and peripheral vascular diseases, also has pro-atherosclerotic effects including the ability to increase leukocyte recruitment and modulate thrombotic responses in vivo. The current study explores its role in progressing atherosclerotic plaque disease. Apoe-/- mice placed on a high fat diet (HFD were given daily injections of recombinant dimeric murine P-selectin (22.5 µg/kg/day for 8 or 16 weeks. Saline or sE-selectin injections were used as negative controls. In order to assess the role of sP-selectin on atherothrombosis an experimental plaque remodelling murine model, with sm22α-hDTR Apoe-/- mice on a HFD in conjunction with delivery of diphtheria toxin to induce targeted vascular smooth muscle apoptosis, was used. These mice were similarly given daily injections of sP-selectin for 8 or 16 weeks. While plaque mass and aortic lipid content did not change with sP-selectin treatment in Apoe-/- or SM22α-hDTR Apoe-/- mice on HFD, increased plasma MCP-1 and a higher plaque CD45 content in Apoe-/- HFD mice was observed. As well, a significant shift towards a more unstable plaque phenotype in the SM22α-hDTR Apoe-/- HFD mice, with increased macrophage accumulation and lower collagen content, leading to a lower plaque stability index, was observed. These results demonstrate that chronically raised sP-selectin favours progression of an unstable atherosclerotic plaque phenotype.

  18. Triglyceride-Rich Lipoproteins and Atherosclerotic Cardiovascular Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordestgaard, Børge G

    2016-01-01

    Scientific interest in triglyceride-rich lipoproteins has fluctuated over the past many years, ranging from beliefs that these lipoproteins cause atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) to being innocent bystanders. Correspondingly, clinical recommendations have fluctuated from a need.......1-fold for myocardial infarction, 3.2-fold for ischemic heart disease, 3.2-fold for ischemic stroke, and 2.2-fold for all-cause mortality. Also, genetic studies using the Mendelian randomization design, an approach that minimizes problems with confounding and reverse causation, now demonstrate...

  19. Low-density lipoproteins cause atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ference, Brian A.; Ginsberg, Henry N.; Graham, Ian

    2017-01-01

    Aims To appraise the clinical and genetic evidence that low-density lipoproteins (LDLs) cause atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD). Methods and results We assessed whether the association between LDL and ASCVD fulfils the criteria for causality by evaluating the totality of evidence from...... proportional to the absolute reduction in LDL-C and the cumulative duration of exposure to lower LDL-C, provided that the achieved reduction in LDL-C is concordant with the reduction in LDL particle number and that there are no competing deleterious off-target effects. Conclusion Consistent evidence from...

  20. Atherosclerotic arterial remodeling and the localization of macrophages and matrix metalloproteases 1, 2 and 9 in the human coronary artery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pasterkamp, G.; Schoneveld, A. H.; Hijnen, D. J.; de Kleijn, D. P.; Teepen, H.; van der Wal, A. C.; Borst, C.

    2000-01-01

    Atherosclerotic luminal narrowing is determined by plaque mass and the mode of geometrical remodeling. Recently, we reported that the type of atherosclerotic remodeling is associated with the presence of histological markers for plaque vulnerability. Inflammation and matrix degrading proteases

  1. Contrast enhancement by lipid-based MRI contrast agents in mouse atherosclerotic plaques; a longitudinal study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    den Adel, Brigit; van der Graaf, Linda M.; Que, Ivo; Strijkers, Gustav J.; Löwik, Clemens W.; Poelmann, Robert E.; van der Weerd, Louise

    2013-01-01

    The use of contrast-enhanced MRI to enable in vivo specific characterization of atherosclerotic plaques is increasing. In this study the intrinsic ability of two differently sized gadolinium-based contrast agents to enhance atherosclerotic plaques in ApoE(-/-) mice was evaluated with MRI. We

  2. Renal candidiasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khanna, S.; Malik, N.; Khandelwal, N.

    1990-01-01

    Most fungal infections of the urinary tract are caused by Candida albicans, a yeast-like saprophytic fungus which may become apathogen under various conditions which lower the host resistance. The use of computed tomography in the diagnosis of renal fungus balls is the subject of this communication with emphasis on the radiologists role in the recognition of this entity. (H.W.). 6 refs.; 2 figs

  3. Spectral CT of carotid atherosclerotic plaque: comparison with histology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zainon, R.; Doesburg, R.M. [University of Canterbury, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Christchurch (New Zealand); Ronaldson, J.P.; Gieseg, S.P. [University of Otago, Centre for Bioengineering, Christchurch (New Zealand); Janmale, T. [University of Canterbury, Free Radical Biochemistry Laboratory, School of Biological Sciences, Christchurch (New Zealand); Scott, N.J. [University of Otago, Department of Medicine, Christchurch (New Zealand); Buckenham, T.M. [University of Otago, Department of Academic Radiology, Christchurch (New Zealand); Butler, A.P.H. [University of Otago, Centre for Bioengineering, Christchurch (New Zealand); University of Otago, Department of Academic Radiology, Christchurch (New Zealand); University of Canterbury, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Christchurch (New Zealand); European Organisation for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland); Butler, P.H. [University of Canterbury, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Christchurch (New Zealand); European Organisation for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland); Roake, J.A. [Christchurch Hospital, Department of Vascular, Endovascular and Transplant Surgery, Christchurch (New Zealand); Anderson, N.G. [University of Otago, Centre for Bioengineering, Christchurch (New Zealand); University of Otago, Department of Academic Radiology, Christchurch (New Zealand); University of Otago, Christchurch, Department of Radiology, PO Box 4345, Christchurch (New Zealand)

    2012-12-15

    To distinguish components of vulnerable atherosclerotic plaque by imaging their energy response using spectral CT and comparing images with histology. After spectroscopic calibration using phantoms of plaque surrogates, excised human carotid atherosclerotic plaques were imaged using MARS CT using a photon-processing detector with a silicon sensor layer and microfocus X-ray tube (50 kVp, 0.5 mA) at 38-{mu}m voxel size. The plaques were imaged, sectioned and re-imaged using four threshold energies: 10, 16, 22 and 28 keV; then sequentially stained with modified Von Kossa, Perl's Prussian blue and Oil-Red O, and photographed. Relative Hounsfield units across the energies were entered into a linear algebraic material decomposition model to identify the unknown plaque components. Lipid, calcium, iron and water-like components of plaque have distinguishable energy responses to X-ray, visible on spectral CT images. CT images of the plaque surface correlated very well with histological photographs. Calcium deposits (>1,000 {mu}m) in plaque are larger than iron deposits (<100 {mu}m), but could not be distinguished from each other within the same voxel using the energy range available. Spectral CT displays energy information in image form at high spatial resolution, enhancing the intrinsic contrast of lipid, calcium and iron within atheroma. (orig.)

  4. Tensile and compressive properties of fresh human carotid atherosclerotic plaques.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Maher, Eoghan

    2009-12-11

    Accurate characterisation of the mechanical properties of human atherosclerotic plaque is important for our understanding of the role of vascular mechanics in the development and treatment of atherosclerosis. The majority of previous studies investigating the mechanical properties of human plaque are based on tests of plaque tissue removed following autopsy. This study aims to characterise the mechanical behaviour of fresh human carotid plaques removed during endarterectomy and tested within 2h. A total of 50 radial compressive and 17 circumferential tensile uniaxial tests were performed on samples taken from 14 carotid plaques. The clinical classification of each plaque, as determined by duplex ultrasound is also reported. Plaques were classified as calcified, mixed or echolucent. Experimental data indicated that plaques were highly inhomogeneous; with variations seen in the mechanical properties of plaque obtained from individual donors and between donors. The mean behaviour of samples for each classification indicated that calcified plaques had the stiffest response, while echolucent plaques were the least stiff. Results also indicated that there may be a difference in behaviour of samples taken from different anatomical locations (common, internal and external carotid), however the large variability indicates that more testing is needed to reach significant conclusions. This work represents a step towards a better understanding of the in vivo mechanical behaviour of human atherosclerotic plaque.

  5. Surgical treatment of penetrating atherosclerotic ulcer of the descending aorta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovačević Pavle

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The term “penetrating atherosclerotic ulcer” (PAU of the aorta describes the condition in which ulceration of an aortic atherosclerotic lesion penetrates the internal elastic lamina into media. PAU is a high-risk lesion due to its deleterious effects on the integrity of aortic wall, with potentially fatal outcome. Case report. A patient with intensive, sharp chest pain irradiating to the back but with no signs of myocardial ischemia on an electrocardiogram was referred to our hospital. Transthoracic echocardiography showed no pathological changes of the ascending aorta. However, multislice computed tomography (CT showed an aortic ulcer with varying degree of the subadventitial hemorrhage in the region of the thoracic aorta at the level of Th 8-9. Due to imminent rupture of the penetrating aortic ulcer, the patient was promptly prepared for surgery. A 15 cm long subadventitial hematoma was found intraoperatively in the right posterolateral aspect of the descending aorta, 5 cm above the diaphragm and 7 cm below the origin of the left subclavial artery. The affected segment of the aorta was resected, followed by an inlay aortic reconstruction with a Dacron tube graft of 24 mm. Control CT revealed satisfactory reconstruction of the descending aorta. Conclusion. PAU is a rare, but potentially fatal disease. Open surgery in patients with PAU is an effective treatment strategy, although endovascular treatment options are emerging.

  6. MR chemical shift imaging and spectroscopy of atherosclerotic plaque

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vinitski, S.; Consigny, P.M.; Shapiro, M.J.; Janes, N.; Smullens, S.N.; Rifkin, M.D.

    1989-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a technique for in vivo imaging and characterization of atherosclerotic plaque. The authors used a spin-echo technique with a short echo time (TE) of 11 msec. Lipid/water suppression was achieved by means of hybrid chemical shift imaging. Lesions were induced in three rabbits by a combination of balloon denudation of the abdominal aorta and a high-cholesterol diet. Following in vivo imaging of these rabbit aortas and human carotid arteries (1.5 T), the animals were killed or carotid endarterectomy was performed so that the plaques could be excised. The plaques were then analyzed in vitro both histologically and with high-resolution spectroscopy (8.5 T). Use of the short TE improved lesion visualization. The fat/water suppression showed only a small amount of mobile lipids in plaque. Both MR spectroscopic and histologic analysis corroborated these images. The composition of atherosclerotic plaques in both humans and rabbits was demonstrated to be heterogeneous, with predominantly nonmobile lipids. These results suggest that the combination of short TE MR imaging and fat/water suppression can identify plaque and delineate areas containing mobile lipids

  7. A practical method for quantifying atherosclerotic lesions in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, C; Zheng, H; Yu, Q; Yang, P; Li, Y; Cheng, F; Fan, J; Liu, E

    2010-01-01

    The rabbit has been widely used for the study of human atherosclerosis; however, the method for analysis of the atherosclerotic lesions has not been standardized between laboratories. The present study reports a practical method for quantifying the changes that occur in aortic atherosclerosis of rabbits. Male Japanese white rabbits were fed with either a standard chow or a diet containing 10% fat and 0.3% cholesterol for 16 weeks. Plasma concentrations of glucose, insulin, total cholesterol, triglycerides and high-density lipoprotein were measured. Aortic atherosclerotic lesions were assessed in quantitative fashion using an image analysis system that measured (1) the gross area of the entire aorta affected by atherosclerosis as defined by Sudan IV staining, (2) the microscopical intimal lesion defined by the elastic van Gieson stain and (3) the infiltration of macrophages and smooth muscle cell proliferation as determined immunohistochemically. The rabbits developed severe aortic atherosclerosis without apparent abnormality of glucose metabolism. The quantitative method described here will be useful for the further investigation of atherosclerosis in rabbits. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Current techniques for the investigation of vulnerable atherosclerotic plaques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riou, L.; Broisat, A.; Fagret, D.; Ghezzi, C.

    2005-01-01

    Atherosclerosis is the single most important contributor to cardiovascular diseases, the leading cause of death in industrialized countries. Atherosclerosis complications such as vulnerable coronary plaque rupture or erosion result in acute coronary events, i.e. myocardial infarction and sudden death. Vulnerable plaques initially develop eccentrically without impeding on the vessel lumen and are therefore not detectable using angiography. New techniques for the investigation of vulnerable plaques are needed to identify and treat vulnerable patients. Invasive techniques require the use of intracoronary probes and are thereby not applicable to large populations of patients. Intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) and optical coherence tomography (OCT) are the most promising invasive modalities. They provide morphological data that could potentially be associated with a more functional approach such as thermography, elasto-graphy, or spectroscopy, Non-invasive techniques are better suited for studying larger populations of patients. Computed tomography is currently used for calcium scoring, but the biological meaning and the prognostic value of this index remain to be fully determined. Non-invasive coronary magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) faces numerous technical challenges, and it essentially provides morphological data. Molecular nuclear imaging offers a great sensitivity and the ability to provide metabolic data about atherosclerotic lesions. New potential tracers of vulnerable plaques are currently being evaluated. Nuclear Medicine should therefore play a major role in the future as a non invasive imaging modality for the assessment of vulnerable atherosclerotic plaques. (author)

  9. Renal hemangioma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theodorico F. da Costa Neto

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Renal hemangioma is a relatively rare benign tumor, seldom diagnosed as a cause of hematuria. CASE REPORT: A female 40-year old patient presented with continuous gross hematuria, anemia and episodic right lumbar pain, with onset about 3 months previously. The patient underwent multiple blood transfusions during her hospital stay and extensive imaging propedeutics was performed. Semi-rigid ureterorenoscopy evidenced a bleeding focus in the upper calix of the right kidney, with endoscopic treatment being unfeasible. The patient underwent right upper pole nephrectomy and presented a favorable outcome. Histopathological analysis of the surgical specimen showed that it was a renal hemangioma. COMMENTS: Imaging methods usually employed for diagnostic investigation of hematuria do not have good sensitivity for renal hemangioma. However, they are important to exclude the most frequent differential diagnoses. The ureterorenoscopy is the diagnostic method of choice and endoscopic treatment can be feasible when the lesion is accessible and electrocautery or laser are available. We emphasize the open surgical treatment as a therapeutic option upon failure of less invasive methods.

  10. Efficacy and safety of catheter-based radiofrequency renal denervation in stented renal arteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahfoud, Felix; Tunev, Stefan; Ruwart, Jennifer; Schulz-Jander, Daniel; Cremers, Bodo; Linz, Dominik; Zeller, Thomas; Bhatt, Deepak L; Rocha-Singh, Krishna; Böhm, Michael; Melder, Robert J

    2014-12-01

    In selected patients with hypertension, renal artery (RA) stenting is used to treat significant atherosclerotic stenoses. However, blood pressure often remains uncontrolled after the procedure. Although catheter-based renal denervation (RDN) can reduce blood pressure in certain patients with resistant hypertension, there are no data on the feasibility and safety of RDN in stented RA. We report marked blood pressure reduction after RDN in a patient with resistant hypertension who underwent previous stenting. Subsequently, radiofrequency ablation was investigated within the stented segment of porcine RA, distal to the stented segment, and in nonstented RA and compared with stent only and untreated controls. There were neither observations of thrombus nor gross or histological changes in the kidneys. After radiofrequency ablation of the nonstented RA, sympathetic nerves innervating the kidney were significantly reduced, as indicated by significant decreases in sympathetic terminal axons and reduction of norepinephrine in renal tissue. Similar denervation efficacy was found when RDN was performed distal to a renal stent. In contrast, when radiofrequency ablation was performed within the stented segment of the RA, significant sympathetic nerve ablation was not seen. Histological observation showed favorable healing in all arteries. Radiofrequency ablation of previously stented RA demonstrated that RDN provides equally safe experimental procedural outcomes in a porcine model whether the radiofrequency treatment is delivered within, adjacent, or without the stent struts being present in the RA. However, efficacious RDN is only achieved when radiofrequency ablation is delivered to the nonstented RA segment distal to the stent. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  11. Obesity and renal hemodynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosma, R. J.; Krikken, J. A.; van der Heide, J. J. Homan; de Jong, P. E.; Navis, G. J.

    2006-01-01

    Obesity is a risk factor for renal damage in native kidney disease and in renal transplant recipients. Obesity is associated with several renal risk factors such as hypertension and diabetes that may convey renal risk, but obesity is also associated with an unfavorable renal hemodynamic profile

  12. Radiopharmaceuticals for renal studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verdera, Silvia

    1994-01-01

    Between the diagnostic techniques using radiopharmaceuticals in nuclear medicine it find renal studies.A brief description about renal glomerular filtration(GFR) and reliability renal plasma flux (ERPF),renal blood flux measurement agents (RBF),renal scintillation agents and radiation dose estimates by organ physiology was given in this study.tabs

  13. Renal artery stent angioplasty for renovascular hypertension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Gang; Li Haiqing; Wang Lin

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the therapeutic results of expandable stent for treatment of atherosclerotic renovascular obstructive disease. Methods: 15 patients (10 men and 5 women, 41-75 years old; mean age, 52 years) with renal arterial hypertension underwent renal stent angioplasty including renal arterial stenosis 89%(n=13) and fully obstruction without function in 2, of which 2 patients had bilateral involvement. The stenotic range of all arterial segments showed 60% to 90% width of the normal arterial diameter. 16 stents were implanted under the guidance of fluoroscopy. The most of stents implanted were Palmaz (n=12, 75%) with regular clinical and angiographic follow up. Results: Technical success (residual stenosis <30%) was achieved in all patients without serious complication. During the follow-up (6-15 months; mean, 8 ± 4 months), hypertension was improved in 9 patients and cured in 4 patients with a total benefit of 86% and no efficacy in 2(13%). The average systolic blood pressure decreased from 27.12 ± 3.09 kPa to 18.62 ± 3.12 kPa and the average diastolic blood pressure decreased from 17.73 ± 1.92 kPa to 11.12 ± 2.43 kPa after stent treatment (P<0.05). Serum creatinine remained stable in 60% (n=9) patients with improvement in 33% (n=5) and worsened in 6% (n=1) patients. Follow-up angiography was performed in all patients with 1 case of a restenosis. 6 months after expanding through stent by using balloon, the two follow up angiographies showed a stable restenosis about 20%. Conclusions: Percutaneous transluminal stent placement is highly beneficial for patients who had renal arterial obstructive disease. The success of stent angioplasty of complete obstructive renal arteries reveals wide prospects for interventional method. (authors)

  14. Bilateral renal artery variation

    OpenAIRE

    Üçerler, Hülya; Üzüm, Yusuf; İkiz, Z. Aslı Aktan

    2014-01-01

    Each kidney is supplied by a single renal artery, although renal artery variations are common. Variations of the renal arteryhave become important with the increasing number of renal transplantations. Numerous studies describe variations in renalartery anatomy. Especially the left renal artery is among the most critical arterial variations, because it is the referred side forresecting the donor kidney. During routine dissection in a formalin fixed male cadaver, we have found a bilateral renal...

  15. HDL mimetic CER-001 targets atherosclerotic plaques in patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Kang He; van der Valk, Fleur M; Smits, Loek P; Sandberg, Mara; Dasseux, Jean-Louis; Baron, Rudi; Barbaras, Ronald; Keyserling, Constance; Coolen, Bram F; Nederveen, Aart J; Verberne, Hein J; Nell, Thijs E; Vugts, Danielle J; Duivenvoorden, Raphaël; Fayad, Zahi A; Mulder, Willem J M; van Dongen, Guus A M S; Stroes, Erik S G

    2016-08-01

    Infusion of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) mimetics aimed at reducing atherosclerotic burden has led to equivocal results, which may relate in part to the inability of HDL mimetics to adequately reach atherosclerotic lesions in humans. This study evaluated delivery of recombinant human apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) containing HDL mimetic CER-001 in carotid plaques in patients. CER-001 was radiolabeled with the long-lived positron emitter zirconium-89 ((89)Zr) to enable positron emission tomography with computed tomography (PET/CT) imaging. Eight patients with atherosclerotic carotid artery disease (>50% stenosis) received a single infusion of unlabeled CER-001 (3 mg/kg), co-administered with 10 mg of (89)Zr-labeled CER-001 (18 MBq). Serial PET/CT imaging and contrast enhanced-magnetic resonance imaging (CE-MRI) were performed to evaluate targeted delivery of CER-001. One hour after infusion, mean plasma apoA-I levels increased by 9.9 mg/dL (p = 0.026), with a concomitant relative increase in the plasma cholesterol efflux capacity of 13.8% (p CER-001 expressed as target-to-background ratio (TBRmax) increased significantly 24 h after infusion, and remained increased up to 48 h (TBRmax t = 10 min: 0.98; t = 24 h: 1.14 (p = 0.001); t = 48 h: 1.12 (p = 0.007)). TBRmax was higher in plaque compared with non-plaque segments (1.18 vs. 1.05; p CER-001 increases plasma apoA-I concentration and plasma cholesterol efflux capacity. Our data support the concept that CER-001 targets plaque regions in patients, which correlates with plaque contrast enhancement. These clinical findings may also guide future nanomedicine development using HDL particles for drug delivery in atherosclerosis. Netherlands Trial Registry - NTR5178. http://www.trialregister.nl/trialreg/admin/rctview.asp?TC=5178. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  16. Renal tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Džamić Zoran

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis is still a significant health problem in the world, mostly in developing countries. The special significance lies in immunocompromised patients, particularly those suffering from the HIV. Urogenital tuberculosis is one of the most common forms of extrapulmonary tuberculosis, while the most commonly involved organ is the kidney. Renal tuberculosis occurs by hematogenous dissemination of mycobacterium tuberculosis from a primary tuberculosis foci in the body. Tuberculosis is characterized by the formation of pathognomonic lesions in the tissues - granulomata. These granulomata may heal spontaneously or remain stable for years. In certain circumstances in the body associated with immunosuppression, the disease may be activated. Central caseous necrosis occurs within tuberculoma, leading to formation of cavities that destroy renal parenchyma. The process may gain access to the collecting system, forming the caverns. In this way, infection can be spread distally to renal pelvis, ureter and bladder. Scaring of tissue by tuberculosis process may lead to development of strictures of the urinary tract. The clinical manifestations are presented by nonspecific symptoms and signs, so tuberculosis can often be overlooked. Sterile pyuria is characteristic for urinary tuberculosis. Dysuric complaints, flank pain or hematuria may be presented in patients. Constitutional symptoms of fever, weight loss and night sweats are presented in some severe cases. Diagnosis is made by isolation of mycobacterium tuberculosis in urine samples, by cultures carried out on standard solid media optimized for mycobacterial growth. Different imaging studies are used in diagnostics - IVU, CT and NMR are the most important. Medical therapy is the main modality of tuberculosis treatment. The first line anti-tuberculosis drugs include isoniazid, rifampicin, pyrazinamide and ethambutol. Surgical treatment is required in some cases, to remove severely damaged kidney, if

  17. Renal denervation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Lene Kjær; Kamper, Anne-Lise; Svendsen, Jesper Hastrup

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Renal denervation (RDN) has, within recent years, been suggested as a novel treatment option for patients with resistant hypertension. This review summarizes the current knowledge on this procedure as well as limitations and questions that remain to be answered. RECENT FINDINGS...... selection, anatomical and physiological effects of RDN as well as possible beneficial effects on other diseases with increased sympathetic activity. The long awaited Symplicity HTN-3 (2014) results illustrated that the RDN group and the sham-group had similar reductions in BP. SUMMARY: Initial studies...

  18. Renal papillary necrosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... asking your provider. Alternative Names Necrosis - renal papillae; Renal medullary necrosis Images Kidney anatomy Kidney - blood and urine flow References Bushinsky DA, Monk RD. Nephrolithiasis and nephrocalcinosis. ...

  19. Molecular imaging of atherosclerotic plaques with technetium-99m-labelled antisense oligonucleotides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qin Guangming; Zhang Yongxue; Cao Wei; An Rui; Gao Zairong; Xu Wendai; Zhang Kaijun; Li Guiling; Li Shuren

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to visualise experimental atherosclerotic lesions using radiolabelled antisense oligonucleotides (ASONs). Atherosclerosis was induced in New Zealand White rabbits fed 1% cholesterol for approximately 60 days. In vivo and ex vivo imaging was performed in atherosclerotic rabbits and normal control rabbits after i.v. injection of 92.5±18.5 MBq 99m Tc-labelled ASON or 99m Tc-labelled sense oligonucleotides. Immediately after the in vivo imaging, the animals were sacrificed and ex vivo imaging of the aortic specimens was performed. Biodistribution of radiolabelled c-mycASON was evaluated in vivo in atherosclerotic rabbits. Planar imaging revealed accumulation of 99m Tc-labelled c-mycASON in atherosclerotic lesions along the artery wall. Ex vivo imaging further demonstrated that the area of activity accumulation matched the area of atherosclerotic lesions. In contrast, no atherosclerotic lesions were found in the vessel wall and no positive imaging results were obtained in animals of the control group. This molecular imaging approach has potential for non-invasive imaging of atherosclerotic plaques at an early stage. (orig.)

  20. Linkages between oral commensal bacteria and atherosclerotic plaques in coronary artery disease patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chhibber-Goel, Jyoti; Singhal, Varsha; Bhowmik, Debaleena; Vivek, Rahul; Parakh, Neeraj; Bhargava, Balram; Sharma, Amit

    2016-01-01

    Coronary artery disease is an inflammatory disorder characterized by narrowing of coronary arteries due to atherosclerotic plaque formation. To date, the accumulated epidemiological evidence supports an association between oral bacterial diseases and coronary artery disease, but has failed to prove a causal link between the two. Due to the recent surge in microbial identification and analyses techniques, a number of bacteria have been independently found in atherosclerotic plaque samples from coronary artery disease patients. In this study, we present meta-analysis from published studies that have independently investigated the presence of bacteria within atherosclerotic plaque samples in coronary artery disease patients. Data were collated from 63 studies covering 1791 patients spread over a decade. Our analysis confirms the presence of 23 oral commensal bacteria, either individually or in co-existence, within atherosclerotic plaques in patients undergoing carotid endarterectomy, catheter-based atherectomy, or similar procedures. Of these 23 bacteria, 5 ( Campylobacter rectus , Porphyromonas gingivalis , Porphyromonas endodontalis , Prevotella intermedia , Prevotella nigrescens ) are unique to coronary plaques, while the other 18 are additionally present in non-cardiac organs, and associate with over 30 non-cardiac disorders. We have cataloged the wide spectrum of proteins secreted by above atherosclerotic plaque-associated bacteria, and discuss their possible roles during microbial migration via the bloodstream. We also highlight the prevalence of specific poly-microbial communities within atherosclerotic plaques. This work provides a resource whose immediate implication is the necessity to systematically catalog landscapes of atherosclerotic plaque-associated oral commensal bacteria in human patient populations.

  1. Mathematical and numerical modeling of early atherosclerotic lesions***

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raoult Annie

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This article is devoted to the construction of a mathematical model describing the early formation of atherosclerotic lesions. The early stage of atherosclerosis is an inflammatory process that starts with the penetration of low density lipoproteins in the intima and with their oxidation. This phenomenon is closely linked to the local blood flow dynamics. Extending a previous work [5] that was mainly restricted to a one-dimensional setting, we couple a simple lesion growth model relying on the biomolecular process that takes place in the intima with blood flow dynamics and mass transfer. We perform numerical simulations on a two-dimensional geometry taken from [6,7] that mimicks a carotid artery deformed by a perivascular cast and we compare the numerical results with experimental data.

  2. Gene expression and 18FDG uptake in atherosclerotic carotid plaques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Sune Folke; Graebe, Martin; Fisker Hag, Anne Mette

    2010-01-01

    ) and an additional ipsilateral internal carotid artery stenosis of greater than 60% were recruited. FDG uptake in the carotids was determined by PET/computed tomography and expressed as mean and maximal standardized uptake values (SUVmean and SUVmax). The atherosclerotic plaques were subsequently recovered...... by carotid endarterectomy. The gene expression of markers of vulnerability - CD68, IL-18, matrix metalloproteinase 9, cathepsin K, GLUT-1, and hexokinase type II (HK2) - were measured in plaques by quantitative PCR. RESULTS: In a multivariate linear regression model, GLUT-1, CD68, cathepsin K, and HK2 gene...... expression remained in the final model as predictive variables of FDG accumulation calculated as SUVmean (R=0.26, PK, and HK2 gene expression as independent predictive variables of FDG accumulation calculated...

  3. Evaluation and percutaneous management of atherosclerotic peripheral vascular disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Widlus, D.M.; Osterman, F.A. Jr.

    1989-01-01

    Atherosclerotic peripheral vascular disease (PVD) of the lower extremities deprives a person of the ability to exercise to their satisfaction, later of the ability to perform the activities of their daily life, and finally of their legs themselves. Peripheral vascular disease has long been managed by the vascular surgeon utilizing endarterectomy and peripheral arterial bypass. Patient acceptance of nonsurgical, percutaneous procedures such as percutaneous transluminal balloon angioplasty (PTA) is high. Increased utilization of these procedures has led to improved techniques and adjuncts to therapy, as well as more critical review of long-term results. This article will review the evaluation and nonoperative management of PVD, with an emphasis on the newer modalities of management presently being investigated

  4. Biomarkers of atherosclerotic plaque vulnerability and their clinical significance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ran LIU

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Inflammatory reaction plays a crucial role in the occurence and development of atherosclerosis. Both basic and clinical trials have provided evidence that the expression of inflammatory biomarkers are closely related with the degree of atherosclerosis. Treatment towards inflammatory factors would bring benefit to atherosclerotic patients. This review highlighted the mechanistic rationale and specific therapies targeting traditional and novel inflammatory biomarkers, including C-reactive protein (CRP, interleukin-17 (IL-17, secretory phospholipase A2 (sPLA2, lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2, endoglin, chemokine receptor and 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO, so as to review its mechanism of action and treatment prospect. DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1672-6731.2016.09.004

  5. Tools for improving the diagnosis of atherosclerotic plaque using ultrasound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jespersen, Søren Kragh

    1997-01-01

    topics have been investigated: an ultrasound pulse-echo simulation tool and a new compound imaging technique for improving visualization of atherosclerotic disease.A tool for simulation of the received electrical signal in a pulse-echo ultrasound system, due to a reflector surface of arbitrary geometry......, has been developed. The method is denoted the Diffraction Response Interpolation Method (DRIM) and is based on the pulse-echo diffraction impulse response method. The DRIM is a computationally efficient tool for calculating the integral of the spatially varying pulse-echo diffraction impulse response...... definition of the interfaces in the cases where one or more of the beams had near-normal incidence on the interface, i.e. an improved visualization over an angular range of interface orientations roughly corresponding to the range of beam angles used. The speckle statistics and the speckle reduction have...

  6. Lipid and protein maps defining arterial layers in atherosclerotic aorta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Martin-Lorenzo

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Subclinical atherosclerosis cannot be predicted and novel therapeutic targets are needed. The molecular anatomy of healthy and atherosclerotic tissue is pursued to identify ongoing molecular changes in atherosclerosis development. Mass Spectrometry Imaging (MSI accounts with the unique advantage of analyzing proteins and metabolites (lipids while preserving their original localization; thus two dimensional maps can be obtained. Main molecular alterations were investigated in a rabbit model in response to early development of atherosclerosis. Aortic arterial layers (intima and media and calcified regions were investigated in detail by MALDI-MSI and proteins and lipids specifically defining those areas of interest were identified. These data further complement main findings previously published in J Proteomics (M. Martin-Lorenzo et al., J. Proteomics. (In press; M. Martin-Lorenzo et al., J. Proteomics 108 (2014 465–468. [1,2].

  7. Renal calculus

    CERN Document Server

    Pyrah, Leslie N

    1979-01-01

    Stone in the urinary tract has fascinated the medical profession from the earliest times and has played an important part in the development of surgery. The earliest major planned operations were for the removal of vesical calculus; renal and ureteric calculi provided the first stimulus for the radiological investigation of the viscera, and the biochemical investigation of the causes of calculus formation has been the training ground for surgeons interested in metabolic disorders. It is therefore no surprise that stone has been the subject of a number of monographs by eminent urologists, but the rapid development of knowledge has made it possible for each one of these authors to produce something new. There is still a technical challenge to the surgeon in the removal of renal calculi, and on this topic we are always glad to have the advice of a master craftsman; but inevitably much of the interest centres on the elucidation of the causes of stone formation and its prevention. Professor Pyrah has had a long an...

  8. Influence of ghrelin gene polymorphisms on hypertension and atherosclerotic disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berthold, Heiner K; Giannakidou, Eleni; Krone, Wilhelm; Trégouët, David-Alexandre; Gouni-Berthold, Ioanna

    2010-02-01

    Ghrelin is involved in several metabolic and cardiovascular processes. Recent evidence suggests its involvement in blood pressure regulation and hypertension. The aim of the study was to determine associations of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and haplotypes of the ghrelin gene (GHRL) with hypertension and atherosclerotic disease. Six GHRL SNPs (rs27647, rs26802, rs34911341, rs696217, rs4684677 and a -473G/A (with no assigned rsID)) were investigated in a sample of 1143 hypertensive subjects and 1489 controls of Caucasian origin. Both single-locus and haplotype association analyses were performed. In single-locus analyses, only the non-synonymous rs34911341 was associated with hypertension (odds ratio (OR)=1.95 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.26-3.02), P=0.003). Six common haplotypes with frequency >1% were inferred from the studied GHRL SNPs, and their frequency distribution was significantly different between hypertensive subjects and controls (chi(2)=12.96 with 5 d.f. (degree of freedom), P=0.024). The effect of rs26802 was found to be significantly (P=0.017) modulated by other GHRL SNPs, as its C allele conferred either an increased risk (OR=1.30 (1.08-1.57), P=0.005) or a decreased risk (OR=0.50 (0.23-1.06), P=0.07) of hypertension according to the two different haplotypes on which it can be found. No association of GHRL SNPs or haplotypes with atherosclerotic disease was observed. In conclusion, we observed statistical evidence for association between GHRL SNPs and risk of hypertension.

  9. Uptake of inflammatory cell marker [{sup 11}C]PK11195 into mouse atherosclerotic plaques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laitinen, Iina; Marjamaeki, Paeivi; Naagren, Kjell; Roivainen, Anne; Knuuti, Juhani [University of Turku, Turku PET Centre, Turku (Finland); Laine, V.J.O. [Turku University Hospital, Department of Pathology, Turku (Finland); Wilson, Ian [GE Healthcare Biosciences, Medical Diagnostics, London (United Kingdom); Leppaenen, Pia; Ylae-Herttuala, Seppo [University of Kuopio, A.I. Virtanen Institute, Kuopio (Finland)

    2009-01-15

    The ligand [{sup 11}C]PK11195 binds with high affinity and selectivity to peripheral benzodiazepine receptor, expressed in high amounts in macrophages. In humans, [{sup 11}C]PK11195 has been used successfully for the in vivo imaging of inflammatory processes of brain tissue. The purpose of this study was to explore the feasibility of [{sup 11}C]PK11195 in imaging inflammation in the atherosclerotic plaques. The presence of PK11195 binding sites in the atherosclerotic plaques was verified by examining the in vitro binding of [{sup 3}H]PK11195 onto mouse aortic sections. Uptake of intravenously administered [{sup 11}C]PK11195 was studied ex vivo in excised tissue samples and aortic sections of a LDLR/ApoB48 atherosclerotic mice. Accumulation of the tracer was compared between the atherosclerotic plaques and non-atherosclerotic arterial sites by autoradiography and histological analyses. The [{sup 3}H]PK11195 was found to bind to both the atherosclerotic plaques and the healthy wall. The autoradiography analysis revealed that the uptake of [{sup 11}C]PK11195 to inflamed regions in plaques was more prominent (p = 0.011) than to non-inflamed plaque regions, but overall it was not higher than the uptake to the healthy vessel wall. Also, the accumulation of {sup 11}C radioactivity into the aorta of the atherosclerotic mice was not increased compared to the healthy control mice. Our results indicate that the uptake of [{sup 11}C]PK11195 is higher in inflamed atherosclerotic plaques containing a large number of inflammatory cells than in the non-inflamed plaques. However, the tracer uptake to other structures of the artery wall was also prominent and may limit the use of [{sup 11}C]PK11195 in clinical imaging of atherosclerotic plaques. (orig.)

  10. Contemporary evaluation and management of renal trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chouhan, Jyoti D; Winer, Andrew G; Johnson, Christina; Weiss, Jeffrey P; Hyacinthe, Llewellyn M

    2016-04-01

    Renal trauma occurs in approximately 1%-5% of all trauma cases. Improvements in imaging and management over the last two decades have caused a shift in the treatment of this clinical condition. A systematic search of PubMed was performed to identify relevant and contemporary articles that referred to the management and evaluation of renal trauma. Computed tomography remains a mainstay of radiological evaluation in hemodynamically stable patients. There is a growing body of literature showing that conservative, non-operative management of renal trauma is safe, even for Grade IV-V renal injuries. If surgical exploration is planned due to other injuries, a conservative approach to the kidney can often be utilized. Follow up imaging may be warranted in certain circumstances. Urinoma, delayed bleeding, and hypertension are complications that require follow up. Appropriate imaging and conservative approaches are a mainstay of current renal trauma management.

  11. [Atherosclerotic renovascular hypertension: clinical findings and results of treatment over 15 years].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfonzo, J P; Rosario, M N; Ugarte, C; Banasco, J; Fraxedas, R; Lahera, J

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this study was to present our clinical experience and results of different treatments in 83 atherosclerotic renovascular hypertensive patients treated in the last 15 years in the Instituto de nefrologia in Havana. Regardless of the type of treatment the patients were divided in two groups. Group I: 52 (62.3%) cases with standard oral hypotensive drugs alone and control of other cardiovascular risk factors (mean age 53 years old, sex m/f 50/50%, race white/no-white 75/25%, mean known hypertension follow-up 10.2 +/- 10 years, mean SBP 208 +/- 30 mmHg, mean DBP 123 +/- 17 mmHg, mean serum creatinina 1.62 mg/dl and increase peripheral plasma renin value in 61.6% of patients) and group II: 31 (37.7%) cases treated with revascularización procedures (PTA or surgery) or nephrectomy in selected patients (mean age 50 years old, sex m/f 68/32%, race white/no-white 16/84%, mean known hypertension follow-up 8.5 +/- 8.6 years, mean SBP 214 +/- 32 mmHg, mean DBP 1.31 +/- 16 mmHg, mean serum creatinina 1.85 mg/dl and increase peripheral plasma renin value 78.3% of patients). As end point for treatment results we selected: 1) hypertension cure or control, 2) evolution of the serum creatinine value and 3) kidney and patients survival. In those cases with a follow up for more than one year, in 82.9% the blood pressure was cure (21.4%) or controlled (61.4%). The proportion of failed was superior in group I (20.9%) than in group II (11.1%). All 18 cases treated by PTA with a follow up period longer than a year, blood pressure cure in 10 (55.6%), ameliorate in 5 (27.8%) and in 3 (16.6%) was unchanged (one patient lost of follow up). Nine patients were treated by surgery (3 revascularization and 6 nephrectomy), 5 (55.5%) cases cured and 4 (44.5%) ameliorate his blood pressure. Patients in group II maintain normal renal function in more cases than in group I (48.4% vs 30.8%). Both group had similar percentage of normal-normal + pathology-normal renal function (G I: 65.4% vs G

  12. Platelet activation, function, and reactivity in atherosclerotic carotid artery stenosis: a systematic review of the literature.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kinsella, J A

    2012-09-27

    An important proportion of transient ischemic attack or ischemic stroke is attributable to moderate or severe (50-99%) atherosclerotic carotid stenosis or occlusion. Platelet biomarkers have the potential to improve our understanding of the pathogenesis of vascular events in this patient population. A detailed systematic review was performed to collate all available data on ex vivo platelet activation and platelet function\\/reactivity in patients with carotid stenosis. Two hundred thirteen potentially relevant articles were initially identified; 26 manuscripts met criteria for inclusion in this systematic review. There was no consistent evidence of clinically informative data from urinary or soluble blood markers of platelet activation in patients with symptomatic moderate or severe carotid stenosis who might be considered suitable for carotid intervention. Data from flow cytometry studies revealed evidence of excessive platelet activation in patients in the early, sub-acute, or late phases after transient ischemic attack or stroke in association with moderate or severe carotid stenosis and in asymptomatic moderate or severe carotid stenosis compared with controls. Furthermore, pilot data suggest that platelet activation may be increased in recently symptomatic than in asymptomatic severe carotid stenosis. Excessive platelet activation and platelet hyperreactivity may play a role in the pathogenesis of first or subsequent transient ischemic attack or stroke in patients with moderate or severe carotid stenosis. Larger longitudinal studies assessing platelet activation status with flow cytometry and platelet function\\/reactivity in symptomatic vs. asymptomatic carotid stenosis are warranted to improve our understanding of the mechanisms responsible for transient ischemic attack or stroke.

  13. EXPERIMENTAL AND CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE OF RENAL FUNCTIONAL RESERVE DETERMINATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jernej Pajek

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Background. Renal functional reserve (RFR is defined as the temporary increase in glomerular filtration rate (GFR which follows the ingestion of proteins or infusion of aminoacids. This renal vasodilatatory response is probably mediated by several mechanisms, with nitric oxide being one of the most important mediators. In the last years significant progress in measuring renal functional reserve has been achieved on the basis of improvements in methods for accurate and timely appropriate GFR measurement. The method of GFR measurement using the sinistrin clearence calculation after bolus injection of sinistrin is increasingly employed.Conclusions. The article presents the latest results of experiments with RFR using this method and compares them with older reports. RFR is affected by several patophysiological processes: arterial hypertension, diabetes mellitus, deteriorating function of transplanted kidney. The results and impact of RFR determination in this conditions are described. Finally, potential for further research of RFR in atherosclerotic vascular disease is considered. Accurate determination of RFR is important for detection of early renal hemodynamic abnormalities, which can be influenced by therapeutic interventions and in this way the progression of renal functional deterioration could be prevented or at least slowed.

  14. TRANSPLANTE RENAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soraia Geraldo Rozza Lopes

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del estudio fue comprender el significado de espera del trasplante renal para las mujeres en hemodiálisis. Se trata de un estudio cualitativo-interpretativo, realizado con 12 mujeres en hemodiálisis en Florianópolis. Los datos fueron recolectados a través de entrevistas en profundidad en el domicilio. Fue utilizado el software Etnografh 6.0 para la pre-codificación y posterior al análisis interpretativo emergieron dos categorías: “las sombras del momento actual”, que mostró que las dificultades iniciales de la enfermedad están presentes, pero las mujeres pueden hacer frente mejor a la enfermedad y el tratamiento. La segunda categoría, “la luz del trasplante renal”, muestra la esperanza impulsada por la entrada en la lista de espera para un trasplante.

  15. Serum Asymmetric Dimethylarginine, and Adiponectin as Predictors of Atherosclerotic Risk among Obese Egyptian Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enas R. Abdel Hameed

    2014-06-01

    CONCLUSIONS: Our results revealed that ADMA, Adiponectin and lipid profile can be considered as predictive biomarkers in prediction and prevention of atherosclerotic risk in the future among overweight and obese Egyptian children.

  16. Dichotomy in Hedgehog Signaling between Human Healthy Vessel and Atherosclerotic Plaques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Queiroz, Karla C. S.; Bijlsma, Maarten F.; Tio, René A.; Zeebregts, Clark J.; Dunaeva, Marina; Ferreira, Carmen V.; Fuhler, Gwenny M.; Kuipers, Ernst J.; Alves, Maria M.; Rezaee, Farhad; Spek, C. Arnold; Peppelenbosch, Maikel P.

    2012-01-01

    The major cause for plaque instability in atherosclerotic disease is neoangiogenic revascularization, but the factors controlling this process remain only partly understood. Hedgehog (HH) is a morphogen with important functions in revascularization, but its function in human healthy vessel biology

  17. Characterization of HSP27 phosphorylation sites in human atherosclerotic plaque secretome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Durán, Mari-Carmen; Boeri-Erba, Elisabetta; Mohammed, Shabaz

    2007-01-01

    spectrometry (MS). Among the identified proteins, two isoforms of heat shock protein 27 (HSP27), a protein recently described as a potential biomarker of atherosclerosis, were detected. However, the putative mechanisms in which HSP27 isoforms could be involved in the atherosclerotic process are unknown. Thus......, the role that phosphorylated HSP27 could play in the atherosclerotic process is actually under study. The present work shows the strategies employed to characterize the phosphorylation in the HSP27 secreted by atheroma plaque samples. The application of liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (MS......-lymphocytes). These interactions can be mediated by proteins secreted from these cells, which therefore exert an important role in the atherosclerotic process. We recently described a novel strategy for the characterization of the human atherosclerotic plaque secretome, combining two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass...

  18. Inhibiting extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer maybe beneficial for diminishing the atherosclerotic plaque instability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xie S

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Atherosclerotic plaque rupture and local thrombosis activation in the artery cause acute serious incidents such as acute coronary syndrome and stroke. The exact mechanism of plaque rupture remains unclear but excessive degradation of the extracellular matrix scaffold by matrix-degrading metalloproteinases (MMPs has been implicated as one of the major molecular mechanisms in this process. Convincing evidence is available to prove that extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer (EMMPRIN induces MMP expression and is involved in the inflammatory responses in the artery wall. The inflammation and MMPs have been shown to play a critical role for atherosclerotic lesion development and progression. More recent data showed that increased EMMPRIN expression was associated with vulnerable atherosclerotic lesions. Therefore, we speculate that EMMPRIN may be pivotal for atherosclerotic plaque instability, and hence inhibition of EMMPRIN expression could be a promising approach for the prevention or treatment of atheroma instability.

  19. Atherosclerotic lesions in humans. In situ immunophenotypic analysis suggesting an immune mediated response

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Wal, A. C.; Das, P. K.; Bentz van de Berg, D.; van der Loos, C. M.; Becker, A. E.

    1989-01-01

    The immunophenotypical features of the cellular infiltrates in different types of human atherosclerotic lesions, including diffuse intimal thickening as a potential but controversial precursor lesion, have been examined using monoclonal antibodies. Special emphasis is put on monocytes/macrophages,

  20. Lysophosphatidic acid triggers mast cell-driven atherosclerotic plaque destabilization by increasing vascular inflammation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bot, M.; , van, Berkel T.J.C.

    2013-01-01

    Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA), a bioactive lysophospholipid, accumulates in the atherosclerotic plaque. It has the capacity to activate mast cells, which potentially exacerbates plaque progression. In this study, we thus aimed to investigate whether LPA contributes to plaque destabilization by

  1. Association between pregnancy losses in women and risk of atherosclerotic disease in their relatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ranthe, Mattis Flyvholm; Diaz, Lars Jorge; Behrens, Ida

    2016-01-01

    ) and the atherosclerotic endpoint (brothers). Parents whose daughters had stillbirths had 1.14 (95% CI 1.05-1.24) and 1.07 (95% CI 0.96-1.18) times the rates of MI and CVI, respectively, as parents whose daughters had no stillbirths. CONCLUSION: Certain pregnancy losses and atherosclerotic diseases in both heart and brain......AIMS: A common underlying mechanism with a genetic component could link pregnancy losses with vascular disease. We examined whether pregnancy losses (miscarriages and stillbirths) and atherosclerotic outcomes co-aggregated in families. METHODS AND RESULTS: Using Danish registers, we identified...... women with pregnancies in 1977-2008, and their parents (>1 million) and brothers (>435 000). We followed parents for incident ischaemic heart disease (IHD), myocardial infarction (MI), and cerebrovascular infarction (CVI), and brothers for a broader combined atherosclerotic endpoint. Using Cox...

  2. Symptomatic intracranial vertebral artery atherosclerotic stenosis (≥70%) with concurrent contralateral vertebral atherosclerotic diseases in 88 patients treated with the intracranial stenting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Zi-Liang [Stroke Center, Henan Provincial People’s Hospital, Zhengzhou University (China); Gao, Bu-Lang [Department of Medical Research Shijiazhuang First Hospital, Hebei Medical University (China); Li, Tian-Xiao, E-mail: litianxiaod@163.com [Stroke Center, Henan Provincial People’s Hospital, Zhengzhou University (China); Cai, Dong-Yang; Zhu, Liang-Fu; Bai, Wei-Xing; Xue, Jiang-Yu; Li, Zhao-Shuo [Stroke Center, Henan Provincial People’s Hospital, Zhengzhou University (China)

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • Symptomatic vertebral artery stenosis can be treated with intracranial stenting. • Stenting for intracranial vertebral artery stenosis is safe and effective. • Stenting for intracranial vertebral artery stenosis can prevent long-term stroke. - Abstract: Purpose: To investigate the safety, effect and instent restenosis rate of Wingspan stenting in treating patients with intracranial vertebral artery atherosclerotic stenosis (70–99%) concurrent with contralateral vertebral artery atherosclerotic diseases. Materials and methods: Eighty-eight patients with severe symptomatic intracranial vertebral artery atherosclerotic stenosis (≥70%) combined with contralateral vertebral artery atherosclerotic diseases were treated with the Wingpsan stent. All the baseline, cerebral angiography, success rate, perioperative complications, clinical and imaging follow-up data were prospectively analyzed. Results: The success rate of stenting was 100%, and the mean stenotic rate was reduced from prestenting (84.9 ± 6.8)% to poststenting (17.2 ± 5.9)%. The perioperative stroke rate was 1.1%. Among eighty patients (90.9%) with clinical follow-up 8-62 months (mean 29.3 ± 17.2) poststenting, five (6.3%) had posterior circulation TIA only, three (3.8%) had mild stroke in the posterior circulation but recovered completely, and another five patients greater than 70 years old died of non-ischemic stroke. Imaging follow-up in 46 patients (52.3%) 5–54 months (mean 9.9 ± 9.9) following stenting revealed instent restenosis in 12 patients (26.1%) including 7 (58.3%) symptomatic restenosis. Age and residual stenosis were the two factors to significantly (P < 0.05) affect instent restenosis. Conclusion: Wingspan stenting in the intracranial vertebral artery atherosclerotic stenosis combined with contralateral vertebral artery atherosclerotic diseases has a low perioperative stroke rate and a good preventive effect on long-term ischemic stroke, but the instent restenosis

  3. Radioiodine labelled SP-4 as an imaging agent for atherosclerotic plaques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yongxue; Wu Zhijian; Cao Wei

    2000-01-01

    The clinical prospect of radioiodinated SP-4 as an atherosclerotic plaque imaging agent was studied. The SP-4 was synthesized by a solid phase method and identified by an amino acid analysis after purification with HPLC. SP-4 was labelled with 131 I and 125 I by the Chloramine-T method and purified through Sephadex G-25 column. Twelve New Zealand rabbits were divided into an atherosclerotic group (n = 7, AR) and a control group (n = 5, NR). All of the atherosclerotic rabbits were intravenous administrated with bovine serum albumin, then feb with high cholesterol and fat diet. 125 I-SP-4 was intravenous administrated to the rabbits of both groups. The biodistribution of 125 I-SP-4 in rabbits was investigated. The uptakes (% ID/g) in blood and thoracic aorta and abdominal aorta were calculated 4 hours postinjection. Macro-autoradiography and micro-autoradiography were performed in 2 AR atherosclerotic abdominal aortas. The clearance of radioactivity from plasma was very rapid. 125 I-SP-4 was mainly excreted through kidneys. The radioactive uptakes of abdominal aorta and thoracic aorta of AR at 4 hours postinjection were significantly higher than that of NR. The films of macro-autoradiography showed focal accumulation of the radioactivity in the areas of a newly formed edges of atherosclerotic plaques. On the slices of micro-autoradiography, the obvious radioactive accumulation could be found in the atherosclerotic plaques. Thus it was seen that the SP-4 remained its biological activity after radioiodination and was located at atherosclerotic lesions, it is potentially useful as an atherosclerotic plaque imaging agent

  4. Moderate overweight is beneficial and severe obesity detrimental for patients with documented atherosclerotic heart disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Azimi, Aziza; Charlot, Mette Gitz; Torp-Pedersen, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Obesity is paradoxically associated with enhanced survival in patients with established cardiovascular disease. We explored this paradox further by examining the influence of obesity on survival in patients with verified atherosclerotic heart disease.......Obesity is paradoxically associated with enhanced survival in patients with established cardiovascular disease. We explored this paradox further by examining the influence of obesity on survival in patients with verified atherosclerotic heart disease....

  5. A framework for the co-registration of hemodynamic forces and atherosclerotic plaque components

    OpenAIRE

    Canton, Gador; Chiu, Bernard; Chen, Huijun; Chen, Yimin; Hatsukami, Thomas S.; Kerwin, William S.; Yuan, Chun

    2013-01-01

    Local hemodynamic forces, such as wall shear stress, are thought to trigger cellular and molecular mechanisms that determine atherosclerotic plaque vulnerability to rupture. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has emerged as a powerful tool to characterize human carotid atherosclerotic plaque composition and morphology, and to identify plaque features shown to be key determinants of plaque vulnerability. Image-based computational fluid dynamics (CFD) has allowed researchers to obtain time-resolv...

  6. Linkages between oral commensal bacteria and atherosclerotic plaques in coronary artery disease patients

    OpenAIRE

    Chhibber-Goel, Jyoti; Singhal, Varsha; Bhowmik, Debaleena; Vivek, Rahul; Parakh, Neeraj; Bhargava, Balram; Sharma, Amit

    2016-01-01

    Coronary artery disease is an inflammatory disorder characterized by narrowing of coronary arteries due to atherosclerotic plaque formation. To date, the accumulated epidemiological evidence supports an association between oral bacterial diseases and coronary artery disease, but has failed to prove a causal link between the two. Due to the recent surge in microbial identification and analyses techniques, a number of bacteria have been independently found in atherosclerotic plaque samples from...

  7. BILATERAL DUPLICATION OF RENAL ARTERIES

    OpenAIRE

    Prajkta A Thete; Mehera Bhoir; M.V.Ambiye

    2014-01-01

    Routine dissection of a male cadaver revealed the presence of bilateral double renal arteries. On the right side the accessory renal artery originated from the abdominal aorta just above the main renal artery. On the left side the accessory renal artery originated from the abdominal aorta about 1 cm above the main renal artery. Knowledge of the variations of renal vascular anatomy has importance in exploration and treatment of renal trauma, renal transplantation, renal artery embolization, su...

  8. When stenting in renal artery stenosis? Update on pathophysiology of ischemic nephropathy and management strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Zuccalà

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, decisions taken on the optimal management of patients with renal artery stenosis have triggered off controversy and debate among clinicians dealing with renovascular disease. The main reason underlying this ongoing controversy may be the heterogeneity of the clinical entities that are normally associated with the umbrella definition of renal artery stenosis. Indeed a causal link between the stenosis and its clinical consequences (i.e. hypertension, renal failure can often demonstrated in some entities, such as fibromuscular dysplasia, truncal stenosis or arterial stenosis in the transplanted kidney, which can be defined as pure renal artery stenosis. On the contrary, the entity generally called ostial stenosis is a disease of the abdominal aorta where it encroaches the ostium of the renal artery at the end of a long process involving the entire vascular tree. Patients affected by ostial stenosis also suffer from generalized atherosclerosis, and kidney damage is often caused by the atherosclerotic environment with the stenosis acting as an innocent bystander. This may account for the low rate of renal function recovery in subjects with ostial stenosis. In our view, keeping the different entities separate along with a careful understanding of the mechanisms underpinning renal damage, particularly the intrarenal activation of the renin angiotensin system which in turn induces renal inflammation and oxidative stress, may enable clinicians to make the right decisions in regard to revascularization.

