Spinning relativistic particles in external fields
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pomeranskii, Andrei A; Sen'kov, Roman A; Khriplovich, Iosif B
2000-01-01
The motion of spinning relativistic particles in external electromagnetic and gravitational fields is considered. The self-consistent equations of motion are built with the noncovariant description of spin and with the usual, 'naive' definition of the coordinate of a relativistic particle. A simple derivation of the gravitational interaction of first order in spin is presented for a relativistic particle. The approach developed allows one to consider effects of higher order in spin. Concrete calculations are performed for the second order. The gravimagnetic moment is discussed, a special spin effect in general relativity. We also consider the contributions of the spin interactions of first and second order to the gravitational radiation of compact binary stars. (from the current literature)
Relativistic Spinning Particle without Grassmann Variables and the Dirac Equation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A. A. Deriglazov
2011-01-01
Full Text Available We present the relativistic particle model without Grassmann variables which, being canonically quantized, leads to the Dirac equation. Classical dynamics of the model is in correspondence with the dynamics of mean values of the corresponding operators in the Dirac theory. Classical equations for the spin tensor are the same as those of the Barut-Zanghi model of spinning particle.
Relativistic motion of spinning particles in a gravitational field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chicone, C.; Mashhoon, B.; Punsly, B.
2005-01-01
The relative motion of a classical relativistic spinning test particle is studied with respect to a nearby free test particle in the gravitational field of a rotating source. The effects of the spin-curvature coupling force are elucidated and the implications of the results for the motion of rotating plasma clumps in astrophysical jets are discussed
Canonical quantization of spinning relativistic particle in external backgrounds
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Gavrilov, S.P. [Universidade Federal de Sergipe (UFS), Aracaju, SE (Brazil); Gitman, D.M. [Sao Paulo Univ. (USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica
2000-07-01
Full text follows: We revise the problem of the quantization of spinning relativistic particle pseudoclassical model, using a modified consistent canonical scheme. It allows one not only to include arbitrary electromagnetic and gravitational backgrounds in the consideration but to get in course of the quantization a consistent relativistic quantum mechanics, which reproduces literally the behavior of the one-particle sector of quantized spinor field. In particular, in a physical sector of the Hilbert space a complete positive spectrum of energies of relativistic particles and antiparticles is reproduced. Requirement to maintain all classical symmetries under the coordinate transformations and under U(1) transformations allows one to realize operator algebra without any ambiguities. (author)
Classical relativistic spinning particle with anomalous magnetic moment: The precession of spin
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Barut, A.O.; Cruz, M.G.
1993-05-01
The theory of classical relativistic spinning particles with c-number internal spinor variables, modelling accurately the Dirac electron, is generalized to particles with anomalous magnetic moments. The equations of motion are derived and the problem of spin precession is discussed and compared with other theories of spin. (author). 32 refs
Non-relativistic spinning particle in a Newton-Cartan background
Barducci, Andrea; Casalbuoni, Roberto; Gomis, Joaquim
2018-01-01
We construct the action of a non-relativistic spinning particle moving in a general torsionless Newton-Cartan background. The particle does not follow the geodesic equations, instead the motion is governed by the non-relativistic analog of Papapetrou equation. The spinning particle is described in terms of Grassmann variables. In the flat case the action is invariant under the non-relativistic analog of space-time vector supersymmetry.
Two-spinor description of massive particles and relativistic spin projection operators
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A.P. Isaev
2018-04-01
Full Text Available On the basis of the Wigner unitary representations of the covering group ISL(2,C of the Poincaré group, we obtain spin-tensor wave functions of free massive particles with arbitrary spin. The wave functions automatically satisfy the Dirac–Pauli–Fierz equations. In the framework of the two-spinor formalism we construct spin-vectors of polarizations and obtain conditions that fix the corresponding relativistic spin projection operators (Behrends–Fronsdal projection operators. With the help of these conditions we find explicit expressions for relativistic spin projection operators for integer spins (Behrends–Fronsdal projection operators and then find relativistic spin projection operators for half integer spins. These projection operators determine the numerators in the propagators of fields of relativistic particles. We deduce generalizations of the Behrends–Fronsdal projection operators for arbitrary space–time dimensions D>2.
Two-spinor description of massive particles and relativistic spin projection operators
Isaev, A. P.; Podoinitsyn, M. A.
2018-04-01
On the basis of the Wigner unitary representations of the covering group ISL (2 , C) of the Poincaré group, we obtain spin-tensor wave functions of free massive particles with arbitrary spin. The wave functions automatically satisfy the Dirac-Pauli-Fierz equations. In the framework of the two-spinor formalism we construct spin-vectors of polarizations and obtain conditions that fix the corresponding relativistic spin projection operators (Behrends-Fronsdal projection operators). With the help of these conditions we find explicit expressions for relativistic spin projection operators for integer spins (Behrends-Fronsdal projection operators) and then find relativistic spin projection operators for half integer spins. These projection operators determine the numerators in the propagators of fields of relativistic particles. We deduce generalizations of the Behrends-Fronsdal projection operators for arbitrary space-time dimensions D > 2.
A relativistic colored spinning particle in an external color field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Heinz, U.
1984-01-01
I derive fully covariant equations of motion for a classical colored spinning particle in an external SU(3) color field. Although the total color charge and total spin of the particle are found to be separately constants of motion (here I disagree with a recent paper by Arodz), the dynamics of the orientation of the color and spin vectors are coupled to each other through interaction with the color field, even if the latter is homogeneous. (orig.)
Relativistic Equations for Spin Particles: What can We Learn from Noncommutativity?
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dvoeglazov, V. V.
2009-01-01
We derive relativistic equations for charged and neutral spin particles. The approach for higher-spin particles is based on generalizations of the Bargmann-Wigner formalism. Next, we study, what new physical information can give the introduction of non-commutativity. Additional non-commutative parameters can provide a suitable basis for explanation of the origin of mass.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Barut, A.O.; Cruz, M.G.
1992-08-01
We use the method of analytic continuation of the equation of motion including the self-fields to evaluate the radiation reaction for a classical relativistic spinning point particle in interaction with scalar, tensor and linearized gravitational fields in flat spacetime. In the limit these equations reduce to those of spinless particles. We also show the renormalizability of these theories. (author). 10 refs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hegstrom, R.A.; Lhuillier, C.
1977-01-01
Starting from a classical covariant equation of motion for the spin of a particle moving in a homogeneous electromagnetic field (the Bargmann-Michel-Telegdi equation), we show that the ''relativistic mass'' correction to the electron spin magnetic moment, which has been obtained previously from relativistic quantum-mechanical treatments of the Zeeman effect, may be reinterpreted as the combination of three classical effects: (i) the difference in time scales in the electron rest frame vis-a-vis the lab frame, (ii) the Lorentz transformation of the magnetic field between the two frames, and (iii) the Thomas precession of the electron spin due to the acceleration of the electron produced by the magnetic field
Gravitational waves from a spinning particle scattered by a relativistic star: Axial mode case
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tominaga, Kazuhiro; Saijo, Motoyuki; Maeda, Kei-ichi
2001-01-01
We use a perturbation method to study gravitational waves from a spinning test particle scattered by a relativistic star. The present analysis is restricted to axial modes. By calculating the energy spectrum, the wave forms, and the total energy and angular momentum of gravitational waves, we analyze the dependence of the emitted gravitational waves on particle spin. For a normal neutron star, the energy spectrum has one broad peak whose characteristic frequency corresponds to the angular velocity at the turning point (a periastron). Since the turning point is determined by the orbital parameter, there exists a dependence of the gravitational wave on particle spin. We find that the total energy of l=2 gravitational waves gets larger as the spin increases in the antiparallel direction to the orbital angular momentum. For an ultracompact star, in addition to such an orbital contribution, we find the quasinormal modes excited by a scattered particle, whose excitation rate to gravitational waves depends on the particle spin. We also discuss the ratio of the total angular momentum to the total energy of gravitational waves and explain its spin dependence
Relativistic particles with spin and antisymmetric tensor fields
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sandoval Junior, L.
1990-09-01
A study is made on antisymmetric tensor fields particularly on second order tensor field as far as his equivalence to other fields and quantization through the path integral are concerned. Also, a particle model is studied which has been recently proposed and reveals to be equivalent to antisymmetric tensor fields of any order. (L.C.J.A.)
Relativistic particle in a box
Alberto, P.; Fiolhais, Carlos; Gil, Victor
1996-01-01
The problem of a relativistic spin 1/2 particle confined to a one-dimensional box is solved in a way that resembles closely the solution of the well known quantum-mechanical textbook problem of a non-relativistic particle in a box. The energy levels and probability density are computed and compared with the non-relativistic case
Spin 0 and spin 1/2 quantum relativistic particles in a constant gravitational field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Khorrami, M.; Alimohammadi, M.; Shariati, A.
2003-01-01
The Klein-Gordon and Dirac equations in a semi-infinite lab (x>0), in the background metric ds 2 =u 2 (x)(-dt 2 +dx 2 )+dy 2 +dz 2 , are investigated. The resulting equations are studied for the special case u(x)=1+gx. It is shown that in the case of zero transverse-momentum, the square of the energy eigenvalues of the spin-1/2 particles are less than the squares of the corresponding eigenvalues of spin-0 particles with same masses, by an amount of mgℎc. Finally, for non-zero transverse-momentum, the energy eigenvalues corresponding to large quantum numbers are obtained and the results for spin-0 and spin-1/2 particles are compared to each other
Superluminal tunneling of a relativistic half-integer spin particle through a potential barrier
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Nanni Luca
2017-11-01
Full Text Available This paper investigates the problem of a relativistic Dirac half-integer spin free particle tunneling through a rectangular quantum-mechanical barrier. If the energy difference between the barrier and the particle is positive, and the barrier width is large enough, there is proof that the tunneling may be superluminal. For first spinor components of particle and antiparticle states, the tunneling is always superluminal regardless the barrier width. Conversely, the second spinor components of particle and antiparticle states may be either subluminal or superluminal depending on the barrier width. These results derive from studying the tunneling time in terms of phase time. For the first spinor components of particle and antiparticle states, it is always negative while for the second spinor components of particle and antiparticle states, it is always positive, whatever the height and width of the barrier. In total, the tunneling time always remains positive for particle states while it becomes negative for antiparticle ones. Furthermore, the phase time tends to zero, increasing the potential barrier both for particle and antiparticle states. This agrees with the interpretation of quantum tunneling that the Heisenberg uncertainty principle provides. This study’s results are innovative with respect to those available in the literature. Moreover, they show that the superluminal behaviour of particles occurs in those processes with high-energy confinement.
Curci-Ferrari-type condition in Hamiltonian formalism: A free spinning relativistic particle
Shukla, A.; Bhanja, T.; Malik, R. P.
2013-03-01
The Curci-Ferrari (CF)-type restriction emerges in the description of a free spinning relativistic particle within the framework of the Becchi-Rouet-Stora-Tyutin (BRST) formalism when the off-shell nilpotent and absolutely anticommuting (anti-)BRST symmetry transformations for this system are derived from the application of the horizontality condition (HC) and its supersymmetric generalization (SUSY-HC) within the framework of the superfield formalism. We show that the above CF condition, which turns out to be the secondary constraint of our present theory, remains time-evolution invariant within the framework of Hamiltonian formalism. This time-evolution invariance i) physically justifies the imposition of the (anti-)BRST invariant CF-type condition on this system, and ii) mathematically implies the linear independence of BRST and anti-BRST symmetries of our present theory.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Oliveira, M.A.B. de.
1984-01-01
We present our investigations on the problems of non-causality of propagation, at the c-number level, of four spin 3/2 theories in the Schroedinger form employing the minimum number of eight components, in interaction with a constant magnetic field. Analyzing first the basic formulations of free particle spin 3/2 relativistic wave equations, we deduze, extending to spin 3/2 Dirac's ''spin 1/2 factorization'' of the mas condition, a new eight-component relativistic wave equation in the Schroedinger form for this spin and prove its relativistic invariance. We demostrate explicitly that the entire content of the Rarita-Schwinger (RS) theory for spin 3/2 can be written in the form of two Dirac-Like wave equations. We demonstrate that our wave equation for spin 3/2 cab indeed be deduzed from a modified RS theory wherein both Hamiltonians above referred to are taken hermitian. We also establish, in a transparent maner, the equivalences existing between the formalisms of RS, Belinfante and Hurley-Sudarshan for spin 3/2. We investigate the c-number problem of the stationary state eigevalues of the spin 3/2 Hamiltonians in a constant external magnetic field, in the four theories in the Schoedinger form with eight components, those of Moldauer and Case (deduzed from TS theory), of Weaver, Hammer and Good. (autor) [pt
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jarvis, P.D.; Corney, S.P.; Tsohantjis, I. [School of Mathematics and Physics, University of Tasmania, Hobart Tas (Australia)
1999-12-03
A covariant spinor representation of iosp(d,2/2) is constructed for the quantization of the spinning relativistic particle. It is found that, with appropriately defined wavefunctions, this representation can be identified with the state space arising from the canonical extended BFV-BRST quantization of the spinning particle with admissible gauge fixing conditions after a contraction procedure. For this model, the cohomological determination of physical states can thus be obtained purely from the representation theory of the iosp(d,2/2) algebra. (author)
Localization of relativistic particles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Omnes, R.
1997-01-01
In order to discuss localization experiments and also to extend the consistent history interpretation of quantum mechanics to relativistic properties, the techniques introduced in a previous paper [J. Math. Phys. 38, 697 (1997)] are applied to the localization of a photon in a given region of space. An essential requirement is to exclude arbitrarily large wavelengths. The method is valid for a particle with any mass and spin. Though there is no proper position operator for a photon, one never needs one in practice. Causality is valid up to exponentially small corrections. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics
Classical relativistic equations for particles with spin moving in external fields
Dam, H. van; Ruijgrok, Th.W.
1980-01-01
We derive equations of motion for a point particle with spin in an external electromagnetic and in an external scalar field. The derivation is based on the ten conservation laws of linear and angular momentum and on a general expression for the current by which the particle interacts with the
On a model of a classical relativistic particle of constant and universal mass and spin
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kassandrov, V; Markova, N [Institute of Gravitation and Cosmology, Russian Peoples' Friendship University, Moscow (Russian Federation); Schaefer, G; Wipf, A [Institute of Theoretical Physics, Friedrich-Schiller University, Jena (Germany)
2009-08-07
The deformation of the classical action for a point-like particle recently suggested by Staruszkiewicz gives rise to a spin structure which constrains the values of the invariant mass and the invariant spin to be the same for any solution of the equations of motion. Both these Casimir invariants, the square of the 4-momentum vector and the square of the Pauli-Lubanski vector, are shown to preserve the same fixed values also in the presence of an arbitrary external electromagnetic field. In the 'free' case, in the centre-of-mass reference frame, the particle moves along a circle of fixed radius with arbitrary varying frequency. In a homogeneous magnetic field, a number of rotational 'states' are possible with frequencies slightly different from the cyclotron frequency, and 'phase-like' transitions with spin flops occur at some critical values of the particle's 3-momentum.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lynch, J.T.
1999-01-01
Using a lowest-order approximation, the field equations of a general relativistic spinor-connection theory are solved semi-analytically for the fields of a stable, spin-half changed particle near the spin axis. With the exception of the atomic fine-structure constant, all parameters arising in the solution, including the rest mass of the source particle, are found by imposing the standard junction conditions of general relativity and electromagnetism. Using the empirical value for the fine-structure constant, the value derived for the rest mass gives some reason to identify the source particle with the electron. Moreover, since the rest mass is independent of the sign of the electron charge carried by the source, the solution is equally applicable to the positron
On parasupersymmetries and relativistic descriptions for spin one particles. Pt. 1. The free context
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Beckers, J.; Debergh, N.; Nikitin, A.G.
1995-01-01
This series of two papers is devoted to a constructive review of the relativistic wave equations for vector mesons due to the recent impact of spin one developments in connection with parasupersymmetric quantum mechanics. The free case as well as the interacting context with an electromagnetic field will be successively visited and discussed. Their associated parasupersymmetric properties will be pointed out. In this first part, the free context is presented by studying systematically the (symmetric) forms of wave equations subtended by a 16-dimensional reducible representation of the Lie algebra sl (2, C) or, evidently, so (3, 1), this representation playing a well known role in p = 2-parastatistical developments. Their hamiltonian forms are also discussed and some second order descriptions are finally reviewed. (orig.)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Balakin, Alexander B.; Popov, Vladimir A., E-mail: alexander.balakin@kpfu.ru, E-mail: vladipopov@mail.ru [Department of General Relativity and Gravitation, Institute of Physics, Kazan Federal University, Kremlevskaya str. 18, Kazan 420008 (Russian Federation)
2017-04-01
In the framework of the Einstein-aether theory we consider a cosmological model, which describes the evolution of the unit dynamic vector field with activated rotational degree of freedom. We discuss exact solutions of the Einstein-aether theory, for which the space-time is of the Gödel-type, the velocity four-vector of the aether motion is characterized by a non-vanishing vorticity, thus the rotational vectorial modes can be associated with the source of the universe rotation. The main goal of our paper is to study the motion of test relativistic particles with a vectorial internal degree of freedom (spin or polarization), which is coupled to the unit dynamic vector field. The particles are considered as the test ones in the given space-time background of the Gödel-type; the spin (polarization) coupling to the unit dynamic vector field is modeled using exact solutions of three types. The first exact solution describes the aether with arbitrary Jacobson's coupling constants; the second one relates to the case, when the Jacobson's constant responsible for the vorticity is vanishing; the third exact solution is obtained using three constraints for the coupling constants. The analysis of the exact expressions, which are obtained for the particle momentum and for the spin (polarization) four-vector components, shows that the interaction of the spin (polarization) with the unit vector field induces a rotation, which is additional to the geodesic precession of the spin (polarization) associated with the universe rotation as a whole.
Asymptotics of relativistic spin networks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Barrett, John W; Steele, Christopher M
2003-01-01
The stationary phase technique is used to calculate asymptotic formulae for SO(4) relativistic spin networks. For the tetrahedral spin network this gives the square of the Ponzano-Regge asymptotic formula for the SU(2) 6j-symbol. For the 4-simplex (10j-symbol) the asymptotic formula is compared with numerical calculations of the spin network evaluation. Finally, we discuss the asymptotics of the SO(3, 1) 10j-symbol
A rigorous approach to relativistic corrections of bound state energies for spin-1/2 particles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gesztesy, F.; Thaller, B.; Grosse, H.
1983-01-01
Under fairly general conditions on the interactions we prove holomorphy of the Dirac resolvent around its nonrelativistic limit. As a consequences, perturbation theory in terms of resolvents (instead of Hamiltonians) yields holomorphy of Dirac eigenvalues and eigenfunctions with respect to c - 1 and a new method of calculating relativistic corrections to bound state energies. Due to a formulation in an abstract setting our method is applicable in many different concrete situation. In particular our approach covers the case of the relavistic hydrogen atom in external electromagnetic fields. (Author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Beckers, J.; Debergh, N.; Nikitin, A.G.
1995-01-01
This second part belongs to a series of two papers devoted to a constructive review of the relativistic wave equations for vector mesons due to the recent impact of spin one developments in connection with parasupersymmetric quantum mechanics. Here, the mesons are interacting with external (electro)magnetic fields but the simplest context of homogeneous constant magnetic fields directed along the z-axis is particularly studied. Discussions on reality of energy eigenvalues, on causal propagation and on gyromagnetic ratios are especially presented. Supersymmetries and parasupersymmetries are analysed with respect to new pseudosupersymmetries suggested by these developments in one particular context. (orig.)
Path integral for relativistic particle theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fradkin, E.S.; Gitman, D.M.; Shvartsman, Sh.M.
1990-06-01
An action for a relativistic spinning particle interacting with external electromagnetic field is considered in reparametrization and local supergauge invariant form. It is shown that various path integral representations derived for the causal Green function correspond to the different forms of the relativistic particle action. The analogy of the path integral derived with the Lagrangian path integral of the field theory is discussed. It is shown that to obtain the causal propagator, the integration over the null mode of the Lagrangian multiplier corresponding to the reparametrization invariance, has to be performed in the (0,+infinity) limits. (author). 23 refs
Relativistic fluid dynamics with spin
Florkowski, Wojciech; Friman, Bengt; Jaiswal, Amaresh; Speranza, Enrico
2018-04-01
Using the conservation laws for charge, energy, momentum, and angular momentum, we derive hydrodynamic equations for the charge density, local temperature, and fluid velocity, as well as for the polarization tensor, starting from local equilibrium distribution functions for particles and antiparticles with spin 1/2. The resulting set of differential equations extends the standard picture of perfect-fluid hydrodynamics with a conserved entropy current in a minimal way. This framework can be used in space-time analyses of the evolution of spin and polarization in various physical systems including high-energy nuclear collisions. We demonstrate that a stationary vortex, which exhibits vorticity-spin alignment, corresponds to a special solution of the spin-hydrodynamical equations.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bodek, K.; Rozpędzik, D.; Zejma, J.; Caban, P.; Rembieliński, J.; Włodarczyk, M.; Ciborowski, J.; Enders, J.; Köhler, A.; Kozela, A.
2013-01-01
The Polish-German project QUEST aims at studying relativistic quantum spin correlations of the Einstein-Rosen-Podolsky-Bohm type, through measurement of the correlation function and the corresponding probabilities for relativistic electron pairs. The results will be compared to theoretical predictions obtained by us within the framework of relativistic quantum mechanics, based on assumptions regarding the form of the relativistic spin operator. Agreement or divergence will be interpreted in the context of non-uniqueness of the relativistic spin operator in quantum mechanics as well as dependence of the correlation function on the choice of observables representing the spin. Pairs of correlated electrons will originate from the Mo/ller scattering of polarized 15 MeV electrons provided by the superconducting Darmstadt electron linear accelerator S-DALINAC, TU Darmstadt, incident on a Be target. Spin projections will be determined using the Mott polarimetry technique. Measurements (starting 2013) are planned for longitudinal and transverse beam polarizations and different orientations of the beam polarization vector w.r.t. the Mo/ller scattering plane. This is the first project to study relativistic spin correlations for particles with mass
Relativistic spin-orbit interactions of photons and electrons
Smirnova, D. A.; Travin, V. M.; Bliokh, K. Y.; Nori, F.
2018-04-01
Laboratory optics, typically dealing with monochromatic light beams in a single reference frame, exhibits numerous spin-orbit interaction phenomena due to the coupling between the spin and orbital degrees of freedom of light. Similar phenomena appear for electrons and other spinning particles. Here we examine transformations of paraxial photon and relativistic-electron states carrying the spin and orbital angular momenta (AM) under the Lorentz boosts between different reference frames. We show that transverse boosts inevitably produce a rather nontrivial conversion from spin to orbital AM. The converted part is then separated between the intrinsic (vortex) and extrinsic (transverse shift or Hall effect) contributions. Although the spin, intrinsic-orbital, and extrinsic-orbital parts all point in different directions, such complex behavior is necessary for the proper Lorentz transformation of the total AM of the particle. Relativistic spin-orbit interactions can be important in scattering processes involving photons, electrons, and other relativistic spinning particles, as well as when studying light emitted by fast-moving bodies.
Proof of the Spin Statistics Connection 2: Relativistic Theory
Santamato, Enrico; De Martini, Francesco
2017-12-01
The traditional standard theory of quantum mechanics is unable to solve the spin-statistics problem, i.e. to justify the utterly important "Pauli Exclusion Principle" but by the adoption of the complex standard relativistic quantum field theory. In a recent paper (Santamato and De Martini in Found Phys 45(7):858-873, 2015) we presented a proof of the spin-statistics problem in the nonrelativistic approximation on the basis of the "Conformal Quantum Geometrodynamics". In the present paper, by the same theory the proof of the spin-statistics theorem is extended to the relativistic domain in the general scenario of curved spacetime. The relativistic approach allows to formulate a manifestly step-by-step Weyl gauge invariant theory and to emphasize some fundamental aspects of group theory in the demonstration. No relativistic quantum field operators are used and the particle exchange properties are drawn from the conservation of the intrinsic helicity of elementary particles. It is therefore this property, not considered in the standard quantum mechanics, which determines the correct spin-statistics connection observed in Nature (Santamato and De Martini in Found Phys 45(7):858-873, 2015). The present proof of the spin-statistics theorem is simpler than the one presented in Santamato and De Martini (Found Phys 45(7):858-873, 2015), because it is based on symmetry group considerations only, without having recourse to frames attached to the particles. Second quantization and anticommuting operators are not necessary.
Scattering in relativistic particle mechanics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
De Bievre, S.
1986-01-01
The problem of direct interaction in relativistic particle mechanics has been extensively studied and a variety of models has been proposed avoiding the conclusions of the so-called no-interaction theorems. In this thesis the authors studied scattering in the relativistic two-body problem. He uses the results to analyze gauge invariance in Hamiltonian constraint models and the uniqueness of the symplectic structure in manifestly covariant relativistic particle mechanics. A general geometric framework that underlies approaches to relativistic particle mechanics is presented and the kinematic properties of the scattering transformation, i.e., those properties that arise solely from the invariance of the theory under the Poincare group are studied. The second part of the analysis of the relativistic two-body scattering problem is devoted to the dynamical properties of the scattering process. Using general geometric arguments, gauge invariance of the scattering transformation in the Todorov-Komar Hamiltonian constraint model is proved. Finally, quantization of the models is discussed
Diffraction radiation from relativistic particles
Potylitsyn, Alexander Petrovich; Strikhanov, Mikhail Nikolaevich; Tishchenko, Alexey Alexandrovich
2010-01-01
This book deals with diffraction radiation, which implies the boundary problems of electromagnetic radiation theory. Diffraction radiation is generated when a charged particle moves in a vacuum near a target edge. Diffraction radiation of non-relativistic particles is widely used to design intense emitters in the cm wavelength range. Diffraction radiation from relativistic charged particles is important for noninvasive beam diagnostics and design of free electron lasers based on Smith-Purcell radiation which is diffraction radiation from periodic structures. Different analytical models of diffraction radiation and results of recent experimental studies are presented in this book. The book may also serve as guide to classical electrodynamics applications in beam physics and electrodynamics. It can be of great use for young researchers to develop skills and for experienced scientists to obtain new results.
Relativistic shocks and particle acceleration
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Heavens, A.F.
1988-01-01
In this paper, we investigate the fluid dynamics of relativistic shock waves, and use the results to calculate the spectral index of particles accelerated by the Fermi process in such shocks. We have calculated the distributions of Fermi-accelerated particles at shocks propagating into cold proton-electron plasma and also cold electron-positron plasma. We have considered two different power spectra for the scattering waves, and find, in contrast to the non-relativistic case, that the spectral index of the accelerated particles depends on the wave power spectrum. On the assumption of thermal equilibrium both upstream and downstream, we present some useful fits for the compression ratio of shocks propagating at arbitrary speeds into gas of any temperature. (author)
Diffraction radiation from relativistic particles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Potylitsyn, Alexander Petrovich; Ryazanov, Mikhail Ivanovich; Strikhanov, Mikhail Nikolaevich; Tishchenko, Alexey Alexandrovich
2010-01-01
This book deals with diffraction radiation, which implies the boundary problems of electromagnetic radiation theory. Diffraction radiation is generated when a charged particle moves in a vacuum near a target edge. Diffraction radiation of non-relativistic particles is widely used to design intense emitters in the cm wavelength range. Diffraction radiation from relativistic charged particles is important for noninvasive beam diagnostics and design of free electron lasers based on Smith-Purcell radiation which is diffraction radiation from periodic structures. Different analytical models of diffraction radiation and results of recent experimental studies are presented in this book. The book may also serve as guide to classical electrodynamics applications in beam physics and electrodynamics. It can be of great use for young researchers to develop skills and for experienced scientists to obtain new results. (orig.)
Relativistic spin precession in the double pulsar.
Breton, Rene P; Kaspi, Victoria M; Kramer, Michael; McLaughlin, Maura A; Lyutikov, Maxim; Ransom, Scott M; Stairs, Ingrid H; Ferdman, Robert D; Camilo, Fernando; Possenti, Andrea
2008-07-04
The double pulsar PSR J0737-3039A/B consists of two neutron stars in a highly relativistic orbit that displays a roughly 30-second eclipse when pulsar A passes behind pulsar B. Describing this eclipse of pulsar A as due to absorption occurring in the magnetosphere of pulsar B, we successfully used a simple geometric model to characterize the observed changing eclipse morphology and to measure the relativistic precession of pulsar B's spin axis around the total orbital angular momentum. This provides a test of general relativity and alternative theories of gravity in the strong-field regime. Our measured relativistic spin precession rate of 4.77 degrees (-0 degrees .65)(+0 degrees .66) per year (68% confidence level) is consistent with that predicted by general relativity within an uncertainty of 13%.
Electromagnetic deflection of spinning particles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Costella, J.P.; McKellar, B.H.J.
1992-01-01
It is shown that it is possible to obtain self-consistent and physically acceptable relativistic classical equations of motion for a point-like spin-half particle possessing an electric charge and magnetic dipole moment, directly from a manifestly covariant Lagrangian, if the classical degrees of freedom are appropriately chosen. The equations obtained encompass the well-tested Lorentz force and Thomas-Bargmann-Michel-Telegdi spin equations, as well as providing a definite specification of the classical magnetic dipole force, whose exact form has been the subject of recent debate. Radiation reaction - the force and torque on an accelerated particle due to its self-interaction - is neglected at this stage. 18 refs
Relativistic impulse approximation and deuteron spin structure
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tokarev, M.V.
1992-01-01
The fragmentation processes were considered of tensor- and vector-polarized deuterons to protons in the framework of the covariant approach in the light cone variables on the basis of the relativistic deuteron wave function with one nucleon on-mass shell. The experimental verification of predicted dependences of T 20 and K is of interest for the research of the momentum and spin distributions of high momentum deuteron constituents. 21 refs.; 6 figs
Quantum theory of relativistic charged particles in external fields
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ruijsenaars, S.N.M.
1976-01-01
A study was made on external field theories in which the quantized field corresponds to relativistic elementary particles with non-zero rest mass. These particles are assumed to be charged, thus they have distinct antiparticles. The thesis consists of two parts. The first tries to accommodate the general features of theories of relativistic charged particles in external fields. Spin and dynamics in particular are not specified. In the second part, the results are applied to charged spin-1/2 and spin-0 particles, the dynamics of which are given by the Dirac resp. Klein-Gordon equation. The greater emphasis is on external fields which are rapidly decreasing, infinitely differentiable functions of space-time, but also considers time-independent fields. External fields, other than electromagnetic fields are also considered, e.g. scalar fields
Path integral for a relativistic-particle theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fradkin, E.S.; Gitman, D.M.; Shvartsman, S.M.
1991-01-01
An action of a relativistic spinning particle written in reparametrization and local super-invariant form is consistently determined by using the path integral representation for the Green's function of the spinor field. It is shown that, to obtain the causal propagator, the integration over the null mode of the onebein variable must be performed in the (0, + ∞ limits
Path integral for a relativistic-particle theory
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fradkin, E.S. (AN SSSR, Moscow (SU)); Gitman, D.M. (Moskovskij Inst. Radiotekhniki, Ehlektroniki i Automatiki, Moscow (SU)); Shvartsman, S.M. (Tomskij Pedagogicheskij Inst., Tomsk (SU))
1991-06-01
An action of a relativistic spinning particle written in reparametrization and local super-invariant form is consistently determined by using the path integral representation for the Green's function of the spinor field. It is shown that, to obtain the causal propagator, the integration over the null mode of the onebein variable must be performed in the (0, + {infinity}) limits.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Santos, L.C.N.; Barros, C.C. [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Dept. de Fisica - CFM, Florianopolis, SC (Brazil)
2018-01-15
We study solutions for the Klein-Gordon equation with vector and scalar potentials of the Coulomb types under the influence of noninertial effects in the cosmic string spacetime. We also investigate a quantum particle described by the Klein-Gordon oscillator in the background spacetime generated by a cosmic string. An important result obtained is that the noninertial effects restrict the physical region of the spacetime where the particle can be placed. In addition, we show that these potentials can form bound states for the Klein-Gordon equation in this kind of background. (orig.)
Loading relativistic Maxwell distributions in particle simulations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zenitani, Seiji
2015-01-01
Numerical algorithms to load relativistic Maxwell distributions in particle-in-cell (PIC) and Monte-Carlo simulations are presented. For stationary relativistic Maxwellian, the inverse transform method and the Sobol algorithm are reviewed. To boost particles to obtain relativistic shifted-Maxwellian, two rejection methods are proposed in a physically transparent manner. Their acceptance efficiencies are ≈50% for generic cases and 100% for symmetric distributions. They can be combined with arbitrary base algorithms
Loading relativistic Maxwell distributions in particle simulations
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zenitani, Seiji, E-mail: seiji.zenitani@nao.ac.jp [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan)
2015-04-15
Numerical algorithms to load relativistic Maxwell distributions in particle-in-cell (PIC) and Monte-Carlo simulations are presented. For stationary relativistic Maxwellian, the inverse transform method and the Sobol algorithm are reviewed. To boost particles to obtain relativistic shifted-Maxwellian, two rejection methods are proposed in a physically transparent manner. Their acceptance efficiencies are ≈50% for generic cases and 100% for symmetric distributions. They can be combined with arbitrary base algorithms.
Relativistic three-particle theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hochauser, S.
1979-01-01
In keeping with recent developments in experimental nuclear physics, a formalism is developed to treat interactions between three relativistic nuclear particles. The concept of unitarity and a simple form of analyticity are used to construct coupled, integral, Faddeev-type equations and, with the help of analytic separable potentials, these are cast in simple, one-dimensional form. Energy-dependent potentials are introduced so as to take into account the sign-change of some phase shifts in the nucleon-nucleon interaction and parameters for these potentials are obtained. With regard to the success of such local potentials as the Yukawa potential, a recently developed method for expanding these in separable form is discussed. Finally, a new method for the numerical integration of the Faddeev equations along the real axis is introduced, thus avoiding the traditional need for contour rotations into the complex plane. (author)
On the electrodynamics of spinning particles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Holten, J.W. van
1990-01-01
The electrodynamics of spinning point particles is considered. A modification of the Lorentz force law is introduced which can be interpreted as a classical limit of the Dirac-Klein-Gordon equation. An improved version of the inhomogeneous Maxwell equations is constructed to describe the classical fields of spinning particles. Both classical and quantum electrodynamics are shown to predict relativistic time-dilatation effects for spinning particles in an electromagnetic field, even in the limit of zero velocity. The life-time of unstable charged particles moving in a Coulomb field is computed for both spin-zero and spin-half particles. Comparison shows spin effects to be present but relatively small. The magnitude of further spin-dependent correction from hyperfine interactions is computed. A measurement of the life-time of muons in atomic bound states separated by such spin-dependent hyperfine interactions would provide a clean test for the effect predicted. Similar effects are shown to arise in non-abelian gauge theories such as QCD. (author). 18 refs
A Comprehensive Comparison of Relativistic Particle Integrators
Ripperda, B.; Bacchini, F.; Teunissen, J.; Xia, C.; Porth, O.; Sironi, L.; Lapenta, G.; Keppens, R.
2018-03-01
We compare relativistic particle integrators commonly used in plasma physics, showing several test cases relevant for astrophysics. Three explicit particle pushers are considered, namely, the Boris, Vay, and Higuera–Cary schemes. We also present a new relativistic fully implicit particle integrator that is energy conserving. Furthermore, a method based on the relativistic guiding center approximation is included. The algorithms are described such that they can be readily implemented in magnetohydrodynamics codes or Particle-in-Cell codes. Our comparison focuses on the strengths and key features of the particle integrators. We test the conservation of invariants of motion and the accuracy of particle drift dynamics in highly relativistic, mildly relativistic, and non-relativistic settings. The methods are compared in idealized test cases, i.e., without considering feedback onto the electrodynamic fields, collisions, pair creation, or radiation. The test cases include uniform electric and magnetic fields, {\\boldsymbol{E}}× {\\boldsymbol{B}} fields, force-free fields, and setups relevant for high-energy astrophysics, e.g., a magnetic mirror, a magnetic dipole, and a magnetic null. These tests have direct relevance for particle acceleration in shocks and in magnetic reconnection.
Loading relativistic Maxwell distributions in particle simulations
Zenitani, S.
2015-12-01
In order to study energetic plasma phenomena by using particle-in-cell (PIC) and Monte-Carlo simulations, we need to deal with relativistic velocity distributions in these simulations. However, numerical algorithms to deal with relativistic distributions are not well known. In this contribution, we overview basic algorithms to load relativistic Maxwell distributions in PIC and Monte-Carlo simulations. For stationary relativistic Maxwellian, the inverse transform method and the Sobol algorithm are reviewed. To boost particles to obtain relativistic shifted-Maxwellian, two rejection methods are newly proposed in a physically transparent manner. Their acceptance efficiencies are 50% for generic cases and 100% for symmetric distributions. They can be combined with arbitrary base algorithms.
On free fall of a relativistic particle
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chernikov, N.A.; Paramonova, N.N.; Shavokhina, N.S.
2005-01-01
The free fall of a relativistic particle is considered: the well-known fact of the light velocity constancy is taken into account in the Galilean problem about the movement of a particle from nongravitational forces and its fall onto the ground. The velocity hodograph and the world line of the particle are found
Tachyonless models of relativistic particles with curvature and torsion
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kuznetsov, Yu.A.; Plyushchaj, M.S.
1992-01-01
The problem of construction (2+1)-dimensional tachyonless models of relativistic particles with an action depending on the world-trajectory curvature and torsion is investigated. The special class of models, described by maximum symmetric action and comprising only spin internal degrees of freedom is found. The examples of systems from the special class are given, whose classical and quantum spectra contain only massive states. 23 refs
The model of the relativistic particle with torsion
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Plyushchay, M.S.
1991-01-01
The model of the relativistic particle with torsion, whose action appears in the Bose-Fermi transmutation mechanism, is canonically quantized in the Minkowski and euclidean spaces. In the Minkowski space there are massive, massless and tachyonic states in the spectrum of the model. In the massive sector the spectrum contains an infinite number of states, whose spin can take integer, half-integer, or fractional values. In the euclidean space, the spectrum is finite and the spin can only be integer, or half-integer. The reasons for the differences of the quantum theory of the model in the two spaces are elucidated. (orig.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gamboa, J.; Rivelles, V.O.
1989-01-01
Self-dual particles in two-dimensions are presented. They were obtained from chiral boson particle by square root technique. The propagator of spinning self-dual particle is calculated using the BFV formalism. (M.C.K.)
Spin force and torque in non-relativistic Dirac oscillator on a sphere
Shikakhwa, M. S.
2018-03-01
The spin force operator on a non-relativistic Dirac oscillator (in the non-relativistic limit the Dirac oscillator is a spin one-half 3D harmonic oscillator with strong spin-orbit interaction) is derived using the Heisenberg equations of motion and is seen to be formally similar to the force by the electromagnetic field on a moving charged particle. When confined to a sphere of radius R, it is shown that the Hamiltonian of this non-relativistic oscillator can be expressed as a mere kinetic energy operator with an anomalous part. As a result, the power by the spin force and torque operators in this case are seen to vanish. The spin force operator on the sphere is calculated explicitly and its torque is shown to be equal to the rate of change of the kinetic orbital angular momentum operator, again with an anomalous part. This, along with the conservation of the total angular momentum, suggests that the spin force exerts a spin-dependent torque on the kinetic orbital angular momentum operator in order to conserve total angular momentum. The presence of an anomalous spin part in the kinetic orbital angular momentum operator gives rise to an oscillatory behavior similar to the Zitterbewegung. It is suggested that the underlying physics that gives rise to the spin force and the Zitterbewegung is one and the same in NRDO and in systems that manifest spin Hall effect.
Relativistic particle in a box: Klein-Gordon versus Dirac equations
Alberto, Pedro; Das, Saurya; Vagenas, Elias C.
2018-03-01
The problem of a particle in a box is probably the simplest problem in quantum mechanics which allows for significant insight into the nature of quantum systems and thus is a cornerstone in the teaching of quantum mechanics. In relativistic quantum mechanics this problem allows also to highlight the implications of special relativity for quantum physics, namely the effect that spin has on the quantised energy spectra. To illustrate this point, we solve the problem of a spin zero relativistic particle in a one- and three-dimensional box using the Klein-Gordon equation in the Feshbach-Villars formalism. We compare the solutions and the energy spectra obtained with the corresponding ones from the Dirac equation for a spin one-half relativistic particle. We note the similarities and differences, in particular the spin effects in the relativistic energy spectrum. As expected, the non-relativistic limit is the same for both kinds of particles, since, for a particle in a box, the spin contribution to the energy is a relativistic effect.
Spin resonance strength calculation through single particle tracking for RHIC
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Luo, Y. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Dutheil, Y. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Huang, H. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Meot, F. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Ranjbar, V. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)
2015-05-03
The strengths of spin resonances for the polarized-proton operation in the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider are currently calculated with the code DEPOL, which numerically integrates through the ring based on an analytical approximate formula. In this article, we test a new way to calculate the spin resonance strengths by performing Fourier transformation to the actual transverse magnetic fields seen by a single particle traveling through the ring. Comparison of calculated spin resonance strengths is made between this method and DEPOL.
Dynamics of relativistic point particles as a problem with constraints
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Todorov, I.T.
1976-01-01
The relativistic n-particle dynamics is studied as a problem with constraints of the type (2phisub(i)=)msub(i)sup(2)-psub(i)sup(2)+PHIsub(i)=0, i=1,...,n, (C) where PHIsub(i) are Poincare invariant functions of the particles' coordinates, momenta and spin components; PHIsib(i) is assumed to vanish asymptotically when the i-th particle coordinates tend to infinity. In the two particle case it is assumed in addition that the Poisson bracket [phi 1 , phi 2 ] vanishes on the surface (C). That allows us to give a formulation of the theory, invariant with respect to the choice of the time-parameter on each trajectory. The quantization of the relative two-particle motion is also discussed. It is pointed out that the stationary Schrodinger equation obtained in this manner is a local quasipotential equation
Bmad: A relativistic charged particle simulation library
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sagan, D.
2006-01-01
Bmad is a subroutine library for simulating relativistic charged particle beams in high-energy accelerators and storage rings. Bmad can be used to study both single and multi-particle beam dynamics using routines to track both particles and macroparticles. Bmad has various tracking algorithms including Runge-Kutta and symplectic (Lie algebraic) integration. Various effects such as wakefields, and radiation excitation and damping can be simulated. Bmad has been developed in a modular, object-oriented fashion to maximize flexibility. Interface routines allow Bmad to be called from C/C++ as well as Fortran programs. Bmad is well documented. Every routine is individually annotated, and there is an extensive manual
Nonrelativistic equations of motion for particles with arbitrary spin
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fushchich, V.I.; Nikitin, A.G.
1981-01-01
First- and second-order Galileo-invariant systems of differential equations which describe the motion of nonrelativistic particles of arbitrary spin are derived. The equations can be derived from a Lagrangian and describe the dipole, quadrupole, and spin-orbit interaction of the particles with an external field; these interactions have traditionally been regarded as purely relativistic effects. The problem of the motion of a nonrelativistic particle of arbitrary spin in a homogeneous magnetic field is solved exactly on the basis of the obtained equations. The generators of all classes of irreducible representations of the Galileo group are found
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gamboa, J.; Rivelles, V.O.
1989-02-01
We study spinning self-dual particles in two dimensions. They are obtained from the chiral bosonic particle through the square root technique. We show that the resulting field theory can be either fermionic or bosonic and that the associated self-dual field reveals its Lorentz tensor structure which remains hidden in the usual formulations. We also calculate the spinning self-dual particle propagators using the BFV formalism. (author) [pt
Behaviour of Charged Spinning Massless Particles
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ivan Morales
2017-12-01
Full Text Available We revisit the classical theory of a relativistic massless charged point particle with spin and interacting with an external electromagnetic field. In particular, we give a proper definition of its kinetic energy and its total energy, the latter being conserved when the external field is stationary. We also write the conservation laws for the linear and angular momenta. Finally, we find that the particle’s velocity may differ from c as a result of the spin—electromagnetic field interaction, without jeopardizing Lorentz invariance.
Relativistic corrections to one-particle neutron levels in the harmonic oscillator well
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yanavichyus, A.I.
1983-01-01
Relativistic corrections to mass and potential energy for one-particle levels in the harmonic oscillator well are calculated in the first approximation of the perturbation theory. These corrections are, mainly negliqible, but they sharply increase with growth of the head and orbital quantum numbers. For the state 1s the relativistic correction is of the order of 0.01 MeV, and for 3p it is equal to 0.4 MeV. Thus, the relativistic correction for certain states approaches the energy of spin-orbital interactions and it should be taken into account in calculating the energy of one-particle levels
Interplanetary Magnetic Field Guiding Relativistic Particles
Masson, S.; Demoulin, P.; Dasso, S.; Klein, K. L.
2011-01-01
The origin and the propagation of relativistic solar particles (0.5 to few Ge V) in the interplanetary medium remains a debated topic. These relativistic particles, detected at the Earth by neutron monitors have been previously accelerated close to the Sun and are guided by the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) lines, connecting the acceleration site and the Earth. Usually, the nominal Parker spiral is considered for ensuring the magnetic connection to the Earth. However, in most GLEs the IMF is highly disturbed, and the active regions associated to the GLEs are not always located close to the solar footprint of the nominal Parker spiral. A possible explanation is that relativistic particles are propagating in transient magnetic structures, such as Interplanetary Coronal Mass Ejections (ICMEs). In order to check this interpretation, we studied in detail the interplanetary medium where the particles propagate for 10 GLEs of the last solar cycle. Using the magnetic field and the plasma parameter measurements (ACE/MAG and ACE/SWEPAM), we found widely different IMF configurations. In an independent approach we develop and apply an improved method of the velocity dispersion analysis to energetic protons measured by SoHO/ERNE. We determined the effective path length and the solar release time of protons from these data and also combined them with the neutron monitor data. We found that in most of the GLEs, protons propagate in transient magnetic structures. Moreover, the comparison between the interplanetary magnetic structure and the interplanetary length suggest that the timing of particle arrival at Earth is dominantly determined by the type of IMF in which high energetic particles are propagating. Finally we find that these energetic protons are not significantly scattered during their transport to Earth.
Relativistic Collisions of Structured Atomic Particles
Voitkiv, Alexander
2008-01-01
The book reviews the progress achieved over the last decade in the study of collisions between an ion and an atom in which both the atomic particles carry electrons and can undergo transitions between their internal states -- including continua. It presents the detailed considerations of different theoretical approaches, that can be used to describe collisions of structured atomic particles for the very broad interval of impact energies ranging from 0.5--1 MeV/u till extreme relativistic energies where the collision velocity very closely approaches the speed of light.
Relativistic scattering theory of charged spinless particles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Alt, E.O.; Hannemann, M.
1986-01-01
In the context of relativistic quantum mechanics the scattering is discussed of two and three charged spinless particles. The corresponding transition operators are shown to satisfy four-dimensional Lippmann-Schwinger and eight-dimensional Faddeev-type equations, respectively. A simplified model of two particles with Coulomb interaction can be solved exactly. Calculations have been made of (i) the partial wave S-matrix from which the bound state spectrum has been extracted; the latter agrees with a fourth-order result of Schwinger; (ii) the full scattering amplitude which in the weak-field limit coincides with the expression derived by Fried et al. from eikonalized QED. (author)
Quantum spin correlations in relativistic Møller scattering
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Caban Paweł
2017-01-01
Full Text Available We present the relativistic spin correlation function (and the corresponding probabilities for a pair of polarized electrons originating from the Moller scattering. This particular state is easy to prepare experimentally; therefore, the results are discussed in view of a possible measurement. We also discuss the state after the Moller scattering in terms of entanglement and polarization transfer.
Relativistic and separable classical hamiltonian particle dynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sazdjian, H.
1981-01-01
We show within the Hamiltonian formalism the existence of classical relativistic mechanics of N scalar particles interacting at a distance which satisfies the requirements of Poincare invariance, separability, world-line invariance and Einstein causality. The line of approach which is adopted here uses the methods of the theory of systems with constraints applied to manifestly covariant systems of particles. The study is limited to the case of scalar interactions remaining weak in the whole phase space and vanishing at large space-like separation distances of the particles. Poincare invariance requires the inclusion of many-body, up to N-body, potentials. Separability requires the use of individual or two-body variables and the construction of the total interaction from basic two-body interactions. Position variables of the particles are constructed in terms of the canonical variables of the theory according to the world-line invariance condition and the subsidiary conditions of the non-relativistic limit and separability. Positivity constraints on the interaction masses squared of the particles ensure that the velocities of the latter remain always smaller than the velocity of light
Larmor precession and dwell time of a relativistic particle scattered by a rectangular quantum well
Li, Z J; Liang, J J; Liang, J Q
2003-01-01
The Larmor precession of a relativistic neutral spin particle in a uniform constant magnetic field confined to the region of a one-dimensional rectangular potential well is investigated. The spin precession serves as a clock to measure the time spent by a quantum particle dwelling at a potential well. With the help of a general spin coherent state it is explicitly shown that the spin precession time is equal to the dwell time in the first-order approximation of the infinitesimal field limit. The comparison of the time in a potential well with that in free space shows apparent superluminality.
Spin analysis of supersymmetric particles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Choi, S.Y.; Martyn, H.U.
2006-12-01
The spin of supersymmetric particles can be determined at e + e - colliders unambiguously. This is demonstrated for a characteristic set of non-colored supersymmetric particles -- smuons, selectrons, and charginos/neutralinos. The analysis is based on the threshold behavior of the excitation curves for pair production in e + e - collisions, the angular distribution in the production process and decay angular distributions. In the first step we present the observables in the helicity formalism for the supersymmetric particles. Subsequently we confront the results with corresponding analyses of Kaluza-Klein particles in theories of universal extra space dimensions which behave distinctly different from supersymmetric theories. It is shown in the third step that a set of observables can be designed which signal the spin of supersymmetric particles unambiguously without any model assumptions. Finally in the fourth step it is demonstrated that the determination of the spin of supersymmetric particles can be performed experimentally in practice at an e + e - collider. (orig.)
Canonical quantization of a relativistic particle with curvature and torsion
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nesterenko, V.V.
1991-01-01
A generalization of the relativistic particle action is considered. It contain, in addition to the length of the world trajectory, the integrals along the world curve of its curvature and torsion. The generalized Hamiltonian formalism for this model in the D-dimensional space-time is constructed. A complete set of the constraints in the phase space is obtained and their division into the first-class and the second-class constraints is accomplished. On this basis the canonical quantization of the model is fulfilled. For D=3 the mass spectrum is obtained in the sector without tachyonic states, the mass of the state being dependent on its spin. It is shown that in the framework of this model when D=3 the possibility to describe the states with integral, half-odd-integral and continuous spins is derived. Interaction with an external Abelian gauge field introduced in the geometrical way. 21 refs
Anyons as spin particles: from classical mechanics to field theory
Plyushchay, Mikhail S.
