WorldWideScience

Sample records for release package review

  1. Critical review of controlled release packaging to improve food safety and quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xi; Chen, Mo; Xu, Chenyi; Yam, Kit L

    2018-03-19

    Controlled release packaging (CRP) is an innovative technology that uses the package to release active compounds in a controlled manner to improve safety and quality for a wide range of food products during storage. This paper provides a critical review of the uniqueness, design considerations, and research gaps of CRP, with a focus on the kinetics and mechanism of active compounds releasing from the package. Literature data and practical examples are presented to illustrate how CRP controls what active compounds to release, when and how to release, how much and how fast to release, in order to improve food safety and quality.

  2. NFR TRIGA package design review report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clements, M.D.

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to compile, present and document the formal design review of the NRF TRIGA packaging. The contents of this document include: the briefing meeting presentations, package description, design calculations, package review drawings, meeting minutes, action item lists, review comment records, final resolutions, and released drawings. This design review required more than two meeting to resolve comments. Therefore, there are three meeting minutes and two action item lists

  3. Release of powdered material from waste packages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berg, H.P.; Gruendler, D.; Peiffer, F.; Seehars, H.D.

    1990-01-01

    Possible incidents in the operational phase of the planned German repository KONRAD for radioactive waste with negligible heat production were investigated to assess the radiological consequences. For these investigations release fractions of the radioactive materials are required. This paper deals with the determination of the release of powdered material from waste packages under mechanical stress. These determinations were based on experiments. The experimental procedure and the process parameters chosen in accordance with the conditions in the planned repository will be described. The significance of the experimental results is discussed with respect to incidents in the planned repository. 8 figs., 3 tabs

  4. Packaging Review Guide for Reviewing Safety Analysis Reports for Packagings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DiSabatino, A; Biswas, D; DeMicco, M; Fisher, L E; Hafner, R; Haslam, J; Mok, G; Patel, C; Russell, E

    2007-04-12

    This Packaging Review Guide (PRG) provides guidance for Department of Energy (DOE) review and approval of packagings to transport fissile and Type B quantities of radioactive material. It fulfills, in part, the requirements of DOE Order 460.1B for the Headquarters Certifying Official to establish standards and to provide guidance for the preparation of Safety Analysis Reports for Packagings (SARPs). This PRG is intended for use by the Headquarters Certifying Official and his or her review staff, DOE Secretarial offices, operations/field offices, and applicants for DOE packaging approval. This PRG is generally organized at the section level in a format similar to that recommended in Regulatory Guide 7.9 (RG 7.9). One notable exception is the addition of Section 9 (Quality Assurance), which is not included as a separate chapter in RG 7.9. Within each section, this PRG addresses the technical and regulatory bases for the review, the manner in which the review is accomplished, and findings that are generally applicable for a package that meets the approval standards. This Packaging Review Guide (PRG) provides guidance for DOE review and approval of packagings to transport fissile and Type B quantities of radioactive material. It fulfills, in part, the requirements of DOE O 460.1B for the Headquarters Certifying Official to establish standards and to provide guidance for the preparation of Safety Analysis Reports for Packagings (SARPs). This PRG is intended for use by the Headquarters Certifying Official and his review staff, DOE Secretarial offices, operations/field offices, and applicants for DOE packaging approval. The primary objectives of this PRG are to: (1) Summarize the regulatory requirements for package approval; (2) Describe the technical review procedures by which DOE determines that these requirements have been satisfied; (3) Establish and maintain the quality and uniformity of reviews; (4) Define the base from which to evaluate proposed changes in scope

  5. Factors affecting release of ethanol vapour in active modified atmosphere packaging systems for horticultural products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weerawate Utto

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The active modified atmosphere packaging (active MAP system , which provides interactive postharvest control , using ethanol vapour controlled release, is one of the current interests in the development of active packaging for horticultural products. A number of published research work have discussed the relationship between the effectiveness of ethanol vapour and its concentration in the package headspace, including its effect on postharvest decay and physiological controls. This is of importance because a controlled release system should release and maintain ethanol vapour at effective concentrations during the desired storage period. A balance among the mass transfer processes of ethanol vapour in the package results in ethanol vapour accumulation in the package headspace. Key factors affecting these processes include ethanol loading, packaging material, packaged product and storage environment (temperature and relative h umidity. This article reviews their influences and discusses future work required to better understand their influences on ethanol vapour release and accumulations in active MAP.

  6. Packaging - Materials review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrmann, Matthias [Hoppecke Advanced Battery Technology GmbH, 08056 Zwickau (Germany)

    2014-06-16

    Nowadays, a large number of different electrochemical energy storage systems are known. In the last two decades the development was strongly driven by a continuously growing market of portable electronic devices (e.g. cellular phones, lap top computers, camcorders, cameras, tools). Current intensive efforts are under way to develop systems for automotive industry within the framework of electrically propelled mobility (e.g. hybrid electric vehicles, plug-in hybrid electric vehicles, full electric vehicles) and also for the energy storage market (e.g. electrical grid stability, renewable energies). Besides the different systems (cell chemistries), electrochemical cells and batteries were developed and are offered in many shapes, sizes and designs, in order to meet performance and design requirements of the widespread applications. Proper packaging is thereby one important technological step for designing optimum, reliable and safe batteries for operation. In this contribution, current packaging approaches of cells and batteries together with the corresponding materials are discussed. The focus is laid on rechargeable systems for industrial applications (i.e. alkaline systems, lithium-ion, lead-acid). In principle, four different cell types (shapes) can be identified - button, cylindrical, prismatic and pouch. Cell size can be either in accordance with international (e.g. International Electrotechnical Commission, IEC) or other standards or can meet application-specific dimensions. Since cell housing or container, terminals and, if necessary, safety installations as inactive (non-reactive) materials reduce energy density of the battery, the development of low-weight packages is a challenging task. In addition to that, other requirements have to be fulfilled: mechanical stability and durability, sealing (e.g. high permeation barrier against humidity for lithium-ion technology), high packing efficiency, possible installation of safety devices (current interrupt device

  7. Packaging - Materials review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrmann, Matthias

    2014-06-01

    Nowadays, a large number of different electrochemical energy storage systems are known. In the last two decades the development was strongly driven by a continuously growing market of portable electronic devices (e.g. cellular phones, lap top computers, camcorders, cameras, tools). Current intensive efforts are under way to develop systems for automotive industry within the framework of electrically propelled mobility (e.g. hybrid electric vehicles, plug-in hybrid electric vehicles, full electric vehicles) and also for the energy storage market (e.g. electrical grid stability, renewable energies). Besides the different systems (cell chemistries), electrochemical cells and batteries were developed and are offered in many shapes, sizes and designs, in order to meet performance and design requirements of the widespread applications. Proper packaging is thereby one important technological step for designing optimum, reliable and safe batteries for operation. In this contribution, current packaging approaches of cells and batteries together with the corresponding materials are discussed. The focus is laid on rechargeable systems for industrial applications (i.e. alkaline systems, lithium-ion, lead-acid). In principle, four different cell types (shapes) can be identified - button, cylindrical, prismatic and pouch. Cell size can be either in accordance with international (e.g. International Electrotechnical Commission, IEC) or other standards or can meet application-specific dimensions. Since cell housing or container, terminals and, if necessary, safety installations as inactive (non-reactive) materials reduce energy density of the battery, the development of low-weight packages is a challenging task. In addition to that, other requirements have to be fulfilled: mechanical stability and durability, sealing (e.g. high permeation barrier against humidity for lithium-ion technology), high packing efficiency, possible installation of safety devices (current interrupt device

  8. Packaging - Materials review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrmann, Matthias

    2014-01-01

    Nowadays, a large number of different electrochemical energy storage systems are known. In the last two decades the development was strongly driven by a continuously growing market of portable electronic devices (e.g. cellular phones, lap top computers, camcorders, cameras, tools). Current intensive efforts are under way to develop systems for automotive industry within the framework of electrically propelled mobility (e.g. hybrid electric vehicles, plug-in hybrid electric vehicles, full electric vehicles) and also for the energy storage market (e.g. electrical grid stability, renewable energies). Besides the different systems (cell chemistries), electrochemical cells and batteries were developed and are offered in many shapes, sizes and designs, in order to meet performance and design requirements of the widespread applications. Proper packaging is thereby one important technological step for designing optimum, reliable and safe batteries for operation. In this contribution, current packaging approaches of cells and batteries together with the corresponding materials are discussed. The focus is laid on rechargeable systems for industrial applications (i.e. alkaline systems, lithium-ion, lead-acid). In principle, four different cell types (shapes) can be identified - button, cylindrical, prismatic and pouch. Cell size can be either in accordance with international (e.g. International Electrotechnical Commission, IEC) or other standards or can meet application-specific dimensions. Since cell housing or container, terminals and, if necessary, safety installations as inactive (non-reactive) materials reduce energy density of the battery, the development of low-weight packages is a challenging task. In addition to that, other requirements have to be fulfilled: mechanical stability and durability, sealing (e.g. high permeation barrier against humidity for lithium-ion technology), high packing efficiency, possible installation of safety devices (current interrupt device

  9. Release rates from waste packages in a salt repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chambre, P.L.; Hwang, Y.; Lee, W.W.L.; Pigford, T.H.

    1987-06-01

    In this report we present estimates of radionuclide release rates from waste packages into salt. This conservative and bounding analysis shows that release rates from waste packages in salt are well below the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission's performance objectives for the engineered barrier system. 2 refs., 2 figs

  10. Influence of factors on release of antimicrobials from antimicrobial packaging materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yu-Mei; Wang, Zhi-Wei; Hu, Chang-Ying; Nerín, Cristina

    2018-05-03

    Antimicrobial packaging materials (films or coatings) (APMs) have aroused great interest among the scientists or the experts specialized in material science, food science, packaging engineering, biology and chemistry. APMs have been used to package the food, such as dairy products, poultry, meat (e.g., beef), salmon muscle, pastry dough, fresh pasta, bakery products, fruits, vegetables and beverages. Some materials have been already commercialized. The ability of APMs to extend the shelf-life of the food depends on the release rate of the antimicrobials (AMs) from the materials to the food. The optimum rate is defined as target release rate (TRR). To achieve TRR, the influencing factors of the release rate should be considered. Herein we reviewed for the first time these factors and their influence on the release. These factors mainly include the AMs, food (or food simulant), packaging materials, the interactions among them, the temperature and environmental relative humidity (RH).

  11. Effects of sorption hysteresis on radionuclide releases from waste packages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barney, G.S.; Reed, D.T.

    1985-01-01

    A one-dimensional, numerical transport model was used to calculate radionuclide releases from waste packages emplaced in a nuclear waste repository in basalt. The model incorporates both sorption and desorption isotherm parameters measured previously for sorption of key radionuclides on the packing material component of the waste package. Sorption hysteresis as described by these isotherms lowered releases of some radionuclides by as much as two orders of magnitude. Radionuclides that have low molar inventories (relative to uranium), high solubility, and strongly sorbed, are most affected by sorption hysteresis. In these cases, almost the entire radionuclide inventory is sorbed on the packing material. The model can be used to help optimize the thickness of the packing material layer by comparing release rate versus packing material thickness curves with Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) release limits

  12. Release kinetics of tocopherol and quercetin from binary antioxidant controlled-release packaging films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xi; Lee, Dong Sun; Zhu, Xuntao; Yam, Kit L

    2012-04-04

    This paper investigated the feasibility of manipulating packaging polymers with various degrees of hydrophobicity to release two antioxidants, tocopherol and quercetin, at rates suitable for long-term inhibition of lipid oxidation in food. For example, one antioxidant can be released at a fast rate to provide short-term/intermediate protection, whereas the other antioxidant can be released at a slower rate to provide intermediate/long-term protection of lipid oxidation. Controlled-release packaging films containing tocopherol and quercetin were produced using ethylene vinyl alcohol (EVOH), ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA), low-density polyethylene (LDPE), and polypropylene (PP) polymers; the release of these antioxidants to 95% ethanol (a fatty food simulant) was measured using UV-vis spectrophotometry, and Fickian diffusion models with appropriate initial and boundary conditions were used to fit the data. For films containing only quercetin, the results show that the release of quercetin was much faster but lasted for a much shorter time for hydrophilic polymers (EVOH and EVA) than for hydrophobic polymers (LDPE and PP). For binary antioxidant films containing tocopherol and quercetin, the results show that tocopherol released more rapidly but for a shorter period of time than quercetin in LDPE and EVOH films, and the difference is more pronounced for LDPE films than EVOH films. The results also show the presence of tocopherol can accelerate the release of quercetin. Although none of the films produced is acceptable for long-term lipid oxidation inhibition, the study provides encouraging results suggesting that acceptable films may be produced in the future using polymer blend films.

  13. ERG review of waste package corrosion mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geisert, R.E.

    1988-01-01

    The Engineering Review Group (ERG) was established by the Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation (ONWI) to help evaluate engineering-related issues in the US Department of Energy's nuclear waste repository program. The ERG reviewed the waste package corrosion mechanisms. This report documents the ERG's comments and recommendations on these subjects and the ONWI response to the specific points raised by the ERG. 1 ref

  14. Review of DOE waste package program. Subtask 1.1. National waste package program, April-September 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soo, P.

    1983-03-01

    The current effort is part of an ongoing task to evaluate the national high-level waste package effort. It includes evaluations of reference waste form, container, and packing material components with respect to determining how they may contribute to the containment and controlled release of radionuclides after waste packages have been emplaced in salt and basalt repositories. Chemical and mechanical failure/degradation modes for the waste package have been reviewed and the licensing data requirements to demonstrate compliance with NRC performance objectives specified

  15. Experiments to quantify airborne release from packages with dispersible radioactive materials under accident conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martens, R.; Lange, F. [Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit (GRS) mbH, Schwertnergasse 1, 50667 Koeln (Germany); Koch, W.; Nolte, O. [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Toxikologie und Experimentelle Medizin (ITEM), Nikolai-Fuchs-Str.1, 30625 Hannover (Germany)

    2005-07-01

    For transport or handling accidents involving packages with radioactive materials and the assessment of potential radiological consequences, for the review of current requirements of the IAEA Transport Regulations, and for their possible further development reliable release data following mechanical impact are required. Within this context a research project was carried out which extends the basis for a well-founded examination of the contemporary system of requirements of 'Low Specific Activity' (LSA)-type materials and allows for its further development where appropriate. This project comprises a prior system-analytical examination and an experimental programme aiming at improving the general physical understanding of the release process as well as the quantity and the characteristics of airborne released material for non-fixed dispersible LSA-II material upon mechanical impact. Impaction experiments applying small, medium and real sized specimens of different dispersible materials revealed that the release behaviour of dispersible powders strongly depends upon material properties, e.g. particle size distribution and cohesion forces. The highest experimentally determined release fraction of respirable mass (AED < 10 {mu}m) amounted to about 2 % and was obtained for 2 kg of un-contained easily dispersible pulverized fly ash (PFA). For larger un-contained PFA specimen the release fraction decreases. However, packaging containing powdery material substantially reduces the airborne release fraction. The measured airborne release fractions for a 200 l drum with Type A certificate containing PFA were about a factor of 50 to 100 lower than for un-contained material. For a drop height of 9 m the airborne release fraction amounted to about 4 x 10{sup -5}. This value should be applicable for most of transport and handling accidents with mechanical impact. For a metal container of Type IP-2 or better which contains powder masses of 100 kg or more this release

  16. Smart packaging systems for food applications: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biji, K B; Ravishankar, C N; Mohan, C O; Srinivasa Gopal, T K

    2015-10-01

    Changes in consumer preference for safe food have led to innovations in packaging technologies. This article reviews about different smart packaging systems and their applications in food packaging, packaging research with latest innovations. Active and intelligent packing are such packaging technologies which offer to deliver safer and quality products. Active packaging refers to the incorporation of additives into the package with the aim of maintaining or extending the product quality and shelf life. The intelligent systems are those that monitor the condition of packaged food to give information regarding the quality of the packaged food during transportation and storage. These technologies are designed to the increasing demand for safer foods with better shelf life. The market for active and intelligent packaging systems is expected to have a promising future by their integration into packaging materials or systems.

  17. Packaging review guide for reviewing safety analysis reports for packagings: Revision 0

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, L.E.; Chou, C.K.; Lloyd, W.R.; Mount, M.E.; Nelson, T.A.; Schwartz, M.W.; Witte, M.C.

    1987-09-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has established procedures for obtaining certification of packagings used by DOE and its contractors for the transport of radioactive materials. These certification review policies and procedures are established to ensure that DOE packaging designs and operations meet safety criteria at least equivalent to the standards prescribed by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) certification process for packaging. The Packaging Review Guide (PRG) is not a DOE order, but has been prepared as guidance for the Packaging Certification Staff (PCS) under the Certifying Official, Office of Security Evaluations, or designated representatives. The principal purpose of the PRG is to assure the quality and uniformity of PCS reviews, and to present a well-defined base from which to evaluate proposed changes in the scope and requirements of reviews. The PRG also sets forth solutions and approaches determined to be acceptable in the past by the PCS in dealing with a specific safety issue or safety-related design area. These solutions and approaches are presented in this form so that reviewers can take consistent and well-understood positions as the same safety issues arise in future cases. An applicant submitting a SARP does not have to follow the solutions or approaches presented in the PRG. However, applicants should recognize that the PCS has spent substantial time and effort in reviewing and developing their positions for the issues. A corresponding amount of time and effort will probably be required to review and accept new or different solutions and approaches. Finally, it is also a purpose of the PRG to make information about DOE certification policy and procedures widely available to DOE field offices, DOE contractors, federal agencies, and interested members of the public. 7 refs., 15 figs., 14 tabs

  18. Review of DOE waste package program. Subtask 1.1 - National Waste Package Program, October 1983-March 1984. Volume 6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soo, P.

    1985-03-01

    The present effort is part of an ongoing task to review the national high-level waste package effort. It includes evaluation of reference waste form, container, and packing material components with respect to determining how they may contribute to the containment and controlled release of radionuclides after waste packages have been emplaced in salt, basalt, tuff, and granite repositories. In the current Biannual Report a review of progress in the new crystalline repository (granite) program is described. Other foreign data for this host rock have also been outlined where relevant. The use of crushed salt, and bentonite- and zeolite-containing packing materials is discussed. The effects of temperature and gamma irradiation are shown to be important with respect to defining the localized environmental conditions around a waste package and the long-term integrity of the packing

  19. Microcomputer applications for NSSS data package review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eng, D.J.; Smith, F.M.

    1984-01-01

    Associated with each component of a Nuclear Steam Supply System are the necessary supporting documents which demonstrate compliance with applicable codes, specifications and design criteria. The documents are grouped into individual data packages, and may exceed 800 in number for a major installation. A complete review, initiated by a utility in response to federal code regulations (10 CFR 50), can involve a tremendous number of review transactions. A data management system to assist the reviewer in the tracking and resolution of discrepancy items is currently under development and use. The system uses microcomputer-based relational database management software and provides complete and flexible capabilities to process database components and attributes based on user specified criteria. The completed database is a ''portable'' system, and can be utilized on an as-needed basis after the review is completed. A discrepancy analysis is performed to identify relations between manufacturer and discrepancy occurrence, part type vs. discrepancy type, etc. These results may prove useful in subsequent reviews or application to existing QA procedures

  20. Antimicrobial packaging with natural compunds - a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Dobrucka

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background:  Packaging problems are an integral part of logistics and the implementation of packaging significantly affects the effectiveness of logistics processes, as a factor which increases the safety and the quality of products being transported. Active packaging is an area of technology needed to meet the requirements of the contemporary consumer. Active packaging creates additional opportunities in systems for packing goods, as well as offering a solution in which the packaging, the product and surroundings interact. Furthermore, active packaging allows packaging to interact with food and the environment and play a dynamic role in food preservation. The main role of antimicrobial packaging is to inhibit the growth of microorganisms that reduce the quality of the packaged product. Methods: The application of natural antimicrobial agents appears to be safe for food products. Also, these compounds have potential applications as a natural preservative in the food packaging industry. This study presents some antibacterial agents, namely chitosan, nisin and pectins. Results and conclusion: Natural substances used in active packaging can eliminate the danger of chemical substances migrating to food.

  1. Review of DOE waste package program. Subtask 1.1. National waste package program, April-September 1983. Volume 5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soo, P. (ed.)

    1984-08-01

    The current effort is part of an ongoing task to review the national high-level waste package effort. It includes evaluations of reference waste form, container, and packing material components with respect to determining how they may contribute to the containment and controlled release of radionuclides after waste packages have been emplaced in salt, basalt, and tuff repositories. In the current Biannual Report a section on carbon steel container corrosion has been included to complement prior work on TiCode-12 and Type 304 stainless steel. The use of crushed tuff as a packing material is discussed and waste package component interaction test data are included. Licensing data requirements to estimate the degree of compliance with NRC performance objectives are specified. 41 figures, 24 tables.

  2. Review of DOE waste package program. Subtask 1.1. National waste package program, April-September 1983. Volume 5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soo, P.

    1984-08-01

    The current effort is part of an ongoing task to review the national high-level waste package effort. It includes evaluations of reference waste form, container, and packing material components with respect to determining how they may contribute to the containment and controlled release of radionuclides after waste packages have been emplaced in salt, basalt, and tuff repositories. In the current Biannual Report a section on carbon steel container corrosion has been included to complement prior work on TiCode-12 and Type 304 stainless steel. The use of crushed tuff as a packing material is discussed and waste package component interaction test data are included. Licensing data requirements to estimate the degree of compliance with NRC performance objectives are specified. 41 figures, 24 tables

  3. Preliminary assessment of the controlled release of radionuclides from waste packages containing borosilicate waste glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strachan, D.M.; McGrail, B.P.; Apted, M.J.; Engle, D.W.; Eslinger, P.W.

    1990-06-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide a preliminary assessment of the release-rate for an engineered barriers subsystem (EBS) containing waste packages of defense high-level waste borosilicate glass at geochemical and hydrological conditions similar to the those at Yucca Mountain. The relationship between the proposed Waste Acceptance Preliminary Specifications (WAPS) test of glass- dissolution rate and compliance with the NRC's release-rate criterion is also evaluated. Calculations are reported for three hierarchical levels: EBS analysis, waste-package analysis, and waste-glass analysis. The following conclusions identify those factors that most acutely affect the magnitude of, or uncertainty in, release-rate performance

  4. Controlled release of ethylene via polymeric films for food packaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisano, Roberto; Bazzano, Marco; Capozzi, Luigi Carlo; Ferri, Ada; Sangermano, Marco

    2015-12-01

    In modern fruit supply chain a common method to trigger ripening is to keep fruits inside special chambers and initiate the ripening process through administration of ethylene. Ethylene is usually administered through cylinders with inadequate control of its final concentration in the chamber. The aim of this study is the development of a new technology to accurately regulate ethylene concentration in the atmosphere where fruits are preserved: a polymeric film, containing an inclusion complex of α-cyclodextrin with ethylene, was developed. The complex was prepared by molecular encapsulation which allows the entrapment of ethylene into the cavity of α-cyclodextrin. After encapsulation, ethylene can be gradually released from the inclusion complex and its release rate can be regulated by temperature and humidity. The inclusion complex was dispersed into a thin polymeric film produced by UV-curing. This method was used because is solvent-free and involves low operating temperature; both conditions are necessary to prevent rapid release of ethylene from the film. The polymeric films were characterized with respect to thermal behaviour, crystalline structure and kinetics of ethylene release, showing that can effectively control the release of ethylene within confined volume.

  5. Packaging review guide for reviewing safety analysis reports for packagings: Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisher, L.E.; Chou, C.K.; Lloyd, W.R.; Mount, M.E.; Nelson, T.A.; Schwartz, M.W.; Witte, M.C.

    1988-10-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has established procedures for obtaining certification of packagings used by DOE and its contractors for the transport of radioactive materials. The principal purpose of this document is to assure the quality and uniformity of PCS reviews and to present a well-defined base from which to evaluate proposed changes in the scope and requirements of reviews. The Packaging Review Guide (PRG) also sets forth solutions and approaches determined to be acceptable in the past in dealing with a specific safety issue or safety-related design area. These solutions and approaches are presented in this form so that reviewers can take consistent and well-understood positions as the same safety issues arise in future cases. An applicant submitting a SARP does not have to follow the solutions or approaches presented. It is also a purpose of the PRG to make information about DOE certification policy and procedures widely available to DOE field offices, DOE contractors, federal agencies, and interested members of the public. 77 refs., 16 figs., 15 tabs

  6. Sensitivity of the engineered barrier system (EBS) release rate to alternative conceptual models of advective release from waste packages under dripping fractures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, J.H.; Atkins, J.E.; McNeish, J.A.; Vallikat, V.

    1996-01-01

    The first model assumed that dripping water directly contacts the waste form inside the ''failed'' waste package and radionuclides are released from the EBS by advection. The second model assumed that dripping water is diverted around the package (because of corrosion products plugging the perforations), thereby being prevented from directly contacting the waste form. In the second model, radionuclides were assumed to diffuse through the perforations, and, once outside the waste package, to be released from the EBS by advection. For the case with the second EBS release model, most radionuclides had lower peak EBS release rates than with the first model. Impacts of the alternative EBS release models were greater for the radionuclides with low solubility. The analysis indicated that the EBS release model representing advection through a ''failed'' waste package (the first model) may be too conservative; thus a ''failed'' waste package container with multiple perforations may still be an important barrier to radionuclide release

  7. A brief review of cellular automata packages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hiebeler, D [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1990-01-01

    A very frequently asked question is [open quotes]what CA simulation packages are available [close quotes] Of course, the answer depends largely on what features you are looking for, and how much you are willing to pay. I would like to briefly mention here a few of the simulation packages that I have encountered. This is by no means a complete list, and I apologize to those authors whose packages I failed to mention. Please feel free to contact me about omissions, so that future versions of this article will be more complete.

  8. Release Mathematical Model of Active Agent from Packaging Material into Food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiuling Huang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Active packaging is an innovative packaging technology by which active compounds are released from the package to enhance the quality and microbial safety for a wide range of foods. The problem of active ingredient release through the bilayer packaging food system is studied from a theoretical viewpoint. A release model is built to provide predictions of concentration and amount of active ingredient. The equations are built based on Fickian diffusion, and numerical solutions are obtained through finite difference. Different diffusion coefficients DP and DC of active ingredient in different packaging layers, partition coefficient kCP at the interface of outer layer and inner layer, partition coefficient kFC at the interface of inner layer and food, and mass transfer coefficient hm at the interface of inner layer and food are considered in the model. The effects of kCP, thicknesses of outer layer and inner layer, CP0, DP, DC, kFC, and hm on the release are discussed. Corresponding conclusions and analysis are given.

  9. Integrated performance assessment model for waste policy package behavior and radionuclide release

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kossik, R.; Miller, I.; Cunnane, M.

    1992-01-01

    Golder Associates Inc. (GAI) has developed a probabilistic total system performance assessment and strategy evaluation model (RIP) which can be applied in an iterative manner to evaluate repository site suitability and guide site characterization. This paper describes one component of the RIP software, the waste package behavior and radionuclide release model. The waste package component model considers waste package failure by various modes, matrix alteration/dissolution, and radionuclide mass transfer. Model parameters can be described as functions of local environmental conditions. The waste package component model is coupled to component models for far-field radionuclide transport and disruptive events. The model has recently been applied to the proposed repository at Yucca Mountain

  10. Integrated performance assessment model for waste package behavior and radionuclide release

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kossik, R.; Miller, I.; Cunnane, M.

    1992-01-01

    Golder Associates Inc. (GAI) has developed a probabilistic total system performance assessment and strategy evaluation model (RIP) which can be applied in an iterative manner to evaluate repository site suitability and guide site characterization. This paper describes one component of the RIP software, the waste package behavior and radionuclide release model. The waste package component model considers waste package failure by various modes, matrix alteration/dissolution, and radionuclide mass transfer. Model parameters can be described as functions of local environmental conditions. The waste package component model is coupled to component models for far-field radionuclide transport and disruptive events. The model has recently been applied to the proposed repository at Yucca Mountain

  11. Bioplastics and food packaging: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nafisa Jabeen

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Food packaging as a vital part of the subject of food technology is involved with protection and preservation of all types of foods. Due to economical abundance, petrochemical plastics have been largely used as packaging material due to their desirable properties of good barrier properties towards O2, aroma compounds, tensile strength and tear strength. Meanwhile, they have many disadvantages like very low water vapour transmission rate and the major disadvantage is that they are non-biodegradable and result in environmental pollution. Keeping in view the non-renewable nature and waste disposal problem of petroleum, newer concept of use of bioplastics came into existence. Bioplastics of renewable origin are compostable or degradable by the enzymatic action of micro-organisms. Generally biodegradable polymers get hydrolysed into CO2, CH4, inorganic compounds or biomass. The use of bio-origin materials obtained through microbial fermentations, starch and cellulose has led to their tremendous innovative uses in food packaging in the last few years.

  12. Recycling of Polymer-Based Multilayer Packaging: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharina Kaiser

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Polymer-based multilayer packaging materials are commonly used in order to combine the respective performance of different polymers. By this approach, the tailored functionality of packaging concepts is created to sufficiently protect sensitive food products and thus obtain extended shelf life. However, because of their poor recyclability, most multilayers are usually incinerated or landfilled, counteracting the efforts towards a circular economy and crude oil independency. This review depicts the current state of the European multilayer packaging market and sketches the current end-of-life situation of postconsumer multilayer packaging waste in Germany. In the main section, a general overview of the state of research about material recycling of different multilayer packaging systems is provided. It is divided into two subsections, whereby one describes methods to achieve a separation of the different components, either by delamination or the selective dissolution–reprecipitation technique, and the other describes methods to achieve recycling by compatibilization of nonmiscible polymer types. While compatibilization methods and the technique of dissolution–reprecipitation are already extensively studied, the delamination of packaging has not been investigated systematically. All the presented options are able to recycle multilayer packaging, but also have drawbacks like a limited scope or a high expenditure of energy.

  13. Evaluating Weathering of Food Packaging Polyethylene-Nano-clay Composites: Release of Nanoparticles and their Impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Changseok; Zhao, Amy; Varughese, Eunice; Sahle-Demessie, E

    2018-01-01

    Nano-fillers are increasingly incorporated into polymeric materials to improve the mechanical, barrier or other matrix properties of nanocomposites used for consumer and industrial applications. However, over the life cycle, these nanocomposites could degrade due to exposure to environmental conditions, resulting in the release of embedded nanomaterials from the polymer matrix into the environment. This paper presents a rigorous study on the degradation and the release of nanomaterials from food packaging composites. Films of nano-clay-loaded low-density polyethylene (LDPE) composite for food packaging applications were prepared with the spherilene technology and exposed to accelerated weathering of ultraviolet (UV) irradiation or low concentration of ozone at 40 °C. The changes in the structural, surface morphology, chemical and physical properties of the films during accelerated weathering were investigated. Qualitative and quantitative changes in properties of pristine and aged materials and the release of nano-clay proceeded slowly until 130 hr irradiation and then accelerated afterward resulting complete degradation. Although nano-clay increased the stability of LDPE and improved thermal and barrier properties, they accelerated the UV oxidation of LDPE. With increasing exposure to UV, the surface roughness, chemiluminescence index, and carbonyl index of the samples increased while decreasing the intensity of the wide-angle X-ray diffraction pattern. Nano-clay particles with sizes ranging from 2-8 nm were released from UV and ozone weathered composite. The concentrations of released nanoparticles increased with an increase in aging time. Various toxicity tests, including reactive oxygen species generation and cell activity/viability were also performed on the released nano-clay and clay polymer. The released nano-clays basically did not show toxicity. Our combined results demonstrated the degradation properties of nano-clay particle-embedded LDPE composites

  14. Peer Review of the Waste Package Material Performance Interim Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    J. A. Beavers; T. M. Devine, Jr.; G. S. Frankel; R. H. Jones; R. G. Kelly; R. M. Latanision; J. H. Payer

    2001-01-01

    At the request of the U.S. Department of Energy, Bechtel SAIC Company, LLC, formed the Waste Package Materials Performance Peer Review Panel (the Panel) to review the technical basis for evaluating the long-term performance of waste package materials in a proposed repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. This is the interim report of the Panel; a final report will be issued in February 2002. In its work to date, the Panel has identified important issues regarding waste package materials performance. In the remainder of its work, the Panel will address approaches and plans to resolve these issues. In its review to date, the Panel has not found a technical basis to conclude that the waste package materials are unsuitable for long-term containment at the proposed Yucca Mountain Repository. Nevertheless, significant technical issues remain unsettled and, primarily because of the extremely long life required for the waste packages, there will always be some uncertainty in the assessment. A significant base of scientific and engineering knowledge for assessing materials performance does exist and, therefore, the likelihood is great that uncertainty about the long-term performance can be substantially reduced through further experiments and analysis

  15. Readability of medicinal package leaflets: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pires, Carla; Vigário, Marina; Cavaco, Afonso

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To review studies on the readability of package leaflets of medicinal products for human use. METHODS We conducted a systematic literature review between 2008 and 2013 using the keywords "Readability and Package Leaflet" and "Readability and Package Insert" in the academic search engine Biblioteca do Conhecimento Online, comprising different bibliographic resources/databases. The preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses criteria were applied to prepare the draft of the report. Quantitative and qualitative original studies were included. Opinion or review studies not written in English, Portuguese, Italian, French, or Spanish were excluded. RESULTS We identified 202 studies, of which 180 were excluded and 22 were enrolled [two enrolling healthcare professionals, 10 enrolling other type of participants (including patients), three focused on adverse reactions, and 7 descriptive studies]. The package leaflets presented various readability problems, such as complex and difficult to understand texts, small font size, or few illustrations. The main methods to assess the readability of the package leaflet were usability tests or legibility formulae. Limitations with these methods included reduced number of participants; lack of readability formulas specifically validated for specific languages (e.g., Portuguese); and absence of an assessment on patients literacy, health knowledge, cognitive skills, levels of satisfaction, and opinions. CONCLUSIONS Overall, the package leaflets presented various readability problems. In this review, some methodological limitations were identified, including the participation of a limited number of patients and healthcare professionals, the absence of prior assessments of participant literacy, humor or sense of satisfaction, or the predominance of studies not based on role-plays about the use of medicines. These limitations should be avoided in future studies and be considered when interpreting the results.

  16. Sensitivity of the engineered barrier system (EBS) release rate to alternative conceptual models of advective release from waste packages under dripping fractures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, J.H.; Atkins, J.E.; McNeish, J.A.; Vallikat, V.

    1996-01-01

    Simulations were conducted to analyze the sensitivity of the engineered barrier system (EBS) release rate to alternative conceptual models of the advective release from waste packages under dripping fractures. The first conceptual model assumed that dripping water directly contacts the waste form inside the 'failed' waste package, and radionuclides are released from the EBS by advection. The second conceptual model assumed that dripping water is diverted around the 'failed' waste package (because of the presence of corrosion products plugging the perforations) and dripping water is prevented from directly contacting the waste form. In the second model, radionuclides were assumed to transport through the perforations by diffusion, and, once outside the waste package, to be released from the EBS by advection. The second model was to incorporate more realism into the EBS release calculations. For the case with the second EBS release model, most radionuclides had significantly lower peak EBS release rates (from at least one to several orders of magnitude) than with the first EBS release model. The impacts of the alternative EBS release models were greater for the radionuclides with a low solubility (or solubility-limited radionuclides) than for the radionuclides with a high solubility (or waste form dissolution-limited radionuclides). The analyses indicated that the EBS release model representing advection through a 'failed' waste package (the first EBS release model) may be too conservative in predicting the EBS performance. One major implication from this sensitivity study was that a 'failed' waste package container with multiple perforations may still be able to perform effectively as an important barrier to radionuclide release. (author)

  17. Waste Form Release Data Package for the 2001 Immobilized Low-Activity Waste Performance Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGrail, B. Peter; Icenhower, Jonathan P.; Martin, Paul F.; Schaef, Herbert T.; O' Hara, Matthew J.; Rodriguez, Eugenio; Steele, Jackie L.

    2001-02-01

    This data package documents the experimentally derived input data on the representative waste glasses LAWABP1 and HLP-31 that will be used for simulations of the immobilized lowactivity waste disposal system with the Subsurface Transport Over Reactive Multiphases (STORM) code. The STORM code will be used to provide the near-field radionuclide release source term for a performance assessment to be issued in March of 2001. Documented in this data package are data related to 1) kinetic rate law parameters for glass dissolution, 2) alkali-H ion exchange rate, 3) chemical reaction network of secondary phases that form in accelerated weathering tests, and 4) thermodynamic equilibrium constants assigned to these secondary phases. The kinetic rate law and Na+-H+ ion exchange rate were determined from single-pass flow-through experiments. Pressurized unsaturated flow and vapor hydration experiments were used for accelerated weathering or aging of the glasses. The majority of the thermodynamic data were extracted from the thermodynamic database package shipped with the geochemical code EQ3/6. However, several secondary reaction products identified from laboratory tests with prototypical LAW glasses were not included in this database, nor are the thermodynamic data available in the open literature. One of these phases, herschelite, was determined to have a potentially significant impact on the release calculations and so a solubility product was estimated using a polymer structure model developed for zeolites. Although this data package is relatively complete, final selection of ILAW glass compositions has not been done by the waste treatment plant contractor. Consequently, revisions to this data package to address new ILAW glass formulations are to be regularly expected.

  18. ERG review of waste package container materials selection and corrosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moak, D.P.; Perrin, J.S.

    1986-07-01

    The Engineering Review Group (ERG) was established by the Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation (ONWI) to help evaluate engineering-related issues in the US Department of Energy's nuclear waste repository program. The October 1984 meeting of the ERG reviewed the waste package container materials selection and corrosion. This report documents the ERG's comments and recommendations on these subjects and the ONWI response to the specific points raised by the ERG

  19. NEAMS Software Licensing, Release, and Distribution: Implications for FY2013 Work Package Planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernholdt, David E.

    2012-01-01

    The vision of the NEAMS program is to bring truly predictive modeling and simulation (M and S) capabilities to the nuclear engineering community in order to enable a new approach to the analysis of nuclear systems. NEAMS anticipates issuing in FY 2018 a full release of its computational 'Fermi Toolkit' aimed at advanced reactor and fuel cycles. The NEAMS toolkit involves extensive software development activities, some of which have already been underway for several years, however, the Advanced Modeling and Simulation Office (AMSO), which sponsors the NEAMS program, has not yet issued any official guidance regarding software licensing, release, and distribution policies. This motivated an FY12 task in the Capability Transfer work package to develop and recommend an appropriate set of policies. The current preliminary report is intended to provide awareness of issues with implications for work package planning for FY13. We anticipate a small amount of effort associated with putting into place formal licenses and contributor agreements for NEAMS software which doesn't already have them. We do not anticipate any additional effort or costs associated with software release procedures or schedules beyond those dictated by the quality expectations for the software. The largest potential costs we anticipate would be associated with the setup and maintenance of shared code repositories for development and early access to NEAMS software products. We also anticipate an opportunity, with modest associated costs, to work with the Radiation Safety Information Computational Center (RSICC) to clarify export control assessment policies for software under development.

  20. Active bio-based food-packaging: Diffusion and release of active substances through and from cellulose nanofiber coating toward food-packaging design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavoine, Nathalie; Guillard, Valérie; Desloges, Isabelle; Gontard, Nathalie; Bras, Julien

    2016-09-20

    Cellulose nanofibers (CNFs) were recently investigated for the elaboration of new functional food-packaging materials. Their nanoporous network was especially of interest for controlling the release of active species. Qualitative release studies were conducted, but quantification of the diffusion phenomenon observed when the active species are released from and through CNF coating has not yet been studied. Therefore, this work aims to model CNF-coated paper substrates as controlled release system for food-packaging using release data obtained for two model molecules, namely caffeine and chlorhexidine digluconate. The applied mathematical model - derived from Fickian diffusion - was validated for caffeine only. When the active species chemically interacts with the release device, another model is required as a non-predominantly diffusion-controlled release was observed. From caffeine modeling data, a theoretical active food-packaging material was designed. The use of CNFs as barrier coating was proved to be the ideal material configuration that best meets specifications. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Package

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arsić Zoran

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available It is duty of the seller to pack the goods in a manner which assures their safe arrival and enables their handling in transit and at the place of destination. The problem of packing is relevant in two main respects. First of all the buyer is in certain circumstances entitled to refuse acceptance of the goods if they are not properly packed. Second, the package is relevant to calculation of price and freight based on weight. In the case of export trade, the package should conform to the legislation in the country of destination. The impact of package on environment is regulated by environment protection regulation of Republic if Serbia.

  2. Modified hydrotalcite-like compounds as active fillers of biodegradable polymers for drug release and food packaging applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costantino, Umberto; Nocchetti, Morena; Tammaro, Loredana; Vittoria, Vittoria

    2012-11-01

    This review treats the recent patents and related literature, mainly from the Authors laboratories, on biomedical and food packaging applications of nano-composites constituted of biodegradable polymers filled with micro or nano crystals of organically modified Layered Double Hydroxides of Hydrotalcite type. After a brief outline of the chemical and structural aspects of Hydrotalcite-like compounds (HTlc) and of their manipulation via intercalation of functional molecular anions to obtain materials for numerous, sometime unexpected applications, the review approaches the theme in three separated parts. Part 1 deals with the synthetic method used to prepare the pristine Mg-Al and Zn-Al HTlc and with the procedures of their functionalization with anti-inflammatory (diclofenac), antibacterial (chloramphenicol hemisuccinate), antifibrinolytic (tranexamic acid) drugs and with benzoates with antimicrobial activity. Procedures used to form (nano) composites of polycaprolactone, used as an example of biodegradable polymer, and functionalized HTlc are also reported. Part 2 discusses a patent and related papers on the preparation and biomedical use of a controlled delivery system of the above mentioned pharmacologically active substances. After an introduction dealing with the recent progress in the field of local drug delivery systems, the chemical and structural aspects of the patented system constituted of a biodegradable polymer and HTlc loaded with the active substances will be presented together with an extensive discussion of the drug release in physiological medium. Part 3 deals with a recent patent and related papers on chemical, structural and release property of antimicrobial species of polymeric films containing antimicrobial loaded HTlc able to act as active packaging for food products prolonging their shelf life.

  3. Energy market review releases draft report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon

    2002-01-01

    The Energy Market Review Releases draft report has made recommendations consistent with the Australian Gas Association (AGA)'s submissions in a number of areas. In particular, it has endorsed: 1. the need for an independent review of the gas access regime, to address the deficiencies with current access regulation identified by the Productivity Commission's Review of the National Access Regime; 2. the need for greater upstream gas market competition; 3. the principle that significant regulatory decisions should be subject to clear merits and judicial review; and 4. the need to avoid restrictions on retail energy prices. The report also endorses the need for a 'technology neutral' approach to greenhouse emissions abatement policy. It states that 'many of the current measures employed to reduce greenhouse gas emissions are poorly targeted', and that they 'target technologies or fuel types rather than greenhouse gas abatement.' Additionally, it explicitly recognises the key conclusions of the AGA's recently-released Research Paper, Reducing Greenhouse Emissions from Water Heating: Natural Gas as a Cost-effective Option. The draft report recommends the development of an economy-wide emissions trading system, to achieve a more cost-effective approach to greenhouse abatement

  4. Review of the DOE Packaging and Transportation Safety Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snyder, B.J.; Cece, J.M.

    1992-12-01

    This report documents the results of a year-long self-assessment of DOE-EH transportation and packaging safety activities. The self-assessment was initiated in September 1991 and concluded in August 1992. The self-assessment identified several significant issues, some of which have been resolved by EH. Also, improvements in the EH program were made during the course of the self-assessment. The report reflects the status of the EH transportation and packaging safety activities at the conclusion of the self-assessment. This report consists of several sections which discuss background, objectives and description of the review. Another section includes summary discussion and key conclusions. Appendix A, Issues, Observations and Recommendations, lists fifteen issues, including appropriate observations and recommendations. A Corrective Action Plan, which documents EH managements resolve to implement the agreed-upon recommendations, is included. The Corrective Action Plan reflects the status of completed and planned actions as of the date of the report

  5. Effect of PPG-PEG-PPG on the tocopherol-controlled release from films intended for food-packaging applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro López, María del Mar; Dopico García, Sonia; Ares Pernas, Ana; López Vilariño, José Manuel; González Rodríguez, María Victoria

    2012-08-22

    The feasibility of novel controlled release systems for the delivery of active substances from films intended for food packaging was investigated. Because polyolefins are used highly for food-packaging applications, the reported high retention degree of antioxidants has limited their use for active packaging. Thus, in this study, PP films modified with different chain extenders have been developed to favor and control the release rates of the low molecular weight antioxidant tocopherol. The use of different chain extenders as polymer modifiers (PE-PEG M(w), 575; and PPG-PEG-PPG M(w), 2000) has caused significant changes in tocopherol-specific release properties. High-performance liquid chromatography coupled to PDA-FL and PDA-MS was used to test tocopherol and chain extender migration, respectively. The release of tocopherol from the prepared films with two chain extenders into two food simulants was studied. Different temperatures and storage times were also tested. Varying the structural features of the films with the incorporation of different levels of PPG-PEG-PPG, the release of tocopherol (food-packaging additive) into different ethanolic simulants could be clearly controlled. The effect of the temperature and storage time on the release of the antioxidant has been outstanding as their values increased. The migration of the chain extender, also tested, was well below the limits set by European legislation.

  6. One- and two-dimensional search of an equation of state using a newly released 2DRoptimize package

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamal, M.; Reshak, A. H.

    2018-05-01

    A new package called 2DRoptimize has been released for performing two-dimensional searches of the equation of state (EOS) for rhombohedral, tetragonal, and hexagonal compounds. The package is compatible and available with the WIEN2k package. The 2DRoptimize package performs a convenient volume and c/a structure optimization. First, the package finds the best value for c/a and the associated energy for each volume. In the second step, it calculates the EoS. The package then finds the equation of the c/a ratio vs. volume to calculate the c/a ratio at the optimized volume. In the last stage, by using the optimized volume and c/a ratio, the 2DRoptimize package calculates a and c lattice constants for tetragonal and hexagonal compounds, as well as the a lattice constant with the α angle for rhombohedral compounds. We tested our new package based on several hexagonal, tetragonal, and rhombohedral structures, and the 2D search results for the EOS showed that this method is more accurate than 1D search. Our results agreed very well with the experimental data and they were better than previous theoretical calculations.

  7. Carbon Nano tube Composites for Electronic Packaging Applications: A Review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aryasomayajula, L.; Wolter, K.J.

    2013-01-01

    Composite engineering comprises of metal matrix composites. They have high strength-weight ratio, better stiffness, economical production, and ease of availability of raw materials. The discovery of carbon nano tubes has opened new possibilities to face challenges better. Carbon Nano tubes are known for their high mechanical strength, excellent thermal and electrical properties. Recent research has made progress in fabricating carbon nano tube metal matrix and polymer-based composites. The methods of fabrication of these composites, their properties and possible applications restricted to the field of electronic packaging have been discussed in this paper. Experimental and theoretical calculations have shown improved mechanical and physical properties like tensile stress, toughness, and improved electrical and thermal properties. They have also demonstrated the ease of production of the composites and their adaptability as one can tailor their properties as per the requirement. This paper reviews work reported on fabricating and characterizing carbon- nano tube-based metal matrix and polymer composites. The focus of this paper is mainly to review the importance of these composites in the field of electronics packaging.

  8. Use of depleted uranium silicate glass to minimize release of radionuclides from spent nuclear fuel waste packages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forsberg, C.W.

    1996-01-01

    A Depleted Uranium Silicate Container Backfill System (DUSCOBS) is proposed that would use small, isotopically-depleted uranium silicate glass beads as a backfill material inside repository waste packages containing spent nuclear fuel (SNF). The uranium silicate glass beads would fill the void space inside the package including the coolant channels inside SNF assemblies. Based on preliminary analysis, the following benefits have been identified. DUSCOBS improves repository waste package performance by three mechanisms. First, it reduces the radionuclide releases from SNF when water enters the waste package by creating a local uranium silicate saturated groundwater environment that suppresses (a) the dissolution and/or transformation of uranium dioxide fuel pellets and, hence, (b) the release of radionuclides incorporated into the SNF pellets. Second, the potential for long-term nuclear criticality is reduced by isotopic exchange of enriched uranium in SNF with the depleted uranium (DU) in the glass. Third, the backfill reduces radiation interactions between SNF and the local environment (package and local geology) and thus reduces generation of hydrogen, acids, and other chemicals that degrade the waste package system. Finally, DUSCOBS provides a potential method to dispose of significant quantities of excess DU from uranium enrichment plants at potential economic savings. DUSCOBS is a new concept. Consequently, the concept has not been optimized or demonstrated in laboratory experiments

  9. The release code package REVOLS/RENONS for fission product release from a liquid sodium pool into an inert gas atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Starflinger, J.; Scholtyssek, W.; Unger, H.

    1994-12-01

    For aerosol source term considerations in the field of nuclear safety, the investigation of the release of volatile and non-volatile species from liquid surfaces into a gas atmosphere is important. In case of a hypothetical liquid metal fast breeder reactor accident with tank failure, primary coolant sodium with suspended or solved fuel particles and fission products may be released into the containment. The computer code package REVOLS/RENONS, based on a theoretical mechanistic model with a modular structure, has been developed for the prediction of sodium release as well as volatile and non-volatile radionuclide release from a liquid pool surface into the inert gas atmosphere of the inner containment. Hereby the release of sodium and volatile fission products, like cesium and sodium iodide, is calculated using a theoretical model in a mass transfer coefficient formulation. This model has been transposed into the code version REVOLS.MOD1.1, which is discussed here. It enables parameter analysis under highly variable user-defined boundary conditions. Whereas the evaporative release of the volatile components is governed by diffusive and convective transport processes, the release of the non-volatile ones may be governed by mechanical processes which lead to droplet entrainment from the wavy pool surface under conditions of natural or forced convection into the atmosphere. The mechanistic model calculates the liquid entrainment rate of the non-volatile species, like the fission product strontium oxide and the fuel (uranium dioxide) from a liquid pool surface into a parallel gas flow. The mechanistic model has been transposed into the computer code package REVOLS/RENONS, which is discussed here. Hereby the module REVOLS (RElease of VOLatile Species) calculates the evaporative release of the volatile species, while the module RENONS (RElease of NON-Volatile Species) computes the entrainment release of the non-volatile radionuclides. (orig./HP) [de

  10. Guide for reviewing safety analysis reports for packaging: Review of quality assurance requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moon, D.W.

    1988-10-01

    This review section describes quality assurance requirements applying to design, purchase, fabrication, handling, shipping, storing, cleaning, assembly, inspection, testing, operation, maintenance, repair, and modification of components of packaging which are important to safety. The design effort, operation's plans, and quality assurance requirements should be integrated to achieve a system in which the independent QA program is not overly stringent and the application of QA requirements is commensurate with safety significance. The reviewer must verify that the applicant's QA section in the SARP contains package-specific QA information required by DOE Orders and federal regulations that demonstrate compliance. 8 refs

  11. Synthesis of bio-based nanocomposites for controlled release of antimicrobial agents in food packaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeGruson, Min Liu

    The utilization of bio-based polymers as packaging materials has attracted great attention in both scientific and industrial areas due to the non-renewable and nondegradable nature of synthetic plastic packaging. Polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) is a biobased polymer with excellent film-forming and coating properties, but exhibits brittleness, insufficient gas barrier properties, and poor thermal stability. The overall goal of the project was to develop the polyhydroxyalkanoate-based bio-nanocomposite films modified by antimicrobial agents with improved mechanical and gas barrier properties, along with a controlled release rate of antimicrobial agents for the inhibition of foodborne pathogens and fungi in food. The ability for antimicrobial agents to intercalate into layered double hydroxides depended on the nature of the antimicrobial agents, such as size, spatial structure, and polarity, etc. Benzoate and gallate anions were successfully intercalated into LDH in the present study and different amounts of benzoate anion were loaded into LDH under different reaction conditions. Incorporation of nanoparticles showed no significant effect on mechanical properties of polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) films, however, significantly increased the tensile strength and elongation at break of polyhydroxybutyrate-co-valerate (PHBV) films. The effects of type and concentration of LDH nanoparticles (unmodified LDH and LDH modified by sodium benzoate and sodium gallate) on structure and properties of PHBV films were then studied. The arrangement of LDH in the bio-nanocomposite matrices ranged from exfoliated to phase-separated depending on the type and concentration of LDH nanoparticles. Intercalated or partially exfoliated structures were obtained using modified LDH, however, only phase-separated structures were formed using unmodified LDH. The mechanical (tensile strength and elongation at break) and thermo-mechanical (storage modulus) properties were significantly improved with low

  12. Melanosomes are transferred from melanocytes to keratinocytes through the processes of packaging, release, uptake, and dispersion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ando, Hideya; Niki, Yoko; Ito, Masaaki; Akiyama, Kaoru; Matsui, Mary S; Yarosh, Daniel B; Ichihashi, Masamitsu

    2012-04-01

    Recent studies have described the role of shedding vesicles as physiological conveyers of intracellular components between neighboring cells. Here we report that melanosomes are one example of shedding vesicle cargo, but are processed by a previously unreported mechanism. Pigment globules were observed to be connected to the filopodia of melanocyte dendrites, which have previously been shown to be conduits for melanosomes. Pigment globules containing multiple melanosomes were released from various areas of the dendrites of normal human melanocytes derived from darkly pigmented skin. The globules were then captured by the microvilli of normal human keratinocytes, also derived from darkly pigmented skin, which incorporated them in a protease-activated receptor-2 (PAR-2)-dependent manner. After the pigment globules were ingested by the keratinocytes, the membrane that surrounded each melanosome cluster was gradually degraded, and the individual melanosomes then spread into the cytosol and were distributed primarily in the perinuclear area of each keratinocyte. These results suggest a melanosome transfer pathway wherein melanosomes are transferred from melanocytes to keratinocytes via the shedding vesicle system. This packaging system generates pigment globules containing multiple melanosomes in a unique manner.

  13. Structural changes of bacteriophage phi29 upon DNA packaging and release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Ye; Morais, Marc C; Battisti, Anthony J; Grimes, Shelley; Jardine, Paul J; Anderson, Dwight L; Rossmann, Michael G

    2006-11-01

    Cryo-electron microscopy three-dimensional reconstructions have been made of mature and of emptied bacteriophage phi29 particles without making symmetry assumptions. Comparisons of these structures with each other and with the phi29 prohead indicate how conformational changes might initiate successive steps of assembly and infection. The 12 adsorption capable 'appendages' were found to have a structure homologous to the bacteriophage P22 tailspikes. Two of the appendages are extended radially outwards, away from the long axis of the virus, whereas the others are around and parallel to the phage axis. The appendage orientations are correlated with the symmetry-mismatched positions of the five-fold related head fibers, suggesting a mechanism for partial cell wall digestion upon rotation of the head about the tail when initiating infection. The narrow end of the head-tail connector is expanded in the mature virus. Gene product 3, bound to the 5' ends of the genome, appears to be positioned within the expanded connector, which may potentiate the release of DNA-packaging machine components, creating a binding site for attachment of the tail.

  14. 2012 drug packaging review: many dangerous, reportable flaws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-01

    Drug packaging plays an important role in protecting and providing information to patients. The packaging examined by Prescrire in 2012, on the whole, still fails to perform all of these functions effectively. Two issues are especially worrisome. First, packaging too often poses a danger to children. In addition, too many patient leaflets provide incomplete information about adverse effects, thus failing to properly protect the most vulnerable patients. Yet, the method Prescrire used to analyse drug packaging shows that it is not difficult to detect and anticipate risks. It is up to healthcare professionals to take advantage of the method, to protect patients from, and report, dangerous packaging.

  15. The release of fission products from uranium metal: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minshall, P.C.

    1989-03-01

    The literature on the release of fission products as gaseous species from irradiated uranium metal in oxidising atmospheres has been reviewed. Release of actinides and of fission products as spalled particulate were not considered. Data is given on the release in air, carbon dioxide, steam and mixtures of steam and air. The majority of data discussed lie between 800 and 1200 0 C though some results for xenon, krypton and iodine releases below 800 0 C are given. Two measures of fission product release are discussed: the release fraction, F(tot), which is the ratio of the total release to the initial inventory, and the fractional release, F(ox), which is the fraction released from the oxidised metal. The effect of burn-up, atmosphere and temperature on F(tot) and F(ox) is examined and the conditions under which the release fraction, F(tot) is proportional to the extent of oxidation discussed. (author)

  16. A review package for health impact assessment reports on development projects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cave, Ben; Jakobsen, Mette Winge

    2017-01-01

    this new purpose of the review package. The author will discuss advantages and disadvantages of using the review package in its existing format as a quality assurance tool and discuss possible options for revision. When contributing to the improvement of HIA practice, the actual use of that contribution...

  17. 2010 drug packaging review: identifying problems to prevent errors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    Prescrire's analyses showed that the quality of drug packaging in 2010 still left much to be desired. Potentially dangerous packaging remains a significant problem: unclear labelling is source of medication errors; dosing devices for some psychotropic drugs create a risk of overdose; child-proof caps are often lacking; and too many patient information leaflets are misleading or difficult to understand. Everything that is needed for safe drug packaging is available; it is now up to regulatory agencies and drug companies to act responsibly. In the meantime, health professionals can help their patients by learning to identify the pitfalls of drug packaging and providing safe information to help prevent medication errors.

  18. Active food packaging technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozdemir, Murat; Floros, John D

    2004-01-01

    Active packaging technologies offer new opportunities for the food industry, in the preservation of foods. Important active packaging systems currently known to date, including oxygen scavengers, carbon dioxide emitters/absorbers, moisture absorbers, ethylene absorbers, ethanol emitters, flavor releasing/absorbing systems, time-temperature indicators, and antimicrobial containing films, are reviewed. The principle of operation of each active system is briefly explained. Recent technological advances in active packaging are discussed, and food related applications are presented. The effects of active packaging systems on food quality and safety are cited.