  9. Echo-lucency of computerized ultrasound images of carotid atherosclerotic plaques are associated with increased levels of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins as well as increased plaque lipid content

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønholdt, Marie-Louise Moes; Nordestgaard, Børge G.; Weibe, Brit M.

    1998-01-01

    carotid plaque echo-lucency and that echo-lucency predicts a high plaque lipid content. Methods and Results-The study included 137 patients with neurological symptoms and greater than or equal to 50% stenosis of the relevant carotid artery, High-resolution B-mode ultrasound images of carotid plaques were......Background-Echo-lucency of carotid atherosclerotic plaques on computerized ultrasound B-mode images has been associated with a high incidence of brain infarcts as evaluated on CT scans. We tested the hypotheses that triglyceride-rich lipoproteins in the fasting and postprandial state predict...

  10. Echolucency of computerized ultrasound images of carotid atherosclerotic plaques are associated with increased levels of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins as well as increased plaque lipid content

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønholdt, Marie-Louise M.; Nordestgaard, Børge; Wiebe, Britt M.

    1998-01-01

    carotid plaque echo-lucency and that echo-lucency predicts a high plaque lipid content. Methods and Results-The study included 137 patients with neurological symptoms and greater than or equal to 50% stenosis of the relevant carotid artery, High-resolution B-mode ultrasound images of carotid plaques were......Background-Echo-lucency of carotid atherosclerotic plaques on computerized ultrasound B-mode images has been associated with a high incidence of brain infarcts as evaluated on CT scans. We tested the hypotheses that triglyceride-rich lipoproteins in the fasting and postprandial state predict...

  11. The Protective Effect of Apamin on LPS/Fat-Induced Atherosclerotic Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soo-Jung Kim

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Apamin, a peptide component of bee venom (BV, has anti-inflammatory properties. However, the molecular mechanisms by which apamin prevents atherosclerosis are not fully understood. We examined the effect of apamin on atherosclerotic mice. Atherosclerotic mice received intraperitoneal (ip injections of lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 2 mg/kg to induce atherosclerotic change and were fed an atherogenic diet for 12 weeks. Apamin (0.05 mg/kg was administered by ip injection. LPS-induced THP-1-derived macrophage inflammation treated with apamin reduced expression of tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α, vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM-1, and intracellular cell adhesion molecule (ICAM-1, as well as the nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB signaling pathway. Apamin decreased the formation of atherosclerotic lesions as assessed by hematoxylin and elastic staining. Treatment with apamin reduced lipids, Ca2+ levels, and TNF-α in the serum from atherosclerotic mice. Further, apamin significantly attenuated expression of VCAM-1, ICAM-1, TGF-β1, and fibronectin in the descending aorta from atherosclerotic mice. These results indicate that apamin plays an important role in monocyte/macrophage inflammatory processing and may be of potential value for preventing atherosclerosis.

  12. Bone marrow endothelial progenitors in atherosclerotic plaque resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Longbiao; Heuser-Baker, Janet; Herlea-Pana, Oana; Barlic-Dicen, Jana

    2013-01-01

    Atherosclerosis is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in the United States. Persistently elevated circulating low-density lipoprotein, or hypercholesterolemia, and deposition of low-density lipoprotein in the vascular wall are the main inducers of atherosclerosis, which manifests itself as arterial lesions or plaques. Some plaques become thrombosis-prone and rupture, causing acute myocardial infarction or stroke. Lowering plasma cholesterol through the use of statins is the primary intervention against atherosclerosis. Treatment with statins slows progression of atherosclerosis but can only support limited plaque regression. Partially regressed plaques continue to pose a serious threat due to their remaining potential to rupture. Thus, new interventions inducing complete reversal of atherosclerosis are being sought. Implementation of new therapies will require clear understanding of the mechanisms driving plaque resolution. In this Commentary, we highlight the role of bone marrow endothelial progenitors in atherosclerotic plaque regression and discuss how regenerative cell-based interventions could be used in combination with plasma lipid-lowering to induce plaque reversal in order to prevent and/or reduce adverse cardiovascular events. PMID:23538778

  13. Radionuclide evaluation of renal transplants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Hong; Zhao Deshan

    2000-01-01

    Radionuclide renal imaging and plasma clearance methods can quickly quantitate renal blood flow and function in renal transplants. They can diagnose acute tubular necrosis and rejection, renal scar, surgical complications such as urine leaks, obstruction and renal artery stenosis after renal transplants. At the same time they can assess the therapy effect of renal transplant complications and can also predict renal transplant survival from early post-operative function studies

  14. Distal renal tubular acidosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this disorder. Alternative Names Renal tubular acidosis - distal; Renal tubular acidosis type I; Type I RTA; RTA - distal; Classical RTA Images Kidney anatomy Kidney - blood and urine flow References Bose A, Monk RD, Bushinsky DA. Kidney ...

  15. Interaction of renal failure and dyslipidaemia in the development of calcific aortic valve disease in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillis, Kris; Roosens, Bram; Bala, Gezim; Remory, Isabel; Hernot, Sophie; Delvenne, Philippe; Mestrez, Fabienne; Droogmans, Steven; Cosyns, Bernard

    2017-10-01

    Calcific aortic valve disease (CAVD) is currently the most common heart valve disease worldwide and is known to be an active process. Both renal failure and dyslipidaemia are considered to be promoting factors for the development of valvular calcifications. The aim of this study is to prospectively evaluate the respective contribution and interaction of renal failure and dyslipidaemia on CAVD in a rat model, using echocardiography and compared with histology. Sixty-eight male Wistar rats were prospectively divided in eight groups, each fed a different diet to induce renal failure alone and combined with hyperlipidaemia or hypercholesterolemia. CAVD was detected and quantified by calibrated integrated backscatter of ultrasound (cIB) and compared with the histological calcium score. The study follow-up was 20 weeks. At the end of the study, the cIB value and the calcium score of the aortic valve were significantly increased in the group with isolated renal failure but not with dyslipidaemia. The combination of renal failure with high cholesterol or high-fat diet did not significantly increase calcifications further. Renal failure alone does induce aortic valve calcifications in a rat model of CAVD, whereas dyslipidaemia alone does not. The combination of renal failure with dyslipidaemia does not increase calcification further. These findings suggest that a combination of atherosclerotic and calcifying factors is not required to induce aortic valve calcifications in this model.

  16. Dynamic renal scintigraphy at hydronephrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrov, T.; Chukov, I.; Svrakova, E.

    1998-01-01

    The aim of the study was to estimate the clinical relevance and accuracy of dynamic renal scintigraphy (DRS) in case of obstructed kidneys as hydronephrosis is among the complications at different renal diseases, like nephrolithiasis and urolithiasis. Twenty-one patients mainly with unilateral hydronephrosis were studied. DRS with 99m Tc-MAG3 or 99m Tc-EC was done and quantitative parameters of the morphological and functional status of every kidney were assessed. At 24 % of the patients accumulation curves typical for obstructed by hydronephrosis kidneys were obtained. At 38 % the type of renograms of the affected kidneys was intermediate one, closer to that at the cases with nephrosclerosis, with lower uptake and severe parenchymal changes. The rest 38 % of the cases showed normal renograms or slightly delayed downslope. DRS is a very precise and sensitive method for evaluation of the degree of kidney damage in cases with hydronephrosis

  17. Cardio-renal syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Gnanaraj, Joseph; Radhakrishnan, Jai

    2016-01-01

    Cardio-renal syndrome is a commonly encountered problem in clinical practice. Its pathogenesis is not fully understood. The purpose of this article is to highlight the interaction between the cardiovascular system and the renal system and how their interaction results in the complex syndrome of cardio-renal dysfunction. Additionally, we outline the available therapeutic strategies to manage this complex syndrome.

  18. Renal inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heerwagen, S T; Jensen, C; Bagi, P

    2007-01-01

    Renal inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor (IMT) is a rare soft-tissue tumor of controversial etiology with a potential for local recurrence after incomplete surgical resection. The radiological findings in renal IMT are not well described. We report two cases in adults with a renal mass treated...

  19. Experimental study of 99Tcm-Ap4A in detection of atherosclerotic plaques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao Wei; Zhang Yongxue; An Rui

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To study 99 Tc m labelled di-adenosine tetraphosphate (Ap4A), a compound can bind on P 2 purine receptors on atherosclerotic lesions, for imaging experimental atherosclerotic plaques in New Zealand White (NZW) rabbits. Methods: Twenty male NZW rabbits were submitted immune-injury and fed with high cholesterol diet for more than 2 months. To label the 99 Tc m to Ap4A, stannous tartrate solution was used. 99 Tc m -Ap4A was purified on a Sephadex G-25 column and tested for radiochemistry purity on thin layer chromatography. A biodistribution study was carried out on KM mice. Thirty minutes after intravenous injection of 7.4 MBq 99 Tc m -Ap4A, 5 normal NZW rabbits and 5 NZW rabbits with atherosclerotic lesions were sacrificed; their abdominal aortas were removed and covered with X-ray films. Exposed for 24 h in refrigerator, the films were developed and fixed. In another 5 NZW rabbits with atherosclerotic lesions, blood samples, atherosclerotic plaques and normal aortic wall samples were removed. Lesion to blood (target/blood, T/B), lesion to normal (target/non-target, T/NT) radioactivity ratios were calculated. 74 MBq 99 Tc m -Ap4A was injected into marginal ear veins of 5 atherosclerotic and 5 normal NZW rabbits. Simultaneously in vivo images were recorded for more than 4 h. In another group, 30 min after 99 Tc m -Ap4A administration, the animals were sacrificed and their abdominal aortas were removed. The abdominal aortas were placed on the face of SPECT and images acquisition was performed. Results: The radiochemistry purity of 99 Tc m -Ap4A was 85% to 91%. Biodistribution study revealed the clearance of 99 Tc m -Ap4A from blood was rapid. Thirty min after 99 Tc m -Ap4A administration, T/B radio was 3.17 +- 1.27, T/NT ratio was 5.23 +- 1.87. On the radioautography film shadows of atherosclerotic plaques were clearly visible. The atherosclerotic plaques on the aorta samples also can be seen on ex vivo images. Atherosclerotic abdominal aortas and lesions

  20. Interventional radiological treatment of renal transplant complications: A pictorial review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lezzi, Roberto; La, Torre Michele fabio; Santoro, Marco; Dattesi, Robrta; Nestola, Massimiliano; Posa, Alessandro; Romagnoli, Jacopo; CItterio, Franco; Bonomo, Lorenzo [' A. Gemelli' Hospital - Catholic University, Rome (Italy)

    2015-06-15

    Renal transplantation is the treatment of choice for patients with chronic renal failure, which produces a dramatic improvement in the quality of life and survival rates, in comparison to long-term dialysis. Nowadays, new imaging modalities allow early diagnosis of complications, and thanks to the recent developments of interventional techniques, surgery may be avoided in most cases. Knowledge in the types of renal transplant complications is fundamental for a correct pre-operative planning. In this article, we described the most common or clinically relevant renal transplant complications and explained their interventional management.

  1. Globular domain of adiponectin: promising target molecule for detection of atherosclerotic lesions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almer, Gunter; Saba-Lepek, Matthias; Haj-Yahya, Samih; Rohde, Eva; Strunk, Dirk; Fröhlich, Eleonore; Prassl, Ruth; Mangge, Harald

    2011-01-01

    Background: Adiponectin, an adipocyte-specific plasma protein, has been shown to accumulate in injured endothelial cells during development of atherosclerotic lesions. In this study, we investigated the potential of different adiponectin subfractions with special emphasis on globular adiponectin (gAd) to recognize and visualize atherosclerotic lesions. Methods: Recombinant mouse gAd and subfractions of full-length adiponectin (ie, trimeric, hexameric, and oligomeric forms) were fluorescence-labeled. Aortas of wild-type and apoprotein E-deficient mice fed a high cholesterol diet were dissected and incubated with the labeled biomarkers. Imaging was performed using confocal laser scanning microscopy. Results: Confocal laser scanning microscopic images showed that gAd binds more strongly to atherosclerotic plaques than full-length adiponectin subfractions. Further, we showed that gAd accumulates preferentially in endothelial cells and the fibrous cap area of plaques. Here we demonstrate for the first time that gAd recognizes atherosclerotic plaques on aortic sections of apoprotein E-deficient mice. Conclusion: These results suggest that gAd, in addition to its physiological properties, is also suitable as a target molecule for prospective diagnostic strategies in imaging atherosclerotic lesions. PMID:22022204

  2. Traumatic renal infarction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yashiro, Naobumi; Ohtomo, Kuni; Kokubo, Takashi; Itai, Yuji; Iio, Masahiro

    1986-01-01

    Four cases of traumatic renal artery occlusion were described and illustrated. In two cases, direct blows to the abdomen compressed the renal artery against the vertebral column. Clinically, they were severely injured with macroscopic hematuria. Aortograms showed abrupt truncation of renal arteries. In the other two, rapid deceleration caused sudden displacement of the kidney producing an intimal tear with resultant thrombosis. Although they showed little injury without macrohematuria, aortograms revealed tapered occlusion of renal arteries. One of them developed hypertension. ''Rim sign'' of post-contrast CT and hypertension resulted from traumatic renal artery occlusion were reviewed. (author)

  3. Biomarkers of Renal Function : Towards Clinical Actionability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Binnenmars, S Heleen; Hijmans, R S; Navis, G; de Borst, M H

    This review provides an overview of the clinical value of themost relevant renal biomarkers, focusing on two main clinical conditions: acute kidney injury and chronic kidney disease. We categorize biomarkers according to their actionability, in terms of a documented response to treatment in relation

  4. Thrombectomy in Acute Stroke With Tandem Occlusions From Dissection Versus Atherosclerotic Cause

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gory, Benjamin; Piotin, Michel; Haussen, Diogo C

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Tandem steno-occlusive lesions were poorly represented in randomized trials and represent a major challenge for endovascular thrombectomy in acute anterior circulation strokes. The impact of the cervical carotid lesion cause (ie, atherosclerotic versus dissection) on outcome......-2). Secondary efficacy outcomes included successful reperfusion (modified Thrombolysis in Cerebrovascular Infarction scores of 2b-3), time to reperfusion, and safety outcomes encompassed procedural complications, symptomatic intracerebral hemorrhage, and 90-day mortality. RESULTS: Among the 295 included...... patients, 65 had cervical carotid dissection and 230 had cervical carotid atherosclerotic cause. The rate of favorable outcome was 56.3% in the dissection group versus 47.6% in the atherosclerotic arm (center-, age-, and admission National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale-adjusted odds ratio, 1.08; 95...

  5. Caveolin-1 influences vascular protease activity and is a potential stabilizing factor in human atherosclerotic disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan A Rodriguez-Feo

    Full Text Available Caveolin-1 (Cav-1 is a regulatory protein of the arterial wall, but its role in human atherosclerosis remains unknown. We have studied the relationships between Cav-1 abundance, atherosclerotic plaque characteristics and clinical manisfestations of atherosclerotic disease.We determined Cav-1 expression by western blotting in atherosclerotic plaques harvested from 378 subjects that underwent carotid endarterectomy. Cav-1 levels were significantly lower in carotid plaques than non-atherosclerotic vascular specimens. Low Cav-1 expression was associated with features of plaque instability such as large lipid core, thrombus formation, macrophage infiltration, high IL-6, IL-8 levels and elevated MMP-9 activity. Clinically, a down-regulation of Cav-1 was observed in plaques obtained from men, patients with a history of myocardial infarction and restenotic lesions. Cav-1 levels above the median were associated with absence of new vascular events within 30 days after surgery [0% vs. 4%] and a trend towards lower incidence of new cardiovascular events during longer follow-up. Consistent with these clinical data, Cav-1 null mice revealed elevated intimal hyperplasia response following arterial injury that was significantly attenuated after MMP inhibition. Recombinant peptides mimicking Cav-1 scaffolding domain (Cavtratin reduced gelatinase activity in cultured porcine arteries and impaired MMP-9 activity and COX-2 in LPS-challenged macrophages. Administration of Cavtratin strongly impaired flow-induced expansive remodeling in mice. This is the first study that identifies Cav-1 as a novel potential stabilizing factor in human atherosclerosis. Our findings support the hypothesis that local down-regulation of Cav-1 in atherosclerotic lesions contributes to plaque formation and/or instability accelerating the occurrence of adverse clinical outcomes. Therefore, given the large number of patients studied, we believe that Cav-1 may be considered as a novel target

  6. Valsartan Promoting Atherosclerotic Plaque Stabilization by Upregulating Renalase: A Potential-Related Gene of Atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Mingxue; Ma, Chao; Liu, Weihong; Liu, Hongxu; Wang, Ning; Kang, Qunfu; Li, Ping

    2015-09-01

    Renalase is a protein that can regulate sympathetic nerve activity by metabolizing catecholamines, while redundant catecholamines are thought to contribute to atherosclerosis (As). Catecholamine release can be facilitated by angiotensin (Ang) II by binding to Ang II type 1 (AT1) receptors. Valsartan, a special AT1 antagonist, can dilate blood vessels and reduce blood pressure, but it remained unclear whether valsartan can promote the stability of atherosclerotic plaque by affecting renalase. This study examined the tissue distribution of renalase in ApoE(-/-) mice fed with a high-fat diet and the effect of valsartan on expression of renalase. ApoE(-/-) mice were fed with a high-fat diet for 13 or 26 weeks. As a control, 10 C57BL mice were fed with a standard chow diet. After 13 weeks on the high-fat diet, the ApoE(-/-) mice were randomized (10 mice/group) and treated with valsartan, simvastatin, or distilled water (control group) for an additional 13 weeks accompanied by a high-fat diet. Knockout of ApoE caused a dramatic increase in expression of renalase in mice adipose tissue. With the disturbance of lipid metabolism induced by a high-fat diet, renalase expression decreased in the liver. Renalase can be expressed in smooth muscle cells and M2 macrophages in atherosclerotic plaque, and its expression gradually decreases in the fibrous cap during the transition from stable to vulnerable atherosclerotic plaque. Valsartan, an AT1 receptor antagonist, promotes the stabilization of atherosclerotic plaque by increasing the levels of renalase in serum and the expression of renalase in the fibrous cap of atherosclerotic plaque. It also reduces triglyceride levels in serum and increases the expression of renalase in the liver. Renalase may be a potential-related gene of lipid metabolism and As, and it may be the possible molecular target of valsartan to help stabilize atherosclerotic plaque. © The Author(s) 2015.

  7. Association between abdominal fat distribution and atherosclerotic changes in the carotid artery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oike, Miki; Yokokawa, Hirohide; Fukuda, Hiroshi; Haniu, Tomomi; Oka, Fukuko; Hisaoka, Teruhiko; Isonuma, Hiroshi

    2014-01-01

    We aimed to evaluate the association between abdominal fat distribution (e.g., abdominal visceral fat area [VFA], subcutaneous fat area [SFA], and total fat area [TFA]), waist circumference (WC), or body mass index (BMI) and atherosclerotic changes in the carotid artery after adjusting for common risk factors. The present study is a hospital-based, cross-sectional study. Study participants included 223 Japanese individuals who underwent a medical health checkup at Juntendo University Hospital, Tokyo, between December 2005 and August 2011. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to examine the association between abdominal VFA, SFA, TFA, the VFA/SFA ratio, WC, or BMI and intima-media thickness [IMT] (mean IMT≥1.1mm or maximum IMT≥1.2mm) as atherosclerotic changes in the carotid artery. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that VFA (OR for ≥150cm(2) versus <100cm(2), 3.88; 95% CI, 1.39-10.85), BMI (OR for ≥27.6kg/m(2) versus <25kg/m(2), 5.22; 95% CI, 1.69-16.16), and TFA (OR for 200-285cm(2) versus <200cm(2), 4.15; 95% CI, 1.34-12.86: OR for ≥285cm(2) versus <200cm(2), 5.53; 95% CI, 1.76-17.35) were significantly associated with atherosclerotic changes in men. After adjustment for BMI, only TFA (OR for ≥285cm(2) versus <200cm(2), 3.76; 95%CI, 1.03-13.79) in men was significantly associated with atherosclerotic changes in the carotid artery. Our results indicate that VFA, TFA, and BMI are independently associated with atherosclerotic changes in Japanese men. TFA may be considered as a valuable measure of atherosclerotic changes. Copyright © 2013 Asian Oceanian Association for the Study of Obesity. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. {sup 68}Ga-DOTA-RGD peptide: biodistribution and binding into atherosclerotic plaques in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haukkala, Johanna; Laitinen, Iina; Luoto, Pauliina; Knuuti, Juhani [University of Turku, Turku PET Centre, Turku (Finland); Iveson, Peter; Wilson, Ian [Medical Diagnostics, GE Healthcare Biosciences, London (United Kingdom); Karlsen, Hege; Cuthbertson, Alan [GE Healthcare MDx Research, Oslo (Norway); Laine, Jukka [Turku University Hospital, Department of Pathology, Turku (Finland); Leppaenen, Pia; Ylae-Herttula, Seppo [University of Kuopio, A.I. Virtanen Institute, Kuopio (Finland); Roivainen, Anne [University of Turku, Turku PET Centre, Turku (Finland); University of Turku, Turku Centre for Disease Modelling, Turku (Finland)

    2009-12-15

    Increased expression of {alpha}v{beta}3/{alpha}v{beta}5 integrin is involved in angiogenesis and the inflammatory process in atherosclerotic plaques. The novel {sup 68}Ga-DOTA-RGD peptide binds with high affinity to {alpha}v{beta}3/{alpha}v{beta}5 integrin. The aim of this study was to investigate the uptake of the {sup 68}Ga-DOTA-RGD peptide in atherosclerotic plaques. Uptake of intravenously administered {sup 68}Ga-DOTA-RGD peptide was studied ex vivo in excised tissue samples and aortic sections of LDLR{sup -/-}ApoB{sup 100/100} atherosclerotic mice. The uptake of the tracer in aortic cryosections was examined by using digital autoradiography. Subsequently, the autoradiographs were combined with histological and immunohistological analysis of the sections. DOTA-RGD peptide was successfully labelled with the generator-produced {sup 68}Ga. The tracer had reasonably good specific radioactivity (8.7 {+-} 1.1 GBq/{mu}mol) and was quite stable in vivo. According to ex vivo biodistribution results, {sup 68}Ga-DOTA-RGD was cleared rapidly from the blood circulation and excreted through the kidneys to the urine with high radioactivity in the intestine, lungs, spleen and liver. Autoradiography results showed significantly higher uptake of {sup 68}Ga-DOTA-RGD peptide in the atherosclerotic plaques compared to healthy vessel wall (mean ratio {+-} SD 1.4 {+-} 0.1, p = 0.0004). We observed that {sup 68}Ga-DOTA-RGD is accumulated into the plaques of atherosclerotic mice. However, this data only shows the feasibility of the approach, while the clinical significance still remains to be proven. Further studies are warranted to assess the uptake of this tracer into human atherosclerotic plaques. (orig.)

  9. 68Ga-DOTA-RGD peptide: biodistribution and binding into atherosclerotic plaques in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haukkala, Johanna; Laitinen, Iina; Luoto, Pauliina; Knuuti, Juhani; Iveson, Peter; Wilson, Ian; Karlsen, Hege; Cuthbertson, Alan; Laine, Jukka; Leppaenen, Pia; Ylae-Herttula, Seppo; Roivainen, Anne

    2009-01-01

    Increased expression of αvβ3/αvβ5 integrin is involved in angiogenesis and the inflammatory process in atherosclerotic plaques. The novel 68 Ga-DOTA-RGD peptide binds with high affinity to αvβ3/αvβ5 integrin. The aim of this study was to investigate the uptake of the 68 Ga-DOTA-RGD peptide in atherosclerotic plaques. Uptake of intravenously administered 68 Ga-DOTA-RGD peptide was studied ex vivo in excised tissue samples and aortic sections of LDLR -/- ApoB 100/100 atherosclerotic mice. The uptake of the tracer in aortic cryosections was examined by using digital autoradiography. Subsequently, the autoradiographs were combined with histological and immunohistological analysis of the sections. DOTA-RGD peptide was successfully labelled with the generator-produced 68 Ga. The tracer had reasonably good specific radioactivity (8.7 ± 1.1 GBq/μmol) and was quite stable in vivo. According to ex vivo biodistribution results, 68 Ga-DOTA-RGD was cleared rapidly from the blood circulation and excreted through the kidneys to the urine with high radioactivity in the intestine, lungs, spleen and liver. Autoradiography results showed significantly higher uptake of 68 Ga-DOTA-RGD peptide in the atherosclerotic plaques compared to healthy vessel wall (mean ratio ± SD 1.4 ± 0.1, p = 0.0004). We observed that 68 Ga-DOTA-RGD is accumulated into the plaques of atherosclerotic mice. However, this data only shows the feasibility of the approach, while the clinical significance still remains to be proven. Further studies are warranted to assess the uptake of this tracer into human atherosclerotic plaques. (orig.)

  10. Plasma viscosity increase with progression of peripheral arterial atherosclerotic disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poredos, P; Zizek, B

    1996-03-01

    -macroglobulin (r=0.78, P < 0.01). These results indicate that in patients with peripheral arterial disease plasma viscosity increases with the progression of the atherosclerotic process and is correlated with the clinical stages of the disease.

  11. Contemporary medical therapies of atherosclerotic carotid artery disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Suk F; Brown, Martin M

    2017-03-01

    Contemporary medical therapy consists of identification and treatment of all patient-modifiable vascular risk factors. Specific atherosclerotic disease therapies are designed to reduce the risk of thrombosis, and the disease progression in order to reduce the risk of future cardiovascular events. Contemporary medical management emphasizes the need to support the patient in achieving lifestyle modifications and to adjust medication to achieve individualized target values for specific quantifiable risk factors. Antiplatelet therapy in the form of aspirin or clopidogrel is routinely used for the prevention of ischemic stroke in patients who have had a transient ischemic attack or stroke. There is evidence from a recent trial that the use of combination antiplatelet therapy with aspirin and clopidogrel started within 24 hours of minor stroke or transient ischemic attack reduces the risk of recurrent stroke compared to the use of aspirin alone, and therefore we use aspirin plus clopidogrel in recently symptomatic patients with carotid stenosis pending carotid revascularization. Anticoagulation with heparins or vitamin K antagonist is not recommended except in patients at risk for cardio-embolic events. Lowering blood pressure to target levels has been shown to slow down the progression of carotid artery stenosis and reduces the intima-media thickness of the carotid plaque, while lowering lipid levels with statins has become an essential element in the medical therapy of carotid artery stenosis. Diabetes management should be optimized. Lifestyle choices, including tobacco smoking, physical inactivity, unhealthy diet, obesity, and excessive alcohol intake, are all important modifiable vascular risk factors. The combination of dietary modification, physical exercise, and use of aspirin, a statin, and an antihypertensive agent can be expected to give a cumulative relative stroke risk reduction of 80%. The evidence suggests that intensive medical therapy is so effective that

  12. An agent-based model of the response to angioplasty and bare-metal stent deployment in an atherosclerotic blood vessel.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonia E Curtin

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: While animal models are widely used to investigate the development of restenosis in blood vessels following an intervention, computational models offer another means for investigating this phenomenon. A computational model of the response of a treated vessel would allow investigators to assess the effects of altering certain vessel- and stent-related variables. The authors aimed to develop a novel computational model of restenosis development following an angioplasty and bare-metal stent implantation in an atherosclerotic vessel using agent-based modeling techniques. The presented model is intended to demonstrate the body's response to the intervention and to explore how different vessel geometries or stent arrangements may affect restenosis development. METHODS: The model was created on a two-dimensional grid space. It utilizes the post-procedural vessel lumen diameter and stent information as its input parameters. The simulation starting point of the model is an atherosclerotic vessel after an angioplasty and stent implantation procedure. The model subsequently generates the final lumen diameter, percent change in lumen cross-sectional area, time to lumen diameter stabilization, and local concentrations of inflammatory cytokines upon simulation completion. Simulation results were directly compared with the results from serial imaging studies and cytokine levels studies in atherosclerotic patients from the relevant literature. RESULTS: The final lumen diameter results were all within one standard deviation of the mean lumen diameters reported in the comparison studies. The overlapping-stent simulations yielded results that matched published trends. The cytokine levels remained within the range of physiological levels throughout the simulations. CONCLUSION: We developed a novel computational model that successfully simulated the development of restenosis in a blood vessel following an angioplasty and bare-metal stent deployment based on

  13. Association between diabetes and different components of coronary atherosclerotic plaque burden as measured by coronary multidetector computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Chun-Ho; Schlett, Christopher L; Rogers, Ian S; Truong, Quynh A; Toepker, Michael; Donnelly, Patrick; Brady, Thomas J; Hoffmann, Udo; Bamberg, Fabian

    2009-08-01

    The aim of the study was to assess differences in the presence, extent, and composition of coronary atherosclerotic plaque burden as detected by coronary multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) between patients with and without diabetes mellitus. We compared coronary atherosclerotic plaques (any plaque, calcified [CAP], non-calcified [NCAP, and mixed plaque [MCAP

  14. Cohort study of predictive value of urinary albumin excretion for atherosclerotic vascular disease in patients with insulin dependent diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deckert, T; Yokoyama, H; Mathiesen, E

    1996-01-01

    atherosclerotic vascular disease during follow up of 2457 person year. Elevated urinary albumin excretion was significantly predictive of atherosclerotic vascular disease (hazard ratio 1.06 (95% confidence interval 1.02 to 1.18) per 5 mg increase in 24 hour urinary albumin excretion, P = 0.002). Predictive effect...

  15. Akt2/LDLr double knockout mice display impaired glucose tolerance and develop more complex atherosclerotic plaques than LDLr knockout mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rensing, Katrijn L.; de Jager, Saskia C. A.; Stroes, Erik S.; Vos, Mariska; Twickler, Marcel Th B.; Dallinga-Thie, Geesje M.; de Vries, Carlie J. M.; Kuiper, Johan; Bot, Ilze; von der Thüsen, Jan H.

    2014-01-01

    To characterize the phenotype of Akt2/low-density-lipoprotein receptor double knockout (dKO) (Akt2/LDLr dKO) mice with respect to insulin resistance and features of atherosclerotic plaque progression. Metabolic profile and atherosclerotic plaque progression were compared between LDLr KO mice and

  16. The complex fate in plasma of gadolinium incorporated into high-density lipoproteins used for magnetic imaging of atherosclerotic plaques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barazza, Alessandra; Blachford, Courtney; Even-Or, Orli; Joaquin, Victor A.; Briley-Saebo, Karen C.; Chen, Wei; Jiang, Xian-Cheng; Mulder, Willem J. M.; Cormode, David P.; Fayad, Zahi A.; Fisher, Edward A.

    2013-01-01

    We have previously reported enhancing the imaging of atherosclerotic plaques in mice using reconstituted high density lipoproteins (HDL) as nanocarriers for the MRI contrast agent gadolinium (Gd). This study focuses on the underlying mechanisms of Gd delivery to atherosclerotic plaques. HDL, LDL,

  17. Estimating risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases in non-atherosclerotic Pakistani patients: Study conducted at National Institute of Cardiovascular Diseases, Karachi, Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashraf, T.; Achakzai, A.S.; Farooq, F.; Memon, M.A.

    2017-01-01

    This cross-sectional study was carried out at the National Institute of Cardiovascular Disease, Karachi, from July 2014 to March 2015, and comprised male and female subjects with multi-ethnic background, aged 20-79 years and having non-atherosclerotic disease. SPSS 22 was used for data analysis. Results: Of the 437 participants, 174(39.8%) were men and 263(60.2%) were women. The overall mean age was 42.65+-11.45 years. The mean age of men was 43.3+-12.1 years and that of women was 42.2+-10.8 years. Moreover, ten-year and lifetime risk assessment rates were higher in men (50[28.2%] and 86[49.4%] respectively) compared to women (28[10.6%] and 84[31.9%], respectively). Conclusion: Urdu-speaking Pakistanis were found to be at higher risk from atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease.

  18. Rationale, Design, and Methodological Aspects of the BUDAPEST-GLOBAL Study (Burden of Atherosclerotic Plaques Study in Twins-Genetic Loci and the Burden of Atherosclerotic Lesions).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurovich-Horvat, Pál; Tárnoki, Dávid L; Tárnoki, Ádám D; Horváth, Tamás; Jermendy, Ádám L; Kolossváry, Márton; Szilveszter, Bálint; Voros, Viktor; Kovács, Attila; Molnár, Andrea Á; Littvay, Levente; Lamb, Hildo J; Voros, Szilard; Jermendy, György; Merkely, Béla

    2015-12-01

    The heritability of coronary atherosclerotic plaque burden, coronary geometry, and phenotypes associated with increased cardiometabolic risk are largely unknown. The primary aim of the Burden of Atherosclerotic Plaques Study in Twins-Genetic Loci and the Burden of Atherosclerotic Lesions (BUDAPEST-GLOBAL) study is to evaluate the influence of genetic and environmental factors on the burden of coronary artery disease. By design this is a prospective, single-center, classical twin study. In total, 202 twins (61 monozygotic pairs, 40 dizygotic same-sex pairs) were enrolled from the Hungarian Twin Registry database. All twins underwent non-contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) for the detection and quantification of coronary artery calcium and for the measurement of epicardial fat volumes. In addition, a single non-contrast-enhanced image slice was acquired at the level of L3-L4 to assess abdominal fat distribution. Coronary CT angiography was used for the detection and quantification of plaque, stenosis, and overall coronary artery disease burden. For the primary analysis, we will assess the presence and volume of atherosclerotic plaques. Furthermore, the 3-dimensional coronary geometry will be assessed based on the coronary CT angiography datasets. Additional phenotypic analyses will include per-patient epicardial and abdominal fat quantity measurements. Measurements obtained from monozygotic and dizygotic twin pairs will be compared to evaluate the genetic or environmental effects of the given phenotype. The BUDAPEST-GLOBAL study provides a unique framework to shed some light on the genetic and environmental influences of cardiometabolic disorders. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. sup(99m)Tc-DMSA renal scintigraphy in renal failure due to various renal diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hosokawa, S; Daijo, K; Okabe, T; Kawamura, J; Hara, A [Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Hospital

    1979-08-01

    Renal contours in renal failure were studied by means of sup(99m)Tc-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) renoscintigraphy. Renal cortical images were obtained even in renal failure cases. Causes of renal failure were chronic glomerulonephritis in 7, bilateral renal tuberculosis in 2, chronic pyelonephritis in 3, bilateral renal calculi in 3, diabetic nephropathy in 2, polycystic kidney disease in 2 and stomach cancer in 1.

  20. sup(99m)Tc-DMSA renal scintigraphy in renal failure due to various renal diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosokawa, Shin-ichi; Daijo, Kazuyuki; Okabe, Tatsushiro; Kawamura, Juichi; Hara, Akira

    1979-01-01

    Renal contours in renal failure were studied by means of sup(99m)Tc-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) renoscintigraphy. Renal cortical images were obtained even in renal failure cases. Causes of renal failure were chronic glomerulonephritis in 7, bilateral renal tuberculosis in 2, chronic pyelonephritis in 3, bilateral renal calculi in 3, diabetic nephropathy in 2, polycystic kidney disease in 2 and stomach cancer in 1. (author)

  1. Multiple detector-row CT angiography of the renal and mesenteric vessels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fleischmann, Dominik. E-mail: dominik.fleischmann@univie.ac.at

    2003-03-01

    Computed tomography angiography (CTA) of the abdomen with multiple detector-row computed tomography (MD-CT) is an effective technique for minimally invasive imaging of the renal arteries and the visceral vasculature. This article reviews the clinical and technical aspects of MD-CT angiography in terms of image acquisition and reconstruction parameters, contrast medium application, and three-dimensional visualization with special attention to renal and mesenteric vascular imaging. Because of its high sensitivity to detect renal artery stenosis on the one hand, and because a normal renal CTA virtually excludes the presence of a significant renal artery stenosis on the other hand, renal CTA plays a useful role in the management of patients with suspected renovascular hypertension. Mesenteric CTA is a useful tool for visualizing normal vascular anatomy and its variants--particularly in the setting of organ transplantation. Vascular pathology, e.g. atherosclerotic disease (abdominal angina), or aneurysms of the visceral arteries are reliably assessed with CTA. Mesenteric CTA is an invaluable adjunct to abdominal CT in the setting of abdominal emergencies, because of its ability to detect the causes of acute intestinal ischemia (superior mesenteric artery embolism or thrombosis, superior mesenteric vein thrombosis). Accurate timing of the CTA acquisition and the subsequent parenchymal phase acquisition relative to the contrast medium transit time is critical to obtain excellent image quality in double-pass abdominal CT acquisitions.

  2. Imaging of renal osteodystrophy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jevtic, V. E-mail: vladimir.jevtic@mf.uni-lj.si

    2003-05-01

    Chronic renal insufficiency, hemodialysis, peritoneal dialysis, renal transplantation and administration of different medications provoke complex biochemical disturbances of the calcium-phosphate metabolism with wide spectrum of bone and soft tissue abnormalities termed renal osteodystrophy. Clinically most important manifestation of renal bone disease includes secondary hyperparathyroidism, osteomalacia/rickets, osteoporosis, adynamic bone disease and soft tissue calcification. As a complication of long-term hemodialysis and renal transplantation amyloid deposition, destructive spondyloarthropathy, osteonecrosis, and musculoskeletal infections may occur. Due to more sophisticated diagnostic methods and more efficient treatment classical radiographic features of secondary hyperparathyroidism and osteomalacia/rickets are now less frequently seen. Radiological investigations play an important role in early diagnosis and follow-up of the renal bone disease. Although numerous new imaging modalities have been introduced in clinical practice (scintigraphy, CT, MRI, quantitative imaging), plain film radiography, especially fine quality hand radiograph, still represents most widely used examination.

  3. Imaging of renal osteodystrophy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jevtic, V.

    2003-01-01

    Chronic renal insufficiency, hemodialysis, peritoneal dialysis, renal transplantation and administration of different medications provoke complex biochemical disturbances of the calcium-phosphate metabolism with wide spectrum of bone and soft tissue abnormalities termed renal osteodystrophy. Clinically most important manifestation of renal bone disease includes secondary hyperparathyroidism, osteomalacia/rickets, osteoporosis, adynamic bone disease and soft tissue calcification. As a complication of long-term hemodialysis and renal transplantation amyloid deposition, destructive spondyloarthropathy, osteonecrosis, and musculoskeletal infections may occur. Due to more sophisticated diagnostic methods and more efficient treatment classical radiographic features of secondary hyperparathyroidism and osteomalacia/rickets are now less frequently seen. Radiological investigations play an important role in early diagnosis and follow-up of the renal bone disease. Although numerous new imaging modalities have been introduced in clinical practice (scintigraphy, CT, MRI, quantitative imaging), plain film radiography, especially fine quality hand radiograph, still represents most widely used examination

  4. Is it possible to estimate cerebro–vascular risk on the basis of the composition of carotid atherosclerotic plaques?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Poredoš

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Different models for the prediction of cardiovascular and cerebro-vascular events are used, based on the presence of risk factors. This is a statistical risk-assessment model. Recently, research has been focused on identifying indicators that would enable us to directly assess the risk in certain individuals. These indicators include the detection of the presence and composition of atherosclerotic plaques. Atherosclerotic plaques found in a majority of adults represent a potential cause of vascular complications. Recently, not only thestage of atherosclerotic plaques or the degree of arterial stenosis but also the knowledge of atherosclerotic plaque composition is gaining in importance. Particularly unstable plaques, which are prone to disintegration and the associatedthromboembolic complications, are considered dangerous. Therefore, recently intensive research has been underway to find methods that would enable us to identify the composition and in particular the biological activity of atherosclerotic plaques. Namely, the latter two features determine the stability of plaques or their proneness to rupture and disintegration. While classical angiography is invasive and associated with irradiation, it only provides information on the degree of vascular lumen stenosis but not also on vascular wall composition. Ultrasonography is a basic non-invasive imaging method, which also provides an insight into the composition of vascular wall, however, since mainly superficially situated arteries are accessible by US, its investigation potential in distinguishing between different tissue structures is rather limited. Recent computer programs for analysis of ultrasound images and quantifying various components of atherosclerotic plaques provide a more accurate determination of the composition of atherosclerotic plaques, but do not yield information on the biological activity of atherosclerotic lesions.A newer generation of imaging methods facilitates more

  5. Renal artery stenosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desberg, A.; Paushter, D.M.; Lammert, G.K.; Hale, J.; Troy, R.; Novic, A.; Nally, J. Jr.

    1989-01-01

    Renal artery disease is a potentially correctable cause of hypertension. Previous studies have suggested the utility of duplex sonography in accurately detecting and grading the severity of renal artery stenosis. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate color flow Doppler for this use. Forty-three kidneys were examined by color-flow Doppler and conventional duplex sampling in patients with suspected renovascular hypertension or those undergoing aortography for unrelated reasons. Doppler tracings were obtained from the renal arteries and aorta with calculation of the renal aortic ratio (RAR) and resistive index (RI). Results of Doppler sampling with color flow guidance were compared with aortograms in a blinded fashion

  6. Incidental renal neoplasms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rabjerg, Maj; Mikkelsen, Minne Nedergaard; Walter, Steen

    2014-01-01

    On the basis of associations between tumor size, pathological stage, histological subtype and tumor grade in incidentally detected renal cell carcinoma vs symptomatic renal cell carcinoma, we discussed the need for a screening program of renal cell carcinoma in Denmark. We analyzed a consecutive...... series of 204 patients with renal tumors in 2011 and 2012. The tumors were classified according to detection mode: symptomatic and incidental and compared to pathological parameters. Eighty-nine patients (44%) were symptomatic, 113 (55%) were incidental. Information was not available in two patients...

  7. Cysteinyl leukotriene signaling aggravates myocardial hypoxia in experimental atherosclerotic heart disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nobili, Elena; Salvado, M Dolores; Folkersen, Lasse Westergaard

    2012-01-01

    Cysteinyl-leukotrienes (cys-LT) are powerful spasmogenic and immune modulating lipid mediators involved in inflammatory diseases, in particular asthma. Here, we investigated whether cys-LT signaling, in the context of atherosclerotic heart disease, compromises the myocardial microcirculation and ...

  8. Rupture of the atherosclerotic plaque: does a good animal model exist?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cullen, Paul; Baetta, Roberta; Bellosta, Stefano; Bernini, Franco; Chinetti, Giulia; Cignarella, Andrea; von Eckardstein, Arnold; Exley, Andrew; Goddard, Martin; Hofker, Marten; Hurt-Camejo, Eva; Kanters, Edwin; Kovanen, Petri; Lorkowski, Stefan; McPheat, William; Pentikäinen, Markku; Rauterberg, Jürgen; Ritchie, Andrew; Staels, Bart; Weitkamp, Benedikt; de Winther, Menno

    2003-01-01

    By its very nature, rupture of the atherosclerotic plaque is difficult to study directly in humans. A good animal model would help us not only to understand how rupture occurs but also to design and test treatments to prevent it from happening. However, several difficulties surround existing models

  9. EXTRACRANIAL NON-ATHEROSCLEROTIC PATHOLOGY OF THE CAROTID ARTERY IN THE CAUSES OF ACUTE ISCHEMIC STROKE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. P. Dudanov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. We present the experience of treatment of patients with cerebral vascular accident by the ischemic type, the cause of which was non-atherosclerotic lesion of brachiocephalic arteries.Materials and methods. During 2011–2015 years 4118 patients with acute ischemic stroke were observed. Of these, 589 patients (14.3% were operated in the acute period of stroke in the period from 4–6 hours to 14 days. The cause of the stroke was various types of pathology of the extracranial divisions of the brachiocephalic arteries (EDBA. Of this number, with atherosclerotic carotid artery stenoses, 336 patients (57.1% were operated on, with non-atherosclerotic pathology of carotid arteries — 253 patients (42.9%. Of these 253 patients, dissection of the intima of the carotid arteries was detected in 10 (3.9% patients, aneurysms in the extracranial segment of the ECA and ICA were detected in 14 (5.5%, and 229 (90.6% revealed various types of tortuosity and kinks carotid arteries and fibrous dysplasia. All patients are operated on. Various types of reconstructions of carotid arteries with a good clinical effect have been performed. There were no lethal outcomes.Concusions. The data obtained in the study confirm the opinion that not only atherosclerotic lesions of the ICA are an indication for surgical treatment at an early date. This stage is an important part of the comprehensive rehabilitation of patients with acute ischemic stroke.

  10. Treatment of periodontitis improves the atherosclerotic profile: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teeuw, W.J.; Slot, D.E.; Susanto, H.; Gerdes, V.E.A.; Abbas, F.; D'Aiuto, F.; Kastelein, J.J.P.; Loos, B.G.

    2014-01-01

    Aim Systematic review and meta-analyses to study the robustness of observations that treatment of periodontitis improves the atherosclerotic profile. Material and Methods Literature was searched in Medline-PubMed, Cochrane CENTRAL and EMBASE, based on controlled periodontal intervention trials,

  11. Treatment of periodontitis improves the atherosclerotic profile: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teeuw, Wijnand J.; Slot, Dagmar E.; Susanto, Hendri; Gerdes, Victor E. A.; Abbas, Frank; D'Aiuto, Francesco; Kastelein, John J. P.; Loos, Bruno G.

    2014-01-01

    AimSystematic review and meta-analyses to study the robustness of observations that treatment of periodontitis improves the atherosclerotic profile. Material and MethodsLiterature was searched in Medline-PubMed, Cochrane CENTRAL and EMBASE, based on controlled periodontal intervention trials,

  12. Cognitive functioning and quality of life of atherosclerotic patients following carotid endarterectomy.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bossema, E.R.; Brand, A.N.; Moll, F.L.; Ackerstaff, R.G.A.; Doornen, L.J.P. van

    2002-01-01

    Background: Carotid endarterectomy (CEA) is a surgical procedure to remove atherosclerotic plaque from one of the carotid arteries in patients with severe stenosis. The purpose is to prevent future cerebral ischemic attacks. Whether patients, in addition, improve in cognitive functions and quality

  13. 16S rRNA-based detection of oral pathogens in coronary atherosclerotic plaque

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahendra Jaideep

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Atherosclerosis develops as a response of the vessel wall to injury. Chronic bacterial infections have been associated with an increased risk for atherosclerosis and coronary artery disease. The ability of oral pathogens to colonize in coronary atheromatous plaque is well known. Aim: The aim of this study was to detect the presence of Treponema denticola, Porphyromonas gingivalis and Campylobacter rectus in the subgingival and atherosclerotic plaques of patients with coronary artery disease. Materials and Methods: Fifty-one patients in the age group of 40-80 years with coronary artery disease were selected for the study. DNA was extracted from the plaque samples. The specific primers for T. denticola, C. rectus and P. gingivalis were used to amplify a part of the 16S rRNA gene by polymerase chain reaction. Statistical Analysis Used: Chi-square analysis, correlation coefficient and prevalence percentage of the microorganisms were carried out for the analysis. Results: Of the 51 patients, T. denticola, C. rectus and P. gingivalis were detected in 49.01%, 21.51% and 45.10% of the atherosclerotic plaque samples. Conclusions: Our study revealed the presence of bacterial DNA of the oral pathogenic microorganisms in coronary atherosclerotic plaques. The presence of the bacterial DNA in the coronary atherosclerotic plaques in significant proportion may suggest the possible relationship between periodontal bacterial infection and genesis of coronary atherosclerosis.

  14. Treatment of periodontitis improves the atherosclerotic profile : a systematic review and meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teeuw, Wijnand J.; Slot, Dagmar E.; Susanto, Hendri; Gerdes, Victor E. A.; Abbas, Frank; D'Aiuto, Francesco; Kastelein, John J. P.; Loos, Bruno G.

    AimSystematic review and meta-analyses to study the robustness of observations that treatment of periodontitis improves the atherosclerotic profile. Material and MethodsLiterature was searched in Medline-PubMed, Cochrane CENTRAL and EMBASE, based on controlled periodontal intervention trials,

  15. Lectin Pathway of Complement Activation Is Associated with Vulnerability of Atherosclerotic Plaques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fumagalli, Stefano; Perego, Carlo; Zangari, Rosalia

    2017-01-01

    Inflammatory mechanisms may be involved in atherosclerotic plaque rupture. By using a novel histology-based method to quantify plaque instability here, we assess whether lectin pathway (LP) of complement activation, a major inflammation arm, could represent an index of plaque instability. Plaques...

  16. CML/CD36 accelerates atherosclerotic progression via inhibiting foam cell migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Suining; Li, Lihua; Yan, Jinchuan; Ye, Fei; Shao, Chen; Sun, Zhen; Bao, Zhengyang; Dai, Zhiyin; Zhu, Jie; Jing, Lele; Wang, Zhongqun

    2018-01-01

    Among the various complications of type 2 diabetes mellitus, atherosclerosis causes the highest disability and morbidity. A multitude of macrophage-derived foam cells are retained in atherosclerotic plaques resulting not only from recruitment of monocytes into lesions but also from a reduced rate of macrophage migration from lesions. Nε-carboxymethyl-Lysine (CML), an advanced glycation end product, is responsible for most complications of diabetes. This study was designed to investigate the mechanism of CML/CD36 accelerating atherosclerotic progression via inhibiting foam cell migration. In vivo study and in vitro study were performed. For the in vivo investigation, CML/CD36 accelerated atherosclerotic progression via promoting the accumulation of macrophage-derived foam cells in aorta and inhibited macrophage-derived foam cells in aorta migrating to the para-aorta lymph node of diabetic apoE -/- mice. For the in vitro investigation, CML/CD36 inhibited RAW264.7-derived foam cell migration through NOX-derived ROS, FAK phosphorylation, Arp2/3 complex activation and F-actin polymerization. Thus, we concluded that CML/CD36 inhibited foam cells of plaque migrating to para-aorta lymph nodes, accelerating atherosclerotic progression. The corresponding mechanism may be via free cholesterol, ROS generation, p-FAK, Arp2/3, F-actin polymerization. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. Athero Express : ATHERO-sclerotic plaque EXPRESSion in relation to vascular events and patient characteristics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoeven, B.A.N.

    2006-01-01

    Athero-Express is a tissue bank study, designed to investigate the expression of atherosclerotic derived biological variables in relation to the long-term outcome of patients undergoing carotid endarterectomy. Its design includes both cross-sectional and follow-up studies, the results from which

  18. Endothelial lipase is highly expressed in macrophages in advanced human atherosclerotic lesions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bartels, Emil D; Nielsen, John E; Lindegaard, Marie Louise Skakkebæk

    2007-01-01

    Endothelial lipase (EL) is expressed in endothelial cells, and affects plasma lipoprotein metabolism by hydrolyzing phospholipids in HDL. To determine the cellular expression of EL mRNA and protein in human atherosclerotic lesions, we performed in situ hybridization and immunohistochemical studies...

  19. Imaging the intracranial atherosclerotic vessel wall using 7T MRI: initial comparison with histopathology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Kolk, A. G.; Zwanenburg, J. J. M.; Denswil, N. P.; Vink, A.; Spliet, W. G. M.; Daemen, M. J. A. P.; Visser, F.; Klomp, D. W. J.; Luijten, P. R.; Hendrikse, J.

    2015-01-01

    Several studies have attempted to characterize intracranial atherosclerotic plaques by using MR imaging sequences. However, dedicated validation of these sequences with histology has not yet been performed. The current study assessed the ability of ultra-high-resolution 7T MR imaging sequences with

  20. Imaging the Intracranial Atherosclerotic Vessel Wall Using 7T MRI : Initial Comparison with Histopathology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Kolk, A. G.; Zwanenburg, J. J. M.; Denswil, N. P.; Vink, A.; Spliet, W. G. M.; Daemen, M. J. A. P.; Visser, F.; Klomp, D. W. J.; Luijten, P. R.; Hendrikse, J.

    In this preliminary study, 7T imaging was capable of identifying not only intracranial wall thickening but different plaque components such as foamy macrophages and collagen. Signal heterogeneity was typical of advanced atherosclerotic disease. BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Several studies have attempted

  1. IL-1β level in Sudanese patients with atherosclerotic coronary heart ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    McRoy

    studies investigating inflammatory cytokines in atherosclerotic patients with coronary heart disease (CHD).[2,5-7]. However, systemic level of IL-1β may still be unreliable marker for atherosclerosis. This is because systemic level of IL-1β could not faithfully reflect the local inflammatory process near the atheromatous lesions.

  2. Magnetic resonance imaging of vulnerable atherosclerotic plaques: current imaging strategies and molecular imaging probes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Briley-Saebo, Karen C.; Mulder, Willem J. M.; Mani, Venkatesh; Hyafil, Fabien; Amirbekian, Vardan; Aguinaldo, Juan Gilberto S.; Fisher, Edward A.; Fayad, Zahi A.

    2007-01-01

    The vulnerability or destabilization of atherosclerotic plaques has been directly linked to plaque composition. Imaging modalities, such as magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, that allow for evaluation of plaque composition at a cellular and molecular level, could further improve the detection of

  3. Macrophage p53 controls macrophage death in atherosclerotic lesions of apolipoprotein E deficient mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boesten, L.S.M.; Zadelaar, A.S.M.; Nieuwkoop, A. van; Hu, L.; Teunisse, A.F.A.S.; Jochemsen, A.G.; Evers, B.; Water, B. van de; Gijbels, M.J.J.; Vlijmen, B.J.M. van; Havekes, L.M.; Winther, M.P.J. de

    2009-01-01

    The cellular composition of atherosclerotic lesions is determined by many factors including cell infiltration, proliferation and cell death. Tumor suppressor gene p53 has been shown to regulate both cell proliferation and cell death in many cell types. In the present study, we investigated the role

  4. Atherosclerotic plaque composition: analysis with multicolor CT and targeted gold nanoparticles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cormode, David P.; Roessl, Ewald; Thran, Axel; Skajaa, Torjus; Gordon, Ronald E.; Schlomka, Jens-Peter; Fuster, Valentin; Fisher, Edward A.; Mulder, Willem J. M.; Proksa, Roland; Fayad, Zahi A.