1995-01-01
(2+1)-dimensional relativistic fractional spin particles are considered within the framework of the group-theoretical approach to anyons starting from the level of classical mechanics and concluding by the construction of the minimal set of linear differential field equations.
Conformal description of spinning particles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Todorov, I.T.
1986-01-01
This book is an introduction to the application of the conformal group to quantum field theory of particles with spin. After an introduction to the twistor representations of the conformal group of a conformally flat space-time and twistor flag manifolds with Su(2,2) orbits the classical phase space of conformal spinning particles is described. Thereafter the twistor description of classical zero mass fields is considered together with the quantization. (HSI)
Twistor Transform for Spinning Particle
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fedoruk, S.
2005-01-01
Twistorial formulation of a particle of arbitrary spin has been constructed. The twistor formulation is deduced from a space-time formulation of the spinning particle by introducing pure gauge Lorentz harmonics in this system. Canonical transformations and gauge fixing conditions, excluding space-time variables, produce the fundamental conditions of twistor transform relating the space-time formulation and twistor one. Integral transformations, relating massive twistor fields with usual space-time fields, have been constructed
On the Relativistic Origin of Pseudo spin Symmetry in Nuclei
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Leviatan, A.
1998-01-01
We review the concept of pseudo spin symmetry and its role in nuclear spectroscopy. We survey the attempts to arrive at a microscopic understanding of this symmetry. In particular, we show that pseudo spin symmetry in nuclei could arise from nucleons moving in a relativistic mean field which has an attractive scalar (Vs) and repulsive vector (Vv) potential nearly equal in magnitude but opposite in sign. We show that the generators of pseudo spin symmetry are the non-relativistic limit of the generators of an SU(2) symmetry which leaves invariant the Dirac Hamiltonian with Vs 2= -Vv. Furthermore within this framework, we demonstrate that this symmetry may be approximately conserved for realistic scalar and vector potentials
BRST field theory of relativistic particles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Holten, J.W. van
1992-01-01
A generalization of BRST field theory is presented, based on wave operators for the fields constructed out of, but different from the BRST operator. The authors discuss their quantization, gauge fixing and the derivation of propagators. It is shown, that the generalized theories are relevant to relativistic particle theories in the Brink-Di Vecchia-Howe-Polyakov (BDHP) formulation, and argue that the same phenomenon holds in string theories. In particular it is shown, that the naive BRST formulation of the BDHP theory leads to trivial quantum field theories with vanishing correlation functions. (author). 22 refs
On the model of the relativistic particle with curvature and torsion
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nesterenko, V.V.
1992-01-01
Two integrals along the world trajectory of its curvature and torsion are added to the standard action for the point-like spinless relativistic particle. This enables one to quantize the model canonically and to derive exactly the relation between the spin and mass of the states. 10 refs
The classical equations of motion for a spinning point particle with charge and magnetic moment
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rowe, E.G.P.; Rowe, G.T.
1987-01-01
The classical, special relativistic equations of motion are derived for a spinning point particle interacting with the electromagnetic field through its charge and magnetic moment. Radiation reaction is included. The energy tensors for the particle and for the field are developed as well-defined distributions; consequently no infinities appear. The magnitude of spin and the rest mass are conserved. (orig.)
Fundamentals of relativistic particle beam optics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cornacchia, M.
1995-12-01
This lecture introduces the nonaccelerator-specialist to the motion of charged particles in a Storage Ring. The topics of discussion are restricted to the linear and nonlinear dynamics of a single particle in the transverse plane, i.e., the plane perpendicular to the direction of motion. The major omissions for a complete review of accelerator theory, for which a considerable literature exists, are the energy and phase oscillations (1). Other important accelerator physics aspects not treated here are the collective instabilities (2), the role of synchrotron radiation in electron storage rings (3), scattering processes (4), and beam-beam effects in colliding beam facilities (5). Much of the discussion that follows applies equally well to relativistic electron, proton, or ion synchrotrons. In this narrative, we refer to the particle as electron. After a broad overview, the magnetic forces acting on the electrons and the associated differential equations of motion are discussed. Solutions of the equations are given without derivation; the method of solution is outlined. and references for deeper studies are given. In this paper, the word electron is used to signify electron or positron. The dynamics of a single particle are not affected by the sign of its charge when the magnetic field direction is changed accordingly
Hamiltonian action of spinning particle with gravimagnetic moment
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Deriglazov, Alexei A; Ramírez, W Guzmán
2016-01-01
We develop Hamiltonian variational problem for spinning particle non-minimally interacting with gravity through the gravimagnetic moment κ. For κ = 0 our model yields Mathisson-Papapetrou-Tulczyjew-Dixon (MPTD) equations, the latter show unsatisfactory behavior of MPTD-particle in ultra-relativistic regime: its longitudinal acceleration increases with velocity. κ = 1 yields a modification of MPTD-equations with the reasonable behavior: in the homogeneous fields, both longitudinal acceleration and (covariant) precession of spin-tensor vanish as v→c. (paper)
Relativistic Photon Induced Processes of Composite Particles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ribeiro-Silva, C.I; Curado, E. M. F.; Rego-Monteiro, M. A.
2007-01-01
We consider a complex quantum field theory based on a generalized Heisenberg[1] algebra, which describes at the space-time a spin less composite particle. We compute the perturbative series and the cross section of the scattering process 2 γ→φ - , φ + up to second order in the coupling constant and we find a further contribution due to the structure of the composite pion which is described here phenomenologically by the generalized algebra. We compare the results of this study with available experimental data. (Author)
Kinematics of a relativistic particle with de Sitter momentum space
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Arzano, Michele; Kowalski-Glikman, Jerzy
2011-01-01
We discuss kinematical properties of a free relativistic particle with deformed phase space in which momentum space is given by (a submanifold of) de Sitter space. We provide a detailed derivation of the action, Hamiltonian structure and equations of motion for such a free particle. We study the action of deformed relativistic symmetries on the phase space and derive explicit formulae for the action of the deformed Poincare group. Finally we provide a discussion on parametrization of the particle worldlines stressing analogies and differences with ordinary relativistic kinematics.
Canonical analysis of non-relativistic particle and superparticle
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kluson, Josef [Masaryk University, Department of Theoretical Physics and Astrophysics, Faculty of Science, Brno (Czech Republic)
2018-02-15
We perform canonical analysis of non-relativistic particle in Newton-Cartan Background. Then we extend this analysis to the case of non-relativistic superparticle in the same background. We determine constraints structure of this theory and find generator of κ-symmetry. (orig.)
Variational formalism for spin particles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Horvathy, P.
1977-11-01
The geometrical formulation of Hamilton's principle presented in a previous paper has been related to the usual one in terms of Lagrangian functions. The exact conditions for their equivalence are obtained and a method is given for the construction of a Lagrangian function. The formalism is extended to spin particles and a local Lagrangian is constructed in this case, too. However, this function cannot be extended to a global one. (D.P.)
Relativistic ''potential model'' for N-particle systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Noyes, H.P.
1986-08-01
Neither quantum field theory nor S-Matrix theory have a well defined procedure for going over to an approximation that can be reliably used in non-relativistic models for nuclear physics. We meet the problem here by constructing a finite particle number relativistic scattering theory for (scalar) particles and mesons using integral equations of the Faddeev-Yakubovsky type. Restricted to N particles and one meson, we can go from the relativistic theory to a ''potential theory'' in the integral equation formulation by using boundary states which do not contain the meson asymptotically. The meson-particle input amplitudes contain a pole at the particle mass, and the particle-particle input amplitudes are null. This gives unique definition (numerically calculable) to the particle-particle off-shell amplitude, and hence to the covariant ''scattering potential'' (but not to the noninvariant concept of ''potential energy''). As we have commented before, if we take these scattering amplitudes as iput for relativistic Faddeev equations, the results are identical to those obtained from the same model starting from three particles and one meson. In this paper we explore how far we can extend this relativistic ''potential model'' to higher numbers of particles and mesons. 10 refs
Relativistic three-particle dynamical equations: I. Theoretical development
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Adhikari, S.K.; Tomio, L.; Frederico, T.
1993-11-01
Starting from the two-particle Bethe-Salpeter equation in the ladder approximation and integrating over the time component of momentum, three dimensional scattering integral equations satisfying constrains of relativistic unitarity and covariance are rederived. These equations were first derived by Weinberg and by Blankenbecler and Sugar. These two-particle equations are shown to be related by a transformation of variables. Hence it is shown to perform and relate dynamical calculation using these two equations. Similarly, starting from the Bethe-Salpeter-Faddeev equation for the three-particle system and integrating over the time component of momentum, several three dimensional three-particle scattering equations satisfying constraints of relativistic unitary and covariance are derived. Two of these three-particle equations are related by a transformation of variables as in the two-particle case. The three-particle equations obtained are very practical and suitable for performing relativistic scattering calculations. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Trubnikov, S.V.
1984-01-01
The relativistic rotation of nucleon spin in addition to deuteron spin leads to the appearance of the new term in the deuteron charge form factor (DCFF). This term is absent in the traditional approaches and essentially influences the asymptotic behaviour of DCFF. General formulae are obtained for the DCFF asymptotics in the relativistic and nonrelativistic impulse approximation
Relativistic two-body equation for one Dirac and one Duffin-Kemmer particle
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Krolikowski, W.
1983-01-01
A new relativistic two-body wave equation is proposed for one spin-1/2 and one spin-0 or spin-1 particle which, if isolated from each other, are described by the Dirac and the Duffin-Kemmer equation, respectively. For a static mutual interaction this equation splits into two equations: a two-body wave equation for one Dirac and one Klein-Gordon particle (which was introduced by the author previously) and a new two-body wave equation for one Dirac and one Proca particle. The proposed equation may be applied in particular to the quark-diquark system. In Appendix, however, an alternative approach is sketched, where the diquark is described as the point limit of a very close Breit system rather than a Duffin-Kemmer particle. (Author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Popescu, Voicu; Ebert, Hubert; Papanikolaou, Nikolaos; Zeller, Rudolf; Dederichs, Peter H
2004-01-01
We present a fully relativistic generalization of the Landauer-Buettiker formalism that has been implemented within the framework of the spin-polarized relativistic screened Korringa-Kohn-Rostoker Green function method. This approach, going beyond the two-current model, supplies a more general description of the electronic transport. It is shown that the relativistic conductance can be split in terms of individual spin-diagonal and spin-off-diagonal (spin-flip) components, which allows a detailed analysis of the influence of spin-orbit-coupling-induced spin-flip processes on the spin-dependent transport. We apply our method to calculate the ballistic conductance in Fe/GaAs/Fe magnetic tunnel junctions. We find that, by removing the spin selection rules, the spin-orbit coupling strongly influences the conductance, not only qualitatively but also quantitatively, especially in the anti-parallel alignment of the magnetization in the two Fe leads
Mechanism of 238U disintegration induced by relativistic particles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Andronenko, L.N.; Zhdanov, A.A.; Kravtsov, A.V.; Solyakin, G.E.
2002-01-01
In heavy-nucleus disintegration induced by a relativistic projectile particle, the production of collinear massive fragments accompanied by numerous charged particles and neutrons is explained in terms of the mechanism of projectile-momentum compensation due to the emission of a particle whose mass is greater than the projectile mass
Relativistic particle with the action dependent on the torsion of its world trajectory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nesterenko, V.V.
1990-01-01
The generalized Hamiltonian formalism for the relativistic particle with a torsion in a D-dimensional space-time is constructed. A complete set of the constraints in the phase space is obtained and their division into the first-class and the second-class constraints is accomplished. On this basis the canonical quantization of the model is fulfilled. For D=3 the mass spectrum is obtained explicitly, the mass of the state being dependent on its spin. The possibility of describing in the framework of this model the states with integer, half-integer and continuous spins is discussed. The wave equation and the propagator are found in the operator form. The mass formula is obtained also in the model of a relativistic particles with curvature in a D-dimensional space-time. 34 refs
The spinning particle with extrinsic curvature
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dhar, A.
1988-01-01
We construct and analyse an action for the spinning particle which contains an extrinsic curvature term. A possible generalization of this construction to the case of the spinning string is also discussed. (orig.)
About the kinematics of spinning particles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Salesi, G.; Recami, E.; Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Milan; Campinas State Univ., SP
1995-06-01
Inserting the correct Lorentz factor into the definition of the 4-velocity vμ for spinning particles entails new kinematical properties for v 2 . The well-know constraint (identically true for scalar particles, but entering also the Dirac theory, and assumed a priori in all spinning particle models) P μ v μ =m is here derived in a self-consistent way
Supersymmetry and pseudoclassical dynamics of particle with any spin
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Srivastava, P.P.
1976-12-01
The use of anticommuting c-numbers in describing physical systems and their simmetries has recently drawn much interest. Supersymmetry among bosons and fermions can be given an adequate formulation using them. Applications to Hamiltonian dynamics of electron adapting Dirac's method of handling singular Lagrangians were quite successful. An extension to particle of any spin following the systematic treatment of Casalbuoni et al. is discussed here. Formulation of Bargmann and Wigner for relativistic particle is obtained on quantization in self-consistent manner. It may be remarked that some of the Dirac brackets between anticommuting variables are required to go to commutators instead of anticommutators
About the velocity operator for spinning particles in quantum mechanics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Salesi, Giovanni [Universita Statale di Catania (Italy). Dipt. di Fisica]|[Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Catania (Italy); Recami, Erasmo; Rodrigues Junior, Waldyr A. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Matematica Aplicada
1995-12-01
Starting from the formal expressions of the hydrodynamical (or local) quantities employed in the applications of Clifford Algebras to quantum mechanics, we introduce - in terms of the ordinary tensorial framework - a new definition for the field of a generic quantity. By translating from Clifford into sensor algebra, we also propose a new (non-relativistic) velocity operator for a spin 1/2 particle. This operator is the sum of the ordinary part p/m describing the mean motion (the motion of the center-of-mass), and of a second part associated with the so-called Zitterbewegung, which is the spin internal motion observed in the center-of-mass frame. This spin component of the velocity operator is non-zero not only in the Pauli theoretical framework in presence of external magnetic fields and spin precession, but also in the Schroedinger case, when the wave-function is a spin eigenstate. In the latter case, one gets a decomposition of the velocity field for the Madelueng fluid into two distinct parts: which constitutes the non-relativistic analogue of the Gordon decomposition for the Dirac current. We find furthermore that the Zitterbewegung motion involves a velocity field which is solenoidal, and that the local angular velocity is parallel to the spin vector. In presence of a non-constant spin vector (Pauli case) we have, besides the component normal to spin present even in the Schroedinger theory, also a component of the local velocity which is parallel to the rotor of the spin vector. (author). 19 refs.
About the velocity operator for spinning particles in quantum mechanics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Salesi, Giovanni; Recami, Erasmo; Rodrigues Junior, Waldyr A.
1995-12-01
Starting from the formal expressions of the hydrodynamical (or local) quantities employed in the applications of Clifford Algebras to quantum mechanics, we introduce - in terms of the ordinary tensorial framework - a new definition for the field of a generic quantity. By translating from Clifford into sensor algebra, we also propose a new (non-relativistic) velocity operator for a spin 1/2 particle. This operator is the sum of the ordinary part p/m describing the mean motion (the motion of the center-of-mass), and of a second part associated with the so-called Zitterbewegung, which is the spin internal motion observed in the center-of-mass frame. This spin component of the velocity operator is non-zero not only in the Pauli theoretical framework in presence of external magnetic fields and spin precession, but also in the Schroedinger case, when the wave-function is a spin eigenstate. In the latter case, one gets a decomposition of the velocity field for the Madelueng fluid into two distinct parts: which constitutes the non-relativistic analogue of the Gordon decomposition for the Dirac current. We find furthermore that the Zitterbewegung motion involves a velocity field which is solenoidal, and that the local angular velocity is parallel to the spin vector. In presence of a non-constant spin vector (Pauli case) we have, besides the component normal to spin present even in the Schroedinger theory, also a component of the local velocity which is parallel to the rotor of the spin vector. (author). 19 refs
Collisional Penrose process with spinning particles
Mukherjee, Sajal
2018-03-01
In this article, we have investigated collisional Penrose process (CPP) using spinning particles in a Kerr spacetime. Recent studies have shown that the collision between two spinning particles can produce a significantly high energy in the center of mass frame. Here, we explicitly compute the energy extraction and efficiency as measured by an observer at infinity. We consider the colliding particles as well as the escaping particles may contain spins. It has been shown that the energy extraction is larger than the non-spinning case and also their possibility to escape to infinity is wider than the geodesics.
Spinning particle approach to higher spin field theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Corradini, Olindo
2011-01-01
We shortly review on the connection between higher-spin gauge field theories and supersymmetric spinning particle models. In such approach the higher spin equations of motion are linked to the first-class constraint algebra associated with the quantization of particle models. Here we consider a class of spinning particle models characterized by local O(N)-extended supersymmetry since these models are known to provide an alternative approach to the geometric formulation of higher spin field theory. We describe the canonical quantization of the models in curved target space and discuss the obstructions that appear in presence of an arbitrarily curved background. We then point out the special role that conformally flat spaces appear to have in such models and present a derivation of the higher-spin curvatures for maximally symmetric spaces.
On the time delay between ultra-relativistic particles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fleury, Pierre
2016-01-01
The time delay between the receptions of ultra-relativistic particles emitted simultaneously is a useful observable for both fundamental physics and cosmology. The expression of the delay when the particles travel through an arbitrary spacetime has been derived recently by Fanizza et al., using a particular coordinate system and self-consistent assumptions. The present article shows that this formula enjoys a simple physical interpretation: the relative velocity between two ultra-relativistic particles is constant. This result reveals an interesting kinematical property of general relativity, namely that the tidal forces experienced by ultra-relativistic particles in the direction of their motion are much smaller than those experienced orthogonally to their motion.
On the time delay between ultra-relativistic particles
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fleury, Pierre, E-mail: pierre.fleury@uct.ac.za [Department of Mathematics and Applied Mathematics, University of Cape Town, Rondebosch 7701, Cape Town (South Africa); Department of Physics, University of the Western Cape, Robert Sobukwe Road, Bellville 7535 (South Africa)
2016-09-10
The time delay between the receptions of ultra-relativistic particles emitted simultaneously is a useful observable for both fundamental physics and cosmology. The expression of the delay when the particles travel through an arbitrary spacetime has been derived recently by Fanizza et al., using a particular coordinate system and self-consistent assumptions. The present article shows that this formula enjoys a simple physical interpretation: the relative velocity between two ultra-relativistic particles is constant. This result reveals an interesting kinematical property of general relativity, namely that the tidal forces experienced by ultra-relativistic particles in the direction of their motion are much smaller than those experienced orthogonally to their motion.
Relativistic mechanics of two interacting particles and bilocal theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Takabayasi, Takehiko
1975-01-01
New relativistic mechanics of two-particle system is set forth, where the two constituent particles are interacting by an arbitrary (central) action-at-a-distance. The fundamental equations are presented in a form covariant under general transformation of parameters parametrizing the world lines of constituent particles. The theory represents the proper relativistic generalization of the usual Newtonian mechanics in the sense that it tends in the non-relativistic (and weak interaction) limit to the usual mechanics of two particles moving under a corresponding non-relativistic potential. For the analysis of theory it is convenient to choose a certain particular gauge (i.e., parametrization) fixed by two gauge relations. This brings the theory to a canonical formalism accompanied by two weak equations, and in this gauge quantization can be performed. The result verifies that the relativistic quantum mechanics for two particles interacting by an action-at-a-distance is just represented by a bilocal wave equation and a subsidiary condition, with the clarification of its correspondence-theoretical foundation and internal dynamics. As an example the case of Hooke-type force is illustrated, where the internal motions are elliptic oscillations in the center-of-mass frame. Its quantum theory just reproduces the original form of bilocal theory giving bound states lying on a straightly rising trajectory and on its daughter trajectories. (auth.)
Moshinsky, M; Nikitin, A G; Smirnov, Yu F
1998-01-01
In 1945 Bhabha was probably the first to discuss the problem of a free relativistic particle with arbitrary spin in terms of a single linear equation in the four-momentum vector p subnu, but substituting the gamma supnu matrices of Dirac by other ones. He determined the latter by requiring that their appropriate Lorentz transformations lead to their formulation in terms of the generators of the O(5) group. His program was later extensively amplified by Krajcik, Nieto and others. We returned to this problem because we had an ab-initio procedure for deriving a Lorentz-invariant equation of arbitrary spin and furthermore could express the matrices appearing in them in terms of ordinary and what we called sign spins. Our procedure was similar to that of the ordinary and isotopic spin in nuclear physics that give rise to supermultiplets, hence the appearance of this word in the title. In the ordinary and sign spin formulation it is easy to transform our equation into one linear in both the p subnu and some of the ...
About kinematics and hydrodynamics of spinning particles: some simple considerations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Recami, Erasmo; Rodrigues Junior, Waldyr A.; Salesi, Giovanni
1995-12-01
In the first part (Sections 1 and 2) of this paper - starting from the Pauli current, in the ordinary tensorial language - we obtain the decomposition of the non-relativistic field velocity into two orthogonal parts: the classical part, that is the velocity w p/m of the center-of-mass (CM), and the so-called quantum part, that is, the velocity V of the motion in the CM frame (namely, the integral spin motion or Zitterbewegung). By inserting such a complete, composite expression of the velocity into the kinetic energy term of the non-relativistic classical (Newtonian) Lagrangian, we straightforwardly get the appearance of the so-called quantum potential associated, as it is know, with the Madelueng fluid. This result carries further evidence that the quantum behaviour of micro-systems can be a direct consequence of the fundamental existence of spin. In the second part (Sections 3 and 4), we fix our attention on the total velocity vector v vector w + vector V, being now necessary to pass to relativistic (classical) physics; and we show that the proper time entering the definition of the four-velocity v μ for spinning particles has to be the proper time τ of the CM frame. Inserting the correct Lorentz factor into the definition of v μ leads to completely new kinematical properties for v 2 . The important constraint pμ v μ identically true for scalar particles, but just assumed a priori in all previous spinning particle theories, is herein derived in a self-consistent way. (author). 24 refs
About kinematics and hydrodynamics of spinning particles: some simple considerations
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Recami, Erasmo; Rodrigues Junior, Waldyr A. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Matematica Aplicada; Salesi, Giovanni [Universita Statale di Catania (Italy). Dipt. di Fisica
1995-12-01
In the first part (Sections 1 and 2) of this paper - starting from the Pauli current, in the ordinary tensorial language - we obtain the decomposition of the non-relativistic field velocity into two orthogonal parts: the classical part, that is the velocity w p/m of the center-of-mass (CM), and the so-called quantum part, that is, the velocity V of the motion in the CM frame (namely, the integral spin motion or Zitterbewegung). By inserting such a complete, composite expression of the velocity into the kinetic energy term of the non-relativistic classical (Newtonian) Lagrangian, we straightforwardly get the appearance of the so-called quantum potential associated, as it is know, with the Madelueng fluid. This result carries further evidence that the quantum behaviour of micro-systems can be a direct consequence of the fundamental existence of spin. In the second part (Sections 3 and 4), we fix our attention on the total velocity vector v vector w + vector V, being now necessary to pass to relativistic (classical) physics; and we show that the proper time entering the definition of the four-velocity v{sup {mu}} for spinning particles has to be the proper time {tau} of the CM frame. Inserting the correct Lorentz factor into the definition of v{sup {mu}} leads to completely new kinematical properties for v{sup 2}. The important constraint p{mu} v{sup {mu}} identically true for scalar particles, but just assumed a priori in all previous spinning particle theories, is herein derived in a self-consistent way. (author). 24 refs.
Quantization of (2 + 1)-spinning particles and bifermionic constraint problem
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fresneda, R [Instituto de FIsica, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Caixa Postal 66318-CEP, 05315-970 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Gavrilov, S P [Instituto de FIsica, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Caixa Postal 66318-CEP, 05315-970 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Gitman, D M [Instituto de FIsica, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Caixa Postal 66318-CEP, 05315-970 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Moshin, P Yu [Instituto de FIsica, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Caixa Postal 66318-CEP, 05315-970 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)
2004-03-21
This work is a natural continuation of our recent study in quantizing relativistic particles. There it was demonstrated that, by applying a consistent quantization scheme to the classical model of a spinless relativistic particle as well as to the Berezin-Marinov model of a 3 + 1 Dirac particle, it is possible to obtain a consistent relativistic quantum mechanics of such particles. In the present paper, we apply a similar approach to the problem of quantizing the massive 2 + 1 Dirac particle. However, we stress that such a problem differs in a nontrivial way from the one in 3 + 1 dimensions. The point is that in 2 + 1 dimensions each spin polarization describes different fermion species. Technically this fact manifests itself through the presence of a bifermionic constant and of a bifermionic first-class constraint. In particular, this constraint does not admit a conjugate gauge condition at the classical level. The quantization problem in 2 + 1 dimensions is also interesting from the physical viewpoint (e.g., anyons). In order to quantize the model, we first derive a classical formulation in an effective phase space, restricted by constraints and gauges. Then the condition of preservation of the classical symmetries allows us to realize the operator algebra in an unambiguous way and construct an appropriate Hilbert space. The physical sector of the constructed quantum mechanics contains spin-1/2 particles and antiparticles without an infinite number of negative-energy levels, and exactly reproduces the one-particle sector of the 2 + 1 quantum theory of a spinor field.
On the relativistic quantum mechanics of two interacting spinless particles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rizov, V.A.; Sazdjian, H.; Todorov, I.T.
1984-05-01
The L 2 -scalar product ∫ PHI*(x)PSI(x) d 3 x is not appropriate for the space of states describing the center-of-mass relative motion of two relativistic particles whose interaction is given by an energy dependent quasipotential. The problem already appears in the relativistic quantum mechanics of a Klein-Gordon charged particle in an external field. We extend the methods developed for that case to study a two-particle system with an energy independent scalar interaction as well as the relativistic Coulomb problem. We write down a Poincare invariant inner product for which the eigenfunctions corresponding to different energy eigenvalues are orthogonal. We also construct a perturbative expansion for bound-state energy eigenvalues corresponding to an arbitrary energy dependent (quasipotential) correction to an unperturbed Hamiltonian with a known spectrum. The description of observables and transition probabilities for eigenvalue problems with a polynomial dependence on the spectral parameter is also discussed
Note of positions of particles in classical relativistic mechanics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pazma, V.
1983-01-01
The relation between world-lines and the position vector of a particle is studied from the point of view of gauge system theory. The expressions for the position vector of a free relativistic particle and of two interacting particles described by the Todorov-Komar model are derived under plausible assumptions. The relation between the physical meaning of basic canonical variables and the choice of a gauge is also discussed. (author)
Non-relativistic model of two-particle decay
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dittrich, J.; Exner, P.
1986-01-01
A simple non-relativistic model of a spinless particle decaying into two lighter particles is treated in detail. It is similar to the Lee-model description of V-particle decay. Galilean covariance is formulated properly, by means of a unitary projective representation acting on the state space of the model. After separating the centre-of-mass motion the meromorphic structure of the reduced resolvent is deduced
The L1-shell ionisation of atoms by relativistic particles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Moiseiwitsch, B.L.; Norrington, P.H.
1979-01-01
An expression for the L 1 -shell ionisation cross sections of atoms by high-energy particles has been derived using the relativistic plane-wave Born approximation. The incident and scattered particles are described by Dirac plane waves while Darwin hydrogenic wavefunctions are used for the atomic electrons. A comparison is made with experimental total cross sections for incident electrons in the energy range 1-2 MeV. The agreement is a considerable improvement on that obtained using the non-relativistic planewave Born approximation. (author)
Spin-dependent relativistic effect on heavy quarkonium properties in medium
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dong Yubing
1997-01-01
Spin-dependent relativistic effect on the binding and dissociation of the heavy quarkonium in a thermal environment is investigated. The result shows that the interactions could influence the heavy quarkonium properties in medium
Magnetic resonance phenomena in dynamics of relativistic particles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ternov, I.M.; Bordovitsyn, V.A.
1987-01-01
A relativistic generalization of Rabi's formula for magnetic resonance is given. On this basis, we consider fast and slow passage through resonance. We define a magnetic resonance exterior field as usual, using unit vectors of a Cartesian coordinate system, a homogeneous magnetic field, and the amplitude of a rotating magnetic field. For the description of spin dynamics we use the Bargmann-Michel-Telegdi equation
Particle Interferometry for Relativistic Heavy-Ion Collisions
Wiedemann, Urs Achim; Wiedemann, Urs Achim; Heinz, Ulrich
1999-01-01
In this report we give a detailed account on Hanbury Brown/Twiss (HBT) particle interferometric methods for relativistic heavy-ion collisions. These exploit identical two-particle correlations to gain access to the space-time geometry and dynamics of the final freeze-out stage. The connection between the measured correlations in momentum space and the phase-space structure of the particle emitter is established, both with and without final state interactions. Suitable Gaussian parametrizations for the two-particle correlation function are derived and the physical interpretation of their parameters is explained. After reviewing various model studies, we show how a combined analysis of single- and two-particle spectra allows to reconstruct the final state of relativistic heavy-ion collisions.
Strong interaction scattering of a spin-zero particle by a 1/2 spin particle
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Derem, Andre
1969-03-01
This paper gather kinematic formulas that are commonly used to describe the scattering, with conservation of parity, 0 - + 1 + /2 → 0 - + 1 + /2 (in the notation S P , S being the spin and P the parity). The two particles 0 - will be two mesons M and M', the two particles 1 + /2 two baryons B and B'. The authors assume that the masses of these four particles are all different. The notations and the definitions are introduced in chapter 1. Chapter 2 recalls essential notions concerning the Dirac equation. The relativistic invariant differential cross-section is calculated in chapter 3, as a function of the invariant amplitudes A'(s,t) and B(s,t). Pauli's usual formalism in the center of mass system is given in chapter 4, as well as the means of passing f(θ) and g(θ) amplitudes to A' and B amplitudes. Chapter 5 is concerned with elastic scattering [fr
Spontaneous spin-polarization and phase transition in the relativistic approach
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Maruyama, Tomoyuki; Tatsumi, Toshitaka
2001-01-01
We study the spin-polarization mechanism in the highly dense nuclear matter with the relativistic mean-field approach. In the relativistic Hartree-Fock framework we find that there are two kinds of spin-spin interaction channels, which are the axial-vector and tensor exchange ones. If each interaction is strong and different sign, the system loses the spherical symmetry and holds the spin-polarization in the high-density region. When the axial-vector interaction is negative enough, the system holds ferromagnetism. (author)
Spin Hall effect and Berry phase of spinning particles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Berard, Alain; Mohrbach, Herve
2006-01-01
We consider the adiabatic evolution of the Dirac equation in order to compute its Berry curvature in momentum space. It is found that the position operator acquires an anomalous contribution due to the non-Abelian Berry gauge connection making the quantum mechanical algebra noncommutative. A generalization to any known spinning particles is possible by using the Bargmann-Wigner equation of motions. The noncommutativity of the coordinates is responsible for the topological spin transport of spinning particles similarly to the spin Hall effect in spintronic physics or the Magnus effect in optics. As an application we predict new dynamics for nonrelativistic particles in an electric field and for photons in a gravitational field
Mass, Momentum and Kinetic Energy of a Relativistic Particle
Zanchini, Enzo
2010-01-01
A rigorous definition of mass in special relativity, proposed in a recent paper, is recalled and employed to obtain simple and rigorous deductions of the expressions of momentum and kinetic energy for a relativistic particle. The whole logical framework appears as the natural extension of the classical one. Only the first, second and third laws of…
On the relativistic particle dynamics in external gravitational fields
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kuz'menkov, L.S.; Naumov, N.D.
1977-01-01
On the base of the Riemann metrics of an event space, leading to the Newton mechanics at nonrelativistic velocities and not obligatory weak gravitational fields relativistic particle dynamics in external gravitation fields has been considered. Found are trajectories, motion laws and light ray equations for the homogeneous and Newton fields
Particle Acceleration, Magnetic Field Generation and Emission from Relativistic Jets
Nishikawa, K.-I.; Hardee, P.; Hededal, C.; Mizuno, Yosuke; Fishman, G. Jerry; Hartmann, D. H.
2006-01-01
Nonthermal radiation observed from astrophysical systems containing relativistic jets and shocks, e.g., active galactic nuclei (AGNs), gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), supernova remnants, and Galactic microquasar systems usually have power-law emission spectra. Fermi acceleration is the mechanism usually assumed for the acceleration of particles in astrophysical environments. Recent PIC simulations using injected relativistic electron-ion (electro-positron) jets show that particle acceleration occurs within the downstream jet, rather than by the scattering of particles back and forth across the shock as in Fermi acceleration. Shock acceleration' is a ubiquitous phenomenon in astrophysical plasmas. Plasma waves and their associated instabilities (e.g., the Buneman instability, other two-streaming instability, and the Weibel instability) created in the shocks are responsible for particle (electron, positron, and ion) acceleration. The simulation results show that the Weibel instability is responsible for generating and amplifying highly nonuniform, small-scale magnetic fields. These magnetic fields contribute to the electron's transverse deflection behind the jet head. The "jitter" radiation from deflected electrons has different spectral properties than synchrotron radiation which is calculated in a uniform magnetic field. This jitter radiation may be important to understanding the complex time evolution and/or spectral structure in gamma-ray bursts, relativistic jets, and supernova remnants. We will review recent PIC simulations of relativistic jets and try to make a connection with observations.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Higuchi, M.; Onuki, Y.; Osaka Univ., Toyonaka; Hasegawa, A.
1998-01-01
A new single-particle equation of the Kohn-Sham-Dirac type is derived from a relativistic current- and spin-density functional theory (RCSDFT), and is here applied to the calculations of the atomic structures of the rare-earth elements. Both the relativistic effects and the magnetic effects are taken into account on an equal footing, and the numerical calculation is carried out by modifying the method of Cortona et al. Because of the presence of the effective magnetic field, the degeneracies in all orbits are completely resolved like the Zeeman splittings. Total spin and orbital angular momenta over all the occupied states are shown to agree reasonably well with the Hund's rules for the rare-earth ions. (orig.)
Cherenkov particle identifier for relativistic heavy ions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dufour, J P; Olson, D L; Baumgartner, M; Girard, J G; Lindstrom, P J; Greiner, D E; Symons, T J.M.; Crawford, H J
1985-12-01
A total internal reflection Cherenkov detector is described. A figure of merit of 84Z/sup 2/sin/sup 2/theta photoelectrons/cm has been measured and the application of the device to charge and velocity measurements of relativistic heavy ions has been tested. We have achieved a charge resolution of ..delta..Zsub(rms)=0.15e for Z=20 with a 3 mm thick glass detector and a velocity resolution of ..delta beta..sub(rms)=2x10/sup -4/ at ..beta..=0.93 and Z=26 with a 6 mm thick fused silica detector. Combining charge and velocity measurements with a magnetic rigidity selection, we have achieved an isotopic mass resolution of ..delta..Msub(rms)=0.1 u with a 2 mm thick fused silica detector for 20
Cherenkov particle identifier for relativistic heavy ions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dufour, J P; Olson, D L; Baumgartner, M; Girard, J G; Lindstrom, P J; Greiner, D E; Symons, T J.M.; Crawford, H J
1985-12-01
A total internal reflection Cherenkov detector is described. A figure of merit of 84Z/sup 2/sin/sup 2/theta photoelectrons/cm has been measured and the application of the device to charge and velocity measurements of relativistic heavy ions has been tested. We have achieved a charge resolution of ..delta..Zsub(rms)=0.15e for Z=20 with a 3 mm thick glass detector and a velocity resolution of ..delta beta..sub(rms)=2 x 10/sup -4/ at ..beta..=0.93 and Z=26 with a 6 mm thick fused silica detector. Combining charge and velocity measurements with a magnetic rigidity selection, we have achieved an isotopic mass resolution of ..delta..Msub(rms)=0.1 u with a 2 mm thick fused silica detector for 20 < A < 40.
Galaxy bispectrum from massive spinning particles
Moradinezhad Dizgah, Azadeh; Lee, Hayden; Muñoz, Julian B.; Dvorkin, Cora
2018-05-01
Massive spinning particles, if present during inflation, lead to a distinctive bispectrum of primordial perturbations, the shape and amplitude of which depend on the masses and spins of the extra particles. This signal, in turn, leaves an imprint in the statistical distribution of galaxies; in particular, as a non-vanishing galaxy bispectrum, which can be used to probe the masses and spins of these particles. In this paper, we present for the first time a new theoretical template for the bispectrum generated by massive spinning particles, valid for a general triangle configuration. We then proceed to perform a Fisher-matrix forecast to assess the potential of two next-generation spectroscopic galaxy surveys, EUCLID and DESI, to constrain the primordial non-Gaussianity sourced by these extra particles. We model the galaxy bispectrum using tree-level perturbation theory, accounting for redshift-space distortions and the Alcock-Paczynski effect, and forecast constraints on the primordial non-Gaussianity parameters marginalizing over all relevant biases and cosmological parameters. Our results suggest that these surveys would potentially be sensitive to any primordial non-Gaussianity with an amplitude larger than fNL≈ 1, for massive particles with spins 2, 3, and 4. Interestingly, if non-Gaussianities are present at that level, these surveys will be able to infer the masses of these spinning particles to within tens of percent. If detected, this would provide a very clear window into the particle content of our Universe during inflation.
In search of elementary spin 0 particles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Krasny, Mieczyslaw Witold; Płaczek, Wiesław
2015-01-01
The Standard Model of strong and electroweak interactions uses point-like spin 1/2 particles as the building bricks of matter and point-like spin 1 particles as the force carriers. One of the most important questions to be answered by the present and future particle physics experiments is whether the elementary spin 0 particles exist, and if they do, what are their interactions with the spin 1/2 and spin 1 particles. Spin 0 particles have been searched extensively over the last decades. Several initial claims of their discoveries were finally disproved in the final experimental scrutiny process. The recent observation of the excess of events at the LHC in the final states involving a pair of vector bosons, or photons, is commonly interpreted as the discovery of the first elementary scalar particle, the Higgs boson. In this paper we recall examples of claims and subsequent disillusions in precedent searches spin 0 particles. We address the question if the LHC Higgs discovery can already be taken for granted, or, as it turned out important in the past, whether it requires a further experimental scrutiny before the existence of the first ever found elementary scalar particle is proven beyond any doubt. An example of the Double Drell–Yan process for which such a scrutiny is indispensable is discussed in some detail. - Highlights: • We present a short history of searches of spin 0 particles. • We construct a model of the Double Drell–Yan Process (DDYP) at the LHC. • We investigate the contribution of the DDYP to the Higgs searches background
Relativistic wave equations for particles in electromagnetic fields
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Good, R.H. Jr.
1989-01-01
A new type of generalization of the Dirac equation of higher spin particles and antiparticles is given, in case only the terms proportional to the external fields need to be retained. copyright 1989 Academic Press, Inc
Relativistic quantum mechanics and introduction to field theory
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yndurain, F.J. [Universidad Autonoma de Madrid (Spain). Dept. de Fisica Teorica
1996-12-01
The following topics were dealt with: relativistic transformations, the Lorentz group, Klein-Gordon equation, spinless particles, spin 1/2 particles, Dirac particle in a potential, massive spin 1 particles, massless spin 1 particles, relativistic collisions, S matrix, cross sections, decay rates, partial wave analysis, electromagnetic field quantization, interaction of radiation with matter, interactions in quantum field theory and relativistic interactions with classical sources.
Relativistic quantum mechanics and introduction to field theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yndurain, F.J.
1996-01-01
The following topics were dealt with: relativistic transformations, the Lorentz group, Klein-Gordon equation, spinless particles, spin 1/2 particles, Dirac particle in a potential, massive spin 1 particles, massless spin 1 particles, relativistic collisions, S matrix, cross sections, decay rates, partial wave analysis, electromagnetic field quantization, interaction of radiation with matter, interactions in quantum field theory and relativistic interactions with classical sources
Measuring the cosmological background of relativistic particles with WMAP
Crotty, P; Pastor, S; Crotty, Patrick; Lesgourgues, Julien; Pastor, Sergio
2003-01-01
We show that the first year results of the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) constrain very efficiently the energy density in relativistic particles in the universe. We derive new bounds on additional relativistic degrees of freedom expressed in terms of an excess in the effective number of light neutrinos Delta N_eff. Within the flat LambdaCDM scenario, the allowed range is Delta N_eff < 6 (95% CL) using WMAP data only, or -2.6 < Delta N_eff < 4 with the prior H_0= 72 \\pm 8 km/s/Mpc. When other cosmic microwave background and large scale structure experiments are taken into account, the window shrinks to -1.5 < Delta N_eff < 4.2. These results are in perfect agreement with the bounds from primordial nucleosynthesis. Non-minimal cosmological models with extra relativistic degrees of freedom are now severely restricted.
Relativistic corrections to the algebra of position variables and spin-orbital interaction
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Alexei A. Deriglazov
2016-10-01
Full Text Available In the framework of vector model of spin, we discuss the problem of a covariant formalism [35] concerning the discrepancy between relativistic and Pauli Hamiltonians. We show how the spin-induced non-commutativity of a position accounts the discrepancy on the classical level, without appeal to the Dirac equation and Foldy–Wouthuysen transformation.
Relativistic corrections to the algebra of position variables and spin-orbital interaction
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Deriglazov, Alexei A., E-mail: alexei.deriglazov@ufjf.edu.br [Departamento de Matemática, ICE, Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora, MG (Brazil); Laboratory of Mathematical Physics, Tomsk Polytechnic University, 634050 Tomsk, Lenin Ave. 30 (Russian Federation); Pupasov-Maksimov, Andrey M., E-mail: pupasov.maksimov@ufjf.edu.br [Departamento de Matemática, ICE, Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora, MG (Brazil)
2016-10-10
In the framework of vector model of spin, we discuss the problem of a covariant formalism [35] concerning the discrepancy between relativistic and Pauli Hamiltonians. We show how the spin-induced non-commutativity of a position accounts the discrepancy on the classical level, without appeal to the Dirac equation and Foldy–Wouthuysen transformation.
A simplectic formulation of relativistic particle dynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tulczyjew, W.M.
1976-12-01
Particle mechanics is formulated in terms of symplectic relations and infinitesimal symplectic relations. Generating functions of symplectic relations are shown to be classical counterparts of Green's functions of wave mechanics. (orig.) [de
A sympletic formulation of relativistic particle dynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tulczyjew, W.M.
1977-01-01
Particle mechanics is formulated in terms of sympletic relations and infinitesimal symplectic relations. Generating functions of symplectic relations are shown to be classical counterparts of Green's functions of wave mechanics. (author)
Spinning charged test particles and Cosmic Censorship
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Caderni, N [Cambridge Univ. Inst. of Astronomy (UK); Calvani, M [Padua Univ. (Italy). Ist. di Astronomia
1979-04-16
The authors consider spinning charged test particles in the gravitational field of a rotating charged black hole, and it is shown that the hole cannot be destroyed, according to the Cosmic Censorship hypothesis.
Spinning charged test particles and Cosmic Censorship
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Caderni, N.; Calvani, M.
1979-01-01
The authors consider spinning charged test particles in the gravitational field of a rotating charged black hole, and it is shown that the hole cannot be destroyed, according to the Cosmic Censorship hypothesis. (Auth.)
Electromagnetic field of a circular beam of relativistic particles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vybiral, B.
1978-01-01
The generalized Coulomb law and the generalized Biot-Savart-Laplace law are derived for an element of a beam of charged relativistic particles moving generally irregularly. These laws are utilized for the description of an electromagnetic field of a circular beam of relativistic regularly moving particles. It is shown that in the points on the axis of the beam the intensity of the electric field is given by an expression precisely corresponding to the classical Coulomb law for charges at rest and the induction of the magnetic field corresponds to the classical Biot-Savart-Laplace law for conductive currents. From the numerical solution it follows that in the points outside the axis the induction of the magnetic field rises with the velocity of the particles. For a velocity nearing that of light in vacuum it assumes a definite value (with the exception of the points lying on the beam). (author)
Characterization of particle states in relativistic classical quantum theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Horwitz, L.P.; Rabin, Y.
1977-02-01
Classical and quantum relativistic mechanics are studied. The notion of a ''particle'' is defined in the classical case and the interpretation of mechanics in space-time is clarified. These notions are carried over to the quantum theory, as much as possible. The relation between the results of Feyman's path integral approach and the theory of Horwitz and Piron is discussed. The ''particle'' interpretation is shown to imply an asymptotic condition for scattering. A general method of constructing the dynamical mass spectrum of composite ''particle'' states is discussed. An interference experiment is proposed to affirm the interpretation and applicability of Stueckelberg type wave functions for actual physical phenomena. Some discussion of the relation of this relativistic quantum theory to Feynman's approach to quantum field theory is also given
Auxiliary fields in the geometrical relativistic particle dynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Amador, A; Bagatella, N; Rojas, E; Cordero, R
2008-01-01
We describe how to construct the dynamics of relativistic particles, following either timelike or null curves, by means of an auxiliary variables method instead of the standard theory of deformations for curves. There are interesting physical particle models governed by actions that involve higher order derivatives of the embedding functions of the worldline. We point out that the mechanical content of such models can be extracted wisely from a lower order action, which can be performed by implementing in the action a finite number of constraints that involve the geometrical relationship structures inherent to a curve and by using a covariant formalism. We emphasize our approach for null curves. For such systems, the natural time parameter is a pseudo-arclength whose properties resemble those of the standard proper time. We illustrate the formalism by applying it to some models for relativistic particles
Auxiliary fields in the geometrical relativistic particle dynamics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Amador, A; Bagatella, N; Rojas, E [Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Fisica e Inteligencia Artificial, Universidad Veracruzana, 91000 Xalapa, Veracruz (Mexico); Cordero, R [Departamento de Fisica, Escuela Superior de Fisica y Matematicas del I.P.N, Edificio 9, 07738 Mexico D.F (Mexico)], E-mail: aramador@gmail.com, E-mail: nbagatella@uv.mx, E-mail: cordero@esfm.ipn.mx, E-mail: efrojas@uv.mx
2008-03-21
We describe how to construct the dynamics of relativistic particles, following either timelike or null curves, by means of an auxiliary variables method instead of the standard theory of deformations for curves. There are interesting physical particle models governed by actions that involve higher order derivatives of the embedding functions of the worldline. We point out that the mechanical content of such models can be extracted wisely from a lower order action, which can be performed by implementing in the action a finite number of constraints that involve the geometrical relationship structures inherent to a curve and by using a covariant formalism. We emphasize our approach for null curves. For such systems, the natural time parameter is a pseudo-arclength whose properties resemble those of the standard proper time. We illustrate the formalism by applying it to some models for relativistic particles.
Rizov, V A; Todorov, I T
1975-01-01
A recently proposed local quasipotential equation is reviewed and applied to the electromagnetic interaction of a spin-0 and a spin-/sup 1///sub 2/ particle. The Dirac particle is treated in a covariant two- component formalism in the neighbourhood of the mass shell. The fine structure of the bound state energy levels and the main part of the Lamb shift (of order alpha /sup 5/In(1/ alpha ) are evaluated with full account of relativistic recoil effects (without using any inverse mass expansion). Possible relevance of the techniques developed in this paper to fine structure calculations for meso-atomic systems is pointed out. (14 refs).
On the injection of relativistic particles into the Crab Nebula
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shklovskij, I.S.
1977-01-01
It is shown that a flux of relativistic electrons from the NP 0532 pulsar magnetosphere, responsible for its synchrotron emission, cannot provide the necessary energy pumping to the Crab Nebula. A conclusion is reached that such a pumping can be effectuated by a flow of relativistic electrons leaving the NP 0532 magnetosphere at small pitch angles and giving therefore no appreciable contribution to the synchrotron emission of the pulsar. An interpretation of the Crab Nebula synchrotron spectrum is given on the assumption of secular ''softening'' of the energy spectrum of the relativistic electrons injected into the Nebula. A possibility of explanation of the observed rapid variability of some features in the central part of the Nebula by ejection of free - neutron - rich dense gas clouds from the pulsar surface during ''starquakes'' is discussed. The clouds of rather dense (nsub(e) approximately 10 7 cm -3 ) plasma, thus formed at about 10 13 cm from pulsar, will be accelerated up to relativistic velocities by the pressure of the magneto-dipole radiation of NP 0532 and will deform the magnetic field in the inner part (R 17 cm) of the Crab Nebula, that is the cause of the variability observed. In this case, favourable conditions for the acceleration of the particles in the cloud up to relativistic energies are realized; that may be an additional source of injection
Colored, spinning classical particle in an external non-Abelian gauge field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Arodz, H.
1982-04-01
Classical non-relativistic equations of motion are derived for a colored, spinning point-like particle in an external SU(2) gauge field from Dirac equation. It is found that in addition to the classical spin and color spin vectors, S, I, it is necessary to introduce a new classical dynamical variable [Jsup(ab)], a,b = 1,2,3, describing a mixing of the spin and color. The constraint relations between [Jsup(ab)], S, I are also found. (Auth.)
Relativistic local quantum field theory for m=0 particles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Morales Villasevil, A.
1965-01-01
A method is introduced ta deal with relativistic quantum field theory for particles with m=0. Two mappings I and J, giving rise respectively to particle and anti particle states, are defined between a test space and the physical Hilbert space. The intrinsic field operator is then defined as the minimal causal linear combinations of operators belonging to the annihilation-creation algebra associated to the germ and antigerm parts of the element. Local elements are introduced as improper test elements and local field operators are constructed in the same way as the intrinsic ones. Commutation rules are given. (Author) 17 refs
Relativistic motion of particle in photogravitational field of star
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zubko, O.L.
2014-01-01
Relativistic motion of particle in photogravitational field of star has been considered at different levels. It is shown that taking into account direct light pressure, elliptical orbit of the particle increases in sizes. Taking into account longitudinal Doppler effect and aberration of light leads to the motion of the particle by decreasing in size ellipse, which also has decreasing and eccentricity. Taking into account forces proportional to v 1 2 /c 2 leads to a faster reduction of the ellipse and its eccentricity. (authors)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hirsch, J.E.
2005-01-01
The existence of macroscopic spin currents in the ground state of superconductors is predicted within the theory of hole superconductivity. Here it is shown that the electromagnetic Darwin interaction is attractive for spin currents and repulsive for charge currents. It is also shown that the mere existence of spin currents implies that some electrons are moving at relativistic speeds in macroscopic superconductors, which in turn implies that the Darwin interaction plays a fundamental role in stabilizing the superconducting state
Particle Acceleration, Magnetic Field Generation, and Emission in Relativistic Shocks
Nishikawa, Ken-IchiI.; Hededal, C.; Hardee, P.; Richardson, G.; Preece, R.; Sol, H.; Fishman, G.