  19. A Review of Patents for the Smart Packaging of Meat and Muscle-based Food Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holman, Benjamin; Kerry, Joseph P; Hopkins, David L

    2017-10-31

    Meat packaging once acted primarily as an inert barrier to protect its contents against contamination and this function has shifted. Packaging now includes complementary functions that improve product quality, longevity and customer/retail appeal. The devices and methods applied to achieve these functions may be categorised as smart packaging, which includes intelligent packaging, devised to monitor and communicate packaged content status, and active packaging, to provide passive adjustment of in-pack conditions from its interactions with the packaged meat. Smart packaging examples already available from recent patents include antimicrobial and antioxidant packaging coatings and inserts; sensors or indicators that identify spoilage and freshness; functional engineering customisations; improvements to packaging integrity; leak or tamper detectors; and, environmentally sustainable options. Together, these inventions respond to industry and customer demands for meat packaging and are therefore the focus of this review, in which we discuss their applications and limitations in meat packaging. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  20. Global review of open access risk assessment software packages valid for global or continental scale analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniell, James; Simpson, Alanna; Gunasekara, Rashmin; Baca, Abigail; Schaefer, Andreas; Ishizawa, Oscar; Murnane, Rick; Tijssen, Annegien; Deparday, Vivien; Forni, Marc; Himmelfarb, Anne; Leder, Jan

    2015-04-01

    Over the past few decades, a plethora of open access software packages for the calculation of earthquake, volcanic, tsunami, storm surge, wind and flood have been produced globally. As part of the World Bank GFDRR Review released at the Understanding Risk 2014 Conference, over 80 such open access risk assessment software packages were examined. Commercial software was not considered in the evaluation. A preliminary analysis was used to determine whether the 80 models were currently supported and if they were open access. This process was used to select a subset of 31 models that include 8 earthquake models, 4 cyclone models, 11 flood models, and 8 storm surge/tsunami models for more detailed analysis. By using multi-criteria analysis (MCDA) and simple descriptions of the software uses, the review allows users to select a few relevant software packages for their own testing and development. The detailed analysis evaluated the models on the basis of over 100 criteria and provides a synopsis of available open access natural hazard risk modelling tools. In addition, volcano software packages have since been added making the compendium of risk software tools in excess of 100. There has been a huge increase in the quality and availability of open access/source software over the past few years. For example, private entities such as Deltares now have an open source policy regarding some flood models (NGHS). In addition, leaders in developing risk models in the public sector, such as Geoscience Australia (EQRM, TCRM, TsuDAT, AnuGA) or CAPRA (ERN-Flood, Hurricane, CRISIS2007 etc.), are launching and/or helping many other initiatives. As we achieve greater interoperability between modelling tools, we will also achieve a future wherein different open source and open access modelling tools will be increasingly connected and adapted towards unified multi-risk model platforms and highly customised solutions. It was seen that many software tools could be improved by enabling user

  1. Influence of Skin Packaging on Raw Beef Quality: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Stella

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A detailed revision of several aspects related to the application of skin packaging to raw beef was considered. Skin packaging, a relatively new technique derived from vacuum packaging, was developed with the aim of retailing small portions of fresh meat, minced meat, or meat preparations. Above all, the influence of this typology of packaging on the microbial population of raw meat was studied, with particular attention to total viable count, aerobic spoilage bacteria, anaerobic bacteria, Enterobacteriaceae, Brochothrix thermosphacta, and lactic acid bacteria. Moreover, the effect on acidification by LAB was also deepened. As colour is the main characteristic influencing purchase decisions at the point of sale, the effect of skin packaging on this parameter was evaluated for raw meat but also for cooked meat. Tenderness, juiciness, and the ability to hold liquid of raw meat when packed in skin conditions were also considered. Furthermore, odour and flavour were considered as sensorial parameters possibly affected by skin packaging. Finally, acceptability by consumer was also investigated. In the studies considered, results showed that skin packaging is advantageous in terms of maintenance of meat quality and for prolonging shelf-life, improving the stability of the products.

  2. New Trends in Beverage Packaging Systems: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Ramos

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available New trends in beverage packaging are focusing on the structure modification of packaging materials and the development of new active and/or intelligent systems, which can interact with the product or its environment, improving the conservation of beverages, such as wine, juice or beer, customer acceptability, and food security. In this paper, the main nutritional and organoleptic degradation processes of beverages, such as oxidative degradation or changes in the aromatic profiles, which influence their color and volatile composition are summarized. Finally, the description of the current situation of beverage packaging materials and new possible, emerging strategies to overcome some of the pending issues are discussed.

  3. Technical Review Report for the Model 9975-96 Package Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (S-SARP-G-00003, Revision 0, January 2008)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    West, M.

    2009-01-01

    This Technical Review Report (TRR) documents the review, performed by the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Staff, at the request of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), on the Safety Analysis Report for Packaging, Model 9975, Revision 0, dated January 2008 (S-SARP-G-00003, the SARP). The review includes an evaluation of the SARP, with respect to the requirements specified in 10 CFR 71, and in International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Safety Standards Series No. TS-R-1. The Model 9975-96 Package is a 35-gallon drum package design that has evolved from a family of packages designed by DOE contractors at the Savannah River Site. Earlier package designs, i.e., the Model 9965, the Model 9966, the Model 9967, and the Model 9968 Packagings, were originally designed and certified in the early 1980s. In the 1990s, updated package designs that incorporated design features consistent with the then newer safety requirements were proposed. The updated package designs at the time were the Model 9972, the Model 9973, the Model 9974, and the Model 9975 Packagings, respectively. The Model 9975 Package was certified by the Packaging Certification Program, under the Office of Safety Management and Operations. The safety analysis of the Model 9975-85 Packaging is documented in the Safety Analysis Report for Packaging, Model 9975, B(M)F-85, Revision 0, dated December 2003. The Model 9975-85 Package is certified by DOE Certificate of Compliance (CoC) package identification number, USA/9975/B(M)F-85, for the transportation of Type B quantities of uranium metal/oxide, 238 Pu heat sources, plutonium/uranium metals, plutonium/uranium oxides, plutonium composites, plutonium/tantalum composites, 238 Pu oxide/beryllium metal.

  4. The advantages of using standardized review procedures in certifying type B radioactive material packages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Easton, E.P.; Faille, S.

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents the advantages of adopting well-documented standardized review practices for reviewing Type B package designs. The US experience using standardized review plans and guidance has shown them to be a valuable tool in achieving more consistent and efficient package reviews, in training and qualifying technical reviewers, and in enhancing public and industry understanding of the package certification process. In addition, the standardized review practices, as living documents, have proven to be an effective method of incorporating new technical advances into the review process, and have provided a vehicle to make that knowledge widely available to fellow reviewers, the public and industry. Canada implemented a new internal review process in early 2003 to standardize the review of applications for certification of Type B Packages. Based on the similarity of these approaches, the United States and Canada have started discussions on a A North American System for the unilateral approval of Type B (U) packages. This initiative is looking into how each country is currently reviewing transportation package applications to see if agreement can be reached on accepting Type B certifications on a reciprocal basis, i.e., without additional review. Based on the experience in Canada and the United States, the authors believe that the use of standardized review processes, coupled with the knowledge and experience resident in IAEA's Transportation Advisory Material (TS-G-1.1) and series of TECDOCS, could also be used to develop a standard internationally accepted review process that could enhance the acceptance of unilateral approvals for Type B packages

  5. The advantages of using standardized review procedures in certifying type B radioactive material packages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Easton, E.P. [United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States); Faille, S. [Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission, Ottawa (Canada)

    2004-07-01

    This paper presents the advantages of adopting well-documented standardized review practices for reviewing Type B package designs. The US experience using standardized review plans and guidance has shown them to be a valuable tool in achieving more consistent and efficient package reviews, in training and qualifying technical reviewers, and in enhancing public and industry understanding of the package certification process. In addition, the standardized review practices, as living documents, have proven to be an effective method of incorporating new technical advances into the review process, and have provided a vehicle to make that knowledge widely available to fellow reviewers, the public and industry. Canada implemented a new internal review process in early 2003 to standardize the review of applications for certification of Type B Packages. Based on the similarity of these approaches, the United States and Canada have started discussions on a A North American System for the unilateral approval of Type B (U) packages. This initiative is looking into how each country is currently reviewing transportation package applications to see if agreement can be reached on accepting Type B certifications on a reciprocal basis, i.e., without additional review. Based on the experience in Canada and the United States, the authors believe that the use of standardized review processes, coupled with the knowledge and experience resident in IAEA's Transportation Advisory Material (TS-G-1.1) and series of TECDOCS, could also be used to develop a standard internationally accepted review process that could enhance the acceptance of unilateral approvals for Type B packages.

  6. A review of the recent advances in starch as active and nanocomposite packaging films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umar Shah

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Technological advances have led to increased constraints regarding food packaging due to environmental issues, consumer health concerns, and economic restrictions associated therewith. Hence, food scientists and technologists are now more focused on developing biopolymer packages. Starch satisfies all the principle aspects, making it a promising raw material for edible coatings/films. Starch as a package material has grabbed much attention both at academic as well as industrial levels. Besides this, the role of various plasticizers, polys, sugars, and wetting agents are discussed and their importance in packaging industries. Herein, the role of starch as packaging material and nanofillers/composites is discussed in detail. The review summons a comprehensive and current overview of the widely available information and recent advances in starch film packaging.

  7. Shelf life of packaged bakery goods--a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galić, K; Curić, D; Gabrić, D

    2009-05-01

    Packaging requirements for fresh bakery goods are often minimal as many of the products are for immediate consumption. However, packaging can be an important factor in extending the shelf life of other cereal-based goods (toast, frozen products, biscuits, cakes, pastas). Some amount of the texture changes and flavor loss manifest over the shelf life of a soft-baked good can usually be minimized or delayed by effective use of packaging materials. The gains in the extension of shelf life will be application specific. It is recognized that defining the shelf life of a food is a difficult task and is an area of intense research for food product development scientists (food technologists, microbiologists, packaging experts). Proper application of chemical kinetic principles to food quality loss allows for efficiently designing appropriate shelf-life tests and maximizing the useful information that can be obtained from the resulting data. In the development of any new food product including reformulating, change of packaging, or storage/distribution condition (to penetrate into a new market), one important aspect is the knowledge of shelf life.

  8. Green Composites Made of Bamboo Fabric and Poly (Lactic) Acid for Packaging Applications—A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurul Fazita, M.R.; Jayaraman, Krishnan; Bhattacharyya, Debes; Mohamad Haafiz, M.K.; Saurabh, Chaturbhuj K.; Hussin, M. Hazwan; H.P.S., Abdul Khalil

    2016-01-01

    Petroleum based thermoplastics are widely used in a range of applications, particularly in packaging. However, their usage has resulted in soaring pollutant emissions. Thus, researchers have been driven to seek environmentally friendly alternative packaging materials which are recyclable as well as biodegradable. Due to the excellent mechanical properties of natural fibres, they have been extensively used to reinforce biopolymers to produce biodegradable composites. A detailed understanding of the properties of such composite materials is vital for assessing their applicability to various products. The present review discusses several functional properties related to packaging applications in order to explore the potential of bamboo fibre fabric-poly (lactic) acid composites for packaging applications. Physical properties, heat deflection temperature, impact resistance, recyclability and biodegradability are important functional properties of packaging materials. In this review, we will also comprehensively discuss the chronological events and applications of natural fibre biopolymer composites. PMID:28773558

  9. The Systems Biology Markup Language (SBML) Level 3 Package: Qualitative Models, Version 1, Release 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaouiya, Claudine; Keating, Sarah M; Berenguier, Duncan; Naldi, Aurélien; Thieffry, Denis; van Iersel, Martijn P; Le Novère, Nicolas; Helikar, Tomáš

    2015-09-04

    Quantitative methods for modelling biological networks require an in-depth knowledge of the biochemical reactions and their stoichiometric and kinetic parameters. In many practical cases, this knowledge is missing. This has led to the development of several qualitative modelling methods using information such as, for example, gene expression data coming from functional genomic experiments. The SBML Level 3 Version 1 Core specification does not provide a mechanism for explicitly encoding qualitative models, but it does provide a mechanism for SBML packages to extend the Core specification and add additional syntactical constructs. The SBML Qualitative Models package for SBML Level 3 adds features so that qualitative models can be directly and explicitly encoded. The approach taken in this package is essentially based on the definition of regulatory or influence graphs. The SBML Qualitative Models package defines the structure and syntax necessary to describe qualitative models that associate discrete levels of activities with entity pools and the transitions between states that describe the processes involved. This is particularly suited to logical models (Boolean or multi-valued) and some classes of Petri net models can be encoded with the approach.

  10. REVIEW OF CLEANING SOLUTIONS FOR USE ON COMPONENTS OF THE 9975 SHIPPING PACKAGE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daugherty, W.

    2013-09-30

    Several candidate cleaning products have been reviewed for use as a disinfectant on 9975 shipping package components which contain or have contacted mold. Following review of the compatibility of these products with each component, ammonia (ammonium hydroxide diluted to 1.5 wt% concentration) appears compatible with all package components that it might contact. Each of the other candidate products is incompatible with one or more package components. Accordingly, ammonia is recommended for this purpose. It is further recommended that all components which are disinfected be subsequently rinsed with di-ionized or distilled water.

  11. An updated status of Department of Energy safety reviews of packages for transporting radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kapoor, A.

    1995-01-01

    The Department of Energy conducts conformance reviews and issues Certificates of Compliance for Type B packaging for radioactive materials. Several offices within DOE perform these reviews which are required by the Department of Transportation to be to the regulations promulgated by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission or their safety equivalent. This paper focuses on one of these offices, the Office of Facility Safety Analysis, EH-32, which is responsible for reviewing and certifying packages other than those used for weapons and weapons component, for Naval Reactors, and for Civilian Radioactive Waste Management. This paper gives the background and organizational history of EH-32, discusses the version of regulations to which the packaging is reviewed, updates the status of these reviews, describes the effectiveness of the reviews, updates the training courses sponsored by EH-32, and mentions the new Quality Assurance Evaluations being started by EH-32

  12. Effects of tuff waste package components on release from 76-68 simulated waste glass: Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McVay, G.L.; Robinson, G.R.

    1984-04-01

    An experimental matrix has been conducted that will allow evaluation of the effects of waste package constituents on the waste form release behavior in a tuff repository environment. Tuff rock and groundwater were used along with 304L, 316, and 1020M ferrous metals to evaluate release from uranium-doped MCC 76-68 simulated waste glass. One of the major findings was that in the absence of 1020M mild steel, tuff rock powder dominates the system. However, when 1020M mild steel is present, it appears to dominate the system. The rock-dominated system results in suppressed glass-water reaction and leaching while the 1020M-dominated system results in enhanced leaching - but the metal effectively scavenges uranium from solution. The 300-series stainless steels play no significant role in affecting glass leaching characteristics. 6 refs., 28 figs., 5 tabs

  13. Determination of phthalates released from paper packaging materials by solid-phase extraction-high-performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xin; Yang, Bofeng; Tang, Zhixu; Luo, Xin; Wang, Fengmei; Xu, Hui; Cai, Xue

    2014-01-01

    A solid phase extraction (SPE) high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method was developed for the simultaneous determination of 10 phthalic acid esters (dimethyl phthalate, diethyl phthalate, dipropyl phthalate, benzylbutyl phthalate, diisobutyl phthalate, dicyclohexyl phthalate, diamyl phthalate, di-n-hexyl phthalate, di-n-octyl phthalate and di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate) released from food paper packaging materials. The use of distilled water, 3% acetic acid (w/v), 10% ethanol (v/v) and 95% ethanol (v/v) instead of the different types of food simulated the migration of 10 phthalic acid esters from food paper packaging materials; the phthalic acid esters in four food simulants were enriched and purified by a C18 SPE column and nitrogen blowing, and quantified by HPLC with a diode array detector. The chromatographic conditions and extraction conditions were optimized and all 10 of the phthalate acid esters had a maximum absorbance at 224 nm. The method showed limitations of detection in the range of 6.0-23.8 ng/mL the correlation coefficients were greater than 0.9999 in all cases, recovery values ranged between 71.27 and 106.97% at spiking levels of 30, 60 and 90 ng/mL and relative standard deviation values ranged from 0.86 to 8.00%. The method was considered to be simple, fast and reliable for a study on the migration of these 10 phthalic acid esters from food paper packaging materials into food.

  14. Development of an air flow calorimeter prototype for the measurement of thermal power released by large radioactive waste packages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razouk, R; Beaumont, O; Failleau, G; Hay, B; Plumeri, S

    2018-03-01

    The estimation and control of the thermal power released by the radioactive waste packages are a key parameter in the management of radioactive waste geological repository sites. In the framework of the European project "Metrology for decommissioning nuclear facilities," the French National Agency of Radioactive Waste Management (ANDRA) collaborates with Laboratoire National de Métrologie et D'essais in order to measure the thermal power up to 500 W of typical real size radioactive waste packages (of at least 0.175 m 3 ) with an uncertainty better than 5% by using a measurement method traceable to the international system of units. One of the selected metrological approaches is based on the principles of air flow calorimetry. This paper describes in detail the development of the air flow calorimeter prototype as well as the design of a radioactive waste package simulator used for its calibration. Results obtained from the calibration of the calorimeter and from the determination of thermal powers are presented here with an investigation of the measurement uncertainties.

  15. Development of an air flow calorimeter prototype for the measurement of thermal power released by large radioactive waste packages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razouk, R.; Beaumont, O.; Failleau, G.; Hay, B.; Plumeri, S.

    2018-03-01

    The estimation and control of the thermal power released by the radioactive waste packages are a key parameter in the management of radioactive waste geological repository sites. In the framework of the European project "Metrology for decommissioning nuclear facilities," the French National Agency of Radioactive Waste Management (ANDRA) collaborates with Laboratoire National de Métrologie et D'essais in order to measure the thermal power up to 500 W of typical real size radioactive waste packages (of at least 0.175 m3) with an uncertainty better than 5% by using a measurement method traceable to the international system of units. One of the selected metrological approaches is based on the principles of air flow calorimetry. This paper describes in detail the development of the air flow calorimeter prototype as well as the design of a radioactive waste package simulator used for its calibration. Results obtained from the calibration of the calorimeter and from the determination of thermal powers are presented here with an investigation of the measurement uncertainties.

  16. Nanotechnology in meat processing and packaging: potential applications - a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandraiah, Karna; Han, Sung Gu; Chin, Koo Bok

    2015-02-01

    Growing demand for sustainable production, increasing competition and consideration of health concerns have led the meat industries on a path to innovation. Meat industries across the world are focusing on the development of novel meat products and processes to meet consumer demand. Hence, a process innovation, like nanotechnology, can have a significant impact on the meat processing industry through the development of not only novel functional meat products, but also novel packaging for the products. The potential benefits of utilizing nanomaterials in food are improved bioavailability, antimicrobial effects, enhanced sensory acceptance and targeted delivery of bioactive compounds. However, challenges exist in the application of nanomaterials due to knowledge gaps in the production of ingredients such as nanopowders, stability of delivery systems in meat products and health risks caused by the same properties which also offer the benefits. For the success of nanotechnology in meat products, challenges in public acceptance, economics and the regulation of food processed with nanomaterials which may have the potential to persist, accumulate and lead to toxicity need to be addressed. So far, the most promising area for nanotechnology application seems to be in meat packaging, but the long term effects on human health and environment due to migration of the nanomaterials from the packaging needs to be studied further. The future of nanotechnology in meat products depends on the roles played by governments, regulatory agencies and manufacturers in addressing the challenges related to the application of nanomaterials in food.

  17. Essential iOS Build and Release A Comprehensive Guide to Building, Packaging, and Distribution

    CERN Document Server

    Roche, Ron

    2011-01-01

    Frustrated by the requirements for testing and distributing your iOS app? You're not alone. This concise book takes you step by step through the maze of certification and provisioning processes that have to happen before, during, and after development. You'll learn what's required to sign certificates, test your app on iOS devices, and release the finished product to the App Store. Whether you're a developer looking to spend more time coding and less time figuring out how to install your application, or a release engineer responsible for producing reliable builds, this guide will help you su

  18. Renewable fibers and bio-based materials for packaging applications - A review of recent developments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansson, Caisa; Bras, Julien; Mondragon, Inaki

    2012-01-01

    This review describes the state-of-the-art of material derived from the forest sector with respect to its potential for use in the packaging industry. Some innovative approaches are highlighted. The aim is to cover recent developments and key challenges for successful introduction of renewable...... materials in the packaging market. The covered subjects are renewable fibers and bio-based polymers for use in bioplastics or as coatings for paper-based packaging materials. Current market sizes and forecasts are also presented. Competitive mechanical, thermal, and barrier properties along with material...

  19. A review of metal release in the food industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jellesen, Morten Stendahl; Rasmussen, Anette Alsted; Hilbert, Lisbeth Rischel

    2006-01-01

    processes, storing equipment as well as cleaning and sanitising procedures are reviewed. Stainless steel is the most widely used metallic material in the food industry; however other metals and their alloys are also briefly treated. The review deals with phenomena mainly relating to electrochemical......The objective of this review is to outline literature on metal release in the food industry. Key results are reviewed from publications with high scientific level as well as papers with focus on industrial aspects. Examples of food products with a corrosive effect are given, and cases concerning...

  20. Miniature stick-packaging--an industrial technology for pre-storage and release of reagents in lab-on-a-chip systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Oordt, Thomas; Barb, Yannick; Smetana, Jan; Zengerle, Roland; von Stetten, Felix

    2013-08-07

    Stick-packaging of goods in tubular-shaped composite-foil pouches has become a popular technology for food and drug packaging. We miniaturized stick-packaging for use in lab-on-a-chip (LOAC) systems to pre-store and on-demand release the liquid and dry reagents in a volume range of 80-500 μl. An integrated frangible seal enables the pressure-controlled release of reagents and simplifies the layout of LOAC systems, thereby making the package a functional microfluidic release unit. The frangible seal is adjusted to defined burst pressures ranging from 20 to 140 kPa. The applied ultrasonic welding process allows the packaging of temperature sensitive reagents. Stick-packs have been successfully tested applying recovery tests (where 99% (STDV = 1%) of 250 μl pre-stored liquid is released), long-term storage tests (where there is loss of only <0.5% for simulated 2 years) and air transport simulation tests. The developed technology enables the storage of a combination of liquid and dry reagents. It is a scalable technology suitable for rapid prototyping and low-cost mass production.

  1. Ethylene vinyl alcohol: a review of barrier properties for packaging shelf stable foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokwena, K Khanah; Tang, Juming

    2012-01-01

    Ethylene vinyl alcohol (EVOH) is one of the best known flexible thermoplastic oxygen barrier materials in use today. It is especially important for refrigerated and shelf-stable foods where oxygen deteriorates the quality of packaged products and reduces their shelf life. EVOH accounts for a majority of thermoplastic barrier materials used for rigid or semi-rigid retortable food containers. However. it is of limited use in flexible packages or lid films for rigid trays used for packaging thermally processed shelf-stable low acid foods due to its moisture sensitivity. Nevertheless, current use of other oxygen barrier materials such as polyvinylidene chloride and aluminum foil creates environmental concerns. Innovations in food processing technologies provide opportunities for increased use of EVOH in food packaging. The aim of this review is to give an overview of research on the oxygen barrier properties of EVOH from the perspective of structure-barrier property relationships and the consequences of food processing conditions.

  2. Review of criticality safety and shielding analysis issues for transportation packages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parks, C.V.; Broadhead, B.L.

    1995-01-01

    The staff of the Nuclear Engineering Applications Section (NEAS) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) have been involved for over 25 years with the development and application of computational tools for use in analyzing the criticality safety and shielding features of transportation packages carrying radioactive material (RAM). The majority of the computational tools developed by ORNL/NEAS have been included within the SCALE modular code system (SCALE 1995). This code system has been used throughout the world for the evaluation of nuclear facility and package designs. With this development and application experience as a basis, this paper highlights a number of criticality safety and shielding analysis issues that confront the designer and reviewer of a new RAM package. Changes in the types and quantities of material that need to be shipped will keep these issues before the technical community and provide challenges to future package design and certification

  3. Antimicrobial food packaging film based on the release of LAE from EVOH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muriel-Galet, Virginia; López-Carballo, Gracia; Gavara, Rafael; Hernández-Muñoz, Pilar

    2012-07-02

    The aim of this work was to develop antimicrobial films for active packaging applications containing the natural antimicrobial compound LAE (lauramide arginine ethyl ester) in EVOH copolymers with different mol % ethylene contents (i.e. EVOH-29 and EVOH-44). EVOH-29 and EVOH-44 films were made by casting and incorporating 0.25%, 1%, 5%, and 10% LAE in the film forming solution (w/w with respect to polymer weight). Previously, the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and the minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of LAE against Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli, and Salmonella enterica were determined by a microdilution assay. The antimicrobial activity of the resulting films was tested in vitro against these microorganisms in liquid culture media. The activity of the films was also evaluated over time. The results showed that films containing 5% and 10% LAE produced total growth inhibition and viable counts decreased with 0.25% and 1% LAE. Finally, the effectiveness of the films was tested by applying them to an infant formula milk inoculated with L. monocytogenes and S. enterica and stored for 6 days at 4°C. The application of films with LAE to infant formula milk inoculated with L. monocytogenes reduced at the end of storage period about 4 log in case of 10% LAE and with S. enterica reduced 3.74 log and 3.95 log with EVOH 29 5% and 10%, respectively, and EVOH-44 5% and 10% LAE reduced 1 log and 3.27 log, respectively, at the end of storage. The antimicrobial capacity of EVOH-29 films was greater than that of EVOH-44 films in all the cases tested. In general, the films were more effective in inhibiting the growth of L. monocytogenes than S. enterica, this inhibition being more acute at the end of the storage time. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Design and characterization of controlled-release edible packaging films prepared with synergistic whey-protein polysaccharide complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fei; Jiang, Yanfeng; Du, Bingjian; Chai, Zhi; Jiao, Tong; Zhang, Chunyue; Ren, Fazheng; Leng, Xiaojing

    2013-06-19

    This paper describes an investigation into the properties of a doubly emulsified film incorporated with protein-polysaccharide microcapsules, which serves as a multifunctional food packaging film prepared using common edible materials in place of petroleum--based plastics. The relationships between the microstructural properties and controlled release features of a series of water-in-oil-in-water (W/O/W) microcapsulated edible films prepared in thermodynamically incompatible conditions were analyzed. The hydrophilic riboflavin (V(B2)) nano-droplets (13-50 nm) dispersed in α-tocopherol (V(E)) oil phase were embedded in whey protein-polysaccharide (WPs) microcapsules with a shell thickness of 20-56 nm. These microcapsules were then integrated in 103 μm thick WPs films. Different polysaccharides, including gum arabic (GA), low-methoxyl pectin (LMP), and κ-carrageenan (KCG), exhibited different in vitro synergistic effects on the ability of both films to effect enteric controlled release of both vitamins. GA, which showed a strong emulsifying ability, also showed better control of V(E) than other polysaccharides, and the highly charged KCG showed better control of V(B2) than GA did.

  5. Technical Packages in Injury and Violence Prevention to Move Evidence into Practice: Systematic Reviews and Beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haegerich, Tamara M.; David-Ferdon, Corinne; Noonan, Rita K.; Manns, Brian J.; Billie, Holly C.

    2016-01-01

    Injury and violence prevention strategies have greater potential for impact when they are based on scientific evidence. Systematic reviews of the scientific evidence can contribute key information about which policies and programs might have the greatest impact when implemented. However, systematic reviews have limitations, such as lack of implementation guidance and contextual information, that can limit the application of knowledge. “Technical packages,” developed by knowledge brokers such as the federal government, nonprofit agencies, and academic institutions, have the potential to be an efficient mechanism for making information from systematic reviews actionable. Technical packages provide information about specific evidence-based prevention strategies, along with the estimated costs and impacts, and include accompanying implementation and evaluation guidance to facilitate adoption, implementation, and performance measurement. We describe how systematic reviews can inform the development of technical packages for practitioners, provide examples of technical packages in injury and violence prevention, and explain how enhancing review methods and reporting could facilitate the use and applicability of scientific evidence. PMID:27604301

  6. Techniques to measure sorption and migration between small molecules and packaging. A critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadam, Ashish A; Karbowiak, Thomas; Voilley, Andrée; Debeaufort, Frédéric

    2015-05-01

    The mass transfer parameters diffusion and sorption in food and packaging or between them are the key parameters for assessing a food product's shelf-life in reference to consumer safety. This has become of paramount importance owing to the legislations set by the regulated markets. The technical capabilities that can be exploited for analyzing product-package interactions have been growing rapidly. Different techniques categorized according to the state of the diffusant (gas or liquid) in contact with the packaging material are emphasized in this review. Depending on the diffusant and on the analytical question under review, the different ways to study sorption and/or migration are presented and compared. Some examples have been suggested to reach the best possible choice, consisting of a single technique or a combination of different approaches. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  7. Evaluation of the data available for estimating release rates from commercial low-level waste packages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sullivan, T.M.; Cowgill, M.G.

    1991-01-01

    In this paper, an overview of our findings concerning the distribution of activity within low-level radioactive wastes will be presented. This will begin in a general fashion and consider the distribution of the total activity by each of the following: waste class, waste stream, wasteform, and waste container. A radionuclide specific breakdown by waste class and wasteform follows. The findings are reviewed in terms of performance assessment modeling needs. Finally, we present our conclusions

  8. The procedures used to review safety analysis reports for packagings submitted to the US Department of Energy for certification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popper, G.F.; Raske, D.T.; Turula, P.

    1988-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the procedures used at the Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) to review Safety Analysis Reports for Packagings (SARPs) submitted to the US Department of Energy (DOE) for issuance of a Certificate of Compliance. Prior to certification and shipment of a packaging for the transport of radioactive materials, a SARP must be prepared describing the design, contents, analyses, testing, and safety features of the packaging. The SARP must be reviewed to ensure that the specific packaging meets all DOE orders and federal regulations for safe transport. The ANL SARP review group provides an independent review and evaluation function for the DOE to ensure that the packaging meets all the prescribed requirements. This review involves many disciplines and includes evaluating the general information, drawings, construction details, operating procedures, maintenance and test programs, and the quality assurance plan for compliance with requirements. 14 refs., 6 figs

  9. A review of slow-release fluoride devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toumba, K J; Al-Ibrahim, N S; Curzon, M E J

    2009-09-01

    Fluoride has been used to combat dental caries using a number of different clinical approaches. An exciting relatively new development is fluoride slow-releasing devices that consistently elevate intra-oral fluoride levels of plaque and saliva for prolonged periods of up to two years. The literature on the use of slow-releasing fluoride devices in dentistry were reviewed. A Medline search on key words was carried out. All papers in English were individually reviewed. Slow-releasing fluoride devices have been shown to be effective in elevating salivary fluoride levels in both animals and human studies and to enhance the remineralisation of dental enamel. They have been demonstrated to be safe to use and without the risk of fluoride toxicity. A double blind randomised clinical trial demonstrated 76% fewer new carious surface increment in high caries-risk children after two years. These devices have a number of potential uses in dentistry and in particular have great potential for caries prevention of non-compliant high caries-risk groups.

  10. Trends in the use of natural antioxidants in active food packaging: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanches-Silva, Ana; Costa, Denise; Albuquerque, Tânia G; Buonocore, Giovanna Giuliana; Ramos, Fernando; Castilho, Maria Conceição; Machado, Ana Vera; Costa, Helena S

    2014-01-01

    The demand for natural antioxidant active packaging is increasing due to its unquestionable advantages compared with the addition of antioxidants directly to the food. Therefore, the search for antioxidants perceived as natural, namely those that naturally occur in herbs and spices, is a field attracting great interest. In line with this, in the last few years, natural antioxidants such as α-tocopherol, caffeic acid, catechin, quercetin, carvacrol and plant extracts (e.g. rosemary extract) have been incorporated into food packaging. On the other hand, consumers and the food industry are also interested in active biodegradable/compostable packaging and edible films to reduce environmental impact, minimise food loss and minimise contaminants from industrial production and reutilisation by-products. The present review focuses on the natural antioxidants already applied in active food packaging, and it reviews the methods used to determine the oxidation protection effect of antioxidant active films and the methods used to quantify natural antioxidants in food matrices or food simulants. Lastly consumers' demands and industry trends are also addressed.

  11. Review of DOE Waste Package Program. Semiannual report, October 1984-March 1985. Volume 8

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, M.S.

    1985-12-01

    A large number of technical reports on waste package component performance were reviewed over the last year in support of the NRC's review of the Department of Energy's (DOE's) Environmental Assessment reports. The intent was to assess in some detail the quantity and quality of the DOE data and their relevance to the high-level waste repository site selection process. A representative selection of the reviews is presented for the salt, basalt, and tuff repository projects. Areas for future research have been outlined. 141 refs

  12. Review of DOE Waste Package Program. Semiannual report, October 1984-March 1985. Volume 8

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, M.S. (ed.)

    1985-12-01

    A large number of technical reports on waste package component performance were reviewed over the last year in support of the NRC`s review of the Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Environmental Assessment reports. The intent was to assess in some detail the quantity and quality of the DOE data and their relevance to the high-level waste repository site selection process. A representative selection of the reviews is presented for the salt, basalt, and tuff repository projects. Areas for future research have been outlined. 141 refs.

  13. Regulatory review of releases from HIFAR of radioactive airborne effluent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westall, D.J.; Macnab, D.I.

    1996-01-01

    Full text: The Nuclear Safety Bureau (NSB) was set up by legislation in 1992 as an independent Commonwealth corporate body reporting to the Minister for Health and Family Services. Its functions include monitoring and reviewing the safety of nuclear plant owned or operated by the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO). The NSB sets requirements for authorisation of the operation of the HIFAR research reactor, and may impose restrictions and conditions on its operation. The authorisation for the operation of HIFAR includes a requirement for arrangements for the treatment, safe storage and disposal of solid, liquid and gaseous radioactive wastes from the reactor. The objective is to establish conditions which would ensure that radiation exposure to plant personnel and the public from radioactive wastes are within acceptable limits and that releases are maintained as low as reasonably achievable. The NSB has developed expectations based on international best practice, against which to review HIFAR's arrangements for satisfying the requirement and achieving the objective. Arrangements for the release of airborne radioactive effluent from HIFAR were reviewed by the NSB as part of an overall review of the upgrade of safety documentation for HIFAR. The NSB's expectations for the review were drawn from the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Basic Safety Standards (Safety Series No 115-I) and the National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC) Recommendations for Limiting Exposure to Ionizing Radiation (1995). These expectations included a hierarchy of primary dose limits, stack discharge limits and reference levels for HIFAR aimed at ensuring that radiation doses to the public due to airborne effluent are less than the national dose limits and ANSTO's dose constraints, and are as low as reasonably achievable. An approach favoured by the operator is to work directly to a primary dose limit using an airborne dispersion computer program to

  14. Biocidal packaging for pharmaceuticals, foods, and other perishables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Alyssa M; Klibanov, Alexander M

    2013-01-01

    Many consumer goods must be protected from bacterial and fungal colonization to ensure their integrity and safety. By making these items' packaging biocidal, the interior environment can be preserved from microbial spoilage without altering the products themselves. Herein we briefly review this concept, referred to as active packaging, and discuss existing methods for constructing active packaging systems. They are based on either packaging materials that release biocides or those that are themselves intrinsically biocidal (or biostatic), with numerous variations within each category.

  15. Essential oils as a natural additive in the edible films and coatings (active packaging system): A Review

    OpenAIRE

    R Fattahi; A Bahrami

    2018-01-01

    Background: Common plastics used in food packaging have a lot of environmental problems. The aim of this study, was to review the latest research results on edible and biodegradable packaging and the positive effect of essential oil in them. Methods: In order to gather information, articles containing one of the words in their text, including: Food packaging, Edible film, Essential oils and Biodegradable film were searched between 1993 and 2017 in Science direct, Elsevier, Springer, Americ...

  16. Packaging Concerns/Techniques for Large Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampson, Michael J.

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews packaging challenges and options for electronic parts. The presentation includes information about non-hermetic packages, space challenges for packaging and complex package variations.

  17. A review of simple multiple criteria decision making analytic procedures which are implementable on spreadsheet packages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.J. Stewart

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available A number of modern multi-criteria decision making aids for the discrete choice problem, are reviewed, with particular emphasis on those which can be implemented on standard commercial spreadsheet packages. Three broad classes of procedures are discussed, namely the analytic hierarchy process, reference point methods, and outranking methods. The broad principles are summarised in a consistent framework, and on a spreadsheet. LOTUS spreadsheets implementing these are available from the author.

  18. Review and assessment of package requirements (yellowcake) and emergency response to transportation accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-10-01

    As a consequence of an accident involving a truck shipment of yellowcake, a joint NRC--DOT study was undertaken to review and assess the regulations and practices related to package integrity and to emergency response to transportation accidents involving low specific activity radioactive materials. Recommendations are made regarding the responsibilities of state and local agencies, carriers, and shippers, and the DOT and NRC regulations

  19. Plant proteases for bioactive peptides release: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazorra-Manzano, M A; Ramírez-Suarez, J C; Yada, R Y

    2017-04-10

    Proteins are a potential source of health-promoting biomolecules with medical, nutraceutical, and food applications. Nowadays, bioactive peptides production, its isolation, characterization, and strategies for its delivery to target sites are a matter of intensive research. In vitro and in vivo studies regarding the bioactivity of peptides has generated strong evidence of their health benefits. Dairy proteins are considered the richest source of bioactive peptides, however proteins from animal and vegetable origin also have been shown to be important sources. Enzymatic hydrolysis has been the process most commonly used for bioactive peptide production. Most commercial enzymatic preparations frequently used are from animal (e.g., trypsin and pepsin) and microbial (e.g., Alcalase® and Neutrase®) sources. Although the use of plant proteases is still relatively limited to papain and bromelain from papaya and pineapple, respectively, the application of new plant proteases is increasing. This review presents the latest knowledge in the use and diversity of plant proteases for bioactive peptides release from food proteins including both available commercial plant proteases as well as new potential plant sources. Furthermore, the properties of peptides released by plant proteases and health benefits associated in the control of disorders such as hypertension, diabetes, obesity, and cancer are reviewed.

  20. Contact lenses as drug controlled release systems: a narrative review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Prior Filipe

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Topically applied therapy is the most common way to treat ocular diseases, however given the anatomical and physiological constraints of the eye, frequent dosing is required with possible repercussions in terms of patient compliance. Beyond refractive error correction, contact lenses (CLs have, in the last few decades emerged as a potential ophthalmic drug controlled release system (DCRS. Extensive research is underway to understand how to best modify CLs to increase residence time and bioavailability of drugs within therapeutic levels on the ocular surface.These devices may simultaneously correct ametropia and have a role in managing ophthalmic disorders that can hinder CL wear such as dry eye, glaucoma, ocular allergy and cornea infection and injury. In this narrative review the authors explain how the ocular surface structures determine drug diffusion in the eye and summarize the strategies to enhance drug residence time and bioavailability. They synthesize findings and clinical applications of drug soaked CLs as DCRS combined with delivery diffusion barriers, incorporation of functional monomers, ion related controlled release, molecular imprinting, nanoparticles and layering. The authors draw conclusions about the impact of these novel ophthalmic agents delivery systems in improving drug transport in the target tissue and patient compliance, in reducing systemic absorption and undesired side effects, and discuss future perspectives.

  1. A concise review on smart polymers for controlled drug release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghabegi Moghanjoughi, Arezou; Khoshnevis, Dorna; Zarrabi, Ali

    2016-06-01

    Design and synthesis of efficient drug delivery systems are of critical importance in health care management. Innovations in materials chemistry especially in polymer field allows introduction of advanced drug delivery systems since polymers could provide controlled release of drugs in predetermined doses over long periods, cyclic and tunable dosages. To this end, researchers have taken advantages of smart polymers since they can undergo large reversible, chemical, or physical fluctuations as responses to small changes in environmental conditions, for instance, in pH, temperature, light, and phase transition. The present review aims to highlight various kinds of smart polymers, which are used in controlled drug delivery systems as well as mechanisms of action and their applications.

  2. Food interactions with sustained-release theophylline preparations. A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonkman, J H

    1989-03-01

    Currently, theophylline is being used predominantly as sustained-release capsules or tablets. In the mid-seventies the first preparations for use with a dosage interval of 12 hours (twice-daily preparations) were introduced. Since 1983, theophylline preparations that can be given with an interval of 24 hours (once-daily preparations) have become available. The release of theophylline from some of these products can be influenced (either increased or decreased) by concomitant intake of food. With some preparations the composition of the meal (especially the fat content) has an influence on the degree of effect. The consequence may be an effect on the rate of absorption or on the amount absorbed, or both simultaneously. This could result in an unexpected shift of the plasma theophylline concentration. Such a shift is therapeutically undesirable, because theophylline has a fairly narrow therapeutic range. A review is given of those food interactions with the sustained-release theophylline preparations, both twice-daily and once-daily products, that are currently on the world market. Special attention is paid to the specific (bio)pharmaceutical characteristics of the different products, and to the influence of the composition and timing of the meals. For each preparation the effect of food on the following pharmacokinetic parameters is discussed: area under the plasma concentration-time curve, peak plasma drug concentration and time to reach this peak. Where possible, the results for both adults and children are discussed. There are indications that children are more susceptible to food-effects than adults. The regulatory aspects are mentioned briefly. Clinically important effects of food have been observed with the following twice-daily products: 'Theo-Dur Sprinkle', 'Theolair SR' (= 'Nuelin SR') and 'Theograd'. Pronounced effects could have an even greater impact with once-daily preparations, as the total daily dose will be given at a single time. A particularly

  3. Review on fluoride-releasing restorative materials--fluoride release and uptake characteristics, antibacterial activity and influence on caries formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiegand, Annette; Buchalla, Wolfgang; Attin, Thomas

    2007-03-01

    The purpose of this article was to review the fluoride release and recharge capabilities, and antibacterial properties, of fluoride-releasing dental restoratives, and discuss the current status concerning the prevention or inhibition of caries development and progression. Information from original scientific full papers or reviews listed in PubMed (search term: fluoride release AND (restorative OR glass-ionomer OR compomer OR polyacid-modified composite resin OR composite OR amalgam)), published from 1980 to 2004, was included in the review. Papers dealing with endodontic or orthodontic topics were not taken into consideration. Clinical studies concerning secondary caries development were only included when performed in split-mouth design with an observation period of at least three years. Fluoride-containing dental materials show clear differences in the fluoride release and uptake characteristics. Short- and long-term fluoride releases from restoratives are related to their matrices, setting mechanisms and fluoride content and depend on several environmental conditions. Fluoride-releasing materials may act as a fluoride reservoir and may increase the fluoride level in saliva, plaque and dental hard tissues. However, clinical studies exhibited conflicting data as to whether or not these materials significantly prevent or inhibit secondary caries and affect the growth of caries-associated bacteria compared to non-fluoridated restoratives. Fluoride release and uptake characteristics depend on the matrices, fillers and fluoride content as well as on the setting mechanisms and environmental conditions of the restoratives. Fluoride-releasing materials, predominantly glass-ionomers and compomers, did show cariostatic properties and may affect bacterial metabolism under simulated cariogenic conditions in vitro. However, it is not proven by prospective clinical studies whether the incidence of secondary caries can be significantly reduced by the fluoride release of

  4. Review of waste package verification tests. Semiannual report, October 1984-March 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soo, P.

    1985-07-01

    The potential of WAPPA, a second-generation waste package system code, to meet the needs of the regulatory community is analyzed. The analysis includes an indepth review of WAPPA's individual process models and a review of WAPPA's operation. It is concluded that the code is of limited use to the NRC in the present form. Recommendations for future improvement, usage, and implementation of the code are given. This report also describes the results of a testing program undertaken to determine the chemical environment that will be present near a high-level waste package emplaced in a basalt repository. For this purpose, low carbon 1020 steel (a current BWIP reference container material), synthetic basaltic groundwater and a mixture of bentonite and basalt were exposed, in an autoclave, to expected conditions some period after repository sealing (150 0 C, approx. =10.4 MPa). Parameters measured include changes in gas pressure with time and gas composition, variation in dissolved oxygen (DO), pH and certain ionic concentrations of water in the packing material across an imposed thermal gradient, mineralogic alteration of the basalt/bentonite mixture, and carbon steel corrosion behavior. A second testing program was also initiated to check the likelihood of stress corrosion cracking of austenitic stainless steels and Incoloy 825 which are being considered for use as waste container materials in the tuff repository program. 82 refs., 70 figs., 27 tabs

  5. System specification/system design document comment review: Plutonium Stabilization and Packaging System. Notes of conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    A meeting was held between DOE personnel and the BNFL team to review the proposed resolutions to DOE comments on the initial issue of the system specification and system design document for the Plutonium Stabilization and Packaging System. The objectives of this project are to design, fabricate, install, and start up a glovebox system for the safe repackaging of plutonium oxide and metal, with a requirement of a 50-year storage period. The areas discussed at the meeting were: nitrogen in can; moisture instrumentation; glovebox atmosphere; can marking bar coding; weld quality; NFPA-101 references; inner can swabbing; ultimate storage environment; throughput; convenience can screw-top design; furnacetrays; authorization basis; compactor safety; schedule for DOE review actions; fire protection; criticality safety; applicable standards; approach to MC and A; homogeneous oxide; resistance welder power; and tray overfill. Revised resolutions were drafted and are presented

  6. Computer aided optimum design of rubble-mound breakwater cross-sections : Manual of the RUMBA computer package, release 1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Haan, W.

    1989-01-01

    The computation of the optimum rubble-mound breakwater crosssection is executed on a micro-computer. The RUMBA computer package consists of two main parts: the optimization process is executed by a Turbo Pascal programme, the second part consists of editing functions written in AutoLISP. AutoLISP is

  7. A REVIEW ON CONTROLLED DRUG RELEASE FORMULATION: SPANSULES

    OpenAIRE

    Rinky Maurya; Dr. Pramod Kumar Sharma; Rishabha Malviya

    2014-01-01

    Spansules are a dosage form which was considered as one of the Advanced Drug Delivery System. Multidrug preparations can be delivered easily by spansules or granules in capsule technology. This type of delivery system designed to release a drug or a medicament at two or more different rates or in different span of time. A quick/slow release system provides an initial release of drug followed by a constant rate of drug release over a extended period or a defined period of time and in slow/quic...

  8. Peering down the barrel of a bacteriophage portal: the genome packaging and release valve in p22.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Jinghua; Lander, Gabriel C; Olia, Adam S; Olia, Adam; Li, Rui; Casjens, Sherwood; Prevelige, Peter; Cingolani, Gino; Baker, Timothy S; Johnson, John E

    2011-04-13

    The encapsidated genome in all double-strand DNA bacteriophages is packaged to liquid crystalline density through a unique vertex in the procapsid assembly intermediate, which has a portal protein dodecamer in place of five coat protein subunits. The portal orchestrates DNA packaging and exit, through a series of varying interactions with the scaffolding, terminase, and closure proteins. Here, we report an asymmetric cryoEM reconstruction of the entire P22 virion at 7.8 Å resolution. X-ray crystal structure models of the full-length portal and of the portal lacking 123 residues at the C terminus in complex with gene product 4 (Δ123portal-gp4) obtained by Olia et al. (2011) were fitted into this reconstruction. The interpreted density map revealed that the 150 Å, coiled-coil, barrel portion of the portal entraps the last DNA to be packaged and suggests a mechanism for head-full DNA signaling and transient stabilization of the genome during addition of closure proteins. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The Effect of Storage Time, Temperature and Type of Packaging on the Release of Phthalate Esters into Packed Acidic Liquids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noushin Rastkari

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Acidic liquids such as verjuice, lemon juice and vinegar are frequently consumed in Iran. Different kinds of acidic liquids are packaged in polyethylene terephthalate (PET and high-density polyethylene (HDPE bottles. There is evidence indicating that phthalates can leach from PET and HDPE bottles into their contents. In this work the effect of storage time, temperature and bottle type on the migration of phthalates from packaging materials into acidic liquids is studied by analyzing the samples stored under different conditions, before storage and after 2, 4 and 6 months of storage. The determined mean phthalate concentrations in μg/L were: <0.04 to 0.501 in verjuice, <0.04 to 0.231 in lemon juice and <0.04 to 0.586 in vinegar. The highest concentrations of diethyl phthalate (DEP and diethyl hexyl phthalate (DEHP were found in PET and HDPE bottles, respectively. Results of analyses before and after storage indicate that under some storage conditions, the concentrations of DEP, DEHP and dibutyl phthalate (DBP increased in acidic liquids. The possible migration of phthalic acid esters from plastic packaging materials into the contents was indicated by the results of the present study.

  10. Polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA: Review of synthesis, characteristics, processing and potential applications in packaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Bugnicourt

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs are gaining increasing attention in the biodegradable polymer market due to their promising properties such as high biodegradability in different environments, not just in composting plants, and processing versatility. Indeed among biopolymers, these biogenic polyesters represent a potential sustainable replacement for fossil fuel-based thermoplastics. Most commercially available PHAs are obtained with pure microbial cultures grown on renewable feedstocks (i.e. glucose under sterile conditions but recent research studies focus on the use of wastes as growth media. PHA can be extracted from the bacteria cell and then formulated and processed by extrusion for production of rigid and flexible plastic suitable not just for the most assessed medical applications but also considered for applications including packaging, moulded goods, paper coatings, non-woven fabrics, adhesives, films and performance additives. The present paper reviews the different classes of PHAs, their main properties, processing aspects, commercially available ones, as well as limitations and related improvements being researched, with specific focus on potential applications of PHAs in packaging.

  11. REVIEW OF AGING DATA ON EPDM O-RINGS IN THE H1616 SHIPPING PACKAGE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skidmore, E.

    2012-03-27

    Currently, all H1616 shipping package containers undergo annual re-verification testing, including containment vessel leak testing to verify leak-tightness (<1 x 10{sup -7} ref cc/sec air) as per ANSI N14.5. The purpose of this literature review is to supplement aging studies currently being performed by SRNL on the EPDM O-rings to provide the technical basis for extending annual re-verification testing for the H1616 shipping package and to predict the life of the seals at bounding service conditions. The available data suggest that the EPDM O-rings can retain significant mechanical properties and sealing force at or below bounding service temperatures (169 F or 76 C) beyond the 1 year maintenance period. Interpretation of available data suggests that a service life of at least 2 years and potentially 4-6 years may be possible at bounding temperatures. Seal lifetimes at lower, more realistic temperatures will likely be longer. Being a hydrocarbon elastomer, EPDM O-rings may exhibit an inhibition period due to the presence of antioxidants. Once antioxidants are consumed, mechanical properties and seal performance could decline at a faster rate. Testing is being performed to validate the assumptions outlined in this report and to assess the long-term performance of O-ring seals under actual service conditions.

  12. Opportunities for cellulose nanomaterials in packaging films: a review and future trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicole M. Stark

    2016-01-01

    Performance requirements for packaging films may include barrier properties, transparency, flexibility, and tensile strength. Conventional packaging materials such as plastic films and laminates, are typically made from petroleum-based polymers. Currently, there is a drive to develop sustainable packaging materials. These alternative materials must be able to be...

  13. Literature review of intrinsic actinide colloids related to spent fuel waste package release rates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, P.; Steward, S.A.

    1997-01-01

    Existence of actinide colloids provides an important mechanism in the migration of radionuclides and will be important in performance of a geologic repository for high-level nuclear waste. Actinide colloids have been formed during long-term unsaturated dissolution of spent fuel by groundwater. This article summarizes a literature search of actinide colloids. This report emphasizes the formation of intrinsic actinide colloids, because they would have the opportunity to form soon after groundwater contact with the spent fuel and before actinide-bearing groundwater reaches the surrounding geologic formations.

  14. Literature review of intrinsic actinide colloids related to spent fuel waste package release rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, P.; Steward, S.A.

    1997-01-01

    Existence of actinide colloids provides an important mechanism in the migration of radionuclides and will be important in performance of a geologic repository for high-level nuclear waste. Actinide colloids have been formed during long-term unsaturated dissolution of spent fuel by groundwater. This article summarizes a literature search of actinide colloids. This report emphasizes the formation of intrinsic actinide colloids, because they would have the opportunity to form soon after groundwater contact with the spent fuel and before actinide-bearing groundwater reaches the surrounding geologic formations

  15. Food packaging materials and radiation processing of food: a brief review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chuaqui-Offermanns, N.

    1989-01-01

    Food is usually packaged to prevent microbial contamination and spoilage. Ionizing radiation can be applied to food-packaging materials in two ways: (i) sterilization of packaging materials for aseptic packaging, and (ii) radiation processing of prepackaged food. In aseptic packaging, a sterile package is filled with a sterile product in a microbiologically controlled environment. In irradiation of prepackaged food, the food and the packaging material are irradiated simultaneously. For both applications, the radiation stability of the packaging material is a key consideration if the technology is to be used successfully. To demonstrate the radiation stability of the packaging material, it must be shown that irradiation does not significantly alter the physical and chemical properties of the material. The irradiated material must protect the food from environmental contamination while maintaining its organoleptic and toxicological properties. Single-layer plastics cannot meet the requirements of either application. Multilayered structures produced by coextrusion would likely satisfy the demands of radiation processing prepackaged food. In aseptic packaging, the package is irradiated prior to filling, making demands on toxicological safety less stringent. Therefore, multilayered structures produced by coextrusion, lamination or co-injection moulding could satisfy the requirements. (author)

  16. Packaging LLW and ILW

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flowers, R.H.; Owen, R.G.

    1991-01-01

    Low level waste (LLW) accounts for 70-80% by volume of all radioactive wastes produced by the nuclear industry. It has low specific activity, negligible actinide content and requires little, if any, shielding to protect workers. Volume reduction for LLW of high volume but low density may be achieved by incineration and compaction as appropriate, before packaging for disposal by near surface burial. Intermediate level waste (ILW) is treated and packed to convert it into a stable form to minimize any release of activity and make handling easier. The matrix chosen for immobilization, usually cement, polymers or bitumen, depends on the nature of the waste and the acceptance criteria of the disposal facility. The special case of LLW and ILW which will arise from reactor decommissioning is discussed. Packaging methods adopted by individual countries are reviewed. The range of costs involved for packaging ILW is indicated. There is no international consensus on the performance required from packaged waste to ensure its suitability both for interim storage and final disposal. (UK)

  17. Waste package performance assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lester, D.H.

    1981-01-01

    This paper describes work undertaken to assess the life-expectancy and post-failure nuclide release behavior of high-level and waste packages in a geologic repository. The work involved integrating models of individual phenomena (such as heat transfer, corrosion, package deformation, and nuclide transport) and using existing data to make estimates of post-emplacement behavior of waste packages. A package performance assessment code was developed to predict time to package failure in a flooded repository and subsequent transport of nuclides out of the leaking package. The model has been used to evaluate preliminary package designs. The results indicate, that within the limitation of model assumptions and data base, packages lasting a few hundreds of years could be developed. Very long lived packages may be possible but more comprehensive data are needed to confirm this

  18. Stowing of radioactive packages, materials or objects for their transport. Guide nr 27, Release of 30 August 2016

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    A good package stowing is part of an in-depth defence approach to ensure the safety of transport operations in the case of radioactive materials. This guide thus presents a set of recommendations to ensure this safety, recalls regulatory requirements, and presents recommendations made by the ASN for specific stowing training. This document concerns all kinds of transports (road, rail, river, sea, and air). After having indicated the different regulatory references, standards and recommendations, it proposes an overview of the applicable regulatory framework and technical requirements for stowing in France and in the EU in the case of road transport, of rail transport and of sea transport, and in France and in the world for the case of air transport. The next part details regulatory requirements and recommendations made by the ASN for the stowing of radioactive loads: commitment of the company's management, specific training for concerned personnel, definition of packing and stowing plans or of specific instructions, selection of the stowing system, adequacy of the used stowing equipment, documentation to achieve a good stowing, stowing quality control. Then, recommendations are made for the undertaking of a specific training on radioactive load stowing: training modalities, training content, training objectives (for designers, operators and controllers)

  19. Effects of ionizing radiation on plastic food packaging materials: a review. 1. Chemical and physical changes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buchalla, R.; Schuttler, C.; Bögl, K.W.

    1993-01-01

    Irradiation of prepackaged food causes chemical and physical changes in plastic packaging materials. The effects of ionizing radiation on these materials have been studied for almost 40 years; the respective literature is reviewed to provide the basis for a safety evaluation of plastics for use in food irradiation. Permeability of plastic films is generally not affected; deterioration of mechanical properties, that may occur with certain polymers, can usually be controlled with adequate stabilizers; and changes in infrared and UV/VIS spectra are slight at food irradiation doses. Gaseous radiolysis products include hydrogen, methane, CO 2 , CO, hydrocarbons, and for chlorine-containing polymers, hydrogen chloride. A range of volatile products, mainly hydrocarbons, alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, and carboxylic acids, has been characterized for low density polyethylene and polypropylene, other important materials, e.g., polystyrene and poly(vinyl chloride), are less well-investigated. Comparatively little is known on the effect of irradiation on multilayer structures. Radiation-induced changes are shown to depend on the chemical structure of the polymer, on the composition (additives) and processing history of the plastic, and on the irradiation conditions

  20. Natural and technologic hazardous material releases during and after natural disasters: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Stacy; Balluz, Lina; Malilay, Josephine

    2004-04-25

    Natural disasters may be powerful and prominent mechanisms of direct and indirect hazardous material (hazmat) releases. Hazardous materials that are released as the result of a technologic malfunction precipitated by a natural event are referred to as natural-technologic or na-tech events. Na-tech events pose unique environmental and human hazards. Disaster-associated hazardous material releases are of concern, given increases in population density and accelerating industrial development in areas subject to natural disasters. These trends increase the probability of catastrophic future disasters and the potential for mass human exposure to hazardous materials released during disasters. This systematic review summarizes direct and indirect disaster-associated releases, as well as environmental contamination and adverse human health effects that have resulted from natural disaster-related hazmat incidents. Thorough examination of historic disaster-related hazmat releases can be used to identify future threats and improve mitigation and prevention efforts.