    2010-01-01

    To investigate the potential of spectral computed tomography (CT) (popularly referred to as multicolor CT), used in combination with a gold high-density lipoprotein nanoparticle contrast agent (Au-HDL), for characterization of macrophage burden, calcification, and stenosis of atherosclerotic

  5. Phase-based vascular input function: Improved quantitative DCE-MRI of atherosclerotic plaques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hoof, R. H. M.; Hermeling, E.; Truijman, M. T. B.; van Oostenbrugge, R. J.; Daemen, J. W. H.; van der Geest, R. J.; van Orshoven, N. P.; Schreuder, A. H.; Backes, W. H.; Daemen, M. J. A. P.; Wildberger, J. E.; Kooi, M. E.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Quantitative pharmacokinetic modeling of dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE)-MRI can be used to assess atherosclerotic plaque microvasculature, which is an important marker of plaque vulnerability. Purpose of the present study was (1) to compare magnitude-versus phase-based vascular input

  6. Renal cell carcinoma in patient with crossed fused renal ectopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozgur Cakmak

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary renal cell carcinomas have rarely been reported in patients with crossed fused renal ectopia. We presented a patient with right to left crossed fused kidney harbouring renal tumor. The most frequent tumor encountered in crossed fused renal ectopia is renal cell carcinoma. In this case, partial nephrectomy was performed which pave way to preservation of the uninvolved both renal units. Due to unpredictable anatomy, careful preoperative planning and meticulous delineation of renal vasculature is essential for preservation of the uninvolved renal units.

  7. Why relevance theory is relevant for lexicography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bothma, Theo; Tarp, Sven

    2014-01-01

    This article starts by providing a brief summary of relevance theory in information science in relation to the function theory of lexicography, explaining the different types of relevance, viz. objective system relevance and the subjective types of relevance, i.e. topical, cognitive, situational...... that is very important for lexicography as well as for information science, viz. functional relevance. Since all lexicographic work is ultimately aimed at satisfying users’ information needs, the article then discusses why the lexicographer should take note of all these types of relevance when planning a new...... dictionary project, identifying new tasks and responsibilities of the modern lexicographer. The article furthermore discusses how relevance theory impacts on teaching dictionary culture and reference skills. By integrating insights from lexicography and information science, the article contributes to new...

  8. Stages of Renal Cell Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Tumors Treatment Genetics of Kidney Cancer Research Renal Cell Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Renal Cell Cancer Go to Health Professional Version Key Points Renal ...

  9. Bilateral papillary renal cell carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gossios, K.; Vazakas, P.; Argyropoulou, M.; Stefanaki, S.; Stavropoulos, N.E.

    2001-01-01

    Papillary renal cell carcinoma is a subgroup of malignant renal epithelial neoplasms. We report the clinical and imaging findings of a case with multifocal and bilateral renal cell carcinoma which are nonspecific. (orig.)

  10. Current structure and organization for renal patient assistance in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alloatti, Sandro; Strippoli, Giovanni Fm; Buccianti, Gherardo; Daidone, Giuseppe; Schena, Francesco P

    2008-04-01

    Given the public health challenge and burden of chronic kidney disease, the Italian Society of Nephrology (SIN) has compiled a national census of Renal Units (RU) existing in the twenty Italian regions related to the year 2004. An on-line questionnaire including 158 items explored structural and human resources, organization aspects, activities and epidemiological data in SIN, 2004. The census identified 363 public RU, 303 satellite Dialysis Centres (DC) and 295 private DC totalling 961 DC [16.4 per million population (pmp)]. The inpatient renal beds were 2742 (47 pmp). Renal and dialysis activity was performed by 3728 physicians (64 pmp), of whom 2964 (80%) were nephrologists. There was no permanent medical assistance in 41% of satellite DC. There were 1802 renal admissions pmp and 99 renal biopsies pmp. The management of acute renal failure (13 456 cases; 230 pmp) represented a relevant proportion of the activities conducted in public RU. In 2004 there were 9858 new cases of end-stage kidney disease requiring renal replacement therapy (RRT) (169 pmp). On 31 December 2004, 60 058 patients were on RRT (1027 pmp), 43 293 of which (740 pmp) were on dialysis and 16 765 (287 pmp) with renal graft. This census of the Italian RU and DC in 2004 provides decision makers and healthcare stakeholders with detailed data for benchmarking and has financial implications for the public health system. Similar analyses may be conducted in other countries permitting standardization of medical and cost-related aspects of renal care.

  11. Add-On Effect of Probucol in Atherosclerotic, Cholesterol-Fed Rabbits Treated with Atorvastatin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keyamura, Yuka; Nagano, Chifumi; Kohashi, Masayuki; Niimi, Manabu; Nozako, Masanori; Koyama, Takashi; Yasufuku, Reiko; Imaizumi, Ayako; Itabe, Hiroyuki; Yoshikawa, Tomohiro

    2014-01-01

    Objective Lowering the blood concentration of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol is the primary strategy employed in treating atherosclerotic disorders; however, most commonly prescribed statins prevent cardiovascular events in just 30% to 40% of treated patients. Therefore, additional treatment is required for patients in whom statins have been ineffective. In this study of atherosclerosis in rabbits, we examined the effect of probucol, a lipid-lowering drug with potent antioxidative effects, added to treatment with atorvastatin. Methods and Results Atherosclerosis was induced by feeding rabbits chow containing 0.5% cholesterol for 8 weeks. Probucol 0.1%, atorvastatin 0.001%, and atorvastatin 0.003% were administered solely or in combination for 6 weeks, beginning 2 weeks after the start of atherosclerosis induction. Atorvastatin decreased the plasma concentration of non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (non-HDLC) dose-dependently; atorvastatin 0.003% decreased the plasma concentration of non-HDLC by 25% and the area of atherosclerotic lesions by 21%. Probucol decreased the plasma concentration of non-HDLC to the same extent as atorvastatin (i.e., by 22%) and the area of atherosclerotic lesions by 41%. Probucol with 0.003% atorvastatin decreased the plasma concentration of non-HDLC by 38% and the area of atherosclerotic lesions by 61%. Co-administration of probucol with atorvastatin did not affect the antioxidative effects of probucol, which were not evident on treatment with atorvastatin alone, such as prevention of in vitro LDL-oxidation, increase in paraoxonase-1 activity of HDL, and decreases in plasma and plaque levels of oxidized-LDL in vivo. Conclusions Probucol has significant add-on anti-atherosclerotic effects when combined with atorvastatin treatment; suggesting that this combination might be beneficial for treatment of atherosclerosis. PMID:24810608

  12. The significance of renoscintigraphy for renal transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oei Hong Yoe.

    1981-01-01

    The aim of the study reported here was to evaluate the contribution of renoscintigraphy performed frequently and systematically, for differentiation between the various complications occurring after renal transplantation. Relevant complications of renal transplantation are described, with special attention to the diagnostic methods available at present, and the methods used for radionuclide investigations in renal transplantation are reviewed. The abnormalities seen on the sequential images in ten cases complicated by urine leakage or urinary tract obstruction are described. These are illustrated by the scintigrams and the corresponding radiograms. The results in eight patients whose transplant did not show Hippuran uptake are also described. Transplant failure in five of these eight patients was clearly demonstrated by perfusion scintigraphy. (Auth.)

  13. Renal Function in Hypothyroidism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalid, S.; Khalid, M; Elfaki, M.; Hassan, N.; Suliman, S.M.

    2007-01-01

    Background Hypothyroidism induces significant changes in the function of organ systems such as the heart, muscles and brain. Renal function is also influenced by thyroid status. Physiological effects include changes in water and electrolyte metabolism, notably hyponatremia, and reliable alterations of renal hemodynamics, including decrements in renal blood flow, renal plasma flow, glomerular filtration rate (GFR). Objective Renal function is profoundly influenced by thyroid status; the purpose of the present study was to determine the relationship between renal function and thyroid status of patients with hypothyroidism. Design and Patients In 5 patients with primary hypothyroidism and control group renal functions are measured by serum creatinine and glomerular filtration rate (GFR) using modified in diet renal disease (MDRD) formula. Result In hypothyroidism, mean serum creatinine increased and mean estimated GFR decreased, compared to the control group mean serum creatinine decreased and mean estimated GFR Increased. The hypothyroid patients showed elevated serum creatinine levels (> 1.1mg/dl) compared to control group (p value .000). In patients mean estimated GFR decreased, compared to mean estimated GFR increased in the control group (p value= .002).

  14. Renal Function in Hypothyroidism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalid, A. S; Ahmed, M.I; Elfaki, H.M; Hassan, N.; Suliman, S. M.

    2006-12-01

    Background hypothyroidism induces significant changes in the function of organ systems such as the heart, muscles and brain. Renal function is also influenced by thyroid status. Physiological effects include changes in water and electrolyte metabolism, notably hyponatraemia, and reliable alterations of renal hemodynamics, including decrements in renal blood flow, renal plasma flow, glomerular filtration rate (GFR). Objective renal function is profoundly influenced by thyroid status, the purpose of the present study was to determine the relationship between renal function and thyroid status of patients with hypothyroidism. Design and patients in 5 patients with primary hypothyroidism and control group renal functions are measured by serum creatinine and glomerular filtration rate(GFR) using modified in diet renal disease (MDRD) formula. Result in hypothyroidism, mean serum creatinine increased and mean estimated GFR decreased, compared to the control group mean serum creatinine decreased and mean estimated GFR increased. The hypothyroid patients showed elevated serum creatinine levels(>1.1 mg/d1) compared to control group (p value= 000). In patients mean estimated GFR increased in the control group (p value=.002).Conclusion thus the kidney, in addition to the brain, heart and muscle, is an important target of the action of thyroid hormones.(Author)

  15. Disappearing renal calculus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Helen; Thomas, Johanna; Kumar, Sunil

    2013-04-10

    We present a case of a renal calculus treated solely with antibiotics which has not been previously reported in the literature. A man with a 17 mm lower pole renal calculus and concurrent Escherichia coli urine infection was being worked up to undergo percutaneous nephrolithotomy. However, after a course of preoperative antibiotics the stone was no longer seen on retrograde pyelography or CT imaging.

  16. Bilateral triple renal arteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pestemalci, Turan; Yildiz, Yusuf Zeki; Yildirim, Mehmet; Mavi, Ayfer; Gumusburun, Erdem

    2009-01-01

    Knowledge of the variations of the renal artery has grown in importance with increasing numbers of renal transplants, vascular reconstructions and various surgical and radio logic techniques being performed in recent years. We report the presence of bilateral triple renal arteries, discovered on routine dissection of a male cadaver. On the right side, one additional renal artery originated from the abdominal aorta (distributed to superior pole of the kidney) and one other originated from the right common iliac artery (distributed to lower pole of the kidney). On the left side, both additional renal arteries originated from the abdominal aorta. Our observation has been compared with variations described in the literature and their clinical importance has been emphasized. (author)

  17. Radiology of renal failure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffiths, H.J.

    1990-01-01

    This book covers most aspects of imaging studies in patients with renal failure. The initial chapter provides basic information on contrast agents, intravenous urography, and imaging findings in the urinary tract disorders responsible for renal failure and in patients who have undergone transplantation. It illustrates common gastro-intestinal abnormalities seen on barium studies in patients with renal failure. It illustrates the cardiopulmonary complications of renal failure and offers advice for radiologic differentiation. It details different aspects of skeletal changes in renal failure, including a basic description of the pathophysiology of the changes; many excellent illustrations of classic bone changes, arthritis, avascular necrosis, and soft-tissue calcifications; and details of bone mineral analysis

  18. Deep learning relevance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lioma, Christina; Larsen, Birger; Petersen, Casper

    2016-01-01

    train a Recurrent Neural Network (RNN) on existing relevant information to that query. We then use the RNN to "deep learn" a single, synthetic, and we assume, relevant document for that query. We design a crowdsourcing experiment to assess how relevant the "deep learned" document is, compared...... to existing relevant documents. Users are shown a query and four wordclouds (of three existing relevant documents and our deep learned synthetic document). The synthetic document is ranked on average most relevant of all....

  19. Renal flagellate infections in reptiles: 29 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juan-Sallés, Caries; Garner, Michael M; Nordhausen, Robert W; Valls, Xavier; Gallego, Miguel; Soto, Sara

    2014-03-01

    Renal infection with flagellated protozoa was retrospectively evaluated in 29 reptiles, including 12 turtles, 7 tortoises, and 6 chameleons; overall, 20 species of reptiles were represented. Most cases presented with nonspecific clinical signs or a combination of several concurrent diseases. Nineteen of 29 reptiles had tubulointerstitial nephritis associated with flagellates, and this lesion was considered contributory to death in 15 cases, although concurrent diseases were frequent. Infection was invasive into the renal interstitium in three reptiles due to tubular rupture and in one chameleon also spread to adjacent tissues, coelomic cavity, and blood vessels due to renal rupture. Cytologic or ultrastructural evaluation of trophozoites in two cases was consistent with diplomonad flagellates. Renal disease was often complicated with soft-tissue mineralization and/or gout. Gastrointestinal and cloacal infection with flagellates and inflammation were frequent in reptiles in which the digestive tract was available for histopathologic examination, and this supports the possibility of infections ascending the urinary tract from the cloaca. Renal disease associated with flagellate protozoa is rare in vertebrates but appears to be relevant in reptiles, particularly chelonians and chameleons.

  20. Functional MR urography in patients with renal transplants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knopp, M.V.; Doersam, J.; Oesingmann, N.; Piesche, S.; Hawighorst, H.; Wiesel, M.; Schad, L.R.; Kaick, G. van

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the value of functional magnetic resonance urography for the noninvasive postoperative evaluation of renal transplants. Methods: A saturation inversion projection sequence allows the selective imaging of strongly T1 weighted signal from the MR contrast agent. A coronal slab leads to images comparable to conventional urography which can be acquired as a sequence with four images per minute. Results: 15 patients with urologic questionable findings after renal transplantation were studied. FMRU revealed in 6 patients normal findings, in 6 moderate dilatation of the renal pelvis without any urodynamic relevant obstruction. 3 pathologic findings, ureteral leak, ureteropelvic-junction obstruction and ureteral stenosis were diagnosed and consequently surgically treated. The imaging quality in all studies was diagnostic and urologically relevant. Conclusion: FMRU can be used as a noninvasive technique for the assessment of renal transplant in cases with suspicion of complication in the excretory system. (orig.) [de

  1. An ultrasound-based comparative study on carotid plaques in HIV-positive patients vs. atherosclerotic and arteritis patients: atherosclerotic or inflammatory lesions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maggi, Paolo; Perilli, Francesco; Lillo, Antonio; Carito, Valentina; Epifani, Giuseppe; Bellacosa, Chiara; Pastore, Giuseppe; Regina, Guido

    2007-02-01

    We have previously described two cases of HIV-1-positive patients undergoing surgery for stenosis of the internal carotid arteries. Histology revealed an extensive inflammatory infiltration of the vascular wall and no evidence of atheromasic plaque. This unexpected pattern of carotid damage prompted us to perform a more accurate investigation of the characteristics of carotid plaques in a group of HIV-positive patients. The results were compared with those obtained from young patients affected by atherosclerosis of the epi-aortic vessels and patients with arteritis. The patients underwent ultrasonography of the epi-aortic vessels using one of the latest generation power color-Doppler with 7.5 MHz probes. The study population included 61 HIV-positive patients and 47 HIV-negative patients (37 atherosclerotic and 10 with arteritis). Compared with HIV-negative atherosclerotic patients, there were significantly higher proportions of HIV-positive patients with iso-hypoechogenic lesions (81.8 vs. 29%) that were homogeneous both in their parietal and endoluminal portions (96.7 vs. 21.6% and 88.5 vs. 54.0%, respectively), with a smooth or slightly irregular surface (99.0 vs. 56.7%) (P=0.001 for all differences). No statistically significant differences were seen between HIV-positive and arteritis patients. Our study evidenced that the ultrasonographic structure of the epi-aortic lesions in HIV-positive patients substantially differ from those of the plaques in atherosclerotic patients, although they share similar characteristics with patients affected by arteritis. Further investigations are warranted to better define the structure and the mechanism of onset of these lesions.

  2. Renal Alterations in Feline Immunodeficiency Virus (FIV-Infected Cats: A Natural Model of Lentivirus-Induced Renal Disease Changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Pistello

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV is associated with several renal syndromes including acute and chronic renal failures, but the underlying pathogenic mechanisms are unclear. HIV and feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV share numerous biological and pathological features, including renal alterations. We investigated and compared the morphological changes of renal tissue of 51 experimentally and 21 naturally infected cats. Compared to the latter, the experimentally infected cats exhibited some mesangial widening and glomerulonephritis, milder proteinuria, and lower tubular and interstitial alterations. The numbers of giant protein tubular casts and tubular microcysts were also lower. In contrast, diffuse interstitial infiltrates and glomerular and interstitial amyloidosis were detected only in naturally infected cats. Similar alterations are found in HIV infected patients, thus supporting the idea of a causative role of FIV infection in renal disease, and underlining the relevance of the FIV and its natural host as an animal model for investigating lentivirus-associated nephropathy.

  3. Renal alterations in feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV)-infected cats: a natural model of lentivirus-induced renal disease changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poli, Alessandro; Tozon, Natasa; Guidi, Grazia; Pistello, Mauro

    2012-09-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is associated with several renal syndromes including acute and chronic renal failures, but the underlying pathogenic mechanisms are unclear. HIV and feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) share numerous biological and pathological features, including renal alterations. We investigated and compared the morphological changes of renal tissue of 51 experimentally and 21 naturally infected cats. Compared to the latter, the experimentally infected cats exhibited some mesangial widening and glomerulonephritis, milder proteinuria, and lower tubular and interstitial alterations. The numbers of giant protein tubular casts and tubular microcysts were also lower. In contrast, diffuse interstitial infiltrates and glomerular and interstitial amyloidosis were detected only in naturally infected cats. Similar alterations are found in HIV infected patients, thus supporting the idea of a causative role of FIV infection in renal disease, and underlining the relevance of the FIV and its natural host as an animal model for investigating lentivirus-associated nephropathy.

  4. Multicolor fluorescence technique to detect apoptotic cells in advanced coronary atherosclerotic plaques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Soldani

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Apoptosis occurring in atherosclerotic lesions has been suggested to be involved in the evolution and the structural stability of the plaques. It is still a matter of debate whether apoptosis mainly involves vascular smooth muscle cells (vSMCs in the fibrous tissue or inflammatory (namely foam cells, thus preferentially affecting the cell-poor lipid core of the atherosclerotic plaques. The aim of the present investigation was to detect the presence of apoptotic cells and to estimate their percentage in a series of atherosclerotic plaques obtained either by autopsy or during surgical atherectomy. Apoptotic cells were identified on paraffinembedded sections on the basis of cell nuclear morphology after DNA staining and/or by cytochemical reactions (TUNEL assay, immunodetection of the proteolytic poly (ADP-ribose polymerase-1 [PARP-1] fragment; biochemical procedures (identifying DNA fragmentation or PARP-1 proteolysis were also used. Indirect immunofluorescence techniques were performed to label specific antigens for either vSMCs or macrophages (i.e., the cells which are most likely prone to apoptosis in atherosclerotic lesions: the proper selection of fluorochrome labeling allowed the simultaneous detection of the cell phenotype and the apoptotic characteristics, by multicolor fluorescence techniques. Apoptotic cells proved to be less than 5% of the whole cell population, in atherosclerotic plaque sections: this is, in fact, a too low cell fraction to be detected by widely used biochemical methods, such as agarose gel electrophoresis of low-molecular-weight DNA or Western-blot analysis of PARP-1 degradation. Most apoptotic cells were of macrophage origin, and clustered in the tunica media, near or within the lipid-rich core; only a few TUNEL-positive cells were labeled for antigens specific for vSMCs. These results confirm that, among the cell populations in atherosclerotic plaques, macrophage foam-cells are preferentially involved in apoptosis

  5. Orbital Atherectomy in the Renal Artery: A New Frontier for an Emerging Technology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valle, Javier A; Armstrong, Ehrin J; Waldo, Stephen W

    2017-01-01

    Orbital atherectomy has been developed as a method to modify calcified plaque in the peripheral vasculature, with extensive experience and data supporting its use in infrainguinal peripheral arterial disease. However, calcific atherosclerotic disease occurs in other vascular beds and may benefit from the application of this technology. In this case report, we describe the first reported use of orbital atherectomy in a renal artery. A 55-year-old male with severe drug-refractory hypertension was found to have renal artery stenosis, with severe calcification of the right renal artery. Orbital atherectomy was utilized for initial plaque modification, and he underwent stenting of the renal artery lesion with an excellent angiographic and clinical result at follow-up. In conclusion, orbital atherectomy is a safe and effective means of plaque modification for severely calcified lesions. The safe and effective use of orbital atherectomy in the renal vasculature suggests an opportunity for ongoing evaluation into expanded roles for this technology beyond the coronary and lower-extremity arterial beds.

  6. Renal imaging in paediatrics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porn, U.; Hahn, K.; Fischer, S.

    2003-01-01

    The most frequent renal diseases in paediatrics include urinary tract infections, hydronephrosis, kidney anomalies and reflux. The main reason for performing DMSA scintigraphy in paediatrics is the detection of cortical abnormalities related to urinary tract infection. Because the amount of tracer retained in the tubular cells is associated with the distribution of functioning renal parenchyma in the kidney, it is possible, to evaluate the split renal function. In comparison to ultrasound and intravenous urography the sensitivity in the detection of acute as well as chronic inflammatory changes is very high, however less specific. An indication for a renography in neonates and children is beside an estimation of the total renal function and the calculation of the split renal function, the assessment of renal drainage in patients with unclear dilatation of the collecting system in ultrasound. The analysis of the time activity curve provides, especially for follow-up studies, a reproducible method to assess the urinary outflow. The diuretic scintigraphy allows the detection of urinary obstruction. Subsequently it is possible to image the micturition phase to detect vesico-ureteric reflux (indirect MCU) after drainage of tracer from the renal pelvis. An reflux in the ureters or the pelvicalyceal system is visible on the scintigraphic images and can be confirmed by time activity curves. A more invasive technique is the direct isotope cystography with bladder catheterization. The present paper should give an overview about the role of nuclear medicine in paediatric urology. (orig.) [de

  7. Perioperative acute renal failure.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Mahon, Padraig

    2012-02-03

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Recent biochemical evidence increasingly implicates inflammatory mechanisms as precipitants of acute renal failure. In this review, we detail some of these pathways together with potential new therapeutic targets. RECENT FINDINGS: Neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin appears to be a sensitive, specific and reliable biomarker of renal injury, which may be predictive of renal outcome in the perioperative setting. For estimation of glomerular filtration rate, cystatin C is superior to creatinine. No drug is definitively effective at preventing postoperative renal failure. Clinical trials of fenoldopam and atrial natriuretic peptide are, at best, equivocal. As with pharmacological preconditioning of the heart, volatile anaesthetic agents appear to offer a protective effect to the subsequently ischaemic kidney. SUMMARY: Although a greatly improved understanding of the pathophysiology of acute renal failure has offered even more therapeutic targets, the maintenance of intravascular euvolaemia and perfusion pressure is most effective at preventing new postoperative acute renal failure. In the future, strategies targeting renal regeneration after injury will use bone marrow-derived stem cells and growth factors such as insulin-like growth factor-1.

  8. Selective expansion of influenza a virus-specific T cells in symptomatic human carotid artery atherosclerotic plaques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keller, Tymen T.; van der Meer, Jelger J.; Teeling, Peter; van der Sluijs, Koen; Idu, Mirza M.; Rimmelzwaan, Guus F.; Levi, Marcel; van der Wal, Allard C.; de Boer, Onno J.

    2008-01-01

    Background and Purpose-Evidence is accumulating that infection with influenza A virus contributes to atherothrombotic disease. Vaccination against influenza decreases the risk of atherosclerotic syndromes, indicating that inflammatory mechanisms may be involved. We tested the hypothesis that

  9. Cadmium and renal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Il'yasova, Dora; Schwartz, Gary G.

    2005-01-01

    Background: Rates of renal cancer have increased steadily during the past two decades, and these increases are not explicable solely by advances in imaging modalities. Cadmium, a widespread environmental pollutant, is a carcinogen that accumulates in the kidney cortex and is a cause of end-stage renal disease. Several observations suggest that cadmium may be a cause of renal cancer. Methods: We performed a systematic review of the literature on cadmium and renal cancer using MEDLINE for the years 1966-2003. We reviewed seven epidemiological and eleven clinical studies. Results: Despite different methodologies, three large epidemiologic studies indicate that occupational exposure to cadmium is associated with increased risk renal cancer, with odds ratios varying from 1.2 to 5.0. Six of seven studies that compared the cadmium content of kidneys from patients with kidney cancer to that of patients without kidney cancer found lower concentrations of cadmium in renal cancer tissues. Conclusions: Exposure to cadmium appears to be associated with renal cancer, although this conclusion is tempered by the inability of studies to assess cumulative cadmium exposure from all sources including smoking and diet. The paradoxical findings of lower cadmium content in kidney tissues from patients with renal cancer may be caused by dilution of cadmium in rapidly dividing cells. This and other methodological problems limit the interpretation of studies of cadmium in clinical samples. Whether cadmium is a cause of renal cancer may be answered more definitively by future studies that employ biomarkers of cadmium exposure, such as cadmium levels in blood and urine

  10. Renal Branch Artery Stenosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Zarah; Thisted, Ebbe; Andersen, Ulrik Bjørn

    2017-01-01

    Renovascular hypertension is a common cause of pediatric hypertension. In the fraction of cases that are unrelated to syndromes such as neurofibromatosis, patients with a solitary stenosis on a branch of the renal artery are common and can be diagnostically challenging. Imaging techniques...... that perform well in the diagnosis of main renal artery stenosis may fall short when it comes to branch artery stenosis. We report 2 cases that illustrate these difficulties and show that a branch artery stenosis may be overlooked even by the gold standard method, renal angiography....

  11. Cryoablation of Renal Angiomyolipoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Makki, Ahmad; Graumann, Ole; Hoyer, Soren

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Small series have reported that cryoablation (CA) is a safe and feasible minimally invasive nephron-sparing alternative for the treatment of renal angiomyolipomas (renal AMLs). The aim of the present study was to investigate the safety and efficacy of CA in patients with renal AML......-guided CA. The mean patient age was 46 years [interquartile range (IQR) 30] and the mean tumor volume was 50.1 cm(3) (IQR 53.3). In all cases, the procedure was effectively conducted with no conversion to open surgery, and no major complications were experienced. The mean follow-up time was 25 months (IQR...

  12. Pediatric renal leukemia: spectrum of CT imaging findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hilmes, Melissa A.; Dillman, Jonathan R.; Mody, Rajen J.; Strouse, Peter J.

    2008-01-01

    The kidneys are a site of extramedullary leukemic disease that can be readily detected by CT. To demonstrate the spectrum of CT findings in children with renal leukemic involvement. Twelve children were identified retrospectively as having renal leukemic involvement by contrast-enhanced CT of the abdomen. Contrast-enhanced CT images through the kidneys of each patient were reviewed by two pediatric radiologists. Pertinent imaging findings and renal lengths were documented. The electronic medical record was accessed to obtain relevant clinical and pathologic information. Five patients with renal leukemic involvement presented with multiple bilateral low-attenuation masses, while three patients demonstrated large areas of wedge-shaped and geographic low attenuation. Four other patients presented with unique imaging findings, including a solitary unilateral low-attenuation mass, solitary bilateral low-attenuation masses, multiple bilateral low-attenuation masses including unilateral large conglomerate masses, and bilateral areas of ill-defined parenchymal low attenuation. Two patients showed unilateral nephromegaly, while eight other patients showed bilateral nephromegaly. Two patients had normal size kidneys. Two patients had elevated serum creatinine concentrations at the time of imaging. Renal leukemic involvement in children can present with a variety of CT imaging findings. Focal renal abnormalities as well as nephromegaly are frequently observed. Most commonly, renal leukemic involvement does not appear to impair renal function. (orig.)

  13. Pediatric renal leukemia: spectrum of CT imaging findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hilmes, Melissa A. [University of Michigan Health System, C.S. Mott Children' s Hospital, Section of Pediatric Radiology, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Vanderbilt University Children' s Hospital, Section of Pediatric Radiology, Nashville, TN (United States); Dillman, Jonathan R. [University of Michigan Health System, C.S. Mott Children' s Hospital, Section of Pediatric Radiology, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); University of Michigan Health System, Department of Radiology, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Mody, Rajen J. [University of Michigan Health System, C.S. Mott Children' s Hospital, Division of Pediatric Hematology-Oncology and Bone Marrow Transplantation, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Strouse, Peter J. [University of Michigan Health System, C.S. Mott Children' s Hospital, Section of Pediatric Radiology, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    2008-04-15

    The kidneys are a site of extramedullary leukemic disease that can be readily detected by CT. To demonstrate the spectrum of CT findings in children with renal leukemic involvement. Twelve children were identified retrospectively as having renal leukemic involvement by contrast-enhanced CT of the abdomen. Contrast-enhanced CT images through the kidneys of each patient were reviewed by two pediatric radiologists. Pertinent imaging findings and renal lengths were documented. The electronic medical record was accessed to obtain relevant clinical and pathologic information. Five patients with renal leukemic involvement presented with multiple bilateral low-attenuation masses, while three patients demonstrated large areas of wedge-shaped and geographic low attenuation. Four other patients presented with unique imaging findings, including a solitary unilateral low-attenuation mass, solitary bilateral low-attenuation masses, multiple bilateral low-attenuation masses including unilateral large conglomerate masses, and bilateral areas of ill-defined parenchymal low attenuation. Two patients showed unilateral nephromegaly, while eight other patients showed bilateral nephromegaly. Two patients had normal size kidneys. Two patients had elevated serum creatinine concentrations at the time of imaging. Renal leukemic involvement in children can present with a variety of CT imaging findings. Focal renal abnormalities as well as nephromegaly are frequently observed. Most commonly, renal leukemic involvement does not appear to impair renal function. (orig.)

  14. Acute renal failure in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vergesslich, K.A.; Balzar, E.; Weninger, M.; Ponhold, W.; Sommer, G.; Wittich, G.R.; Vienna Univ.

    1987-01-01

    Acute renal failure (ARF) may be due to obstructive uropathy or renal parenchymal disease. Twenty-five children with acute renal failure secondary to renal parenchymal disease underwent ultrasonographic examination of the kidneys. Changes of renal size and cortical echogenicity were correlated with renal function. All patients presented with bilaterally enlarged kidneys with the exception in renal function resulted in normalization of renal size. With regard to cortical echogenicity two groups were formed. Group A comprised 11 patients whose kidneys had the same echogenicity as the liver, while in group B the kidneys were more echogenic (14 patients). Cortical echogenicity was always increased. Determination of creatinine levels showed a statistically significant difference between group A (3.32 mg% ± 1.40 S.D.) and group B (5.95 mg% ± 1.96 S.D.), p < 0.001. Changes in renal function were paralleled by rapid changes in renal size and cortical echogenicity. (orig.)

  15. The effect of aging on atherosclerotic plaque inflammation and molecular calcification: A PET CT imaging study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blomberg, Björn; Thomassen, Anders; Simonsen, Jane Angel

    Aim: Aging is an important independent risk factor for the inception and maturation of atherosclerotic plaques. This study aimed to investigate the effect of aging on atherosclerotic plaque inflammation and molecular calcification. Methods: Thirteen healthy volunteers without traditional......SUV) [Mean SUVAORTA - Mean SUVBLOOD POOL]. Furthermore, the average maximum 18F-NaF cSUV was determined in the coronary arteries. Calculating regression and correlation coefficients summarized the data. Results: A quadratic relationship was observed between aging and aortic 18F-FDG avidity. A second order...... polynomial regression established that aging is a strong predictor of the degree of aortic plaque inflammation (R2 = 0.71, F statistic = 11.98, P = 0.002). A linear relationship was observed between aging and molecular calcification. Linear regression established that aging is a predictor of both the degree...

  16. Chlamydia pneumoniae Infection in Atherosclerotic Lesion Development through Oxidative Stress: A Brief Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Sessa

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Chlamydia pneumoniae, an obligate intracellular pathogen, is known as a leading cause of respiratory tract infections and, in the last two decades, has been widely associated with atherosclerosis by seroepidemiological studies, and direct detection of the microorganism within atheroma. C. pneumoniae is presumed to play a role in atherosclerosis for its ability to disseminate via peripheral blood mononuclear cells, to replicate and persist within vascular cells, and for its pro-inflammatory and angiogenic effects. Once inside the vascular tissue, C. pneumoniae infection has been shown to induce the production of reactive oxygen species in all the cells involved in atherosclerotic process such as macrophages, platelets, endothelial cells, and vascular smooth muscle cells, leading to oxidative stress. The aim of this review is to summarize the data linking C. pneumoniae-induced oxidative stress to atherosclerotic lesion development.

  17. Human macrophage foam cells degrade atherosclerotic plaques through cathepsin K mediated processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barascuk, Natasha; Skjøt-Arkil, Helene; Register, Thomas C

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Proteolytic degradation of Type I Collagen by proteases may play an important role in remodeling of atherosclerotic plaques, contributing to increased risk of plaque rupture.The aim of the current study was to investigate whether human macrophage foam cells degrade the extracellular...... matrix (ECM) of atherosclerotic plaques by cathepsin K mediated processes. METHODS: We 1) cultured human macrophages on ECM and measured cathepsin K generated fragments of type I collagen (C-terminal fragments of Type I collagen (CTX-I) 2) investigated the presence of CTX-I in human coronary arteries......-I in areas of intimal hyperplasia and in shoulder regions of advanced plaques. Treatment of human monocytes with M-CSF or M-CSF+LDL generated macrophages and foam cells producing CTX-I when cultured on type I collagen enriched matrix. Circulating levels of CTX-I were not significantly different in women...

  18. Atherosclerotic plaque component segmentation in combined carotid MRI and CTA data incorporating class label uncertainty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Engelen, Arna; Niessen, Wiro J.; Klein, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    Atherosclerotic plaque composition can indicate plaque vulnerability. We segment atherosclerotic plaque components from the carotid artery on a combination of in vivo MRI and CT-angiography (CTA) data using supervised voxelwise classification. In contrast to previous studies the ground truth...... for training is directly obtained from 3D registration with histology for fibrous and lipid-rich necrotic tissue, and with [Formula: see text]CT for calcification. This registration does, however, not provide accurate voxelwise correspondence. We therefore evaluate three approaches that incorporate uncertainty......), II) samples are weighted by the local contour distance of the lumen and outer wall between histology and in vivo data, and III) 10% of each class is rejected by Gaussian outlier rejection. Classification was evaluated on the relative volumes (% of tissue type in the vessel wall) for calcified...

  19. A case of atherosclerotic inferior mesenteric artery aneurysm secondary to high flow state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troisi, Nicola; Esposito, Giovanni; Cefalì, Pietro; Setti, Marco

    2011-07-01

    Inferior mesenteric artery aneurysms are very rare and they are among the rarest of visceral artery aneurysms. Sometimes, the distribution of the blood flow due to chronic atherosclerotic occlusion of some arteries can establish an increased flow into a particular supplying district (high flow state). A high flow state in a stenotic inferior mesenteric artery in compensation for a mesenteric occlusive disease can produce a rare form of aneurysm. We report the case of an atherosclerotic inferior mesenteric aneurysm secondary to high flow state (association with occlusion of the celiac trunk and severe stenosis of the superior mesenteric artery), treated by open surgical approach. Copyright © 2011 Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Feasibility of simultaneous PET/MR in diet-induced atherosclerotic minipig

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Sune F; Ludvigsen, Trine P; Johannesen, Helle H

    2014-01-01

    Novel hybrid 18-fluoro-deoxy-D-glucose ((18)F-FDG) based positron emission tomography (PET) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has shown promise for characterization of atherosclerotic plaques clinically. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the method in a pre-clinical model of diet......-induced atherosclerosis, based on the Göttingen minipig. Using (18)F-FDG PET/MRI the goal was to develop and create a new imaging method in an in vivo animal model for translational studies of atherosclerosis. We used a strategy of multisequence MRI for optimal anatomical imaging of the abdominal aortas of the pigs (n=4...... glycolysis as given by standardized uptake values (SUV). Ex vivo en face evaluation of aortas from an atherosclerotic animal illustrated plaque distribution macroscopically, compared to a lean control animal. Although T2-TSE weighted imaging was most consistent, no one MRI sequence was preferable...

  1. Increased platelet reactivity is associated with circulating platelet-monocyte complexes and macrophages in human atherosclerotic plaques.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bert Rutten

    Full Text Available Platelet reactivity, platelet binding to monocytes and monocyte infiltration play a detrimental role in atherosclerotic plaque progression. We investigated whether platelet reactivity was associated with levels of circulating platelet-monocyte complexes (PMCs and macrophages in human atherosclerotic carotid plaques.Platelet reactivity was determined by measuring platelet P-selectin expression after platelet stimulation with increasing concentrations of adenosine diphosphate (ADP, in two independent cohorts: the Circulating Cells cohort (n = 244 and the Athero-Express cohort (n = 91. Levels of PMCs were assessed by flow cytometry in blood samples of patients who were scheduled for percutaneous coronary intervention (Circulating Cells cohort. Monocyte infiltration was semi-quantitatively determined by histological examination of atherosclerotic carotid plaques collected during carotid endarterectomy (Athero-Express cohort.We found increased platelet reactivity in patients with high PMCs as compared to patients with low PMCs (median (interquartile range: 4153 (1585-11267 area under the curve (AUC vs. 9633 (3580-21565 AUC, P<0.001. Also, we observed increased platelet reactivity in patients with high macrophage levels in atherosclerotic plaques as compared to patients with low macrophage levels in atherosclerotic plaques (mean ± SD; 8969 ± 3485 AUC vs. 7020 ± 3442 AUC, P = 0.02. All associations remained significant after adjustment for age, sex and use of drugs against platelet activation.Platelet reactivity towards ADP is associated with levels of PMCs and macrophages in human atherosclerotic carotid plaques.

  2. Nuclear medicine and coronary artery disease: evaluation of tracers of myocardial perfusion and vulnerable atherosclerotic plaque

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broisat, A.

    2005-04-01

    Coronary artery disease is one of the primary cause of mortality worldwide. Nuclear medicine is the major imaging technique for diagnosis and following of this disease. perfusion: nowadays, major radioactive agents used in clinical practice are myocardial perfusion tracers. The reference tracer is thallium-201. However, 201 Tl presents some drawbacks. 99m Tcn-noet has been proposed for its replacement. This study shows that in contrast with previous studies realized in vitro on cardio myocytes, verapamil, an l-type calcium channel inhibitor, does not inhibit myocardial fixation of 99m Tcn-noet in vivo in dog. This data is in agreement with the hypothesis of a non specific endothelial fixation of this tracer. Moreover, this study shows that as a pure tracer of myocardial perfusion, 99m Tcn-noet can also be used to assess myocardial viability on a model of myocardial chronic infarction in rat. atherosclerosis: disruption of vulnerable atherosclerotic plaques is the main event leading to coronary accidents. The second part of this study concerns the evaluation of new potential tracers of the vulnerable atherosclerotic plaque in an experimental model of rabbit with an inheritable hypercholesterolemia. The four tracers evaluated (b2702(r), b2702-I, b2702-Tc and Tc-raft-b2702) are synthetic peptides comprising the residues 75-84 of hla-b2702, a molecule known to link vcam-1, an adhesion molecule expressed in vulnerable atherosclerotic plaque. The autoradiography studies show that all tracers accumulate within atherosclerotic plaque expressing vcam- and that. i-b2702 shows the best plaque/control fixation ratio. (author)

  3. Rosuvastatin reduces atherosclerotic lesions and promotes progenitor cell mobilisation and recruitment in apolipoprotein E knockout mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeter, Marco R; Humboldt, Tim; Schäfer, Katrin; Konstantinides, Stavros

    2009-07-01

    Statins enhance incorporation of bone marrow-derived cells into experimental neointimal lesions. However, the contribution of progenitor cells to progression of spontaneous atherosclerotic plaques, and the possible modulatory role of statins in this process, remain poorly understood. We compared the effects of rosuvastatin (1 and 10mg/kg BW) and pravastatin (10mg/kg) on progenitor cell mobilisation, recruitment into atherosclerotic plaques, and lesion growth. Statins were administered over 8 weeks to apolipoprotein E knockout mice on atherogenic diet. In addition, mice were lethally irradiated, followed by transplantation of bone marrow from LacZ transgenic mice. Rosuvastatin reduced lesion area and intima-to-media ratio at the brachiocephalic artery compared to vehicle, while both parameters were not significantly altered by pravastatin. Rosuvastatin also augmented endothelialisation (P<0.05) and reduced the smooth muscle cells (SMC) content (P=0.042) of lesions. Numbers of c-kit, sca-1 and flk-1, sca-1 double-positive progenitor cells were significantly increased in rosuvastatin compared to control-treated mice, both in the bone marrow and the peripheral blood. Similarly, the number of spleen-derived acLDL, lectin double-positive progenitor cells (P=0.001) and colony-forming units (P=0.0104) was significantly increased in mice treated with rosuvastatin compared to vehicle alone. In the bone marrow, increased Akt and p42/44 MAP kinase phosphorylation and upregulated SDF1alpha mRNA expression were observed. Importantly, rosuvastatin treatment also increased the plasma levels of c-kit ligand (P=0.003), and the number of c-kit-positive cells within atherosclerotic lesions (P=0.041). Our findings suggest that rosuvastatin reduces the size of atherosclerotic plaques, and this effect appears to involve progenitor cell mobilisation and recruitment into vascular lesions.

  4. Study of Methionine, Vitamin B12, and Folic Acid Status in Coronary Atherosclerotic Male Patients

    OpenAIRE

    M Djalali; SR A Hoseiny; F Siassi; N Fardad; R Ghiasvand; TR Neyestani

    2007-01-01

    Background: Increased level of serum homocysteine is one of the risk factor of atherosclerosis. Its production related in some sulfur amino acids such as methionine. Some important cofactors that are involved in metabolic pathways of this amino acid are folate and vitamin B12. We have assessed the status of methionine, folic acid, and vitamin B12 in some coronary atherosclerotic male patients.Methods: In this case-control study, 46 cases of coronary atherosclerosis were selected from male pat...

  5. Relationship between vascular endothelium and periodontal disease in atherosclerotic lesions: Review article

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saffi, Marco Aurélio Lumertz; Furtado, Mariana Vargas; Polanczyk, Carisi Anne; Montenegro, Márlon Munhoz; Ribeiro, Ingrid Webb Josephson; Kampits, Cassio; Haas, Alex Nogueira; Rösing, Cassiano Kuchenbecker; Rabelo-Silva, Eneida Rejane

    2015-01-01

    Inflammation and endothelial dysfunction are linked to the pathogenesis of atherosclerotic disease. Recent studies suggest that periodontal infection and the ensuing increase in the levels of inflammatory markers may be associated with myocardial infarction, peripheral vascular disease and cerebrovascular disease. The present article aimed at reviewing contemporary data on the pathophysiology of vascular endothelium and its association with periodontitis in the scenario of cardiovascular disease. PMID:25632316

  6. Pharmacokinetics and atherosclerotic lesions targeting effects of tanshinone IIA discoidal and spherical biomimetic high density lipoproteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wenli; He, Hongliang; Liu, Jianping; Wang, Ji; Zhang, Suyang; Zhang, Shuangshuang; Wu, Zimei

    2013-01-01

    High density lipoproteins (HDL) have been successfully reconstructed to deliver a large number of lipophilic drugs. Here, discoidal and spherical recombinant HDL loaded with cardiovascular drug tanshinone IIA (TA) were constructed (TA-d-rHDL and TA-s-rHDL), respectively. And next their in vitro physiochemical and biomimetic properties were characterized. Furthermore, pharmacokinetics, atherosclerotic lesions targeting effects and antiatherogenic efficacies were elaborately performed and compared in atherosclerotic New Zealand White (NZW) rabbits. In vitro characterizations results showed that both TA-d-rHDL and TA-s-rHDL had nano-size diameter, high entrapment efficiency (EE) and drug-loading capacity (DL). Additionally, similar to their native counterparts, TA-d-rHDL maintained remodeling behaviors induced by lecithin cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT), and TA leaked during remodeling behaviors. Pharmacokinetic studies manifested that both TA-d-rHDL and TA-s-rHDL markedly improved pharmacokinetic behaviors of TA in vivo. Ex vivo imaging demonstrated that both d-rHDL and s-rHDL bound more avidly to atherosclerotic lesions than to normal vessel walls, and s-rHDL had better targeting effect than d-rHDL. Pharmacodynamic tests illustrated that both TA-d-rHDL and TA-s-rHDL had much stronger antiatherogenic efficacies than conventional TA nanostructured lipid carriers (TA-NLC), TA liposomes (TA-L) and commercially available preparation Sulfotanshinone Sodium Injection (SSI). Moreover, TA-s-rHDL had more potent antiatherogenic efficacies than TA-d-rHDL. Collectively our studies indicated that rHDL could be exploited as potential delivery vehicles of TA targeting atherosclerotic lesions as well as synergistically improving efficacies, especially for s-rHDL. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Experimental study of multi-slice CT for the evaluation of atherosclerotic plaques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang Xiang; Lv Bin; Wu Wenhui; Lu Jinguo; Dai Ruping; Bai Hua; Tang Yue; Lv Fengying; Jiang Shiliang

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the diagnostic values of MSCT for detecting atherosclerotic plaques on New Zealand rabbits models in comparison with pathologic results. Methods: Fifteen New Zealand rabbits were enrolled in this study, including 5 with balloon injury and high-fat diet (group A), 5 with high-fat diet only (group B) and 5 with regular feed (group C). 16th week late, contrast-enhanced MSCT scan was performed in all rabbits with 16 slice MSCT (16-MSCT) in group A and 64 slice MSCT (64-MSCT) in group B and C. The CT and pathological findings were compared in a double-blind manner. The sensitivities and specificities of 16-MSCT and 64-MSCT for detecting atherosclerotic plaques were evaluated by using Fisher test and χ 2 test. Results: Sixty and seventy-five images on 16-MSCT and 64-MSCT had corresponding pathological slices. The sensitivities for the detection of plaques on 16-MSCT and 64-MSCT were 41.5% (22/53) and 64.9% (24/37), and specificities of 85.7% (6/7) and 89.5% (34/38), respectively. Conclusions: 64-MSCT has a higher sensitivity in the detection of atherosclerotic plaques than 16-MSCT. Both scanners can be used to preclude the diagnosis of atherosclerosis. (authors)

  8. Irradiation of existing atherosclerotic lesions increased inflammation by favoring pro-inflammatory macrophages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gabriels, Karen; Hoving, Saske; Gijbels, Marion J.; Pol, Jeffrey F.; Poele, Johannes A. te; Biessen, Erik A.; Daemen, Mat J.; Stewart, Fiona A.; Heeneman, Sylvia

    2014-01-01

    Background and purpose: Recent studies have shown an increased incidence of localized atherosclerosis and subsequent cardiovascular events in cancer patients treated with thoracic radiotherapy. We previously demonstrated that irradiation accelerated the development of atherosclerosis and predisposed to an inflammatory plaque phenotype in young hypercholesterolemic ApoE −/− mice. However, as older cancer patients already have early or advanced stages of atherosclerosis at the time of radiotherapy, we investigated the effects of irradiation on the progression of existing atherosclerotic lesions in vivo. Material and methods: ApoE −/− mice (28 weeks old) received local irradiation with 14 or 0 Gy (sham-treated) at the aortic arch and were examined after 4 and 12 weeks for atherosclerotic lesions, plaque size and phenotype. Moreover, we investigated the impact of irradiation on macrophage phenotype (pro- or anti-inflammatory) and function (efferocytotic capacity, i.e. clearance of apoptotic cells) in vitro. Results: Irradiation of existing lesions in the aortic arch resulted in smaller, macrophage-rich plaques with intraplaque hemorrhage and increased apoptosis. In keeping with the latter, in vitro studies revealed augmented polarization toward pro-inflammatory macrophages after irradiation and reduced efferocytosis by anti-inflammatory macrophages. In addition, considerably more lesions in irradiated mice were enriched in pro-inflammatory macrophages. Conclusions: Irradiation of existing atherosclerotic lesions led to smaller but more inflamed plaques, with increased numbers of apoptotic cells, most likely due to a shift toward pro-inflammatory macrophages in the plaque

  9. Spatial distribution of osteoblast-specific transcription factor Cbfa1 and bone formation in atherosclerotic arteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobryshev, Yuri V; Killingsworth, Murray C; Lord, Reginald S A

    2008-08-01

    The mechanisms of ectopic bone formation in arteries are poorly understood. Osteoblasts might originate either from stem cells that penetrate atherosclerotic plaques from the blood stream or from pluripotent mesenchymal cells that have remained in the arterial wall from embryonic stages of the development. We have examined the frequency of the expression and spatial distribution of osteoblast-specific factor-2/core binding factor-1 (Osf2/Cbfa1) in carotid and coronary arteries. Cbfa1-expressing cells were rarely observed but were found in all tissue specimens in the deep portions of atherosclerotic plaques under the necrotic cores. The deep portions of atherosclerotic plaques under the necrotic cores were characterized by the lack of capillaries of neovascularization. In contrast, plaque shoulders, which were enriched by plexuses of neovascularization, lacked Cbfa1-expressing cells. No bone formation was found in any of the 21 carotid plaques examined and ectopic bone was observed in only two of 12 coronary plaques. We speculate that the sparse invasion of sprouts of neovascularization into areas underlying the necrotic cores, where Cbfa1-expressing cells reside, might explain the rarity of events of ectopic bone formation in the arterial wall. This study has also revealed that Cbfa1-expressing cells contain alpha-smooth muscle actin and myofilaments, indicating their relationship with arterial smooth muscle cells.

  10. A statin-loaded reconstituted high-density lipoprotein nanoparticle inhibits atherosclerotic plaque inflammation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duivenvoorden, Raphaël; Tang, Jun; Cormode, David P.; Mieszawska, Aneta J.; Izquierdo-Garcia, David; Ozcan, Canturk; Otten, Maarten J.; Zaidi, Neeha; Lobatto, Mark E.; van Rijs, Sarian M.; Priem, Bram; Kuan, Emma L.; Martel, Catherine; Hewing, Bernd; Sager, Hendrik; Nahrendorf, Matthias; Randolph, Gwendalyn J.; Stroes, Erik S. G.; Fuster, Valentin; Fisher, Edward A.; Fayad, Zahi A.; Mulder, Willem J. M.

    2014-01-01

    Inflammation is a key feature of atherosclerosis and a target for therapy. Statins have potent anti-inflammatory properties but these cannot be fully exploited with oral statin therapy due to low systemic bioavailability. Here we present an injectable reconstituted high-density lipoprotein (rHDL) nanoparticle carrier vehicle that delivers statins to atherosclerotic plaques. We demonstrate the anti-inflammatory effect of statin-rHDL in vitro and show that this effect is mediated through the inhibition of the mevalonate pathway. We also apply statin-rHDL nanoparticles in vivo in an apolipoprotein E-knockout mouse model of atherosclerosis and show that they accumulate in atherosclerotic lesions in which they directly affect plaque macrophages. Finally, we demonstrate that a 3-month low-dose statin-rHDL treatment regimen inhibits plaque inflammation progression, while a 1-week high-dose regimen markedly decreases inflammation in advanced atherosclerotic plaques. Statin-rHDL represents a novel potent atherosclerosis nanotherapy that directly affects plaque inflammation.

  11. Renal tumors in infancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucaya, J.; Garcia, P.

    1997-01-01

    The classification of childhood renal masses in updated, including the clinical signs and imaging techniques currently employed to confirm their presence and type them. Several bening and malignant childhood tumors are described in substantial detail. (Author) 24 refs

  12. Renal cell carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... kidney Patient Instructions Kidney removal - discharge Images Kidney anatomy Kidney tumor - CT scan Kidney metastases, CT scan Kidney - blood and urine flow References Campbell SC, Lane BR. Malignant renal tumors. In: Wein AJ, Kavoussi LR, Partin AW, ...

  13. Primary renal synovial sarcoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Girish D. Bakhshi

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Primary Renal Sarcoma is rare tumor comprising only 1% of all renal tumours. Synovial sarcomas are generally deep-seated tumors arising in the proximity of large joints of adolescents and young adults and account for 5-10% of all soft tissue tumours. Primary synovial sarcoma of kidney is rare and has poor prognosis. It can only be diagnosed by immunohistochemistry. It should be considered as a differential in sarcomatoid and spindle cell tumours. We present a case of 33-year-old female, who underwent left sided radical nephrectomy for renal tumour. Histopathology and genetic analysis diagnosed it to be primary renal synovial sarcoma. Patient underwent radiation therapy and 2 years follow up is uneventful. A brief case report with review of literature is presented.

  14. [Small renal mass].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prokofiev, D; Kreutzer, N; Kress, A; Wissing, F; Pfeifer, H; Stolzenburg, J-U; Dietel, A; Schwalenberg, T; Do, M; Truß, M C

    2012-10-01

    The frequent application of ultrasound and radiological imaging for non-urological indications in recent years has resulted in an increase in the diagnosis of small renal masses. The treatment options for patients with a small renal mass include active surveillance, surgery (both open and minimally invasive) as well as ablative techniques. As there is a risk for metastatic spread even in small renal masses surgical extirpation remains the treatment of choice in most patients. Ablative procedures, such as cryoablation and radiofrequency ablation are appropriate for old and multi-morbid patients who require active treatment of a small renal mass. Active surveillance is an alternative for high-risk patients. Meticulous patient selection by the urologist and patient preference will determine the choice of treatment option in the future.

  15. Common paediatric renal conditions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Few children in South Africa have access to dialysis or renal transplantation, so it is important to .... the chronic administration of antibiotics increases the risk of a UTI with a resistant .... factors for recurrent urinary tract infection in young women.

  16. Renal and perirenal abscesses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patterson, J.E.; Andriole, V.T.

    1987-01-01

    Our knowledge of the spectrum of renal abscesses has increased as a result of more sensitive radiologic techniques. The classification of intrarenal abscess now includes acute focal bacterial nephritis and acute multifocal bacterial nephritis, as well as the previously recognized renal cortical abscess, renal corticomedullary abscess, and xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis. In general, the clinical presentation of these entities does not differentiate them; various radiographic studies can distinguish them, however. The intrarenal abscess is usually treated successfully with antibiotic therapy alone. Antistaphylococcal therapy is indicated for the renal cortical abscess, whereas therapy directed against the common gram-negative uropathogens is indicated for most of the other entities. The perinephric abscess is often an elusive diagnosis, has a more serious prognosis, and is more difficult to treat. Drainage of the abscess and sometimes partial or complete nephrectomy are required for resolution. 73 references

  17. Lithium and Renal Impairment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, René Ernst; Kessing, Lars Vedel; Nolen, Willem A

    2018-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Lithium is established as an effective treatment of mania, of depression in bipolar and unipolar disorder, and in maintenance treatment of these disorders. However, due to the necessity of monitoring and concerns about irreversible adverse effects, in particular renal impairment......, after long-term use, lithium might be underutilized. METHODS: This study reviewed 6 large observational studies addressing the risk of impaired renal function associated with lithium treatment and methodological issues impacting interpretation of results. RESULTS: An increased risk of renal impairment...... associated with lithium treatment is suggested. This increased risk may, at least partly, be a result of surveillance bias. Additionally, the earliest studies pointed toward an increased risk of end-stage renal disease associated with lithium treatment, whereas the later and methodologically most sound...