2004-01-01
Shock acceleration is an ubiquitous phenomenon in astrophysical plasmas. Plasma waves and their associated instabilities (e.g., the Buneman instability, two-streaming instability, and the Weibel instability) created in the shocks are responsible for particle (electron, positron, and ion) acceleration. Using a 3-D relativistic electromagnetic particle (m) code, we have investigated particle acceleration associated with a relativistic jet front propagating through an ambient plasma with and without initial magnetic fields. We find only small differences in the results between no ambient and weak ambient parallel magnetic fields. Simulations show that the Weibel instability created in the collisionless shock front accelerates particles perpendicular and parallel to the jet propagation direction. New simulations with an ambient perpendicular magnetic field show the strong interaction between the relativistic jet and the magnetic fields. The magnetic fields are piled up by the jet and the jet electrons are bent, which creates currents and displacement currents. At the nonlinear stage, the magnetic fields are reversed by the current and the reconnection may take place. Due to these dynamics the jet and ambient electron are strongly accelerated in both parallel and perpendicular directions.
Particle Acceleration, Magnetic Field Generation in Relativistic Shocks
Nishikawa, Ken-Ichi; Hardee, P.; Hededal, C. B.; Richardson, G.; Sol, H.; Preece, R.; Fishman, G. J.
2005-01-01
Shock acceleration is an ubiquitous phenomenon in astrophysical plasmas. Plasma waves and their associated instabilities (e.g., the Buneman instability, two-streaming instability, and the Weibel instability) created in the shocks are responsible for particle (electron, positron, and ion) acceleration. Using a 3-D relativistic electromagnetic particle (REMP) code, we have investigated particle acceleration associated with a relativistic jet front propagating through an ambient plasma with and without initial magnetic fields. We find only small differences in the results between no ambient and weak ambient parallel magnetic fields. Simulations show that the Weibel instability created in the collisionless shock front accelerates particles perpendicular and parallel to the jet propagation direction. New simulations with an ambient perpendicular magnetic field show the strong interaction between the relativistic jet and the magnetic fields. The magnetic fields are piled up by the jet and the jet electrons are bent, which creates currents and displacement currents. At the nonlinear stage, the magnetic fields are reversed by the current and the reconnection may take place. Due to these dynamics the jet and ambient electron are strongly accelerated in both parallel and perpendicular directions.
Spin dynamics in relativistic ionization with highly charged ions in super-strong laser fields
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Klaiber, Michael; Yakaboylu, Enderalp; Bauke, Heiko; Hatsagortsyan, Karen Z; Müller, Carsten; Paulus, Gerhard G
2014-01-01
Spin dynamics and induced spin effects in above-threshold ionization of hydrogenlike highly charged ions in super-strong laser fields are investigated. Spin-resolved ionization rates in the tunnelling regime are calculated by employing two versions of a relativistic Coulomb-corrected strong-field approximation (SFA). An intuitive simpleman model is developed which explains the derived scaling laws for spin flip and spin asymmetry effects. The intuitive model as well as our ab initio numerical simulations support the analytical results for the spin effects obtained in the dressed SFA where the impact of the laser field on the electron spin evolution in the bound state is taken into account. In contrast, the standard SFA is shown to fail in reproducing spin effects in ionization even at a qualitative level. The anticipated spin-effects are expected to be measurable with modern laser techniques combined with an ion storage facility. (paper)
Quantization of 2 + 1-spinning particles and bifermionic constraint problem
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fresneda, R.; Gavrilov, S.P.; Gitman, D.M.; Moshin, P.Yu. [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica
2004-07-01
In this paper, we have quantized a P- and T-noninvariant pseudoclassical model of a massive relativistic spin-1=2 particle in 2 + 1 dimensions, on the background of an arbitrary U(1) gauge vector field. A peculiar feature of the model at the classical level is that it contains a bifermionic first-class constraint, which does not admit gauge-fixing. It is shown that this first-class constraint can be realized at the quantum level as a bounded operator, which is imposed as a condition on the state vectors (by analogy with the Dirac quantization method). This allows us to generalize the quantization scheme [?] in case there is a bifermionic first-class constraint.We present a detailed construction of the Hilbert space and verify that the constructed QM possesses the necessary symmetry properties. We show that the condition of preservation of the classical symmetries under the restricted Lorentz transformations and the U(1) transformations allows one to realize the operator algebra in an unambiguous way. Within the constructed relativistic QM, we select a physical subspace which describes the one-particle sector. The physical sector of the QM contains both particles and antiparticles with positive energy hat {omega} levels, and exactly reproduces the one-particle sector of the quantum theory of the 2 + 1 spinor field. (author)
Study of the equations of a particle in Non- Relativistic Quantum Mechanics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Miltao, Milton Souza Ribeiro; Silva, Vanessa Santos Teles da
2011-01-01
Full text: The study of group theory is relevant to the treatment of physical problems, in which concepts of invariance and symmetry are important. In the field of Non-Relativistic Quantum Mechanics, we can do algebraic considerations taking into account the principles of symmetry, considering the framework of the study of Galileo transformations, which have characteristics of group. Therefore, we discuss the Stern-Gerlach experiment that had the historical importance of demonstrating that the electron has an intrinsic angular momentum. Through discussion of this experiment, we found that the spin appears in Non-Relativistic Quantum Mechanics as a feature of the algebraic structure underlying any physical theory represented by a group. From these studies, we have algebraic considerations for physical systems in non-relativistic domain, which are described by the Schroedinger and Pauli equations, describing the dynamics of particles of spin zero and 1/2 respectively, taking into account the structure of the transformations Galileo. Due to the operatorial, we represent Galileo's transformations by matrices by choosing an appropriate basis of space-time. Using these arrays, we saw group characteristics associated with these transformations, which we call the Galileo Group. We note the invariance of the Schroedinger and Pauli equations after these changes, as well as the physical state associated with it, which is represented by a radius vector in Hilbert space. (author)
Relativistic scattering theory of two charged spinless particles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Alt, E.O.; Hannemann
1985-01-01
In the framework of a relativistic quantum mechanics, the authors calculate for two spinless particles with Coulomb interaction exactly the partial-wave S-matrix and the full scattering amplitude. From the former they can extract the exact binding energies which, when expanded in powers of α, reproduce in the hydrogenic case the fourth-order result of a previous study. In the weak field limit, the latter coincides with the amplitude derived by another study from QED in eikonal approximation
Coherent oscillations of a ring of relativistic particles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hofmann, I.
1976-07-01
The effect of ring curvature on the coherent perturbations of a ring of relativistic particles is studied within the framework of the linearized Vlasov equation. Finite curvature is shown to have a minor effect on the dynamics of the 'negative mass' mode; the 'transverse' mode in radial direction, however, is found to be coupled with a simultaneous longitudinal density modulation which modifies the dispersion relation. In the limit of small mode frequency (ω/Ω [de
Particle acceleration and injection problem in relativistic and nonrelativistic shocks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hoshino, M.
2008-01-01
Acceleration of charged particles at the collisionless shock is believed to be responsible for production of cosmic rays in a variety of astrophysical objects such as supernova, AGN jet, and GRB etc., and the diffusive shock acceleration model is widely accepted as a key process for generating cosmic rays with non-thermal, power-law energy spectrum. Yet it is not well understood how the collisionless shock can produce such high energy particles. Among several unresolved issues, two major problems are the so-called '' injection '' problem of the supra-thermal particles and the generation of plasma waves and turbulence in and around the shock front. With recent advance of computer simulations, however, it is now possible to discuss those issues together with dynamical evolution of the kinetic shock structure. A wealth of modern astrophysical observations also inspires the dynamical shock structure and acceleration processes along with the theoretical and computational studies on shock. In this presentation, we focus on the plasma wave generation and the associated particle energization that directly links to the injection problem by taking into account the kinetic plasma processes of both non-relativistic and relativistic shocks by using a particle-in-cell simulation. We will also discuss some new particle acceleration mechanisms such as stochastic surfing acceleration and wakefield acceleration by the action of nonlinear electrostatic fields. (author)
Spinor and isospinor structure of relativistic particle propagators
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gitman, D.M.; Shvartsman, Sh.M.
1993-07-01
Representations by means of path integrals are used to find spinor and isospinor structure of relativistic particle propagators in external fields. For Dirac propagator in an external electromagnetic field all Grassmannian integrations are performed and a general result is presented via a bosonic path integral. The spinor structure of the integrand is given explicitly by its decomposition in the independent γ-matrix structures. A similar technique is used to get the isospinor structure of the scalar particle propagator in an external non-Abelian field. (author). 21 refs
Dirac particle in a box, and relativistic quantum Zeno dynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Menon, Govind; Belyi, Sergey
2004-01-01
After developing a complete set of eigenfunctions for a Dirac particle restricted to a box, the quantum Zeno dynamics of a relativistic system is considered. The evolution of a continuously observed quantum mechanical system is governed by the theorem put forth by Misra and Sudarshan. One of the conditions for quantum Zeno dynamics to be manifest is that the Hamiltonian is semi-bounded. This Letter analyzes the effects of continuous observation of a particle whose time evolution is generated by the Dirac Hamiltonian. The theorem by Misra and Sudarshan is not applicable here since the Dirac operator is not semi-bounded
Relativistic-particle quantum mechanics (applications and approximations) II
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Coester, F.
1981-01-01
In this lecture I hope to show that relativistic-particle quantum mechanics with direct interactions is a useful tool for building models applicable to hadron systems at intermediate energies. To do this I will first describe a class of models designed to incorporate nucleon-nucleon interactions, pion production, absorption and scattering into a single dynamical framework without dressing the nucleons with pion clouds. The second major topic concerns electromagnetic interactions. In the previous lecture I specifically excluded long-rang forces and zero-mass particles. Since many of the experimental data in hadron physics involve electromagnetic interactions this limitation is a major defect which must be addressed
Run-away electrons in relativistic spin (1) /(2) quantum electrodynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Low, F.E.
1998-01-01
The existence of run-away solutions in classical and non-relativistic quantum electrodynamics is reviewed. It is shown that the less singular high energy behavior of relativistic spin (1) /(2) quantum electrodynamics precludes an analogous behavior in that theory. However, a Landau-like anomalous pole in the photon propagation function or in the electron-massive photon forward scattering amplitude would generate a new run-away, characterized by an energy scale ω∼m e thinspexp(1/α). This contrasts with the energy scale ω∼m e /α associated with the classical and non-relativistic quantum run-aways. copyright 1998 Academic Press, Inc
Charged spinning black holes as particle accelerators
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wei Shaowen; Liu Yuxiao; Guo Heng; Fu Chune
2010-01-01
It has recently been pointed out that the spinning Kerr black hole with maximal spin could act as a particle collider with arbitrarily high center-of-mass energy. In this paper, we will extend the result to the charged spinning black hole, the Kerr-Newman black hole. The center-of-mass energy of collision for two uncharged particles falling freely from rest at infinity depends not only on the spin a but also on the charge Q of the black hole. We find that an unlimited center-of-mass energy can be approached with the conditions: (1) the collision takes place at the horizon of an extremal black hole; (2) one of the colliding particles has critical angular momentum; (3) the spin a of the extremal black hole satisfies (1/√(3))≤(a/M)≤1, where M is the mass of the Kerr-Newman black hole. The third condition implies that to obtain an arbitrarily high energy, the extremal Kerr-Newman black hole must have a large value of spin, which is a significant difference between the Kerr and Kerr-Newman black holes. Furthermore, we also show that, for a near-extremal black hole, there always exists a finite upper bound for center-of-mass energy, which decreases with the increase of the charge Q.
Motion of particles and spin in polarized media
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Silenko, A.Ya.
2003-01-01
The equations of the particle and spin motion in media with polarized electrons placed in external fields are found. The exchange interaction affects the motion of electrons and their spin, and the annihilation interaction affects the motion of positrons and their spin. The second-order terms in spin are taken into account for particles with spin S ≥ 1. The found equations can be used for the description of the particle and spin motion in both magnetic and nonmagnetic media [ru
Theories of higher spin particles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Akshay, Y.S.; Sudarshan, Ananth
2015-01-01
One of the aims of theoretical physics is to understand the fundamental constituents of Nature and the interactions between them. The Standard Model of particle physics is currently our best description of Nature. It has been phenomenally successful in describing physics upto energy scales of a few hundred GeV. The SM contains matter particles (fermions), force carriers or mediators and the Higgs (bosons). The fermionic particles that make up all the visible matter around us are the leptons (electron, muon, tau, their respective neutrinos) and quarks (up, down, top, bottom, charm and strange). The force carriers of the SM mediate three of the four fundamental forces in Nature. The photon (γ) mediates the electromagnetic force, the W+,W-,Z mediate the weak force and the gluons (g) mediate the strong force. The Higgs boson plays an important role in the generation of masses for various particles
Classical relativistic constituent particles and composite-particle scattering
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
King, M.J.
1984-01-01
A nonlocal Lagrangian formalism is developed to describe a classical many-particle system. The nonstandard Lagrangian is a function of a single parameter s which is not, in general, associated with the physical clock. The particles are constrained to be constituents of composite systems, which in turn can decompose into asymptotic composite states representing free observable particles. To demonstrate this, explicit models of composite-composite particle scattering are constructed. Space-time conservation laws are not imposed separately on the system, but follow upon requiring the constituents to ''pair up'' into free composites at s = +infinity,-infinity. One model is characterized by the appearance of an ''external'' zero-mass composite particle which participates in the scattering process without affecting the space-time conservation laws of the two-composite system. Initial conditions on the two incoming composite particles and the zero-mass participant determine the scattering angle and the final states of the two outgoing composite particles. Although the formalism is classical, the model displays some features usually associated with quantum field theory, such as particle scattering by means of constituent exchange, creation and annihilation of particles, and restriction of values of angular momentum
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Manuel Offidani
2018-05-01
Full Text Available We present a unified theoretical framework for the study of spin dynamics and relativistic transport phenomena in disordered two-dimensional Dirac systems with pseudospin-spin coupling. The formalism is applied to the paradigmatic case of graphene with uniform Bychkov-Rashba interaction and shown to capture spin relaxation processes and associated charge-to-spin interconversion phenomena in response to generic external perturbations, including spin density fluctuations and electric fields. A controlled diagrammatic evaluation of the generalized spin susceptibility in the diffusive regime of weak spin-orbit interaction allows us to show that the spin and momentum lifetimes satisfy the standard Dyakonov-Perel relation for both weak (Gaussian and resonant (unitary nonmagnetic disorder. Finally, we demonstrate that the spin relaxation rate can be derived in the zero-frequency limit by exploiting the SU(2 covariant conservation laws for the spin observables. Our results set the stage for a fully quantum-mechanical description of spin relaxation in both pristine graphene samples with weak spin-orbit fields and in graphene heterostructures with enhanced spin-orbital effects currently attracting much attention.
Real-time energy detector for relativistic charged particles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Piestrup, A.
1988-01-01
The objective of the research is to investigate the use of coherent transition radiation to measure the energy of ultra-relativistic charged particles. The research has possible applications for the detection and identification of these particles. It can also be used for beam diagnostics for both high-repetition-rate and single-pulse, high-current accelerators. The device is low cost and can operate in situ while causing little or no perturbation to the beam. Three such coherent radiators have been constructed and tested at two accelerators using electron beam energies ranging from 50 to 228 MeV. Soft x-ray emission (1 keV to 4 keV) was emitted in a circularly symmetrical annulus with half-angle divergence of 2.5 to 9.0 mr. By selecting foil thickness and spacing, it is possible to design radiators whose angle of emission varies radically over a range of charge-particle energies
A signed particle formulation of non-relativistic quantum mechanics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sellier, Jean Michel, E-mail: jeanmichel.sellier@parallel.bas.bg
2015-09-15
A formulation of non-relativistic quantum mechanics in terms of Newtonian particles is presented in the shape of a set of three postulates. In this new theory, quantum systems are described by ensembles of signed particles which behave as field-less classical objects which carry a negative or positive sign and interact with an external potential by means of creation and annihilation events only. This approach is shown to be a generalization of the signed particle Wigner Monte Carlo method which reconstructs the time-dependent Wigner quasi-distribution function of a system and, therefore, the corresponding Schrödinger time-dependent wave-function. Its classical limit is discussed and a physical interpretation, based on experimental evidences coming from quantum tomography, is suggested. Moreover, in order to show the advantages brought by this novel formulation, a straightforward extension to relativistic effects is discussed. To conclude, quantum tunnelling numerical experiments are performed to show the validity of the suggested approach.
Particle-production mechanism in relativistic heavy-ion collisions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bush, B.W.; Nix, J.R.
1994-01-01
We discuss the production of particles in relativistic heavy-ion collisions through the mechanism of massive bremsstrahlung, in which massive mesons are emitted during rapid nucleon acceleration. This mechanism is described within the framework of classical hadrodynamics for extended nucleons, corresponding to nucleons of finite size interacting with massive meson fields. This new theory provides a natural covariant microscopic approach to relativistic heavy-ion collisions that includes automatically spacetime nonlocality and retardation, nonequilibrium phenomena, interactions among all nucleons, and particle production. Inclusion of the finite nucleon size cures the difficulties with preacceleration and runaway solutions that have plagued the classical theory of self-interacting point particles. For the soft reactions that dominate nucleon-nucleon collisions, a significant fraction of the incident center-of-mass energy is radiated through massive bremsstrahlung. In the present version of the theory, this radiated energy is in the form of neutral scalar (σ) and neutral vector (ω) mesons, which subsequently decay primarily into pions with some photons also. Additional meson fields that are known to be important from nucleon-nucleon scattering experiments should be incorporated in the future, in which case the radiated energy would also contain isovector pseudoscalar (π + , π - , π 0 ), isovector scalar (δ + , δ - , δ 0 ), isovector vector (ρ + , ρ - , ρ 0 ), and neutral pseudoscalar (η) mesons
Scattering of Non-Relativistic Charged Particles by Electromagnetic Radiation
Apostol, M.
2017-11-01
The cross-section is computed for non-relativistic charged particles (like electrons and ions) scattered by electromagnetic radiation confined to a finite region (like the focal region of optical laser beams). The cross-section exhibits maxima at scattering angles given by the energy and momentum conservation in multi-photon absorption or emission processes. For convenience, a potential scattering is included and a comparison is made with the well-known Kroll-Watson scattering formula. The scattering process addressed in this paper is distinct from the process dealt with in previous studies, where the scattering is immersed in the radiation field.
Spacetime alternatives in the quantum mechanics of a relativistic particle
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Whelan, J.T.
1994-01-01
Hartle's generalized quantum mechanics formalism is used to examine spacetime coarse grainings, i.e., sets of alternatives defined with respect to a region extended in time as well as space, in the quantum mechanics of a free relativistic particle. For a simple coarse graining and suitable initial conditions, tractable formulas are found for branch wave functions. Despite the nonlocality of the positive-definite version of the Klein-Gordon inner product, which means that nonoverlapping branches are not sufficient to imply decoherence, some initial conditions are found to give decoherence and allow the consistent assignment of probabilities
Quantum electrodynamics of particles with arbitrary spin
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Green, H.S.
1978-01-01
A generalization of quantum electrodynamics is developed for particles of higher spin, with careful attention to the requirements of consistency, causality, unitarity and renormalizability. It is shown that field equations studied previously by the author are expressible in arbitrarily many different forms, which are equivalent in the absence of electromagnetic interactions, but not when electromagnetic coupling is introduced in a gauge-invariant way. A form is chosen which satisfies the requirements of casuality. It is shown how to define a particle density, which is positive-definite in the subspace spanned by solutions of the field equation, and satisifies a Lorentz-invariant conservation law. The quantization and renormalization of the resulting electrodynamics is studied, and is found to require only minor modifications of the existing theory for particles of spin 1/2
Spin rotation function in a microscopic non-relativistic optical model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bauhoff, W.
1984-01-01
A microscopic optical potential, which is calculated non-relativistically with a density-dependent effective force, is used to calculate cross-section, polarization and spin-rotation function for elastic proton scattering from 40 Ca at 160 MeV and 497 MeV. At 160 MeV, the agreement to the data is comparable to phenomenological fits, and the spin-rotation can be used to distinguish between microscopic and Woods-Saxon potentials. A good fit to the spin-rotation function results at 497 MeV, whereas the polarization data are not well reproduced
Dynamic bremsstrahlung from relativistic particles scattered by atom
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Astapenko, V.A.; Bujmistrov, V.M.; Krotov, Yu.A.; Mikhajlov, L.K.; Trakhtenberg, L.I.
1985-01-01
The bremsstrahlung cross section for a relativistic particle scattered by an atom is calculated. In contrast to the screening approximation usually employed, the influence of the atomic electron on the bremsstrahlung is taken into account exactly, viz., the atomic electron is considered as a moving particle interacting with the electromagnetic field and not only as the source of a static external field. Consequently, along with the static term which leads to the Bethe-Heitw,ler formula, a ne dynamic, term appears in the transition amplitude. The corresponding cross section, the dynamic bremsstrahlung cross section, in certain frequensy ranges and certain ranges of the directions of photon emission exceeds considerably the static bremsstrahlung cross section
The ideal relativistic rotating gas as a perfect fluid with spin
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Becattini, F.; Tinti, L.
2010-01-01
We show that the ideal relativistic spinning gas at complete thermodynamical equilibrium is a fluid with a non-vanishing spin density tensor σ μν . After having obtained the expression of the local spin-dependent phase-space density f(x, p) στ in the Boltzmann approximation, we derive the spin density tensor and show that it is proportional to the acceleration tensor Ω μν constructed with the Frenet-Serret tetrad. We recover the proper generalization of the fundamental thermodynamical relation, involving an additional term -(1/2)Ω μν σ μν . We also show that the spin density tensor has a non-vanishing projection onto the four-velocity field, i.e. t μ = σ μν u ν ≠ 0, in contrast to the common assumption t μ = 0, known as Frenkel condition, in the thus-far proposed theories of relativistic fluids with spin. We briefly address the viewpoint of the accelerated observer and inertial spin effects.
Outline of a nonlinear, relativistic quantum mechanics of extended particles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mielke, E.W.
1981-01-01
A quantum theory of intrinsically extended particles similar to de Broglie's theory of the Double Solution is proposed. A rational notion of the particle's extension is enthroned by realizing its internal structure via soliton-type solutions of nonlinear, relativistic wave equations. These droplet-type waves have a quasi-objective character except for certain boundary conditions which may be subject to stochastic fluctuations. More precisely, this assumption amounts to a probabilistic description of the center of a soliton such that it would follow the conventional quantum-mechanical formalism in the limit of zero particle radius. At short interaction distances, however, a promising nonlinear and nonlocal theory emerges. This model is not only capable of achieving a conceptually satisfying synthesis of the particle-wave dualism, but may also lead to a rational resolution of epistemological problems in the quantum-theoretical measurement process. Within experimental errors the results for, e.g., the hydrogen atom can be reproduced by appropriately specifying the nature of the nonlinear self-interaction. It is speculated that field theoretical issues raised by such notions as identical particles, field quantization and renormalization are already incorporated or resolved by this nonlocal theory, at least in principle. (author)
Outline of a nonlinear, relativistic quantum mechanics of extended particles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mielke, E.W.
1981-01-01
A quantum theory of intrinsically extended particles similar to de Broglie's Theory of the Double Solution is proposed. A rational notion of the particle's extension is enthroned by realizing its internal structure via soliton-type solutions of nonlinear, relativistic wave equations. These droplet-type waves have a quasi-objective character except for certain boundary conditions which may be subject to stochastic fluctuations. More precisely, this assumption amounts to a probabilistic description of the center of a soliton such that it would follow the conventional quantum-mechanical formalism in the limit of zero particle radius. At short interaction distances, however, a promising nonlinear and nonlocal theory emerges. This model is not only capable of achieving a conceptually satisfying synthesis of the particle-wave dualism, but may also lead to a rational resolution of epistemological problems in the quantum-theoretical measurement process. Within experimental errors the results for, e.g., the hydrogen atom can be reproduced by appropriately specifying the nature of the nonlinear self-interaction. It is speculated that field theoretical issues raised by such notions as identical particles, field quantization and renormalization are already incorporated or resolved by this nonlocal theory, at least in principle. (author)
Quantum gravitational corrections for spinning particles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fröb, Markus B.
2016-01-01
We calculate the quantum corrections to the gauge-invariant gravitational potentials of spinning particles in flat space, induced by loops of both massive and massless matter fields of various types. While the corrections to the Newtonian potential induced by massless conformal matter for spinless particles are well known, and the same corrections due to massless minimally coupled scalars http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/0264-9381/27/24/245008, massless non-conformal scalars http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevD.87.104027 and massive scalars, fermions and vector bosons http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevD.91.064047 have been recently derived, spinning particles receive additional corrections which are the subject of the present work. We give both fully analytic results valid for all distances from the particle, and present numerical results as well as asymptotic expansions. At large distances from the particle, the corrections due to massive fields are exponentially suppressed in comparison to the corrections from massless fields, as one would expect. However, a surprising result of our analysis is that close to the particle itself, on distances comparable to the Compton wavelength of the massive fields running in the loops, these corrections can be enhanced with respect to the massless case.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Repisky, Michal; Komorovsky, Stanislav; Malkina, Olga L.; Malkin, Vladimir G.
2009-01-01
The relativistic four-component density functional approach based on the use of restricted magnetically balanced basis (mDKS-RMB), applied recently for calculations of NMR shielding, was extended for calculations of NMR indirect nuclear spin-spin coupling constants. The unperturbed equations are solved with the use of a restricted kinetically balanced basis set for the small component while to solve the second-order coupled perturbed DKS equations a restricted magnetically balanced basis set for the small component was applied. Benchmark relativistic calculations have been carried out for the X-H and H-H spin-spin coupling constants in the XH 4 series (X = C, Si, Ge, Sn and Pb). The method provides an attractive alternative to existing approximate two-component methods with transformed Hamiltonians for relativistic calculations of spin-spin coupling constants of heavy-atom systems. In particular, no picture-change effects arise in our method for property calculations
General treatment of quantum and classical spinning particles in external fields
Obukhov, Yuri N.; Silenko, Alexander J.; Teryaev, Oleg V.
2017-11-01
We develop the general theory of spinning particles with electric and magnetic dipole moments moving in arbitrary electromagnetic, inertial, and gravitational fields. Both the quantum-mechanical and classical dynamics is investigated. We start from the covariant Dirac equation extended to a spin-1/2 fermion with anomalous magnetic and electric dipole moments and then perform the relativistic Foldy-Wouthuysen transformation. This transformation allows us to obtain the quantum-mechanical equations of motion for the physical operators in the Schrödinger form and to establish the classical limit of relativistic quantum mechanics. The results obtained are then compared to the general classical description of the spinning particle interacting with electromagnetic, inertial and gravitational fields. The complete agreement between the quantum mechanics and the classical theory is proven in the general case. As an application of the results obtained, we consider the dynamics of a spinning particle in a gravitational wave and analyze the prospects of using the magnetic resonance setup to find possible manifestations of the gravitational wave on spin.
Particle accelerators inside spinning black holes.
Lake, Kayll
2010-05-28
On the basis of the Kerr metric as a model for a spinning black hole accreting test particles from rest at infinity, I show that the center-of-mass energy for a pair of colliding particles is generically divergent at the inner horizon. This shows not only that classical black holes are internally unstable, but also that Planck-scale physics is a characteristic feature within black holes at scales much larger that the Planck length. The novel feature of the divergence discussed here is that the phenomenon is present only for black holes with rotation, and in this sense it is distinct from the well-known Cauchy horizon instability.
On spin-canting in maghemite particles
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Linderoth, Søren; Hendriksen, Peter Vang; Bødker, F.
1994-01-01
The degree of alignment of the magnetic moments of Fe3+ ions in ultrafine maghemite particles has been studied in samples with induced magnetic texture. The textured samples were prepared by freezing ferrofluids, containing 7.5 nm maghemite particles, in a magnetic field. Mössbauer spectroscopy...... studies of the textured samples in large magnetic fields demonstrate that the lack of full alignment is not an effect of large magnetic anisotropy, as suggested recently, but that the effect is rather due to canting of individual spins. Journal of Applied Physics is copyrighted by The American Institute...
A relativistic gauge model describing N particles bound by harmonic forces
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Filippov, A.T.
1987-01-01
Application of the principle of gauging to linear canonical symmetries of simplest/rudimentary/bilinear lagrangians is shown to produce a relativistic version of the Lagrangian describing N particles bound by harmonic forces. For pairwise coupled identical particles the gauge group is T 1 xU 1 , xSU N-1 . A model for the relativistic discrete string (a chain of N particles) is also discussed. All these gauge theoried of particles can be quantized by standard methods
Classical particle limit of non-relativistic quantum mechanics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zucchini, R.
1984-01-01
We study the classical particle limit of non-relativistic quantum mechanics. We show that the unitary group describing the evolution of the quantum fluctuation around any classical phase orbit has a classical limit as h → 0 in the strong operator topology for a very large class of time independent scalar and vector potentials, which in practice covers all physically interesting cases. We also show that the mean values of the quantum mechanical position and velocity operators on suitable states, obtained by time evolution of the product of a Weyl operator centred around the large coordinates and momenta and a fixed n-independent wave function, converge to the solution of the classical equations with initial data as h → 0 for a broad class of repulsive interactions
Tailoring of silicon crystals for relativistic-particle channeling
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Guidi, V.; Antonini, A.; Baricordi, S.; Logallo, F.; Malagu, C.; Milan, E.; Ronzoni, A.; Stefancich, M.; Martinelli, G.; Vomiero, A.
2005-01-01
In the last years, the research on channeling of relativistic particles has progressed considerably. A significant contribution has been provided by the development of techniques for quality improvement of the crystals. In particular, a planar etching of the surfaces of the silicon crystals proved useful to remove the superficial layer, which is a region very rich in imperfections, in turn leading to greater channeling efficiency. Micro-fabrication techniques, borrowed from silicon technology, may also be useful: micro-indentation and deposition of tensile or compressive layers onto silicon samples allow one to impart an even curvature to the samples. In this way, different topologies may be envisaged, such as a bent crystal for deflection of protons and ions or an undulator to force coherent oscillations of positrons and electrons
Rodríguez-Tzompantzi, Omar
2018-05-01
The Faddeev-Jackiw symplectic formalism for constrained systems is applied to analyze the dynamical content of a model describing two massive relativistic particles with interaction, which can also be interpreted as a bigravity model in one dimension. We systematically investigate the nature of the physical constraints, for which we also determine the zero-modes structure of the corresponding symplectic matrix. After identifying the whole set of constraints, we find out the transformation laws for all the set of dynamical variables corresponding to gauge symmetries, encoded in the remaining zero modes. In addition, we use an appropriate gauge-fixing procedure, the conformal gauge, to compute the quantization brackets (Faddeev-Jackiw brackets) and also obtain the number of physical degree of freedom. Finally, we argue that this symplectic approach can be helpful for assessing physical constraints and understanding the gauge structure of theories of interacting spin-2 fields.
Particle acceleration in relativistic magnetic flux-merging events
Lyutikov, Maxim; Sironi, Lorenzo; Komissarov, Serguei S.; Porth, Oliver
2017-12-01
Using analytical and numerical methods (fluid and particle-in-cell simulations) we study a number of model problems involving merger of magnetic flux tubes in relativistic magnetically dominated plasma. Mergers of current-carrying flux tubes (exemplified by the two-dimensional `ABC' structures) and zero-total-current magnetic flux tubes are considered. In all cases regimes of spontaneous and driven evolution are investigated. We identify two stages of particle acceleration during flux mergers: (i) fast explosive prompt X-point collapse and (ii) ensuing island merger. The fastest acceleration occurs during the initial catastrophic X-point collapse, with the reconnection electric field of the order of the magnetic field. During the X-point collapse, particles are accelerated by charge-starved electric fields, which can reach (and even exceed) values of the local magnetic field. The explosive stage of reconnection produces non-thermal power-law tails with slopes that depend on the average magnetization . For plasma magnetization 2$ the spectrum power-law index is 2$ ; in this case the maximal energy depends linearly on the size of the reconnecting islands. For higher magnetization, 2$ , the spectra are hard, , yet the maximal energy \\text{max}$ can still exceed the average magnetic energy per particle, , by orders of magnitude (if is not too close to unity). The X-point collapse stage is followed by magnetic island merger that dissipates a large fraction of the initial magnetic energy in a regime of forced magnetic reconnection, further accelerating the particles, but proceeds at a slower reconnection rate.
Softness and amplitudes’ positivity for spinning particles
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bellazzini, Brando [Institut de Physique Théorique, Université Paris Saclay, CEA, CNRS,F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università di Padova,Via Marzolo 8, I-35131 Padova (Italy)
2017-02-07
We derive positivity bounds for scattering amplitudes of particles with arbitrary spin using unitarity, analyticity and crossing symmetry. The bounds imply the positivity of certain low-energy coefficients of the effective action that controls the dynamics of the light degrees of freedom. We show that low-energy amplitudes strictly softer than O(p{sup 4}) do not admit unitary ultraviolet completions unless the theory is free. This enforces a bound on the energy growth of scattering amplitudes in the region of validity of the effective theory. We discuss explicit examples including the Goldstino from spontaneous supersymmetry breaking, and the theory of a spin-1/2 fermion with a shift symmetry.
Innermost stable circular orbit of spinning particle in charged spinning black hole background
Zhang, Yu-Peng; Wei, Shao-Wen; Guo, Wen-Di; Sui, Tao-Tao; Liu, Yu-Xiao
2018-04-01
In this paper we investigate the innermost stable circular orbit (ISCO) (spin-aligned or anti-aligned orbit) for a classical spinning test particle with the pole-dipole approximation in the background of Kerr-Newman black hole in the equatorial plane. It is shown that the orbit of the spinning particle is related to the spin of the test particle. The motion of the spinning test particle will be superluminal if its spin is too large. We give an additional condition by considering the superluminal constraint for the ISCO in the black hole backgrounds. We obtain numerically the relations between the ISCO and the properties of the black holes and the test particle. It is found that the radius of the ISCO for a spinning test particle is smaller than that of a nonspinning test particle in the black hole backgrounds.
10th Biennial Conference on Classical and Quantum Relativistic Dynamics of Particles and Fields
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
2017-01-01
thermodynamics with relevance for the dark matter and dark energy problems, for example, in the context of Wheeler’s quantum foam and its associated thermodynamics. There are also studies of the dynamics of a perfect fluid of point particles, a treatment of surface tension analog in spacetime, and advances in conformal gravity, as well as the possibility of dark matter phenomena emerging from metric modifications which change dynamically the relation between inertial and gravitational masses. The dynamics of deformed neutron stars and the effects of acceleration, expressed in a modified metric relation is studied. Work is also reported on a fundamental development of a generalization of Newtonian mechanics, and a study is made of relativistic Coulomb systems in velocity space, providing new insight into the relativistic Kepler problem. A fundamental study of the structure of spacetime is reported which provides an interpretation of time in the presence of matter, and results in an estimate for the size of the observable universe. Discussions of electromagnetism, including a “skewon” modification (a covariant tensor quadratic term in field strengths) of the standard electrodynamics, and a study of the field equations for moving media in covariant form, a continuum dynamics in the scalar ether theory of gravitation, as well a wave equations of massless particles of any spin. There are discussions of Pizzella’s experiment apparently demonstrating instantaneous Coulomb interaction. Quantum and particle physics are discussed in a proposed spin-charge family theory as a successor to the standard model, and a study of branes and quantized fields. A geometrical model for electro-gravity, the quantum dynamics of bound states with spacetime fluctuations, and quantum models as classical cellular automata are also reported. Integrability of geodesics with the use of action angle variables is studied, and a study of the Feynman-Dyson theory, with a justification of the Feynman
Relativistic equation of the orbit of a particle in a arbitrary central force field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Aaron, Francisc D.
2005-01-01
The equation of the orbit of a relativistic particle moving in an arbitrary central force field is derived. Straightforward generalizations of well-known first and second order differential equations are given. It is pointed out that the relativistic equation of the orbit has the same form as in the non-relativistic case, the only changes consisting in the appearance of additional terms proportional to 1/c 2 in both potential and total energies. (author)
Komorovsky, Stanislav; Repisky, Michal; Malkin, Elena; Demissie, Taye B; Ruud, Kenneth
2015-08-11
We present an implementation of the nuclear spin-rotation (SR) constants based on the relativistic four-component Dirac-Coulomb Hamiltonian. This formalism has been implemented in the framework of the Hartree-Fock and Kohn-Sham theory, allowing assessment of both pure and hybrid exchange-correlation functionals. In the density-functional theory (DFT) implementation of the response equations, a noncollinear generalized gradient approximation (GGA) has been used. The present approach enforces a restricted kinetic balance condition for the small-component basis at the integral level, leading to very efficient calculations of the property. We apply the methodology to study relativistic effects on the spin-rotation constants by performing calculations on XHn (n = 1-4) for all elements X in the p-block of the periodic table and comparing the effects of relativity on the nuclear SR tensors to that observed for the nuclear magnetic shielding tensors. Correlation effects as described by the density-functional theory are shown to be significant for the spin-rotation constants, whereas the differences between the use of GGA and hybrid density functionals are much smaller. Our calculated relativistic spin-rotation constants at the DFT level of theory are only in fair agreement with available experimental data. It is shown that the scaling of the relativistic effects for the spin-rotation constants (varying between Z(3.8) and Z(4.5)) is as strong as for the chemical shieldings but with a much smaller prefactor.
Relativistic particles coupled to Chern-Simons term-revisited
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chakraborty, B.
1995-01-01
The author considers the model of N relativistic spinless particles coupled to an abelian Chern-Simons term. Rewriting the action in a time reparamaterized form by introducing an arbitary parameter, parameterizing the world line of the particles, the author makes a classical constraint Hamiltonian analysis of the model. Subsequent to gauge fixing by equating the arbitrary parameter with the time the author identifies the Hamiltonian of the system, which agrees with the Hamiltonian obtained by using Banerjee's method of fixing the arbitrary Langrange multiplier by using equations of motion. The author exhibits the Poincare invariance of the model, at the classical level, by constructing spacetime generators using either the canonical or symmetric definition of the energy-momentum tensor. A detailed comparison of the expressions of angular momentum obtained by both methods show that both agree up to a boundary term. In presence of rotationally symmetric vortex configuration this term can be interpreted as an anomalous angular momentum term. The author also heuristically discusses the effect of gauge fixing on the transformation properties. 13 refs
D=1 supergravity and spinning particles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Holten, J.W. van.
1995-01-01
In this paper I review the multiplet calculus of N-1, D=1 local supersymmetry with applications to the construction of models for spinning particles in background fields, and models with space-time supersymmetry. New features include a non-linear realization of the local supersymmetry algebra and the coupling to anti-symmetric tensor fields of both odd and even rank. The non-linear realization allows the construction of a D=1 cosmological-constant term, which provides a mass term in the equations of motion. (orig.)
Relativistic formulations with Blankenbecler-Sugar reduction technique for the three-particle system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Morioka, S.; Afnan, I.R.
1980-05-01
A critical comparison for two-types of three-dimensional covariant equations for the three-particle system obtained by the Blankenbecler-Sugar reduction technique with the Whitghtman-Garding momenta and the usual Jacobi variables is presented. The relations between the relativistic and non-relativistic equations in the low energy limit are discussed
Maroof, R.; Ali, S.; Mushtaq, A.; Qamar, A.
2015-11-01
Linear properties of high and low frequency waves are studied in an electron-positron-ion (e-p-i) dense plasma with spin and relativity effects. In a low frequency regime, the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) waves, namely, the magnetoacoustic and Alfven waves are presented in a magnetized plasma, in which the inertial ions are taken as spinless and non-degenerate, whereas the electrons and positrons are treated quantum mechanically due to their smaller mass. Quantum corrections associated with the spin magnetization and density correlations for electrons and positrons are re-considered and a generalized dispersion relation for the low frequency MHD waves is derived to account for relativistic degeneracy effects. On the basis of angles of propagation, the dispersion relations of different modes are discussed analytically in a degenerate relativistic plasma. Numerical results reveal that electron and positron relativistic degeneracy effects significantly modify the dispersive properties of MHD waves. Our present analysis should be useful for understanding the collective interactions in dense astrophysical compact objects, like, the white dwarfs and in atmosphere of neutron stars.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Maroof, R. [Department of Physics, Abdul Wali Khan University, Mardan 23200 (Pakistan); Department of Physics, University of Peshawar, Peshawar 25000 (Pakistan); National Center for Physics (NCP) at QAU Campus, Shahdra Valley Road, Islamabad 44000 (Pakistan); Ali, S. [National Center for Physics (NCP) at QAU Campus, Shahdra Valley Road, Islamabad 44000 (Pakistan); Mushtaq, A. [Department of Physics, Abdul Wali Khan University, Mardan 23200 (Pakistan); National Center for Physics (NCP) at QAU Campus, Shahdra Valley Road, Islamabad 44000 (Pakistan); Qamar, A. [Department of Physics, University of Peshawar, Peshawar 25000 (Pakistan)
2015-11-15
Linear properties of high and low frequency waves are studied in an electron-positron-ion (e-p-i) dense plasma with spin and relativity effects. In a low frequency regime, the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) waves, namely, the magnetoacoustic and Alfven waves are presented in a magnetized plasma, in which the inertial ions are taken as spinless and non-degenerate, whereas the electrons and positrons are treated quantum mechanically due to their smaller mass. Quantum corrections associated with the spin magnetization and density correlations for electrons and positrons are re-considered and a generalized dispersion relation for the low frequency MHD waves is derived to account for relativistic degeneracy effects. On the basis of angles of propagation, the dispersion relations of different modes are discussed analytically in a degenerate relativistic plasma. Numerical results reveal that electron and positron relativistic degeneracy effects significantly modify the dispersive properties of MHD waves. Our present analysis should be useful for understanding the collective interactions in dense astrophysical compact objects, like, the white dwarfs and in atmosphere of neutron stars.
Particle Acceleration and Radiative Losses at Relativistic Shocks
Dempsey, P.; Duffy, P.
A semi-analytic approach to the relativistic transport equation with isotropic diffusion and consistent radiative losses is presented. It is based on the eigenvalue method first introduced in Kirk & Schneider [5]and Heavens & Drury [3]. We demonstrate the pitch-angle dependence of the cut-off in relativistic shocks.
Relativistic particles with rigidity and torsion in D = 3 spacetimes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Barros, Manuel; Ferrandez, Angel; Javaloyes, Miguel Angel; Lucas, Pascual
2005-01-01
Models describing relativistic particles, where Lagrangian densities depend linearly on both the curvature and the torsion of the trajectories, are revisited in D = 3 Lorentzian spacetimes with constant curvature. The moduli spaces of trajectories are completely and explicitly determined. Trajectories are Lancret curves including ordinary helices. To get the geometric integration of the solutions, we design algorithms that essentially involve the Lancret program as well as the notions of scrolls and Hopf tubes. The most interesting and consistent models appear in anti-de Sitter spaces, where the Hopf mappings, both the standard and the Lorentzian ones, play an important role. The moduli subspaces of closed solitons in anti-de Sitter settings are also obtained. Our main tool is the isoperimetric inequality in the hyperbolic plane. The mass spectra of these models are also obtained. The main characteristic of the anti-de Sitter space comes from the presence of real gravity, which becomes essential to find some system with only massive states. This fact, on one hand, has no equivalent in flat spaces, where spectra necessarily present tachyonic sectors and, on the other hand, solves an early stated problem
Ratchet effect on a relativistic particle driven by external forces
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Quintero, Niurka R; Alvarez-Nodarse, Renato; Cuesta, Jose A
2011-01-01
We study the ratchet effect of a damped relativistic particle driven by both asymmetric temporal bi-harmonic and time-periodic piecewise constant forces. This system can be formally solved for any external force, providing the ratchet velocity as a nonlinear functional of the driving force. This allows us to explicitly illustrate the functional Taylor expansion formalism recently proposed for this kind of systems. The Taylor expansion reveals particularly useful to obtain the shape of the current when the force is periodic, piecewise constant. We also illustrate the somewhat counterintuitive effect that introducing damping may induce a ratchet effect. When the force is symmetric under time-reversal and the system is undamped, under symmetry principles no ratchet effect is possible. In this situation increasing damping generates a ratchet current which, upon increasing the damping coefficient eventually reaches a maximum and decreases toward zero. We argue that this effect is not specific of this example and should appear in any ratchet system with tunable damping driven by a time-reversible external force. (paper)
Ratchet effect on a relativistic particle driven by external forces
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Quintero, Niurka R [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada I, Escuela Universitaria Politecnica, Universidad de Sevilla, Calle Virgen de Africa 7, E-41011 Sevilla (Spain); Alvarez-Nodarse, Renato [Departamento de Analisis Matematico, Facultad de Matematicas, Universidad de Sevilla, Apdo 1160, E-41080 Sevilla (Spain); Cuesta, Jose A, E-mail: niurka@us.es, E-mail: ran@us.es, E-mail: cuesta@math.uc3m.es [Grupo Interdisciplinar de Sistemas Complejos (GISC), Departamento de Matematicas, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, Avenida de la Universidad 30, E-28911 Leganes, Madrid (Spain)
2011-10-21
We study the ratchet effect of a damped relativistic particle driven by both asymmetric temporal bi-harmonic and time-periodic piecewise constant forces. This system can be formally solved for any external force, providing the ratchet velocity as a nonlinear functional of the driving force. This allows us to explicitly illustrate the functional Taylor expansion formalism recently proposed for this kind of systems. The Taylor expansion reveals particularly useful to obtain the shape of the current when the force is periodic, piecewise constant. We also illustrate the somewhat counterintuitive effect that introducing damping may induce a ratchet effect. When the force is symmetric under time-reversal and the system is undamped, under symmetry principles no ratchet effect is possible. In this situation increasing damping generates a ratchet current which, upon increasing the damping coefficient eventually reaches a maximum and decreases toward zero. We argue that this effect is not specific of this example and should appear in any ratchet system with tunable damping driven by a time-reversible external force. (paper)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Xiao, Yunlong; Zhang, Yong; Liu, Wenjian, E-mail: liuwjbdf@gmail.com [Beijing National Laboratory for Molecular Sciences, Institute of Theoretical and Computational Chemistry, State Key Laboratory of Rare Earth Materials Chemistry and Applications, College of Chemistry and Molecular Engineering, and Center for Computational Science and Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)
2014-10-28
Both kinetically balanced (KB) and kinetically unbalanced (KU) rotational London orbitals (RLO) are proposed to resolve the slow basis set convergence in relativistic calculations of nuclear spin-rotation (NSR) coupling tensors of molecules containing heavy elements [Y. Xiao and W. Liu, J. Chem. Phys. 138, 134104 (2013)]. While they perform rather similarly, the KB-RLO Ansatz is clearly preferred as it ensures the correct nonrelativistic limit even with a finite basis. Moreover, it gives rise to the same “direct relativistic mapping” between nuclear magnetic resonance shielding and NSR coupling tensors as that without using the London orbitals [Y. Xiao, Y. Zhang, and W. Liu, J. Chem. Theory Comput. 10, 600 (2014)].
Frame dependence of world lines for directly interacting classical relativistic particles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Molotkov, V.V.; Todorov, I.T.
1979-06-01
The motion of world lines is studied in the constraint Hamiltonian formulation of relativistic point particle dynamics. The particle world lines are shown to depend, in general (in the presence of interaction) on the choice of the equal time hyperplane (the only exception being the elastic scattering of rigid balls). However, the relative motion of a 2-particle system and the (classical) S-matrix are independent of this choice. This inferred that particle trajectories should not be regarded as frame independent observables in the classical theory of relativistic particles. (author)
Particle spin tune in a partially excited snake
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lee, S.Y.; Tepikian, S.; Courant, E.D.
1985-01-01
In this paper, we address the question on the effect of the particle spin when a snake is turned on adiabatically near a depolarization resonance while not accelerating. The spinor equation and its solution are reviewed briefly and the spin transfer matrix method in the presence of a snake are used to evaluate the spin tune and the precession axis
Spin correlations in the decays of two unstable particles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lednicky, R.; Lyuboshitz, V.L.; Lyuboshitz, V.V.
2004-01-01
The general theory of angular correlations in the decays of two arbitrarily polarized particles (resonances), connected with the two-particle spin correlations, is constructed. In particular, the angular correlations between the flight directions of the decay, products of two identical particles with close momenta are considered in the model of independent particle sources emitting unpolarized particles with a nonzero spin. It is established that in this case the angular correlations reflect the spin correlations caused by the effects of quantum statistics and final-state interaction. (author)
A search for relativistic particles with fractional electric charge at the Cern collider
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Banner, M.; Kofoed-Hansen, O.
1983-01-01
A search for relativistic particles with fractional electric charge has been performed at the CERN collider using a telescope of scintillation counters to detect particles with abnormally low ionisation. The thickness of the detector (40 gr cm−2) limits this search to particles without strong...
Relativistic wave functions of two spin 1/2 quarks in a model with QCD interaction
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Skachkov, N.B.; Solovtsov, I.L.
1981-01-01
Within the hamiltonian formulation of quantum field theory an equation is obtained for the vertex and wave functions of a composite system of two spin 1/2 quarks. Exact solutions are found for the relativistic potential having in the momentum representation the ''asymptotically-free'' behaviour at large values of momentum transfer Q 2 . It is shown that within the given model the π-meson wave function has zero at a finite distance corresponding to the point of discontinuity of the effective potential [ru
Motion of the relativistic charged particle in an axisymmetric toroidal system
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chiyoda, K; Sugimoto, H [Electrotechnical Labs., Sakura, Ibaraki (Japan)
1980-01-01
The relativistic theory of motion of one particle by Morozov and Solov'ev is summarized for convenience of the present study. Then, a drift equation is given and four constants of motion, E/sub 0/, J perpendicular, J and J parallel, are obtained. These constants of motion are used in analyzing the particle motion in an axisymmetric toroidal system. The displacement of the particle from the magnetic surface, ..delta..r, and the period of the banana motion, tau, are obtained. The relativistic expressions of the displacement, ..delta..r, and the period, tau, are obtained by multiplying the corresponding nonrelativistic expressions by (1 - v parallel/sup 2//c/sup 2/) - 1/2, where the relativistic expression of ..delta..r includes the relativistic mass in terms of Larmor radius r/sub L/.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Robin, Caroline; Litvinova, Elena [Western Michigan University, Department of Physics, Kalamazoo, MI (United States)
2016-07-15
A new theoretical approach to spin-isospin excitations in open-shell nuclei is presented. The developed method is based on the relativistic meson-exchange nuclear Lagrangian of Quantum Hadrodynamics and extends the response theory for superfluid nuclear systems beyond relativistic quasiparticle random phase approximation in the proton-neutron channel (pn-RQRPA). The coupling between quasiparticle degrees of freedom and collective vibrations (phonons) introduces a time-dependent effective interaction, in addition to the exchange of pion and ρ-meson taken into account without retardation. The time-dependent contributions are treated in the resonant time-blocking approximation, in analogy to the previously developed relativistic quasiparticle time-blocking approximation (RQTBA) in the neutral (non-isospin-flip) channel. The new method is called proton-neutron RQTBA (pn-RQTBA) and is applied to the Gamow-Teller resonance in a chain of neutron-rich nickel isotopes {sup 68-78}Ni. A strong fragmentation of the resonance along with quenching of the strength, as compared to pn-RQRPA, is obtained. Based on the calculated strength distribution, beta-decay half-lives of the considered isotopes are computed and compared to pn-RQRPA half-lives and to experimental data. It is shown that a considerable improvement of the half-life description is obtained in pn-RQTBA because of the spreading effects, which bring the lifetimes to a very good quantitative agreement with data. (orig.)