  1. Active Packaging Coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis J. Bastarrachea

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Active food packaging involves the packaging of foods with materials that provide an enhanced functionality, such as antimicrobial, antioxidant or biocatalytic functions. This can be achieved through the incorporation of active compounds into the matrix of the commonly used packaging materials, or by the application of coatings with the corresponding functionality through surface modification. The latter option offers the advantage of preserving the packaging materials’ bulk properties nearly intact. Herein, different coating technologies like embedding for controlled release, immobilization, layer-by-layer deposition, and photografting are explained and their potential application for active food packaging is explored and discussed.

  2. 2011 drug packaging review: too many dangers and too many patients overlooked.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-01

    Every year, Prescrire's analysis of drug packaging confirms the importance of taking packaging into account in assessing a drug's harm-benefit balance. Safe, tried and true options are available, yet the quality of most of the drug packaging Prescrire examined in 2011 left much to be desired. Few of the packaging items examined help prevent medication errors and many actually increase the risks: misleading and confusing labelling, dosing devices that create a risk of overdose, bottles without a child-proof cap, and inadequate or dangerous patient information leaflets. Umbrella brands continue to expand and are a potential source of medication errors. Some patients are at greater risk: the patient leaflets for NSAIDs endanger pregnant women and their unborn babies; children are insufficiently protected by paediatric packaging and are at risk due to the lack of child-proof caps on too many bottles. The raft of regulatory measures taken by the French drug regulatory agency (Afssaps) in the aftermath of the Mediator disaster overlooked the importance of packaging. Until drug regulatory agencies tackle the vast issue of drug packaging, it is up to healthcare professionals to protect patients from harm.

  3. Activity-associated miRNA are packaged in Map1b-enriched exosomes released from depolarized neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldie, Belinda J; Dun, Matthew D; Lin, Minjie; Smith, Nathan D; Verrills, Nicole M; Dayas, Christopher V; Cairns, Murray J

    2014-08-01

    Rapid input-restricted change in gene expression is an important aspect of synaptic plasticity requiring complex mechanisms of post-transcriptional mRNA trafficking and regulation. Small non-coding miRNA are uniquely poised to support these functions by providing a nucleic-acid-based specificity component for universal-sequence-dependent RNA binding complexes. We investigated the subcellular distribution of these molecules in resting and potassium chloride depolarized human neuroblasts, and found both selective enrichment and depletion in neurites. Depolarization was associated with a neurite-restricted decrease in miRNA expression; a subset of these molecules was recovered from the depolarization medium in nuclease resistant extracellular exosomes. These vesicles were enriched with primate specific miRNA and the synaptic-plasticity-associated protein MAP1b. These findings further support a role for miRNA as neural plasticity regulators, as they are compartmentalized in neurons and undergo activity-associated redistribution or release into the extracellular matrix. © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  4. Enzyme-triggered nanomedicine: Drug release strategies in cancer therapy (Invited Review)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andresen, Thomas Lars; Thompson, David H.; Kaasgaard, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    -based strategies are particularly interesting as they require no prior knowledge of the tumour localization. The basis of this review is an evaluation of the current status of drug delivery strategies focused on triggered drug release by disease-associated enzymes. We limit ourselves to reviewing the liposome...

  5. Review of calculational models and computer codes for environmental dose assessment of radioactive releases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strenge, D.L.; Watson, E.C.; Droppo, J.G.

    1976-06-01

    The development of technological bases for siting nuclear fuel cycle facilities requires calculational models and computer codes for the evaluation of risks and the assessment of environmental impact of radioactive effluents. A literature search and review of available computer programs revealed that no one program was capable of performing all of the great variety of calculations (i.e., external dose, internal dose, population dose, chronic release, accidental release, etc.). Available literature on existing computer programs has been reviewed and a description of each program reviewed is given

  6. Review of calculational models and computer codes for environmental dose assessment of radioactive releases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strenge, D.L.; Watson, E.C.; Droppo, J.G.

    1976-06-01

    The development of technological bases for siting nuclear fuel cycle facilities requires calculational models and computer codes for the evaluation of risks and the assessment of environmental impact of radioactive effluents. A literature search and review of available computer programs revealed that no one program was capable of performing all of the great variety of calculations (i.e., external dose, internal dose, population dose, chronic release, accidental release, etc.). Available literature on existing computer programs has been reviewed and a description of each program reviewed is given.

  7. Nanotechnology: An Untapped Resource for Food Packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Chetan; Dhiman, Romika; Rokana, Namita; Panwar, Harsh

    2017-01-01

    Food commodities are packaged and hygienically transported to protect and preserve them from any un-acceptable alteration in quality, before reaching the end-consumer. Food packaging continues to evolve along-with the innovations in material science and technology, as well as in light of consumer's demand. Presently, the modern consumers of competitive economies demands for food with natural quality, assured safety, minimal processing, extended shelf-life and ready-to-eat concept. Innovative packaging systems, not only ascertains transit preservation and effective distribution, but also facilitates communication at the consumer levels. The technological advances in the domain of food packaging in twenty-first century are mainly chaired by nanotechnology, the science of nano-materials. Nanotechnology manipulates and creates nanometer scale materials, of commercial and scientific relevance. Introduction of nanotechnology in food packaging sector has significantly addressed the food quality, safety and stability concerns. Besides, nanotechnology based packaging intimate's consumers about the real time quality of food product. Additionally, nanotechnology has been explored for controlled release of preservatives/antimicrobials, extending the product shelf life within the package. The promising reports for nanotechnology interventions in food packaging have established this as an independent priority research area. Nanoparticles based food packages offer improved barrier and mechanical properties, along with food preservation and have gained welcoming response from market and end users. In contrary, recent advances and up-liftment in this area have raised various ethical, environmental and safety concerns. Policies and regulation regarding nanoparticles incorporation in food packaging are being reviewed. This review presents the existing knowledge, recent advances, concerns and future applications of nanotechnology in food packaging sector.

  8. A review of mathematical modeling and simulation of controlled-release fertilizers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irfan, Sayed Ameenuddin; Razali, Radzuan; KuShaari, KuZilati; Mansor, Nurlidia; Azeem, Babar; Ford Versypt, Ashlee N

    2018-02-10

    Nutrients released into soils from uncoated fertilizer granules are lost continuously due to volatilization, leaching, denitrification, and surface run-off. These issues have caused economic loss due to low nutrient absorption efficiency and environmental pollution due to hazardous emissions and water eutrophication. Controlled-release fertilizers (CRFs) can change the release kinetics of the fertilizer nutrients through an abatement strategy to offset these issues by providing the fertilizer content in synchrony with the metabolic needs of the plants. Parametric analysis of release characteristics of CRFs is of paramount importance for the design and development of new CRFs. However, the experimental approaches are not only time consuming, but they are also cumbersome and expensive. Scientists have introduced mathematical modeling techniques to predict the release of nutrients from the CRFs to elucidate fundamental understanding of the dynamics of the release processes and to design new CRFs in a shorter time and with relatively lower cost. This paper reviews and critically analyzes the latest developments in the mathematical modeling and simulation techniques that have been reported for the characteristics and mechanisms of nutrient release from CRFs. The scope of this review includes the modeling and simulations techniques used for coated, controlled-release fertilizers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Establishing a store baseline during interim storage of waste packages and a review of potential technologies for base-lining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McTeer, Jennifer; Morris, Jenny; Wickham, Stephen [Galson Sciences Ltd. Oakham, Rutland (United Kingdom); Bolton, Gary [National Nuclear Laboratory Risley, Warrington (United Kingdom); McKinney, James; Morris, Darrell [Nuclear Decommissioning Authority Moor Row, Cumbria (United Kingdom); Angus, Mike [National Nuclear Laboratory Risley, Warrington (United Kingdom); Cann, Gavin; Binks, Tracey [National Nuclear Laboratory Sellafield (United Kingdom)

    2013-07-01

    Interim storage is an essential component of the waste management lifecycle, providing a safe, secure environment for waste packages awaiting final disposal. In order to be able to monitor and detect change or degradation of the waste packages, storage building or equipment, it is necessary to know the original condition of these components (the 'waste storage system'). This paper presents an approach to establishing the baseline for a waste-storage system, and provides guidance on the selection and implementation of potential base-lining technologies. The approach is made up of two sections; assessment of base-lining needs and definition of base-lining approach. During the assessment of base-lining needs a review of available monitoring data and store/package records should be undertaken (if the store is operational). Evolutionary processes (affecting safety functions), and their corresponding indicators, that can be measured to provide a baseline for the waste-storage system should then be identified in order for the most suitable indicators to be selected for base-lining. In defining the approach, identification of opportunities to collect data and constraints is undertaken before selecting the techniques for base-lining and developing a base-lining plan. Base-lining data may be used to establish that the state of the packages is consistent with the waste acceptance criteria for the storage facility and to support the interpretation of monitoring and inspection data collected during store operations. Opportunities and constraints are identified for different store and package types. Technologies that could potentially be used to measure baseline indicators are also reviewed. (authors)

  10. Nuclear waste transportation package testing: A review of selected programs in the United States and abroad

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snedeker, D.F.

    1990-12-01

    This report provides an overview of some recent nuclear waste transportation package development programs. This information is intended to aid the State of Nevada in its review of US Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear waste transportation programs. This report addresses cask testing programs in the United Kingdom and selected 1/4 and full scale testing in the US. Facilities that can provide cask testing services, both in the US and to a limited extent abroad, are identified. The costs for different type test programs are identified as a means to estimate costs for future test programs. Not addressed is the public impact such testing might have in providing an increased sense of safety or confidence. The British test program was apparently quite successful in demonstrating safety to the public at the time. There is no US test effort that is similar in scope for direct comparison. Also addressed are lessons learned from testing programs and areas that may merit possible future integrated examination. Areas that may require further examination are both technical and institutional. This report provides information which, when combined with other sources of information will enable the State of Nevada to assess the following areas: feasibility of full scale testing; costs of full scale tests; potential benefits of testing; limits that full scale testing impose; and disadvantages of emphasis on testing vs analytical solutions. This assessment will then allow the state to comment on DOE Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) plans for the development and licensing of new shipping cask designs. These plans currently expect contractors to perform engineering testing for materials development, quarter scale model testing to validate analytical assessments and full scale prototype testing of operational features. DOE currently plans no full scale or extra-regulatory destructive testing to aid in cask licensing. 1 tab

  11. A review of the safety features of 6M packagings for DOE programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-12-01

    This report, prepared by a US Department of Energy (DOE) Task Force and organized for clarity into two-page modules, argues that the US Department of Transportation (DOT) Specification-6M packagings (hereafter referred to as 6M packaging, or simply 6M) merit continued DOE use and, if necessary, DOE certification. This report is designed to address the specific requirements of a Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP). While not a SARP, this report constitutes a compilation of all available documentation on 6M packagings. The authors individually, and the Task Force collectively, believe their investigation provides justification for the continued use of 6M packagings because they meet criteria for quality assurance and for safety under normal and accident conditions as defined by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) regulations. This report may be used by DOE managers to assist in deliberations on future requirements for 6M packagings as they are required to support DOE programs. For the purpose of ready evaluation, this report includes categorical topics found in Nuclear Regulatory Guide 7.9, the topical guideline for SARPs. The format, however, will (it is hoped) pleasantly surprise customary reader expectations. For, while maintaining categorical headings and subheadings found in SARPs as a skeleton, the Task Force chose to adopt the document design principles developed by Hughes Aircraft in the 1960s, ''Sequential Thematic Organization of Publications'' (STOP). 37 figs

  12. Network meta-analysis using R: a review of currently available automated packages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Binod Neupane

    Full Text Available Network meta-analysis (NMA--a statistical technique that allows comparison of multiple treatments in the same meta-analysis simultaneously--has become increasingly popular in the medical literature in recent years. The statistical methodology underpinning this technique and software tools for implementing the methods are evolving. Both commercial and freely available statistical software packages have been developed to facilitate the statistical computations using NMA with varying degrees of functionality and ease of use. This paper aims to introduce the reader to three R packages, namely, gemtc, pcnetmeta, and netmeta, which are freely available software tools implemented in R. Each automates the process of performing NMA so that users can perform the analysis with minimal computational effort. We present, compare and contrast the availability and functionality of different important features of NMA in these three packages so that clinical investigators and researchers can determine which R packages to implement depending on their analysis needs. Four summary tables detailing (i data input and network plotting, (ii modeling options, (iii assumption checking and diagnostic testing, and (iv inference and reporting tools, are provided, along with an analysis of a previously published dataset to illustrate the outputs available from each package. We demonstrate that each of the three packages provides a useful set of tools, and combined provide users with nearly all functionality that might be desired when conducting a NMA.

  13. Edible packaging materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janjarasskul, Theeranun; Krochta, John M

    2010-01-01

    Research groups and the food and pharmaceutical industries recognize edible packaging as a useful alternative or addition to conventional packaging to reduce waste and to create novel applications for improving product stability, quality, safety, variety, and convenience for consumers. Recent studies have explored the ability of biopolymer-based food packaging materials to carry and control-release active compounds. As diverse edible packaging materials derived from various by-products or waste from food industry are being developed, the dry thermoplastic process is advancing rapidly as a feasible commercial edible packaging manufacturing process. The employment of nanocomposite concepts to edible packaging materials promises to improve barrier and mechanical properties and facilitate effective incorporation of bioactive ingredients and other designed functions. In addition to the need for a more fundamental understanding to enable design to desired specifications, edible packaging has to overcome challenges such as regulatory requirements, consumer acceptance, and scaling-up research concepts to commercial applications.

  14. Measuring Nanomaterial Release from Carbon Nanotube Composites: Review of the State of the Science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harper, Stacey; Wohlleben, Wendel; Doa, Maria; Nowack, Bernd; Clancy, Shaun; Canady, Richard; Maynard, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Hazard studies of “as-produced” nanomaterials are increasingly available, yet a critical gap exists in exposure science that may impede safe development of nanomaterials. The gap is that we do not understand what is actually released because nanomaterials can change when released in ways that are not understood. We also generally do not have methods capable of quantitatively measuring what is released to support dose assessment. This review presents a case study of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) for the measurement challenge to bridge this gap. As the use and value of MWCNTs increases, methods to measure what is released in ways relevant to risk evaluation are critically needed if products containing these materials are to be economically, environmentally, and socially sustainable. This review draws on the input of over 50 experts engaged in a program of workshops and technical report writing to address the release of MWCNTs from nanocomposite materials across their life cycle. The expert analyses reveals that new and sophisticated methods are required to measure and assess MWCNT exposures for realistic exposure scenarios. Furthermore, method requirements vary with the materials and conditions of release across life cycle stages of products. While review shows that the likelihood of significant release of MWCNTs appears to be low for many stages of composite life cycle, measurement methods are needed so that exposures from MWCNT-composites are understood and managed. In addition, there is an immediate need to refocus attention from study of “as-produced” nanomaterials to coordinated research on actual release scenarios. (paper)

  15. Level 4 Milestone (M4): M41UF033201 - Review of Radiolysis of Brines on the Surface of a Waste Package

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sutton, Mark [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2011-08-12

    This milestone report (M41UF033201) documents a literature review of relevant publications for gamma radiolysis occurring within a droplet of water on the outside of a waste package in a repository environment within the “

  16. Slow release coating remedy for nitrogen loss from conventional urea: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naz, Muhammad Yasin; Sulaiman, Shaharin Anwar

    2016-03-10

    Developing countries are consuming major part of the global urea production with an anticipated nitrogen use efficiency of 20 to 35%. The release of excess nitrogen in the soil is not only detrimental to the environment but also lessens the efficiency of the conventional urea. The urea performance can be enhanced by encapsulating it with slow release coating materials and synchronizing the nutrients' release with the plant up-taking. However, the present cost of most of the coated fertilizers is considerably higher than the conventional fertilizers. The high cost factor prevents their widespread use in mainstream agriculture. This paper documents a review of literature related to the global urea market, issues pertaining to the conventional urea use, natural and synthetic materials for slow release urea and fluidized bed spray coating process. The aim of the current review is to develop technical understanding of the conventional and non-conventional coating materials and associated spray coating mechanism for slow release urea production. The study also investigated the potential of starch as the coating material in relation to the coatings tested previously for controlled release fertilizers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. A review and perspective of existing research on the release of nanomaterials from solid nanocomposites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froggett, Stephan J; Clancy, Shaun F; Boverhof, Darrell R; Canady, Richard A

    2014-04-07

    Advances in adding nanomaterials to various matrices have occurred in tandem with the identification of potential hazards associated with exposure to pure forms of nanomaterials. We searched multiple research publication databases and found that, relative to data generated on potential nanomaterial hazards or exposures, very little attention has focused on understanding the potential and conditions for release of nanomaterials from nanocomposites. However, as a prerequisite to exposure studying release is necessary to inform risk assessments. We identified fifty-four studies that specifically investigated the release of nanomaterials, and review them in the following release scenario groupings: machining, weathering, washing, contact and incineration. While all of the identified studies provided useful information, only half were controlled experiments. Based on these data, the debris released from solid, non-food nanocomposites contains in varying frequencies, a mixture of four types of debris. Most frequently identified are (1) particles of matrix alone, and slightly less often, the (2) matrix particles exhibit the nanomaterial partially or fully embedded; far less frequently is (3) the added nanomaterial entirely dissociated from the matrix identified: and most rare are (4) dissolved ionic forms of the added nanomaterial. The occurrence of specific debris types appeared to be dependent on the specific release scenario and environment. These data highlight that release from nanocomposites can take multiple forms and that additional research and guidance would be beneficial, allowing for more consistent characterization of the release potential of nanomaterials. In addition, these data support calls for method validation and standardization, as well as understanding how laboratory release scenarios relate to real-world conditions. Importantly, as risk is considered to be a function of the inherent hazards of a substance and the actual potential for exposure, data

  18. A review of ''The potential effects of release of krypton-85''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saunders, C.P.R.

    1993-06-01

    A Report into the potential effects of the release of Krypton-85 from the Thermal Oxide Reprocessing Plant (THORP) at Sellafield, was commissioned by British Nuclear Fuels Ltd. The report dealt with the atmospheric impact of the release of Krypton-85 and considered specifically the areas of atmospheric electricity, ionisation, aerosols and conductivity, in terms of the releases of Krypton-85 from THORP. This present review has three objectives: to consider the atmospheric effects of the proposed discharges from THORP, to comment upon the magnitude of the postulated effects from Krypton-85 discharges compared with those from other sources of radioactivity in the atmosphere, and, to comment on the conclusions drawn by the authors of the report. This review was conducted under the aegis of the United Kingdom Inspectorate of Pollution. (author)

  19. Waste package performance analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lester, D.H.; Stula, R.T.; Kirstein, B.E.

    1982-01-01

    A performance assessment model for multiple barrier packages containing unreprocessed spent fuel has been applied to several package designs. The resulting preliminary assessments were intended for use in making decisions about package development programs. A computer model called BARIER estimates the package life and subsequent rate of release of selected nuclides. The model accounts for temperature, pressure (and resulting stresses), bulk and localized corrosion, and nuclide retardation by the backfill after water intrusion into the waste form. The assessment model assumes a post-closure, flooded, geologic repository. Calculations indicated that, within the bounds of model assumptions, packages could last for several hundred years. Intact backfills of appropriate design may be capable of nuclide release delay times on the order of 10 7 yr for uranium, plutonium, and americium. 8 references, 6 figures, 9 tables

  20. Grooming. Learning Activity Package.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, Pamela

    This learning activity package on grooming for health workers is one of a series of 12 titles developed for use in health occupations education programs. Materials in the package include objectives, a list of materials needed, information sheets, reviews (self evaluations) of portions of the content, and answers to reviews. These topics are…

  1. Naltrexone sustained-release/bupropion sustained-release for the management of obesity: review of the data to date

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caixàs A

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Assumpta Caixàs, Lara Albert, Ismael Capel, Mercedes Rigla Endocrinology and Nutrition Department, Parc Tauli Sabadell University Hospital, Autonomous University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain Abstract: Obesity is an emerging disease worldwide. Changes in living habits, especially with increased consumption of high-calorie foods and decreased levels of physical activity, lead to an energy imbalance that brings weight gain. Overweight and obesity are major risk factors for several chronic diseases (including cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, and cancer, reduce quality of life, and are associated with higher mortality. For all these reasons, it is of the utmost importance that the trend be reversed and obese people enabled to lose weight. It is known that eating a healthy diet and exercising regularly can help prevent obesity, but data show that in many cases these steps are not enough. This is the reason why, over the last few decades, several antiobesity drugs have been developed. However, the disappointing results demonstrated for the vast majority of them have not discouraged the pharmaceutical industry from continuing to look for an effective drug or combination of drugs. The systematic review presented here focuses on naltrexone sustained-release/bupropion sustained-release combination (Contrave®. We conclude from the current published reports that its effectiveness in the treatment of obesity can be estimated as a placebo-subtracted weight loss of around 4.5%. This weight reduction is moderate but similar to other antiobesity drugs. The safety profile of this combination is acceptable, despite additional data regarding cardiovascular disease being needed. Keywords: Contrave, weight loss, overweight, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, cancer

  2. Fracture mechanics based design for radioactive material transport packagings -- Historical review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, J.A.; Salzbrenner, D.; Sorenson, K.; McConnell, P.

    1998-04-01

    The use of a fracture mechanics based design for the radioactive material transport (RAM) packagings has been the subject of extensive research for more than a decade. Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) has played an important role in the research and development of the application of this technology. Ductile iron has been internationally accepted as an exemplary material for the demonstration of a fracture mechanics based method of RAM packaging design and therefore is the subject of a large portion of the research discussed in this report. SNL's extensive research and development program, funded primarily by the U. S. Department of Energy's Office of Transportation, Energy Management and Analytical Services (EM-76) and in an auxiliary capacity, the office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management, is summarized in this document along with a summary of the research conducted at other institutions throughout the world. In addition to the research and development work, code and standards development and regulatory positions are also discussed

  3. Review of waste package verification tests. Semiannual report, April 1985-September 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soo, P.

    1986-01-01

    Several studies were completed this period to evaluate experimental and analytical methodologies being used in the DOE waste package program. The first involves a determination of the relevance of the test conditions being used by DOE to characterize waste package component behavior in a salt repository system. Another study focuses on the testing conditions and procedures used to measure radionuclide solubility and colloid formation in repository groundwaters. An attempt was also made to evaluate the adequacy of selected waste package performance codes. However, the latter work was limited by an inability to obtain several codes from DOE. Nevertheless, it was possible to comment briefly on the structures and intents of the codes based on publications in the open literature. The final study involved an experimental program to determine the likelihood of stress-corrosion cracking of austenitic stainless steels and Incoloy 825 in simulated tuff repository environments. Tests for six-month exposure periods in water and air-steam conditions are described. 52 figs., 48 tabs

  4. Nanotechnology in Meat Processing and Packaging: Potential Applications — A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karna Ramachandraiah

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Growing demand for sustainable production, increasing competition and consideration of health concerns have led the meat industries on a path to innovation. Meat industries across the world are focusing on the development of novel meat products and processes to meet consumer demand. Hence, a process innovation, like nanotechnology, can have a significant impact on the meat processing industry through the development of not only novel functional meat products, but also novel packaging for the products. The potential benefits of utilizing nanomaterials in food are improved bioavailability, antimicrobial effects, enhanced sensory acceptance and targeted delivery of bioactive compounds. However, challenges exist in the application of nanomaterials due to knowledge gaps in the production of ingredients such as nanopowders, stability of delivery systems in meat products and health risks caused by the same properties which also offer the benefits. For the success of nanotechnology in meat products, challenges in public acceptance, economics and the regulation of food processed with nanomaterials which may have the potential to persist, accumulate and lead to toxicity need to be addressed. So far, the most promising area for nanotechnology application seems to be in meat packaging, but the long term effects on human health and environment due to migration of the nanomaterials from the packaging needs to be studied further. The future of nanotechnology in meat products depends on the roles played by governments, regulatory agencies and manufacturers in addressing the challenges related to the application of nanomaterials in food.

  5. Past, current and potential utilisation of active and intelligent packaging systems for meat and muscle-based products: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerry, J P; O'Grady, M N; Hogan, S A

    2006-09-01

    Interest in the use of active and intelligent packaging systems for meat and meat products has increased in recent years. Active packaging refers to the incorporation of additives into packaging systems with the aim of maintaining or extending meat product quality and shelf-life. Active packaging systems discussed include oxygen scavengers, carbon dioxide scavengers and emitters, moisture control agents and anti-microbial packaging technologies. Intelligent packaging systems are those that monitor the condition of packaged foods to give information regarding the quality of the packaged food during transport and storage. The potential of sensor technologies, indicators (including integrity, freshness and time-temperature (TTI) indicators) and radio frequency identification (RFID) are evaluated for potential use in meat and meat products. Recognition of the benefits of active and intelligent packaging technologies by the food industry, development of economically viable packaging systems and increased consumer acceptance is necessary for commercial realisation of these packaging technologies.

  6. Radioactive waste isolation in salt: peer review of Westinghouse Electric Corporation's report on reference conceptual designs for a repository waste package

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rote, D.M.; Hull, A.B.; Was, G.S.; Macdonald, D.D.; Wilde, B.E.; Russell, J.E.; Kruger, J.; Harrison, W.; Hambley, D.F.

    1985-10-01

    This report documents the findings of the peer panel constituted by Argonne National Laboratory to review Region A of Westinghouse Electric Corporation's report entitled Waste Package Reference Conceptual Designs for a Repository in Salt. The panel determined that the reviewed report does not provide reasonable assurance that US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) requirements for waste packages will be met by the proposed design. It also found that it is premature to call the design a ''reference design,'' or even a ''reference conceptual design.'' This review report provides guidance for the preparation of a more acceptable design document

  7. Radioactive waste isolation in salt: peer review of Westinghouse Electric Corporation's report on reference conceptual designs for a repository waste package

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rote, D.M.; Hull, A.B.; Was, G.S.; Macdonald, D.D.; Wilde, B.E.; Russell, J.E.; Kruger, J.; Harrison, W.; Hambley, D.F.

    1985-10-01

    This report documents the findings of the peer panel constituted by Argonne National Laboratory to review Region A of Westinghouse Electric Corporation's report entitled Waste Package Reference Conceptual Designs for a Repository in Salt. The panel determined that the reviewed report does not provide reasonable assurance that US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) requirements for waste packages will be met by the proposed design. It also found that it is premature to call the design a ''reference design,'' or even a ''reference conceptual design.'' This review report provides guidance for the preparation of a more acceptable design document.

  8. Review of radionuclides released from the nuclear fuel cycle and methods of assessing dose to man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bryant, P.M.

    1979-01-01

    There are two broad subject areas associated with releases of radionuclides from nuclear fuel cycle installations to the environment in which there are biological implications. One concerns interpretation of doses to man in terms of their radiological significance; the other concerns estimation of environmental transfer of radionuclides and of associated radiation doses to man. The radiation protection philosophy on which past practice regarding effluent releases of radionuclides to the environment was based is illustrated by drawing upon estimates of the associated radiation doses to man given in the 1977 report of the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation. The present emphasis in radiation protection philosophy is illustrated by summarizing a review of environmental models relevant to estimation of radiation doses to population groups with reference to effluent releases of 3 H, 14 C, 85 Kr and 129 I; the author carried out the review as a contribution to a current study by an expert group set up by the Nuclear Energy Agency of OECD. Radionuclides of significance in the future may differ from those currently released to the environment because of possible developments in nuclear fuel cycles and options which may be exercised for disposal of high-level radioactive wastes, already in storage or postulated to be produced in the future. (author)

  9. A review of radionuclide release and transport in recent in-pile experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harman, N.F.; Clough, P.N.

    1992-01-01

    The experimental series, reviewed in this work, are LOFT-LP-FP-2, PBF SFD ST to 1-4, Treat/STEP I to 4, and ACRR ST-1 and ST-2. These have the common features of in-core heating of a test fuel bundle to high temperatures (usually with some fuel melting) in an experimental reactor core, and of collecting and analysing the released fission products. They were designed to provide detailed information on the release from fuel of fission products and other radionuclides under LWR severe accident conditions, and on the chemical and physical forms and transport of the fission products. The main aim of this review is to bring together, in a systematic way, information on the conduct of the tests, on their successes and failures, and particularly on the information they generated on the chemical and physical behaviour of released fission products. By examining and analysing the data from all of the tests together, patterns of fission product behaviour may become apparent and insights may be gained, which would not be arrived at from individual test results. Moreover, important lessons may be learned, and useful guidance obtained, relating to the aims and conduct of future experimental programmes of fission product release from fuel and transport behaviour. The conclusions should be particularly relevant to the imminent Phebus-FP in-pile test series at Cadarache

  10. Food packages for Space Shuttle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fohey, M. F.; Sauer, R. L.; Westover, J. B.; Rockafeller, E. F.

    1978-01-01

    The paper reviews food packaging techniques used in space flight missions and describes the system developed for the Space Shuttle. Attention is directed to bite-size food cubes used in Gemini, Gemini rehydratable food packages, Apollo spoon-bowl rehydratable packages, thermostabilized flex pouch for Apollo, tear-top commercial food cans used in Skylab, polyethylene beverage containers, Skylab rehydratable food package, Space Shuttle food package configuration, duck-bill septum rehydration device, and a drinking/dispensing nozzle for Space Shuttle liquids. Constraints and testing of packaging is considered, a comparison of food package materials is presented, and typical Shuttle foods and beverages are listed.

  11. The systems containing clays and clay minerals from modified drug release: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Luís Alberto de Sousa; Figueiras, Ana; Veiga, Francisco; de Freitas, Rivelilson Mendes; Nunes, Lívio César Cunha; da Silva Filho, Edson Cavalcanti; da Silva Leite, Cleide Maria

    2013-03-01

    Clays are materials commonly used in the pharmaceutical industry, either as ingredients or as active ingredients. It was observed that when they are administered concurrently, they may interact with drugs reducing their absorption. Therefore, such interactions can be used to achieve technological and biopharmaceutical advantages, regarding the control of release. This review summarizes bibliographic (articles) and technological (patents) information on the use of systems containing clays and clay minerals in modified drug delivery. In this area, formulations such natural clay, commercial clay, synthetic clay, composites clay-polymers, nanocomposites clay-polymers, films and hidrogels composites clay-polymers are used to slow/extend or vectorize the release of drugs and consequently they increase their bioavailability. Finally, this review summarizes the fields of technology and biopharmaceutical applications, where clays are applied. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. TECHNICAL PEER REVIEW REPORT - YUCCA MOUNTAIN: WASTE PACKAGE CLOSURE CONTROL SYSTEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NA

    2005-10-25

    The objective of the Waste Package Closure System (WPCS) project is to assist in the disposal of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and associated high-level wastes (HLW) at the Yucca Mountain site in Nevada. Materials will be transferred from the casks into a waste package (WP), sealed, and placed into the underground facility. The SNF/HLW transfer and closure operations will be performed in an aboveground facility. The objective of the Control System is to bring together major components of the entire WPCS ensuring that unit operations correctly receive, and respond to, commands and requests for data. Integrated control systems will be provided to ensure that all operations can be performed remotely. Maintenance on equipment may be done using hands-on or remote methods, depending on complexity, exposure, and ease of access. Operating parameters and nondestructive examination results will be collected and stored as permanent electronic records. Minor weld repairs must be performed within the closure cell if the welds do not meet the inspection acceptance requirements. Any WP with extensive weld defects that require lids to be removed will be moved to the remediation facility for repair.

  13. Processing and characteristics of canola protein-based biodegradable packaging: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yachuan; Liu, Qiang; Rempel, Curtis

    2018-02-11

    Interest increased recently in manufacturing food packaging, such as films and coatings, from protein-based biopolymers. Among various protein sources, canola protein is a novel source for manufacturing polymer films. It can be concentrated or isolated by aqueous extraction technology followed by protein precipitation. Using this procedure, it was claimed that more than 99% of protein was extracted from the defatted canola meal, and protein recovery was 87.5%. Canola protein exhibits thermoplastic properties when plasticizers are present, including water, glycerol, polyethylene glycol, and sorbitol. Addition of these plasticizers allows the canola protein to undergo glass transition and facilitates deformation and processability. Normally, canola protein-based bioplastics showed low mechanical properties, which had tensile strength (TS) of 1.19 to 4.31 MPa. So, various factors were explored to improve it, including blending with synthetic polymers, modifying protein functionality through controlled denaturation, and adding cross-linking agents. Canola protein-based bioplastics were reported to have glass transition temperature, T g , below -50°C but it highly depends on the plasticizer content. Canola protein-based bioplastics have demonstrated comparable mechanical and moisture barrier properties compared with other plant protein-based bioplastics. They have great potential in food packaging applications, including their use as wraps, sacks, sachets, or pouches.

  14. TECHNICAL PEER REVIEW REPORT - YUCCA MOUNTAIN: WASTE PACKAGE CLOSURE CONTROL SYSTEM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    The objective of the Waste Package Closure System (WPCS) project is to assist in the disposal of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and associated high-level wastes (HLW) at the Yucca Mountain site in Nevada. Materials will be transferred from the casks into a waste package (WP), sealed, and placed into the underground facility. The SNF/HLW transfer and closure operations will be performed in an aboveground facility. The objective of the Control System is to bring together major components of the entire WPCS ensuring that unit operations correctly receive, and respond to, commands and requests for data. Integrated control systems will be provided to ensure that all operations can be performed remotely. Maintenance on equipment may be done using hands-on or remote methods, depending on complexity, exposure, and ease of access. Operating parameters and nondestructive examination results will be collected and stored as permanent electronic records. Minor weld repairs must be performed within the closure cell if the welds do not meet the inspection acceptance requirements. Any WP with extensive weld defects that require lids to be removed will be moved to the remediation facility for repair

  15. Investigation of Effectiveness of Order Review and Release Models in Make to Order Supply Chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kundu Kaustav

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays customisation becomes more common due to vast requirement from the customers for which industries are trying to use make-to-order (MTO strategy. Due to high variation in the process, workload control models are extensively used for jobshop companies which usually adapt MTO strategy. Some authors tried to implement workload control models, order review and release systems, in non-repetitive manufacturing companies, where there is a dominant flow in production. Those models are better in shop floor but their performances are never been investigated in high variation situations like MTO supply chain. This paper starts with the introduction of particular issues in MTO companies and a general overview of order review and release systems widely used in the industries. Two order review and release systems, the Limited and Balanced models, particularly suitable for flow shop system are applied to MTO supply chain, where the processing times are difficult to estimate due to high variation. Simulation results show that the Balanced model performs much better than the Limited model if the processing times can be estimated preciously.

  16. Packaging fluency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mocanu, Ana; Chrysochou, Polymeros; Bogomolova, Svetlana

    2011-01-01

    Research on packaging stresses the need for packaging design to read easily, presuming fast and accurate processing of product-related information. In this paper we define this property of packaging as “packaging fluency”. Based on the existing marketing and cognitive psychology literature on pac...

  17. Microelectronic packaging

    CERN Document Server

    Datta, M; Schultze, J Walter

    2004-01-01

    Microelectronic Packaging analyzes the massive impact of electrochemical technologies on various levels of microelectronic packaging. Traditionally, interconnections within a chip were considered outside the realm of packaging technologies, but this book emphasizes the importance of chip wiring as a key aspect of microelectronic packaging, and focuses on electrochemical processing as an enabler of advanced chip metallization.Divided into five parts, the book begins by outlining the basics of electrochemical processing, defining the microelectronic packaging hierarchy, and emphasizing the impac

  18. A review of selected aspects of the effect of water vapor on fission gas release from uranium oxycarbide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myers, B.F.

    1994-04-01

    A selective review is presented of previous measurements and the analysis of experiments on the effect of water vapor on fission gas release from uranium oxycarbide. Evidence for the time-dependent composition of the uranium oxycarbide fuel; the diffusional release of fission gas; and the initial, rapid and limited release of stored fission gas is discussed. In regard to the initial, rapid release of fission gas, clear restrictions on mechanistic hypotheses can be deduced from the experimental data. However, more fundamental experiments may be required to establish the mechanism of the rapid release

  19. In vitro toxicological evaluation of essential oils and their main compounds used in active food packaging: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llana-Ruiz-Cabello, Maria; Pichardo, Silvia; Maisanaba, Sara; Puerto, Maria; Prieto, Ana I; Gutiérrez-Praena, Daniel; Jos, Angeles; Cameán, Ana M

    2015-07-01

    Essential oils (EOs) and their main constituent compounds have been extensively investigated due to their application in the food industry for improving the shelf life of perishable products. Although they are still not available for use in food packaging in the market in Europe, considerable research in this field has been carried out recently. The safety of these EOs should be guaranteed before being commercialized. The aim of this work was to review the scientific publications, with a primary focus on the last 10 years, with respect to different in vitro toxicological aspects, mainly focussed on mutagenicity/genotoxicity. In general, fewer genotoxic studies have been reported on EOs in comparison to their main components, and most of them did not show mutagenic activity. However, more studies are needed in this field since the guidelines of the European Food Safety Authority have not always been followed accurately. The mutagenic/genotoxic activities of these substances have been related to metabolic activation. Therefore, in vivo tests are required to confirm the absence of genotoxic effects. Considering the great variability of the EOs and their main compounds, a case-by-case evaluation is needed to assure their safe use in food packaging. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Antimicrobial food packaging: potential and pitfalls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malhotra, Bhanu; Keshwani, Anu; Kharkwal, Harsha

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays food preservation, quality maintenance, and safety are major growing concerns of the food industry. It is evident that over time consumers’ demand for natural and safe food products with stringent regulations to prevent food-borne infectious diseases. Antimicrobial packaging which is thought to be a subset of active packaging and controlled release packaging is one such promising technology which effectively impregnates the antimicrobial into the food packaging film material and subsequently delivers it over the stipulated period of time to kill the pathogenic microorganisms affecting food products thereby increasing the shelf life to severe folds. This paper presents a picture of the recent research on antimicrobial agents that are aimed at enhancing and improving food quality and safety by reduction of pathogen growth and extension of shelf life, in a form of a comprehensive review. Examination of the available antimicrobial packaging technologies is also presented along with their significant impact on food safety. This article entails various antimicrobial agents for commercial applications, as well as the difference between the use of antimicrobials under laboratory scale and real time applications. Development of resistance amongst microorganisms is considered as a future implication of antimicrobials with an aim to come up with actual efficacies in extension of shelf life as well as reduction in bacterial growth through the upcoming and promising use of antimicrobials in food packaging for the forthcoming research down the line. PMID:26136740

  1. Study on the influence of temperature, storage time and packaging type on di-n-butylphthalate and di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate release into packed meals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cirillo, Teresa; Fasano, Evelina; Esposito, Francesco; Del Prete, Ernesto; Cocchieri, Renata Amodio

    2013-01-01

    Ready-to-eat meals packed in polyethylene terephthalate (PET) and aluminium dishes, supplied to patients in two hospitals in the Campania region (Italy), were studied to evaluate the probable migration of di-n-butylphthalate (DBP) and di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) from the packaging into the food. The influence of temperature, storage time and type of package on the migration process was considered, analysing the meals according to three time ranges, before the packaging (T(0)) and after 60 min (T(1)) and 120 min (T(2)) from packaging during the storage in thermostatic delivery carts. At T(0) in the meals sampled before packaging in PET dishes, mean levels of DBP and DEHP were 0.023 ± 0.002 µg/g and 0.069 ± 0.041 µg/g, respectively; the DBP level increased 230% and that of DEHP increased 208% by time T(0) versus T(2). In the meals sampled before packaging (T(0)) in aluminium dishes, the mean levels of DBP and DEHP were 0.030 ± 0.001 µg/g and 0.057 ± 0.015 µg/g, respectively. The significant increase in contaminant levels over storage times for meals packed in PET dishes demonstrates that from packages made of plastic materials the migration of phthalic acid esters into foods is possible. In meals packed in PET dishes, the highest DBP and DEHP increases were observed in the T(0) to T(1) range, which represented the time interval over which meals were kept hot, and mainly in the first ones, where the highest temperatures have been recorded.

  2. A systematic literature review of Releasing Time to Care: The Productive Ward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Stella; McSherry, Wilfred

    2013-05-01

    This systematic review provides an overview of the literature published on Releasing Time to Care: The Productive Ward between 2005 and June 2011. Releasing Time to Care: The Productive Ward programme was developed by the NHS Institute for Innovation and Improvement and launched in England in 2007. The programme comprises thirteen modules that aim to increase time for direct patient care, improve the patient and staff experience and make changes to the ward environment to improve efficiency. A systematic literature review. The terms 'Releasing Time to Care' and 'Productive Ward' were applied to key healthcare databases; CINAHL, Medline, Science Direct, ProQuest, Health Business Elite, British Nursing Index, Embase, Health Management Information Consortium and PsychInfo. All papers were read and subject to a quality assessment. The literature search identified 95 unique sources. A lack of research on The Productive Ward programme meant it was necessary to include non-empirical literature. In total, 18 articles met the inclusion criteria. Seven key themes were identified: the patient and staff experience, direct care time, patient safety, financial impact, embedding and sustainability, executive support and leadership, and common barriers and determinants of success. It also highlighted areas that require further exploration such as long-term sustainability of the programme and consistent data measurement between organisations. The review tentatively reports how The Productive Ward programme has been used to transform nursing practice for the benefit of patients and frontline staff, and how it resulted in cost savings. The literature review identified a potential positive results bias in the current literature whereby favourable outcomes were reported. This paper summarises the types of evidence and current literature on The Productive Ward providing a reference for frontline staff implementing the programme. © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  3. The Effect of Storage Time, Temperature and Type of Packaging on the Release of Phthalate Esters into Packed
Acidic Liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rastkari, Noushin; Zare Jeddi, Maryam; Yunesian, Masud; Ahmadkhaniha, Reza

    2017-12-01

    Acidic liquids such as verjuice, lemon juice and vinegar are frequently consumed in Iran. Different kinds of acidic liquids are packaged in polyethylene terephthalate (PET) and high-density polyethylene (HDPE) bottles. There is evidence indicating that phthalates can leach from PET and HDPE bottles into their contents. In this work the effect of storage time, temperature and bottle type on the migration of phthalates from packaging materials into acidic liquids is studied by analyzing the samples stored under different conditions, before storage and after 2, 4 and 6 months of storage. The determined mean phthalate concentrations in µg/L were: liquids. The possible migration of phthalic acid esters from plastic packaging materials into the contents was indicated by the results of the present study.

  4. Food irradiation and packaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kilcast, David

    1988-01-01

    This outline review was written for 'Food Manufacture'. It deals with the known effects of irradiation on current packaging materials (glass, cellulosics, organic polymers and metals), and their implications for the effective application of the process. (U.K.)

  5. Nitric Oxide Release for Improving Performance of Implantable Chemical Sensors - A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Kyoung Ha; Wang, Xuewei; Meyerhoff, Mark E

    2017-12-01

    Over the last three decades, there has been extensive interest in developing in vivo chemical sensors that can provide real-time measurements of blood gases (oxygen, carbon dioxide, and pH), glucose/lactate, and potentially other critical care analytes in the blood of hospitalized patients. However, clot formation with intravascular sensors and foreign body response toward sensors implanted subcutaneously can cause inaccurate analytical results. Further, the risk of bacterial infection from any sensor implanted in the human body is another major concern. To solve these issues, the release of an endogenous gas molecule, nitric oxide (NO), from the surface of such sensors has been investigated owing to NO's ability to inhibit platelet activation/adhesion, foreign body response and bacterial growth. This paper summarizes the importance of NO's therapeutic potential for this application and reviews the publications to date that report on the analytical performance of NO release sensors in laboratory testing and/or during in vivo testing.

  6. Quality assessment of the Ozone_cci Climate Research Data Package (release 2017 – Part 1: Ground-based validation of total ozone column data products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Garane

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The GOME-type Total Ozone Essential Climate Variable (GTO-ECV is a level-3 data record, which combines individual sensor products into one single cohesive record covering the 22-year period from 1995 to 2016, generated in the frame of the European Space Agency's Climate Change Initiative Phase II. It is based on level-2 total ozone data produced by the GODFIT (GOME-type Direct FITting v4 algorithm as applied to the GOME/ERS-2, OMI/Aura, SCIAMACHY/Envisat and GOME-2/Metop-A and Metop-B observations. In this paper we examine whether GTO-ECV meets the specific requirements set by the international climate–chemistry modelling community for decadal stability long-term and short-term accuracy. In the following, we present the validation of the 2017 release of the Climate Research Data Package Total Ozone Column (CRDP TOC at both level 2 and level 3. The inter-sensor consistency of the individual level-2 data sets has mean differences generally within 0.5 % at moderate latitudes (±50°, whereas the level-3 data sets show mean differences with respect to the OMI reference data record that span between −0.2 ± 0.9 % (for GOME-2B and 1.0 ± 1.4 % (for SCIAMACHY. Very similar findings are reported for the level-2 validation against independent ground-based TOC observations reported by Brewer, Dobson and SAOZ instruments: the mean bias between GODFIT v4 satellite TOC and the ground instrument is well within 1.0 ± 1.0 % for all sensors, the drift per decade spans between −0.5 % and 1.0 ± 1.0 % depending on the sensor, and the peak-to-peak seasonality of the differences ranges from ∼ 1 % for GOME and OMI to  ∼ 2 % for SCIAMACHY. For the level-3 validation, our first goal was to show that the level-3 CRDP produces findings consistent with the level-2 individual sensor comparisons. We show a very good agreement with 0.5 to 2 % peak-to-peak amplitude for the monthly mean difference time series and a

  7. Quality assessment of the Ozone_cci Climate Research Data Package (release 2017) - Part 1: Ground-based validation of total ozone column data products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garane, Katerina; Lerot, Christophe; Coldewey-Egbers, Melanie; Verhoelst, Tijl; Elissavet Koukouli, Maria; Zyrichidou, Irene; Balis, Dimitris S.; Danckaert, Thomas; Goutail, Florence; Granville, Jose; Hubert, Daan; Keppens, Arno; Lambert, Jean-Christopher; Loyola, Diego; Pommereau, Jean-Pierre; Van Roozendael, Michel; Zehner, Claus

    2018-03-01

    The GOME-type Total Ozone Essential Climate Variable (GTO-ECV) is a level-3 data record, which combines individual sensor products into one single cohesive record covering the 22-year period from 1995 to 2016, generated in the frame of the European Space Agency's Climate Change Initiative Phase II. It is based on level-2 total ozone data produced by the GODFIT (GOME-type Direct FITting) v4 algorithm as applied to the GOME/ERS-2, OMI/Aura, SCIAMACHY/Envisat and GOME-2/Metop-A and Metop-B observations. In this paper we examine whether GTO-ECV meets the specific requirements set by the international climate-chemistry modelling community for decadal stability long-term and short-term accuracy. In the following, we present the validation of the 2017 release of the Climate Research Data Package Total Ozone Column (CRDP TOC) at both level 2 and level 3. The inter-sensor consistency of the individual level-2 data sets has mean differences generally within 0.5 % at moderate latitudes (±50°), whereas the level-3 data sets show mean differences with respect to the OMI reference data record that span between -0.2 ± 0.9 % (for GOME-2B) and 1.0 ± 1.4 % (for SCIAMACHY). Very similar findings are reported for the level-2 validation against independent ground-based TOC observations reported by Brewer, Dobson and SAOZ instruments: the mean bias between GODFIT v4 satellite TOC and the ground instrument is well within 1.0 ± 1.0 % for all sensors, the drift per decade spans between -0.5 % and 1.0 ± 1.0 % depending on the sensor, and the peak-to-peak seasonality of the differences ranges from ˜ 1 % for GOME and OMI to ˜ 2 % for SCIAMACHY. For the level-3 validation, our first goal was to show that the level-3 CRDP produces findings consistent with the level-2 individual sensor comparisons. We show a very good agreement with 0.5 to 2 % peak-to-peak amplitude for the monthly mean difference time series and a negligible drift per decade of the differences in the Northern Hemisphere

  8. Letter to the editor: naltrexone sustained-release/bupropion sustained-release for the management of obesity: review of the data to date

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buehler AM

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Anna M Buehler Hospital Alemao Oswaldo Cruz, Institute of Health Education and Sciences, Sao Paulo, BrazilI read with great interest the systematic review by Caixàs et al1 on the effect of naltrexone sustained-release/bupropion sustained-release (NB for the management of obesity. By comprehensively appraising five recent clinical trials, the authors concluded that the naltrexone/bupropion combination might represent an important new therapeutic option for the management of obesity, with a weight reduction effect that is similar to other drugs approved for the treatment of obesity.View original paper by Caixàs and colleagues.

  9. MEMS packaging

    CERN Document Server

    Hsu , Tai-Ran

    2004-01-01

    MEMS Packaging discusses the prevalent practices and enabling techniques in assembly, packaging and testing of microelectromechanical systems (MEMS). The entire spectrum of assembly, packaging and testing of MEMS and microsystems, from essential enabling technologies to applications in key industries of life sciences, telecommunications and aerospace engineering is covered. Other topics included are bonding and sealing of microcomponents, process flow of MEMS and microsystems packaging, automated microassembly, and testing and design for testing.The Institution of Engineering and Technology is

  10. Is Consumer Response to Plain/Standardised Tobacco Packaging Consistent with Framework Convention on Tobacco Control Guidelines? A Systematic Review of Quantitative Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stead, Martine; Moodie, Crawford; Angus, Kathryn; Bauld, Linda; McNeill, Ann; Thomas, James; Hastings, Gerard; Hinds, Kate; O'Mara-Eves, Alison; Kwan, Irene; Purves, Richard I.; Bryce, Stuart L.

    2013-01-01

    Background and Objectives Standardised or ‘plain’ tobacco packaging was introduced in Australia in December 2012 and is currently being considered in other countries. The primary objective of this systematic review was to locate, assess and synthesise published and grey literature relating to the potential impacts of standardised tobacco packaging as proposed by the guidelines for the international Framework Convention on Tobacco Control: reduced appeal, increased salience and effectiveness of health warnings, and more accurate perceptions of product strength and harm. Methods Electronic databases were searched and researchers in the field were contacted to identify studies. Eligible studies were published or unpublished primary research of any design, issued since 1980 and concerning tobacco packaging. Twenty-five quantitative studies reported relevant outcomes and met the inclusion criteria. A narrative synthesis was conducted. Results Studies that explored the impact of package design on appeal consistently found that standardised packaging reduced the appeal of cigarettes and smoking, and was associated with perceived lower quality, poorer taste and less desirable smoker identities. Although findings were mixed, standardised packs tended to increase the salience and effectiveness of health warnings in terms of recall, attention, believability and seriousness, with effects being mediated by the warning size, type and position on pack. Pack colour was found to influence perceptions of product harm and strength, with darker coloured standardised packs generally perceived as containing stronger tasting and more harmful cigarettes than fully branded packs; lighter coloured standardised packs suggested weaker and less harmful cigarettes. Findings were largely consistent, irrespective of location and sample. Conclusions The evidence strongly suggests that standardised packaging will reduce the appeal of packaging and of smoking in general; that it will go some way

  11. Is consumer response to plain/standardised tobacco packaging consistent with framework convention on tobacco control guidelines? A systematic review of quantitative studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stead, Martine; Moodie, Crawford; Angus, Kathryn; Bauld, Linda; McNeill, Ann; Thomas, James; Hastings, Gerard; Hinds, Kate; O'Mara-Eves, Alison; Kwan, Irene; Purves, Richard I; Bryce, Stuart L

    2013-01-01

    Standardised or 'plain' tobacco packaging was introduced in Australia in December 2012 and is currently being considered in other countries. The primary objective of this systematic review was to locate, assess and synthesise published and grey literature relating to the potential impacts of standardised tobacco packaging as proposed by the guidelines for the international Framework Convention on Tobacco Control: reduced appeal, increased salience and effectiveness of health warnings, and more accurate perceptions of product strength and harm. Electronic databases were searched and researchers in the field were contacted to identify studies. Eligible studies were published or unpublished primary research of any design, issued since 1980 and concerning tobacco packaging. Twenty-five quantitative studies reported relevant outcomes and met the inclusion criteria. A narrative synthesis was conducted. Studies that explored the impact of package design on appeal consistently found that standardised packaging reduced the appeal of cigarettes and smoking, and was associated with perceived lower quality, poorer taste and less desirable smoker identities. Although findings were mixed, standardised packs tended to increase the salience and effectiveness of health warnings in terms of recall, attention, believability and seriousness, with effects being mediated by the warning size, type and position on pack. Pack colour was found to influence perceptions of product harm and strength, with darker coloured standardised packs generally perceived as containing stronger tasting and more harmful cigarettes than fully branded packs; lighter coloured standardised packs suggested weaker and less harmful cigarettes. Findings were largely consistent, irrespective of location and sample. The evidence strongly suggests that standardised packaging will reduce the appeal of packaging and of smoking in general; that it will go some way to reduce consumer misperceptions regarding product harm

  12. Is consumer response to plain/standardised tobacco packaging consistent with framework convention on tobacco control guidelines? A systematic review of quantitative studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martine Stead

    Full Text Available Standardised or 'plain' tobacco packaging was introduced in Australia in December 2012 and is currently being considered in other countries. The primary objective of this systematic review was to locate, assess and synthesise published and grey literature relating to the potential impacts of standardised tobacco packaging as proposed by the guidelines for the international Framework Convention on Tobacco Control: reduced appeal, increased salience and effectiveness of health warnings, and more accurate perceptions of product strength and harm.Electronic databases were searched and researchers in the field were contacted to identify studies. Eligible studies were published or unpublished primary research of any design, issued since 1980 and concerning tobacco packaging. Twenty-five quantitative studies reported relevant outcomes and met the inclusion criteria. A narrative synthesis was conducted.Studies that explored the impact of package design on appeal consistently found that standardised packaging reduced the appeal of cigarettes and smoking, and was associated with perceived lower quality, poorer taste and less desirable smoker identities. Although findings were mixed, standardised packs tended to increase the salience and effectiveness of health warnings in terms of recall, attention, believability and seriousness, with effects being mediated by the warning size, type and position on pack. Pack colour was found to influence perceptions of product harm and strength, with darker coloured standardised packs generally perceived as containing stronger tasting and more harmful cigarettes than fully branded packs; lighter coloured standardised packs suggested weaker and less harmful cigarettes. Findings were largely consistent, irrespective of location and sample.The evidence strongly suggests that standardised packaging will reduce the appeal of packaging and of smoking in general; that it will go some way to reduce consumer misperceptions

  13. A review of recent work on the Discrete Particle Method at the University of Twente : An introduction to the open-source package MercuryDPM

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thornton, Anthony Richard; Krijgsman, Dinant; te Voortwis, Ate; Ogarko, V.; Luding, Stefan; Fransen, Rudi; Gonzalez, Sebastian; Bokhove, Onno; Imole, Olukayode Isaiah; Weinhart, Thomas; Graham Mustoe,

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we review some recent advances in DEM (DPM) modelling undertaken at the University of Twente. We introduce the new open-source package MercuryDPM that we have been developing over the last few years. MercuryDPM is an object-oriented program with a simple C++ implementation and

  14. Waste disposal package

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, M.J.

    1985-06-19

    This is a claim for a waste disposal package including an inner or primary canister for containing hazardous and/or radioactive wastes. The primary canister is encapsulated by an outer or secondary barrier formed of a porous ceramic material to control ingress of water to the canister and the release rate of wastes upon breach on the canister. 4 figs.

  15. Airborne engineered nanomaterials in the workplace—a review of release and worker exposure during nanomaterial production and handling processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ding, Yaobo [Institute for Work and Health (IST), Universities of Lausanne and Geneva, Route de la Corniche 2, 1066, Epalinges (Switzerland); Kuhlbusch, Thomas A.J. [Institute of Energy and Environmental Technology (IUTA), Air Quality & Sustainable Nanotechnology Unit, Bliersheimer Straße 58-60, 47229 Duisburg (Germany); Centre for Nanointegration (CENIDE), University Duisburg-Essen, Duisburg (Germany); Van Tongeren, Martie; Jiménez, Araceli Sánchez [Centre for Human Exposure Science, Institute of Occupational Medicine (IOM), Research Avenue North, Edinburgh EH14 4AP (United Kingdom); Tuinman, Ilse [TNO, Lange Kleiweg 137, Rijswijk (Netherlands); Chen, Rui [CAS Key Laboratory for Biomedical Effects of Nanomaterials and Nanosafety & CAS Center for Excellence in Nanoscience, National Center for Nanoscience and Technology of China, Beijing 100190 (China); Alvarez, Iñigo Larraza [ACCIONA Infrastructure, Materials Area, Innovation Division, C/Valportillo II 8, 28108, Alcobendas (Spain); Mikolajczyk, Urszula [Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine, Lodz (Poland); Nickel, Carmen; Meyer, Jessica; Kaminski, Heinz [Institute of Energy and Environmental Technology (IUTA), Air Quality & Sustainable Nanotechnology Unit, Bliersheimer Straße 58-60, 47229 Duisburg (Germany); Wohlleben, Wendel [Dept. Material Physics, BASF SE, Advanced Materials Research, Ludwigshafen (Germany); Stahlmecke, Burkhard [Institute of Energy and Environmental Technology (IUTA), Air Quality & Sustainable Nanotechnology Unit, Bliersheimer Straße 58-60, 47229 Duisburg (Germany); Clavaguera, Simon [NanoSafety Platform, Commissariat à l’Energie Atomique et aux Energies Alternatives (CEA), Univ. Grenoble Alpes, Grenoble, 38054 (France); and others

    2017-01-15

    Highlights: • Release characteristics can be grouped by the type of occupational activities. • Release levels may be linked to process energy. • A better data reporting practice will facilitate exposure assessment. • The results help prioritize industrial processes for human risk assessment. - Abstract: For exposure and risk assessment in occupational settings involving engineered nanomaterials (ENMs), it is important to understand the mechanisms of release and how they are influenced by the ENM, the matrix material, and process characteristics. This review summarizes studies providing ENM release information in occupational settings, during different industrial activities and using various nanomaterials. It also assesses the contextual information — such as the amounts of materials handled, protective measures, and measurement strategies — to understand which release scenarios can result in exposure. High-energy processes such as synthesis, spraying, and machining were associated with the release of large numbers of predominantly small-sized particles. Low-energy processes, including laboratory handling, cleaning, and industrial bagging activities, usually resulted in slight or moderate releases of relatively large agglomerates. The present analysis suggests that process-based release potential can be ranked, thus helping to prioritize release assessments, which is useful for tiered exposure assessment approaches and for guiding the implementation of workplace safety strategies. The contextual information provided in the literature was often insufficient to directly link release to exposure. The studies that did allow an analysis suggested that significant worker exposure might mainly occur when engineering safeguards and personal protection strategies were not carried out as recommended.