  18. Renal dynamic scintigraphy in renal graft evaluation; Cintilografia renal dinamica na avaliacao do transplante renal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cervo, Marco Antonio Cadorna; Amarante Junior, Jose Luiz de Medeiros; Souza, Ricardo Alberto Manhaes de; Evangelista, Maria Gardenia; Cavalcante, Carlos Alberto Provasi; Neder, Jacqueline de Roure e; Espinola, Ircania Jorge [Hospital Naval Marcilio Dias, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Servico de Medicina Nuclear

    1996-12-31

    The goal of this was to describe the use of the dynamic renal scintigraphy in patients grafted. The authors described the scintigraphy method utilised and results were discussed 8 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  19. OBSTETRIC RENAL FAILURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajeshwari

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Renal failure in obstetrics is rare but important complication, associated with significant mortality and long term morbidity.1,2 It includes acute renal failure due to obstetrical complications or due to deterioration of existing renal disease. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the etiology and outcome of renal failure in obstetric patients. METHODS: We prospectively analyzed 30 pregnant and puerperal women with acute renal failure or pre-existing renal disease developing renal failure during pregnancy between November 2007 to sep-2009. Patients who presented/developed ARF during the hospital stay were included in this study. RESULTS: Among 30 patients, mean age was 23 years and 33 years age group. 12 cases (40% patients were primigravidae and 9(30% patients were multigravidae and 9 cases (30% presented in post-partum period. Eighteen cases (60% with ARF were seen in third trimester, followed by in postpartum period 9 cases (30%. Most common contributing factors to ARF were Pre-eclampsia, eclampsia and HELLP syndrome 60%, sepsis 56.6%, post abortal ARF 10%. DIC 40%. Haemorrhage as the aetiology for ARF was present 46%, APH in 20% and PPH in 26.6%. The type of ARF was renal in (63% and prerenal (36%; Oliguric seen in 10 patients (33% and high mortality (30%. Among the 20 pregnant patients with ARF, The average period of gestation was 33±2 weeks (30 -36 weeks, 5 cases (25% presented with intrauterine fetal demise and 18 cases (66% had preterm vaginal delivery and 2 cases (10% had induced abortion. And the average birth weight was 2±0.5 kg (1.5 kg. Eight cases (26% required dialysis. 80% of patients recovered completely of renal functions. 63% patients recovered without renal replacement therapy whereas 17% required dialysis. the maternal mortality was 20%, the main reason for mortality was septic shock and multi organ dysfunction (66%. CONCLUSION: ARF related pregnancy was seen commonly in the primigravidae and in the third trimester, the most

  20. Protein intake in renal and hepatic disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambühl, Patrice M

    2011-03-01

    The kidney and the liver play a central role in protein metabolism. Synthesis of albumin and other proteins occurs mainly in the liver, whereas protein breakdown and excretion are handled through an intricate interaction between these two organ systems. Thus, disease states of either the liver and/or the kidney invariably result in clinically relevant disturbances of protein metabolism. Conversely, metabolic processes regulated by these two organs are directly affected by dietary protein intake. Of particular importance in this respect is the maintenance of acid/base homeostasis. Finally, both the amount and composition of ingested proteins have a direct impact on renal function, especially in a state of diseased kidneys. Consequently, dietary protein intake is of paramount importance in patients with chronic nephropathy and renal insufficiency. Limitation of ingested protein, particularly from animal sources, is crucial in order to slow the progression of chronic kidney disease and impaired renal function. In contrast, patients with chronic renal failure undergoing renal replacement therapy by hemodialysis or peritoneal dialysis, have an increased protein demand. The syndrome of "protein-energy malnutrition" is a relevant factor for morbidity and mortality in this population and requires early detection and vigorous treatment. Protein intake in patients with cirrhosis of the liver should not be diminished as has been earlier suggested but rather increased to 1.0 - 1.2 g/kg body weight/day, in order to prevent protein malnutrition. Moderate restriction depending on protein tolerance (0.5 - 1.2 g/kg body weight/day), with the possible addition of branched chain amino acids (BCAA), has been recommended only in patients with advanced hepatic encephalopathy. Proteins of plant origin are theoretically superior to animal proteins.

  1. Renal artery pseudoaneurysm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Inácio Roman

    Full Text Available Abstract The renal artery pseudoaneurysm embody a rare vascular complication coming of percutaneous procedures, renal biopsy, nephrectomy, penetrating traumas and more rarely blunt traumas. The clinical can be vary according the patient, the haematuria is the symptom more commom. Is necessary a high level of clinical suspicion for your diagnosis, this can be elucidated by through complementary exams as the eco-color Doppler and the computed tomography scan (CT. This report is a case of a patient submitted a right percutaneous renal biopsy and that, after the procedure started with macroscopic haematuria, urinary tenesmus and hypogastric pain. The diagnosis of pseudoaneurysm was given after one week of evolution when the patient was hospitalized because gross haematuria, tachycardia, hypotension and hypochondrium pain. In the angiotomography revealed a focal dilation of the accessory right renal inferior polar artery, dilation of renal pelvis and all the ureteral course with presence hyperdenso material (clots inside the middle third of the ureter. The treatment for the majority of this cases are conservative, through arterial embolization, indicated for thouse of smaller dimensions in patients who are hemodynamically stable. However, it was decided by clinical treatment with aminocaproic acid 1 g, according to previous studies for therapy of haematuria. The patient received discharge without evidence of macroscopic haematuria and with normal renal ultrasound, following ambulatory care.

  2. RENAL MALIGNANT NEOPLASMS: RENAL CELL CARCINOMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisangela Giachini

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to evaluate the incidence and prevalence of malignant kidney tumors, to contribute to identifying factors which the diagnosis of renal cell carcinomas. Through this study, we understand that kidney disease over the years had higher incidence rates, especially in adults in the sixth decade of life. The renal cell carcinoma (RCC is the third most common malignancy of the genitourinary tract, affecting 2% to 3% of the population. There are numerous ways of diagnosis; however, the most important are ultrasonography, magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography. In general most of the patients affected by the CCR, have a good prognosis when diagnosed early and subjected to an effective treatment. This study conducted a literature review about the CCR, through this it was possible to understand the development needs of the imaging methods used for precise diagnosis and classification of RCC through the TNM system.

  3. Circulating CD4+CD28null T Cells May Increase the Risk of an Atherosclerotic Vascular Event Shortly after Kidney Transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michiel G. H. Betjes

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Proinflammatory CD4+ T cells without the costimulatory molecule CD28 (CD4+CD28null T cells are expanded in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD and associated with atherosclerotic vascular events (AVE. In a prospective study, the number of circulating CD4+CD28null T cells was established in 295 ESRD patients prior to receiving a kidney allograft. Within the first year after transplantation, an AVE occurred in 20 patients. Univariate analysis showed that besides a history of cardiovascular disease (CVDpos, HR 8.1, , age (HR 1.04, , dyslipidaemia (HR 8.8, , and the % of CD4+CD28null T cells (HR 1.04 per % increase, 95% CI 1.00–1.09, were significantly associated with the occurrence of a posttransplantation AVE. In a multivariate analysis, only CVDpos remained a significant risk factor with a significant and positive interaction between the terms CVDpos and the % of CD4+CD28null T cells (HR 1.05, 95% CI 1.03–1.11, . Within the CVDpos group, the incidence of an AVE was 13% in the lowest tertile compared to 25% in the highest tertile of % of CD4+CD28null T cells. In conclusion, the presence of circulating CD4+CD28null T cells is associated with an increased risk for a cardiovascular event shortly after kidney transplantation.

  4. Radioiodinate labeling of atherosclerotic plaque imaging agent SP-4 and preliminary experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Y.; Wu, Z.

    2000-01-01

    SP-4 was oligopeptide contained 18 amino-acid. It was a part of apolipoprotein B. To study labeling SP-4 with 131 I and its clinical prospect as an atherosclerotic plaque imaging agent. SP-4 was synthesized by solid phase method and identified by amino acid analysis after purification with preparation-model HPLC. SP-4 was labeled with 131 I by the Chloramine-T method and purified through Sephadex G-25, then the radiochemical purity of 131 SP-4 and its stability in vitro were analyzed. 12 New Zealand rabbits were divided into atherosclerosis group (n=7, group A) and control group (n=5, group B). All of them were administrated with bovine serum albumen through i.v., then the rabbits of group A were fed on high cholesterol and high fat diet and group B, on normal diet. Purified 131 I-SP-4 was injected intravenously. %ID/g in blood and thoracic aorta and abdominal aorta at 4 hrs after injection and biodistribution of 131 I-SP-4 was investigated. The amino acid formation of the pure product was identified to be correct through amino-acid analysis. The radiochemical purity of 131 I-SP-4 was 96.2% after being purified, but less than 90% after being stored for 20 hrs. One of 7 rabbits in group A died after being fed for three weeks, the others were alive and atherosclerotic lesions were found after being fed for two mon. On the contrary, 5 rabbits in group B were visualized not to have atherosclerotic lesions. The uptakes of group A and group B at 4 hr after injection were 0.0378±0.0028 and 0.0371±0.038 in blood (p>0.05), 0.0882 ±0.0101 and 0.0276 ±0.0044 in abdominal aorta (p 131 I-SP-4 was mainly excreted through kidneys. SP-4 remained its biological activity after radioiodination and was located at atherosclerotic lesions. It was potentially useful as an atherosclerotic plaque imaging agent

  5. One Year Clinical Outcomes of Renal Artery Stenting: The Results of ODORI Registry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sapoval, M.; Tamari, I.; Goffette, P.; Downes, M.; Senechal, Q.; Fanelli, F.; Reimer, P.; Negaiwi, Z.; Cassin, P. De; Heye, S.; Korobov, V.; Tsetis, D.; Abada, H.

    2010-01-01

    The safety, efficacy and long term clinical benefits of renal artery revascularization by stenting are still a matter of debate. The aim of our study was to define the safety and efficacy of renal artery stenting with the Tsunami peripheral stent (Terumo Corporation, Tokyo, Japan). The ODORI was a prospective, multicentre registry which enrolled 251 consecutive patients, (276 renal arteries) in 36 centres across Europe. The primary endpoint was acute procedural success defined as <30% residual stenosis after stent placement. Secondary endpoints included major adverse events, blood pressure control, serum creatinine level, and target lesion revascularization (TLR) at 6 and 12 months. Patients were 70 ± 10 years old, 59% were male, 33% had diabetes, and 96% hypertension. The main indications for renal stent implantation were hypertension in 83% and renal salvage in 39%. Direct stent implantation was performed in 76% of the cases. Acute success rate was 100% with residual stenosis of 2.5 ± 5.4%. Systolic/diastolic blood pressure decreased from a mean of 171/89 at baseline to 142/78 mmHg at 6 months (p < 0.0001 vs. baseline), and 141/80 mmHg at 12 months (p < 0.0001 vs. baseline). Mean serum creatinine concentration did not change significantly in the total population. However, there was significant improvement in the highest tercile (from 283 μmol/l at baseline to 205 and 209 μmol/l at 6 and 12 months respectively). At 12-months, rates of restenosis and TLR were 6.6 and 0.8% respectively. The 12 month cumulative rate of all major clinical adverse events was 6.4% while the rate of device or procedure related events was 2.4%. In hypertensive patients with atherosclerotic renal artery stenosis Tsunami peripheral balloon-expandable stent provides a safe revascularization strategy, with a potential beneficial impact on hypertension control and renal function in the highest risk patients.

  6. Screening and Management of Asymptomatic Renal Stones in Astronauts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, David; Locke, James; Sargsyan, Ashot; Garcia, Kathleen

    2017-01-01

    Management guidelines were created to screen and manage asymptomatic renal stones in U.S. astronauts. The true risk for renal stone formation in astronauts due to the space flight environment is unknown. Proper management of this condition is crucial to mitigate health and mission risks. The NASA Flight Medicine Clinic electronic medical record and the Lifetime Surveillance of Astronaut Health databases were reviewed. An extensive review of the literature and current aeromedical standards for the monitoring and management of renal stones was also done. This work was used to develop a screening and management protocol for renal stones in astronauts that is relevant to the spaceflight operational environment. In the proposed guidelines all astronauts receive a yearly screening and post-flight renal ultrasound using a novel ultrasound protocol. The ultrasound protocol uses a combination of factors, including: size, position, shadow, twinkle and dispersion properties to confirm the presence of a renal calcification. For mission-assigned astronauts, any positive ultrasound study is followed by a low-dose renal computed tomography scan and urologic consult. Other specific guidelines were also created. A small asymptomatic renal stone within the renal collecting system may become symptomatic at any time, and therefore affect launch and flight schedules, or cause incapacitation during a mission. Astronauts in need of definitive care can be evacuated from the International Space Station, but for deep space missions evacuation is impossible. The new screening and management algorithm has been implemented and the initial round of screening ultrasounds is under way. Data from these exams will better define the incidence of renal stones in U.S. astronauts, and will be used to inform risk mitigation for both short and long duration spaceflights.

  7. Expression profiles of genes involved in xenobiotic metabolism and disposition in human renal tissues and renal cell models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van der Hauwaert, Cynthia; Savary, Grégoire [EA4483, Université de Lille 2, Faculté de Médecine de Lille, Pôle Recherche, 59045 Lille (France); Buob, David [Institut de Pathologie, Centre de Biologie Pathologie Génétique, Centre Hospitalier Régional Universitaire de Lille, 59037 Lille (France); Leroy, Xavier; Aubert, Sébastien [Institut de Pathologie, Centre de Biologie Pathologie Génétique, Centre Hospitalier Régional Universitaire de Lille, 59037 Lille (France); Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale, UMR837, Centre de Recherche Jean-Pierre Aubert, Equipe 5, 59045 Lille (France); Flamand, Vincent [Service d' Urologie, Hôpital Huriez, Centre Hospitalier Régional Universitaire de Lille, 59037 Lille (France); Hennino, Marie-Flore [EA4483, Université de Lille 2, Faculté de Médecine de Lille, Pôle Recherche, 59045 Lille (France); Service de Néphrologie, Hôpital Huriez, Centre Hospitalier Régional Universitaire de Lille, 59037 Lille (France); Perrais, Michaël [Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale, UMR837, Centre de Recherche Jean-Pierre Aubert, Equipe 5, 59045 Lille (France); and others

    2014-09-15

    Numerous xenobiotics have been shown to be harmful for the kidney. Thus, to improve our knowledge of the cellular processing of these nephrotoxic compounds, we evaluated, by real-time PCR, the mRNA expression level of 377 genes encoding xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes (XMEs), transporters, as well as nuclear receptors and transcription factors that coordinate their expression in eight normal human renal cortical tissues. Additionally, since several renal in vitro models are commonly used in pharmacological and toxicological studies, we investigated their metabolic capacities and compared them with those of renal tissues. The same set of genes was thus investigated in HEK293 and HK2 immortalized cell lines in commercial primary cultures of epithelial renal cells and in proximal tubular cell primary cultures. Altogether, our data offers a comprehensive description of kidney ability to process xenobiotics. Moreover, by hierarchical clustering, we observed large variations in gene expression profiles between renal cell lines and renal tissues. Primary cultures of proximal tubular epithelial cells exhibited the highest similarities with renal tissue in terms of transcript profiling. Moreover, compared to other renal cell models, Tacrolimus dose dependent toxic effects were lower in proximal tubular cell primary cultures that display the highest metabolism and disposition capacity. Therefore, primary cultures appear to be the most relevant in vitro model for investigating the metabolism and bioactivation of nephrotoxic compounds and for toxicological and pharmacological studies. - Highlights: • Renal proximal tubular (PT) cells are highly sensitive to xenobiotics. • Expression of genes involved in xenobiotic disposition was measured. • PT cells exhibited the highest similarities with renal tissue.

  8. Distal renal tubular acidosis in recurrent renal stone formers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osther, P J; Hansen, A B; Røhl, H F

    1989-01-01

    Renal acidification ability was examined in 90 recurrent renal stone formers, using fasting morning urinary pH levels followed by a short ammonium chloride loading test in subjects with pH levels above 6.0. Fifteen patients (16.6%) revealed a distal renal tubular acidification defect: one patient......, this has important therapeutic implications. The pathological sequence in renal stone formers with dRTA is discussed....

  9. Efficacy of 24-Hour Blood Pressure Monitoring in Evaluating Response to Percutaneous Transluminal Renal Angioplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jujo, Kentaro; Saito, Katsumi; Ishida, Issei; Furuki, Yuho; Ouchi, Taisuke; Kim, Ahsung; Suzuki, Yuki; Sekiguchi, Haruki; Yamaguchi, Junichi; Ogawa, Hiroshi; Hagiwara, Nobuhisa

    2016-08-25

    Percutaneous transluminal renal angioplasty (PTRA) improves patency in atherosclerotic renal artery stenosis (ARAS), but improvement in clinic blood pressure (BP) is seen in only 20-40% of patients who undergo PTRA. This study investigated the effects of PTRA on BP lowering, assessed on 24-h ambulatory BP monitoring (ABPM), and identified preoperative features predictive of satisfactory BP improvement after PTRA. Of 1,753 consecutive patients undergoing coronary angiography, 31 patients with angiographically significant ARAS and translesional pressure gradient (TLPG) >20 mmHg underwent PTRA. ABPM was performed before, at 1 month and at 1 year after PTRA; patients with average systolic ABPM-BP decrease >10 mmHg at 1 month from baseline were categorized as responders. There was no obvious relationship between clinic BP and ABPM-BP at baseline. ABPM-BP was significantly higher in responders at baseline (SBP: 148 vs. 126 mmHg, PABPM-BP achieved a larger decrease in ABPM-BP, but the severity of stenosis reflected by TLPG; renal duplex findings; and neurohumoral parameters other than baseline renal function, did not differ between the groups. Clinic BP does not represent daily hemodynamic status, whereas high ABPM-BP is a potent predictor of satisfactory BP response to PTRA. (Circ J 2016; 80: 1922-1930).

  10. Etiology, diagnosis and treatment of renal colic during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grasso, Angelica Anna Chiara; Cozzi, Gabriele

    2014-01-01

    To assess the incidence and causes of renal stones in pregnant women, investigate the reliability and accuracy of diagnostic investigations and to consider the various therapeutic options available. A review of the literature was conducted, searching for relevant papers on the physiology of urinary apparatus changes during pregnancy, as well as the etiology, diagnosis and management of renal colic in pregnant women. Standards of care in renal colic during pregnancy include accurate diagnosis primarily with ultrasound, or MRI if necessary, conservative therapy and careful surgical approach for urinary drainage in the first place or ureterorenoscopy when needed. Renal colic during pregnancy is potentially troublesome and likely to lead to serious adverse effects on both mother and fetus. A multi-disciplinary approach is needed, which includes experts in the fields of Urology, Obstetrics, Radiology and Anesthesiology, to ensure the optimal care of this delicate cohort of patients.

  11. Renal protection in cardiovascular surgery [version 1; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nora Di Tomasso

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Acute kidney injury (AKI is one of the most relevant complications after major surgery and is a predictor of mortality. In Western countries, patients at risk of developing AKI are mainly those undergoing cardiovascular surgical procedures. In this category of patients, AKI depends on a multifactorial etiology, including low ejection fraction, use of contrast media, hemodynamic instability, cardiopulmonary bypass, and bleeding. Despite a growing body of literature, the treatment of renal failure remains mainly supportive (e.g. hemodynamic stability, fluid management, and avoidance of further damage; therefore, the management of patients at risk of AKI should aim at prevention of renal damage. Thus, the present narrative review analyzes the pathophysiology underlying AKI (specifically in high-risk patients, the preoperative risk factors that predispose to renal damage, early biomarkers related to AKI, and the strategies employed for perioperative renal protection. The most recent scientific evidence has been considered, and whenever conflicting data were encountered possible suggestions are provided.

  12. Renal sympathetic denervation: MDCT evaluation of the renal arteries.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hutchinson, Barry D

    2013-08-01

    Percutaneous transluminal renal sympathetic denervation is a new treatment of refractory systemic hypertension. The purpose of this study was to assess the clinical utility of MDCT to evaluate the anatomic configuration of the renal arteries in the context of renal sympathetic denervation.

  13. Imaging chronic renal disease and renal transplant in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carmichael, Jim; Easty, Marina

    2010-01-01

    At Great Ormond Street Hospital we have the highest number of paediatric renal transplant patients in Europe, taking cases from across the United Kingdom and abroad. Our caseload includes many children with rare complicating medical problems and chronic renal failure related morbidity. This review aims to provide an overview of our experience of imaging children with chronic renal failure and transplants. (orig.)

  14. Eligibility for renal denervation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Persu, Alexandre; Jin, Yu; Baelen, Marie

    2014-01-01

    -resistant hypertension (ENCOReD). The analysis included 731 patients. Age averaged 61.6 years, office blood pressure at screening was 177/96 mm Hg, and the number of blood pressure-lowering drugs taken was 4.1. Specialists referred 75.6% of patients. The proportion of patients eligible for renal denervation according...... undetected secondary causes of hypertension (11.1%). In conclusion, after careful screening and treatment adjustment at hypertension expert centers, only ≈40% of patients referred for renal denervation, mostly by specialists, were eligible for the procedure. The most frequent cause of ineligibility...... (approximately half of cases) was blood pressure normalization after treatment adjustment by a hypertension specialist. Our findings highlight that hypertension centers with a record in clinical experience and research should remain the gatekeepers before renal denervation is considered....

  15. [Renal colic in pregnancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negru, Irina; Pricop, C; Costăchescu, Gh

    2010-01-01

    Renal colic in pregnant women is a serious condition, mainly when is associated with fever. Our retro-prospective study analyzes 111 cases managed conservatively or with endourological procedures for renal colic--insertion of JJ stents and percutaneous nephrostomy. Clinical evolution determined the insertion of JJ stents in 60 cases and the failure of this procedure imposed percutaneous nephrostomy in 5 cases. In 56 cases urinary tract infection was associated and in 2 cases, despite all efforts, the patients deceased due to sever sepsis. The immediate drainage of the upper urinary tract for renal colic in pregnancy is the recommended treatment, especially when the pain is associated with fever. JJ stens were well tolerated, even when they were replaced after 3 months. Pregnant women with a history of UTI or stone disease should be carefully followed-up.

  16. Renal cell karcinoma trial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Werf-Messing, B. van der; Heul, R.O. van der; Ledeboer, R.C.

    1981-01-01

    A total of 174 patients underwent simple nephrectomy in case of clinically operable kidney cancer without demonstrable metastases. Of these 85 received preoperative irradiation to the kidney and the regional lymph nodes (3000-4000 rad in 3-4 weeks). Prognosis was not influenced by preoperative irradiation. The preoperatively assessable prognostic criteria were sex and sedimentation rate: ESR >= 30 and being male worsened prognosis. The clinical T-categories of the UICC were not related to prognosis. Of the microscopic examination of the nephrectomy specimen, renal vein invasion and to a lesser extent a low degree of differentiation appeared to worsen prognosis. The prognostic influence of the P-categories was caused by a higher incidence of renal vein involvement in case of higher P-category. The most important prognostic factors - ESR, renal vein involvement, and sex - were not interrelated. Elective chemotherapy, radiation therapy, and hormone therapy could be considered in certain high-risk groups. (orig.)

  17. Scintigraphy of renal transplant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramackers, J.M.; Marrast, A.C.; Touraine, J.L.; Peyrin, J.O.

    1995-01-01

    Scintigraphy is useful for monitoring perfusion and function of renal transplant, as well as for diagnosing miscellaneous surgical. This non-invasive imaging technique, which uses no deleterious products, is an attractive alternative for patients. This is especially true for those patients in early post-transplant course, with immunity depression and often impairment of renal function. Otherwise, multiple indices with a large range of inter-patient values has not favoured a methodological and interpretative consensus. Furthermore, the poor specificity of renogram patterns does not allow for discrimination of all etiologies with only one scintigraphy. Nevertheless, follow-up with iterative scintigraphy may be helpful due to the high intra-patient reproducibility and to the early appreciate change of parameters, according to clinical and histological renal post-transplant outcome. (authors). 43 refs., 8 figs

  18. Drug-induced renal injury

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The kidney receives a rich blood flow of 25% of resting cardiac output ... Drugs can cause acute renal failure by causing pre-renal, intrinsic or .... tubular epithelial cells causing cell swelling ... the dose as required or prescribe alternative drugs.

  19. Leiomyosarcoma of the renal pelvis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhamne Sagar

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Leiomyosarcomas are rare malignant tumors of the kidney. They may arise from the renal capsule, renal vein, renal pelvic musculature or renal parenchyma. Renal pelvis is an uncommon site of occurrence, with around 10 cases reported in the literature so far. Here we present a 60-year-old male who presented with increased urinary frequency, lower limb weakness, anorexia and weight loss. Imaging showed a right renal mass. A renal cell carcinoma was suspected clinically. A right nephrectomy was performed, which showed a large circumscribed mass in the hilar region. Histology revealed a tumor mass arising from the renal pelvis. The tumor was composed of spindle cells arranged in fascicles. Immunohistochemistry showed tumor cells to be positive for smooth muscle actin (SMA and desmin (Des and negative for cytokeratin (CK, HMB 45, CD117 (C-kit, and CD34. That confirmed the diagnosis of leiomyosarcoma.

  20. Intra-plaque production of platelet-activating factor correlates with neoangiogenesis in human carotid atherosclerotic lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupia, Enrico; Pucci, Angela; Peasso, Paolo; Merlo, Maurizio; Baron, Paolo; Zanini, Cristina; Del Sorbo, Lorenzo; Rizea-Savu, Simona; Silvestro, Luigi; Forni, Marco; Emanuelli, Giorgio; Camussi, Giovanni; Montrucchio, Giuseppe

    2003-09-01

    Platelet-activating factor (PAF) is a phospholipid mediator synthesized by activated inflammatory and endothelial cells. Recently PAF has been shown to contribute to neoangiogenesis in several experimental models. Here we evaluated the presence of PAF and its potential role in neovascularization within human atherosclerotic plaques. The amount of PAF extracted from 18 carotid plaques (266.65+/-40.07 pg/100 mg dry tissue; mean +/- SE) was significantly higher than that extracted from 18 normal arterial specimens (6 from carotid artery and 12 from aorta) (4.72+/-2.31 pg/100 mg dry tissue; mean +/- SE). The levels of PAF significantly correlated with the infiltration of CD68-positive monocytes and the extent of neovascularization, detected as von Willebrand Factor-positive cells. The amount of PAF also correlated with the area occupied by TNF-alpha-expressing cells. The absence of enhanced level of PAF in the circulation of atherosclerotic patients suggests a local production of this mediator within the plaque. The lipid extracts of atherosclerotic plaques containing high levels of PAF-bioactivity, but not those of control arteries, were angiogenic in a murine Matrigel model. WEB 2170, a specific PAF receptor antagonist, significantly prevented angiogenesis induced by the lipid extracts of atherosclerotic plaques. Our results indicate a local production of PAF within the atherosclerotic plaques and suggest that it may contribute to intra-plaque neoangiogenesis.

  1. PPARα activation differently affects microparticle content in atherosclerotic lesions and liver of a mouse model of atherosclerosis and NASH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baron, Morgane; Leroyer, Aurélie S; Majd, Zouher; Lalloyer, Fanny; Vallez, Emmanuelle; Bantubungi, Kadiombo; Chinetti-Gbaguidi, Giulia; Delerive, Philippe; Boulanger, Chantal M; Staels, Bart; Tailleux, Anne

    2011-09-01

    Atherosclerosis and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) are complex pathologies characterized by lipid accumulation, chronic inflammation and extensive tissue remodelling. Microparticles (MPs), small membrane vesicles produced by activated and apoptotic cells, might not only be biomarkers, but also functional actors in these pathologies. The apoE2-KI mouse is a model of atherosclerosis and NAFLD. Activation of the nuclear receptor PPARα decreases atherosclerosis and components of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) in the apoE2-KI mouse. (1) To determine whether MPs are present in atherosclerotic lesions, liver and plasma during atherosclerosis and NASH progression in apoE2-KI mice, and (2) to study whether PPARα activation modulates MP concentrations. ApoE2-KI mice were fed a Western diet to induce atherosclerosis and NASH. MPs were isolated from atherosclerotic lesions, liver and blood and quantified by flow cytometry. An increase of MPs was observed in the atherosclerotic lesions and in the liver of apoE2-KI mice upon Western diet feeding. PPARα activation with fenofibrate decreased MP levels in the atherosclerotic lesions in a PPARα-dependent manner, but did not influence MP concentrations in the liver. Here we report that MPs are present in atherosclerotic lesions and in the liver of apoE2-KI mice. Their concentration increased during atherosclerosis and NASH development. PPARα activation differentially modulates MP levels in a tissue-specific manner. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Renal denervation and hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlaich, Markus P; Krum, Henry; Sobotka, Paul A; Esler, Murray D

    2011-06-01

    Essential hypertension remains one of the biggest challenges in medicine with an enormous impact on both individual and society levels. With the exception of relatively rare monogenetic forms of hypertension, there is now general agreement that the condition is multifactorial in nature and hence requires therapeutic approaches targeting several aspects of the underlying pathophysiology. Accordingly, all major guidelines promote a combination of lifestyle interventions and combination pharmacotherapy to reach target blood pressure (BP) levels in order to reduce overall cardiovascular risk in affected patients. Although this approach works for many, it fails in a considerable number of patients for various reasons including drug-intolerance, noncompliance, physician inertia, and others, leaving them at unacceptably high cardiovascular risk. The quest for additional therapeutic approaches to safely and effectively manage hypertension continues and expands to the reappraisal of older concepts such as renal denervation. Based on the robust preclinical and clinical data surrounding the role of renal sympathetic nerves in various aspects of BP control very recent efforts have led to the development of a novel catheter-based approach using radiofrequency (RF) energy to selectively target and disrupt the renal nerves. The available evidence from the limited number of uncontrolled hypertensive patients in whom renal denervation has been performed are auspicious and indicate that the procedure has a favorable safety profile and is associated with a substantial and presumably sustained BP reduction. Although promising, a myriad of questions are far from being conclusively answered and require our concerted research efforts to explore the full potential and possible risks of this approach. Here we briefly review the science surrounding renal denervation, summarize the current data on safety and efficacy of renal nerve ablation, and discuss some of the open questions that need

  3. Imaging of Renal Leiomyomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Derchi, L. E.; Grenier, N.; Heinz-Peer, G.; Dogra, V.; Franco, F.; Rollandi, G. A.; Deminiere, C. (Radiologia - DICMI, Univ. di Genova, Genova (Italy))

    2008-09-15

    Background: Renal leiomyomas are rare benign tumors of the kidney which can be found at autopsy as small capsular nodules in about 5% of cases. The clinical incidence of such lesions is much smaller, and only case reports or small series have been reported in the imaging literature. Purpose: To describe the imaging characteristics observed in a series of eight patients with pathology-proven asymptomatic leiomyomas of the kidney. Material and Methods: We reviewed the imaging findings observed in eight patients with pathologically proven asymptomatic renal leiomyomas discovered during studies performed for reasons unrelated to the kidney. All patients had undergone computed tomography (CT), two ultrasonography, and one magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Results: Lesions ranged in size from 1.2 to 13 cm. Six were at the periphery of the kidney, compressed its outer surface, but did not cause disruption of the cortex; two involved the renal cortex. All had regular outer margins. A cleavage plane between the tumor and the kidney was revealed at CT and/or ultrasonography in three of the cases located at the periphery. At ultrasonography, leiomyomas appeared hypoechogenic. At CT, they were slightly hyperdense before contrast medium injection; all were hypodense to the renal cortex after contrast medium. Four were homogeneous, two were slightly heterogeneous, and the remaining two were frankly heterogeneous. The lesion studied by MRI, which was homogeneous at the postcontrast CT study, had a heterogeneous structure on both T1- and T2-weighted images, with internal areas of hypointensity on T1. Conclusion: There are some imaging findings that can help to suggest the diagnosis of renal leiomyomas. First, their density: all tumors examined before contrast were hyperdense to the kidney, with density similar to that of muscles, and all had lower enhancement than the adjacent renal parenchyma. Second, the location and margins of the tumors: most were peripheral, without

  4. Renal lithiasis and nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prieto Rafel M

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Renal lithiasis is a multifactorial disease. An important number of etiologic factors can be adequately modified trough diet, since it must be considered that the urine composition is directly related to diet. In fact, the change of inappropriate habitual diet patterns should be the main measure to prevent kidney stones. In this paper, the relation between different dietary factors (liquid intake, pH, calcium, phosphate, oxalate, citrate, phytate, urate and vitamins and each type of renal stone (calcium oxalate monohydrate papillary, calcium oxalate monohydrate unattached, calcium oxalate dihydrate, calcium oxalate dihydrate/hydroxyapatite, hydroxyapatite, struvite infectious, brushite, uric acid, calcium oxalate/uric acid and cystine is discussed.

  5. Anti-atherosclerotic potential of gossypetin via inhibiting LDL oxidation and foam cell formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Jing-Hsien; Tsai, Chia-Wen; Wang, Chi-Ping; Lin, Hui-Hsuan

    2013-01-01

    Gossypetin, a flavone originally isolated from Hibiscus species, has been shown to possess antioxidant, antimicrobial, and antimutagenic activities. Here, we investigated the mechanism(s) underlying the anti-atherosclerotic potential of gossypetin. 1,1-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging activity assay showed that the addition of > 50 μM of gossypetin could scavenge over 50% of DPPH radicals. The inhibitory effects of gossypetin on the lipid and protein oxidation of LDL were defined by thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) assay, the relative electrophoretic mobility (REM) of oxidized LDL (ox-LDL), and fragmentation of apoB in the Cu 2+ -induced oxidation of LDL. Gossypetin showed potential in reducing ox-LDL-induced foam cell formation and intracellular lipid accumulation, and uptake ability of macrophages under non-cytotoxic concentrations. Molecular data showed that these influences of gossypetin might be mediated via peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα)/liver-X receptor α (LXRα)/ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1) and PPARγ/scavenger receptor CD36 pathways, as demonstrated by the transfection of PPARα siRNA or PPARγ expression vector. Our data implied that gossypetin regulated the PPAR signals, which in turn led to stimulation of cholesterol removal from macrophages and delay atherosclerosis. These results suggested that gossypetin potentially could be developed as an anti-atherosclerotic agent. - Highlights: • The anti-atherosclerotic effect of gossypetin in vitro was examined. • Gossypetin inhibited LDL oxidation. • Gossypetin showed potential in reducing on the formation of foam cells. • Gossypetin functions against ox-LDL through PPARa activation and PPARγ depression

  6. Anti-atherosclerotic potential of gossypetin via inhibiting LDL oxidation and foam cell formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Jing-Hsien [School of Nutrition, Chung Shan Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Department of Medical Research, Chung Shan Medical University Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Tsai, Chia-Wen [Department of Nutrition, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Wang, Chi-Ping [Department of Clinical Laboratory, Chung Shan Medical University Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Lin, Hui-Hsuan, E-mail: linhh@csmu.edu.tw [Department of Medical Research, Chung Shan Medical University Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan (China); School of Medical Laboratory and Biotechnology, Chung Shan Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan (China)

    2013-10-15

    Gossypetin, a flavone originally isolated from Hibiscus species, has been shown to possess antioxidant, antimicrobial, and antimutagenic activities. Here, we investigated the mechanism(s) underlying the anti-atherosclerotic potential of gossypetin. 1,1-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging activity assay showed that the addition of > 50 μM of gossypetin could scavenge over 50% of DPPH radicals. The inhibitory effects of gossypetin on the lipid and protein oxidation of LDL were defined by thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) assay, the relative electrophoretic mobility (REM) of oxidized LDL (ox-LDL), and fragmentation of apoB in the Cu{sup 2+}-induced oxidation of LDL. Gossypetin showed potential in reducing ox-LDL-induced foam cell formation and intracellular lipid accumulation, and uptake ability of macrophages under non-cytotoxic concentrations. Molecular data showed that these influences of gossypetin might be mediated via peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα)/liver-X receptor α (LXRα)/ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1) and PPARγ/scavenger receptor CD36 pathways, as demonstrated by the transfection of PPARα siRNA or PPARγ expression vector. Our data implied that gossypetin regulated the PPAR signals, which in turn led to stimulation of cholesterol removal from macrophages and delay atherosclerosis. These results suggested that gossypetin potentially could be developed as an anti-atherosclerotic agent. - Highlights: • The anti-atherosclerotic effect of gossypetin in vitro was examined. • Gossypetin inhibited LDL oxidation. • Gossypetin showed potential in reducing on the formation of foam cells. • Gossypetin functions against ox-LDL through PPARa activation and PPARγ depression.

  7. Evaluation of atherosclerotic change of the aorta by enhanced computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takasu, Junichiro

    1990-01-01

    Intimal atherosclerotic changes of the aorta were quantified by enhanced computed tomography (enhanced CT) and were examined in terms of their relation to other atherosclerotic characteristics, including calcification and aortic pulse wave velocity, diameter of the aorta, and arteriosclerotic risk factors. A total of 413 subjects were studied, consisting of normal volunteers and patients with cardiovascular diseases. Enhanced CT revealed the atheromatous intima as a projecting and thickened wall. Thus, the ratio of the intimal atherosclerotic change to the whole round was determined in various aortic sites. The diameter of the aorta decreased in accordance with the location from the ascending aorta to aortic ending. The diameter of the infrarenal abdominal aorta was 1.5 times larger than that of the ascending aorta, irrespective of age. The diameter of each region of the aorta increased with advancing age; in the age group of 70 years or older, it was 1.5 times larger that that in the age group of 40 years or younger. The intimal change was noted in the middle descending thoracic aorta and infrarenal abdominal aorta. It was proportional to an increase in the aortic pulse wave velocity, the diameter of the aorta, and the intimal calcification. Intimal changes of the aorta were increased in cerebrovascular disease, ischemic heart disease, arteriosclerosis obliterans, hypertension and diabetes mellitus. In particular, hypertension accompanied by diabetes mellitus or high cholesterolemia tended to accelerate the intimal change. In conclusion, aortic intimal changes, as detected on enhanced CT, is useful for the noninvasive diagnosis of arteriosclerosis. (N.K.)

  8. Haloperidol inhibits the development of atherosclerotic lesions in LDL receptor knockout mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Sluis, Ronald J; Nahon, Joya E; Reuwer, Anne Q; Van Eck, Miranda; Hoekstra, Menno

    2015-05-01

    Antipsychotic drugs have been shown to modulate the expression of ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1), a key factor in the anti-atherogenic reverse cholesterol transport process, in vitro. Here we evaluated the potential of the typical antipsychotic drug haloperidol to modulate the cholesterol efflux function of macrophages in vitro and their susceptibility to atherosclerosis in vivo. Thioglycollate-elicited peritoneal macrophages were used for in vitro studies. Hyperlipidaemic low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor knockout mice were implanted with a haloperidol-containing pellet and subsequently fed a Western-type diet for 5 weeks to induce the development of atherosclerotic lesions in vivo. Haloperidol induced a 54% decrease in the mRNA expression of ABCA1 in peritoneal macrophages. This coincided with a 30% decrease in the capacity of macrophages to efflux cholesterol to apolipoprotein A1. Haloperidol treatment stimulated the expression of ABCA1 (+51%) and other genes involved in reverse cholesterol transport, that is, CYP7A1 (+98%) in livers of LDL receptor knockout mice. No change in splenic ABCA1 expression was noted. However, the average size of the atherosclerotic size was significantly smaller (-31%) in the context of a mildly more atherogenic metabolic phenotype upon haloperidol treatment. More importantly, haloperidol markedly lowered MCP-1 expression (-70%) and secretion (-28%) by peritoneal macrophages. Haloperidol treatment lowered the susceptibility of hyperlipidaemic LDL receptor knockout mice to develop atherosclerotic lesions. Our findings suggest that the beneficial effect of haloperidol on atherosclerosis susceptibility can be attributed to its ability to inhibit macrophage chemotaxis. © 2015 The British Pharmacological Society.

  9. Correlation between the GP78 Gene Polymorphism and Coronary Atherosclerotic Heart Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Long Wang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the correlation between the GP78 gene polymorphism and blood fat, blood glucose, blood pressure and coronary atherosclerotic heart disease. Methods: A total of 72 patients with coronary atherosclerotic heart disease were selected as the observation group, and 68 healthy participants were selected as the control group. The gp78 gene polymorphism of both groups was studied via polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP. At the same time, the multiple expression quantities of the GP78 gene in the tissues of both groups were tested via fluorogenic quantitative PCR, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA and Western-blotting assay. Furthermore, the blood fat, blood glucose and blood pressure of subjects in both groups were tested. Results: The percentages of the gp78 gene polymorphisms of Arg/Arg, Arg/Gly and Gly/Gly at the 145 locus of the study subjects in the observation group were 12.3%, 43.2% and 44.5%, respectively, while those in the control group were 74.3%, 11.2% and 14.5%, respectively, and there were significant differences between both groups. Based on the test results of the blood fat, blood glucose and blood pressure of the objects in the observation group and control group, significant differences were found between the two groups (P<0.05. Conclusion: There was a significant correlation between the 145 locus of the gp89 gene and coronary atherosclerotic heart disease, indexes of blood fat, blood glucose and blood pressure. Keywords: blood fat, blood glucose, blood pressure, coronary sclerosis, heart disease

  10. Noninvasive detection of macrophages in atherosclerotic lesions by computed tomography enhanced with PEGylated gold nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qin J

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Jinbao Qin,1,* Chen Peng,2,* Binghui Zhao,2,* Kaichuang Ye,1 Fukang Yuan,1 Zhiyou Peng,1 Xinrui Yang,1 Lijia Huang,1 Mier Jiang,1 Qinghua Zhao,3 Guangyu Tang,2 Xinwu Lu1,4 1Department of Vascular Surgery, Shanghai Ninth People’s Hospital Affiliated to Shanghai JiaoTong University, School of Medicine; 2Department of Radiology, Shanghai Tenth People’s Hospital Affiliated to Tongji University, School of Medicine; 3Department of Orthopaedics, Shanghai First People’s Hospital, School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiao Tong University; 4Vascular Center of Shanghai JiaoTong University, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Macrophages are becoming increasingly significant in the progression of atherosclerosis (AS. Molecular imaging of macrophages may improve the detection and characterization of AS. In this study, dendrimer-entrapped gold nanoparticles (Au DENPs with polyethylene glycol (PEG and fluorescein isothiocyanate (FI coatings were designed, tested, and applied as contrast agents for the enhanced computed tomography (CT imaging of macrophages in atherosclerotic lesions. Cell counting kit-8 assay, fluorescence microscopy, silver staining, and transmission electron microscopy revealed that the FI-functionalized Au DENPs are noncytotoxic at high concentrations (3.0 µM and can be efficiently taken up by murine macrophages in vitro. These nanoparticles were administered to apolipoprotein E knockout mice as AS models, which demonstrated that the macrophage burden in atherosclerotic areas can be tracked noninvasively and dynamically three-dimensionally in live animals using micro-CT. Our findings suggest that the designed PEGylated gold nanoparticles are promising biocompatible nanoprobes for the CT imaging of macrophages in atherosclerotic lesions and will provide new insights into the pathophysiology of AS and other concerned inflammatory diseases. Keywords: atherosclerosis, CT, in vivo

  11. Atherosclerotic vessel damage in systemic lupus erythematosus and antiphospholipid syndrome in men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. I. Iljina

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To study prevalence of clinical and subclinical atherosclerosis signs in men with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE and antiphospholipid syndrome, to assess relationship between atherosclerotic vessel damage, risk factors, CRP and anti-cardiolipin antibodies (АСА Material and methods. 62 pts were included. Mean age was 35,7+11,6 years, mean disease duration - 129,3± 102 months. Traditional and related to the disease risk factors were analyzed. To reveal atherosclerotic vessel damage carotid sonographic examination was performed. Serum CRP concentration was evaluated by high sensitivity nephelometric immunoassay. IgG and IgM АСА were assessed by solid-phase immuno-enzyme assay. Results. Sonographic signs of carotid damage was revealed in 58% of pts, clinical signs of atherosclerosis - in 42%. Pts were divided into two groups according to intima-media complex thickness (IMCT. Group I included 36 pts with atherosclerotic vessel damage signs (IMCT?0,9 mm. Group 2-26 pts with IMCT<0,9 mm. Mean age at the examination, age of disease onset, disease duration, smoking frequency damage index in group I pts were higher than in group 2 pts. Mean CRP concentration in atherosclerosis group was significantly higher than in group 2 (p=0,007. 19 pts had APS signs. 43 pts did not. CRP level significantly correlated with IMCT in SLE pts with and without APS (p<0,05. Pts with atherosclerosis had higher IgG АСА level though the differences were not statistically significant. Conclusion. Men with SLE with or without APS have high risk of atherosclerosis development. CRP elevation is associated with IMCT increase.

  12. Piperlongumine inhibits atherosclerotic plaque formation and vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation by suppressing PDGF receptor signaling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Son, Dong Ju [Wallace H. Coulter Department of Biomedical Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology and Emory University, Atlanta, GA (United States); Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, Emory University, Atlanta, GA (United States); Kim, Soo Yeon [Division of Life Science, Korea Basic Science Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Han, Seong Su [University of Iowa Carver College of Medicine, Department of Pathology, Iowa City, IA (United States); Kim, Chan Woo [Wallace H. Coulter Department of Biomedical Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology and Emory University, Atlanta, GA (United States); Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, Emory University, Atlanta, GA (United States); Department of Bioinspired Science, Ehwa Womans University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kumar, Sandeep [Wallace H. Coulter Department of Biomedical Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology and Emory University, Atlanta, GA (United States); Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, Emory University, Atlanta, GA (United States); Park, Byeoung Soo [Nanotoxtech Co., Ansan (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Sung Eun [Division of Applied Biology and Chemistry, Kyungpook National University, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Yun, Yeo Pyo [College of Pharmacy, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju (Korea, Republic of); Jo, Hanjoong, E-mail: hjo@emory.edu [Wallace H. Coulter Department of Biomedical Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology and Emory University, Atlanta, GA (United States); Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, Emory University, Atlanta, GA (United States); Department of Bioinspired Science, Ehwa Womans University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, Young Hyun, E-mail: pyh012@sch.ac.kr [Department of Food Science and Nutrition, College of Natural Sciences, Soonchunhyang University, Asan (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-10-19

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Anti-atherogenic effect of PL was examined using partial carotid ligation model in ApoE KO mice. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer PL prevented atherosclerotic plaque development, VSMCs proliferation, and NF-{kappa}B activation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Piperlongumine reduced vascular smooth muscle cell activation through PDGF-R{beta} and NF-{kappa}B-signaling. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer PL may serve as a new therapeutic molecule for atherosclerosis treatment. -- Abstract: Piperlongumine (piplartine, PL) is an alkaloid found in the long pepper (Piper longum L.) and has well-documented anti-platelet aggregation, anti-inflammatory, and anti-cancer properties; however, the role of PL in prevention of atherosclerosis is unknown. We evaluated the anti-atherosclerotic potential of PL in an in vivo murine model of accelerated atherosclerosis and defined its mechanism of action in aortic vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) in vitro. Local treatment with PL significantly reduced atherosclerotic plaque formation as well as proliferation and nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-{kappa}B) activation in an in vivo setting. PL treatment in VSMCs in vitro showed inhibition of migration and platelet-derived growth factor BB (PDGF-BB)-induced proliferation to the in vivo findings. We further identified that PL inhibited PDGF-BB-induced PDGF receptor beta activation and suppressed downstream signaling molecules such as phospholipase C{gamma}1, extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 and Akt. Lastly, PL significantly attenuated activation of NF-{kappa}B-a downstream transcriptional regulator in PDGF receptor signaling, in response to PDGF-BB stimulation. In conclusion, our findings demonstrate a novel, therapeutic mechanism by which PL suppresses atherosclerosis plaque formation in vivo.

  13. Arsenic exacerbates atherosclerotic lesion formation and inflammation in ApoE-/- mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srivastava, Sanjay; Vladykovskaya, Elena N.; Haberzettl, Petra; Sithu, Srinivas D.; D'Souza, Stanley E.; States, J. Christopher

    2009-01-01

    Exposure to arsenic-contaminated water has been shown to be associated with cardiovascular disease, especially atherosclerosis. We examined the effect of arsenic exposure on atherosclerotic lesion formation, lesion composition and nature in ApoE-/- mice. Early post-natal exposure (3-week-old mice exposed to 49 ppm arsenic as NaAsO 2 in drinking water for 7 weeks) increased the atherosclerotic lesion formation by 3- to 5-fold in the aortic valve and the aortic arch, without affecting plasma cholesterol. Exposure to arsenic for 13 weeks (3-week-old mice exposed to 1, 4.9 and 49 ppm arsenic as NaAsO 2 in drinking water) increased the lesion formation and macrophage accumulation in a dose-dependent manner. Temporal studies showed that continuous arsenic exposure significantly exacerbated the lesion formation throughout the aortic tree at 16 and 36 weeks of age. Withdrawal of arsenic for 12 weeks after an initial exposure for 21 weeks (to 3-week-old mice) significantly decreased lesion formation as compared with mice continuously exposed to arsenic. Similarly, adult exposure to 49 ppm arsenic for 24 weeks, starting at 12 weeks of age increased lesion formation by 2- to 3.6-fold in the aortic valve, the aortic arch and the abdominal aorta. Lesions of arsenic-exposed mice displayed a 1.8-fold increase in macrophage accumulation whereas smooth muscle cell and T-lymphocyte contents were not changed. Expression of pro-inflammatory chemokine MCP-1 and cytokine IL-6 and markers of oxidative stress, protein-HNE and protein-MDA adducts were markedly increased in lesions of arsenic-exposed mice. Plasma concentrations of MCP-1, IL-6 and MDA were also significantly elevated in arsenic-exposed mice. These data suggest that arsenic exposure increases oxidative stress, inflammation and atherosclerotic lesion formation.

  14. Evaluation of the early enhancement of coronary atherosclerotic plaque by contrast-enhanced MR angiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Tao [Department of Radiology, The General Hospital of Chinese People' s Armed Police Forces, Number 69, Yong Ding Road, Hai Dian District, Beijing (China); Department of Radiology, Chinese People' s Liberation Army General Hospital, Number 28, Fu Xing Road, Hai Dian District, Beijing (China); Zhao Xihai [Department of Radiology, Chinese People' s Liberation Army General Hospital, Number 28, Fu Xing Road, Hai Dian District, Beijing (China); Liu Xin [Paul C. Lauterbur Biomedical Imaging Center, Institute of Biomedical and Health Engineering, Shenzhen Institute of Advanced Technology, Chinese Academy of Science, Shenzhen 518067 (China); Gao Jianhua [Department of Radiology, The General Hospital of Chinese People' s Armed Police Forces, Number 69, Yong Ding Road, Hai Dian District, Beijing (China); Zhao Shaohong [Department of Radiology, Chinese People' s Liberation Army General Hospital, Number 28, Fu Xing Road, Hai Dian District, Beijing (China); Li Xin; Zhou Weihua [Department of Radiology, The General Hospital of Chinese People' s Armed Police Forces, Number 69, Yong Ding Road, Hai Dian District, Beijing (China); Cai Zulong [Department of Radiology, Chinese People' s Liberation Army General Hospital, Number 28, Fu Xing Road, Hai Dian District, Beijing (China); Zhang Weiguo [Cardiovascular and Neurological Consulting Institute, 6771 San Fernando, Irving, TX 75039 (United States); Yang Li, E-mail: Yangli301@yahoo.com [Department of Radiology, Chinese People' s Liberation Army General Hospital, Number 28, Fu Xing Road, Hai Dian District, Beijing (China)

    2011-10-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the early enhancement of coronary atherosclerotic plaque using contrast-enhanced MR angiography (CE-MRA) and investigate the association between unstable angina pectoris (UAP) and early enhancement of the plaque. Methods: Forty-one patients presenting with angina pectoris and demonstrating single-vessel disease with non-calcified plaque and significant coronary stenosis ({>=}50%) on CTA were consecutively recruited for coronary CE-MRA. Contrast-to-noise ratio of the culprit plaque guided by CTA was measured on a cross-sectional multi-planar reconstruction image of the plaque on both pre- and post-CE-MRA. A 50% increasing of CNR was defined as plaque enhancement. The association between early enhancement of the plaques and UAP was analyzed. Results: Thirty-seven non-calcified plaques with significant coronary stenosis were detected in the 37 patients on MRA. 4 subjects were excluded because coronary atherosclerotic plaques were inadequate for identification on MRA. Of the 37 patients, 18 patients had UAP and other 19 patients presented stable angina pectoris (SAP). Of the 37 plaques on CE-MRA, 13 and 24 plaques presented early enhancement and no enhancement, respectively. Of the 13 early-enhanced plaques, 11 (85%) and 2 (15%) were found in the patients with UAP and SAP, respectively (p < 0.01). Of the 37 patients, 11 (61%) with UAP and 2 (11%) with SAP had early-enhanced plaques, respectively (p < 0.01). Conclusion: CE-MRA allows detection of early enhancement of coronary atherosclerotic plaque. The early enhancement is common in unstable angina and could be a sign of vulnerability.

  15. Mathematical modeling of atherosclerotic plaque destabilization: Role of neovascularization and intraplaque hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Muyi; Cai, Yan; Yao, Xinke; Li, Zhiyong

    2018-08-07

    Observational studies have identified angiogenesis from the adventitial vasa vasorum and intraplaque hemorrhage (IPH) as critical factors in atherosclerotic plaque progression and destabilization. Here we propose a mathematical model incorporating intraplaque neovascularization and hemodynamic calculation with plaque destabilization for the quantitative evaluation of the role of neoangiogenesis and IPH in the vulnerable atherosclerotic plaque formation. An angiogenic microvasculature is generated by two-dimensional nine-point discretization of endothelial cell proliferation and migration from the vasa vasorum. Three key cells (endothelial cells, smooth muscle cells and macrophages) and three key chemicals (vascular endothelial growth factors, extracellular matrix and matrix metalloproteinase) are involved in the plaque progression model, and described by the reaction-diffusion partial differential equations. The hemodynamic calculation of the microcirculation on the generated microvessel network is carried out by coupling the intravascular, interstitial and transvascular flow. The plasma concentration in the interstitial domain is defined as the description of IPH area according to the diffusion and convection with the interstitial fluid flow, as well as the extravascular movement across the leaky vessel wall. The simulation results demonstrate a series of pathophysiological phenomena during the vulnerable progression of an atherosclerotic plaque, including the expanding necrotic core, the exacerbated inflammation, the high microvessel density (MVD) region at the shoulder areas, the transvascular flow through the capillary wall and the IPH. The important role of IPH in the plaque destabilization is evidenced by simulations with varied model parameters. It is found that the IPH can significantly speed up the plaque vulnerability by increasing necrotic core and thinning fibrous cap. In addition, the decreased MVD and vessel permeability may slow down the process of

  16. Ultrastructural characteristics of the vascular wall components of ruptured atherosclerotic abdominal aortic aneurysm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanasković Irena

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the ultrastructural characteristics of cell populations and extracellular matrix components in the wall of ruptured atherosclerotic abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA. We analyzed 20 samples of ruptured AAA. For orientation to the light microscopy, we used routine histochemical techniques by standard procedures. For ultrastructural analysis, we applied transmission electron microscopy (TEM. Our results have shown that ruptured AAA is characterized by the remains of an advanced atherosclerotic lesion in the intima followed by a complete absence of endothelial cells, the disruption of basal membrane and disruption of internal elastic lamina. On plaque margins as well as in the inner media we observed smooth muscle cells (SMCs that posses a euchromatic nucleus, a well-developed granulated endoplasmic reticulum around the nucleus and reduced myofilaments. The remains of the ruptured lipid core were acellular in all samples; however, on the lateral sides of ruptured plaque we observed a presence of two types of foam cells (FCs, spindle- and star-shaped. Fusiform FCs possess a well-differentiated basal lamina, caveolae and electron dense bodies, followed by a small number of lipid droplets in the cytoplasm. Star-shaped FCs contain a large number of lipid droplets and do not possess basal lamina. On the inner margins of the plaque, we observed a large number of cells undergoing apoptosis and necrosis, extracellular lipid droplets as well as a large number of lymphocytes. The media was thinned out with disorganized elastic lamellas, while the adventitia exhibited leukocyte infiltration. The presented results suggest that atherosclerotic plaque in ruptured AAA contains vascular SMC synthetic phenotype and two different types of FCs: some were derived from monocyte/macrophage lineage, while others were derived from SMCs of synthetic phenotype. The striking plaque hypocellularity was the result of apoptosis and necrosis

  17. Sphingosine-1-phosphate and renal vasoconstriction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Boye L

    2018-01-01

    ) and in conjunction with increased S1P release in pathophysiological situations like sepsis and ischemia-reperfusion incidents, this effect could be relevant in acute kidney injury with parallel decreases in renal blood flow and GFR. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.......In the present issue of Acta Physiologica, Guan et al. in their article "Mechanisms of sphingosine-1-phosphate-mediated vasoconstriction of rat afferent arterioles" (1) address the signaling events associated with sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P)-mediated renal afferent vasoconstriction and show in......, technically demanding, blood-perfused juxtamedullary nephron preparation that S1P signaling relies predominantly on transmembrane calcium influx from the extracellular fluid through L-type calcium channels with contribution from oxidative stress metabolites(1) . So not only is new information on S1P signaling...