Feynman propagator for a particle with arbitrary spin
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Huang Shi-Zhong; Zhang Peng-Fei; Ruan Tu-Nan; Zhu Yu-Can; Zheng Zhi-Peng
2005-01-01
Based on the solution to the Rarita-Schwinger equations, a direct derivation of the projection operator and propagator for a particle with arbitrary spin is worked out. The projection operator constructed by Behrends and Fronsdal is re-deduced and confirmed, and simplified in the case of half-integral spin; the general commutation rules and Feynman propagator for a free particle of any spin are derived, and explicit expressions for the propagators for spins 3/2, 2, 5/2, 3, 7/2, 4 are provided. (orig.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gamboa, J.; Rivelles, V.O.
1990-04-01
We consider the motion of free relativistic particles in multiply connected spaces. We show that if one of the spatial dimensions has the topology of a circle then the D dimensional spacetime is compactified to D-1 dimensions and the particle mass increases by an amount which is proportional to a quantum phase factor and inversely proportional to the radius of the circle. We also consider the relativistic Aharonov-Bohm effect and we show that the interference pattern is a universal characteristic due only to the topological properties of the experimental situation and not to the intrinsic properties of the particle. The propagators are calculated in both situations. (author) [pt
Statistical mechanics of relativistic spin-1 bosons in a magnetic field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Daicic, J.; Frankel, N.E.
1993-01-01
This paper investigates the statistical mechanics of a gas of spin-1 particles with pair creation in a homogeneous magnetic field. It is shown that expansions for the thermodynamic potential and magnetization in fields below the mass scale of the constituent particles are well behaved. However, when the field is at or above the mass scale, an intrinsic pathology of the single-particle energy spectrum manifests itself in the statistical mechanics of the system. Whilst for the spin-0 and spin-1/2 analog of this system there seemed to be no barrier ab initio to the field strength, the nature of the vacuum, and the role of interactions, were always borne in mind as matters to be considered in a high-order treatment, particularly when the field was at or above the mass scale. In the spin-1 case, the pathology in the single-particle energy spectrum heralds this from the beginning, and seems to be a warning that a single particle non-interacting picture of physics at high energies needs some reconsideration. 10 refs
Infinite stochastic acceleration of charged particles from non-relativistic initial energies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Buts, V.A.; Manujlenko, O.V.; Turkin, Yu.A.
1997-01-01
Stochastic charged particle acceleration by electro-magnetic field due to overlapping of non-linear cyclotron resonances is considered. It was shown that non-relativistic charged particles are involved in infinitive stochastic acceleration regime. This effect can be used for stochastic acceleration or for plasma heating by regular electro-magnetic fields
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cardoso, Vitor; Lemos, Jose P.S.
2003-01-01
In this paper, we consider the gravitational radiation generated by the collision of highly relativistic particles with rotating Kerr black holes. We use the Sasaki-Nakamura formalism to compute the waveform, energy spectra, and total energy radiated during this process. We show that the gravitational spectrum for high-energy collisions has definite characteristic universal features, which are independent of the spin of the colliding objects. We also discuss the possible connections between these results and black-hole-black-hole collisions at the speed of light. Our results show that during the high-speed collision of a nonrotating hole with a rotating one, at most 35% of the total energy can get converted into gravitational waves. This 35% efficiency occurs only in the most optimistic situation, that of a zero impact parameter collision, along the equatorial plane, with an almost extreme Kerr black hole. In the general situation, the total gravitational energy radiated is expected to be much less, especially if the impact parameter increases. Thus, if one is able to produce black holes at the CERN Large Hadron Collider, at most 35% of the partons' energy should be emitted during the so-called balding phase. This energy will be missing, since we do not have gravitational wave detectors able to measure such amplitudes. The collision at the speed of light between one rotating black hole and a nonrotating one or two rotating black holes turns out to be the most efficient gravitational wave generator in the Universe
Pair production of arbitrary spin particles by electromagnetic fields
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kruglov, S.I.
2006-01-01
The exact solutions of the wave equation for arbitrary spin particles in the field of the soliton-like electric impulse were obtained. The differential probability of pair production of particles by electromagnetic fields has been evaluated on the basis of the exact solutions. As a particular case, the particle pair production in the constant and uniform electric field were studied
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Panek, P.; Kaminski, J.Z.; Ehlotzky, F.
2002-01-01
We reconsider the relativistic scattering of electrons by an atom, being approximated by a static potential, in an extremely powerful electromagnetic plane wave of frequency ω and linear polarization ε. Since to a first order of approximation spin effects can be neglected, we first describe the scattered electron by the Gordon solution of the Klein-Gordon equation. Then we investigate the same scattering process by including the spin effects, using for the electron the Volkov solution of the Dirac equation. For sufficiently energetic electrons, the first-order Born approximation can be employed to represent the corresponding scattering matrix element. We compare the results of the differential cross sections of induced and inverse bremsstrahlung, evaluated from both approximations, for various parameter values and angular configurations and we find that in most cases the spin effects are marginal, even at very high laser power. On the other hand, we recover the various asymmetries in the angular distributions of the scattered electrons and their respective energies due to the laser-induced drift motion of the electrons in the direction of propagation of the radiation field, thus confirming the findings of our previous work [Phys. Rev. A 59, 2105 (1999); Laser Physics 10, 163 (2000)
Possible signatures of the inflationary particle content: spin-2 fields
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Biagetti, Matteo [Institute of Physics, Universiteit van Amsterdam, Science Park, Amsterdam, 1098XH The Netherlands (Netherlands); Dimastrogiovanni, Emanuela [CERCA and Department of Physics, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH, 44106 (United States); Fasiello, Matteo, E-mail: m.biagetti@uva.nl, E-mail: emanuela1573@gmail.com, E-mail: matteorf@stanford.edu [Stanford Institute for Theoretical Physics and Department of Physics, Stanford University, Stanford, CA, 94306 (United States)
2017-10-01
We study the imprints of a massive spin-2 field on inflationary observables, and in particular on the breaking of consistency relations. In this setup, the minimal inflationary field content interacts with the massive spin-2 field through dRGT interactions, thus guaranteeing the absence of Boulware-Deser ghostly degrees of freedom. The unitarity requirement on spinning particles, known as Higuchi bound, plays a crucial role for the size of the observable signal.
Accurate and efficient spin integration for particle accelerators
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Dan T. Abell
2015-02-01
Full Text Available Accurate spin tracking is a valuable tool for understanding spin dynamics in particle accelerators and can help improve the performance of an accelerator. In this paper, we present a detailed discussion of the integrators in the spin tracking code gpuSpinTrack. We have implemented orbital integrators based on drift-kick, bend-kick, and matrix-kick splits. On top of the orbital integrators, we have implemented various integrators for the spin motion. These integrators use quaternions and Romberg quadratures to accelerate both the computation and the convergence of spin rotations. We evaluate their performance and accuracy in quantitative detail for individual elements as well as for the entire RHIC lattice. We exploit the inherently data-parallel nature of spin tracking to accelerate our algorithms on graphics processing units.
A Non-Perturbative, Finite Particle Number Approach to Relativistic Scattering Theory
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lindesay, James V
2001-05-11
We present integral equations for the scattering amplitudes of three scalar particles, using the Faddeev channel decomposition, which can be readily extended to any finite number of particles of any helicity. The solution of these equations, which have been demonstrated to be calculable, provide a non-perturbative way of obtaining relativistic scattering amplitudes for any finite number of particles that are Lorentz invariant, unitary, cluster decomposable and reduce unambiguously in the non-relativistic limit to the non-relativistic Faddeev equations. The aim of this program is to develop equations which explicitly depend upon physically observable input variables, and do not require ''renormalization'' or ''dressing'' of these parameters to connect them to the boundary states.
Transition in the equilibrium distribution function of relativistic particles.
Mendoza, M; Araújo, N A M; Succi, S; Herrmann, H J
2012-01-01
We analyze a transition from single peaked to bimodal velocity distribution in a relativistic fluid under increasing temperature, in contrast with a non-relativistic gas, where only a monotonic broadening of the bell-shaped distribution is observed. Such transition results from the interplay between the raise in thermal energy and the constraint of maximum velocity imposed by the speed of light. We study the Bose-Einstein, the Fermi-Dirac, and the Maxwell-Jüttner distributions, and show that they all exhibit the same qualitative behavior. We characterize the nature of the transition in the framework of critical phenomena and show that it is either continuous or discontinuous, depending on the group velocity. We analyze the transition in one, two, and three dimensions, with special emphasis on twodimensions, for which a possible experiment in graphene, based on the measurement of the Johnson-Nyquist noise, is proposed.
BRST and anti-BRST symmetries for the spinning particle
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gomis, J.; Paris, J.; Roca, J.; Rafanelli, K.
1990-01-01
We consider the open and closed gauge algebras for the spinning particle resulting from two different sets of gauge generators. Using the Batalin-Vilkovisky lagrangian formalism, the BRST and anti-BRST generators are constructed for both cases. (orig.)
Scattering of spinning test particles by gravitational plane waves
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bini, D.; Gemelli, G.
1997-01-01
The authors study the motion of spinning particles in the gravitational plane-wave background and discuss particular solutions under a suitable choice of supplementary conditions. An analysis of the discontinuity of the motion across the wavefront is presented too
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Erokhin, N.S.; Zol'nikova, N.N.; Mikhajlovskaya, L.A.
1991-01-01
Relativistic acceleration of charged particles, captured by a longitudinal wave in a slightly inhomogeneous plasma without an external magnetic field is considered numerically and analytically. It is shown that with the growth of the plasma inhomogeneity parameter the maximum energy of accelerated captured particles exponentially increases. Attention is paid to the possibility of 'eternal' confinement and, respectively, unlimited acceleration of captured particles by an undamped longitudinal wave in a plasma without a magnetic field
A gauge model describing N relativistic particles bound by linear forces
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Filippov, A.T.
1988-01-01
A relativistic model of N particles bound by linear forces is obtained by applying the gauging procedure to the linear canonical symmteries of a simple (rudimentary) nonrelativistic N-particle Lagrangian extended to relativistic phase space. The new (gauged) Lagrangian is formally Poincare invariant, the Hamiltonian is a linear combination of first-class constraints which are closed with respect to Pisson brackets and generate the localized canonical symmteries. The gauge potentials appear as the Lagrange multipliers of the constraints. Gauge fixing and quantization of the model are also briefly discussed. 11 refs
Radiation of a relativistic particle falling into a black hole
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dymnikova, I.G.
1980-01-01
The gravitational and electromagnetic radiation emitted by a relativistic test body falling into a black hole at a velocity that is not small compared with the velocity of light is studied. For ω 3 γ 0 /(GM), the spectra of the electromagnetic and gravitational radiation do not depend on the frequency, but for ω > c 3 γ 0 (GM) they fall off exponentially. The total radiated power is proportional to γ 0 1n γ 0 and γ 3 0 , respectively, for the electromagnetic and gravitational radiation
Accurate and efficient spin integration for particle accelerators
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Abell, Dan T.; Meiser, Dominic; Ranjbar, Vahid H.; Barber, Desmond P.
2015-01-01
Accurate spin tracking is a valuable tool for understanding spin dynamics in particle accelerators and can help improve the performance of an accelerator. In this paper, we present a detailed discussion of the integrators in the spin tracking code GPUSPINTRACK. We have implemented orbital integrators based on drift-kick, bend-kick, and matrix-kick splits. On top of the orbital integrators, we have implemented various integrators for the spin motion. These integrators use quaternions and Romberg quadratures to accelerate both the computation and the convergence of spin rotations. We evaluate their performance and accuracy in quantitative detail for individual elements as well as for the entire RHIC lattice. We exploit the inherently data-parallel nature of spin tracking to accelerate our algorithms on graphics processing units.
Accurate and efficient spin integration for particle accelerators
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Abell, Dan T.; Meiser, Dominic [Tech-X Corporation, Boulder, CO (United States); Ranjbar, Vahid H. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY (United States); Barber, Desmond P. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)
2015-01-15
Accurate spin tracking is a valuable tool for understanding spin dynamics in particle accelerators and can help improve the performance of an accelerator. In this paper, we present a detailed discussion of the integrators in the spin tracking code GPUSPINTRACK. We have implemented orbital integrators based on drift-kick, bend-kick, and matrix-kick splits. On top of the orbital integrators, we have implemented various integrators for the spin motion. These integrators use quaternions and Romberg quadratures to accelerate both the computation and the convergence of spin rotations. We evaluate their performance and accuracy in quantitative detail for individual elements as well as for the entire RHIC lattice. We exploit the inherently data-parallel nature of spin tracking to accelerate our algorithms on graphics processing units.
Spinning test particles in the field of a black hole
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tod, K P; de Felice, F [Padua Univ. (Italy); Calvani, M [Padua Univ. (Italy). Istituto di Astronomia
1976-08-11
It is studied the motion of spinning test bodies in the gravitational field of a rotating black hole, confining the examination of the pole-dipole approximation and of the special case of motion in the equatorial plane with the spin vector perpendicular to it. The study also provides the locus of the turning points for the equatorial orbits and also the exact limits of validity of the pole-dipole approximation for any given set of particle parameters. The innermost stable circular orbits are studied in details, and it is found that opposite spinning accreting particles are separated by the gravitational field of the black hole and that the fraction of energy ''at infinity'' which can be extracted when the particle spin is opposite to that of the black hole can be as high as 100%.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Skachkov, N.; Solovtsov, I.
1979-01-01
Based on the hamiltonian formulation of quantum field theory proposed by Kadyshevsky the three-dimensional relativistic approach is developed for describing the form factors of composite systems. The main features of the diagram technique appearing in the covariant hamiltonian formulation of field theory are discussed. The three-dimensional relativistic equation for the vertex function is derived and its connection with that for the quasipotential wave function is found. The expressions are obtained for the form factor of the system through equal-time two-particle wave functions both in momentum and relativistic configurational representations. An explicit expression for the form factor is found for the case of two-particle interaction through the Coulomb potential
General relativistic variation formalism for a probe particle with momenta
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Minkevich, A V; Sokol' skii, A A [Belorusskij Gosudarstvennyj Univ., Minsk
1975-01-01
On the basis of a model of an oriental particle a variational formalism was developed for a rotating test particle having momenta and moving in inhomogeneous space-time: the Lagrange equations for translational and rotational motion were obtained, and a metric pulse energy tensor was found. The formalism applies to a charged rotating particle with an electrical and a magnetic moment and a rotating particle in space with curvature and torsion.
General relativistic variation formalism for a probe particle with momenta
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Minkevich, A.V.; Sokol'skij, A.A.
1975-01-01
On the basis of a model of an oriental particle a variational formalism was developed for a rotating test particle having momenta and moving in inhomogeneous space-time: the Lagrange equations for translational and rotational motion were obtained, and a metric pulse energy tensor was found. The formalism applies to a charged rotating particle with an electrical and a magnetic moment and a rotating particle in space with curvature and torsion. (author)
Relativistic quantum mechanics; Mecanique quantique relativiste
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ollitrault, J.Y. [CEA Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France). Service de Physique Theorique]|[Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, 75 - Paris (France)
1998-12-01
These notes form an introduction to relativistic quantum mechanics. The mathematical formalism has been reduced to the minimum in order to enable the reader to calculate elementary physical processes. The second quantification and the field theory are the logical followings of this course. The reader is expected to know analytical mechanics (Lagrangian and Hamiltonian), non-relativistic quantum mechanics and some basis of restricted relativity. The purpose of the first 3 chapters is to define the quantum mechanics framework for already known notions about rotation transformations, wave propagation and restricted theory of relativity. The next 3 chapters are devoted to the application of relativistic quantum mechanics to a particle with 0,1/5 and 1 spin value. The last chapter deals with the processes involving several particles, these processes require field theory framework to be thoroughly described. (A.C.) 2 refs.
Relativistic particle dynamics: Lagrangian proof of the no-interaction theorem
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Marmo, G.; Mukunda, N.; Sudarshan, E.C.G.
1983-11-01
An economical proof is given, in the Lagrangian framework, of the No Interaction Theorem of relativistic particle mechanics. It is based on the assumption that there is a Lagrangian, which if singular is allowed to lead at most to primary first class constraints. The proof works with Lagrange rather than Poisson brackets, leading to considerable simplifications compared to other proofs
Particle Acceleration, Magnetic Field Generation, and Emission in Relativistic Pair Jets
Nishikawa, K.-I.; Ramirez-Ruiz, E.; Hardee, P.; Hededal, C.; Mizuno, Y.
2005-01-01
Shock acceleration is a ubiquitous phenomenon in astrophysical plasmas. Plasma waves and their associated instabilities (e.g., the Buneman instability, two-streaming instability, and the Weibel instability) created by relativistic pair jets are responsible for particle (electron, positron, and ion) acceleration. Using a 3-D relativistic electromagnetic particle (REMP) code, we have investigated particle acceleration associated with a relativistic jet propagating through an ambient plasma with and without initial magnetic fields. The growth rates of the Weibel instability depends on the distribution of pair jets. Simulations show that the Weibel instability created in the collisionless shock accelerates particles perpendicular and parallel to the jet propagation direction. The simulation results show that this instability is responsible for generating and amplifying highly nonuniform, small-scale magnetic fields, which contribute to the electron's transverse deflection behind the jet head. The "jitter" radiation from deflected electrons has different properties than synchrotron radiation which is calculated in a uniform magnetic field. This jitter radiation may be important to understanding the complex time evolution and/or spectral structure in gamma-ray bursts, relativistic jets, and supernova remnants.
Cooling and focusing of a relativistic charged particle beam in crossed laser field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Li Fuli
1987-01-01
A new method to focus a relativistic charged particle beam is suggested and studied. This idea is based on the use of the ponderomotive force which arises when a periodic electromagnetic field is created, as in the case of two crossed laser beams. (author)
A covariant formulation of the relativistic Hamiltonian theory on the light cone (fields with spin)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Atakishiev, N.M.; Mir-Kasimov, R.M.; Nagiyev, Sh.M.
1978-01-01
A Hamiltonian formulation of quantum field theory on the light cone, developed earlier, is extended to the case of particles with spin. The singularities accompanying each field theory in light-front variables are removed by the introduction of an infinite number of counterterms of a new type, which can be included into the interaction Hamiltonian. A three-dimensional diagram technique is formulated, which is applied to calculate the fermion self-energy in the lowest order of perturbation theory
Particle identification with the OPAL jet chamber in the region of the relativistic rise
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Breuker, H; Fischer, H M; Hauschild, M; Hartmann, H; Wuensch, B; Boerner, H; Burckhart, H J; Dittmar, M; Hammarstroem, R; Heuer, R D
1987-10-15
An important goal of the OPAL jet chamber is particle identification at high momenta by exploiting the relativistic rise of the energy loss. Extensive tests have been performed with the full scale prototype of the OPAL jet chamber to measure the energy loss in an argon-methane-isobutane mixture as function of momentum and particle species. The measurements were done under various operating conditions in order to optimise the operationg point, to investigate sources of systematic errors, to monitor the stability of the energy loss measurement and to develop calibration procedures. The particle separation capability in the region of relativistic rise has been studied at gas pressures of 3 and 4 bar. The adopted operation point represents a reasonable compromise between the requirements for particle identification and tracking accuracy.
Non-thermal particle acceleration in collisionless relativistic electron-proton reconnection
Werner, G. R.; Uzdensky, D. A.; Begelman, M. C.; Cerutti, B.; Nalewajko, K.
2018-02-01
Magnetic reconnection in relativistic collisionless plasmas can accelerate particles and power high-energy emission in various astrophysical systems. Whereas most previous studies focused on relativistic reconnection in pair plasmas, less attention has been paid to electron-ion plasma reconnection, expected in black hole accretion flows and relativistic jets. We report a comprehensive particle-in-cell numerical investigation of reconnection in an electron-ion plasma, spanning a wide range of ambient ion magnetizations σi, from the semirelativistic regime (ultrarelativistic electrons but non-relativistic ions, 10-3 ≪ σi ≪ 1) to the fully relativistic regime (both species are ultrarelativistic, σi ≫ 1). We investigate how the reconnection rate, electron and ion plasma flows, electric and magnetic field structures, electron/ion energy partitioning, and non-thermal particle acceleration depend on σi. Our key findings are: (1) the reconnection rate is about 0.1 of the Alfvénic rate across all regimes; (2) electrons can form concentrated moderately relativistic outflows even in the semirelativistic, small-σi regime; (3) while the released magnetic energy is partitioned equally between electrons and ions in the ultrarelativistic limit, the electron energy fraction declines gradually with decreased σi and asymptotes to about 0.25 in the semirelativistic regime; and (4) reconnection leads to efficient non-thermal electron acceleration with a σi-dependent power-law index, p(σ _i)˜eq const+0.7σ _i^{-1/2}. These findings are important for understanding black hole systems and lend support to semirelativistic reconnection models for powering non-thermal emission in blazar jets, offering a natural explanation for the spectral indices observed in these systems.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cobb, J.H.; Allison, W.W.M.; Bunch, J.N.
1976-01-01
A brief review shows a significant discrepancy between available data and theoretical predictions on the ionisation loss of charged particles in thin gas-filled proportional counters. The discrepancy related both to the increase of the most probable loss at relativistic velocities (relativistic rise) and to the spectrum of such losses at a given velocity (the Landau distribution). The origin of this relativistic rise is discussed in simple terms and related to the phenomena of transition radiation and Cherenkov radiation. It is shown that the failure of the prediction is due to the small number of ionising collisions in a gas. This problem is overcome by using a Monte Carlo method rather than a continuous integral over the spectrum of single collision processes. A specific mode of the atomic form factors is used with a modified Born approximation to yield the differential cross sections needed for the calculation. The new predictions give improved agreement with experiment and are used to investigate the problem of identifying particles of known momenta in the relativistic region. It is shown that by measuring the ionisation loss of each particle several hundred times over 5m or more, kaon, pion and proton separation with good confidence level may be achieved. Many gases are considered and a comparison is made. The results are also compared with the velocity resolution achievable by measuring primary ionisation. (Auth.)
Nishikawa, K.-I.; Hartmann, D. H.; Hardee, P.; Hededal, C.; Mizunno, Y.; Fishman, G. J.
2006-01-01
We performed numerical simulations of particle acceleration, magnetic field generation, and emission from shocks in order to understand the observed emission from relativistic jets and supernova remnants. The investigation involves the study of collisionless shocks, where the Weibel instability is responsible for particle acceleration as well as magnetic field generation. A 3-D relativistic particle-in-cell (RPIC) code has been used to investigate the shock processes in electron-positron plasmas. The evolution of theWeibe1 instability and its associated magnetic field generation and particle acceleration are studied with two different jet velocities (0 = 2,5 - slow, fast) corresponding to either outflows in supernova remnants or relativistic jets, such as those found in AGNs and microquasars. Slow jets have intrinsically different structures in both the generated magnetic fields and the accelerated particle spectrum. In particular, the jet head has a very weak magnetic field and the ambient electrons are strongly accelerated and dragged by the jet particles. The simulation results exhibit jitter radiation from inhomogeneous magnetic fields, generated by the Weibel instability, which has different spectral properties than standard synchrotron emission in a homogeneous magnetic field.
New relativistic particle-in-cell simulation studies of prompt and early afterglows from GRBs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ken-Ichi Nishikawa
2008-01-01
Nonthermal radiation observed from astrophysical systems containing relativistic jets and shocks, e.g., gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), active galactic nuclei (AGNs), and Galactic microquasar systems usually have power-law emission spectra. Recent PIC simulations of relativistic electron-ion (electro-positron) jets injected into a stationary medium show that particle acceleration occurs within the downstream jet. In the collisionless relativistic shock particle acceleration is due to plasma waves and their associated instabilities (e.g., the Buneman instability, other two-streaming instability, and the Weibel (filamentation) instability) created in the shocks are responsible for particle (electron, positron, and ion) acceleration. The simulation results show that the Weibel instability is responsible for generating and amplifying highly nonuniform, small-scale magnetic fields. These magnetic fields contribute to the electrons' transverse deflection behind the jet head. The '' jitter '' radiation from deflected electrons has different properties than synchrotron radiation which is calculated in a uniform magnetic field. This jitter radiation may be important to understanding the complex time evolution and/or spectral structure in gamma-ray bursts, relativistic jets, and supernova remnants. (author)
A gauge field theory of fermionic continuous-spin particles
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bekaert, X., E-mail: xavier.bekaert@lmpt.univ-tours.fr [Laboratoire de Mathématiques et Physique Théorique, Unité Mixte de Recherche 7350 du CNRS, Fédération de Recherche 2964 Denis Poisson, Université François Rabelais, Parc de Grandmont, 37200 Tours (France); B.W. Lee Center for Fields, Gravity and Strings, Institute for Basic Science, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Najafizadeh, M., E-mail: mnajafizadeh@gmail.com [Laboratoire de Mathématiques et Physique Théorique, Unité Mixte de Recherche 7350 du CNRS, Fédération de Recherche 2964 Denis Poisson, Université François Rabelais, Parc de Grandmont, 37200 Tours (France); Department of Physics, Faculty of Sciences, University of Kurdistan, 66177-15177 Sanandaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Setare, M.R., E-mail: rezakord@ipm.ir [Department of Physics, Faculty of Sciences, University of Kurdistan, 66177-15177 Sanandaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of)
2016-09-10
In this letter, we suggest a local covariant action for a gauge field theory of fermionic Continuous-Spin Particles (CSPs). The action is invariant under gauge transformations without any constraint on both the gauge field and the gauge transformation parameter. The Fang–Fronsdal equations for a tower of massless fields with all half-integer spins arise as a particular limit of the equation of motion of fermionic CSPs.
A gauge field theory of fermionic continuous-spin particles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bekaert, X.; Najafizadeh, M.; Setare, M.R.
2016-01-01
In this letter, we suggest a local covariant action for a gauge field theory of fermionic Continuous-Spin Particles (CSPs). The action is invariant under gauge transformations without any constraint on both the gauge field and the gauge transformation parameter. The Fang–Fronsdal equations for a tower of massless fields with all half-integer spins arise as a particular limit of the equation of motion of fermionic CSPs.
Imprints of spinning particles on primordial cosmological perturbations
Franciolini, Gabriele; Kehagias, Alex; Riotto, Antonio
2018-02-01
If there exist higher-spin particles during inflation which are light compared to the Hubble rate, they may leave distinct statistical anisotropic imprints on the correlators involving scalar and graviton fluctuations. We characterise such signatures using the dS/CFT3 correspondence and the operator product expansion techniques. In particular, we obtain generic results for the case of partially massless higher-spin states.
Particle emission in the hydrodynamical description of relativistic nuclear collisions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Grassi, F.; Hama, Y.; Kodama, T.
1994-09-01
Continuous particle emission during the whole expansion of thermalized matter is studied and a new formula for the observed transverse mass spectrum is derived. In some limit, the usual emission at freeze out scenario (Cooper-Frye formula) may be recovered. In a simplified description of expansion, it is shown that continuous particle emission can lead to a sizable curvature in the pion transverse mass spectrum and parallel slopes for the various particles. These results are compared to experimental data. (author). 26 refs, 3 figs
Motion of a spinning test particle in Vaidya's radiating metric
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Carmeli, M.; Charach, C.; Kaye, M.
1977-01-01
The motion of a spinning test particle in Vaidya's gravitational field is considered in the framework of Papapetrou's equations of motion. Use is made of the supplementary condition S/sup μ//sup u/ = 0, where u is the retarded Schwarzschild time coordinate. We derive the equations for the dynamical variables, and consider the conservation laws, that follow from the equations of motion. Particular cases of motion are also discussed and additional first integrals corresponding to these cases are found. Some of the new extra integrals are related to the Casimir operators of the Poincare group. It is found that under special conditions on the spin tensor components the particle follows a geodesic. Motion of the spinning test particle in the Schwarzschild field is considered as one of the particular cases
Guo, Fan; Li, Hui; Daughton, William; Liu, Yi-Hsin
2014-10-10
Using fully kinetic simulations, we demonstrate that magnetic reconnection in relativistic plasmas is highly efficient at accelerating particles through a first-order Fermi process resulting from the curvature drift of particles in the direction of the electric field induced by the relativistic flows. This mechanism gives rise to the formation of hard power-law spectra in parameter regimes where the energy density in the reconnecting field exceeds the rest mass energy density σ ≡ B(2)/(4πnm(e)c(2))>1 and when the system size is sufficiently large. In the limit σ ≫ 1, the spectral index approaches p = 1 and most of the available energy is converted into nonthermal particles. A simple analytic model is proposed which explains these key features and predicts a general condition under which hard power-law spectra will be generated from magnetic reconnection.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Derem, Andre [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique - CEA, Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires de Saclay, Departement de Physique des Particules Elementaires (France)
1969-03-15
This paper gather kinematic formulas that are commonly used to describe the scattering, with conservation of parity, 0{sup -} + 1{sup +}/2 → 0{sup -} + 1{sup +}/2 (in the notation S{sup P}, S being the spin and P the parity). The two particles 0{sup -} will be two mesons M and M', the two particles 1{sup +}/2 two baryons B and B'. The authors assume that the masses of these four particles are all different. The notations and the definitions are introduced in chapter 1. Chapter 2 recalls essential notions concerning the Dirac equation. The relativistic invariant differential cross-section is calculated in chapter 3, as a function of the invariant amplitudes A'(s,t) and B(s,t). Pauli's usual formalism in the center of mass system is given in chapter 4, as well as the means of passing f(θ) and g(θ) amplitudes to A' and B amplitudes. Chapter 5 is concerned with elastic scattering [French] Nous rassemblons ici un certain nombre de formules cinematiques qui sont utilisees couramment lorsqu'on veut decrire la diffusion, avec conservation de la parite, 0{sup -} + 1{sup +}/2 → 0{sup -} + 1{sup +}/2 (dans la notation S{sup P}, S etant le spin et P la parite). Les deux particules 0{sup -} seront deux mesons M et M', les deux particules 1{sup +}/2 deux baryons B et B'. Nous supposerons que les masses de ces quatre particules sont toutes differentes. Les notations et les definitions sont introduites au chapitre 1. Dans le chapitre 2 sont reprises les notions essentielles concernant l'equation de Dirac. La section efficace differentielle, invariante relativiste, est calculee au chapitre 3 en fonction des amplitudes invariantes A'(s,t) et B(s,t). Le formalisme habituel de Pauli dans le systeme du centre de masse est donne au chapitre 4, de meme que le moyen de passer des amplitudes f(θ) et g(θ) aux amplitudes A' et B. Le chapitre 5 concerne la diffusion elastique. Les formules sont numerotees independamment dans chaque paragraphe. Lorsque les renvois se font d
Zhang, Ruili; Wang, Yulei; He, Yang; Xiao, Jianyuan; Liu, Jian; Qin, Hong; Tang, Yifa
2018-02-01
Relativistic dynamics of a charged particle in time-dependent electromagnetic fields has theoretical significance and a wide range of applications. The numerical simulation of relativistic dynamics is often multi-scale and requires accurate long-term numerical simulations. Therefore, explicit symplectic algorithms are much more preferable than non-symplectic methods and implicit symplectic algorithms. In this paper, we employ the proper time and express the Hamiltonian as the sum of exactly solvable terms and product-separable terms in space-time coordinates. Then, we give the explicit symplectic algorithms based on the generating functions of orders 2 and 3 for relativistic dynamics of a charged particle. The methodology is not new, which has been applied to non-relativistic dynamics of charged particles, but the algorithm for relativistic dynamics has much significance in practical simulations, such as the secular simulation of runaway electrons in tokamaks.
Remarks on a gauge theory for continuous spin particles
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rivelles, Victor O. [Universidade de Sao Paulo, Instituto de Fisica, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)
2017-07-15
We discuss in a systematic way the gauge theory for a continuous spin particle proposed by Schuster and Toro. We show that it is naturally formulated in a cotangent bundle over Minkowski spacetime where the gauge field depends on the spacetime coordinate x{sup μ} and on a covector η{sub μ}. We discuss how fields can be expanded in η{sub μ} in different ways and how these expansions are related to each other. The field equation has a derivative of a Dirac delta function with support on the η-hyperboloid η{sup 2} + 1 = 0 and we show how it restricts the dynamics of the gauge field to the η-hyperboloid and its first neighbourhood. We then show that on-shell the field carries one single irreducible unitary representation of the Poincare group for a continuous spin particle. We also show how the field can be used to build a set of covariant equations found by Wigner describing the wave function of one-particle states for a continuous spin particle. Finally we show that it is not possible to couple minimally a continuous spin particle to a background abelian gauge field, and we make some comments about the coupling to gravity. (orig.)
Tang, Feng; Luo, Xi; Du, Yongping; Yu, Yue; Wan, Xiangang
Very recently, there has been significant progress in realizing high-energy particles in condensed matter system (CMS) such as the Dirac, Weyl and Majorana fermions. Besides the spin-1/2 particles, the spin-3/2 elementary particle, known as the Rarita-Schwinger (RS) fermion, has not been observed or simulated in the laboratory. The main obstacle of realizing RS fermion in CMS lies in the nontrivial constraints that eliminate the redundant degrees of freedom in its representation of the Poincaré group. In this Letter, we propose a generic method that automatically contains the constraints in the Hamiltonian and prove the RS modes always exist and can be separated from the other non-RS bands. Through symmetry considerations, we show that the two dimensional (2D) massive RS (M-RS) quasiparticle can emerge in several trigonal and hexagonal lattices. Based on ab initio calculations, we predict that the thin film of CaLiX (X=Ge and Si) may host 2D M-RS excitations near the Fermi level. and Collaborative Innovation Center of Advanced Microstructures, Nanjing 210093, China.
Physics of the saturation of particle acceleration in relativistic magnetic reconnection
Kagan, Daniel; Nakar, Ehud; Piran, Tsvi
2018-05-01
We investigate the saturation of particle acceleration in relativistic reconnection using two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations at various magnetizations σ. We find that the particle energy spectrum produced in reconnection quickly saturates as a hard power law that cuts off at γ ≈ 4σ, confirming previous work. Using particle tracing, we find that particle acceleration by the reconnection electric field in X-points determines the shape of the particle energy spectrum. By analysing the current sheet structure, we show that physical cause of saturation is the spontaneous formation of secondary magnetic islands that can disrupt particle acceleration. By comparing the size of acceleration regions to the typical distance between disruptive islands, we show that the maximum Lorentz factor produced in reconnection is γ ≈ 5σ, which is very close to what we find in our particle energy spectra. We also show that the dynamic range in Lorentz factor of the power-law spectrum in reconnection is ≤40. The hardness of the power law combined with its narrow dynamic range implies that relativistic reconnection is capable of producing the hard narrow-band flares observed in the Crab nebula but has difficulty producing the softer broad-band prompt gamma-ray burst emission.
CHARGED PARTICLE MULTIPLICITIES IN ULTRA-RELATIVISTIC AU+AU AND CU+CU COLLISIONS
Back, B. B.; Alver, B.; Back, B. B.; Baker, M. D.; Ballintijn, M.; Barton, D. S.; Betts, R. R.; Bickley, A. A.; Bindel, R.; Busza, W.; Carroll, A.; Chai, Z.; Chetluru, V.; Decowski, M. P.; Garcia, E.; Gburek, T.; George, N.; Gulbrandsen, K.; Halliwell, C.; Hamblen, J.; Harnarine, I.; Hauer, M.; Henderson, C.; Hofman, D. J.; Hollis, R. S.; Holynski, R.; Holzman, B.; Iordanova, A.; Johnson, E.; Kane, J. L.; Khan, N.; Kulinich, P.; Kuo, C. M.; Li, W.; Lin, W. T.; Loizides, C.; Manly, S.; Mignerey, A. C.; Nouicer, R.; Olszewski, A.; Pak, R.; Reed, C.; Richardson, E.; Roland, C.; Roland, G.; Sagerer, J.; Seals, H.; Sedykh, I.; Smith, C. E.; Stankiewicz, M. A.; Steinberg, P.; Stephans, G. S. F.; Sukhanov, A.; Szostak, A.; Tonjes, M. B.; Trzupek, A.; Vale, C.; Vannieuwenhuizen, G. J.; Vaurynovich, S. S.; Verdier, R.; Veres, G. I.; Walters, P.; Wenger, E.; Willhelm, D.; Wolfs, F. L. H.; Wosiek, B.; Wozniak, K.; Wyngaardt, S.; Wyslouch, B.
The PHOBOS collaboration has carried out a systematic study of charged particle multiplicities in Cu+Cu and Au+Au collisions at the Relativistic Heavy-Ion Collider (RHIC) at Brookhaven National Laboratory. A unique feature of the PHOBOS detector is its ability to measure charged particles over a very wide angular range from 0.5° to 179.5° corresponding to |η| <5.4. The general features of the charged particle multiplicity distributions as a function of pseudo-rapidity, collision energy and centrality, as well as system size, are discussed.
Particle propagator of the spin Calogero–Sutherland model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nakai, Ryota; Kato, Yusuke
2014-01-01
Explicit-exact expressions for the particle propagator of the spin 1/2 Calogero–Sutherland model are derived for the system of a finite number of particles and for that in the thermodynamic limit. Derivation of the expression in the thermodynamic limit is also presented in detail. Combining this result with the hole propagator obtained in earlier studies, we calculate the spectral function of the single particle Green's function in the full range of the energy and momentum space. The resultant spectral function exhibits power-law singularity characteristic to correlated particle systems in one dimension. (paper)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhu Shiliang; Zhang Danwei; Wang, Z. D.
2009-01-01
We study theoretically the localization of relativistic particles in disordered one-dimensional chains. It is found that the relativistic particles tend to delocalization in comparison with the nonrelativistic particles with the same disorder strength. More intriguingly, we reveal that the massless Dirac particles are entirely delocalized for any energy due to the inherent chiral symmetry, leading to a well-known result that particles are always localized in one-dimensional systems for arbitrary weak disorders to break down. Furthermore, we propose a feasible scheme to detect the delocalization feature of the Dirac particles with cold atoms in a light-induced gauge field.
A conformal invariant model of localized spinning test particles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Duval, C.; Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, 13 - Marseille; Fliche, H.H.; Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, 13 - Marseille
1977-02-01
A purely classical model of massless test particle with spin s is introduced as the dynamical system defined by the 10 dimensional 0(4,2) co-adjoint orbit with Casimir numbers (s 2 ,0,0). The Mathisson Papapetrou et al. equations of motion in a gravitational field are recovered, and moreover the particle appears to travel on null geodesics. Several implications are discussed
Relativistic quantum mechanics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ollitrault, J.Y.
1998-12-01
These notes form an introduction to relativistic quantum mechanics. The mathematical formalism has been reduced to the minimum in order to enable the reader to calculate elementary physical processes. The second quantification and the field theory are the logical followings of this course. The reader is expected to know analytical mechanics (Lagrangian and Hamiltonian), non-relativistic quantum mechanics and some basis of restricted relativity. The purpose of the first 3 chapters is to define the quantum mechanics framework for already known notions about rotation transformations, wave propagation and restricted theory of relativity. The next 3 chapters are devoted to the application of relativistic quantum mechanics to a particle with 0,1/5 and 1 spin value. The last chapter deals with the processes involving several particles, these processes require field theory framework to be thoroughly described. (A.C.)
Auroral kilometric radiation - An example of relativistic wave-particle interaction in geoplasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pritchett, P.L.
1990-01-01
The earth's auroral kilometric radiation (AKR) is believed to be produced by the electron-cyclotron maser instability. This instability is the result of a wave-particle interaction in which relativistic effects are crucial. An explanation is given as to how these relativistic effects alter the shape of the resonance curve in velocity space and modify the R - X mode wave dispersion near the electron cyclotron frequency compared to the results obtained in the nonrelativistic limit and from cold-plasma theory. The properties of the cyclotron maser instability in a driven system are illustrated using two-dimensional electromagnetic particle simulations which incorporate a continual flow of primary energetic electrons along the magnetic field. 31 refs
The de Sitter relativistic top theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Armenta, J.; Nieto, J.A.
2005-01-01
We discuss the relativistic top theory from the point of view of the de Sitter (or anti-de Sitter) group. Our treatment rests on the Hanson-Regge spherical relativistic top Lagrangian formulation. We propose an alternative method for studying spinning objects via Kaluza-Klein theory. In particular, we derive the relativistic top equations of motion starting with the geodesic equation for a point particle in 4+N dimensions. We compare our approach with Fukuyama's formulation of spinning objects, which is also based on Kaluza-Klein theory. We also report a generalization of our approach to a 4+N+D dimensional theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Agakishiev, G.; Man'yakov, P.K.; Drees, A.
1997-01-01
The simple and fast detector of charged particle multiplicity for relativistic nucleus-nucleus collision studies is performed. The multiplicity detector has been designed for the first level trigger of the CERES/NA45 experiment to study Pb-Au collisions at CERN SPS energies. The detector has allowed a realization of the 40 ns trigger for selection of events with definite impact parameter. The construction, operation characteristics, method of calibration, and testing results are described in detail
Self-modulated dynamics of a relativistic charged particle beam in plasma wake field excitation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Akhter, T.; Fedele, R. [Dipartimento di Fisica ‘Ettore Pancini’, Università di Napoli Federico II and INFN Sezione di Napoli, Napoli (Italy); Nicola, S. De [CNR-SPIN and INFN Sezione di Napoli, Napoli (Italy); Tanjia, F. [Dipartimento di Fisica ‘Ettore Pancini’, Università di Napoli Federico II and INFN Sezione di Napoli, Napoli (Italy); Jovanović, D. [Institute of Physics, University of Belgrade, Belgrade (Serbia); Mannan, A. [Department of Physics, Jahangirnagar University, Savar, Dhaka (Bangladesh)
2016-09-01
The self-modulated dynamics of a relativistic charged particle beam is provided within the context of the theory of plasma wake field excitation. The self-consistent description of the beam dynamics is provided by coupling the Vlasov equation with a Poisson-type equation relating the plasma wake potential to the beam density. An analysis of the beam envelope self-modulation is then carried out and the criteria for the occurrence of the instability are discussed thereby.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Erokhin, N.S.; Zol'nikova, N.N.; Kuznetsov, E.A.; Mikhajlovskaya, L.A.
2010-01-01
Based on numerical calculations considered the relativistic acceleration of charged particles in space plasma when surfing on the spatially localized package of electromagnetic waves. The problem is reduced to the study of unsteady, nonlinear equation for the wave phase at the carrier frequency at the location of the accelerated charge, which is solved numerically. We study the temporal dynamics of the relativistic factor, the component of momentum and velocity of the particle, its trajectory is given gyro-rotation in an external magnetic field after the departure of the effective potential well. Dependence of the dynamics of a particle interacting with the wave of the sign of the velocity of the charge along the wave front. We formulate the optimal conditions of the relativistic particle acceleration wave packet, indicate the possibility of again (after a number gyro-turnover) charge trapping wave with an additional relativistic acceleration.
SimTrack: A compact c++ code for particle orbit and spin tracking in accelerators
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Luo, Yun
2015-11-21
SimTrack is a compact c++ code of 6-d symplectic element-by-element particle tracking in accelerators originally designed for head-on beam–beam compensation simulation studies in the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) at Brookhaven National Laboratory. It provides a 6-d symplectic orbit tracking with the 4th order symplectic integration for magnet elements and the 6-d symplectic synchro-beam map for beam–beam interaction. Since its inception in 2009, SimTrack has been intensively used for dynamic aperture calculations with beam–beam interaction for RHIC. Recently, proton spin tracking and electron energy loss due to synchrotron radiation were added. In this paper, I will present the code architecture, physics models, and some selected examples of its applications to RHIC and a future electron-ion collider design eRHIC.
SimTrack: A compact c++ library for particle orbit and spin tracking in accelerators
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Luo, Yun [Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)
2015-06-24
SimTrack is a compact c++ library of 6-d symplectic element-by-element particle tracking in accelerators originally designed for head-on beam-beam compensation simulation studies in the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) at Brookhaven National Laboratory. It provides a 6-d symplectic orbit tracking with the 4th order symplectic integration for magnet elements and the 6-d symplectic synchro-beam map for beam-beam interaction. Since its inception in 2009, SimTrack has been intensively used for dynamic aperture calculations with beam-beam interaction for RHIC. Recently, proton spin tracking and electron energy loss due to synchrotron radiation were added. In this article, I will present the code architecture, physics models, and some selected examples of its applications to RHIC and a future electron-ion collider design eRHIC.
On the Relativistic Correction of Particles Trajectory in Tandem Type Electrostatic Accelerator
Minárik, Stanislav
2015-08-01
A constant potential is applied to the acceleration of the ion-beam in the tandem type electrostatic accelerator. However, not just one voltage is applied, but instead a number of applications can be made in succession by means of the tandem arrangement of high voltage tubes. This number of voltage applications, which is the number of so-called "stages" of a tandem accelerator, may be two, three, or four, depending on the chosen design. Electrostatic field with approximately constant intensity acts on ions in any stage. In general, non-relativistic dynamics is used for the description of the ion transport in tandem accelerator. Energies of accelerated ions are too low and relativistic effects cannot be commonly observed by standard experimental technique. Estimation of possible relativistic correction of ion trajectories is therefore only a matter of calculation. In this note, we briefly present such calculation. Our aim is to show how using the relativistic dynamics modifies the particles trajectory in tandem type accelerator and what parameters determine this modification.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Radojevic, V.; Davidovic, D.M.; Amusia, M.Ya.
2003-01-01
Results of calculations of the near-threshold photoionization of the xenon 3d spin-orbit doublet are reported. Our theoretical analysis is undertaken in order to interpret and enlighten the very detailed measurements of this process [A. Kivimaeki et al., Phys. Rev. A 63, 012716 (2001)], which revealed a previously unobserved interesting feature--an additional broad maximum--in the partial xenon 3d 5/2 cross section. This double maximum was not produced by earlier calculations, except in the recent study by Amusia et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 093002 (2002)], which, in contrast to the present one, is not ab initio and relativistic in character. The partial photoionization cross sections of 3d 5/2 and 3d 3/2 subshells, photoelectron anisotropy parameters, and spin-polarization parameters that were so far not studied either experimentally or theoretically are calculated. Many-electron correlations, relativistic effects, and relaxation effects of the ionic core in the ionization process are taken into account by using the relativistic random-phase approximation, modified to include the relaxation of the considered subshell
Scaling of charged particle multiplicity distributions in relativistic nuclear collisions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ahamd, N.; Hushnud; Azmi, M.D.; Zafar, M.; Irfan, M.; Khan, M.M.; Tufail, A.
2011-01-01
Validity of KNO scaling in hadron-hadron and hadron-nucleus collisions has been tested by several workers. Multiplicity distributions for p-emulsion interactions are found to be consistent with the KNO scaling hypothesis for pp collisions. The applicability of the scaling law was extended to FNAL energies by earlier workers. Slattery has shown that KNO scaling hypothesis is in fine agreement with the data for pp interactions over a wide range of incident energies. An attempt, is, therefore, made to examine the scaling hypothesis using multiplicity distributions of particles produced in 3.7A GeV/c 16 O-, 4.5A GeV/c and 14.5A GeV/c 28 Si - nucleus interactions
Horwitz, L. P.; Land, Martin C.; Gill, Tepper; Lusanna, Luca; Salucci, Paolo
2013-04-01
developments in cosmology and astrophysics, the geometry of spacetime, including the possible presence of extra dimensions, and in the dynamics of systems described in the framework of general relativity. There have been recent developments as well in the foundations of relativity, and in the understanding of electrodynamics in the framework of relativistic quantum theory. There is a study of relativistic quantum mechanics in the rest frame instant form of dynamics, and an analysis of the Laplace-Runge-Lenz symmetry in relativistic dynamics reported here, as well as a discussion of the quantization of massless fields of any spin. Results are reported on the existence and definition of a covariant Berry phase associated with a perturbed covariant harmonic oscillator. A generalization of Stueckelberg's original classical and quantum model for pair production is found to provide a simple framework for the phenomenon of neutrino oscillation, which, along with recently published work on the spin of a system of relativistic particles, appears to provide a simple mechanism for CP violation in the presence of nonabelian gauge fields that seems applicable to the K, B and D meson systems as well, from the point of view of their inner quark structure. New functional methods applicable to both classical and quantum relativistic systems are reported here, and a deep mathematical and philosophical discussion is given on a unified view of nonlinear systems in many areas, including that of perception. We thank the Scientific Advisory Committee for their invaluable guidance and advice: Stephen Adler(Institute for Advanced Study) Itzhak Bars (University of Southern California) Gordon Baym (University of Illinois) Jacob Bekenstein (Hebrew University) Fred Cooper (Los Alamos National Laboratory) Bei-Lok Hu (University of Maryland) Werner Israel (University of Victoria) E V Shuryak (Brookhaven National Laboratory) L S Shulman (Clarkson University) William Unruh (University of British Columbia
On the Construction of Scattering Amplitudes for Spinning Massless Particles
Berends, F A
1997-01-01
In this paper the general form of scattering amplitudes for massless particles with equal spins s ($s s \\to s s$) or unequal spins ($s_a s_b \\to s_a s_b$) are derived. The imposed conditions are that the amplitudes should have the lowest possible dimension, have propagators of dimension $m^{-2}$, and obey gauge invariance. It is shown that the number of momenta required for amplitudes involving particles with s > 2 is higher than the number implied by 3-vertices for higher spin particles derived in the literature. Therefore, the dimension of the coupling constants following from the latter 3-vertices has a smaller power of an inverse mass than our results imply. Consequently, the 3-vertices in the literature cannot be the first interaction terms of a gauge-invariant theory. When no spins s > 2 are present in the process the known QCD, QED or (super) gravity amplitudes are obtained from the above general amplitudes.
Bell's Inequality for a System Composed of Particles with Different Spins
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Moradi, Shahpoor
2009-01-01
For two particles with different spins, we derive the Bell's inequality. The inequality is investigated for two systems combining spin-1 and spin-1/2; spin-1/2 and spin-3/2. We show that for these states Bell's inequality is violated.