  16. Airborne engineered nanomaterials in the workplace—a review of release and worker exposure during nanomaterial production and handling processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding, Yaobo; Kuhlbusch, Thomas A.J.; Van Tongeren, Martie; Jiménez, Araceli Sánchez; Tuinman, Ilse; Chen, Rui; Alvarez, Iñigo Larraza; Mikolajczyk, Urszula; Nickel, Carmen; Meyer, Jessica; Kaminski, Heinz; Wohlleben, Wendel; Stahlmecke, Burkhard; Clavaguera, Simon

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Release characteristics can be grouped by the type of occupational activities. • Release levels may be linked to process energy. • A better data reporting practice will facilitate exposure assessment. • The results help prioritize industrial processes for human risk assessment. - Abstract: For exposure and risk assessment in occupational settings involving engineered nanomaterials (ENMs), it is important to understand the mechanisms of release and how they are influenced by the ENM, the matrix material, and process characteristics. This review summarizes studies providing ENM release information in occupational settings, during different industrial activities and using various nanomaterials. It also assesses the contextual information — such as the amounts of materials handled, protective measures, and measurement strategies — to understand which release scenarios can result in exposure. High-energy processes such as synthesis, spraying, and machining were associated with the release of large numbers of predominantly small-sized particles. Low-energy processes, including laboratory handling, cleaning, and industrial bagging activities, usually resulted in slight or moderate releases of relatively large agglomerates. The present analysis suggests that process-based release potential can be ranked, thus helping to prioritize release assessments, which is useful for tiered exposure assessment approaches and for guiding the implementation of workplace safety strategies. The contextual information provided in the literature was often insufficient to directly link release to exposure. The studies that did allow an analysis suggested that significant worker exposure might mainly occur when engineering safeguards and personal protection strategies were not carried out as recommended.

  17. Book of Knowledge (BOK) for NASA Electronic Packaging Roadmap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaffarian, Reza

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this document is to update the NASA roadmap on packaging technologies (initially released in 2007) and to present the current trends toward further reducing size and increasing functionality. Due to the breadth of work being performed in the area of microelectronics packaging, this report presents only a number of key packaging technologies detailed in three industry roadmaps for conventional microelectronics and a more recently introduced roadmap for organic and printed electronics applications. The topics for each category were down-selected by reviewing the 2012 reports of the International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductor (ITRS), the 2013 roadmap reports of the International Electronics Manufacturing Initiative (iNEMI), the 2013 roadmap of association connecting electronics industry (IPC), the Organic Printed Electronics Association (OE-A). The report also summarizes the results of numerous articles and websites specifically discussing the trends in microelectronics packaging technologies.

  18. Active and intelligent packaging: The indication of quality and safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janjarasskul, Theeranun; Suppakul, Panuwat

    2018-03-24

    The food industry has been under growing pressure to feed an exponentially increasing world population and challenged to meet rigorous food safety law and regulation. The plethora of media consumption has provoked consumer demand for safe, sustainable, organic, and wholesome products with "clean" labels. The application of active and intelligent packaging has been commercially adopted by food and pharmaceutical industries as a solution for the future for extending shelf life and simplifying production processes; facilitating complex distribution logistics; reducing, if not eliminating the need for preservatives in food formulations; enabling restricted food packaging applications; providing convenience, improving quality, variety and marketing features; as well as providing essential information to ensure consumer safety. This chapter reviews innovations of active and intelligent packaging which advance packaging technology through both scavenging and releasing systems for shelf life extension, and through diagnostic and identification systems for communicating quality, tracking and brand protection.

  19. The Physico-Mechanical Properties and Release Kinetics of Eugenol in Chitosan-Alginate Polyelectrolyte Complex Films as Active Food Packaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baiq Amelia Riyandari

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available A study of eugenol release and its kinetics model from chitosan-alginate polyelectrolyte complex (PEC films has been conducted. Some factors that affected the eugenol release were also studied, including the composition of chitosan-alginate PEC and the concentration of eugenol. The chitosan-alginate-eugenol PEC films were synthesized at pH ± 4.0, then the PEC films were characterized using a Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR spectrophotometer. An investigation of the films’ properties was also conducted, including morphology analysis using a scanning electron microscope (SEM, differential thermal analysis (DTA / thermogravimetric analysis (TGA, mechanical strength, transparency testing, water absorption, and water vapor permeability. The release of eugenol was investigated through in vitro assay in ethanol 96% (v/v for four days, and the concentration of eugenol was measured using an ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis spectrophotometer. The characterization of the films using FTIR showed that the formation of PEC occurred through ionic interaction between the amine groups (–NH3+of the chitosan and the carboxylate groups (–COO– of the alginate. The result showed that the composition of chitosan-alginate PEC and the concentration of eugenol can affect the release of eugenol from PEC films. A higher concentration of alginate and eugenol could increase the concentration of eugenol that was released from the films. The mechanism for the release of eugenol from chitosan-alginate PEC films followed the Korsmeyer-Peppas model with an n value of < 0.5, which means the release mechanism for eugenol was controlled by a Fickian diffusion process. The antioxidant activity assay of the films using the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH method resulted in a high radical scavenging activity (RSA value of 55.99% in four days.

  20. Does packaging with a calendar feature improve adherence to self-administered medication for long-term use? A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zedler, Barbara K; Kakad, Priyanka; Colilla, Susan; Murrelle, Lenn; Shah, Nirav R

    2011-01-01

    The therapeutic benefit of self-administered medications for long-term use is limited by an average 50% nonadherence rate. Patient forgetfulness is a common factor in unintentional nonadherence. Unit-of-use packaging that incorporates a simple day-and-date feature (calendar packaging) is designed to improve adherence by prompting patients to maintain the prescribed dosing schedule. To review systematically, in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) statement, randomized controlled trial evidence of the adherence benefits and harms of calendar blister packaging (CBP) and calendar pill organizers (CPO) for self-administered, long-term medication use. Data sources included the MEDLINE and Web of Science and Cochrane Library databases from their inception to September 2010 and communication with researchers in the field. Key search terms included blister-calendar pack, blister pack, drug packaging, medication adherence, medication compliance, medication compliance devices, medication containers, medication organizers, multicompartment compliance aid, persistence, pill-box organizers, prescription refill, randomized controlled trials, and refill compliance. Selected studies had an English-language title; a randomized controlled design; medication packaged in CBP or CPO; a requirement of solid, oral medication self-administered daily for longer than 1 month in community-dwelling adults; and at least 1 quantitative outcome measure of adherence. Two reviewers extracted data independently on study design, sample size, type of intervention and control, and outcomes. Ten trials with a total of 1045 subjects met the inclusion criteria, and 9 also examined clinical outcomes (seizures, blood pressure, psychiatric symptoms) or health care resource utilization. Substantial heterogeneity among trials precluded meta-analysis. In 3 studies, calendar packaging was part of a multicomponent adherence intervention. Six of 10 trials

  1. Materials for advanced packaging

    CERN Document Server

    Wong, CP

    2017-01-01

    This second edition continues to be the most comprehensive review on the developments in advanced electronic packaging technologies, with a focus on materials and processing. Recognized experts in the field contribute to 22 updated and new chapters that provide comprehensive coverage on various 3D package architectures, novel bonding and joining techniques, wire bonding, wafer thinning techniques, organic substrates, and novel approaches to make electrical interconnects between integrated circuit and substrates. Various chapters also address advances in several key packaging materials, including: Lead-free solders Flip chip underfills Epoxy molding compounds Conductive adhesives Die attach adhesives/films Thermal interface materials (TIMS) Materials for fabricating embedded passives including capacitors, inductors, and resistors Materials and processing aspects on wafer-level chip scale package (CSP) and MicroElectroMechanical system (MEMS) Contributors also review new and emerging technologies such as Light ...

  2. The effect of packaging, branding and labeling on the experience of unhealthy food and drink: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skaczkowski, Gemma; Durkin, Sarah; Kashima, Yoshihisa; Wakefield, Melanie

    2016-04-01

    Extrinsic information, such as packaging, branding and labeling, can significantly alter our experience of food and drink through a process of 'sensation transfer', in which extrinsic attributes are transferred to our sensory perception of a product. The aim of this review was to summarize the literature on sensation transfer for unhealthy food and drink and to investigate personal factors that may influence its occurrence. Seventy-eight studies in 69 articles, published between 1966 and 2014 were identified which evaluated sensation transfer. Sixty-five of the 78 studies found an effect of extrinsic information on taste and/or hedonic outcomes, providing strong evidence for sensation transfer. The majority of studies identified that specific extrinsic information influenced particular products or specific sensory outcomes. Study designs incorporating a measure of expectation allowed a tighter assessment of sensation transfer. The results of such studies confirm the hypothesis that these effects occur when extrinsic information elicits an expectation of product taste, which then forms a framework to guide sensory perception. These studies also support the hypothesis that where sensation transfer does not occur, this is likely due to a mismatch between the expectations elicited by the extrinsic information and the sensory characteristics being measured, or the failure of the extrinsic information to elicit an expectation of taste for that product. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Microbial deterioration of vacuum-packaged chilled beef cuts and techniques for microbiota detection and characterization: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Lucila Hernández-Macedo

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Gas production from microbial deterioration in vacuum-packs of chilled meat leads to pack distension, which is commonly referred as blown pack. This phenomenon is attributed to some psychrophilic and psychrotrophic Clostridium species, as well as Enterobacteria. The ability of these microorganisms to grow at refrigeration temperatures makes the control by the meat industry a challenge. This type of deterioration has been reported in many countries including some plants in the Midwestern and Southeastern regions of Brazil. In addition to causing economic losses, spoilage negatively impacts the commercial product brand, thereby impairing the meat industry. In the case of strict anaerobes species they are difficult to grow and isolate using culture methods in conventional microbiology laboratories. Furthermore, conventional culture methods are sometimes not capable of distinguishing species or genera. DNA-based molecular methods are alternative strategies for detecting viable and non-cultivable microorganisms and strict anaerobic microorganisms that are difficult to cultivate. Here, we review the microorganisms and mechanisms involved in the deterioration of vacuum-packaged chilled meat and address the use of molecular methods for detecting specific strict anaerobic microorganisms and microbial communities in meat samples.

  4. The Impact of the 2009 Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children Food Package Revisions on Participants: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Daniel Joseph; Byker Shanks, Carmen; Houghtaling, Bailey

    2015-11-01

    For the first time since 1980, the US Department of Agriculture Food and Nutrition Service Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) food package policies were revised in 2009 to meet the Institute of Medicine's nutrition recommendations. These changes included increases in fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and low-fat dairy to improve nutrition and health of WIC participants. Our systematic review of the literature assessed the influence that the 2009 WIC food package revisions have had on dietary intake, healthy food and beverage availability, and breastfeeding participation. The systematic review followed Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses recommendations. Four electronic databases were searched between April 1 and 30, 2014, for peer-reviewed research. Two reviewers screened the articles, extracted the data, and established inter-rater reliability by discussing and resolving discrepancies. Twenty articles were included that met our inclusion criteria. Nine of the studies analyzed changes in dietary intake, eight examined changes in healthy food and beverage availability, and three evaluated breastfeeding participation exclusively. The review demonstrated an improved dietary intake and an increase in the availability of healthier foods and beverages in authorized WIC stores. The revised food package was also associated with improved dietary intake of WIC participants. Mixed results were demonstrated in regard to improved breastfeeding outcomes. Further research is needed to assess the influence of WIC 2009 food package revisions on breastfeeding outcomes and to make conclusions about broad nutrition-related implications. Copyright © 2015 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Packaging microservices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Montesi, Fabrizio; Thrane, Dan Sebastian

    2017-01-01

    We describe a first proposal for a new packaging system for microservices based on the Jolie programming language, called the Jolie Package Manager (JPM). Its main features revolve around service interfaces, which make the functionalities that a service provides and depends on explicit. For the f......We describe a first proposal for a new packaging system for microservices based on the Jolie programming language, called the Jolie Package Manager (JPM). Its main features revolve around service interfaces, which make the functionalities that a service provides and depends on explicit...

  6. Applications of Active Packaging in Breads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Göncü

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Changes on consumer preferences lead to innovations and improvements in new packaging technologies. With these new developments passive packaging technologies aiming to protect food nowadays have left their place to active and intelligent packaging technologies that have other various functions beside protection of food. Active packaging is defined as an innovative packaging type and its usage increases the shelf life of food significantly. Applications of active packaging have begun to be used for packaging of breads. In this study active packaging applications in breads have been reviewed.

  7. Oral Hygiene. Learning Activity Package.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hime, Kirsten

    This learning activity package on oral hygiene is one of a series of 12 titles developed for use in health occupations education programs. Materials in the package include objectives, a list of materials needed, a list of definitions, information sheets, reviews (self evaluations) of portions of the content, and answers to reviews. These topics…

  8. Integrating environmental management into food safety and food packaging in Malaysia: review of the food regulation 1985

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordin, N. H.; Hara, H.; Kaida, N.

    2017-05-01

    Food safety is an important issue that is related to public safety to prevent the toxicity threats of the food. Management through legal approach has been used in Malaysia as one of the predominant approaches to manage the environment. In this regard, the Food Regulation 1985 has been one of the mechanisms of environmental management through legal approach in controlling the safety of packaged food in food packaging industry in Malaysia. The present study aims to analyse and to explain the implementation of the Food Regulation 1985 in controlling the safety of packaged food in Malaysia and to integrate the concept of environmental management into the food safety issue. Qualitative analysis on the regulation document revealed that there are two main themes, general and specific, while their seven sub themes are included harmful packages, safety packages, reuse packages, polyvinyl chloride (PVC), alcoholic bottle, toys, money and others and iron powder. The implementation of the Food Regulation 1985 in controlling the safety of packaged food should not be regarded solely for regulation purposes but should be further developed for a broader sense of food safety from overcoming the food poisoning.

  9. Reproducibility of Interferon Gamma (IFN-γ) Release Assays. A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tagmouti, Saloua; Slater, Madeline; Benedetti, Andrea; Kik, Sandra V.; Banaei, Niaz; Cattamanchi, Adithya; Metcalfe, John; Dowdy, David; van Zyl Smit, Richard; Dendukuri, Nandini

    2014-01-01

    Rationale: Interferon gamma (IFN-γ) release assays for latent tuberculosis infection result in a larger-than-expected number of conversions and reversions in occupational screening programs, and reproducibility of test results is a concern. Objectives: Knowledge of the relative contribution and extent of the individual sources of variability (immunological, preanalytical, or analytical) could help optimize testing protocols. Methods: We performed a systematic review of studies published by October 2013 on all potential sources of variability of commercial IFN-γ release assays (QuantiFERON-TB Gold In-Tube and T-SPOT.TB). The included studies assessed test variability under identical conditions and under different conditions (the latter both overall and stratified by individual sources of variability). Linear mixed effects models were used to estimate within-subject SD. Measurements and Main Results: We identified a total of 26 articles, including 7 studies analyzing variability under the same conditions, 10 studies analyzing variability with repeat testing over time under different conditions, and 19 studies reporting individual sources of variability. Most data were on QuantiFERON (only three studies on T-SPOT.TB). A considerable number of conversions and reversions were seen around the manufacturer-recommended cut-point. The estimated range of variability of IFN-γ response in QuantiFERON under identical conditions was ±0.47 IU/ml (coefficient of variation, 13%) and ±0.26 IU/ml (30%) for individuals with an initial IFN-γ response in the borderline range (0.25–0.80 IU/ml). The estimated range of variability in noncontrolled settings was substantially larger (±1.4 IU/ml; 60%). Blood volume inoculated into QuantiFERON tubes and preanalytic delay were identified as key sources of variability. Conclusions: This systematic review shows substantial variability with repeat IFN-γ release assays testing even under identical conditions, suggesting that reversions

  10. IFT Scientific Status Summary 2008: Innovative Food Packaging Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Food and beverage packaging comprises 55-65% of the $110 billion value of packaging in the United States. This review provides a summary of innovative technology developments in food packaging. The expanded role of food and beverage packaging is reviewed. Active and intelligent food packaging, ba...

  11. Airway pressure release ventilation and biphasic positive airway pressure: a systematic review of definitional criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Louise; Hawkins, Martyn

    2008-10-01

    The objective of this study was to identify the definitional criteria for the pressure-limited and time-cycled modes: airway pressure release ventilation (APRV) and biphasic positive airway pressure (BIPAP) available in the published literature. Systematic review. Medline, PubMed, Cochrane, and CINAHL databases (1982-2006) were searched using the following terms: APRV, BIPAP, Bilevel and lung protective strategy, individually and in combination. Two independent reviewers determined the paper eligibility and abstracted data from 50 studies and 18 discussion articles. Of the 50 studies, 39 (78%) described APRV, and 11 (22%) described BIPAP. Various study designs, populations, or outcome measures were investigated. Compared to BIPAP, APRV was described more frequently as extreme inverse inspiratory:expiratory ratio [18/39 (46%) vs. 0/11 (0%), P = 0.004] and used rarely as a noninverse ratio [2/39 (5%) vs. 3/11 (27%), P = 0.06]. One (9%) BIPAP and eight (21%) APRV studies used mild inverse ratio (>1:1 to branding may further add to confusion. Generic naming of modes and consistent definitional parameters may improve consistency of patient response for a given mode and assist with clinical implementation.

  12. Soluble microbial products (SMPs release in activated sludge systems: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azami Hamed

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This review discusses the characterization, production and implications of soluble microbial products (SMPs in biological wastewater treatment. The precise definition of SMPs is open to talk about, but is currently regarded as “the pool of organic compounds that are released into solution from substrate metabolism and biomass decay”'. Some of the SMPs have been identified as humic acids, polysaccharides, proteins, amino acids, antibiotics, extracellular enzymes and structural components of cells and products of energy metabolism. They adversely affect the kinetic activity, flocculating and settling properties of sludge. This review outlines some important findings with regard to biodegradability and treatability of SMPs and also the effect of process parameters on their production. As SMPs are produced during biological treatment process, their trace amounts normally remain in the effluent that defines the highest COD removal efficiency. Their presence in effluent represents a high potential risk of toxic by-product formation during chlorine disinfection. Studies have indicated that among all wastewater post-treatment processes, the adsorption by granular activated carbon combined with biologically induced degradation is the most effective method for removal of SMPs. However, it may be concludes that the knowledge regarding SMPs is still under progress and more work is required to fully understand their contribution to the treatment process.

  13. Soluble Microbial Products (SMPs Release in Activated Sludge Systems: a Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamed Azami

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This review discusses the characterization, production and implications of soluble microbial products (SMPs in biological wastewater treatment. The precise definition of SMPs is open to talk about, but is currently regarded as “the pool of organic compounds that are released into solution from substrate metabolism and biomass decay”'.Some of the SMPs have been identified as humic acids, olysaccharides, proteins, amino acids, antibiotics,extracellular enzymes and structural components of cells and products of energy metabolism. They adversely affect the kinetic activity, flocculating and settling properties of sludge. This review outlines some important findings with regard to biodegradability and treatability of SMPs and also the effect of process parameters on their production.As SMPs are produced during biological treatment process, their trace amounts normally remain in the effluent that defines the highest COD removal efficiency. Their presence in effluent represents a high potential risk of toxic by-product formation during chlorine disinfection. Studies have indicated that among all wastewaterpost-treatment processes, the adsorption by granular activated carbon combined with biologically induced degradation is the most effective method for removal of SMPs. However, it may be concludes that the knowledge regarding SMPs is still under progress and more work is required to fully understand their contribution to the treatment process.

  14. Effect of self-myofascial release on myofascial pain, muscle flexibility, and strength: A narrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalichman, Leonid; Ben David, Chen

    2017-04-01

    Numerous techniques have been employed to treat myofascial pain syndrome. Self-myofascial release (SMFR) is a relatively new technique of soft tissue mobilization. The simplicity and portability of the SMFR tools allow it to be easily implemented in any type of fitness or rehabilitation program. It is an active method and can be used by anyone at home or at the workplace. To review the current methods of SMFR, their mechanisms, and efficacy in treating myofascial pain, improving muscle flexibility and strength. PubMed, Google Scholar, and PEDro databases were searched without search limitations from inception until July 2016 for terms relating to SMFR. During the past decade, therapists and fitness professionals have implemented SMFR mainly via foam rolling as a recovery or maintenance tool. Researchers observed a significant increase in the joint range of motion after using the SMFR technique and no decrease in muscle force or changes in performance after treatment with SMFR. SMFR has been widely used by health-care professionals in treating myofascial pain. However, we found no clinical trials which evaluated the influence of SMFR on myofascial pain. There is an acute need for these trials to evaluate the efficacy and effectiveness of SMFR in the treatment of the myofascial syndrome. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Oral controlled release drug delivery system and Characterization of oral tablets; A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Zaman

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Oral route of drug administration is considered as the safest and easiest route of drug administration. Control release drug delivery system is the emerging trend in the pharmaceuticals and the oral route is most suitable for such kind of drug delivery system. Oral route is more convenient for It all age group including both pediatric and geriatrics. There are various systems which are adopted to deliver drug in a controlled manner to different target sites through oral route. It includes diffusion controlled drug delivery systems; dissolution controlled drug delivery systems, osmotically controlled drug delivery systems, ion-exchange controlled drug delivery systems, hydrodynamically balanced systems, multi-Particulate drug delivery systems and microencapsulated drug delivery system. The systems are formulated using different natural, semi-synthetic and synthetic polymers. The purpose of the review is to provide information about the orally controlled drug delivery system, polymers which are used to formulate these systems and characterizations of one of the most convenient dosage form which is the tablets. 

  16. Polymer blend microspheres for controlled drug release: the techniques for preparation and characterization: a review article.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasan, K Priya; Rekha, C

    2012-11-01

    The use of polymers and their microspheres in drug delivery is well known for they are being widely used in the field of drug delivery. The polymer entraps a drug which is to be released in a predesigned manner in the body through biodegradation. The blending of polymers is one way of modifying and enhancing the properties of polymer- based products which is also a cost effective procedure rather than developing a new product. The molecular weight of the polymer, the composition of the blend, the sphere porosity and size, and drug distribution are found to be controllable factors on which drug delivery depends. Polymer blends are obtained by allowing two polymers to combine as one material which has the advantage of two or more polymers. Polymer microspheres are small spherical particles with diameters in the micrometer range between 1μm to 1000μm which are manufactured from various natural and synthetic materials. Microspheres are used to administer medication in a rate- controlled manner and sometimes in a targeted manner. This review presents various polymer blend- combinations in different ratios, the different processing techniques adopted and the details of their characterization through examples found in a literature survey. The characterization of the different polymer blends or microspheres showed changes in structure, increase in drug loading, encapsulation efficiency, biocompatibility and low cytotoxicity.

  17. Structural evaluation of the Shippingport Reactor Pressure Vessel and Neutron Shield Tank package for impact and puncture loads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, L.E.; Chou, C.K.; Lo, T.; Schwartz, M.W.

    1988-06-01

    A structural evaluation of Shippingport Reactor Pressure Vessel and Neutron Shield Tank package for impact and puncture loads under the normal and hypothetical accident conditions of 10 CFR 71 was performed. Component performance criteria for the Shippingport package and the corresponding structural acceptance criteria for these components were developed based on a review of the package geometry, the planned transport environment, and the external radiation standards and dispersal limits of 10 CFR 71. The evaluation was performed using structural analysis methods. A demonstration combining simplified model tests and nonlinear finite element analyses was made to substantiate the structural analysis methods used to evaluate the Shippingport package. The package was analyzed and the results indicate that the package meets external radiation standards and release limits of 10 CFR 71. 13 refs., 50 figs., 19 tabs

  18. Reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journal of Chemical Education, 1987

    1987-01-01

    Provides a review of both the Apple and IBM versions of ENZPACK, a software package which is designed to assist in the teaching of enzyme kinetics in courses where this topic is treated in some depth. (TW)

  19. Technical Review Report for the Model 9977 Safety Analysis Report for Packaging Addendum 1 Justification for DNDO Contents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    West, M H

    2008-12-17

    The Model 9977 Package is currently certified for Content Envelope C.1, {sup 238}Pu Heat Sources, either in Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (RTG), or in Food-Pack Can configurations, under Certificate of Compliance (CoC) Certificate Number 9977 and Package Identification Number USA/9977/B(M)F-96 (DOE). Addendum 1, Justification for DNDO Contents,--the Submittal--supplements Revision 2 of the Safety Analysis Report for Packaging for the Model 9977 Package. The Submittal adds five new contents to the Model 9977 Package, Content Envelopes, AC.1 through AC.5. The Content Envelopes are neptunium metal, the beryllium-reflected plutonium ball (BeRP Ball), plutonium/uranium metal, plutonium/uranium metal with enhanced wt% {sup 240}Pu (to 50 wt%), and uranium metal. The last three Content Envelopes are stabilized to DOE-STD-3013. These Content Envelopes will be shipped to the Device Assembly Facility (DAF) at the Nevada Test Site (NTS), where they will reside, and, hence, to off-site locations in support of the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) Domestic Nuclear Detection Office (DNDO). The new certificate will apply to a limited number of Model 9977 Packages. At the same time, the Submittal requests an extension of the periodic maintenance requirements from one (1) year to up to five (5) years using Radio-Frequency Identification (RFID) temperature-monitoring systems to measure the ambient storage temperature in order to ensure that the temperature of the Viton{reg_sign} O-rings for the 6-inch Containment Vessel (6CV) remain less than 200 F. The RFIDs have been developed by Argonne National Laboratory. An on-going surveillance program at the K-Area Materials Storage (KAMS) facility at the Savannah River Site, and an on-going examination of Viton{reg_sign} O-rings from mock Primary Containment Vessels (PCVs) at Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) provide the technical justification for the extension of the periodic maintenance interval. Where extended

  20. RASPLAV package

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    The RASPLAV package for investigation of post-accident mass transport and heat transfer processes is presented. The package performs three dimensional thermal conduction calculations in space nonuniform and temperature dependent conductivities and variable heat sources, taking into account phase transformations. The processes of free-moving bulk material, mixing of melting fuel due to advection and dissolution, and also evaporation/adsorption are modelled. Two-dimensional hydrodynamics with self-consistent heat transfer are also performed. The paper briefly traces the ways the solution procedures are carried out in the program package and outlines the major results of the simulation of reactor vessel melting after a core meltdown. The theoretical analysis and the calculations in this case were carried out in order to define the possibility of localization of the zone reminders. The interactions between the reminders and the concrete are simulated and evaluation of the interaction parameters is carried out. 4 refs. (R.Ts)

  1. Nano-food packaging: an overview of market, migration research, and safety regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bumbudsanpharoke, Nattinee; Ko, Seonghyuk

    2015-05-01

    Recently, food packages produced with nanoparticles, "nano-food packaging," have become more available in the current market. However, although the use of nanomaterials is increasing in food packaging applications, concern over toxicity affects consumer perceptions and acceptance. Quite a number of commercialized forms of nano-food packaging are coated or composited product with inorganic materials, for example, nanosilver and nanoclay as representative examples. Several studies have shown the possibility of nanomaterial migration from packaging or containers to foodstuff. The debate is still ongoing among researchers about the extent of migration and whether it is negligible and safe. Government agencies and stakeholders must hurry to determine use limitations and release conclusive legislation and regulations as soon as possible since nano-food packaging may have great impacts on human health. This paper aims to review the availability of nano-food packaging in the current market, report case studies on nanomaterial migration, and present the current status of safety regulations and management of nano-food packaging in leading countries across regions. This review should enable governments and researchers to develop further nanomaterial risk assessment studies. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  2. Components of Adenovirus Genome Packaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahi, Yadvinder S.; Mittal, Suresh K.

    2016-01-01

    Adenoviruses (AdVs) are icosahedral viruses with double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) genomes. Genome packaging in AdV is thought to be similar to that seen in dsDNA containing icosahedral bacteriophages and herpesviruses. Specific recognition of the AdV genome is mediated by a packaging domain located close to the left end of the viral genome and is mediated by the viral packaging machinery. Our understanding of the role of various components of the viral packaging machinery in AdV genome packaging has greatly advanced in recent years. Characterization of empty capsids assembled in the absence of one or more components involved in packaging, identification of the unique vertex, and demonstration of the role of IVa2, the putative packaging ATPase, in genome packaging have provided compelling evidence that AdVs follow a sequential assembly pathway. This review provides a detailed discussion on the functions of the various viral and cellular factors involved in AdV genome packaging. We conclude by briefly discussing the roles of the empty capsids, assembly intermediates, scaffolding proteins, portal vertex and DNA encapsidating enzymes in AdV assembly and packaging. PMID:27721809

  3. Influence of additives and impurities in sweep gas and solid tritium release behaviour from lithium ceramics (review)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Satoru

    1991-01-01

    Tritium release from solid breeding material is affected by small amounts of additives or impurities in the sweep gas or solid itself. Addition of hydrogen or water vapor to the sweep gas is reported to enhance the surface reaction of tritium release. Doping to solid breeder with elements of different valence from lithium has a possibility to improve tritium diffusion in the solid. Surface reaction and migration behavior in bulk are believed to be also affected by impurities in the sweep gas and in the solid. In order to model tritium release behavior in the blanket of fusion reactor, the mechanism of interaction with these additives or impurities must be quantitatively formulated. However, the mechanism of these remains to be elucidated. In this paper effects of these additives and impurities on tritium migration are reviewed. The mechanism of surface reaction for He+H 2 sweep gas is also discussed. (orig.)

  4. Review of tellurium release rates from LWR fuel elements under accident conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lorenz, R.A.; Beahm, E.C.; Wichner, R.P.

    1983-01-01

    Although fission product tellurium presents a potentially significant radiohazard, its release and transport in source-term experiments is frequently overlooked because it does not possess a readily measurable, gamma emission; moreover, a recent study emphasized noble gas, iodine and cesium release from LWR fuel elements because of the large data base that exists for these materials. Some new tests show that in some cases tellurium may be held up in core material to a greater degree than previously assumed - an observation that prompts a careful reappraisal of the existing tellurium-release data and its chemical foundation

  5. Inspection and verification of waste packages for near surface disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    Extensive experience has been gained with various disposal options for low and intermediate level waste at or near surface disposal facilities. Near surface disposal is based on proven and well demonstrated technologies. To ensure the safety of near surface disposal facilities when available technologies are applied, it is necessary to control and assure the quality of the repository system's performance, which includes waste packages, engineered features and natural barriers, as well as siting, design, construction, operation, closure and institutional controls. Recognizing the importance of repository performance, the IAEA is producing a set of technical publications on quality assurance and quality control (QA/QC) for waste disposal to provide Member States with technical guidance and current information. These publications cover issues on the application of QA/QC programmes to waste disposal, long term record management, and specific QA/QC aspects of waste packaging, repository design and R and D. Waste package QA/QC is especially important because the package is the primary barrier to radionuclide release from a disposal facility. Waste packaging also involves interface issues between the waste generator and the disposal facility operator. Waste should be packaged by generators to meet waste acceptance requirements set for a repository or disposal system. However, it is essential that the disposal facility operator ensure that waste packages conform with disposal facility acceptance requirements. Demonstration of conformance with disposal facility acceptance requirements can be achieved through the systematic inspection and verification of waste packages at both the waste generator's site and at the disposal facility, based on a waste package QA/QC programme established by the waste generator and approved by the disposal operator. However, strategies, approaches and the scope of inspection and verification will be somewhat different from country to country

  6. Intelligent food packaging - research and development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Dobrucka

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Packaging also fosters effective marketing of the food through distribution and sale channels. It is of the utmost importance to optimize the protection of the food, a great quality and appearance - better than typical packaged foods. In recent years, intelligent packaging became very popular. Intelligent packaging is becoming more and more widely used for food products. Application of this type of solution contributes to improvement of the quality consumer life undoubtedly. Intelligent packaging refers to a package that can sense environmental changes, and in turn, informs the users about the changes. These packaging systems contain devices that are capable of sensing and providing information about the functions and properties of the packaged foods. Also, this paper will review intelligent packaging technologies and describe different types of indicators (time-temperature indicators, freshness indicators.

  7. Hazardous materials package performance regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russell, N.A.; Glass, R.E.; McClure, J.D.; Finley, N.C.

    1993-01-01

    Two regulatory philosophies, one based on 'specification' packaging standards and the other based on 'performance' packaging standards, currently define the hazmat packaging certification process. A main concern when setting performance standards is determining the appropriate standards necessary to assure adequate public protection. This paper discusses a Hazmat Packaging Performance Evaluation (HPPE) project being conducted at Sandia National Laboratories for the U.S. Department of Transportation Research and Special Programs Administration. In this project, the current bulk packagings (larger than 2000 gallons) for transporting Materials Extremely Toxic By Inhalation (METBI) are being evaluated and performance standards will be recommended. A computer software system, HazCon, has been developed which can calculate the dispersion of dense, neutral, and buoyant gases. HazCon also has a database of thermodynamic and toxicity data for the METBI materials, a user-friendly menu-driven format for creating input data sets for calculating dispersion of the METBI in the event of an accidental release, and a link between the METBI database and the dense gas dispersion code (which requires thermodynamic properties). The primary output of HazCon is a listing of mass concentrations of the released material at distances downwind from the release point. (J.P.N.)

  8. Environmental Release Prevention and Control Plan (ERP and CP) annual review and update for 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jannik, G.T.; Mamatey, A.; Arnett, M.

    1993-01-01

    In the Environmental Release Prevention and Control Plan (ERP and CP), WSRC made a commitment to conduct the following follow-up activities and actions: (1) Complete the action items developed in response to the findings and recommendation of the Environmental Release Prevention Taskteam (WSRC-RP-92-356). (2) Complete all batch and continuous release procedure revisions to incorporate the attributes that WSRC senior management required of each procedure. (3) DOE-SR Assistance Managers and WSRC counterparts to reach consensus and closure on the identified engineered solutions documented in the ERP and CP, develop and drive implementation of facility changes per the agreements. (4) Continue to analyze releases and monitor performance in accordance with the ERP and CP, and utilize the ALARA Release Guides Committee to drive improvements. (5) Conduct annual re-evaluations of the cost benefit analyses of the identified engineered solutions, and identify new options and alternatives for each outfall in response to site mission and facility changes. This report documents the efforts that have been completed over the past year in response to these commitments

  9. A review of the findings of the plasma diagnostic package and associated laboratory experiments: Implications of large body/plasma interactions for future space technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Gerald B.; Lonngren, Karl E.

    1986-01-01

    The discoveries and experiments of the Plasma Diagnostic Package (PDP) on the OSS 1 and Spacelab 2 missions are reviewed, these results are compared with those of other space and laboratory experiments, and the implications for the understanding of large body interactions in a low Earth orbit (LEO) plasma environment are discussed. First a brief review of the PDP investigation, its instrumentation and experiments is presented. Next a summary of PDP results along with a comparison of those results with similar space or laboratory experiments is given. Last of all the implications of these results in terms of understanding fundamental physical processes that take place with large bodies in LEO is discussed and experiments to deal with these vital questions are suggested.

  10. Overview of the DOE packaging certification process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Y.Y.; Carlson, R.D. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Carlson, R.W. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Kapoor, A. [USDOE, Washington, DC (United States)

    1995-12-31

    This paper gives an overview of the DOE packaging certification process, which is implemented by the Office of Facility Safety Analysis, under the Assistance Secretary for Environment, Safety and Health, for packagings that are not used for weapons and weapons components, nor for naval nuclear propulsion. The overview will emphasize Type B packagings and the Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP) review that parallels the NRC packaging review. Other important elements in the DOE packaging certification program, such as training, methods development, data bases, and technical assistance, are also emphasized, because they have contributed significantly to the improvement of the certification process since DOE consolidated its packaging certification function in 1985. The paper finishes with a discussion of the roles and functions of the DOE Packaging Safety Review Steering Committee, which is chartered to address issues and concerns of interest to the DOE packaging and transportation safety community. Two articles related to DOE packaging certification were published earlier on the SARP review procedures and the DOE Packaging Review Guide. These articles may be consulted for additional information.

  11. Review of processes for the release of DOE real and non-real property for reuse and recycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ranek, N.L.; Kamboj, S.; Hensley, J.; Chen, S.Y.; Blunt, D.

    1997-11-01

    This report summarizes the underlying historical and regulatory framework supporting the concept of authorizing release for restricted or unrestricted reuse or recycle of real and non-real U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) properties containing residual radioactive material. Basic radiation protection principles as recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection are reviewed, and international initiatives to investigate radiological clearance criteria are reported. Applicable requirements of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, the Environmental Protection Agency, DOE, and the State of Washington are discussed. Several processes that have been developed for establishing cleanup and release criteria for real and non-real DOE property containing residual radioactive material are presented. Examples of DOE real property for which radiological cleanup criteria were established to support unrestricted release are provided. Properties discussed include Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Project sites, Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project sites, the Shippingport decommissioning project, the south-middle and south-east vaults in the 317 area at Argonne National Laboratory, the Heavy Water Components Test Reactor at DOE's Savannah River Site, the Experimental Boiling Water Reactor at Argonne National Laboratory, and the Weldon Spring site. Some examples of non-real property for which DOE sites have established criteria to support unrestricted release are also furnished. 10 figs., 4 tabs

  12. [Twenty-year History and Future Challenges in Transparency Enhancement of Review Process for Approval: Focus on Public Release of Review Reports regarding New Drugs and Medical Devices].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morimoto, Kazushige; Kawasaki, Satoko; Yoshida, Yasunori

    2015-01-01

    For 20 years, the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare (MHLW, formerly Ministry of Health and Welfare (MHW)) has been trying to increase transparency of the review process for approving reports in order to promote the rational use of newly approved drugs and medical devices. The first Summary Basis of Approval (SBA) was published by MHW in 1994. In 1999, evaluation reports were prepared by MHW and the Pharmaceuticals and Medical Devices Evaluation Center to make them available to the public. In 2005, a notice from the Chief Executive of the Pharmaceuticals and Medical Devices Agency (PMDA) made procedures for public release of information on reviewing applications for new drugs. In 2006, 90 review reports of newly approved drugs and eight medical devices were revealed on PMDA websites. The dissemination of information by the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and that of the European Medicines Agency (EMA) were studied and compared with that of the MHLW and PMDA. While common technical documents (CTD) for new drugs and summary technical documents (STED) for new medical devices have been released by PMDA, such documents are not released by the FDA and EMA. The European Public Assessment Report (EAPR) summary for the public is an interesting questionnaire approach that uses the "What," "How" and "Why" format. Finally, future proposals for the next decade are also outlined.

  13. Review and perspectives on spallings release models in the 1996 performance assessment for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knowles, M.K.; Hansen, F.D.; Thompson, T.W.; Schatz, J.F.; Gross, M.

    2000-01-01

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant was licensed for disposal of transuranic wastes generated by the US Department of Energy. The facility consists of a repository mined in a bedded salt formation, approximately 650 m below the surface. Regulations promulgated by the US Environmental Protection Agency require that performance assessment calculations for the repository include the possibility that an exploratory drilling operation could penetrate the waste disposal areas at some time in the future. Release of contaminated solids could reach the surface during a drilling intrusion. One of the mechanisms for release, known as spallings, can occur if gas pressures in the repository exceed the hydrostatic pressure of a column of drilling mud. Calculation of solids releases for spallings depends critically on the conceptual models for the waste, for the spallings process, and assumptions regarding driller parameters and practices. This paper presents a review of the evolution of these models during the regulatory review of the Compliance Certification Application for the repository. A summary and perspectives on the implementation of conservative assumptions in model development are also provided

  14. Review and perspectives on spallings release models in the 1996 performance assessment for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knowles, M.K; Hansen, F.D.; Thompson, T.W.; Schatz, J.F.; Gross, M.

    2000-01-01

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant was licensed for disposal of transuranic wastes generated by the US Department of Energy. The facility consists of a repository mined in a bedded salt formation, approximately 650 m below the surface. Regulations promulgated by the US Environmental Protection Agency require that performance assessment calculations for the repository include the possibility that an exploratory drilling operation could penetrate the waste disposal areas at some time in the future. Release of contaminated solids could reach the surface during a drilling intrusion. One of the mechanisms for release, known as spallings, can occur if gas pressures in the repository exceed the hydrostatic pressure of a column of drilling mud. Calculation of solids releases for spallings depends critically on the conceptual models for the waste, for the spallings process, and assumptions regarding driller parameters and practices. The paper presents a review of the evolution of these models during regulatory review of the Compliance Certification Application for the repository. A summary and perspectives on the implementation of conservative assumptions in model development are also provided

  15. Development and field evaluation of animal feed supplementation packages. Proceedings of the final review meeting of an IAEA Technical Co-operation Regional AFRA Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-06-01

    evaluate reproductive performance in animals that are subjected to different feed supplementation strategies. It was, however, realised that this technique has potential to monitor and improve existing support services to livestock farmers such as artificial insemination and to introduce new services such as early diagnosis of non-pregnancy and infertility. In order to ensure future sustainability of the RIA for use in such applications, the work on the second component has now been taken under a new project (RAF/5/046). This publication contains the results presented by the scientists of National Agricultural Research Systems of African countries who participated in the Final Review meeting held in Cairo, Egypt from 25 to 29 November 2000, which dealt with only the nutrition component, Development and Field Evaluation of Feed Supplementation Strategies. This publication also contains some selected papers presented at the National Training Workshop on Field Evaluation and Development of the Dry Season Feed Supplementation Packages for Ruminant Animals in the Traditional Smallholder Farms organized with financial assistance from the IAEA, from 25 to 29 July 1999, in Lusaka, Zambia

  16. Review of uncertainty estimates associated with models for assessing the impact of breeder reactor radioactivity releases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, C.; Little, C.A.

    1982-08-01

    The purpose is to summarize estimates based on currently available data of the uncertainty associated with radiological assessment models. The models being examined herein are those recommended previously for use in breeder reactor assessments. Uncertainty estimates are presented for models of atmospheric and hydrologic transport, terrestrial and aquatic food-chain bioaccumulation, and internal and external dosimetry. Both long-term and short-term release conditions are discussed. The uncertainty estimates presented in this report indicate that, for many sites, generic models and representative parameter values may be used to calculate doses from annual average radionuclide releases when these calculated doses are on the order of one-tenth or less of a relevant dose limit. For short-term, accidental releases, especially those from breeder reactors located in sites dominated by complex terrain and/or coastal meteorology, the uncertainty in the dose calculations may be much larger than an order of magnitude. As a result, it may be necessary to incorporate site-specific information into the dose calculation under these circumstances to reduce this uncertainty. However, even using site-specific information, natural variability and the uncertainties in the dose conversion factor will likely result in an overall uncertainty of greater than an order of magnitude for predictions of dose or concentration in environmental media following shortterm releases

  17. [The Effectiveness of Cooling Packaging Care in Relieving Chemotherapy-Induced Skin Toxicity Reactions in Cancer Patients Receiving Chemotherapy: A Systematic Review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Ya-Hui; Hung, Hsing-Wei; Chen, Shu-Ching

    2017-08-01

    Anti-cancer chemotherapy may cause skin-toxicity reactions. Different types of cooling packages affect chemotherapy-induced skin toxicity reactions differently. To evaluate the effects of cooling packing care on chemotherapy-induced skin toxicity reactions in cancer patients receiving chemotherapy. A systematic review approach was used. Searches were conducted in databases including Cochrane Library, Embase, MEDLINE, PubMed and Airiti Library using the keywords "chemotherapy cutaneous toxicity", "chemotherapy skin reaction", "chemotherapy skin toxicity", "frozen glove", "frozen sock", "cooling packaging care", "ice gloves", "ice socks", "usual care", "severity", "comfort", "satisfaction", "severity", and "comfort". The search focused on articles published before December 2016. Based on the inclusion and exclusion criteria, 5 articles involving relevant randomized controlled trials were extracted for review. Elasto-Gel ice gloves or ice socks that were chilled to -25°C- -30°C and used for 15 mins during initial chemotherapy, for one hour during chemotherapy infusion, and for 15 mins after chemotherapy were shown to improve the frequency and severity of chemotherapy-induced skin toxicity reactions. Several studies were limited by small sample sizes and different types of cooling packing programs, temperature, timing, and frequency. Thus, further research is recommended to verify the effects of cooling packing care. Cancer patients who were treated with docetaxel or PLD and who used ice gloves or ice socks that were chilled to -25°C- -30°C for 15 mins during initial chemotherapy, for one hour during chemotherapy infusion, and for 15 mins after chemotherapy improved significantly in terms of the frequency and severity of their chemotherapy-induced skin toxicity reactions. Local cooling packing care is a non-pharmacotherapy approach that is low cost and free of side effects. This review is intended to provide a reference for clinical care.

  18. Lively package

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaremko, G.

    1997-01-01

    Progress on the Lloydminster Heavy Oil Interpretive Centre, sponsored by the Lloydminster Oilfield Technical Society and expected to open in late 1998, was discussed. Some $150,000 of the $750,000 budget is already in the bank, and another $150,000 is in the pipeline. The Centre will be added to an existing and well-established visitor's site. It is reported to contain a lively and imaginatively-designed exhibit package, and promises to become a combination of educational tool and tourist attraction for the town of Lloydminster, Saskatchewan, in the heart of heavy oil country

  19. Reflective Packaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    The aluminized polymer film used in spacecraft as a radiation barrier to protect both astronauts and delicate instruments has led to a number of spinoff applications. Among them are aluminized shipping bags, food cart covers and medical bags. Radiant Technologies purchases component materials and assembles a barrier made of layers of aluminized foil. The packaging reflects outside heat away from the product inside the container. The company is developing new aluminized lines, express mailers, large shipping bags, gel packs and insulated panels for the building industry.

  20. Summary of the technical review of the safety analysis reports for packaging (SARP) for the transnuclear transport/storage casks: TN-BRP and TN-REG

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-07-01

    The Safety Analysis Reports for Packaging for two spent fuel shipping casks were technically reviewed by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The casks were designed by Transnuclear, Inc., for shipment of 85 Big Rock Point boiling water reactor fuel elements and 40 R.E. Ginna pressurized water reactor fuel elements from West Valley, New York, to Idaho Falls, Idaho. The intent of the review was to ensure compliance of the casks with the requirements the applicable Federal Regulations contained in 10 CFR Pt. 71 and allow issuance of Department of Energy Certificates of Compliance for transport by the Department of Energy Idaho Operations Office. The review was performed by a team of Oak Ridge National Laboratory staff assembled for their expertise in criticality analysis, shielding, metallurgy, nondestructive testing, thermal analysis, structural analysis, and containment. This report describes the review processes, the findings in each technical area, and the overall conclusion that a Certificate of Compliance could be issued for the proposed single shipment under the specified conditions and constraints

  1. Review on the Processing and Properties of Polymer Nanocomposites and Nanocoatings and Their Applications in the Packaging, Automotive and Solar Energy Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Kerstin; Bugnicourt, Elodie; Latorre, Marcos; Jorda, Maria; Echegoyen Sanz, Yolanda; Lagaron, José M.; Miesbauer, Oliver; Bianchin, Alvise; Hankin, Steve; Bölz, Uwe; Pérez, Germán; Jesdinszki, Marius; Lindner, Martina; Scheuerer, Zuzana; Castelló, Sara; Schmid, Markus

    2017-01-01

    For the last decades, nanocomposites materials have been widely studied in the scientific literature as they provide substantial properties enhancements, even at low nanoparticles content. Their performance depends on a number of parameters but the nanoparticles dispersion and distribution state remains the key challenge in order to obtain the full nanocomposites’ potential in terms of, e.g., flame retardance, mechanical, barrier and thermal properties, etc., that would allow extending their use in the industry. While the amount of existing research and indeed review papers regarding the formulation of nanocomposites is already significant, after listing the most common applications, this review focuses more in-depth on the properties and materials of relevance in three target sectors: packaging, solar energy and automotive. In terms of advances in the processing of nanocomposites, this review discusses various enhancement technologies such as the use of ultrasounds for in-process nanoparticles dispersion. In the case of nanocoatings, it describes the different conventionally used processes as well as nanoparticles deposition by electro-hydrodynamic processing. All in all, this review gives the basics both in terms of composition and of processing aspects to reach optimal properties for using nanocomposites in the selected applications. As an outlook, up-to-date nanosafety issues are discussed. PMID:28362331

  2. Review on the Processing and Properties of Polymer Nanocomposites and Nanocoatings and Their Applications in the Packaging, Automotive and Solar Energy Fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerstin Müller

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available For the last decades, nanocomposites materials have been widely studied in the scientific literature as they provide substantial properties enhancements, even at low nanoparticles content. Their performance depends on a number of parameters but the nanoparticles dispersion and distribution state remains the key challenge in order to obtain the full nanocomposites’ potential in terms of, e.g., flame retardance, mechanical, barrier and thermal properties, etc., that would allow extending their use in the industry. While the amount of existing research and indeed review papers regarding the formulation of nanocomposites is already significant, after listing the most common applications, this review focuses more in-depth on the properties and materials of relevance in three target sectors: packaging, solar energy and automotive. In terms of advances in the processing of nanocomposites, this review discusses various enhancement technologies such as the use of ultrasounds for in-process nanoparticles dispersion. In the case of nanocoatings, it describes the different conventionally used processes as well as nanoparticles deposition by electro-hydrodynamic processing. All in all, this review gives the basics both in terms of composition and of processing aspects to reach optimal properties for using nanocomposites in the selected applications. As an outlook, up-to-date nanosafety issues are discussed.

  3. Using system architecture, review entry criteria, and standard work package data to enable rapid development of integrated master schedules

    OpenAIRE

    Porter, Burton W., Jr.

    2016-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited While engineers must participate in the construction of the Integrated Master Schedule, this thesis proposes a way to reduce that effort through automation. When standardized sub processes exist, automated task name construction with consistent action/object naming convention can be applied to multiple system artifacts. These repeating sub processes also allow the derivation of task sequence and dependencies. The Architecture-Based Uti...

  4. Oral controlled release drug delivery system and Characterization of oral tablets; A review

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad Zaman; Junaid Qureshi; Hira Ejaz; Rai Muhammad Sarfraz; Hafeez ullah Khan; Fazal Rehman Sajid; Muhammad Shafiq ur Rehman

    2016-01-01

    Oral route of drug administration is considered as the safest and easiest route of drug administration. Control release drug delivery system is the emerging trend in the pharmaceuticals and the oral route is most suitable for such kind of drug delivery system. Oral route is more convenient for It all age group including both pediatric and geriatrics. There are various systems which are adopted to deliver drug in a controlled manner to different target sites through oral route. It includes dif...

  5. Tapentadol extended-release for treatment of chronic pain: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vadivelu N

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Nalini Vadivelu1, Alexander Timchenko1, Yili Huang2, Raymond Sinatra11Department of Anesthesiology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT; 2Internal Medicine, North Shore-LIJ Plainview Hospital, Plainview, NY, USAAbstract: Tapentadol is a centrally acting analgesic with a dual mechanism of action of mu receptor agonism and norepinephrine reuptake inhibition. Tapentadol immediate-release is approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for the management of moderate-to-severe acute pain. It was developed to decrease the intolerability issue associated with opioids. Tapentadol extended-release has a 12-hour duration of effect, and has recently been evaluated for pain in patients with chronic osteoarthritis, low back pain, and pain associated with diabetic peripheral neuropathy. Tapentadol extended-release was found to provide safe and highly effective analgesia for the treatment of chronic pain conditions, including moderate-to-severe chronic osteoarthritis pain and low back pain. Initial trials demonstrating efficacy in neuropathic pain suggest that tapentadol has comparable analgesic effectiveness and better gastrointestinal tolerability than opioid comparators, and demonstrates effectiveness in settings of inflammatory, somatic, and neuropathic pain. Gastrointestinal intolerance and central nervous system effects were the major adverse events noted. Tapentadol will need to be rigorously tested in chronic neuropathic pain, cancer-related pain, and cancer-related neuropathic pain.Keywords: osteoarthritis, neuropathic pain, analgesic, opioids, norepinephrine

  6. Integrated Approach to Industrial Packaging Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorobeva, O.

    2017-11-01

    The article reviews studies in the field of industrial packaging design. The major factors which influence technological, ergonomic, economic and ecological features of packaging are established. The main modern trends in packaging design are defined, the principles of marketing communications and their influence on consumers’ consciousness are indicated, and the function of packaging as a transmitter of brand values is specified. Peculiarities of packaging technology and printing techniques in modern printing industry are considered. The role of designers in the stage-by-stage development of the construction, form and graphic design concept of packaging is defined. The examples of authentic packaging are given and the mention of the tetrahedron packaging history is made. At the end of the article, conclusions on the key research aspects are made.

  7. RECENT TRENDS IN PACKAGING SYSTEMS FOR PHARMACEUTICAL PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Dobrucka

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background:  In recent years, pharmaceutical packaging market was one of the fastest growing areas of the packaging industry. At the same time the packaging manufacturers put high demands on quality and safety. Methods: Review of innovations in packaging systems for pharmaceutical products was made including newest information of researches and achievements of recent years. Results and conclusion: Observed in recent years the development of pharmaceutical packaging market expanded due to with the huge technological advances that allow introduction of new packaging. Also, in this study presented intelligent packaging in pharmacy and innovation in child-resistance packaging.

  8. K Basin sludge packaging design criteria (PDC) and safety analysis report for packaging (SARP) approval plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brisbin, S.A.

    1996-01-01

    This document delineates the plan for preparation, review, and approval of the Packaging Design Crieteria for the K Basin Sludge Transportation System and the Associated on-site Safety Analysis Report for Packaging. The transportation system addressed in the subject documents will be used to transport sludge from the K Basins using bulk packaging

  9. CRRES microelectronics test package (MEP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mullen, E.G.; Ray, K.P.

    1993-01-01

    The Microelectronics Test Package (MEP) flown on board the Combined Release and Radiation Effects Satellite (CRRES) contained over 60 device types and approximately 400 total devices which were tested for both single event upset (SEU) and total dose (parametric degradation and annealing). A description of the experiment, the method of testing devices, and the structure of data acquisition are presented. Sample flight data are shown. These included SEUs from a GaAs 1 K RAM during the March 1991 solar flare, and a comparison between passive shielding and a specially designed spot shielding package

  10. Granisetron Extended-Release Injection: A Review in Chemotherapy-Induced Nausea and Vomiting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deeks, Emma D

    2016-12-01

    An extended-release (ER) subcutaneously injectable formulation of the first-generation 5-HT 3 receptor antagonist granisetron is now available in the USA (Sustol ® ), where it is indicated for the prevention of acute and delayed chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) following moderately emetogenic chemotherapy (MEC) or anthracycline and cyclophosphamide combination chemotherapy regimens in adults. Granisetron ER is administered as a single subcutaneous injection and uses an erosion-controlled drug-delivery system to allow prolonged granisetron release. Primary endpoint data from phase III studies after an initial cycle of chemotherapy indicate that, when used as part of an antiemetic regimen, granisetron ER injection is more effective than intravenous ondansetron in preventing delayed CINV following highly emetogenic chemotherapy (HEC); is noninferior to intravenous palonosetron in preventing both acute CINV following MEC or HEC and delayed CINV following MEC; and is similar, but not superior, to palonosetron in preventing delayed CINV following HEC. The benefits of granisetron ER were seen in various patient subgroups, including those receiving anthracycline plus cyclophosphamide-based HEC, and (in an extension of one of the studies) over multiple MEC or HEC cycles. Granisetron ER injection is generally well tolerated, with an adverse event profile similar to that of ondansetron or palonosetron. Thus, granisetron ER injection expands the options for preventing both acute and delayed CINV in adults with cancer receiving MEC or anthracycline plus cyclophosphamide-based HEC.