  18. Management of chronic renal failure.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Zeeuw, D.; Apperloo, AJ; de Jong, P.

    1992-01-01

    There is growing evidence that treatment of patients with renal function impairment will undergo a major shift within the next few years. Along with more or less successful attempts to alleviate the signs and symptoms of reduced renal function, new insights into renal pathophysiology as well as new

  19. Late renal function after upper abdominal irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morris, Monica M.; Willett, Christopher G.

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: This study assesses the late renal function and complications following upper abdominal irradiation. Methods and Materials: Eighty-six adult patients were identified who were treated with curative intent to the upper abdomen, received greater than 50% unilateral kidney irradiation to doses of at least 26 Gy, and survived for 1 year or more. Following treatment, the clinical course, blood pressure, addition of anti-hypertensive medications, serum creatinine and creatinine clearance were determined. Creatinine clearance was calculated by the formula: creatinine clearance equals [(140 - age) x (weight in kilograms)] / (72 x serum creatinine), which has a close correlation to creatinine clearances measured by 24 hour urine measurement. The percent change in creatinine clearance from pre-treatment values was analyzed. Mean follow-up was 6.7 years. Seventeen patients were followed for 11 or more years. Results: Of the 16 patients with pre-radiotherapy hypertension, eight required an increase in the number of medications for control and eight required no change in medication. Twenty-one patients developed hypertension in follow-up, 15 of whom required no medication. One patient developed malignant hypertension on the basis of renal artery stenosis. Acute or chronic renal failure was not observed in any patient. The serum creatinine for all 86 patients prior to irradiation was below 2 mg/100 ml; in follow-up it rose to between 2-3 mg/100 ml in five patients. On univariate analysis, older patient age, female sex, pre-existing hypertension and initially abnormal renal function (creatinine clearance <90mg/ml) were significantly correlated with later poor creatinine clearance (<50 mg/ml). Conclusions: After significant unilateral kidney irradiation, patients demonstrated a laboratory trend to increased creatinine and decreased creatinine clearance. With long-term follow-up, these physiologic changes did not appear to translate into a clinically relevant alteration in

  20. Screening renal stone formers for distal renal tubular acidosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osther, P J; Hansen, A B; Røhl, H F

    1989-01-01

    A group of 110 consecutive renal stone formers were screened for distal renal tubular acidosis (RTA) using morning fasting urinary pH (mfUpH) levels followed by a short ammonium chloride loading test in patients with levels above 6.0. In 14 patients (12.7%) a renal acidification defect was noted...... RTA in renal stone formers. Regardless of whether the acidification defect is primary or secondary to stone formation, however, all renal stone formers with distal RTA can expect to benefit from prophylactic alkaline therapy and it is recommended that the screening procedure, which is easy to use...

  1. Progression of hepatic aspergillosis following second renal transplantation in a patient with recurrent glomerulonephritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishan L Gupta

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Invasive aspergillosis is a serious complication in renal transplant recipients. Hepatic involvement, although seen in liver transplant recipients, has not been reported following renal transplantation. We describe here an interesting occurrence of hepatic Aspergillus infection in a renal transplant recipient. The infection responded to anti-fungal therapy, but there was re-activation following a second renal transplant. In addition, the patient had recurrence of the underlying membrano-proliferative glomerulonephritis following both transplants. The relevant existing literature relating to these problems has been reviewed.

  2. Matrix vesicles in the fibrous cap of atherosclerotic plaque: possible contribution to plaque rupture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobryshev, Y V; Killingsworth, M C; Lord, R S A; Grabs, A J

    2008-10-01

    Plaque rupture is the most common type of plaque complication and leads to acute ischaemic events such as myocardial infarction and stroke. Calcification has been suggested as a possible indicator of plaque instability. Although the role of matrix vesicles in the initial stages of arterial calcification has been recognized, no studies have yet been carried out to examine a possible role of matrix vesicles in plaque destabilization. Tissue specimens selected for the present study represented carotid specimens obtained from patients undergoing carotid endarterectomy. Serial frozen cross-sections of the tissue specimens were cut and mounted on glass slides. The thickness of the fibrous cap (FCT) in each advanced atherosclerotic lesion, containing a well developed lipid/necrotic core, was measured at its narrowest sites in sets of serial sections. According to established criteria, atherosclerotic plaque specimens were histologically subdivided into two groups: vulnerable plaques with thin fibrous caps (FCT <100 microm) and presumably stable plaques, in which fibrous caps were thicker than 100 microm. Twenty-four carotid plaques (12 vulnerable and 12 presumably stable plaques) were collected for the present analysis of matrix vesicles in fibrous caps. In order to provide a sufficient number of representative areas from each plaque, laser capture microdissection (LCM) was carried out. The quantification of matrix vesicles in ultrathin sections of vulnerable and stable plaques revealed that the numbers of matrix vesicles were significantly higher in fibrous caps of vulnerable plaques than those in stable plaques (8.908+0.544 versus 6.208+0.467 matrix vesicles per 1.92 microm2 standard area; P= 0.0002). Electron microscopy combined with X-ray elemental microanalysis showed that some matrix vesicles in atherosclerotic plaques were undergoing calcification and were characterized by a high content of calcium and phosphorus. The percentage of calcified matrix vesicles

  3. Prevalence of Subclinical Coronary Artery Disease in Masters Endurance Athletes With a Low Atherosclerotic Risk Profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merghani, Ahmed; Maestrini, Viviana; Rosmini, Stefania; Cox, Andrew T; Dhutia, Harshil; Bastiaenan, Rachel; David, Sarojini; Yeo, Tee Joo; Narain, Rajay; Malhotra, Aneil; Papadakis, Michael; Wilson, Mathew G; Tome, Maite; AlFakih, Khaled; Moon, James C; Sharma, Sanjay

    2017-07-11

    Studies in middle-age and older (masters) athletes with atherosclerotic risk factors for coronary artery disease report higher coronary artery calcium (CAC) scores compared with sedentary individuals. Few studies have assessed the prevalence of coronary artery disease in masters athletes with a low atherosclerotic risk profile. We assessed 152 masters athletes 54.4±8.5 years of age (70% male) and 92 controls of similar age, sex, and low Framingham 10-year coronary artery disease risk scores with an echocardiogram, exercise stress test, computerized tomographic coronary angiogram, and cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging with late gadolinium enhancement and a 24-hour Holter. Athletes had participated in endurance exercise for an average of 31±12.6 years. The majority (77%) were runners, with a median of 13 marathon runs per athlete. Most athletes (60%) and controls (63%) had a normal CAC score. Male athletes had a higher prevalence of atherosclerotic plaques of any luminal irregularity (44.3% versus 22.2%; P =0.009) compared with sedentary males, and only male athletes showed a CAC ≥300 Agatston units (11.3%) and a luminal stenosis ≥50% (7.5%). Male athletes demonstrated predominantly calcific plaques (72.7%), whereas sedentary males showed predominantly mixed morphology plaques (61.5%). The number of years of training was the only independent variable associated with increased risk of CAC >70th percentile for age or luminal stenosis ≥50% in male athletes (odds ratio, 1.08; 95% confidence interval, 1.01-1.15; P =0.016); 15 (14%) male athletes but none of the controls revealed late gadolinium enhancement on cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging. Of these athletes, 7 had a pattern consistent with previous myocardial infarction, including 3(42%) with a luminal stenosis ≥50% in the corresponding artery. Most lifelong masters endurance athletes with a low atherosclerotic risk profile have normal CAC scores. Male athletes are more likely to have a CAC

  4. Apolipoprotein B-containing lipoproteins and atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease [version 1; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael D. Shapiro

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Cholesterol-rich, apolipoprotein B (apoB-containing lipoproteins are now widely accepted as the most important causal agents of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. Multiple unequivocal and orthogonal lines of evidence all converge on low-density lipoprotein and related particles as being the principal actors in the genesis of atherosclerosis. Here, we review the fundamental role of atherogenic apoB-containing lipoproteins in cardiovascular disease and several other humoral and parietal factors that are required to initiate and maintain arterial degeneration. The biology of foam cells and their interactions with high-density lipoproteins, including cholesterol efflux, are also briefly reviewed.

  5. Diverse cellular architecture of atherosclerotic plaque derives from clonal expansion of a few medial SMCs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Kevin; Lund, Marie Bek; Shim, Jeong

    2017-01-01

    Fibrous cap smooth muscle cells (SMCs) protect atherosclerotic lesions from rupturing and causing thrombosis, while other plaque SMCs may have detrimental roles in plaque development. To gain insight into recruitment of different plaque SMCs, we mapped their clonal architecture in aggregation...... in the cap and heterogeneous ACTA2– SMCs in the plaque interior, including chondrocyte-like cells and cells with intracellular lipid and crystalline material. Fibrous cap SMCs were invariably arranged in endothelium-aligned clonal sheets, confirming results in the aggregation chimeras. Analysis of the clonal...

  6. [Adrenal hormones in the formation of atherosclerotic precursors in adolescents with primary arterial hypertension].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogmat, L F

    1993-01-01

    The components of blood lipid spectrum (total cholesterol, triglycerides and high density lipoprotein cholesterol) were studied in 131 adolescents (12-18 years old) with primary arterial hypertension at various levels of adrenal hormones (hydrocortisone and aldosterone) and blood plasma renin activity. The optimal ratio of lipid components in blood was detected if concentrations of adrenal hormones and blood plasma renin activity were low. Hyperfunction of the adrenal cortex in teen-agers contributed both to the development of hypertension and to atherosclerotic changes in vessels. This suggests that definite forms of hypertension occurred in adults, with specific impairments in the metabolism of blood serum lipids, were developed during the juvenile age.

  7. Mesenchymal Stem Cells Stabilize Atherosclerotic Vulnerable Plaque by Anti-Inflammatory Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shuang-shuang; Hu, Si-wang; Zhang, Qing-hua; Xia, Ai-xiang; Jiang, Zhi-xin; Chen, Xiao-min

    2015-01-01

    Formation and progression of atherosclerotic vulnerable plaque (VP) is the primary cause of many cardio-cerebrovascular diseases such as acute coronary syndrome and stroke. It has been reported that bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) exhibit protective effects against many kinds of diseases including myocardial infarction. Here, we examined the effects of intravenous MSC infusion on a VP model and provide novel evidence of its influence as a therapy in this animal disease model. Thirty healthy male New Zealand white rabbits were randomly divided into a MSC, VP or stable plaque (SP) group (n = 10/group) and received high fat diet and cold-induced common carotid artery intimal injury with liquid nitrogen to form atherosclerotic plaques. Serum hs-CRP, TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-10 levels were measured by ELISA at 1, 2, 3, 7, 14, 21 and 28 days after MSC transplantation. The animals were sacrificed at 4 weeks after MSC transplantation. Lesions in the right common carotid were observed using H&E and Masson staining, and the fibrous cap/lipid core ratio of atherosclerotic plaques were calculated. The expression of nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) and matrix metalloproteinase 1, 2, 9 (MMP-1,2,9) in the plaque were detected using immunohistochemistry, and apoptotic cells in the plaques were detected by TUNEL. In addition, the level of TNF-α stimulated gene/protein 6 (TSG-6) mRNA and protein were measured by quantitative Real-Time PCR and Western blotting, respectively. Two rabbits in the VP group died of lung infection and cerebral infarction respectively at 1 week after plaque injury by liquid nitrogen. Both H&E and Masson staining revealed that the plaques from the SP and MSC groups had more stable morphological structure and a larger fibrous cap/lipid core ratio than the VP group. Serum hs-CRP, TNF-α and IL-6 were significantly down-regulated, whereas IL-10 was significantly up-regulated in the MSC group compared with the VP group. .Immunohistochemistry analysis revealed

  8. Mesenchymal Stem Cells Stabilize Atherosclerotic Vulnerable Plaque by Anti-Inflammatory Properties.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuang-shuang Wang

    Full Text Available Formation and progression of atherosclerotic vulnerable plaque (VP is the primary cause of many cardio-cerebrovascular diseases such as acute coronary syndrome and stroke. It has been reported that bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSC exhibit protective effects against many kinds of diseases including myocardial infarction. Here, we examined the effects of intravenous MSC infusion on a VP model and provide novel evidence of its influence as a therapy in this animal disease model.Thirty healthy male New Zealand white rabbits were randomly divided into a MSC, VP or stable plaque (SP group (n = 10/group and received high fat diet and cold-induced common carotid artery intimal injury with liquid nitrogen to form atherosclerotic plaques. Serum hs-CRP, TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-10 levels were measured by ELISA at 1, 2, 3, 7, 14, 21 and 28 days after MSC transplantation. The animals were sacrificed at 4 weeks after MSC transplantation. Lesions in the right common carotid were observed using H&E and Masson staining, and the fibrous cap/lipid core ratio of atherosclerotic plaques were calculated. The expression of nuclear factor κB (NF-κB and matrix metalloproteinase 1, 2, 9 (MMP-1,2,9 in the plaque were detected using immunohistochemistry, and apoptotic cells in the plaques were detected by TUNEL. In addition, the level of TNF-α stimulated gene/protein 6 (TSG-6 mRNA and protein were measured by quantitative Real-Time PCR and Western blotting, respectively.Two rabbits in the VP group died of lung infection and cerebral infarction respectively at 1 week after plaque injury by liquid nitrogen. Both H&E and Masson staining revealed that the plaques from the SP and MSC groups had more stable morphological structure and a larger fibrous cap/lipid core ratio than the VP group. Serum hs-CRP, TNF-α and IL-6 were significantly down-regulated, whereas IL-10 was significantly up-regulated in the MSC group compared with the VP group. .Immunohistochemistry analysis

  9. Lipocalin-type prostaglandin D synthase is not a biomarker of atherosclerotic manifestations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hosbond, Susanne E; Diederichsen, Axel C P; Pedersen, Lise

    2014-01-01

    tool in the setting of stable coronary artery disease. We set out to investigate if measurement of concentrations of these biomarkers could be used to differentiate between four groups of individuals with different atherosclerotic manifestations. METHODS: A total of 120 individuals from four equal...... gender- and age-matched groups were studied: (i) no previous cardiovascular disease (CVD) and no coronary calcifications [CAC-negative group], (ii) no previous CVD but evidence of severe coronary calcifications [CAC-positive group], (iii) acute coronary syndrome [ACS-group], and (iv) clinical stable...

  10. Diverse cellular architecture of atherosclerotic plaque derives from clonal expansion of a few medial SMCs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Kevin; Lund, Marie Bek; Shim, Jeong

    2017-01-01

    chimeras of eGFP+Apoe-/- and Apoe-/- mouse embryos and in mice with a mosaic expression of fluorescent proteins in medial SMCs that were rendered atherosclerotic by PCSK9-induced hypercholesterolemia. Fibrous caps in aggregation chimeras were found constructed from large, endothelial-aligned layers...... in the cap and heterogeneous ACTA2- SMCs in the plaque interior, including chondrocyte-like cells and cells with intracellular lipid and crystalline material. Fibrous cap SMCs were invariably arranged in endothelium-aligned clonal sheets, confirming results in the aggregation chimeras. Analysis of the clonal...

  11. Increased metabolite levels of glycolysis and pentose phosphate pathway in rabbit atherosclerotic arteries and hypoxic macrophage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atsushi Yamashita

    Full Text Available AIMS: Inflammation and possibly hypoxia largely affect glucose utilization in atherosclerotic arteries, which could alter many metabolic systems. However, metabolic changes in atherosclerotic plaques remain unknown. The present study aims to identify changes in metabolic systems relative to glucose uptake and hypoxia in rabbit atherosclerotic arteries and cultured macrophages. METHODS: Macrophage-rich or smooth muscle cell (SMC-rich neointima was created by balloon injury in the iliac-femoral arteries of rabbits fed with a 0.5% cholesterol diet or a conventional diet. THP-1 macrophages stimulated with lipopolysaccharides (LPS and interferon-γ (INFγ were cultured under normoxic and hypoxic conditions. We evaluated comprehensive arterial and macrophage metabolism by performing metabolomic analyses using capillary electrophoresis-time of flight mass spectrometry. We evaluated glucose uptake and its relationship to vascular hypoxia using (18F-fluorodeoxyglucose ((18F-FDG and pimonidazole, a marker of hypoxia. RESULTS: The levels of many metabolites increased in the iliac-femoral arteries with macrophage-rich neointima, compared with those that were not injured and those with SMC-rich neointima (glycolysis, 4 of 9; pentose phosphate pathway, 4 of 6; tricarboxylic acid cycle, 4 of 6; nucleotides, 10 of 20. The uptake of (18F-FDG in arterial walls measured by autoradiography positively correlated with macrophage- and pimonidazole-immunopositive areas (r = 0.76, and r = 0.59 respectively; n = 69 for both; p<0.0001. Pimonidazole immunoreactivity was closely localized with the nuclear translocation of hypoxia inducible factor-1α and hexokinase II expression in macrophage-rich neointima. The levels of glycolytic (8 of 8 and pentose phosphate pathway (4 of 6 metabolites increased in LPS and INFγ stimulated macrophages under hypoxic but not normoxic condition. Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 protein levels in the supernatant were closely

  12. Identification of chemical components of combustion emissions that affect pro-atherosclerotic vascular responses in mice

    OpenAIRE

    Seilkop, Steven K.; Campen, Matthew J.; Lund, Amie K.; McDonald, Jacob D.; Mauderly, Joe L.

    2012-01-01

    Combustion emissions cause pro-atherosclerotic responses in apolipoprotein E-deficient (ApoE/−) mice, but the causal components of these complex mixtures are unresolved. In studies previously reported, ApoE−/− mice were exposed by inhalation 6 h/day for 50 consecutive days to multiple dilutions of diesel or gasoline exhaust, wood smoke, or simulated “downwind” coal emissions. In this study, the analysis of the combined four-study database using the Multiple Additive Regression Trees (MART) da...

  13. Snoring and atherosclerotic manifestations in a 70-year-old population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jennum, P; Schultz-Larsen, K; Christensen, N J

    1996-01-01

    the issue we examined the association between self-assessed snoring and the relation to atherosclerotic manifestations. 804 70-year-old males and females were classified according to snoring habits. Alcohol and tobacco consumption, blood pressure, body mass index, social group, plasma lipids (triglycerides......, cholesterol, high density lipoprotein), fasting blood glucose, glucose tolerance test, plasma epinephrine and norepinephrine were determined. Presence of angina pectoris, claudication intermittens, use of nitroglycerine were questioned, a resting ECG and a distal arterial pressure by use of doppler technique...

  14. Assessment of atherosclerotic luminal narrowing of coronary arteries based on morphometrically generated visual guides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barth, Rolf F; Kellough, David A; Allenby, Patricia; Blower, Luke E; Hammond, Scott H; Allenby, Greg M; Buja, L Maximilian

    Determination of the degree of stenosis of atherosclerotic coronary arteries is an important part of postmortem examination of the heart, but, unfortunately, estimation of the degree of luminal narrowing can be imprecise and tends to be approximations. Visual guides can be useful to assess this, but earlier attempts to develop such guides did not employ digital technology. Using this approach, we have developed two computer-generated morphometric guides to estimate the degree of luminal narrowing of atherosclerotic coronary arteries. The first is based on symmetric or eccentric circular or crescentic narrowing of the vessel lumen and the second on either slit-like or irregularly shaped narrowing of the vessel lumens. Using the Aperio ScanScope XT at a magnification of 20× we created digital whole-slide images of 20 representative microscopic cross sections of the left anterior descending (LAD) coronary artery, stained with either hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) or Movat's pentachrome stain. These cross sections illustrated a variety of luminal profiles and degrees of stenosis. Three representative types of images were selected and a visual guide was constructed with Adobe Photoshop CS5. Using the "Scale" and "Measurement" tools, we created a series of representations of stenosis with luminal cross sections depicting 20%, 40%, 60%, 70%, 80%, and 90% occlusion of the LAD branch. Four pathologists independently reviewed and scored the degree of atherosclerotic luminal narrowing based on our visual guides. In addition, digital technology was employed to determine the degree of narrowing by measuring the cross-sectional area of the 20 microscopic sections of the vessels, first assuming no narrowing and then comparing this to the percent of narrowing determined by precise measurement. Two of the observers were very experienced general autopsy pathologists, one was a first-year pathology resident on his first rotation on the autopsy service, and the fourth observer was a

  15. Methods of Blood Oxygen Level-Dependent Magnetic Resonance Imaging Analysis for Evaluating Renal Oxygenation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fen Chen

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Blood oxygen level-dependent magnetic resonance imaging (BOLD MRI has recently been utilized as a noninvasive tool for evaluating renal oxygenation. Several methods have been proposed for analyzing BOLD images. Regional ROI selection is the earliest and most widely used method for BOLD analysis. In the last 20 years, many investigators have used this method to evaluate cortical and medullary oxygenation in patients with ischemic nephropathy, hypertensive nephropathy, diabetic nephropathy, chronic kidney disease (CKD, acute kidney injury and renal allograft rejection. However, clinical trials of BOLD MRI using regional ROI selection revealed that it was difficult to distinguish the renal cortico-medullary zones with this method, and that it was susceptible to observer variability. To overcome these deficiencies, several new methods were proposed for analyzing BOLD images, including the compartmental approach, fractional hypoxia method, concentric objects (CO method and twelve-layer concentric objects (TLCO method. The compartmental approach provides an algorithm to judge whether the pixel belongs to the cortex or medulla. Fractional kidney hypoxia, measured by using BOLD MRI, was negatively correlated with renal blood flow, tissue perfusion and glomerular filtration rate (GFR in patients with atherosclerotic renal artery stenosis. The CO method divides the renal parenchyma into six or twelve layers of thickness in each coronal slice of BOLD images and provides a R2* radial profile curve. The slope of the R2* curve associated positively with eGFR in CKD patients. Indeed, each method invariably has advantages and disadvantages, and there is generally no consensus method so far. Undoubtedly, analytic approaches for BOLD MRI with better reproducibility would assist clinicians in monitoring the degree of kidney hypoxia and thus facilitating timely reversal of tissue hypoxia.

  16. The NF-κB pathway: regulation of the instability of atherosclerotic plaques activated by Fg, Fb, and FDPs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yongjun; Zhou, Xiaomei; Liu, Huihui; Zhang, Yanlin; Yu, Xiaoyan; Liu, Chunfeng

    2013-11-01

    Recently, the molecular mechanism responsible for the instability of atherosclerotic plaques has gradually become a hot topic among researchers and clinicians. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) play an important role in the processes of formation and development of atherosclerosis. In this study, we established and employed the transwell co-culture system of rabbit aortic endothelial cells and smooth muscle cells to explore the relationship between fibrin (Fb), fibrinogen (Fg), and/or their degradation products (FDPs) in relation to the instability of atherosclerotic plaques; meanwhile, we observed the effects of Fg, Fb, and FDPs on the mRNA levels of MMPs and VEGF as well as on the activation of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB). We concluded that Fb, Fg, and FDPs are involved in the progression of the instability of atherosclerotic plaques via increasing the expression of MMPs and VEGF. This effect might be mediated by the NF-кB pathway.

  17. Making Deferred Taxes Relevant

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, Arjan; Naarding, Ewout

    2018-01-01

    We analyse the conceptual problems in current accounting for deferred taxes and provide solutions derived from the literature in order to make International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) deferred tax numbers value-relevant. In our view, the empirical results concerning the value relevance of

  18. Parsimonious relevance models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meij, E.; Weerkamp, W.; Balog, K.; de Rijke, M.; Myang, S.-H.; Oard, D.W.; Sebastiani, F.; Chua, T.-S.; Leong, M.-K.

    2008-01-01

    We describe a method for applying parsimonious language models to re-estimate the term probabilities assigned by relevance models. We apply our method to six topic sets from test collections in five different genres. Our parsimonious relevance models (i) improve retrieval effectiveness in terms of

  19. Angiography for renal hypertension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chuang, V.P.; Ernst, C.B.

    1985-01-01

    As angioplasty and operative techniques have become more precise and successful, so have evaluation techniques. Preoperative arteriography is indispensible for deciding on the appropriate treatment modality and the specifics of the procedure. Arteriography, therefore, remains the cornerstone in managing renovascular hypertension and renal arterial disease

  20. Dopamins renale virkninger

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Niels Vidiendal

    1990-01-01

    is frequently employed in cases of acute oliguric renal failure but the results available concerning the therapeutic effect are frequently retrospective and uncontrolled. The results suggest that early treatment with 1-3 micrograms/kg/min dopamine combined with furosemide can postpone or possibly render...

  1. Primary renal graft thrombosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakir, N; Sluiter, WJ; Ploeg, RJ; van Son, WJ; Tegzess, Adam

    Background. Renal allograft thrombosis is a serious complication of kidney transplantation that ultimately leads to graft loss. Its association with acute and hyperacute rejection is well documented; however, in a large proportion of patients the precise cause remains obscure. The exact incidence

  2. Acute Renal Failure Following the Saharan Horned Viper (Cerastes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: The Saharan horned viper (Cerastes cerastes) is a common snake in the sandy and rocky regions in the south of Morocco. Although nearly all snakes with medical relevance can induce acute renal failure (ARF), it's unusual except with bites by some viper species. ARF has very rarely been reported following ...

  3. Blue toe syndrome treated with sympathectomy in a patient with acute renal failure caused by cholesterol embolization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min-Gang Kim

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Blue toe syndrome is the most frequent manifestation of tissue ischemia caused by cholesterol embolization (CE, which can lead to amputation of affected lower extremities, if severe. However, any effective treatment is lacking. We experienced a case of spontaneously presenting blue toe syndrome and concomitant acute renal failure in a patient with multiple atherosclerotic risk factors. CE was confirmed by renal biopsy. Despite medical treatment including prostaglandin therapy and narcotics, the toe lesion progressed to gangrene with worsening ischemic pain. Therefore, we performed lumbar sympathectomy, which provided dramatic pain relief as well as an adequate blood flow to the ischemic lower extremities, resulting in healing of the gangrenous lesion and avoiding toe amputation. This is the first reported case of a patient with intractable ischemic toe syndrome caused by CE that was treated successfully by sympathectomy. Our observations suggest that sympathectomy may be beneficial in some patients with CE-associated blue toe syndrome.

  4. A water-soluble extract of chicken reduced plasma triacylglycerols, but showed no anti-atherosclerotic activity in apoE−/− mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Vik

    2015-08-01

    Conclusion: Chicken protein displayed a slight potential to increase mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation and reduce plasma TAG. However, CP did not affect plasma cholesterol levels, inflammation status or atherosclerotic development in apoE−/− mice. Based on these results, dietary intervention with CP does not have sufficient capacity to influence atherosclerotic development in apoE−/− mice.

  5. Combined micro-PIXE and NIR Raman spectroscopic plaque characterisation in a human atherosclerotic aorta sample

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brands, P.J.M.; Poll, S.W.E. van de; Quaedackers, J.A.; Mutsaers, P.H.A.; Puppels, G.J.; Laarse, A. van der; Voigt, M.J.A. de

    2001-01-01

    Raman spectroscopy can be applied to characterise the chemical composition of an atherosclerotic plaque in vivo. In the near future this technique may become available for use in (coronary) arteries of living patients. For this moment, Raman spectroscopy is applied on artery samples in vitro, to study progression and regression of atherosclerotic plaque. Raman spectroscopy provides chemical information on a molecular basis. In this study, micro-particle induced X-ray emission (micro-PIXE) is applied to provide additional information on the elemental composition of the artery. Furthermore, the combined techniques allow for validation of the structures studied with Raman spectroscopy. This study proves that it is possible to combine and compare both techniques using the same region on the same sample if proper sample preparation is applied. Comparison shows that regions appearing in the Raman spectroscopy results can also be distinguished in micro-PIXE and backscattering spectroscopy (BS) distributions and vice versa. Combining both techniques makes it possible to separate phospholipids from triglycerides. Combined Raman spectroscopy and micro-PIXE/BS is recommended for studying progression and regression of atherosclerosis

  6. The relationship between serum paraoxonase levels and carotid atherosclerotic plaque formation in Alzheimer's patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arslan, Ayşe; Tüzün, Fatma Aykan; Arslan, Harun; Demir, Halit; Tamer, Sibel; Demir, Canan; Tasin, Muhterem

    Low paraoxonase 1 (PON1) activity and carotid atherosclerosis have been suggested to be important risk factors for dementia. However, the studies to date could not fully clarify the relationship between PON1, carotid atherosclerosis and dementia. The present study aimed to measure carotid atherosclerosis and PON1 activity in Alzheimer's Disease and to evaluate the relationship between them. The study included 25 Alzheimer's patients and 25 control subjects, for a total of 50 individuals. The study measured the serum PON1 activity and other biochemical parameters and carotid atherosclerotic plaque values of the participants. The mean paraoxonase activity (31.06±2.31U/L) was significantly lower in the Alzheimer's group compared to the control group (59.05±7.05U/L) (Phomocystein level was higher in the patient group (22.15±7.05) compared to the control group (13.30±3.32). In conclusion, our findings show inverse association between PON1 activity and carotid atherosclerosis in Alzheimer patients: the lower the PON1 activity the more progressed the atherosclerotic process in AD. Copyright © 2016 Polish Neurological Society. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.

  7. Serial changes of coronary atherosclerotic plaque: Assessment with 64-slice multi-detector computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Eun Young; Kang, Doo Kyoung; Sun, Joo Sung; Choi, So Yeon

    2013-01-01

    Evaluate the progression of coronary atherosclerotic plaque during follow-up, and its association with cardiovascular risk factors. Fifty-six atherosclerotic patients with plaque were enrolled in this retrospective study. Patient's plaque was detected on repeat 64-slice multidetector CT scans with a mean interval of 25 ± 10 months changes in calcified and non-calcified plaque volumes and cardiovascular risk factors were assessed over time. Absolute and relative changes in plaque volume were compared, and the association between rapid progression and cardiovascular risk factors was determined. Diameter of the stenosis, length, calcified and non-calcified lesion plaque volumes increased significantly on follow-up CT. Absolute and relative annual changes in plaque volumes were significantly greater in non-calcified plaque (median, 22.7 mm 3 , 90.4%) than in calcified plaque (median, 0.7 mm 3 , 0%). Obesity, smoking, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, and low high-density lipoprotein were significant predictors of progression of non-calcified plaque. Progression of calcified plaque was not associated with any cardiovascular risk factors. Coronary plaque volume increased significantly on follow-up CT. The rate of progression is related to non-calcified plaque than to calcified plaque. Cardiovascular risk factors are independently associated with the rapid progression of non-calcified plaque volume, but not associated with the progression of calcified plaque.

  8. Detection of atherosclerotic lesions and intimal macrophages using CD36-targeted nanovesicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Shufang; Zhang, Jia; Martinez-Zaguilan, Raul; Sennoune, Souad; Hossen, Md Nazir; Lichtenstein, Alice H; Cao, Jun; Meyerrose, Gary E; Paone, Ralph; Soontrapa, Suthipong; Fan, Zhaoyang; Wang, Shu

    2015-12-28

    Current approaches to the diagnosis and therapy of atherosclerosis cannot target lesion-determinant cells in the artery wall. Intimal macrophage infiltration promotes atherosclerotic lesion development by facilitating the accumulation of oxidized low-density lipoproteins (oxLDL) and increasing inflammatory responses. The presence of these cells is positively associated with lesion progression, severity and destabilization. Hence, they are an important diagnostic and therapeutic target. The objective of this study was to noninvasively assess the distribution and accumulation of intimal macrophages using CD36-targeted nanovesicles. Soy phosphatidylcholine was used to synthesize liposome-like nanovesicles. 1-(Palmitoyl)-2-(5-keto-6-octene-dioyl) phosphatidylcholine was incorporated on their surface to target the CD36 receptor. All in vitro data demonstrate that these targeted nanovesicles had a high binding affinity for the oxLDL binding site of the CD36 receptor and participated in CD36-mediated recognition and uptake of nanovesicles by macrophages. Intravenous administration into LDL receptor null mice of targeted compared to non-targeted nanovesicles resulted in higher uptake in aortic lesions. The nanovesicles co-localized with macrophages and their CD36 receptors in aortic lesions. This molecular target approach may facilitate the in vivo noninvasive imaging of atherosclerotic lesions in terms of intimal macrophage accumulation and distribution and disclose lesion features related to inflammation and possibly vulnerability thereby facilitate early lesion detection and targeted delivery of therapeutic compounds to intimal macrophages. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Myocardial perfusion scintigraphy fi ndings in patients with mild coronary atherosclerotic lesions on coronary angiography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeki Dostbil

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Myocardial perfusion scintigraphy (MPS iswidely used in functional assessment of myocardial per-fusion. But, some study results are in contradiction withseverity of coronary artery disease detected by coronaryangiography (CA. It is frequently encountered case thatCA is completely normal whereas MPS describes isch-emia. In this study, we aimed to investigate whether mildatherosclerotic lesions cause ischemia.Materials and methods: MPS with 99mTc-MIBI was per-formed in 52 patients who applied to cardiology clinics forhistory of chest pain and underwent diagnostic CA within3 months.Results: In 22 of 52 patients with mild atherosclerotic le-sions, ischemia in various degrees was detected on MPS.In statistical analysis, any signifi cant relationship was notfound between ischemia and gender, hypertension, DM,dyslipidemia, smoking, mitral valve insuffi ciency, left ven-tricular hypertrophy, exercise testing result and affectedcoronary artery.Conclusion: Our study fi ndings have shown that mild ath-erosclerotic lesions even at very early stage may causemyocardial ischemia

  10. Evaluation of radiotracers for the detection of atherosclerotic vulnerable plaque and myocardial angiogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dimastromatteo, Julien

    2010-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases are the leading cause of mortality worldwide. Coronary events are mainly caused by coronary plaque rupture or erosion. However, at present, there is no noninvasive tool available for the detection of vulnerable plaques. The first part of thesis is about evaluation of new radiotracers for the detection of atherosclerotic vulnerable plaques. 99m Tc-B2702p, 20 derivatives, 99m Tc-VP and 99m Tc-VINP28 were evaluated in an experimental model of atherosclerosis (ApoE-/- mice with left carotid artery ligation). 99m Tc- B2702p1 is a potentially useful radiotracer for the in vivo molecular imaging of VCAM-1 expression in atherosclerotic plaques. Myocardial angiogenesis is an important post infarction phenomenon. Angiogenic therapy improves experimentally cardiac parameters. However, clinical trials using the same therapy are more controversial. At present, clinical imaging tools don't allow us to assess angiogenesis therapy. The second part of thesis is about validation of 99m Tc-RAFT-RGD in the detection of myocardial angiogenesis. 99m Tc-RAFT-RGD allow us to perform noninvasive molecular imaging of myocardial angiogenesis in an experimental model. (author)

  11. Diverse cellular architecture of atherosclerotic plaque derives from clonal expansion of a few medial SMCs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobsen, Kevin; Lund, Marie Bek; Shim, Jeong; Gunnersen, Stine; Füchtbauer, Ernst-Martin; Kjolby, Mads; Carramolino, Laura; Bentzon, Jacob Fog

    2017-10-05

    Fibrous cap smooth muscle cells (SMCs) protect atherosclerotic lesions from rupturing and causing thrombosis, while other plaque SMCs may have detrimental roles in plaque development. To gain insight into recruitment of different plaque SMCs, we mapped their clonal architecture in aggregation chimeras of eGFP+Apoe-/- and Apoe-/- mouse embryos and in mice with a mosaic expression of fluorescent proteins in medial SMCs that were rendered atherosclerotic by PCSK9-induced hypercholesterolemia. Fibrous caps in aggregation chimeras were found constructed from large, endothelial-aligned layers of either eGFP+ or nonfluorescent SMCs, indicating substantial clonal expansion of a few cells. Similarly, plaques in mice with SMC-restricted Confetti expression showed oligoclonal SMC populations with little intermixing between the progeny of different medial SMCs. Phenotypes comprised both ACTA2+ SMCs in the cap and heterogeneous ACTA2- SMCs in the plaque interior, including chondrocyte-like cells and cells with intracellular lipid and crystalline material. Fibrous cap SMCs were invariably arranged in endothelium-aligned clonal sheets, confirming results in the aggregation chimeras. Analysis of the clonal structure showed that a low number of local medial SMCs partake in atherosclerosis and that single medial SMCs can produce several different SMC phenotypes in plaque. The combined results show that few medial SMCs proliferate to form the entire phenotypically heterogeneous plaque SMC population in murine atherosclerosis.

  12. Temporal shifts in clinical presentation and underlying mechanisms of atherosclerotic disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasterkamp, Gerard; den Ruijter, Hester M; Libby, Peter

    2017-01-01

    The concept of the 'vulnerable plaque' originated from pathological observations in patients who died from acute coronary syndrome. This recognition spawned a generation of research that led to greater understanding of how complicated atherosclerotic plaques form and precipitate thrombotic events. In current practice, an increasing number of patients who survive their first event present with non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI) rather than myocardial infarction (MI) with ST-segment elevation (STEMI). The culprit lesions that provide the pathological substrate for NSTEMI can vary considerably from the so-called 'vulnerable plaque'. The shift in clinical presentation of MI and stroke corresponds temporally to a progressive change in the characteristics of human plaques away from the supposed characteristics of vulnerability. These alterations in the structure and function of human atherosclerotic lesions might mirror the modifications that are produced in experimental plaques by lipid lowering, inspired by the vulnerable plaque construct. The shift in the clinical presentations of the acute coronary syndromes mandates a critical reassessment of the underlying mechanisms, proposed risk scores, the results and interpretation of preclinical experiments, as well as recognition of the limitations of the use of population data and samples collected before the application of current preventive interventions.

  13. Impact of the cardiovascular system-associated adipose tissue on atherosclerotic pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chistiakov, Dimitry A; Grechko, Andrey V; Myasoedova, Veronika A; Melnichenko, Alexandra A; Orekhov, Alexander N

    2017-08-01

    Cardiac obesity makes an important contribution to the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease. One of the important pathways of this contribution is the inflammatory process that takes place in the adipose tissue. In this review, we consider the role of the cardiovascular system-associated fat in atherosclerotic cardiovascular pathology and a non-atherosclerotic cause of coronary artery disease, such as atrial fibrillation. Cardiovascular system-associated fat not only serves as the energy store, but also releases adipokines that control local and systemic metabolism, heart/vascular function and vessel tone, and a number of vasodilating and anti-inflammatory substances. Adipokine appears to play an important protective role in cardiovascular system. Under chronic inflammation conditions, the repertoire of signaling molecules secreted by cardiac fat can be altered, leading to a higher amount of pro-inflammatory messengers, vasoconstrictors, profibrotic modulators. This further aggravates cardiovascular inflammation and leads to hypertension, induction of the pathological tissue remodeling and cardiac fibrosis. Contemporary imaging techniques showed that epicardial fat thickness correlates with the visceral fat mass, which is an established risk factor and predictor of cardiovascular disease in obese subjects. However, this correlation is no longer present after adjustment for other covariates. Nevertheless, recent studies showed that pericardial fat volume and epicardial fat thickness can probably serve as a better indicator for atrial fibrillation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Chronic Inflammatory Diseases and Atherosclerotic Cardiovascular Disease: Innocent Bystanders or Partners in Crime?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Peter Riis

    2018-01-01

    Inflammation plays a significant role in atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease (CVD). Patients with chronic inflammatory diseases are at increased risk of CVD, but it is debated whether this association is causal or dependent on shared risk factors, other exposures, genes, and/or inflammatory pathways. The current review summarizes epidemiological, clinical, and experimental data supporting the role of shared inflammatory mechanisms between atherosclerotic CVD and rheumatoid arthritis, psoriasis, inflammatory bowel disease, and periodontitis, respectively, and provides insights to future prospects in this area of research. Awareness of the role of inflammation in CVD in patients with chronic inflammatory diseases and the potential for anti-inflammatory therapy, e.g., with tumor necrosis factor-α inhibitors, to also reduce atherosclerotic CVD has evolved into guideline- based recommendations. These include regular CVD risk assessment, aggressive treatment of traditional CVD risk factors, and recognition of reduced CVD as an added benefit of strict inflammatory disease control. At present, chronic inflammatory diseases would appear to qualify as partners in crime and not merely innocent bystanders to CVD. However, definite incremental contributions of inflammation versus effects of the complex interplay with other CVD risk factors may never be fully elucidated and for the foreseeable future, inflammation is posed to maintain its current position as both a marker and a maker of CVD, with clinical utility both for identification of patient at risk of CVD and as target for therapy to reduce CVD. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  15. Temperature distribution in atherosclerotic coronary arteries: influence of plaque geometry and flow (a numerical study)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Have, A G ten; Gijsen, F J H; Wentzel, J J; Slager, C J; Steen, A F W van der

    2004-01-01

    Intravascular coronary thermography is a method that may detect vulnerable, atherosclerotic plaques and is currently evaluated in a clinical setting. Active macrophages or enzymatic heat releasing processes in vulnerable plaques may act as heat sources. To better understand the parameters of influence on thermographic measurements, numerical simulations have been performed on a model of a coronary artery segment containing a heat source. Heat source parameters and flow were varied to study their influence on temperatures at the lumen wall. Maximal temperature differences at the lumen wall increased when the source volume increased and they differ with the source geometry. The simulations showed that blood flow acts as a coolant to the lumen wall. Blood flow decreased maximal temperatures depending on the source geometry, source volume and the maximal flow velocity. Influence of flow was highest for circumferentially extended sources, up to a factor 3.7, and lowest for longitudinally extended sources, down to a factor 1.9. When cap thickness increased, maximal temperatures decreased and the influence of flow increased. This study shows that correct interpretation of intravascular thermographic measurements requires data on the flow and on the morphologic characteristics of the atherosclerotic plaque

  16. Novel molecular imaging ligands targeting matrix metalloproteinases 2 and 9 for imaging of unstable atherosclerotic plaques.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazanin Hakimzadeh

    Full Text Available Molecular imaging of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs may allow detection of atherosclerotic lesions vulnerable to rupture. In this study, we develop a novel radiolabelled compound that can target gelatinase MMP subtypes (MMP2/9 with high selectivity and inhibitory potency. Inhibitory potencies of several halogenated analogues of MMP subtype-selective inhibitors (N-benzenesulfonyliminodiacetyl monohydroxamates and N-halophenoxy-benzenesulfonyl iminodiacetyl monohydroxamates were in the nanomolar range for MMP2/9. The analogue with highest inhibitory potency and selectivity was radiolabelled with [123I], resulting in moderate radiochemical yield, and high radiochemical purity. Biodistribution studies in mice, revealed stabilization in blood 1 hour after intravenous bolus injection. Intravenous infusion of the radioligand and subsequent autoradiography of excised aortas showed tracer uptake in atheroprone mice. Distribution of the radioligand showed co-localization with MMP2/9 immunohistochemical staining. In conclusion, we have developed a novel selective radiolabeled MMP2/9 inhibitor, suitable for single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT imaging that effectively targets atherosclerotic lesions in mice.

  17. Novel molecular imaging ligands targeting matrix metalloproteinases 2 and 9 for imaging of unstable atherosclerotic plaques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molenaar, Ger; de Waard, Vivian; Lutgens, Esther; van Eck-Smit, Berthe L. F.; de Bruin, Kora; Piek, Jan J.; Eersels, Jos L. H.; Booij, Jan; Verberne, Hein J.; Windhorst, Albert D.

    2017-01-01

    Molecular imaging of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) may allow detection of atherosclerotic lesions vulnerable to rupture. In this study, we develop a novel radiolabelled compound that can target gelatinase MMP subtypes (MMP2/9) with high selectivity and inhibitory potency. Inhibitory potencies of several halogenated analogues of MMP subtype-selective inhibitors (N-benzenesulfonyliminodiacetyl monohydroxamates and N-halophenoxy-benzenesulfonyl iminodiacetyl monohydroxamates) were in the nanomolar range for MMP2/9. The analogue with highest inhibitory potency and selectivity was radiolabelled with [123I], resulting in moderate radiochemical yield, and high radiochemical purity. Biodistribution studies in mice, revealed stabilization in blood 1 hour after intravenous bolus injection. Intravenous infusion of the radioligand and subsequent autoradiography of excised aortas showed tracer uptake in atheroprone mice. Distribution of the radioligand showed co-localization with MMP2/9 immunohistochemical staining. In conclusion, we have developed a novel selective radiolabeled MMP2/9 inhibitor, suitable for single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging that effectively targets atherosclerotic lesions in mice. PMID:29190653

  18. Evaluation of early atherosclerotic findings in women with polycystic ovary syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammadi Afshin

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Background Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS is the most common endocrinopathy in women of childbearing age, and it seems better to consider it as an ovarian manifestation of metabolic syndrome. The aim of the current study was to evaluate early atherosclerotic findings in patients with PCOS. Methods We enrolled 46 women with PCOS and 45 normal control subjects who were referred to our hospital's endocrinology outpatient clinic. Carotid intima media thickness (CIMT and flow-mediated dilatation (FMD were performed in both cases and matched controls. Results Patients with PCOS showed an increased mean CIMT (0.63 ± 0.16 mm when compared with the control subjects (0.33 ± 0.06 mm. This difference was statistically significant (p = 0.001. The mean FMD in young patients with PCOS was 10.07 ± 1.2%, while it was 6.5 ± 2.06% in normal subjects. This difference was also statistically significant (p = 0.001. Conclusion Our findings suggest that PCOS is related with early atherosclerotic findings.

  19. Serial changes of coronary atherosclerotic plaque: Assessment with 64-slice multi-detector computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Eun Young; Kang, Doo Kyoung; Sun, Joo Sung; Choi, So Yeon [Ajou University School of Medicine, Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-12-15

    Evaluate the progression of coronary atherosclerotic plaque during follow-up, and its association with cardiovascular risk factors. Fifty-six atherosclerotic patients with plaque were enrolled in this retrospective study. Patient's plaque was detected on repeat 64-slice multidetector CT scans with a mean interval of 25 ± 10 months changes in calcified and non-calcified plaque volumes and cardiovascular risk factors were assessed over time. Absolute and relative changes in plaque volume were compared, and the association between rapid progression and cardiovascular risk factors was determined. Diameter of the stenosis, length, calcified and non-calcified lesion plaque volumes increased significantly on follow-up CT. Absolute and relative annual changes in plaque volumes were significantly greater in non-calcified plaque (median, 22.7 mm{sup 3}, 90.4%) than in calcified plaque (median, 0.7 mm{sup 3}, 0%). Obesity, smoking, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, and low high-density lipoprotein were significant predictors of progression of non-calcified plaque. Progression of calcified plaque was not associated with any cardiovascular risk factors. Coronary plaque volume increased significantly on follow-up CT. The rate of progression is related to non-calcified plaque than to calcified plaque. Cardiovascular risk factors are independently associated with the rapid progression of non-calcified plaque volume, but not associated with the progression of calcified plaque.

  20. Intracranial Stent Implantation for Drug Resistant Atherosclerotic Stenosis: Results of 52 Cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Kuk Seon; Hwang, Dae Hyun; Ko, Young Hwan; Kang, Ik Won; Lee, Eil Seong; Han, You Mie; Kim, In Soo; Hur, Choon Woong

    2011-01-01

    We evaluated the usefulness of intracranial stent implantation for treatment of drug resistant atherosclerotic stenoses. Between March 2004 and July 2007, we tried intracranial stent implantation in 49 patients with 52 lesions (anterior circulation 48 cases, posterior circulation 4 cases) who had an ischemic stroke with more than 50% of major cerebral artery stenosis. We classified the lesions by their location and morphology, analyzed the results in terms of the success rate, complication rate, and restenosis rate during the follow-up period. Intracranial stent implantation was performed successfully in 43 cases (82.7%). In eight of the nine cases, the stent implantation failure was due to the tortuosity of the target vessel. There was no major periprocedural complication. One patient showed cerebellar infarction after the procedure. Mean residual stenoses decreased from 70.2% to 13.0%. Four cases (9.3%) demonstrated in-stent restenoses and more than 50% during the mean and 25.3/month after the follow-up period. Success rate of intracranial stent implantation may improve on developing technique and more experience. Low rate of complication and restenosis suggest that we can consider intracranial stent implantation for treatment of drug resistant atherosclerotic stenoses.

  1. Prognosis of non-significant coronary atherosclerotic disease detected by coronary artery tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barros, Marcio Vinicius Lins; Siqueira, Bruna Pinto; Guimaraes, Carolina Camargos Braichi; Cruz, David Filipe Silva; Guimaraes, Leiziane Assuncao Alves; Lima, Maicom Marcio Perigolo, E-mail: marciovlbarros@gmail.com [Faculdade de Saude e Ecologia Humana, Vespasiano, MG (Brazil); Nunes, Maria do Carmo Pereira [Universidade de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina; Siqueira, Maria Helena Albernaz [Hospital Materdei, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2015-07-15

    Introduction: Although studies have shown high diagnostic accuracy of coronary tomography (CT) in detecting coronary artery disease (CAD), data on the prognostic value of this method in patients with no significant coronary obstruction are limited. Objective: To evaluate the value of CT in predicting adverse events in patients with suspected CAD and no significant coronary obstruction. Methods: We prospectively evaluated 440 patients between January 2008 and July 2013 by MDCT, diagnosed with no significant obstruction or no atherosclerotic coronary obstruction with an average follow-up of 33 months. The outcomes evaluated were: cardiac death, myocardial infarction, unstable angina associated with hospitalization or coronary artery bypass grafting. Results: Of the 440 patients studied, 295 (67%) were men with mean age 55.9 ± 12.0 years. Non-significant obstruction was found in 152 (35%) of the patients and there were 49 (11%) outcomes. In the multivariate analysis using the Cox regression model, the predictors of clinical outcomes were non-significant obstruction on CT (hazard ratio 3.51; 95% CI 1.73 - 7.8; p <0.01), age and hypertension. Non-significant obstruction on CT was associated with adverse clinical outcomes and survival analysis showed a significant difference (log-rank 24.6; p <0.01) in predicting these outcomes. Conclusion: The detection of non-significant atherosclerotic obstruction by CT was associated with the presence of adverse events in patients with suspected CAD, which may prove useful in the risk stratification of these patients. (author)

  2. NF-κB inhibitors that prevent foam cell formation and atherosclerotic plaque accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plotkin, Jesse D; Elias, Michael G; Dellinger, Anthony L; Kepley, Christopher L

    2017-08-01

    The transformation of monocyte-derived macrophages into lipid-laden foam cells is one inflammatory process underlying atherosclerotic disease. Previous studies have demonstrated that fullerene derivatives (FDs) have inflammation-blunting properties. Thus, it was hypothesized that FD could inhibit the transformation process underlying foam cell formation. Fullerene derivatives inhibited the phorbol myristic acid/oxidized low-density lipoprotein-induced differentiation of macrophages into foam cells as determined by lipid staining and morphology.Lipoprotein-induced generation of TNF-α, C5a-induced MC activation, ICAM-1 driven adhesion, and CD36 expression were significantly inhibited in FD treated cells compared to non-treated cells. Inhibition appeared to be mediated through the NF-κB pathway as FD reduced expression of NF-κB and atherosclerosis-associated genes. Compared to controls, FD dramatically inhibited plaque formation in arteries of apolipoprotein E null mice. Thus, FD may be an unrecognized therapy to prevent atherosclerotic lesions via inhibition of foam cell formation and MC stabilization. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. The Veterans Affairs Cardiac Risk Score: Recalibrating the Atherosclerotic Cardiovascular Disease Score for Applied Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sussman, Jeremy B; Wiitala, Wyndy L; Zawistowski, Matthew; Hofer, Timothy P; Bentley, Douglas; Hayward, Rodney A

    2017-09-01

    Accurately estimating cardiovascular risk is fundamental to good decision-making in cardiovascular disease (CVD) prevention, but risk scores developed in one population often perform poorly in dissimilar populations. We sought to examine whether a large integrated health system can use their electronic health data to better predict individual patients' risk of developing CVD. We created a cohort using all patients ages 45-80 who used Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) ambulatory care services in 2006 with no history of CVD, heart failure, or loop diuretics. Our outcome variable was new-onset CVD in 2007-2011. We then developed a series of recalibrated scores, including a fully refit "VA Risk Score-CVD (VARS-CVD)." We tested the different scores using standard measures of prediction quality. For the 1,512,092 patients in the study, the Atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease risk score had similar discrimination as the VARS-CVD (c-statistic of 0.66 in men and 0.73 in women), but the Atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease model had poor calibration, predicting 63% more events than observed. Calibration was excellent in the fully recalibrated VARS-CVD tool, but simpler techniques tested proved less reliable. We found that local electronic health record data can be used to estimate CVD better than an established risk score based on research populations. Recalibration improved estimates dramatically, and the type of recalibration was important. Such tools can also easily be integrated into health system's electronic health record and can be more readily updated.