Cosmology as relativistic particle mechanics: from big crunch to big bang
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Russo, J G [Institucio Catalana de Recerca i Estudis Avancats, Departament ECM, Facultat de FIsica, Universitat de Barcelona, Diagonal 647, E-08028 Barcelona (Spain); Townsend, P K [Institucio Catalana de Recerca i Estudis Avancats, Departament ECM, Facultat de FIsica, Universitat de Barcelona, Diagonal 647, E-08028 Barcelona (Spain)
2005-02-21
Cosmology can be viewed as geodesic motion in an appropriate metric on an 'augmented' target space; here we obtain these geodesics from an effective relativistic particle action. As an application, we find some exact (flat and curved) cosmologies for models with N scalar fields taking values in a hyperbolic target space for which the augmented target space is a Milne universe. The singularities of these cosmologies correspond to points at which the particle trajectory crosses the Milne horizon, suggesting a novel resolution of them, which we explore via the Wheeler-DeWitt equation.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mahdi Afshar
2013-11-01
Full Text Available We have demonstrated electronic structure and magnetic properties of Cu3, Ag3 and Au3 trimers using a full potential local orbital method in the framework of relativistic density functional theory. We have also shown that the non-relativistic generalized gradient approximation for the exchange-correlation energy functional gives reliable magnetic properties in coinage metal trimers compared to experiment. In addition we have indicated that the spin-orbit coupling changes the structure and magnetic properties of gold trimer while the structure and magnetic properties of copper and silver trimers are marginally affected. A significant orbital moment of 0.21μB was found for most stable geometry of the gold trimer whereas orbital magnetism is almost quenched in the copper and silver trimers.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Labonte, G
1973-01-01
We study the time description of the motion of relativistic particles in both the dependent and time independent potentials. The differential equations of motion considered are the standard linear spin zero and one half equations. They are always meaningful in the sense that, at all times, unique well defined operator valued distributions in the three space variables are determined. We discuss the problem of determining which set of creation and annihilation operators is relevant in a given problem. We examine the implementation of certain simple requirements which seem to be necessary in order for the mathematical formalism to be able to describe a physical system. We show that whenever the equation of motion is homogeneous, the study of all physical requirements reduces to studying Bogoliubov transformations between creation and annihilation operators. We study such transformations where we obtain some new important results concerning their general properties. We examine in detail a quantized field in presence of an external source, electrons and positrons acted upon by a plane electromagnetic wave, Dirac fields acted upon by potentials of the form A(x) delta (t) and A(x) THETA (t-t/sub 0/). We study Dirac fields in presence of potentials which have time dependences which can be represented by sequences of step functions. We then discuss the limiting case where the time dependence is continuous. We prove that the requirements that there exists a unitary evolution operator or that physical particles can be described are exactly equivalent. (auth)
Particle spin dynamics as the grassmann variant of classical mechanics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Berezin, F.A.; Marinov, M.S.
1976-01-01
A generalization of the calssical mechanics is presented. The dynamical variables are assumed to be elements of an algebra with anticommuting generators (The Grassmann algebra). The action functional and the Poisson brackets are defined. The equations of motion are deduced from the variational principle. The dynamics is described also by means of the Liouville equation for the phase-space distribution. The canonical quantization lead phase-space path integral approach to the quantum theory is also formulated. The theory is applied to describe the particle spin. Classical description of the spin precession and of the spin-orbital forces is given. The phase-space distribution and the interaction with an external field are also considered
SHARP: A Spatially Higher-order, Relativistic Particle-in-cell Code
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Shalaby, Mohamad; Broderick, Avery E. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Waterloo, 200 University Avenue West, Waterloo, ON, N2L 3G1 (Canada); Chang, Philip [Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, 1900 E. Kenwood Boulevard, Milwaukee, WI 53211 (United States); Pfrommer, Christoph [Leibniz-Institut für Astrophysik Potsdam (AIP), An der Sternwarte 16, D-14482 Potsdam (Germany); Lamberts, Astrid [Theoretical Astrophysics, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Puchwein, Ewald, E-mail: mshalaby@live.ca [Institute of Astronomy and Kavli Institute for Cosmology, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge, CB3 0HA (United Kingdom)
2017-05-20
Numerical heating in particle-in-cell (PIC) codes currently precludes the accurate simulation of cold, relativistic plasma over long periods, severely limiting their applications in astrophysical environments. We present a spatially higher-order accurate relativistic PIC algorithm in one spatial dimension, which conserves charge and momentum exactly. We utilize the smoothness implied by the usage of higher-order interpolation functions to achieve a spatially higher-order accurate algorithm (up to the fifth order). We validate our algorithm against several test problems—thermal stability of stationary plasma, stability of linear plasma waves, and two-stream instability in the relativistic and non-relativistic regimes. Comparing our simulations to exact solutions of the dispersion relations, we demonstrate that SHARP can quantitatively reproduce important kinetic features of the linear regime. Our simulations have a superior ability to control energy non-conservation and avoid numerical heating in comparison to common second-order schemes. We provide a natural definition for convergence of a general PIC algorithm: the complement of physical modes captured by the simulation, i.e., those that lie above the Poisson noise, must grow commensurately with the resolution. This implies that it is necessary to simultaneously increase the number of particles per cell and decrease the cell size. We demonstrate that traditional ways for testing for convergence fail, leading to plateauing of the energy error. This new PIC code enables us to faithfully study the long-term evolution of plasma problems that require absolute control of the energy and momentum conservation.
Nonthermal Particle Acceleration in 3D Relativistic Magnetic Reconnection in Pair Plasma
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Werner, Gregory R.; Uzdensky, Dmitri A., E-mail: Greg.Werner@colorado.edu [Center for Integrated Plasma Studies, Physics Department, University of Colorado, 390 UCB, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States)
2017-07-10
As a fundamental process converting magnetic to plasma energy in high-energy astrophysical plasmas, relativistic magnetic reconnection is a leading explanation for the acceleration of particles to the ultrarelativistic energies that are necessary to power nonthermal emission (especially X-rays and gamma-rays) in pulsar magnetospheres and pulsar wind nebulae, coronae and jets of accreting black holes, and gamma-ray bursts. An important objective of plasma astrophysics is therefore the characterization of nonthermal particle acceleration (NTPA) effected by reconnection. Reconnection-powered NTPA has been demonstrated over a wide range of physical conditions using large 2D kinetic simulations. However, its robustness in realistic 3D reconnection—in particular, whether the 3D relativistic drift-kink instability (RDKI) disrupts NTPA—has not been systematically investigated, although pioneering 3D simulations have observed NTPA in isolated cases. Here, we present the first comprehensive study of NTPA in 3D relativistic reconnection in collisionless electron–positron plasmas, characterizing NTPA as the strength of 3D effects is varied systematically via the length in the third dimension and the strength of the guide magnetic field. We find that, while the RDKI prominently perturbs 3D reconnecting current sheets, it does not suppress particle acceleration, even for zero guide field; fully 3D reconnection robustly and efficiently produces nonthermal power-law particle spectra closely resembling those obtained in 2D. This finding provides strong support for reconnection as the key mechanism powering high-energy flares in various astrophysical systems. We also show that strong guide fields significantly inhibit NTPA, slowing reconnection and limiting the energy available for plasma energization, yielding steeper and shorter power-law spectra.
Twistor description of spinning particles in AdS
Arvanitakis, Alex S.; Barns-Graham, Alec E.; Townsend, Paul K.
2018-01-01
The two-twistor formulation of particle mechanics in D-dimensional anti-de Sitter space for D = 4 , 5 , 7, which linearises invariance under the AdS isometry group Sp(4; K ) for K=R,C,H, is generalized to the massless N -extended "spinning particle". The twistor variables are gauge invariant with respect to the initial N local worldline supersymmetries; this simplifies aspects of the quantum theory such as implications of global gauge anomalies. We also give details of the two-supertwistor form of the superparticle, in particular the massive superparticle on AdS5.
Relativistic quantum mechanics
Horwitz, Lawrence P
2015-01-01
This book describes a relativistic quantum theory developed by the author starting from the E.C.G. Stueckelberg approach proposed in the early 40s. In this framework a universal invariant evolution parameter (corresponding to the time originally postulated by Newton) is introduced to describe dynamical evolution. This theory is able to provide solutions for some of the fundamental problems encountered in early attempts to construct a relativistic quantum theory. A relativistically covariant construction is given for which particle spins and angular momenta can be combined through the usual rotation group Clebsch-Gordan coefficients. Solutions are defined for both the classical and quantum two body bound state and scattering problems. The recently developed quantum Lax-Phillips theory of semigroup evolution of resonant states is described. The experiment of Lindner and coworkers on interference in time is discussed showing how the property of coherence in time provides a simple understanding of the results. Th...
The connection of two-particle relativistic quantum mechanics with the Bethe-Salpeter equation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sazdjian, H.
1986-02-01
We show the formal equivalence between the wave equations of two-particle relativistic quantum mechanics, based on the manifestly covariant hamiltonian formalism with constraints, and the Bethe-Salpeter equation. This is achieved by algebraically transforming the latter so as to separate it into two independent equations which match the equations of hamiltonian relativistic quantum mechanics. The first equation determines the relative time evolution of the system, while the second one yields a three-dimensional eigenvalue equation. A connection is thus established between the Bethe-Salpeter wave function and its kernel on the one hand and the quantum mechanical wave function and interaction potential on the other. For the sector of solutions of the Bethe-Salpeter equation having non-relativistic limits, this relationship can be evaluated in perturbation theory. We also device a generalized form of the instantaneous approximation which simplifies the various expressions involved in the above relations. It also permits the evaluation of the normalization condition of the quantum mechanical wave function as a three-dimensional integral
Nishikawa, K. I.; Ramirez-Ruiz, E.; Hardee, P.; Mizuno, Y.; Fishman. G. J.
2007-01-01
Nonthermal radiation observed from astrophysical systems containing relativistic jets and shocks, e.g., active galactic nuclei (AGNs), gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), and Galactic microquasar systems usually have power-law emission spectra. Recent PIC simulations using injected relativistic electron-ion (electro-positron) jets show that acceleration occurs within the downstream jet. Shock acceleration is a ubiquitous phenomenon in astrophysical plasmas. Plasma waves and their associated instabilities (e.g., the Buneman instability, other two-streaming instability, and the Weibel instability) created in the shocks are responsible for particle (electron, positron, and ion) acceleration. The simulation results show that the Weibel instability is responsible for generating and amplifying highly nonuniform, small-scale magnetic fields. These magnetic fields contribute to the electron's transverse deflection behind the jet head. The "jitter" radiation from deflected electrons has different properties than synchrotron radiation which is calculated in a uniform magnetic field. This jitter radiation may be important to understanding the complex time evolution and/or spectral structure in gamma-ray bursts, relativistic jets, and supernova remnants.
Toward a unified theory of the radiation by relativistic particles in crystals
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Beloshitskii, V.V.; Kalinichenko, V.F.
1989-01-01
A quantum theory of the electromagnetic emission by relativistic particles incorporating channeling and the thermal vibrations of the crystal nuclei is derived. A general expression for the emission probability is found after an average over the initial polarizations of the particles and a summation over the final polarizations of the particles and over the polarizations of the photons. An average is carried out over the crystal states of the nuclei in the cases with and without excitation of phonons. The total emission is made up of channeling emission and bremsstrahlung, which are related to each other. During scattering by thermal vibrations, incoherent bremsstrahlung is produced. Some particular cases which determine the properties of the emission in the case of channeling are derived from the general expression and analyzed
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kagan, Daniel; Nakar, Ehud [Raymond and Beverly Sackler School of Physics and Astronomy, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 69978 (Israel); Piran, Tsvi, E-mail: daniel.kagan@mail.huji.ac.il [Racah Institute of Physics, The Hebrew University, Jerusalem 91904 (Israel)
2016-12-20
The maximum synchrotron burnoff limit of 160 MeV represents a fundamental limit to radiation resulting from electromagnetic particle acceleration in one-zone ideal plasmas. In magnetic reconnection, however, particle acceleration and radiation are decoupled because the electric field is larger than the magnetic field in the diffusion region. We carry out two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations to determine the extent to which magnetic reconnection can produce synchrotron radiation above the burnoff limit. We use the test particle comparison (TPC) method to isolate the effects of cooling by comparing the trajectories and acceleration efficiencies of test particles incident on such a reconnection region with and without cooling them. We find that the cooled and uncooled particle trajectories are typically similar during acceleration in the reconnection region, and derive an effective limit on particle acceleration that is inversely proportional to the average magnetic field experienced by the particle during acceleration. Using the calculated distribution of this average magnetic field as a function of uncooled final particle energy, we find analytically that cooling does not affect power-law particle energy spectra except at energies far above the synchrotron burnoff limit. Finally, we compare fully cooled and uncooled simulations of reconnection, confirming that the synchrotron burnoff limit does not produce a cutoff in the particle energy spectrum. Our results indicate that the TPC method accurately predicts the effects of cooling on particle acceleration in relativistic reconnection, and that, even far above the burnoff limit, the synchrotron energy of radiation produced in reconnection is not limited by cooling.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kagan, Daniel; Nakar, Ehud; Piran, Tsvi
2016-01-01
The maximum synchrotron burnoff limit of 160 MeV represents a fundamental limit to radiation resulting from electromagnetic particle acceleration in one-zone ideal plasmas. In magnetic reconnection, however, particle acceleration and radiation are decoupled because the electric field is larger than the magnetic field in the diffusion region. We carry out two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations to determine the extent to which magnetic reconnection can produce synchrotron radiation above the burnoff limit. We use the test particle comparison (TPC) method to isolate the effects of cooling by comparing the trajectories and acceleration efficiencies of test particles incident on such a reconnection region with and without cooling them. We find that the cooled and uncooled particle trajectories are typically similar during acceleration in the reconnection region, and derive an effective limit on particle acceleration that is inversely proportional to the average magnetic field experienced by the particle during acceleration. Using the calculated distribution of this average magnetic field as a function of uncooled final particle energy, we find analytically that cooling does not affect power-law particle energy spectra except at energies far above the synchrotron burnoff limit. Finally, we compare fully cooled and uncooled simulations of reconnection, confirming that the synchrotron burnoff limit does not produce a cutoff in the particle energy spectrum. Our results indicate that the TPC method accurately predicts the effects of cooling on particle acceleration in relativistic reconnection, and that, even far above the burnoff limit, the synchrotron energy of radiation produced in reconnection is not limited by cooling.
On the H particle stability in the non relativistic quark model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Silvestre-Brac, B.; Carbonell, J.; Gignoux, C.
1987-05-01
The H particle with quark content (uuddss) is presented as a good candidate to be stable with respect to strong interactions. In the framework of a non relativistic potential model, the binding energy is calculated by a full dynamical approach using a resonating group trial wave function. The center of mass motion and the Pauli principle are correctly treated. Sophisticated baryon wave functions are employed and the equation of motion is solved with six coupled channels including radial excited baryon states. The effect of breaking SU(3) flavour symmetry is discussed in detail
Quantization of a relativistic particle on the SL(2.R) manifold based on Hamiltonian reduction
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jorjadze, G.; O'Raifeartaigh, L.; Tsutsui, I.
1994-07-01
A quantum theory is constructed for the system of a relativistic particle with mass m moving freely on the SL(2.R) group manifold. Applied to the cotangent bundle of SL(2.R). the method of Hamiltonian reduction allows us to split the reduced system into two coadjoint orbits of the group. We find that the Hilbert space consists of states given by the discrete series of the unitary irreducible representations of SL(2.R). and with a positive-definite, discrete spectrum. (author)
Particle Acceleration and Magnetic Field Generation in Electron-Positron Relativistic Shocks
Nishikawa, K.-I.; Hardee, P.; Richardson, G.; Preece, R.; Sol, H.; Fishman, G. J.
2005-01-01
Shock acceleration is a ubiquitous phenomenon in astrophysical plasmas. Plasma waves and their associated instabilities (e.g., Buneman, Weibel, and other two-stream instabilities) created in collisionless shocks are responsible for particle (electron, positron, and ion) acceleration. Using a three-dimensional relativistic electromagnetic particle (REMP) code, we have investigated particle acceleration associated with a relativistic electron-positron jet front propagating into an ambient electron-positron plasma with and without initial magnetic fields. We find small differences in the results for no ambient and modest ambient magnetic fields. New simulations show that the Weibel instability created in the collisionless shock front accelerates jet and ambient particles both perpendicular and parallel to the jet propagation direction. Furthermore, the nonlinear fluctuation amplitudes of densities, currents, and electric and magnetic fields in the electron-positron shock are larger than those found in the electron-ion shock studied in a previous paper at a comparable simulation time. This comes from the fact that both electrons and positrons contribute to generation of the Weibel instability. In addition, we have performed simulations with different electron skin depths. We find that growth times scale inversely with the plasma frequency, and the sizes of structures created by tine Weibel instability scale proportionally to the electron skin depth. This is the expected result and indicates that the simulations have sufficient grid resolution. While some Fermi acceleration may occur at the jet front, the majority of electron and positron acceleration takes place behind the jet front and cannot be characterized as Fermi acceleration. The simulation results show that the Weibel instability is responsible for generating and amplifying nonuniform, small-scale magnetic fields, which contribute to the electron s (positron s) transverse deflection behind the jet head. This
Vícha, Jan; Komorovsky, Stanislav; Repisky, Michal; Marek, Radek; Straka, Michal
2018-05-10
The importance of relativistic effects on the NMR parameters in heavy-atom (HA) compounds, particularly the SO-HALA (Spin-Orbit Heavy Atom on the Light Atom) effect on NMR chemical shifts, has been known for about 40 years. Yet, a general correlation between the electronic structure and SO-HALA effect has been missing. By analyzing 1 H NMR chemical shifts of the sixth-period hydrides (Cs-At), we discovered general electronic-structure principles and mechanisms that dictate the size and sign of the SO-HALA NMR chemical shifts. In brief, partially occupied HA valence shells induce relativistic shielding at the light atom (LA) nuclei, while empty HA valence shells induce relativistic deshielding. In particular, the LA nucleus is relativistically shielded in 5d 2 -5d 8 and 6p 4 HA hydrides and deshielded in 4f 0 , 5d 0 , 6s 0 , and 6p 0 HA hydrides. This general and intuitive concept explains periodic trends in the 1 H NMR chemical shifts along the sixth-period hydrides (Cs-At) studied in this work. We present substantial evidence that the introduced principles have a general validity across the periodic table and can be extended to nonhydride LAs. The decades-old question of why compounds with occupied frontier π molecular orbitals (MOs) cause SO-HALA shielding at the LA nuclei, while the frontier σ MOs cause deshielding is answered. We further derive connection between the SO-HALA NMR chemical shifts and Spin-Orbit-induced Electron Deformation Density (SO-EDD), a property that can be obtained easily from differential electron densities and can be represented graphically. SO-EDD provides an intuitive understanding of the SO-HALA effect in terms of the depletion/concentration of the electron density at LA nuclei caused by spin-orbit coupling due to HA in the presence of a magnetic field. Using an analogy between the SO-EDD concept and arguments from classic NMR theory, the complex question of the SO-HALA NMR chemical shifts becomes easily understandable for a wide
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wei Gaofeng; Dong Shihai
2010-01-01
In the case of exact spin symmetry, we approximately solve the Dirac equation with scalar and vector symmetrical well potentials by using a proper approximation to the spin-orbit coupling term, and obtain the corresponding energy equation and spinor wave functions for the bound states. We find that there exist only positive-energy bound states in the case of spin symmetry. Also, the energy eigenvalue approaches a constant when the potential parameter α goes to zero. The special case for equally scalar and vector symmetrical well potentials is studied briefly.
Spin in stationary gravitational fields and rotating frames
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Obukhov, Yuri N.; Silenko, Alexander J.; Teryaev, Oleg V.
2010-01-01
A spin motion of particles in stationary spacetimes is investigated in the framework of the classical gravity and relativistic quantum mechanics. We bring the Dirac equation for relativistic particles in nonstatic spacetimes to the Hamiltonian form and perform the Foldy-Wouthuysen transformation. We show the importance of the choice of tetrads for description of spin dynamics in the classical gravity. We derive classical and quantum mechanical equations of motion of the spin for relativistic particles in stationary gravitational fields and rotating frames and establish the full agreement between the classical and quantum mechanical approaches.
Effective electric and magnetic polarizabilities of pointlike spin-1/2 particles
Silenko, A. J.
2014-01-01
Effective electric and magnetic polarizabilities of pointlike spin-1/2 particles possesing an anomalous magnetic moment are calculated with the transformation of an initial Hamiltonian to the Foldy-Wouthuysen representation. Polarizabilities of spin-1/2 and spin-1 particles are compared.
Antigravity: Spin-gravity coupling in action
Plyatsko, Roman; Fenyk, Mykola
2016-08-01
The typical motions of a spinning test particle in Schwarzschild's background which show the strong repulsive action of the highly relativistic spin-gravity coupling are considered using the exact Mathisson-Papapetrou equations. An approximated approach to choice solutions of these equations which describe motions of the particle's proper center of mass is developed.
Quantum corrections for spinning particles in de Sitter
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fröb, Markus B. [Department of Mathematics, University of York, Heslington, York, YO10 5DD (United Kingdom); Verdaguer, Enric, E-mail: mbf503@york.ac.uk, E-mail: enric.verdaguer@ub.edu [Departament de Física Quàntica i Astrofísica, Institut de Ciències del Cosmos (ICC), Universitat de Barcelona (UB), C/ Martí i Franquès 1, 08028 Barcelona (Spain)
2017-04-01
We compute the one-loop quantum corrections to the gravitational potentials of a spinning point particle in a de Sitter background, due to the vacuum polarisation induced by conformal fields in an effective field theory approach. We consider arbitrary conformal field theories, assuming only that the theory contains a large number N of fields in order to separate their contribution from the one induced by virtual gravitons. The corrections are described in a gauge-invariant way, classifying the induced metric perturbations around the de Sitter background according to their behaviour under transformations on equal-time hypersurfaces. There are six gauge-invariant modes: two scalar Bardeen potentials, one transverse vector and one transverse traceless tensor, of which one scalar and the vector couple to the spinning particle. The quantum corrections consist of three different parts: a generalisation of the flat-space correction, which is only significant at distances of the order of the Planck length; a constant correction depending on the undetermined parameters of the renormalised effective action; and a term which grows logarithmically with the distance from the particle. This last term is the most interesting, and when resummed gives a modified power law, enhancing the gravitational force at large distances. As a check on the accuracy of our calculation, we recover the linearised Kerr-de Sitter metric in the classical limit and the flat-space quantum correction in the limit of vanishing Hubble constant.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chen, Zaigao; Wang, Jianguo [Key Laboratory for Physical Electronics and Devices of the Ministry of Education, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an, Shaanxi 710049 (China); Northwest Institute of Nuclear Technology, P.O. Box 69-12, Xi' an, Shaanxi 710024 (China); Wang, Yue; Qiao, Hailiang; Zhang, Dianhui [Northwest Institute of Nuclear Technology, P.O. Box 69-12, Xi' an, Shaanxi 710024 (China); Guo, Weijie [Key Laboratory for Physical Electronics and Devices of the Ministry of Education, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an, Shaanxi 710049 (China)
2013-11-15
Optimal design method of high-power microwave source using particle simulation and parallel genetic algorithms is presented in this paper. The output power, simulated by the fully electromagnetic particle simulation code UNIPIC, of the high-power microwave device is given as the fitness function, and the float-encoding genetic algorithms are used to optimize the high-power microwave devices. Using this method, we encode the heights of non-uniform slow wave structure in the relativistic backward wave oscillators (RBWO), and optimize the parameters on massively parallel processors. Simulation results demonstrate that we can obtain the optimal parameters of non-uniform slow wave structure in the RBWO, and the output microwave power enhances 52.6% after the device is optimized.
particle simulation for electrostatic oscillation of virtual cathode in relativistic electron beams
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chen Deming; Wang Min
1990-01-01
The virtual cathode oscillation in relativistic electron beams is studied by a 1-D electrostatic particle simulation code with finite-size-particle model. When injection current is less than the space charge limiting current, electron beam propagates stably and transsmits completely. When injection current exceeds the space charge limit, its propagation is unstable, a part of electrons reflect and the other electrons transsmit. The position and potential of the virtual cathode caused by space charge effects oscillate periodically. When the beam current increases, the virtual cathode position closer to the injection plane and its oscillating region gets narrower, the virtual cathode potential decreases and its amplitude increases, the oscillation frequency increases above the beam plasma frequency
Development of a relativistic Particle In Cell code PARTDYN for linear accelerator beam transport
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Phadte, D., E-mail: deepraj@rrcat.gov.in [LPD, Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology, Indore 452013 (India); Patidar, C.B.; Pal, M.K. [MAASD, Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology, Indore (India)
2017-04-11
A relativistic Particle In Cell (PIC) code PARTDYN is developed for the beam dynamics simulation of z-continuous and bunched beams. The code is implemented in MATLAB using its MEX functionality which allows both ease of development as well higher performance similar to a compiled language like C. The beam dynamics calculations carried out by the code are compared with analytical results and with other well developed codes like PARMELA and BEAMPATH. The effect of finite number of simulation particles on the emittance growth of intense beams has been studied. Corrections to the RF cavity field expressions were incorporated in the code so that the fields could be calculated correctly. The deviations of the beam dynamics results between PARTDYN and BEAMPATH for a cavity driven in zero-mode have been discussed. The beam dynamics studies of the Low Energy Beam Transport (LEBT) using PARTDYN have been presented.
Classical and quantum dynamics of a kicked relativistic particle in a box
Yusupov, J. R.; Otajanov, D. M.; Eshniyazov, V. E.; Matrasulov, D. U.
2018-03-01
We study classical and quantum dynamics of a kicked relativistic particle confined in a one dimensional box. It is found that in classical case for chaotic motion the average kinetic energy grows in time, while for mixed regime the growth is suppressed. However, in case of regular motion energy fluctuates around certain value. Quantum dynamics is treated by solving the time-dependent Dirac equation with delta-kicking potential, whose exact solution is obtained for single kicking period. In quantum case, depending on the values of the kicking parameters, the average kinetic energy can be quasi periodic, or fluctuating around some value. Particle transport is studied by considering spatio-temporal evolution of the Gaussian wave packet and by analyzing the trembling motion.
Corinaldesi, Ernesto
1963-01-01
Geared toward advanced undergraduate and graduate students of physics, this text provides readers with a background in relativistic wave mechanics and prepares them for the study of field theory. The treatment originated as a series of lectures from a course on advanced quantum mechanics that has been further amplified by student contributions.An introductory section related to particles and wave functions precedes the three-part treatment. An examination of particles of spin zero follows, addressing wave equation, Lagrangian formalism, physical quantities as mean values, translation and rotat
Single-Particle Spin-Orbit Splittings in Nuclei
Kazuhiko, ANDO; Hiroharu, BANDO; Department of Physics, Kyoto University; Division of Mathematical Physics, Fukui University
1981-01-01
Single-particle spin-orbit splittings (Δ^) in ^O and ^Ca nuclei are evaluated within the framework of the effective interaction theory by employing the Reid soft-core potential and meson-exchange three-body forces (TBF). Among the two-body force contributions, the Pauli-rearrangement effect on Δ^ is studied with special care. The TBF contribution to Δ^ is found to be significant. The G-matrix, the second-order pauli-rearrangement and the TBF contribute to Δ^ by the amount of ～1/2, ～1/5 and ～1...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bassi, A.; Donadi, S.
2014-01-01
We study the photon emission rate of a non-relativistic charged particle interacting with an external classical noise through its position. Both the particle and the electromagnetic field are quantized. Under only the dipole approximation, the equations of motion can be solved exactly for a free particle, or a particle bounded by an harmonic potential. The physical quantity we will be interested in is the spectrum of the radiation emitted by the particle, due to the interaction with the noise. We will highlight several properties of the spectrum and clarify some issues appearing in the literature, regarding the exact mathematical formula of a spectrum for a free particle.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Shukla, Chandrasekhar, E-mail: chandrasekhar.shukla@gmail.com; Das, Amita, E-mail: amita@ipr.res.in [Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar 382428 (India); Patel, Kartik [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai 400 085 (India)
2016-08-15
We carry out particle-in-cell simulations to study the instabilities associated with a 2-D sheared electron flow configuration against a neutralizing background of ions. Both weak and strong relativistic flow velocities are considered. In the weakly relativistic case, we observe the development of electromagnetic Kelvin-Helmholtz instability with similar characteristics as that predicted by the electron Magnetohydrodynamic (EMHD) model. On the contrary, in a strong relativistic case, the compressibility effects of electron fluid dominate and introduce upper hybrid electrostatic oscillations transverse to the flow which are very distinct from EMHD fluid behavior. In the nonlinear regime, both weak and strong relativistic cases lead to turbulence with broad power law spectrum.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Milant'ev, V.P.
1996-01-01
It is shown that within the transverse or the longitudinal wave propagating at the angle to the magnetic field there is a specific mode of motion of relativistic particle called as a synchronous one where the condition of a particle resonance with the wave is realized with increasing accuracy with increase of particle energy. A trend to the unlimited acceleration is detected in a synchronous mode of the Cherenkov resonance. 21 refs
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Liu, Ruoyu
2015-06-10
Ultrahigh energy cosmic rays are extreme energetic particles from outer space. They have aroused great interest among scientists for more than fifty years. However, due to the rarity of the events and complexity of the process of their propagation to Earth, they are still one of the biggest puzzles in modern high energy astrophysics. This dissertation is dedicated to study the origin of ultrahigh energy cosmic rays from various aspects. Firstly, we discuss a possible link between recently discovered sub-PeV/PeV neutrinos and ultrahigh energy cosmic rays. If these two kinds of particles share the same origin, the observation of neutrinos may provide additional and non-trivial constraints on the sources of ultrahigh energy cosmic rays. Secondly, we jointly employ the chemical composition measurement and the arrival directions of ultrahigh energy cosmic rays, and find a robust upper limit for distances of sources of ultrahigh energy cosmic rays above ∝55 EeV, as well as a lower limit for their metallicities. Finally, we study the shear acceleration mechanism in relativistic jets, which is a more efficient mechanism for the acceleration of higher energy particle. We compute the acceleration efficiency and the time-dependent particle energy spectrum, and explore the feature of synchrotron radiation of the accelerated particles. The possible realizations of this mechanism for acceleration of ultrahigh energy cosmic rays in different astrophysical environments is also discussed.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Milant' ev, V. P., E-mail: vmilantiev@sci.pfu.edu.ru; Castillo, A. J., E-mail: vmilant@mail.ru [Peoples' Friendship University of Russia (Russian Federation)
2013-04-15
Averaged relativistic equations of motion of a charged particle in the field of intense electromagnetic radiation have been obtained in the geometrical optics approximation using the Bogoliubov method. Constraints are determined under which these equations are valid. Oscillating additions to the smoothed dynamical variables of the particle have been found; they are reduced to known expressions in the case of the circularly and linearly polarized plane waves. It has been shown that the expressions for the averaged relativistic force in both cases contain new additional small terms weakening its action. The known difference between the expressions for the ponderomotive force in the cases of circularly and linearly polarized waves has been confirmed.
Rusakov, Yury Yu; Rusakova, Irina L; Krivdin, Leonid B
2014-05-01
Four-component relativistic calculations of (77)Se-(13)C spin-spin coupling constants have been performed in the series of selenium heterocycles and their parent open-chain selenides. It has been found that relativistic effects play an essential role in the selenium-carbon coupling mechanism and could result in a contribution of as much as 15-25% of the total values of the one-bond selenium-carbon spin-spin coupling constants. In the overall contribution of the relativistic effects to the total values of (1)J(Se,C), the scalar relativistic corrections (negative in sign) by far dominate over the spin-orbit ones (positive in sign), the latter being of less than 5%, as compared to the former (ca 20%). A combination of nonrelativistic second-order polarization propagator approach (CC2) with the four-component relativistic density functional theory scheme is recommended as a versatile tool for the calculation of (1)J(Se,C). Solvent effects in the values of (1)J(Se,C) calculated within the polarizable continuum model for the solvents with different dielectric constants (ε 2.2-78.4) are next to negligible decreasing negative (1)J(Se,C) in absolute value by only about 1 Hz. The use of the locally dense basis set approach applied herewith for the calculation of (77)Se-(13)C spin-spin coupling constants is fully justified resulting in a dramatic decrease in computational cost with only 0.1-0.2-Hz loss of accuracy. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Quantum mechanical equations of particle and spin motion in polarised medium
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Silenko, A.Ya.
2003-01-01
The quantum mechanical equations for the particles and spin motion in the media with polarized electrons by presence of the external fields are determined. The motion of the electrons and their spin are influenced by the exchange interaction whereas the motion of the positrons is the annihilation one. The second order summands by spin are accounted for the particles with the S≥1 spin. The obtained equations may applied for describing the particles and spin motion both in the magnetic and nonmagnetic media [ru
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dimakis, A.
1983-01-01
The algebraic structure of the real Clifford algebras (CA) of vector spaces with non-degenerated scalar product of arbitrary signature is studied, and a classification formula for this is obtained. The latter is based on three sequences of integer numbers from which one is the Radon-Harwitz sequence. A new representation method of real CA is constructed. This leads to a geometrical representation of real Clifford algebras in which the representation spaces are subspaces of the CA itself (''spinor spaces''). One of these spinor spaces is a subalgebra of the original CA. The relation between CA and external algebras is studied. Each external algebra with a scalar product possesses the structure of a CA. From the geometric representation developed here then follows that spinors are inhomogeneous external forms. The transformation behaviour of spinors under the orthogonal, as well as under the general linear group is studied. By means of these algebraic results the spinor connexion and the covariant Dirac operator on a differential manifold are introduced. In the geometrical representation a further in ternal SL(2,R) symmetry of the Dirac equation (DE) is shown. Furthermore other equivalent formulations of the DE can be obtained. Of special interest is the tetrade formulation of the DE. A generalization of the DE is introduced. The equations of motion of the classical relativistic spin particle are derived by means of spinors and CA from a variational principle. From this interesting formal analogies with the supersymmetric theories of the spin particle result. Finally the DE in the curved space-time is established and studied in the tetrade formulation. Using the methods developed here a new exact solution of the coupled Einstein-Curtan-Dirac theory was found (massice ''Ghost-Dirac fields''). (orig.) [de
D term and the structure of pointlike and composed spin-0 particles
Hudson, Jonathan; Schweitzer, Peter
2017-12-01
This work deals with form factors of the energy-momentum tensor (EMT) of spin-0 particles and the unknown particle property D term related to the EMT, and it is divided into three parts. The first part explores free, weakly and strongly interacting theories to study EMT form factors with the following findings. (i) The free Klein-Gordon theory predicts for the D term D =-1 . (ii) Even infinitesimally small interactions can drastically impact D . (iii) In strongly interacting theories one can encounter large negative D though notable exceptions exist, which include Goldstone bosons of chiral symmetry breaking. (iv) Contrary to common belief one cannot arbitrarily add "total derivatives" to the EMT. Rather the EMT must be defined in an unambiguous way. The second part deals with the interpretation of the information content of EMT form factors in terms of 3D densities with the following results. (i) The 3D-density formalism is internally consistent. (ii) The description is subject to relativistic corrections but those are acceptably small in phenomenologically relevant situations including nucleons and nuclei. (iii) The free-field result D =-1 persists when a spin-0 boson is not pointlike but "heuristically given some internal structure." The third part investigates the question of whether such "giving of an extended structure" can be implemented dynamically, and it has the following insights. (i) We construct a consistent microscopic theory which, in a certain parametric limit, interpolates between extended and pointlike solutions. (ii) This theory is exactly solvable which is rare in 3 +1 dimensions, admits nontopological solitons of Q -ball type, and has a Gaussian field amplitude. (iii) The interaction of this theory belongs to a class of logarithmic potentials which were discussed in the literature, albeit in different contexts including beyond-standard-model phenomenology, cosmology, and Higgs physics.
Magnetic Field Generation, Particle Energization and Radiation at Relativistic Shear Boundary Layers
Liang, Edison; Fu, Wen; Spisak, Jake; Boettcher, Markus
2015-11-01
Recent large scale Particle-in-Cell (PIC) simulations have demonstrated that in unmagnetized relativistic shear flows, strong transverse d.c. magnetic fields are generated and sustained by ion-dominated currents on the opposite sides of the shear interface. Instead of dissipating the shear flow free energy via turbulence formation and mixing as it is usually found in MHD simulations, the kinetic results show that the relativistic boundary layer stabilizes itself via the formation of a robust vacuum gap supported by a strong magnetic field, which effectively separates the opposing shear flows, as in a maglev train. Our new PIC simulations have extended the runs to many tens of light crossing times of the simulation box. Both the vacuum gap and supporting magnetic field remain intact. The electrons are energized to reach energy equipartition with the ions, with 10% of the total energy in electromagnetic fields. The dominant radiation mechanism is similar to that of a wiggler, due to oscillating electron orbits around the boundary layer.
Particle acceleration in explosive relativistic reconnection events and Crab Nebula gamma-ray flares
Lyutikov, Maxim; Komissarov, Serguei; Sironi, Lorenzo
2018-04-01
We develop a model of gamma-ray flares of the Crab Nebula resulting from the magnetic reconnection events in a highly magnetised relativistic plasma. We first discuss physical parameters of the Crab Nebula and review the theory of pulsar winds and termination shocks. We also review the principle points of particle acceleration in explosive reconnection events [Lyutikov et al., J. Plasma Phys., vol. 83(6), p. 635830601 (2017a); J. Plasma Phys., vol. 83(6), p. 635830602 (2017b)]. It is required that particles producing flares are accelerated in highly magnetised regions of the nebula. Flares originate from the poleward regions at the base of the Crab's polar outflow, where both the magnetisation and the magnetic field strength are sufficiently high. The post-termination shock flow develops macroscopic (not related to the plasma properties on the skin-depth scale) kink-type instabilities. The resulting large-scale magnetic stresses drive explosive reconnection events on the light-crossing time of the reconnection region. Flares are produced at the initial stage of the current sheet development, during the X-point collapse. The model has all the ingredients needed for Crab flares: natural formation of highly magnetised regions, explosive dynamics on the light travel time, development of high electric fields on macroscopic scales and acceleration of particles to energies well exceeding the average magnetic energy per particle.
Horwitz, Lawrence; Hu, Bei-Lok; Lee, Da-Shin; Gill, Tepper; Land, Martin
2011-12-01
find a propagating 0+ mode that could account for accelerated expansion. They discuss, in particular, a model in the Bianchi class A, and present a Lagrangian and a typical dynamical evolution. J T Hsiang, C H Wu, L H Ford and K W Ng review investigations of the effects of a quantum stress tensor of a conformal field on inflationary cosmology. They find that the quantum stress tensor fluctuations lead to effects that can depend upon the total expansion factor during inflation, which may contribute to a non-scale invariant and non-Gaussian component to the primordial spectrum of perturbations,and may be observable. In the framework of quantum field theory, A N Kvinikhidze and B Blankleider show that a relativistic quantum mechanics emerges from light frame quantum field theory, and that in the case of baryon-like conservation, these theories are equivalent. With T Skawronski, they show in a second paper the power of gauging for several body problems, and demonstrate how this idea can be applied to the study of parton distributions, two nucleon currents in cutoff quantum field theory, and in a potential model for πN scattering. C M Chen and J R Sun study a holographic dual of the Reissner-Nordström black hole in a quantum gravity description from the perspective of the AdS/CFT correspondence. On a fundamental level, somewhat related to the ideas of Finkelstein, A Gersten and A Moalem discuss the factorization of the d'Alembertian in a 4×4 representation of 'relativistic quaternions' to find an interpretation of Maxwell's equations; with an 8×8 factorization, they obtain spin two fields as in gravitation. They discuss a general method for obtaining field equations for zero mass particles and arbitrary spin. M Pavsic has developed a generalization of the theory of Stueckelberg, mentioned above, applicable to general relativity. He finds a source of the world time τ in M2,4, achieving a 5D metric tensor and a resolution of the 'problem of time' in this framework. In a
Angular momentum in non-relativistic QED and photon contribution to spin of hydrogen atom
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chen Panying; Ji Xiangdong; Xu Yang; Zhang Yue
2010-01-01
We study angular momentum in non-relativistic quantum electrodynamics (NRQED). We construct the effective total angular momentum operator by applying Noether's theorem to the NRQED lagrangian. We calculate the NRQED matching for the individual components of the QED angular momentum up to one loop. We illustrate an application of our results by the first calculation of the angular momentum of the ground state hydrogen atom carried in radiative photons, α em 3 /18π, which might be measurable in future atomic experiments.
Causal wave propagation for relativistic massive particles: physical asymptotics in action
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Berry, M V
2012-01-01
Wavepackets representing relativistic quantum particles injected into a half-space, from a source that is switched on at a definite time, are represented by superpositions of plane waves that must include negative frequencies. Propagation is causal: it is a consequence of analyticity that at time t no part of the wave has travelled farther than ct, corresponding to the front of the signal. Nevertheless, interference fringes behind the front travel superluminally. For Klein-Gordon and Dirac wavepackets, the spatially integrated density increases because current is injected at the boundary. Even in the simplest causal model, understanding the shape of the wave after long times is an instructive exercise in the asymptotics of integrals, illustrating several techniques at a level suitable for graduate students; different spatial features involve contributions from a pole and from two saddle points, the uniform asymptotics for the pole close to a saddle, and the coalescence of two saddles into the Sommerfeld precursor immediately behind the front. (paper)
Particle production and Boltzmann integral form of relativistic quantum transport theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rafelski, J.; Davis, E.D.; Bialynicki-Birula, I.
1993-01-01
The 3+3+1 dimensional relativistic quantum transport equation for the fermion matter field, combines the particle pair production with flow phenomena, which occur at very different time scale. A direct numerical treatment of dynamical situations is therefore practically impossible. The authors attempt a seperation of these two sectors by the method of prediagonalization of the integral equations. They exploit the structure of the resolvent of the transport equations: it contains two poles corresponding to the flow sector and two to the pair production sector. Their hope for practical applications is to treat matter flow as a classical phenomenon and to be able to obtain an integral term describing the pair production accurately
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bateman, J.E.
1978-12-01
A method is described of obtaining a useful degree of improvement in the particle discrimination capability of multiwire proportional counters. The normal multiple sampling technique using a suitable bias to combat the small magnitude of the relativistic rise in the ionization energy loss and the wide pulse height distributions obtained in thin gas counters requires a large number of samples for useful discrimination. In the method reported, this number is reduced by suppressing the delta ray contribution to the total charge pulse from the anode wire. A monte carlo model convoluting the 'delta ray suppressed' data from a one sample detector shows that when it is required to separate pions and electrons at 1 GeV/C with a detection efficiency for the electron of 90%, a 'suppressor' circuit can achieve a pion rejection ratio of 250:1 with 82 samples, whereas the truncated mean approach (lowest 70% of samples) requires 100 samples. (UK)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Coretti, C.; Ferrari, V.
1986-01-01
In this paper the limits of applicability of the semi-relativistic approximation for estimating the radiation emitted in processes of capture of particles by black holes are discussed. It is shown that it gives reliable estimates in the case of spherically symmetric black holes, but it fails in the case of rotating black holes
Suppression of tunneling by interference in half-integer--spin particles
Loss, Daniel; DiVincenzo, David P.; Grinstein, G.
1992-01-01
Within a wide class of ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic systems, quantum tunneling of magnetization direction is spin-parity dependent: it vanishes for magnetic particles with half-integer spin, but is allowed for integer spin. A coherent-state path integral calculation shows that this topological effect results from interference between tunneling paths.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kapshay, V.N.; Skachkov, N.B.
1979-01-01
A composite system of two relativistic particles is studied on the basis of the Kadyshevsky quasipotential equation, in which the ''Coulomb'' potential is taken in the form of a propagator of the massless-scalar-particle exchange. The obtained exact solutions to this equation are shown to be a geometrical generalization of nonrelativistic Coulomb wave functions in the sense of change of the Euclidean geometry of momentum space to the Lobachevsky geometry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ebrahim, N.A.; Douglas, S.R.
1992-03-01
Electron acceleration by relativistic large-amplitude electron plasma waves is studied by theory and particle simulations. The maximum acceleration that can be obtained from this process depends on many different factors. This report presents a study of how these various factors impact on the acceleration mechanism. Although particular reference is made to the laser plasma beatwave concept, the study is equally relevant to the acceleration of particles in the plasma wakefield accelerator and the laser wakefield accelerator
Relativistic description of quark-antiquark bound states. II. Spin-dependent treatment
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gara, A.; Durand, B.; Durand, L.
1990-01-01
We present the results of a study of light- and heavy-quark--antiquark bound states in the context of the reduced Bethe-Salpeter equation, including the full spin dependence. We obtain good fits to the observed spin splittings in the b bar b and c bar c systems using a short-distance single-gluon-exchange interaction, and a long-distance scalar confining interaction. However, we cannot obtain satisfactory fits to the centers of gravity of the b bar b and c bar c spin multiplets at the same time, and the splittings calculated for q bar Q mesons containing the lighter quarks are very poor. The difficulty appears to be intrinsic to the reduced Salpeter equation for reasons which we discuss
Relativistic description of quark-antiquark bound states. Spin-independent treatment
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gara, A.; Durand, B.; Durand, L.; Nickisch, L.J.
1989-01-01
We present the results of a detailed study of light- and heavy-quark--antiquark bound states in the context of the reduced Bethe-Salpeter equation with static vector and scalar interactions. In the present paper, we consider the spin-averaged spectra. Spin effects are considered in a separate paper. We find that this approach, although apparently successful for the heavy-quark b bar b and c bar c states, fails for the s bar s, l bar l, and light-heavy states. The reasons for the failure are intrinsic to the method, as we discuss. Difficulties are already evident for the c bar c states
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kulish, Yu.V.; Rybachuk, E.V.
2007-01-01
The currents for the interaction of the massive high-spin boson (J≥1) with two spinless particles are derived. These currents obey the theorem on currents and fields as well as the theorem on current asymptotics. In one-loop approximation the contributions of high-spin boson to the self-energy operator for a spinless particle are calculated. It is shown that in one loop approximation the high-spin boson contributions for any spin J and mass lead to finite self-energy operators of spinless-particle
Time Operator in Relativistic Quantum Mechanics
Khorasani, Sina
2017-07-01
It is first shown that the Dirac’s equation in a relativistic frame could be modified to allow discrete time, in agreement to a recently published upper bound. Next, an exact self-adjoint 4 × 4 relativistic time operator for spin-1/2 particles is found and the time eigenstates for the non-relativistic case are obtained and discussed. Results confirm the quantum mechanical speculation that particles can indeed occupy negative energy levels with vanishingly small but non-zero probablity, contrary to the general expectation from classical physics. Hence, Wolfgang Pauli’s objection regarding the existence of a self-adjoint time operator is fully resolved. It is shown that using the time operator, a bosonic field referred here to as energons may be created, whose number state representations in non-relativistic momentum space can be explicitly found.
Behaviour of a neutral particle with spin in an axial magnetic field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sorokin, S.V.; Ehpp, V.Ya.
1982-01-01
Proceeding from the Tamm-Good equation taking into account the spin influence on motion trajectory, the neutral particle motion tracjectory and vector turn of spin polarizition in axial magnetic field have been found. The behaviour of a neutral particle possessing its own magnetic moment in an axially-symmetric stationary magnetic field is considered
The spin predictions of the relativistic quark model for baryon decuplet production
Montvay, István
1973-01-01
Single-quark scattering contributions are considered in the case of ground-state decuplet baryon production. It is shown within the framework of an explicitly covariant approach that the spin consequences of the quark additivity assumption hold in the t-channel helicity frame independently of much of the details of the model. (12 refs).
Relativistic alpha-particles emitted in Fe-emulsion interactions at 1.7 A GeV
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bhalla, K.B.; Chaudhry, M.; Lokanathan, S.; Grover, R.K.; Daftari, I.K.; Mangotra, L.L.; Rao, N.K.; Garpman, S.; Otterlund, I.
1981-02-01
Relativistic α-particles have been studied in 423 Fe-emulsion interactions at 1.7 A Gev. Comparisons of the observed angular distribution with that from 16 O-emulsion reactions at 2.1 A GeV reveal that more α particles are observed at large angles in the Fe-emulsion reactions. The α particles with large angles connot be explained by fragmentation from a clean cut spectator. Comparison of the experimental data with moving relativistic Boltzmann distributions shows that a single Boltzmann distribution cannot fit the fragmentation peak and the tail simultaneously. A thermal source (fireball) explaining the tail part of the distribution need to be formed by a mechanism other than simple clean cut participant-spectator picture. A large transverse momentum transfer to spectator before fragmentation may explain the tail. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Colavita, E.; Hacyan, S.