  11. Package materials, waste form

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1980-01-01

    The schedules for waste package development for the various host rocks were presented. The waste form subtask activities were reviewed, with the papers focusing on high-level waste, transuranic waste, and spent fuel. The following ten papers were presented: (1) Waste Package Development Approach; (2) Borosilicate Glass as a Matrix for Savannah River Plant Waste; (3) Development of Alternative High-Level Waste Forms; (4) Overview of the Transuranic Waste Management Program; (5) Assessment of the Impacts of Spent Fuel Disassembly - Alternatives on the Nuclear Waste Isolation System; (6) Reactions of Spent Fuel and Reprocessing Waste Forms with Water in the Presence of Basalt; (7) Spent Fuel Stabilizer Screening Studies; (8) Chemical Interactions of Shale Rock, Prototype Waste Forms, and Prototype Canister Metals in a Simulated Wet Repository Environment; (9) Impact of Fission Gas and Volatiles on Spent Fuel During Geologic Disposal; and (10) Spent Fuel Assembly Decay Heat Measurement and Analysis

  12. Irradiation of packaged food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kilcast, D.

    1990-01-01

    Food irradiation is used to improve the safety of food by killing insects and microorganisms, to inhibit sprouting in crops such as onions and potatoes and to control ripening in agricultural produce. In order to prevent re-infestation and re-contamination it is essential that the food is suitably packed. Consequently, the packaging material is irradiated whilst in contact with the food, and it is important that the material is resistant to radiation-induced changes. In this paper the nature of the irradiation process is reviewed briefly, together with the known effects of irradiation on packaging materials and their implications for the effective application of food irradiation. Recent research carried out at the Leatherhead Food RA on the possibility of taint transfer into food is described. (author)

  13. CDIAC catalog of numeric data packages and computer model packages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boden, T.A.; Stoss, F.W.

    1993-05-01

    The Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center acquires, quality-assures, and distributes to the scientific community numeric data packages (NDPs) and computer model packages (CMPs) dealing with topics related to atmospheric trace-gas concentrations and global climate change. These packages include data on historic and present atmospheric CO 2 and CH 4 concentrations, historic and present oceanic CO 2 concentrations, historic weather and climate around the world, sea-level rise, storm occurrences, volcanic dust in the atmosphere, sources of atmospheric CO 2 , plants' response to elevated CO 2 levels, sunspot occurrences, and many other indicators of, contributors to, or components of climate change. This catalog describes the packages presently offered by CDIAC, reviews the processes used by CDIAC to assure the quality of the data contained in these packages, notes the media on which each package is available, describes the documentation that accompanies each package, and provides ordering information. Numeric data are available in the printed NDPs and CMPs, in CD-ROM format, and from an anonymous FTP area via Internet. All CDIAC information products are available at no cost

  14. ACTIVE PACKAGING SYSTEM FOR MEAT AND MEAT PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Pavelková

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In the recent past, food packaging was used to enable marketing of products and to provide passive protection against environmental contaminations or influences that affect the shelf life of the products. However, unlike traditional packaging, which must be totally inert, active packaging is designed to interact with the contents and/or the surrounding environment. Interest in the use of active packaging systems for meat and meat products has increased in recent years. Active packaging systems are developed with the goal of extending shelf life for foods and increasing the period of time that the food is high quality. Developments in active packaging have led to advances in many areas, including delayed oxidation and controlled respiration rate, microbial growth, and moisture migration. Active packaging technologies include some physical, chemical, or biological action which changes interactions between a package, product, and/or headspace of the package in order to get a desired outcome. Active packaging systems discussed include oxygen scavengers, carbon dioxide scavengers and emitters, moisture control agents, flavour/odour absorbers and releasers  and antimicrobial packaging technologies. Active packaging is typically found in two types of systems; sachets and pads which are placed inside of packages, and active ingredients that are incorporated directly into packaging materials.  Recognition of the benefits of active packaging technologies by the food industry, development of economically viable packaging systems and increased consumer acceptance is necessary for commercial realisation of these packaging technologies.doi:10.5219/205

  15. Understanding drug-related mortality in released prisoners: a review of national coronial records

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrews Jessica Y

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The prisoner population is characterised by a high burden of disease and social disadvantage, and ex-prisoners are at increased risk of death following release. Much of the excess mortality can be attributed to an increased risk of unnatural death, particularly from drug overdose; however, relatively few studies have investigated the circumstances surrounding drug-related deaths among released prisoners. This study aimed to explore and compare the circumstances of death for those who died from accidental drug-related causes to those who died from all other reportable causes. Methods A nationwide search of the Australian National Coroners Information System (NCIS was conducted to identify reportable deaths among ex-prisoners from 2000 to 2007. Using a structured coding form, NCIS records for these cases were interrogated to explore causes and circumstances of death. Results Coronial records for 388 deceased ex-prisoners were identified. Almost half of these deaths were a result of accidental drug-related causes (45%. The majority of accidental drug-related deaths occurred in a home environment, and poly-substance use at or around the time of death was common, recorded in 72% of drug-related deaths. Ex-prisoners who died of accidental drug-related causes were on average younger and less likely to be Indigenous, born in Australia, married, or living alone at or around the time of death, compared with those who died from all other reportable causes. Evidence of mental illness or self-harm was less common among accidental drug-related deaths, whereas evidence of previous drug overdose, injecting drug use, history of heroin use and history of drug withdrawal in the previous six months were more common. Conclusions Drug-related deaths are common among ex-prisoners and often occur in a home (vs. public setting. They are often associated with use of multiple substances at or around the time of death, risky drug-use patterns, and even

  16. Release of nanomaterials from solid nanocomposites and consumer exposure assessment - a forward-looking review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mackevica, Aiga; Hansen, Steffen Foss

    2016-01-01

    of the studies report their findings in a format that can be used for exposure assessment under REACH, and most do not include characterization of the released particles. Although inhalation, dermal, and oral exposures can be derived using the guidelines on how to complete consumer exposure assessments under......The European chemical legislation requires manufacturers and importers of chemicals to do consumer exposure assessment when the chemical has certain hazards associated to it (e.g. explosive, carcinogenicity, and hazardous to the aquatic environment), but the question is how this obligation can...... be met in light of the scientific uncertainty and technical challenges related to exposure assessment of nanomaterials. In this paper, we investigate to what extent the information and data in the literature can be used to perform consumer exposure assessment according to the REACH requirements and we...

  17. A review of fission gas release data within the Nea/IAEA IFPE database

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turnbull, J.A.; Menut, P.; Sartori, E.

    2002-01-01

    The paper describes the International Fuel Performance Experimental (IFPE) database on nuclear fuel performance. The aim of the project is to provide a comprehensive and well-qualified database on Zr clad UO 2 fuel for model development and code validation in the public domain. The data encompass both normal and off-normal operation and include prototypic commercial irradiations as well as experiments performed in material testing reactors. To date, the database contains some 380 individual cases, the majority of which provide data on FGR either from in-pile pressure measurements or PIE techniques including puncturing, electron probe microanalysis (EPMA) and X-ray fluorescence (XRF) measurements. The paper outlines parameters affecting fission gas release and highlights individual datasets addressing these issues. (authors)

  18. Review of models used for determining consequences of UF6 release: Model evaluation report. Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nair, S.K.; Chambers, D.B.; Park, S.H.; Radonjic, Z.R.; Coutts, P.T.; Lewis, C.J.; Hammonds, J.S.; Hoffman, F.O.

    1997-11-01

    Three uranium hexafluoride-(UF 6 -) specific models--HGSYSTEM/UF 6 , Science Application International Corporation, and RTM-96; three dense-gas models--DEGADIS, SLAB, and the Chlorine Institute methodology; and one toxic chemical model--AFTOX--are evaluated on their capabilities to simulate the chemical reactions, thermodynamics, and atmospheric dispersion of UF 6 released from accidents at nuclear fuel-cycle facilities, to support Integrated Safety Analysis, Emergency Response Planning, and Post-Accident Analysis. These models are also evaluated for user-friendliness and for quality assurance and quality control features, to ensure the validity and credibility of the results. Model performance evaluations are conducted for the three UF 6 -specific models, using field data on releases of UF 6 and other heavy gases. Predictions from the HGSYSTEM/UF 6 and SAIC models are within an order of magnitude of the field data, but the SAIC model overpredicts beyond an order of magnitude for a few UF 6 -specific data points. The RTM-96 model provides overpredictions within a factor of 3 for all data points beyond 400 m from the source. For one data set, however, the RTM-96 model severely underpredicts the observations within 200 m of the source. Outputs of the models are most sensitive to the meteorological parameters at large distances from the source and to certain source-specific and meteorological parameters at distances close to the source. Specific recommendations are being made to improve the applicability and usefulness of the three models and to choose a specific model to support the intended analyses. Guidance is also provided on the choice of input parameters for initial dilution, building wake effects, and distance to completion of UF 6 reaction with water

  19. Efficacy of long-acting release octreotide for preventing chemotherapy-induced diarrhoea: protocol for a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Chao; Deng, Bo; Jia, Liqun; Tan, Huangying

    2017-06-21

    Diarrhoea is a common adverse effect induced by chemotherapy that can reduce the dose of chemotherapeutic drugs or interrupt the chemotherapy schedule. The current treatment strategies have various limitations. It has been shown that long-acting release octreotide (octreotide LAR) can decrease the occurrence and severity of diarrhoea, yet the efficacy of octreotide LAR in preventing chemotherapy-induced diarrhoea (CID) remains to be assessed. The main objective of this paper was to draw up a protocol for systematic review to evaluate the protective effects of octreotide LAR on CID. We searched Medline, EMBASE, the Cochrane Library, Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure, Wanfang Data and the VIP Database without language restrictions from inception until 1 September 2016. The references of relevant studies were also manually searched. Two investigators independently accessed the selected studies, extracted data and assessed the reliability of the studies. Any discrepancies were resolved by a third investigator. The effect size of the selected studies was assessed by different measures based on the type of data. The selected studies were descriptively analysed. We then chose a fixed-effect model or a random-effect model based on statistical homogeneity, and pooled data from the studies for meta-analysis, if possible. The primary outcome was the incidence of diarrhoea. The secondary outcomes were the duration of diarrhoea, incidence of diarrhoea-associated symptoms, physical function and quality of life. All statistical analyses were performed by Review Manager V.5.3. This systematic review did not require ethics approval, because it included aggregated published data, and not individual patient data. The review was published in a peer-reviewed journal. This systematic review protocol was registered with PROSPERO (registration number: CRD 42016048573). © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights

  20. 49 CFR 173.24 - General requirements for packagings and packages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... identifiable (without the use of instruments) release of hazardous materials to the environment; (2) The effectiveness of the package will not be substantially reduced; for example, impact resistance, strength... significant chemical or galvanic reaction between the materials and contents of the package. (3) Plastic...

  1. Science packages

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    Primary science teachers in Scotland have a new updating method at their disposal with the launch of a package of CDi (Compact Discs Interactive) materials developed by the BBC and the Scottish Office. These were a response to the claim that many primary teachers felt they had been inadequately trained in science and lacked the confidence to teach it properly. Consequently they felt the need for more in-service training to equip them with the personal understanding required. The pack contains five disks and a printed user's guide divided up as follows: disk 1 Investigations; disk 2 Developing understanding; disks 3,4,5 Primary Science staff development videos. It was produced by the Scottish Interactive Technology Centre (Moray House Institute) and is available from BBC Education at £149.99 including VAT. Free Internet distribution of science education materials has also begun as part of the Global Schoolhouse (GSH) scheme. The US National Science Teachers' Association (NSTA) and Microsoft Corporation are making available field-tested comprehensive curriculum material including 'Micro-units' on more than 80 topics in biology, chemistry, earth and space science and physics. The latter are the work of the Scope, Sequence and Coordination of High School Science project, which can be found at http://www.gsh.org/NSTA_SSandC/. More information on NSTA can be obtained from its Web site at http://www.nsta.org.

  2. From Cells to Virus Particles: Quantitative Methods to Monitor RNA Packaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mireia Ferrer

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In cells, positive strand RNA viruses, such as Retroviridae, must selectively recognize their full-length RNA genome among abundant cellular RNAs to assemble and release particles. How viruses coordinate the intracellular trafficking of both RNA and protein components to the assembly sites of infectious particles at the cell surface remains a long-standing question. The mechanisms ensuring packaging of genomic RNA are essential for viral infectivity. Since RNA packaging impacts on several essential functions of retroviral replication such as RNA dimerization, translation and recombination events, there are many studies that require the determination of RNA packaging efficiency and/or RNA packaging ability. Studies of RNA encapsidation rely upon techniques for the identification and quantification of RNA species packaged by the virus. This review focuses on the different approaches available to monitor RNA packaging: Northern blot analysis, ribonuclease protection assay and quantitative reverse transcriptase-coupled polymerase chain reaction as well as the most recent RNA imaging and sequencing technologies. Advantages, disadvantages and limitations of these approaches will be discussed in order to help the investigator to choose the most appropriate technique. Although the review was written with the prototypic simple murine leukemia virus (MLV and complex human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1 in mind, the techniques were described in order to benefit to a larger community.

  3. Use of controlled internal drug releasing (CIDR) devices to control reproduction in goats: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knights, Marlon; Singh-Knights, Doolarie

    2016-09-01

    High reproductive rates are necessary in order to increase the productivity of goat operations. Progesterone and its analogues are widely used in other species to control the reproductive system to facilitate synchronized births, induce fertile estrus or to facilitate the use of assisted reproductive techniques with the goal of increasing productivity of livestock. Progesterone impregnated controlled internal drug releasing (CIDR) devices are approved for delivery of the natural hormone progesterone to synchronize and induce fertile estrus in sheep. A few studies have reported a high estrous response and pregnancy rates when CIDRs are used to induce estrus in goats. However, significant variation exists in the duration of treatment (5-16 days) and in the use of exogenous gonadotropins as part of the treatment protocol. As gonadotropins are not currently approved for commercial use in small ruminants in the USA, studies are needed to determine the necessity for exogenous gonadotropins and whether they can be replaced by enhancing endogenous secretion through photoperiodic manipulation of the doe and \\ or increase stimulation through the 'buck-effect'. Future studies must not only evaluate efficacy, but should consider the economic feasibility of using CIDRs in commercial production systems. © 2016 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  4. RF and microwave microelectronics packaging II

    CERN Document Server

    Sturdivant, Rick

    2017-01-01

    Reviews RF, microwave, and microelectronics assembly process, quality control, and failure analysis Bridges the gap between low cost commercial and hi-res RF/Microwave packaging technologies Engages in an in-depth discussion of challenges in packaging and assembly of advanced high-power amplifiers This book presents the latest developments in packaging for high-frequency electronics. It is a companion volume to “RF and Microwave Microelectronics Packaging” (2010) and covers the latest developments in thermal management, electrical/RF/thermal-mechanical designs and simulations, packaging and processing methods, and other RF and microwave packaging topics. Chapters provide detailed coverage of phased arrays, T/R modules, 3D transitions, high thermal conductivity materials, carbon nanotubes and graphene advanced materials, and chip size packaging for RF MEMS. It appeals to practicing engineers in the electronic packaging and high-frequency electronics domain, and to academic researchers interested in underst...

  5. Reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Science Teacher, 1989

    1989-01-01

    Reviews a software planetarium package called "Sky Travel." Includes two audiovisuals: "Conquest of Space" and "Windows on Science: Earth Science"; and four books: "Small Energy Sources: Choices that Work,""Stonehenge Complete,""Uneasy Careers and Intimate Lives: Women in Science…

  6. Role of nondrug methods in a package of measures for the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis: A review of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. G. Badalov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The review represents the results of investigations into the role of nondrug methods in the treatment and prevention of osteoporosis (OA. The data available in the literature suggest that a number of non-drug technologies, first of all exercise therapy, aquatic therapy, reflexotherapy, electrical stimulation, and electromagnetic therapy, have proven efficiency and a certain potential for reducing the risk of osteoporosis and its complications and for improving bone metabolism. Expanding the range of these methods and increasing their validity for clinical introduction are very promising.

  7. ORNL's DCAL software package

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eckerman, K.F.

    2007-01-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory has released its Dose and Risk Calculation software, DCAL. DCAL, developed with the support of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, consists of a series of computational modules, driven in either an interactive or a batch mode for computation of dose and risk coefficients from intakes of radionuclides or exposure to radionuclides in environmental media. The software package includes extensive libraries of biokinetic and dosimetric data that represent the current state of the art. The software has unique capability for addressing intakes of radionuclides by non-adults. DCAL runs as 32-bit extended DOS and console applications under Windows 98/NT/2000/XP. It is intended for users familiar with the basic elements of computational radiation dosimetry. Components of DCAL have been used to prepare U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Federal Guidance Reports 12 and 13 and several publications of the International Commission on Radiological Protection. (author)

  8. Chronotherapy with low-dose modified-release prednisone for the management of rheumatoid arthritis: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beltrametti SP

    2016-11-01

    review is a comprehensive, updated summary of the current evidence on the use of GCs in RA, with focus on the efficacy and safety of low-dose prednisone and modified-release prednisone, the latter representing a rational, cost-effective, and tailored approach to maximize the benefit/risk ratio in RA patients. Keywords: glucocorticoids, rheumatoid arthritis, modified-release prednisone, safety, efficacy, adrenal function

  9. Review and analysis of parameters for assessing transport of environmentally released radionuclides through agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baes, C.F. III; Sharp, R.D.; Sjoreen, A.L.; Shor, R.W.

    1984-09-01

    Most of the default parameters incorporated into the TERRA computer code are documented including a literature review and systematic analysis of element-specific transfer parameters B/sub v/, B/sub r/, F/sub m/, F/sub f/, and K/sub d/. This review and analysis suggests default values which are consistent with the modeling approaches taken in TERRA and may be acceptable for most assessment applications of the computer code. However, particular applications of the code and additional analysis of elemental transport may require alternative default values. Use of the values reported herein in other computer codes simulating terrestrial transport is not advised without careful interpretation of the limitations and scope these analyses. An approach to determination of vegetation-specific interception fractions is also discussed. The limitations of this approach are many, and its use indicates the need for analysis of deposition, interception, and weathering processes. Judgement must be exercised in interpretation of plant surface concentrations generated. Finally, the location-specific agricultural, climatological, and population parameters in the default SITE data base documented. These parameters are intended as alternatives to average values currently used. Indeed, areas in the United States where intensive crop, milk, or beef production occurs will be reflected in the parameter values as will areas where little agricultural activity occurs. However, the original information sources contained some small error and the interpolation and conversion methods used will add more. Parameters used in TERRA not discussed herein are discussed in the companion report to this one - ORNL-5785. In the companion report the models employed in and the coding of TERRA are discussed. These reports together provide documentation of the TERRA code and its use in assessments. 96 references, 78 figures, 21 tables

  10. Review and analysis of parameters for assessing transport of environmentally released radionuclides through agriculture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baes, C.F. III; Sharp, R.D.; Sjoreen, A.L.; Shor, R.W.

    1984-09-01

    Most of the default parameters incorporated into the TERRA computer code are documented including a literature review and systematic analysis of element-specific transfer parameters B/sub v/, B/sub r/, F/sub m/, F/sub f/, and K/sub d/. This review and analysis suggests default values which are consistent with the modeling approaches taken in TERRA and may be acceptable for most assessment applications of the computer code. However, particular applications of the code and additional analysis of elemental transport may require alternative default values. Use of the values reported herein in other computer codes simulating terrestrial transport is not advised without careful interpretation of the limitations and scope these analyses. An approach to determination of vegetation-specific interception fractions is also discussed. The limitations of this approach are many, and its use indicates the need for analysis of deposition, interception, and weathering processes. Judgement must be exercised in interpretation of plant surface concentrations generated. Finally, the location-specific agricultural, climatological, and population parameters in the default SITE data base documented. These parameters are intended as alternatives to average values currently used. Indeed, areas in the United States where intensive crop, milk, or beef production occurs will be reflected in the parameter values as will areas where little agricultural activity occurs. However, the original information sources contained some small error and the interpolation and conversion methods used will add more. Parameters used in TERRA not discussed herein are discussed in the companion report to this one - ORNL-5785. In the companion report the models employed in and the coding of TERRA are discussed. These reports together provide documentation of the TERRA code and its use in assessments. 96 references, 78 figures, 21 tables.

  11. The 1 000-year prediction. A state-of-the-art review on the research activity for the structural integrity of geological disposal packages of high-level nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akashi, Masatsune

    1996-01-01

    The geological disposal package for high-level nuclear waste to be buried deep underground must be assured of structural integrity for ultra-long services of 1 000 years or even longer. The greatest and essentially the sole adversary to those packages in such a service is corrosion by ground water. Therefore, quantitative assessment of the corrosion form, the corrosion rate, and the corrosion lifetime is indispensable. This paper reviews the research activities to clarify what has been known, and discusses the future items to be studied. The largest detriment to the integrity of the package is not the uniform corrosion but the localized corrosion. The critical potential concept can quantify the safety usage domain for the material concerned. (author)

  12. Migration and sorption phenomena in packaged foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gnanasekharan, V; Floros, J D

    1997-10-01

    Rapidly developing analytical capabilities and continuously evolving stringent regulations have made food/package interactions a subject of intense research. This article focuses on: (1) the migration of package components such as oligomers and monomers, processing aids, additives, and residual reactants in to packaged foods, and (2) sorption of food components such as flavors, lipids, and moisture into packages. Principles of diffusion and thermodynamics are utilized to describe the mathematics of migration and sorption. Mathematical models are developed from first principles, and their applicability is illustrated using numerical simulations and published data. Simulations indicate that available models are system (polymer-penetrant) specific. Furthermore, some models best describe the early stages of migration/sorption, whereas others should be used for the late stages of these phenomena. Migration- and/or sorption-related problems with respect to glass, metal, paper-based and polymeric packaging materials are discussed, and their importance is illustrated using published examples. The effects of migrating and absorbed components on food safety, quality, and the environment are presented for various foods and packaging materials. The impact of currently popular packaging techniques such as microwavable, ovenable, and retortable packaging on migration and sorption are discussed with examples. Analytical techniques for investigating migration and sorption phenomena in food packaging are critically reviewed, with special emphasis on the use and characteristics of food-simulating liquids (FSLs). Finally, domestic and international regulations concerning migration in packaged foods, and their impact on food packaging is briefly presented.

  13. Use of nanotechnology in food processing, packaging and safety ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Use of nanotechnology in food processing, packaging and safety – review. ... application of nanotechnology in food packaging and food contact materials, ... developing active antimicrobial and antifungal surfaces, and sensing as well as ...

  14. Emergency response packaging: A conceptual outline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luna, R.E.; McClure, J.D.; Bennett, P.C.; Wheeler, T.A.

    1991-01-01

    The main thrust of this paper has been to put forth the idea of developing a package for the recovery and retrieval of released radioactive material contents from Radioactive Materials (RAM) packaging involved in transport accidents. Prior to the development of such a package, some additional studies might be performed which would confirm the general type of candidate materials which might have to be recovered. This would require a detailed inventory of US packages that have released their contents due to transport accidents. The main issue is one of preparedness which would allow the US Department of Energy to respond to accidents for DOE shipments and to respond nationally for shipments outside the normal jurisdiction of US DOE shipments

  15. Introduction to Software Packages. [Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankel, Sheila, Ed.; And Others

    This document provides an introduction to applications computer software packages that support functional managers in government and encourages the use of such packages as an alternative to in-house development. A review of current application areas includes budget/project management, financial management/accounting, payroll, personnel,…

  16. GDINA and CDM Packages in R

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rupp, André A.; van Rijn, Peter W.

    2018-01-01

    We review the GIDNA and CDM packages in R for fitting cognitive diagnosis/diagnostic classification models. We first provide a summary of their core capabilities and then use both simulated and real data to compare their functionalities in practice. We found that the most relevant routines in the two packages appear to be more similar than…

  17. Examination of Mechanisms Responsible for Organic Dust-related Diseases: Mediator Release induced by Microorgansims. A review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norn, Svend; Clementsen, Paul; Kristensen, K.S.

    1994-01-01

    Farmakologi, org. dust-related diseases, bacteria, pathogenic mechanisms, mediator release, entoxins - fungal spores......Farmakologi, org. dust-related diseases, bacteria, pathogenic mechanisms, mediator release, entoxins - fungal spores...

  18. Waste package performance allocation system study report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Memory, R.D.

    1994-01-01

    The Waste Package Performance Allocation system study was performed in order to provide a technical basis for the selection of the waste package period of substantially complete containment and its resultant contribution to the overall total system performance. This study began with a reference case based on the current Mined Geologic Disposal System (MGDS) baseline design and added a number of alternative designs. The waste package designs were selected from the designs being considered in detail during Advanced Conceptual Design (ACD). The waste packages considered were multi-barrier packages with a 0.95 cm Alloy 825 inner barrier and a 10, 20, or 45 cm thick carbon steel outer barrier. The waste package capacities varied from 6 to 12 to 21 Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) fuel assemblies. The vertical borehole and in-drift emplacement modes were also considered, as were thermal loadings of 25, 57, and 114 kW/acre. The repository cost analysis indicated that the 21 PWR in-drift emplacement mode option with the 10 cm and 20 cm outer barrier thicknesses are the least expensive and that the 12 PWR in-drift case has approximately the same cost as the 6 PWR vertical borehole. It was also found that the cost increase from the 10 cm outer barrier waste package to the 20 cm waste package was less per centimeter than the increase from the 20 cm outer barrier waste package to the 45 cm outer barrier waste package. However, the repository cost was nearly linear with the outer barrier thickness for the 21 PWR in-drift case. Finally, corrosion rate estimates are provided and the relationship of repository cost versus waste package lifetime is discussed as is cumulative radionuclide release from the waste package and to the accessible environment for time periods of 10,000 years and 100,000 years

  19. Transportation package design using numerical optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harding, D.C.; Witkowski, W.R.

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this overview is twofold: first, to outline the theory and basic elements of numerical optimization; and second, to show how numerical optimization can be applied to the transportation packaging industry and used to increase efficiency and safety of radioactive and hazardous material transportation packages. A more extensive review of numerical optimization and its applications to radioactive material transportation package design was performed previously by the authors (Witkowski and Harding 1992). A proof-of-concept Type B package design is also presented as a simplified example of potential improvements achievable using numerical optimization in the design process

  20. A review of the role of colloids in the release and transport of radionuclides in the near and far field. Pt. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tipping, E.; Higgo, J.J.W.

    1992-01-01

    The role of colloids in the release/transport of radionuclides covers a range of scientific disciplines and there is a need for a comprehensive review that pulls together all the relevant research. A literature review has, therefore, been carried out and a bibliography prepared. Entries are in alphabetical (first author) order and abstracts are provided. This is part 2 of a three-part review. Part 1 reviews fundamental theory and DOE and NIREX funded work while Part 3 compares DOE and NIREX-funded work with the other published work and identifies gaps in the DOE and NIREX programmes. (Author)

  1. Nuclear waste management technical support in the development of nuclear waste form criteria for the NRC. Task 1. Waste package overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dayal, R.; Lee, B.S.; Wilke, R.J.; Swyler, K.J.; Soo, P.; Ahn, T.M.; McIntyre, N.S.; Veakis, E.

    1982-02-01

    In this report the current state of waste package development for high level waste, transuranic waste, and spent fuel in the US and abroad has been assessed. Specifically, reviewed are recent and on-going research on various waste forms, container materials and backfills and tentatively identified those which are likely to perform most satisfactorily in the repository environment. Radiation effects on the waste package components have been reviewed and the magnitude of these effects has been identified. Areas requiring further research have been identified. The important variables affecting radionuclide release from the waste package have been described and an evaluation of regulatory criteria for high level waste and spent fuel is presented. Finally, for spent fuel, high level, and TRU waste, components which could be used to construct a waste package having potential to meet NRC performance requirements have been described and identified.

  2. Nuclear waste management technical support in the development of nuclear waste form criteria for the NRC. Task 1. Waste package overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dayal, R.; Lee, B.S.; Wilke, R.J.; Swyler, K.J.; Soo, P.; Ahn, T.M.; McIntyre, N.S.; Veakis, E.

    1982-02-01

    In this report the current state of waste package development for high level waste, transuranic waste, and spent fuel in the US and abroad has been assessed. Specifically, reviewed are recent and on-going research on various waste forms, container materials and backfills and tentatively identified those which are likely to perform most satisfactorily in the repository environment. Radiation effects on the waste package components have been reviewed and the magnitude of these effects has been identified. Areas requiring further research have been identified. The important variables affecting radionuclide release from the waste package have been described and an evaluation of regulatory criteria for high level waste and spent fuel is presented. Finally, for spent fuel, high level, and TRU waste, components which could be used to construct a waste package having potential to meet NRC performance requirements have been described and identified

  3. A review of the role of colloids in the release and transport of radionuclides in the near and far field. Pt. 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tipping, E.; Higgo, J.J.W.

    1992-01-01

    The role of colloids in the release and transport of radionuclides in the near and far field is discussed and DOE and Nirex funded work is compared with relevant studies by other workers. Gaps in the DOE and Nirex programmes are identified and suggestions for further research are made. This is Part 3 of a three-part review. Part 1 reviews fundamental theory and DOE and Nirex funded work and Part 2 is a comprehensive bibliography (with abstracts). (Author)

  4. Packaging for Food Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stilwell, E. J.

    1985-01-01

    Most of the key areas of concern in packaging the three principle food forms for the space station were covered. It can be generally concluded that there are no significant voids in packaging materials availability or in current packaging technology. However, it must also be concluded that the process by which packaging decisions are made for the space station feeding program will be very synergistic. Packaging selection will depend heavily on the preparation mechanics, the preferred presentation and the achievable disposal systems. It will be important that packaging be considered as an integral part of each decision as these systems are developed.

  5. Waste Package Lifting Calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    H. Marr

    2000-01-01

    The objective of this calculation is to evaluate the structural response of the waste package during the horizontal and vertical lifting operations in order to support the waste package lifting feature design. The scope of this calculation includes the evaluation of the 21 PWR UCF (pressurized water reactor uncanistered fuel) waste package, naval waste package, 5 DHLW/DOE SNF (defense high-level waste/Department of Energy spent nuclear fuel)--short waste package, and 44 BWR (boiling water reactor) UCF waste package. Procedure AP-3.12Q, Revision 0, ICN 0, calculations, is used to develop and document this calculation

  6. Representation and misrepresentation of scientific evidence in contemporary tobacco regulation: a review of tobacco industry submissions to the UK Government consultation on standardised packaging.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selda Ulucanlar

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Standardised packaging (SP of tobacco products is an innovative tobacco control measure opposed by transnational tobacco companies (TTCs whose responses to the UK government's public consultation on SP argued that evidence was inadequate to support implementing the measure. The government's initial decision, announced 11 months after the consultation closed, was to wait for 'more evidence', but four months later a second 'independent review' was launched. In view of the centrality of evidence to debates over SP and TTCs' history of denying harms and manufacturing uncertainty about scientific evidence, we analysed their submissions to examine how they used evidence to oppose SP.We purposively selected and analysed two TTC submissions using a verification-oriented cross-documentary method to ascertain how published studies were used and interpretive analysis with a constructivist grounded theory approach to examine the conceptual significance of TTC critiques. The companies' overall argument was that the SP evidence base was seriously flawed and did not warrant the introduction of SP. However, this argument was underpinned by three complementary techniques that misrepresented the evidence base. First, published studies were repeatedly misquoted, distorting the main messages. Second, 'mimicked scientific critique' was used to undermine evidence; this form of critique insisted on methodological perfection, rejected methodological pluralism, adopted a litigation (not scientific model, and was not rigorous. Third, TTCs engaged in 'evidential landscaping', promoting a parallel evidence base to deflect attention from SP and excluding company-held evidence relevant to SP. The study's sample was limited to sub-sections of two out of four submissions, but leaked industry documents suggest at least one other company used a similar approach.The TTCs' claim that SP will not lead to public health benefits is largely without foundation. The tools of Better

  7. Representation and misrepresentation of scientific evidence in contemporary tobacco regulation: a review of tobacco industry submissions to the UK Government consultation on standardised packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulucanlar, Selda; Fooks, Gary J; Hatchard, Jenny L; Gilmore, Anna B

    2014-03-01

    Standardised packaging (SP) of tobacco products is an innovative tobacco control measure opposed by transnational tobacco companies (TTCs) whose responses to the UK government's public consultation on SP argued that evidence was inadequate to support implementing the measure. The government's initial decision, announced 11 months after the consultation closed, was to wait for 'more evidence', but four months later a second 'independent review' was launched. In view of the centrality of evidence to debates over SP and TTCs' history of denying harms and manufacturing uncertainty about scientific evidence, we analysed their submissions to examine how they used evidence to oppose SP. We purposively selected and analysed two TTC submissions using a verification-oriented cross-documentary method to ascertain how published studies were used and interpretive analysis with a constructivist grounded theory approach to examine the conceptual significance of TTC critiques. The companies' overall argument was that the SP evidence base was seriously flawed and did not warrant the introduction of SP. However, this argument was underpinned by three complementary techniques that misrepresented the evidence base. First, published studies were repeatedly misquoted, distorting the main messages. Second, 'mimicked scientific critique' was used to undermine evidence; this form of critique insisted on methodological perfection, rejected methodological pluralism, adopted a litigation (not scientific) model, and was not rigorous. Third, TTCs engaged in 'evidential landscaping', promoting a parallel evidence base to deflect attention from SP and excluding company-held evidence relevant to SP. The study's sample was limited to sub-sections of two out of four submissions, but leaked industry documents suggest at least one other company used a similar approach. The TTCs' claim that SP will not lead to public health benefits is largely without foundation. The tools of Better Regulation

  8. Nanocellulose in green food packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilarinho, Fernanda; Sanches Silva, Ana; Vaz, M Fátima; Farinha, José Paulo

    2017-01-26

    The development of packaging materials with new functionalities and lower environmental impact is now an urgent need of our society. On one hand, the shelf-life extension of packaged products can be an answer to the exponential increase of worldwide demand for food. On the other hand, uncertainty of crude oil prices and reserves has imposed the necessity to find raw materials to replace oil-derived polymers. Additionally, consumers' awareness toward environmental issues increasingly pushes industries to look with renewed interest to "green" solutions. In response to these issues, numerous polymers have been exploited to develop biodegradable food packaging materials. Although the use of biopolymers has been limited due to their poor mechanical and barrier properties, these can be enhanced by adding reinforcing nanosized components to form nanocomposites. Cellulose is probably the most used and well-known renewable and sustainable raw material. The mechanical properties, reinforcing capabilities, abundance, low density, and biodegradability of nanosized cellulose make it an ideal candidate for polymer nanocomposites processing. Here we review the potential applications of cellulose based nanocomposites in food packaging materials, highlighting the several types of biopolymers with nanocellulose fillers that have been used to form bio-nanocomposite materials. The trends in nanocellulose packaging applications are also addressed.

  9. Release of engineered nanomaterials from polymer nanocomposites: the effect of matrix degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Timothy V

    2015-01-14

    Polymer nanocomposites-polymer-based materials that incorporate filler elements possessing at least one dimension in the nanometer range-are increasingly being developed for commercial applications ranging from building infrastructure to food packaging to biomedical devices and implants. Despite a wide range of intended applications, it is also important to understand the potential for exposure to these nanofillers, which could be released during routine use or abuse of these materials so that it can be determined whether they pose a risk to human health or the environment. This article is the second of a pair that review what is known about the release of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) from polymer nanocomposites. Two roughly separate ENM release paradigms are considered in this series: the release of ENMs via passive diffusion, desorption, and dissolution into external liquid media and the release of ENMs assisted by matrix degradation. The present article is focused primarily on the second paradigm and includes a thorough, critical review of the associated body of peer-reviewed literature on ENM release by matrix degradation mechanisms, including photodegradation, thermal decomposition, mechanical wear, and hydrolysis. These release mechanisms may be especially relevant to nanocomposites that are likely to be subjected to weathering, including construction and infrastructural materials, sporting equipment, and materials that might potentially end up in landfills. This review pays particular attention to studies that shed light on specific release mechanisms and synergistic mechanistic relationships. The review concludes with a short section on knowledge gaps and future research needs.

  10. Merganser Download Package

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This data download package contains an Esri 10.0 MXD, file geodatabase and copy of this FGDC metadata record. The data in this package are used in support of the...

  11. Creative Thinking Package

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Clive

    1972-01-01

    A look at the latest package from a British managment training organization, which explains and demonstrates creative thinking techniques, including brainstorming. The package, designed for groups of twelve or more, consists of tapes, visuals, and associated exercises. (Editor/JB)

  12. Environmental standard review plan for ES Section 7.1.1. Environmental impacts of postulated accidents involving releases of radioactive materials to groundwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-11-01

    Environmental Standard Review Plan (ESRP) 7.1.1 provides guidance to the staff for preparation of environmental assessments of ''Radiological Impacts - Releases to Groundwater,'' an input to the staff's environmental statement which addresses the groundwater pathway consequences from postulated reactor core-melt accidents. The ESRP lists the type of information which should be collected, references that may be useful, and provides a procedure for uniform staff review of applicant analyses. The ESRP is applicable to both Construction Permit and Operating License Stage reviews

  13. Thermal effects from the release of selenium from a coal combustion during high-temperature processing: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jianjun; Sun, Qiang; He, Huan

    2018-04-11

    The release of selenium (Se) during coal combustion can have serious impacts on the ecological environment and human health. Therefore, it is very important to study the factors that concern the release of Se from coal combustion. In this paper, the characteristics of the release of Se from coal combustion, pyrolysis, and gasification of different coal species under different conditions are studied. The results show that the amount of released Se increases at higher combustion temperatures. There are obvious increases in the amount of released Se especially in the temperature range of 300 to 800 °C. In addition, more Se is released from the coal gasification than coal combustion process, but more Se is released from coal combustion than pyrolysis. The type of coal, rate of heating, type of mineral ions, and combustion atmosphere have different effects on the released percentage of Se. Therefore, having a good understanding of the factors that surround the release of Se during coal combustion, and then establishing the combustion conditions can reduce the impacts of this toxic element to humans and the environment.

  14. Low-level waste packaging--a managerial perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Motl, G.P.; Hebbard, L.B. Jr.

    1980-01-01

    This paper emphasizes managerial responsibility for assuring that facility waste is properly packaged. Specifically, existing packaging regulations are summarized, several actual violations are reviewed and, lastly, some recommendations are made to assist managerial personnel in fulfilling their responsibility to ensure that low-level waste is packaged safely and properly before shipment to the disposal site

  15. Types, production and assessment of biobased food packaging materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Food packaging performs an essential function, but packaging materials can have a negative impact on the environment. This book describes the latest advances in bio-based food packaging materials. Book provides a comprehensive review on bio-based, biodegradable and recycled materials and discusses t...

  16. Packaging Printing Today

    OpenAIRE

    Stanislav Bolanča; Igor Majnarić; Kristijan Golubović

    2015-01-01

    Printing packaging covers today about 50% of all the printing products. Among the printing products there are printing on labels, printing on flexible packaging, printing on folding boxes, printing on the boxes of corrugated board, printing on glass packaging, synthetic and metal ones. The mentioned packaging are printed in flexo printing technique, offset printing technique, intaglio halftone process, silk – screen printing, ink ball printing, digital printing and hybrid printing process. T...

  17. Genome packaging in viruses

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, Siyang; Rao, Venigalla B.; Rossmann, Michael G.

    2010-01-01

    Genome packaging is a fundamental process in a viral life cycle. Many viruses assemble preformed capsids into which the genomic material is subsequently packaged. These viruses use a packaging motor protein that is driven by the hydrolysis of ATP to condense the nucleic acids into a confined space. How these motor proteins package viral genomes had been poorly understood until recently, when a few X-ray crystal structures and cryo-electron microscopy structures became available. Here we discu...

  18. 21 CFR 181.28 - Release agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Release agents. 181.28 Section 181.28 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... Release agents. Substances classified as release agents, when migrating from food-packaging material shall...

  19. Trends in Food Packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ott, Dana B.

    1988-01-01

    This article discusses developments in food packaging, processing, and preservation techniques in terms of packaging materials, technologies, consumer benefits, and current and potential food product applications. Covers implications due to consumer life-style changes, cost-effectiveness of packaging materials, and the ecological impact of…

  20. Ectopic corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH syndrome from metastatic small cell carcinoma: a case report and review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahani Sadeka

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cushing's Syndrome (CS which is caused by isolated Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH production, rather than adrenocorticotropin (ACTH production, is extremely rare. Methods We describe the clinical presentation, course, laboratory values and pathologic findings of a patient with isolated ectopic CRH causing CS. We review the literature of the types of tumors associated with this unusual syndrome and the behavior of these tumors by endocrine testing. Results A 56 year old woman presented with clinical and laboratory features consistent with ACTH-dependent CS. Pituitary imaging was normal and cortisol did not suppress with a high dose dexamethasone test, consistent with a diagnosis of ectopic ACTH. CT imaging did not reveal any discrete lung lesions but there were mediastinal and abdominal lymphadenopathy and multiple liver lesions suspicious for metastatic disease. Laboratory testing was positive for elevated serum carcinoembryonic antigen and the neuroendocrine marker chromogranin A. Serum markers of carcinoid, medullary thyroid carcinoma, and pheochromocytoma were in the normal range. Because the primary tumor could not be identified by imaging, biopsy of the presumed metastatic liver lesions was performed. Immunohistochemistry was consistent with a neuroendocrine tumor, specifically small cell carcinoma. Immunostaining for ACTH was negative but was strongly positive for CRH and laboratory testing revealed a plasma CRH of 10 pg/ml (normal 0 to 10 pg/ml which should have been suppressed in the presence of high cortisol. Conclusions This case illustrates the importance of considering the ectopic production of CRH in the differential diagnosis for presentations of ACTH-dependent Cushing's Syndrome.

  1. The role of a detailed aqueous phase source release model in the LANL area G performance assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vold, E.L.; Shuman, R.; Hollis, D.K. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    A preliminary draft of the Performance Assessment for the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) low-level radioactive waste disposal facility at Area G is currently being completed as required by Department of Energy orders. A detailed review of the inventory data base records and the existing models for source release led to the development of a new modeling capability to describe the liquid phase transport from the waste package volumes. Nuclide quantities are sorted down to four waste package release categories for modeling: rapid release, soil, concrete/sludge, and corrosion. Geochemistry for the waste packages was evaluated in terms of the equilibrium coefficients, Kds, and elemental solubility limits, Csl, interpolated from the literature. Percolation calculations for the base case closure cover show a highly skewed distribution with an average of 4 mm/yr percolation from the disposal unit bottom. The waste release model is based on a compartment representation of the package efflux, and depends on package size, percolation rate or Darcy flux, retardation coefficient, and moisture content.

  2. Flexible packaging for PV modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhere, Neelkanth G.

    2008-08-01

    Economic, flexible packages that provide needed level of protection to organic and some other PV cells over >25-years have not yet been developed. However, flexible packaging is essential in niche large-scale applications. Typical configuration used in flexible photovoltaic (PV) module packaging is transparent frontsheet/encapsulant/PV cells/flexible substrate. Besides flexibility of various components, the solder bonds should also be flexible and resistant to fatigue due to cyclic loading. Flexible front sheets should provide optical transparency, mechanical protection, scratch resistance, dielectric isolation, water resistance, UV stability and adhesion to encapsulant. Examples are Tefzel, Tedlar and Silicone. Dirt can get embedded in soft layers such as silicone and obscure light. Water vapor transmittance rate (WVTR) of polymer films used in the food packaging industry as moisture barriers are ~0.05 g/(m2.day) under ambient conditions. In comparison, light emitting diodes employ packaging components that have WVTR of ~10-6 g/(m2.day). WVTR of polymer sheets can be improved by coating them with dense inorganic/organic multilayers. Ethylene vinyl acetate, an amorphous copolymer used predominantly by the PV industry has very high O2 and H2O diffusivity. Quaternary carbon chains (such as acetate) in a polymer lead to cleavage and loss of adhesional strength at relatively low exposures. Reactivity of PV module components increases in presence of O2 and H2O. Adhesional strength degrades due to the breakdown of structure of polymer by reactive, free radicals formed by high-energy radiation. Free radical formation in polymers is reduced when the aromatic rings are attached at regular intervals. This paper will review flexible packaging for PV modules.

  3. Advancements in meat packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMillin, Kenneth W

    2017-10-01

    Packaging of meat provides the same or similar benefits for raw chilled and processed meats as other types of food packaging. Although air-permeable packaging is most prevalent for raw chilled red meat, vacuum and modified atmosphere packaging offer longer shelf life. The major advancements in meat packaging have been in the widely used plastic polymers while biobased materials and their integration into composite packaging are receiving much attention for functionality and sustainability. At this time, active and intelligent packaging are not widely used for antioxidant, antimicrobial, and other functions to stabilize and enhance meat properties although many options are being developed and investigated. The advances being made in nanotechnology will be incorporated into food packaging and presumably into meat packaging when appropriate and useful. Intelligent packaging using sensors for transmission of desired information and prompting of subsequent changes in packaging materials, environments or the products to maintain safety and quality are still in developmental stages. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Consideration of radiation effects in the choice of packaging materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, P.W.

    1985-01-01

    Requirements for food packaging materials include whether there is any interaction between the food and the package during or after the irradiation, and whether as a result of the irradiation, volatile or leachable substances are released from the pack into the food. The performance of cellulose-based materials and plastic films under irradiation are discussed

  5. Wafer level packaging of MEMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esashi, Masayoshi

    2008-01-01

    Wafer level packaging plays many important roles for MEMS (micro electro mechanical systems), including cost, yield and reliability. MEMS structures on silicon chips are encapsulated between bonded wafers or by surface micromachining, and electrical interconnections are made from the cavity. Bonding at the interface, such as glass–Si anodic bonding and metal-to-metal bonding, requires electrical interconnection through the lid vias in many cases. On the other hand, lateral electrical interconnections on the surface of the chip are used for bonding with intermediate melting materials, such as low melting point glass and solder. The cavity formed by surface micromachining is made using sacrificial etching, and the openings needed for the sacrificial etching are plugged using deposition sealing methods. Vacuum packaging methods and the structures for electrical feedthrough for the interconnection are discussed in this review. (topical review)

  6. Plastic food packaging and health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raika Durusoy

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Plastics have a wide usage in our daily lives. One of their uses is for food packaging and food containers. The aim of this review is to introduce different types of chemicals that can leach from food packaging plastics into foods and cause human exposure and to mention their effects on health. The types of plastics were reviewed under the 13 headings in Turkish Codex Alimentarius and plastics recycling symbols were provided to enable the recognition of the type of plastic when applicable. Chemicals used during the production and that can cause health risks are investigated under the heading of the relevant type of plastic. The most important chemicals from plastic food packaging that can cause toxicity are styrene, 1,3-butadiene, melamine, formaldehyde, acrylamide, di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate, di-2-ethylhexyl adipate, vinyl chloride and bisphenol A. These chemicals have endocrine disrupting, carcinogenic and/or development disrupting effects. These chemicals may leach into foods depending on the chemical properties of the plastic or food, temperature during packaging, processing and storage, exposure to UV and duration of storage. Contact with fatty/oily or acidic foods, heating of the food inside the container, or drinking hot drinks from plastic cups, use of old and scratched plastics and some detergents increase the risk of leaching. The use of plastic containers and packaging for food and beveradges should be avoided whenever possible and when necessary, less harmful types of plastic should be preferred. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2011; 10(1.000: 87-96

  7. Review of IAEA recommendations on the principles and methodologies for limiting releases of radioactive effluents to the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, J.U.

    1988-01-01

    The limitation of radioactive releases is governed by the basic principles of radiation protection as presented in the ICRP Publication No. 26 and IAEA Safety Series No. 9. Unter its current programme on release limitation the IAEA issued Safety Series No. 77 on principles for release limitation and Safety Series No. 67 on protection against transboundary radiation exposures. A Safety Guide on global upper bounds is now nearly ready for publication, and to guide on the application of Safety Series No. 77, four documents are in various stages of completion

  8. On the Use of PLA-PHB Blends for Sustainable Food Packaging Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrieta, Marina Patricia; Samper, María Dolores; Aldas, Miguel; López, Juan

    2017-08-29

    Poly(lactic acid) (PLA) is the most used biopolymer for food packaging applications. Several strategies have been made to improve PLA properties for extending its applications in the packaging field. Melt blending approaches are gaining considerable interest since they are easy, cost-effective and readily available processing technologies at the industrial level. With a similar melting temperature and high crystallinity, poly(hydroxybutyrate) (PHB) represents a good candidate to blend with PLA. The ability of PHB to act as a nucleating agent for PLA improves its mechanical resistance and barrier performance. With the dual objective to improve PLAPHB processing performance and to obtain stretchable materials, plasticizers are frequently added. Current trends to enhance PLA-PHB miscibility are focused on the development of composite and nanocomposites. PLA-PHB blends are also interesting for the controlled release of active compounds in the development of active packaging systems. This review explains the most relevant processing aspects of PLA-PHB based blends such as the influence of polymers molecular weight, the PLA-PHB composition as well as the thermal stability. It also summarizes the recent developments in PLA-PHB formulations with an emphasis on their performance with interest in the sustainable food packaging field. PLA-PHB blends shows highly promising perspectives for the replacement of traditional petrochemical based polymers currently used for food packaging.

  9. Development of polyion-complex hydrogels as an alternative approach for the production of bio-based polymers for food packaging applications: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Development of packaging materials from renewable resources has for a long time been desirable for sustainability reasons, but with the recent explosion in prices of petroleum products, this now becomes also more economically viable. This paper shows how fundamental chemistry underlying three forms ...

  10. Grandfathering of competent authority approved packages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osgood, N.L.

    2004-01-01

    International Atomic Energy Agency transportation regulations are reviewed and revised on a periodic basis as new technical and scientific information becomes available. The 1996 Edition of the Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Materials in TS-R-1 includes provisions for the use of package designs approved to previous editions of the regulations. This assures that there is no disruption of transport when the regulations are updated and revised. The revision of package design standards may make certain designs obsolete, though not necessarily unsafe. The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission is the agency in the United States that certifies transportation packages for Type B and fissile materials. NRC regulations include grandfathering provisions that are comparable to and compatible with the IAEA standards. NRC staff is promoting a new system that would eliminate the need to grandfather package designs. Under the new method, any new or revised provision of the regulations that affects package standards would include its own transitional arrangements. In this way, each change would be evaluated for its safety importance. Changes in the package standards that are important to safety would be implemented immediately upon the regulations coming into force. Other changes, that do not significantly affect safety, would have longer implementation periods. In this way, all packages in use would be compatible with the regulations in force, and no specific grandfathering provisions for older designs would be needed. NRC staff has concluded that the package design standards are mature and have been shown to be protective over the past 40 years of shipping experience. We predict that future changes in package design standards will not be substantive in terms of resulting in significant changes in physical performance of a package in transport, including actual transportation accidents. The benefits of the new system would be a more predictable regulatory structure

  11. 76 FR 58509 - Release of Risk and Exposure Assessment Planning Document for the Review of the National Ambient...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-21

    ... Assessment Planning Document for the Review of the National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Lead AGENCY... available for public review the Review of the National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Lead: Risk and... and/or welfare effects in this review of the national ambient air quality standards (NAAQS) for lead...

  12. Safety analysis report; packages LP-50 tritium package. (Packaging of fissile and other radioactive materials). Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gates, A.A.; McCarthy, P.G.; Edl, J.W.; Chalfant, G.G.

    1975-05-01

    Elemental tritium is shipped at low pressure in a stainless steel container (LP-50) surrounded by an aluminum vessel and Celotex insulation at least 4 in. thick in a steel drum. The total weight of the package is 260 lbs maximum. The various components that constitute the package are described and are shown in 7 figures. The safety analysis includes: structural evaluations; thermal evaluations; containment; operating procedures; acceptance tests and maintenance program; and design review

  13. Potential release of in vivo trace metals from metallic medical implants in the human body: from ions to nanoparticles--a systematic analytical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matusiewicz, Henryk

    2014-06-01

    Metal ion release from metallic materials, e.g. metallic alloys and pure metals, implanted into the human body in dental and orthopedic surgery is becoming a major cause for concern. This review briefly provides an overview of both metallic alloys and pure metals used in implant materials in dental and orthopedic surgery. Additionally, a short section is dedicated to important biomaterials and their corrosive behavior in both real solutions and various types of media that model human biological fluids and tissues. The present review gives an overview of analytical methods, techniques and different approaches applied to the measurement of in vivo trace metals released into body fluids and tissues from patients carrying metal-on-metal prostheses and metal dental implants. Reference levels of ion concentrations in body fluids and tissues that have been determined by a host of studies are compiled, reviewed and presented in this paper. Finally, a collection of published clinical data on in vivo released trace metals from metallic medical implants is included. Copyright © 2014 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Lithium niobate packaging challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, E.J.; Holmes, R.J.; Jander, R.B.; Schelling, A.W.

    1988-01-01

    The use of lithium niobate integrated optic devices outside of the research laboratory is predicated on the development of a sound packaging method. The authors present a discussion of the many issues that face the development of a viable, robust packaging technology. The authors emphasize the interaction of lithium niobate's physical properties with available packaging materials and technologies. The broad range of properties (i.e. electro-optic, piezo-electric, pyro-electric, photorefractive...) that make lithium niobate an interesting material in many device applications also make it a packaging challenge. The package design, materials and packaging technologies must isolate the device from the environment so that lithium niobate's properties do not adversely affect the device performance

  15. Packaged die heater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spielberger, Richard; Ohme, Bruce Walker; Jensen, Ronald J.

    2011-06-21

    A heater for heating packaged die for burn-in and heat testing is described. The heater may be a ceramic-type heater with a metal filament. The heater may be incorporated into the integrated circuit package as an additional ceramic layer of the package, or may be an external heater placed in contact with the package to heat the die. Many different types of integrated circuit packages may be accommodated. The method provides increased energy efficiency for heating the die while reducing temperature stresses on testing equipment. The method allows the use of multiple heaters to heat die to different temperatures. Faulty die may be heated to weaken die attach material to facilitate removal of the die. The heater filament or a separate temperature thermistor located in the package may be used to accurately measure die temperature.

  16. Packaging for Sustainability

    CERN Document Server

    Lewis, Helen; Fitzpatrick, Leanne

    2012-01-01

    The packaging industry is under pressure from regulators, customers and other stakeholders to improve packaging’s sustainability by reducing its environmental and societal impacts. This is a considerable challenge because of the complex interactions between products and their packaging, and the many roles that packaging plays in the supply chain. Packaging for Sustainability is a concise and readable handbook for practitioners who are trying to implement sustainability strategies for packaging. Industry case studies are used throughout the book to illustrate possible applications and scenarios. Packaging for Sustainability draws on the expertise of researchers and industry practitioners to provide information on business benefits, environmental issues and priorities, environmental evaluation tools, design for environment, marketing strategies, and challenges for the future.

  17. MARS software package status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azhgirej, I.L.; Talanov, V.V.

    2000-01-01

    The MARS software package is intended for simulating the nuclear-electromagnetic cascades and the secondary neutrons and muons transport in the heterogeneous medium of arbitrary complexity in the magnetic fields presence. The inclusive approach to describing the particle production in the nuclear and electromagnetic interactions and by the unstable particles decay is realized in the package. The MARS software package was actively applied for solving various radiation physical problems [ru

  18. User friendly packaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geert Jensen, Birgitte

    2010-01-01

    Most consumers have experienced occasional problems with opening packaging. Tomato sauce from the tinned mackerel splattered all over the kitchen counter, the unrelenting pickle jar lid, and the package of sliced ham that cannot be opened without a knife or a pair of scissors. The research project...... “User-friendly Packaging” aims to create a platform for developing more user-friendly packaging. One intended outcome of the project is a guideline that industry can use in development efforts. The project also points the way for more extended collaboration between companies and design researchers. How...... can design research help industry in packaging innovation?...

  19. The ZOOM minimization package

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischler, Mark S.; Sachs, D.

    2004-01-01

    A new object-oriented Minimization package is available for distribution in the same manner as CLHEP. This package, designed for use in HEP applications, has all the capabilities of Minuit, but is a re-write from scratch, adhering to modern C++ design principles. A primary goal of this package is extensibility in several directions, so that its capabilities can be kept fresh with as little maintenance effort as possible. This package is distinguished by the priority that was assigned to C++ design issues, and the focus on producing an extensible system that will resist becoming obsolete

  20. Plasma physics plotting package

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hyman, D.H.

    1981-02-01

    We describe a package of plotting routines that do up to six two- or three-dimensional plots on a frame with minimal loss of resolution. The package now runs on a PDP-10 with PLOT-10 TCS primitives and on a Control Data Corporation-7600 and a Cray-1 with TV80LIB primitives on the National Magnetic Fusion Energy Computer Center network. The package is portable to other graphics systems because only the primitive plot calls are used from the underlying system's graphics package

  1. Oral Hygiene. Instructor's Packet. Learning Activity Package.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hime, Kirsten

    This instructor's packet accompanies the learning activity package (LAP) on oral hygiene. Contents included in the packet are a time sheet, suggested uses for the LAP, an instruction sheet, final LAP reviews, a final LAP review answer key, suggested activities, additional resources (student handouts), student performance checklists for both…

  2. Intercomparison of gamma ray analysis software packages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-04-01

    The IAEA undertook an intercomparison exercise to review available software for gamma ray spectra analysis. This document describes the methods used in the intercomparison exercise, characterizes the software packages reviewed and presents the results obtained. Only direct results are given without any recommendation for a particular software or method for gamma ray spectra analysis

  3. Grooming. Instructor's Packet. Learning Activity Package.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, Pamela

    This instructor's packet accompanies the learning activity package (LAP) on grooming. Contents included in the packet are a time sheet, suggested uses for the LAP, an instruction sheet, final LAP reviews, a final LAP review answer key, suggested activities, an additional resources list, and student completion cards to issue to students as an…

  4. SMART PACKAGING FOR FOOD PRESERVATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Rodríguez-Sauceda

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available One of the biggest challenges of the food industry is the preservation of its products, that is, to prevent them from being attacked by microorganisms that decompose them hauling economic losses and severe health damage to the consumer. Today, competition in the food industry is very high and any company that does not offer the quality products is doomed to fail. Consumers demand more and the industry still stands offering what is asked: quality, security and safety. The package, in addition to fulfilling its core functions is becoming a means of sophisticated interactions with content and a record of relevant information for both the end consumer and intermediate players in the value chain and concepts are born of active and intelligent packaging. A smart container is defined as a system that monitors the condition of the packaged product, being able to register and provide information about product quality or condition of the container, showing the possible "abnormal" practices that have suffered the product or the container during the entire supply chain, such as transportation or storage. These systems monitor the mechanisms of altered food due to physiological, chemical and biological processes that respond and communicate changes in the status of the product as time-temperature, Oxygen, Carbon dioxide, microbial growth, etc. There are different types of smart packaging such as time-temperature indicators, color indicators, indicators of pathogens and indicators of leaks, to name a few. Through literature review, arguments that demonstrate the usefulness and necessity of the use of smart packaging to preserve the quality and safety of the product it contains, from manufacturing to the time it is used by consumers were found, as these besides communicating or providing information about their state, acting as a marketing tool.