  4. Intravital live cell triggered imaging system reveals monocyte patrolling and macrophage migration in atherosclerotic arteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    McArdle, Sara; Chodaczek, Grzegorz; Ray, Nilanjan; Ley, Klaus

    2015-02-01

    Intravital multiphoton imaging of arteries is technically challenging because the artery expands with every heartbeat, causing severe motion artifacts. To study leukocyte activity in atherosclerosis, we developed the intravital live cell triggered imaging system (ILTIS). This system implements cardiac triggered acquisition as well as frame selection and image registration algorithms to produce stable movies of myeloid cell movement in atherosclerotic arteries in live mice. To minimize tissue damage, no mechanical stabilization is used and the artery is allowed to expand freely. ILTIS performs multicolor high frame-rate two-dimensional imaging and full-thickness three-dimensional imaging of beating arteries in live mice. The external carotid artery and its branches (superior thyroid and ascending pharyngeal arteries) were developed as a surgically accessible and reliable model of atherosclerosis. We use ILTIS to demonstrate Cx3cr1GFP monocytes patrolling the lumen of atherosclerotic arteries. Additionally, we developed a new reporter mouse (Apoe-/-Cx3cr1GFP/+Cd11cYFP) to image GFP+ and GFP+YFP+ macrophages "dancing on the spot" and YFP+ macrophages migrating within intimal plaque. ILTIS will be helpful to answer pertinent open questions in the field, including monocyte recruitment and transmigration, macrophage and dendritic cell activity, and motion of other immune cells.

  5. Usefulness of 201Tl myocardial scintigraphy after dipyridamole infusion in patients with atherosclerotic vascular disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toyama, Takuji; Nishimura, Tsunehiko; Uehara, Toshiisa

    1992-01-01

    To determine the utility for detecting ischemic heart disease (IHD), dipyridamole thallium myocardial images (DIP-Tl) have been performed in 103 patients with atherosclerotic vascular disease who can't exercise fully. Of the 103 patients, there were 36 patients with arteriosclerosis obliterans (ASO), 31 patients with aneurysm of the abdominal aorta (AAA), 24 patients with aneurysm of the thoracic aorta (TAA) and 12 patients with dissecting aortic aneurysm (DAA). Clinical evidence of IHD was found in 20 patients with ASO, 10 with AAA, 7 with TAA and 4 with DAA. Positive evidence of DIP-Tl was identified in 66% of 41 patients who had clinical evidence of IHD, and particularly in the patients with AAA (80%) and ASO (65%). On the other hand, in the patients without clinical evidence of IHD, positive evidence of DIP-Tl was identified in 19% of 62 patients and particularly in the patients with AAA (39%). In all patients, the percentage of the positive DIP-Tl ratio was 38%. And, when the 38% patients of the positive DIP-Tl were added to the patients of the negative DIP-Tl who had clinical evidence of IHD, almost half patients (51%) were considered to be complicated with IHD. This study suggests that the atherosclerotic vascular disease is highly complicated with IHD and DIP-Tl is useful to detect IHD. (author)

  6. Anti-atherosclerotic effect of Cynodon dactylon extract on experimentally induced hypercholesterolemia in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pashaie, Belal; Hobbenaghi, Rahim; Malekinejad, Hassan

    2017-01-01

    Cynodon dactylon (Bermuda grass) is a perennial plant traditionally used as an herbal medicine in many countries. In the present study, anti-atherosclerotic property of ethanolic extract of C. dactylon was investigated in the experimentally induced hypercholesterolemia in rats. In this study, 36 male Wistar rats were selected and allocated into six groups (n = 6). The control group received a normal diet, sham group received a high cholesterol diet (HCD; 1.50% cholesterol and 24.00% fat) and other groups received a HCD and ethanolic extract of C. dactylon at low (100 mg kg -1 ), moderate (200 mg kg -1 ) and maximum (400 mg kg -1 ) doses via gavages. The last group received atorvastatin (10 mg kg -1 ) through gavage with a HCD. The study period for all groups was six months. At the end of this period, parameters including total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) were assessed in the blood samples. Additionally, histopathological and immunohistochemical examinations on coronary and aorta arteries sections were performed. The results showed an increase in vessels wall thickness and proliferation of smooth muscle cells in the HCD group, while these pathological changes were not seen in C. dactylon -treated groups. Treatment of HCD animals with C. dactylon positively changed lipid profile by lowering of TC, TG and LDL-C. The results indicate that C. dactylon prevents from early atherosclerotic changes in the vessels wall.

  7. Association between Human Plasma Chondroitin Sulfate Isomers and Carotid Atherosclerotic Plaques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabetta Zinellu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Several studies have evidenced variations in plasma glycosaminoglycans content in physiological and pathological conditions. In normal human plasma GAGs are present mainly as undersulfated chondroitin sulfate (CS. The aim of the present study was to evaluate possible correlations between plasma CS level/structure and the presence/typology of carotid atherosclerotic lesion. Plasma CS was purified from 46 control subjects and 47 patients undergoing carotid endarterectomy showing either a soft or a hard plaque. The concentration and structural characteristics of plasma CS were assessed by capillary electrophoresis of constituent unsaturated fluorophore-labeled disaccharides. Results showed that the concentration of total CS isomers was increased by 21.4% (P<0.01 in plasma of patients, due to a significant increase of undersulfated CS. Consequently, in patients the plasma CS charge density was significantly reduced with respect to that of controls. After sorting for plaque typology, we found that patients with soft plaques and those with hard ones differently contribute to the observed changes. In plasma from patients with soft plaques, the increase in CS content was not associated with modifications of its sulfation pattern. On the contrary, the presence of hard plaques was associated with CS sulfation pattern modifications in presence of quite normal total CS isomers levels. These results suggest that the plasma CS content and structure could be related to the presence and the typology of atherosclerotic plaque and could provide a useful diagnostic tool, as well as information on the molecular mechanisms responsible for plaque instability.

  8. Multimodal nonlinear imaging of atherosclerotic plaques differentiation of triglyceride and cholesterol deposits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Matthäus

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular diseases in general and atherothrombosis as the most common of its individual disease entities is the leading cause of death in the developed countries. Therefore, visualization and characterization of inner arterial plaque composition is of vital diagnostic interest, especially for the early recognition of vulnerable plaques. Established clinical techniques provide valuable morphological information but cannot deliver information about the chemical composition of individual plaques. Therefore, spectroscopic imaging techniques have recently drawn considerable attention. Based on the spectroscopic properties of the individual plaque components, as for instance different types of lipids, the composition of atherosclerotic plaques can be analyzed qualitatively as well as quantitatively. Here, we compare the feasibility of multimodal nonlinear imaging combining two-photon fluorescence (TPF, coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS and second-harmonic generation (SHG microscopy to contrast composition and morphology of lipid deposits against the surrounding matrix of connective tissue with diffraction limited spatial resolution. In this contribution, the spatial distribution of major constituents of the arterial wall and atherosclerotic plaques like elastin, collagen, triglycerides and cholesterol can be simultaneously visualized by a combination of nonlinear imaging methods, providing a powerful label-free complement to standard histopathological methods with great potential for in vivo application.

  9. Renal function and carotid atherosclerosis in adults with no known kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buscemi, S; Geraci, G; Massenti, F M; Buscemi, C; Costa, F; D'Orio, C; Rosafio, G; Buscemi, C; Maniaci, V; Parrinello, G

    2017-03-01

    A high prevalence of atherosclerotic lesions characterizes patients with chronic kidney disease, though there is little data on the relationship between kidney function and atherosclerotic changes in the healthy population or in people with no known renal impairment. The aim of our study was to analyze, in a comprehensive general population with no known kidney disease, the relationship between renal function and subclinical carotid atherosclerotic damage. A general real-life population of 611 participants (233 males and 378 females; age ≥18 years) with no known kidney failure was selected for the study. The glomerular filtration rate (GFR) was estimated according to the CKD-EPI equation. Carotid intima-media thickness (c-IMT) and plaques were assessed by duplex Doppler ultrasonography of the carotid vessels. The main laboratory and metabolic parameters were evaluated in all participants. When we divided the overall study population into tertiles according to GFR values (I tertile 99 ml/min/1.73 m 2 ), the c-IMT mean values and the prevalence of carotid plaques decreased with the increasing tertile of GFR. On univariate analysis, c-IMT was significantly correlated with eGFR (r = -0.33; p < 0.001), serum creatinine (r = 0.17; p < 0.001), and other variables such as age, systolic blood pressure, waist circumference, fasting or random glycemia, and glycated hemoglobin (HbA 1 c). On multiple regression analysis, serum creatinine was associated with c-IMT (β = 0.069; p = 0.017), independent of other covariates. Our study seems to suggest the importance of early identification of people with near normal or mildly decreased renal function due to its association with carotid atherosclerosis. Copyright © 2016 The Italian Society of Diabetology, the Italian Society for the Study of Atherosclerosis, the Italian Society of Human Nutrition, and the Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery, Federico II University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights

  10. Acute renal dysfunction in liver diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Betrosian, Alex P; Agarwal, Banwari; Douzinas, Emmanuel E

    2007-01-01

    Renal dysfunction is common in liver diseases, either as part of multiorgan involvement in acute illness or secondary to advanced liver disease. The presence of renal impairment in both groups is a poor prognostic indicator. Renal failure is often multifactorial and can present as pre-renal or intrinsic renal dysfunction. Obstructive or post renal dysfunction only rarely complicates liver disease. Hepatorenal syndrome (HRS) is a unique form of renal failure associated with advanced liver dise...

  11. Chronic renal failure due to unilateral renal agenesis and total renal dysplasia (=aplasia)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kroepelin, T.; Ziupa, J.; Wimmer, B.

    1983-01-01

    Three adult patients with unilateral renal agenesis/total dysplasia (= aplasia) and with an early chronic renal failure are presented. One patient had renal agenesis without ureter bud and ureteric ostium on one side, and reflux pyelonephritis on the other; one had small compact total renal dysplasia (= aplasia) on one side, while chronic uric acid nephropathy (chronic renal disease as a cause of gout) was diagnosed on the other; the third patient had a total large multicystic dysplasia on one side, and on the other a segmental large multicystic dysplasia. Radiological steps and radiodiagnostic criteria are discussed and the combination of urogenital and extraurogenital anomalies is referred to. (orig.)

  12. Luminal nucleotides are tonic inhibitors of renal tubular transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leipziger, Jens Georg

    2011-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Extracellular ATP is an essential local signaling molecule in all organ systems. In the kidney, purinergic signaling is involved in an array of functions and this review highlights those of relevance for renal tubular transport. RECENT FINDINGS: Purinergic receptors are express...... discovered as an important signaling compartment in which local purinergic signaling determines an inhibitory tone for renal tubular transport. Blocking components of this system leads to tubular hyper-absorption, volume retention and elevated blood pressure.......PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Extracellular ATP is an essential local signaling molecule in all organ systems. In the kidney, purinergic signaling is involved in an array of functions and this review highlights those of relevance for renal tubular transport. RECENT FINDINGS: Purinergic receptors are expressed...... in all renal tubular segments and their stimulation generally leads to transport inhibition. Recent evidence has identified the tubular lumen as a restricted space for purinergic signaling. The concentrations of ATP in the luminal fluids are sufficiently high to inflict a tonic inhibition of renal...

  13. Culturally Relevant Cyberbullying Prevention

    OpenAIRE

    Phillips, Gregory John

    2017-01-01

    In this action research study, I, along with a student intervention committee of 14 members, developed a cyberbullying intervention for a large urban high school on the west coast. This high school contained a predominantly African American student population. I aimed to discover culturally relevant cyberbullying prevention strategies for African American students. The intervention committee selected video safety messages featuring African American actors as the most culturally relevant cyber...

  14. Renal pathophysiologic role of cortical tubular inclusion bodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radi, Zaher A; Stewart, Zachary S; Grzemski, Felicity A; Bobrowski, Walter F

    2013-01-01

    Renal tubular inclusion bodies are rarely associated with drug administration. The authors describe the finding of renal cortical tubular intranuclear and intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies associated with the oral administration of a norepinephrine/serotonin reuptake inhibitor (NSRI) test article in Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. Rats were given an NSRI daily for 4 weeks, and kidney histopathologic, ultrastructural pathology, and immunohistochemical examinations were performed. Round eosinophilic intranuclear inclusion bodies were observed histologically in the tubular epithelial cells of the renal cortex in male and female SD rats given the NSRI compound. No evidence of degeneration or necrosis was noted in the inclusion-containing renal cells. By ultrastructural pathology, inclusion bodies consisted of finely granular, amorphous, and uniformly stained nonmembrane-bound material. By immunohistochemistry, inclusion bodies stained positive for d-amino acid oxidase (DAO) protein. In addition, similar inclusion bodies were noted in the cytoplasmic tubular epithelial compartment by ultrastructural and immunohistochemical examination.  This is the first description of these renal inclusion bodies after an NSRI test article administration in SD rats. Such drug-induced renal inclusion bodies are rat-specific, do not represent an expression of nephrotoxicity, represent altered metabolism of d-amino acids, and are not relevant to human safety risk assessment.

  15. CT findings of renal abscess

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Myung Jun; Kim, Mi Young; Woo, Jung Ju; Kim, Ho Kyun; Kim, Won Hong; Jeon, Jeong Dong; Jeon, Woo Ki; Han, Chang Yul

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine characteristic CT findings in renal abscess. Twenty cases of renal abscess were retrospectively analyzed for CT findings relating to the shape and extent of the abscess, change of nephrogram, peripheral rim enhancement, wedge-shaped enhancement on delayed scans, enlargement of the kidney involved and associated findings. Seven patients had a renal abscess at the right kidney, nine at the lift kidney and two bilaterally. The abscesses were round in 18 cases and finger-like in two. Rim enhancement around renal abscess was seen in four cases (20%). Changes in the nephrogram around the abscess were seen in 12 cases (60%). In all six patients who had undergone delayed postcontrast scans, wedge-shaped enhancement was shown around the abscess (100%). In the observation of the extent of renal abscesses, 14 cases were within the kidney, six cases extended the beyond renal capsule, and two were loculated in the renal fascia itself. Renal enlargement was seen in nine cases (45%). These results suggest that CT findings such as delayed wedge-shaped enhancement, change of nephrogram, peripheral rim enhancement, renal enlargement, and associated findings are valuable for diagnosis, and that CT also gives information concerning the extent, evolution and complication of a renal abscess

  16. Bilateral renal calculi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreenevasan, G

    1974-01-01

    Bilateral renal calculi were present in 114 (10.7%) of 1,070 cases of proved urinary calculus admitted to the Urological Department of the General Hospital, Kuala Lumpur, during the period November 1968—May 1973. The management of bilateral renal calculi is discussed with reference to the first 100 cases in this series. The introduction of renography has greatly facilitated the decision as to which kidney should be operated on first. The management of patients with and without uraemia is discussed and the use of the modified V and V—Y incisions for the removal of staghorn calculi is described. Complications and results are briefly reviewed. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 4Fig. 6Fig. 7 PMID:4845653

  17. Renal protection in diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parving, H H; Tarnow, L; Rossing, P

    1996-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The combination of diabetes and hypertension increases the chances of progressive renal disorder and, ultimately, renal failure. Roughly 40% of all diabetics, whether insulin-dependent or not, develop diabetic nephropathy. Diabetic nephropathy is the single most important cause of end...... function in diabetic patients with incipient diabetic nephropathy. There are still no long-term trials using the new long-acting dihydropyridine calcium antagonists to treat patients with incipient nephropathy. A recent, 1-year, randomized, double-blind study in hypertensive insulin-dependent diabetic...... identical in both treatment groups, at 103 (SD 9) and 101 (SD 11) mmHg, respectively. Furthermore, a recent 5-year randomized open study in hypertensive non-insulin-dependent patients with diabetic nephropathy has revealed the same beneficial effect of a calcium antagonist and of ACE inhibition...

  18. Renal computed angiography. Part I: Renal CT arteriography in hypertension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Amin, M.; Hadjidekov, V.

    2012-01-01

    Visualization of renal vasculature is needed in several clinical condition among which hypertension is dominant. CT angiography now day replaces catheter angiography as non-invasive method. The goal of this study is to present initial authors experience in visualization of renal arteries using 64 MDCT and to evaluated the utility in hypertensive patients. MDCT assures excellent assessment of renal arteries conditions. Multiplanar reconstruction and allow better delineation in tortuous vessels course and anatomic variants. (authors)

  19. Renal phosphate handling: Physiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narayan Prasad

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Phosphorus is a common anion. It plays an important role in energy generation. Renal phosphate handling is regulated by three organs parathyroid, kidney and bone through feedback loops. These counter regulatory loops also regulate intestinal absorption and thus maintain serum phosphorus concentration in physiologic range. The parathyroid hormone, vitamin D, Fibrogenic growth factor 23 (FGF23 and klotho coreceptor are the key regulators of phosphorus balance in body.

  20. Review of Surgical Techniques of Experimental Renal Transplantation in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Badri; Haylor, John

    2017-08-01

    Microvascular surgical techniques of renal transplant in rats have evolved over the past 5 decades to achieve successful rat renal transplant; these modifications have included surgical techniques to address the anatomic variations in the renal blood vessels and those to reduce ischemic and operation durations. Here, we review the surgical techniques of renal transplant in rats and evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of individual techniques of vascular and ureteric anastomoses. For this review, we performed a systematic literature search using relevant medical subject heading terms and included appropriate publications in the review. Since the first description of a rat model of renal transplant by Bernard Fisher and his colleagues in 1965, which used end-to-side anastomosis between the renal vein and renal artery to the recipient inferior vena cava and aorta, several vascular and ureteric anastomosis techniques have been modified. Vascular anastomosis techniques now include end-to-end anastomosis, use of donor aortic and inferior vena cava conduits, sleeve and cuff anastomoses, and application of fibrin glue. Likewise, restoration of the urinary tract can now be achieved by direct anastomosis of the donor ureter to the recipient bladder, end-to-end anastomosis between the donor and recipient ureters, and donor bladder cuff to the recipient bladder. There are advantages and disadvantages attributable to individual techniques. The range of vascular and ureteric anastomosis techniques that has emerged reflects the need for mastering more than one technique to suit the vascular anatomy of individual animals and to reduce operating time for achieving successful outcomes after renal transplant.

  1. Optimal search filters for renal information in EMBASE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iansavichus, Arthur V; Haynes, R Brian; Shariff, Salimah Z; Weir, Matthew; Wilczynski, Nancy L; McKibbon, Ann; Rehman, Faisal; Garg, Amit X

    2010-07-01

    EMBASE is a popular database used to retrieve biomedical information. Our objective was to develop and test search filters to help clinicians and researchers efficiently retrieve articles with renal information in EMBASE. We used a diagnostic test assessment framework because filters operate similarly to screening tests. We divided a sample of 5,302 articles from 39 journals into development and validation sets of articles. Information retrieval properties were assessed by treating each search filter as a "diagnostic test" or screening procedure for the detection of relevant articles. We tested the performance of 1,936,799 search filters made of unique renal terms and their combinations. REFERENCE STANDARD & OUTCOME: The reference standard was manual review of each article. We calculated the sensitivity and specificity of each filter to identify articles with renal information. The best renal filters consisted of multiple search terms, such as "renal replacement therapy," "renal," "kidney disease," and "proteinuria," and the truncated terms "kidney," "dialy," "neph," "glomerul," and "hemodial." These filters achieved peak sensitivities of 98.7% (95% CI, 97.9-99.6) and specificities of 98.5% (95% CI, 98.0-99.0). The retrieval performance of these filters remained excellent in the validation set of independent articles. The retrieval performance of any search will vary depending on the quality of all search concepts used, not just renal terms. We empirically developed and validated high-performance renal search filters for EMBASE. These filters can be programmed into the search engine or used on their own to improve the efficiency of searching.

  2. Improved interpretation of renal-vein-renin-ratio by simultaneous determination of renal 131I-hippuric-acid-clearance-ratio in patients with renovascular hypertension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helber, A.; Boenner, G.; Hummerich, W.; Wambach, G.; Meurer, K.A.; Dvorak, K.; Lent, V.; Zehle, A.; Kaufmann, W.; Koeln Univ.; Staedtisches Krankenhaus Koeln-Merheim; Staedtisches Krankenhaus Koeln-Merheim; Koeln Univ.

    1979-01-01

    In patients with unilateral vascular kidney disease and hypertension, ratio of renal-vein-renin was compared with 131 I-Hippuric-acid clearance and change in blood pressure during Saralasininfusion. The ratio of renal-vein-renin was positively correlated with the ratio in renal plasma flow between the kidneys in all patients studied. The ratio of renins therefore is a result of two factors: The difference in renin secretion and the difference in blood flow in the two kidneys. In patients with angiotensin independent hypertension renin-ratios up to 2.0 were found without relevance to elevated blood pressure. When the difference in renal blood flow between both kidneys was small, even a slight difference in renal vein renin indicated hypertension related to increased renin secretion. (orig./AJ) [de

  3. Low TLR7 gene expression in atherosclerotic plaques is associated with major adverse cardio- and cerebrovascular events

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karadimou, Glykeria; Folkersen, Lasse; Berg, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Aims: Processes in the development of atherosclerotic lesions can lead to plaque rupture or erosion, which can in turn elicit myocardial infarction or ischaemic stroke. The aims of this study were to determine whether Toll-like receptor 7 (TLR7) gene expression levels influence patient outcome an...

  4. Comparison of osteoprotegerin to traditional atherosclerotic risk factors and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein for diagnosis of atherosclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogelvang, Rasmus; Pedersen, Sune Holm; Flyvbjerg, Allan

    2012-01-01

    Atherosclerosis is the main cause of cardiovascular disease, but the extent of atherosclerosis in individual patients is difficult to estimate. A biomarker of the atherosclerotic burden would be very valuable. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the association of plasma osteoprotegerin ...

  5. Association of CD147 genetic polymorphisms with carotid atherosclerotic plaques in a Han Chinese population with cerebral infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Tongtian; Chen, Min; Yang, Kang; Shao, Jianwei; Fu, Yi; Zhou, Weijun

    2017-08-01

    Given the important role of CD147 in the development of atherosclerosis, we speculated that CD147 genetic polymorphisms might influence the formation of carotid atherosclerotic plaques. The study was to investigate the association between CD147 gene polymorphisms and susceptibility to carotid atherosclerotic plaques in individuals with cerebral infarction (CI). Eight SNPs in the regulatory and coding regions of the CD147 gene were examined using polymerase chain reaction-ligase detection reaction (PCR-LDR) in DNA samples from 732 Chinese patients with CI, divided into a carotid plaque group (n=475) and a non-carotid plaque group (n=257). Significant differences were found in the genotypes and allele frequencies of the rs4919862 SNP between the carotid plaque and non-carotid plaque groups of CI patients (PCD147 was closely associated with carotid atherosclerotic plaques formation. Thus, polymorphisms of the CD147 gene may be related to the tendency for carotid atherosclerotic plaques. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. 64Cu-DOTATATE PET/MRI for detection of activated macrophages in carotid atherosclerotic plaques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Sune Folke; Sandholt, Benjamin Vikjær; Keller, Sune Høgild

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: A feature of vulnerable atherosclerotic plaques of the carotid artery is high activity and abundance of lesion macrophages. There is consensus that this is of importance for plaque vulnerability, which may lead to clinical events, such as stroke and transient ischemic attack. We used p...

  7. Three-dimensional dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI for the accurate, extensive quantification of microvascular permeability in atherosclerotic plaques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Calcagno, Claudia; Lobatto, Mark E.; Dyvorne, Hadrien; Robson, Philip M.; Millon, Antoine; Senders, Max L.; Lairez, Olivier; Ramachandran, Sarayu; Coolen, Bram F.; Black, Alexandra; Mulder, Willem J. M.; Fayad, Zahi A.

    2015-01-01

    Atherosclerotic plaques that cause stroke and myocardial infarction are characterized by increased microvascular permeability and inflammation. Dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI (DCE-MRI) has been proposed as a method to quantify vessel wall microvascular permeability in vivo. Until now, most DCE-MRI

  8. Hypoxia, hypoxia-inducible transcription factor, and macrophages in human atherosclerotic plaques are correlated with intraplaque angiogenesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sluimer, Judith C.; Gasc, Jean-Marie; van Wanroij, Job L.; Kisters, Natasja; Groeneweg, Mathijs; Sollewijn Gelpke, Maarten D.; Cleutjens, Jack P.; van den Akker, Luc H.; Corvol, Pierre; Wouters, Bradly G.; Daemen, Mat J.; Bijnens, Ann-Pascale J.

    2008-01-01

    We sought to examine the presence of hypoxia in human carotid atherosclerosis and its association with hypoxia-inducible transcription factor (HIF) and intraplaque angiogenesis. Atherosclerotic plaques develop intraplaque angiogenesis, which is a typical feature of hypoxic tissue and expression of

  9. Targeted folate receptor β fluorescence imaging as a measure of inflammation to estimate vulnerability within human atherosclerotic carotid plaque

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jager, Nynke A.; Westra, Johanna; van Dam, Gooitzen M.; Teteloshvili, Nato; Tio, Rene A.; Breek, Jan-Cees; Slart, Riemer H. J. A.; Boersma, Hendrikus H.; Low, Phillip S.; Bijl, Marc; Zeebregts, Clark J.

    UNLABELLED: The probability of atherosclerotic plaque rupture and its thrombotic sequelae are thought to be increased at sites of macrophage accumulation. Folate receptor β (FR-β) is present on activated macrophages but not on quiescent macrophages or other immune cells. By conjugating the ligand

  10. Contrast enhancement by differently sized paramagnetic MRI contrast agents in mice with two phenotypes of atherosclerotic plaque

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Bochove, Glenda S.; Paulis, Leonie E. M.; Segers, Dolf; Mulder, Willem J. M.; Krams, Rob; Nicolay, Klaas; Strijkers, Gustav J.

    2011-01-01

    Interest in the use of contrast-enhanced MRI to enable in vivo specific characterization of atherosclerotic plaques is increasing. In this study the intrinsic ability of three differently sized gadolinium-based contrast agents to permeate different mouse plaque phenotypes was evaluated with MRI. A

  11. Apolipoprotein(a) Genetic Sequence Variants Associated With Systemic Atherosclerosis and Coronary Atherosclerotic Burden But Not With Venous Thromboembolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helgadottir, Anna; Gretarsdottir, Solveig; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Holm, Hilma; Patel, Riyaz S.; Gudnason, Thorarinn; Jones, Gregory T.; van Rij, Andre M.; Eapen, Danny J.; Baas, Annette F.; Tregouet, David-Alexandre; Morange, Pierre-Emmanuel; Emmerich, Joseph; Lindblad, Bengt; Gottsater, Anders; Kiemeny, Lambertus A.; Lindholt, Jes S.; Sakalihasan, Natzi; Ferrell, Robert E.; Carey, David J.; Elmore, James R.; Tsao, Philip S.; Grarup, Niels; Jorgensen, Torben; Witte, Daniel R.; Hansen, Torben; Pedersen, Oluf; Pola, Roberto; Gaetani, Eleonora; Magnadottir, Hulda B.; Wijmenga, Cisca; Tromp, Gerard; Ronkainen, Antti; Ruigrok, Ynte M.; Blankensteijn, Jan D.; Mueller, Thomas; Wells, Philip S.; Corral, Javier; Manuel Soria, Jose; Carlos Souto, Juan; Peden, John F.; Jalilzadeh, Shapour; Mayosi, Bongani M.; Keavney, Bernard; Strawbridge, Rona J.; Sabater-Lleal, Maria; Gertow, Karl; Baldassarre, Damiano; Nyyssonen, Kristiina; Rauramaa, Rainer; Smit, Andries J.; Mannarino, Elmo; Giral, Philippe; Tremoli, Elena; de Faire, Ulf; Humphries, Steve E.; Hamsten, Anders; Haraldsdottir, Vilhelmina; Olafsson, Isleifur; Magnusson, Magnus K.; Samani, Nilesh J.; Levey, Allan I.; Markus, Hugh S.; Kostulas, Konstantinos; Dichgans, Martin; Berger, Klaus; Kuhlenbaeumer, Gregor; Ringelstein, E. Bernd; Stoll, Monika; Seedorf, Udo; Rothwell, Peter M.; Powell, Janet T.; Kuivaniemi, Helena; Onundarson, Pall T.; Valdimarsson, Einar; Matthiasson, Stefan E.; Gudbjartsson, Daniel F.; Thorgeirsson, Guomundur; Quyyumi, Arshed A.; Watkins, Hugh; Farrall, Martin; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; Stefansson, Kari

    2012-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this study is investigate the effects of variants in the apolipoprotein(a) gene (LPA) on vascular diseases with different atherosclerotic and thrombotic components. Background It is unclear whether the LPA variants rs10455872 and rs3798220, which correlate with

  12. Smooth muscle cells healing atherosclerotic plaque disruptions are of local, not blood, origin in apolipoprotein E knockout mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentzon, Jacob F; Sondergaard, Claus S; Kassem, Mustafa

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Signs of preceding episodes of plaque rupture and smooth muscle cell (SMC)-mediated healing are common in atherosclerotic plaques, but the source of the healing SMCs is unknown. Recent studies suggest that activated platelets adhering to sites of injury recruit neointimal SMCs from ci...

  13. Differences in atherosclerotic plaque burden and morphology between type 1 and 2 diabetes as assessed by multislice computed tomography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Djaberi, Roxana; Schuijf, Joanne D.; Boersma, Eric; Kroft, Lucia J. M.; Pereira, Alberto M.; Romijn, Johannes A.; Scholte, Arthur J.; Jukema, J. Wouter; Bax, Jeroen J.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE It is unclear whether the coronary atherosclerotic plaque burden is similar in patients with type 1 and type 2 diabetes. By using multislice computed tomography (MSCT), the presence, degree, and morphology of coronary artery disease (CAD) in patients with type 1 and type 2 diabetes were

  14. Dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI examination of atherosclerotic plaques: an animal study using rabbit model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Mingli; Sun Jie; Chang Xiaoyan; Jin Zhengyu

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The enhanced patterns of atherosclerotic plaque on dynamic contrast- enhanced MRI have not been well studied. The aim of this study was to explore the patterns of plaque enhancement and their underlying mechanism by using dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI (DCE-MRI). Methods: Atherosclerotic plaques were induced in the aorta of 12 New Zealand White rabbits by a combination of endothelial denudation and high-cholesterol diet. Ten to sixteen weeks after surgery, DCE- MRI was performed with a fast spin echo T 1 weighted sequence. Thirty-five phases of images were obtained at 71-second intervals. Gd-DTPA was injected coincident with the third scan via marginal ear vein. Specimens were harvested within 12 hours after imaging for HE staining and CD31 immunohistochemical staining which was used to highlight neo-vessels. Plaque enhancement patterns were studied and compared with histological findings. Signal intensity of each plaque section was normalized to pre-contrast signal intensity of psoas muscle, after which signal intensity versus time curve was drawn. Pearson correlation coefficient was used to reveal association between histological neo-vessel count and descriptive parameters derived from signal intensity versus time curve. Results: Plaques were significantly enhanced by Gd-DTPA. Enhancement patterns could be described as 'fast-in and slow-out'. Differences in patterns of enhancement were observed between tissues, with fibrous tissue enhanced more than lipid aggregation and leukocyte foci. Peak enhancement (1.05±0.30), initial slope (0.82±0.28) and area under the curve at early phase (4.97± 1.67) derived from signal intensity-time curve had significant correlations with neo-vessel count (117.7± 93.3) (r=0.553, 0.468, 0.554 respectively, P<0.05). Conclusions: The enhanced patterns of atherosclerotic plaque by Gd-DTPA were 'fast- in and slow-out'. Neovascularization, increased endothelial permeability and extracellular matrix may be the reasons for

  15. Imaging of hypoxia in mouse atherosclerotic plaques with 64Cu-ATSM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nie, Xingyu; Randolph, Gwendalyn J.; Elvington, Andrew; Bandara, Nilantha; Zheleznyak, Alexander; Gropler, Robert J.; Woodard, Pamela K.; Lapi, Suzanne E.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death in the United States. The identification of vulnerable plaque at risk of rupture has been a major focus of research. Hypoxia has been identified as a potential factor in the formation of vulnerable plaque, and it is clear that decreased oxygen plays a role in the development of plaque angiogenesis leading to plaque destabilization. The purpose of this study is to demonstrate the feasibility of copper-64 labeled diacetyl-bis (N 4 -methylthiosemicarbazone) ( 64 Cu-ATSM), a positron-emitting radiopharmaceutical taken up in low-oxygen-tension cells, for the identification of hypoxic and potentially unstable atherosclerotic plaque in a mouse model. Methods: 64 Cu-ATSM PET was performed in 21 atherosclerotic apolipoprotein E knockout (ApoE −/− ) mice, 6 of which were fed high-fat diet (HFD) while the others received standard-chow diet (SCD), and 13 control wild type mice fed SCD. 4 SCD ApoE −/− mice and 4 SCD wild type mice also underwent 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose ( 18 F-FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) imaging one day prior to 64 Cu-ATSM PET. Results: 64 Cu-ATSM uptake was increased in the aortic arch in SCD ApoE −/− mice (average aortic arch/muscle (A/M) standardized uptake value ratio 7.5–30 min post injection: (5.66 ± 0.23) compared to control mice (A/M SUV ratio 7.5–30 min post injection (3.87 ± 0.22), p < 0.0001). HFD ApoE −/− mice also showed similarly increased aortic arch uptake on PET imaging in comparison to control mice. Immunohistochemistry in both HFD and SCD ApoE −/− mice revealed noticeable hypoxia by pimonidazole stain in atherosclerosis which was co-localized to macrophage by CD68 staining. Autoradiography assessment demonstrated the presence of hypoxia by 64 Cu-ATSM uptake correlated with pimonidazole uptake within the ex vivo atherosclerotic aortic arch specimens. A significant increase in 18 F-FDG uptake in the SCD ApoE −/− mice in comparison to

  16. TRAF3IP2 mediates atherosclerotic plaque development and vulnerability in ApoE−/− mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Sakamuri Siva Sankara Vara; Higashi, Yusuke; Sukhanov, Sergiy; Siddesha, Jalahalli M; Delafontaine, Patrice; Siebenlist, Ulrich; Chandrasekar, Bysani

    2016-01-01

    Background and aims Atherosclerosis is a major cause of heart attack and stroke. Inflammation plays a critical role in the development of atherosclerosis. Since the cytoplasmic adaptor molecule TRAF3IP2 (TRAF3-Interacting Protein 2) plays a causal role in various autoimmune and inflammatory diseases, we hypothesized that TRAF3IP2 mediates atherosclerotic plaque development. Methods TRAF3IP2/ApoE double knockout (DKO) mice were generated by crossing TRAF3IP2−/− and ApoE−/− mice. ApoE−/− mice served as controls. Both DKO and control mice were fed a high-fat diet for 12 weeks. Plasma lipids were measured by ELISA, atherosclerosis by en face analysis of aorta and plaque cross-section measurements at the aortic valve region, plaque necrotic core area, collagen and smooth muscle cell content by histomorphometry, and aortic gene expression by RT-qPCR. Results The plasma lipoprotein profile was not altered by TRAF3IP2 gene deletion in ApoE−/− mice. While total aortic plaque area was decreased in DKO female, but not male mice, the plaque necrotic area was significantly decreased in DKO mice of both genders. Plaque collagen and smooth muscle cell contents were increased significantly in both female and male DKO mice compared to respective controls. Aortic expression of proinflammatory cytokine (Tumor necrosis factor α, TNFα), chemokine (Chemokine (C-X-C motif) Ligand 1, CXCL1) and adhesion molecule (Vascular cell adhesion molecule 1, VCAM1; and Intercellular adhesion molecule 1, ICAM1) gene expression were decreased in both male and female DKO mice. In addition, the male DKO mice showed a markedly reduced expression of extracellular matrix (ECM)-related genes, including TIMP1 (Tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 1), RECK (Reversion-Inducing- Cysteine-Rich Protein with Kazal Motifs) and ADAM17 (A Disintegrin And Metalloproteinase 17). Conclusions TRAF3IP2 plays a causal role in atherosclerotic plaque development and vulnerability, possibly by inducing the

  17. Efficacy of ultrasonography-guided renal biopsy for the evaluation of renal dysfunction following renal transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Young Jae; Choi, Chul Soon; Min, Seon Jeong; Lee, Gyung Kyu; Lee, Eil Seong; Kang, Ik Won; Bae, Sang Hoon

    2003-01-01

    To evaluate the usefulness and complications of renal biopsy under ultrasonography-guidance in renal dysfunction after renal transplantation. Ultrasonography-guided renal biopsy was done in 47 patients with the transplanted kidney. The subjects consisted of 30 males and 17 females, age ranged from 16 to 66 years (average age=38 years). Biopsies were done once in 27 patients, twice in 17 patients, three times in 3 patients, a total of 70 biopsies. The success rate of renal biopsy for the accurate pathologic diagnosis and the incidence and types of complications following biopsy were evaluated. The success rate of renal biopsy for the accurate pathologic diagnosis was 96%(67/70). Pathologic diagnosis included 27 cases of acute rejection (39%), 8 cases of acute tubular necrosis (11%), 4 cases of acute rejection and acute tubular necrosis (6%), 4 cases of cyclosporin toxicity (6%), 4 cases of primary disease recurrence (6%), 4 cases of infection (6%) and others. Complications after renal biopsy included 15 cases of microscopic hematuria (21%), 1 case of gross hematuria with spontaneous cessation and 1 case of life threatening hemorrhage. Ultrasonography-guided renal biopsy is a safe and effective diagnostic method for the evaluation of renal dysfunction following renal transplantation.

  18. Renal angiomyoadenomatous tumour: Imaging features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahni, V. Anik; Hirsch, Michelle S.; Silverman, Stuart G.

    2012-01-01

    Renal angiomyoadenomatous tumour is a rare, recently described neoplasm with a distinctive histological appearance. Although reported in the pathology literature, to our knowledge, no prior reports have described its imaging appearance. We describe the computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging features of an incidentally detected renal angiomyoadenomatous tumour that appeared as a well-marginated, solid T2-hypointense enhancing mass, in a 50-year-old woman. It is indistinguishable from a variety of benign and malignant renal neoplasms. PMID:23093565

  19. Multiple oncocytomas and renal carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velasquez, G.; Glass, T.A.; D'Souza, V.J.; Formanek, A.G.

    1984-01-01

    Renal oncocytoma, although rare, is being diagnosed more frequently, and criteria to differentiate it from other tumors have been described. Multiple oncocytomas have been reported, but an association between multiple oncocytomas and renal carcinoma in the same kidney has not been described. The authors report a case with two oncocytomas and a renal carcinoma in the right kidney as well as a right adrenal adenoma

  20. The Limits to Relevance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Averill, M.; Briggle, A.

    2006-12-01

    Science policy and knowledge production lately have taken a pragmatic turn. Funding agencies increasingly are requiring scientists to explain the relevance of their work to society. This stems in part from mounting critiques of the "linear model" of knowledge production in which scientists operating according to their own interests or disciplinary standards are presumed to automatically produce knowledge that is of relevance outside of their narrow communities. Many contend that funded scientific research should be linked more directly to societal goals, which implies a shift in the kind of research that will be funded. While both authors support the concept of useful science, we question the exact meaning of "relevance" and the wisdom of allowing it to control research agendas. We hope to contribute to the conversation by thinking more critically about the meaning and limits of the term "relevance" and the trade-offs implicit in a narrow utilitarian approach. The paper will consider which interests tend to be privileged by an emphasis on relevance and address issues such as whose goals ought to be pursued and why, and who gets to decide. We will consider how relevance, narrowly construed, may actually limit the ultimate utility of scientific research. The paper also will reflect on the worthiness of research goals themselves and their relationship to a broader view of what it means to be human and to live in society. Just as there is more to being human than the pragmatic demands of daily life, there is more at issue with knowledge production than finding the most efficient ways to satisfy consumer preferences or fix near-term policy problems. We will conclude by calling for a balanced approach to funding research that addresses society's most pressing needs but also supports innovative research with less immediately apparent application.

  1. Volumetric Nephrogram Represents Renal Function and Complements Aortic Anatomic Severity Grade in Predicting EVAR Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balceniuk, Mark D; Trakimas, Lauren; Aghaie, Claudia; Mix, Doran; Rasheed, Khurram; Seaman, Matthew; Ellis, Jennifer; Glocker, Roan; Doyle, Adam; Stoner, Michael C

    2018-07-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a predictor of poor outcomes for patients undergoing endovascular aortic aneurysm repair (EVAR). Anatomic severity grade (ASG) represents a quantitative mechanism for assessing anatomical suitability for endovascular aortic repair. Anatomic severity grade has been correlated with repair outcomes and resource utilization. The purpose of this study was to identify a novel renal perfusion metric as a way to assist ASG with predicting EVAR outcomes. Retrospective review of a prospectively maintained database identified elective infrarenal aortic aneurysm repair cases. Anatomic grading was undertaken by independent reviewers. Using volumetric software, kidney volume, and a novel measure of kidney functional volume, the volumetric nephrogram (VN) was recorded. Systematic evaluation of the relationship of kidney volume and VN to CKD and ASG was undertaken using linear regression and receiver-operator statistical tools. A total of 386 cases with patient and anatomic data were identified and graded. Mean age was 72.9 ± 0.4 years. Renal volume renal volume (AUC = .628; P ≤ .0001) and VN (AUC = .628; P ≤ .0001). Regression analysis demonstrated a strong, inverse relationship between ASG and VN ( R 2 = .95). These data demonstrate that VN is a strong predictor of CKD in a large database of patients undergoing elective aneurysm repair. We demonstrate an inverse relationship between renal function and ASG that has not been previously described in the literature. Additionally, we have shown that VN complements ASG as a model of overall cardiovascular health and atherosclerotic burden. Outcomes in patients with poor renal function may be related to anatomical issues in addition to well-described systemic ramifications.

  2. Impaired Coronary and Renal Vascular Function in Spontaneously Type 2 Diabetic Leptin-Deficient Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena U Westergren

    Full Text Available Type 2 diabetes is associated with macro- and microvascular complications in man. Microvascular dysfunction affects both cardiac and renal function and is now recognized as a main driver of cardiovascular mortality and morbidity. However, progression of microvascular dysfunction in experimental models is often obscured by macrovascular pathology and consequently demanding to study. The obese type 2 diabetic leptin-deficient (ob/ob mouse lacks macrovascular complications, i.e. occlusive atherosclerotic disease, and may therefore be a potential model for microvascular dysfunction. The present study aimed to test the hypothesis that these mice with an insulin resistant phenotype might display microvascular dysfunction in both coronary and renal vascular beds.In this study we used non-invasive Doppler ultrasound imaging to characterize microvascular dysfunction during the progression of diabetes in ob/ob mice. Impaired coronary flow velocity reserve was observed in the ob/ob mice at 16 and 21 weeks of age compared to lean controls. In addition, renal resistivity index as well as pulsatility index was higher in the ob/ob mice at 21 weeks compared to lean controls. Moreover, plasma L-arginine was lower in ob/ob mice, while asymmetric dimethylarginine was unaltered. Furthermore, a decrease in renal vascular density was observed in the ob/ob mice.In parallel to previously described metabolic disturbances, the leptin-deficient ob/ob mice also display cardiac and renal microvascular dysfunction. This model may therefore be suitable for translational, mechanistic and interventional studies to improve the understanding of microvascular complications in type 2 diabetes.

  3. Eligibility for Statin Treatment in Korean Subjects with Reduced Renal Function: An Observational Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byung Sub Moon

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundThe purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between statin eligibility and the degree of renal dysfunction using the Adult Treatment Panel (ATP III and the American College of Cardiology (ACC/American Heart Association (AHA guidelines in Korean adults.MethodsRenal function was assessed in 18,746 participants of the Kangbuk Samsung Health Study from January 2011 to December 2012. Subjects were divided into three groups according to estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR: stage 1, eGFR ≥90 mL/min/1.73 m2; stage 2, eGFR 60 to 89 mL/min/1.73 m2; and stages 3 to 5, eGFR <60 mL/min/1.73 m2. Statin eligibility in these groups was determined using the ATP III and ACC/AHA guidelines, and the risk for 10-year atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD was calculated using the Framingham Risk Score (FRS and Pooled Cohort Equation (PCE.ResultsThere were 3,546 (18.9% and 4,048 (21.5% statin-eligible subjects according to ATP III and ACC/AHA guidelines, respectively. The proportion of statin-eligible subjects increased as renal function deteriorated. Statin eligibility by the ACC/AHA guidelines showed better agreement with the Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO recommendations compared to the ATP III guidelines in subjects with stage 3 to 5 chronic kidney disease (CKD (κ value, 0.689 vs. 0.531. When the 10-year ASCVD risk was assessed using the FRS and PCE, the mean risk calculated by both equations significantly increased as renal function declined.ConclusionsThe proportion of statin-eligible subjects significantly increased according to worsening renal function in this Korean cohort. ACC/AHA guideline showed better agreement for statin eligibility with that recommended by KDIGO guideline compared to ATP III in subjects with CKD.

  4. Predictors of diagnostic success with renal artery duplex ultrasonography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedayati, Nasim; Del Pizzo, David J; Harris, Sean E; Kuskowski, Michael; Pevec, William C; Lee, Eugene S; Pifer, Christy; Dawson, David L

    2011-05-01

    Renal artery duplex ultrasonography (RA-DUS) is commonly used for the evaluation and follow-up of renal artery atherosclerotic disease. In a complete study, renal artery flow is evaluated from the vessel origin to the intraparenchymal branches. The quality of RA-DUS is in part technologist-dependent, but many factors may affect the ability to complete a diagnostic examination. This study evaluated the clinical and technical factors that predict the ability to obtain a complete RA-DUS examination. A prospective evaluation of all patients undergoing RA-DUS between July 2008 and February 2009 was performed. Factors such as patient age, gender, body mass index, technologists' years of experience, patient care setting (inpatient vs. outpatient), bedside examination, smoking before the examination, fasting status, and recent abdominal surgery were all recorded. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed. A p value of ≤ 0.05 was considered significant. During the study period, 250 patients underwent RA-DUS (mean age: 59.9 ± 17.8 years, 57% [143] female). A total of 87 (35%) examinations were incomplete. This included nondiagnostic examinations which did not exhibit any segment of the renal artery. Factors that were associated with an incomplete examination included technologists' years of experience (OR = 0.92, p = 0.042), bedside examination (OR = 4.17, p = 0.016), and recent abdominal surgery (OR = 3.45, p = 0.047). Body mass index, fasting status, and smoking before the examination did not affect the ability to obtain a complete study. One-third of the RA-DUS studies were classified as incomplete by the strict criteria used in this prospective study. An experienced ultrasound technologist is more likely to obtain a complete RA-DUS examination. Recent abdominal surgery and bedside examinations were predictive of a limited examination as well. Vascular laboratories should consider these factors when scheduling examinations so as to obtain complete RA

  5. Relevant Subspace Clustering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller, Emmanuel; Assent, Ira; Günnemann, Stephan

    2009-01-01

    Subspace clustering aims at detecting clusters in any subspace projection of a high dimensional space. As the number of possible subspace projections is exponential in the number of dimensions, the result is often tremendously large. Recent approaches fail to reduce results to relevant subspace...... clusters. Their results are typically highly redundant, i.e. many clusters are detected multiple times in several projections. In this work, we propose a novel model for relevant subspace clustering (RESCU). We present a global optimization which detects the most interesting non-redundant subspace clusters...... achieves top clustering quality while competing approaches show greatly varying performance....

  6. A salmon protein hydrolysate exerts lipid-independent anti-atherosclerotic activity in ApoE-deficient mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cinzia Parolini

    Full Text Available Fish consumption is considered health beneficial as it decreases cardiovascular disease (CVD-risk through effects on plasma lipids and inflammation. We investigated a salmon protein hydrolysate (SPH that is hypothesized to influence lipid metabolism and to have anti-atherosclerotic and anti-inflammatory properties. 24 female apolipoprotein (apo E(-/- mice were divided into two groups and fed a high-fat diet with or without 5% (w/w SPH for 12 weeks. The atherosclerotic plaque area in aortic sinus and arch, plasma lipid profile, fatty acid composition, hepatic enzyme activities and gene expression were determined. A significantly reduced atherosclerotic plaque area in the aortic arch and aortic sinus was found in the 12 apoE(-/- mice fed 5% SPH for 12 weeks compared to the 12 casein-fed control mice. Immunohistochemical characterization of atherosclerotic lesions in aortic sinus displayed no differences in plaque composition between mice fed SPH compared to controls. However, reduced mRNA level of Icam1 in the aortic arch was found. The plasma content of arachidonic acid (C20:4n-6 and oleic acid (C18:1n-9 were increased and decreased, respectively. SPH-feeding decreased the plasma concentration of IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α and GM-CSF, whereas plasma cholesterol and triacylglycerols (TAG were unchanged, accompanied by unchanged mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation and acyl-CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase (ACAT-activity. These data show that a 5% (w/w SPH diet reduces atherosclerosis in apoE(-/- mice and attenuate risk factors related to atherosclerotic disorders by acting both at vascular and systemic levels, and not directly related to changes in plasma lipids or fatty acids.

  7. CT features of renal infarction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzer, Okan; Shirkhoda, Ali; Jafri, S. Zafar; Madrazo, Beatrice L.; Bis, Kostaki G.; Mastromatteo, James F.

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: To demonstrate the different patterns of renal infarction to avoid pitfalls. To present 'flip-flop enhancement' pattern in renal infarction. Materials and methods: Retrospective review of a total of 41 renal infarction in 37 patients were done. These patients underwent initial CT and the diagnosis of renal infarction was confirmed with either follow up CT or at surgery. Results: Twenty-three patients had wedge-shaped focal infarcts, nine patients had global and five patients had multifocal infarcts of the kidneys. Cortical rim sign was seen predominantly with global infarcts. In five patients, a 'flip-flop enhancement' pattern was observed. In two patients, planned renal biopsies due to tumefactive renal lesions were cancelled because of 'flip-flop enhancement' pattern on follow up CTs. Conclusion: Although most of our cases were straightforward for the diagnosis of renal infarction, cases with tumefactive lesions and global infarctions without the well-known cortical rim sign were particularly challenging. We describe a new sign, flip-flop enhancement pattern, which we believe solidified the diagnosis of renal infarction in five of our cases. The authors recommend further investigations for association of flip-flop enhancement and renal infarction

  8. Sporotrichosis in Renal Transplant Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Gewehr

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The current report describes two renal transplant recipients who presented with sporotrichosis. In addition, the authors review the general aspects of sporotrichosis in renal transplant recipients reported in the literature. Sporotrichosis is a rare fungal infection in transplant patients and has been reported primarily in renal transplant recipients not treated with antifungal prophylaxis. Extracutaneous forms of sporotrichosis without skin manifestations and no previous history of traumatic injuries have been described in such patients and are difficult to diagnose. Renal transplant recipients with sporotrichosis described in the present report were successfully treated with antifungal therapy including amphotericin B deoxycholate, lipid amphotericin B formulations, fluconazole and itraconazole.

  9. Renal myxoma: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Henrique C Souza

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Myxomas are rare tumors that can appear in many anatomical locations. There are only 14 cases of renal involvement documented in the literature. This article reports a case of renal myxoma in an elderly woman with recurrent cystitis. After five years of follow-up, the computed tomography (CT revealed a large solid tumor mass in the left kidney. Tumor resection was performed preserving the affected kidney with histopathological diagnosis of renal myxoma. The objective of this study is to report a rare case of renal myxoma, emphasizing the importance of the differential diagnosis from other benign and malignant mesenchymal tumors.

  10. Anti-Atherosclerotic Effects of a Phytoestrogen-Rich Herbal Preparation in Postmenopausal Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronika A. Myasoedova

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The risk of cardiovascular disease and atherosclerosis progression is significantly increased after menopause, probably due to the decrease of estrogen levels. The use of hormone replacement therapy (HRT for prevention of cardiovascular disease in older postmenopausal failed to meet expectations. Phytoestrogens may induce some improvements in climacteric symptoms, but their effect on the progression of atherosclerosis remains unclear. The reduction of cholesterol accumulation at the cellular level should lead to inhibition of the atherosclerotic process in the arterial wall. The inhibition of intracellular lipid deposition with isoflavonoids was suggested as the effective way for the prevention of plaque formation in the arterial wall. The aim of this double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical study was to investigate the effect of an isoflavonoid-rich herbal preparation on atherosclerosis progression in postmenopausal women free of overt cardiovascular disease. One hundred fifty-seven healthy postmenopausal women (age 65 ± 6 were randomized to a 500 mg isoflavonoid-rich herbal preparation containing tannins from grape seeds, green tea leaves, hop cone powder, and garlic powder, or placebo. Conventional cardiovascular risk factors and intima-media thickness of common carotid arteries (cIMT were evaluated at the baseline and after 12 months of treatment. After 12-months follow-up, total cholesterol decreased by 6.3% in isoflavonoid-rich herbal preparation recipients (p = 0.011 and by 5.2% in placebo recipients (p = 0.020; low density lipoprotein (LDL cholesterol decreased by 7.6% in isoflavonoid-rich herbal preparation recipients (p = 0.040 and by 5.2% in placebo recipients (non-significant, NS; high density lipoprotein (HDL cholesterol decreased by 3.4% in isoflavonoid-rich herbal preparation recipients (NS and by 4.5% in placebo recipients (p = 0.038; triglycerides decreased by 6.0% in isoflavonoid-rich herbal preparation recipients (NS and by

  11. Renal computed angiography. Part I: Renal CT phlebography. Renal veins variants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Amin, M.; Krupev, M.; Hadjidekov, V.; Plachkov, I.