2014-01-01
We analyze the solutions of the Klein–Gordon and Dirac equations describing a charged particle in an electromagnetic plane wave combined with a magnetic field parallel to the direction of propagation of the wave. It is shown that the Klein–Gordon equation admits coherent states as solutions, while the corresponding solutions of the Dirac equation are superpositions of coherent and displaced-number states. Particular attention is paid to the resonant case in which the motion of the particle is unbounded. -- Highlights: •We study a relativistic electron in a particular electromagnetic field configuration. •New exact solutions of the Klein–Gordon and Dirac equations are obtained. •Coherent and displaced number states can describe a relativistic particle
Supersymmetries and constants of motion in spinning spaces
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Visinescu, Mihai
1999-01-01
The models of relativistic particles with spin have been proposed for a long time. The first published work concerning the Lagrangian description of the relativistic particle with spin was the paper by Frenkel which appeared in 1926. After that the literature on the particle with spin grew vast. The models involving only conventional coordinates are called the classical models while the models involving anticommuting (Grassmann) coordinates are generally called pseudo-classical. We shall confine ourselves to discuss the relativistic spin one half particle models involving anticommuting vectorial degrees of freedom which are usually called spinning particles. Spinning particles are in some sense the classical limit of the Dirac particles. After the first quantization these new anticommuting variables are mapped into the Dirac matrices and they disappear from the theory. We investigate the motion of pseudo-classical spinning point particles in curved spaces. The generalized Killing equations for the configuration space of spinning particles (spinning space) are analyzed and the solutions are expressed in terms of Killing-Yano tensors. The general results are applied to the case of the four-dimensional Euclidean Taub-NUT spinning space. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ikhdair, Sameer M.; Hamzavi, Majid
2013-01-01
Approximate analytical solutions of the Dirac equation for Tietz—Hua (TH) potential including Coulomb-like tensor (CLT) potential with arbitrary spin—orbit quantum number κ are obtained within the Pekeris approximation scheme to deal with the spin—orbit coupling terms κ(κ ± 1)r −2 . Under the exact spin and pseudospin symmetric limitation, bound state energy eigenvalues and associated unnormalized two-component wave functions of the Dirac particle in the field of both attractive and repulsive TH potential with tensor potential are found using the parametric Nikiforov—Uvarov (NU) method. The cases of the Morse oscillator with tensor potential, the generalized Morse oscillator with tensor potential, and the non-relativistic limits have been investigated. (general)
A study on the effects of relativistic heavy charged particles on the cellular microenvironment
Costes, Sylvain Vincent
This study was done under the National Aeronautics Space Administration (NASA) effort to assess the effect of cosmic radiation on astronauts during a 3 year mission to Mars. Carcinogenesis is known to be induced more efficiently by cosmic radiation. Our attention was turned towards one of the most efficient cosmic particles in inducing cancer, relativistic Fe, and focused in assessing its effect on the cellular microenvironment (ECM). Previous observations on mammary glands were showing irregularities in the immunoreactivity of the ECM protein laminin one hour after whole body irradiation with 1GeV/amu Fe ions for a dose of 0.8 Gy. This effect was not observed after 5 Gy γ-rays exposure. The rapidity of such a change suggested that the effect might be due to a physical event specific to relativistic charged particles (HZE), rather than a biological event. Our study showed that this effect is actually a complex and rapid response of the microenvironment to highly ionizing radiation. It involves a fast disruption of the basement membrane of the ECM induced by the highly localized ionization and reactive oxygen formation around the track of the Fe ion. This disruption triggers further chemical and biological responses involved in the remodeling of the laminin network in the basement membrane. A metalloproteinase is suspected to be the intermediate protease affecting laminin. The HZE effect on the microenvironment was seen in both mouse mammary glands and skin, but the laminin isoforms sensitive to Fe ions were different for each organ, with a clear disruption of laminin-1 network in skin and of laminin-5 in mammary glands. In addition, the laminin receptor integrins seem to be involved in this mechanism, but its contribution is unclear at this point. Finally, such studies suggest a shift from the concept of relative biological effectiveness (RBE) used in classical radiation biology since the effect is only seen with HZE at viable whole body doses. In addition, this
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Morales Villasevil, A
1965-07-01
A method is introduced ta deal with relativistic quantum field theory for particles with m=0. Two mappings I and J, giving rise respectively to particle and anti particle states, are defined between a test space and the physical Hilbert space. The intrinsic field operator is then defined as the minimal causal linear combinations of operators belonging to the annihilation-creation algebra associated to the germ and antigerm parts of the element. Local elements are introduced as improper test elements and local field operators are constructed in the same way as the intrinsic ones. Commutation rules are given. (Author) 17 refs.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Oliveira, Diego F.M., E-mail: diegofregolente@gmail.com [Institute for Multiscale Simulations, Friedrich-Alexander Universität, D-91052, Erlangen (Germany); Leonel, Edson D., E-mail: edleonel@rc.unesp.br [Departamento de Estatística, Matemática Aplicada e Computação, UNESP, Univ. Estadual Paulista, Av. 24A, 1515, Bela Vista, 13506-900, Rio Claro, SP (Brazil); Departamento de Física, UNESP, Univ. Estadual Paulista, Av. 24A, 1515, 13506-900, Rio Claro, SP (Brazil)
2012-11-01
We study some dynamical properties for the problem of a charged particle in an electric field considering both the low velocity and relativistic cases. The dynamics for both approaches is described in terms of a two-dimensional and nonlinear mapping. The structure of the phase spaces is mixed and we introduce a hole in the chaotic sea to let the particles to escape. By changing the size of the hole we show that the survival probability decays exponentially for both cases. Additionally, we show for the relativistic dynamics, that the introduction of dissipation changes the mixed phase space and attractors appear. We study the parameter space by using the Lyapunov exponent and the average energy over the orbit and show that the system has a very rich structure with infinite family of self-similar shrimp shaped embedded in a chaotic region.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bast, Radovan; Jensen, Hans Jørgen Aagaard; Saue, Trond
2009-01-01
into reduction of algebra from quaternion to complex or real. For hybrid GGAs with noncollinear spin magnetization we derive a new computationally advantageous equation for the full second variational derivatives of such exchange-correlation functionals. We apply our implementation to calculations on the ns2...... → ns1np1 excitation energies in the Zn, Cd, and Hg atoms (n = 4-6) and (vertical) excitation energies of UO2+ 2 ; and we test the performance of various functionals by comparison with experimental data (group 12 atoms) or higher-level computational results (UO2+2 ). The results indicate...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bogatin, V.I.; Ganza, E.A.; Lozhkin, O.V.; Murin, Yu.A.; Oplavin, V.S.; Perfilov, N.A.; Yakovlev, Yu.P.
1981-01-01
An experimental investigation of inclusive characteristics of nuclei-target fragmentation is conducted for further development and test of physical value of the earlier suggested nuclear fragmentation model based on the connection of the fragmentation with fluctuations of the quasiparticle density in the two-component quantum liquid, an experimental investigation of the inclusive characteristics of the nuclei-target fragmentation is carried out. The processes of sup(3, 4, 6, 8)He and sup(6, 7, 8, 9, 11)Li fragment formation during the interaction of relativistic protons (Esub(p)=6.7 GeV) and deutrons (Esub(d)=3.1 GeV) with 112 Sn and 124 Sn isotopes are studied by the method of semiconductive ΔE-E detectors. Differential energy spectra of fragments and isotopic ratio of cross sections of their formation as well as data on the dependence of isotopic ratios of fragmentation cross sections on the energy of incident particles and on the fragment energy are obtained. Presented is a phenomenological model of fragmentation within the frames of which the obtained experimental data are analyzed [ru
Relativistic theory of particles in a scattering flow III: photon transport.
Achterberg, A.; Norman, C. A.
2018-06-01
We use the theory developed in Achterberg & Norman (2018a) and Achterberg & Norman (2018b) to calculate the stress due to photons that are scattered elastically by a relativistic flow. We show that the energy-momentum tensor of the radiation takes the form proposed by Eckart (1940). In particular we show that no terms associated with a bulk viscosity appear if one makes the diffusion approximation for radiation transport and treats the radiation as a separate fluid. We find only shear (dynamic) viscosity terms and heat flow terms in our expression for the energy-momentum tensor. This conclusion holds quite generally for different forms of scattering: Krook-type integral scattering, diffusive (Fokker-Planck) scattering and Thomson scattering. We also derive the transport equation in the diffusion approximation that shows the effects of the flow on the photon gas in the form of a combination of adiabatic heating and an irreversible heating term. We find no diffusive changes to the comoving number density and energy density of the scattered photons, in contrast with some published results in Radiation Hydrodynamics. It is demonstrated that these diffusive corrections to the number- and energy density of the photons are in fact higher-order terms that can (and should) be neglected in the diffusion approximation. Our approach eliminates these terms at the root of the expansion that yields the anisotropic terms in the phase-space density of particles and photons, the terms responsible for the photon viscosity.
Relativistic resonances as non-orthogonal states in Hilbert space
Blum, W
2003-01-01
We analyze the energy-momentum properties of relativistic short-lived particles with the result that they are characterized by two 4-vectors: in addition to the familiar energy-momentum vector (timelike) there is an energy-momentum 'spread vector' (spacelike). The wave functions in space and time for unstable particles are constructed. For the relativistic properties of unstable states we refer to Wigner's method of Poincare group representations that are induced by representations of the space-time translation and rotation groups. If stable particles, unstable particles and resonances are treated as elementary objects that are not fundamentally different one has to take into account that they will not generally be orthogonal to each other in their state space. The scalar product between a stable and an unstable state with otherwise identical properties is calculated in a particular Lorentz frame. The spin of an unstable particle is not infinitely sharp but has a 'spin spread' giving rise to 'spin neighbors'....
López-Quelle, M.; Marcos, S.; Niembro, R.; Savushkin, L. N.
2018-03-01
Within a nonlinear relativistic Hartree-Fock approximation combined with the BCS method, we study the effect of the nucleon-nucleon tensor force of the π-exchange potential on the spin- and pseudospin-orbit doublets along the Ca and Sn isotopic chains. We show how the self-consistent tensor force effect modifies the splitting of both kinds of doublets in an interdependent form, leading, quite generally, to opposite effects in the accomplishment of the spin and pseudospin symmetries (the one is restored, the other one deteriorates and vice versa). The ordering of the single-particle energy levels is crucial to this respect. Also, we observe a mutual dependence on the evolution of the shell closure gap Z = 50 and the energy band outside the core, along the Sn chain, as due to the tensor force. In fact, when the shell gap is quenched the outside energy band is enlarged, and vice versa. A reduction of the strength of the pion tensor force with respect to its experimental value from the nucleon-nucleon scattering is needed to get results closer to the experiment. Pairing correlations act to some extent in the opposite direction of the tensor term of the one-pion-exchange force.
Massive spin-two particle in a gravitational field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tauber, G.
1980-01-01
The spin-two particle is described by a symmetric tensor hsub(μupsilon) subject to the subsidiary conditions hsub(α)sup(α) deltasub(α)hsup(αβ) = O. Their covariant generalization and the 'wave equation' have been obtained directly from the Eulerian variational equations by algebraic methods only. In addition to the tensor field hsub(μupsilon) a symmetric third-rank tensor suplambda)GAMMAsub(μupsilon) sup(lambda)GAMMAsub(upsilonμ) as well as a vector field Asub(μ) have been added, neither of which enter in the final result. The Lagrangian function is taken as a linear sum of all combinations which can be constructed from these functions, as well as terms involving the curvature and its two possible contractions. Variation with respect to hsup(μupsilon), sup(lambda)GAMMAsub(μupsilon) and Asub(μ) independently gives the Euler equations. Combining the various trace equations and choice of arbitrary constants yields the subsidiary conditions, while the Euler equations themselves give the connection between the auxiliary functions and the tensor hsub(μupsilon) Finally, variation with respect to gsup(μupsilon) yields the energy-momentum tensor. (author)
Relativistic three-particle dynamical equations: II. Application to the trinucleon system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Adhikari, S.K.; Tomio, L.
1993-11-01
The contribution of relativistic dynamics on the neutron-deuteron scattering length and triton binding energy is calculated employing five sets tri nucleon potential models and four types of three-dimensional relativistic three-body equations suggested in the preceding paper. The relativistic correction to binding energy may vary a lot and even change sign depending on the relativistic formulation employed. The deviations of these observables from those obtained in nonrelativistic models follow the general universal trend of deviations introduced by off- and on-shell variations of two- and three-nucleon potentials in a nonrelativistic model calculation. Consequently, it will be difficult to separate unambiguously the effect of off-and on-shell variations of two and three-nucleon potentials on low-energy three-nucleon observables from the effect of relativistic dynamics. (author)
Violation of local realism by a system with N spin-(1/2) particles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wu, Xiao-Hua; Zong, Hong-Shi
2003-01-01
Recently, it was found that Mermin's inequalities may not always be optimal for the refutation of a local realistic description [Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 210402 (2002)]. To complete this work, we derive an inequality for the Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger-type pure state for a system with N spin-(1/2) particles and the violation of the inequality can be shown for all the non product pure states. Mermin's inequality for a system of N spin-(1/2) particles and Gisin's theorem for a system of two spin-(1/2) particles are both included in our inequality
On the particle excitations in the XXZ spin chain
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ovchinnikov, A.A., E-mail: ovch@ms2.inr.ac.ru
2013-12-09
We continue to study the excited states for the XXZ spin chain corresponding to the complex roots of the Bethe Ansatz equations with the imaginary part equal to π/2. We propose the particle–hole symmetry which relates the eigenstates build up from the two different pseudovacuum states. We find the XXX spin chain limit for the eigenstates with the complex roots. We also comment on the low-energy excited states for the XXZ spin chain.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sokolov, S.N.
1977-01-01
The point, instant and front forms of the relativistic Hamiltonian theory are shown to be S-matrix equivalent in the general case (of many channels and particles with spin). The corresponding transformations are found. The problem of relativistic addition of the direct interactions is solved for the front and instant forms of dynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yuan, Luke C.L.; Chen, C.P.; Huang, C.Y.; Lee, S.C.; Waysand, G.; Perrier, P.; Limagne, D.; Jeudy, V.; Girard, T.
2000-01-01
A novel transition radiation detector (TRD) utilizing superheated superconducting microspheres of tin of 22-26, 27-32 and 32-38 μm in diameter, respectively, has been constructed which is capable of measuring accurately the energy of relativistic high-energy charged particles. The test has been conducted in a high-energy electron beam facility at the CERN PS in the energy range of 1-10 GeV showing an energy dependence of the TR X-ray photon produced and hence the value γ=E/mc 2 of the charged particle
Relativistic Quantum Mechanics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Antoine, J-P
2004-01-01
The aim of relativistic quantum mechanics is to describe the finer details of the structure of atoms and molecules, where relativistic effects become nonnegligible. It is a sort of intermediate realm, between the familiar nonrelativistic quantum mechanics and fully relativistic quantum field theory, and thus it lacks the simplicity and elegance of both. Yet it is a necessary tool, mostly for quantum chemists. Pilkuhn's book offers to this audience an up-to-date survey of these methods, which is quite welcome since most previous textbooks are at least ten years old. The point of view of the author is to start immediately in the relativistic domain, following the lead of Maxwell's equations rather than classical mechanics, and thus to treat the nonrelativistic version as an approximation. Thus Chapter 1 takes off from Maxwell's equations (in the noncovariant Coulomb gauge) and gradually derives the basic aspects of Quantum Mechanics in a rather pedestrian way (states and observables, Hilbert space, operators, quantum measurement, scattering,. Chapter 2 starts with the Lorentz transformations, then continues with the Pauli spin equation and the Dirac equation and some of their applications (notably the hydrogen atom). Chapter 3 is entitled 'Quantum fields and particles', but falls short of treating quantum field theory properly: only creation/annihilation operators are considered, for a particle in a box. The emphasis is on two-electron states (the Pauli principle, the Foldy--Wouthuysen elimination of small components of Dirac spinors, Breit projection operators. Chapter 4 is devoted to scattering theory and the description of relativistic bound states. Chapter 5, finally, covers hyperfine interactions and radiative corrections. As we said above, relativistic quantum mechanics is by nature limited in scope and rather inelegant and Pilkuhn's book is no exception. The notation is often heavy (mostly noncovariant) and the mathematical level rather low. The central topic
Benchmark tests and spin adaptation for the particle-particle random phase approximation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yang, Yang; Steinmann, Stephan N.; Peng, Degao [Department of Chemistry, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27708 (United States); Aggelen, Helen van, E-mail: Helen.VanAggelen@UGent.be [Department of Chemistry, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27708 (United States); Department of Inorganic and Physical Chemistry, Ghent University, 9000 Ghent (Belgium); Yang, Weitao, E-mail: Weitao.Yang@duke.edu [Department of Chemistry and Department of Physics, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27708 (United States)
2013-11-07
The particle-particle random phase approximation (pp-RPA) provides an approximation to the correlation energy in density functional theory via the adiabatic connection [H. van Aggelen, Y. Yang, and W. Yang, Phys. Rev. A 88, 030501 (2013)]. It has virtually no delocalization error nor static correlation error for single-bond systems. However, with its formal O(N{sup 6}) scaling, the pp-RPA is computationally expensive. In this paper, we implement a spin-separated and spin-adapted pp-RPA algorithm, which reduces the computational cost by a substantial factor. We then perform benchmark tests on the G2/97 enthalpies of formation database, DBH24 reaction barrier database, and four test sets for non-bonded interactions (HB6/04, CT7/04, DI6/04, and WI9/04). For the G2/97 database, the pp-RPA gives a significantly smaller mean absolute error (8.3 kcal/mol) than the direct particle-hole RPA (ph-RPA) (22.7 kcal/mol). Furthermore, the error in the pp-RPA is nearly constant with the number of atoms in a molecule, while the error in the ph-RPA increases. For chemical reactions involving typical organic closed-shell molecules, pp- and ph-RPA both give accurate reaction energies. Similarly, both RPAs perform well for reaction barriers and nonbonded interactions. These results suggest that the pp-RPA gives reliable energies in chemical applications. The adiabatic connection formalism based on pairing matrix fluctuation is therefore expected to lead to widely applicable and accurate density functionals.
General structure of a two-body operator for spin-(1/2) particles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ershov, S.N.
2004-01-01
A direct derivation of the operator structure for two spin-(1/2) particles is presented subject to invariance under basic symmetries and Galilean frame transformation. The partial wave decomposition for coefficient functions, valid on- and off-shell, is explicitly deduced. The momentum transfer representation and angular momentum decomposition for general spin-dependent potentials are obtained
Nuclear shape transitions and some properties of aligned-particle configurations at high spin
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Koo, T.L.; Chowdhury, P.; Emling, H.
1982-01-01
Two topics are addressed in this paper. First, we discuss the variation of shapes with spin and neutron number for nuclei in the N approx. = 88 transitional region. Second, we present comments on the feeding times of very high spin single-particle yrast states
Spin currents of charged Dirac particles in rotating coordinates
Dayi, Ö. F.; Yunt, E.
2018-03-01
The semiclassical Boltzmann transport equation of charged, massive fermions in a rotating frame of reference, in the presence of external electromagnetic fields is solved in the relaxation time approach to establish the distribution function up to linear order in the electric field in rotating coordinates, centrifugal force and the derivatives. The spin and spin current densities are calculated by means of this distribution function at zero temperature up to the first order. It is shown that the nonequilibrium part of the distribution function yields the spin Hall effect for fermions constrained to move in a plane perpendicular to the angular velocity and magnetic field. Moreover it yields an analogue of Ohm's law for spin currents whose resistivity depends on the external magnetic field and the angular velocity of the rotating frame. Spin current densities in three-dimensional systems are also established.
Covariant quantization of infinite spin particle models, and higher order gauge theories
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Edgren, Ludde; Marnelius, Robert
2006-01-01
Further properties of a recently proposed higher order infinite spin particle model are derived. Infinitely many classically equivalent but different Hamiltonian formulations are shown to exist. This leads to a condition of uniqueness in the quantization process. A consistent covariant quantization is shown to exist. Also a recently proposed supersymmetric version for half-odd integer spins is quantized. A general algorithm to derive gauge invariances of higher order Lagrangians is given and applied to the infinite spin particle model, and to a new higher order model for a spinning particle which is proposed here, as well as to a previously given higher order rigid particle model. The latter two models are also covariantly quantized
Particle production in high energy collisions and the non-relativistic quark model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Anisovich, V.V.; Nyiri, J.
1981-07-01
The present review deals with multiparticle production processes at high energies using ideas which originate in the non-relativistic quark model. Consequences of the approach are considered and they are compared with experimental data. (author)
Motion of spinning particles. Post-Newtonian approximation in the Einstein-Cartan theory
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Boccaletti, D; Agostini, W; Festa, P [Rome Univ. (Italy). Ist. di Matematica
1979-01-11
The equations of motion of spinning particles are obtained in the post-Newtonian approximation of the Einstein-Cartan theory. The starting point of the calculation is the Hehl combined equation and a semi-classical model is assumed for the system of spinning particles. Comparison is made with an analogous quantum result obtained in the context of Gupta quantization of the linearized Einstein theory.
Jankowska, Marzena; Kupka, Teobald; Stobiński, Leszek; Faber, Rasmus; Lacerda, Evanildo G; Sauer, Stephan P A
2016-02-05
Hartree-Fock and density functional theory with the hybrid B3LYP and general gradient KT2 exchange-correlation functionals were used for nonrelativistic and relativistic nuclear magnetic shielding calculations of helium, neon, argon, krypton, and xenon dimers and free atoms. Relativistic corrections were calculated with the scalar and spin-orbit zeroth-order regular approximation Hamiltonian in combination with the large Slater-type basis set QZ4P as well as with the four-component Dirac-Coulomb Hamiltonian using Dyall's acv4z basis sets. The relativistic corrections to the nuclear magnetic shieldings and chemical shifts are combined with nonrelativistic coupled cluster singles and doubles with noniterative triple excitations [CCSD(T)] calculations using the very large polarization-consistent basis sets aug-pcSseg-4 for He, Ne and Ar, aug-pcSseg-3 for Kr, and the AQZP basis set for Xe. For the dimers also, zero-point vibrational (ZPV) corrections are obtained at the CCSD(T) level with the same basis sets were added. Best estimates of the dimer chemical shifts are generated from these nuclear magnetic shieldings and the relative importance of electron correlation, ZPV, and relativistic corrections for the shieldings and chemical shifts is analyzed. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
López, Rodrigo A. [Departamento de Física, Facultad de Ciencias Físicas y Matemáticas, Universidad de Concepción, Concepción 4070386 (Chile); Muñoz, Víctor [Departamento de Física, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Chile, Casilla 653, Santiago (Chile); Viñas, Adolfo F. [Geospace Physics Laboratory, Heliophysics Science Division, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland 20771 (United States); Valdivia, Juan A. [Departamento de Física, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Chile, Casilla 653, Santiago (Chile); Centro para el Desarrollo de la Nanociencia y la Nanotecnología (CEDENNA), Santiago 9170124 (Chile)
2015-09-15
We use a particle-in-cell simulation to study the propagation of localized structures in a magnetized electron-positron plasma with relativistic finite temperature. We use as initial condition for the simulation an envelope soliton solution of the nonlinear Schrödinger equation, derived from the relativistic two fluid equations in the strongly magnetized limit. This envelope soliton turns out not to be a stable solution for the simulation and splits in two localized structures propagating in opposite directions. However, these two localized structures exhibit a soliton-like behavior, as they keep their profile after they collide with each other due to the periodic boundary conditions. We also observe the formation of localized structures in the evolution of a spatially uniform circularly polarized Alfvén wave. In both cases, the localized structures propagate with an amplitude independent velocity.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
López, Rodrigo A.; Muñoz, Víctor; Viñas, Adolfo F.; Valdivia, Juan A.
2015-01-01
We use a particle-in-cell simulation to study the propagation of localized structures in a magnetized electron-positron plasma with relativistic finite temperature. We use as initial condition for the simulation an envelope soliton solution of the nonlinear Schrödinger equation, derived from the relativistic two fluid equations in the strongly magnetized limit. This envelope soliton turns out not to be a stable solution for the simulation and splits in two localized structures propagating in opposite directions. However, these two localized structures exhibit a soliton-like behavior, as they keep their profile after they collide with each other due to the periodic boundary conditions. We also observe the formation of localized structures in the evolution of a spatially uniform circularly polarized Alfvén wave. In both cases, the localized structures propagate with an amplitude independent velocity
Hawking radiation of spin-1 particles from a three-dimensional rotating hairy black hole
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sakalli, I.; Ovgun, A., E-mail: ali.ovgun@emu.edu.tr [Eastern Mediterranean University Famagusta, North Cyprus, Department of Physics (Turkey)
2015-09-15
We study the Hawking radiation of spin-1 particles (so-called vector particles) from a three-dimensional rotating black hole with scalar hair using a Hamilton–Jacobi ansatz. Using the Proca equation in the WKB approximation, we obtain the tunneling spectrum of vector particles. We recover the standard Hawking temperature corresponding to the emission of these particles from a rotating black hole with scalar hair.
Relativistic classical limit of quantum theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shin, G.R.; Rafelski, J.
1993-01-01
We study the classical limit of the equal-time relativistic quantum transport theory. We discuss in qualitative terms the need to fold first the Wigner function with a coarse-graining function. Only then does the singularity at ℎ→0 seem to be manageable. In the limit ℎ→0, we obtain the relativistic Vlasov equations for the particle and the antiparticle sector of the Fock space. Similarly, we address the evolution equations of the spin and the magnetic-moment density
Lectures on relativistic quantum mechanics and path integration
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gunn, J.M.F.
1989-02-01
The question posed is why bother with relativistic quantum mechanics? Three reasons are given: First that there are many experimental phenomena which cannot be explained in non-relativistic terms. Secondly it would be unsatisfactory if relativity and quantum mechanics could not be united. Thirdly, there are theoretical reasons why new effects can be expected at relativistic velocities. The objectives of the course are to set up relativistic analogues of the Schroedinger equation and to understand their consequences. In doing so there are some questions which are raised and discussed such as can a first order equation be used to describe spin 0 particles and a second order equation be used to describe spin 1/ 2 (author)
Mišković, Zoran L.; Akbari, Kamran; Segui, Silvina; Gervasoni, Juana L.; Arista, Néstor R.
2018-05-01
We present a fully relativistic formulation for the energy loss rate of a charged particle moving parallel to a sheet containing two-dimensional electron gas, allowing that its in-plane polarization may be described by different longitudinal and transverse conductivities. We apply our formulation to the case of a doped graphene layer in the terahertz range of frequencies, where excitation of the Dirac plasmon polariton (DPP) in graphene plays a major role. By using the Drude model with zero damping we evaluate the energy loss rate due to excitation of the DPP, and show that the retardation effects are important when the incident particle speed and its distance from graphene both increase. Interestingly, the retarded energy loss rate obtained in this manner may be both larger and smaller than its non-retarded counterpart for different combinations of the particle speed and distance.
Investigation of the response of Lexan polycarbonate to relativistic ultra heavy nuclear particles
Keane, A J; O'Sullivan, D
1999-01-01
Recent investigations of the track response of Lexan to relativistic ultra heavy nuclei are reported. The inherent charge resolution of Lexan for relativistic ultra heavy nuclei under normal exposure conditions at accelerators has been investigated. The registration temperature effect was measured using gold (Z=79) at energies 2, 4 and 11 GeV/u covering a wide range of temperatures from -78 deg. C to +22 deg. C. In addition, the sensitivity of the track etch rate and the bulk etch rate to etch product concentration was re-examined.
Investigation of the response of Lexan polycarbonate to relativistic ultra heavy nuclear particles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Keane, A.J.; Thompson, A.; O'Sullivan, D.
1999-01-01
Recent investigations of the track response of Lexan to relativistic ultra heavy nuclei are reported. The inherent charge resolution of Lexan for relativistic ultra heavy nuclei under normal exposure conditions at accelerators has been investigated. The registration temperature effect was measured using gold (Z=79) at energies 2, 4 and 11 GeV/u covering a wide range of temperatures from -78 deg. C to +22 deg. C. In addition, the sensitivity of the track etch rate and the bulk etch rate to etch product concentration was re-examined
Number concentrations of solid particles from the spinning top aerosol generator
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mitchell, J.P.
1983-02-01
A spinning top aerosol generator has been used to generate monodisperse methylene blue particles in the size range from 0.6 to 6 μm. The number concentrations of these aerosols have been determined by means of an optical particle counter and compared with the equivalent measurements obtained by filter collection and microscopy. (author)
Studying Of Preparation Silver Nano-Particles Using Spinning Disc Reactor
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hoang Van Duc; Nguyen Thanh Chung; Tran Ngoc Ha; Ho Minh Quang; Nguyen Thi Thuc Phuong
2014-01-01
Preparation of silver nano-particles using spinning disc reactor has been investigated. The effects of technological factors and experimental conditions such as: concentrations of AgNO 3 , glucose, PVP, spinning speed, ect. on quality of nano-silver particles have been studied. With experimental conditions: rotation speed of 2000 rpm, weight rate of m PVP :m AgNO 3 = 1, AgNO 3 concentration of 0.01 M, glucose concentration of 0.02 M, silver particles of about 12 nm were obtained and the nano-silver solution were stable for more than 40 days. (author)
Equations of motion of test particles for solving the spin-dependent Boltzmann–Vlasov equation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Xia, Yin [Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Science, Beijing 100049 (China); Xu, Jun, E-mail: xujun@sinap.ac.cn [Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); Li, Bao-An [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Texas A& M University-Commerce, Commerce, TX 75429-3011 (United States); Department of Applied Physics, Xi' an Jiao Tong University, Xi' an 710049 (China); Shen, Wen-Qing [Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China)
2016-08-10
A consistent derivation of the equations of motion (EOMs) of test particles for solving the spin-dependent Boltzmann–Vlasov equation is presented. The resulting EOMs in phase space are similar to the canonical equations in Hamiltonian dynamics, and the EOM of spin is the same as that in the Heisenburg picture of quantum mechanics. Considering further the quantum nature of spin and choosing the direction of total angular momentum in heavy-ion reactions as a reference of measuring nucleon spin, the EOMs of spin-up and spin-down nucleons are given separately. The key elements affecting the spin dynamics in heavy-ion collisions are identified. The resulting EOMs provide a solid foundation for using the test-particle approach in studying spin dynamics in heavy-ion collisions at intermediate energies. Future comparisons of model simulations with experimental data will help to constrain the poorly known in-medium nucleon spin–orbit coupling relevant for understanding properties of rare isotopes and their astrophysical impacts.
Point form relativistic quantum mechanics and relativistic SU(6)
Klink, W. H.
1993-01-01
The point form is used as a framework for formulating a relativistic quantum mechanics, with the mass operator carrying the interactions of underlying constituents. A symplectic Lie algebra of mass operators is introduced from which a relativistic harmonic oscillator mass operator is formed. Mass splittings within the degenerate harmonic oscillator levels arise from relativistically invariant spin-spin, spin-orbit, and tensor mass operators. Internal flavor (and color) symmetries are introduced which make it possible to formulate a relativistic SU(6) model of baryons (and mesons). Careful attention is paid to the permutation symmetry properties of the hadronic wave functions, which are written as polynomials in Bargmann spaces.
Report of seminar on relativistic approach to nuclear reaction and nuclear structure
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1986-05-01
A seminar on 'Relativistic Approach to Nuclear Reaction and Nuclear Structure' was held in 1985 at Osaka University. This booklet includes twenty-four reports given at the seminar, which deal with: Conventional Nonrelativistic Description of Nuclear Matter and Nuclear Spin-Orbit Interactions; Relativistic Approach to Nuclear Structure; Atomic and Molecular Structure Calculations; Electromagnetic Interaction in Nucleus and Relativistic Effect; Nuclear Magnetic Moment in the Relativistic Mean Field Theory, Effective Mass and Particle-Vibration Coupling in the Relativistic σ-ω Model; Gauge Invariance in Relativistic Many-Body Theory; Relativistic Description of Nucleon-Nucleon Interaction in Review; σ-Particle in NN Interaction; Nuclear Optical Potentials Based on the Brueckner-Hartree-Fock Approach; Elastic Backscattering and Optical Potential; Description of Intermediate-Energy Nuclear Reactions; Dirac Phenomenology at E(p) = 65 MeV; Relativistic Impulse Approximation; Reaction Studies with Intermediate Energy Deuterons at SATURNE; Folding Model for Intermediate-Energy Deutron Scattering; Folding Model for Polarized Deutron Scattering at 700 MeV; Dirac Approach Problems and a Different Viewpoint; Relativistic Approach and EMC Effect; Quasielastic Electron Scattering; Response Function of Quasielastic Electron Scattering; Relativistic Hartree Response Function for Quasielastic Electron Scattering on 12 C and 40 Ca; Backflow-, Retardation- and Relativistic Effects on the Longitudinal Response Function of Nuclear Matter; Pion-Photoproduction in the σ-ω Model. (Nogami, K.)
Relativistic Treatment of Spinless Particles Subject to a Tietz-Wei Oscillator
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
孙国华; 董世海
2012-01-01
The bound state solutions of the relativistic Klein-Gordon equation with the Tietz-Wei diatomic molecular potential are presented for the s wave. It is shown that the solutions can be expressed by the generalized hypergeometric functions. The normalized wavefunctions are also derived.
The particle interpretation of N = 1 supersymmetric spin foams
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Baccetti, Valentina [Dipartimento di Fisica ' E. Amaldi' , Universita degli Studi Roma Tre, Via della Vasca Navale 84, 00146 Roma (Italy); Livine, Etera R [Laboratoire de Physique, ENS Lyon, CNRS UMR 5672, 46 Allee d' Italie, 69007 Lyon (France); Ryan, James P, E-mail: baccetti@neve.fis.uniroma3.i, E-mail: etera.livine@ens-lyon.f, E-mail: james.ryan@aei.mpg.d [MPI fuer Gravitationsphysik, Albert Einstein Institute, Am Muehlenberg 1, D-14476 Potsdam (Germany)
2010-11-21
We show that N = 1-supersymmetric BF theory in 3D leads to a supersymmetric spin foam amplitude via a lattice discretization. Furthermore, by analysing the supersymmetric quantum amplitudes, we show that they can be re-interpreted as 3D gravity coupled to embedded fermionic Feynman diagrams.
The particle interpretation of N = 1 supersymmetric spin foams
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Baccetti, Valentina; Livine, Etera R; Ryan, James P
2010-01-01
We show that N = 1-supersymmetric BF theory in 3D leads to a supersymmetric spin foam amplitude via a lattice discretization. Furthermore, by analysing the supersymmetric quantum amplitudes, we show that they can be re-interpreted as 3D gravity coupled to embedded fermionic Feynman diagrams.
Luciano, Rezzolla
2013-01-01
Relativistic hydrodynamics is a very successful theoretical framework to describe the dynamics of matter from scales as small as those of colliding elementary particles, up to the largest scales in the universe. This book provides an up-to-date, lively, and approachable introduction to the mathematical formalism, numerical techniques, and applications of relativistic hydrodynamics. The topic is typically covered either by very formal or by very phenomenological books, but is instead presented here in a form that will be appreciated both by students and researchers in the field. The topics covered in the book are the results of work carried out over the last 40 years, which can be found in rather technical research articles with dissimilar notations and styles. The book is not just a collection of scattered information, but a well-organized description of relativistic hydrodynamics, from the basic principles of statistical kinetic theory, down to the technical aspects of numerical methods devised for the solut...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rebhan, E.
2005-01-01
The present second volume treats quantum mechanics, relativistic quantum mechanics, the foundations of quantum-field and elementary-particle theory as well as thermodynamics and statistics. Both volumes comprehend all fields, which are usually offered in a course about theoretical physics. In all treated fields a very careful introduction to the basic natural laws forms the starting point, whereby it is thoroughly analysed, which of them is based on empirics, which is logically deducible, and which role play basic definitions. Extendingly the matter extend of the corresponding courses starting from the relativistic quantum theory an introduction to the elementary particles is developed. All problems are very thoroughly and such extensively studied, that each step is singularly reproducible. On motivation and good understandability is cared much about. The mixing of mathematical difficulties with problems of physical nature often obstructive in the learning is so circumvented, that important mathematical methods are presented in own chapters (for instance Hilbert spaces, Lie groups). By means of many examples and problems (for a large part with solutions) the matter worked out is deepened and exercised. Developments, which are indeed important, but seem for the first approach abandonable, are pursued in excurses. This book starts from courses, which the author has held at the Heinrich-Heine university in Duesseldorf, and was in many repetitions fitted to the requirements of the students. It is conceived in such a way, that it is also after the study suited as dictionary or for the regeneration
Hegelich, B. Manuel
2011-10-01
A steady increase of on-target laser intensity with also increasing pulse contrast is leading to light-matter interactions of extreme laser fields with matter in new physics regimes which in turn enable a host of applications. A first example is the realization of interactions in the transperent-overdense regime (TOR), which is reached by interacting a highly relativistic (a0 >10), ultra high contrast laser pulse [1] with a solid density target, turning it transparent to the laser by the relativistic mass increase of the electrons. Thus, the interactions becomes volumetric, increasing the energy coupling from laser to plasma, facilitating a range of effects, including relativistic optics and pulse shaping, mono-energetic electron acceleration [3], highly efficient ion acceleration in the break-out afterburner regime [4], and the generation of relativistic and forward directed surface harmonics. Experiments at the LANL 130TW Trident laser facility successfully reached the TOR, and show relativistic pulse shaping beyond the Fourier limit, the acceleration of mono-energetic ~40 MeV electron bunches from solid targets, forward directed coherent relativistic high harmonic generation >1 keV Break-Out Afterburner (BOA) ion acceleration of Carbon to >1 GeV and Protons to >100 MeV. Carbon ions were accelerated with a conversion efficiency of >10% for ions >20 MeV and monoenergetic carbon ions with an energy spread of ICF diagnostics over ion fast ignition to medical physics. Furthermore, TOR targets traverse a wide range of HEDP parameter space during the interaction ranging from WDM conditions (e.g. brown dwarfs) to energy densities of ~1011 J/cm3 at peak, then dropping back to the underdense but extremely hot parameter range of gamma-ray bursts. Whereas today this regime can only be accessed on very few dedicated facilities, employing special targets and pulse cleaning technology, the next generation of laser facilities will operate in this regime by default, turning its
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Almaliev, A.N.; Batkin, I.S.; Kopytin, I.V.
1987-01-01
The process of exciting atoms and atomic nuclei by relativistic electrons and positrons bound in a one-dimensional potential is investigated theoretically. It is shown that a pole corresponding to the emergence of a virtual photon on a bulk surface occurs in the matrix interaction element under definite kinematic relationships. It is obtained that the probability of the excitation process depends on the lifetime of the level being excited, the virtual photon, and the charged particle in a definite energetic state. An estimate of the magnitude of the excitation section of low-lying nuclear states yields a value exceeding by several orders the section obtained for charged particles in the absence of a binding potential
The relativistic electron wave equation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dirac, P.A.M.
1977-08-01
The paper was presented at the European Conference on Particle Physics held in Budapest between the 4th and 9th July of 1977. A short review is given on the birth of the relativistic electron wave equation. After Schroedinger has shown the equivalence of his wave mechanics and the matrix mechanics of Heisenberg, a general transformation theory was developed by the author. This theory required a relativistic wave equation linear in delta/delta t. As the Klein--Gordon equation available at this time did not satisfy this condition the development of a new equation became necessary. The equation which was found gave the value of the electron spin and magnetic moment automatically. (D.P.)
Relativistic Shock Acceleration
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Duffy, P.; Downes, T.P.; Gallant, Y.A.; Kirk, J.G.
1999-01-01
In this paper we briefly review the basic theory of shock waves in relativistic hydrodynamics and magneto-hydrodynamics, emphasising some astrophysically interesting cases. We then present an overview of the theory of particle acceleration at such shocks describing the methods used to calculate the spectral indices of energetic particles. Recent results on acceleration at ultra-relativistic shocks are discussed. (author)
The continuous cut-off method and the relativistic scattering of spin-1/2 particles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dolinszky, T.
1979-07-01
A high energy formula, obtained in the framework of the continuous cut-off approach, is shown to improve the correctness of the standard phase shift expression for Dirac scattering by two orders of magnitude in energy. (author)
On the description of classical Einstein relativistic two-particle systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Aaberge, T.
1978-01-01
The author starts by considering the system of one free particle, and gives a sufficiently general description of this system to include the center of mass of systems of several particles. He then passes to the system of two particles. The coordinates separating the center of mass and the internal system are defined and the dynamics discussed. Finally the author outlines the construction of a more restrictive two-particle theory, and studies some consequences of the definition of a particle in an external field as a two-particle system in the limit where the mass of one of the particles becomes infinite. (Auth.)
Spin-1 particles with light-front approach
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
de Melo J.P.B.C.
2014-06-01
Full Text Available For the vector sector, i.e, mesons with spin-1, the electromagnetic form factors and anothers observables are calculated with the light-front approach. However, the light-front quantum field theory have some problems, for example, the rotational symmetry breaking. We solve that problem added the zero modes contribuition to the matrix elements of the electromagnetic current, besides the valence contribuition. We found that among the four independent matrix elements of the plus component in the light-front helicity basis only the 0 → 0 one carries zero mode contributions.
The topological B model as a twisted spinning particle
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Marcus, Neil; Yankielowicz, Shimon
1994-01-01
The B-twisted topological sigma model coupled to topological gravity is supposed to be described by an ordinary field theory: a type of holomorphic Chern-Simons theory for the open string, and the Kodaira-Spencer theory for the closed string. We show that the B model can be represented as a particle theory, obtained by reducing the sigma model to one dimension, and replacing the coupling to topological gravity by a coupling to a twisted one-dimensional supergravity. The particle can be defined on any Kaehler manifold - it does not require the Calabi-Yau condition - so it may provide a more generalized setting for the B model than the topological sigma model.The one-loop partition function of the particle can be written in terms of the Ray-Singer torsion of the manifold, and agrees with that of the original B model. After showing how to deform the Kaehler and complex structures in the particle, we prove the independence of this partition function on the Kaehler structure, and investigate the origin of the holomorphic anomaly. To define other amplitudes, one needs to introduce interactions into the particle. The particle will then define a field theory, which may or may not be the Chern-Simons or Kodaira-Spencer theories. ((orig.))
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Paar, N.; Niksic, T.; Marketin, T.; Vretenar, D.; Ring, P.
2005-01-01
The excitation phenomena in unstable nuclei are investigated in the framework of the relativistic quasiparticle random-phase approximation (RQRPA) in the relativistic Hartree-Bogolyubov model (RHB) which is extended to include effective interactions with explicit density-dependent meson-nucleon couplings. The properties of the pygmy dipole resonance (PDR) are examined in 132 Sn and within isotopic chains, showing that already at moderate proton-neutron asymmetry the PDR peak energy is located above the neutron emission threshold. A method is suggested for determining the size of the neutron skin within an isotopic chain, based on the measurement of the excitation energies of the Gamow-Teller resonance relative to the isobaric analog state. In addition, for the first time the relativistic RHB+RQRPA model, with tensor ω meson-nucleon couplings, is employed in calculations of β-decay half-lives of nuclei of the relevance for the r-process. (orig.)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Paar, N. [Technische Universitaet Darmstadt, Institut fuer Kernphysik, Darmstadt (Germany); University of Zagreb, Physics Department, Faculty of Science (Croatia); University of Washington, Institute for Nuclear Theory, Seattle (United States); Niksic, T. [University of Zagreb, Physics Department, Faculty of Science (Croatia); University of Washington, Institute for Nuclear Theory, Seattle (United States); Marketin, T.; Vretenar, D. [University of Zagreb, Physics Department, Faculty of Science (Croatia); Ring, P. [Physik-Department der Technischen Universitaet Muenchen, Garching (Germany)
2005-09-01
The excitation phenomena in unstable nuclei are investigated in the framework of the relativistic quasiparticle random-phase approximation (RQRPA) in the relativistic Hartree-Bogolyubov model (RHB) which is extended to include effective interactions with explicit density-dependent meson-nucleon couplings. The properties of the pygmy dipole resonance (PDR) are examined in {sup 132}Sn and within isotopic chains, showing that already at moderate proton-neutron asymmetry the PDR peak energy is located above the neutron emission threshold. A method is suggested for determining the size of the neutron skin within an isotopic chain, based on the measurement of the excitation energies of the Gamow-Teller resonance relative to the isobaric analog state. In addition, for the first time the relativistic RHB+RQRPA model, with tensor {omega} meson-nucleon couplings, is employed in calculations of {beta}-decay half-lives of nuclei of the relevance for the r-process. (orig.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tanaka, M.; Sato, T.
1985-01-01
A new implicit macroscale electromagnetic particle simulation code (MARC) which allows a large scale length and a time step in multi-dimensions is described. Finite mass electrons and ions are used with relativistic version of the equation of motion. The electromagnetic fields are solved by using a complete set of Maxwell equations. For time integration of the field equations, a decentered (backward) finite differencing scheme is employed with the predictor - corrector method for small noise and super-stability. It is shown both in analytical and numerical ways that the present scheme efficiently suppresses high frequency electrostatic and electromagnetic waves in a plasma, and that it accurately reproduces low frequency waves such as ion acoustic waves, Alfven waves and fast magnetosonic waves. The present numerical scheme has currently been coded in three dimensions for application to a new tokamak current-drive method by means of relativistic electron beam injection. Some remarks of the proper macroscale code application is presented in this paper
A semi-relativistic treatment of spinless particles subject to the nuclear Woods-Saxon potential
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hamzavi, M.; Ikhdair, S.M.; Rajabi, A.A.
2013-01-01
By applying an appropriate Pekeris approximation to deal with the centrifugal term, we present an approximate systematic solution of the two-body spinless Salpeter (SS) equation with the Woods-Saxon interaction potential for an arbitrary l-state. The analytical semi-relativistic bound-state energy eigenvalues and the corresponding wave functions are calculated. Two special cases from our solution are studied: the approximated Schroedinger-Woods-Saxon problem for an arbitrary l-state and the exact s-wave (l=0). (authors)
A new frozen-spin target for 4π particle detection
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bradtke, Ch.; Dutz, H.; Peschel, H.; Goertz, S.; Harmsen, J.; Hasegawa, S.; Horikawa, N.; Iwata, T.; Kageya, T.; Matsuda, T.; Meier, A.; Meyer, W.; Radtke, E.; Reicherz, G.; Rohlof, Ch.; Thomas, A.; Wakai, A.
1999-01-01
A new frozen-spin target has been developed, that allows the detection of emitted particles in an angular acceptance of almost 4π in the laboratory frame. The central part of this new target represents a 3 He/ 4 He dilution refrigerator that is installed horizontally along the beam axis. The refrigerator includes an internal superconducting holding coil to maintain the nucleon polarization in the frozen-spin mode longitudinally to the beam. The design of the dilution refrigerator and the use of an internal holding coil enabled for the first time the measurement of a spin-dependent total cross section in combination with a polarized solid state target. This new frozen-spin target was used successfully to measure the helicity asymmetry of the total photoabsorption cross-section at the Mainz accelerator facility MAMI. This experiment has been performed in order to verify for the first time the GDH sum rule
A new frozen-spin target for 4 pi particle detection
Bradtke, C; Peschel, H; Görtz, S; Harmsen, J; Hasegawa, S; Horikawa, N; Iwata, T; Kageya, T; Matsuda, T; Meier, A; Meyer, Werner T; Radtke, E; Reicherz, G; Rohlof, C; Thomas, A; Wakai, A
1999-01-01
A new frozen-spin target has been developed, that allows the detection of emitted particles in an angular acceptance of almost 4 pi in the laboratory frame. The central part of this new target represents a sup 3 He/ sup 4 He dilution refrigerator that is installed horizontally along the beam axis. The refrigerator includes an internal superconducting holding coil to maintain the nucleon polarization in the frozen-spin mode longitudinally to the beam. The design of the dilution refrigerator and the use of an internal holding coil enabled for the first time the measurement of a spin-dependent total cross section in combination with a polarized solid state target. This new frozen-spin target was used successfully to measure the helicity asymmetry of the total photoabsorption cross-section at the Mainz accelerator facility MAMI. This experiment has been performed in order to verify for the first time the GDH sum rule.
Conveyor belt effect in the flow through a tube of a viscous fluid with spinning particles.
Felderhof, B U
2012-04-28
The extended Navier-Stokes equations describing the steady-state hydrodynamics of a viscous fluid with spinning particles are solved for flow through a circular cylindrical tube. The flow caused by an applied torque density in the azimuthal direction and linear in the radial distance from the axis is compared with the flow caused by a uniform applied force density directed along the axis of the tube. In both cases the flow velocity is of Poiseuille type plus a correction. In the first case the flow velocity is caused by the conveyor belt effect of spinning particles. The corrections to the Poiseuille flow pattern in the two cases differ only by a proportionality factor. The spin velocity profiles in the two cases are also proportional.
Master actions for massive spin-3 particles in D = 2 + 1
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Leite Mendonca, Elias; Dalmazi, Denis [UNESP, Campus de Guaratingueta, DFQ, Guaratingueta, SP (Brazil)
2016-04-15
We present here a relationship between massive self-dual models for spin-3 particles in D = 2 + 1 via the master action procedure. Starting with a first-order model (in the derivatives) S{sub SD(1)} we have constructed a master action which interpolates between a sequence of four self-dual models S{sub SD(i)} where i = 1, 2, 3, 4. By analyzing the particle content of the mixing terms, we give additional arguments that explain why it is apparently impossible to jump from the fourth-order model to a higher-order model. We have also analyzed similarities and differences between the fourth-order K-term in the spin-2 case and the analogous fourth-order term in the spin-3 context. (orig.)
On the Hamiltonian and Lagrangian formulation of classical dynamics for particles with spin
Ruijgrok, Th.W.; Vlist, H. van der
The classical mechanics of nonrelativistic particles is generalized by also considering the spin components as canonical variables. Poisson-brackets and canonical transformations are discussed. The Lagrangian equations of motion are given and it is shown how rotational invariance leads to well known
Effects of the particle spin polarisation on the unstable modes in the ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Hengameh Khanzadeh
2017-12-20
Dec 20, 2017 ... cross-section compared to the fusion interaction cross- section [10]. The impact of the particle spin polarisation on the electromagnetic instabilities present in the veloc- ity space depends on the electromagnetic instabilities. The basic theory will be introduced initially according to two different kinetic models ...
Dixon-Souriau equations from a 5-dimensional spinning particle in a Kaluza-Klein framework
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cianfrani, F.; Milillo, I.; Montani, G.
2007-01-01
The dimensional reduction of Papapetrou equations is performed in a 5-dimensional Kaluza-Klein background and Dixon-Souriau results for the motion of a charged spinning body are obtained. The splitting provides an electric dipole moment, and, for elementary particles, the induced parity and time-reversal violations are explained
Spin-lock MR enhances the detection sensitivity of superparamagnetic iron oxide particles
Moonen, R.P.M.; van der Tol, P.; Hectors, S.J.C.G.; Starmans, L.W.E.; Nicolaij, K.; Strijkers, G.J.
2015-01-01
Purpose To evaluate spin-lock MR for detecting superparamagnetic iron oxides and compare the detection sensitivity of quantitative T1ρ with T2 imaging. Methods In vitro experiments were performed to investigate the influence of iron oxide particle size and composition on T1ρ. These comprise T1ρ and
Spin-lock MR enhances the detection sensitivity of superparamagnetic iron oxide particles
Moonen, Rik P. M.; van der Tol, Pieternel; Hectors, Stefanie J. C. G.; Starmans, Lucas W. E.; Nicolay, Klaas; Strijkers, Gustav J.
2015-01-01
To evaluate spin-lock MR for detecting superparamagnetic iron oxides and compare the detection sensitivity of quantitative T1ρ with T2 imaging. In vitro experiments were performed to investigate the influence of iron oxide particle size and composition on T1ρ . These comprise T1ρ and T2 measurements
Polarization of spin-1 particles without an anomalous magnetic moment in a uniform magnetic field
Silenko, Alexander J.
2008-01-01
The polarization operator projections onto four directions remain unchanged for spin-1 particles without an anomalous magnetic moment in a uniform magnetic field. The approximate conservation of the polarization operator projections onto the horizontal axes of the cylindrical coordinate system takes place.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gudima, K.K.; Toneev, V.D.
1986-01-01
The connection between the fragment yield and the associated specific entropy of particles produced in the course of a relativistic heavy ion collision is studied within the cascade approach. The essential impact parameter dependence of the fragment yield indicates that the specific entropy increases with impact parameter and that the critical density of the system decay is the larger the more central the collision process is. The results show that the thermodynamical equilibrium limit for the entropy production is not reached for such heavy systems as Nb+Nb at 400 MeV/nucleon and that the finite size effects and the dynamical freeze-out process are dominant factors in determining the cluster yield
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Papp, J.