  5. Glass packages in interim storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacquet-Francillon, N.

    1994-10-01

    This report summarize the current state of knowledge concerning the behavior of type C waste packages consisting of vitrified high-level solutions produced by reprocessing spent fuel. The composition and the physical and chemical properties of the feed solutions are reviewed, and the vitrification process is described. Sodium alumino-borosilicate glass compositions are generally employed - the glass used at la Hague for LWR fuel solutions, for example, contains 45 % SiO 2 . The major physical, chemical, mechanical and thermal properties of the glass are reviewed. In order to allow their thermal power to diminish, the 3630 glass packages produced (as of January 1993) in the vitrification facilities at Marcoule and La Hague are placed in interim storage for several decades. The actual interim storage period has not been defined, as it is closely related to the concept and organization selected for the final destination of the packages: a geological repository. The glass behavior under irradiation is described. Considerable basic and applied research has been conducted to assess the aqueous leaching behavior of nuclear containment glass. The effects of various repository parameters (temperature, flow rate, nature of the environmental materials) have been investigated. The experimental findings have been used to specify a model describing the kinetics of aqueous corrosion of the glass. More generally all the ''source term'' models developed in France by the CEA or by ANDRA are summarized. (author). 152 refs., 33 figs

  6. Review: Regulatory mechanisms of gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH synthesis and release in photoperiodic animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuyoshi eTsutsui

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH is a novel hypothalamic neuropeptide that was discovered in quail as an inhibitory factor for gonadotropin release. GnIH inhibits gonadotropin synthesis and release in birds through actions on gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH neurons and gonadotropes, mediated via the GnIH receptor (GnIH-R, GPR147. Subsequently, GnIH was identified in mammals and other vertebrates. As in birds, mammalian GnIH inhibits gonadotropin secretion, indicating a conserved role for this neuropeptide in the control of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG axis across species. Identification of the regulatory mechanisms governing GnIH expression and release is important in understanding the physiological role of the GnIH system. A nocturnal hormone, melatonin, appears to act directly on GnIH neurons through its receptor to induce expression and release of GnIH in quail, a photoperiodic bird. Recently, a similar, but opposite, action of melatonin on the inhibition of expression of mammalian GnIH was shown in hamsters and sheep, photoperiodic mammals. These results in photoperiodic animals demonstrate that GnIH expression is photoperiodically modulated via a melatonin-dependent process. Recent findings indicate that GnIH may be a mediator of stress-induced reproductive disruption in birds and mammals, pointing to a broad role for this neuropeptide in assessing physiological state and modifying reproductive effort accordingly. This paper summarizes the advances made in our knowledge regarding the regulation of GnIH synthesis and release in photoperiodic birds and mammals. This paper also discusses the neuroendocrine integration of environmental signals, such as photoperiods and stress, and internal signals, such as GnIH, melatonin and glucocorticoids, to control avian and mammalian reproduction.

  7. Item Response Data Analysis Using Stata Item Response Theory Package

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ji Seung; Zheng, Xiaying

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to introduce and review the capability and performance of the Stata item response theory (IRT) package that is available from Stata v.14, 2015. Using a simulated data set and a publicly available item response data set extracted from Programme of International Student Assessment, we review the IRT package from…

  8. Current investigations of packaging materials used for food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fiszer, W.

    1996-01-01

    The article reviews current investigations of packaging materials applied for food irradiation. The increasing role of various synthetic materials is described. Author reviews radiation-induced damages in these materials. The article includes the list of materials accepted for food packaging and subsequent irradiation with different doses

  9. Reuse of conditional released materials from decommissioning; a review of approaches and scenarios with long-term constructions - 59149

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daniska, Vladimir; Pritrsky, Jozef; Ondra, Frantisek; Zachar, Matej; Necas, Vladimir

    2012-01-01

    Paper presents the overall scope and actual results of the project for evaluation of representative scenarios for reuse of conditionally released materials from decommissioning. Aim of the project is to evaluate the possibilities of reuse of conditionally released steels and concrete in technical constructions which guarantee the long-term preservation of design properties over periods of 50-100 years. Interaction of conditionally released materials with public is limited and predictable due to design and purpose of selected constructions and due to fact that in many scenarios these materials are embedded in non-radioactive materials such as bars in reinforced concrete. Worker's scenarios for preparation, operation and maintenance of these constructions are analysed in detail including the manufacturing of elements for these constructions. Project aims to evaluate the scenarios of reuse of conditionally released materials in a complex way in order to develop the data for designers of scenarios and to evaluate the volumes of conditionally released materials based on facility (to be decommissioned) inventory data. The long-term constructions considered are bridges, tunnels, roads, railway constructions, industrial buildings, power industry equipment and others. Evaluation covers following areas: - Analysis of activities for manufacturing of reinforcement bars, rolled steel sheets and other steel elements and analysis of activities for construction of evaluated scenarios in order to evaluate the external exposure of professionals performing these activities; - Analysis of external exposure of professionals involved in operation and maintenance of the long-term constructions; analysis of external exposure of public groups which are exposed to evaluated constructions; - Analysis of internal exposure of public groups from the radionuclides released from the evaluated scenarios based on models for migration of radionuclides from the long-term constructions to critical

  10. Review of decontamination and clean-up techniques for use in the UK following accidental releases of radioactivity to the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, J.; Cooper, J.R.; Jones, J.A.; Flaws, L.; McGeary, R.; Spooner, J.

    1996-10-01

    This review examines decontamination and clean-up methodologies that may be applied following an accidental release of radionuclides to the atmosphere in the UK. An accidental release of radionuclides to the environment could cause contamination of land and property, and may necessitate movement of the resident population to reduce their exposure. Decontamination procedures may reduce the level of contamination and, in determining whether to implement such procedures in an affected area, it is necessary to weigh the effectiveness of the techniques against the associated economic costs and other disadvantages. The report gives a review of available methods of decontamination and clean-up in terms of the effectiveness of the various methods to remove activity from building or land surfaces and dose saved. It also considers associated disadvantages, costs, clean-up rates for land and buildings, waste disposal implications, and personnel and resource requirements. On the basis of these factors, the techniques are prioritised and overall strategies for decontamination following releases of both fission products and alpha emitters are presented. (author)

  11. 75 FR 39252 - Release of Final Documents Related to the Review of the National Ambient Air Quality Standards...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-08

    ... Quality Standards: Scope and Methods Plan for Health Risk and Exposure Assessment and Particulate Matter... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [EPA-HQ-OAR-2007-0492; FRL-9171-8] Release of Final Documents...: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice of Availability. SUMMARY: The Office of Air Quality...

  12. CYPROS - Cybernetic Program Packages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arne Tyssø

    1980-10-01

    Full Text Available CYPROS is an interactive program system consisting of a number of special purpose packages for simulation, identification, parameter estimation and control system design. The programming language is standard FORTRAN IV and the system is implemented on a medium size computer system (Nord-10. The system is interactive and program control is obtained by the use of numeric terminals. Output is rapidly examined by extensive use of video colour graphics. The subroutines included in the packages are designed and documented according to standardization rules given by the SCL (Scandinavian Control Library organization. This simplifies the exchange of subroutines throughout the SCL system. Also, this makes the packages attractive for implementation by industrial users. In the simulation package, different integration methods are available and it can be easily used for off-line, as well as real time, simulation problems. The identification package consists of programs for single-input/single-output and multivariablc problems. Both transfer function models and state space models can be handled. Optimal test signals can be designed. The control package consists of programs based on multivariable time domain and frequency domain methods for analysis and design. In addition, there is a package for matrix and time series manipulation. CYPROS has been applied successfully to industrial problems of various kinds, and parts of the system have already been implemented on different computers in industry. This paper will, in some detail, describe the use and the contents of the packages and some examples of application will be discussed.

  13. User friendly packaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geert Jensen, Birgitte

    2010-01-01

    Most consumers have experienced occasional problems with opening packaging. Tomato sauce from the tinned mackerel splattered all over the kitchen counter, the unrelenting pickle jar lid, and the package of sliced ham that cannot be opened without a knife or a pair of scissors. The research project...

  14. NRF TRIGA packaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clements, M.D.

    1995-11-01

    Training Reactor Isotopes, General Atomics (TRIGA reg-sign) Reactors are in use at four US Department of Energy (DOE) complex facilities and at least 23 university, commercial, or government facilities. The development of the Neutron Radiography Facility (NRF) TRIGA packaging system began in October 1993. The Hanford Site NRF is being shut down and requires an operationally user-friendly transportation and storage packaging system for removal of the TRIGA fuel elements. The NRF TRIGA packaging system is designed to remotely remove the fuel from the reactor and transport the fuel to interim storage (up to 50 years) on the Hanford Site. The packaging system consists of a cask and an overpack. The overpack is used only for transport and is not necessary for storage. Based upon the cask's small size and light weight, small TRIGA reactors will find it versatile for numerous refueling and fuel storage needs. The NRF TRIGA packaging design also provides the basis for developing a certifiable and economical packaging system for other TRIGA reactor facilities. The small size of the NRF TRIGA cask also accommodates placing the cask into a larger certified packaging for offsite transport. The Westinghouse Hanford Company NRF TRIGA packaging, as described herein can serve other DOE sites for their onsite use, and the design can be adapted to serve university reactor facilities, handling a variety of fuel payloads

  15. WASTE PACKAGE TRANSPORTER DESIGN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weddle, D.C.; Novotny, R.; Cron, J.

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this Design Analysis is to develop preliminary design of the waste package transporter used for waste package (WP) transport and related functions in the subsurface repository. This analysis refines the conceptual design that was started in Phase I of the Viability Assessment. This analysis supports the development of a reliable emplacement concept and a retrieval concept for license application design. The scope of this analysis includes the following activities: (1) Assess features of the transporter design and evaluate alternative design solutions for mechanical components. (2) Develop mechanical equipment details for the transporter. (3) Prepare a preliminary structural evaluation for the transporter. (4) Identify and recommend the equipment design for waste package transport and related functions. (5) Investigate transport equipment interface tolerances. This analysis supports the development of the waste package transporter for the transport, emplacement, and retrieval of packaged radioactive waste forms in the subsurface repository. Once the waste containers are closed and accepted, the packaged radioactive waste forms are termed waste packages (WP). This terminology was finalized as this analysis neared completion; therefore, the term disposal container is used in several references (i.e., the System Description Document (SDD)) (Ref. 5.6). In this analysis and the applicable reference documents, the term ''disposal container'' is synonymous with ''waste package''

  16. WASTE PACKAGE TRANSPORTER DESIGN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D.C. Weddle; R. Novotny; J. Cron

    1998-09-23

    The purpose of this Design Analysis is to develop preliminary design of the waste package transporter used for waste package (WP) transport and related functions in the subsurface repository. This analysis refines the conceptual design that was started in Phase I of the Viability Assessment. This analysis supports the development of a reliable emplacement concept and a retrieval concept for license application design. The scope of this analysis includes the following activities: (1) Assess features of the transporter design and evaluate alternative design solutions for mechanical components. (2) Develop mechanical equipment details for the transporter. (3) Prepare a preliminary structural evaluation for the transporter. (4) Identify and recommend the equipment design for waste package transport and related functions. (5) Investigate transport equipment interface tolerances. This analysis supports the development of the waste package transporter for the transport, emplacement, and retrieval of packaged radioactive waste forms in the subsurface repository. Once the waste containers are closed and accepted, the packaged radioactive waste forms are termed waste packages (WP). This terminology was finalized as this analysis neared completion; therefore, the term disposal container is used in several references (i.e., the System Description Document (SDD)) (Ref. 5.6). In this analysis and the applicable reference documents, the term ''disposal container'' is synonymous with ''waste package''.

  17. The BINSYN Program Package

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert P. Linnell

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The BINSYN program package, recently expanded to calculate synthetic spectra of cataclysmic variables, is being further extended to include synthetic photometry of ordinary binary stars in addition to binary stars with optically thick accretion disks. The package includes a capability for differentials correction optimization of eclipsing binary systems using synthetic photometry.

  18. The LCDROOT Analysis Package

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abe, Toshinori

    2001-01-01

    The North American Linear Collider Detector group has developed simulation and analysis program packages. LCDROOT is one of the packages, and is based on ROOT and the C++ programing language to maximally benefit from object oriented programming techniques. LCDROOT is constantly improved and now has a new topological vertex finder, ZVTOP3. In this proceeding, the features of the LCDROOT simulation are briefly described

  19. RH Packaging Operations Manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Washington TRU Solutions LLC

    2003-01-01

    This procedure provides operating instructions for the RH-TRU 72-B Road Cask, Waste Shipping Package. In this document, ''Packaging'' refers to the assembly of components necessary to ensure compliance with the packaging requirements (not loaded with a payload). ''Package'' refers to a Type B packaging that, with its radioactive contents, is designed to retain the integrity of its containment and shielding when subject to the normal conditions of transport and hypothetical accident test conditions set forth in 10 CFR Part 71. Loading of the RH 72-B cask can be done two ways, on the RH cask trailer in the vertical position or by removing the cask from the trailer and loading it in a facility designed for remote-handling (RH). Before loading the 72-B cask, loading procedures and changes to the loading procedures for the 72-B cask must be sent to CBFO at sitedocuments at wipp.ws for approval

  20. Advanced flip chip packaging

    CERN Document Server

    Lai, Yi-Shao; Wong, CP

    2013-01-01

    Advanced Flip Chip Packaging presents past, present and future advances and trends in areas such as substrate technology, material development, and assembly processes. Flip chip packaging is now in widespread use in computing, communications, consumer and automotive electronics, and the demand for flip chip technology is continuing to grow in order to meet the need for products that offer better performance, are smaller, and are environmentally sustainable. This book also: Offers broad-ranging chapters with a focus on IC-package-system integration Provides viewpoints from leading industry executives and experts Details state-of-the-art achievements in process technologies and scientific research Presents a clear development history and touches on trends in the industry while also discussing up-to-date technology information Advanced Flip Chip Packaging is an ideal book for engineers, researchers, and graduate students interested in the field of flip chip packaging.

  1. APPLICATION OF NANOTECHNOLOGY IN FOOD PACKAGING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Dobrucka

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Nanotechnology involves the design, production and use of structures through control of the size and shape of the materials at the nanometre scale. Also, nanomaterials have been already applied in many fields of human life. Nanocomposites have already led to several innovations with potential applications in the food packaging sector. The use of nanocomposite formulations is expected to considerably enhance the shelf-life of many types of food. This improvement can lead to lower weight packages because less material is needed to obtain the same or even better barrier properties. This, in turn, can lead to reduced package cost with less packaging waste. Antimicrobial packaging is another area with high potential for applying nanocomposite technology. Nanostructured antimicrobials have a higher surface area-to-volume ratio when compared with their higher scale counterparts. Therefore, antimicrobial nanocomposite packaging systems are supposed to be particularly efficient in their activities against microbial cells. In this review, definition of nanomaterials is presented. Besides, the paper shows examples of nanocomposities and antimicrobial nanopackaging mainly with the use of nanosilver. Moreover, nanoparticles such ZnO, TiO2, MgO and nanosensors in packaging were presented.

  2. Release modes and processes relevant to source-term calculations at Yucca Mountain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apted, M.J.

    1994-01-01

    The feasibility of permanent disposal of radioactive high-level waste (HLW) in repositories located in deep geologic formations is being studied world-wide. The most credible release pathway is interaction between groundwater and nuclear waste forms, followed by migration of radionuclide-bearing groundwater to the accessible environment. Under hydrologically unsaturated conditions, vapor transport of volatile radionuclides is also possible. The near-field encompasses the waste packages composed of engineered barriers (e.g. man-made materials, such as vitrified waste forms, corrosion-resistant containers), while the far-field includes the natural barriers (e.g. host rock, hydrologic setting). Taken together, these two subsystems define a series of multiple, redundant barriers that act to assure the safe isolation of nuclear waste. In the U.S., the Department of energy (DOE) is investigating the feasibility of safe, long-term disposal of high-level nuclear waste at the Yucca Mountain site in Nevada. The proposed repository horizon is located in non-welded tuffs within the unsaturated zone (i.e. above the water table) at Yucca Mountain. The purpose of this paper is to describe the source-term models for radionuclide release from waste packages at Yucca Mountain site. The first section describes the conceptual release modes that are relevant for this site and waste package design, based on a consideration of the performance of currently proposed engineered barriers under expected and unexpected conditions. No attempt is made to asses the reasonableness nor probability of occurrence for any specific release mode. The following section reviews the waste-form characteristics that are required to model and constrain the release of radionuclides from the waste package. The next section present mathematical models for the conceptual release modes, selected from those that have been implemented into a probabilistic total system assessment code developed for the Electric Power

  3. Revisão: alimentos frescos minimamente processados embalados em atmosfera modificada Review: fresh, minimally processed foods packaged under modified atmosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joana Silva Santos

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Os alimentos frescos, minimamente processados e embalados sob atmosfera modificada atraem os consumidores que procuram produtos frescos e saudáveis, e que, ao mesmo tempo, são fáceis de transportar e preparar. A atmosfera no interior das embalagens consiste numa mistura de gases que está otimizada para cada alimento, de modo a preservar as suas qualidades durante mais tempo. A manutenção da temperatura de refrigeração durante o processamento, o armazenamento, a distribuição e a comercialização é essencial, por causa da natureza perecível dos produtos frescos minimamente processados. Este trabalho discute o estado de arte dos alimentos frescos minimamente processados (frutas, vegetais, carnes e pescados embalados em atmosfera modificada, com uma descrição pormenorizada dos últimos desenvolvimentos nesse campo.Fresh, minimally processed foods packaged under modified atmospheres are attractive to consumers searching for fresh healthy products that are also easy to transport and prepare. The atmosphere inside the package is a blend of gases optimized for each type of food, such that the quality characteristics are preserved for longer. However, due to the perishable nature of minimally processed fresh foods, maintenance at refrigeration temperatures is essential during processing, storage, distribution and commercialization. This paper discusses the state of art of minimally processed fresh foods (fruit and vegetables, meat and fish packaged under modified atmosphere, with a detailed description of the latest developments in this field.

  4. Active and intelligent packaging systems for a modern society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Realini, Carolina E; Marcos, Begonya

    2014-11-01

    Active and intelligent packaging systems are continuously evolving in response to growing challenges from a modern society. This article reviews: (1) the different categories of active and intelligent packaging concepts and currently available commercial applications, (2) latest packaging research trends and innovations, and (3) the growth perspectives of the active and intelligent packaging market. Active packaging aiming at extending shelf life or improving safety while maintaining quality is progressing towards the incorporation of natural active agents into more sustainable packaging materials. Intelligent packaging systems which monitor the condition of the packed food or its environment are progressing towards more cost-effective, convenient and integrated systems to provide innovative packaging solutions. Market growth is expected for active packaging with leading shares for moisture absorbers, oxygen scavengers, microwave susceptors and antimicrobial packaging. The market for intelligent packaging is also promising with strong gains for time-temperature indicator labels and advancements in the integration of intelligent concepts into packaging materials. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Review of available data on the release, transport and deposition of corrosion products in PWR, BWR and SGHWR systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, N.K.

    1976-03-01

    A survey has been carried out of data which are relevant to the theoretical and experimental aspects of corrosion product release, transport, activation and deposition and which were available from operational experience of water reactors and associated experiments. The data have been assessed in connection with commercial SGHWR systems with regard to construction, commissioning and operational procedures. A few areas of work where the existing evidence is inconclusive or incomplete are listed. (author)

  6. Development of waste packages for tuff

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rothman, A.J.

    1982-01-01

    The objective of this program is to develop nuclear waste packages that meet the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's requirements for a licensed repository in tuff at the Nevada Test Site. Selected accomplishments for FY82 are: (1) Selection, collection of rock, and characterization of suitable outcrops (for lab experiments); (2) Rock-water interactions (Bullfrog Tuff); (3) Corrosion tests of ferrous metals; (4) Thermal modeling of waste package in host rock; (5) Preliminary fabrication tests of alternate backfills (crushed tuff); (6) Reviewed Westinghouse conceptual waste package designs for tuff and began modification for unsaturated zone; and (7) Waste Package Codes (BARIER and WAPPA) now running on our computer. Brief discussions are presented for rock-water interactions, corrosion tests of ferrous metals, and thermal and radionuclide migration modelling

  7. Packaging Printing Today

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanislav Bolanča

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Printing packaging covers today about 50% of all the printing products. Among the printing products there are printing on labels, printing on flexible packaging, printing on folding boxes, printing on the boxes of corrugated board, printing on glass packaging, synthetic and metal ones. The mentioned packaging are printed in flexo printing technique, offset printing technique, intaglio halftone process, silk – screen printing, ink ball printing, digital printing and hybrid printing process. The possibilities of particular printing techniques for optimal production of the determined packaging were studied in the paper. The problem was viewed from the technological and economical aspect. The possible printing quality and the time necessary for the printing realization were taken as key parameters. An important segment of the production and the way of life is alocation value and it had also found its place in this paper. The events in the field of packaging printing in the whole world were analyzed. The trends of technique developments and the printing technology for packaging printing in near future were also discussed.

  8. Consumer response to packaging design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenis, Nigel D.; Herpen, van Erica; Lans, van der Ivo A.; Ligthart, Tom N.; Trijp, van Hans C.M.

    2017-01-01

    Building on theories of cue utilization, this paper investigates whether and how packaging sustainability influences consumer perceptions, inferences and attitudes towards packaged products. A framework is tested in an empirical study among 249 students using soup products varying in packaging

  9. 78 FR 2394 - Release of Draft Document Related to the Review of the National Ambient Air Quality Standards for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-11

    ... Quality Standards, External Review Draft (PA). This document was prepared as part of the current review of... ``anonymous access'' system, which means the EPA will not know your identity or contact information unless you... extent of all identifiable effects on public health or welfare which may be expected from the presence of...

  10. Literature study of volatile radioiodine release from ion-exchange resins during transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wren, J.C.

    1991-02-01

    A transport package is currently being developed by Ontario Hydro to carry used filters and ion-exchange columns from the Pickering and Darlington Nuclear Generating Stations to the Bruce Nuclear Generating Station for disposal. The main reason that the transport package must be licensed is the possibility that volatile radionuclides being transported in the package might be released during transport accidents. Of particular concern is the iodine that might become volatile due to the degradation of the ion exchange resin. This report reviews the literature on the thermal and radiolytic degradation of ion exchange resins and provides calculations to estimate the fraction of volatile iodine as a function of time under postulated accident conditions

  11. Hermeticity of electronic packages

    CERN Document Server

    Greenhouse, Hal; Romenesco, Bruce

    2011-01-01

    This is a book about the integrity of sealed packages to resist foreign gases and liquids penetrating the seal or an opening (crack) in the packageùespecially critical to the reliability and longevity of electronics. The author explains how to predict the reliability and the longevity of the packages based on leak rate measurements and the assumptions of impurities. Non-specialists in particular will benefit from the author's long involvement in the technology. Hermeticity is a subject that demands practical experience, and solving one problem does not necessarily give one the background to so

  12. Hermeticity of electronic packages

    CERN Document Server

    Greenhouse, Hal

    2000-01-01

    This is a book about the integrity of sealed packages to resist foreign gases and liquids penetrating the seal or an opening (crack) in the package-especially critical to the reliability and longevity of electronics. The author explains how to predict the reliability and the longevity of the packages based on leak rate measurements and the assumptions of impurities. Non-specialists in particular will benefit from the author's long involvement in the technology. Hermeticity is a subject that demands practical experience, and solving one problem does not necessarily give one the background to so

  13. Safety Analysis Report - Packages, 9965, 9968, 9972-9975 Packages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanton, P.

    2000-01-01

    This Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP) documents the analysis and testing performed on four type B Packages: the 9972, 9973, 9974, and 9975 packages. Because all four packages have similar designs with very similar performance characteristics, all of them are presented in a single SARP. The performance evaluation presented in this SARP documents the compliance of the 9975 package with the regulatory safety requirements. Evaluations of the 9972, 9973, and 9974 packages support that of the 9975. To avoid confusion arising from the inclusion of four packages in a single document, the text segregates the data for each package in such a way that the reader interested in only one package can progress from Chapter 1 through Chapter 9. The directory at the beginning of each chapter identifies each section that should be read for a given package. Sections marked ''all'' are generic to all packages

  14. Novel food packaging systems with natural antimicrobial agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irkin, Reyhan; Esmer, Ozlem Kizilirmak

    2015-10-01

    A new type of packaging that combines food packaging materials with antimicrobial substances to control microbial surface contamination of foods to enhance product microbial safety and to extend shelf-life is attracting interest in the packaging industry. Several antimicrobial compounds can be combined with different types of packaging materials. But in recent years, since consumer demand for natural food ingredients has increased because of safety and availability, these natural compounds are beginning to replace the chemical additives in foods and are perceived to be safer and claimed to alleviate safety concerns. Recent research studies are mainly focused on the application of natural antimicrobials in food packaging system. Biologically derived compounds like bacteriocins, phytochemicals, enzymes can be used in antimicrobial food packaging. The aim of this review is to give an overview of most important knowledge about application of natural antimicrobial packagings with model food systems and their antimicrobial effects on food products.

  15. Application of active packaging systems in probiotic foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Dobrucka

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The packaging of the product has an important role in the protection of the stability of the final product. The use of active packaging system is due to play an increasingly important role by offering numerous and innovative solutions for extending the shelf-life or improve food quality and safety. Methods: On the basis of broad review of the current state of the art in world literature, application of packaging systems in probiotics foods was discussed. Results: In this study presented research and development in packaging systems for probiotics foods, using suitable materials with combine passive with active packaging solutions. Conclusion: Active packages with incorporated oxygen barrier materials or films with selective permeability properties also have potential applications in the packaging of probiotic food products. This is a broad field of research for scientists and industry.

  16. Advances in Packaging Methods, Processes and Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nitaigour Premchand Mahalik

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The food processing and packaging industry is becoming a multi-trillion dollar global business. The reason is that the recent increase in incomes in traditionally less economically developed countries has led to a rise in standards of living that includes a significantly higher consumption of packaged foods. As a result, food safety guidelines have been more stringent than ever. At the same time, the number of research and educational institutions—that is, the number of potential researchers and stakeholders—has increased in the recent past. This paper reviews recent developments in food processing and packaging (FPP, keeping in view the aforementioned advancements and bearing in mind that FPP is an interdisciplinary area in that materials, safety, systems, regulation, and supply chains play vital roles. In particular, the review covers processing and packaging principles, standards, interfaces, techniques, methods, and state-of-the-art technologies that are currently in use or in development. Recent advances such as smart packaging, non-destructive inspection methods, printing techniques, application of robotics and machineries, automation architecture, software systems and interfaces are reviewed.

  17. In vitro and in vivo evidence of the cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of metal ions released by orthodontic appliances: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Cameán, Ana; Jos, Ángeles; Mellado-García, Pilar; Iglesias-Linares, Alejandro; Solano, Enrique; Cameán, Ana M

    2015-07-01

    Intraoral fixed orthodontic appliances are frequently used in the clinical practice of dentistry. They are made from alloys containing different metals at various percentages. The use of these appliances leads to the long-term exposure of patients to these materials, and the potential toxic effects of this exposure raises concerns about patient safety. Thus, the biocompatibility (corrosion behaviour and toxicity) of these materials has to be evaluated prior to clinical use. In the present report, the most recent studies in the scientific literature examining metal ion release from orthodontic appliances and the toxic effects of these ions have been reviewed with a special focus on cytotoxicity and genotoxicity. Previous studies suggest that a case-by-case safety evaluation is required to take into account the increasing variability of materials, their composition and the manufacturing processes. Moreover, in vivo toxicity studies in regard to metal release, cytotoxicity and genotoxicity are still scarce. Therefore, in vitro and in vivo monitoring studies are needed to establish cause-effect relationships between metal ion release and biomarkers of cytotoxicity and genotoxicity. Further investigations could be performed to elucidate the toxic mechanisms involved in the observed effects with a special emphasis on oxidative damage. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. London 2012 packaging guidelines

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    These guidelines are intended to provide supplemental advice to suppliers and licensees regarding the provisions of the LOCOG Sustainable Sourcing Code that relate to packaging design and materials selection.

  19. Type B Drum packages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edwards, W.S.

    1995-11-01

    The Type B Drum package is a container in which a single drum containing Type B quantities of radioactive material will be packaged for shipment. The Type B Drum containers are being developed to fill a void in the packaging and transportation capabilities of the US Department of Energy (DOE), as no double containment packaging for single drums of Type B radioactive material is currently available. Several multiple-drum containers and shielded casks presently exist. However, the size and weight of these containers present multiple operational challenges for single-drum shipments. The Type B Drum containers will offer one unshielded version and, if needed, two shielded versions, and will provide for the option of either single or double containment. The primary users of the Type B Drum container will be any organization with a need to ship single drums of Type B radioactive material. Those users include laboratories, waste retrieval facilities, emergency response teams, and small facilities

  20. FLEXIBLE FOOD PACKAGING LABORATORY

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This laboratory contains equipment to fabricate and test prototype packages of many types and sizes (e.g., bags, pouches, trays, cartons, etc.). This equipment can...

  1. BCRA R Package

    Science.gov (United States)

    BCRA is an R package that projects absolute risk of invasive breast cancer according to NCI’s Breast Cancer Risk Assessment Tool (BCRAT) algorithm for specified race/ethnic groups and age intervals.

  2. The ENSDF Java Package

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sonzogni, A.A.

    2005-01-01

    A package of computer codes has been developed to process and display nuclear structure and decay data stored in the ENSDF (Evaluated Nuclear Structure Data File) library. The codes were written in an object-oriented fashion using the java language. This allows for an easy implementation across multiple platforms as well as deployment on web pages. The structure of the different java classes that make up the package is discussed as well as several different implementations

  3. Energy and packaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boustead, I; Hancock, G F

    1981-01-01

    Information is given on the energy and raw materials required in the production and use of containers used to package beer, cider, and carbonated soft drinks in the United Kingdom. Topics covered include: methodology of energy analysis, primary and secondary fuels, transport, packaging materials, including glass, aluminum, iron, steel, and tinplate, container production, including plastic bottles, distribution of empty containers, filling and packing, distribution, and disposal. (LEW)

  4. CH Packaging Program Guidance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Washington TRU Solutions LLC

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide the technical requirements for preparation for use, operation, inspection, and maintenance of a Transuranic Package Transporter Model II (TRUPACT-II), a HalfPACT shipping package, and directly related components. This document complies with the minimum requirements as specified in the TRUPACT-II Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP), HalfPACT SARP, and Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Certificates of Compliance (C of C) 9218 and 9279, respectively. In the event of a conflict between this document and the SARP or C of C, the C of C shall govern. The C of Cs state: ''each package must be prepared for shipment and operated in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 7.0, Operating Procedures, of the application.'' They further state: ''each package must be tested and maintained in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 8.0, Acceptance Tests and Maintenance Program of the Application.'' Chapter 9.0 of the SARP charges the WIPP management and operating (M and O) contractor with assuring packaging is used in accordance with the requirements of the C of C. Because the packaging is NRC-approved, users need to be familiar with 10 CFR 71.11. Any time a user suspects or has indications that the conditions of approval in the C of C were not met, the Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) shall be notified immediately. CBFO will evaluate the issue and notify the NRC if required. This document provides the instructions to be followed to operate, maintain, and test the TRUPACT-II and HalfPACT packaging. The intent of these instructions is to standardize operations. All users will follow these instructions or equivalent instructions that assure operations are safe and meet the requirements of the SARPs

  5. CH Packaging Program Guidance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Washington TRU Solutions LLC

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide the technical requirements for preparation for use, operation, inspection, and maintenance of a Transuranic Package Transporter Model II (TRUPACT-II), a HalfPACT Shipping Package, and directly related components. This document complies with the minimum requirements as specified in TRUPACT-II Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP), HalfPACT SARP, and Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Certificates of Compliance (C of C) 9218 and 9279, respectively. In the event there is a conflict between this document and the SARP or C of C, the SARP and/or C of C shall govern. C of Cs state: ''each package must be prepared for shipment and operated in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 7.0, Operating Procedures, of the application.'' They further state: ''each package must be tested and maintained in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 8.0, Acceptance Tests and Maintenance Program of the Application.'' Chapter 9.0 of the SAR P charges the WIPP Management and Operation (M and O) contractor with assuring packaging is used in accordance with the requirements of the C of C. Because the packaging is NRC-approved, users need to be familiar with 10 CFR 71.11. Any time a user suspects or has indications that the conditions of approval in the C of C were not met, the Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) shall be notified immediately. CBFO will evaluate the issue and notify the NRC if required. This document details the instructions to be followed to operate, maintain, and test the TRUPACT-II and HalfPACT packaging. The intent of these instructions is to standardize these operations. All users will follow these instructions or equivalent instructions that assure operations are safe and meet the requirements of the SARPs

  6. Comparative Packaging Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perchonok, Michele H.; Oziomek, Thomas V.

    2009-01-01

    Future long duration manned space flights beyond low earth orbit will require the food system to remain safe, acceptable and nutritious. Development of high barrier food packaging will enable this requirement by preventing the ingress and egress of gases and moisture. New high barrier food packaging materials have been identified through a trade study. Practical application of this packaging material within a shelf life test will allow for better determination of whether this material will allow the food system to meet given requirements after the package has undergone processing. The reason to conduct shelf life testing, using a variety of packaging materials, stems from the need to preserve food used for mission durations of several years. Chemical reactions that take place during longer durations may decrease food quality to a point where crew physical or psychological well-being is compromised. This can result in a reduction or loss of mission success. The rate of chemical reactions, including oxidative rancidity and staling, can be controlled by limiting the reactants, reducing the amount of energy available to drive the reaction, and minimizing the amount of water available. Water not only acts as a media for microbial growth, but also as a reactant and means by which two reactants may come into contact with each other. The objective of this study is to evaluate three packaging materials for potential use in long duration space exploration missions.

  7. Review of models used for determining consequences of UF6 release: Development of model evaluation criteria. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nair, S.K.; Chambers, D.B.; Park, S.H.; Hoffman, F.O.

    1997-11-01

    The objective of this study is to examine the usefulness and effectiveness of currently existing models that simulate the release of uranium hexafluoride from UF 6 -handling facilities, subsequent reactions of UF 6 with atmospheric moisture, and the dispersion of UF 6 and reaction products in the atmosphere. The study evaluates screening-level and detailed public-domain models that were specifically developed for UF 6 and models that were originally developed for the treatment of dense gases but are applicable to UF 6 release, reaction, and dispersion. The model evaluation process is divided into three specific tasks: model-component evaluation; applicability evaluation; and user interface and quality assurance and quality control (QA/QC) evaluation. Within the model-component evaluation process, a model's treatment of source term, thermodynamics, and atmospheric dispersion are considered and model predictions are compared with actual observations. Within the applicability evaluation process, a model's applicability to Integrated Safety Analysis, Emergency Response Planning, and Post-Accident Analysis, and to site-specific considerations are assessed. Finally, within the user interface and QA/QC evaluation process, a model's user-friendliness, presence and clarity of documentation, ease of use, etc. are assessed, along with its handling of QA/QC. This document presents the complete methodology used in the evaluation process

  8. ITER interim design report package and relevant documents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    This publication documents the technical basis which underlay the Interim Design Report, Cost Review and Safety Analysis submitted to the ITER Councils (IC-8 and IC-9) Records of decisions and the ''ITER Interim Design Report Package''. This publication contains ITER Site Requirements and ITER Site Design Assumptions, TAC-8 Report, SRG Report, CP's Report on Tentative Sequence of Events and Parties' Views on the IDR Package and Parties' Technical Comments on the IDR Package. Figs, tabs

  9. Thermal Upgrading of 9977 Radioactive Material (Ram) Type B Package

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, N.; Abramczyk, G.

    2012-01-01

    The 9977 package is a radioactive material package that was originally certified to ship Heat Sources and RTG contents up to 19 watts and it is now being reviewed to significantly expand its contents in support of additional DOE missions. Thermal upgrading will be accomplished by employing stacked 3013 containers, a 3013 aluminum spacer and an external aluminum sleeve for enhanced heat transfer. The 7th Addendum to the original 9977 package Safety Basis Report describing these modifications is under review for the DOE certification. The analyses described in this paper show that this well-designed and conservatively analyzed package can be upgraded to carry contents with decay heat up to 38 watts with some simple design modifications. The Model 9977 package has been designed as a replacement for the Department of Transportation (DOT) Fissile Specification 6M package. The 9977 package is a very versatile Type B package which is certified to transport and store a wide spectrum of radioactive materials. The package was analyzed quite conservatively to increase its usefulness and store different payload configurations. Its versatility is evident from several daughter packages such as the 9978 and H1700, and several addendums where the payloads have been modified to suit the Shipper's needs without additional testing.

  10. CH Packaging Program Guidance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide the technical requirements for preparation for use, operation, inspection, and maintenance of a Transuranic Package Transporter Model II (TRUPACT-II), a HalfPACT shipping package, and directly related components. This document complies with the minimum requirements as specified in the TRUPACT-II Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP), HalfPACT SARP, and U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Certificates of Compliance (C of C) 9218 and 9279, respectively. In the event of a conflict between this document and the SARP or C of C, the C of C shall govern. The C of Cs state: 'each package must be prepared for shipment and operated in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 7.0, Operating Procedures, of the pplication.' They further state: 'each package must be tested and maintained in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 8.0, Acceptance Tests and Maintenance Program of the Application.' Chapter 9.0 of the SARP charges the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) or the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) management and operating (M and O) contractor with assuring packaging is used in accordance with the requirements of the C of C. Because the packaging is NRC-approved, users need to be familiar with Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 71.8. Any time a user suspects or has indications that the conditions of approval in the C of C were not met, the Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) shall be notified immediately. The CBFO will evaluate the issue and notify the NRC if required. In accordance with 10 CFR Part 71, certificate holders, packaging users, and contractors or subcontractors who use, design, fabricate, test, maintain, or modify the packaging shall post copies of (1) 10 CFR Part 21 regulations, (2) Section 206 of the Energy Reorganization Act of 1974, and (3) NRC Form 3, Notice to Employees. These documents must be posted in a conspicuous location where the activities subject to these regulations

  11. CH Packaging Program Guidance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide the technical requirements for preparation for use, operation, inspection, and maintenance of a Transuranic Package Transporter Model II (TRUPACT-II), a HalfPACT shipping package, and directly related components. This document complies with the minimum requirements as specified in the TRUPACT-II Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP), HalfPACT SARP, and U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Certificates of Compliance (C of C) 9218 and 9279, respectively. In the event of a conflict between this document and the SARP or C of C, the C of C shall govern. The C of Cs state: 'each package must be prepared for shipment and operated in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 7.0, Operating Procedures, of the application.' They further state: 'each package must be tested and maintained in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 8.0, Acceptance Tests and Maintenance Program of the Application.' Chapter 9.0 of the SARP charges the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) or the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) management and operating (M and O) contractor with assuring packaging is used in accordance with the requirements of the C of C. Because the packaging is NRC-approved, users need to be familiar with Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 71.8. Any time a user suspects or has indications that the conditions of approval in the C of C were not met, the Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) shall be notified immediately. The CBFO will evaluate the issue and notify the NRC if required. In accordance with 10 CFR Part 71, certificate holders, packaging users, and contractors or subcontractors who use, design, fabricate, test, maintain, or modify the packaging shall post copies of (1) 10 CFR Part 21 regulations, (2) Section 206 of the Energy Reorganization Act of 1974, and (3) NRC Form 3, Notice to Employees. These documents must be posted in a conspicuous location where the activities subject to these regulations

  12. RH Packaging Program Guidance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this program guidance document is to provide the technical requirements for use, operation, inspection, and maintenance of the RH-TRU 72-B Waste Shipping Package and directly related components. This document complies with the requirements as specified in the RH-TRU 72-B Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP), and Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Certificate of Compliance (C of C) 9212. If there is a conflict between this document and the SARP and/or C of C, the C of C shall govern. The C of C states: 'each package must be prepared for shipment and operated in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 7.0, Operating Procedures, of the application.' It further states: 'each package must be tested and maintained in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 8.0, Acceptance Tests and Maintenance Program of the Application.' Chapter 9.0 of the SARP tasks the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Management and Operating (M and O) Contractor with assuring the packaging is used in accordance with the requirements of the C of C. Because the packaging is NRC-approved, users need to be familiar with 10 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 1.8, 'Deliberate Misconduct.' Any time a user suspects or has indications that the conditions of approval in the C of C were not met, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) shall be notified immediately. CBFO will evaluate the issue and notify the NRC if required. In accordance with 10 CFR Part 71, 'Packaging and Transportation of Radioactive Material,' certificate holders, packaging users, and contractors or subcontractors who use, design, fabricate, test, maintain, or modify the packaging shall post copies of (1) 10 CFR Part 21, 'Reporting of Defects and Noncompliance,' regulations, (2) Section 206 of the Energy Reorganization Act of 1974, and (3) NRC Form 3, Notice to Employees. These documents must be posted in a conspicuous location where the activities subject to these

  13. RH Packaging Program Guidance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this program guidance document is to provide the technical requirements for use, operation, inspection, and maintenance of the RH-TRU 72-B Waste Shipping Package (also known as the 'RH-TRU 72-B cask') and directly related components. This document complies with the requirements as specified in the RH-TRU 72-B Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP), and Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Certificate of Compliance (C of C) 9212. If there is a conflict between this document and the SARP and/or C of C, the C of C shall govern. The C of C states: 'each package must be prepared for shipment and operated in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 7.0, Operating Procedures, of the application.' It further states: 'each package must be tested and maintained in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 8.0, Acceptance Tests and Maintenance Program of the Application.' Chapter 9.0 of the SARP tasks the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Management and Operating (M and O) Contractor with assuring the packaging is used in accordance with the requirements of the C of C. Because the packaging is NRC-approved, users need to be familiar with Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 71.8, 'Deliberate Misconduct.' Any time a user suspects or has indications that the conditions of approval in the C of C were not met, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) shall be notified immediately. The CBFO will evaluate the issue and notify the NRC if required.In accordance with 10 CFR Part 71, 'Packaging and Transportation of Radioactive Material,' certificate holders, packaging users, and contractors or subcontractors who use, design, fabricate, test, maintain, or modify the packaging shall post copies of (1) 10 CFR Part 21, 'Reporting of Defects and Noncompliance,' regulations, (2) Section 206 of the Energy Reorganization Act of 1974, and (3) NRC Form 3, Notice to Employees. These documents must be posted in a conspicuous

  14. 78 FR 26090 - Content Specifications and Shielding Evaluations for Type B Transportation Packages

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-03

    ... NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION [NRC-2012-0270] Content Specifications and Shielding Evaluations for...) 2013-04, ``Content Specifications and Shielding Evaluations for Type B Transportation Packages.'' This... Packages for Radioactive Material,'' for the review of content specifications and shielding evaluations...

  15. Radioactive waste isolation in salt: peer review of the Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation's reports on multifactor life testing of waste package materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McPheeters, C.C.; Harrison, W.; Ditmars, J.D.; Lerman, A.; Rote, D.M.; Edgar, D.E.; Hambley, D.F.

    1984-09-01

    Two documents that provide the approaches in designing a test program to investigate uniform corrosion of low-carbon cash steel in a salt repository environment were reviewed. Recommendations are made by the Peer Review Panel for improving the two reports

  16. Application of GA package in functional packaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belousova, D. A.; Noskova, E. E.; Kapulin, D. V.

    2018-05-01

    The approach to application program for the task of configuration of the elements of the commutation circuit for design of the radio-electronic equipment on the basis of the genetic algorithm is offered. The efficiency of the used approach for commutation circuits with different characteristics for computer-aided design on radio-electronic manufacturing is shown. The prototype of the computer-aided design subsystem on the basis of a package GA for R with a set of the general functions for optimization of multivariate models is programmed.

  17. CH Packaging Program Guidance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide the technical requirements for preparation for use, operation, inspection, and maintenance of a Transuranic Package Transporter Model II (TRUPACT-II), a HalfPACT shipping package, and directly related components. This document complies with the minimum requirements as specified in the TRUPACT-II Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP), HalfPACT SARP, and U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Certificates of Compliance (C of C) 9218 and 9279, respectively. In the event of a conflict between this document and the SARP or C of C, the C of C shall govern. The C of Cs state: ''each package must be prepared for shipment and operated in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 7.0, Operating Procedures, of the application.'' They further state: ''each package must be tested and maintained in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 8.0, Acceptance Tests and Maintenance Program of the Application.'' Chapter 9.0 of the SARP charges the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) management and operating (M and O) contractor with assuring packaging is used in accordance with the requirements of the C of C. Because the packaging is NRC-approved, users need to be familiar with Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 71.8. Any time a user suspects or has indications that the conditions of approval in the C of C were not met, the Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) shall be notified immediately. The CBFO will evaluate the issue and notify the NRC if required.

  18. Food Packaging Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    The photos show a few of the food products packaged in Alure, a metallized plastic material developed and manufactured by St. Regis Paper Company's Flexible Packaging Division, Dallas, Texas. The material incorporates a metallized film originally developed for space applications. Among the suppliers of the film to St. Regis is King-Seeley Thermos Company, Winchester, Ma'ssachusetts. Initially used by NASA as a signal-bouncing reflective coating for the Echo 1 communications satellite, the film was developed by a company later absorbed by King-Seeley. The metallized film was also used as insulating material for components of a number of other spacecraft. St. Regis developed Alure to meet a multiple packaging material need: good eye appeal, product protection for long periods and the ability to be used successfully on a wide variety of food packaging equipment. When the cost of aluminum foil skyrocketed, packagers sought substitute metallized materials but experiments with a number of them uncovered problems; some were too expensive, some did not adequately protect the product, some were difficult for the machinery to handle. Alure offers a solution. St. Regis created Alure by sandwiching the metallized film between layers of plastics. The resulting laminated metallized material has the superior eye appeal of foil but is less expensive and more easily machined. Alure effectively blocks out light, moisture and oxygen and therefore gives the packaged food long shelf life. A major packaging firm conducted its own tests of the material and confirmed the advantages of machinability and shelf life, adding that it runs faster on machines than materials used in the past and it decreases product waste; the net effect is increased productivity.

  19. Review of models used for determining consequences of UF{sub 6} release: Model evaluation report. Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nair, S.K.; Chambers, D.B.; Park, S.H.; Radonjic, Z.R.; Coutts, P.T.; Lewis, C.J.; Hammonds, J.S.; Hoffman, F.O. [Senes Oak Ridge, Inc., TN (United States). Center for Risk Analysis

    1997-11-01

    Three uranium hexafluoride-(UF{sub 6}-) specific models--HGSYSTEM/UF{sub 6}, Science Application International Corporation, and RTM-96; three dense-gas models--DEGADIS, SLAB, and the Chlorine Institute methodology; and one toxic chemical model--AFTOX--are evaluated on their capabilities to simulate the chemical reactions, thermodynamics, and atmospheric dispersion of UF{sub 6} released from accidents at nuclear fuel-cycle facilities, to support Integrated Safety Analysis, Emergency Response Planning, and Post-Accident Analysis. These models are also evaluated for user-friendliness and for quality assurance and quality control features, to ensure the validity and credibility of the results. Model performance evaluations are conducted for the three UF{sub 6}-specific models, using field data on releases of UF{sub 6} and other heavy gases. Predictions from the HGSYSTEM/UF{sub 6} and SAIC models are within an order of magnitude of the field data, but the SAIC model overpredicts beyond an order of magnitude for a few UF{sub 6}-specific data points. The RTM-96 model provides overpredictions within a factor of 3 for all data points beyond 400 m from the source. For one data set, however, the RTM-96 model severely underpredicts the observations within 200 m of the source. Outputs of the models are most sensitive to the meteorological parameters at large distances from the source and to certain source-specific and meteorological parameters at distances close to the source. Specific recommendations are being made to improve the applicability and usefulness of the three models and to choose a specific model to support the intended analyses. Guidance is also provided on the choice of input parameters for initial dilution, building wake effects, and distance to completion of UF{sub 6} reaction with water.

  20. 76 FR 22665 - Release of Final Document Related to the Review of the National Ambient Air Quality Standards for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-22

    ... criteria. The revised air quality criteria reflect advances in scientific knowledge on the effects of the... National Ambient Air Quality Standards, contains staff analyses of the scientific bases for alternative... Document Related to the Review of the National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Particulate Matter AGENCY...

  1. Immobilization and packaging of recovered tritium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holtslander, W.J.; Miller, J.M.

    1982-09-01

    The evaluation of metal hydrides as a medium for immobilization of tritium is reviewed. The work demonstrated methods of preparation and examined the properties of titanium and zirconium hydride for this application. Methods of packaging the metal hydrides for transportation and recoverable storage of tritium were also examined

  2. CH Packaging Program Guidance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide the technical requirements for preparation for use, operation, inspection, and maintenance of a Transuranic Package Transporter Model II (TRUPACT-II), a HalfPACT shipping package, and directly related components. This document complies with the minimum requirements as specified in the TRUPACT-II Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP), HalfPACT SARP, and U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Certificates of Compliance (C of C) 9218 and 9279, respectively. In the event of a conflict between this document and the SARP or C of C, the C of C shall govern. The C of Cs state: 'each package must be prepared for shipment and operated in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 7.0, Operating Procedures, of the application.' They further state: 'each package must be tested and maintained in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 8.0, Acceptance Tests and Maintenance Program of the Application.' Chapter 9.0 of the SARP charges the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) or the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant| (WIPP) management and operating (M and O) contractor with assuring packaging is used in accordance with the requirements of the C of C. Because the packaging is NRC-approved, users need to be familiar with Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations(CFR) 71.8. Any time a user suspects or has indications that the conditions of approval in the C of C were not met, the Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) shall be notified immediately. The CBFO will evaluate the issue and notify the NRC if required.In accordance with 10 CFR Part 71, certificate holders, packaging users, and contractors or subcontractors who use, design, fabricate, test, maintain, or modify the packaging shall post copies of (1) 10 CFR Part 21 regulations, (2) Section 206 of the Energy Reorganization Act of 1974, and (3) NRC Form 3, Notice to Employees. These documents must be posted in a conspicuous location where the activities subject to these regulations

  3. CH Packaging Program Guidance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide the technical requirements for preparation for use, operation, inspection, and maintenance of a Transuranic Package Transporter Model II (TRUPACT-II), a HalfPACT shipping package, and directly related components. This document complies with the minimum requirements as specified in the TRUPACT-II Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP), HalfPACT SARP, and U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Certificates of Compliance (C of C) 9218 and 9279, respectively. In the event of a conflict between this document and the SARP or C of C, the C of C shall govern. The C of Cs state: 'each package must be prepared for shipment and operated in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 7.0, Operating Procedures, of the application.' They further state: 'each package must be tested and maintained in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 8.0, Acceptance Tests and Maintenance Program of the Application.' Chapter 9.0 of the SARP charges the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) or the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) management and operating (M and O) contractor with assuring packaging is used in accordance with the requirements of the C of C. Because the packaging is NRC-approved, users need to be familiar with Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 71.8. Any time a user suspects or has indications that the conditions of approval in the C of C were not met, the Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) shall be notified immediately. The CBFO will evaluate the issue and notify the NRC if required.In accordance with 10 CFR Part 71, certificate holders, packaging users, and contractors or subcontractors who use, design, fabricate, test, maintain, or modify the packaging shall post copies of (1) 10 CFR Part 21 regulations, (2) Section 206 of the Energy Reorganization Act of 1974, and (3) NRC Form 3, Notice to Employees. These documents must be posted in a conspicuous location where the activities subject to these regulations

  4. Extension of ship accident analysis to multiple-package shipments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mills, G.S.; Neuhauser, K.S.

    1997-11-01

    Severe ship accidents and the probability of radioactive material release from spent reactor fuel casks were investigated previously. Other forms of RAM, e.g., plutonium oxide powder, may be shipped in large numbers of packagings rather than in one to a few casks. These smaller, more numerous packagings are typically placed in ISO containers for ease of handling, and several ISO containers may be placed in one of several holds of a cargo ship. In such cases, the size of a radioactive release resulting from a severe collision with another ship is determined not by the likelihood of compromising a single, robust package but by the probability that a certain fraction of 10's or 100's of individual packagings is compromised. The previous analysis involved a statistical estimation of the frequency of accidents which would result in damage to a cask located in one of seven cargo holds in a collision with another ship. The results were obtained in the form of probabilities (frequencies) of accidents of increasing severity and of release fractions for each level of severity. This paper describes an extension of the same general method in which the multiple packages are assumed to be compacted by an intruding ship's bow until there is no free space in the hold. At such a point, the remaining energy of the colliding ship is assumed to be dissipated by progressively crushing the RAM packagings and the probability of a particular fraction of package failures is estimated by adaptation of the statistical method used previously. The parameters of a common, well characterized packaging, the 6M with 2R inner containment vessel, were employed as an illustrative example of this analysis method. However, the method is readily applicable to other packagings for which crush strengths have been measured or can be estimated with satisfactory confidence

  5. Extension of ship accident analysis to multiple-package shipments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mills, G.S.; Neuhauser, K.S.

    1998-01-01

    Severe ship accidents and the probability of radioactive material release from spent reactor fuel casks were investigated previously (Spring, 1995). Other forms of RAM, e.g., plutonium oxide powder, may be shipped in large numbers of packagings rather than in one to a few casks. These smaller, more numerous packagings are typically placed in ISO containers for ease of handling, and several ISO containers may be placed in one of several holds of a cargo ship. In such cases, the size of a radioactive release resulting from a severe collision with another ship is determined not by the likelihood of compromising a single, robust package but by the probability that a certain fraction of 10's or 100's of individual packagings is compromised. The previous analysis (Spring, 1995) involved a statistical estimation of the frequency of accidents which would result in damage to a cask located in one of seven cargo holds in a collision with another ship. The results were obtained in the form of probabilities (frequencies) of accidents of increasing severity and of release fractions for each level of severity. This paper describes an extension of the same general method in which the multiple packages are assumed to be compacted by an intruding ship's bow until there is no free space in the hold. At such a point, the remaining energy of the colliding ship is assumed to be dissipated by progressively crushing the RAM packagings and the probability of a particular fraction of package failures is estimated by adaptation of the statistical method used previously. The parameters of a common, well-characterized packaging, the 6M with 2R inner containment vessel, were employed as an illustrative example of this analysis method. However, the method is readily applicable to other packagings for which crush strengths have been measured or can be estimated with satisfactory confidence. (authors)

  6. Welding robot package; Arc yosetsu robot package

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishikawa, S. [Yaskawa Electric Corp., Kitakyushu (Japan)

    1998-09-01

    For the conventional high-speed welding robot, the welding current was controlled mainly for reducing the spatters during short circuits and for stabilizing the beads by the periodic short circuits. However, an increase of deposition amount in response to the speed is required for the high-speed welding. Large-current low-spatter welding current region control was added. Units were integrated into a package by which the arc length is kept in short without dispersion of arc length for welding without defects such as undercut and unequal beads. In automobile industry, use of aluminum parts is extended for the light weight. The welding is very difficult, and automation is not so progressing in spite of the poor environment. Buckling of welding wire is easy to occur, and supply of wire is obstructed by the deposition of chipped powders on the torch cable, which stay within the contact chip resulting in the deposition. Dislocation of locus is easy to occur at the corner of rectangular pipe during the welding. By improving these troubles, an aluminum MIG welding robot package has been developed. 13 figs.

  7. The Fireball integrated code package

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dobranich, D.; Powers, D.A.; Harper, F.T.

    1997-07-01

    Many deep-space satellites contain a plutonium heat source. An explosion, during launch, of a rocket carrying such a satellite offers the potential for the release of some of the plutonium. The fireball following such an explosion exposes any released plutonium to a high-temperature chemically-reactive environment. Vaporization, condensation, and agglomeration processes can alter the distribution of plutonium-bearing particles. The Fireball code package simulates the integrated response of the physical and chemical processes occurring in a fireball and the effect these processes have on the plutonium-bearing particle distribution. This integrated treatment of multiple phenomena represents a significant improvement in the state of the art for fireball simulations. Preliminary simulations of launch-second scenarios indicate: (1) most plutonium vaporization occurs within the first second of the fireball; (2) large non-aerosol-sized particles contribute very little to plutonium vapor production; (3) vaporization and both homogeneous and heterogeneous condensation occur simultaneously; (4) homogeneous condensation transports plutonium down to the smallest-particle sizes; (5) heterogeneous condensation precludes homogeneous condensation if sufficient condensation sites are available; and (6) agglomeration produces larger-sized particles but slows rapidly as the fireball grows.

  8. How reliable does the waste package containment have to be

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wick, E.A.