    2012-01-01

    The changing trend in renal surgery, transplantation and minimal invasive urology implies preprocedure evaluation of renal veins. Development of imaging methods offers new possibilities for venographic visualization. The goal of this study is to present authors experience in visualization of renal veins using 64 MDCT and to evaluate the utility in assessments of their variants. 128 patients (68 females and 60 males, mean age 53,3) with urological complaints underwent 64MDCT examination including CT angiography. Contrast enhancement includes 3-4ml/sec injection flow of 90 ml contrast medium followed by 20 ml saline at the same rate. In 23 out of 128 examined patients some of the common variants of the renal vein is found. 64 MDCT angiography visualize very well renal veins and becomes method of choice in preoperative assessment of renal vein anatomy. (authors)

  12. MRI of the transplanted endothelial progenitor cells for prevent atherosclerotic plaque formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Zhanlong; Teng Gaojun; Mai Xiaoli; Chen Jun; Sun Junhui; Zhang Hongying; Yu Hui; Li Guozhao

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the 1.5 T magnetic resonance imaging system to depict and track in vivo of magnetically labeled endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs), and to study the possibility for preventing the atherosclerotic plaque formation in New Zealand rabbit model of carotid arterial injury after transplantation. Methods: New Zealand rabbit EPCs were isolated, confirmed, expanded and then incubated with home synthesized Fe 2 O 3 -PLL, Prussian blue stain was performed for showing intracellular irons. The model of carotid arterial injury was performed by 2.5F balloons, the group A of 8 rabbits received magnetically labeled EPCs, group B of 3 rabbits received fluorescent-labeled EPCs and the group C of 5 rabbits were given same volume saline injection after endothelial injury of the carotid artery. MR imaging and histology were performed and compared 4 days later for randomly chosen three rabbit, each from one of the three group; all the other rabbits were fed with high lipid diet and examed using MR imaging and histology after 15 weeks. Results: Epcs labeling efficiency was more than 95% by Prussian blue stain, 4 days after transplantation of EPCs, only in group A, the injured endothelium of carotid artery had signal intensity loss in T 2 * WI, which were correlated well with the area where the most Prussian blue staining positive cells were found in histopathology analyses. The rabbits of group A and B which received EPCs transplantation exhibited fewer plaques formation than those of the group C (P 2 O 3 -PLL. The 1.5 T magnetic resonance imaging system could depict and monitor the magnetically labeled endothelial progenitor cells homing to the injured endothelium of the artery, and EPCs contribute to preventing atherosclerotic plaque formation in New Zealand rabbit model of atherosclerosis. (authors)

  13. Matrix metalloproteinase-2 of human carotid atherosclerotic plaques promotes platelet activation. Correlation with ischaemic events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenti, Massimo; Falcinelli, Emanuela; Pompili, Marcella; de Rango, Paola; Conti, Valentina; Guglielmini, Giuseppe; Momi, Stefania; Corazzi, Teresa; Giordano, Giuseppe; Gresele, Paolo

    2014-06-01

    Purified active matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) is able to promote platelet aggregation. We aimed to assess the role of MMP-2 expressed in atherosclerotic plaques in the platelet-activating potential of human carotid plaques and its correlation with ischaemic events. Carotid plaques from 81 patients undergoing endarterectomy were tested for pro-MMP-2 and TIMP-2 content by zymography and ELISA. Plaque extracts were incubated with gel-filtered platelets from healthy volunteers for 2 minutes before the addition of a subthreshold concentration of thrombin receptor activating peptide-6 (TRAP-6) and aggregation was assessed. Moreover, platelet deposition on plaque extracts immobilised on plastic coverslips under high shear-rate flow conditions was measured. Forty-three plaque extracts (53%) potentiated platelet aggregation (+233 ± 26.8%), an effect prevented by three different specific MMP-2 inhibitors (inhibitor II, TIMP-2, moAb anti-MMP-2). The pro-MMP-2/TIMP-2 ratio of plaques potentiating platelet aggregation was significantly higher than that of plaques not potentiating it (3.67 ± 1.21 vs 1.01 ± 0.43, p<0.05). Moreover, the platelet aggregation-potentiating effect, the active-MMP-2 content and the active MMP-2/pro-MMP-2 ratio of plaque extracts were significantly higher in plaques from patients who developed a subsequent major cardiovascular event. In conclusion, atherosclerotic plaques exert a prothrombotic effect by potentiating platelet activation due to their content of MMP-2; an elevated MMP-2 activity in plaques is associated with a higher rate of subsequent ischaemic cerebrovascular events.

  14. Cardiac and vascular changes in elderly atherosclerotic mice: the influence of gender

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pereira Thiago MC

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although advanced age is considered a risk factor for several diseases, the impact of gender on age-associated cardiovascular diseases, such as atherosclerotic processes and valvular diseases, remains not completely clarified. The present study was designed to assess aortic valve morphology and function and vascular damage in elderly using the apolipoprotein E knockout (ApoE KO mouse. Our hypothesis was that advanced age-related cardiovascular changes are aggravated in atherosclerotic male mice. Methods The grade (0 to 4 of aortic regurgitation was evaluated through angiography. In addition, vascular lipid deposition and senescence were evaluated through histochemical analyses in aged male and female ApoE KO mice, and the results were compared to wild-type C57BL/6J (C57 mice. Results Aortic regurgitation was observed in 92% of the male ApoE KO mice and 100% of the male C57 mice. Comparatively, in age-matched female ApoE KO and C57 mice, aortic regurgitation was observed in a proportion of 58% and 53%, respectively. Histological analysis of the aorta showed an outward (positive remodeling in ApoE KO mice (female: 1.86 ± 0.15; male: 1.89 ± 0.68 using C57 groups as reference values. Histochemical evaluation of the aorta showed lipid deposition and vascular senescence only in the ApoE KO group, which were more pronounced in male mice. Conclusion The data show that male gender contributes to the progression of aortic regurgitation and that hypercholesterolemia and male gender additively contribute to the occurrence of lipid deposition and vascular senescence in elderly mice.

  15. Emerging applications of nanotechnology for the diagnosis and management of vulnerable atherosclerotic plaques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Shann S.; Ortega, Ryan A.; Reagan, Brendan W.; McPherson, John A.; Sung, Hak-Joon; Giorgio, Todd D.

    2017-01-01

    An estimated 16 million people in the United States have coronary artery disease (CAD), and approximately 325,000 people die annually from cardiac arrest. About two-thirds of unexpected cardiac deaths occur without prior recognition of cardiac disease. A vast majority of these deaths are attributable to the rupture of ‘Vulnerable atherosclerotic plaques’. Clinically, plaque vulnerability is typically assessed through imaging techniques, and ruptured plaques leading to acute myocardial infarction are treated through angioplasty or stenting. Despite significant advances, it is clear that current imaging methods are insufficiently capable for elucidating plaque composition—which is a key determinant of vulnerability. Further, the exciting improvement in the treatment of CAD afforded by stenting procedures has been buffered by significant undesirable host-implant effects, including restenosis and late thrombosis. Nanotechnology has led to some potential solutions to these problems by yielding constructs that interface with plaque cellular components at an unprecedented size scale. By leveraging the innate ability of macrophages to phagocytose nanoparticles, contrast agents can now be targeted to plaque inflammatory activity. Improvements in nano-patterning procedures have now led to increased ability to regenerate tissue isotropy directly on stents, enabling gradual regeneration of normal, physiologic vascular structures. Advancements in immunoassay technologies promise lower costs for biomarker measurements, and in the near future, may enable the addition of routine blood testing to the clinician’s toolbox—decreasing the costs of atherosclerosis-related medical care. These are merely three examples among many stories of how nanotechnology continues to promise advances in the diagnosis and treatment of vulnerable atherosclerotic plaques. PMID:21834059

  16. Relationship between aortic valve calcification and the severity of coronary atherosclerotic disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Juying; Chen, Zhangwei; Ge, Junbo; Ma, Jianying; Chang, Shufu; Fan, Bing; Liu, Xuebo; Ge, Lei

    2010-07-01

    Aortic valve calcification (AVC), which has been confirmed to be associated with various risk factors of cardiac disease, is common in the elderly and associated with increased cardiovascular mortality. It has been hypothesized that AVC is associated with coronary atherosclerotic disease, and its severity. Between July 2007 and November 2007, a total of 235 patients with chest pain or chest distress were admitted to the authors' institution for coronary angiography. The severity of coronary atherosclerotic disease (CAD) was evaluated by the Gensini score, the number of stenosed vessels, and the prevalence of total occlusion. All patients underwent transthoracic echocardiography to detect AVC. Patients with CAD had a higher prevalence of AVC than those without CAD (44% versus 26%, p = 0.005). Likewise, the prevalence of AVC was significantly higher in patients with a higher Gensini score than in those with a lower score. Patients with AVC had a higher prevalence of CAD, and higher Gensini scores and numbers of stenosed coronary arteries, even after stratification by age (65 years). On multivariable logistic regression analysis for CAD, the odds ratio (OR) of AVC was 2.315 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.158-4.629, p = 0.018); this value was higher than that for total cholesterol (OR = 1.637, p = 0.008), lipoprotein-a (OR = 1.003, p = 0.015) and fibrinogen (OR = 1.009, p = 0.006), and marginally less than that for male gender (OR = 2.665, p = 0.005). Patients with AVC had a higher prevalence and greater severity of CAD.

  17. Heterogeneous distribution of a diffusional tracer in the aortic wall of normal and atherosclerotic rabbits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsutsui, H.; Tomoike, H.; Nakamura, M.

    1990-01-01

    Tracer distribution as an index of nutritional support across the thoracic and abdominal aortas in rabbits in the presence or absence of atherosclerotic lesions was evaluated using [ 14 C]antipyrine, a metabolically inert, diffusible indicator. Intimal plaques were produced by endothelial balloon denudation of the thoracic aorta and a 1% cholesterol diet. After a steady intravenous infusion of 200 microCi of [ 14 C]antipyrine for 60 seconds, thoracic and abdominal aortas and the heart were excised, and autoradiograms of 20-microns-thick sections were quantified, using microcomputer-aided densitometry. Regional radioactivity and regional diffusional support, as an index of nutritional flow estimated from the timed collections of arterial blood, was 367 and 421 nCi.g-1 (82 and 106 ml.min-1.100 g-1) in thoracic aortic media of the normal and atherosclerotic rabbits, respectively. Radioactivity at the thickened intima was 179 nCi.g-1 (p less than 0.01 versus media). The gruel was noted at a deeper site within the thickened intima, and diffusional support here was 110 nCi.g-1 (p less than 0.01 versus an average radioactivity at the thickened intima). After ligating the intercostal arteries, regional tracer distribution in the media beneath the fibrofatty lesion, but not the plaque-free intima, was reduced to 46%. Thus, in the presence of advanced intimal thickening, the heterogeneous distribution of diffusional flow is prominent across the vessel wall, and abluminal routes are crucial to meet the increased demands of nutritional requirements

  18. Anti-atherosclerotic plants which modulate the phenotype of vascular smooth muscle cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleh Al-Shehabi, Tuqa; Iratni, Rabah; Eid, Ali H

    2016-10-15

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) remains the leading cause of global death, with atherosclerosis being a major contributor to this mortality. Several mechanisms are implicated in the pathogenesis of this disease. A key element in the development and progression of atherosclerotic lesions is the phenotype of vascular smooth muscle cells. Under pathophysiologic conditions such as injury, these cells switch from a contractile to a synthetic phenotype that often possesses high proliferative and migratory capacities. Despite major advances made in the management and treatment of atherosclerosis, mortality associated with this disease remains high. This mandates that other approaches be sought. Herbal medicine, especially for the treatment of CVD, has been gaining more attention in recent years. This is in no small part due to the evidence-based values associated with the consumption of many plants as well as the relatively cheaper prices, easier access and conventional folk medicine "inherited" over generations. Sections: In this review, we provide a brief introduction about the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis then we highlight the role of vascular smooth muscle cells in this disease, especially when a phenotypic switch of these cells arises. We then thoroughly discuss the various plants that show potentially beneficial effects as anti-atherosclerotic, with prime attention given to herbs and plants that inhibit the phenotypic switch of vascular smooth muscle cells. Accumulating evidence provides the justification for the use of botanicals in the treatment or prevention of atherosclerosis. However, further studies, especially clinical ones, are warranted to better define several pharmacological parameters of these herbs, such as toxicity, tolerability, and efficacy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Antioxidants attenuate atherosclerotic plaque development in a balloon-denuded and -radiated hypercholesterolemic rabbit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leborgne, Laurent; Fournadjiev, Jana; Pakala, Rajbabu; Dilcher, Christian; Cheneau, Edouard; Wolfram, Roswitha; Hellinga, David; Seaborn, Rufus; O'Tio, Fermin; Waksman, Ron

    2003-01-01

    Background: Oxidation of lipoproteins is considered to be a key contributor to atherogenesis. Antioxidants are potential antiatherogenic agents because they can inhibit lipoprotein oxidation. Radiation has been shown to increase oxidative stress leading to increased atherogenesis. This study is designed to test the potential of antioxidants to inhibit atherosclerotic plaque progression in balloon-denuded and -radiated rabbits. Methods and Results: Two groups of New Zealand white rabbits (n=36) were fed with 1% cholesterol diet (control diet) or with 1% cholesterol diet containing a mixture of various antioxidants for 1 week. Iliac arteries in all the animals were balloon denuded and continued to fed with 0.15% cholesterol diet or 0.15% cholesterol diet containing antioxidants (antioxidant diet). Four weeks after balloon denudation one iliac artery in 12 animals from each group was radiated and all the animals were continued to be fed with the same diet. Four weeks after radiation animals were sacrificed and morphometric analysis of iliac arteries (n=12) in nonradiated and radiated animals were performed. Plaque area (PA) in the rabbits that were fed with cholesterol diet is 0.2±0.12 mm 2 , and it is increased by 2.75-fold (P<.05) in the radiated arteries of animals fed with cholesterol diet. Plaque area in the animals fed with antioxidant diet is 50% less then the one in the animals fed with cholesterol diet. Similarly, plaque area in radiated arteries of the animals fed with antioxidant diet is 50% less then the animals fed with cholesterol diet. Conclusion: Antioxidants significantly attenuate atherosclerotic plaque progression in balloon-injured and -radiated hypercholesterolemic rabbits

  20. Atherosclerotic imaging using 4 types of superparamagnetic iron oxides: New possibilities for mannan-coated particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsuchiya, Keiko, E-mail: keikot@belle.shiga-medac.jp [Department of Radiology, Shiga University of Medical Science, Setatsukinowa-cho, Otsu, Shiga 520-2192 (Japan); Nitta, Norihisa, E-mail: r34nitta@yahoo.co.jp [Department of Radiology, Shiga University of Medical Science, Setatsukinowa-cho, Otsu, Shiga 520-2192 (Japan); Sonoda, Akinaga, E-mail: akinagasonoda@yahoo.co.jp [Department of Radiology, Shiga University of Medical Science, Setatsukinowa-cho, Otsu, Shiga 520-2192 (Japan); Otani, Hideji, E-mail: otani@belle.shiga-med.ac.jp [Department of Radiology, Shiga University of Medical Science, Setatsukinowa-cho, Otsu, Shiga 520-2192 (Japan); Takahashi, Masashi, E-mail: masashi@belle.shiga-med.ac.jp [Department of Radiology, Shiga University of Medical Science, Setatsukinowa-cho, Otsu, Shiga 520-2192 (Japan); Murata, Kiyoshi, E-mail: murata@belle.shiga-med.ac.jp [Department of Radiology, Shiga University of Medical Science, Setatsukinowa-cho, Otsu, Shiga 520-2192 (Japan); Shiomi, Masashi, E-mail: ieakusm@med.kobe-u.ac.jp [Institute for Experimental Animals, Kobe University School of Medicine, 7-5-1 Kusunoki-cho, Tyuoku, Kobe, Hyogo 650-0017 (Japan); Tabata, Yasuhiko, E-mail: yasuhiko@frontier.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Department of Biomaterials, Institute for Frontier Medical Sciences, Kyoto University, 53 Syogoin-Kawahara-cho, Sakyoku, Kyoto 606-8507 (Japan); Nohara, Satoshi, E-mail: s-nohara@meito-sangyo.co.jp [The Nagoya Research Laboratory, Meito Sangyo Co., Ltd., 25-5 Nishibiwajima-cho, Kiyosu, Aichi 452-0067 (Japan)

    2013-11-01

    Purpose: We used magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and histologic techniques to compare the uptake by the rabbit atherosclerotic wall of 4 types of superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) particles, i.e. SPIO, mannan-coated SPIO (M-SPIO), ultrasmall SPIO (USPIO), and mannan-coated USPIO (M-USPIO). Materials and methods: All experimental protocols were approved by our institutional animal experimentation committee. We intravenously injected 12 Watanabe heritable hyperlipidemic rabbits with one of the 4 types of SPIO (0.8 mmol Fe/kg). Two other rabbits served as the control. The rabbits underwent in vivo contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) before- and 5 days after these injections; excised aortae were subjected to in vitro MRI. In the in vivo and in vitro studies we assessed the signal intensity of the vessels at identical regions of interest (ROI) and calculated the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). For histologic assessment we evaluated the iron-positive regions in Prussian blue-stained specimens. Results: There were significant differences in iron-positive regions where M-USPIO > USPIO, M-SPIO > SPIO, USPIO > SPIO (p < 0.05) but not between M-USPIO and M-SPIO. The difference between the pre- and post-injection SNR was significantly greater in rabbits treated with M-USPIO than USPIO and in rabbits injected with M-SPIO than SPIO (p < 0.05). On in vitro MRI scans SNR tended to be lower in M-USPIO- and M-SPIO- than USPIO- and SPIO-treated rabbits (p < 0.1). Conclusion: Histologic and imaging analysis showed that mannan-coated SPIO and USPIO particles were taken up more readily by the atherosclerotic rabbit wall than uncoated SPIO and USPIO.

  1. Gentiana lutea exerts anti-atherosclerotic effects by preventing endothelial inflammation and smooth muscle cell migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesavan, R; Chandel, S; Upadhyay, S; Bendre, R; Ganugula, R; Potunuru, U R; Giri, H; Sahu, G; Kumar, P Uday; Reddy, G Bhanuprakash; Joksic, G; Bera, A K; Dixit, Madhulika

    2016-04-01

    Studies suggest that Gentiana lutea (GL), and its component isovitexin, may exhibit anti-atherosclerotic properties. In this study we sought to investigate the protective mechanism of GL aqueous root extract and isovitexin on endothelial inflammation, smooth muscle cell migation, and on the onset and progression of atherosclerosis in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. Our results show that both GL extract and isovitexin, block leukocyte adhesion and generation of reactive oxygen species in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and rat aortic smooth muscle cells (RASMCs), following TNF-alpha and platelet derived growth factor-BB (PDGF-BB) challenges respectively. Both the extract and isovitexin blocked TNF-α induced expression of ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 in HUVECs. PDGF-BB induced migration of RASMCs and phospholipase C-γ activation, were also abrogated by GL extract and isovitexin. Fura-2 based ratiometric measurements demonstrated that, both the extact, and isovitexin, inhibit PDGF-BB mediated intracellular calcium rise in RASMCs. Supplementation of regular diet with 2% GL root powder for STZ rats, reduced total cholesterol in blood. Oil Red O staining demonstrated decreased lipid accumulation in aortic wall of diabetic animals upon treatment with GL. Medial thickness and deposition of collagen in the aortic segment of diabetic rats were also reduced upon supplementation. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated reduced expression of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), and vascular endothelial cadherin (VE-cadherin) in aortic segments of diabetic rats following GL treatment. Thus, our results support that GL root extract/powder and isovitexin exhibit anti-atherosclerotic activities. Copyright © 2016 The Italian Society of Diabetology, the Italian Society for the Study of Atherosclerosis, the Italian Society of Human Nutrition, and the Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery, Federico II University

  2. A computational evaluation of sedentary lifestyle effects on carotid hemodynamics and atherosclerotic events incidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caruso, Maria Vittoria; Serra, Raffaele; Perri, Paolo; Buffone, Gianluca; Caliò, Francesco Giuseppe; DE Franciscis, Stefano; Fragomeni, Fragomeni

    2017-01-01

    Hemodynamics has a key role in atheropathogenesis. Indeed, atherosclerotic phenomena occur in vessels characterized by complex geometry and flow pattern, like the carotid bifurcation. Moreover, lifestyle is a significant risk factor. The aim of this study is to evaluate the hemodynamic effects due to two sedentary lifestyles - sitting and standing positions - in the carotid bifurcation in order to identify the worst condition and to investigate the atherosclerosis incidence. The computational fluid dynamics (CFD) was chosen to carry out the analysis, in which in vivo non-invasive measurements were used as boundary conditions. Furthermore, to compare the two conditions, one patient-specific 3D model of a carotid bifurcation was reconstructed starting from computer tomography. Different mechanical indicators, correlated with atherosclerosis incidence, were calculated in addition to flow pattern and pressure distribution: the time average wall shear stress (TAWSS), the oscillatory shear index (OSI) and the relative residence time (RRT). The results showed that the bulb and the external carotid artery emergence are the most probable regions in which atherosclerotic events could happen. Indeed, low velocity and WSS values, high OSI and, as a consequence, areas with chaotic-swirling flow, with stasis (high RRT), occur. Moreover, the sitting position is the worst condition: considering a cardiac cycle, TAWSS is less than 17.2% and OSI and RRT are greater than 17.5% and 21.2%, respectively. This study suggests that if a person spends much time in the sitting position, a high risk of plaque formation and, consequently, of stenosis could happen.

  3. Acute Kidney Injury and Risk of Heart Failure and Atherosclerotic Events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Go, Alan S; Hsu, Chi-Yuan; Yang, Jingrong; Tan, Thida C; Zheng, Sijie; Ordonez, Juan D; Liu, Kathleen D

    2018-05-17

    AKI in the hospital is common and is associated with excess mortality. We examined whether AKI is also independently associated with a higher risk of different cardiovascular events in the first year after discharge. We conducted a retrospective analysis of a cohort between 2006 and 2013 with follow-up through 2014, within Kaiser Permanente Northern California. We identified all adults admitted to 21 hospitals who had one or more in-hospital serum creatinine test result and survived to discharge. Occurrence of AKI was on the basis of Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes diagnostic criteria. Potential confounders were identified from comprehensive inpatient and outpatient, laboratory, and pharmacy electronic medical records. During the 365 days after discharge, we ascertained occurrence of heart failure, acute coronary syndromes, peripheral artery disease, and ischemic stroke events from electronic medical records. Among a matched cohort of 146,941 hospitalized adults, 31,245 experienced AKI. At 365 days postdischarge, AKI was independently associated with higher rates of the composite outcome of hospitalization for heart failure and atherosclerotic events (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR], 1.18; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 1.13 to 1.25) even after adjustment for demographics, comorbidities, preadmission eGFR and proteinuria, heart failure and sepsis complicating the hospitalization, intensive care unit (ICU) admission, length of stay, and predicted in-hospital mortality. This was driven by an excess risk of subsequent heart failure (aHR, 1.44; 95% CI, 1.33 to 1.56), whereas there was no significant association with follow-up atherosclerotic events (aHR, 1.05; 95% CI, 0.98 to 1.12). AKI is independently associated with a higher risk of cardiovascular events, especially heart failure, after hospital discharge. Copyright © 2018 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  4. General Information about Renal Cell Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Tumors Treatment Genetics of Kidney Cancer Research Renal Cell Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Renal Cell Cancer Go to Health Professional Version Key Points Renal ...

  5. Treatment Option Overview (Renal Cell Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Tumors Treatment Genetics of Kidney Cancer Research Renal Cell Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Renal Cell Cancer Go to Health Professional Version Key Points Renal ...

  6. Is Information Still Relevant?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Lia

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: The term "information" in information science does not share the characteristics of those of a nomenclature: it does not bear a generally accepted definition and it does not serve as the bases and assumptions for research studies. As the data deluge has arrived, is the concept of information still relevant for information…

  7. The renal scan in pregnant renal transplant patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldstein, H.A.; Ziessman, H.A.; Fahey, F.H.; Collea, J.V.; Alijani, M.R.; Helfrich, G.B.

    1985-01-01

    With the greater frequency of renal transplant surgery, more female pts are becoming pregnant and carrying to term. In the renal allograft blood vessels and ureter may be compressed resulting in impaired renal function and/or, hypertension. Toxemia of pregnancy is seen more frequently than normal. Radionuclide renal scan monitoring may be of significant value in this high risk obstetrical pt. After being maintained during the pregnancy, renal function may also deteriorate in the post partum period. 5 pregnant renal transplant pts who delivered live babies had renal studies with Tc-99m DTPA to assess allograft perfusion and function. No transplanted kidney was lost during or after pregnancy as a result of pregnancy. No congenital anomalies were associated with transplant management. 7 studies were performed on these 5 pts. The 7 scans all showed the uterus/placenta. The bladder was always distorted. The transplanted kidney was rotated to a more vertical position in 3 pts. The radiation dose to the fetus is calculated at 0.024 rad/mCi administered. This study demonstrates the anatomic and physiologic alterations expected in the transplanted kidney during pregnancy when evaluated by renal scan and that the radiation burden may be acceptable in management of these pts

  8. Renal posttransplant's vascular complications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bašić Dragoslav

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Despite high graft and recipient survival figures worldwide today, a variety of technical complications can threaten the transplant in the postoperative period. Vascular complications are commonly related to technical problems in establishing vascular continuity or to damage that occurs during donor nephrectomy or preservation [13]. AIM The aim of the presenting study is to evaluate counts and rates of vascular complications after renal transplantation and to compare the outcome by donor type. MATERIAL AND METHODS A total of 463 kidneys (319 from living related donor LD and 144 from cadaveric donor - CD were transplanted during the period between June 1975 and December 1998 at the Urology & Nephrology Institute of Clinical Centre of Serbia in Belgrade. Average recipients' age was 33.7 years (15-54 in LD group and 39.8 (19-62 in CD group. Retrospectively, we analyzed medical records of all recipients. Statistical analysis is estimated using Hi-squared test and Fischer's test of exact probability. RESULTS Major vascular complications including vascular anastomosis thrombosis, internal iliac artery stenosis, internal iliac artery rupture obliterant vasculitis and external iliac vein rupture were analyzed. In 25 recipients (5.4% some of major vascular complications were detected. Among these cases, 22 of them were from CD group vs. three from LD group. Relative rate of these complications was higher in CD group vs. LD group (p<0.0001. Among these complications dominant one was vascular anastomosis thrombosis which occurred in 18 recipients (17 from CD vs. one from LD. Of these recipients 16 from CD lost the graft, while the rest of two (one from each group had lethal outcome. DISCUSSION Thrombosis of renal allograft vascular anastomosis site is the most severe complication following renal transplantation. In the literature, renal allograft thrombosis is reported with different incidence rates, from 0.5-4% [14, 15, 16]. Data from the

  9. New tides: using zebrafish to study renal regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCampbell, Kristen K; Wingert, Rebecca A

    2014-02-01

    Over the past several decades, the zebrafish has become one of the major vertebrate model organisms used in biomedical research. In this arena, the zebrafish has emerged as an applicable system for the study of kidney diseases and renal regeneration. The relevance of the zebrafish model for nephrology research has been increasingly appreciated as the understanding of zebrafish kidney structure, ontogeny, and the response to damage has steadily expanded. Recent studies have documented the amazing regenerative characteristics of the zebrafish kidney, which include the ability to replace epithelial populations after acute injury and to grow new renal functional units, termed nephrons. Here we discuss how nephron composition is conserved between zebrafish and mammals, and highlight how recent findings from zebrafish studies utilizing transgenic technologies and chemical genetics can complement traditional murine approaches in the effort to dissect how the kidney responds to acute damage and identify therapeutics that enhance human renal regeneration. Copyright © 2014 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Citrato y litiasis renal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa E. Del Valle

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available El citrato es un potente inhibidor de la cristalización de sales de calcio. La hipocitraturia es una alteración bioquímica frecuente en la formación de cálculos de calcio en adultos y especialmente en niños. El pH ácido (sistémico, tubular e intracelular es el principal determinante de la excreción de citrato en la orina. Si bien la mayoría de los pacientes con litiasis renal presentan hipocitraturia idiopática, hay un número de causas para esta anormalidad que incluyen acidosis tubular renal distal, hipokalemia, dietas ricas en proteínas de origen animal y/o dietas bajas en álcalis y ciertas drogas, como la acetazolamida, topiramato, IECA y tiazidas. Las modificaciones dietéticas que benefician a estos pacientes incluyen: alta ingesta de líquidos y frutas, especialmente cítricos, restricción de sodio y proteínas, con consumo normal de calcio. El tratamiento con citrato de potasio es efectivo en pacientes con hipocitraturia primaria o secundaria y en aquellos desordenes en la acidificación, que provocan un pH urinario persistentemente ácido. Los efectos adversos son bajos y están referidos al tracto gastrointestinal. Si bien hay diferentes preparaciones de citrato (citrato de potasio, citrato de sodio, citrato de potasio-magnesio en nuestro país solo está disponible el citrato de potasio en polvo que es muy útil para corregir la hipocitraturia y el pH urinario bajo, y reducir marcadamente la recurrencia de la litiasis renal.

  11. Recommendations for the reporting of surgically resected specimens of renal cell carcinoma: the Association of Directors of Anatomic and Surgical Pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, John P; McKenney, Jesse K; Brooks, James D; Argani, Pedram; Epstein, Jonathan I

    2009-04-01

    A checklist based approach to reporting the relevant pathologic details of renal cell carcinoma resection specimens improves the completeness of the report. Karyotypic evaluation of renal neoplasms has refined but also complicated their classification. The number of diagnostic possibilities has increased and the importance of distinguishing different tumor types has been underscored by dramatic variation in prognosis and the development of targeted therapies for specific subtypes. The increasing number of recognized renal neoplasms has implications for handling renal resection specimens. Furthermore, the prognostic significance of other features of renal neoplasms related to grade and stage has been demonstrated. This guideline for the handling of renal resection specimens will focus on problem areas in the evolving practice of diagnosis, grading, and staging of renal neoplasms. The accompanying checklist will serve to ensure that all necessary details of the renal resection specimen are included in the surgical pathology report.

  12. Automatic quantitative renal scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valeyre, J.; Deltour, G.; Delisle, M.J.; Bouchard, A.

    1976-01-01

    Renal scintigraphy data may be analyzed automatically by the use of a processing system coupled to an Anger camera (TRIDAC-MULTI 8 or CINE 200). The computing sequence is as follows: normalization of the images; background noise subtraction on both images; evaluation of mercury 197 uptake by the liver and spleen; calculation of the activity fractions on each kidney with respect to the injected dose, taking into account the kidney depth and the results referred to normal values; edition of the results. Automation minimizes the scattering parameters and by its simplification is a great asset in routine work [fr

  13. Imaging of renal metastases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruneton, J.N.; Normand, F.; Balu-Maestro, C.; Rogopoulos, A.; Drouillard, J.; Laurent, F.

    1988-01-01

    Metastases are the most frequent malignant tumors of the kidney, but these lesions are of late onset in neoplastic disease. The 19 cases reported here were all investigated with various imaging techniques (CT 12 cases, ultrasonography 12 cases, urography 8 cases, angiography 2 cases, MRI 1 case). The most common primary malignancies were lung cancer, melanoma and cancer of the controlateral kidney. In this series, 8 of the lesions were solitary, and 9 were unilateral. Tumor vascularity was evaluated in 15 cases: 14 of these lesions were hypovascular. The differential diagnosis includes small cysts, lymphoma, bilateral renal cancer, multiple small abscesses and multiple small infarcts [fr

  14. Renal artery stenosis after radiotherapy for Ewing's sarcoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tacconi, S.; Bieri, S.

    2008-01-01

    Background: the fact that therapeutic irradiation can induce significant stenosis in the arteries of the head, neck, and chest, as welt as in the aorta and the iliac arteries, is familiar in daily practice and well documented in the literature. By contrast, radiation-induced renal artery stenosis seems to be a less widely known complication. Patients and methods: the sudden onset of medically refractory arterial hypertension and coma in a 27-year-old man is reported, who had been treated at age 20 with chemotherapy and radiotherapy for Ewing's sarcoma in the lumbar region. This treatment had been performed at the hospital of Sion, Switzerland in 2001. Also, the relevant literature from 1965 to 2007 is reviewed to underscore various aspects of this problem and to demonstrate the clinical relevance of renal artery stenosis as a potential long-term sequela of radiotherapy. Conclusion: radiation-induced renal artery stenosis has only rarely been described in the literature, but arterial hypertension due to radiation-induced renal artery stenosis is a serious long-term sequela that can appear at a latency of up to 20 years after treatment. The paucity of reports presumably reflects the lesser frequency of radiotherapy for retroperitoneal tumors as compared to head-and-neck cancers, as well as lower awareness of the problem due to diagnostic bias in the era before CT and MRI were in routine use: at that time, carotid artery stenosis was easy to diagnose by ultrasonography, while radiation-induced renal artery stenosis, whose real incidence may well be higher, probably often went undetected. Thus, when a patient with a history of abdominal or retroperitoneal radiotherapy unexpectedly develops intractable hypertension, radiation-induced renal artery stenosis must be included in the differential diagnosis. (orig.)

  15. Clinical Relevance of Adipokines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Blüher

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of obesity has increased dramatically during recent decades. Obesity increases the risk for metabolic and cardiovascular diseases and may therefore contribute to premature death. With increasing fat mass, secretion of adipose tissue derived bioactive molecules (adipokines changes towards a pro-inflammatory, diabetogenic and atherogenic pattern. Adipokines are involved in the regulation of appetite and satiety, energy expenditure, activity, endothelial function, hemostasis, blood pressure, insulin sensitivity, energy metabolism in insulin sensitive tissues, adipogenesis, fat distribution and insulin secretion in pancreatic β-cells. Therefore, adipokines are clinically relevant as biomarkers for fat distribution, adipose tissue function, liver fat content, insulin sensitivity, chronic inflammation and have the potential for future pharmacological treatment strategies for obesity and its related diseases. This review focuses on the clinical relevance of selected adipokines as markers or predictors of obesity related diseases and as potential therapeutic tools or targets in metabolic and cardiovascular diseases.

  16. Renal involvement in behcet's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ardalan, Mohammad Reza; Noshad, Hamid; Sadreddini, Shahram; Ebrahimi, Aliasghar; Molaeefard, Mahsheed; Somi, Mohammad Hossein; Shoja, Mohammadali Mohajel

    2009-01-01

    There are conflicting reports about the renal involvement in Behcet's disease (BD). In this study we aimed to study the frequency and type of renal involvement in a group of patients with BD in Azerbaijan province that is one of the prevalent areas of BD in Iran. All cases of BD were prospectively followed between June 2004 and January 2007, and evaluated for renal dys-function (serum creatinine > 1.7 mg/dL), glomerular hematuria and proteinuria. Those patients with proteinuria > 500 mg/day and serum creatinine level > 2 mg/dL, underwent renal biopsy. From a total number of 100 patients, six patients (6%) had obvious renal involvements. Four patients had glomerular hematuria and proteinuria. Renal biopsy in two of them revealed measangial proliferative glumerulonephritis with IgA deposit in one of them and membranoproliferative glumerolonephritis in another one. Two remaining patients had serum creatinine > 2 mg/dL without any hematuria or proteinuria. Serologic study for viral agents and collagen vascular disease were negative in all patients with renal involvements. In conclusion, renal involvement in BD is not infrequent, although in most cases it is mild in nature and may be missed. (author)

  17. Leiomyosarcoma of the renal vein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lemos Gustavo C.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Leiomyosarcoma of the renal vein is a rare tumor of complex diagnosis. We presented a case of renal vein leiomyosarcoma detected in a routine study. The primary treatment was complete surgical removal of the mass. In cases where surgical removal is not possible the prognosis is poor, with high rates of local recurrence and distant spread.

  18. Ultrasonography in chronic renal failure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buturovic-Ponikvar, Jadranka; Visnar-Perovic, Alenka

    2003-01-01

    Many chronic renal diseases lead to the final common state of decrease in renal size, parenchymal atrophy, sclerosis and fibrosis. The ultrasound image show a smaller kidney, thinning of the parenchyma and its hyperechogenicity (reflecting sclerosis and fibrosis). The frequency of renal cysts increases with the progression of the disease. Ultrasound generally does not allow for the exact diagnosis of an underlying chronic disease (renal biopsy is usually required), but it can help to determine an irreversible disease, assess prognosis and avoid unnecessary diagnostic or therapeutic procedures. The main exception in which the ultrasound image does not show a smaller kidney with parenchymal atrophy is diabetic nephropathy, the leading cause of chronic and end-stage renal failure in developed countries in recent years. In this case, both renal size and parenchymal thickness are preserved until end-stage renal failure. Doppler study of intrarenal vessels can provide additional information about microvascular and parenchymal lesions, which is helpful in deciding for or against therapeutic intervention and timely planning for optimal renal replacement therapy option

  19. Information Needs/Relevance

    OpenAIRE

    Wildemuth, Barbara M.

    2009-01-01

    A user's interaction with a DL is often initiated as the result of the user experiencing an information need of some kind. Aspects of that experience and how it might affect the user's interactions with the DL are discussed in this module. In addition, users continuously make decisions about and evaluations of the materials retrieved from a DL, relative to their information needs. Relevance judgments, and their relationship to the user's information needs, are discussed in this module. Draft

  20. Acute renal failure after rifampicin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Weinberg

    1984-12-01

    Full Text Available A patient with miliary tuberculosis and a chronic urogenital focus is described, who had a borderline renal function at diagnosis and developed overt renal failure upon daily treatment with rifampin (RMP, isoniazid (INH and ethambutol (EMB. This is the first Brazilian report of BMP induced renal damage. A renal biopsy taken on the third day of oliguria showed recent tubular necrosis with acute interstitial inflammation and granuloma formation. The aspect of the granulomatous lesion hightly suggested drug etiology because of the lack of palisading, high incidence of neutrophils and absence of facid-fast bacilli. This is the first presentation of an acute granulomatous interstitial nephritis probably due to RMP. Furthermore the pathogenesis of the renal damage caused by tuberculosis and RMP are discussed.

  1. Fetal programming of renal function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dötsch, Jörg; Plank, Christian; Amann, Kerstin

    2012-04-01

    Results from large epidemiological studies suggest a clear relation between low birth weight and adverse renal outcome evident as early as during childhood. Such adverse outcomes may include glomerular disease, hypertension, and renal failure and contribute to a phenomenon called fetal programming. Other factors potentially leading to an adverse renal outcome following fetal programming are maternal diabetes mellitus, smoking, salt overload, and use of glucocorticoids during pregnancy. However, clinical data on the latter are scarce. Here, we discuss potential underlying mechanisms of fetal programming, including reduced nephron number via diminished nephrogenesis and other renal (e.g., via the intrarenal renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system) and non-renal (e.g., changes in endothelial function) alterations. It appears likely that the outcomes of fetal programming may be influenced or modified postnatally, for example, by the amount of nutrients given at critical times.

  2. Renal manifestations of primary hyperparathyroidism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anurag Ranjan Lila

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT is associated with nephrolithiasis and nephrocalcinosis. Hypercalciuria is one of the multiple factors that is implicated in the complex pathophysiology of stone formation. The presence of a renal stone (symptomatic or asymptomatic categorizes PHPT as symptomatic and is an indication for parathyroid adenomectomy. Progression of nephrocalcinosis is largely reversible after successful surgery, but the residual risk persists. PHPT is also associated with declining renal function. In case of asymptomatic mild PHPT, annual renal functional assessment is advised. Guidelines suggest that an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR < 60 ml / minute / 1.73 m 2 is an indication for parathyroid adenomectomy. This article discusses how to monitor and manage renal stones and other related renal parameters in case of PHPT.

  3. Renal replacement therapy in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pippias, Maria; Stel, Vianda S; Abad Diez, José Maria

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: This article summarizes the 2012 European Renal Association-European Dialysis and Transplant Association Registry Annual Report (available at www.era-edta-reg.org) with a specific focus on older patients (defined as ≥65 years). METHODS: Data provided by 45 national or regional renal...... disease (ESRD) receiving renal replacement therapy (RRT) and renal transplantation rates for 2012 are presented. RESULTS: In 2012, the overall unadjusted incidence rate of patients with ESRD receiving RRT was 109.6 per million population (pmp) (n = 69 035), ranging from 219.9 pmp in Portugal to 24.2 pmp...... to 32% between countries. The overall renal transplantation rate in 2012 was 28.3 pmp (n = 15 673), with the highest rate seen in the Spanish region of Catalonia. The proportion of patients ≥65 years receiving a transplant ranged from 0 to 35%. Five-year adjusted survival for all RRT patients was 59...

  4. Magnification renal arteriography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carr, D.; Davidson, J.K.; McMillan, M.; Davison, M.

    1979-01-01

    Magnification selective renal arteriograms were performed on 24 patients, 12 of whom were hypertensive, and compared with non-magnification arteriograms by two observers independently. The magnification angiograms were performed on a Siemens Microfocus Bi 125/3/50 RG tube with a 0.1 mm focal spot. Of the 24 patients examined, information crucial to the diagnosis was found only on the magnification films in three patients (12.5%). Extra information compared with the non-magnification films was found in the magnification films in 12 patients (50%). No additional information was discovered in the remaining nine patients (37.5%). The magnification angiograms enabled the interlobular vessels to be visualised - this was not possible on the non-magnification films. Against the additional information gained must be weighed the disadvantages of magnification arteriography which include increased radiation dose and lengthening of procedure time plus additional injections of contrast. In conclusion, there is a place for magnification renal arteriography and the advantages seem to outweigh the disadvantages. (author)

  5. Renal complications of anaesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinlay, J; Tyson, E; Forni, L G

    2018-01-01

    Peri-operative acute kidney injury is common, accounting for 30-40% of all in-hospital cases of acute kidney injury. It is associated with clinically significant morbidity and mortality even with what was hitherto regarded as relatively trivial increases in serum creatinine, and carries over a 12-fold relative risk of death following major abdominal surgery. Comorbid conditions such as diabetes, hypertension, liver disease and particularly pre-existing chronic kidney disease, as well as the type and urgency of surgery, are major risk factors for the development of postoperative acute kidney injury. As yet, there are no specific treatment options for the injured kidney, although there are several modifiable risk factors of which the anaesthetist should be aware. As well as the avoidance of potential nephrotoxins and appropriate volume balance, optimal anaesthetic management should aim to reduce the risk of postoperative renal complications. This may include careful ventilatory management and blood pressure control, as well as appropriate analgesic strategies. The choice of anaesthetic agent may also influence renal outcomes. Rather than concentrate on the classical management of acute kidney injury, this review focuses on the potential development of acute kidney injury peri-operatively, and the means by which this may be ameliorated. © 2018 The Association of Anaesthetists of Great Britain and Ireland.

  6. Angiography in renal tuberculosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Doo Suk [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1974-10-15

    Angiographies on forty cases of renal tuberculosis performed at the National Medical Center during a period 1960 through 1970 were reviewed. Abdominal angiography was performed via the femoral route. Some were followed by selective nephroangiography. All patients were subjected to urographyior to angiography. The results of X-ray findings in the forty cases with renal tuberculosis were follows. 1. The age varied 18 to 57 years, average 30.5 years. Twenty one patients were male, and nineteen were female. 2. The right kidney was involved in 17 cases and the left in 15 cases. Both kidneys were involved in 8 cases. 3. Urographic examination revealed pathologic changes in all patients. 4. Focal destruction in the collecting system was the most common finding in the urography of 16 patients. 5. A varying degree of hydronephrosis was present in 15 patients, of whom nine had complained of palpable mass due to hydronephrosis. 6. In the 7 patients with extensive destruction there was no observable excretion contrast medium from the diseased kidney. 7. Angiographic examination was normal in 6 of the 40 patients. 8. Decreased vascularity in the subsegmental or smaller arteries of the affected kidney was the most frequent finding, being found in 34 patients. 9. Occlusion or abrupt termination of the subsegmental arteries was present in 4 patients. 10. Eighteen of the patients had signs of an expansive process within the cavity, the vessels being displaced and stretched around the lesions.

  7. Bilateral Vascular Variations at the Renal Hilum: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naveen Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Imaging technology with its advancement in the field of urology is the boon for the patients who require minimally invasive approaches for various kidney disorders. These approaches require a precise knowledge of the normal and variant anatomy of vascular structures at the hilum of the kidney in terms of their pattern of arrangement and division. The present paper describes a bilateral anomalous arrangement of the structures at the renal hilum as well as their peculiar branching pattern which is of clinical and surgical relevance. Multiple branching of the renal vessels was observed in both kidneys due to which the hila were congested. The right renal artery immediately after its origin divided into 2 branches. The upper branch represented an aberrant artery whereas the lower branch gave 5 divisions. The left renal artery also divided into 2 branches much before the hilum as anterior and posterior divisions. The anterior branch took an arched course and gave 6 branches. The posterior branch gave 3 terminal branches before entering the renal substance. In addition to anomalous hilar structures, normal architecture of both kidneys was altered and the hilum of the left kidney was found on its anterior surface.

  8. The water channel AQP1 is expressed in human atherosclerotic vascular lesions and AQP1 deficiency augments angiotensin II-induced atherosclerosis in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wintmo, P.; Johansen, S. H.; Hansen, P. B. L.

    2017-01-01

    Aim: The water channel aquaporin 1 (AQP1) promotes endothelial cell migration. It was hypothesized that AQP1 promotes neovascularization and growth of atherosclerotic plaques. Methods: AQP1 immunoreactivity and protein abundance was examined in human and murine atherosclerotic lesions and aortic...... minipumps for 4 weeks. Results: In human atherosclerotic lesions and AAA, AQP1 immunoreactive protein was associated with intralesional small vessels. In ApoE-/- mouse aorta, APQ1 mRNA levels were increased with time on WD (n = 7-9, P ... increased with time on WD but was not different between ApoE-/- and AQP1-/-ApoE-/- mice at either 8 or 16 weeks (n = 13-15). Baseline blood pressure and ANGII-induced hypertension were not different between genotypes. Conclusion: AQP1 is expressed in atherosclerotic lesion neovasculature in human and mouse...

  9. Tiaozhi Tongmai Granules reduce atherogenesis and promote the expression of ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 in rabbit atherosclerotic plaque macrophages and the liver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing Sun

    2014-07-01

    Conclusions: Tiaozhi Tongmai Granules appear to have an anti-atherogenic effect that is most likely mediated by simultaneously upregulating the protein expression of ABCA1 in rabbit atherosclerotic plaque macrophages and in the liver.

  10. Arterial 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose uptake reflects balloon catheter-induced thrombus formation and tissue factor expression via nuclear factor-κB in rabbit atherosclerotic lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamashita, Atsushi; Zhao, Yan; Zhao, Songji

    2013-01-01

    Imaging modalities to assess atherosclerotic plaque thrombogenicity have not been established, so in this study the relationship between [ 18 F]-fluorodeoxyglucose ( 18 F-FDG) uptake and thrombus formation was investigated in rabbit atherosclerotic arteries. Atherosclerotic plaque was induced in the iliacofemoral artery by balloon injury and a 0.5% cholesterol diet. At 3 weeks after the first balloon injury, the arteries were visualized by 18 F-FDG positron emission tomography (PET) imaging 2 h after an 18 F-FDG infusion, and then arterial thrombus was induced by a second balloon injury of both iliacofemoral arteries. Imaging with 18 F-FDG-PET revealed significantly more radioactivity along the injured (0.63±0.12 standardized uptake value (SUV)max), than the contralateral non-injured artery (0.34±0.08 SUVmax, n=17, P 18 F-FDG uptake reflects the thrombogenicity of atherosclerotic plaque following balloon injury. (author)

  11. Utility of the RENAL index -Radius; Exophytic/endophytic; Nearness to sinus; Anterior/posterior; Location relative to polar lines- in the management of renal masses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konstantinidis, C; Trilla, E; Lorente, D; Morote, J

    2016-12-01

    The growing incidence of renal masses and the wide range of available treatments require predictive tools that support the decision making process. The RENAL index -Radius; Exophytic/endophytic; Nearness to sinus; Anterior/posterior; Location relative to polar lines- helps standardise the anatomy of a renal mass by differentiating 3 groups of complexity. Since the introduction of the index, there have been a growing number of studies, some of which have been conflicting, that have evaluated the clinical utility of its implementation. To analyse the scientific evidence on the relationship between the RENAL index and the main strategies for managing renal masses. A search was conducted in the Medline database, which found 576 references on the RENAL index. In keeping with the PRISM Declaration, we selected 100 abstracts and ultimately reviewed 96 articles. The RENAL index has a high degree of interobserver correlation and has been validated as a predictive nomogram of histological results. In active surveillance, the index has been related to the tumour growth rate and probability of nephrectomy. In ablative therapy, the index has been associated with therapeutic efficacy, complications and tumour recurrence. In partial nephrectomy, the index has been related to the rate of complications, conversion to radical surgery, ischaemia time, function preservation and tumour recurrence, a finding also observed in radical nephrectomy. The RENAL index is an objective, reproducible and useful system as a predictive tool of highly relevant clinical parameters such as the rate of complications, ischaemia time, renal function and oncological results in the various currently accepted treatments for the management of renal masses. Copyright © 2016 AEU. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  12. Microvessel Density But Not Neoangiogenesis Is Associated with (18)F-FDG Uptake in Human Atherosclerotic Carotid Plaques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Sune Folke; Græbe, Martin; Hag, Anne Mette Fisker

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: The vulnerable atherosclerotic lesion exhibits the proliferation of neovessels and inflammation. The imaging modality 2-deoxy-2-[18F]fluoro-D-glucose positron emission tomography (18FDG-PET) is considered for the identification of vulnerable plaques. Purpose: The purpose of this study...... was to compare the gene expression of neoangiogenesis and vulnerability-associated genes with 18FDG uptake in patients undergoing carotid endarterectomy. Procedures: Human atherosclerotic carotid artery plaques from symptomatic patients were used for gene expression analysis by quantitative PCR of vascular...... analysis was compared with 18FDG-PET. Results: VEGF and integrin aVß3 gene expression did not correlate with 18FDG uptake, whereas CD34 gene expression exhibited an inverse correlation with 18FDG uptake. Additionally, we established that markers of vulnerability were correlated with 18FDG uptake...

  13. [Relevant public health enteropathogens].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riveros, Maribel; Ochoa, Theresa J

    2015-01-01

    Diarrhea remains the third leading cause of death in children under five years, despite recent advances in the management and prevention of this disease. It is caused by multiple pathogens, however, the prevalence of each varies by age group, geographical area and the scenario where cases (community vs hospital) are recorded. The most relevant pathogens in public health are those associated with the highest burden of disease, severity, complications and mortality. In our country, norovirus, Campylobacter and diarrheagenic E. coli are the most prevalent pathogens at the community level in children. In this paper we review the local epidemiology and potential areas of development in five selected pathogens: rotavirus, norovirus, Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC), Shigella and Salmonella. Of these, rotavirus is the most important in the pediatric population and the main agent responsible for child mortality from diarrhea. The introduction of rotavirus vaccination in Peru will have a significant impact on disease burden and mortality from diarrhea. However, surveillance studies are needed to determine the impact of vaccination and changes in the epidemiology of diarrhea in Peru following the introduction of new vaccines, as well as antibiotic resistance surveillance of clinical relevant bacteria.

  14. Collateral circulation alters downstream hemodynamic stress caused by intracranial atherosclerotic stenosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xin; Dornbos, David; Pu, Yuehua; Leng, Xinyi; Song, Ligang; Jia, Baixue; Pan, Yuesong; Wang, David; Miao, Zhongrong; Wang, Yilong; Liu, Liping; Wang, Yongjun

    2017-06-01

    Fractional flow reserve (FFR) accurately predicts the degree of stenosis and is now widely used to identify clinically significant severe coronary artery lesions. In the current study, we utilized a similar indicator, fractional flow (FF), to determine the hemodynamic impact of symptomatic intracranial atherosclerotic stenosis (ICAS) and to assess the correlation of FF with the severity of stenosis and collateral circulation. Patients with symptomatic ICAS (70-99% stenosis) confirmed on digital subtraction angiography (DSA) were consecutively recruited. FF was obtained during DSA examination with the use of pressure sensors and was measured as a ratio, comparing measurements distal to an ICAS lesion (Pd) and within the aorta (Pa). The degree of leptomeningeal collateralization was graded from zero (absent) to four (complete compensatory). The correlation between FF, anatomical stenosis, and collateral status was then analyzed. Twenty-five patients with a mean age of 55.6 years were analyzed. The median percentage of stenosis and median FF were 82.3 and 0.68%, respectively. Eleven patients were found to have poor collateralization (grade 0-2), and fourteen patients were identified with good collateral circulation (grade 3-4). Overall, the hemodynamic impact of an atherosclerotic lesions worsened (decreased FF) as the percentage of stenosis increased, although this did not reach statistical significance (r = -0.398, p = 0.06). However, the status of collateralization significantly altered this correlation, worsening the hemodynamic impact in patients with poor collateral circulation (r = -0.677, p = 0.032). There was no difference in patients with good collateral circulation (r = -0.279, p = 0.356). An anatomically severe (70-99%) symptomatic ICAS lesion may generate significant hemodynamic stress downstream as assessed by the indicator FF, particularly in patients with poor collateral circulation. Further, good collateralization may mitigate this

  15. Vascular morphologic and functional effect of endogenous androgens in an experimental atherosclerotic rabbits model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Echeverry, Dario; Delgadillo, Alexandra; Montes, Felix

    2007-01-01

    Previous clinical and experimental studies suggest that androgens could have adverse, neutral or beneficial effect on atherosclerosis and its clinical manifestations. Methods: an experimental, randomized controlled study in 40 New Zeland white male rabbits was realized. 20 rabbits underwent orchidectomy and 20 were fed with an atherogenic diet for 20 weeks. These were distributed in four groups: 1. non-castrated under normal diet, 2. Castrated under normal diet, 3. non-castrated under atherogenic diet, and 4. Castrated under atherogenic diet. Total cholesterol and free testosterone were measured. After euthanasia, arterial relaxation independent of endothelium was quantified in aorta, as well as the one depending on endothelium, in vitro, and histomorphometric analysis of thoracic aorta were made in order to quantify the atherosclerotic plaque formation. Results: animals that had a normal diet (n=20) had total cholesterol of 51.1 ± 8.5 mg/dl and those with atherogenic diet of 429.2 ± 262.0 mg/dl (p< 0.001). Testosterone levels in the non- castrated group were 2.1 ± 0.3 ng/ml and in the castrated were 0.8 ± 0.4 ng/ml (p= 0.024). In non-castrated rabbits the effect of hypercholesterolemia (366 ± 226.1 mg/dl) inducing atherosclerotic plaque and functional vascular alteration was mild. On the other hand, atherogenic diet in castrated rabbits induced an increment in total cholesterol from 387.6 ± 292.7 mg/dl (p <0.001) and severe morphological changes such as plaque area 2.6 ± 2.3mm (p <0.001), vessel plaque/area 0.25 ± 0.1 (p <0.001) and area index of plaque/area of the media 0.4 ± 0.3 (p <0.001). Endothelium independent relaxation percentage was 85.5 ± 14.3% (p = NS) and endothelium dependent relaxation was 38.5 ± 201% (p = 0.03). Conclusion: This study realized in rabbits demonstrates that endogenous testosterone might have a preventive effect on atherosclerosis and favor endothelium dependent vascular relaxation in the presence of severe

  16. Generation and characterization of human smooth muscle cell lines derived from atherosclerotic plaque.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonin, L R; Madden, K; Shera, K; Ihle, J; Matthews, C; Aziz, S; Perez-Reyes, N; McDougall, J K; Conroy, S C

    1999-03-01

    The study of atherogenesis in humans has been restricted by the limited availability and brief in vitro life span of plaque smooth muscle cells (SMCs). We describe plaque SMC lines with extended life spans generated by the expression of the human papillomavirus (HPV)-16 E6 and E7 genes, which has been shown to extend the life span of normal adult human aortic SMCs. Resulting cell lines (pdSMC1A and 2) demonstrated at least 10-fold increases in life span; pdSMC1A became immortal. The SMC identity of both pdSMC lines was confirmed by SM22 mRNA expression. pdSMC2 were generally diploid but with various structural and numerical alterations; pdSMC1A demonstrated several chromosomal abnormalities, most commonly -Y, +7, -13, anomalies previously reported in both primary pdSMCs and atherosclerotic tissue. Confluent pdSMC2 appeared grossly similar to HPV-16 E6/E7-expressing normal adult aortic SMCs (AASMCs), exhibiting typical SMC morphology/growth patterns; pdSMC1A displayed irregular cell shape/organization with numerous mitotic figures. Dedifferentiation to a synthetic/proliferative phenotype has been hypothesized as a critical step in atherogenesis, because rat neonatal SMCs and adult intimal SMCs exhibit similar gene expression patterns. To confirm that our pdSMC lines likewise express this apparent plaque phenotype, osteopontin, platelet-derived growth factor B, and elastin mRNA levels were determined in pdSMC1A, pdSMC2, and AASMCs. However, no significant increases in osteopontin or platelet-derived growth factor B expression levels were observed in either pdSMC compared with AASMCs. pdSMC2 alone expressed high levels of elastin mRNA. Lower levels of SM22 mRNA in pdSMC1A suggested greater dedifferentiation and/or additional population doublings in pdSMC1A relative to pdSMC2. Both pdSMC lines (particularly 1A) demonstrated high message levels for matrix Gla protein, previously reported to be highly expressed by human neointimal SMCs in vitro. These results describe 2

  17. [18F]FDG Accumulation in Early Coronary Atherosclerotic Lesions in Pigs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miikka Tarkia

    Full Text Available Inflammation is an important contributor to atherosclerosis progression. A glucose analogue 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose ([18F]FDG has been used to detect atherosclerotic inflammation. However, it is not known to what extent [18F]FDG is taken up in different stages of atherosclerosis. We aimed to study the uptake of [18F]FDG to various stages of coronary plaques in a pig model.First, diabetes was caused by streptozotocin injections (50 mg/kg for 3 days in farm pigs (n = 10. After 6 months on high-fat diet, pigs underwent dual-gated cardiac PET/CT to measure [18F]FDG uptake in coronary arteries. Coronary segments (n = 33 were harvested for ex vivo measurement of radioactivity and autoradiography (ARG.Intimal thickening was observed in 16 segments and atheroma type plaques in 10 segments. Compared with the normal vessel wall, ARG showed 1.7±0.7 times higher [18F]FDG accumulation in the intimal thickening and 4.1±2.3 times higher in the atheromas (P = 0.004 and P = 0.003, respectively. Ex vivo mean vessel-to-blood ratio was higher in segments with atheroma than those without atherosclerosis (2.6±1.2 vs. 1.3±0.7, P = 0.04. In vivo PET imaging showed the highest target-to-background ratio (TBR of 2.7. However, maximum TBR was not significantly different in segments without atherosclerosis (1.1±0.5 and either intimal thickening (1.2±0.4, P = 1.0 or atheroma (1.6±0.6, P = 0.4.We found increased uptake of [18F]FDG in coronary atherosclerotic lesions in a pig model. However, uptake in these early stage lesions was not detectable with in vivo PET imaging. Further studies are needed to clarify whether visible [18F]FDG uptake in coronary arteries represents more advanced, highly inflamed plaques.