1975-05-01
The yields of positive and negative particles resulting from the collision of 1.05 GeV/nucleon and 2.1 GeV/nucleon protons, deuterons, alpha particles, and 1.05 GeV/nucleon carbon nuclei with various targets have been measured. Single particle inclusive cross sections for production of π + , π - , p, d, 3 H, 3 He, and 4 He at 2.5 0 (lab) were obtained. How the results bear on the concepts of limiting fragmentation and scaling, the structure of the alpha particle and deuteron, and the possibility of ''coherent'' production of pions by heavy ions are discussed. (U.S.)
The motion of a classical particle with spin
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Amorim, R.
1983-01-01
A set equations of motion for a classical charged point particle with magnetic moment is proposed. These equations are obtained from a self-consistent variational principle and avoid the unphysical helicoidal motions characteristic of the theories that satisfy the condition S sup(μν) u sub(ν) = 0. The theories that satisfy the condiction S sup(μν) p sub(ν) = 0 are unified with the present theory in a trivial way. (Author) [pt
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Arbuzov, B.A.; Shichanin, S.A.; Boos, V.I.; Savrin, V.I.
1990-01-01
In the paper the relativistic single-time equation is obtained describing electromagnetic interaction of two spinor charged particles in an arbitrary gauge. In the Feynman gauge it is show that there appear bound states embedded in the continuum, whose masses exactly coincide with the earlier calculated levels in the scalar model. These states can be related to the well-known narrow resonances discovered experimentally in e + e - and pp systems. In particular, the estimates of the resonance enhancement of the nucleosynthesis reaction of deuterium nuclei are presented. 19 refs
Deposition of Fungal Particles in the Lung of Workers in a Spin Factory (Minia City/ Egypt)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Moustafa, M.; Moustafa, M.; Hofmann, W.; Winkler-Heil, R.
2010-01-01
Elevated levels of particle air pollution have been associated with decreased lung function, increased respiratory symptoms such as cough, shortness of breath, wheezing and asthma attacks, as well as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), cardiovascular diseases and lung cancer (World Health Organisation, 2002). Recently, characterization of biological particles has become an important issue because of the related health effects of exposure to bio aerosols in the indoor environment influencing the intensity of sick building syndrome symptoms, such as nasal and pharyngeal mucous membrane irritations, skin dryness, itchy eyes, breathlessness, wheezing, headache, concentration problems or fatigue. Dust particles often act as a carrier for biological particles either naturally occurring or artificially generated. In cotton-spinning mills cotton dust is the major carrier for biological particles that contribute to such respiratory problems and its effect on pulmonary function among workers employed in the factory. Therefore, the aim of our study was to determine the deposition of bio aerosol particles in the human respiratory tract applying a stochastic lung model using the standard breathing parameters (ICRP, 1994) for light exercise activity. We use the size distribution parameters of bio aerosols from our previous experimental study in a cotton spin factory in Minya city (Egypt). It was found that the number of deposited particles in the lung is higher in the carding and blowing department (high cotton dust exposure) than the predicted value for the spinning department (low cotton dust exposure). The results also reveal significant dependence of fungal deposition in the lung on their composition (genera and species), concentration and size where the number of deposited Aspergillus niger particles is higher than that of the Penicillium particles in both departments
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Salesi, G.
1995-07-01
Starting from the Pauli current the decomposition of the non-relativistic local velocity has been obtained in two parts (in the ordinary tensorial language): one parallel and the other orthogonal to the impulse. The former is recognized to be the classical part, that is, the center-of-mass (CM) velocity, and the latter the quantum one, that is, the velocity of the motion in the CM frame (namely, the internal spin motion or Zitterbewegung). Inserting this complete, composite expression of the velocity into the kinetic energy term of the classical non-relativistic (i.e. Newtonian) Lagrangian, the author straightforwardly get the appearance of the so called quantum potential associates as it is known, to the Madelung fluid. In such a way, the quantum mechanical behaviour of particles appears to be strictly correlated to the existence of spin and Zitterbewegung
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gaida, R.P.; Kluchkousky, Ya.B.; Tretyak, V.I.
1987-01-01
In the present report the main attention is paid to the interrelations of various three-dimensional approaches and to the relation of the latter to the Fokker-type action formalism; the problem of the correspondence between three-dimensional descriptions and singular Lagrangian formalism will be shortly concerned. The authors start with the three-dimensional Lagrangian formulation of the classical RDIT. The generality of this formalism enables, similarly as in the non-relativistic case, to consider it as a central link explaining naturally a number of features of other three-dimensional approaches, namely Newtonian (based directly on second order equations of motion) and Hamiltonian ones). It is also capable of describing four-dimensional manifestly covariant models using Fokker action integrals and singular Lagrangians
Lagrangian dynamics of spinning particles and polarized media in general relativity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bailey, Ian.
1980-01-01
The dynamic laws governing spinning multipole test particles and polarized media with internal spin are derived from both variational principles and the multipole formalism of extended bodies. The general form of the Lagrangian equations of motion is derived for a spinning multipole particle in given external fields. The author then considers the dynamics of a continuous medium with internal spin and multipole structure. From a four-dimensional action integral the field equations relating to fields generated by the medium to its bulk properties are derived, together with the balance laws expressing conservation of total four-momentum and spin. A natural splitting of the total energy-momentum tensor into matter and field parts is adopted that leads to a generalized Minkowski electromagnetic energy tensor. In both the electromagnetic and the gravitational field equations the source terms contain polarization contributions. It is shown that the multipole formalism may be used to formulate the same equations of motion, balance laws and decomposition of total energy-momentum as those resulting from variational principles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mainland, G.B.
1988-01-01
Zero four-momentum, helicity eigenstates of the Bethe--Salpeter equation are found for a composite system consisting of a charged, spin-0 constituent and a charged, spin- 1/2 constituent bound by minimal electrodynamics. The form of the Bethe--Salpeter equation used to describe the bound state includes the contributions from both single photon exchange (ladder approximation) and the ''seagull'' diagram. Attention is restricted to zero orbital angular momentum states since these appear to be the most interesting physically
Resonance-sum model for Reggeization in the scattering of particles with arbitrary spin
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
King, M.J.; Durand, L.; Wali, K.C.
1976-01-01
Using a field-theoretic description of nonzero-spin particles, center-of-mass helicity amplitudes have been obtained which correspond to pole terms in four-particle reactions with arbitrary-spin external particles. Construction of a van Hove-Durand--type model starting from these helicity amplitudes (which have a well specified kinematic structure in the field-theoretic description) is discussed. Special attention has been paid to boson-fermion scattering. Straightforward Reggeization of helicity amplitudes assuming linear trajectories is known to produce parity doubling. One cannot have a pure fermion Regge pole unaccompanied by cuts. This conclusion has important consequences on both fitting data using Regge formulas in, say, backward scattering in boson-fermion scattering and theoretical considerations such as dual bootstrap models
Classical particles with spin in electromagnetic and gravitational fields
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Amorim, R.M. de.
1977-02-01
Following a review of several problems connected with classical particles with intrinsic angular momentum are reproduced the Frenkel equations (with the condition S sup(μν)U sub(ν)=0) by means of a holonomic variational principle, and have related them to Bargann, Michel and Tededgie equations. The treatment is then generalized to the case in wich S sup(μν)U sub(ν)=0 and the resulting equation coincide in the linearized limit with those obtained by Suttorp and de Groot. Also, by using variational principles, the generalizations to Frenkel equations are obtained, as well as to those of Suttorp and de Groot when electromagnetic and gravitational interactions are considered. Finally, those equations are analysed according to a scheme proposed by Oliveira and Tiommo where the gravitational interactions are described by gravielectric and gravimagnetic fields. The analogies in these equations of motion between the gravitational and eletromagnetic interactions, in the case in which the particle has a giromagnetic factor g=1, are shown. The last results complete a previous study by wald. (Author) [pt
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Alba, D.; Crater, H.W.; Lusanna, L.
2010-01-01
A complete exposition of the rest-frame instant form of dynamics for arbitrary isolated systems (particles, fields, strings, fluids) admitting a Lagrangian description is given. The starting point is the parametrized Minkowski theory describing the system in arbitrary admissible noninertial frames in Minkowski space-time, which allows one to define the energy-momentum tensor of the system and to show the independence of the description from the clock synchronization convention and from the choice of the 3-coordinates. The restriction to the inertial rest frame, centered on the inertial observer having the Fokker-Pryce center-of-inertia world-line, and the study of relativistic collective variables replacing the nonrelativistic center of mass lead to the description of the isolated system as a decoupled globally defined noncovariant canonical external center of mass carrying a pole-dipole structure (the invariant mass M and the rest spin S¯ of the system) and an external realization of the Poincare group. Mc and S¯ are the energy and angular momentum of a unfaithful internal realization of the Poincare group built with the energy-momentum tensor of the system and acting inside the instantaneous Wigner 3-spaces where all the 3-vectors are Wigner covariant. The vanishing of the internal 3-momentum and of the internal Lorentz boosts eliminate the internal 3-center of mass inside the Wigner 3-spaces, so that at the end the isolated system is described only by Wigner-covariant canonical internal relative variables. Then an isolated system of positive-energy charged scalar articles with mutual Coulomb interaction plus a transverse electromagnetic field in the radiation gauge is investigated as a classical background for defining relativistic atomic physics. The electric charges of the particles are Grassmann-valued to regularize the self-energies. The external and internal realizations of the Poincare algebra in the rest-frame instant form of dynamics are found. This
Proposed procedure for experimental determination of the spin-parity of the new particle X(3410)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chao, P; Tseng, T; Chou, C
1977-01-01
A procedure is proposed for the experimental determination of the spin-parity of the new particle X(3410). It consists of choosing the events representing the radiative decay psi ..-->.. X(3410) + ..gamma.. from the psi-production experiment at ..sqrt..s = 6.84 GeV, and measuring the angular distribution of the ..gamma.. photon produced in the process, and also the energy distribution of two pseudo-scalar mesons from the subsequent decay of X. The result of calculation shows that the spin-parity of X(3410) can be determined with certainty and good sensitivity.
The motion of a classical spinning point particle in a Riemann-Cartan space-time
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Amorim, R.
1983-01-01
A consistent set of equations of motion for classical charged point particles with spin and magnetic dipole moment in a Riemann-Cartan space-time is generated from a generalized Lagrangean formalism. The equations avoid the spurius free helicoidal solutions and at the same time conserve the canonical condition of normalization of the 4-velocity. The 4-velocity and the mechanical moment are paralell in this theory, where the condition of orthogonality between the spin and the 4-velocity is treated as a non-holonomic one. (Author) [pt
Lorentz transformations, sideways shift and massless spinning particles
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bolonek-Lasoń, K. [Department of Statistical Methods, Faculty of Economics and Sociology (Poland); Kosiński, P. [Department of Computer Science, Faculty of Physics and Applied Informatics, University of Łódź, Pomorska 149/153, 90-236 Łódź (Poland); Maślanka, P., E-mail: pmaslan@uni.lodz.pl [Department of Computer Science, Faculty of Physics and Applied Informatics, University of Łódź, Pomorska 149/153, 90-236 Łódź (Poland)
2017-06-10
Recently (Stone et al. (2015) ) the influence of the so called “Wigner translations” (more generally-Lorentz transformations) on circularly polarized Gaussian packets (providing the solution to Maxwell equations in paraxial approximation) has been studied. It appears that, within this approximation, the Wigner translations have an effect of shifting the wave packet trajectory parallel to itself by an amount proportional to the photon helicity. It has been suggested that this shift may result from specific properties of the algebra of Poincare generators for massless particles. In the present letter we describe the general relation between transformation properties of electromagnetic field on quantum and classical levels. It allows for a straightforward derivation of the helicity-dependent transformation rules. We present also an elementary derivation of the formula for sideways shift based on classical Maxwell theory. Some comments are made concerning the generalization to higher helicities and the relation to the coordinate operator defined long time ago by Pryce.
Lorentz transformations, sideways shift and massless spinning particles
Bolonek-Lasoń, K.; Kosiński, P.; Maślanka, P.
2017-06-01
Recently (Stone et al. (2015) [16]) the influence of the so called ;Wigner translations; (more generally-Lorentz transformations) on circularly polarized Gaussian packets (providing the solution to Maxwell equations in paraxial approximation) has been studied. It appears that, within this approximation, the Wigner translations have an effect of shifting the wave packet trajectory parallel to itself by an amount proportional to the photon helicity. It has been suggested that this shift may result from specific properties of the algebra of Poincare generators for massless particles. In the present letter we describe the general relation between transformation properties of electromagnetic field on quantum and classical levels. It allows for a straightforward derivation of the helicity-dependent transformation rules. We present also an elementary derivation of the formula for sideways shift based on classical Maxwell theory. Some comments are made concerning the generalization to higher helicities and the relation to the coordinate operator defined long time ago by Pryce.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Niksic, T.; Vretenar, D.; Ring, P.
2006-01-01
The framework of relativistic self-consistent mean-field models is extended to include correlations related to the restoration of broken symmetries and to fluctuations of collective variables. The generator coordinate method is used to perform configuration mixing of angular-momentum and particle-number projected relativistic wave functions. The geometry is restricted to axially symmetric shapes, and the intrinsic wave functions are generated from the solutions of the relativistic mean-field+Lipkin-Nogami BCS equations, with a constraint on the mass quadrupole moment. The model employs a relativistic point-coupling (contact) nucleon-nucleon effective interaction in the particle-hole channel, and a density-independent δ-interaction in the pairing channel. Illustrative calculations are performed for 24 Mg, 32 S, and 36 Ar, and compared with results obtained employing the model developed in the first part of this work, i.e., without particle-number projection, as well as with the corresponding nonrelativistic models based on Skyrme and Gogny effective interactions
Relativistic two-and three-particle scattering equations using instant and light-front dynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Adhikari, S.K.; Tomio, L.; Frederico, T.
1992-01-01
Starting from the Bethe-Salpeter equation for two particles in the ladder approximation and integrating over the time component of momentum we derive three dimensional scattering integral equations satisfying constraints of unitarity and relativity, both employing the light-front and instant-form variables. The equations we arrive at are those first derived by Weinberg and by Blankenbecler and Sugar, and are shown to be related by a transformation of variables. Hence we show how to perform and relate identical dynamical calculation using these two equations. We extends this procedure to the case of three particles interacting via two-particle separable potentials. Using light-front and instant form variables we suggest a couple of three dimensional three-particle scattering equations satisfying constraints of two and three-particle unitarity and relativity. The three-particle light-front equation is shown to be approximately related by a transformation of variables to one of the instant-form three-particle equations. (author)
When do particle ratios freeze out in relativistic heavy ion collisions?
Humanic, Thomas; Bellwied, Rene
1999-10-01
The systematics of CERN SPS data for transverse mass distributions have been shown to imply that thermal equilibrium is achieved at freeze out in these collisions. This conclusion is based on the observation that for p+p, S+S, and Pb+Pb collisions freeze out occurs at a single temperature for all particle species measured if one assumes a certain uniform expansion velocity after hadronization for each colliding system [1]. A recent final- state rescattering calculation for SPS Pb+Pb collisions has shown that these systematics can be described as a consequence of particle rescattering where the system is assumed initially (i.e. at hadronization) to have a common temperature for all particles and no initial expansion velocity [2]. In addition to kinetic observables, it is equally interesting to investigate the time dependence of particle abundances through particle ratios in such a calculation. Two questions immediately arise: 1) is chemical equilibrium established in these collisions, and 2) when does chemical freeze out occur with respect to thermal freeze out for different particle ratios? How rescattering influences particle ratios is clearly of interest if one would like to deduce information about the hadronization stage of the collision from particle ratios measured at freeze out. For the present work we will show results for strange and non-strange particle ratios within the context of a version of the dynamic transport code used in Ref. [2]. [1] NA44 colaboration, I.G. Bearden et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 78,2080(1997), [2] T. J. Humanic, Phys. Rev. C 57,866(1998)
Path integrals and pseudoclassical description for spinning particles in arbitrary dimensions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gitman, D.M. [Sao Paulo Univ. (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica
1997-03-17
The propagator of a spinning particle in an external Abelian field and in arbitrary dimensions is presented by means of a path integral. The problem has distinct solutions in even and odd dimensions. In even dimensions the representation is just a generalization of the one in four dimensions (which is already known). In this case the gauge invariant part of the effective action in the path integral has the form of the standard (Berezin-Marinov) pseudoclassical action. In odd dimensions the solution is presented for the first time and, in particular, it turns out that the gauge invariant part of the effective action differs from the standard one. We propose this new action as a candidate to describe spinning particles in odd dimensions. Studying the Hamiltonization of the pseudoclassical theory with the new action we show that the operator quantization leads to an adequate minimal quantum theory of spinning particles in odd dimensions. Finally the consideration is generalized for the case of a particle with an anomalous magnetic moment. (orig.).
Lorentz transformations, sideways shift and massless spinning particles
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
K. Bolonek-Lasoń
2017-06-01
Full Text Available Recently (Stone et al. (2015 [16] the influence of the so called “Wigner translations” (more generally-Lorentz transformations on circularly polarized Gaussian packets (providing the solution to Maxwell equations in paraxial approximation has been studied. It appears that, within this approximation, the Wigner translations have an effect of shifting the wave packet trajectory parallel to itself by an amount proportional to the photon helicity. It has been suggested that this shift may result from specific properties of the algebra of Poincare generators for massless particles. In the present letter we describe the general relation between transformation properties of electromagnetic field on quantum and classical levels. It allows for a straightforward derivation of the helicity-dependent transformation rules. We present also an elementary derivation of the formula for sideways shift based on classical Maxwell theory. Some comments are made concerning the generalization to higher helicities and the relation to the coordinate operator defined long time ago by Pryce.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Akhiezer, A.I.; Shul'ga, N.F.
1991-01-01
The process of relativistic particle radiation in an external field has been studied in the semi-classical approximation rather extensively. The main problem arising in the studies is in expressing the formula of the quantum theory of radiation in terms of classical quantities, for example of the classical trajectories. However, it still remains unclear how the particle trajectory is assigned, that is which particular initial or boundary conditions determine the trajectory in semi-classical approximation quantum theory of radiation. We shall try to solve this problem. Its importance comes from the fact that in some cases one and the same boundary conditions may give rise to two or more trajectories. We demonstrate that this fact must necessarily be taken into account on deriving the classical limit for the formulae of the quantum theory of radiation, since it leads to a specific interference effect in radiation. The method we used to deal with the problem is similar to the method employed by Fock to analyze the problem of a canonical transformation in classical and quantum mechanics. (author)
On the paramagnetism of spin in the classical limit
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hogreve, H.
1985-12-01
We consider particles with spin 1/2 in external electromagnetic fields. Although in many quantum mechanical situations they show a paramagnetic behaviour, within non-relativistic quantum theory a universal paramagnetic influence of spin fails to be true in general. Here we investigate the paramagnetism of spin in the framework of a classical theory. Applying previous results for the classical limit slash-h→O we obtain a classical expression corresponding to the quantum partition function of Hamiltonians with spin variables. For this classical partition function simple estimates lead to a paramagnetic inequality which demonstrates that indeed in the classical limit the spin shows a general paramagnetic behaviour. (author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Křístková, Anežka; Malkin, Vladimir G. [Institute of Inorganic Chemistry, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Dúbravská cesta 9, SK-84536 Bratislava (Slovakia); Komorovsky, Stanislav; Repisky, Michal [Centre for Theoretical and Computational Chemistry, University of Tromsø - The Arctic University of Norway, N-9037 Tromsø (Norway); Malkina, Olga L., E-mail: olga.malkin@savba.sk [Institute of Inorganic Chemistry, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Dúbravská cesta 9, SK-84536 Bratislava (Slovakia); Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Comenius University, Bratislava (Slovakia)
2015-03-21
In this work, we report on the development and implementation of a new scheme for efficient calculation of indirect nuclear spin-spin couplings in the framework of four-component matrix Dirac-Kohn-Sham approach termed matrix Dirac-Kohn-Sham restricted magnetic balance resolution of identity for J and K, which takes advantage of the previous restricted magnetic balance formalism and the density fitting approach for the rapid evaluation of density functional theory exchange-correlation response kernels. The new approach is aimed to speedup the bottleneck in the solution of the coupled perturbed equations: evaluation of the matrix elements of the kernel of the exchange-correlation potential. The performance of the new scheme has been tested on a representative set of indirect nuclear spin-spin couplings. The obtained results have been compared with the corresponding results of the reference method with traditional evaluation of the exchange-correlation kernel, i.e., without employing the fitted electron densities. Overall good agreement between both methods was observed, though the new approach tends to give values by about 4%-5% higher than the reference method. On the average, the solution of the coupled perturbed equations with the new scheme is about 8.5 times faster compared to the reference method.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Křístková, Anežka; Malkin, Vladimir G.; Komorovsky, Stanislav; Repisky, Michal; Malkina, Olga L.
2015-01-01
In this work, we report on the development and implementation of a new scheme for efficient calculation of indirect nuclear spin-spin couplings in the framework of four-component matrix Dirac-Kohn-Sham approach termed matrix Dirac-Kohn-Sham restricted magnetic balance resolution of identity for J and K, which takes advantage of the previous restricted magnetic balance formalism and the density fitting approach for the rapid evaluation of density functional theory exchange-correlation response kernels. The new approach is aimed to speedup the bottleneck in the solution of the coupled perturbed equations: evaluation of the matrix elements of the kernel of the exchange-correlation potential. The performance of the new scheme has been tested on a representative set of indirect nuclear spin-spin couplings. The obtained results have been compared with the corresponding results of the reference method with traditional evaluation of the exchange-correlation kernel, i.e., without employing the fitted electron densities. Overall good agreement between both methods was observed, though the new approach tends to give values by about 4%-5% higher than the reference method. On the average, the solution of the coupled perturbed equations with the new scheme is about 8.5 times faster compared to the reference method
Ponzano-Regge model revisited: I. Gauge fixing, observables and interacting spinning particles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Freidel, Laurent; Louapre, David
2004-01-01
We show how to properly gauge fix all the symmetries of the Ponzano-Regge model for 3D quantum gravity. This amounts to doing explicit finite computations for transition amplitudes. We give the construction of the transition amplitudes in the presence of interacting quantum spinning particles. We introduce a notion of operators whose expectation value gives rise to either gauge fixing, introduction of time, or insertion of particles, according to the choice. We give the link between the spin foam quantization and the Hamiltonian quantization. We finally show the link between the Ponzano-Regge model and the quantization of Chern-Simons theory based on the double quantum group of SU(2)
Charged particle spin flip in a storage ring with HF-electromagnetic field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Polunin, A.A.; Shatupov, Yu.M.
1982-01-01
An experiment for revealing a possibility of adiabatic electron spin flip in the VEPP-2M storage ring is described. High frequency longitudinal magnetic field up to 100 Gs at the length of 40 cm and frequency of 7.95 MHz was produced by a spiral of 10 coils supplied from HF-generator with 5 kW power. The control system permitted to vary generator frequency within +-3x10 - 3 f range during 10 - 3 -10 s. Determination of beam polarization degree was exercised by detection of electron elastic scattering inside the bunch. A possibility of changing the polarization sign at preservation of other beam parameters (dimensions, currents, energy, etc.) is of interest in experiments with polarized particles in storage rings. Spin flip can be exercised by effect on the beam of high frequency electromagnetic field, resonance with spin precession frequency around the leading field of the storage ring. The polarized 5 mA beam was produced due to radiation polarization at which electron spins are alinged along the direction of the magnetic field. Processing of the experimental results revealed good correspondence to analytical dependence. The depolarization value at the spin flip did not exceed 10%
The search for highly relativistic broken-charge particles in the cosmic radiation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Krisor, K.
1974-01-01
As an introduction, the quark model of the elementary particles and the present state of the quark search is gone into. The theory of the energy loss of charged particles in the passage through matter and the set-up of the experiment (proportional counter hodoscope, electronics, on-line computer and off-line analysis of the data) are dealt with in detail. The following upper limits are given with 90% confidence: charge 1/3e -11 cm -2 sr -1 s -1 charge 2/3e -11 cm -2 sr -1 s -1 for the flow of unaccompanied quarks at sea level. (BJ/LH) [de
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
BRIGGS, S.L.K.; MUSOLINO, S.V.
2001-01-01
In early 1997 Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) discovered that the spent fuel pool of their High Flux Beam Reactor was leaking tritium into the groundwater. Community members, activist groups, politicians and regulators were outraged with the poor environmental management practices at BNL. The reactor was shut down and the Department of Energy (DOE) terminated the contract with the existing Management Company. At this same time, a major new scientific facility, the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC), was nearing the end of construction and readying for commissioning. Although environmental considerations had been incorporated into the design of the facility; some interested parties were skeptical that this new facility would not cause significant environmental impacts. RHIC management recognized that the future of its operation was dependent on preventing pollution and allaying concerns of its stakeholders. Although never done at a DOE National Laboratory before Brookhaven Science Associates, the new management firm, committed to implementing an Environmental Management System (EMS) and RHIC managers volunteered to deploy it within their facility on an extremely aggressive schedule. Several of these IS0 requirements contribute directly to preventing pollution, an area where particular emphasis was placed. This paper describes how Brookhaven used the following key IS0 14001 elements to institutionalize Pollution Prevention concepts: Environmental Policy, Aspects, Objectives and Targets, Environmental Management Program, Structure and Responsibility, Operational Controls, Training, and Management Review. In addition, examples of implementation at the RHIC Project illustrate how BNL's premiere facility was able to demonstrate to interested parties that care had been taken to implement technological and administrative controls to minimize environmental impacts, while at the same time reduce the applicability of regulatory requirements to their operations
Quantum Gelfand-Levitan equations for nonlinear Schroedinger model of spin-1/2 particles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pu, F.; Zhao, B.
1984-01-01
The quantum Gelfand-Levitan equations for the nonlinear Schroedinger model of spin-(1/2) particles are obtained. Two Izergin-Korepin relations are used in the derivation. A new type commutation relation of L operators is introduced to get the commutation relations which are needed for the study of S matrices and Green's functions. As examples, the four-point Green's functions and the two-body S matrices are given
Berry phase for spin-1/2 particles moving in a space-time with torsion
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Alimohammadi, M.; Shariati, A.
2001-01-01
Berry phase for a spin-1/2 particle moving in a flat space-time with torsion is investigated in the context of the Einstein-Cartan-Dirac model. It is shown that if the torsion is due to a dense polarized background, then there is a Berry phase only if the fermion is massless and its momentum is perpendicular to the direction of the background polarization. The order of magnitude of this Berry phase is discussed in other theoretical frameworks. (orig.)
Berry phase for spin-1/2 particles moving in a space-time with torsion
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Alimohammadi, M. [Dept. of Physics, Tehran Univ. (Iran); Shariati, A. [Inst. for Advanced Studies in Basic Sciences, Zanjan (Iran); Inst. for Studies in Theoretical Physics and Mathematics, Tehran (Iran)
2001-06-01
Berry phase for a spin-1/2 particle moving in a flat space-time with torsion is investigated in the context of the Einstein-Cartan-Dirac model. It is shown that if the torsion is due to a dense polarized background, then there is a Berry phase only if the fermion is massless and its momentum is perpendicular to the direction of the background polarization. The order of magnitude of this Berry phase is discussed in other theoretical frameworks. (orig.)
Duffin-Kemmer formulation of spin one-half particle gauge theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Samiullah, M.; Mansour, H.M.M.
1981-02-01
We have gauge formulated the spin one-half particle equation in the Duffin-Kemmer formalism of Barut et al. The theory distinguishes between the left and the right chiral states and has a built in chirality. As an example the theory has been applied to the Weinberg Salam model reproducing all its essential features. In view of the built in chirality a lattice gauge version of such a theory is expected to be useful. (author)
Supersymmetries and constants of motion in Taub-NUT spinning space
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vaman, D.; Visinescu, M.
1998-01-01
Models of relativistic particles with spin have been proposed for a long time. The models involving only conventional coordinates are called classical, while the models involving anticommuting coordinates are generally called pseudo-classical. In this paper, the relativistic spin one half particle models involving anticommuting vectorial degrees of freedom, which are usually called the spinning particles, are considered. Spinning particles are in some sense the classical limit of the Dirac particles. After the first quantization these new anticommuting variables are mapped into the Dirac matrices and they disappear from the theory. In the present paper, the motion of pseudo-classical spinning particles in curved spaces is investigated and the relevant equations of motion are investigated. The generalized Killing equations for the configuration space of spinning particles (spinning spaces) are discussed and the constants of motion are derived in terms of the solutions of these equations. We also analysed the motion of pseudo-classical spinning particles in the Euclidean Taub-NUT space. The generalized Killing equations for this spinning space are examined and derivation of the constants of motion in terms of the Killing-Yano tensors is described. The equations obtained for the special case of motion on cone are solved. This case represents an extension of the scalar particle motions in the usual Taub-NUT space in which the orbits are conic sections. An explicit exact solution is given. In spite of its simplicity, this solution occurs to be far from trivial. (authors)
Electromagnetic spin–orbit interaction and giant spin-Hall effect in dielectric particle clusters
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Liu, Yineng [Department of Physics, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Zhang, Xiangdong, E-mail: zhangxd@bit.edu.cn [School of Physics and Beijing Key Laboratory of Nanophotonics and Ultrafine Optoelectronic Systems, Beijing Institute of Technology, 100081, Beijing (China)
2013-12-09
We report a phenomenon that electromagnetic spin–orbit interactions can be tailored by dielectric nanoparticles, and self-similar giant spin-Hall effect has been observed in the dielectric particle cluster. The near-field phase singularities and phase vorticity in the longitudinal component of scattered field can also be controlled by such a dielectric structure. The origin of phenomena is believed to be due to the collective resonance excitation in the dielectric particle cluster. It is expected to find applications in optics information processing and designing new nanophotonic devices.
Optimal control of two coupled spinning particles in the Euler–Lagrange picture
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Delgado-Téllez, M; Ibort, A; Peña, T Rodríguez de la; Salmoni, R
2016-01-01
A family of optimal control problems for a single and two coupled spinning particles in the Euler–Lagrange formalism is discussed. A characteristic of such problems is that the equations controlling the system are implicit and a reduction procedure to deal with them must be carried out. The reduction of the implicit control equations arising in these problems will be discussed in the slightly more general setting of implicit equations defined by invariant one-forms on Lie groups. As an example the first order differential equations describing the extremal solutions of an optimal control problem for a single spinning particle, obtained by using Pontryagin’s Maximum Principle (PMP), will be found and shown to be completely integrable. Then, again using PMP, solutions for the problem of two coupled spinning particles will be characterized as solutions of a system of coupled non-linear matrix differential equations. The reduction of the implicit system will show that the reduced space for them is the product of the space of states for the independent systems, implying the absence of ‘entanglement’ in this instance. Finally, it will be shown that, in the case of identical systems, the degree three matrix polynomial differential equations determined by the optimal feedback law, constitute a completely integrable Hamiltonian system and some of its solutions are described explicitly. (paper)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lorce, Cedric
2009-01-01
We revisit the old-standing problem of the electromagnetic interaction for particles of arbitrary spin. Based on the assumption that light-cone helicity at tree level and Q 2 =0 should be conserved nontrivially by the electromagnetic interaction, we are able to derive all the natural electromagnetic moments for a pointlike particle of any spin. We provide here a transparent decomposition of the electromagnetic current in terms of covariant vertex functions. We also define in a general way the electromagnetic multipole form factors, and show their relation with the electromagnetic moments and covariant vertex functions. The light-cone helicity conservation argument determines uniquely the values of all electromagnetic moments, which we refer to as the 'natural' ones. These specific values are in accordance with the standard model, and the prediction of universal g=2 gyromagnetic factor is naturally recovered. We provide a very simple and compact formula for these natural moments. As an application of our results, we generalize the discussion of quark transverse charge densities to particles with arbitrary spin, giving more physical support to the light-cone helicity conservation argument.
Collision dynamics and particle production in relativistic nucleus- nucleus collisions at CERN
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Harris, J.W.
1990-03-01
The possibility of forming a quark-gluon plasma is the primary motivation for studying nucleus-nucleus collisions at very high energies. Various ''signatures'' for the existence of a quark-gluon plasma in these collisions have been proposed. These include an enhancement in the production of strange particles, suppression of J/Ψ production, observation of direct photons from the plasma, event-by-event fluctuations in the rapidity distributions of produced particles, and various other observables. However, the system will evolve dynamically from a pure plasma or mixed phase through expansion, cooling, hadronization and freezeout into the final state particles. Therefore, to be able to determine that a new, transient state of matter has been formed it will be necessary to understand the space-time evolution of the collision process and the microscopic structure of hadronic interactions, at the level of quarks and gluons, at high temperatures and densities. In this talk I will review briefly the present state of our understanding of the dynamics of these collisions and, in addition, present a few recent results on particle production from the NA35 experiment at CERN. 21 refs., 5 figs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yang Huatong
2007-01-01
Some exact identities connecting one- and two-particle Green's functions in the presence of spin-orbit coupling have been derived. These identities are similar to the Ward identity in usual quantum transport theory of electrons. A satisfying approximate calculation of the spin transport in spin-orbit coupling system should also preserve these identities, just as the Ward identities should be remained in the usual electronic transport theory
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Chantis, Athanasios N.; Christensen, Niels Egede; Svane, Axel
2010-01-01
. In the first, the spin splitting is completely suppressed for one of the bands and doubled for the other. In the second, the absolute value of the splitting is markedly enhanced for both bands approaching the magnitude of the hybridization gap. We demonstrate these effects in zinc-blende semiconductors...
Sater, Julien
The theory of Artificial Boundary Conditions described by Antoine et al. [2,4-6] for the Schrodinger equation is applied to the Klein-Gordon (KG) in two-dimensions (2-D) for spinless particles subject to electromagnetic fields. We begin by providing definitions for a basic understanding of the theory of operators, differential geometry and wave front sets needed to discuss the factorization theorem thanks to Nirenberg and Hormander [14, 16]. The laser-free Klein-Gordon equation in 1-D is then discussed, followed by the case including electrodynamics potentials, concluding with the KG equation in 2-D space with electrodynamics potentials. We then consider numerical simulations of the laser-particle KG equation, which includes a brief analysis of a finite difference scheme. The conclusion integrates a discussion of the numerical results, the successful completion of the objective set forth, a declaration of the unanswered encountered questions and a suggestion of subjects for further research.
Position map calculations of BPMs by CST particle studio for non-relativistic energies
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Forck, Peter; Almalki, Mohammed; Kester, Oliver [GSI, Darmstadt (Germany); Goethe Universitaet Frankfurt (Germany); He, Jun [Institute of High Energy Physics, CAS Beijing (China); Kaufmann, Wolfgang; Sieber, Thomas; Singh, Rahul [GSI, Darmstadt (Germany)
2016-07-01
Beam positon monitors BPM at LINACs serve as the basic instrument for non-destructive position determination as yield from the difference-over-sum of signal of opposite electrodes. The time evolution of the signals, and consequently their Fourier-transformations, depend on the particle velocity and the distance from the electrodes. Position maps, i.e. electrodes difference-over-sum signal versus beam offset, were calculated using the wake-field solver CST Particle Studio in the velocity range from 0.05c to 0.5c for two BPM types. For the planned proton LINAC at FAIR, four separated button BPM electrodes are foreseen. The BPMs installed in the GSI UNILAC are made of a ceramic ring with four metallized sectors installed in a special housing. For the latter type resonances and capacitive coupling between the sectors modify the position map. The general findings and peculiarities of both types are presented.
Transverse instabilities of relativistic particle beams in accelerators and storage rings. I
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zotter, B.
1977-01-01
This paper deals with transverse instabilities in coasting beams. A short description is given of the mechanism which leads to transverse instabilities, due essentially to the reaction of the electromagnetic fields caused by an oscillating beam on the particle motion. The methods used to calculate the electromagnetic fields are described and one of them is used to calculate the dispersion relation coefficients as well as the transverse coupling impedance, of a cylindrical beam in a concentric vacuum chamber with finite wall resistivity. In the last sections the dispersion relation is derived from the equation of motion of a single particle. The concept of the stability diagram is introduced and the stability criterion is discussed from several points of view. (Auth.)
Particle identification in the relativistic rise region using a longitudinal drift chamber
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Arai, R; Bensinger, J; Boerner, H; Fukushima, Y; Hayashi, K; Ishihara, N; Inaba, S; Kohriki, T; Nakamura, S; Ogawa, K [National Lab. for High Energy Physics, Oho, Ibaraki (Japan)
1983-09-01
Particle identification by energy loss measurement was tested using a longitudinal drift chamber equipped with a 25 MHz flash ADC. For 3 GeV/c pions the resolution sigmasub(E)/E was about 5%. The separation between pions and protons at this momentum was about 4 standard deviations. The influence of a magnetic field was examined. The deterioration of the separation was less than 15% up to a field strength of 5.2 kG.
Distributed drift chamber design for rare particle detection in relativistic heavy ion collisions
Bellwied, R; Bernardo, V; Caines, H; Christie, W; Costa, S; Crawford, H J; Cronqvist, M; Debbe, R; Dinnwiddie, R; Engelage, J; Flores, I; Fuzesy, R Z; Greiner, L; Hallman, T; Hoffmann, G; Huang, H Z; Jensen, P; Judd, E G; Kainz, K; Kaplan, M; Kelly, S; Lindstrom, P J; Llope, W J; Lo Curto, G; Longacre, R; Milosevich, Z; Mitchell, J T; Mitchell, J W; Mogavero, E; Mutchler, G S; Paganis, S; Platner, E; Potenza, R; Rotondo, F; Russ, D; Sakrejda, I; Saulys, A; Schambach, J; Sheen, J; Smirnoff, N; Stokely, C L; Tang, J; Trattner, A L; Trentalange, S; Visser, G; Whitfield, J P; Witharm, F; Witharm, R; Wright, M
2002-01-01
This report describes a multi plane drift chamber that was designed and constructed to function as a topological detector for the BNL AGS E896 rare particle experiment. The chamber was optimized for good spatial resolution, two track separation, and a high uniform efficiency while operating in a 1.6 T magnetic field and subjected to long term exposure from a 11.6 GeV/nucleon beam of 10 sup 6 Au ions per second.
The relativistic two-body potentials of constraint theory from summation of Feynman diagrams
Jallouli, H.; Sazdjian, H.
1996-01-01
The relativistic two-body potentials of constraint theory for systems composed of two spin-0 or two spin-1/2 particles are calculated, in perturbation theory, by means of the Lippmann-Schwinger type equation that relates them to the scattering amplitude. The cases of scalar and vector interactions with massless photons are considered. The two-photon exchange contributions, calculated with covariant propagators,are globally free of spurious infra-red singularities and produce at leading order ...
2002-01-01
% EMU11 \\\\ \\\\ We propose to use nuclear emulsions for the study of nuclear collisions of $^{207}$Pb, $^{197}$Au, and any other heavy-ion beams when they are available. We have, in the past, used $^{32}$S at 200A~GeV and $^{16}$O at 200A and 60A~GeV from CERN (Experiment EMU08) and at present the analysis is going on with $^{28}$Si beam from BNL at 14.5A~GeV. It will be important to compare the previous and the present investigations with the new $^{207}$Pb beam at 60-160A~GeV. We want to measure in nuclear emulsion, on an event by event basis, shower particle multiplicity, pseudorapidity density and density fluctuations of charged particles, charge multiplicity and angular distributions of projectile fragments, production and interaction cross-sections of heavily ionizing particles emitted from the target fragmentation. Special emphasis will be placed on the analysis of events produced in the central collisions which are selected on the basis of low energy fragments emitted from the target excitation. It woul...
Beyond the relativistic point particle: A reciprocally invariant system and its generalisation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pavsic, Matej
2009-01-01
We investigate a reciprocally invariant system proposed by Low and Govaerts et al., whose action contains both the orthogonal and the symplectic forms and is invariant under global O(2,4) intersection Sp(2,4) transformations. We find that the general solution to the classical equations of motion has no linear term in the evolution parameter, τ, but only the oscillatory terms, and therefore cannot represent a particle propagating in spacetime. As a remedy, we consider a generalisation of the action by adopting a procedure similar to that of Bars et al., who introduced the concept of a τ derivative that is covariant under local Sp(2) transformations between the phase space variables x μ (τ) and p μ (τ). This system, in particular, is similar to a rigid particle whose action contains the extrinsic curvature of the world line, which turns out to be helical in spacetime. Another possible generalisation is the introduction of a symplectic potential proposed by Montesinos. We show how the latter approach is related to Kaluza-Klein theories and to the concept of Clifford space, a manifold whose tangent space at any point is Clifford algebra Cl(8), a promising framework for the unification of particles and forces.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lemke, R.W.; Genoni, T.C.; Spencer, T.A.
1999-01-01
This work is an attempt to elucidate effects that may limit efficiency in magnetrons operated at relativistic voltages (V ∼ 500 kV). Three-dimensional particle-in-cell simulation is used to investigate the behavior of 14 and 22 cavity, cylindrical, rising-sun magnetrons. Power is extracted radially through a single iris located at the end of every other cavity. Numerical results show that in general output power and efficiency increase approximately linearly with increasing iris width (decreasing vacuum Q) until the total Q becomes too low for stable oscillation in the n-mode to be maintained. Beyond this point mode competition and/or switching occur and efficiency decreases. Results reveal that the minimum value of Q (maximum efficiency) that can be achieved prior to the onset of mode competition is significantly affected by the magnitude of the 0-space-harmonic of the π-mode, a unique characteristic of rising-suns, and by the magnitude of the electron current density (space-charge effects). By minimizing these effects, up to 3.7 GW output power has been produced at an efficiency of 40%
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lichters, R.; Pfund, R.E.W.; Meyer-ter-Vehn, J.
1997-08-01
The code LPIC++ presented here, is based on a one-dimensional, electromagnetic, relativistic PIC code that has originally been developed by one of the authors during a PhD thesis at the Max-Planck-Institut fuer Quantenoptik for kinetic simulations of high harmonic generation from overdense plasma surfaces. The code uses essentially the algorithm of Birdsall and Langdon and Villasenor and Bunemann. It is written in C++ in order to be easily extendable and has been parallelized to be able to grow in power linearly with the size of accessable hardware, e.g. massively parallel machines like Cray T3E. The parallel LPIC++ version uses PVM for communication between processors. PVM is public domain software, can be downloaded from the world wide web. A particular strength of LPIC++ lies in its clear program and data structure, which uses chained lists for the organization of grid cells and enables dynamic adjustment of spatial domain sizes in a very convenient way, and therefore easy balancing of processor loads. Also particles belonging to one cell are linked in a chained list and are immediately accessable from this cell. In addition to this convenient type of data organization in a PIC code, the code shows excellent performance in both its single processor and parallel version. (orig.)
Validity of the equivalent-photon approximation for the production of massive spin-1 particles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jayaraman, T.
1986-01-01
It is pointed out that the equivalent-photon approximation (EPA) for processes with massive spin-1 particles in the final state would have validity in a more restricted kinematic domain than for processes where it is commonly applied, viz., those with spin-1/2 or spin-0 particles in the final state. The criterion for the validity of EPA for the two-photon production of a pair of charged, massive, point-like spin-1 particles V ± , each of mass M and with a standard magnetic moment (k=1) is obtained. In a process in which one of the photons is real and the other virtual with four-momentum q, the condition for the validity of EPA is absolute value of q 2 2 , in addition to the usual condition absolute value of q 2 2 , W being the V + V - invariant mass. In a process in which both photons are virtual (with four-momenta q and q'), the condition is absolute value of q 2 absolute value of q' 2 W 4 8 , in addition to absolute value of q 2 2 , absolute value of q' 2 2 and absolute value of q 2 2 , absolute value of q' 2 2 . Even when these extra conditions permitting the use of EPA are not fulfilled, convenient approximate expressions may still be obtained assuming merely absolute value of q 2 2 and absolute value of q' 2 2 . It is also discussed how the extra conditions are altered when the vector bosons are incorporated in a spontaneously broken gauge theory. Examples of W boson production in Weinberg-Salam model are considered for which the condition absolute value of q 2 absolute value of q' 2 W 4 8 is shown to be removed. (author)
Self-consistent, relativistic, ferromagnetic band structure of gadolinium
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Harmon, B.N.; Schirber, J.; Koelling, D.D.
1977-01-01
An initial self-consistent calculation of the ground state magnetic band structure of gadolinium is described. A linearized APW method was used which included all single particle relativistic effects except spin-orbit coupling. The spin polarized potential was obtained in the muffin-tin form using the local spin density approximation for exchange and correlation. The most striking and unorthodox aspect of the results is the position of the 4f spin-down ''bands'' which are required to float just on top of the Fermi level in order to obtain convergence. If the 4f states (l = 3 resonance) are removed from the occupied region of the conduction bands the magnetic moment is approximately .75 μ/sub B//atom; however, as the 4f spin-down states are allowed to find their own position they hybridize with the conduction bands at the Fermi level and the moment becomes smaller. Means of improving the calculation are discussed
Bratek, Łukasz
2015-01-01
Two particularly simple ideal clocks exhibiting intrinsic circular motion with the speed of light and opposite spin alignment are described. The clocks are singled out by singularities of an inverse Legendre transformation for relativistic rotators of which mass and spin are fixed parameters. Such clocks work always the same way, no matter how they move. When subject to high accelerations or falling in strong gravitational fields of black holes, the clocks could be used to test the clock hypo...
Aderholz, M; Matthewson, R; Lehraus, I no 1; Matthewson, R no 1; Aderholz, M no 1
1975-01-01
A Poisson distribution of number of electrons at the input stages of a photomultiplier has been folded into a Landau-Symon distribution of ionization losses in a plastic scintillator and a distribution of the smallest value out of n detectors was derived analytically for m simultaneous particles. A group of four identical scintillation counters was constructed and the smallest of the four output pulses was used for selective triggering of the bubble chamber flash with the greater precision engendered by the considerably reduced distribution width. (22 refs).
Azfar, Farrukh
2017-01-01
This book is based on a series of lectures taught by the author to all incoming first year Oxford University postgraduates in experimental particle physics. It begins by deriving the Dirac equation and incorporating the electro-magnetic interaction and calculating several bread and butter processes at tree level using the Feynman Stueckelberg approach: Mott scattering, electron-electron scattering, electron-positron scattering, Compton scattering, Bremsstrahlung and electron-positron to muon-anti-muon. The intention is for the student to become fluent in detail with all the steps leading to the calculation of these processes. Every step is motivated using the most basic arguments.
Nikolaev, M. A.; Klapdor-Kleingrothaus, H. V.
1993-06-01
We present calculations of the nuclear from factors for spin-dependent elastic scattering of dark matter WIMPs from123Te and131Xe isotopes, proposed to be used for dark matter detection. A method based on the theory of finite Fermi systems was used to describe the reduction of the single-particle spin-dependent matrix elements in the nuclear medium. Nucleon single-particle states were calculated in a realistic shell model potential; pairing effects were treated within the BCS model. The coupling of the lowest single-particle levels in123Te to collective 2+ excitations of the core was taken into account phenomenologically. The calculated nuclear form factors are considerably less then the single-particle ones for low momentum transfer. At high momentum transfer some dynamical amplification takes place due to the pion exchange term in the effective nuclear interaction. But as the momentum transfer increases, the difference disappears, the momentum transfer increases and the quenching effect disappears. The shape of the nuclear form factor for the131Xe isotope differs from the one obtained using an oscillator basis.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nikolaev, M.A.; Klapdor-Kleingrothaus, H.V.
1993-01-01
We present calculations of the nuclear from factors for spin-dependent elastic scattering of dark matter WIMPs from 123 Te and 131 Xe isotopes, proposed to be used for dark matter detection. A method based on the theory of finite Fermi systems was used to describe the reduction of the single-particle spin-dependent matrix elements in the nuclear medium. Nucelon single-particle states were calculated in a realistic shell model potential; pairing effects were treated within the BCS model. The coupling of the lowest single-particle levels in 123 Te to collective 2 + excitations of the core was taken into account phenomenologically. The calculated nuclear form factors are considerably less then the single-particle ones for low momentum transfer. At high momentum transfer some dynamical amplification takes place due to the pion exchange term in the effective nuclear interaction. But as the momentum transfer increases, the difference disappears, the momentum transfer increases and quenching effect disappears. The shape of the nuclear form factor for the 131 Xe isotope differs from the one obtained using an oscillator basis. (orig.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Moeller, E.; Anderson, L.; Brueckner, W.; Nagamiya, S.; Nissen-Meyer, S.; Schroeder, L.; Shapiro, G.; Steiner, H.
1983-01-01
We have measured single particle inclusive spectra of negative pions produced at angles from 0 0 to 12 0 (lab) in collisions of 1.05 and 2.1 GeV/nucleon protons, deuterons, alpha particles, and carbon nuclei with targets of C, Cu, Pb, and H (from a CH 2 -C subtraction). Most of the pions are produced in the kinematical domains allowed in free nucleon-nucleon collisions, but for alpha and carbon projectiles we have also observed pions whose energies range up to nearly twice the kinetic energy of a nucleon in the projectile. Our results suggest that processes involving more than two colliding nucleons and/or high internal momentum components are involved in the production of these high energy pions. Comparison is made with several hypotheses of scaling including specific dynamical models, and some disagreement is observed. We present fits to the kinetic energy dependence of the data, and the target and projectile mass dependence. We also show transverse momentum distributions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gomez R, F.
2004-01-01
In the chapter 1 we show the foundations of the special relativity in the frame of the classical mechanics and we develop the necessary theory for the theoretical description of the relativistic dynamics of charged particles in the interaction with electromagnetic fields. It will see that starting from the energy conservation principle is derived the Einstein's law that establishes the relationship among this and the mass. Later on, it will take the action of a charged particle in a given radiation field and in the one which only we will take two parts, the action of the free particle and the one that defines the interaction of this with the field. The equations of motion of a charge in an electromagnetic field come given by the Lagrange equations, being obtained an expression for the force, well-known as Lorentz force, which consists of two terms, the first of them is the force that the electric field E exercises on the particle; which doesn't depend on the charge speed and is oriented in the direction of the field, the second term represents the force that exercises the magnetic field B and that it is proportional to the charge speed, being perpendicular to the direction of it. In the chapter 2 an integration method of the Hamilton-Jacobi for the case of a pulse is that allows to found analytical forms for the moment, the energy and the charge position is developed with detail. We will present, also, a discussion of the classical theory of the relativistic dynamic of free electrons. They are also obtained, invariant quantities like the phase, before the frame of the reference inertial changes, well-known as Lorentz invariants of the system. In this part it is considered to the electron in the laboratory frame (frame in which the particle is initially in repose regarding the observer), of which the speed and the acceleration quadrivectors can be calculated. We demonstrate that the η phase is a Lorentz invariant. It is shown, also that the proper time interval d
Classification of quantum relativistic orientable objects
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gitman, D M; Shelepin, A L
2011-01-01
Extending our previous work 'Fields on the Poincare group and quantum description of orientable objects' (Gitman and Shelepin 2009 Eur. Phys. J. C 61 111-39), we consider here a classification of orientable relativistic quantum objects in 3+1 dimensions. In such a classification, one uses a maximal set of ten commuting operators (generators of left and right transformations) in the space of functions on the Poincare group. In addition to the usual six quantum numbers related to external symmetries (given by left generators), there appear additional quantum numbers related to internal symmetries (given by right generators). Spectra of internal and external symmetry operators are interrelated, which, however, does not contradict the Coleman-Mandula no-go theorem. We believe that the proposed approach can be useful for the description of elementary spinning particles considered as orientable objects. In particular, it gives a group-theoretical interpretation of some facts of the existing phenomenological classification of spinning particles.