    1985-01-01

    The final rule (10 CFR Part 60) for Disposal of High-Level Radioactive Wastes in Geologic Repositories specifies that the engineered barrier system shall be designed so that, assuming anticipated processes and events, containment of high-level radioactive wastes (HLW) will be substantially complete during the period when radiation and thermal conditions in the engineered barrier system are dominated by fission product decay. This requirement leads to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) being asked the following questions: What is meant by ''substantially complete''. How reliable does waste package containment have to be. How many waste packages can fail. Although the NRC has not defined quantitatively the term ''substantially complete'', a numerical concept for acceptable release during the containment period is discussed. The number of containment failures that could be tolerated under the rule would depend upon the acceptable release, the time at which failure occurs and the rate of release from a failed package

  9. 77 FR 42495 - Release of Draft Documents Related to the Review of the National Ambient Air Quality Standards...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-19

    ... (email) to a-and-r[email protected] , Attention Docket ID No. EPA-HQ-OAR-2008-0699. Fax: Fax your comments... External Review Draft (EPA-452/P-12-002; August 2012), please contact Ms. Susan Lyon Stone, Office of Air... Triangle Park, NC 27711; email: stone[email protected] ; telephone: 919-541-1146; fax: 919-541-0237. General...

  10. The cost effectiveness of long-acting/extended-release antipsychotics for the treatment of schizophrenia: a systematic review of economic evaluations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achilla, Evanthia; McCrone, Paul

    2013-04-01

    Antipsychotic medication is the mainstay of treatment in schizophrenia. Long-acting medication has potential advantages over daily medication in improving compliance and thus reducing hospitalization and relapse rates. The high acquisition and administration costs of such formulations raise the need for pharmacoeconomic evaluation. The aim of this article is to provide a comprehensive review of the available evidence on the cost effectiveness of long-acting/extended-release antipsychotic medication and critically appraise the strength of evidence reported in the studies from a methodological viewpoint. Relevant studies were identified by searching five electronic databases: PsycINFO, MEDLINE, EMBASE, the NHS Economic Evaluation Database and the Health Technology Assessment database (HTA). Search terms included, but were not limited to, 'long-acting injection', 'economic evaluation', 'cost-effectiveness' and 'cost-utility'. No limits were applied for publication dates and language. Full economic evaluations on long-acting/extended-release antipsychotics were eligible for inclusion. Observational studies and clinical trials were also checked for cost-effectiveness information. Conference abstracts and poster presentations on the cost effectiveness of long-acting antipsychotics were excluded. Thirty-two percent of identified studies met the selection criteria. Pertinent abstracts were reviewed independently by two reviewers. Relevant studies underwent data extraction by one reviewer and were checked by a second, with any discrepancies being clarified during consensus meetings. Eligible studies were assessed for methodological quality using the quality checklist for economic studies recommended by the NICE guideline on interventions in the treatment and management of schizophrenia. After applying the selection criteria, the final sample consisted of 28 studies. The majority of studies demonstrated that risperidone long-acting injection, relative to oral or other long

  11. Waste package characterisation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sannen, L.; Bruggeman, M.; Wannijn, J.P

    1998-09-01

    Radioactive wastes originating from the hot labs of the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK-CEN contain a wide variety of radiotoxic substances. The accurate characterisation of the short- and long-term radiotoxic components is extremely difficult but required in view of geological disposal. This paper describes the methodology which was developed and adopted to characterise the high- and medium-level waste packages at the SCK-CEN hot laboratories. The proposed method is based on the estimation of the fuel inventory evacuated in a particular waste package; a calculation of the relative fission product contribution on the fuel fabrication and irradiation footing; a comparison of the calculated, as expected, dose rate and the real measured dose rate of the waste package. To cope with the daily practice an appropriate fuel inventory estimation route, a user friendly computer programme for fission product and corresponding dose rate calculation, and a simple dose rate measurement method have been developed and implemented.

  12. Waste package characterisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sannen, L.; Bruggeman, M.; Wannijn, J.P.

    1998-09-01

    Radioactive wastes originating from the hot labs of the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK-CEN contain a wide variety of radiotoxic substances. The accurate characterisation of the short- and long-term radiotoxic components is extremely difficult but required in view of geological disposal. This paper describes the methodology which was developed and adopted to characterise the high- and medium-level waste packages at the SCK-CEN hot laboratories. The proposed method is based on the estimation of the fuel inventory evacuated in a particular waste package; a calculation of the relative fission product contribution on the fuel fabrication and irradiation footing; a comparison of the calculated, as expected, dose rate and the real measured dose rate of the waste package. To cope with the daily practice an appropriate fuel inventory estimation route, a user friendly computer programme for fission product and corresponding dose rate calculation, and a simple dose rate measurement method have been developed and implemented

  13. Waste package reliability analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pescatore, C.; Sastre, C.

    1983-01-01

    Proof of future performance of a complex system such as a high-level nuclear waste package over a period of hundreds to thousands of years cannot be had in the ordinary sense of the word. The general method of probabilistic reliability analysis could provide an acceptable framework to identify, organize, and convey the information necessary to satisfy the criterion of reasonable assurance of waste package performance according to the regulatory requirements set forth in 10 CFR 60. General principles which may be used to evaluate the qualitative and quantitative reliability of a waste package design are indicated and illustrated with a sample calculation of a repository concept in basalt. 8 references, 1 table

  14. Nuclear-waste-package materials degradation modes and accelerated testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-09-01

    This report reviews the materials degradation modes that may affect the long-term behavior of waste packages for the containment of nuclear waste. It recommends an approach to accelerated testing that can lead to the qualification of waste package materials in specific repository environments in times that are short relative to the time period over which the waste package is expected to provide containment. This report is not a testing plan but rather discusses the direction for research that might be considered in developing plans for accelerated testing of waste package materials and waste forms

  15. Secondary Waste Cementitious Waste Form Data Package for the Integrated Disposal Facility Performance Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cantrell, Kirk J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Westsik, Joseph H. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Serne, R Jeffrey [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Um, Wooyong [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Cozzi, Alex D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-05-16

    A review of the most up-to-date and relevant data currently available was conducted to develop a set of recommended values for use in the Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF) performance assessment (PA) to model contaminant release from a cementitious waste form for aqueous wastes treated at the Hanford Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF). This data package relies primarily upon recent data collected on Cast Stone formulations fabricated with simulants of low-activity waste (LAW) and liquid secondary wastes expected to be produced at Hanford. These data were supplemented, when necessary, with data developed for saltstone (a similar grout waste form used at the Savannah River Site). Work is currently underway to collect data on cementitious waste forms that are similar to Cast Stone and saltstone but are tailored to the characteristics of ETF-treated liquid secondary wastes. Recommended values for key parameters to conduct PA modeling of contaminant release from ETF-treated liquid waste are provided.

  16. Tobacco packaging design for reducing tobacco use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeill, Ann; Gravely, Shannon; Hitchman, Sara C; Bauld, Linda; Hammond, David; Hartmann-Boyce, Jamie

    2017-04-27

    Tobacco use is the largest single preventable cause of death and disease worldwide. Standardised tobacco packaging is an intervention intended to reduce the promotional appeal of packs and can be defined as packaging with a uniform colour (and in some cases shape and size) with no logos or branding, apart from health warnings and other government-mandated information, and the brand name in a prescribed uniform font, colour and size. Australia was the first country to implement standardised tobacco packaging between October and December 2012, France implemented standardised tobacco packaging on 1 January 2017 and several other countries are implementing, or intending to implement, standardised tobacco packaging. To assess the effect of standardised tobacco packaging on tobacco use uptake, cessation and reduction. We searched MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO and six other databases from 1980 to January 2016. We checked bibliographies and contacted study authors to identify additional peer-reviewed studies. Primary outcomes included changes in tobacco use prevalence incorporating tobacco use uptake, cessation, consumption and relapse prevention. Secondary outcomes covered intermediate outcomes that can be measured and are relevant to tobacco use uptake, cessation or reduction. We considered multiple study designs: randomised controlled trials, quasi-experimental and experimental studies, observational cross-sectional and cohort studies. The review focused on all populations and people of any age; to be included, studies had to be published in peer-reviewed journals. We examined studies that assessed the impact of changes in tobacco packaging such as colour, design, size and type of health warnings on the packs in relation to branded packaging. In experiments, the control condition was branded tobacco packaging but could include variations of standardised packaging. Screening and data extraction followed standard Cochrane methods. We used different 'Risk of bias' domains for

  17. SPHINX experimenters information package

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zarick, T.A.

    1996-08-01

    This information package was prepared for both new and experienced users of the SPHINX (Short Pulse High Intensity Nanosecond X-radiator) flash X-Ray facility. It was compiled to help facilitate experiment design and preparation for both the experimenter(s) and the SPHINX operational staff. The major areas covered include: Recording Systems Capabilities,Recording System Cable Plant, Physical Dimensions of SPHINX and the SPHINX Test cell, SPHINX Operating Parameters and Modes, Dose Rate Map, Experiment Safety Approval Form, and a Feedback Questionnaire. This package will be updated as the SPHINX facilities and capabilities are enhanced

  18. Nirex - The complete package

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carr, N.A.; Rarok, M.

    2002-01-01

    Through continuous interaction with its customers, Nirex had identified the need for a comprehensive range of waste containers, reflecting the variety of wastes and operational undertakings. The current range consists of five standard containers. Standardisation is introduced across all waste packages to enable the safe and efficient operation of future waste management facilities. The practical lessons learned during the development of standard containers are in turn reflected in the container design work that Nirex has undertaken. They are also fed into the advice given to customers during evaluation of waste packaging proposals. (author)

  19. Ada Namelist Package

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klumpp, Allan R.

    1991-01-01

    Ada Namelist Package, developed for Ada programming language, enables calling program to read and write FORTRAN-style namelist files. Features are: handling of any combination of types defined by user; ability to read vectors, matrices, and slices of vectors and matrices; handling of mismatches between variables in namelist file and those in programmed list of namelist variables; and ability to avoid searching entire input file for each variable. Principle benefits derived by user: ability to read and write namelist-readable files, ability to detect most file errors in initialization phase, and organization keeping number of instantiated units to few packages rather than to many subprograms.

  20. Review of extended-release formulations of Tramadol for the management of chronic non-cancer pain: focus on marketed formulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kizilbash, Arshi; Ngô-Minh, Cường

    2014-01-01

    Patients with chronic non-malignant pain report impairments of physical, social, and psychological well-being. The goal of pain management should include reducing pain and improving quality of life. Patients with chronic pain require medications that are able to provide adequate pain relief, have minimum dosing intervals to maintain efficacy, and avoid breakthrough pain. Tramadol has proven efficacy and a favourable safety profile. The positive efficacy and safety profile has been demonstrated historically in numerous published clinical studies as well as from post-marketing experience. It is a World Health Organization “Step 2” opioid analgesic that has been shown to be effective, well-tolerated, and valuable, where treatment with strong opioids is not required. A number of extended release formulations of Tramadol are available in Canada and the United States. An optimal extended release Tramadol formulation would be expected to provide consistent pain control with once daily dosing, few sleep interruptions, flexible dosing schedules, and no limitation on taking with meals. Appropriate treatment options should be based on the above proposed attributes. A comparative review of available extended release Tramadol formulations shows that these medications are not equivalent in their pharmacokinetic profile and this may have implications for selecting the optimal therapy for patients with pain syndromes where Tramadol is an appropriate analgesic agent. Differences in pharmacokinetics amongst the formulations may also translate into varied clinical responses in patients. Selection of the appropriate formulation by the health care provider should therefore be based on the patient’s chronic pain condition, needs, and lifestyle. PMID:24711710

  1. Packaging Solutions : Delivering customer value through Logistical Packaging: A Case Study at Stora Enso Packaging

    OpenAIRE

    Shan, Kun; Julius, Joezer

    2015-01-01

    AbstractBackground;Despite of the significant role of packaging within logistics and supply chain management, packaging is infrequently studied as focal point in supply chain. Most of the previous logistics research studies tend to explain the integration between packaging and logistics through logistical packaging. In very rare cases, the studies mentioned about customer value. Therefore the major disadvantage of these studies is that, they didn’t consider logistical packaging and customer v...

  2. Intelligence and innovation in the packaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kandile, N.G.

    2005-01-01

    Plastic polymers account for about 20 percent (by volume) of landfill space. Many cities have run out of space to dispose of their trash and are paying to ship their trash to remote locations. It is estimated that known global resources of oil will run dry in 80 years, natural gas in 70 years and coal in 700 years, but the economic impact of the depletion could hit much sooner; since prices will likely soar as resources are depleted. It is clear that researchers need to work toward replacing fossil fuel resources with renewable resources as both fuel and raw materials for many petroleum-based products . It wasn't too long ago that containers incorporating a modest percentage of recycled material represented the leading edge of environmentally responsible packaging. And while packagers continue to better the environment by using recycled content, a new category of environmentally friendly packaging materials has emerged: packaging made from renewable resources, including cornstarch, polylactic acid, and limestone. One of the newest applications of s ustainablev packaging is. The Plantic tm , a biodegradable polymer from Plantic Technologies, for a thermoformed tray . This material replaces polyvinyl chloride and PET trays and is more in line with the environmental policy. Using the Plantic technology reduce the environmental impact of packaging, without compromising the quality of the product or its presentation . Eife Cycle Assessment is a technique that could help to assess the benefits and drawbacks of Plantic tm ., According to The Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry (SETAC), Eife Cycle Assessment is a n objective process to evaluate the environmental burdens associated with a product, process, or activity by identifying and quantifying energy and materials used and wastes released to the environment, and to evaluate and implement opportunities to effect environmental improvements . Eife Cycle Assessment involves three main stages: inventory

  3. Unit-of-Use Versus Traditional Bulk Packaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiffany So

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The choice between unit-of-use versus traditional bulk packaging in the US has long been a continuous debate for drug manufacturers and pharmacies in order to have the most efficient and safest practices. Understanding the benefits of using unit-of-use packaging over bulk packaging by US drug manufacturers in terms of workflow efficiency, economical costs and medication safety in the pharmacy is sometimes challenging.Methods: A time-saving study comparing the time saved using unit-of-use packaging versus bulk packaging, was examined. Prices between unit-of-use versus bulk packages were compared by using the Red Book: Pharmacy’s Fundamental Reference. Other articles were reviewed on the topics of counterfeiting, safe labeling, and implementation of unit-of-use packaging. Lastly, a cost-saving study was reviewed showing how medication adherence, due to improved packaging, could be cost-effective for patients.Results: When examining time, costs, medication adherence, and counterfeiting arguments, unit-of-use packaging proved to be beneficial for patients in all these terms.

  4. Unit-of-Use Versus Traditional Bulk Packaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiffany So

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The choice between unit-of-use versus traditional bulk packaging in the US has long been a continuous debate for drug manufacturers and pharmacies in order to have the most efficient and safest practices. Understanding the benefits of using unit-of-use packaging over bulk packaging by US drug manufacturers in terms of workflow efficiency, economical costs and medication safety in the pharmacy is sometimes challenging. Methods: A time-saving study comparing the time saved using unit-of-use packaging versus bulk packaging, was examined. Prices between unit-of-use versus bulk packages were compared by using the Red Book: Pharmacy's Fundamental Reference. Other articles were reviewed on the topics of counterfeiting, safe labeling, and implementation of unit-of-use packaging. Lastly, a cost-saving study was reviewed showing how medication adherence, due to improved packaging, could be cost-effective for patients. Results: When examining time, costs, medication adherence, and counterfeiting arguments, unit-of-use packaging proved to be beneficial for patients in all these terms.   Type: Student Project

  5. Interferon-γ release assays for the diagnosis of latent Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diel, R; Goletti, D; Ferrara, G

    2011-01-01

    We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to compare the accuracy of the QuantiFERON-TB® Gold In-Tube (QFT-G-IT) and the T-SPOT®.TB assays with the tuberculin skin test (TST) for the diagnosis of latent Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection (LTBI). The Medline, Embase and Cochrane databases...... of IGRAs varied 98-100%. In immunocompetent adults, NPV for progression to tuberculosis within 2 yrs were 97.8% for T-SPOT®.TB and 99.8% for QFT-G-IT. When test performance of an immunodiagnostic test was not restricted to prior positivity of another test, progression rates to tuberculosis among IGRA...

  6. Recent trends and future of pharmaceutical packaging technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zadbuke, Nityanand; Shahi, Sadhana; Gulecha, Bhushan; Padalkar, Abhay; Thube, Mahesh

    2013-04-01

    The pharmaceutical packaging market is constantly advancing and has experienced annual growth of at least five percent per annum in the past few years. The market is now reckoned to be worth over $20 billion a year. As with most other packaged goods, pharmaceuticals need reliable and speedy packaging solutions that deliver a combination of product protection, quality, tamper evidence, patient comfort and security needs. Constant innovations in the pharmaceuticals themselves such as, blow fill seal (BFS) vials, anti-counterfeit measures, plasma impulse chemical vapor deposition (PICVD) coating technology, snap off ampoules, unit dose vials, two-in-one prefilled vial design, prefilled syringes and child-resistant packs have a direct impact on the packaging. The review details several of the recent pharmaceutical packaging trends that are impacting packaging industry, and offers some predictions for the future.

  7. Recent trends and future of pharmaceutical packaging technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nityanand Zadbuke

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The pharmaceutical packaging market is constantly advancing and has experienced annual growth of at least five percent per annum in the past few years. The market is now reckoned to be worth over $20 billion a year. As with most other packaged goods, pharmaceuticals need reliable and speedy packaging solutions that deliver a combination of product protection, quality, tamper evidence, patient comfort and security needs. Constant innovations in the pharmaceuticals themselves such as, blow fill seal (BFS vials, anti-counterfeit measures, plasma impulse chemical vapor deposition (PICVD coating technology, snap off ampoules, unit dose vials, two-in-one prefilled vial design, prefilled syringes and child-resistant packs have a direct impact on the packaging. The review details several of the recent pharmaceutical packaging trends that are impacting packaging industry, and offers some predictions for the future.

  8. Recent trends and future of pharmaceutical packaging technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zadbuke, Nityanand; Shahi, Sadhana; Gulecha, Bhushan; Padalkar, Abhay; Thube, Mahesh

    2013-01-01

    The pharmaceutical packaging market is constantly advancing and has experienced annual growth of at least five percent per annum in the past few years. The market is now reckoned to be worth over $20 billion a year. As with most other packaged goods, pharmaceuticals need reliable and speedy packaging solutions that deliver a combination of product protection, quality, tamper evidence, patient comfort and security needs. Constant innovations in the pharmaceuticals themselves such as, blow fill seal (BFS) vials, anti-counterfeit measures, plasma impulse chemical vapor deposition (PICVD) coating technology, snap off ampoules, unit dose vials, two-in-one prefilled vial design, prefilled syringes and child-resistant packs have a direct impact on the packaging. The review details several of the recent pharmaceutical packaging trends that are impacting packaging industry, and offers some predictions for the future. PMID:23833515

  9. AN ADA NAMELIST PACKAGE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klumpp, A. R.

    1994-01-01

    The Ada Namelist Package, developed for the Ada programming language, enables a calling program to read and write FORTRAN-style namelist files. A namelist file consists of any number of assignment statements in any order. Features of the Ada Namelist Package are: the handling of any combination of user-defined types; the ability to read vectors, matrices, and slices of vectors and matrices; the handling of mismatches between variables in the namelist file and those in the programmed list of namelist variables; and the ability to avoid searching the entire input file for each variable. The principle user benefits of this software are the following: the ability to write namelist-readable files, the ability to detect most file errors in the initialization phase, a package organization that reduces the number of instantiated units to a few packages rather than to many subprograms, a reduced number of restrictions, and an increased execution speed. The Ada Namelist reads data from an input file into variables declared within a user program. It then writes data from the user program to an output file, printer, or display. The input file contains a sequence of assignment statements in arbitrary order. The output is in namelist-readable form. There is a one-to-one correspondence between namelist I/O statements executed in the user program and variables read or written. Nevertheless, in the input file, mismatches are allowed between assignment statements in the file and the namelist read procedure statements in the user program. The Ada Namelist Package itself is non-generic. However, it has a group of nested generic packages following the nongeneric opening portion. The opening portion declares a variety of useraccessible constants, variables and subprograms. The subprograms are procedures for initializing namelists for reading, reading and writing strings. The subprograms are also functions for analyzing the content of the current dataset and diagnosing errors. Two nested

  10. Review of levetiracetam, with a focus on the extended release formulation, as adjuvant therapy in controlling partial-onset seizures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carol M Ulloa

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Carol M Ulloa, Allen Towfigh, Joseph SafdiehDepartment of Neurology and Neuroscience, Weill Medical College of Cornell University, New York, NY, USAAbstract: Levetiracetam is a second-generation antiepileptic drug (AED with a unique chemical structure and mechanism of action. The extended release formulation of levetiracetam (Keppra XR™; UCB Pharma was recently approved by the Food and Drug Administration for adjunctive therapy in the treatment of partial-onset seizures in patients 16 years of age and older with epilepsy. This approval is based on a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, multicenter, multinational trial. Levetiracetam XR allows for once-daily dosing, which may increase compliance and, given the relatively constant plasma concentrations, may minimize concentration-related adverse effects. Levetiracetam’s mode of action is not fully elucidated, but it has been found to target high-voltage, N-type calcium channels as well as the synaptic vesicle protein 2A (SV2A. Levetiracetam has nearly ideal pharmacokinetics. It is rapidly and almost completely absorbed after oral ingestion, is ‹10% protein-bound, demonstrates linear kinetics, is minimally metabolized through a pathway independent of the cytochrome P450 system, has no significant drug–drug interactions, and has a wide therapeutic index. The most common reported adverse events with levetiracetam XR were somnolence, irritability, dizziness, nausea, influenza, and nasopharyngitis. Levetiracetam XR provides an efficacious and well-tolerated treatment option for adjunctive therapy in the treatment of partial-onset seizures.Keywords: levetiracetam, partial-onset seizures, antiepileptic drugs

  11. Review of infrastructures and preparedness systems in France, Germany and United Kingdom for potential releases of radioactivity into the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fiedler, I.; Voigt, G.; Lochard, J.; Croueail, P.; Nisbet, A.; Mercer, J.; Green, N.; Wilkins, B.

    2004-01-01

    For the European SAGE-Project a review of the existing infrastructures and preparedness systems in France, Germany and United Kingdom concerning radiation protection with regard to a long term contamination after a nuclear accident was made. This review clearly shows that the infrastructure in all three countries regulates the situation during and shortly after a nuclear incident but not in case that a radioactive contamination will last for long time. For that situation it is necessary to install local information centres in the affected area with sufficient trained staff. To improve the confidence of the population in possible measures implemented by the authorities a copious and understandable information and education must be provided. Especially doctors, teachers, kindergarten teachers and mothers have to get the possibility to be educated in a reasonable way how to deal with a short, middle and long term contamination. The concerned population must be able to control the own radiological situation by measuring their environment and their food and by reducing food contamination by appropriate reasonable measures. (orig.)

  12. Review of infrastructures and preparedness systems in France, Germany and United Kingdom for potential releases of radioactivity into the environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fiedler, I.; Voigt, G. [International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria); Lochard, J.; Croueail, P. [Centre d' Etudes sur l' Evaluation de la Protection dans le Domaine Nucleaire, Paris (France); Nisbet, A.; Mercer, J.; Green, N.; Wilkins, B. [National Radiological Protection Board, Chilton (United Kingdom)

    2004-07-01

    For the European SAGE-Project a review of the existing infrastructures and preparedness systems in France, Germany and United Kingdom concerning radiation protection with regard to a long term contamination after a nuclear accident was made. This review clearly shows that the infrastructure in all three countries regulates the situation during and shortly after a nuclear incident but not in case that a radioactive contamination will last for long time. For that situation it is necessary to install local information centres in the affected area with sufficient trained staff. To improve the confidence of the population in possible measures implemented by the authorities a copious and understandable information and education must be provided. Especially doctors, teachers, kindergarten teachers and mothers have to get the possibility to be educated in a reasonable way how to deal with a short, middle and long term contamination. The concerned population must be able to control the own radiological situation by measuring their environment and their food and by reducing food contamination by appropriate reasonable measures. (orig.)

  13. Software package as an information center product

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butler, M.K.

    1977-01-01

    The Argonne Code Center serves as a software exchange and information center for the U.S. Energy Research and Development Administration and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The goal of the Center's program is to provide a means for sharing of software among agency offices and contractors, and for transferring computing applications and technology, developed within the agencies, to the information-processing community. A major activity of the Code Center is the acquisition, review, testing, and maintenance of a collection of software--computer systems, applications programs, subroutines, modules, and data compilations--prepared by agency offices and contractors to meet programmatic needs. A brief review of the history of computer program libraries and software sharing is presented to place the Code Center activity in perspective. The state-of-the-art discussion starts off with an appropriate definition of the term software package, together with descriptions of recommended package contents and the Carter's package evaluation activity. An effort is made to identify the various users of the product, to enumerate their individual needs, to document the Center's efforts to meet these needs and the ongoing interaction with the user community. Desirable staff qualifications are considered, and packaging problems, reviewed. The paper closes with a brief look at recent developments and a forecast of things to come. 2 tables

  14. COMMERCIAL SNF ACCIDENT RELEASE FRACTIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S.O. Bader

    1999-10-18

    The purpose of this design analysis is to specify and document the total and respirable fractions for radioactive materials that are released from an accident event at the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) involving commercial spent nuclear fuel (CSNF) in a dry environment. The total and respirable release fractions will be used to support the preclosure licensing basis for the MGR. The total release fraction is defined as the fraction of total CSNF assembly inventory, typically expressed as an activity inventory (e.g., curies), of a given radionuclide that is released to the environment from a waste form. The radionuclides are released from the inside of breached fuel rods (or pins) and from the detachment of radioactive material (crud) from the outside surfaces of fuel rods and other components of fuel assemblies. The total release fraction accounts for several mechanisms that tend to retain, retard, or diminish the amount of radionuclides that are available for transport to dose receptors or otherwise can be shown to reduce exposure of receptors to radiological releases. The total release fraction includes a fraction of airborne material that is respirable and could result in inhalation doses. This subset of the total release fraction is referred to as the respirable release fraction. Potential accidents may involve waste forms that are characterized as either bare (unconfined) fuel assemblies or confined fuel assemblies. The confined CSNF assemblies at the MGR are contained in shipping casks, canisters, or disposal containers (waste packages). In contrast to the bare fuel assemblies, the container that confines the fuel assemblies has the potential of providing an additional barrier for diminishing the total release fraction should the fuel rod cladding breach during an accident. However, this analysis will not take credit for this additional bamer and will establish only the total release fractions for bare unconfined CSNF assemblies, which may however be

  15. COMMERCIAL SNF ACCIDENT RELEASE FRACTIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    S.O. Bader

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this design analysis is to specify and document the total and respirable fractions for radioactive materials that are released from an accident event at the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) involving commercial spent nuclear fuel (CSNF) in a dry environment. The total and respirable release fractions will be used to support the preclosure licensing basis for the MGR. The total release fraction is defined as the fraction of total CSNF assembly inventory, typically expressed as an activity inventory (e.g., curies), of a given radionuclide that is released to the environment from a waste form. The radionuclides are released from the inside of breached fuel rods (or pins) and from the detachment of radioactive material (crud) from the outside surfaces of fuel rods and other components of fuel assemblies. The total release fraction accounts for several mechanisms that tend to retain, retard, or diminish the amount of radionuclides that are available for transport to dose receptors or otherwise can be shown to reduce exposure of receptors to radiological releases. The total release fraction includes a fraction of airborne material that is respirable and could result in inhalation doses. This subset of the total release fraction is referred to as the respirable release fraction. Potential accidents may involve waste forms that are characterized as either bare (unconfined) fuel assemblies or confined fuel assemblies. The confined CSNF assemblies at the MGR are contained in shipping casks, canisters, or disposal containers (waste packages). In contrast to the bare fuel assemblies, the container that confines the fuel assemblies has the potential of providing an additional barrier for diminishing the total release fraction should the fuel rod cladding breach during an accident. However, this analysis will not take credit for this additional bamer and will establish only the total release fractions for bare unconfined CSNF assemblies, which may however be

  16. Radioactive waste disposal package

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampe, Robert F.

    1986-11-04

    A radioactive waste disposal package comprising a canister for containing vitrified radioactive waste material and a sealed outer shell encapsulating the canister. A solid block of filler material is supported in said shell and convertible into a liquid state for flow into the space between the canister and outer shell and subsequently hardened to form a solid, impervious layer occupying such space.

  17. ROBATEL RS 24 packaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robatel, M.; Bochard, C.

    1986-01-01

    The ROBATEL RS 24 packaging for light-water reactor fuel assemblies is discussed. The cask uses a strength frame of carbon steel sheets, lead gamma ray shielding, neutron shielding of aluminous concrete, a thermal protection system for the gamma shielding, and a natural convection thermal transfer system

  18. The Swarm Magnetometry Package

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Merayo, José M.G.; Jørgensen, John Leif; Friis-Christensen, Eigil

    2008-01-01

    The Swarm mission under the ESA's Living Planet Programme is planned for launch in 2010 and consists of a constellation of three satellites at LEO. The prime objective of Swarm is to measure the geomagnetic field with unprecedented accuracy in space and time. The magnetometry package consists...

  19. Learning Activity Package, Algebra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Diane

    A set of ten teacher-prepared Learning Activity Packages (LAPs) in beginning algebra and nine in intermediate algebra, these units cover sets, properties of operations, number systems, open expressions, solution sets of equations and inequalities in one and two variables, exponents, factoring and polynomials, relations and functions, radicals,…

  20. Geothermal Greenhouse Information Package

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rafferty, K. [P.E.; Boyd, T. [ed.

    1997-01-01

    This package of information is intended to provide a foundation of background information for developers of geothermal greenhouses. The material is divided into seven sections covering such issues as crop culture and prices, operating costs for greenhouses, heating system design, vendors and a list of other sources of information.

  1. Openability of tamperproof packaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Del Castillo C., A.; Wever, R.; Buijs, P.J.; Stevels, A.

    2007-01-01

    Communication, product protection and presentation are three key aspects in the world of packaging nowadays. Due to a retail landscape consisting of large stores, displaying packed products on the shelves in self-service environments, these aspects become increasingly important, not only for Fast

  2. Aquaculture Information Package

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyd, T.; Rafferty, K. [editors

    1998-01-01

    This package of information is intended to provide background to developers of geothermal aquaculture projects. The material is divided into eight sections and includes information on market and price information for typical species, aquaculture water quality issues, typical species culture information, pond heat loss calculations, an aquaculture glossary, regional and university aquaculture offices and state aquaculture permit requirements.

  3. CH Packaging Maintenance Manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Washington TRU Solutions

    2002-01-01

    This procedure provides instructions for performing inner containment vessel (ICV) and outer containment vessel (OCV) maintenance and periodic leakage rate testing on the following packaging seals and corresponding seal surfaces using a nondestructive helium (He) leak test. In addition, this procedure provides instructions for performing ICV and OCV structural pressure tests

  4. Printer Graphics Package

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchard, D. C.

    1986-01-01

    Printer Graphics Package (PGP) is tool for making two-dimensional symbolic plots on line printer. PGP created to support development of Heads-Up Display (HUD) simulation. Standard symbols defined with HUD in mind. Available symbols include circle, triangle, quadrangle, window, line, numbers, and text. Additional symbols easily added or built up from available symbols.

  5. Type B drum packages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCoy, J.C.

    1994-08-01

    The Type B drum packages (TBD) are conceptualized as a family of containers in which a single 208 L or 114 L (55 gal or 30 gal) drum containing Type B quantities of radioactive material (RAM) can be packaged for shipment. The TBD containers are being developed to fill a void in the packaging and transportation capabilities of the U.S. Department of Energy as no container packaging single drums of Type B RAM exists offering double containment. Several multiple-drum containers currently exist, as well as a number of shielded casks, but the size and weight of these containers present many operational challenges for single-drum shipments. As an alternative, the TBD containers will offer up to three shielded versions (light, medium, and heavy) and one unshielded version, each offering single or optional double containment for a single drum. To reduce operational complexity, all versions will share similar design and operational features where possible. The primary users of the TBD containers are envisioned to be any organization desiring to ship single drums of Type B RAM, such as laboratories, waste retrieval activities, emergency response teams, etc. Currently, the TBD conceptual design is being developed with the final design and analysis to be completed in 1995 to 1996. Testing and certification of the unshielded version are planned to be completed in 1996 to 1997 with production to begin in 1997 to 1998

  6. Interim performance specifications for conceptual waste-package designs for geologic isolation in salt repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-06-01

    The interim performance specifications and data requirements presented apply to conceptual waste package designs for all waste forms which will be isolated in salt geologic repositories. The waste package performance specifications and data requirements respond to the waste package performance criteria. Subject areas treated include: containment and controlled release, operational period safety, criticality control, identification, and waste package performance testing requirements. This document was generated for use in the development of conceptual waste package designs in salt. It will be revised as additional data, analyses, and regulatory requirements become available

  7. Serving the fuel cycle: preparing tomorrow's packagings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roland, V.

    2001-01-01

    The main fleet of transport packagings serving today the fuel cycle was born more than 20 years ago. Or was it they? The present paper will show that serving the fuel cycle by preparing tomorrow's logistics is actually an on-going process, rather than a rupture. We shall review the great packagings of the fuel cycle: In the front end, the major actors are the UF 4 , UF 6 , enriched UF 6 , UO 2 powders, fresh fuel packagings. In the back end of the fuel cycle, we find the dry transport casks of the TN-12, TN-17, TN-13, family and also the Excellox wet flasks. In the waste management, a whole fleet of containers, culminating in the TN Gemini, are available or being created. (author)

  8. Packaging Technologies for High Temperature Electronics and Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Liangyu; Hunter, Gary W.; Neudeck, Philip G.; Beheim, Glenn M.; Spry, David J.; Meredith, Roger D.

    2013-01-01

    This paper reviews ceramic substrates and thick-film metallization based packaging technologies in development for 500degC silicon carbide (SiC) electronics and sensors. Prototype high temperature ceramic chip-level packages and printed circuit boards (PCBs) based on ceramic substrates of aluminum oxide (Al2O3) and aluminum nitride (AlN) have been designed and fabricated. These ceramic substrate-based chiplevel packages with gold (Au) thick-film metallization have been electrically characterized at temperatures up to 550degC. A 96% alumina based edge connector for a PCB level subsystem interconnection has also been demonstrated recently. The 96% alumina packaging system composed of chip-level packages and PCBs has been tested with high temperature SiC devices at 500degC for over 10,000 hours. In addition to tests in a laboratory environment, a SiC JFET with a packaging system composed of a 96% alumina chip-level package and an alumina printed circuit board mounted on a data acquisition circuit board was launched as a part of the MISSE-7 suite to the International Space Station via a Shuttle mission. This packaged SiC transistor was successfully tested in orbit for eighteen months. A spark-plug type sensor package designed for high temperature SiC capacitive pressure sensors was developed. This sensor package combines the high temperature interconnection system with a commercial high temperature high pressure stainless steel seal gland (electrical feed-through). Test results of a packaged high temperature capacitive pressure sensor at 500degC are also discussed. In addition to the pressure sensor package, efforts for packaging high temperature SiC diode-based gas chemical sensors are in process.

  9. Hazardous materials package performance regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russell, N.A.; Glass, R.E.; McClure, J.D.; Finley, N.C.

    1992-01-01

    The hazardous materials (hazmat) packaging development and certification process is currently defined by two different regulatory philosophies, one based on specification packagings and the other based on performance standards. With specification packagings, a packaging is constructed according to an agreed set of design specifications. In contrast, performance standards do not specify the packaging design; they specify performance standards that a packaging design must be able to pass before it can be certified for transport. The packaging can be designed according to individual needs as long as it meets these performance standards. Performance standards have been used nationally and internationally for about 40 years to certify radioactive materials (RAM) packagings. It is reasonable to state that for RAM transport, performance specifications have maintained transport safety. A committee of United Nation's experts recommended the performance standard philosophy as the preferred regulation method for hazmat packaging. Performance standards for hazmat packagings smaller than 118 gallons have been adopted in 49CFR178. Packagings for materials that are classified as toxic-by-inhalation must comply with the performance standards by October 1, 1993, and packagings for all other classes of hazardous materials covered must comply by October 1, 1996. For packages containing bulk (in excess of 188 gallons) quantities of materials that are extremely toxic by inhalation, there currently are no performance requirements. This paper discusses a Hazmat Packaging Performance Evaluation (HPPE) project to look at the subset of bulk packagings that are larger than 2000 gallons. The objectives of this project are the evaluate current hazmat specification packagings and develop supporting documentation for determining performance requirements for packagings in excess of 2000 gallons that transport hazardous materials that have been classified as extremely toxic by inhalation (METBI)

  10. RNA Encapsidation and Packaging in the Phleboviruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine E. Hornak

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The Bunyaviridae represents the largest family of segmented RNA viruses, which infect a staggering diversity of plants, animals, and insects. Within the family Bunyaviridae, the Phlebovirus genus includes several important human and animal pathogens, including Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV, severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus (SFTSV, Uukuniemi virus (UUKV, and the sandfly fever viruses. The phleboviruses have small tripartite RNA genomes that encode a repertoire of 5–7 proteins. These few proteins accomplish the daunting task of recognizing and specifically packaging a tri-segment complement of viral genomic RNA in the midst of an abundance of host components. The critical nucleation events that eventually lead to virion production begin early on in the host cytoplasm as the first strands of nascent viral RNA (vRNA are synthesized. The interaction between the vRNA and the viral nucleocapsid (N protein effectively protects and masks the RNA from the host, and also forms the ribonucleoprotein (RNP architecture that mediates downstream interactions and drives virion formation. Although the mechanism by which all three genomic counterparts are selectively co-packaged is not completely understood, we are beginning to understand the hierarchy of interactions that begins with N-RNA packaging and culminates in RNP packaging into new virus particles. In this review we focus on recent progress that highlights the molecular basis of RNA genome packaging in the phleboviruses.

  11. SUSTAINABLE PACKAGING SOLUTIONS FOR ORGANIC FRESH BERRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeta Elena TĂNASE

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Climate changes and particularly global warming are topics carefully treated by specialists already since decades. The most pregnant factor that influences climate change is pollution, namely the high level carbon dioxide emissions. Besides other substances used by the most of the industries (oil, charcoal, fertilizers, etc., plastics are not to be ignored when talking about pollution. Plastic waste affects animals and humans, as well as their habitat. In this respect, food industry engages in preserving the good functioning of the environment by developing and using biodegradable and bio-based resources for food packaging. The aim of this literature review was to identify the optimal sustainable packaging solution used for berries. The results of the study pointed out that the most used environmentally friendly packaging technique is the one that involves modified atmosphere. In terms of packaging materials, the literature is limited when it comes to biodegradable/bio-based solutions. However, active packaging gains popularity among researchers, considering the endless possibilities to include sustainable compounds in a biopolymer based matrix, in order to prolong the shelf-life of berries or fruits in general.

  12. Development of Specifications for Radioactive Waste Packages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-10-01

    The main objective of this publication is to provide guidelines for the development of waste package specifications that comply with waste acceptance requirements for storage and disposal of radioactive waste. It will assist waste generators and waste package producers in selecting the most significant parameters and in developing and implementing specifications for each individual type of waste and waste package. This publication also identifies and reviews the activities and technical provisions that are necessary to meet safety requirements; in particular, selection of the significant safety parameters and preparation of specifications for waste forms, waste containers and waste packages using proven approaches, methods and technologies. This report provides guidance using a systematic, stepwise approach, integrating the technical, organizational and administrative factors that need to be considered at each step of planning and implementing waste package design, fabrication, approval, quality assurance and control. The report reflects the considerable experience and knowledge that has been accumulated in the IAEA Member States and is consistent with the current international requirements, principles, standards and guidance for the safe management of radioactive waste

  13. Development of Specifications for Radioactive Waste Packages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-10-15

    The main objective of this publication is to provide guidelines for the development of waste package specifications that comply with waste acceptance requirements for storage and disposal of radioactive waste. It will assist waste generators and waste package producers in selecting the most significant parameters and in developing and implementing specifications for each individual type of waste and waste package. This publication also identifies and reviews the activities and technical provisions that are necessary to meet safety requirements; in particular, selection of the significant safety parameters and preparation of specifications for waste forms, waste containers and waste packages using proven approaches, methods and technologies. This report provides guidance using a systematic, stepwise approach, integrating the technical, organizational and administrative factors that need to be considered at each step of planning and implementing waste package design, fabrication, approval, quality assurance and control. The report reflects the considerable experience and knowledge that has been accumulated in the IAEA Member States and is consistent with the current international requirements, principles, standards and guidance for the safe management of radioactive waste.

  14. Antimicrobial nanomaterials for food packaging applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radusin Tanja I.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Food packaging industry presents one of the fastest growing industries nowadays. New trends in this industry, which include reducing food as well as packaging waste, improved preservation of food and prolonged shelf-life together with substitution of petrochemical sources with renewable ones are leading to development of this industrial area in diverse directions. This multidisciplinary challenge is set up both in front of food and material scientists. Nanotechnology is recently answering to these challenges, with different solutions-from improvements in materials properties to active packaging solutions, or both at the same time. Incorporation of nanoparticles into polymer matrix and preparation of hybrid materials is one of the methods of modification of polymer properties. Nano scaled materials with antimicrobial properties can act as active components when added into polymer, thereby leading to prolonged protective function of pristine food packaging material. This paper presents a review in the field of antimicrobial nanomaterials for food packaging in turn of technology, application and regulatory issues.

  15. Representation and Misrepresentation of Scientific Evidence in Contemporary Tobacco Regulation: A Review of Tobacco Industry Submissions to the UK Government Consultation on Standardised Packaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulucanlar, Selda; Fooks, Gary J.; Hatchard, Jenny L.; Gilmore, Anna B.

    2014-01-01

    Background Standardised packaging (SP) of tobacco products is an innovative tobacco control measure opposed by transnational tobacco companies (TTCs) whose responses to the UK government's public consultation on SP argued that evidence was inadequate to support implementing the measure. The government's initial decision, announced 11 months after the consultation closed, was to wait for ‘more evidence’, but four months later a second ‘independent review’ was launched. In view of the centrality of evidence to debates over SP and TTCs' history of denying harms and manufacturing uncertainty about scientific evidence, we analysed their submissions to examine how they used evidence to oppose SP. Methods and Findings We purposively selected and analysed two TTC submissions using a verification-oriented cross-documentary method to ascertain how published studies were used and interpretive analysis with a constructivist grounded theory approach to examine the conceptual significance of TTC critiques. The companies' overall argument was that the SP evidence base was seriously flawed and did not warrant the introduction of SP. However, this argument was underpinned by three complementary techniques that misrepresented the evidence base. First, published studies were repeatedly misquoted, distorting the main messages. Second, ‘mimicked scientific critique’ was used to undermine evidence; this form of critique insisted on methodological perfection, rejected methodological pluralism, adopted a litigation (not scientific) model, and was not rigorous. Third, TTCs engaged in ‘evidential landscaping’, promoting a parallel evidence base to deflect attention from SP and excluding company-held evidence relevant to SP. The study's sample was limited to sub-sections of two out of four submissions, but leaked industry documents suggest at least one other company used a similar approach. Conclusions The TTCs' claim that SP will not lead to public health benefits is largely

  16. In-Package Chemistry Abstraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    P.S. Domski

    2003-07-21

    The work associated with the development of this model report was performed in accordance with the requirements established in ''Technical Work Plan for Waste Form Degradation Modeling, Testing, and Analyses in Support of SR and LA'' (BSC 2002a). The in-package chemistry model and in-package chemistry model abstraction are developed to predict the bulk chemistry inside of a failed waste package and to provide simplified expressions of that chemistry. The purpose of this work is to provide the abstraction model to the Performance Assessment Project and the Waste Form Department for development of geochemical models of the waste package interior. The scope of this model report is to describe the development and validation of the in-package chemistry model and in-package chemistry model abstraction. The in-package chemistry model will consider chemical interactions of water with the waste package materials and the waste form for commercial spent nuclear fuel (CSNF) and codisposed high-level waste glass (HLWG) and N Reactor spent fuel (CDNR). The in-package chemistry model includes two sub-models, the first a water vapor condensation (WVC) model, where water enters a waste package as vapor and forms a film on the waste package components with subsequent film reactions with the waste package materials and waste form--this is a no-flow model, the reacted fluids do not exit the waste package via advection. The second sub-model of the in-package chemistry model is the seepage dripping model (SDM), where water, water that may have seeped into the repository from the surrounding rock, enters a failed waste package and reacts with the waste package components and waste form, and then exits the waste package with no accumulation of reacted water in the waste package. Both of the submodels of the in-package chemistry model are film models in contrast to past in-package chemistry models where all of the waste package pore space was filled with water. The

  17. In-Package Chemistry Abstraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    P.S. Domski

    2003-01-01

    The work associated with the development of this model report was performed in accordance with the requirements established in ''Technical Work Plan for Waste Form Degradation Modeling, Testing, and Analyses in Support of SR and LA'' (BSC 2002a). The in-package chemistry model and in-package chemistry model abstraction are developed to predict the bulk chemistry inside of a failed waste package and to provide simplified expressions of that chemistry. The purpose of this work is to provide the abstraction model to the Performance Assessment Project and the Waste Form Department for development of geochemical models of the waste package interior. The scope of this model report is to describe the development and validation of the in-package chemistry model and in-package chemistry model abstraction. The in-package chemistry model will consider chemical interactions of water with the waste package materials and the waste form for commercial spent nuclear fuel (CSNF) and codisposed high-level waste glass (HLWG) and N Reactor spent fuel (CDNR). The in-package chemistry model includes two sub-models, the first a water vapor condensation (WVC) model, where water enters a waste package as vapor and forms a film on the waste package components with subsequent film reactions with the waste package materials and waste form--this is a no-flow model, the reacted fluids do not exit the waste package via advection. The second sub-model of the in-package chemistry model is the seepage dripping model (SDM), where water, water that may have seeped into the repository from the surrounding rock, enters a failed waste package and reacts with the waste package components and waste form, and then exits the waste package with no accumulation of reacted water in the waste package. Both of the submodels of the in-package chemistry model are film models in contrast to past in-package chemistry models where all of the waste package pore space was filled with water. The current in-package

  18. Packaging design criteria for the Hanford Ecorok Packaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mercado, M.S.

    1996-01-01

    The Hanford Ecorok Packaging (HEP) will be used to ship contaminated water purification filters from K Basins to the Central Waste Complex. This packaging design criteria documents the design of the HEP, its intended use, and the transportation safety criteria it is required to meet. This information will serve as a basis for the safety analysis report for packaging

  19. Briefing package for the Yucca Flat pre-emptive review, including overview, UZ model, SZ volcanics model and summary and conclusions sections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwicklis, Edward Michael [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Keating, Elizabeth H [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-12-02

    Much progress has been made in the last several years in modeling radionuclide transport from tests conducted both in the unsaturated zone and saturated volcanic rocks of Yucca Flat, Nevada. The presentations to the DOE NNSA pre-emptive review panel contained herein document the progress to date, and discuss preliminary conclusions regarding the present and future extents of contamination resulting from past nuclear tests. The presentations also discuss possible strategies for addressing uncertainty in the model results.

  20. Review of analytical techniques to determine the chemical forms of vapours and aerosols released from overheated fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowsher, B.R.; Nichols, A.L.

    1989-12-01

    A comprehensive review has been undertaken of appropriate analytical techniques to monitor and measure the chemical effects that occur in large-scale tests designed to study severe reactor accidents. Various methods have been developed to determine the chemical forms of the vapours, aerosols and deposits generated during and after such integral experiments. Other specific techniques have the long-term potential to provide some of the desired data in greater detail, although considerable efforts are still required to apply these techniques to the study of radioactive debris. Such in-situ and post-test methods of analysis have been also assessed in terms of their applicability to the analysis of samples from the Phebus-FP tests. The recommended in-situ methods of analysis are gamma-ray spectroscopy, potentiometry, mass spectrometry, and Raman/UV-visible absorption spectroscopy. Vapour/aerosol and deposition samples should also be obtained at well-defined time intervals during each experiment for subsequent post-test analysis. No single technique can provide all the necessary chemical data from these samples, and the most appropriate method of analysis involves a complementary combination of autoradiography, AES, IR, MRS, SEMS/EDS, SIMS/LMIS, XPS and XRD

  1. Dual Use Packaging, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA seeks down-weighted packaging compatible with microwave preparation and perhaps high hydrostatic pressure processing. New packaging must satisfy NASA's 3-year...

  2. Food packaging history and innovations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risch, Sara J

    2009-09-23

    Food packaging has evolved from simply a container to hold food to something today that can play an active role in food quality. Many packages are still simply containers, but they have properties that have been developed to protect the food. These include barriers to oxygen, moisture, and flavors. Active packaging, or that which plays an active role in food quality, includes some microwave packaging as well as packaging that has absorbers built in to remove oxygen from the atmosphere surrounding the product or to provide antimicrobials to the surface of the food. Packaging has allowed access to many foods year-round that otherwise could not be preserved. It is interesting to note that some packages have actually allowed the creation of new categories in the supermarket. Examples include microwave popcorn and fresh-cut produce, which owe their existence to the unique packaging that has been developed.

  3. Commercial SNF Accident Release Fractions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Schulz

    2004-11-05

    The purpose of this analysis is to specify and document the total and respirable fractions for radioactive materials that could be potentially released from an accident at the repository involving commercial spent nuclear fuel (SNF) in a dry environment. The total and respirable release fractions are used to support the preclosure licensing basis for the repository. The total release fraction is defined as the fraction of total commercial SNF assembly inventory, typically expressed as an activity inventory (e.g., curies), of a given radionuclide that is released to the environment from a waste form. Radionuclides are released from the inside of breached fuel rods (or pins) and from the detachment of radioactive material (crud) from the outside surfaces of fuel rods and other components of fuel assemblies. The total release fraction accounts for several mechanisms that tend to retain, retard, or diminish the amount of radionuclides that are available for transport to dose receptors or otherwise can be shown to reduce exposure of receptors to radiological releases. The total release fraction includes a fraction of airborne material that is respirable and could result in inhalation doses; this subset of the total release fraction is referred to as the respirable release fraction. Accidents may involve waste forms characterized as: (1) bare unconfined intact fuel assemblies, (2) confined intact fuel assemblies, or (3) canistered failed commercial SNF. Confined intact commercial SNF assemblies at the repository are contained in shipping casks, canisters, or waste packages. Four categories of failed commercial SNF are identified: (1) mechanically and cladding-penetration damaged commercial SNF, (2) consolidated/reconstituted assemblies, (3) fuel rods, pieces, and debris, and (4) nonfuel components. It is assumed that failed commercial SNF is placed into waste packages with a mesh screen at each end (CRWMS M&O 1999). In contrast to bare unconfined fuel assemblies, the

  4. Commercial SNF Accident Release Fractions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulz, J.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this analysis is to specify and document the total and respirable fractions for radioactive materials that could be potentially released from an accident at the repository involving commercial spent nuclear fuel (SNF) in a dry environment. The total and respirable release fractions are used to support the preclosure licensing basis for the repository. The total release fraction is defined as the fraction of total commercial SNF assembly inventory, typically expressed as an activity inventory (e.g., curies), of a given radionuclide that is released to the environment from a waste form. Radionuclides are released from the inside of breached fuel rods (or pins) and from the detachment of radioactive material (crud) from the outside surfaces of fuel rods and other components of fuel assemblies. The total release fraction accounts for several mechanisms that tend to retain, retard, or diminish the amount of radionuclides that are available for transport to dose receptors or otherwise can be shown to reduce exposure of receptors to radiological releases. The total release fraction includes a fraction of airborne material that is respirable and could result in inhalation doses; this subset of the total release fraction is referred to as the respirable release fraction. Accidents may involve waste forms characterized as: (1) bare unconfined intact fuel assemblies, (2) confined intact fuel assemblies, or (3) canistered failed commercial SNF. Confined intact commercial SNF assemblies at the repository are contained in shipping casks, canisters, or waste packages. Four categories of failed commercial SNF are identified: (1) mechanically and cladding-penetration damaged commercial SNF, (2) consolidated/reconstituted assemblies, (3) fuel rods, pieces, and debris, and (4) nonfuel components. It is assumed that failed commercial SNF is placed into waste packages with a mesh screen at each end (CRWMS M andO 1999). In contrast to bare unconfined fuel assemblies, the

  5. K Basins Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Project Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP) approval plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    This document delineates the plan for preparation, review, and approval of the K Basins Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Packaging Design Criteria (PDC) document and the on-site Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP). The packaging addressed in these documents is used to transport SNF in a Multi- canister Overpack (MCO) configuration

  6. Trends in antimicrobial food packaging systems: Emitting sachets and absorbent pads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Active antimicrobial packaging interacts with packaged food and headspace to reduce, retard, or even inhibit the growth of spoilage and pathogenic microorganisms. Sachets and pads are one of the most successful applications of active food packaging. This review discusses recent developments of antim...

  7. Fair Package Assignment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahaie, Sébastien; Parkes, David C.

    We consider the problem of fair allocation in the package assignment model, where a set of indivisible items, held by single seller, must be efficiently allocated to agents with quasi-linear utilities. A fair assignment is one that is efficient and envy-free. We consider a model where bidders have superadditive valuations, meaning that items are pure complements. Our central result is that core outcomes are fair and even coalition-fair over this domain, while fair distributions may not even exist for general valuations. Of relevance to auction design, we also establish that the core is equivalent to the set of anonymous-price competitive equilibria, and that superadditive valuations are a maximal domain that guarantees the existence of anonymous-price competitive equilibrium. Our results are analogs of core equivalence results for linear prices in the standard assignment model, and for nonlinear, non-anonymous prices in the package assignment model with general valuations.

  8. Anticounterfeit packaging technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruchir Y Shah

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Packaging is the coordinated system that encloses and protects the dosage form. Counterfeit drugs are the major cause of morbidity, mortality, and failure of public interest in the healthcare system. High price and well-known brands make the pharma market most vulnerable, which accounts for top priority cardiovascular, obesity, and antihyperlipidemic drugs and drugs like sildenafil. Packaging includes overt and covert technologies like barcodes, holograms, sealing tapes, and radio frequency identification devices to preserve the integrity of the pharmaceutical product. But till date all the available techniques are synthetic and although provide considerable protection against counterfeiting, have certain limitations which can be overcome by the application of natural approaches and utilization of the principles of nanotechnology.

  9. RH Packaging Program Guidance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Washington TRU Solutions, LLC

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this program guidance document is to provide technical requirements for use, operation, inspection, and maintenance of the RH-TRU 72-B Waste Shipping Package and directly related components. This document complies with the requirements as specified in the RH-TRU 72-B Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP), and Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Certificate of Compliance (C of C) 9212. If there is a conflict between this document and the SARP and/or C of C, the SARP and/or C of C shall govern. The C of C states: ''...each package must be prepared for shipment and operated in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 7.0, ''Operating Procedures,'' of the application.'' It further states: ''...each package must be tested and maintained in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 8.0, ''Acceptance Tests and Maintenance Program of the Application.'' Chapter 9.0 of the SARP tasks the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Management and Operating (M and O) contractor with assuring the packaging is used in accordance with the requirements of the C of C. Because the packaging is NRC approved, users need to be familiar with 10 CFR (section) 71.11, ''Deliberate Misconduct.'' Any time a user suspects or has indications that the conditions of approval in the C of C were not met, the Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) shall be notified immediately. CBFO will evaluate the issue and notify the NRC if required. This document details the instructions to be followed to operate, maintain, and test the RH-TRU 72-B packaging. This Program Guidance standardizes instructions for all users. Users shall follow these instructions. Following these instructions assures that operations are safe and meet the requirements of the SARP. This document is available on the Internet at: ttp://www.ws/library/t2omi/t2omi.htm. Users are responsible for ensuring they are using the current revision and change notices. Sites may prepare their own document using the word

  10. Technology transfer packages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizon, G.A.; Bleasdale, P.A.

    1994-01-01

    Nuclear power is firmly established in many developed countries'energy policies and is being adopted by emerging nations as an attractive way of gaining energy self sufficiency. The early users of nuclear power had to develop the technology that they needed, which now, through increasing world wide experience, has been rationalised to meet demanding economic and environmental pressures. These justifiable pressures, can lead to existing suppliers of nuclear services to consider changing to more appropriate technologies and for new suppliers to consider licensing proven technology rather then incurring the cost of developing new alternatives. The transfer of technology, under license, is made more straight forward if the owner conveniently groups appropriate technology into packages. This paper gives examples of 'Technology Packages' and suggests criteria for the specification, selection and contractual requirements to ensure successful licensing

  11. Amdahl 470 Chip Package

    CERN Multimedia

    1975-01-01

    In the late 70s the larger IBM computers were water cooled. Amdahl, an IBM competitor, invented an air cooling technology for it's computers. His company worked hard, developing a computer that was faster and less expensive than the IBM System/360 mainframe computer systems. This object contains an actual Amdahl series 470 computer logic chip with an air cooling device mounted on top. The package leads and cooling tower are gold-plated.

  12. Aquaculture information package

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyd, T.; Rafferty, K.

    1998-08-01

    This package of information is intended to provide background information to developers of geothermal aquaculture projects. The material is divided into eight sections and includes information on market and price information for typical species, aquaculture water quality issues, typical species culture information, pond heat loss calculations, an aquaculture glossary, regional and university aquaculture offices and state aquaculture permit requirements. A bibliography containing 68 references is also included.

  13. The CASA Software Package

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petry, Dirk

    2018-03-01

    CASA is the standard science data analysis package for ALMA and VLA but it can also be used for the analysis of data from other observatories. In this talk, I will give an overview of the structure and features of CASA, who develops it, and the present status and plans, and then show typical analysis workflows for ALMA data with special emphasis on the handling of single dish data and its combination with interferometric data.