  18. Cholesterol and prevention of atherosclerotic events: limits of a new frontier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macedo, Luís Eduardo Teixeira de; E, Faerstein

    2017-01-12

    Control of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease - a highly prevalent condition and one of the main causes of mortality in Brazil and worldwide - is a recurrent subject of great interest for public health. Recently, three new guidelines on dyslipidemia and atherosclerosis prevention have been published. The close release of these important publications is a good opportunity for comparison: the Brazilian model has greater sensitivity, the English model does not work with risk stratification, and the American model may be overestimating the risk. This will allow reflection on current progress and identification of controversial aspects which still require further research and debate. It is also an opportunity to discuss issues related to early diagnosis and its efficiency as a preventive strategy for atherosclerotic disease: the transformation of risk into disease, the gradual reduction of cut-off points, the limitations of the screening strategy, and the problem of overdiagnosis. RESUMO O controle da doença cardiovascular aterosclerótica - morbidade de alta prevalência e uma das principais causas de mortalidade no Brasil e no mundo - continua sendo tema de grande interesse para a Saúde Pública. Recentemente, três novas diretrizes sobre dislipidemia e prevenção da aterosclerose foram divulgadas. A convergência no tempo dessas importantes publicações constitui boa oportunidade para sua comparação: o modelo brasileiro tem maior sensibilidade, o inglês não trabalha com risco estratificado e o norte-americano parece estar superestimando o risco.Isso permitirá reflexões acerca dos avanços que já foram alcançados e identificação de aspectos ainda controversos, que seguem exigindo novas pesquisas e debates. É também uma oportunidade para discutir questões relacionadas ao diagnóstico precoce e sua eficiência como estratégia preventiva da doença aterosclerótica: as transformações do risco em doença, a diminuição progressiva de pontos de

  19. Renal acidification defects in medullary sponge kidney

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osther, P J; Hansen, A B; Røhl, H F

    1988-01-01

    Thirteen patients with medullary sponge kidney underwent a short ammonium chloride loading test to investigate their renal acidification capacity. All but 1 presented with a history of recurrent renal calculi and showed bilateral widespread renal medullary calcification on X-ray examination. Nine...... of renal calculi in medullary sponge kidney, have considerable therapeutic implications....

  20. Cólica renal

    OpenAIRE

    Pinheiro, JC

    1999-01-01

    Os aspectos práticos de actuação na cólica renal são abordados nesta apresentação, que o médico de família, a quem os doentes primeiro recorrem, deve conhecer em pormenor.É referida a incidência da afecção num serviço de urgência dum grande hospital e descreve-se, ainda que sumariamente, a fisiopatologia da dor, o quadro clínico mais frequente e a conveniente actuação terapêutica para o imediato alívio da dor intensa que estes doentes apresentam. Nas conclusões sublinha-se que a cólica ...

  1. Mature Cystic Renal Teratoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yavuz, Alpaslan; Ceken, Kagan; Alimoglu, Emel; Akkaya, Bahar

    2014-01-01

    Teratomas are rare germline tumors that originate from one or more embryonic germ cell layers. Teratoma of the kidney is extremely rare, and less than 30 cases of primary intrarenal teratomas have been published to date. We report the main radiologic features of an unusual case of mature cystic teratoma arising from the left kidney in a two-year-old boy. A left-sided abdominal mass was detected on physical examination and B-Mod Ultrasound (US) examination revealed a heterogeneous mass with central cystic component. Computed tomography (CT) demonstrated a lobulated, heterogeneous, hypodense mass extending craniocaudally from the splenic hilum to the level of the left iliac fossa. Nephrectomy was performed and a large, fatty mass arising from the left kidney was excised. The final pathologic diagnosis was confirmed as cystic renal teratoma

  2. Hyperparathyroidism of Renal Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuen, Noah K; Ananthakrishnan, Shubha; Campbell, Michael J

    2016-01-01

    Renal hyperparathyroidism (rHPT) is a common complication of chronic kidney disease characterized by elevated parathyroid hormone levels secondary to derangements in the homeostasis of calcium, phosphate, and vitamin D. Patients with rHPT experience increased rates of cardiovascular problems and bone disease. The Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes guidelines recommend that screening and management of rHPT be initiated for all patients with chronic kidney disease stage 3 (estimated glomerular filtration rate, < 60 mL/min/1.73 m(2)). Since the 1990s, improving medical management with vitamin D analogs, phosphate binders, and calcimimetic drugs has expanded the treatment options for patients with rHPT, but some patients still require a parathyroidectomy to mitigate the sequelae of this challenging disease.

  3. Rapid noninvasive detection of experimental atherosclerotic lesions with novel 99mTc-labeled diadenosine tetraphosphates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmaleh, David R.; Narula, Jagat; Babich, John W.; Petrov, Artiom; Fischman, Alan J.; Khaw, Ban-An; Rapaport, Eliezer; Zamecnik, Paul C.

    1998-01-01

    The development of a noninvasive imaging procedure for identifying atherosclerotic lesions is extremely important for the clinical management of patients with coronary artery and peripheral vascular disease. Although numerous radiopharmaceuticals have been proposed for this purpose, none has demonstrated the diagnostic accuracy required to replace invasive angiography. In this report, we used the radiolabeled purine analog, 99mTc diadenosine tetraphosphate (Ap4A; AppppA, P1,P4-di(adenosine-5′)-tetraphosphate) and its analogue 99mTc AppCHClppA for imaging experimental atherosclerotic lesions in New Zealand White rabbits. Serial gamma camera images were obtained after intravenous injection of the radiolabeled dinucleotides. After acquiring the final images, the animals were sacrificed, ex vivo images of the aortas were recorded, and biodistribution was measured. 99mTc-Ap4A and 99mTc AppCHClppA accumulated rapidly in atherosclerotic abdominal aorta, and lesions were clearly visible within 30 min after injection in all animals that were studied. Both radiopharmaceuticals were retained in the lesions for 3 hr, and the peak lesion to normal vessel ratio was 7.4 to 1. Neither of the purine analogs showed significant accumulation in the abdominal aorta of normal (control) rabbits. The excised aortas showed lesion patterns that were highly correlated with the in vivo and ex vivo imaging results. The present study demonstrates that purine receptors are up-regulated in experimental atherosclerotic lesions and 99mTc-labeled purine analogs have potential for rapid noninvasive detection of plaque formation. PMID:9435254

  4. Monitoring of arterial wall remodelling in atherosclerotic rabbits with a magnetic resonance imaging contrast agent binding to matrix metalloproteinases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyafil, Fabien; Vucic, Esad; Cornily, Jean-Christophe; Sharma, Rahul; Amirbekian, Vardan; Blackwell, Francis; Lancelot, Eric; Corot, Claire; Fuster, Valentin; Galis, Zorina S.; Feldman, Laurent J.; Fayad, Zahi A.

    2011-01-01

    Aims P947 is a gadolinium-based magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agent with high affinity for several matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) involved in arterial wall remodelling. We tested whether the intensity of enhancement detected in vivo in the arterial wall with P947 and MRI correlates with actual tissue MMP-related enzymatic activity measured in a rabbit atherosclerotic model subjected to dietary manipulations. Methods and results Aortas of 15 rabbits in which atherosclerotic lesions were induced by balloon angioplasty and 4 months of hypercholesterolaemic diet were imaged at ‘baseline’ with P947-enhanced MRI. Atherosclerotic rabbits were divided into three groups: five rabbits were sacrificed (‘baseline’ group); five rabbits continued to be fed a lipid-supplemented diet (‘high-fat’ group); and five rabbits were switched from atherogenic to a purified chow diet (‘low-fat’ group). Four months later, a second P947-enhanced MRI was acquired in the 10 remaining rabbits. A significantly lower signal was detected in the aortic wall of rabbits from the ‘low-fat’ group as compared with rabbits from the ‘high-fat’ group (21 ± 6 vs. 46 ± 3%, respectively; P = 0.04). Such differences were not detected with the contrast agent P1135, which lacks the MMP-specific peptide sequence. In addition, the intensity of aortic wall enhancement detected with MRI after injection of P947 strongly correlated with actual MMP-2 gelatinolytic activity measured in corresponding aortic segments using zymography (r = 0.87). Conclusion P947-enhanced MRI can distinguish dietary-induced variations in MMP-related enzymatic activity within plaques in an experimental atherosclerotic model, supporting its utility as a clinical imaging tool for in vivo detection of arterial wall remodelling. PMID:21118852

  5. Digital Image Analysis of Ultrasound B-mode images of Carotid Atherosclerotic Plaque: Correlation with Histological Examination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilhjelm, Jens E.; Rosendal, Kim; Grønholdt, Marie-Louise Moes

    1996-01-01

    This paper reports on a study of how well texture features extracted from B-mode images of atherosclerotic plaque correlates with histological results obtained from the same plaque after carotid endarterectomy. The study reveals that a few second order texture features (diagonal moment, standard...... deviation and autocorrelation) provide good correlation within the training set (p = 0.04); However, the correlation found so far is not so high, that the method can be used in clinical prediction of plaque constituents....

  6. Lung and renal transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Caetano Mota

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Renal transplantation is the most common type of solid organ transplantation and kidney transplant recipients are susceptible to pulmonary complications of immunosuppressive therapy, which are a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge. Aim: To evaluate patients admitted to the Renal Transplant Unit (RTU of Hospital de S. João with respiratory disease. Subject and methods: We performed a retrospective study of all patients admitted to RTU with respiratory disease during a period of 12 months. Results: Thirty-six patients were included. Mean age 55.2 ( ± 13.4 years; 61.1% male. Immunosuppressive agents most frequently used were prednisolone and mycophenolate mofetil associated with ciclosporin (38.9% or tacrolimus (22.2% or rapamycin (13.9%. Thirty-one patients (86.1% presented infectious respiratory disease. In this group the main diagnoses were 23 (74.2% pneumonias, 5 (16.1% opportunistic infections, 2 (6.5% tracheobronchitis, and 1 case (3.2% of lung abscesses. Microbiological agent was identified in 7 cases (22.6%. Five patients (13.9% presented rapamycin-induced lung disease. Fibreoptic bronchoscopy was performed in 15 patients (41.7%, diagnostic in 10 cases (66.7%. Mean hospital stay was 17.1 ( ± 18.5 days and no related death was observed. Conclusion: Respiratory infections were the main complications in these patients. Drug-induced lung disease implies recognition of its features and a rigorous monitoring of drug serum levels. A more invasive diagnostic approach was determinant in the choice of an early and more specific therapy. Resumo: O transplante renal é o transplante de órgãos sólidos mais frequente, sendo os transplantados renais alvo de complicações pulmonares inerentes à própria terapêutica imunossupressora, as quais constituem, por vezes, um desafio diagnóstico e terapêutico. Objectivo: Avaliar os doentes admitidos na Unidade de Transplante Renal (UTR do Hospital de S. João com o diagnóstico de patologia respirat

  7. Characterization of complex renal cysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graumann, Ole; Osther, Susanne Sloth; Osther, Palle Jörn Sloth

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Objective. Complex renal cysts represent a major clinical problem, since it is often difficult to exclude malignancy. The Bosniak classification system, based on computed tomography (CT), is widely used to categorize cystic renal lesions. The aim of this study was to evaluate critically...... available data on the Bosniak classification. Material and methods. All publications from an Entrez Pubmed search were reviewed, focusing on clinical applicability and the use of imaging modalities other than CT to categorize complex renal cysts. Results. Fifteen retrospective studies were found. Most...

  8. Renal rickets-practical approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahay, Manisha; Sahay, Rakesh

    2013-01-01

    Rickets/osteomalacia is an important problem in a tropical country. Many cases are due to poor vitamin D intake or calcium deficient diets and can be corrected by administration of calcium and vitamin D. However, some cases are refractory to vitamin D therapy and are related to renal defects. These include rickets of renal tubular acidosis (RTA), hypophosphatemic rickets, and vitamin D dependent rickets (VDDR). The latter is due to impaired action of 1α-hydroxylase in renal tubule. These varieties need proper diagnosis and specific treatment. PMID:24251212

  9. Renal epithelioid angiomyolipoma presenting clinically as renal cell ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    M.S. Johnson

    a Detroit Medical Center, Michigan State University School of Osteopathic Medicine, Detroit, MI, USA .... Immunohistochemically, the tumor cells stained strongly positive .... [10] Cao Q, Liu F, Xiao P, Tian X, Li B, Li Z. Coexistence of renal.

  10. Diagnosis of renal disease in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harcourt-Brown, Frances Margaret

    2013-01-01

    There are differences in renal anatomy and physiology between rabbits and other domestic species. Neurogenic renal ischemia occurs readily. Reversible prerenal azotemia may be seen in conjunction with gut stasis. Potentially fatal acute renal failure may be due to structural kidney damage or post-renal disease. Chronic renal failure is often associated with encephalitozoonosis. Affected rabbits cannot vomit and often eat well. Weight loss, lethargy, and cachexia are common clinical signs. Polydypsia/polyuria may be present. Derangements in calcium and phosphorus metabolism are features of renal disease. Radiography is always indicated. Urolithiasis, osteosclerosis, aortic and renal calcification are easily seen on radiographs. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. The correlation of serum PDGF and Ang-2 contents with atherosclerotic plaque features in patients with coronary heart disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-Bing Xi

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the correlation of serum PDGF and Ang-2 contents with atherosclerotic plaque features in patients with coronary heart disease. Methods: A total of 80 patients with coronary heart disease who were treated in our hospital between January 2013 and April 2016 were collected as the observation group, and 50 healthy subjects who received medical examination in our hospital during the same period were selected as the normal control group. Serum PDGF and Ang-2 contents of two groups of patients were detected, and the observation group were further divided into the high PDGF group and low PDGF group (n = 40 as well as the high Ang-2 group and low Ang-2 group (n = 40 according to the median of PDGF and Ang-2 contents. Ultrasonic contrast technology was used to assess the atherosclerotic plaque characteristics in patients with coronary heart disease. Results: Serum PDGF and Ang-2 contents of observation group were significantly higher than those of control group; ultrasound parameters P and AUC levels of high PDGF group were higher than those of low PDGF group while Tp and MTT levels were lower than those of low PDGF group; ultrasound parameters P and AUC levels of high Ang-2 group were higher than those of low Ang-2 group while Tp and MTT levels were lower than those of low Ang-2 group. Conclusion: Serum PDGF and Ang-2 contents increase in patients with coronary heart disease and are negatively correlated with the atherosclerotic plaque stability.

  12. Cross-reacting antibacterial auto-antibodies are produced within coronary atherosclerotic plaques of acute coronary syndrome patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filippo Canducci

    Full Text Available Coronary atherosclerosis, the main condition predisposing to acute myocardial infarction, has an inflammatory component caused by stimuli that are yet unknown. We molecularly investigated the nature of the immune response within human coronary lesion in four coronary plaques obtained by endoluminal atherectomy from four patients. We constructed phage-display libraries containing the IgG1/kappa antibody fragments produced by B-lymphocytes present in each plaque. By immunoaffinity, we selected from these libraries a monoclonal antibody, arbitrarily named Fab7816, able to react both with coronary and carotid atherosclerotic tissue samples. We also demonstrated by confocal microscopy that this monoclonal antibody recognized human transgelin type 1, a cytoskeleton protein involved in atherogenesis, and that it co-localized with fibrocyte-like cells transgelin+, CD68+, CD45+ in human sections of coronary and carotid plaques. In vitro fibrocytes obtained by differentiating CD14+ cells isolated from peripheral blood mononuclear cells also interacted with Fab7816, thus supporting the hypothesis of a specific recognition of fibrocytes into the atherosclerotic lesions. Interestingly, the same antibody, cross-reacted with the outer membrane proteins of Proteus mirabilis and Klebsiella pneumoniae (and possibly with homologous proteins of other enterobacteriaceae present in the microbiota. From all the other three libraries, we were able to clone, by immunoaffinity selection, human monoclonal antibodies cross-reacting with bacterial outer membrane proteins and with transgelin. These findings demonstrated that in human atherosclerotic plaques a local cross-reactive immune response takes place.

  13. Fish-Free Diet in Patients with Phenylketonuria Is Not Associated with Early Atherosclerotic Changes and Enhanced Platelet Activation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrik Htun

    Full Text Available Since patients with phenylketonuria (PKU have to follow a lifelong restriction of natural protein to lower phenylalanine-intake, they never eat fish. This diet may lead to a chronic deficit of omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids with the risk of early atherosclerotic changes. The aim of the study was to analyse the fatty acid profile of PKU patients and to correlate the results with surrogate markers of early atherosclerotic changes [enhanced carotid intima media thickness (CIMT and ß-stiffness index] and platelet activation.In 43 PKU patients and in 58 healthy controls we prospectively examined the fatty acid profile, CIMT, ß-stiffness index and platelet activation (flow cytometric determination of markers of platelet activation. CIMT was measured bilaterally by ultrasound. CIMTmean was defined as the mean value of the sum of CIMTleft and CIMTright.Despite of lower HDL-cholesterol and higher triglyceride concentrations in the PKU group, there was no significant difference in the omega-6 or omega-3 fatty acid profile, CIMT, ß-stiffness index between both groups. Platelet activation was not enhanced in the PKU group.Fish-free diet does not induce early atherosclerotic changes or enhanced platelet activation in PKU patients.

  14. Fish-Free Diet in Patients with Phenylketonuria Is Not Associated with Early Atherosclerotic Changes and Enhanced Platelet Activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Htun, Patrik; Nee, Jens; Ploeckinger, Ursula; Eder, Klaus; Geisler, Tobias; Gawaz, Meinrad; Bocksch, Wolfgang; Fateh-Moghadam, Suzanne

    2015-01-01

    Since patients with phenylketonuria (PKU) have to follow a lifelong restriction of natural protein to lower phenylalanine-intake, they never eat fish. This diet may lead to a chronic deficit of omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids with the risk of early atherosclerotic changes. The aim of the study was to analyse the fatty acid profile of PKU patients and to correlate the results with surrogate markers of early atherosclerotic changes [enhanced carotid intima media thickness (CIMT) and ß-stiffness index] and platelet activation. In 43 PKU patients and in 58 healthy controls we prospectively examined the fatty acid profile, CIMT, ß-stiffness index and platelet activation (flow cytometric determination of markers of platelet activation). CIMT was measured bilaterally by ultrasound. CIMTmean was defined as the mean value of the sum of CIMTleft and CIMTright. Despite of lower HDL-cholesterol and higher triglyceride concentrations in the PKU group, there was no significant difference in the omega-6 or omega-3 fatty acid profile, CIMT, ß-stiffness index between both groups. Platelet activation was not enhanced in the PKU group. Fish-free diet does not induce early atherosclerotic changes or enhanced platelet activation in PKU patients.

  15. Calcified carotid atherosclerotic plaques on digital panoramic radiographs in patients with Type II diabetes mellitus: A case control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neha Khambete

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Diabetes mellitus is associated with accelerated carotid artery atherosclerosis and increased risk of stroke. This study was conducted with the objective of determining the prevalence of calcified atherosclerotic plaques on panoramic radiographs of patients with Type II diabetes mellitus. Materials and Methods: Panoramic radiographs of 100 patients (age range 50-84 years with known history of type II diabetes mellitus, visiting the outpatient department were evaluated for the presence of calcified atherosclerotic plaques. Age- and sex-matched controls were evaluated in the same manner. Statistical comparison of prevalence rates was done. Results: The radiographs of diabetics (mean age: 64.45 years revealed that 26% had atheromatous plaques, whereas those of controls (mean age: 65.36 years revealed that 6% had atheromatous plaques. A statistically significant difference (P = 0.01410 was obtained using Yates′ Chi-square test. Conclusion: People with diabetes mellitus had a greater prevalence of calcified atherosclerotic plaques on panoramic radiographs than non-diabetics. Panoramic radiographs of diabetic patients should be screened for the presence of carotid artery atheromatous plaques for timely medical referral of asymptomatic patients and avoiding any further serious consequences like cerebrovascular accidents.

  16. Relative risk for cardiovascular atherosclerotic events after smoking cessation: 6–9 years excess risk in individuals with familial hypercholesterolemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kastelein John JP

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Smoking history is often di- or trichotomized into for example "never, ever or current smoking". However, smoking must be treated as a time-dependent covariate when lifetime data is available. In particular, individuals do not smoke at birth, there is usually a wide variation with respect to smoking history, and smoking cessation must also be considered. Methods Therefore we analyzed smoking as a time-dependent risk factor for cardiovascular atherosclerotic events in a cohort of 2400 individuals with familial hypercholesterolemia who were followed from birth until 2004. Excess risk after smoking-cessation was modelled in a Cox regression model with linear and exponential decaying trends. The model with the highest likelihood value was used to estimate the decay of the excess risk of smoking. Results Atherosclerotic events were observed in 779 patients with familial hypercholesterolemia and 1569 individuals had a smoking history. In the model with the highest likelihood value the risk reduction of smoking after cessation follows a linear pattern with time and it appears to take 6 to 9 years before the excess risk is reduced to zero. The risk of atherosclerotic events due to smoking was estimated as 2.1 (95% confidence interval 1.5; 2.9. Conclusion It was concluded that excess risk due to smoking declined linearly after cessation in at least six to nine years.

  17. Renal vein oxygen saturation in renal artery stenosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, K; Rehling, M; Henriksen, Jens Henrik Sahl

    1992-01-01

    Renal vein oxygen-saturation was measured in 56 patients with arterial hypertension and unilateral stenosis or occlusion of the renal artery. Oxygen-saturation in blood from the ischaemic kidney (84.4%, range 73-93%) was significantly higher than that from the 'normal' contralateral kidney (81...... than its blood flow. This is probably due to decreased filtration fraction and filtered sodium with subsequent reduction in absolute tubular re-absorption of sodium ions....

  18. CUTANEOUS MANIFESTATIONS OF CHRONIC RENAL FAILURE AND RENAL TRANSPLANTATION

    OpenAIRE

    R. Suganya Gnanadeepam; S. Kayalvizhi Money

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND The kidney and the skin are the two large networks of the body with abundant blood supply associated with various cutaneous manifestations. This study aims to detect the various cutaneous manifestations and its incidence in patients with chronic renal failure and renal transplantation. MATERIALS AND METHODS This study was done for a period of 1 year from January 2016 to December 2016 at Nephrology OPD ward and Medicine wards, Government KAPV Medical College Hos...

  19. Study of pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) peel extract containing anthocyanins on fatty streak formation in the renal arteries in hypercholesterolemic rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharifiyan, Fatemeh; Movahedian-Attar, Ahmad; Nili, Nafiseh; Asgary, Sedigheh

    2016-01-01

    The influence of the supplementation of pomegranate peel extract containing anthocyanins on atherosclerotic plaque formation induced by hypercholesterolemia was investigated in renal arteries in rabbits. After the determination of polyphenol and anthocyanin's content of P. granatum peel hydroalcoholic extract, 30 male rabbits were randomly divided into three groups. They were fed basic diet, hypercholesterolemic diet and hypercholesterolemic diet along with P. granatum peel extract (polyphenolic content for each rabbit 1 g/kg diet) for 2 month. Blood samples were collected at the begging, middle and end of the study in order to measure lipid concentration and oxidative and antioxidative status variables, and renal arteries were taken for the assessment of atherosclerotic plaques at the end of the study. The results reveal that P. granatum peel extract significantly increases serum antioxidant capacity in the extract recipient group in comparison with hypercholesterolemic control (P 0.05). The results of this study indicate that consumption of pomegranate peel extract containing anthocyanins (polyphenol content 1 g/kg diet) despite of a significant increase in serum antioxidant capacity cannot protect the kidneys from hypercholesterolemia-induced damages during the treatment period.

  20. Other relevant biological papers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimizu, M.

    1989-01-01

    A considerable number of CRESP-relevant papers concerning deep-sea biology and radioecology have been published. It is the purpose of this study to call attention to them. They fall into three general categories. The first is papers of general interest. They are mentioned only briefly, and include text references to the global bibliography at the end of the volume. The second are papers that are not only mentioned and referenced, but for various reasons are described in abstract form. The last is a list of papers compiled by H.S.J. Roe specifically for this volume. They are listed in bibliographic form, and are also included in the global bibliography at the end of the volume

  1. Relationship between renal cortex and parenchyma thickness and renal function: study with CT measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Yufeng; Tang Guangjian; Jiang Xuexiang

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To study the relationship between renal morphology and renal function, and to assess the value of CT as a criterion to grade renal function. Methods: Enhancement CT were performed in 89 patients with no local renal disease whose split renal glomerular filtration rates (GFR) were measured by renal dynamic imaging with 99 Tc m -DTPA. The 178 kidneys were divided into normal renal function, mild and severe renal impairment groups according to renal function. Differences between three groups respect to the mean thickness of renal cortex and parenchyma were assessed by ANOVA. Using Pearson's correlation test, the correlation between the renal cortex, parenchyma thicknesses and renal GFR were examined. The value of CT in predicting renal function was assessed by using ROC analysis. Results: The renal cortex thicknesses of normal renal function, mild and severe renal impairment groups were (5.9±1.1), (4.6± 1.1), and (3.3±1.0) mm respectively, and the renal parenchyma thicknesses were (26.3±4.2), (21.3±4.6), (16.2±4.6) mm. There were significant differences of renal cortex, parenchyma thicknesses between 3 groups (cortex F=54.78, P<0.01; parenehyma F=43.90, P<0.01). The thicknesses of renal cortex (r=0.752, P<0.01), parenchyma (r=0.738, P<0.01) had positive linear correlation with renal function. ROC analysis of the renal cortex thicknesses measured by CT in predicting mild and severe renal impairment showed that the Az was 0.860 and 0.905 respectively, whereas that of parenchyma was 0.868 and 0.884. Conclusion: The thicknesses of renal cortex, parenchyma measured by CT can reflect renal function. CT was a supplementary method to assess renal function. (authors)

  2. The Effects of Renal Denervation on Renal Hemodynamics and Renal Vasculature in a Porcine Model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willemien L Verloop

    Full Text Available Recently, the efficacy of renal denervation (RDN has been debated. It is discussed whether RDN is able to adequately target the renal nerves.We aimed to investigate how effective RDN was by means of functional hemodynamic measurements and nerve damage on histology.We performed hemodynamic measurements in both renal arteries of healthy pigs using a Doppler flow and pressure wire. Subsequently unilateral denervation was performed, followed by repeated bilateral hemodynamic measurements. Pigs were terminated directly after RDN or were followed for 3 weeks or 3 months after the procedure. After termination, both treated and control arteries were prepared for histology to evaluate vascular damage and nerve damage. Directly after RDN, resting renal blood flow tended to increase by 29±67% (P = 0.01. In contrast, renal resistance reserve increased from 1.74 (1.28 to 1.88 (1.17 (P = 0.02 during follow-up. Vascular histopathology showed that most nerves around the treated arteries were located outside the lesion areas (8±7 out of 55±25 (14% nerves per pig were observed within a lesion area. Subsequently, a correlation was noted between a more impaired adventitia and a reduction in renal resistance reserve (β: -0.33; P = 0.05 at three weeks of follow-up.Only a small minority of renal nerves was targeted after RDN. Furthermore, more severe adventitial damage was related to a reduction in renal resistance in the treated arteries at follow-up. These hemodynamic and histological observations may indicate that RDN did not sufficiently target the renal nerves. Potentially, this may explain the significant spread in the response after RDN.

  3. The Effects of Renal Denervation on Renal Hemodynamics and Renal Vasculature in a Porcine Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verloop, Willemien L.; Hubens, Lisette E. G.; Spiering, Wilko; Doevendans, Pieter A.; Goldschmeding, Roel; Bleys, Ronald L. A. W.; Voskuil, Michiel

    2015-01-01

    Rationale Recently, the efficacy of renal denervation (RDN) has been debated. It is discussed whether RDN is able to adequately target the renal nerves. Objective We aimed to investigate how effective RDN was by means of functional hemodynamic measurements and nerve damage on histology. Methods and Results We performed hemodynamic measurements in both renal arteries of healthy pigs using a Doppler flow and pressure wire. Subsequently unilateral denervation was performed, followed by repeated bilateral hemodynamic measurements. Pigs were terminated directly after RDN or were followed for 3 weeks or 3 months after the procedure. After termination, both treated and control arteries were prepared for histology to evaluate vascular damage and nerve damage. Directly after RDN, resting renal blood flow tended to increase by 29±67% (P = 0.01). In contrast, renal resistance reserve increased from 1.74 (1.28) to 1.88 (1.17) (P = 0.02) during follow-up. Vascular histopathology showed that most nerves around the treated arteries were located outside the lesion areas (8±7 out of 55±25 (14%) nerves per pig were observed within a lesion area). Subsequently, a correlation was noted between a more impaired adventitia and a reduction in renal resistance reserve (β: -0.33; P = 0.05) at three weeks of follow-up. Conclusion Only a small minority of renal nerves was targeted after RDN. Furthermore, more severe adventitial damage was related to a reduction in renal resistance in the treated arteries at follow-up. These hemodynamic and histological observations may indicate that RDN did not sufficiently target the renal nerves. Potentially, this may explain the significant spread in the response after RDN. PMID:26587981

  4. Evaluation of the Effect of Andrographolide on Atherosclerotic Rabbits Induced by Porphyromonas gingivalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rami Al Batran

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiologic evidence has demonstrated significant associations between atherosclerosis and Porphyromonas gingivalis (Pg. We had investigated the effect of andrographolide (AND on atherosclerosis induced by Pg in rabbits. For experimental purpose, we separated thirty male white New Zealand rabbits into 5 groups. Group 1 received standard food pellets; Groups 2–5 were orally challenged with Pg; Group 3 received atorvastatin (AV, 5 mg/kg, and Groups 4-5 received 10 and 20 mg/kg of AND, respectively, over 12 weeks. Groups treated with AND showed significant decrease in TC, TG, and LDL levels (P<0.05 and significant increase in HDL level in the serum of rabbits. Furthermore, the treated groups (G3–G5 exhibited reductions in interleukins (IL-1β and IL-6 and C-reactive protein (CRP as compared to atherogenicgroup (G2. The histological results showed that the thickening of atherosclerotic plaques were less significant in treated groups (G3–G5 compared with atherogenicgroup (G2. Also, alpha-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA staining decreased within the plaques of atherogenicgroup (G2, while it was increased in treated groups (G3–G5. Lastly, groups treated with AV and AND (G3–G5 showed significant reduction of CD36 expression (P<0.05 compared to atherogenicgroup (G2. These results substantially proved that AND contain antiatherogenic activity.

  5. Large mobile thrombus in non-atherosclerotic thoracic aorta as the source of peripheral arterial embolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brkovic Zoran

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The presence of thrombi in the atherosclerotic and/or aneurysmatic aorta with peripheral arterial embolism is a common scenario. Thrombus formation in a morphologically normal aorta, however, is a rare event. A 50 years old woman was admitted to the mergency department for pain, coldness, and anesthesia in the the left foot. She had a 25 years history of cigarette smoking, a history of postmenopausal hormone replacement therapy (HRT, hypercholesterolemia and hyperfibrinogenemia. An extensive serologic survey for hypercoagulability, including antiphospholipid antibodies, and vasculitis disorders was negative. Transesophageal echocardiography revealed a large, pedunculated and hypermobile thrombus attached to the aortic wall 5 cm distal of the left subclavian artery. The patient was admitted to the surgery department, where a 15 cm long fresh, parietal thrombus could be removed from the aorta showing no macroscopic wall lesions or any other morphologic abnormalities. This case report demonstrates the possibility of evolving a large, pedunculated thrombus in a morphologically intact aorta in a postmenopausal woman with thrombogenic conditions such as hyperfibrinogenemia, hypercholesterolemia, smoking and HRT. For these patients, profiling the individual risk and weighing the benefits against the potential risks is warranted before prescribing HRT.

  6. Enterprise stent in recanalizing non-acute atherosclerotic intracranial internal carotid artery occlusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaofei; Wang, Zhigang; Ji, Yong; Ding, Xuan; Zang, Yizheng; Wang, Chengwei

    2017-11-01

    To investigate the safety and effectiveness of recanalization in non-acute occlusion of intracranial internal carotid arteries using the flexible Enterprise self-expanding stent. From June 2014 to June 2016, 12 consecutive patients with non-acute occlusion of intracranial internal carotid arteries received endovascular recanalization with Enterprise stenting. All patients received medication for anti-platelet aggregation therapy before and after the operation. The perioperative complications and recanalization efficacy were evaluated with the modified Rankin scoring system and digital subtraction angiography (DSA) follow-up, respectively. Endovascular recanalization was successfully performed in 10 out of 12 patients with Enterprise stenting. Stent implantation following balloon dilatation failed in one patient because the lumen diameter was too small. Another recanalization failed because the guide wire could not pass through the occlusion. No perioperative mortality was observed. One case of acute thrombosis and one case of intraoperative carotid spasm occurred, but these were resolved with thrombolytic therapy by microcatheter exposure treatment and antispasmodic medications, respectively. DSA follow-up in seven patients revealed no re-occlusion. One stroke event occurred in the 10 patients who completed the follow-up. A meaningful improvement in the modified Rankin score during follow-up was suggested by Wilcoxon signed-rank test results. The Enterprise stent was shown to be safe and efficient in recanalizing non-acute atherosclerotic intracranial internal carotid artery occlusion. However, the long-term outcomes need to be further investigated. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Enterprise stent for the treatment of symptomatic intracranial atherosclerotic stenosis: an initial experience of 44 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Zhengzhe; Duan, Guoli; Zhang, Ping; Chen, Lei; Xu, Yi; Hong, Bo; Zhao, Wenyuan; Liu, Jianmin; Huang, Qinghai

    2015-10-08

    Wingspan stenting for the treatment of complex intracranial atherosclerotic stenosis (ICAS), i.e., that involving tortuous vascular pathways, long (>15 mm) lesions or arterial bifurcations, has a relatively high risk of complications. This retrospective study assessed the safety and efficacy of undersized balloon angioplasty followed by deployment of the more flexible Enterprise stent for the treatment of complex symptomatic ICAS. Forty-four patients on combined antiplatelet therapy and intensive risk factor management and a symptomatic 70-99% stenosis of a major intracranial artery in complex settings that was treated with balloon angioplasty and Enterprise stent deployment between July 2009 and August 2013 were enrolled. Primary outcome was occurrence of ischemic or hemorrhagic stroke or death within 30 days after intervention. Secondary outcomes included procedural success (defined as achievement of 50% in-stent restenosis after mean 22 months follow-up. In this retrospective, single-center experience, undersized balloon angioplasty followed by Enterprise stent deployment appears technically feasible with a relatively low rate of complications for the treatment of complex symptomatic ICAS. Prospective, multicenter, randomized controlled trials against optimal medical management are warranted.

  8. High-resolution vessel wall MRI for the evaluation of intracranial atherosclerotic disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Havenon, Adam [University of Utah, Department of Neurology, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Mossa-Basha, Mahmud [University of Washington, Department of Radiology, Seattle, WA (United States); Shah, Lubdha; Kim, Seong-Eun; Parker, Dennis; McNally, J.S. [University of Utah, Department of Radiology, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Park, Min [University of Utah, Department of Neurosurgery, Salt Lake City, UT (United States)

    2017-12-15

    High-resolution vessel wall MRI (vwMRI) of the intracranial arteries is an emerging diagnostic imaging technique with the goal of evaluating vascular pathology. vwMRI sequences have high spatial resolution and directly image the vessel wall by suppressing blood signal. With vwMRI, it is possible to identify distinct morphologic and enhancement patterns of atherosclerosis that can provide important information about stroke etiology and recurrence risk. We present a review of vwMRI research in relation to intracranial atherosclerosis, with a focus on the relationship between ischemic stroke and atherosclerotic plaque T1 post-contrast enhancement or plaque/vessel wall morphology. The goal of this review is to provide readers with the most current understanding of the reliability, incidence, and importance of specific vwMRI findings in intracranial atherosclerosis, to guide their interpretation of vwMRI research, and help inform clinical interpretation of vwMRI. We will also provide a translational perspective on the existing vwMRI literature and insight into future vwMRI research questions and objectives. With increased use of high field strength MRI, powerful gradients, and improved pulse sequences, vwMRI will become standard-of-care in the diagnosis and prognosis of patients with cerebrovascular disease, making a firm grasp of its strengths and weakness important for neuroimagers. (orig.)

  9. Atherosclerotic plaque in the left carotid artery is more vulnerable than in the right.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selwaness, Mariana; van den Bouwhuijsen, Quirijn; van Onkelen, Robbert S; Hofman, Albert; Franco, Oscar H; van der Lugt, Aad; Wentzel, Jolanda J; Vernooij, Meike

    2014-11-01

    Ischemic stroke is more often diagnosed in the left hemisphere than in the right. It is unknown whether this asymmetrical prevalence relates to differences in carotid atherosclerosis. We compared atherosclerotic plaque prevalence, severity, and composition between left and right carotid arteries. In a population-based cohort, carotid MRI scanning was performed in 1414 stroke-free participants (≥45 years). Using a multisequence MRI protocol, we assessed the prevalence, stenosis, and thickness of the plaque and its predominant component (ie, lipid core, intraplaque hemorrhage, calcification, or fibrous tissue in each carotid artery). Differences between left and right side were tested using paired t tests, McNemar test and Generalized Estimating Equation analyses. The majority (85%) of the participants had bilateral carotid plaques. Unilateral plaques were twice more prevalent on the left than on the right side (67% versus 33%; Pthe left (3.1±1.2 versus 2.9±1.3 mm; Pthe left (9.1 versus 5.9%; Pthe right (37.4 versus 31.6% at the left; Pright-sided plaques, which are more calcified and therefore considered more stable. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  10. Mechanical characterization of atherosclerotic arteries using finite-element modeling: feasibility study on mock arteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pazos, Valérie; Mongrain, Rosaire; Tardif, Jean-Claude

    2010-06-01

    Clinical studies on lipid-lowering therapy have shown that changing the composition of lipid pools reduced significantly the risk of cardiac events associated with plaque rupture. It has been shown also that changing the composition of the lipid pool affects its mechanical properties. However, knowledge about the mechanical properties of human atherosclerotic lesions remains limited due to the difficulty of the experiments. This paper aims to assess the feasibility of characterizing a lipid pool embedded in the wall of a pressurized vessel using finite-element simulations and an optimization algorithm. Finite-element simulations of inflation experiments were used together with nonlinear least squares algorithm to estimate the material model parameters of the wall and of the inclusion. An optimal fit of the simulated experiment and the real experiment was sought with the parameter estimation algorithm. The method was first tested on a single-layer polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) cryogel stenotic vessel, and then, applied on a double-layered PVA cryogel stenotic vessel with a lipid inclusion.

  11. Moderate overweight is beneficial and severe obesity detrimental for patients with documented atherosclerotic heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azimi, Aziza; Charlot, Mette Gitz; Torp-Pedersen, Christian; Gislason, Gunnar H; Køber, Lars; Jensen, Lisette Okkels; Thayssen, Per; Ravkilde, Jan; Tilsted, Hans-Henrik; Lassen, Jens Flensted; Thuesen, Leif

    2013-05-01

    Obesity is paradoxically associated with enhanced survival in patients with established cardiovascular disease. We explored this paradox further by examining the influence of obesity on survival in patients with verified atherosclerotic heart disease. This retrospective registry based cohort study included all patients from the Western Denmark Heart Registry with coronary atherosclerosis confirmed by coronary angiography from January 2000 to December 2010. Patients were divided into eight groups according to body mass index (BMI) based on WHO BMI classification. Department of Cardiology, Copenhagen University Hospital Gentofte, Hellerup, Denmark. The study included 37 573 patients (70.7% men) with a mean age of (66.3 ± 11.1) years. During the 11 years of follow-up, 5866 (15.6%) patients died. Multivariable analysis confirmed that the risk of death was the lowest among the preobese patients (27.5 ≤ BMIObese classes I and II did not differ from the reference group (23 ≤ BMIheart disease patients have improved survival compared with normal weight patients. Underweight and severely obese patients have increased mortality. Our results lean more towards an overweight paradox than an obesity paradox.

  12. Human macrophage scavenger receptors: Primary structure, expression, and localization in atherosclerotic lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumoto, Akiyo; Itakura, Hiroshige; Kodama, Tatsuhiko; Naito, Makoto; Takahashi, Kiyoshi; Ikemoto, Shinji; Asaoka, Hitoshi; Hayakawa, Ikuho; Kanamori, Hiroshi; Takaku, Fumimaro; Aburatani, Hiroyuki; Suzuki, Hiroshi; Kobari, Yukage; Miyai, Tatsuya; Cohen, E.H.; Wydro, R.; Housman, D.E.

    1990-01-01

    Two types of cDNAs for human macrophage scavenger receptors were cloned from a cDNA library derived from the phorbol ester-treated human monocytic cell line THP-1. The type I and type II human scavenger receptors encoded by these cDNAs are homologous (73% and 71% amino acid identity) to their previously characterized bovine counterparts and consist of six domains: cytoplasmic (I), membrane-spanning (II), spacer (III), α-helical coiled-coil (IV), collagen-like (V), and a type-specific C-terminal (VI). The receptor gene is located on human chromosome 8. The human receptors expressed in CHO-K1 cells mediated endocytosis of modified low density lipoproteins. Two mRNAs, 4.0 and 3.2 kilobases, have been detected in human liver, placenta, and brain. Immunohistochemical studies using an anti-peptide antibody which recognizes human scavenger receptors indicated the presence of the scavenger receptors in the macrophages of lipid-rich atherosclerotic lesions, suggesting the involvement of scavenger receptors in atherogenesis

  13. Systemic effects of periodontitis: Lessons learned from research on atherosclerotic vascular disease and adverse pregnancy outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papapanou, Panos N.

    2015-01-01

    Studies conducted over the past 25 years have focused on the role of periodontitis, an inflammatory condition of microbial etiology that destroys the tooth supporting tissues, as a systemic inflammatory stressor that can act as an independent risk factor of atherosclerotic vascular disease (AVSD) and adverse pregnancy outcomes (APOs). It has been suggested that periodontitis-associated bacteremias and systemic dissemination of inflammatory mediators produced in the periodontal tissues may result in systemic inflammation and endothelial dysfunction, while bacteria of oral origin may translocate into the feto-placental unit. Epidemiologic studies largely support an association between periodontitis and ASVD / APOs independent of known confounders; indeed, periodontitis has been shown to confer statistically significantly elevated risk for clinical events associated with ASVD and APOs in multivariable adjustments. On the other hand, intervention studies demonstrate that although periodontal therapy reduces systemic inflammation and improves endothelial function, it has no positive effect on the incidence of APOs. Studies of the effects of periodontal interventions on ASVD-related clinical events are lacking. This review summarizes key findings from mechanistic, association and intervention studies and attempts to reconcile the seemingly contradictory evidence that originates from different lines of investigation. PMID:26388299

  14. Anti-Atherosclerotic Action of Agmatine in ApoE-Knockout Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiśniewska, Anna; Olszanecki, Rafał; Totoń-Żurańska, Justyna; Kuś, Katarzyna; Stachowicz, Aneta; Suski, Maciej; Gębska, Anna; Gajda, Mariusz; Jawień, Jacek; Korbut, Ryszard

    2017-08-04

    Atherosclerosis is an inflammatory disease in which dysfunction of mitochondria play an important role, and disorders of lipid management intensify this process. Agmatine, an endogenous polyamine formed by decarboxylation of arginine, exerts a protective effect on mitochondria and modulates fatty acid metabolism. We investigated the effect of exogenous agmatine on the development of atherosclerosis and changes in lipid profile in apolipoprotein E knockout (apoE-/-) mice. Agmatine caused an approximate 40% decrease of atherosclerotic lesions, as estimated by en face and cross-section methods with an influence on macrophage but not on smooth muscle content in the plaques. Agmatine treatment did not changed gelatinase activity within the plaque area. What is more, the action of agmatine was associated with an increase in the number of high density lipoproteins (HDL) in blood. Real-Time PCR analysis showed that agmatine modulates liver mRNA levels of many factors involved in oxidation of fatty acid and cholesterol biosynthesis. Two-dimensional electrophoresis coupled with mass spectrometry identified 27 differentially expressed mitochondrial proteins upon agmatine treatment in the liver of apoE-/- mice, mostly proteins related to metabolism and apoptosis. In conclusion, prolonged administration of agmatine inhibits atherosclerosis in apoE-/- mice; however, the exact mechanisms linking observed changes and elevations of HDL plasma require further investigation.

  15. Oxidized low-density lipoproteins may induce expression of monocyte chemotactic protein-3 in atherosclerotic plaques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, Moon Kyoo; Kim, Ji Young; Jeoung, Nam Ho; Kang, Mi Ae; Choi, Myung-Sook; Oh, Goo Taeg; Nam, Kyung Tak; Lee, Won-Ha; Park, Yong Bok

    2004-01-01

    Genes induced or suppressed by oxidized low-density lipoproteins (oxLDL) in human monocytic THP-1 cells were searched using the differential display reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. One of the differentially expressed (up-regulated) cDNA fragments was found to contain sequences corresponding to monocyte chemotactic protein-3 (MCP-3). The stimulatory effect of the oxLDL on the expression of MCP-3 mRNA was both time- and dose-dependent. Treatment with GF109203X and genistein, inhibitors of protein kinase C and tyrosine kinase, respectively, had no effect on the induction of MCP-3 mRNA by oxLDL, while treatment with cycloheximide inhibited the induction. The induction was reproduced by the lipid components in oxLDL such as 9-HODE and 13-HODE, which are known to activate the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ). Introduction of an endogenous PPARγ ligand, 15d-PGJ2, in the culture of THP-1 cells resulted in the induction of MCP-3 gene expression. Furthermore, analyses of human atherosclerotic plaques revealed that the expressional pattern of MCP-3 in the regions of neointimal and necrotic core overlapped with that of PPARγ. These results suggest that oxLDL delivers its signal for MCP-3 expression via PPARγ, which may be further related to the atherogenesis

  16. Laser-driven short-duration heating angioplasty: dilatation performance in cadaver atherosclerotic femoral arteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimazaki, Natsumi; Naruse, Sho; Arai, Tsunenori; Imanishi, Nobuaki; Aiso, Sadakazu

    2013-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the artery dilatation performance of the short-duration heating balloon catheter in cadaver stenotic arteries. We designed a prototype short-duration heating balloon catheter that can heat artery media to around 60 °C in 15-25 s by a combination of laser-driven heat generation and continuous fluid irrigation in the balloon. We performed ex vivo short-duration heating dilatation in the cadaver atherosclerotic femoral arteries (initial percent diameter stenosis was 36-98%), with the maximum balloon temperature of 65+/-5 °C, laser irradiation duration of 25 s, and balloon dilatation pressure of 3.5 atm. The artery lumen configurations before and after the dilatations were assessed with a commercial IVUS system. After the short-duration heating dilatations, the percent diameter stenosis was reduced below 30% without any artery tears or dissections. We estimated that the artery media temperature was raised to around 60 °C in which plaque thickness was below 0.8 mm by a thermal conduction calculation. The estimated maximum temperature in artery adventitia and surrounding tissue was up to 45 °C. We found that the short-duration heating balloon could sufficiently dilate the cadaver stenotic arteries, without thermal injury in artery adventitia and surroundings.

  17. Inhaled diesel emissions alter atherosclerotic plaque composition in ApoE-/- mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campen, Matthew J.; Lund, Amie K.; Knuckles, Travis L.; Conklin, Daniel J.; Bishop, Barbara; Young, David; Seilkop, Steven; Seagrave, JeanClare; Reed, Matthew D.; McDonald, Jacob D.

    2010-01-01

    Recent epidemiological studies suggest that traffic-related air pollution may have detrimental effects on cardiovascular health. Previous studies reveal that gasoline emissions can induce several enzyme pathways involved in the formation and development of atherosclerotic plaques. As a direct comparison, the present study examined the impact of diesel engine emissions on these pathways, and further examined the effects on vascular lesion pathology. Apolipoprotein E-null mice were simultaneously placed on a high-fat chow diet and exposed to four concentrations, plus a high concentration exposure with particulates (PM) removed by filtration, of diesel emissions for 6 h/day for 50 days. Aortas were subsequently assayed for alterations in matrix metalloproteinase-9, endothelin-1, and several other biomarkers. Diesel induced dose-related alterations in gene markers of vascular remodeling and aortic lipid peroxidation; filtration of PM did not significantly alter these vascular responses, indicating that the gaseous portion of the exhaust was a principal driver. Immunohistochemical analysis of aortic leaflet sections revealed no net increase in lesion area, but a significant decrease in lipid-rich regions and increasing trends in macrophage accumulation and collagen content, suggesting that plaques were advanced to a more fragile, potentially more vulnerable state by diesel exhaust exposure. Combined with previous studies, these results indicate that whole emissions from mobile sources may have a significant role in promoting chronic vascular disease.

  18. The association between HIV and atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease in sub-Saharan Africa: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyle, Emily P; Mayosi, Bongani M; Middelkoop, Keren; Mosepele, Mosepele; Martey, Emily B; Walensky, Rochelle P; Bekker, Linda-Gail; Triant, Virginia A

    2017-12-15

    Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) has confronted decades of the HIV epidemic with substantial improvements in access to life-saving antiretroviral therapy (ART). Now, with improved survival, people living with HIV (PLWH) are at increased risk for non-communicable diseases (NCDs), including atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (CVD). We assessed the existing literature regarding the association of CVD outcomes and HIV in SSA. We used the PRISMA guidelines to perform a systematic review of the published literature regarding the association of CVD and HIV in SSA with a focus on CVD surrogate and clinical outcomes in PLWH. From January 2000 until March 2017, 31 articles were published regarding CVD outcomes among PLWH in SSA. Data from surrogate CVD outcomes (n = 13) suggest an increased risk of CVD events among PLWH in SSA. Although acute coronary syndrome is reported infrequently in SSA among PLWH, limited data from five studies suggest extensive thrombus and hypercoagulability as contributing factors. Additional studies suggest an increased risk of stroke among PLWH (n = 13); however, most data are from immunosuppressed ART-naïve PLWH and thus are potentially confounded by the possibility of central nervous system infections. Given ongoing gaps in our current understanding of CVD and other NCDs in PLWH in SSA, it is imperative to ascertain the burden of CVD outcomes, and to examine strategies for intervention and best practices to enhance the health of this vulnerable population.

  19. Atherosclerotic Heart Disease: Prevalence and Risk Factors in Hospitalized Men with Hemophilia A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragni, Margaret V.; Moore, Charity G.

    2011-01-01

    Summary Background Atherosclerotic heart disease (ASHD) is a common cause of morbidity and mortality in Western society. Few studies have determined prevalence and predictors of ASHD in hemophilia (HA), a population whose survival is improving with safer blood products and effective treatments for AIDS and hepatitis C. Objectives The purpose of this study was to determine prevalence and factors associated with ASHD in hemophilia A patients in Pennsylvania. Methods The prevalence of ASHD (myocardial infarction, angina, coronary disease), cardiac catheterization, coronary angiography, co-morbidities, and in-hospital mortality were assessed on statewide ASHD discharge data, 2001–2006, from the Pennsylvania Health Care Cost Containment Council (PHC4). Results The prevalence of hemophilia ASHD admissions fluctuated between 6.5% and 10.5% for 2001 to 2006, p=0.62. Compared to HA without ASHD, HA with ASHD were older and more likely to be hypertensive, hyperlipidemic, and diabetic, all pHemophilia patients with ASHD have similar cardiovascular risk factors, admitting diagnoses, severity of illness, and in-hospital mortality as the general population. These findings suggest cardiovascular prevention measures should be promoted in hemophilia. PMID:21371197

  20. F-18 fluoride positron emission tomography-computed tomography for detecting atherosclerotic plaques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Won Jun

    2015-01-01

    A large number of major cardiovascular events occur in patients due to minimal or some lumen narrowing of the coronary artery. Recent biological studies have shown that the biological composition or vulnerability of the plaque is more critical for plaque rupture compared to the degree of stenosis. To overcome the limitations of anatomical images, molecular imaging techniques have been suggested as promising imaging tools in various fields. F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG), which is widely used in the field of oncology, is an example of molecular probes used in atherosclerotic plaque evaluation. FDG is a marker of plaque macrophage glucose utilization and inflammation, which is a prominent characteristic of vulnerable plaque. Recently, F-18 fluoride has been used to visualize vulnerable plaque in clinical studies. F-18 fluoride accumulates in regions of active microcalcification, which is normally observed during the early stages of plaque formation. More studies are warranted on the accumulation of F-18 fluoride and plaque formation/vulnerability; however, due to high specific accumulation, low background activity, and easy accessibility, F-18 fluoride is emerging as a promising non-invasive imaging probe to detect vulnerable plaque