A Study of Particle Beam Spin Dynamics for High Precision Experiments
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fiedler, Andrew J. [Northern Illinois Univ., DeKalb, IL (United States)
2017-05-01
In the search for physics beyond the Standard Model, high precision experiments to measure fundamental properties of particles are an important frontier. One group of such measurements involves magnetic dipole moment (MDM) values as well as searching for an electric dipole moment (EDM), both of which could provide insights about how particles interact with their environment at the quantum level and if there are undiscovered new particles. For these types of high precision experiments, minimizing statistical uncertainties in the measurements plays a critical role. \\\\ \\indent This work leverages computer simulations to quantify the effects of statistical uncertainty for experiments investigating spin dynamics. In it, analysis of beam properties and lattice design effects on the polarization of the beam is performed. As a case study, the beam lines that will provide polarized muon beams to the Fermilab Muon \\emph{g}-2 experiment are analyzed to determine the effects of correlations between the phase space variables and the overall polarization of the muon beam.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jankowska, Marzena; Kupka, Teobald; Stobiński, Leszek
2016-01-01
Hartree-Fock and density functional theory with the hybrid B3LYP and general gradient KT2 exchange-correlation functionals were used for non-relativistic and relativistic nuclear magnetic shielding calculations of helium, neon, argon, krypton and xenon dimers and free atoms. Relativistic...
Magnetic moment of a two-particle bound state in quantum electrodynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Martynenko, A.P.; Faustov, R.N.
2002-01-01
A quasipotential method for calculating relativistic and radiative corrections to the magnetic moment of a two-particle bound state is formulated for particles of arbitrary spin. It is shown that the expression for the g factors of bound particles involve O(α 2 ) terms depending on the particle spin. Numerical values are obtained for the g factors of the electron in the hydrogen atom and in deuterium
Pure spin-3/2 propagator for use in particle and nuclear physics
Kristiano, J.; Clymton, S.; Mart, T.
2017-11-01
We propose the use of a pure spin-3/2 propagator in the (3 /2 ,0 )⊕(0 ,3 /2 ) representation in particle and nuclear physics. To formulate the propagator in a covariant form we use the antisymmetric tensor spinor representation and we consider the Δ resonance contribution to the elastic π N scattering as an example. We find that the use of a conventional gauge-invariant interaction Lagrangian leads to a problem: the obtained scattering amplitude does not exhibit the resonance behavior. To overcome this problem we modify the interaction by adding a momentum dependence. As in the case of the Rarita-Schwinger formalism, we find that a perfect resonance description could be obtained in the pure spin-3/2 formulation only if hadronic form factors were considered in the interactions.
Dirac equation of spin particles and tunneling radiation from a Kinnersly black hole
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Li, Guo-Ping; Zu, Xiao-Tao [University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, School of Physical Electronics, Chengdu (China); Feng, Zhong-Wen [University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, School of Physical Electronics, Chengdu (China); China West Normal University, College of Physics and Space Science, Nanchong (China); Li, Hui-Ling [University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, School of Physical Electronics, Chengdu (China); Shenyang Normal University, College of Physics Science and Technology, Shenyang (China)
2017-04-15
In curved space-time, the Hamilton-Jacobi equation is a semi-classical particle equation of motion, which plays an important role in the research of black hole physics. In this paper, starting from the Dirac equation of spin 1/2 fermions and the Rarita-Schwinger equation of spin 3/2 fermions, respectively, we derive a Hamilton-Jacobi equation for the non-stationary spherically symmetric gravitational field background. Furthermore, the quantum tunneling of a charged spherically symmetric Kinnersly black hole is investigated by using the Hamilton-Jacobi equation. The result shows that the Hamilton-Jacobi equation is helpful to understand the thermodynamic properties and the radiation characteristics of a black hole. (orig.)
Non-eikonal corrections for the scattering of spin-one particles
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gaber, M.W.; Wilkin, C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University College London, WC1E 6BT, London (United Kingdom); Al-Khalili, J.S. [Department of Physics, University of Surrey, GU2 7XH, Guildford, Surrey (United Kingdom)
2004-08-01
The Wallace Fourier-Bessel expansion of the scattering amplitude is generalised to the case of the scattering of a spin-one particle from a potential with a single tensor coupling as well as central and spin-orbit terms. A generating function for the eikonal-phase (quantum) corrections is evaluated in closed form. For medium-energy deuteron-nucleus scattering, the first-order correction is dominant and is shown to be significant in the interpretation of analysing power measurements. This conclusion is supported by a numerical comparison of the eikonal observables, evaluated with and without corrections, with those obtained from a numerical resolution of the Schroedinger equation for d-{sup 58}Ni scattering at incident deuteron energies of 400 and 700 MeV. (orig.)
Particle Production in Strong Electromagnetic Fields in Relativistic Heavy-Ion Collisions
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kirill Tuchin
2013-01-01
Full Text Available I review the origin and properties of electromagnetic fields produced in heavy-ion collisions. The field strength immediately after a collision is proportional to the collision energy and reaches ~mπ2 at RHIC and ~10mπ2 at LHC. I demonstrate by explicit analytical calculation that after dropping by about one-two orders of magnitude during the first fm/c of plasma expansion, it freezes out and lasts for as long as quark-gluon plasma lives as a consequence of finite electrical conductivity of the plasma. Magnetic field breaks spherical symmetry in the direction perpendicular to the reaction plane, and therefore all kinetic coefficients are anisotropic. I examine viscosity of QGP and show that magnetic field induces azimuthal anisotropy on plasma flow even in spherically symmetric geometry. Very strong electromagnetic field has an important impact on particle production. I discuss the problem of energy loss and polarization of fast fermions due to synchrotron radiation, consider photon decay induced by magnetic field, elucidate J/ψ dissociation via Lorentz ionization mechanism, and examine electromagnetic radiation by plasma. I conclude that all processes in QGP are affected by strong electromagnetic field and call for experimental investigation.
A spin filter polarimeter and an α-particle D-state study
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lemieux, S.K.
1993-01-01
A Spin Filter Polarimeter (SFP) which reveals populations of individual hyperfine states of nuclear spin-polarized H ± (or D ± ) beams has been tested. the SFP is based on unique properties of a three-level interaction in the 2S 1/2 and 2P 1/2 states of the hydrogen (or deuterium) atoms, created when the polarized ion beams pick up electrons in cesium vapor. The SFP has potential for an absolute accuracy of better than 1.5%, thus it could be used for calibrating polarimeters absolutely for low energy experiments for which no nuclear polarization standard exists. Test results show that the SFP provides a quick and elegant measure of the relative hyperfine state populations in the beam. This α-particle study is a small part of a larger project studying the deuteron-deuteron configuration of the α-particle wave function. The differential cross section and tensor analyzing powers (TAP) were measured for the 50 Ti(bar d,α) 48 Sc reaction to the J π = 7 + state in 48 Sc at E x = 1.097 MeV and compared with exact finite-range distorted-wave Born approximation (DWBA) calculations. The DWBA calculations use realistic α-particle wave functions generated from variational Monte-Carlo calculations
Light-cone gauge versus proper-time gauge for massless spinning particles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Skagerstam, B.S.; Stern, A.
1987-01-01
Although the light-cone gauge is convenient for many applications in physics, it is known to distort topology. We show that as a consequence, some interesting, possibly physical, features of a quantum theory may be missed when working in the light-cone gauge. We shall illustrate this by examining the description of massless spinning particles in an arbitrary number of space-time dimensions. When quantizing such particles in four space-time dimensions (without introducing Grassmann degrees of freedom), the light-cone gauge yields a purely bosonic spectrum, i.e. the helicity λ is integer-valued. The problem is rectified by going to the proper-time gauge; there λ = 0, ±1/2, ±1, ... Upon using the proper-time gauge to quantize massless particle systems in more than four space-time dimensions, we find the following interesting features: Except for space-time dimension d equal to 5 and 9, (i) wave functions cannot be expressed as global functions of momentum (or position). (This is also true for d=4.) Further, for d ≠ 5 and 9, (ii) the helicity group spin (d-2) and (iii) canonical position operators do not exist, globally. (The result that helicity cannot be globally defined resembles a known property of nonabelian monopoles arising in grand unified theories. There, topological obstructions prevent one from defining the color group, globally.) All of the features (i)-(iii) are missed when working in the light-cone gauge. (orig.)
Spin Calogero Particles and Bispectral Solutions of the Matrix KP Hierarchy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bergvelt, Maarten; Gekhtman, Michael; Kasman, Alex
2009-01-01
Pairs of nxn matrices whose commutator differ from the identity by a matrix of rank r are used to construct bispectral differential operators with rxr matrix coefficients satisfying the Lax equations of the Matrix KP hierarchy. Moreover, the bispectral involution on these operators has dynamical significance for the spin Calogero particles system whose phase space such pairs represent. In the case r = 1, this reproduces well-known results of Wilson and others from the 1990's relating (spinless) Calogero-Moser systems to the bispectrality of (scalar) differential operators
Spectral Gaps of Spin-orbit Coupled Particles in Deformed Traps
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
V. Marchukov, O.; G. Volosniev, A.; V. Fedorov, D.
2013-01-01
the spectrum. The effect of a Zeeman term is also considered. Our results demonstrate that variable spectral gaps occur as a function of strength of the Rashba interaction and deformation of the harmonic trapping potential. The single-particle density of states and the critical strength for superfluidity vary...... tremendously with the interaction parameter. The strong variations with Rashba coupling and deformation implies that the few- and many-body physics of spin-orbit coupled systems can be manipulated by variation of these parameters....
Relativistic theory of vector mesons in laser fields
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Becker, W; Mitter, H [Tuebingen Univ. (F.R. Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik
1975-01-01
The relativistic wave equation for a particle with spin 1 and an anomalous magnetic moment ..mu.. in an external wave field is reduced to a set of coupled ordinary differential equations for three amplitudes, which multiply the exponential known from the spin 0 case. These amplitudes are constant for ..mu..=1 (and not ..mu..=0). Exact solutions are given for a linear polarized laser wave of finite pulse shape and for an infinitely extended plane wave with circular polarization. In contrast to the situation in a constant magnetic field there are no internal inconsistencies.
Description of width and spectra of two relativistic fermions bound states
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sidorov, A.V.; Skachkov, N.B.
1979-01-01
The formalism for relativistic description of two particles with spin 1/2 is constructed. Used is the two-particle three-dimensional equation, obtained by quasipotential approach. Quasipotential equation in the relativistic configurational space with OBEP potential is reduced to the system of partial equations which is the analog of nonrelativistic Hamada-Jonston system. WKB approach is used to calculate mass spectra and leptonic width of mesons in quark model. The results of the study can be applied to the calculation of mass spectra and widths of electromagnetic decays of systems of e + e - , μ + μ - , c anti c, b anti b, N anti N type
Systematics of higher-spin gauge fields
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
de Wit, B.; Freedman, D.Z.
1980-01-01
Free-field theories for symmetric tensor and tensor-spinor gauge fields have recently been obtained which describe massless particles of arbitrary integer or half-integer spin. An independent discussion of these field theories is given here, based on a hierarchy of generalized Christoffel symbols with simple gauge transformation properties. The necessity of certain constraints on gauge fields and parameters is easily seen. Wave equations and Lagrangians are expressed in terms of the Christoffel symbols, and the independent modes of the system are counted in covariant gauges. Minimal-coupling inconsistency and a combined system of higher-spin boson gauge fields interacting with relativistic particles is discussed
Araki, Suguru
1991-01-01
The kinetic theory of planetary rings developed by Araki and Tremaine (1986) and Araki (1988) is extended and refined, with a focus on the implications of finite particle size: (1) nonlocal collisions and (2) finite filling factors. Consideration is given to the derivation of the equations for the local steady state, the low-optical-depth limit, and the steady state at finite filling factors (including the effects of collision inelasticity, spin degrees of freedom, and self-gravity). Numerical results are presented in extensive graphs and characterized in detail. The importance of distinguishing effects (1) and (2) at low optical depths is stressed, and the existence of vertical density profiles with layered structures at high filling factors is demonstrated.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fachruddin, Imam, E-mail: imam.fachruddin@sci.ui.ac.id; Salam, Agus [Departemen Fisika, Universitas Indonesia, Depok 16424 (Indonesia)
2016-03-11
A new momentum-space formulation for scattering of two spin-half particles, both either identical or unidentical, is formulated. As basis states the free linear-momentum states are not expanded into the angular-momentum states, the system’s spin states are described by the product of the spin states of the two particles, and the system’s isospin states by the total isospin states of the two particles. We evaluate the Lippmann-Schwinger equations for the T-matrix elements in these basis states. The azimuthal behavior of the potential and of the T-matrix elements leads to a set of coupled integral equations for the T-matrix elements in two variables only, which are the magnitude of the relative momentum and the scattering angle. Some symmetry relations for the potential and the T-matrix elements reduce the number of the integral equations to be solved. A set of six spin operators to express any interaction of two spin-half particles is introduced. We show the spin-averaged differential cross section as being calculated in terms of the solution of the set of the integral equations.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wulkersdorfer, B.; Kao, K.K.; Agopian, V.G.; Ahn, A.; Dunn, J.C.; Wu, B.M.; Stelzner, M.; Kao, K.K.; Agopian, K.J.; Dunn, J.C.; Wu, B.M.; Stelzner, M.; Dunn, J.C.; Wu, B.M.
2009-01-01
Electro spinning is a method to produce fine, bio polymer mesh with a three-dimensional architecture that mimics native extra-cellular matrix. Due to the small fiber diameter created in this process, conventional electro spun scaffolds have pore sizes smaller than the diameter of most cells. These scaffolds have limited application in tissue engineering due to poor cell penetration. We developed a hybrid electro spinning/particulate leaching technique to create scaffolds with increased porosity and improved cellular ingrowth. Poly(glycolic acid) (PGA) and a sucrose-ethanol suspension were electro spun in equal, alternating sequences at intervals of one, two, and ten minutes each. The scaffolds revealed fiber mesh with micropores of 10 μm and uniformly distributed sucrose particles. Particulate leaching of sucrose from the one- or two-minute scaffolds revealed honeycomb structures with interconnected macro pores between 50 and 250 μm. Sucrose leaching from the ten-minute scaffolds resulted in laminated structures with isolated macro pores between 200 and 350 μm. Macro pore size was directly proportional to the duration of the sucrose spinning interval. After 24 hours of cell culture, conventionally spun scaffolds demonstrated no cellular penetration. Conversely, the PGA/sucrose scaffolds demonstrated deep cellular penetration. This hybrid technique represents a novel method of generating electro spun scaffolds with interconnected pores suitable for cellular ingrowth.
Vereshchagin, Gregory V.; Aksenov, Alexey G.
2017-02-01
Preface; Acknowledgements; Acronyms and definitions; Introduction; Part I. Theoretical Foundations: 1. Basic concepts; 2. Kinetic equation; 3. Averaging; 4. Conservation laws and equilibrium; 5. Relativistic BBGKY hierarchy; 6. Basic parameters in gases and plasmas; Part II. Numerical Methods: 7. The basics of computational physics; 8. Direct integration of Boltzmann equations; 9. Multidimensional hydrodynamics; Part III. Applications: 10. Wave dispersion in relativistic plasma; 11. Thermalization in relativistic plasma; 12. Kinetics of particles in strong fields; 13. Compton scattering in astrophysics and cosmology; 14. Self-gravitating systems; 15. Neutrinos, gravitational collapse and supernovae; Appendices; Bibliography; Index.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
KARSCH, F.
2006-01-01
At high temperatures or densities matter formed by strongly interacting elementary particles (hadronic matter) is expected to undergo a transition to a new form of matter--the quark gluon plasma--in which elementary particles (quarks and gluons) are no longer confined inside hadrons but are free to propagate in a thermal medium much larger in extent than the typical size of a hadron. The transition to this new form of matter as well as properties of the plasma phase are studied in large scale numerical calculations based on the theory of strong interactions--Quantum Chromo Dynamics (QCD). Experimentally properties of hot and dense elementary particle matter are studied in relativistic heavy ion collisions such as those currently performed at the relativistic heavy ion collider (RHIC) at BNL. We review here recent results from studies of thermodynamic properties of strongly interacting elementary particle matter performed on Teraflops-Computer. We present results on the QCD equation of state and discuss the status of studies of the phase diagram at non-vanishing baryon number density
Mitri, F. G.
2016-10-01
Based on the angular spectrum decomposition method (ASDM), a nonparaxial solution for the Hermite-Gaussian (HG m ) light-sheet beam of any order m is derived. The beam-shape coefficients (BSCs) are expressed in a compact form and computed using the standard Simpson’s rule for numerical integration. Subsequently, the analysis is extended to evaluate the longitudinal and transverse radiation forces as well as the spin torque on an absorptive dielectric cylindrical particle in 2D without any restriction to a specific range of frequencies. The dynamics of the cylindrical particle are also examined based on Newton’s second law of motion. The numerical results show that a Rayleigh or Mie cylindrical particle can be trapped, pulled or propelled in the optical field depending on its initial position in the cross-sectional plane of the HG m light-sheet. Moreover, negative or positive axial spin torques can arise depending on the choice of the non-dimensional size parameter ka (where k is the wavenumber and a is the radius of the cylinder) and the location of the absorptive cylinder in the beam. This means that the HG m light-sheet beam can induce clockwise or anti-clockwise rotations depending on its shift from the center of the cylinder. In addition, individual vortex behavior can arise in the cross-sectional plane of wave propagation. The present analysis presents an analytical model to predict the optical radiation forces and torque induced by a HG m light-sheet beam on an absorptive cylinder for applications in optical light-sheet tweezers, optical micro-machines, particle manipulation and opto-fluidics to name a few areas of research.
Dual descriptions of massive spin-2 particles in D=3+1
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dalmazi, Denis
2013-01-01
Full text: Since the sixties (last century) one speculates on the effects of a possible (tiny) mass for the graviton. One expects a decrease in the gravitational interaction at large distances which comes handy regarding the experimental data of the last 15 years on the accelerated expansion of the universe. There has been a growing interest in massive quantum gravity in the last years. Almost all recent works are built up on the top of a free (quadratic) action for a massive spin-2 particle known as massive Fierz-Pauli (FP) theory which has first appeared in 1939. In this theory the basic field is a symmetric rank-2 tensor. It is a common belief in the massive gravity community that the massive FP theory is the unique self-consistent (ghost free, Poincare covariant, correct number of degrees of freedom) description of massive spin-2 particles in terms of a rank-2 tensor. We have shown recently that there are other possibilities if we start with a general (non-symmetric) rank-2 tensor. Here we show how our previous work is related with the well known massive FP theory via the introduction of spectators fields of rank-0 (scalar) and rank-1 (vector). We comment on the introduction of interacting vertices and how they affect the free duality with the massive FP theory (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Darby, I.G.; Page, R.D.; Joss, D.T.; Simpson, J.; Bianco, L.; Cooper, R.J.; Eeckhaudt, S.; Ertuerk, S.; Gall, B.; Grahn, T.; Greenlees, P.T.; Hadinia, B.; Jones, P.M.; Judson, D.S.; Julin, R.; Juutinen, S.; Ketelhut, S.; Leino, M.; Leppaenen, A.-P.; Nyman, M.
2011-01-01
A new high-spin isomeric state (t 1/2 =2.8±0.1 μs) in 160 Re has been identified. This high-spin isomer is unique in that it only decays by γ-decay and not by proton or α-particle emission as is the case in every other proton emitter between Z=64 and 80. Shell model calculations indicate how the convergence of the h 9/2 and f 7/2 neutron levels in this region could open up a γ-decay path from the high-spin isomer to the low-spin ground state of 160 Re, providing a natural explanation for this anomalous absence of charged-particle emission. The consequences of these observations for future searches for proton emission from even more exotic nuclei and in-beam spectroscopic studies are considered.
Spin symmetry in the Dirac sea derived from the bare nucleon-nucleon interaction
Shen, Shihang; Liang, Haozhao; Meng, Jie; Ring, Peter; Zhang, Shuangquan
2018-06-01
The spin symmetry in the Dirac sea has been investigated with relativistic Brueckner-Hartree-Fock theory using the bare nucleon-nucleon interaction. Taking the nucleus 16O as an example and comparing the theoretical results with the data, the definition of the single-particle potential in the Dirac sea is studied in detail. It is found that if the single-particle states in the Dirac sea are treated as occupied states, the ground state properties are in better agreement with experimental data. Moreover, in this case, the spin symmetry in the Dirac sea is better conserved and it is more consistent with the findings using phenomenological relativistic density functionals.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Alenius, N.G.
1975-01-01
For the test of nuclear models the study of the properties of nuclear states of high angular momentum is especially important, because such states can often be given very simple theoretical descriptions. High spin states are easily populated by use of reactions initiated by alpha particles or heavy ions. In this thesis a number of low-medium mass nuclei have been studied, with emphasis on high spin states. (Auth.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gross, F.
1986-01-01
Relativistic equations for two and three body scattering are discussed. Particular attention is paid to relativistic three body kinetics because of recent form factor measurements of the Helium 3 - Hydrogen 3 system recently completed at Saclay and Bates and the accompanying speculation that relativistic effects are important for understanding the three nucleon system. 16 refs., 4 figs
Intersections between particle and nuclear physics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bunce, G.M.
1988-01-01
This report contains papers from an AIP conference on the intersections between particle and nuclear physics. Some of the general topics covered are: Accelerator physics; Antiproton physics; Electron and muon physics; Hadron scattering; Hadron spectroscopy; Meson and lepton decays; Neutrino physics; Nonaccelerator and astrophysics; Relativistic heavy-ion physics; and Spin physics. There are 166 papers that will be processed separately
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Singh, T.; Yadav, R.B.S.
1980-01-01
In the first part of the present paper the Newtonian analogue of force for the combined Kerr-NUT metric has been investigated. To the first order of approximation one component of the force vector corresponds to the Newtonian gravitational force. In the higher order of approximation the relativistic correction terms due to rotation and presence of gravitational analogue of a magnetic monopole are obtained. In the second part of the paper the motion of a freely falling body has been investigated. It is found that plane orbits are not possible. Also a radial fall is not possible and there is a rotational drag on the particle which has no Newtonian analogue. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bakalov, D.D.; Melezhik, V.S.
1987-01-01
The relativistic Hamiltonian for 3-spin particles with electromagnetic interaction has been represented in the form of a sum of terms with factorized dependence on spin, angular and spheroidal variable, and its matrix elements have been expressed in terms of the matrix elements of a small number of ''basic'' operators. The numerical values of the latter have been tabulated, thus allowing for the evaluation of the leading relativistic effects in any 3-body system (with unit particle charge) with and accuracy of ∼ 0(1/2M), where 1/2M=(M 1 -1 +M 2 -1 )/2(M 1 -1 +M 3 -1 ) is the small parameter of the adiabatic expansion (M i , i=1,2,3 being particle masses)
Covariant introduction of quark spin into the dual resonance model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Iroshnikov, G.S.
1979-01-01
A very simple method of insertion of a quark spin into the dual resonance model of hadron interaction is proposed. The method is suitable for amplitudes with an arbitrary number of particles. The amplitude of interaction of real particles is presented as a product of contribution of oscillatory excitations in the (q anti q) system and of a spin factor. The latter is equal to the trace of the product of the external particle wave functions constructed from structural quarks and satisfying the relativistic Bargman-Wigner equations. Two examples of calculating the meson interaction amplitudes are presented
Inequivalent solutions for Dirac spin-(1/2) particles under conservation of parity I
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Liu, C. J.
2010-01-01
Inequivalent invariance constraints upon solutions for Dirac spin-(1/2) particles under conservation of space inversion, time reversal, and charge conjugation have been established, respectively, from standard representation. For space inversion we explicitly show that the wave functions for zero mass neutrinos satisfy only one constraint. For free particles we show that the conventional plane wave solutions as well as Foldy-Wouthuysen representation conditionally comply with the inversion constraints. As a result, only two positive energy solutions and two negative energy solutions can be established. Instead, by law of conservation of parity one shall obtain four linearly independent plane wave solutions which hold not only for positive energies but also for negative energies. We explicitly point out why conventional approach fails to obtain such result. In contrast with free particles one expects intuitively that in a Coulomb field, one can establish twice as many as conventional solutions. Indeed, one shall find easily from inversion constraints that additional linearly independent degenerate bound states have to be established. We present the explicit result.
Quantum dynamics of a particle with a spin-dependent velocity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Aslangul, Claude
2005-01-01
We study the dynamics of a particle in continuous time and space, the displacement of which is governed by an internal degree of freedom (spin). In one definite limit, the so-called quantum random walk is recovered but, although quite simple, the model possesses a rich variety of dynamics and goes far beyond this problem. Generally speaking, our framework can describe the motion of an electron in a magnetic sea near the Fermi level when linearization of the dispersion law is possible, coupled to a transverse magnetic field. Quite unexpected behaviours are obtained. In particular, we find that when the initial wave packet is fully localized in space, the J z angular momentum component is frozen; this is an interesting example of an observable which, although it is not a constant of motion, has a constant expectation value. For a non-completely localized wave packet, the effect still occurs although less pronounced, and the spin keeps for ever memory of its initial state. Generally speaking, as time goes on, the spatial density profile looks rather complex, as a consequence of the competition between drift and precession, and displays various shapes according to the ratio between the Larmor period and the characteristic time of flight. The density profile gradually changes from a multimodal quickly moving distribution when the scattering rate is small, to a unimodal standing but flattening distribution in the opposite case
Rotational bands on few-particle excitations of very high spin
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Andersson, C.G.; Krumlinde, J.; Leander, G.; Szymanski, Z.
1980-01-01
An RPA formalism is developed to investigate the existence and properties of slow collective rotation around a non-symmetry axis, when there already exists a large angular momentum K along the symmetry axis built up by aligned single-particle spins. It is found necessary to distinguish between the collectivity and the repeatability of the rotational excitations. First the formalism is applied to bands on hihg-K isomers in the well-deformed nucleus 176 Hf, where the rotational-model picture is reproduced for intermediate K-values in agreement with experiment. At high K there is a suppression of the collectivity corresponding to the diminishing vector-coupling coefficient of the rotational model, but the repeatability actually improves. The moment of inertia is predicted to remain substantially smaller than the rigid-body value so the bands slope up steeply from the yrast line at spins where pairing effects are gone. A second application is to the initially spherical nucleus 212 Rn, which is believed to acquire an oblate deformation that increases steadily with K due to the oblate shape of the aligned orbitals. In this case the repeatable excitations come higher above the yrast line than in 176 Hf, even at comparable deformations. Some collective states may occur very close to yrast, but these are more like dressed singleparticle excitations. The main differences between the two nuclei studied is interpreted as a general consequence of their different shell structure. (author)
Biquaternions and relativistic kinematics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bogush, A.A.; Kurochkin, Yu.A.; Fedorov, F.I.
1979-01-01
The problems concerning the use of quaternion interpretation of the Lorentz group vector parametrization are considered for solving relativistic kinematics problems. A vector theory convenient for describing the characteristic features of the Lobachevsky space is suggested. The kinematics of elementary particle scattering is investigated on the basis of this theory. A synthesis of vector parametrization and of quaternion calculation has been shown to lead to natural formulation of the theory of vectors in the three-dimensional Lobachevsky space, realized on mass hyperboloids of relativistic particles
Quantum mechanics and field theory with fractional spin and statistics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Forte, S.
1992-01-01
Planar systems admit quantum states that are neither bosons nor fermions, i.e., whose angular momentum is neither integer nor half-integer. After a discussion of some examples of familiar models in which fractional spin may arise, the relevant (nonrelativistic) quantum mechanics is developed from first principles. The appropriate generalization of statistics is also discussed. Some physical effects of fractional spin and statistics are worked out explicitly. The group theory underlying relativistic models with fractional spin and statistics is then introduced and applied to relativistic particle mechanics and field theory. Field-theoretical models in 2+1 dimensions are presented which admit solitons that carry fractional statistics, and are discussed in a semiclassical approach, in the functional integral approach, and in the canonical approach. Finally, fundamental field theories whose Fock states carry fractional spin and statistics are discussed
Relativistic non-Hamiltonian mechanics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tarasov, Vasily E.
2010-01-01
Relativistic particle subjected to a general four-force is considered as a nonholonomic system. The nonholonomic constraint in four-dimensional space-time represents the relativistic invariance by the equation for four-velocity u μ u μ + c 2 = 0, where c is the speed of light in vacuum. In the general case, four-forces are non-potential, and the relativistic particle is a non-Hamiltonian system in four-dimensional pseudo-Euclidean space-time. We consider non-Hamiltonian and dissipative systems in relativistic mechanics. Covariant forms of the principle of stationary action and the Hamilton's principle for relativistic mechanics of non-Hamiltonian systems are discussed. The equivalence of these principles is considered for relativistic particles subjected to potential and non-potential forces. We note that the equations of motion which follow from the Hamilton's principle are not equivalent to the equations which follow from the variational principle of stationary action. The Hamilton's principle and the principle of stationary action are not compatible in the case of systems with nonholonomic constraint and the potential forces. The principle of stationary action for relativistic particle subjected to non-potential forces can be used if the Helmholtz conditions are satisfied. The Hamilton's principle and the principle of stationary action are equivalent only for a special class of relativistic non-Hamiltonian systems.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Al-Hashimi, M.H.; Wiese, U.-J.
2012-01-01
We consider a 1-parameter family of self-adjoint extensions of the Hamiltonian for a particle confined to a finite interval with perfectly reflecting boundary conditions. In some cases, one obtains negative energy states which seem to violate the Heisenberg uncertainty relation. We use this as a motivation to derive a generalized uncertainty relation valid for an arbitrarily shaped quantum dot with general perfectly reflecting walls in d dimensions. In addition, a general uncertainty relation for non-Hermitian operators is derived and applied to the non-Hermitian momentum operator in a quantum dot. We also consider minimal uncertainty wave packets in this situation, and we prove that the spectrum depends monotonically on the self-adjoint extension parameter. In addition, we construct the most general boundary conditions for semiconductor heterostructures such as quantum dots, quantum wires, and quantum wells, which are characterized by a 4-parameter family of self-adjoint extensions. Finally, we consider perfectly reflecting boundary conditions for relativistic fermions confined to a finite volume or localized on a domain wall, which are characterized by a 1-parameter family of self-adjoint extensions in the (1+1)-d and (2+1)-d cases, and by a 4-parameter family in the (3+1)-d and (4+1)-d cases. - Highlights: ► Finite volume Heisenberg uncertainty relation. ► General self-adjoint extensions for relativistic fermions. ► New prospective for the problem of particle in a box.
On the renormalization of the pion propagator and on the particle-hole in the spin-isospin channel
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chanfray, G.; Delorme, J.; Ericson, M.
1983-06-01
The momentum behavior of the spin-isospin interaction was investigated. It is shown that in a model with meson exchange in presence of short range correlations the latter produce a natural cut-off of the interaction irrespective of form factor effects. This result is the equivalent for virtual particles of a theorem due to Beg on the scattering of real particles on a correlated medium
Adamczyk, L.; Adkins, J. K.; Agakishiev, G.; Aggarwal, M. M.; Ahammed, Z.; Alekseev, I.; Aparin, A.; Arkhipkin, D.; Aschenauer, E. C.; Averichev, G. S.; Bai, X.; Bairathi, V.; Banerjee, A.; Bellwied, R.; Bhasin, A.; Bhati, A. K.; Bhattarai, P.; Bielcik, J.; Bielcikova, J.; Bland, L. C.; Bordyuzhin, I. G.; Bouchet, J.; Brandenburg, D.; Brandin, A. V.; Bunzarov, I.; Butterworth, J.; Caines, H.; Calderón de la Barca Sánchez, M.; Campbell, J. M.; Cebra, D.; Cervantes, M. C.; Chakaberia, I.; Chaloupka, P.; Chang, Z.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Chen, X.; Chen, J. H.; Cheng, J.; Cherney, M.; Chisman, O.; Christie, W.; Contin, G.; Crawford, H. J.; Das, S.; De Silva, L. C.; Debbe, R. R.; Dedovich, T. G.; Deng, J.; Derevschikov, A. A.; di Ruzza, B.; Didenko, L.; Dilks, C.; Dong, X.; Drachenberg, J. L.; Draper, J. E.; Du, C. M.; Dunkelberger, L. E.; Dunlop, J. C.; Efimov, L. G.; Engelage, J.; Eppley, G.; Esha, R.; Evdokimov, O.; Eyser, O.; Fatemi, R.; Fazio, S.; Federic, P.; Fedorisin, J.; Feng, Z.; Filip, P.; Fisyak, Y.; Flores, C. E.; Fulek, L.; Gagliardi, C. A.; Garand, D.; Geurts, F.; Gibson, A.; Girard, M.; Greiner, L.; Grosnick, D.; Gunarathne, D. S.; Guo, Y.; Gupta, A.; Gupta, S.; Guryn, W.; Hamad, A.; Hamed, A.; Haque, R.; Harris, J. W.; He, L.; Heppelmann, S.; Heppelmann, S.; Hirsch, A.; Hoffmann, G. W.; Hofman, D. J.; Horvat, S.; Huang, H. Z.; Huang, B.; Huang, X.; Huck, P.; Humanic, T. J.; Igo, G.; Jacobs, W. W.; Jang, H.; Jiang, K.; Judd, E. G.; Kabana, S.; Kalinkin, D.; Kang, K.; Kauder, K.; Ke, H. W.; Keane, D.; Kechechyan, A.; Khan, Z. H.; Kikoła, D. P.; Kisel, I.; Kisiel, A.; Kochenda, L.; Koetke, D. D.; Kollegger, T.; Kosarzewski, L. K.; Kraishan, A. F.; Kravtsov, P.; Krueger, K.; Kulakov, I.; Kumar, L.; Kycia, R. A.; Lamont, M. A. C.; Landgraf, J. M.; Landry, K. D.; Lauret, J.; Lebedev, A.; Lednicky, R.; Lee, J. H.; Li, X.; Li, Y.; Li, W.; Li, C.; Li, X.; Li, Z. M.; Lisa, M. A.; Liu, F.; Ljubicic, T.; Llope, W. J.; Lomnitz, M.; Longacre, R. S.; Luo, X.; Ma, L.; Ma, Y. G.; Ma, G. L.; Ma, R.; Magdy, N.; Majka, R.; Manion, A.; Margetis, S.; Markert, C.; Masui, H.; Matis, H. S.; McDonald, D.; Meehan, K.; Minaev, N. G.; Mioduszewski, S.; Mishra, D.; Mohanty, B.; Mondal, M. M.; Morozov, D. A.; Mustafa, M. K.; Nandi, B. K.; Nasim, Md.; Nayak, T. K.; Nigmatkulov, G.; Niida, T.; Nogach, L. V.; Noh, S. Y.; Novak, J.; Nurushev, S. B.; Odyniec, G.; Ogawa, A.; Oh, K.; Okorokov, V.; Olvitt, D.; Page, B. S.; Pak, R.; Pan, Y. X.; Pandit, Y.; Panebratsev, Y.; Pawlik, B.; Pei, H.; Perkins, C.; Peterson, A.; Pile, P.; Planinic, M.; Pluta, J.; Poljak, N.; Poniatowska, K.; Porter, J.; Posik, M.; Poskanzer, A. M.; Pruthi, N. K.; Putschke, J.; Qiu, H.; Quintero, A.; Ramachandran, S.; Raniwala, S.; Raniwala, R.; Ray, R. L.; Ritter, H. G.; Roberts, J. B.; Rogachevskiy, O. V.; Romero, J. L.; Roy, A.; Ruan, L.; Rusnak, J.; Rusnakova, O.; Sahoo, N. R.; Sahu, P. K.; Salur, S.; Sandweiss, J.; Sarkar, A.; Schambach, J.; Scharenberg, R. P.; Schmah, A. M.; Schmidke, W. B.; Schmitz, N.; Seger, J.; Seyboth, P.; Shah, N.; Shahaliev, E.; Shanmuganathan, P. V.; Shao, M.; Sharma, B.; Sharma, M. K.; Shen, W. Q.; Shi, S. S.; Shou, Q. Y.; Sichtermann, E. P.; Sikora, R.; Simko, M.; Singha, S.; Skoby, M. J.; Smirnov, N.; Smirnov, D.; Song, L.; Sorensen, P.; Spinka, H. M.; Srivastava, B.; Stanislaus, T. D. S.; Stepanov, M.; Stock, R.; Strikhanov, M.; Stringfellow, B.; Sumbera, M.; Summa, B.; Sun, X.; Sun, Z.; Sun, Y.; Sun, X. M.; Surrow, B.; Svirida, N.; Szelezniak, M. A.; Tang, Z.; Tang, A. H.; Tarnowsky, T.; Tawfik, A.; Thäder, J.; Thomas, J. H.; Timmins, A. R.; Tlusty, D.; Tokarev, M.; Trentalange, S.; Tribble, R. E.; Tribedy, P.; Tripathy, S. K.; Trzeciak, B. A.; Tsai, O. D.; Ullrich, T.; Underwood, D. G.; Upsal, I.; Van Buren, G.; van Nieuwenhuizen, G.; Vandenbroucke, M.; Varma, R.; Vasiliev, A. N.; Vertesi, R.; Videbæk, F.; Viyogi, Y. P.; Vokal, S.; Voloshin, S. A.; Vossen, A.; Wang, F.; Wang, Y.; Wang, G.; Wang, Y.; Wang, J. S.; Wang, H.; Webb, J. C.; Webb, G.; Wen, L.; Westfall, G. D.; Wieman, H.; Wissink, S. W.; Witt, R.; Wu, Y. F.; Wu, Y.; Xiao, Z. G.; Xie, W.; Xin, K.; Xu, Z.; Xu, H.; Xu, Y. F.; Xu, Q. H.; Xu, N.; Yang, Y.; Yang, C.; Yang, S.; Yang, Y.; Yang, Q.; Ye, Z.; Ye, Z.; Yepes, P.; Yi, L.; Yip, K.; Yoo, I.-K.; Yu, N.; Zbroszczyk, H.; Zha, W.; Zhang, J. B.; Zhang, Y.; Zhang, S.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, Z.; Zhang, X. P.; Zhao, J.; Zhong, C.; Zhou, L.; Zhu, X.; Zoulkarneeva, Y.; Zyzak, M.; STAR Collaboration
2016-01-01
Elliptic flow (v2) values for identified particles at midrapidity in Au + Au collisions measured by the STAR experiment in the Beam Energy Scan at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider at √{sN N}= 7.7 -62.4 GeV are presented for three centrality classes. The centrality dependence and the data at √{sN N}= 14.5 GeV are new. Except at the lowest beam energies, we observe a similar relative v2 baryon-meson splitting for all centrality classes which is in agreement within 15% with the number-of-constituent quark scaling. The larger v2 for most particles relative to antiparticles, already observed for minimum bias collisions, shows a clear centrality dependence, with the largest difference for the most central collisions. Also, the results are compared with a multiphase transport (AMPT) model and fit with a blast wave model.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hines, D.F.; Frankel, N.E.
1979-01-01
The charged Bose has been previously studied as a many body problem of great intrinsic interest which can also serve as a model of some real physical systems, for example, superconductors, white dwarf stars and neutron stars. In this article the excitation spectrum of a relativistic spin-zero charged Bose gas is obtained in a dielectric response formulation. Relativity introduces a dip in the spectrum and consequences of this dip for the thermodynamic functions are discussed
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Frins, E [Universidad de la Republica, Montevideo (Uruguay); Dultz, W [J.W.v.Goethe Universitaet Frankfurt/Main (Germany); Schmitzer, H, E-mail: requalivahanus@t-online.de [Xavier University, Cincinnati (United States)
2011-01-01
Rotating small birefringent particles with the spin angular momentum of light is a key experiment of quantum optics. We derive the equation of motion of small retarders in viscose liquids, demonstrate their some times irregular rotation in polarized light, and discuss possible technical applications.
Relativistic actions for bound-states and applications in the meson spectroscopy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Silva Carvalho, Hendly da.
1991-08-01
We study relativistic equations for bound states of two-body systems using Dirac's constraint formalism and supersymmetry. The two-body system can be of spinless particles, one of them spinning and the other one spinless, or both of them spinning. The interaction is described by scalar, timelike four-vector and spacelike four-vector potentials under Lorentz transformations. As an application we use the relativistic wave equation for two scalar particles and calculate the mass spectra of the mesons treating them as spinless quark-antiquark bound states. The interaction potential in this case is a convenient adaptation of the potential employed in non-relativistic calculations. Finally, we compare our results with more recent experimental data and with theoretical results obtained with the same potential used by us but with a non-relativistic wave equation. We also compare our results with results obtained with the relativistic wave equation but with a different interaction potential. (author). 38 refs, 9 figs, 8 tabs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hippchen, T.
1985-12-01
In a first part, nuclear matter calculations have been performed in the Dirac-Brueckner approach using a) a nucleon-nucleon potential of one-boson-exchange (OBE) type and b) a more realistic interaction in which the fictitious σ-exchange of the OBE-model is replaced by explicit 2π- and πρ-exchange diagrams. Both potential models yield the correct empirical binding energy and saturation density. It turns out that the total sum of relativistic effects caused by the emplicit 2 π- and πρ-exchanges is comparable to those due to σ-exchange. In a second part, the nuclear quasiparticle interaction, i.e. the Landau parameters, have been calculated in the central (F), isospin (F'), spin (G) and spin-isospin (G') channel, in an analogous way. Compared to nonrelativistic calculations (including conventional medium corrections like Pauli and dispersion effects), a strong improvement has been found, especially in the F- and G-channel. Finally, the influence of A 1 -exchange is studied, in NN scattering and in nuclear matter. It turns out that, after a suitable and necessary readjustment of some meson parameters, its role is negligibly small. (orig.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
2004-01-01
The present collection of letters from JINR, Dubna, contains eight separate letters on analysis of experimental data on relativistic nuclear collisions in the Lobachevski space, relativistic contribution of the final-state interaction to deuteron photodisintegration, on the charge asymmetry of the like-sign lepton pairs induced by B - B bar - production asymmetry, limits on the ν e → ν e neutrino oscillation parameters from an experiment at the IHEP-JINR neutrino detector, excitation of high spin isomers in photonuclear reactions, study of product formation in proton-nuclear reactions on the 129 I target induced by 660-MeV protons, application of jet pumps in the cryogenic system of the Nuclotron - superconducting accelerator of relativistic particles and study of the silicon drift detector performance with inclined tracks
Dual descriptions of spin-two massive particles in D=2+1 via master actions
Dalmazi, D.; Mendonça, Elias L.
2009-02-01
In the first part of this work we show the decoupling (up to contact terms) of redundant degrees of freedom which appear in the covariant description of spin-two massive particles in D=2+1. We make use of a master action which interpolates, without solving any constraints, between a first-, second-, and third-order (in derivatives) self-dual model. An explicit dual map between those models is derived. In our approach the absence of ghosts in the third-order self-dual model, which corresponds to a quadratic truncation of topologically massive gravity, is due to the triviality (no particle content) of the Einstein-Hilbert action in D=2+1. In the second part of the work, also in D=2+1, we prove the quantum equivalence of the gauge invariant sector of a couple of self-dual models of opposite helicities (+2 and -2) and masses m+ and m- to a generalized self-dual model which contains a quadratic Einstein-Hilbert action, a Chern-Simons term of first order, and a Fierz-Pauli mass term. The use of a first-order Chern-Simons term instead of a third-order one avoids conflicts with the sign of the Einstein-Hilbert action.
Dual descriptions of spin-two massive particles in D=2+1 via master actions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dalmazi, D.; Mendonca, Elias L.
2009-01-01
In the first part of this work we show the decoupling (up to contact terms) of redundant degrees of freedom which appear in the covariant description of spin-two massive particles in D=2+1. We make use of a master action which interpolates, without solving any constraints, between a first-, second-, and third-order (in derivatives) self-dual model. An explicit dual map between those models is derived. In our approach the absence of ghosts in the third-order self-dual model, which corresponds to a quadratic truncation of topologically massive gravity, is due to the triviality (no particle content) of the Einstein-Hilbert action in D=2+1. In the second part of the work, also in D=2+1, we prove the quantum equivalence of the gauge invariant sector of a couple of self-dual models of opposite helicities (+2 and -2) and masses m + and m - to a generalized self-dual model which contains a quadratic Einstein-Hilbert action, a Chern-Simons term of first order, and a Fierz-Pauli mass term. The use of a first-order Chern-Simons term instead of a third-order one avoids conflicts with the sign of the Einstein-Hilbert action.
Demianski, Marek
2013-01-01
Relativistic Astrophysics brings together important astronomical discoveries and the significant achievements, as well as the difficulties in the field of relativistic astrophysics. This book is divided into 10 chapters that tackle some aspects of the field, including the gravitational field, stellar equilibrium, black holes, and cosmology. The opening chapters introduce the theories to delineate gravitational field and the elements of relativistic thermodynamics and hydrodynamics. The succeeding chapters deal with the gravitational fields in matter; stellar equilibrium and general relativity
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Micoulaut, R [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Limeil-Brevannes (France). Centre d' Etudes
1968-07-01
The Papapetrou equations of motion of a spinning particle do not allow the unequivocal determination of the world-line described by the particle. The motion should be completely determined in adding a supplementary condition. For macroscopic particles, characterized by the conditions of Corinaldesi-Papapetrou and Tulczyjew, moving in a Schwarzschild field we obtain additional term in the expression for the advance of perihelion. For microscopic particles we summarize the results obtained using the conditions of Weyssenhoff, Nakano, Hoenl-Papapetrou and Wessel. (author) [French] Les equations de Papapetrou decrivant le mouvement d'une particule a spin ne permettent pas de fixer de maniere univoque la ligne d'univers que parcourt la particule. Le mouvement sera completement determine en imposant une condition supplementaire arbitraire. Pour des particules macroscopiques, caracterisees par les conditions de Corinaldesi-Papapetrou et Tulczyjew, se deplacant dans un champ de Schwarzschild on obtient un terme supplementaire dans l'expression de l'avance du perihelie. Pour les particules microscopiques on rappellera rapidement les resultats obtenus en utilisant les conditions simples de Weyssenhoff, Nakano, Hoenl-Papapetrou et Wessel. (auteur)
Relativistic quantum nonlocality for the three-qubit Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger state
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Moradi, Shahpoor
2008-01-01
Lorentz transformation of the three-qubit Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) state is studied. Also we obtain the relativistic spin joint measurement for the transformed state. Using these results it is shown that Bell's inequality is maximally violated for the three-qubit GHZ state in the relativistic regime. For ultrarelativistic particles we obtain the critical value for boost speed, which Bell's inequality is not violated for velocities smaller than this value. We also show that in the ultrarelativistic limit Bell's inequality is maximally violated for the GHZ state
The Wigner function in the relativistic quantum mechanics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kowalski, K., E-mail: kowalski@uni.lodz.pl; Rembieliński, J.
2016-12-15
A detailed study is presented of the relativistic Wigner function for a quantum spinless particle evolving in time according to the Salpeter equation. - Highlights: • We study the Wigner function for a quantum spinless relativistic particle. • We discuss the relativistic Wigner function introduced by Zavialov and Malokostov. • We introduce relativistic Wigner function based on the standard definition. • We find analytic expressions for relativistic Wigner functions.
Importance of self-consistency in relativistic continuum random-phase approximation calculations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yang Ding; Cao Ligang; Tian Yuan; Ma Zhongyu
2010-01-01
A fully consistent relativistic continuum random phase approximation (RCRPA) is constructed, where the contribution of the continuum spectrum to nuclear excitations is treated exactly by the single-particle Green's function technique. The full consistency of the calculations is achieved that the same effective Lagrangian is adopted for the ground state and the excited states. The negative energy states in the Dirac sea are also included in the single-particle Green's function in the no-sea approximation. The currents from the vector meson and photon exchanges and the Coulomb interaction in RCRPA are treated exactly. The spin-orbit interaction is included naturally in the relativistic frame. Numerical results of the RCRPA are checked with the constrained relativistic mean-field theory. We study the effects of the inconsistency, particularly the currents and Coulomb interaction in various collective multipole excitations.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Contopoulos, G.
1983-01-01
In this paper, three main areas of relativistic stellar dynamics are reviewed: (a) The dynamics of clusters, or nuclei of galaxies, of very high density; (b) The dynamics of systems containing a massive black hole; and (c) The dynamics of particles (and photons) in an expanding Universe. The emphasis is on the use of orbit perturbations. (Auth.)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Bialynicki-Birula Iwo
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Original definition of the Wigner function can be extended in a natural manner to relativistic domain in the framework of quantum field theory. Three such generalizations are described. They cover the cases of the Dirac particles, the photon, and the full electromagnetic field.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rindani, S.D.
1989-03-01
A gauge-invariant theory of a massive spin-3/2 particle interaction with external electromagnetic and gravitational fields, obtained earlier by Kaluza-Klein reduction of a massless Rarita-Schwinger theory, is quantized using Dirac's procedure. The field anticommutators are found to be positive definite. The theory, which was earlier shown to be free from the classical Velo-Zwanziger problem of noncausal propagation modes, is thus also free from the problem of negative-norm states, a long-standing problem associated with massive spin-3/2 theories with external interaction. (author). 19 refs
The microcanonical ensemble of the ideal relativistic quantum gas with angular momentum conservation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Becattini, F.; Ferroni, L.
2007-01-01
We derive the microcanonical partition function of the ideal relativistic quantum gas with fixed intrinsic angular momentum as an expansion over fixed multiplicities. We developed a group theoretical approach by generalizing known projection techniques to the Poincare group. Our calculation is carried out in a quantum field framework and applies to particles with any spin. It extends known results in the literature in that it does not introduce any large volume approximation, and it takes particle spin fully into account. We provide expressions of the microcanonical partition function at fixed multiplicities in the limiting classical case of large volumes and large angular momenta and in the grand-canonical ensemble. We also derive the microcanonical partition function of the ideal relativistic quantum gas with fixed parity. (orig.)