  14. The future of active and intelligent packaging industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Dobrucka

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Innovation in food and beverage packaging is mostly driven by consumer needs and demands influenced by changing global trends, such as increased life expectancy, fewer organizations investing in food production and distribution. Food industry has seen great advances in the packaging sector since its inception in the 18th century with most active and intelligent innovations occurring during the past century. These advances have led to improved food quality and safety. Active and intelligent packaging is new and exciting area of technology  which efficient contemporary consumer response. Materials and methods: On the basis of broad review of the current state of the art in world literature, the market active and intelligent packaging is discussed. Results: This paper shows present innovation in the market active and intelligent packaging. Conclusion: Research and development in the field of active and intelligent packaging materials is very dynamic and develops in relation with the search for environment friendly packaging solutions. Besides, active and intelligent packaging is becoming more and more widely used for food products. The future of this type of packaging system seems to be very interesting.

  15. The Ettention software package

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dahmen, Tim; Marsalek, Lukas; Marniok, Nico; Turoňová, Beata; Bogachev, Sviatoslav; Trampert, Patrick; Nickels, Stefan; Slusallek, Philipp

    2016-01-01

    We present a novel software package for the problem “reconstruction from projections” in electron microscopy. The Ettention framework consists of a set of modular building-blocks for tomographic reconstruction algorithms. The well-known block iterative reconstruction method based on Kaczmarz algorithm is implemented using these building-blocks, including adaptations specific to electron tomography. Ettention simultaneously features (1) a modular, object-oriented software design, (2) optimized access to high-performance computing (HPC) platforms such as graphic processing units (GPU) or many-core architectures like Xeon Phi, and (3) accessibility to microscopy end-users via integration in the IMOD package and eTomo user interface. We also provide developers with a clean and well-structured application programming interface (API) that allows for extending the software easily and thus makes it an ideal platform for algorithmic research while hiding most of the technical details of high-performance computing. - Highlights: • Novel software package for “reconstruction from projections” in electron microscopy. • Support for high-resolution reconstructions on iterative reconstruction algorithms. • Support for CPU, GPU and Xeon Phi. • Integration in the IMOD software. • Platform for algorithm researchers: object oriented, modular design.

  16. The Ettention software package

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dahmen, Tim, E-mail: Tim.Dahmen@dfki.de [German Research Center for Artificial Intelligence GmbH (DFKI), 66123 Saarbrücken (Germany); Saarland University, 66123 Saarbrücken (Germany); Marsalek, Lukas [Eyen SE, Na Nivách 1043/16, 141 00 Praha 4 (Czech Republic); Saarland University, 66123 Saarbrücken (Germany); Marniok, Nico [Saarland University, 66123 Saarbrücken (Germany); Turoňová, Beata [Saarland University, 66123 Saarbrücken (Germany); IMPRS-CS, Max-Planck Institute for Informatics, Campus E 1.4, 66123 Saarbrücken (Germany); Bogachev, Sviatoslav [Saarland University, 66123 Saarbrücken (Germany); Trampert, Patrick; Nickels, Stefan [German Research Center for Artificial Intelligence GmbH (DFKI), 66123 Saarbrücken (Germany); Slusallek, Philipp [German Research Center for Artificial Intelligence GmbH (DFKI), 66123 Saarbrücken (Germany); Saarland University, 66123 Saarbrücken (Germany)

    2016-02-15

    We present a novel software package for the problem “reconstruction from projections” in electron microscopy. The Ettention framework consists of a set of modular building-blocks for tomographic reconstruction algorithms. The well-known block iterative reconstruction method based on Kaczmarz algorithm is implemented using these building-blocks, including adaptations specific to electron tomography. Ettention simultaneously features (1) a modular, object-oriented software design, (2) optimized access to high-performance computing (HPC) platforms such as graphic processing units (GPU) or many-core architectures like Xeon Phi, and (3) accessibility to microscopy end-users via integration in the IMOD package and eTomo user interface. We also provide developers with a clean and well-structured application programming interface (API) that allows for extending the software easily and thus makes it an ideal platform for algorithmic research while hiding most of the technical details of high-performance computing. - Highlights: • Novel software package for “reconstruction from projections” in electron microscopy. • Support for high-resolution reconstructions on iterative reconstruction algorithms. • Support for CPU, GPU and Xeon Phi. • Integration in the IMOD software. • Platform for algorithm researchers: object oriented, modular design.

  17. Determination of accident related release data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koch, W.; Nolte, O.; Lange, F.; Martens, R.

    2004-01-01

    For accident safety analyses, for the assessment of potential radiological consequences, for the review of current requirements of the Transport Regulations and for their possible further development as well as for the demonstration that radioactive materials such as LDM candidate material fulfil the regulatory requirements reliable release data following mechanical impact are required. This is definitely one of the demanding issues in the field of transport safety of radioactive materials. In this context special attention has to be paid to radioactive wastes immobilised in brittle materials, e.g. cement/concrete, glass, ceramics or other brittle materials such as fresh and spent fuel. In this presentation we report on a long-term experimental program aiming at improving the general physical understanding of the release process as well as the quantity and the quality of release data. By combining laboratory experiments using small scale test specimens with a few key scaling experiments with large scale test objects significant progress was achieved to meet this objective. The laboratory equipment enables the in-situ determination of the amount and aerodynamic size distribution of the airborne particles generated upon impact of the test specimen on a hard target. Impact energies cover the range experienced in transport accidents including aircraft accidents. The well defined experimental boundary conditions and the good reproducibility of the experimental procedure allowed for systematic studies to exactly measure the amount and aerodynamic size distribution of the airborne release and to quantify its dependence on relevant parameters such as energy input, material properties, and specimen geometry. The experimental program was performed within the scope of various national and international (e.g. EU-funded) projects. The small scale experiments with brittle materials revealed a pronounced universality of the airborne release in view of the material properties and

  18. CMS Partial Releases Model, Tools, and Applications. Online and Framework-Light Releases

    CERN Document Server

    Jones, Christopher D; Meschi, Emilio; Shahzad Muzaffar; Andreas Pfeiffer; Ratnikova, Natalia; Sexton-Kennedy, Elizabeth

    2009-01-01

    The CMS Software project CMSSW embraces more than a thousand packages organized in subsystems for analysis, event display, reconstruction, simulation, detector description, data formats, framework, utilities and tools. The release integration process is highly automated by using tools developed or adopted by CMS. Packaging in rpm format is a built-in step in the software build process. For several well-defined applications it is highly desirable to have only a subset of the CMSSW full package bundle. For example, High Level Trigger algorithms that run on the Online farm, and need to be rebuilt in a special way, require no simulation, event display, or analysis packages. Physics analysis applications in Root environment require only a few core libraries and the description of CMS specific data formats. We present a model of CMS Partial Releases, used for preparation of the customized CMS software builds, including description of the tools used, the implementation, and how we deal with technical challenges, suc...

  19. Tobacco product developments in the Australian market in the 4 years following plain packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scollo, Michelle; Bayly, Megan; White, Sarah; Lindorff, Kylie; Wakefield, Melanie

    2017-10-09

    This paper aimed to identify continued and emerging trends in the Australian tobacco market following plain packaging implementation, over a period of substantial increases in tobacco taxes. Since 2012, our surveillance activities (including review of trade product and price lists, ingredient reports submitted by tobacco companies to government and monitoring of the retail environment) found several trends in the factory-made cigarette market. These include the continued release of extra-long and slim cigarettes and packs with bonus cigarettes, particularly in the mainstream and premium market segments; new menthol capsule products; other novel flavourings in cigarettes; filter innovations including recessed and firm filters; continued use of evocative and descriptive product names; the proliferation of the new super-value market segment; and umbrella branding, where new products are introduced within established brand families. Several similar trends were also observed within the smoking tobacco market. While not all of these trends were new to the Australian market at the time of plain packaging implementation, their continued and increased use is notable. Plain packaging legislation could be strengthened to standardise cigarette and pack size, restrict brand and variant names, and ban features such as menthol capsules and filters innovations that provide novelty value or that may provide false reassurance to smokers. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  20. Potential role of bacteria packaging by protozoa in the persistence and transmission of pathogenic bacteria

    OpenAIRE

    Denoncourt, Alix M.; Paquet, Valérie E.; Charette, Steve J.

    2014-01-01

    Many pathogenic bacteria live in close association with protozoa. These unicellular eukaryotic microorganisms are ubiquitous in various environments. A number of protozoa such as amoebae and ciliates ingest pathogenic bacteria, package them usually in membrane structures, and then release them into the environment. Packaged bacteria are more resistant to various stresses and are more apt to survive than free bacteria. New evidence indicates that protozoa and not bacteria control the packaging...

  1. Ensuring socially responsible packaging design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geert Jensen, Birgitte

    Most consumers have experienced occasional problems with opening packaging. Tomato sauce from the tinned mackerel splattered all over the kitchen counter, the unrelenting pickle jar lid, and the package of sliced ham that cannot be opened without a knife or a pair of scissors. The research project...... "User‐friendly Packaging" aims to create a platform for developing more user‐friendly packaging. One intended outcome of the project is a guideline that industry can use in development efforts. The project also points the way for more extended collaboration between companies and design researchers. How...... can design research help industry in packaging innovation?...

  2. Packaging based on polymeric materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanović Slobodan M.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In the past two years the consumption of common in the developed countries world wide (high tonnage polymers for packaging has approached a value of 50 wt.%. In the same period more than 50% of the packaging units on the world market were made of polymeric materials despite the fact that polymeric materials present 17 wt.% of all packaging materials. The basic properties of polymeric materials and their environmental and economical advantages, providing them such a position among packaging materials, are presented in this article. Recycling methods, as well as the development trends of polymeric packaging materials are also presented.

  3. Plutonium stabilization and packaging system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    This document describes the functional design of the Plutonium Stabilization and Packaging System (Pu SPS). The objective of this system is to stabilize and package plutonium metals and oxides of greater than 50% wt, as well as other selected isotopes, in accordance with the requirements of the DOE standard for safe storage of these materials for 50 years. This system will support completion of stabilization and packaging campaigns of the inventory at a number of affected sites before the year 2002. The package will be standard for all sites and will provide a minimum of two uncontaminated, organics free confinement barriers for the packaged material

  4. Nuclear waste package design for the Vadose zone in tuff

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Neal, W.C.; Ballou, L.B.; Gregg, D.W.; Russell, E.W.

    1984-02-01

    This report presents an overview of the selection and analysis of conceptual waste package designs that will be used by the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations (NNWSI) project for disposal of high-level nuclear waste (HLW) at the proposed Yucca Mountain, Nevada Site. The design requirements that the waste packages are required to meet are listed. Concept drawings for the reference designs and one alternative package design are shown. Four metal alloys; 304L SS, 321 SS, 316L SS and Incoloy 825 have been selected for candidate canister/overpack materials, and 1020 carbon steel has been selected as the reference metal for the borehole liners. A summary of the results of technical and economic analysis supporting the selection of the conceptual waste package designs is included. Post-closure containment and release rates are not discussed in this paper. 17 references, 2 figures, 2 tables

  5. Transportation package design using numerical optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harding, D.C.; Witkowski, W.R.

    1992-01-01

    The design of structures and engineering systems has always been an iterative process whose complexity was dependent upon the boundary conditions, constraints and available analytical tools. Transportation packaging design is no exception with structural, thermal and radiation shielding constraints based on regulatory hypothetical accident conditions. Transportation packaging design is often accomplished by a group of specialists, each designing a single component based on one or more simple criteria, pooling results with the group, evaluating the open-quotes pooledclose quotes design, and then reiterating the entire process until a satisfactory design is reached. The manual iterative methods used by the designer/analyst can be summarized in the following steps: design the part, analyze the part, interpret the analysis results, modify the part, and re-analyze the part. The inefficiency of this design practice and the frequently conservative result suggests the need for a more structured design methodology, which can simultaneously consider all of the design constraints. Numerical optimization is a structured design methodology whose maturity in development has allowed it to become a primary design tool in many industries. The purpose of this overview is twofold: first, to outline the theory and basic elements of numerical optimization; and second, to show how numerical optimization can be applied to the transportation packaging industry and used to increase efficiency and safety of radioactive and hazardous material transportation packages. A more extensive review of numerical optimization and its applications to radioactive material transportation package design was performed previously by the authors (Witkowski and Harding 1992). A proof-of-concept Type B package design is also presented as a simplified example of potential improvements achievable using numerical optimization in the design process

  6. Power Electronics Packaging Reliability | Transportation Research | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Packaging Reliability Power Electronics Packaging Reliability A photo of a piece of power electronics laboratory equipment. NREL power electronics packaging reliability research investigates the electronics packaging around a semiconductor switching device determines the electrical, thermal, and

  7. White House Communications Agency (WHCA) Presidential Voice Communications Rack Mount System Mechanical Drawing Package

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Rack Mount System Mechanical Drawing Package by Steven P Callaway Approved for public release; distribution unlimited...Laboratory White House Communications Agency (WHCA) Presidential Voice Communications Rack Mount System Mechanical Drawing Package by Steven P...Note 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 04/2013 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE White House Communications Agency (WHCA) Presidential Voice Communications Rack

  8. Knowledge synthesis on the long time behavior of packages MOP-CLTBE 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peycelon, H.; Bejaoui, S.; Richet, C.; Bary, B.

    2004-10-01

    This document is realized in the framework of the law of 1991 on the radioactive wastes management. It presents the main evolution factors of the concrete packages for non saturated medium storage and saturated disposal. It takes stock on the operational model describing the package alteration and the consequences in terms of radionuclide releases. (A.L.B.)

  9. Training Materials for Release 3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wake, Jo Dugstad; Hansen, Cecilie; Debus, Kolja

    This document, D7.4 – training materials for release 3, provides an overview of the training material for version 3 of the NEXT-TELL tools and methods. Previous documents submitted as part of work package 7, which is about teacher training, are D7.1 – Training Concept, D7.2 – Training Materials...... for Release 1 and D7.3 – Training Materials for Release 2. D7.4 builds on D7.1 and D7.2 and D7.3. D7.4 contains further development of previous work within WP7, essentially a revised theoretical approach to the teacher training, and expansion of the notion of tool training. The media in use have been expanded...

  10. Nuclear Criticality Safety Assessment Using the SCALE Computer Code Package. A demonstration based on an independent review of a real application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mennerdahl, Dennis

    1998-06-01

    The purpose of this project was to instruct a young scientist from the Lithuanian Energy Institute (LEI) on how to carry out an independent review of a safety report. In particular, emphasis, was to be put on how to use the personal computer version of the calculation system SCALE 4.3 in this process. Nuclear criticality safety together with radiation shielding from gamma and neutron sources were areas of interest. This report concentrates on nuclear criticality safety aspects while a separate report covers radiation shielding. The application was a proposed storage cask for irradiated fuel assemblies from the Ignalina RBMK reactors in Lithuania. The safety report contained various documents involving many design and safety considerations. A few other documents describing the Ignalina reactors and their operation were available. The time for the project was limited to approximately one month, starting 'clean' with a SCALE 4.3 CD-ROM, a thick safety report and a fast personal computer. The results should be of general interest to Swedish authorities, in particular related to shielding where experience in using advanced computer codes like those available in SCALE is limited. It has been known for many years that criticality safety is very complicated, and that independent reviews are absolutely necessary to reduce the risk from quite common errors in the safety assessments. Several important results were obtained during the project. Concerning use of SCALE 4.3, it was confirmed that a young scientist, without extensive previous experience in the code system, can learn to use essentially all options. During the project, it was obvious that familiarity with personal computers, operating systems (including network system) and office software (word processing, spreadsheet and Internet browser software) saved a lot of time. Some of the Monte Carlo calculations took several hours. Experience is valuable in quickly picking out input or source document errors. Understanding

  11. Potential role of bacteria packaging by protozoa in the persistence and transmission of pathogenic bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alix M Denoncourt

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Many pathogenic bacteria live in close association with protozoa. These unicellular eukaryotic microorganisms are ubiquitous in various environments. A number of protozoa such as amoebae and ciliates ingest pathogenic bacteria, package them usually in membrane structures, and then release them into the environment. Packaged bacteria are more resistant to various stresses and are more apt to survive than free bacteria. New evidence indicates that protozoa and not bacteria control the packaging process. It is possible that packaging is more common than suspected and may play a major role in the persistence and transmission of pathogenic bacteria. To confirm the role of packaging in the propagation of infections, it is vital that the molecular mechanisms governing the packaging of bacteria by protozoa be identified as well as elements related to the ecology of this process in order to determine whether packaging acts as a Trojan Horse.

  12. Delayed-release oral suspension of omeprazole for the treatment of erosive esophagitis and gastroesophageal reflux disease in pediatric patients: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice Monzani

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Alice Monzani, Giuseppina Oderda1Department of Pediatrics, Università del Piemonte Orientale, Novara, ItalyAbstract: Omeprazole is a proton-pump inhibitor indicated for gastroesophageal reflux disease and erosive esophagitis treatment in children. The aim of this review was to evaluate the efficacy of delayed-release oral suspension of omeprazole in childhood esophagitis, in terms of symptom relief, reduction in reflux index and/or intragastric acidity, and endoscopic and/or histological healing. We systematically searched PubMed, Cochrane and EMBASE (1990 to 2009 and identified 59 potentially relevant articles, but only 12 articles were suitable to be included in our analysis. All the studies evaluated symptom relief and reported a median relief rate of 80.4% (range 35%–100%. Five studies reported a significant reduction of the esophageal reflux index within normal limits (<7% in all children, and 4 studies a significant reduction of intra-gastric acidity. The endoscopic healing rate, reported by 9 studies, was 84% after 8-week treatment and 95% after 12-week treatment, the latter being significantly higher than the histological healing rate (49%. In conclusion, omeprazole given at a dose ranging from 0.3 to 3.5 mg/kg once daily (median 1 mg/kg once daily for at least 12 weeks is highly effective in childhood esophagitis.Keywords: proton pump inhibitors, children, ranitidine, H2-blockers

  13. Packaging-radiation disinfestation relationships

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highland, H.A.

    1985-01-01

    Foods that are susceptible to insect infestation can be irradiated to destroy the infestation; however, the food must be kept essentially insect-free until consumed, or it must be disinfested again, perhaps repeatedly. Insect-resistant packages can be used to prevent reinfestation, but there are certain requirements that must be fulfilled before a package can be made insect resistant. These include the use of insect-light construction and packaging materials that resist boring insects. The relative insect resistance of various packages and packaging materials is discussed, as are behavior traits such as egressive boring that enables insects to escape from packages and the ability of insects to climb on various packaging materials. Some successful and unsuccessful attempts to make various types of packages insect resistant are discussed, as are factors that must be considered in the selection or development of insect-resistant packages for radiation disinfested foods. The latter factors include biological and physical environments, length of storage periods, stresses on packages during shipment, types of storage facilities, governmental regulations, health requirements, and others

  14. Radioactive material packaging performance testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romano, T.; Cruse, J.M.

    1991-02-01

    To provide uniform packaging of hazardous materials on an international level, the United Nations has developed packaging recommendations that have been implemented worldwide. The United Nations packaging recommendations are performance oriented, allowing for a wide variety of package materials and systems. As a result of this international standard, efforts in the United States are being directed toward use of performance-oriented packaging and elimination of specification (designed) packaging. This presentation will focus on trends, design evaluation, and performance testing of radioactive material packaging. The impacts of US Department of Transportation Dockets HM-181 and HM-169A on specification and low-specific activity radioactive material packaging requirements are briefly discussed. The US Department of Energy's program for evaluating radioactive material packings per US Department of Transportation Specification 7A Type A requirements, is used as the basis for discussing low-activity packaging performance test requirements. High-activity package testing requirements are presented with examples of testing performed at the Hanford Site that is operated by Westinghouse Hanford Company for the US Department of Energy. 5 refs., 2 tabs

  15. Safety Analysis Report for packaging (onsite) steel waste package

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BOEHNKE, W.M.

    2000-07-13

    The steel waste package is used primarily for the shipment of remote-handled radioactive waste from the 324 Building to the 200 Area for interim storage. The steel waste package is authorized for shipment of transuranic isotopes. The maximum allowable radioactive material that is authorized is 500,000 Ci. This exceeds the highway route controlled quantity (3,000 A{sub 2}s) and is a type B packaging.

  16. Safety Analysis Report for packaging (onsite) steel waste package

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BOEHNKE, W.M.

    2000-01-01

    The steel waste package is used primarily for the shipment of remote-handled radioactive waste from the 324 Building to the 200 Area for interim storage. The steel waste package is authorized for shipment of transuranic isotopes. The maximum allowable radioactive material that is authorized is 500,000 Ci. This exceeds the highway route controlled quantity (3,000 A 2 s) and is a type B packaging

  17. How tobacco companies have used package quantity for consumer targeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persoskie, Alexander; Donaldson, Elisabeth A; Ryant, Chase

    2018-05-31

    Package quantity refers to the number of cigarettes or amount of other tobacco product in a package. Many countries restrict minimum cigarette package quantities to avoid low-cost packs that may lower barriers to youth smoking. We reviewed Truth Tobacco Industry Documents to understand tobacco companies' rationales for introducing new package quantities, including companies' expectations and research regarding how package quantity may influence consumer behaviour. A snowball sampling method (phase 1), a static search string (phase 2) and a follow-up snowball search (phase 3) identified 216 documents, mostly from the 1980s and 1990s, concerning cigarettes (200), roll-your-own tobacco (9), smokeless tobacco (6) and 'smokeless cigarettes' (1). Companies introduced small and large packages to motivate brand-switching and continued use among current users when faced with low market share or threats such as tax-induced price increases or competitors' use of price promotions. Companies developed and evaluated package quantities for specific brands and consumer segments. Large packages offered value-for-money and matched long-term, heavy users' consumption rates. Small packages were cheaper, matched consumption rates of newer and lighter users, and increased products' novelty, ease of carrying and perceived freshness. Some users also preferred small packages as a way to try to limit consumption or quit. Industry documents speculated about many potential effects of package quantity on appeal and use, depending on brand and consumer segment. The search was non-exhaustive, and we could not assess the quality of much of the research or other information on which the documents relied. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  18. The UK core performance code package

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hutt, P.K.; Gaines, N.; McEllin, M.; White, R.J.; Halsall, M.J.

    1991-01-01

    Over the last few years work has been co-ordinated by Nuclear Electric, originally part of the Central Electricity Generating Board, with contributions from the United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority and British Nuclear Fuels Limited, to produce a generic, easy-to-use and integrated package of core performance codes able to perform a comprehensive range of calculations for fuel cycle design, safety analysis and on-line operational support for Light Water Reactor and Advanced Gas Cooled Reactor plant. The package consists of modern rationalized generic codes for lattice physics (WIMS), whole reactor calculations (PANTHER), thermal hydraulics (VIPRE) and fuel performance (ENIGMA). These codes, written in FORTRAN77, are highly portable and new developments have followed modern quality assurance standards. These codes can all be run ''stand-alone'' but they are also being integrated within a new UNIX-based interactive system called the Reactor Physics Workbench (RPW). The RPW provides an interactive user interface and a sophisticated data management system. It offers quality assurance features to the user and has facilities for defining complex calculational sequences. The Paper reviews the current capabilities of these components, their integration within the package and outlines future developments underway. Finally, the Paper describes the development of an on-line version of this package which is now being commissioned on UK AGR stations. (author)

  19. Second Generation Waste Package Design Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armijo, J.S.; Misra, M.; Kar, Piyush

    2007-01-01

    The following describes the objectives of Project Activity 023 ''Second Generation Waste Package Design Study'' under DOE Cooperative Agreement DE-FC28-04RW12232. The objectives of this activity are: to review the current YMP baseline environment and establish corrosion test environments representative of the range of dry to intermittently wet conditions expected in the drifts as a function of time; to demonstrate the oxidation and corrosion resistance of A588 weathering steel and reference Alloy 22 samples in the representative dry to intermittently dry conditions; and to evaluate backfill and design features to improve the thermal performance analyses of the proposed second-generation waste packages using existing models developed at the University of Nevada, Reno(UNR). The work plan for this project activity consists of three major tasks: Task 1. Definition of expected worst-case environments (humidity, liquid composition and temperature) at waste package outer surfaces as a function of time, and comparison with environments defined in the YMP baseline; Task 2. Oxidation and corrosion tests of proposed second-generation outer container material; and Task 3. Second Generation waste package thermal analyses. Full funding was not provided for this project activity

  20. Chitosan films and blends for packaging material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Broek, Lambertus A M; Knoop, Rutger J I; Kappen, Frans H J; Boeriu, Carmen G

    2015-02-13

    An increased interest for hygiene in everyday life as well as in food, feed and medical issues lead to a strong interest in films and blends to prevent the growth and accumulation of harmful bacteria. A growing trend is to use synthetic and natural antimicrobial polymers, to provide non-migratory and non-depleting protection agents for application in films, coatings and packaging. In food packaging, antimicrobial effects add up to the barrier properties of the materials, to increase the shelf life and product quality. Chitosan is a natural bioactive polysaccharide with intrinsic antimicrobial activity and, due to its exceptional physicochemical properties imparted by the polysaccharide backbone, has been recognized as a natural alternative to chemically synthesized antimicrobial polymers. This, associated with the increasing preference for biofunctional materials from renewable resources, resulted in a significant interest on the potential for application of chitosan in packaging materials. In this review we describe the latest developments of chitosan films and blends as packaging material. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. A package for environmental impact assessment of nuclear installations (NGLAR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Yin; Chen Xiaoqiu; Ding Jinhou; Zhao Hui; Xi Xiaojun; Li Hongsheng

    1996-09-01

    The main contents, designing strategies and properties of the microcomputer-based software package NGLAR are described for environmental impact assessment of nuclear installations. The package consists of the following components: NGAS and NACC, the codes for routine and accidental airborne releases respectively; NLIQ, the code for both routine and accidental liquid releases; and NRED, environmental database system of nuclear installations. NGAS and NACC are used for evaluating atmosphere dispersion and doses to public of radioactive materials released from nuclear facilities, giving the concentrations around the facilities of radionuclides in air, on ground surface, and in varieties of animal foods and farm produces, and further estimating collective doses and doses to critical group around the facilities. NLIQ is suitable for liquid effluence released to non-tide rivers, and is modelled to calculate firstly the concentration of radionuclides concerned in the polluted rivers, and then to estimate the resulting doses to public. Under routine releases, the doses obtained from NGAS and NLIQ can be appropriately categorized and summed up together. NRED can be run independently, also used to provide some input data for above programs and save data permanently for them. Having both English and Chinese versions, the package, which was fabricated of multiple functions can be run on IBM 386 or higher and its compatible microcomputers. (3 figs., 1 tabs)

  2. HPLOT: the graphics interface package for the HBOOK histogramming package

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watkins, H.

    1978-01-01

    The subroutine package HPLOT described in this report, enables the CERN histogramming package HBOOK to produce high-quality pictures by means of high-resolution devices such as plotters. HPLOT can be implemented on any scientific computing system with a Fortran IV compiler and can be interfaced with any graphics package; spectral routines in addition to the basic ones enable users to embellish their histograms. Examples are also given of the use of HPLOT as a graphics package for plotting simple pictures without histograms. (Auth.)

  3. The Ettention software package.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahmen, Tim; Marsalek, Lukas; Marniok, Nico; Turoňová, Beata; Bogachev, Sviatoslav; Trampert, Patrick; Nickels, Stefan; Slusallek, Philipp

    2016-02-01

    We present a novel software package for the problem "reconstruction from projections" in electron microscopy. The Ettention framework consists of a set of modular building-blocks for tomographic reconstruction algorithms. The well-known block iterative reconstruction method based on Kaczmarz algorithm is implemented using these building-blocks, including adaptations specific to electron tomography. Ettention simultaneously features (1) a modular, object-oriented software design, (2) optimized access to high-performance computing (HPC) platforms such as graphic processing units (GPU) or many-core architectures like Xeon Phi, and (3) accessibility to microscopy end-users via integration in the IMOD package and eTomo user interface. We also provide developers with a clean and well-structured application programming interface (API) that allows for extending the software easily and thus makes it an ideal platform for algorithmic research while hiding most of the technical details of high-performance computing. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. CH Packaging Operations Manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    This document provides the user with instructions for assembling a payload. All the steps in Subsections 1.2, Preparing 55-Gallon Drum Payload Assembly; 1.3, Preparing 'Short' 85-Gallon Drum Payload Assembly (TRUPACT-II and HalfPACT); 1.4, Preparing 'Tall' 85-gallon Drum Payload Assembly (HalfPACT only); 1.5, Preparing 100-Gallon Drum Payload Assembly; 1.6, Preparing SWB Payload Assembly; and 1.7, Preparing TDOP Payload Assembly, must be completed, but may be performed in any order as long as radiological control steps are not bypassed. Transport trailer operations, package loading and unloading from transport trailers, hoisting and rigging activities such as ACGLF operations, equipment checkout and shutdown, and component inspection activities must be performed, but may be performed in any order and in parallel with other activities as long as radiological control steps are not bypassed. Steps involving OCA/ICV lid removal/installation and payload removal/loading may be performed in parallel if there are multiple operators working on the same packaging. Steps involving removal/installation of OCV/ICV upper and lower main O-rings must be performed in sequence.

  5. CH Packaging Operations Manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    This document provides the user with instructions for assembling a payload. All the steps in Subsections 1.2, Preparing 55-Gallon Drum Payload Assembly; 1.3, Preparing 'Short' 85-Gallon Drum Payload Assembly (TRUPACT-II and HalfPACT); 1.4, Preparing 'Tall' 85-Gallon Drum Payload Assembly (HalfPACT only); 1.5, Preparing 100-Gallon Drum Payload Assembly; 1.6, Preparing Shielded Container Payload Assembly; 1.7, Preparing SWB Payload Assembly; and 1.8, Preparing TDOP Payload Assembly, must be completed, but may be performed in any order as long as radiological control steps are not bypassed. Transport trailer operations, package loading and unloading from transport trailers, hoisting and rigging activities such as ACGLF operations, equipment checkout and shutdown, and component inspection activities must be performed, but may be performed in any order and in parallel with other activities as long as radiological control steps are not bypassed. Steps involving OCA/ICV lid removal/installation and payload removal/loading may be performed in parallel if there are multiple operators working on the same packaging. Steps involving removal/installation of OCV/ICV upper and lower main O-rings must be performed in sequence, except as noted.

  6. CH Packaging Operations Manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2009-05-27

    This document provides the user with instructions for assembling a payload. All the steps in Subsections 1.2, Preparing 55-Gallon Drum Payload Assembly; 1.3, Preparing "Short" 85-Gallon Drum Payload Assembly (TRUPACT-II and HalfPACT); 1.4, Preparing "Tall" 85-Gallon Drum Payload Assembly (HalfPACT only); 1.5, Preparing 100-Gallon Drum Payload Assembly; 1.6, Preparing Shielded Container Payload Assembly; 1.7, Preparing SWB Payload Assembly; and 1.8, Preparing TDOP Payload Assembly, must be completed, but may be performed in any order as long as radiological control steps are not bypassed. Transport trailer operations, package loading and unloading from transport trailers, hoisting and rigging activities such as ACGLF operations, equipment checkout and shutdown, and component inspection activities must be performed, but may be performed in any order and in parallel with other activities as long as radiological control steps are not bypassed. Steps involving OCA/ICV lid removal/installation and payload removal/loading may be performed in parallel if there are multiple operators working on the same packaging. Steps involving removal/installation of OCV/ICV upper and lower main O-rings must be performed in sequence, except as noted.

  7. Packaging supplier inspection guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stromberg, H.M.; Gregg, R.E.; Kido, C.; Boyle, C.D.

    1991-05-01

    This is document is a guide for conducting quality assurance inspections of transportations packaging suppliers, where suppliers are defined as designers, fabricators, distributors, users, or owners of transportation packaging. This document can be used during an inspection to determine regulatory compliance within the requirements of 10 Code of Federal Regulations, Part 71, Subpart H (10 CFR 71.101--71.135). The guidance described in this document provides a framework for an inspection. It provides the inspector with the flexibility to adapt the methods and concepts presented here to meet the needs of the particular facility being inspected. The guide was developed to ensure a structured and consistent approach for inspections. The method treats each activity at a supplier facility as a separate entity (or functional element), and combines the activities within the framework of an ''inspection tree.'' The method separates each functional element into several areas of performance and then identifies guidelines, based on regulatory requirements, to be used to qualitatively rate each area. This document was developed to serve as a field manual to facilitate the work of inspectors. 1 ref., 1 fig., 5 tabs

  8. Tamper indicating packaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baumann, M.J.; Bartberger, J.C.; Welch, T.D.

    1994-01-01

    Protecting sensitive items from undetected tampering in an unattended environment is crucial to the success of non-proliferation efforts relying on the verification of critical activities. Tamper Indicating Packaging (TIP) technologies are applied to containers, packages, and equipment that require an indication of a tamper attempt. Examples include: the transportation and storage of nuclear material, the operation and shipment of surveillance equipment and monitoring sensors, and the retail storage of medicine and food products. The spectrum of adversarial tampering ranges from attempted concealment of a pin-hole sized penetration to the complete container replacement, which would involve counterfeiting efforts of various degrees. Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) has developed a technology base for advanced TIP materials, sensors, designs, and processes which can be adapted to various future monitoring systems. The purpose of this technology base is to investigate potential new technologies, and to perform basic research of advanced technologies. This paper will describe the theory of TIP technologies and recent investigations of TIP technologies at SNL

  9. Japan's electronic packaging technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tummala, Rao R.; Pecht, Michael

    1995-02-01

    The JTEC panel found Japan to have significant leadership over the United States in the strategic area of electronic packaging. Many technologies and products once considered the 'heart and soul' of U.S. industry have been lost over the past decades to Japan and other Asian countries. The loss of consumer electronics technologies and products is the most notable of these losses, because electronics is the United States' largest employment sector and is critical for growth businesses in consumer products, computers, automobiles, aerospace, and telecommunications. In the past there was a distinction between consumer and industrial product technologies. While Japan concentrated on the consumer market, the United States dominated the industrial sector. No such distinction is anticipated in the future; the consumer-oriented technologies Japan has dominated are expected to characterize both domains. The future of U.S. competitiveness will, therefore, depend on the ability of the United States to rebuild its technological capabilities in the area of portable electronic packaging.

  10. An evaluation of department of transportation specification packages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ratledge, J.E.; Rawl, R.R.

    1993-01-01

    Specification packages are broad families of package designs developed and authorized by the U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) for transport of certain Type B and fissile radioactive materials, with each specification containing a number of designs of various sizes. The specification package designs have remained essentially unchanged in a changing regulatory environment. Changes to package designs or authorized contents under the DOT system can be accomplished by rule making action, but there has been little updating of the designs over the years. Many of the individual package designs are no longer supported by reasonably current safety analyses. Since the publication of these specifications, there have been changes in regulatory requirements and improvements in methods of testing and analysis. Additionally, contemplated revisions to the DOT and NRC regulations to bring design requirements into accord with IAEA Safety Series No. 6, 1985 Edition would eliminate fissile classes and require resistance to a crush test for small Type B packages meeting certain criteria. The NRC has requested that the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) staff review the safety documentation of the specification packages to determine the possible need for further testing and analysis, modifications to the designs, and, perhaps, elimination of any designs for which there is insufficient demonstration of compliance with current and proposed requirements. This paper will present a summary of the technical data and information concerning the use of the packages that has been received to date. (author)

  11. Nuclear waste package fabricated from concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pfeiffer, P.A.; Kennedy, J.M.

    1987-03-01

    After the United States enacted the Nuclear Waste Policy Act in 1983, the Department of Energy must design, site, build and operate permanent geologic repositories for high-level nuclear waste. The Department of Energy has recently selected three sites, one being the Hanford Site in the state of Washington. At this particular site, the repository will be located in basalt at a depth of approximately 3000 feet deep. The main concern of this site, is contamination of the groundwater by release of radionuclides from the waste package. The waste package basically has three components: the containment barrier (metal or concrete container, in this study concrete will be considered), the waste form, and other materials (such as packing material, emplacement hole liners, etc.). The containment barriers are the primary waste container structural materials and are intended to provide containment of the nuclear waste up to a thousand years after emplacement. After the containment barriers are breached by groundwater, the packing material (expanding sodium bentonite clay) is expected to provide the primary control of release of radionuclide into the immediate repository environment. The loading conditions on the concrete container (from emplacement to approximately 1000 years), will be twofold; (1) internal heat of the high-level waste which could be up to 400 0 C; (2) external hydrostatic pressure up to 1300 psi after the seepage of groundwater has occurred in the emplacement tunnel. A suggested container is a hollow plain concrete cylinder with both ends capped. 7 refs

  12. Advanced Manufacturing Systems in Food Processing and Packaging Industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sani, Mohd Shafie; Aziz, Faieza Abdul

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, several advanced manufacturing systems in food processing and packaging industry are reviewed, including: biodegradable smart packaging and Nano composites, advanced automation control system consists of fieldbus technology, distributed control system and food safety inspection features. The main purpose of current technology in food processing and packaging industry is discussed due to major concern on efficiency of the plant process, productivity, quality, as well as safety. These application were chosen because they are robust, flexible, reconfigurable, preserve the quality of the food, and efficient.

  13. Advanced Manufacturing Systems in Food Processing and Packaging Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafie Sani, Mohd; Aziz, Faieza Abdul

    2013-06-01

    In this paper, several advanced manufacturing systems in food processing and packaging industry are reviewed, including: biodegradable smart packaging and Nano composites, advanced automation control system consists of fieldbus technology, distributed control system and food safety inspection features. The main purpose of current technology in food processing and packaging industry is discussed due to major concern on efficiency of the plant process, productivity, quality, as well as safety. These application were chosen because they are robust, flexible, reconfigurable, preserve the quality of the food, and efficient.

  14. Review of specific effects in atmospheric dispersion calculations. The impact of source-term characteristics -and the processes that modify them post release- on dry and wet deposition rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, P.J.; Underwood, B.Y.; Brearley, I.

    1985-01-01

    In the first half of the work the source-term characteristics potentially influencing behaviour were identified and examined. It was concluded that a number of source characteristics, in addition to those conventionally provided for consequence assessment, could significantly influence deposition behaviour. Linking with this, a review was undertaken of past reactor-accident risk assessment and more recent source-term studies to pick out information, if any, on the parameters of interest. The second half of the study resulted in a list of processes capable of transforming the released material vis-a-vis deposition characteristics, including processes occurring in the near field associated with the initial release transient and also those occurring over a longer time span as the plume travels downwind. Scoping calculations were performed for some of the processes in the context of idealized accident scenarios, leading to the conclusions that in some circumstances post-release mechanisms could have an important impact on the deposition behaviour of released material. Statistical theory was used to describe the behaviour of a plume both before and after detachment, and the limitations of the theory were discussed. A review of the lateral wind velocity spectra was undertaken so that simplified spectra could be constructed and used to predict the plume behaviour as a function of travel time, stability category and release duration. It was found that commonly used methods of allowing for release duration overpredicted the dependence, in general, upon release duration. For example the adoption of a stability-independent meandering term would lead to the underprediction of threshold effects such as early death and land/crop interdiction. In addition, theory indicated that the 'Y' curves for different stability categories would converge gradually with increasing travel time

  15. Courseware Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risley, John S.

    1984-01-01

    Reviews software package consisting of three programs designed to give students practice on V=IR calculations for series, parallel, and network electric circuits. Indicates that the package for Apple II microcomputers is very good for individual practice and that graphics are useful in teaching students how to draw circuits. (JN)

  16. Methane release

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seifert, M.

    1999-01-01

    The Swiss Gas Industry has carried out a systematic, technical estimate of methane release from the complete supply chain from production to consumption for the years 1992/1993. The result of this survey provided a conservative value, amounting to 0.9% of the Swiss domestic output. A continuation of the study taking into account new findings with regard to emission factors and the effect of the climate is now available, which provides a value of 0.8% for the target year of 1996. These results show that the renovation of the network has brought about lower losses in the local gas supplies, particularly for the grey cast iron pipelines. (author)

  17. K east encapsulation packager modifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jensen, M.A.

    1994-01-01

    This Supporting Document analyzes a proposal for reducing the under-packager volume to decrease the amount of fissile material that could accumulate there. The analysis shows that restricting the under packager volume to no more than 4080 in 3 will assure that if accumulated fissile material beneath the packager is added to the worst-case mass of fissile material in the discharge chute, a k eff of 0.98 will not be exceeded

  18. System issues for multichip packaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sage, Maurice G.; Hartley, Neil

    1991-04-01

    It is now generally recognised that the performance of an electronic system is governed by the choice of packaging technology. Never before have the technical and financial implications of a packaging technology choice been more critical and never before has technology interdependence or industry globalisation made the choice more difficult. This paper is aimed at examining the choices available and the system issues resulting from the move from single chip to multichip packaging.

  19. IN-PACKAGE CHEMISTRY ABSTRACTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    E. Thomas

    2005-07-14

    This report was developed in accordance with the requirements in ''Technical Work Plan for Postclosure Waste Form Modeling'' (BSC 2005 [DIRS 173246]). The purpose of the in-package chemistry model is to predict the bulk chemistry inside of a breached waste package and to provide simplified expressions of that chemistry as a function of time after breach to Total Systems Performance Assessment for the License Application (TSPA-LA). The scope of this report is to describe the development and validation of the in-package chemistry model. The in-package model is a combination of two models, a batch reactor model, which uses the EQ3/6 geochemistry-modeling tool, and a surface complexation model, which is applied to the results of the batch reactor model. The batch reactor model considers chemical interactions of water with the waste package materials, and the waste form for commercial spent nuclear fuel (CSNF) waste packages and codisposed (CDSP) waste packages containing high-level waste glass (HLWG) and DOE spent fuel. The surface complexation model includes the impact of fluid-surface interactions (i.e., surface complexation) on the resulting fluid composition. The model examines two types of water influx: (1) the condensation of water vapor diffusing into the waste package, and (2) seepage water entering the waste package as a liquid from the drift. (1) Vapor-Influx Case: The condensation of vapor onto the waste package internals is simulated as pure H{sub 2}O and enters at a rate determined by the water vapor pressure for representative temperature and relative humidity conditions. (2) Liquid-Influx Case: The water entering a waste package from the drift is simulated as typical groundwater and enters at a rate determined by the amount of seepage available to flow through openings in a breached waste package.

  20. IN-PACKAGE CHEMISTRY ABSTRACTION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    E. Thomas

    2005-01-01

    This report was developed in accordance with the requirements in ''Technical Work Plan for Postclosure Waste Form Modeling'' (BSC 2005 [DIRS 173246]). The purpose of the in-package chemistry model is to predict the bulk chemistry inside of a breached waste package and to provide simplified expressions of that chemistry as a function of time after breach to Total Systems Performance Assessment for the License Application (TSPA-LA). The scope of this report is to describe the development and validation of the in-package chemistry model. The in-package model is a combination of two models, a batch reactor model, which uses the EQ3/6 geochemistry-modeling tool, and a surface complexation model, which is applied to the results of the batch reactor model. The batch reactor model considers chemical interactions of water with the waste package materials, and the waste form for commercial spent nuclear fuel (CSNF) waste packages and codisposed (CDSP) waste packages containing high-level waste glass (HLWG) and DOE spent fuel. The surface complexation model includes the impact of fluid-surface interactions (i.e., surface complexation) on the resulting fluid composition. The model examines two types of water influx: (1) the condensation of water vapor diffusing into the waste package, and (2) seepage water entering the waste package as a liquid from the drift. (1) Vapor-Influx Case: The condensation of vapor onto the waste package internals is simulated as pure H 2 O and enters at a rate determined by the water vapor pressure for representative temperature and relative humidity conditions. (2) Liquid-Influx Case: The water entering a waste package from the drift is simulated as typical groundwater and enters at a rate determined by the amount of seepage available to flow through openings in a breached waste package

  1. A combined experimental and analytical approach for interface fracture parameters of dissimilar materials in electronic packages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kay, N.R.; Ghosh, S.; Guven, I.; Madenci, E.

    2006-01-01

    This study concerns the development of a combined experimental and analytical technique to determine the critical values of fracture parameters for interfaces between dissimilar materials in electronic packages. This technique utilizes specimens from post-production electronic packages. The mechanical testing is performed inside a scanning electron microscope while the measurements are achieved by means of digital image correlation. The measured displacements around the crack tip are used as the boundary conditions for the analytical model to compute the energy release rate. The critical energy release rate values obtained from post-production package specimens are obtained to be lower than those laboratory specimens

  2. Packaging of control system software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zagar, K.; Kobal, M.; Saje, N.; Zagar, A.; Sabjan, R.; Di Maio, F.; Stepanov, D.

    2012-01-01

    Control system software consists of several parts - the core of the control system, drivers for integration of devices, configuration for user interfaces, alarm system, etc. Once the software is developed and configured, it must be installed to computers where it runs. Usually, it is installed on an operating system whose services it needs, and also in some cases dynamically links with the libraries it provides. Operating system can be quite complex itself - for example, a typical Linux distribution consists of several thousand packages. To manage this complexity, we have decided to rely on Red Hat Package Management system (RPM) to package control system software, and also ensure it is properly installed (i.e., that dependencies are also installed, and that scripts are run after installation if any additional actions need to be performed). As dozens of RPM packages need to be prepared, we are reducing the amount of effort and improving consistency between packages through a Maven-based infrastructure that assists in packaging (e.g., automated generation of RPM SPEC files, including automated identification of dependencies). So far, we have used it to package EPICS, Control System Studio (CSS) and several device drivers. We perform extensive testing on Red Hat Enterprise Linux 5.5, but we have also verified that packaging works on CentOS and Scientific Linux. In this article, we describe in greater detail the systematic system of packaging we are using, and its particular application for the ITER CODAC Core System. (authors)

  3. Naval Waste Package Design Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    M.M. Lewis

    2004-01-01

    A design methodology for the waste packages and ancillary components, viz., the emplacement pallets and drip shields, has been developed to provide designs that satisfy the safety and operational requirements of the Yucca Mountain Project. This methodology is described in the ''Waste Package Design Methodology Report'' Mecham 2004 [DIRS 166168]. To demonstrate the practicability of this design methodology, four waste package design configurations have been selected to illustrate the application of the methodology. These four design configurations are the 21-pressurized water reactor (PWR) Absorber Plate waste package, the 44-boiling water reactor (BWR) waste package, the 5-defense high-level waste (DHLW)/United States (U.S.) Department of Energy (DOE) spent nuclear fuel (SNF) Co-disposal Short waste package, and the Naval Canistered SNF Long waste package. Also included in this demonstration is the emplacement pallet and continuous drip shield. The purpose of this report is to document how that design methodology has been applied to the waste package design configurations intended to accommodate naval canistered SNF. This demonstrates that the design methodology can be applied successfully to this waste package design configuration and support the License Application for construction of the repository

  4. Salt Repository Project: Waste Package Program (WPP) modeling activiteis: FY 1984 annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuhn, W.L.; Simonson, S.A.; Pulsipher, B.A.

    1987-03-01

    The Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) is supporting the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Salt Repository Project (SRP) through its Waste Package Program (WPP). During FY 1984, the WPP continued its program of waste package component development and interactions testing and application of the resulting data base to develop predictive models describing waste package degradation and radionuclide release. Within the WPP, the Modeling Task (Task 04 during FY 1984) was conducted to interpret the tests in such a way that scientifically defensible models can be developed for use in qualification of the waste package

  5. Methodologies for assessing long-term performance of high-level radioactive waste packages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stephens, K.; Boesch, L.; Crane, B.; Johnson, R.; Moler, R.; Smith, S.; Zaremba, L.

    1986-01-01

    Several methods the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) can use to independently assess Department of Energy (DOE) waste package performance were identified by The Aerospace Corporation. The report includes an overview of the necessary attributes of performance assessment, followed by discussions of DOE methods, probabilistic methods capable of predicting waste package lifetime and radionuclide releases, process modeling of waste package barriers, sufficiency of the necessary input data, and the applicability of probability density functions. It is recommended that the initial NRC performance assessment (for the basalt conceptual waste package design) should apply modular simulation, using available process models and data, to demonstrate this assessment method

  6. Current topics in active and intelligent food packaging for preservation of fresh foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seung Yuan; Lee, Seung Jae; Choi, Dong Soo; Hur, Sun Jin

    2015-11-01

    The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of current packaging systems, e.g. active packaging and intelligent packaging, for various foods. Active packaging, such as modified atmosphere packaging (MAP), extends the shelf life of fresh produce, provides a high-quality product, reduces economic losses, including those caused by delay of ripening, and improves appearance. However, in active packaging, several variables must be considered, such as temperature control and different gas formulations with different product types and microorganisms. Active packaging refers to the incorporation of additive agents into packaging materials with the purpose of maintaining or extending food product quality and shelf life. Intelligent packaging is emerging as a potential advantage in food processing and is an especially useful tool for tracking product information and monitoring product conditions. Moreover, intelligent packaging facilitates data access and information exchange by altering conditions inside or outside the packaging and product. In spite of these advantages, few of these packaging systems are commercialized because of high cost, strict safety and hygiene regulations or limited consumer acceptance. Therefore more research is needed to develop cheaper, more easily applicable and effective packaging systems for various foods. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  7. Anhydrous Ammonia Training Module. Trainer's Package. Participant's Package.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaudin, Bart; And Others

    This document contains a trainer's and a participant's package for teaching employees on site safe handling procedures for working with anhydrous ammonia, especially on farms. The trainer's package includes the following: a description of the module; a competency; objectives; suggested instructional aids; a training outline (or lesson plan) for…

  8. The Packaging Handbook -- A guide to package design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shappert, L.B.

    1995-01-01

    The Packaging Handbook is a compilation of 14 technical chapters and five appendices that address the life cycle of a packaging which is intended to transport radioactive material by any transport mode in normal commerce. Although many topics are discussed in depth, this document focuses on the design aspects of a packaging. The Handbook, which is being prepared under the direction of the US Department of Energy, is intended to provide a wealth of technical guidance that will give designers a better understanding of the regulatory approval process, preferences of regulators in specific aspects of packaging design, and the types of analyses that should be seriously considered when developing the packaging design. Even though the Handbook is concerned with all packagings, most of the emphasis is placed on large packagings that are capable of transporting large radioactive sources that are also fissile (e.g., spent fuel). These are the types of packagings that must address the widest range of technical topics in order to meet domestic and international regulations. Most of the chapters in the Handbook have been drafted and submitted to the Oak Ridge National Laboratory for editing; the majority of these have been edited. This report summarizes the contents

  9. Electronic equipment packaging technology

    CERN Document Server

    Ginsberg, Gerald L

    1992-01-01

    The last twenty years have seen major advances in the electronics industry. Perhaps the most significant aspect of these advances has been the significant role that electronic equipment plays in almost all product markets. Even though electronic equipment is used in a broad base of applications, many future applications have yet to be conceived. This versatility of electron­ ics has been brought about primarily by the significant advances that have been made in integrated circuit technology. The electronic product user is rarely aware of the integrated circuits within the equipment. However, the user is often very aware of the size, weight, mod­ ularity, maintainability, aesthetics, and human interface features of the product. In fact, these are aspects of the products that often are instrumental in deter­ mining its success or failure in the marketplace. Optimizing these and other product features is the primary role of Electronic Equipment Packaging Technology. As the electronics industry continues to pr...

  10. Blasting agent package

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, R.

    1971-03-17

    A protected preassembled package for blasting agents susceptible to desensitization by water consists of, in combination: (1) an inner rigid and self-supporting tube, the upper end of which is suited to be connected, or attached, to the discharge end of a loading hose for a blasting agent and the lower end of which is open; and (2) a flexible tubular liner made of water-resistant film, having a diameter greater than that of the inner tube and a length at least equal to the desired depth of its insertion into the borehole, the liner being sleeved over the length of the inner tube, the upper end of the liner being attached to the inner tube and the lower end of the liner being closed so as to prevent substantial discharge of the explosive mixture therefrom when the latter is pumped into it. (24 claims)

  11. Tritium waste package

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossmassler, Rich; Ciebiera, Lloyd; Tulipano, Francis J.; Vinson, Sylvester; Walters, R. Thomas

    1995-01-01

    A containment and waste package system for processing and shipping tritium xide waste received from a process gas includes an outer drum and an inner drum containing a disposable molecular sieve bed (DMSB) seated within outer drum. The DMSB includes an inlet diffuser assembly, an outlet diffuser assembly, and a hydrogen catalytic recombiner. The DMSB absorbs tritium oxide from the process gas and converts it to a solid form so that the tritium is contained during shipment to a disposal site. The DMSB is filled with type 4A molecular sieve pellets capable of adsorbing up to 1000 curies of tritium. The recombiner contains a sufficient amount of catalyst to cause any hydrogen add oxygen present in the process gas to recombine to form water vapor, which is then adsorbed onto the DMSB.

  12. Pituitary block with gonadotrophin-releasing hormone antagonist during intrauterine insemination cycles: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitagliano, A; Saccone, G; Noventa, M; Borini, A; Coccia, M E; Nardelli, G B; Saccardi, C; Bifulco, G; Litta, P S; Andrisani, A

    2018-06-03

    Several randomised controlled trials (RCTs) have investigated the usefulness of pituitary block with gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) antagonists during intrauterine insemination (IUI) cycles, with conflicting results. The aim of the present systematic review and meta-analysis of RCTs was to evaluate the effectiveness of GnRH antagonist administration as an intervention to improve the success of IUI cycles. Electronic databases (MEDLINE, Scopus, EMBASE, Sciencedirect) and clinical registers were searched from their inception until October 2017. Randomised controlled trials of infertile women undergoing one or more IUI stimulated cycles with GnRH antagonists compared with a control group. The primary outcomes were ongoing pregnancy/live birth rate (OPR/LBR) and clinical pregnancy rate (CPR). Pooled results were expressed as odds ratio (OR) or mean differences with 95% confidence interval (95% CI). Sources of heterogeneity were investigated through sensitivity and subgroups analysis. The body of evidence was rated using GRADE methodology. Publication bias was assessed with funnel plot, Begg's and Egger's tests. Fifteen RCTs were included (3253 IUI cycles, 2345 participants). No differences in OPR/LBR (OR 1.14, 95% CI 0.82-1.57, P = 0.44) and CPR (OR 1.28, 95% CI 0.97-1.69, P = 0.08) were found. Sensitivity and subgroup analyses did not provide statistical changes in pooled results. The body of evidence was rated as low (GRADE 2/4). No publication bias was detected. Pituitary block with GnRH antagonists does not improve OPR/LBR and CPR in women undergoing IUI cycles. Pituitary block with GnRH antagonists does not improve the success of IUI cycles. © 2018 Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  13. A User-Friendly Software Package for HIFU Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soneson, Joshua E.

    2009-04-01

    A freely-distributed, MATLAB (The Mathworks, Inc., Natick, MA)-based software package for simulating axisymmetric high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) beams and their heating effects is discussed. The package (HIFU_Simulator) consists of a propagation module which solves the Khokhlov-Zabolotskaya-Kuznetsov (KZK) equation and a heating module which solves Pennes' bioheat transfer (BHT) equation. The pressure, intensity, heating rate, temperature, and thermal dose fields are computed, plotted, the output is released to the MATLAB workspace for further user analysis or postprocessing.

  14. Nanocomposites in food packaging – A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    A nanocomposite is a multiphase material derived from the combination of two or more components, including a matrix (continuous phase) and a discontinuous nano-dimensional phase with at least one nano-sized dimension (i.e. less than 100 nm). The main types of nanostructures are presented in this ch...

  15. Techniques for Reaeration of Hydropower Releases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-02-01

    release improvement. However, selected reservoir aeration studies not conducted primarily for improving hydroturbine releases but which have application...for hydroturbine release reaeration were also reviewed. Because oxygen transfer mechanisms are vitally important to the development of more efficient...the key words turbine aeration, turbine vent, turbine I’ aspiration, hydroturbine aeration, tailrace aeration, draft tube vent, and vacuum breaker. A

  16. Packaging and transport of radioisotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, C.B.G.

    1976-01-01

    The importance of radioisotope traffic is emphasized. More than a million packages are being transported each year, mostly for medical uses. The involvement of public transport services and the incidental dose to the public (which is very small) are appreciably greater than for movements connected with the nuclear fuel cycle. Modern isotope packages are described, and an outline given of the problems of a large radioisotope manufacturer who has to package many different types of product. Difficulties caused by recent uncoordinated restrictions on the use of passenger aircraft are mentioned. Some specific problems relating to radioisotope packaging are discussed. These include the crush resistance of Type A packages, the closure of steel drums, the design of secure closures for large containers, the Type A packaging of liquids, leak tightness criteria of Type B packages, and the use of 'unit load' overpacks to consign a group of individually approved packages together as a single shipment. Reference is made to recent studies of the impact of radioisotope shipments on the environment. Cost/benefit analysis is important in this field - an important public debate is only just beginning. (author)

  17. Ensuring socially responsible packaging design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geert Jensen, Birgitte

    Most consumers have experienced occasional problems with opening packaging. Tomato sauce from the tinned mackerel splattered all over the kitchen counter, the unrelenting pickle jar lid, and the package of sliced ham that cannot be opened without a knife or a pair of scissors. The research project...

  18. Solar water heater design package

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    Package describes commercial domestic-hot-water heater with roof or rack mounted solar collectors. System is adjustable to pre-existing gas or electric hot-water house units. Design package includes drawings, description of automatic control logic, evaluation measurements, possible design variations, list of materials and installation tools, and trouble-shooting guide and manual.

  19. Software Reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwyer, Donna; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Reviewed are seven software packages for Apple and IBM computers. Included are: "Toxicology"; "Science Corner: Space Probe"; "Alcohol and Pregnancy"; "Science Tool Kit Plus"; Computer Investigations: Plant Growth"; "Climatrolls"; and "Animal Watch: Whales." (CW)

  20. 19 CFR 191.13 - Packaging materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Packaging materials. 191.13 Section 191.13 Customs... (CONTINUED) DRAWBACK General Provisions § 191.13 Packaging materials. (a) Imported packaging material... packaging material when used to package or repackage merchandise or articles exported or destroyed pursuant...